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Sample records for antifungal food preservative

  1. "Green preservatives": combating fungi in the food and feed industry by applying antifungal lactic acid bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pawlowska, Agata M; Zannini, Emanuele; Coffey, Aidan; Arendt, Elke K

    2012-01-01

    Fungal food spoilage plays a pivotal role in the deterioration of food and feed systems and some of them are also able to produce toxic compounds for humans and animals. The mycotoxins produced by fungi can cause serious health hazards, including cancerogenic, immunotoxic, teratogenic, neurotoxic, nephrotoxic and hepatotoxic effects, and Kashin-Beck disease. In addition to this, fungal spoilage/pathogens are causing losses of marketable quality and hygiene of foodstuffs, resulting in major economic problem throughout the world. Nowadays, food spoilage can be prevented using physical and chemical methods, but no efficient strategy has been proposed so far to reduce the microbial growth ensuring public health. Therefore, lactic acid bacteria (LAB) can play an important role as natural preservatives. The protection of food products using LAB is mainly due to the production of antifungal compounds such as carboxylic acids, fatty acids, ethanol, carbon dioxide, hydrogen peroxide, and bacteriocins. In addition to this, LAB can also positively contribute to the flavor, texture, and nutritional value of food products. This review mainly focuses on the use of LAB for food preservation given their extensive industrial application in a wide range of foods and feeds. The attention points out the several industrial patents concerning the use of antifungal LAB as biocontrol agent against spoilage organisms in different fermented foods and feeds.

  2. Oat (Avena sativa) Seed Extract as an Antifungal Food Preservative Through the Catalytic Activity of a Highly Abundant Class I Chitinase

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Hans; Madsen, Lone; Petersen, Jørgen;

    2009-01-01

    Extracts from different higher plants were screened for the ability to inhibit the growth of Penicillium roqueforti, a major contaminating species in industrial food processing. Oat (Avena sativa) seed extracts exhibited a high degree of antifungal activity and could be used directly on rye bread...

  3. Oat (Avena sativa) seed extract as an antifungal food preservative through the catalytic activity of a highly abundant class I chitinase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sørensen, Hans Peter; Madsen, Lone Søvad; Petersen, Jørgen; Andersen, Jesper Tapdrup; Hansen, Anne Maria; Beck, Hans Christian

    2010-03-01

    Extracts from different higher plants were screened for the ability to inhibit the growth of Penicillium roqueforti, a major contaminating species in industrial food processing. Oat (Avena sativa) seed extracts exhibited a high degree of antifungal activity and could be used directly on rye bread to prevent the formation of P. roqueforti colonies. Proteins in the oat seed extracts were fractionated by column chromatography and proteins in fractions containing antifungal activity were identified by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) and database searches. Identified antifungal candidates included thaumatin-like proteins, 1,3-beta-glucanase, permatin precursor, pathogenesis-related protein type 1, and chitinases of class I and II. Class I chitinase could be specifically removed from the extracts and was found to be indispensable for 50% of the P. roqueforti inhibiting activity. The purified class I chitinase has a molecular weight of approximately 34 kDa, optimal chitinase activity at pH 7, and exists as at least two basic isoforms (pI values of 7.6 and 8.0). Partial sequencing of the class I chitinase isoforms by LC-MS/MS revealed a primary structure with high similarity to class I chitinases of wheat (Triticum aestivum), barley (Hordeum vulgare), and rye (Secale cereale). Oat, wheat, barley, and rye seed extracts were compared with respect to the abundance of the class I chitinase and decrease in antifungal activity when class I chitinase is removed. We found that the oat seed class I chitinase is at least ten times more abundant than the wheat, barley, and rye homologs and that oat seed extracts are highly active toward P. roqueforti as opposed to extracts of other cereal seeds.

  4. Food Preservation beyond the Season.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanes, Phyllis

    1992-01-01

    Examines how current scientific knowledge of food preservation emerged from traditions handed down through the generations. Discusses various methods of preservation, their history, and current application. (LZ)

  5. How to preserve foods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The use of gamma and fast electron radiations for food preservation is described. Examples are given of the application of ionizing radiation for retarding potato germination, onion growth, and fruit ripening, for limiting the action of microorganisms, and removing salmonella from meat products. The method has remarkable prospects although it may not be considered to be a general-purpose method. Geographic and economic conditions should always be taken into consideration. (J.P.)

  6. Food preservation by irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As shortages of food and energy still continue to constitute the major threats to the well-being of the human race, all actions aiming at overcoming these problems must be assigned vital importance. Of the two complementary ways of solving the food problem (i.e., increasing the production of food and decreasing the spoilage of food) a novel method designed to contribute to the latter purpose has been discussed at this symposium hosted by The Netherlands and held under the aegis of the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, the International Atomic Energy Agency and the World Health Organization. Progress made since the last symposium of this kind (Bombay, India, 1972) was reviewed from the technological, economic and wholesomeness points of view by participants from 39 countries (60% of the latter were of the developing world). From the reports presented on the use of radiations to control physiological changes in plants, feasibility of radiation preservation of potatoes, onions, garlic, as well as of some tropical and subtropical fruits (mangoes, papayas, litchis and avocado) was confirmed. For potatoes, onions and mangoes, optimal conditions of treatment and storage were established on a larger scale, combined with sizeable consumer trials. Combinations of ionizing radiation with chemicals (salycilic acid, for potatoes), and physical agents (ultraviolet rays, for papayas) have been reported to be successful against the incidence of rot. A considerable number of papers dealt with the control of microbiological spoilage of foods. Work since 1972 has shown that radurization of fruits and vegetables (bananas, mangoes, dried dates, endive, chickory, onions, soup-greens), meat, poultry, marine products (mackerel, cod and plaice fillets, shrimps), decontamination of food ingredients and food technology aids (enzyme preparations, proteins, starch, spices), radappertization of meat and animal feedstuffs as well as combination treatments with salt, heat

  7. Hybrid Food Preservation Program Improves Food Preservation and Food Safety Knowledge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francis, Sarah L.

    2014-01-01

    The growing trend in home food preservation raises concerns about whether the resulting food products will be safe to eat. The increased public demand for food preservation information led to the development of the comprehensive food preservation program, Preserve the Taste of Summer (PTTS). PTTS is a comprehensive hybrid food preservation program…

  8. A revolution in food preservation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A brief consumer guide to food irradiation is presented. Aspects covered include some of the advantages of food irradiation compared to other methods of food preservation, the type of radiation used, the mechanism of action, some practical applications, safety and future benefits. (UK)

  9. Radioactivity and food preservation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In food irradiation, electrons or electromagnetic radiation are used to destroy microorganisms and insects or to prevent seed germination. The economic advantages and health benefits of sterilizing food in this manner are clear, and numerous studies have confirmed that under strictly controlled conditions no undesirable changes or induced radioactivity are produced in the irradiated food

  10. Food Preservation by Irradiation (Rev.)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Urrows, Grace M.

    1968-01-01

    Up to 30% of food harvests are lost in some parts of the world because of animal pests and microorganisms. Nuclear techniques can help reduce and extend the shelf life of these foods. Around 55 countries now have food irradiation programs. The use of radiation is the most recent step in man's attempts to preserve some of his harvest for the lean part of the year.

  11. Antifungal and antiaflatoxigenic properties of Cuminum cyminum (L.) seed essential oil and its efficacy as a preservative in stored commodities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kedia, Akash; Prakash, Bhanu; Mishra, Prashant K; Dubey, N K

    2014-01-01

    The study reports potential of Cuminum cyminum (cumin) seed essential oil (EO) as a plant based shelf life enhancer against fungal and aflatoxin contamination and lipid peroxidation. The EO showed efficacy as a preservative in food systems (stored wheat and chickpeas). A total of 1230 fungal isolates were obtained from food samples, with Aspergillus flavus LHP(C)-D6 identified as the highest aflatoxin producer. Cumin seed EO was chemically characterized through GC-MS where cymene (47.08%) was found as the major component. The minimum inhibitory concentration and minimum aflatoxin inhibitory concentration of EO were 0.6 and 0.5 μl/ml respectively. The EO showed toxicity against a broad spectrum of food borne fungi. The antifungal action of EO on ergosterol content in the plasma membrane of A. flavus was determined. The EO showed strong antioxidant potential having IC50 0.092 μl/ml. As a fumigant in food systems, the EO provided sufficient protection of food samples against fungal association without affecting seed germination. In view of the antifungal and antiaflatoxigenic nature, free radical scavenging potential and efficacy in food system, cumin seed EO may be able to provide protection of food commodities against quantitative and qualitative losses, thereby enhancing their shelf life. The present investigation comprises the first report on antifungal mode of action of cumin seed EO and its efficacy as fumigant in food systems.

  12. Radiation preservation of cooked foods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The preservation of irradiated cooked food has been explained in this report under vacuum conditions. The samples were irradiated at dose levels of 7.5 and 10.0 LGy. Measurement of fungal count was carried immediately after irradiation and after each 15 days of storage life upto 60 days of time interval. The samples were evaluated organolepticaly as well. It has been observed that no significance difference was observed among samples of irradiated and vacuum packed controls during storage for 45 days. (A.B.)

  13. Irradiation's potential for preserving food

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The first experimental studies on the use of ionizing radiation for the preservation of foods were published over thirty years ago (1, 2) . After a period of high expectations and perhaps exaggerated optimism a series of disappointments occurred in the late '60s .The first company specifically created to operate a food irradiation plant, Newfield Products Inc, ran into financial difficulties and had to close its potato irradiation facility in 1966. The irradiator, designed to process 15,000t of potatoes per month for inhibition of sprouting, was in operation during one season only. In 1968 the US Food an Drug Administration refused approval for radiation-sterilisation of ham and withdrew the approval it had granted in 1963 for irradiated bacon. An International Project on the Irradiation of Fruit and Fruit juices, created in 1965 at Seibersdorf, Austria, with the collaboration or 9 countries, ended with general disappointment after three years. The first commercial grain irradiator, built in the Turkish harbour town of Iskenderun by the International Atomic Energy Agency with funds from the United Nations Development Program, never received the necessary operating licence from the Turkish Government and had to be dismantled in 1968. The US Atomic Energy Commission terminated its financial support to all research programmes on food irradiation in 1970. For a number of years, little chance seemed to remain that the new process would ever be practically used. However, research and development work was continued in a number of laboratories all over the world, and it appears that the temporary setbacks now have been overcome. Growing quantities of irradiated foods are being marketed in several countries and indications are that irradiated foods will eventually be as generally accepted as are frozen, dried or heatsterilised foods

  14. SMART PACKAGING FOR FOOD PRESERVATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raquel Rodríguez-Sauceda

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available One of the biggest challenges of the food industry is the preservation of its products, that is, to prevent them from being attacked by microorganisms that decompose them hauling economic losses and severe health damage to the consumer. Today, competition in the food industry is very high and any company that does not offer the quality products is doomed to fail. Consumers demand more and the industry still stands offering what is asked: quality, security and safety. The package, in addition to fulfilling its core functions is becoming a means of sophisticated interactions with content and a record of relevant information for both the end consumer and intermediate players in the value chain and concepts are born of active and intelligent packaging. A smart container is defined as a system that monitors the condition of the packaged product, being able to register and provide information about product quality or condition of the container, showing the possible "abnormal" practices that have suffered the product or the container during the entire supply chain, such as transportation or storage. These systems monitor the mechanisms of altered food due to physiological, chemical and biological processes that respond and communicate changes in the status of the product as time-temperature, Oxygen, Carbon dioxide, microbial growth, etc. There are different types of smart packaging such as time-temperature indicators, color indicators, indicators of pathogens and indicators of leaks, to name a few. Through literature review, arguments that demonstrate the usefulness and necessity of the use of smart packaging to preserve the quality and safety of the product it contains, from manufacturing to the time it is used by consumers were found, as these besides communicating or providing information about their state, acting as a marketing tool.

  15. Tailor made preservation strategies : Food Innovation Concepts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blankestijn, J.

    2013-01-01

    High quality, long shelf life, clean label, less salt: food must comply with many requirements. From genomics and mild preservation to a ‘Quick Scan’ for process hygiene, TNO helps manufacturers to develop a tailor made preservation strategy.

  16. Home Food Preservation Training for Extension Educators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goard, Linnette Mizer; Hill, Melinda; Shumaker, Katharine; Warrix, Marisa

    2013-01-01

    During times of economic downturn, there has been an increased interest in home food preservation. As the primary resource for current research-based recommendations, a team of Extension Family and Consumer Sciences educators with specialization in food safety and food preservation responded to this demand by developing a standardized food…

  17. [Application on food preservative of antimicrobial peptides].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Hongyan; Mu, Yu; Zhao, Baohua

    2009-07-01

    Antimicrobial peptides are an integral component of the innate immune system, it can counteract outer membrane pathogen such as bacteria, fungi, viruses, protozoan and so on. Owing to the sterilization and innocuity, it has the potential to be crude food preservative. In this paper the uses of antibacterial peptides in the food preservative were analyzed.

  18. A Big Problem for Magellan: Food Preservation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galvao, Cecilia; Reis, Pedro; Freire, Sofia

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, we present data related to how a Portuguese teacher developed the module "A big problem for Magellan: Food preservation." Students were asked to plan an investigation in order to identify which were the best food preservation methods in the XV and XVI centuries of Portuguese overseas navigation, and then establish a parallel between…

  19. Preservation Methods Utilized for Space Food

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vodovotz, Yael; Bourland, Charles

    2000-01-01

    Food for manned space flight has been provided by NASA-Johnson Space Center since 1962. The various mission scenarios and space craft designs dictated the type of food preservation methodologies required to meet mission objectives. The preservation techniques used in space flight include freeze-dehydration, thermostabilization, irradiation, freezing and moisture adjustment. Innovative packaging material and techniques enhanced the shelf-stability of the food items. Future space voyages may include extended duration exploration missions requiring new packaging materials and advanced preservation techniques to meet mission goals of up to 5-year shelf-life foods.

  20. A Big Problem for Magellan: Food Preservation

    OpenAIRE

    Galvão, Cecília; Reis, Pedro; Freire, Sofia

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, we present data related to how a Portuguese teacher developed the module "A big problem for Magellan: Food preservation." Students were asked to plan an investigation in order to identify which were the best food preservation methods in the XV and XVI centuries of Portuguese overseas navigation, and then establish a parallel between those methods and current ones. Students were involved in discussing the relationship between science and social issues, and about the impact th...

  1. Nuclear Energy for food preservation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The article deals with food irradiation and its objectives, and R and D work being done in India. Detailed studies undertaken on specific low-dose radiation treatment processes on disinfestation of stored wheat, sprout inhibition of stored onions, and potatoes, delayed ripening of mangoes and bananas and extension in shelf-life of sea foods are reported. The assessment of the wholesomeness of irradiated foods and international status of approval for irradiated foods are discussed. Factors influencing the economic prospects for the large scale radiation treatment of some of the commodities are mentioned. (S.K.K.)

  2. Radioisotopes and food preservation against insects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The book describes how to preserve food from harmful insects by using radioisotopes. It focusses on the impact of ionized radiation on the different stages of insect growth and on its metabolism and immunity. It also discusses the relationship between radiation doses and insect reproduction. It explains the various methods to detect the irradiated foods

  3. Establishment of a world food preservation center

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilson Charles L

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract A World Food Preservation Center (WFPC is proposed in response to a pending civilization-threatening food shortage and our limited ability to adequately increase food production. Some estimates put losses of food in developing countries after it is produced and before it is consumed at 50%. These losses are particularly threatening to individuals and farmers who are living in the midst of food insecurity. Although numerous organizations have attempted to address this problem worldwide, the magnitude of the effort has not come close to the enormity of the problem. Most of these programs are also short-term and require continuous input by postharvest specialists from developed countries in order to be sustainable. A critical need exists for a substantial and sustainable worldwide program that can significantly reduce losses and waste of food in developing countries. The World Food Preservation Center proposed here meets this need by educating young scientists in developing countries about low-input, appropriate technologies for preserving food postharvest. It also conducts research on postharvest technologies especially suited for application in developing countries such as biological control, solar refrigeration, and coordinated transport and marketing schemes that support and sustain the local production of food commodities.

  4. Radiation in response to food preservation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Preservation of food items is a pre-requisite for food security. The seasonal nature of production, perishable nature of food materials (fruits, vegetables and other value added products) and the rising gap between demand and supply have posed great challenges to conventional techniques of food preservation and thereby to food security. Food irradiation, one of the beneficial applications of atomic energy, is an important innovation in food preservation, since the development of canning in the 19th century. It provides an effective alternative to fumigants, which are being phased out owing to their adverse effects on the environment and human health. Moreover, exposure of food material to radiation has strong advantages over conventional methods of preservation such as cold storage, fumigation, salting and drying because it does not lead to loss of taste, texture, flavour, odour etc. or overall quality attributes. Generally, two types of radiations are used i.e., ionizing and non-ionizing. Since radiation does not generate heat, it is termed 'cold sterilization'. Gamma rays, E-beam and X-rays are used for irradiation. Irradiation under approved conditions has been demonstrated to have no dangerous effects on food, either chemical or microbial in nature and does not cause any significant loss of macronutrients. Proteins, fats and carbohydrates undergo little change in nutritional value during irradiation even with doses over 10 kGy, though there may be sensory changes. Similarly, the essential amino acids, essential fatty acids, minerals and trace elements are also unaffected. There can be a decrease in certain vitamins (particularly thiamin) but these are of the same order of magnitude as occurs in other manufacturing processes such as drying/dehydration or canning (thermal sterilization). So, there is urgent need to exploit the benefits of irradiation involve standardization, communication and education. The potential benefits of irradiation technology have been

  5. INTERVENTION TECHNOLOGIES FOR FOOD SAFETY AND PRESERVATION

    Science.gov (United States)

    Food preservations with several different technologies, including irradiation, retort, aseptic processing, microwave and hydrostatic high pressure, are discussed in this chapter. Some of the methods are considered relatively mature technologies, e.g. retort and liquid aseptic; however, most of them...

  6. Effect of chitosan and its derivatives as antifungal and preservative agents on postharvest green asparagus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Miao; Wu, Chu; Ren, Gerui; Liang, Xinle; Wang, Xiangyang; Huang, Jianying

    2014-07-15

    The antifungal activity and effect of high-molecular weight chitosan (H-chitosan), low-molecular weight chitosan (L-chitosan) and carboxymethyl chitosan (C-chitosan) coatings on postharvest green asparagus were evaluated. L-chitosan and H-chitosan efficiently inhibited the radial growth of Fusarium concentricum separated from postharvest green asparagus at 4 mg/ml, which appeared to be more effective in inhibiting spore germination and germ tube elongation than that of C-chitosan. Notably, spore germination was totally inhibited by L-chitosan and H-chitosan at 0.05 mg/ml. Coated asparagus did not show any apparent sign of phytotoxicity and maintained good quality over 28 days of cold storage, according to the weight loss and general quality aspects. Present results inferred that chitosan could act as an attractive preservative agent for postharvest green asparagus owing to its antifungal activity and its ability to stimulate some defense responses during storage.

  7. Application of Bacillus sp. as a biopreservative for food preservation

    OpenAIRE

    S. Nath,; Chowdhury, S.

    2015-01-01

    Food preservation is enhancing shelf-life and food quality to eliminate food-related illness and product spoilage, especially by the use of food additives.The growing consumer demand for effective preservation of food without altering its nutritional quality and free of potential health risks andto find an attractive and alternative approach to chemical preservatives, have stimulated research in the field of biopreservation by the use of natural or controlled microbiota and/or the...

  8. Antifungal activity of some marine organisms from India, against food spoilage Aspergillus strains

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Bhosale, S.H.; Jagtap, T.G.; Naik, C.G.

    Crude aqueous methanol extracts obtained from 31 species of various marine organisms (including floral and faunal), were screened for their antifungal activity against food poisoning strains of Aspergillus. Seventeen species exhibited mild (+ = zone...

  9. Bacteriocins: safe, natural antimicrobials for food preservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cleveland, J; Montville, T J; Nes, I F; Chikindas, M L

    2001-12-01

    Bacteriocins are antibacterial proteins produced by bacteria that kill or inhibit the growth of other bacteria. Many lactic acid bacteria (LAB) produce a high diversity of different bacteriocins. Though these bacteriocins are produced by LAB found in numerous fermented and non-fermented foods, nisin is currently the only bacteriocin widely used as a food preservative. Many bacteriocins have been characterized biochemically and genetically, and though there is a basic understanding of their structure-function, biosynthesis, and mode of action, many aspects of these compounds are still unknown. This article gives an overview of bacteriocin applications, and differentiates bacteriocins from antibiotics. A comparison of the synthesis. mode of action, resistance and safety of the two types of molecules is covered. Toxicity data exist for only a few bacteriocins, but research and their long-time intentional use strongly suggest that bacteriocins can be safely used.

  10. Bacteriocins: safe, natural antimicrobials for food preservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cleveland, J; Montville, T J; Nes, I F; Chikindas, M L

    2001-12-01

    Bacteriocins are antibacterial proteins produced by bacteria that kill or inhibit the growth of other bacteria. Many lactic acid bacteria (LAB) produce a high diversity of different bacteriocins. Though these bacteriocins are produced by LAB found in numerous fermented and non-fermented foods, nisin is currently the only bacteriocin widely used as a food preservative. Many bacteriocins have been characterized biochemically and genetically, and though there is a basic understanding of their structure-function, biosynthesis, and mode of action, many aspects of these compounds are still unknown. This article gives an overview of bacteriocin applications, and differentiates bacteriocins from antibiotics. A comparison of the synthesis. mode of action, resistance and safety of the two types of molecules is covered. Toxicity data exist for only a few bacteriocins, but research and their long-time intentional use strongly suggest that bacteriocins can be safely used. PMID:11764886

  11. Food Preservation by Irradiation. Vol. II. Proceedings of an International Symposium on Food Preservation by Irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the task of alleviating the distress caused by the world-wide food shortage it is essential to preserve what has been grown and harvested in the fields. Clearly all suitable methods for preserving agricultural produce and food should be made use of. In this context treatment with ionizing radiation has proved its value as an environmentally clean, physical method of food preservation which is low in its energy requirement, but the volume of food being processed in this way is still low. The introduction of food irradiation on a global basis poses certain economic, legal, regulatory and health-related questions, the solution of which requires close international collaboration. Such collaboration between many international, intergovernmental and national organizations began over a decade ago. The need for dissemination and discussion of information gained through research and development work on this subject became apparent, and a number of inter-regional meetings were held. The last international symposium on the topic was held jointly by FAO and the IAEA in 1972 in Bombay. To review progress made since then, FAO and the IAEA, together with WHO, convened the present Symposium on 21-25 November 1977. It appeared timely to hold this Symposium for the following reasons: (1) Apart from significant scientific work reported in the literature, progress in other directions between 1972 and 1977 had also been made. For example, the number of food items authorized by governments, with or without restriction, had grown from 19 to 26, and the number of countries accepting one or more irradiated foods for human consumption had increased from 11 to 19. (2) Largely on the basis of the work of the International Project in the Field of Food Irradiation (Karlsruhe), already described at the Bombay Symposium, an international expert committee, jointly convened by FAO, the IAEA and WHO in August-September 1976, had made important statements on the philosophy of wholesomeness studies

  12. Food Preservation by Irradiation. Vol. I. Proceedings of an International Symposium on Food Preservation by Irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the task of alleviating the distress caused by the world-wide food shortage it is essential to preserve what has been grown and harvested in the fields. Clearly all suitable methods for preserving agricultural produce and food should be made use of. In this context treatment with ionizing radiation has proved its value as an environmentally clean, physical method o f food preservation which is low in its energy requirement, but the volume of food being processed in this way is still low. The introduction o f food irradiation on a global basis poses certain economic, legal, regulatory and health-related questions, the solution o f which requires close international collaboration. Such collaboration between many international, intergovernmental and national organizations began over a decade ago. The need for dissemination and discussion o f information gained through research and development work on this subject became apparent, and a number of inter-regional meetings were held. The last international symposium on the topic was held jointly by FAO and the IAEA in 1972 in Bombay. To review progress made since then, FAO and the IAEA, together with WHO, convened the present Symposium on 21-25 November 1977. It appeared timely to hold this Symposium for the following reasons: (1) Apart from significant scientific work reported in the literature, progress in other directions between 1972 and 1977 had also been made. For example, the number of food items authorized by governments, with or without restriction, had grown from 19 to 26, and the number of countries accepting one or more irradiated foods for human consumption had increased from 11 to 19. (2) Largely on the basis of the work of the International Project in the Field of Food Irradiation (Karlsruhe), already described at the Bombay Symposium, an international expert committee, jointly convened by FAO, the IAEA and WHO in August-September 1976, had made important statements on the philosophy of wholesomeness

  13. Onion, a natural alternative to artificial food preservatives. Review

    OpenAIRE

    Santas, Jonathan; Almajano Pablos, María Pilar; Carbó Moliner, Rosa

    2010-01-01

    Consumer demand of minimally processed foods without synthetic preservatives has led to a growing interest in their replacement for more natural alternatives. Onion is widely used as a food ingredient and it is known as a good source of bioactive compounds, such as sulphur-containing compounds and flavonoids with well known health beneficial effects, antioxidant and antimicrobial capacities. Consequently, onion has been proposed as a promising and safer source of food preservatives. The overa...

  14. Utilization of irradiation on food preservation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present project was intended to ascertain the efficacy of irradiation both in the decontamination and storeability of mixed condiments for convenience food and in the long-term preservation of a Kimchi. Based upon the preliminary studies, irradiated sample with doses at 1-3 kGy were evaluated during the storage for 30 days at 10 deg C from the points of view of microbiological (total aerobic bacteria, lactic acid bacteria, yeasts and molds, and coliforms), physicochemical (pH, total acidity, volatile acid, reducing sugar, ascorbic acid, and texture) and organoleptic qualities. Besides, the combined effect of irradiation with heating on the storeability was investigated for five species of the lactic acid bacteria associated with the Kimchi fermentation. Under the room temperature storage conditions, physicochemical qualities of the irradiated samples were evaluated by determining pH, rancidity (TBA number), proximate composition, amino nitrogen, amino acid, and color changes. In the overall evaluation of sensory quality for the irradiated Kimchi, the nonirradiated control group was inedible after 15 days of storage, whereas 2-3 kGy irradiation could prolong the storage-life of the Kimchi over 2 times compared with the nonirradiated control, showing the good sensory quality even after 30 days of storage. In comparative effects of irradiation and ethylene oxide both treatments affected more or less rancidity, color, and amino acid content, but less than 10 kGy irradiation was shown to be safer than ethylene oxide fumigation. Form the foregoing results, it can be concluded that if a selective method could be applied to the radiation sterilization of minor ingredients capable of mainly contaminating the mixed condiments, even lower doses of irradiation should be effective for the microbial control. (Author)

  15. Technology of food preservation by irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Food Technology Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai has demonstrated that radiation processing of foods can contribute to nations food security by reducing post-harvest losses caused by insect infestation, microbial-spoilage and physiological changes. The technology has commercial potential for the conservation of cereals, pulses and their products, spices, onions, potatoes, garlic, some tropical fruits, sea foods, meat and poultry. Irradiation can ensure hygienic quality in foods including frozen foods by eliminating food borne pathogens and parasitic organisms. It offers a viable environment friendly alternative to chemical fumigants for quarantine treatment against insect pests in agricultural and horticultural products entering international trade. The safety and nutritional adequacy of irradiated foods for human consumption is well established. About 40 countries including India have regulations permitting irradiation of foods and 28 countries are irradiating foods for processing industries and institutional catering

  16. Application of Bacillus sp. as a biopreservative for food preservation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Nath,

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Food preservation is enhancing shelf-life and food quality to eliminate food-related illness and product spoilage, especially by the use of food additives.The growing consumer demand for effective preservation of food without altering its nutritional quality and free of potential health risks andto find an attractive and alternative approach to chemical preservatives, have stimulated research in the field of biopreservation by the use of natural or controlled microbiota and/or their antimicrobial compounds including very recent innovation: Bacillus sp., the ubiquitous, Gram positive bacteria, producing inhibitory substances like cyclic peptides and bacteriocins, with a broad antimicrobial spectrum and a history of safe use in food. Bacillus spores are also being used extensively as probiotic food supplements where they are used in human as dietary supplements and in feed for livestock and aquaculture as growth promoters.A novel concept multi-target food preservation has emerged in relation to hurdle technology stating the microbial safety, stability, sensorial and nutritional qualities of foods are based on the application of combined preservative factors (called hurdles including Bacillus sp. that microorganisms present in the food are unable to overcome, thus leading to inhibition of microbial growth by disturbing their homeostasis and metabolic exhaustion and avoiding tress reaction by bacteria. Future exploration of the natural preservatives and/or their metabolites, in combination with advanced technologies could result in replacement of chemical preservatives, or could allow less severe processing (e.g. heat treatments, while still maintaining adequate microbiological safety and quality in foods.

  17. Effect of essential oils on Aspergillus spore germination, growth and mycotoxin production:a potential source of botanical food preservative

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Negero Gemeda; Yimtubezinash Woldeamanuel; Daniel Asrat; Asfaw Debella

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To investigate effect of essential oils on Aspergillus spore germination, growth and mycotoxin production.Method: In vitro antifungal and antiaflatoxigenic activity of essential oils was carried out using poisoned food techniques, spore germination assay, agar dilution assay, and aflatoxin arresting assay on toxigenic strains of Aspergillus species.Results: Cymbopogon martinii, Foeniculum vulgare and Trachyspermum ammi (T. ammi) essential oils were tested against toxicogenic isolates of Aspergillus species. T. ammi oil showed highest antifungal activity. Absolute mycelial inhibition was recorded at 1 µl/mL by essential oils of T. ammi. The oil also showed, complete inhibition of spore germination at a concentration of 2 µl/mL. In addition, T. ammi oil showed significant antiaflatoxigenic potency by totally inhibiting aflatoxin production from Aspergillus niger and Aspergillus flavus at 0.5 and 0.75 µl/mL, respectively. Cymbopogon martinii, Foeniculum vulgare and T. ammi oils as antifungal were found superior over synthetic preservative. Moreover, a concentration of 5 336.297 µl/kg body weight was recorded for LC50 on mice indicating the low mammalian toxicity and strengthening its traditional reputations.Conclusions:In conclusion, the essential oils from T. ammi can be a potential source of safe natural food preservative for food commodities contamination by storage fungi.

  18. Food preservation technologies developed at BARC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Food irradiation is important as it is being used to disinfest food grains, pulses, wheat flour, rice, semolina, raisins etc; quarantining and shelf life increasing of fruits like mangoes; microbial decontamination of spices; sprout inhibition of tubers and bulbs; shelf life increasing and pathogen control of meat and fish. Category-IV type irradiators based on gamma rays exposure of food are currently being employed for this purpose. Cobalt-60 isotope is produced in the nuclear reactors. Isotope gives gamma rays as its nucleus is unstable. The gamma rays pass through the food items and inhibit sprouting of tubers and bulbs, kill bacteria, virus and the larvae of insects

  19. Workshop report: The application of technology for food preservation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A workshop on the application of ionizing technology for food preservation is reviewed. The major aim of this workshop is to introduce this new technology to the layman and local scientists so as to promote the new treatment in the local food industry

  20. Radiation preservation of food. Efficiency and wholesomeness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document reviews the applications of ionizing radiations in the food industry. The two first chapters feature the characteristics of the three types of ionizing radiations that can be used (gamma rays from cobalt 60 and caesium 137, X rays, electron beams) and their action on foodstuff and the food spoilage organisms. The third chapter is a review of toxicological studies based on two complementary approaches: animal assays and studies on the radiolysis products. It provides the evidences that lead the international experts to regard irradiated food as safe for human consumption. In the fourth chapter, the problems of identification of irradiated food and the possible controls are exposed. The authors conclude by suggesting the measures that would allow commercial application in France

  1. Utilization of irradiation on food preservation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The research programme in 1982 was conducted not only to develop the commercial storage method of sprouting foods by irradiation combined with natural low temperature and to sterilize the E.coli of ginseng and ginseng product but also to approach the development of the long term storage method of rice and barley. (Author)

  2. Air Purifiers Eliminate Pathogens, Preserve Food

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    NASA-funded researchers produced an ethylene reduction device for a plant growth unit. KES Science & Technology Inc., a Kennesaw, Georgia-based company specializing in sustaining perishable foods, licensed the ethylene scrubbing technology. KES partnered with Akida Holdings, of Jacksonville, Florida, which now markets the NASA-developed technology as AiroCide. According to the company, it is the only air purifier that completely destroys airborne bacteria, mold, fungi, mycotoxins, viruses, volatile organic compounds (like ethylene), and odors. What?s more, the devices have no filters that need changing and produce no harmful byproducts, such as the ozone created by some filtration systems.

  3. Beneficial Effects of Spices in Food Preservation and Safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gottardi, Davide; Bukvicki, Danka; Prasad, Sahdeo; Tyagi, Amit K.

    2016-01-01

    Spices have been used since ancient times. Although they have been employed mainly as flavoring and coloring agents, their role in food safety and preservation have also been studied in vitro and in vivo. Spices have exhibited numerous health benefits in preventing and treating a wide variety of diseases such as cancer, aging, metabolic, neurological, cardiovascular, and inflammatory diseases. The present review aims to provide a comprehensive summary of the most relevant and recent findings on spices and their active compounds in terms of targets and mode of action; in particular, their potential use in food preservation and enhancement of shelf life as a natural bioingredient. PMID:27708620

  4. Development of Food Preservation and Processing Technologies by Radiation Technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Byun, Myung Woo; Lee, Ju Won; Kim, Jae Hun (and others)

    2007-07-15

    To secure national food resources, development of energy-saving food processing and preservation technologies, establishment of method on improvement of national health and safety by development of alternative techniques of chemicals and foundation of the production of hygienic food and public health related products by irradiation technology were studied. Results at current stage are following: As the first cooperative venture business technically invested by National Atomic Research Development Project, institute/company's [technology-invested technology foundation No. 1] cooperative venture, Sun-BioTech Ltd., was founded and stated its business. This suggested new model for commercialization and industrialization of the research product by nation-found institute. From the notice of newly approved product list about irradiated food, radiation health related legal approval on 7 food items was achieved from the Ministry of health and wellfare, the Korea Food and Drug Administration, and this contributed the foundation of enlargement of practical use of irradiated food. As one of the foundation project for activation of radiation application technology for the sanitation and secure preservation of special food, such as military meal service, food service for patient, and food for sports, and instant food, such as ready-to-eat/ready-to-cook food, the proposal for radiation application to the major military commander at the Ministry of National Defence and the Joint Chiefs of Staff was accepted for the direction of military supply development in mid-termed plan for the development of war supply. Especially, through the preliminary research and the development of foundation technology for the development of the Korean style space food and functional space food, space Kimch with very long shelf life was finally developed. The development of new item/products for food and life science by combining RT/BT, the development of technology for the elimination/reduction of

  5. Development of Food Preservation and Processing Technologies by Radiation Technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To secure national food resources, development of energy-saving food processing and preservation technologies, establishment of method on improvement of national health and safety by development of alternative techniques of chemicals and foundation of the production of hygienic food and public health related products by irradiation technology were studied. Results at current stage are following: As the first cooperative venture business technically invested by National Atomic Research Development Project, institute/company's [technology-invested technology foundation No. 1] cooperative venture, Sun-BioTech Ltd., was founded and stated its business. This suggested new model for commercialization and industrialization of the research product by nation-found institute. From the notice of newly approved product list about irradiated food, radiation health related legal approval on 7 food items was achieved from the Ministry of health and wellfare, the Korea Food and Drug Administration, and this contributed the foundation of enlargement of practical use of irradiated food. As one of the foundation project for activation of radiation application technology for the sanitation and secure preservation of special food, such as military meal service, food service for patient, and food for sports, and instant food, such as ready-to-eat/ready-to-cook food, the proposal for radiation application to the major military commander at the Ministry of National Defence and the Joint Chiefs of Staff was accepted for the direction of military supply development in mid-termed plan for the development of war supply. Especially, through the preliminary research and the development of foundation technology for the development of the Korean style space food and functional space food, space Kimch with very long shelf life was finally developed. The development of new item/products for food and life science by combining RT/BT, the development of technology for the elimination/reduction of

  6. Lactobacillus amylovorus DSM 19280 as a novel food-grade antifungal agent for bakery products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, Liam A M; Zannini, Emanuele; Dal Bello, Fabio; Pawlowska, Agata; Koehler, Peter; Arendt, Elke K

    2011-04-29

    Mould spoilage is the main cause of substantial economic loss in bakery industry and might also cause public health problems due to the production of mycotoxins. The reduction of mould growth in bakery products is thus of crucial importance and there is great interest to develop safe and efficient strategies for this purpose. In this study Lactobacillus amylovorus DSM19280 has been shown to produce a wide spectrum of antifungal compounds active against common bread spoilage fungi. Among the indicator moulds, Aspergillus fumigatus and Fusarium culmorum were the most sensitive organisms. Several antifungal compounds were found to be present in synthetic medium inoculated with L. amylovorus DSM19280 strain, some of them being reported here for the first time. Wheat doughs fermented with L. amylovorus DSM19280 had good rheological properties and the breads thereof were of high quality as shown by rheofermentometer and texture analyser measurements. The results were compared with those obtained with a control non-antifungal L. amylovorus DSM20531(T) strain, a non-acidified and a chemically acidified dough. The quality of sourdough and bread fermented with L. amylovorus DSM 19280 was comparable to that obtained by using L. amylovorus DSM20531 (T). Additionally, breads were evaluated for the ability to retard the growth of Fusarium culmorum FST 4.05, Aspergillus niger FST4.21, Penicillium expansum FST 4.22, Penicillium roqueforti FST 4.11 and fungal flora from the bakery environment. The biological preservation of bread with L. amylovorus DSM 19280 was also compared to the most commonly used antifungal agent Calcium propionate. Breads containing sourdough fermented with L. amylovorus DSM 19280 were more effective in extending the shelf life of bread than the calcium propionate. PMID:21429613

  7. Preserving food in Asia and the Pacific region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    At this time of increasing world population there is greater need than ever before to produce more food, especially in developing countries which have the fastest growth of population. Equally important, but often overlooked by most authorities, is the need to preserve food after harvest so that losses are reduced, more food is available, and the investment and energy employed in food production is effectively used. One method of reducing losses is to use ionizing energy in the form of gamma rays, electron, or X-rays to prevent food from spoiling because of micro-organisms, insect pests or physiological factors. This method can treat food in the final package without significantly altering its physico-chemical characteristics. The technique has been much studied in many countries over the past three decades. As most countries in the Asian and Pacific region are in tropical zones which make food especially vulnerable to spoilage losses this technique has received wide attention from food and nuclear scientists. In 1979, the Agency and the Government of Japan sponsored a special mission to evaluate the state of the art of this technology in India, Indonesia, Malaysia, Philippines, Singapore, and Thailand. It was evident from the mission's report that most of these countries not only have active research and development programmes in the use of ionizing energy for food preservation but also are anxious to develop their programmes to reach practical application. Moreover, most countries in Asia and the Pacific have a common interest in using this technology to preserve fishery products, tropical fruits, onions, and spices. Consequently, the Government of Japan agreed to sponsor a research programme in this field as one of the Co-ordinated Research Programmes of the Food Preservation Section of the Joint FAO/IAEA Division of Isotope and Radiation Applications of Atomic Energy for Food and Agricultural Development. Started in 1980, the project will last for three years

  8. Gamma irradiation for food preservation and sterilization of medical supplies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A new technology in food preservation by using gamma irradiation was introduced and its advantages over a number of conventional processes were discussed. The new technique is also applicable in the sterilization of medical supplies. It is relatively simple and does not require very highly skilled manpower

  9. Sensitivity of Escherichia albertii to food preservation treatments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escherichia albertii is a potential foodborne pathogen because of its documented ability to cause diarrheal disease by producing attachment and effacement lesions. Its tolerance to food preservation treatments has not been investigated. Heat, acid, and pressure tolerance were determined for stationa...

  10. Evaluation of metal impurities in foods preserved with sodium lactate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Kimberly Ferren; Carter, Gregory L

    2013-01-01

    The public is being bombarded by the media almost dailywith real and potential food health concerns leadingto a public sentiment that questions the vulnerability and quality of our food. Sodium lactate is a food-grade product that in recent years has been used in bioremediation to stimulate microbial growth and contaminant breakdown processes. In previous work, impurities including arsenic and chromium were discovered to be present in the sodium lactate concentrate. The study described in this article was performed to determine whether arsenic and chromium were at detectable levels, posing a potential concern in food products preserved with sodium lactate available to the general public. A pilot sampling of three sodium-lactate-preserved food products was obtained from a local market and used to determine the commercial laboratory's detection and reporting limits for arsenic and chromium for these food products. Once these limits were established, a random sampling and analyses of 17 food products was performed. Arsenic was not reported above the detection limits in either the pilot or subsequent study, but chromium was detected at concentrations up to 0.30 parts per million in a pilot test sample and lower concentrations in the subsequent study. This study suggests that the sodium lactate in the sampled products was diluted enough for the arsenic concentration to be below the laboratory detection limit. Chromium was detected and may be an unaccounted source of chromium in diets of vulnerable populations.

  11. Resistance of yeasts to weak organic acid food preservatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piper, Peter W

    2011-01-01

    Carboxylate weak acids are invaluable for large-scale food and beverage preservation. However, in response to safety concerns, there is now desire to reduce the use of these additives. The resistance to these compounds displayed by spoilage yeasts and fungi is a major reason why these preservatives often have to be used in millimolar levels. This chapter summarizes the mechanisms whereby yeasts are rendered resistant to acetate, propionate, sorbate, and benzoate. In baker's yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae), resistance to high acetic acid is acquired partly by loss of the plasma membrane aquaglyceroporin that facilitates the passive diffusional entry of undissociated acid into cells (Fps1), and partly through a transcriptional response mediated by the transcription factor Haa1. Other carboxylate preservatives are too large to enter cells through the Fps1 channel but instead penetrate at appreciable rates by passive diffusion across the plasma membrane. In Saccharomyces and Candida albicans though not, it seems, in the Zygosaccharomyces, resistance to the latter acids involves activation of the War1 transcription factor, which in turn generates strong induction of a specific plasma membrane ATP-binding cassette transporter (Pdr12). The latter actively pumps the preservative anion from the cell. Other contributors to weak acid resistance include enzymes that allow preservative degradation, members of the Tpo family of major facilitator superfamily transporters, and changes to the cell envelope that minimize the diffusional entry of the preservative into the cell.

  12. Development of food preservation and processing techniques by radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Byun, Myung Woo; Lee, Ju Woon; Kim, Dong Ho [KAERI, Taejon (Korea, Republic of); Yook, Hong Sun [Chungnam National Univ., Taejon (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Hak Soo [Sogang Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Cherl Ho; Park, Hyun Jin [Korea Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kang, Il Jun [Hallym Univ., Chuncheon (Korea, Republic of); Kwon, Jung Ho [Kyungbook National Univ., Taegu (Korea, Republic of)

    2002-05-01

    To secure national food resources, development of energy-saving food processing and preservation technologies, establishment of method on improvement of national health and safety by development of alternative techniques of chemicals and foundation of the production of hygienic food and public health related products by irradiation technology were studied. Results at current stage are following; Processing techniques of low salted and fermented fish using gamma irradiation were developed and superiority of using irradiation to conventional food processing methods was established. Processing technique of value-added functional materials for the manufacture of food or public health products using RT/BT/NT combination technology was developed. The basic theories for the technology development to reduce toxic or undesirable compounds in food such as allergy or carcinogens were established. Exterminating methods of quarantine organisms in herbs/spices was established and the quality evaluation and detection conditions in quarantine treatment were set. From the studies on 'program of public understanding' based on safety of the gamma irradiated food, the information for public relation in enlargement of consumer acceptance/implementation and the peaceful use of nuclear energy were secured. Results from the research project will contribute on improvement of competency of domestic food industry and export market. The results also expect the improvement of public health by prevention of food borne diseases and enhancement of national economy and industry by increase of direct/indirect productivity.

  13. Development of food preservation and processing techniques by radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To secure national food resources, development of energy-saving food processing and preservation technologies, establishment of method on improvement of national health and safety by development of alternative techniques of chemicals and foundation of the production of hygienic food and public health related products by irradiation technology were studied. Results at current stage are following; Processing techniques of low salted and fermented fish using gamma irradiation were developed and superiority of using irradiation to conventional food processing methods was established. Processing technique of value-added functional materials for the manufacture of food or public health products using RT/BT/NT combination technology was developed. The basic theories for the technology development to reduce toxic or undesirable compounds in food such as allergy or carcinogens were established. Exterminating methods of quarantine organisms in herbs/spices was established and the quality evaluation and detection conditions in quarantine treatment were set. From the studies on 'program of public understanding' based on safety of the gamma irradiated food, the information for public relation in enlargement of consumer acceptance/implementation and the peaceful use of nuclear energy were secured. Results from the research project will contribute on improvement of competency of domestic food industry and export market. The results also expect the improvement of public health by prevention of food borne diseases and enhancement of national economy and industry by increase of direct/indirect productivity

  14. Alternative Food Preservation Techniques, New Technology in Food Preparation and Appropriateness of Food Supply for the Permanently Manned Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whelan, R. H.

    1985-01-01

    Alternative food preservation techniques are defined as unique processes and combinations of currently used processes for food preservation. Food preservation is the extension of the useful shelf-life of normally perishable foods (from harvest to final consumption) by controlling micro-organisms, enzymes, chemical changes, changes in sensory characteristics and the prevention of subsequent recontamination. The resulting products must comply with all applicable food manufacturing practice regulations and be safe. Most of the foods currently used in both space and military feeding are stabilized either by dehydration or the use of a terminal sterilization process. Other available options would be formulation to reduce water activity, the refrigeration and freezing of perishable foods, chemical addition, and physical treatment (ionizing or nonionizing radiation or mechanical action). These alternatives are considered and proposals made.

  15. Evaluation of Natural Food Preservatives in Domestic and Imported Cheese

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paik, Hyun-Dong

    2016-01-01

    In milk and milk products, a number of organic acids naturally occur. We investigated the contents of some naturally occurred food preservatives (sorbic acid, benzoic acid, propionic acid, nitrite, and nitrate) contained in domestic and imported cheeses to establish the standard for the allowable range of food preservatives content in cheese. 8 kinds of domestic precheeses (n=104), 16 kinds of domestic cured cheeses (n=204) and 40 kinds of imported cheeses (n=74) were collected. Each domestic cheese was aged for a suitable number of months and stored for 2 mon at 5℃ and 10℃. No preservatives were detected in domestic soft and fresh cheeses, except cream cheese. In case of semi-hard cheeses, 2-5 mg/kg of benzoic acid was detected after 1-2 mon of aging. In imported cheeses, only benzoic acid and propionic acid were detected. The average benzoic acid and propionic acid contents in semi-hard cheese were 8.73 mg/kg and 18.78 mg/kg, respectively. Specifically, 1.16 mg/kg and 6.80 mg/kg of benzoic acid and propionic acid, respectively, were contained in soft cheese, 3.27 mg/kg and 2.84 mg/kg, respectively, in fresh cheese, 1.87 mg/kg and not detected, respectively, in hard cheese, and 2.07 mg/kg and 182.26 mg/kg, respectively, in blended processed cheese. PMID:27621695

  16. Evaluation of Natural Food Preservatives in Domestic and Imported Cheese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Sun-Young; Han, Noori; Kim, Sun-Young; Yoo, Mi-Young; Paik, Hyun-Dong; Lim, Sang-Dong

    2016-01-01

    In milk and milk products, a number of organic acids naturally occur. We investigated the contents of some naturally occurred food preservatives (sorbic acid, benzoic acid, propionic acid, nitrite, and nitrate) contained in domestic and imported cheeses to establish the standard for the allowable range of food preservatives content in cheese. 8 kinds of domestic precheeses (n=104), 16 kinds of domestic cured cheeses (n=204) and 40 kinds of imported cheeses (n=74) were collected. Each domestic cheese was aged for a suitable number of months and stored for 2 mon at 5℃ and 10℃. No preservatives were detected in domestic soft and fresh cheeses, except cream cheese. In case of semi-hard cheeses, 2-5 mg/kg of benzoic acid was detected after 1-2 mon of aging. In imported cheeses, only benzoic acid and propionic acid were detected. The average benzoic acid and propionic acid contents in semi-hard cheese were 8.73 mg/kg and 18.78 mg/kg, respectively. Specifically, 1.16 mg/kg and 6.80 mg/kg of benzoic acid and propionic acid, respectively, were contained in soft cheese, 3.27 mg/kg and 2.84 mg/kg, respectively, in fresh cheese, 1.87 mg/kg and not detected, respectively, in hard cheese, and 2.07 mg/kg and 182.26 mg/kg, respectively, in blended processed cheese. PMID:27621695

  17. Evaluation of Natural Food Preservatives in Domestic and Imported Cheese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Sun-Young; Han, Noori; Kim, Sun-Young; Yoo, Mi-Young; Paik, Hyun-Dong; Lim, Sang-Dong

    2016-01-01

    In milk and milk products, a number of organic acids naturally occur. We investigated the contents of some naturally occurred food preservatives (sorbic acid, benzoic acid, propionic acid, nitrite, and nitrate) contained in domestic and imported cheeses to establish the standard for the allowable range of food preservatives content in cheese. 8 kinds of domestic precheeses (n=104), 16 kinds of domestic cured cheeses (n=204) and 40 kinds of imported cheeses (n=74) were collected. Each domestic cheese was aged for a suitable number of months and stored for 2 mon at 5℃ and 10℃. No preservatives were detected in domestic soft and fresh cheeses, except cream cheese. In case of semi-hard cheeses, 2-5 mg/kg of benzoic acid was detected after 1-2 mon of aging. In imported cheeses, only benzoic acid and propionic acid were detected. The average benzoic acid and propionic acid contents in semi-hard cheese were 8.73 mg/kg and 18.78 mg/kg, respectively. Specifically, 1.16 mg/kg and 6.80 mg/kg of benzoic acid and propionic acid, respectively, were contained in soft cheese, 3.27 mg/kg and 2.84 mg/kg, respectively, in fresh cheese, 1.87 mg/kg and not detected, respectively, in hard cheese, and 2.07 mg/kg and 182.26 mg/kg, respectively, in blended processed cheese.

  18. Microbiological Problems in Food Preservation by Irradiation. Report of a Panel on Microbiological Problems in Food Preservation by Irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Irradiation is a technique that may increasingly be employed to help preserve the world's food supplies. Some countries have already given public-health clearance for particular irradiated foodstuffs, and pilot and semi-industrial irradiation plants have already been established or are under construction. Wide-spread industrial application is likely in the not too distant future. However, there are still problems to be solved; some of these are microbiological. A Panel on Microbiological Problems in Food Preservation by Irradiation was organized by the Joint FAO/IAEA Division of Atomic Energy in Food and Agriculture on 27 June to 1 July 1966. A detailed evaluation was made of research and development needs in radicidation (i.e. destroying micro-organisms harmful to human health), in radurization (i.e. extending the shelf life of perishable foods by reducing the spoilage micro-organisms in it), in the elimination of viruses and in the inactivation of preformed toxins. The Panel also considered the unification and standardization of experimental methodology. Recommendations were drawn up for the Directors General of the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations and of the International Atomic Energy Agency on how these two organizations could best fulfil their roles in this field. It was considered important to continue sponsoring and co-ordinating research.. Establishing an international pilot and demonstration plant was thought essential for progress in development work, especially on radicidation. Experts on radio- and food microbiology and a representative of the World Health Organization attended the meeting. The proceedings contains the contributions of the members of the Panel together with the general conclusions and recommendations

  19. Health protection and food preservation by gamma irradiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    1976-01-01

    Results of several major studies on food systems for space missions beginning with Apollo 12 through Apollo-Soyuz and investigations of the application of irradiation to food for manned space flight are reported. The study of flight food systems involved the application of radurization (pasteurizing levels) doses of gamma irradiation to flour and bread supplied by Pepperidge Farms in advance of the missions. All flights from Apollo 12 through 17 carried irradiated fresh bread. On Apollo 17, cooperation with Natick Laboratories permitted the introduction of a ham sandwich using irradiated bread and irradiated sterile ham. Investigations centered on irradiated bread were conducted during the course of these missions. Studies were applied to the concept of improving fresh bread from the point of view of mold inhibition. The studies considered how irradiation could best be applied at what levels and on a variety of bread types. Throughout the studies of the application of gamma irradiation the emphasis was placed upon using low levels of irradiation in the pasteurizing or radurizing doses--under a Megarad. The primary goal was to determine if a public health benefit could be demonstrated using radurization along with food preservation and food quality improvements. The public health benefit would be parallel to that of pasteurization of milk as a concept. Publications are included providing the details of these observations, one dealing with the flour characteristics and the other dealing with the influence on fresh bread types. These demonstrate the major findings noted during the period of the studies examining bread.

  20. Some Antifungal Properties of Sorbic Acid Extracted from Berries of Rowan (Sorbus Aucuparia).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunner, Ulrich

    1985-01-01

    The food preservative sorbic acid can be extracted from Eurasian mountain ash berries (commercially available) and used to show antifungal properties in microbiological investigations. Techniques for extraction, purification, ultraviolet analysis, and experiments displaying antifungal activity are described. A systematic search for similar…

  1. Essential oils in food preservation: mode of action, synergies, and interactions with food matrix components

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morten eHyldgaard

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Essential oils are aromatic and volatile liquids extracted from plants. The chemicals in essential oils are secondary metabolites, which play an important role in plant defence as they often possess antimicrobial properties. The interest in essential oils and their application in food preservation has been amplified in recent years by an increasingly negative consumer perception of synthetic preservatives. Furthermore, food-borne diseases are a growing public health problem worldwide, calling for more effective preservation strategies. The antibacterial properties of essential oils and their constituents have been documented extensively. Pioneering work has also elucidated the mode of action of a few essential oil constituents, but detailed knowledge about most of the compounds' mode of action is still lacking. This knowledge is particularly important to predict their effect on different microorganisms, how they interact with food matrix components, and how they work in combination with other antimicrobial compounds. The main obstacle for using essential oil constituents as food preservatives is that they are most often not potent enough as single components, and they cause negative organoleptic effects when added in sufficient amounts to provide an antimicrobial effect. Exploiting synergies between several compounds has been suggested as a solution to this problem. However, little is known about which interactions lead to synergistic, additive, or antagonistic effects. Such knowledge could contribute to design of new and more potent antimicrobial blends, and to understand the interplay between the constituents of crude essential oils. The purpose of this review is to provide an overview of current knowledge about the antibacterial properties and antibacterial mode of action of essential oils and their constituents, and to identify research avenues that can facilitate implementation of essential oils as natural preservatives in foods.

  2. Development of food preservation and processing techniques by radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Development of food preservation and processing techniques by radiation was performed. Gamm irradiation at 5 kGy completely eliminated pathogenic bacteria in pork and chicken meats. Gamma irradiation at such doses and subsequent storage at less than 4 deg C could ensure hygienic quality and prolong the microbiological shelf-life resulting from the reduction of spoilage microorganisms. Pork loin ham with desirable color was also developed without using of sodium nitrite that is known as a carcinogen. Safety tests of gamma-irradiated meats in areas such as genotoxicity, acute toxicity, four-week oral toxicity, rat hepatocarcinogenesis and the antioxidative defense system, were not affected by gamma irradiation. Gamma irradiation at about 1 kGy completely eliminated the parasites in foods and drinking water. In the study of quarantine treatment of apple and pear for export by gamma irradiation, current fumigation(MBr) was perfect in its disinfesting capability, but it caused detrimental effects on the physical quality of apple and pear. However, irradiation doses at 1-3 kGy was suitable for controlling pests and did not induce any significant changes in the quality of the products. The result of the survey to assess the public understanding indicated that the irradiated food had somewhat negative impression to general public. Therefore, it is necessary to establish a public education and information program by using mass communication and by constructing communication system to obtain the enhanced impression from the general public

  3. Development of food preservation and processing techniques by radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Byun, Myung Woo; Yook, Hong Sun; Lee, Ju Woon and others

    2000-03-01

    Development of food preservation and processing techniques by radiation was performed. Gamm irradiation at 5 kGy completely eliminated pathogenic bacteria in pork and chicken meats. Gamma irradiation at such doses and subsequent storage at less than 4 deg C could ensure hygienic quality and prolong the microbiological shelf-life resulting from the reduction of spoilage microorganisms. Pork loin ham with desirable color was also developed without using of sodium nitrite that is known as a carcinogen. Safety tests of gamma-irradiated meats in areas such as genotoxicity, acute toxicity, four-week oral toxicity, rat hepatocarcinogenesis and the antioxidative defense system, were not affected by gamma irradiation. Gamma irradiation at about 1 kGy completely eliminated the parasites in foods and drinking water. In the study of quarantine treatment of apple and pear for export by gamma irradiation, current fumigation(MBr) was perfect in its disinfesting capability, but it caused detrimental effects on the physical quality of apple and pear. However, irradiation doses at 1-3 kGy was suitable for controlling pests and did not induce any significant changes in the quality of the products. The result of the survey to assess the public understanding indicated that the irradiated food had somewhat negative impression to general public. Therefore, it is necessary to establish a public education and information program by using mass communication and by constructing communication system to obtain the enhanced impression from the general public.

  4. Status of radiation preservation of foods in India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Food irradiation involves controlled application of radiation energy to agricultural commodities and other foodstuffs for improving hygiene, safety and shelf-life. A number of processes including hygienization of spices and condiments, disinfestation of grains, legumes, and their products, sprout inhibition of onion and potato, delay in ripening of mango and banana, radurization and radicidation of meat and fish have been studied. Collaborative studies have established the efficacy of the process. The technology offers a viable commercial proposition for food conservation and safety. The idea to use ionising radiation for preservation of foods originated almost a century ago. Though today the technology is poised for full scale commercial exploitation, it has undergone several ups and downs due mainly to the perception of users at different points of time. Even today it is difficult to eliminate completely, the fear psychosis in the public mind created by the display of devastating power of atom and radiation during World War II. The chemical revolution of 50s and 60s made all other now ecofriendly technologies appear dim. Nevertheless relentless efforts of the scientists and recognition of the hazards that chemicals posed turned the tide and the technology got its legitimate place in the service of mankind. (author). 5 refs., 6 tabs

  5. Silk Fibroin as Edible Coating for Perishable Food Preservation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marelli, B.; Brenckle, M. A.; Kaplan, D. L.; Omenetto, F. G.

    2016-05-01

    The regeneration of structural biopolymers into micelles or nanoparticles suspended in water has enabled the design of new materials with unique and compelling properties that can serve at the interface between the biotic and the abiotic worlds. In this study, we leveraged silk fibroin quintessential properties (i.e. polymorphism, conformability and hydrophobicity) to design a water-based protein suspension that self-assembles on the surface of food upon dip coating. The water-based post-processing control of the protein polymorphism enables the modulation of the diffusion of gases through the silk fibroin thin membranes (e.g. O2 and CO2 diffusion, water vapour permeability), which is a key parameter to manage food freshness. In particular, an increased beta-sheet content corresponds to a reduction in oxygen diffusion through silk fibroin thin films. By using the dip coating of strawberries and bananas as proof of principle, we have shown that the formation of micrometre-thin silk fibroin membranes around the fruits helps the management of postharvest physiology of the fruits. Thus, silk fibroin coatings enhance fruits’ shelf life at room conditions by reducing cell respiration rate and water evaporation. The water-based processing and edible nature of silk fibroin makes this approach a promising alternative for food preservation with a naturally derived material.

  6. Manuscript title: antifungal proteins from moulds: analytical tools and potential application to dry-ripened foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delgado, Josué; Owens, Rebecca A; Doyle, Sean; Asensio, Miguel A; Núñez, Félix

    2016-08-01

    Moulds growing on the surface of dry-ripened foods contribute to their sensory qualities, but some of them are able to produce mycotoxins that pose a hazard to consumers. Small cysteine-rich antifungal proteins (AFPs) from moulds are highly stable to pH and proteolysis and exhibit a broad inhibition spectrum against filamentous fungi, providing new chances to control hazardous moulds in fermented foods. The analytical tools for characterizing the cellular targets and affected pathways are reviewed. Strategies currently employed to study these mechanisms of action include 'omics' approaches that have come to the forefront in recent years, developing in tandem with genome sequencing of relevant organisms. These techniques contribute to a better understanding of the response of moulds against AFPs, allowing the design of complementary strategies to maximize or overcome the limitations of using AFPs on foods. AFPs alter chitin biosynthesis, and some fungi react inducing cell wall integrity (CWI) pathway. However, moulds able to increase chitin content at the cell wall by increasing proteins in either CWI or calmodulin-calcineurin signalling pathways will resist AFPs. Similarly, AFPs increase the intracellular levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS), and moulds increasing G-protein complex β subunit CpcB and/or enzymes to efficiently produce glutathione may evade apoptosis. Unknown aspects that need to be addressed include the interaction with mycotoxin production by less sensitive toxigenic moulds. However, significant steps have been taken to encourage the use of AFPs in intermediate-moisture foods, particularly for mould-ripened cheese and meat products. PMID:27394712

  7. Food safety assessment of an antifungal protein from Moringa oleifera seeds in an agricultural biotechnology perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinto, Clidia E M; Farias, Davi F; Carvalho, Ana F U; Oliveira, José T A; Pereira, Mirella L; Grangeiro, Thalles B; Freire, José E C; Viana, Daniel A; Vasconcelos, Ilka M

    2015-09-01

    Mo-CBP3 is an antifungal protein produced by Moringa oleifera which has been investigated as potential candidate for developing transgenic crops. Before the use of novel proteins, food safety tests must be conducted. This work represents an early food safety assessment of Mo-CBP3, using the two-tiered approach proposed by ILSI. The history of safe use, mode of action and results for amino acid sequence homology using the full-length and short contiguous amino acids sequences indicate low risk associated to this protein. Mo-CBP3 isoforms presented a reasonable number of alignments (>35% identity) with allergens in a window of 80 amino acids. This protein was resistant to pepsin degradation up to 2 h, but it was susceptible to digestion using pancreatin. Many positive attributes were presented for Mo-CBP3. However, this protein showed high sequence homology with allergens and resistance to pepsin digestion that indicates that further hypothesis-based testing on its potential allergenicity must be done. Additionally, animal toxicity evaluations (e.g. acute and repeated dose oral exposure assays) must be performed to meet the mandatory requirements of several regulatory agencies. Finally, the approach adopted here exemplified the importance of performing an early risk assessment of candidate proteins for use in plant transformation programs. PMID:26032632

  8. Food safety assessment of an antifungal protein from Moringa oleifera seeds in an agricultural biotechnology perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinto, Clidia E M; Farias, Davi F; Carvalho, Ana F U; Oliveira, José T A; Pereira, Mirella L; Grangeiro, Thalles B; Freire, José E C; Viana, Daniel A; Vasconcelos, Ilka M

    2015-09-01

    Mo-CBP3 is an antifungal protein produced by Moringa oleifera which has been investigated as potential candidate for developing transgenic crops. Before the use of novel proteins, food safety tests must be conducted. This work represents an early food safety assessment of Mo-CBP3, using the two-tiered approach proposed by ILSI. The history of safe use, mode of action and results for amino acid sequence homology using the full-length and short contiguous amino acids sequences indicate low risk associated to this protein. Mo-CBP3 isoforms presented a reasonable number of alignments (>35% identity) with allergens in a window of 80 amino acids. This protein was resistant to pepsin degradation up to 2 h, but it was susceptible to digestion using pancreatin. Many positive attributes were presented for Mo-CBP3. However, this protein showed high sequence homology with allergens and resistance to pepsin digestion that indicates that further hypothesis-based testing on its potential allergenicity must be done. Additionally, animal toxicity evaluations (e.g. acute and repeated dose oral exposure assays) must be performed to meet the mandatory requirements of several regulatory agencies. Finally, the approach adopted here exemplified the importance of performing an early risk assessment of candidate proteins for use in plant transformation programs.

  9. Nisin as a Food Preservative: Part 1: Physicochemical Properties, Antimicrobial Activity, and Main Uses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gharsallaoui, Adem; Oulahal, Nadia; Joly, Catherine; Degraeve, Pascal

    2016-06-10

    Nisin is a natural preservative for many food products. This bacteriocin is mainly used in dairy and meat products. Nisin inhibits pathogenic food borne bacteria such as Listeria monocytogenes and many other Gram-positive food spoilage microorganisms. Nisin can be used alone or in combination with other preservatives or also with several physical treatments. This paper reviews physicochemical and biological properties of nisin, the main factors affecting its antimicrobial effectiveness, and its food applications as an additive directly incorporated into food matrices.

  10. EPR detection of foods preserved with ionizing radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stachowicz, W.; Burlinska, G.; Michalik, J.

    1998-06-01

    The applicability of the epr technique for the detection of dried vegetables, mushrooms, some spices, flavour additives and some condiments preserved with ionizing radiation is discussed. The epr signals recorded after exposure to gamma rays and to beams of 10 MeV electrons from linac are stable, intense and specific enough as compared with those observed with nonirradiated samples and could be used for the detection of irradiation. However, stability of radiation induced epr signals produced in these foods depends on storage condition. No differences in shapes (spectral parameters) and intensities of the epr spectra recorded with samples exposed to the same doses of gamma rays ( 60Co) and 10 MeV electrons were observed

  11. Studies on the antibacterial activity potential of commonly used food preservatives

    OpenAIRE

    Anoop Kumar Shee; R.Balaji Raja; Deepika Sethi; Anushree Kunhambu,; Arunachalam, Kantha D

    2010-01-01

    The efficacy of those food preservatives in terms of antibacterial activity potential has not been dealt with in an elaborate manner. This study focuses on the quantitative antibacterial activity potential analysis of 2 food preservatives namely salt and sugar on bacterial strains. The MH agar medium Petri plates were streaked withmutton broth alone as the control and mutton broth with added food preservatives salt and sugar in separate concentrations as test. The growth pattern on the agar m...

  12. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in Italian preserved food products in oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sannino, Anna

    2016-06-01

    A method based on gas chromatography/ tandem mass spectrometry was used to assess levels of 16 EU priority polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in 48 preserved food products in oil including foods such as vegetables in oil, fish in oil and oil-based sauces obtained from the Italian market. The benzo[a]pyrene concentrations ranged from <0.04 to 0.40 µg kg(-1), and 72.9% of the samples showed detectable levels of this compound. The highest contamination level was observed for chrysene with three additional PAHs (benzo[a]anthracene, benzo[b]fluoranthene and benzo[c]fluorene) giving mean values higher than the mean value for benzo[a]pyrene. Chrysene was detected in all the samples at concentrations ranging from 0.07 to 1.80 µg kg(-1) (median 0.31 µg kg(-1)). The contamination expressed as PAH4 (sum of benzo(a)pyrene, chrysene, benzo(a)anthracene and benzo(b)fluoranthene), for which the maximum tolerable limit has been set by Commission Regulation (EU) No. 835/2011, varied between 0.10 and 2.94 µg kg(-1). PMID:26886159

  13. Consumer Willingness to Pay for Preservative-Free Food: The Case of Beijing

    OpenAIRE

    Yu, Xiaohua; Zeng, Yinchu; Liu, Yuanyuan

    2011-01-01

    Consumers are facing a trade-off between the benefits of an increase in the length of the shelf life of food, such as low food costs, and the potential health damages caused by food preservatives. However, few studies in the current literature place emphasis on food preservatives, neither from a scientific perspective nor from an economic perspective. This causes a lot of controversies about government regulations. By constructing a theoretical framework and using a survey of 293 customers fr...

  14. Improved applicability of nisin in novel combinations with other food preservation factors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pol, I.E.

    2001-01-01

    General discussion

    Modern consumers nowadays, have a preference for more natural, mildly preserved food products with a fresh appearance over traditionally preserved products. Mild preservation techniques applied singly are usually not sufficient to control microbial outgrowth and combinatio

  15. 21 CFR 501.22 - Animal foods; labeling of spices, flavorings, colorings, and chemical preservatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... notes shall be retained as separate documents in Food and Drug Administration files, shall not be copied..., colorings, and chemical preservatives. 501.22 Section 501.22 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION... the Food and Drug Administration.” Any flavor ingredient not contained in one of these...

  16. 21 CFR 101.22 - Foods; labeling of spices, flavorings, colorings and chemical preservatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... notes shall be retained as separate documents in Food and Drug Administration files, shall not be copied... and chemical preservatives. 101.22 Section 101.22 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION... ingredients contained in this product are approved for use in a regulation of the Food and Drug...

  17. Chitosan grafted monomethyl fumaric acid as a potential food preservative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Imran; Ullah, Shafi; Oh, Deog-Hwan

    2016-11-01

    The present study aims at in vitro antibacterial and antioxidant activity evaluation of chitosan modified with monomethyl fumaric acid (MFA) using 1-ethyl-3-(3-dimethylaminopropyl) carbodiimide (EDC) as mediator. Three different kinds of chitosan derivatives Ch-Ds-1,Ch-Ds-2 and Ch-Ds-3 were synthesized by feeding different concentration of MFA. The chemical structures of resulting materials were characterized by (1)H NMR, (13)C NMR, HR-XRD, FT-IR and TNBS assay. The results showed that Ch-Ds-1, Ch-Ds-2 and Ch-Ds-3 were successfully synthesized. The % amino groups of chitosan modified by MFA were evaluated by TNBS assay and ranging from 1.82±0.05% to 7.88±0.04%. All the chitosan derivatives are readily soluble in water and swelled by dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO), toluene and dimethyl formamide (DMF). The antioxidant activity for all the chitosan derivatives have been significantly improved (Pfood preservative and packaging material for long time food safety and security.

  18. Chitosan grafted monomethyl fumaric acid as a potential food preservative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Imran; Ullah, Shafi; Oh, Deog-Hwan

    2016-11-01

    The present study aims at in vitro antibacterial and antioxidant activity evaluation of chitosan modified with monomethyl fumaric acid (MFA) using 1-ethyl-3-(3-dimethylaminopropyl) carbodiimide (EDC) as mediator. Three different kinds of chitosan derivatives Ch-Ds-1,Ch-Ds-2 and Ch-Ds-3 were synthesized by feeding different concentration of MFA. The chemical structures of resulting materials were characterized by (1)H NMR, (13)C NMR, HR-XRD, FT-IR and TNBS assay. The results showed that Ch-Ds-1, Ch-Ds-2 and Ch-Ds-3 were successfully synthesized. The % amino groups of chitosan modified by MFA were evaluated by TNBS assay and ranging from 1.82±0.05% to 7.88±0.04%. All the chitosan derivatives are readily soluble in water and swelled by dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO), toluene and dimethyl formamide (DMF). The antioxidant activity for all the chitosan derivatives have been significantly improved (Pfood preservative and packaging material for long time food safety and security. PMID:27516253

  19. Improved applicability of nisin in novel combinations with other food preservation factors

    OpenAIRE

    Pol, I.E.

    2001-01-01

    General discussionModern consumers nowadays, have a preference for more natural, mildly preserved food products with a fresh appearance over traditionally preserved products. Mild preservation techniques applied singly are usually not sufficient to control microbial outgrowth and combinations of measures are needed to ensure complete safe products (16). Bacteriocins, produced by lactic acid bacteria have been successfully used as biopreservatives in a number of food products to inhibit the gr...

  20. Microbiological preservation of cucumbers for bulk storage using acetic acid and food preservatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Díaz, I M; McFeeters, R F

    2008-08-01

    Microbial growth did not occur when cucumbers were preserved without a thermal process by storage in solutions containing acetic acid, sodium benzoate, and calcium chloride to maintain tissue firmness. The concentrations of acetic acid and sodium benzoate required to ensure preservation were low enough so that stored cucumbers could be converted to the finished product without the need to wash out and discard excess acid or preservative. Since no thermal process was required, this method of preservation would be applicable for storing cucumbers in bulk containers. Acid tolerant pathogens died off in less than 24 h with the pH, acetic acid, and sodium benzoate concentrations required to assure the microbial stability of cucumbers stored at 30 degrees C. Potassium sorbate as a preservative in this application was not effective. Yeast growth was observed when sulfite was used as a preservative.

  1. Development of food preservation and processing techniques by radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Development of food preservation and processing techniques by radiation was performed. Gamma irradiation at 2-10 kGy is considered to be an effective method to control pathogenic bacteria in species including Escherichia coli O157:H7. Gamma irradiation at 5 kGy completely eliminated pathogenic bacteria in beef. Gamma irradiation at such doses and subsequent storage at less than 4 deg C could ensure hygienic quality and prolong the microbiological shelf-life resulting from the reduction of spoilage microorganisms. Gamma irradiation on pre-rigor beef shortens the aging-period, improves tenderness and enhances the beef quality. And, a new beef processing method using gamma irradiation, such as in the low salt sausage and hygienic beef patty was developed. Safety tests of gamma-irradiated meats(beefs: 0-5 kGy; porks: 0-30 kGy) in areas such as genotoxicity, acute toxicity, four-week oral toxicity, rat hepato carcinogenesis and the anti oxidative defense system, were not affected by gamma irradiation. To pre-establish an alternative technique to the toxic fumigant, methyl bromide, which is the current quarantine measure of agricultural products for export and import, some selected agricultural products, such as chestnuts, acorns, red beans and mung beans, were subjected to a preliminary study to confirm the comparative effects of gamma irradiation and MBr fumigant on their disinfestation and quality, thereby preparing the basic data for the practical approach.Current fumigation(MBr) was perfect in its disinfecting capability, but it caused detrimental effects on the physical quality of agricultural produce. However, irradiation doses suitable for controlling pests did not induce any significant changes in the quality of the products. (author)

  2. Development of food preservation and processing techniques by radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Byun, Myung Woo; Yook, Hong Sun; Lee, Ju Woon and others

    1999-03-01

    Development of food preservation and processing techniques by radiation was performed. Gamma irradiation at 2-10 kGy is considered to be an effective method to control pathogenic bacteria in species including Escherichia coli O157:H7. Gamma irradiation at 5 kGy completely eliminated pathogenic bacteria in beef. Gamma irradiation at such doses and subsequent storage at less than 4 deg C could ensure hygienic quality and prolong the microbiological shelf-life resulting from the reduction of spoilage microorganisms. Gamma irradiation on pre-rigor beef shortens the aging-period, improves tenderness and enhances the beef quality. And, a new beef processing method using gamma irradiation, such as in the low salt sausage and hygienic beef patty was developed. Safety tests of gamma-irradiated meats(beefs: 0-5 kGy; porks: 0-30 kGy) in areas such as genotoxicity, acute toxicity, four-week oral toxicity, rat hepato carcinogenesis and the anti oxidative defense system, were not affected by gamma irradiation. To pre-establish an alternative technique to the toxic fumigant, methyl bromide, which is the current quarantine measure of agricultural products for export and import, some selected agricultural products, such as chestnuts, acorns, red beans and mung beans, were subjected to a preliminary study to confirm the comparative effects of gamma irradiation and MBr fumigant on their disinfestation and quality, thereby preparing the basic data for the practical approach.Current fumigation(MBr) was perfect in its disinfecting capability, but it caused detrimental effects on the physical quality of agricultural produce. However, irradiation doses suitable for controlling pests did not induce any significant changes in the quality of the products. (author)

  3. Status, Antimicrobial Mechanism, and Regulation of Natural Preservatives in Livestock Food Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Na-Kyoung; Paik, Hyun-Dong

    2016-01-01

    This review discusses the status, antimicrobial mechanisms, application, and regulation of natural preservatives in livestock food systems. Conventional preservatives are synthetic chemical substances including nitrates/nitrites, sulfites, sodium benzoate, propyl gallate, and potassium sorbate. The use of artificial preservatives is being reconsidered because of concerns relating to headache, allergies, and cancer. As the demand for biopreservation in food systems has increased, new natural antimicrobial compounds of various origins are being developed, including plant-derived products (polyphenolics, essential oils, plant antimicrobial peptides (pAMPs)), animal-derived products (lysozymes, lactoperoxidase, lactoferrin, ovotransferrin, antimicrobial peptide (AMP), chitosan and others), and microbial metabolites (nisin, natamycin, pullulan, ε-polylysine, organic acid, and others). These natural preservatives act by inhibiting microbial cell walls/membranes, DNA/RNA replication and transcription, protein synthesis, and metabolism. Natural preservatives have been recognized for their safety; however, these substances can influence color, smell, and toxicity in large amounts while being effective as a food preservative. Therefore, to evaluate the safety and toxicity of natural preservatives, various trials including combinations of other substances or different food preservation systems, and capsulation have been performed. Natamycin and nisin are currently the only natural preservatives being regulated, and other natural preservatives will have to be legally regulated before their widespread use. PMID:27621697

  4. Status, Antimicrobial Mechanism, and Regulation of Natural Preservatives in Livestock Food Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Na-Kyoung; Paik, Hyun-Dong

    2016-01-01

    This review discusses the status, antimicrobial mechanisms, application, and regulation of natural preservatives in livestock food systems. Conventional preservatives are synthetic chemical substances including nitrates/nitrites, sulfites, sodium benzoate, propyl gallate, and potassium sorbate. The use of artificial preservatives is being reconsidered because of concerns relating to headache, allergies, and cancer. As the demand for biopreservation in food systems has increased, new natural antimicrobial compounds of various origins are being developed, including plant-derived products (polyphenolics, essential oils, plant antimicrobial peptides (pAMPs)), animal-derived products (lysozymes, lactoperoxidase, lactoferrin, ovotransferrin, antimicrobial peptide (AMP), chitosan and others), and microbial metabolites (nisin, natamycin, pullulan, ε-polylysine, organic acid, and others). These natural preservatives act by inhibiting microbial cell walls/membranes, DNA/RNA replication and transcription, protein synthesis, and metabolism. Natural preservatives have been recognized for their safety; however, these substances can influence color, smell, and toxicity in large amounts while being effective as a food preservative. Therefore, to evaluate the safety and toxicity of natural preservatives, various trials including combinations of other substances or different food preservation systems, and capsulation have been performed. Natamycin and nisin are currently the only natural preservatives being regulated, and other natural preservatives will have to be legally regulated before their widespread use.

  5. Status, Antimicrobial Mechanism, and Regulation of Natural Preservatives in Livestock Food Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Na-Kyoung; Paik, Hyun-Dong

    2016-01-01

    This review discusses the status, antimicrobial mechanisms, application, and regulation of natural preservatives in livestock food systems. Conventional preservatives are synthetic chemical substances including nitrates/nitrites, sulfites, sodium benzoate, propyl gallate, and potassium sorbate. The use of artificial preservatives is being reconsidered because of concerns relating to headache, allergies, and cancer. As the demand for biopreservation in food systems has increased, new natural antimicrobial compounds of various origins are being developed, including plant-derived products (polyphenolics, essential oils, plant antimicrobial peptides (pAMPs)), animal-derived products (lysozymes, lactoperoxidase, lactoferrin, ovotransferrin, antimicrobial peptide (AMP), chitosan and others), and microbial metabolites (nisin, natamycin, pullulan, ε-polylysine, organic acid, and others). These natural preservatives act by inhibiting microbial cell walls/membranes, DNA/RNA replication and transcription, protein synthesis, and metabolism. Natural preservatives have been recognized for their safety; however, these substances can influence color, smell, and toxicity in large amounts while being effective as a food preservative. Therefore, to evaluate the safety and toxicity of natural preservatives, various trials including combinations of other substances or different food preservation systems, and capsulation have been performed. Natamycin and nisin are currently the only natural preservatives being regulated, and other natural preservatives will have to be legally regulated before their widespread use. PMID:27621697

  6. Microbiological preservation of cucumbers for bulk storage by the use of acetic acid and food preservatives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Microbial growth did not occur when cucumbers were preserved without a thermal process by storage in solutions containing acetic acid, sodium benzoate, and calcium chloride to maintain tissue firmness. The concentrations of acetic acid and sodium benzoate required to assure preservation were low en...

  7. Nisin as a Food Preservative: Part 1: Physicochemical Properties, Antimicrobial Activity, and Main Uses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gharsallaoui, Adem; Oulahal, Nadia; Joly, Catherine; Degraeve, Pascal

    2016-06-10

    Nisin is a natural preservative for many food products. This bacteriocin is mainly used in dairy and meat products. Nisin inhibits pathogenic food borne bacteria such as Listeria monocytogenes and many other Gram-positive food spoilage microorganisms. Nisin can be used alone or in combination with other preservatives or also with several physical treatments. This paper reviews physicochemical and biological properties of nisin, the main factors affecting its antimicrobial effectiveness, and its food applications as an additive directly incorporated into food matrices. PMID:25675115

  8. Evaluating food additives as antifungal agents against Monilinia fructicola in vitro and in hydroxypropyl methylcellulose-lipid composite edible coatings for plums.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karaca, Hakan; Pérez-Gago, María B; Taberner, Verònica; Palou, Lluís

    2014-06-01

    Common food preservative agents were evaluated in in vitro tests for their antifungal activity against Monilinia fructicola, the most economically important pathogen causing postharvest disease of stone fruits. Radial mycelial growth was measured in Petri dishes of PDA amended with three different concentrations of the agents (0.01-0.2%, v/v) after 7 days of incubation at 25 °C. Thirteen out of fifteen agents tested completely inhibited the radial growth of the fungus at various concentrations. Among them, ammonium carbonate, ammonium bicarbonate and sodium bicarbonate were the most effective while sodium acetate and sodium formate were the least effective. The effective agents and concentrations were tested as ingredients of hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HPMC)-lipid edible coatings against brown rot disease on plums previously inoculated with M. fructicola (curative activity). 'Friar' and 'Larry Ann' plums were inoculated with the pathogen, coated with stable edible coatings about 24h later, and incubated at 20 °C and 90% RH. Disease incidence (%) and severity (lesion diameter) were determined after 4, 6, and 8 days of incubation and the 'area under the disease progress stairs' (AUDPS) was calculated. Coatings containing bicarbonates and parabens significantly reduced brown rot incidence in plums, but potassium sorbate, used at 1.0% in the coating formulation, was the most effective agent with a reduction rate of 28.6%. All the tested coatings reduced disease severity to some extent, but coatings containing 0.1% sodium methylparaben or sodium ethylparaben or 0.2% ammonium carbonate or ammonium bicarbonate were superior to the rest, with reduction rates of 45-50%. Overall, the results showed that most of the agents tested in this study had significant antimicrobial activity against M. fructicola and the application of selected antifungal edible coatings is a promising alternative for the control of postharvest brown rot in plums.

  9. Evaluating food additives as antifungal agents against Monilinia fructicola in vitro and in hydroxypropyl methylcellulose-lipid composite edible coatings for plums.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karaca, Hakan; Pérez-Gago, María B; Taberner, Verònica; Palou, Lluís

    2014-06-01

    Common food preservative agents were evaluated in in vitro tests for their antifungal activity against Monilinia fructicola, the most economically important pathogen causing postharvest disease of stone fruits. Radial mycelial growth was measured in Petri dishes of PDA amended with three different concentrations of the agents (0.01-0.2%, v/v) after 7 days of incubation at 25 °C. Thirteen out of fifteen agents tested completely inhibited the radial growth of the fungus at various concentrations. Among them, ammonium carbonate, ammonium bicarbonate and sodium bicarbonate were the most effective while sodium acetate and sodium formate were the least effective. The effective agents and concentrations were tested as ingredients of hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HPMC)-lipid edible coatings against brown rot disease on plums previously inoculated with M. fructicola (curative activity). 'Friar' and 'Larry Ann' plums were inoculated with the pathogen, coated with stable edible coatings about 24h later, and incubated at 20 °C and 90% RH. Disease incidence (%) and severity (lesion diameter) were determined after 4, 6, and 8 days of incubation and the 'area under the disease progress stairs' (AUDPS) was calculated. Coatings containing bicarbonates and parabens significantly reduced brown rot incidence in plums, but potassium sorbate, used at 1.0% in the coating formulation, was the most effective agent with a reduction rate of 28.6%. All the tested coatings reduced disease severity to some extent, but coatings containing 0.1% sodium methylparaben or sodium ethylparaben or 0.2% ammonium carbonate or ammonium bicarbonate were superior to the rest, with reduction rates of 45-50%. Overall, the results showed that most of the agents tested in this study had significant antimicrobial activity against M. fructicola and the application of selected antifungal edible coatings is a promising alternative for the control of postharvest brown rot in plums. PMID:24742996

  10. Antimicrobial and antibiofilm effects of selected food preservatives against Salmonella spp. isolated from chicken samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Er, Buket; Demirhan, Burak; Onurdag, Fatma Kaynak; Ozgacar, Selda Özgen; Oktem, Aysel Bayhan

    2014-03-01

    Salmonella spp. are widespread foodborne pathogens that contaminate egg and poultry meats. Attachment, colonization, as well as biofilm formation capacity of Salmonella spp. on food and contact surfaces of food may cause continuous contamination. Biofilm may play a crucial role in the survival of salmonellae under unfavorable environmental conditions, such as in animal slaughterhouses and processing plants. This could serve as a reservoir compromising food safety and human health. Addition of antimicrobial preservatives extends shelf lives of food products, but even when products are supplemented with adequate amounts of preservatives, it is not always possible to inhibit the microorganisms in a biofilm community. In this study, our aims were i) to determine the minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) and minimum biofilm inhibitory concentrations (MBIC) of selected preservatives against planktonic and biofilm forms of Salmonella spp. isolated from chicken samples and Salmonella Typhimurium SL1344 standard strain, ii) to show the differences in the susceptibility patterns of same strains versus the planktonic and biofilm forms to the same preservative agent, and iii) to determine and compare antimicrobial and antibiofilm effects of selected food preservatives against Salmonella spp. For this purpose, Salmonella Typhimurium SL1344 standard strain and 4 Salmonella spp. strains isolated from chicken samples were used. Investigation of antimicrobial and antibiofilm effects of selected food preservatives against Salmonella spp. was done according to Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute M100-S18 guidelines and BioTimer assay, respectively. As preservative agents, pure ciprofloxacin, sodium nitrite, potassium sorbate, sodium benzoate, methyl paraben, and propyl paraben were selected. As a result, it was determined that MBIC values are greater than the MIC values of the preservatives. This result verified the resistance seen in a biofilm community to food

  11. Antimicrobial and antibiofilm effects of selected food preservatives against Salmonella spp. isolated from chicken samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Er, Buket; Demirhan, Burak; Onurdag, Fatma Kaynak; Ozgacar, Selda Özgen; Oktem, Aysel Bayhan

    2014-03-01

    Salmonella spp. are widespread foodborne pathogens that contaminate egg and poultry meats. Attachment, colonization, as well as biofilm formation capacity of Salmonella spp. on food and contact surfaces of food may cause continuous contamination. Biofilm may play a crucial role in the survival of salmonellae under unfavorable environmental conditions, such as in animal slaughterhouses and processing plants. This could serve as a reservoir compromising food safety and human health. Addition of antimicrobial preservatives extends shelf lives of food products, but even when products are supplemented with adequate amounts of preservatives, it is not always possible to inhibit the microorganisms in a biofilm community. In this study, our aims were i) to determine the minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) and minimum biofilm inhibitory concentrations (MBIC) of selected preservatives against planktonic and biofilm forms of Salmonella spp. isolated from chicken samples and Salmonella Typhimurium SL1344 standard strain, ii) to show the differences in the susceptibility patterns of same strains versus the planktonic and biofilm forms to the same preservative agent, and iii) to determine and compare antimicrobial and antibiofilm effects of selected food preservatives against Salmonella spp. For this purpose, Salmonella Typhimurium SL1344 standard strain and 4 Salmonella spp. strains isolated from chicken samples were used. Investigation of antimicrobial and antibiofilm effects of selected food preservatives against Salmonella spp. was done according to Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute M100-S18 guidelines and BioTimer assay, respectively. As preservative agents, pure ciprofloxacin, sodium nitrite, potassium sorbate, sodium benzoate, methyl paraben, and propyl paraben were selected. As a result, it was determined that MBIC values are greater than the MIC values of the preservatives. This result verified the resistance seen in a biofilm community to food

  12. Gamma irradiation as a means of food preservation in Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The status of food irradiation has changed significantly in the past three years with the establishment of inter-national standards by the Codex Alimentarious Commission of the United Nations and the setting of wholesomeness guidelines for a wide variety of foods by the Joint FAO/IAEA/WHO Expert Committee on Food Irradiation. This report examines: the technology of food irradiation; the biochemical, nutritional and microbiological effects on food, with special attention paid to radiolytic products and their possible toxicity; the economic feasibility of a food irradiation industry; food irradiation in Canada -experience, outlook and regulatory proposals, and consumer reaction to irradiated foods; and presents conclusions and recommendations to Health and Welfare Canada and to Consumer and Corporate Affairs Canada

  13. 5 Steps to Food Preservation Program Meets the Needs of Idaho Families

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dye, Lorie; Hoffman, Katie

    2014-01-01

    University of Idaho FCS Extension Educators in southeastern Idaho developed a five-lesson condensed version of safe food preservation classes, driven by participants' interest to meet the needs of everyday home preservers. A post-test survey revealed that participants took the course to be self-reliant, use their own produce, and be in…

  14. Genomics applications in food preservation and safety research

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brul, S.; Keijser, B.J.F.; Spek, H. van der; Oomes, S.J.C.M.; Montijn, R.

    2005-01-01

    Genomes are being sequenced at an ever-increasing pace. Also genomes of many of the microorganisms of concern to food safety are now known. The next step is of course how to exploit this information in an effective way. This article briefly introduces the issues in the food processing industry as fa

  15. Food Preservation Mini-Modules Offer Options for Learners and Extension Staff

    Science.gov (United States)

    Driessen, Suzanne

    2013-01-01

    Renewed interest in growing and purchasing locally grown foods quadrupled requests for food preservation classes. Economic times tightened budgets, decreasing staffing levels of Extension educators. Offering options via the Internet was a natural progression to meet the increased demand. Extension educators created 20 5-minute online video--like…

  16. Radiation Chemistry and the Radiation Preservation of Food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taub, Irwin A.

    1981-01-01

    Describes common features in the radiation chemistry of food components, and illustrates how product yields are predicted. Presents data that pertain to the radiolysis of the nitrate ion, metmyoglobin, myosin, and tripalmitin. (CS)

  17. Nuclear technology applied to food preservation and sterilization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The use of ionizing radiation to conserve and sterilize food dates back to 1995, when the first tests were performed in USA as part of the Atoms for peace program. After much controversy, the most prestigious international organizations- OECD, code Alimentarius, FDA and EC have not only authorized but also recommended its use. It is a proven fact that food irradiation provides optimum results for inhibition treatment of tuber shoots, elimination of insects from fruits and seeds, delaying the maturing processes of fruit and elimination of alternative microorganisms and pathogens in any type of food. Food is treated in two types of plants: 1.- Radioactive isotope plants or gamma radiation plants 2.- electron accelerator plants (beta radiation plants). These two types of plants are thoroughly legislated, as are the form and doses of the treatments. Commercial food irradiation is done in 32 countries in the world but is authorized in more than 40, and the WHO recommends that the method be used on a widespread basis, as it believes that it can help to improve food-related health worldwide. (Author) 5 refs.

  18. Facets of Nanotechnology as Seen in Food Processing, Packaging, and Preservation Industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pradhan, Neha; Singh, Surjit; Ojha, Nupur; Shrivastava, Anamika; Barla, Anil; Rai, Vivek; Bose, Sutapa

    2015-01-01

    Nanotechnology has proven its competence in almost all possible fields we are aware of. However, today nanotechnology has evolved in true sense by contributing to a very large extent to the food industry. With the growing number of mouths to feed, production of food is not adequate. It has to be preserved in order to reach to the masses on a global scale. Nanotechnology made the idea a reality by increasing the shelf life of different kinds of food materials. It is not an entirely full-proof measure; however it has brought down the extent of wastage of food due to microbial infestation. Not only fresh food but also healthier food is being designed with the help of nano-delivery systems which act as a carrier for the food supplements. There are regulations to follow however as several of them pose serious threats to the wellbeing of the population. In coming days, newer modes of safeguarding food are going to be developed with the help of nanotechnology. In this paper, an overview has been given of the different methods of food processing, packaging, and preservation techniques and the role nanotechnology plays in the food processing, packaging, and preservation industry.

  19. Radiation Dosimetry for Quality Control of Food Preservation and Disinfestation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McLaughlin, W.L.; Miller, Arne; Uribe, R.M.

    1983-01-01

    In the use of x and gamma rays and scanned electron beams to extend the shelf life of food by delay of sprouting and ripening, killing of microbes, and control of insect population, quality assurance is provided by standardized radiation dosimetry. By strategic placement of calibrated dosimeters...... speed) to meet changes that occur in product and source parameters (e.g. bulk density and radiation spectrum). Routine dosimetry methods and certain corrections of dosimetry data may be selected for the radiations used in typical food processes....

  20. Radiation Dosimetry for Quality Control of Food Preservation and Disinfestation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McLaughlin, W.L.; Miller, Arne; Uribe, R.M.

    1983-01-01

    In the use of x and gamma rays and scanned electron beams to extend the shelf life of food by delay of sprouting and ripening, killing of microbes, and control of insect population, quality assurance is provided by standardized radiation dosimetry. By strategic placement of calibrated dosimeters...... parameters (e.g. conveyor speed) to meet changes that occur in product and source parameters (e.g. bulk density and radiation spectrum). Routine dosimetry methods and certain corrections of dosimetry data may be selected for the radiations used in typical food processes....

  1. Analysis of Mount Atlas mastic smoke: a potential food preservative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohagheghzadeh, Abdolali; Faridi, Pouya; Ghasemi, Younes

    2010-09-01

    Pistacia terebinthus L. smoke has been used traditionally in Iran as disinfectant and air purifier. Smoke was collected by a simple method, and the chemical constituents and antimicrobial activity of the smoke were analyzed. The chemical constituents of the smoke were alpha-pinene (65.1%), limonene (11.5%) and allo-ocimene (2.8%). The non polar phase of smoke noticeably inhibited the growth of different microorganisms. MIC test shows that non polar fraction of smoke can inhibit the growth of some bacteria. The results indicating that the properties of the smoke as a flavoring and preservative agent could be a potential subject for future studies.

  2. Active packaging with antifungal activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen Van Long, N; Joly, Catherine; Dantigny, Philippe

    2016-03-01

    There have been many reviews concerned with antimicrobial food packaging, and with the use of antifungal compounds, but none provided an exhaustive picture of the applications of active packaging to control fungal spoilage. Very recently, many studies have been done in these fields, therefore it is timely to review this topic. This article examines the effects of essential oils, preservatives, natural products, chemical fungicides, nanoparticles coated to different films, and chitosan in vitro on the growth of moulds, but also in vivo on the mould free shelf-life of bread, cheese, and fresh fruits and vegetables. A short section is also dedicated to yeasts. All the applications are described from a microbiological point of view, and these were sorted depending on the name of the species. Methods and results obtained are discussed. Essential oils and preservatives were ranked by increased efficacy on mould growth. For all the tested molecules, Penicillium species were shown more sensitive than Aspergillus species. However, comparison between the results was difficult because it appeared that the efficiency of active packaging depended greatly on the environmental factors of food such as water activity, pH, temperature, NaCl concentration, the nature, the size, and the mode of application of the films, in addition to the fact that the amount of released antifungal compounds was not constant with time.

  3. Active packaging with antifungal activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen Van Long, N; Joly, Catherine; Dantigny, Philippe

    2016-03-01

    There have been many reviews concerned with antimicrobial food packaging, and with the use of antifungal compounds, but none provided an exhaustive picture of the applications of active packaging to control fungal spoilage. Very recently, many studies have been done in these fields, therefore it is timely to review this topic. This article examines the effects of essential oils, preservatives, natural products, chemical fungicides, nanoparticles coated to different films, and chitosan in vitro on the growth of moulds, but also in vivo on the mould free shelf-life of bread, cheese, and fresh fruits and vegetables. A short section is also dedicated to yeasts. All the applications are described from a microbiological point of view, and these were sorted depending on the name of the species. Methods and results obtained are discussed. Essential oils and preservatives were ranked by increased efficacy on mould growth. For all the tested molecules, Penicillium species were shown more sensitive than Aspergillus species. However, comparison between the results was difficult because it appeared that the efficiency of active packaging depended greatly on the environmental factors of food such as water activity, pH, temperature, NaCl concentration, the nature, the size, and the mode of application of the films, in addition to the fact that the amount of released antifungal compounds was not constant with time. PMID:26803804

  4. Preservation of Fish by Irradiation. Proceedings of a Panel on the Irradiation Preservation of Foods of Marine Origin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The increasing emphasis on the need for protein-rich foods to improve the nutritional status of the world’s population has stimulated research on new methods of preserving fishery products. The sea offers a source of protein that could markedly reduce the protein gap existing in many parts of the world. The major problem in attaining a more complete exploitation of these products is how to preserve them so that they can be transported from the points of origin to areas of greatest need. The use of ionizing radiation as a preservation method has been satisfactorily demonstrated in many countries. In some respects it offers advantages over conventional methods; for example, it prolongs the market life without using heat or chemicals, and what is more, the products are treated while they are sealed in commercial types of containers. Although radiation processing appears feasible, additional research is needed to improve certain quality attributes of some treated foods and to demonstrate to the satisfaction of health authorities' that no deleterious effects result. To obtain advice on the problems that need attention a Panel on Irradiation Preservation of Foods of Marine Origin was convened in Vienna, by the Joint FAO/IAEA Division of Atomic Energy in Food and Agriculture, on 15—19 December 1969. The main purpose of the panel’s work was to advise the Director General of the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations and the Director General of the International Atomic Energy Agency on how these organizations can best fulfil their roles in radiation research on fishery products. The meeting was attended by thirteen experts from various countries and one representative of the World Health Organization. Reports were presented on research performed and detailed discussions were held on work done in perfecting the radurization treatment of fishery products. Evaluations were made of the microbiology of the radurization process, with special reference to

  5. Food preservation by ionizing radiation in Nigeria. Present and future status

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Research into the use of ionizing radiation in food preservation in Nigeria is still in its very infancy and most of the work done to date is at the exploratory stage. Such work has, however, demonstrated the potential of ionizing radiation in prolonging the shelf-life of yams and, possibly, onions. The paper reviews the present status of the use of radiation food preservation in Nigeria. The present research programme of the Faculty of Technology, University of Ibadan, which includes a wider application of ionizing radiation to fruit and vegetable preservation and grain storage, is also highlighted. The primary objectives of this programme are to establish the wholesomeness of the irradiated foods and the economics of the process. (author)

  6. Food Preservation by Ionizing Radiation in Nigeria. Present and Future Status

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Research into the use of ionizing radiation in food preservation in Nigeria is still in its very infancy and most of the work done to date is at the exploratory stage. Such work has, however, demonstrated the potential of ionizing radiation in prolonging the shelf-life of yams and, possibly, onions. The paper reviews the present status of the use of radiation food preservation in Nigeria. The present research programme of the Faculty of Technology, University of Ibadan, which includes a wider application of ionizing radiation to fruit and vegetable preservation and grain storage, is also highlighted. The primary objectives of this programme are to establish the wholesomeness of the irradiated foods and the economics of the process. (author)

  7. Kinetic study of treatment of wastewater contains food preservative agent by anaerobic baffled reactor : An overview

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sumantri, Indro; Purwanto,; Budiyono [Chemical Engineering Department, Faculty of Engineering, Diponegoro University Jl. Prof. H. Soedarto, SH, Kampus Baru Tembalang, Semarang (Indonesia)

    2015-12-29

    The characteristic of wastewater of food industries with preservative substances is high content of organic substances, degradable and high total suspended solid. High organic content in this waste forced the treatment is biologically and pointed out to anaerobic treatment. Anaerobic showed the better performance of degradation than aerobic for high content organic and also for toxic materials. During that day the treatment of food wastewater is aerobically which is high consume of energy required and high volume of sludge produced. The advantage of anaerobic is save high energy, less product of sludge, less requirement of nutrients of microorganism and high efficiency reduction of organic load. The high efficiency of reduction will reduce the load of further treatment, so that, the threshold limit based on the regulation would be easy to achieve. Research of treatment of wastewater of food industries would be utilized by both big scale industries and small industries using addition of preservative substances. The type reactor of anaerobic process is anaerobic baffled reactor that will give better contact between wastewater and microorganism in the sludge. The variables conducted in this research are the baffled configuration, sludge height, preservative agent contents, hydralic retention time and influence of micro nutrients. The respons of this research are the COD effluent, remaining preservative agent, pH, formation of volatile fatty acid and total suspended solid. The result of this research is kinetic model of the anaerobic baffled reactor, reaction kinetic of preservative agent degradation and technology of treatment wastewater contains preservative agent. The benefit of this research is to solve the treatment of wastewater of food industries with preservative substance in order to achieve wastewater limit regulation and also to prevent the environmental deterioration.

  8. Kinetic study of treatment of wastewater contains food preservative agent by anaerobic baffled reactor : An overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumantri, Indro; Purwanto, Budiyono

    2015-12-01

    The characteristic of wastewater of food industries with preservative substances is high content of organic substances, degradable and high total suspended solid. High organic content in this waste forced the treatment is biologically and pointed out to anaerobic treatment. Anaerobic showed the better performance of degradation than aerobic for high content organic and also for toxic materials. During that day the treatment of food wastewater is aerobically which is high consume of energy required and high volume of sludge produced. The advantage of anaerobic is save high energy, less product of sludge, less requirement of nutrients of microorganism and high efficiency reduction of organic load. The high efficiency of reduction will reduce the load of further treatment, so that, the threshold limit based on the regulation would be easy to achieve. Research of treatment of wastewater of food industries would be utilized by both big scale industries and small industries using addition of preservative substances. The type reactor of anaerobic process is anaerobic baffled reactor that will give better contact between wastewater and microorganism in the sludge. The variables conducted in this research are the baffled configuration, sludge height, preservative agent contents, hydralic retention time and influence of micro nutrients. The respons of this research are the COD effluent, remaining preservative agent, pH, formation of volatile fatty acid and total suspended solid. The result of this research is kinetic model of the anaerobic baffled reactor, reaction kinetic of preservative agent degradation and technology of treatment wastewater contains preservative agent. The benefit of this research is to solve the treatment of wastewater of food industries with preservative substance in order to achieve wastewater limit regulation and also to prevent the environmental deterioration.

  9. Kinetic study of treatment of wastewater contains food preservative agent by anaerobic baffled reactor : An overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The characteristic of wastewater of food industries with preservative substances is high content of organic substances, degradable and high total suspended solid. High organic content in this waste forced the treatment is biologically and pointed out to anaerobic treatment. Anaerobic showed the better performance of degradation than aerobic for high content organic and also for toxic materials. During that day the treatment of food wastewater is aerobically which is high consume of energy required and high volume of sludge produced. The advantage of anaerobic is save high energy, less product of sludge, less requirement of nutrients of microorganism and high efficiency reduction of organic load. The high efficiency of reduction will reduce the load of further treatment, so that, the threshold limit based on the regulation would be easy to achieve. Research of treatment of wastewater of food industries would be utilized by both big scale industries and small industries using addition of preservative substances. The type reactor of anaerobic process is anaerobic baffled reactor that will give better contact between wastewater and microorganism in the sludge. The variables conducted in this research are the baffled configuration, sludge height, preservative agent contents, hydralic retention time and influence of micro nutrients. The respons of this research are the COD effluent, remaining preservative agent, pH, formation of volatile fatty acid and total suspended solid. The result of this research is kinetic model of the anaerobic baffled reactor, reaction kinetic of preservative agent degradation and technology of treatment wastewater contains preservative agent. The benefit of this research is to solve the treatment of wastewater of food industries with preservative substance in order to achieve wastewater limit regulation and also to prevent the environmental deterioration

  10. Preservation of Food Items Using Solar Dryers: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manish Joshi

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available In order to conserve the food products like chillies, grapes, potatoes & other agricultural products, for a longer period of time & with same the quality they need to be dried by using any form of energy, for example heat energy from fossil fuels or solar energy etc. This is done to reduce the moisture content to a predetermined level which prevents the growth & reproduction of micro organisms like bacteria, yeasts etc. that causes many moisture mediated deterioration reactions. One of the drying methods involves drying the produce with the help of direct sun light by spreading them in an open space. This process is labor intensive & requires a large area for spreading the produced to dry out. The disadvantage of this method involves uneven heating, loss of produce due to birds, animals, bad weather etc. Another method of drying involves artificial mechanical drying which is an energy intensive, expensive and costly method. Green house drying or solar drying gives the best results as it does not compromise the product quality, aesthetic etc. Moreover it makes the transportation process easy as the volume of dried product reduces. This paper reviews the solar drying process & gives complete in depth of all the elements involve in solar drying.

  11. Food scientists, material scientists seek common language to preserve flavor, aroma of food

    OpenAIRE

    Trulove, Susan

    2007-01-01

    Food scientists and material scientists agree that the primary purpose of food packaging is to protect the food. Once that is accomplished, the package has to protect sensory quality. One challenge to meeting the second goal is communication between food scientists and material scientists, according to research by Susan E. Duncan, professor of food science and technology in the College of Agriculture and Life Sciences at Virginia Tech.

  12. Potential use of Rosemary, Propolis and Thyme as Natural Food Preservatives

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tzima, K.; Makris, D.; Nikiforidis, C.V.; Mourtzinos, I.

    2015-01-01

    The use of preservatives in food stuffs and beverages is essential in order to prevent spoilage due to microbial growth or undesirable chemical changes. However, the use of synthetic additives has been associated with various health problems. Therefore, consumers have turned suspicious and obverted

  13. Sensitivity of Escherichia albertii, a potential foodborne pathogen, to food preservation treatments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escherichia albertii is a potential foodborne pathogen because of its documented ability to cause diarrheal disease by producing attachment and effacement lesions. Its tolerance to food preservation treatments has not been investigated. Heat, acid, and pressure tolerance were determined for stationa...

  14. Facets of Nanotechnology as Seen in Food Processing, Packaging, and Preservation Industry

    OpenAIRE

    Neha Pradhan; Surjit Singh; Nupur Ojha; Anamika Shrivastava; Anil Barla; Vivek Rai; Sutapa Bose

    2015-01-01

    Nanotechnology has proven its competence in almost all possible fields we are aware of. However, today nanotechnology has evolved in true sense by contributing to a very large extent to the food industry. With the growing number of mouths to feed, production of food is not adequate. It has to be preserved in order to reach to the masses on a global scale. Nanotechnology made the idea a reality by increasing the shelf life of different kinds of food materials. It is not an entirely full-proof ...

  15. [Investigation of antimicrobial and antibiofilm effects of some preservatives used in drugs, cosmetics and food products].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Güven, Nihal; Kaynak Onurdağ, Fatma

    2014-01-01

    Preservatives are added to food, drugs and other pharmaceutical products to avoid microbial contamination. For antimicrobial activity testing and preservative efficacy testing, vegetative forms of the standard test organisms are used. However, microbial biofilm formation may occur on living tissues, medical implants, industrial or drinking water pipes, natural aquatic systems, glass and plastic surfaces. In our study, it was aimed to determine the antimicrobial and antibiofilm effects of some preservatives used in drug, cosmetics and food products and to compare the minimum biofilm inhibitory concentration (MBIC) of microbial biofilm formed on glass surfaces which are commonly used in those areas and the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) values of the planktonic forms. In the study Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 27853, Salmonella Thyphimurium SL1344, Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 6538, Staphylococcus epidermidis NCTC 11047, Enterococcus faecalis ATCC 29212 and Candida albicans ATCC 10231 were used as the standard strains; sodium nitrate, methylparaben, prophylparaben, potassium sorbate and sodium benzoate as the preservatives; ampicillin, vancomycin, gentamicin, ciprofloxacin, amphotericin B and itraconazole as the antimicrobial agents. MIC values were determined through the guidelines of CLSI M100-S18 and M27-A3 protocols. BioTimer method was used to determine the MBIC values. The value of "colony forming unit (CFU)/glass beads" was calculated using the graphics drawn by plotting the time of color change for phenol red or resazurin against log10CFU. All experiments were done with four media at different pH values namely pH: 7, pH: 6.5, pH: 6 and pH: 5.5. According to the results of tests on planktonic forms of the microorganisms, sodium benzoate was determined to be the most effective preservative against all the microorganisms tested except S.aureus and E.faecalis. The most effective preservative against S.aureus and E.faecalis was prophylparaben. Prophylparaben

  16. [Investigation of antimicrobial and antibiofilm effects of some preservatives used in drugs, cosmetics and food products].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Güven, Nihal; Kaynak Onurdağ, Fatma

    2014-01-01

    Preservatives are added to food, drugs and other pharmaceutical products to avoid microbial contamination. For antimicrobial activity testing and preservative efficacy testing, vegetative forms of the standard test organisms are used. However, microbial biofilm formation may occur on living tissues, medical implants, industrial or drinking water pipes, natural aquatic systems, glass and plastic surfaces. In our study, it was aimed to determine the antimicrobial and antibiofilm effects of some preservatives used in drug, cosmetics and food products and to compare the minimum biofilm inhibitory concentration (MBIC) of microbial biofilm formed on glass surfaces which are commonly used in those areas and the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) values of the planktonic forms. In the study Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 27853, Salmonella Thyphimurium SL1344, Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 6538, Staphylococcus epidermidis NCTC 11047, Enterococcus faecalis ATCC 29212 and Candida albicans ATCC 10231 were used as the standard strains; sodium nitrate, methylparaben, prophylparaben, potassium sorbate and sodium benzoate as the preservatives; ampicillin, vancomycin, gentamicin, ciprofloxacin, amphotericin B and itraconazole as the antimicrobial agents. MIC values were determined through the guidelines of CLSI M100-S18 and M27-A3 protocols. BioTimer method was used to determine the MBIC values. The value of "colony forming unit (CFU)/glass beads" was calculated using the graphics drawn by plotting the time of color change for phenol red or resazurin against log10CFU. All experiments were done with four media at different pH values namely pH: 7, pH: 6.5, pH: 6 and pH: 5.5. According to the results of tests on planktonic forms of the microorganisms, sodium benzoate was determined to be the most effective preservative against all the microorganisms tested except S.aureus and E.faecalis. The most effective preservative against S.aureus and E.faecalis was prophylparaben. Prophylparaben

  17. Bactericidal action of carvacrol towards the food pathogen Bacillus cereus : A case study of a novel approach to mild food preservation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ultee, A.

    2000-01-01

    A new trend in food preservation is the use of mild preservation systems, instead of more severe techniques such as heating, freezing or addition of chemical preservatives. Carvacrol, a phenolic compound present in the essential oil fraction of oreganum and thyme, is known for its antimicrobial acti

  18. Susceptibility of Clostridium difficile to the food preservatives sodium nitrite, sodium nitrate and sodium metabisulphite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Su-Chen; Foster, Niki F; Riley, Thomas V

    2016-02-01

    Clostridium difficile is an important enteric pathogen of humans and food animals. Recently it has been isolated from retail foods with prevalences up to 42%, prompting concern that contaminated foods may be one of the reasons for increased community-acquired C. difficile infection (CA-CDI). A number of studies have examined the prevalence of C. difficile in raw meats and fresh vegetables; however, fewer studies have examined the prevalence of C. difficile in ready-to-eat meat. The aim of this study was to investigate the in vitro susceptibility of 11 C. difficile isolates of food animal and retail food origins to food preservatives commonly used in ready-to-eat meats. The broth microdilution method was used to determine the minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) and minimum bactericidal concentrations (MBC) for sodium nitrite, sodium nitrate and sodium metabisulphite against C. difficile. Checkerboard assays were used to investigate the combined effect of sodium nitrite and sodium nitrate, commonly used in combination in meats. Modal MIC values for sodium nitrite, sodium nitrate and sodium metabisulphite were 250 μg/ml, >4000 μg/ml and 1000 μg/ml, respectively. No bactericidal activity was observed for all three food preservatives. The checkerboard assays showed indifferent interaction between sodium nitrite and sodium nitrate. This study demonstrated that C. difficile can survive in the presence of food preservatives at concentrations higher than the current maximum permitted levels allowed in ready-to-eat meats. The possibility of retail ready-to-eat meats contaminated with C. difficile acting as a source of CDI needs to be investigated. PMID:26700884

  19. Susceptibility of Clostridium difficile to the food preservatives sodium nitrite, sodium nitrate and sodium metabisulphite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Su-Chen; Foster, Niki F; Riley, Thomas V

    2016-02-01

    Clostridium difficile is an important enteric pathogen of humans and food animals. Recently it has been isolated from retail foods with prevalences up to 42%, prompting concern that contaminated foods may be one of the reasons for increased community-acquired C. difficile infection (CA-CDI). A number of studies have examined the prevalence of C. difficile in raw meats and fresh vegetables; however, fewer studies have examined the prevalence of C. difficile in ready-to-eat meat. The aim of this study was to investigate the in vitro susceptibility of 11 C. difficile isolates of food animal and retail food origins to food preservatives commonly used in ready-to-eat meats. The broth microdilution method was used to determine the minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) and minimum bactericidal concentrations (MBC) for sodium nitrite, sodium nitrate and sodium metabisulphite against C. difficile. Checkerboard assays were used to investigate the combined effect of sodium nitrite and sodium nitrate, commonly used in combination in meats. Modal MIC values for sodium nitrite, sodium nitrate and sodium metabisulphite were 250 μg/ml, >4000 μg/ml and 1000 μg/ml, respectively. No bactericidal activity was observed for all three food preservatives. The checkerboard assays showed indifferent interaction between sodium nitrite and sodium nitrate. This study demonstrated that C. difficile can survive in the presence of food preservatives at concentrations higher than the current maximum permitted levels allowed in ready-to-eat meats. The possibility of retail ready-to-eat meats contaminated with C. difficile acting as a source of CDI needs to be investigated.

  20. Exposure assessment of food preservatives (sulphites, benzoic and sorbic acid) in Austria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mischek, Daniela; Krapfenbauer-Cermak, Christine

    2012-01-01

    An exposure assessment was performed to estimate the potential intake of preservatives in the Austrian population. Food consumption data of different population groups, such as preschool children aged 3-6 years, female and male adults aged 19-65 years were used for calculation. Levels of the preservatives in food were derived from analyses conducted from January 2007 to August 2010. Dietary intakes of the preservatives were estimated and compared to the respective acceptable daily intakes (ADIs). In the average-intake scenario, assuming that consumers randomly consume food products that do or do not contain food additives, estimated dietary intakes of all studied preservatives are well below the ADI for all population groups. Sulphite exposure accounted for 34%, 84% and 89% of the ADI in preschool children, females and males, respectively. The mean estimated daily intake of benzoic acid was 32% (preschool children), 31% (males) and 36% (females) of the ADI. Sorbic acid intakes correspond to 7% of the ADI in preschool children and 6% of the ADI in adults. In the high-intake scenario assuming that consumers always consume food products that contain additives and considering a kind of brand loyalty of consumers, the ADI is exceeded for sulphites among adults (119 and 124%, respectively). Major contributors to the total intake of sulphites were wine and dried fruits for adults. Mean estimated dietary intakes of benzoic acid exceeded the ADI in all population groups, 135% in preschool children, 124% in females and 118% of the ADI in males, respectively. Dietary intakes of sorbic acid are well below the ADI, accounting for a maximum of 30% of the ADI in preschool children. The highest contributors to benzoic and sorbic acid exposure were fish and fish products mainly caused by high consumption data of this large food group, including also mayonnaise-containing fish salads. Other important sources of sorbic acid were bread, buns and toast bread and fruit and vegetable

  1. Nisin as a Food Preservative: Part 2: Antimicrobial Polymer Materials Containing Nisin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gharsallaoui, Adem; Joly, Catherine; Oulahal, Nadia; Degraeve, Pascal

    2016-06-10

    Nisin is the only bacteriocin approved as a food preservative because of its antibacterial effectiveness and its negligible toxicity for humans. Typical problems encountered when nisin is directly added to foods are mainly fat adsorption leading to activity loss, heterogeneous distribution in the food matrix, inactivation by proteolytic enzymes, and emergence of resistance in normally sensitive bacteria strains. To overcome these problems, nisin can be immobilized in solid matrices that must act as diffusional barriers and allow controlling its release rate. This strategy allows maintaining a just sufficient nisin concentration at the food surface. The design of such antimicrobial materials must consider both bacterial growth kinetics but also nisin release kinetics. In this review, nisin incorporation in polymer-based materials will be discussed and special emphasis will be on the applications and properties of antimicrobial food packaging containing this bacteriocin.

  2. Nisin as a Food Preservative: Part 2: Antimicrobial Polymer Materials Containing Nisin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gharsallaoui, Adem; Joly, Catherine; Oulahal, Nadia; Degraeve, Pascal

    2016-06-10

    Nisin is the only bacteriocin approved as a food preservative because of its antibacterial effectiveness and its negligible toxicity for humans. Typical problems encountered when nisin is directly added to foods are mainly fat adsorption leading to activity loss, heterogeneous distribution in the food matrix, inactivation by proteolytic enzymes, and emergence of resistance in normally sensitive bacteria strains. To overcome these problems, nisin can be immobilized in solid matrices that must act as diffusional barriers and allow controlling its release rate. This strategy allows maintaining a just sufficient nisin concentration at the food surface. The design of such antimicrobial materials must consider both bacterial growth kinetics but also nisin release kinetics. In this review, nisin incorporation in polymer-based materials will be discussed and special emphasis will be on the applications and properties of antimicrobial food packaging containing this bacteriocin. PMID:25674671

  3. Using irradiation for preservation of foods and agricultural commodities in Malaysia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The National Agricultural Policy was formulated to draw the guideline for the development of Malaysian agriculture until 2000. The most important aspect of the policy is to encourage the agricultural sector to increase productivity in order to attain self-sufficiency and to promote export. To increase agricultural and food production, it is necessary to upgrade the quality and to reduce postharvest loss. The food preservation during handling, processing and storage is important, and the current preservation methods emphasize the improvement in handling, drying, chilling, freezing and the use of chemicals. The technology of food irradiation was introduced only at the research level in Malaysia in 1974. Presently, UTN (Unit Tenaga Nuklear) has a semi-commercial Co-60 facility suitable for the research and development of food irradiation. The commercial use of irradiation and the marketing of treated agricultural and food products are still prohibited. The objective of this paper is to review briefly the possibility of the practical application of food irradiation in Malaysia. The irradiation of rice, black and white pepper, frozen shrimps, cocoa, fruits and vegetables is discussed. (K.I.)

  4. Eucalyptus essential oil as a natural food preservative: in vivo and in vitro antiyeast potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyagi, Amit Kumar; Bukvicki, Danka; Gottardi, Davide; Tabanelli, Giulia; Montanari, Chiara; Malik, Anushree; Guerzoni, Maria Elisabetta

    2014-01-01

    In this study, the application of eucalyptus essential oil/vapour as beverages preservative is reported. The chemical composition of eucalyptus oil was determined by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and solid phase microextraction GC-MS (SPME/GC-MS) analyses. GC-MS revealed that the major constituents were 1,8-cineole (80.5%), limonene (6.5%), α-pinene (5%), and γ-terpinene (2.9%) while SPME/GC-MS showed a relative reduction of 1,8-cineole (63.9%) and an increase of limonene (13.8%), α-pinene (8.87%), and γ-terpinene (3.98%). Antimicrobial potential of essential oil was initially determined in vitro against 8 different food spoilage yeasts by disc diffusion, disc volatilization, and microdilution method. The activity of eucalyptus vapours was significantly higher than the eucalyptus oil. Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum fungicidal concentration (MFC) varied from 0.56 to 4.50 mg/mL and from 1.13 to 9 mg/mL, respectively. Subsequently, the combined efficacy of essential oil and thermal treatment were used to evaluate the preservation of a mixed fruit juice in a time-dependent manner. These results suggest eucalyptus oil as a potent inhibitor of food spoilage yeasts not only in vitro but also in a real food system. Currently, this is the first report that uses eucalyptus essential oil for fruit juice preservation against food spoiling yeast.

  5. Knowledge and attitudes of selected home ecnomists toward irradiation in food preservation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Preservation of food with ionizing radiation treatment offers many benefits to consumers. Among other factors, the lack of certainty of the acceptance of this process by the public has slowed its commercial use in the U.S. Since home economists deal with food-related issues, it is likely that they will be asked questions by the public about this process. This project was designed to obtain information using a survey method about the knowledge and attitudes of selected California home economists toward the use of irradiation to preserve food. The information was used to determine whether a need existed to provide education about the irradiation process to these professionals. The survey revealed that these home economists lacked knowledge about the irradiation process, although they had a positive attitude toward it and desired to learn more about it. Based on these findings, a 90-minute statewide teleconference was conducted and viewed by more than 300 home economists and other interested professionals. Descriptive and inferential statistical methods were used to analyze the data. Results revealed that (a) knowledge of and a positive attitude toward food irradiation increased as a result of participation in the teleconference, (b) the information provided was helpful, and (c) the objectives of the teleconference were met. This project should be replicated using a nationwide sample of home economists to obtain information about the knowledge and attitudes of a wide range of home economists about food irradiation and, if a need is demonstrated, a nationwide teleconference should be conducted

  6. Application of Grape Pomace as a Natural Food Preservative and Source of Biofuel

    OpenAIRE

    Ivanova, Violeta; Andonovic, Zorana; Nedelkovski, Dusko; Tasev, Krste; Beleski, Klime

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this work is utilization of the grape pomace piled up as a waste after winemaking and its application in producing biodiesel. Furthermore, a novel yoghurt product was produced, enriched with antioxidants, such as polyphenolics from the grape pomace and berries in order to improve its nutritional value, contributing to food preservation and significantly reducing the risk of diseases. In fact, for the first time we engaged these compounds in preparation of a new yoghurt product, ...

  7. IDENTITY PRESERVATION AND FALSE NON-GMO LABELING IN THE FOOD SUPPLY CHAIN

    OpenAIRE

    Saak, Alexander E.

    2003-01-01

    This paper addresses two issues pertaining to the market differentiation between non-genetically modified and genetically modified food varieties. First, a cost-efficiency explanation of the discrepancy between the observed shares of identity preserved non-genetically modified variety and the total supply of the variety is provided. Second, it is shown that when products can be falsely labeled as non-genetically modified, the share of false labeling depends on the level of identity preservati...

  8. Influence of some physical treatments and natural food preservatives on the diversity of microorganisms in certain Egyptian juices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foods begin to lose their quality from the moment they are harvested through changes resulting from physical, chemical, enzymatic, or microbiological reactions. Food preservation prevents deteriorative reaction, extending the shelf life and assuring its safety. Microorganisms and enzymes are the main agents responsible for food spoilages and therefore the targets of preservation techniques. The idealmethod of food preservation has the following characteristics: It improves shelf life and safety by inactivating spoilage and pathogenic microorganisms. It dose not leave residues. It is cheap and convenient to apply. It encounters no objection from consumers and legislators. One of the major advances in human history was the ability to preserve food. It was the perquisite to man setting down in one place instead of moving from place to place in the never ending hunt for fresh food. The earliest preservation technologies developed were drying, smoking, chilling and heating. The use of various compounds such as salts and spices to preserve food was also used in ancient times

  9. Production of biosurfactant and antifungal compound by fermented food isolate Bacillus subtilis 20B.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshi, Sanket; Bharucha, Chirag; Desai, Anjana J

    2008-07-01

    A biosurfactant producing strain, Bacillus subtilis 20B, was isolated from fermented food in India. The strain also showed inhibition of various fungi in in-vitro experiments on Potato Dextrose Agar medium. It was capable of growth at temperature 55 degrees C and salts up to 7%. It utilized different sugars, alcohols, hydrocarbons and oil as a carbon source, with preference for sugars. In glucose based minimal medium it produced biosurfactant which reduced surface tension to 29.5 mN/m, interfacial tension to 4.5 mN/m and gave stable emulsion with crude oil and n-hexadecane. The biosurfactant activity was stable at high temperature, a wide range of pH and salt concentrations for five days. Oil displacement experiments using biosurfactant containing broth in sand pack columns with crude oil showed 30.22% recovery. The possible application of organism as biocontrol agent and use of biosurfactant in microbial enhanced oil recovery (MEOR) is discussed. PMID:17855083

  10. Current topics in active and intelligent food packaging for preservation of fresh foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Seung Yuan; Lee, Seung Jae; Choi, Dong Soo; Hur, Sun Jin

    2015-11-01

    The purpose of this review is to provide an overview of current packaging systems, e.g. active packaging and intelligent packaging, for various foods. Active packaging, such as modified atmosphere packaging (MAP), extends the shelf life of fresh produce, provides a high-quality product, reduces economic losses, including those caused by delay of ripening, and improves appearance. However, in active packaging, several variables must be considered, such as temperature control and different gas formulations with different product types and microorganisms. Active packaging refers to the incorporation of additive agents into packaging materials with the purpose of maintaining or extending food product quality and shelf life. Intelligent packaging is emerging as a potential advantage in food processing and is an especially useful tool for tracking product information and monitoring product conditions. Moreover, intelligent packaging facilitates data access and information exchange by altering conditions inside or outside the packaging and product. In spite of these advantages, few of these packaging systems are commercialized because of high cost, strict safety and hygiene regulations or limited consumer acceptance. Therefore more research is needed to develop cheaper, more easily applicable and effective packaging systems for various foods.

  11. Current topics in active and intelligent food packaging for preservation of fresh foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Seung Yuan; Lee, Seung Jae; Choi, Dong Soo; Hur, Sun Jin

    2015-11-01

    The purpose of this review is to provide an overview of current packaging systems, e.g. active packaging and intelligent packaging, for various foods. Active packaging, such as modified atmosphere packaging (MAP), extends the shelf life of fresh produce, provides a high-quality product, reduces economic losses, including those caused by delay of ripening, and improves appearance. However, in active packaging, several variables must be considered, such as temperature control and different gas formulations with different product types and microorganisms. Active packaging refers to the incorporation of additive agents into packaging materials with the purpose of maintaining or extending food product quality and shelf life. Intelligent packaging is emerging as a potential advantage in food processing and is an especially useful tool for tracking product information and monitoring product conditions. Moreover, intelligent packaging facilitates data access and information exchange by altering conditions inside or outside the packaging and product. In spite of these advantages, few of these packaging systems are commercialized because of high cost, strict safety and hygiene regulations or limited consumer acceptance. Therefore more research is needed to develop cheaper, more easily applicable and effective packaging systems for various foods. PMID:25892577

  12. 21 CFR 333.210 - Antifungal active ingredients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Antifungal active ingredients. 333.210 Section 333.210 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED... Antifungal Drug Products § 333.210 Antifungal active ingredients. The active ingredient of the...

  13. Potential role of antioxidant food supplements, preservatives and colorants in the pathogenesis of allergy and asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaknun, Daniela; Schroecksnadel, Sebastian; Kurz, Katharina; Fuchs, Dietmar

    2012-01-01

    A significant increase in the incidence of allergy and asthma has been observed during the past decades. The background of this phenomenon has not been well explained, but changes in lifestyle and habits are heavily discussed as contributing factors. Among these is a too clean environment, which may predispose individuals to increased sensitivity to allergic responses. Also the increase in dietary supplements including preservatives and colorants may contribute to this. In vitro, we and others have shown in freshly isolated human peripheral blood mononuclear cells that antioxidant compounds like vitamins C and E as well as food preservatives and colorants exert significant suppressive effects on the Th1 immune activation cascade. The effects observed may be based on the interaction of antioxidant compounds with proinflammatory cascades involving important signal transduction elements such as nuclear factor-κB. Although only obtained in vitro, these results show an anti-inflammatory property of compounds which could shift the Th1-Th2-type immune balance towards Th2-type immunity. This review article discusses the potential role of increased use of antioxidant food supplements as well as preservatives and colorants in the increase in allergy and asthma in the Western world.

  14. Could essential oils of green and black pepper be used as food preservatives?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikolić, Miloš; Stojković, Dejan; Glamočlija, Jasmina; Ćirić, Ana; Marković, Tatjana; Smiljković, Marija; Soković, Marina

    2015-10-01

    Black and green pepper essential oils were used in this study in order to determine the chemical composition, in vitro antimicrobial activity against food spoilage microorganisms and in situ oils effect on food microorganism, after incorporation in chicken soup, by suggested methodology for calculation of Growth inhibition concentrations (GIC50). Chemical analysis revealed a total of 34 components. The major constituent of black pepper oil was trans-caryophyllene (30.33 %), followed by limonene (12.12 %), while β-pinene (24.42 %), δ(3)-carene (19.72 %), limonene (18.73 %) and α-pinene (10.39 %) were dominant compounds in green pepper oil. Antimicrobial activity was determined by microdilution technique and minimal inhibitory (MIC) and minimal bactericidal/fungicidal concentrations (MBC/MFC) were determined. Green pepper oil showed stronger antibacterial and antifungal activity (MIC 0.50-1.87; MBC 0.63-2.5 mg/ml; MIC 0.07-0.16; MFC 0.13-1.25 mg/ml) against black pepper oil (MIC 0.07-3.75; MBC 0.60-10.00 mg/ml; MIC 0.63-5.00; MFC 1.25-10.00 mg/ml. Oils successfully inhibited the growth of S. aureus in chicken soup in a dose dependent manner. GIC50 values were calculated after 24, 48 and 72 h and were in range of 0.156-0.689 mg/ml. The 50 % inhibitory concentrations (IC50) of EOs were 36.84 and 38.77 mg/ml with in 2, 2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) assay respectively. The obtained results revealed that black and green pepper volatiles are efficient in controlling the growth of known food-spoilage microorganisms.

  15. 21 CFR 333.250 - Labeling of antifungal drug products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Labeling of antifungal drug products. 333.250... Antifungal Drug Products § 333.250 Labeling of antifungal drug products. (a) Statement of identity. The... “antifungal.” (b) Indications. The labeling of the product states, under the heading “Indications,” the...

  16. Does use of the polyene natamycin as a food preservative jeopardise the clinical efficacy of amphotericin B? A word of concern.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalhoff, Axel A H; Levy, Stuart B

    2015-06-01

    Natamycin is a poorly soluble, polyene macrolide antifungal agent used in the food industry for the surface treatment of cheese and sausages. This use is not of safety concern. However, highly soluble natamycin-cyclodextrin inclusion complexes have been developed for the protection of beverages. This practice leads to high drug exposures exceeding the safety level. Apart from the definition of an acceptable daily dietary exposure to natamycin, its effect on the faecal flora as a reservoir for resistance has to be examined. Consumption of food to which natamycin has been added and mixed homogeneously, such as yoghurt, and in particular the addition of cyclodextrin inclusion complexes to beverages and wine generates high faecal natamycin concentrations resulting in high drug exposures of faecal Candida spp. Development of natamycin resistance has been observed in Candida spp. colonising the intestinal tract of patients following natamycin treatment of fungal infections. Horizontal gene transfer among different Candida spp. and within Aspergillus fumigatus spreads resistance. Therefore, it cannot be denied that use of natamycin for preservation of yoghurt and beverages may foster development of resistance to polyenes in Candida spp.

  17. Food preservative potential of essential oils and fractions from Cymbopogon citratus, Ocimum gratissimum and Thymus vulgaris against mycotoxigenic fungi

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nguefack, J.; Dongmo, J. B. Lekagne; Dakole, C. D.;

    2009-01-01

    The food preservative potential of essential oils from three aromatic plants Cymbopogon citratus, Ocimum gratissimum and Thymus vulgaris and their fractions was investigated against two mycotoxigenic strains each of Aspergillus ochraceus, Penicillium expansum and P. verrucosum. The fungicidal...

  18. 食品防腐剂的应用及发展趋势%Application And Development Of Food Preservations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    任美燕

    2015-01-01

    This paper describes the application and development of food preservations. Chemical food preservations are dominant. The character of natural food preservative are natural, safety, nonpoisonous and steady, It is the hot research. Although many of the problems need to be solved, natural food preservative still have a long-term development prospects.%本文主要介绍了食品防腐剂在食品行业的应用及发展趋势,目前使用最多的是化学防腐剂,但天然防腐剂具有天然高效、安全无毒、性能稳定的特点,成为目前研究的热点,虽存在许多问题,仍具有远大的发展前景。

  19. Simultaneous determination of ten preservatives in ten kinds of foods by micellar electrokinetic chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Xiao-Jing; Xie, Na; Zhao, Shan; Wu, Yu-Chen; Li, Jiang; Wang, Zhi

    2015-08-15

    An improved micellar electrokinetic capillary chromatography method (MEKC) for the simultaneous determination of ten preservatives in ten different kinds of food samples was reported. An uncoated fused-silica capillary with 50 μm i.d. and 70 cm total length was used. Under the optimized conditions, the linear response was observed in the range of 1.2-200mg/L for the analytes. The limits of detection (LOD, S/N=3) and limits of quantitation (LOQ, S/N=10) ranging from 0.4 to 0.5mg/L and 1.2 to 1.5mg/L, respectively were obtained. The method was used for the determination of sorbic and benzoic acids in two FAPAS® (Food Analysis Performance Assessment Scheme) proficiency test samples (jam and chocolate cake). The results showed that the current method with simple sample pretreatment and small reagent consumption could meet the needs for routine analysis of the ten preservatives in ten types of food products.

  20. Nisin, an apoptogenic bacteriocin and food preservative, attenuates HNSCC tumorigenesis via CHAC1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joo, Nam E; Ritchie, Kathryn; Kamarajan, Pachiyappan; Miao, Di; Kapila, Yvonne L

    2012-12-01

    Nisin, a bacteriocin and commonly used food preservative, may serve as a novel potential therapeutic for treating head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC), as it induces preferential apoptosis, cell cycle arrest, and reduces cell proliferation in HNSCC cells, compared with primary keratinocytes. Nisin also reduces HNSCC tumorigenesis in vivo. Mechanistically, nisin exerts these effects on HNSCC, in part, through CHAC1, a proapoptotic cation transport regulator, and through a concomitant CHAC1-independent influx of extracellular calcium. In addition, although CHAC1 is known as an apoptotic mediator, its effects on cancer cell apoptosis have not been examined. Our studies are the first to report CHAC1's new role in promoting cancer cell apoptosis under nisin treatment. These data support the concept that nisin decreases HNSCC tumorigenesis in vitro and in vivo by inducing increased cell apoptosis and decreased cell proliferation; effects that are mediated by activation of CHAC1, increased calcium influxes, and induction of cell cycle arrest. These findings support the use of nisin as a potentially novel therapeutic for HNSCC, and as nisin is safe for human consumption and currently used in food preservation, its translation into a clinical setting may be facilitated.

  1. Chromosome aberrations, micronucleus and sperm head abnormalities in mice treated with natamycin, [corrected] a food preservative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasgele, Pinar Goc; Kaymak, Fisun

    2010-03-01

    Natamycin [corrected] is used as preservative in foods. The genotoxic effects of the food preservative natamycin [corrected] were evaluated using chromosome aberrations and micronucleus test in bone marrow cells and sperm head abnormality assays in mice. Blood samples were taken from mice and levels of total testosterone in serum were also determined. Natamycin [corrected] was intraperitoneally (ip) injected at 200, 400 and 800 mg/kg. Natamycin [corrected] did not induce chromosome aberrations but significantly increased the number of micronucleated polychromatic erythrocytes in bone marrow and sperm head abnormalities at all concentrations and treatment periods. It also decreased MI at all concentrations for 6, 12 and 24h treatment periods. Natamycin [corrected] decreased PCE/NCE ratio at all concentrations for 48h in female mice, for 24 and 48h treatment periods in male mice. At the 800 mg/kg concentration, natamycin [corrected] decreased PCE/NCE ratio for 24 and 72h in female mice. A dose dependent increase was observed in the percentage of sperm head abnormalities. The levels of serum testosterone decreased dose-dependently. The obtained results indicate that natamycin [corrected] is not clastogenic, but it is aneugenic in mice bone marrow and it is a potential germ cell mutagen in sperm cells.

  2. The moisture-triggered controlled release of a natural food preservative from a microporous metal-organic framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hao; Lashkari, Elham; Lim, Hyuna; Zheng, Chong; Emge, Thomas J; Gong, Qihan; Yam, Kit; Li, Jing

    2016-02-01

    In this work we demonstrate that allyl isothiocyanate (AITC), a common food flavoring agent and food preservative, can be effectively captured by and released in a controlled manner from a microporous metal-organic framework (MOF). The extent of AITC-MOF interactions is quantitatively measured by orbital overlap population calculations. Controlled release experiments show that loaded AITC can be released by applying higher relative humidity. Further analysis reveals that the underlying mechanism of the controlled release is associated with the transformation of the MOF from a porous to a nonporous structure at high humidity. This study represents the first example of making use of MOF porosity in food preservation.

  3. [The estimation of intake of selected and permissible preservatives used in food industry among people from Podlaskie voivodeship].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szczerbiński, Robert; Karczewski, Jan

    2011-01-01

    The work aimed at estimating intake of food containing permissible preservatives. The data was comprised of food samples from 14 poviats of Podlaskie voivodeship taken to detect presence of preservatives (sodium nitrate, nitrite, benzoic acid and its salt, sorbic acid and its salt). The samples were collected between 2004 and 2007 by food inspection agency. Data concerning consumption of food provided results for an average consumption of some foodstuffs in households in which consumption of given foodstuff has been recorded by Polish Central Statistical Office, whereas data concerning consumption of soft drinks was provided by the report from March, 2008 (soft drinks market in Poland). It was stated that an average intake of the considered preservatives with an average diet is not a threat to people. Taking into account the fact data concerning consumption of foodstuffs in households is limited, it is advised to create databases comprising consumption of foodstuffs which would help in more precise evaluation of the intake.

  4. Susceptibility of food-contaminating Penicillium genus fungi to some preservatives and disinfectants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levinskaite, Loreta

    2012-01-01

    Microscopic fungi are able to contaminate and deteriorate various food products and can subsequently cause health problems. Long usage of the same preservatives and disinfectants against spoilage fungi may lead to the development of fungal resistance to those chemicals. The objective of this study was to investigate the susceptibility of 3 Penicillium genus fungi, isolated from foodstuffs, to organic acid preservatives and some disinfectants, taking into consideration 2 aspects of their development: spore germination and mycelial growth. Susceptibility of Penicillium spinulosum, P. expansum and P. verruculosum to the preservatives, namely benzoic acid, sodium lactate, potassium sorbate, as well as disinfectants such as Topax DD, Suma Bac D10, Biowash and F210 Hygisept, was investigated. The biocides were used at concentrations of 0.1, 1.0 and 10%. Of the preservatives, benzoic acid and potassium sorbate showed the best inhibition, both on spore germination and mycelial growth. Benzoic acid at a concentration of a 0.1% reduced spore germination by 33-55%, and mycelial growth by 54-97%, whereas at 1% the inhibition was 74-85% and 97-100%, respectively. The effect of the disinfectants at a concentration of 0.1% on spore germination was 25-84% and on colonial growth 68-97%, while at 1.0% the reduction in spore germination reached 53-91% and the inhibition of growth 89-100%. In most cases, the same concentrations added to the media showed higher inhibitory effect on mycelial growth than on spore germination. It was noticed that the fungi responded rather unevenly towards the biocides, showing individual susceptibility. PMID:22462451

  5. Susceptibility of food-contaminating Penicillium genus fungi to some preservatives and disinfectants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levinskaite, Loreta

    2012-01-01

    Microscopic fungi are able to contaminate and deteriorate various food products and can subsequently cause health problems. Long usage of the same preservatives and disinfectants against spoilage fungi may lead to the development of fungal resistance to those chemicals. The objective of this study was to investigate the susceptibility of 3 Penicillium genus fungi, isolated from foodstuffs, to organic acid preservatives and some disinfectants, taking into consideration 2 aspects of their development: spore germination and mycelial growth. Susceptibility of Penicillium spinulosum, P. expansum and P. verruculosum to the preservatives, namely benzoic acid, sodium lactate, potassium sorbate, as well as disinfectants such as Topax DD, Suma Bac D10, Biowash and F210 Hygisept, was investigated. The biocides were used at concentrations of 0.1, 1.0 and 10%. Of the preservatives, benzoic acid and potassium sorbate showed the best inhibition, both on spore germination and mycelial growth. Benzoic acid at a concentration of a 0.1% reduced spore germination by 33-55%, and mycelial growth by 54-97%, whereas at 1% the inhibition was 74-85% and 97-100%, respectively. The effect of the disinfectants at a concentration of 0.1% on spore germination was 25-84% and on colonial growth 68-97%, while at 1.0% the reduction in spore germination reached 53-91% and the inhibition of growth 89-100%. In most cases, the same concentrations added to the media showed higher inhibitory effect on mycelial growth than on spore germination. It was noticed that the fungi responded rather unevenly towards the biocides, showing individual susceptibility.

  6. The application of irradiation techniques for food preservation and process improvement -Studies on application of radiation and radioisotopes-

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    With the increased consumption of processed food, quality control techniques are inevitably required in the food industry for its mass production and distribution. Recently, there has been a growing interest in the use of irradiation for solving the infrastructural problems in the food industry by developing viable alternatives to conventional technology and by improving the quality of processed foods. Even though food irradiation technology has been commercialized in 25 countries, and 18 items of irradiated foods have been approved for human consumption domestically, infrastructural studies are needed for the practical application of this technology. In order to enlarge the utilization of irradiation technology in solving the infrastructural problems of the food industry, this project was designed to investigate the efficacy of gamma irradiation for improving the process and physical properties of dried foods (corn and soybean), for preserving the reserved foods for emergency (red pepper) and for producing natural products (red polyketied pigment) using microbial immobilization with radiation-induced polymer

  7. 浅析食品防腐剂的安全应用%Food Preservatives for Security Applications

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘洋; 黄晨; 王万骞; 王乃福

    2014-01-01

    介绍了食品防腐剂的分类、研究现状,分析了食品防腐剂所产生的食品安全问题,分析表明要保证食品防腐剂的使用安全,短期内我们可以采取完善法规、严格监管和加强认识的措施,但从长远来看,通过天然防腐剂的开发利用,逐渐代替化学防腐剂,才是解决食品防腐剂安全问题的根本途径。%This paper introduces the research status and classification of food preservatives , and analyzes the security problems of food preservatives. Analysis shows, we can perfect the laws and regulations, strict supervision and strengthen the awareness recently , to ensure the security applications of food preservatives. But in the future, it is the fundamental way to solve the security problems of food preservatives is to use natural preservatives instead of chemical preservatives.

  8. Simultaneous determination of electroactive and non-electroactive food preservatives by novel capillary electrophoresis with amperometric detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Weiyu; Wang, Yiping; Zhang, Junbo; Chu, Qingcui; Ye, Jiannong

    2010-09-23

    A novel capillary electrophoresis and amperometric detection method was achieved by adding an electroactive additive (3,4-dihydroxybenzylamine, 3,4-DHBA) to the running buffer, so that both electroactive and non-electroactive food preservatives were simultaneously determined. Under the selected optimum conditions, four electroactive preservatives (methylparaben, ethylparaben, propylparaben and butylparaben) and two non-electroactive preservatives (potassium sorbate and sodium lactate) were well separated and sensitively detected with detection limits (S/N=3) ranging from 1.06×10(-8) to 2.73×10(-6) g mL(-1). This method has been successfully employed for the determination of both electroactive and non-electroactive preservatives in several food commodities.

  9. Antifungal Activity of Selected Lactic Acid Bacteria and Propionic Acid Bacteria against Dairy-Associated Spoilage Fungi

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aunsbjerg, Stina Dissing

    Bacterial cultures of lactic and propionic acid bacteria are widely used in fermented products including dairy products. Spoilage fungi may constitute a quality and safety issue in these products. The antifungal properties of some lactic and propionic acid bacteria make them potential candidates...... was used to study the overall exometabolome of cell-free ferments of three Lb. paracasei strains. The metabolites potentially causing the main antifungal activity of these Lb. paracasei strains were identified by correlating the results of the antifungal activity test with the metabolites produced. Besides...... for prolonging shelf-life of food without the addition of specific preservatives. Increased interest in the use of these bacteria for biopreservation has led to identification of a range of potent strains, and in addition, isolation and identification of various antifungal metabolites produced by these cultures...

  10. Food preservation by irradiation. V.- Economic study of the spanish potatoe market and preservation feasibility by irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A study of the spanish potatoe market is carried o nt in order to know the possibilities of preservation by irradiation. The study is initiated with a recompilation of statistical data on the production and consumption of potatoes by regions and seasons. Last years losses are then estimated. (Author) 9 refs

  11. Simultaneous analysis of acidulants and preservatives in food samples by using capillary zone electrophoresis with indirect UV detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshikawa, Kenji; Saito, Shintaro; Sakuragawa, Akio

    2011-08-01

    Capillary zone electrophoresis with indirect UV detection was developed for the simultaneous analysis of acidulants and preservatives in food samples. When a solution of tris (hydroxymethyl) aminomethane, trimellitic acid and poly (vinyl alcohol) was used as the background electrolyte, the nine acidulants and four preservatives listed in the Japanese Food Sanitation Law were detected within 8min. The calibration curves plotted from the peak height of each analyte were linear with a correlation coefficient of 0.99. The relative standard deviations (n=10) of the peak height ranged from 1.2% to 4.7%. The detection limits for these species ranged from 0.6 to 5.3mg/L at a signal-to-noise ratio of three. The method developed method was applied to the simultaneous analysis of acidulants and preservatives in a wide variety of food samples.

  12. Proteolytic activity of beef luncheon fungi as affected by incorporation of some food preservatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saleem, A; El-Said, A H M

    2009-12-01

    Screening of thirty-one fungal isolates (representing 16 genera, 28 species and 3 varieties) collected from beef luncheon meat for their abilities to produce protease enzyme revealed that eleven isolates (35.48%) exhibited high protease production. However, fifteen isolates (48.39%) had moderate ability and 5 isolates (16.13%) were low producers. Aspergillus flavus, Gibberella fujikuroi and Penicillium chrysogenum were the most active producers of protease. The incorporation of five chemical substances used as food preservatives (disodium phosphate, sodium benzoate, citric acid, potassium sorbate and sodium citrate) individually in the culture medium for protease production exhibited depressive effect on protease production as well as on mycelial growth of Aspergillus flavus, Gibberella fujikuroi and Penicillium chrysogenum , except in few cases the mycelial growth of A. flavus and G. fujikuroi was increased by the lowest concentration (100 ppm) of sodium benzoate, citric acid and disodium phosphate.

  13. Cytotoxicity of food preservatives in cultured rat hepatocytes loaded with linolenic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugihara, N; Shimomichi, K; Furuno, K

    1997-06-01

    We investigated the ability of eight food preservatives to induce lipid peroxidation in normal and alpha-linolenic acid (LNA)-loaded cultured rat hepatocytes. On the addition of sodium dehydroacetate (DHA-Na), potassium sorbate (SA-K) or thiabendazole (TBZ) to the cell culture, lipid peroxidation, assessed in terms of the production of malondialdehyde (MDA), was induced in LNA-loaded cells, but not in normal cells. At the low concentrations, induction of lipid peroxidation in LNA-loaded cells was highest with TBZ, whereas at high concentrations DHA-Na greatly induced lipid peroxidation. The occurrence of lipid peroxidation in LNA-loaded cells was accompanied by a decrease in cellular GSH levels with the three preservatives and by a decrease in cellular protein-SH levels with DHA-Na and TBZ. Furthermore, cell injury, measured by the release of LDH, was produced in LNA-loaded cells exposed to DHA-Na and SA-K. The addition of TBZ caused substantial cell injury in normal cells, and even greater injury in LNA-loaded cells. The prevention of lipid peroxidation in LNA-loaded hepatocytes by addition of an antioxidant, N,N'-diphenyl-p-phenylenediamine (DPPD) almost completely prevented DHA-Na- and SA-K-induced cell injury, and reduced TBZ-induced cell injury. The addition of diphenyl (DP), o-phenylphenol (OPP) or butyl p-hydroxybenzoate (BHB) caused severe cell injury, in association with a marked decrease in cellular levels of both of GSH and protein-SH in both groups of cells. However, lipid peroxidation was not detectable in either group of cells exposed to these preservatives. Sodium propionate (PA-Na) and sodium benzoate (BA-Na) had little effect on any cytotoxic parameter in either group of cells.

  14. Effect of preservatives for food grade C-Phycoerythrin, isolated from marine cyanobacteria Pseudanabaena sp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, Sanjiv K; Shrivastav, Anupama; Pancha, Imran; Jain, Deepti; Mishra, Sandhya

    2010-12-01

    C-Phycoerythrin is water soluble red color chromo-protein, which is used as a natural food colorant. The effect of selected edible preservatives like citric acid, sodium chloride, sucrose and calcium chloride on the stability of C-Phycoerythrin at 0±5°C and 35±5°C was studied in aqueous solution. Experiment was carried out to select a stabilizing agent having Hofmeister series behavior acting on hydrophobic interactions. The denaturation of phycoerythrin with urea as denaturant and effect of different pH on C-Phycoerythrin was studied. Citric acid (4 mg/ml) was observed to be one of the best preservative for C-Phycoerythrin at 35±5°C and 0±5°C in aqueous solution for 45 days. Citric acid was able to maintain the stability of C-Phycoerythrin in the solution. The amount of C-Phycoerythrin left in the solution containing citric acid after 30 and 45 days was 46 and 37.8% respectively at higher temperature.

  15. Tandem action of exercise training and food restriction completely preserves ischemic preconditioning in the aging heart.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abete, P; Testa, G; Galizia, G; Mazzella, F; Della Morte, D; de Santis, D; Calabrese, C; Cacciatore, F; Gargiulo, G; Ferrara, N; Rengo, G; Sica, V; Napoli, C; Rengo, F

    2005-01-01

    Ischemic preconditioning (IP) has been proposed as an endogenous form of protection against ischemia reperfusion injury. IP, however, does not prevent post-ischemic dysfunction in the aging heart but may be partially corrected by exercise training and food restriction. We investigated the role of exercise training combined with food restriction on restoring IP in the aging heart. Effects of IP against ischemia-reperfusion injury in isolated hearts from adult (A, 6 months old), sedentary 'ad libitum' fed (SL), trained ad libitum fed (TL), sedentary food-restricted (SR), trained- and food-restricted senescent rats (TR) (24 months old) were investigated. Norepinephrine release in coronary effluent was determined by high performance liquid cromatography. IP significantly improved final recovery of percent developed pressure in hearts from A (p<0.01) but not in those from SL (p=NS) vs unconditioned controls. Developed pressure recovery was partial in hearts from TL and SR (64.3 and 67.3%, respectively; p<0.05 vs controls) but it was total in those from TR (82.3%, p=NS vs A; p<0.05 vs hearts from TL and SR). Similarly, IP determined a similar increase of norepinephrine release in A (p<0.001) and in TR (p<0.001, p=NS vs adult). IP was abolished by depletion of myocardial norepinephrine stores by reserpine in all groups. Thus, IP reduces post-ischemic dysfunction in A but not in SL. Moreover, IP was preserved partially in TR and SR and totally in TR. Complete IP maybe due to full restoration of norepinephrine release in response to IP stimulus. PMID:15664731

  16. 浅谈食品防腐剂的安全%Talking about the safety of food preservatives

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张雪梅

    2014-01-01

    classification of food preservatives , food preservatives in food safety issues arising . As consumers increase the " return to nature" desire , put a higher demand for food : it is necessary to keep the original state of food raw materials, reduce heat treatment process , but also to try to extend the shelf life of food . The short term we can take to improve the legal , regulatory and strict measures to raise awareness , but in the long run, through the development and utilization of natural preservatives , and gradualy replace chemical preservatives, food preservatives safety issue is resolved fundamental way .%介绍食品的防腐剂分类,分析食品防腐剂所产生的食品安全问题。随着消费者“回归自然”愿望的增加,对食品提出了更高要求:既要尽量保持食品原料的原始状态、减少热处理等加工过程,又要尽量延长食品保质期。短期内我们可以采取完善法规、严格监管和加强认识的措施,但从长远来看,通过天然防腐剂的开发利用,逐渐代替化学防腐剂,才是解决食品防腐剂安全问题的根本途径。

  17. Marketing Study Of The Preference Of The Egyptian Consuming Family To Buy Some Dried Food Preserved By Gamma Radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alongside traditional methods of processing and preserving food, the technology of food irradiation is gaining more and more attention around the world. In 1997/10/22, the Egyptian government issued clearance for irradiating certain items of food such as spices, herbs and dried onion and garlic. The approval of some other items of food such as poultry, fish and dried vegetables will issue in the near future. This study aims to know the opinion and attitude of the preference of the consuming Egyptian family to buy some dried food preserved by gamma radiation such as wheat, dried onion and garlic, dried date, dried legumes and yamish Ramadan when available on the market. A pool of 1160 sheets was collected randomly. The questionnaire was supported with simplified information about the use of atomic energy and radiation for peaceful purpose and other alternative methods to save food. The results obtained from this study showed that 67% of the total sample size accepted to buy irradiated fresh vegetables if its available in the markets while the objection was 15% and convinced were 17%. The model of the multi regression analysis was carried out between independent variables (the local consumer attitude towards buying some dried food preserved by gamma radiation) and dependent variables (technical, environmental, marketing and hygienic methods. The results were R2= 0.877 and F-test = 322 (significant). The model of the multi regression analysis was also carried out between dependent variables (the local consumer attitude towards buying some dried food preserved by gamma radiation) and independent variables (income, Education, age and governorates). The results were R2 = 0.53 and F-test12.64 (significant).

  18. 食品防腐剂的使用现状及安全性分析%Application Status of Food Preservatives and Their Security Analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刁益韶; 贾萌; 朱璐瑶

    2012-01-01

    Food preservatives are mainly used to inhibit the growth and reproduction of microorganism, and extend the preservation of food. To analyze the application status of food preservatives in China, types and properties of commonly used preservatives,problems of food preservative using and security evaluation indexes, put forward the suggestions of safe using of food preservative.%食品防腐剂主要用于抑制微生物的生长繁殖,以延长食品的保存期。分析了我国食品防腐剂的使用现状、常用的防腐剂的种类及性能、防腐剂使用中存在的问题及安全性评价指标,提出了安全使用防腐剂的建议。

  19. Influence of some physical treatments and natural food preservatives on the diversity of microorganisms in certain egyptian juices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foods begin to lose their quality from the moment they are harvested.Microorganisms are the main agents responsible for food spoilages . Food preservation prevents deteriorative reaction, extending the shelf life and assuring its safety. The uses of chemical preservatives have harmful effects in long term application. So, the purpose of this article is to use the natural treatments instead of chemical preservatives or application of high temperature which cause losses of some essential nutrients of the juice. In this study the following treatments were investigated: 1. Gamma irradiation . the lethal effect of ionizing radiation on the microorganisms is primarily due to DNA damage, which destroys the reproductive capabilities and other functions of the cell. 2. Pasteurized temperatures(90 degree c).Heat can damage protein, lipids, and nucleic acids of microorganisms and destabilize their membranes.3.The natural preservatives : nisin, citric acid, lactic acid, cinnamon, combination treatments : it was performed between the previous treatments.The best results obtained from our experiments for preserving the fruit juice were performed by combing the pasteurized temperature 90 degree C for 30 sec with gamma irradiation (0.2 K Gy). Or using 200 μg/ml of nisin in combination with 2% (w/v) of citric acid and pasteurized temperature 90 degree C for 30 sec.

  20. Food preservatives sodium benzoate and propionic acid and colorant curcumin suppress Th1-type immune response in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maier, Elisabeth; Kurz, Katharina; Jenny, Marcel; Schennach, Harald; Ueberall, Florian; Fuchs, Dietmar

    2010-07-01

    Food preservatives sodium benzoate and propionic acid and colorant curcumin are demonstrated to suppress in a dose-dependent manner Th1-type immune response in human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) in vitro. Results show an anti-inflammatory property of compounds which however could shift the Th1-Th2-type immune balance towards Th2-type immunity.

  1. Preservative effect of food-based fermentate from Lactobacillus acidophilus NX2-6 on chilled pork patties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qianying; Lu, Yingjian; Liu, Xiaoxi; Bie, Xiaomei; Lv, Fengxia; Lu, Zhaoxin

    2014-03-01

    The food-based fermentate (FBF) from Lactobacillus acidophilus NX2-6 has a broad-spectrum antibacterial activity but has not previously been reported as a food preservative. Experiments were conducted to assess its application as a preservative in pork patties. The effect of freeze-dried FBF on the microbiological parameters, physicochemical changes, and sensory evaluations of chilled pork patties stored for 15 days at 4°C was investigated. The five treatments evaluated included a control (meat only), nisin (meat plus 0.5% nisin), L.1 (meat plus 2% freeze-dried FBF), L.2 (meat plus 4% freeze-dried FBF), and L.3 (meat plus 8% freeze-dried FBF). The results showed that freeze-dried FBF could significantly (P preservative in chilled pork patties.

  2. Plasma membrane H+ and K+ transporters are involved in the weak-acid preservative response of disparate food spoilage yeasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macpherson, Neil; Shabala, Lana; Rooney, Henrietta; Jarman, Marcus G; Davies, Julia M

    2005-06-01

    The food spoilage yeasts Zygosaccharomyces bailii and Saccharomyces cerevisiae have been proposed to resist weak-acid preservative stress by different means; Z. bailii by limiting influx of preservative combined with its catabolism, S. cerevisiae by active extrusion of the preservative weak-acid anion and H(+). Measurement of H(+) extrusion by exponential-phase Z. bailii cells suggest that, in common with S. cerevisiae, this yeast uses a plasma membrane H(+)-ATPase to expel H(+) when challenged by weak-acid preservative (benzoic acid). Simultaneous measurement of Z. bailii net H(+) and K(+) fluxes showed that net K(+) influx accompanies net H(+) efflux during acute benzoic acid stress. Such ionic coupling is known for S. cerevisiae in short-term preservative stress. Both yeasts significantly accumulated K(+) on long-term exposure to benzoic acid. Analysis of S. cerevisiae K(+) transporter mutants revealed that loss of the high affinity K(+) uptake system Trk1 confers sensitivity to growth in preservative. The results suggest that cation accumulation is an important factor in adaptation to weak-acid preservatives by spoilage yeasts and that Z. bailii and S. cerevisiae share hitherto unsuspected adaptive responses at the level of plasma membrane ion transport.

  3. Evaluation of Galleria mellonella larvae as an in vivo model for assessing the relative toxicity of food preservative agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maguire, Ronan; Duggan, Orla; Kavanagh, Kevin

    2016-06-01

    Larvae of Galleria mellonella are widely used for evaluating the virulence of microbial pathogens and for measuring the efficacy of anti-microbial agents and produce results comparable to those that can be obtained using mammals. In this work, the suitability of using G. mellonella larvae to measure the relative toxicity of a variety of food preservatives was evaluated. The response of larvae to eight commonly used food preservatives (potassium nitrate, potassium nitrite, potassium sorbate, sodium benzoate, sodium nitrate, sodium chloride, sodium nitrite and sodium acetate) administered by feeding or by intra-haemocoel injection was measured. A significant correlation between the LD50 (R (2) = 0.8766, p = 0.0006) and LD80 (R (2) = 0.7629, p = 0.0046) values obtained due to oral or intra-haemocoel administration of compounds was established. The response of HEp-2 cells to the food preservatives was determined, and a significant correlation (R (2) = 0.7217, p = 0.0076) between the LD50 values of the compounds administered by feeding in larvae with the IC50 values of the compounds in HEp-2 cells was established. A strong correlation between the LD50 values of the eight food preservatives in G. mellonella larvae and rats (R (2) = 0.6506, p = 0.0156) was demonstrated. The results presented here indicate that G. mellonella larvae may be used as a model to evaluate the relative toxicity of food preservatives, and the results show a strong positive correlation to those obtained using established cell culture and mammalian models.

  4. Evaluation of Galleria mellonella larvae as an in vivo model for assessing the relative toxicity of food preservative agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maguire, Ronan; Duggan, Orla; Kavanagh, Kevin

    2016-06-01

    Larvae of Galleria mellonella are widely used for evaluating the virulence of microbial pathogens and for measuring the efficacy of anti-microbial agents and produce results comparable to those that can be obtained using mammals. In this work, the suitability of using G. mellonella larvae to measure the relative toxicity of a variety of food preservatives was evaluated. The response of larvae to eight commonly used food preservatives (potassium nitrate, potassium nitrite, potassium sorbate, sodium benzoate, sodium nitrate, sodium chloride, sodium nitrite and sodium acetate) administered by feeding or by intra-haemocoel injection was measured. A significant correlation between the LD50 (R (2) = 0.8766, p = 0.0006) and LD80 (R (2) = 0.7629, p = 0.0046) values obtained due to oral or intra-haemocoel administration of compounds was established. The response of HEp-2 cells to the food preservatives was determined, and a significant correlation (R (2) = 0.7217, p = 0.0076) between the LD50 values of the compounds administered by feeding in larvae with the IC50 values of the compounds in HEp-2 cells was established. A strong correlation between the LD50 values of the eight food preservatives in G. mellonella larvae and rats (R (2) = 0.6506, p = 0.0156) was demonstrated. The results presented here indicate that G. mellonella larvae may be used as a model to evaluate the relative toxicity of food preservatives, and the results show a strong positive correlation to those obtained using established cell culture and mammalian models. PMID:27122324

  5. Nisin ZP, a Bacteriocin and Food Preservative, Inhibits Head and Neck Cancer Tumorigenesis and Prolongs Survival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamarajan, Pachiyappan; Hayami, Takayuki; Matte, Bibiana; Liu, Yang; Danciu, Theodora; Ramamoorthy, Ayyalusamy; Worden, Francis; Kapila, Sunil; Kapila, Yvonne

    2015-01-01

    The use of small antimicrobial peptides or bacteriocins, like nisin, to treat cancer is a new approach that holds great promise. Nisin exemplifies this new approach because it has been used safely in humans for many years as a food preservative, and recent laboratory studies support its anti-tumor potential in head and neck cancer. Previously, we showed that nisin (2.5%, low content) has antitumor potential in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) in vitro and in vivo. The current studies explored a naturally occurring variant of nisin (nisin ZP; 95%, high content) for its antitumor effects in vitro and in vivo. Nisin ZP induced the greatest level of apoptosis in HNSCC cells compared to low content nisin. HNSCC cells treated with increasing concentrations of nisin ZP exhibited increasing levels of apoptosis and decreasing levels of cell proliferation, clonogenic capacity, and sphere formation. Nisin ZP induced apoptosis through a calpain-dependent pathway in HNSCC cells but not in human oral keratinocytes. Nisin ZP also induced apoptosis dose-dependently in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC) with concomitant decreases in vascular sprout formation in vitro and reduced intratumoral microvessel density in vivo. Nisin ZP reduced tumorigenesis in vivo and long-term treatment with nisin ZP extended survival. In addition, nisin treated mice exhibited normal organ histology with no evidence of inflammation, fibrosis or necrosis. In summary, nisin ZP exhibits greater antitumor effects than low content nisin, and thus has the potential to serve as a novel therapeutic for HNSCC.

  6. Effect of some food preservatives on the lipolytic activity of beef luncheon fungi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saleem, Abdel-Rahman

    2008-09-01

    Beef luncheon meat is one of the most popular meals in several countries in the world including Egypt. Thirty one fungal species and 3 species varieties were recovered from 30 samples of beef luncheon meat collected from different supermarkets in Qena. Alternaria, Aspergillus, Emericella, Mucor, Mycosphaerella, Penicillium and Rhizopus were the most common genera on the two types of media. From the above genera, the most prevalent species were Alternaria alternate, Aspergillus flavus, A. fumigatus, A. niger, A. terreus, Emericella nidulans, Mucor racemosus, Mycosphaerella tassiana, Penicillium chrysogenum and Rhizopus stolonifer. Screening of fungi for their abilities to produce lipase enzyme showed that, ten isolates represented 32.26% of total isolates appeared high lipase production, while sixteen isolates (51.61%) were moderate and 5 isolates (16.13%) were low producers. Aspergillus niger, Fusarium oxysporum and Nectria haematococca produced the highest amount of lipase enzyme, so these fungi were used in further studies. The incorporation of five food preservatives (Disodium phosphate, sodium benzoate, citric acid, potassium sorbate and sodium citrate) individually in the culture medium of lipase production exhibited an inhibitive effect on the mycelial growth and enzyme production by Aspergillus niger, Fusarium oxysporum and Nectria haematococca. PMID:23997619

  7. Nisin ZP, a Bacteriocin and Food Preservative, Inhibits Head and Neck Cancer Tumorigenesis and Prolongs Survival.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pachiyappan Kamarajan

    Full Text Available The use of small antimicrobial peptides or bacteriocins, like nisin, to treat cancer is a new approach that holds great promise. Nisin exemplifies this new approach because it has been used safely in humans for many years as a food preservative, and recent laboratory studies support its anti-tumor potential in head and neck cancer. Previously, we showed that nisin (2.5%, low content has antitumor potential in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC in vitro and in vivo. The current studies explored a naturally occurring variant of nisin (nisin ZP; 95%, high content for its antitumor effects in vitro and in vivo. Nisin ZP induced the greatest level of apoptosis in HNSCC cells compared to low content nisin. HNSCC cells treated with increasing concentrations of nisin ZP exhibited increasing levels of apoptosis and decreasing levels of cell proliferation, clonogenic capacity, and sphere formation. Nisin ZP induced apoptosis through a calpain-dependent pathway in HNSCC cells but not in human oral keratinocytes. Nisin ZP also induced apoptosis dose-dependently in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC with concomitant decreases in vascular sprout formation in vitro and reduced intratumoral microvessel density in vivo. Nisin ZP reduced tumorigenesis in vivo and long-term treatment with nisin ZP extended survival. In addition, nisin treated mice exhibited normal organ histology with no evidence of inflammation, fibrosis or necrosis. In summary, nisin ZP exhibits greater antitumor effects than low content nisin, and thus has the potential to serve as a novel therapeutic for HNSCC.

  8. Critical evaluation of commonly used objective functions to optimize overall quality and nutrient retention of heat-preserved foods

    OpenAIRE

    Silva, C.; Hendrickx, M.; De Oliveira, F.; Tobback, P

    1992-01-01

    Two objective functions—volume average retention and volume average cook-value—commonly used to optimize the overall quality and nutrient retention of heat-preserved foods, were studied and optimal processing conditions based on the two approaches were compared. Case studies from the literature were run and tested for the two objective functions. The influence of the decimal reduction time (at the reference temperature, Dref value) of the quality factor on the optimal processing temperature w...

  9. Water-based oligochitosan and nanowhisker chitosan as potential food preservatives for shelf-life extension of minced pork.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chantarasataporn, Patomporn; Tepkasikul, Preenapha; Kingcha, Yutthana; Yoksan, Rangrong; Pichyangkura, Rath; Visessanguan, Wonnop; Chirachanchai, Suwabun

    2014-09-15

    Water-based chitosans in the forms of oligochitosan (OligoCS) and nanowhisker chitosan (CSWK) are proposed as a novel food preservative based on a minced pork model study. The high surface area with a positive charge over the neutral pH range (pH 5-8) of OligoCS and CSWK lead to an inhibition against Gram-positive (Staphylococcus aureus, Listeria monocytogenes, and Bacillus cereus) and Gram-negative microbes (Salmonella enteritidis and Escherichia coli O157:H7). In the minced pork model, OligoCS effectively performs a food preservative for shelf-life extension as clarified from the retardation of microbial growth, biogenic amine formation and lipid oxidation during the storage. OligoCS maintains almost all myosin heavy chain protein degradation as observed in the electrophoresis. The present work points out that water-based chitosan with its unique morphology not only significantly inhibits antimicrobial activity but also maintains the meat quality with an extension of shelf-life, and thus has the potential to be used as a food preservative.

  10. Assessment of dietary exposure in the French population to 13 selected food colours, preservatives, antioxidants, stabilizers, emulsifiers and sweeteners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bemrah, Nawel; Leblanc, Jean-Charles; Volatier, Jean-Luc

    2008-01-01

    The results of French intake estimates for 13 food additives prioritized by the methods proposed in the 2001 Report from the European Commission on Dietary Food Additive Intake in the European Union are reported. These 13 additives were selected using the first and second tiers of the three-tier approach. The first tier was based on theoretical food consumption data and the maximum permitted level of additives. The second tier used real individual food consumption data and the maximum permitted level of additives for the substances which exceeded the acceptable daily intakes (ADI) in the first tier. In the third tier reported in this study, intake estimates were calculated for the 13 additives (colours, preservatives, antioxidants, stabilizers, emulsifiers and sweeteners) according to two modelling assumptions corresponding to two different food habit scenarios (assumption 1: consumers consume foods that may or may not contain food additives, and assumption 2: consumers always consume foods that contain additives) when possible. In this approach, real individual food consumption data and the occurrence/use-level of food additives reported by the food industry were used. Overall, the results of the intake estimates are reassuring for the majority of additives studied since the risk of exceeding the ADI was low, except for nitrites, sulfites and annatto, whose ADIs were exceeded by either children or adult consumers or by both populations under one and/or two modelling assumptions. Under the first assumption, the ADI is exceeded for high consumers among adults for nitrites and sulfites (155 and 118.4%, respectively) and among children for nitrites (275%). Under the second assumption, the average nitrites dietary exposure in children exceeds the ADI (146.7%). For high consumers, adults exceed the nitrite and sulfite ADIs (223 and 156.4%, respectively) and children exceed the nitrite, annatto and sulfite ADIs (416.7, 124.6 and 130.6%, respectively).

  11. Antifungal properties of gliadin films incorporating cinnamaldehyde and application in active food packaging of bread and cheese spread foodstuffs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balaguer, Mari Pau; Lopez-Carballo, Gracia; Catala, Ramon; Gavara, Rafael; Hernandez-Munoz, Pilar

    2013-09-16

    Gliadin films incorporating 1.5, 3 and 5% cinnamaldehyde (g/100g protein) were tested against food-spoilage fungi Penicillium expansum and Aspergillus niger in vitro, and were employed in an active food packaging system for sliced bread and cheese spread. Gliadin films incorporating cinnamaldehyde were highly effective against fungal growth. P. expansum and A. niger were completely inhibited after storage in vitro for 10 days in the presence of films incorporating 3% cinnamaldehyde. Indeed 1.5% cinnamaldehyde was sufficient in the case of P. expansum. The amount of cinnamaldehyde retained in films after storage for 45 days at 20 °C and 0% RH was also sufficient in most cases to prevent fungal growth in vitro. Active food packaging with gliadin films incorporating 5% cinnamaldehyde increased the shelf-life of both sliced bread and cheese spread. Mold growth was observed on sliced bread after 27 days of storage at 23 °C with active packaging, whereas in the control bread packaged without the active film fungal growth appeared around the fourth day. In the cheese spread, no fungi were observed after 26 days of storage at 4 °C when the product was packaged with the active film. However, growth of fungi was observed in control packaged cheese after 16 days of storage. This work demonstrates a noteworthy potential of these novel bioplastics incorporating natural antimicrobial compounds as innovative solutions to be used in active food packaging to extend shelf-life of food products. PMID:24029024

  12. Extended safe preservation period of foods of plant origin through combined technological methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The sublimation drying of fruits as an innovative technology for preservation their composition and enzyme activity is applied to various fruits: apricots, strawberries, plumbs, peaches and apples. The authors present the main methods of lyophilization as an original biotechnology for cryopreservation of fruits and afterwards are subjected to cold sterilization with 1.5 and 3 kGy doses of gamma irradiation. The combined application of both technologies provides safe and extended preservation of fresh fruits with high content of vitamins, mineral salts, maximum preserved enzyme system, aroma-tasty complex and microbiological purity

  13. The Research of Food Preservation by Irradiation and Its Industrialization in Korea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Since the late 1960s, radiation effects on the storage of potatoes, strawberry, grapes and rice have been investigated on an experimental basis in Korea, Based on the research results of batch scale storage for sprouting food (potatoes, onions, chestnuts) and white ginseng powder by the Korea Advanced Energy Research Institute (KAERI) and on the recommendation. Food irradiation is a new process that may provide an alternative to existing food processes. From the extensive research in food irradiation for more than three decades by leading international organizations and advanced countries, the efficacy of a number of applications has been established, including sprout inhibition, disinfestation of insects, sterilization, delay of ripening, and improvement of organoleptic properties in food. Owing to the recommendation on the Wholesomeness of Irradiated Food by the Joint FAO/IAEA/W/o Expert Committee in 1980 and the adaption of the Codex General Standard for Irradiated Food by the Codex Allurements Commission in 1983, as of May 1985, thirty-two countries have officially approved 227 food items in 73 food groups as safe for human consumption. Food irradiation processing is increasingly recognized as a viable technology for reducing the overall quantity of spoiled food, reducing energy used in food storage, and reducing reliance on chemicals currently used

  14. An Overview on the Effects of Sodium Benzoate as a Preservative in Food Products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahmohammadi

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Context Food spoilage has been a common problem throughout history, and much of the spoilage is caused the activity of microorganisms or enzymatic reactions during the storage of food. Thus, using chemical substances could prevent or delay food spoilage and this has led to the great success of these compounds in the treatment of human diseases. Sodium benzoate is one of the synthetic additives that are widely used in the food industry. Evidence Acquisition In this review we summarized the history and role of benzoate sodium in the food industry, its limited value in different food, other uses, pharmacokinetics, and its toxicity in animal studies. A literature search was carried out using MEDLINE, Scopus, Science Direct, and Scientific Information Databases (SID. Results Sodium benzoate is used in different industries as well as the food industry and it has adverse effects similar to other food additives. Conclusions Studies on natural ingredients in foods to find compounds with similar effects as benzoate with less adverse effects is necessary.

  15. Encapsulation for preservation of functionality and targeted delivery of bioactive food components

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Vos, Paul; Faas, Marijke M.; Spasojevic, Milica; Sikkema, Jan

    2010-01-01

    There has been a tremendous increase in the number of food products containing bioactive components with a health promoting or disease preventing effect. Bioactive food components can be divided into bioactive molecules and bioactive living cells (probiotics). Both bioactive molecules and bioactive

  16. 天然食品防腐剂的研究进展%Research Progress of the Natural Food Preservative

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冯炜玮; 陈志伟

    2011-01-01

    The paper make a review about 10 kinds of representative materials and their mechanism of 3 kinds of natural food preservatives,such as animality, vegetalitas and microorganisms, and also take a prospect about the development and application of natural foodpreservative.%综述了动物性、植物性及微生物性3种主要天然食品防腐剂的10种代表物质及其作用机理,并对其应用前景进行了展望.

  17. Purification and characterization of bacteriocin like substance produced from bacillus lentus with perspective of a new biopreservative for food preservation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Molecular weight of bacteriocin like substance (BLIS) of a new strain of Bacillus lentus 121 was found to be approximately 11 kDa. Purification of BLIS was attained by single step gel exclusion chromatography. BLIS was characterized by studying the inhibitory spectrum. It was active at broad pH range, high temperature and high NaCl concentration and showed sensitivity to proteolytic enzymes like trypsin, alpha-chymotrypsin and papain, the characters desirable for food preservation. BLIS extended the shelf stability of milk upto 21 days as a biopreservative. (author)

  18. Combined effect of thermal sterilization and ionizing radiation on storage life of preserved foods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effect was studied of the binary combination of preservation methods, i.e., of a reduced intensity of thermosterilization and diverse doses of ionizing radiation, on the content of microorganisms in single-component tinned products (tinned beef and gravy, tinned pickled cauliflower) and in tins containing two components (beef with cauliflower) over a period of 115 days of storage at a laboratory temperature of 20 degC ± 2 degC. The experimental results showed that the chosen combined process of preservation guaranteed sufficient storage stability to the products over several months of storage. An ionizing radiation dose of 5 kGy was sufficient for both types of model samples, this both from microbiological, nutritional aspects (some group B vitamins, vitamin C, -SH groups, etc.) and with regard to organoleptic properties (outlook, color, odor, flavor, consistence, juiciness). The problems will further be studied. (author) 2 tabs., 4 figs., 14 refs

  19. Preserving the authenticity of food and wine festivals: the case of Italy

    OpenAIRE

    Cristina Santini; Alessio Cavicchi; Eleonora Belletti

    2013-01-01

    In the last ten years, the Academy has fostered the scientific debate over typical food products and their role in the development of rural communities and rural tourism. Background research define terroir as a harmonious bundle of territorial, climatic, historical and cultural characteristics which belong to a certain region. According to UNESCO, food and wine festivals are part of the intangible cultural heritage: during festivals product knowledge is spread among participants and local com...

  20. The EPR detection of foods preserved with the use of ionizing radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stachowicz, W.; Burlińska, G.; Michalik, J.; Dziedzic-Gocławska, A.; Ostrowski, K.

    1995-02-01

    Solid constituents extracted from irradiated foods have been examined by the epr (esr) spectroscopy. It has been proved that some epr active species produced by radiation in foods are specific and stable enough to be used for the detection of irradiation treatment. The most promising results have been obtained with bones extracted from frozen raw meat (beef, pork, poultry and fish), with seeds of fruits (dates and figs), with dried mushrooms, gelatin and macaroni.

  1. Ramsons can deliver taste and antibacterial effect in food preservation: From nature to cultivation

    OpenAIRE

    Jensen, Martin; Hansen, Flemming; Grevsen, K.

    2014-01-01

    Ramsons (Allium ursinum) contain sulphur compounds that display strong antibacterial activity against Listeria, Salmonella and E. coli. Onion bulbs and flowers have a higher concentration of allicin than leaves and stems and display higher inhibitory activity. Grinded onion bulbs have shown strong antibacterial effects in meat test models and may potentially be used as an alternative to preserve organic meat products. Cultivation methods are investigated.

  2. 植物精油在食品保鲜中的应用研究%Research Progress in Preservative Effect of Plant Essential Oil on Food

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    段伟丽; 包怡红

    2015-01-01

    Food preservation is a big problem of industry .We often add preservative in food to prevent food spoilage and extend shelf life .Essential oils as an important source of natural preservative ,form inhibitory atmosphere a‐round food in direct contact or fumigation way .In this paper ,antibacterial activity ,the effects and possible mecha‐nisms of plant essential oils involved in the preservation of food are discussed ,which is expected to provide a theo‐retical reference for the development of natural food preservatives .%食品保鲜是食品工业所面临的一大难题,为了防止食品腐败变质,延长食品货架期,常常在食品中添加保鲜剂。植物精油作为天然源保鲜剂的重要来源,是一种挥发性较好的保鲜剂,以直接接触或熏蒸的方式在食物周围形成抑菌氛围,从而达到防腐保鲜。主要阐述了植物精油的抑菌活性、抑菌机理及其在食品保鲜中的应用,为食品天然源保鲜剂的开发和应用提供参考。

  3. Effect of food preservative and food coloring agent on some physiological and hematological parameters in albino rats and theprotective role of garlic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eman G.E. Helal* and Mervat Abdel- Rahman

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Most children, in the age of nursery consume food that contains both colorants and preservatives with great amount. This observation led us to study the interaction between sodium nitrite as a food preservative and sun set yellow as a coloring agent. The mixture of the two agents at the limited dose of each was found to be a lethal dose. So, 1/10th of this dose was used daily for 30 days. Animals were divided into three groups. The first group served as a control, while the second group was orally administered a mixture of 10 mg sod.nitrite (NaNO3/kg mixed with 0.5 mg/kg/day sun set yellow (S.S.Y. The third group received garlic (5 mcg/kg in addition to the above mentioned mixture. After 30 days of treatment, half of the animals from each group were decapitated. The other half of the animals was left for another 15 days without any additional treatment as a recovery period. Ingestion of the mixture of (NaNO3 and S.S.Y significantly decreased rat body weight, RBCs and WBCs counts, Hb%, Hct%. No changes were recorded for organ/ body weight, respiratory rate, heart rate, rectal temperature. A complete recovery from the abnormalities of most physiological and hematological parameters was observed after the recovery period or when garlic was administered

  4. Radiation preservation of foods of plant origin. Part IV. Subtropical fruits: citrus, grapes, and avocados

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Current information on the use of ionizing radiation for improving the storage of subtropical fruits like citrus, grapes, and avocados is reviewed. The feasibility of applying radiation either alone or in combination with other physical or chemical treatments for the control of postharvest fungal diseases is considered. Irradiation effects on the physiology of the fruits as related to respiration, ethylene evolution, changes in major chemical constituents, and quality are discussed. The recent trends in the possible use of irradiation as an alternative treatment to chemical fumigants for disinfestation of citrus and avocados and the prospects for the future application of irradiation for preservation of some of these fruits are outlined. 128 references

  5. Modelling the growth/no growth boundary of Zygosaccharomyces bailii in acidic conditions: a contribution to the alternative method to preserve foods without using chemical preservatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dang, T D T; Mertens, L; Vermeulen, A; Geeraerd, A H; Van Impe, J F; Debevere, J; Devlieghere, F

    2010-01-31

    The aim of the study was to develop mathematical models describing growth/no growth (G/NG) boundaries of the highly resistant food spoilage yeast-Zygosaccharomyces bailii-in different environmental conditions, taking acidified sauces as the target product. By applying these models, the stability of products with characteristics within the investigated pH, a(w) and acetic acid ranges can be evaluated. Besides, the well-defined no growth regions can be used in the development of guidelines regarding formulation of new shelf-stable foods without using chemical preservatives, which would facilitate the innovation of additive-free products. Experiments were performed at different temperatures and periods (22 degrees C for 45 and 60days, 30 degrees C for 45days) in 150 modified Sabouraud media characterized by high amount of sugars (glucose and fructose, 15% (w/v)), acetic acid (0.0-2.5% (v/v), 6 levels), pH (3.0-5.0, 5 levels) and a(w) (0.93-0.97, 5 levels). These time and temperature combinations were chosen as they are commonly applied for shelf-stable foods. The media were inoculated with ca. 4.5 log CFU/ml and yeast growth was monitored daily using optical density measurements. Every condition was examined in 20 replicates in order to yield accurate growth probabilities. Three separate ordinary logistic regression models were developed for different tested temperatures and incubation time. The total acetic acid concentration was considered as variable for all models. In general, when one intrinsic inhibitory factor became more stringent, the G/NG boundary shifted to less stressful conditions of the other two factors, resulting in enlarged no growth zones. Abrupt changes of growth probability often occurred around the transition zones (between growth and no growth regions), which indicates that minor variations in environmental conditions near the G/NG boundaries can cause a significant impact on the growth probability. When comparing growth after 45days between the

  6. Antibacterial and antifungal activities of thymol: A brief review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchese, Anna; Orhan, Ilkay Erdogan; Daglia, Maria; Barbieri, Ramona; Di Lorenzo, Arianna; Nabavi, Seyed Fazel; Gortzi, Olga; Izadi, Morteza; Nabavi, Seyed Mohammad

    2016-11-01

    Thymol (2-isopropyl-5-methylphenol) is the main monoterpene phenol occurring in essential oils isolated from plants belonging to the Lamiaceae family (Thymus, Ocimum, Origanum, and Monarda genera), and other plants such as those belonging to the Verbenaceae, Scrophulariaceae, Ranunculaceae, and Apiaceae families. These essential oils are used in the food industry for their flavouring and preservative properties, in commercial mosquito repellent formulations for their natural repellent effect, in aromatherapy, and in traditional medicine for the treatment of headaches, coughs, and diarrhea. Many different activities of thymol such as antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, local anaesthetic, antinociceptive, cicatrizing, antiseptic, and especially antibacterial and antifungal properties have been shown. This review aims to critically evaluate the available literature regarding the antibacterial and antifungal effects of thymol. PMID:27211664

  7. Lack of oestrogenic effects of food preservatives (parabens) in uterotrophic assays

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hossaini, A.; Larsen, Jens-Jørgen; Larsen, John Christian

    2000-01-01

    The oestrogenic activity of the parabens, methyl-, ethyl- and propyl p-hydroxybenzoate, widely used as antimicrobials in food, and butyl p-hydroxybenzoate, which is used in cosmetic products, and their shared main metabolite p-hydroxybenzoic acid was investigated in a mouse uterotrophic assay...

  8. Functional genomics for food microbiology: Molecular mechanisms of weak organic acid preservative adaptation in yeast

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S. Brul; W. Kallemeijn; G. Smits

    2008-01-01

    The recent era of genomics has offered tremendous possibilities to biology. This concise review describes the possibilities of applying (functional) genomics studies to the field of microbial food stability. In doing so, the studies on weak-organic-acid stress response in yeast are discussed by way

  9. The application of irradiation techniques for food preservation and processing improvement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Byun, Myung Woo; Cho, Han Ok; Jo, Sung Ki; Yook, Hong Sun; Kwon, Oh Jin; Yang, Jae Seung; Kim, Sung; Im, Sung Il

    1997-09-01

    This project has intended to develop alternative techniques to be used in food industry for food processing and utilization by safe irradiation methods. For improvement of rheology and processing in corn starch by irradiation, the production of modified starch with low viscosity as well as with excellent viscosity stability became feasible by the control of gamma irradiation dose levels and the amount of added inorganic peroxides to starch. Also, this project was developed the improvement methods of hygienic quality and long-term storage of dried red pepper by gamma irradiation. And, in Korean medicinal plants, 10 kGy gamma irradiation was effective for improving sanitary quality and increasing extraction yield of major components. For the sanitization of health and convenience foods, gamma irradiation was more effective than ozone treatment in decontamination of microorganisms, with minimal effect on the physicochemical properties analysed. In evaluation of wholesomeness, gamma-irradiated the Korean medicinal plants could be safe on the genotoxic point of view. And, thirteen groups of irradiated foods approved for human consumption from Korea Ministry of Health and Welfare. (author). 81 refs., 74 tabs.

  10. Feeding a hungry world: the challenge of developing safe and effective methods of food preservation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preventing the loss of harvested commodities due to either postharvest diseases or physiological breakdown (uncontrolled ripening) offers a significant approach to providing the increased yields of food that will be needed to feed the world population in the 21st century (Wilson 2013). Activities ...

  11. The application of irradiation techniques for food preservation and processing improvement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This project has intended to develop alternative techniques to be used in food industry for food processing and utilization by safe irradiation methods. For improvement of rheology and processing in corn starch by irradiation, the production of modified starch with low viscosity as well as with excellent viscosity stability became feasible by the control of gamma irradiation dose levels and the amount of added inorganic peroxides to starch. Also, this project was developed the improvement methods of hygienic quality and long-term storage of dried red pepper by gamma irradiation. And, in Korean medicinal plants, 10 kGy gamma irradiation was effective for improving sanitary quality and increasing extraction yield of major components. For the sanitization of health and convenience foods, gamma irradiation was more effective than ozone treatment in decontamination of microorganisms, with minimal effect on the physicochemical properties analysed. In evaluation of wholesomeness, gamma-irradiated the Korean medicinal plants could be safe on the genotoxic point of view. And, thirteen groups of irradiated foods approved for human consumption from Korea Ministry of Health and Welfare. (author). 81 refs., 74 tabs

  12. Variable Efficacy of the Proteinaceous Antifungal YvgO in Select Fruit Juices and Teas as a Complement with UV Methods of Food Protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manns, David C; Churey, John J; Worobo, Randy W

    2015-10-01

    Heat-resistant fungal spores present a processing challenge for beverages and fruit juices, as thermal and UV strategies are often inadequate in reducing heat-resistant fungal burdens to acceptable levels. While effective against pathogenic or invasive bacteria, germicidal UV light treatments also fail to achieve an appreciable reduction of heat-resistant fungal spores. As an alternative, the efficacy of the antifungal protein YvgO was examined across a selection of fruit juices and teas, as well as solid model matrices. Compared with its efficacy in analogous liquid matrices, the apparent efficacy of YvgO was diminished on acidified solid matrices due to a reduction in YvgO diffusion. Using an XTT [2,3-bis(2-methoxy-4-nitro-5-sulfophenyl)-2H-tetrazolium-5-carboxanilide] tetrazolium dye cytotoxicity assay, the effective concentrations to reduce growth by 50% were elucidated in samples challenged with Byssochlamys fulva H25. The MICs were determined and ranged from 2 ppm in apple juice and acidified teas to approximately 3 to 12 ppm for lemonade and orange, white cranberry, blueberry, prune, cherry, and grape juices. Apple cider and nonacidified teas showed reduced efficacy, with MICs exceeding 100 ppm. Tannin-rich products readily removed YvgO from the product, impairing its efficacy. Adding bovine serum albumin as a competitive inhibitor effectively reversed the YvgO-tannin association and restored efficacy in black but not green tea matrices. When challenged with a 5-log CFU inoculum of B. fulva, the shelf lives of the products were extended for various times up to 28 days in a concentrationdependent manner. However, initial efficacy was not predictive of shelf life extension, as some products exhibited improved protection at just two- and fourfold concentrations above the MIC, while others only exhibited long-term stability when concentrations exceeded 20 times the MIC. As such, YvgO may be an attractive alternative to currently available protection strategies

  13. Sorbic and benzoic acid in non-preservative-added food products in Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cakir, Ruziye; Cagri-Mehmetoglu, Arzu

    2013-01-01

    Sorbic acid (SA) and benzoic acid (BA) were determined in yoghurt, tomato and pepper paste, fruit juices, chocolates, soups and chips in Turkey by using high-pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC). Levels were compared with Turkish Food Codex limits. SA was detected only in 2 of 21 yoghurt samples, contrary to BA, which was found in all yoghurt samples but one, ranging from 10.5 to 159.9 mg/kg. Both SA and BA were detected also in 3 and 6 of 23 paste samples in a range of 18.1-526.4 and 21.7-1933.5 mg/kg, respectively. Only 1 of 23 fruit juices contained BA. SA was not detected in any chips, fruit juice, soup, or chocolate sample. Although 16.51% of the samples was not compliant with the Turkish Food Codex limits, estimated daily intake of BA or SA was below the acceptable daily intake.

  14. Plasma treated polyethylene terephthalate/polypropylene films assembled with chitosan and various preservatives for antimicrobial food packaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, Jieqiong; Yang, Lingxiao; Zhan, Yingfei; Wang, Yuntao; Ye, Ting; Li, Yan; Deng, Hongbing; Li, Bin

    2014-02-01

    In this study, polyethylene terephthalate/polypropylene (PET/PP) films were treated via atmospheric pressure plasma, assembled with chitosan and various preservatives and applied for antimicrobial food packaging. Surface properties of these obtained films were studied by contact angle measurement, atomic force microscopy (ATM), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), Fourier transformed infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) and dynamic laser scattering (DLS). The above results showed that the surface hydrophilicity and roughness of the films increased after the plasma treatment. Besides, chitosan and the preservatives were successfully assembled onto the surface of the films. In addition, the antimicrobial activities of the films against three kinds of microorganisms (Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilis and Escherichia coli) were investigated and the results indicated that the inhibition ratios against B. subtilis and E. coli reached almost 100% while the inhibition ratios against S. aureus were lower than 85%. Moreover, the accumulative release profiles of the antimicrobial substances migrating from the assembled films into the release solutions revealed that their release speed increased with the increment of temperature and acidity, but decreased with enhancing the ionic strength regulated by sodium chloride or with lowering the ionic mobility regulated by sucrose.

  15. [Simultaneous determination of twelve sweeteners and nine preservatives in foods by solid-phase extraction and LC-MS/MS].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuruda, Sayuri; Sakamoto, Tomonori; Akaki, Kouichi

    2013-01-01

    A rapid and simple method for the simultaneous determination of twelve sweeteners and nine preservatives in various foods by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) was developed. The sweeteners and preservatives were extracted from solid samples with 80% and 50% methanol and from liquid samples with 80% methanol, followed by Oasis WAX cartridge cleanup. The LC separation was performed on a XSelect CSH Phenyl-Hexyl column (5 μm, 2.1 mm ×150 mm) with a mobile phase of 10 mmol/L acetate buffer (pH 4.0)-acetonitrile and MS detection with negative ion electrospray ionization. The quantification limits of acesulfame K (AK), alitame (AL), aspartame (ASP), cyclamic acid (CYC), neotame (NEO), saccharin Na (SAC), p-hydroxybenzoic acid methyl (PHBA-Me), p-hydroxybenzoic acid ethyl (PHBA-Et), p-hydroxybenzoic acid isopropyl (PHBA-iPr), p-hydroxybenzoic acid propyl (PHBA-Pr), p-hydroxybenzoic acid isobutyl (PHBA-iBu) and p-hydroxybenzoic acid butyl (PHBA-Bu) were 0.001 g/kg, those of dulcin (DU), glycyrrhizic acid (GLY), neohesperidin dihydrochalcone (NHDC), rebaudioside A (REB), stevioside (STV), sucralose (SUC) and benzoic acid (BA) were 0.005 g/kg, and those of sorbic acid (SOA) and dehydroacetic acid (DHA) were 0.02 g/kg. The mean recoveries from ten kinds of foods fortified at the levels of 0.02 and 0.2 g/kg were 70.9-119.0%, and their relative standard deviations were 0.1-11.7%. PMID:23863365

  16. Chemical constituents of peppers (Piper spp.) and application to food preservation: naturally occurring antioxidative compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakatani, N; Inatani, R; Ohta, H; Nishioka, A

    1986-08-01

    In a structure analysis of the compounds of the genus Piper (Family Piperaceae), we identified five phenolic amides from Piper nigrum, seven compounds from P. retrofractum, and two compounds from P. baccatum. All the phenolic amides possess significant antioxidant activities that are more effective than the naturally occurring antioxidant, alpha-tocopherol. One amide, feruperine, has antioxidant activity as high as the synthetic antioxidants, butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA) and butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT). Naturally occurring antioxidants, therefore, may surpass BHA and BHT in their ability to inactivate mutagens in food. PMID:3757949

  17. Simplified Procedures for Obtaining Clearances of Foods Preserved by Ionizing Energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    After thirteen years of intensive research, using high doses of ionizing energy, highly acceptable wholesome shelf-stable bacon, ham, pork, beef, chicken and shrimp can be produced in the laboratory. Using doses below 1 Mrad, the shelf life of highly acceptable wholesome fish, wheat and wheat products, oranges, and white potatoes can be extended. Before production in the United States can be scaled up to commercial quantities for the broad consumer market, approvals are required from the United States Food and Drug Administration (USFDA) and, for meats from mammals and birds, from the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA). These agencies have approved bacon, wheat and wheat products, and white potatoes, following receipt and evaluation of petitions containing all pertinent information including description of the process to be used and the food-package combination to be cleared, the proposed radiation source, the dose range, dosimetry methods, wholesomeness and nutritional data, positive proof of microbiological safety, absence of measurable induced radioactivity, acceptance data from taste panelists, and storage and shipping data where applicable. Collecting the data required for successful petitions has proved to be both time-consuming and expensive. To improve this situation, the whole process of data collection and of writing the petitions is being reexamined in the interest of streamlining and expediting the process. Recommendations are offered relative to some of the means helpful in achieving this end. (author)

  18. A survey on food preservative application in 2015%2015年食品防腐剂使用调研及分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱小华; 方东亚; 刘幼兰; 李美玲; 梁鹏

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, the research was designed to investigate what food preservatives were utilized among 254 kinds of food in the hypermarket located in Fuzhou City. The results showed that there were 121 kinds of the foodstuffs without any food preservative ( 47.64% to the total samples) , including drinking water, canned foods, rice, flour, oil, fruit juice and puffed food. The foodstuffs added with food preservatives accounted for 52.36% to the total samples, the most food preservatives were utilized as potassium sor ̄bate, sodium benzoate and sodium metabisulfite (84.71%). The foodstuffs added with two or more kinds of food preservatives ac ̄counted for 24.8% to the total samples, but natural preservatives were 2.32%, including natamycin, nisin and gluconate ̄δ ̄lactone. It has been concluded that food preservatives utilized now were still traditional types.%对福州市某大型超市所售254种食品中所标示的食品防腐剂进行调研。结果发现:121种食品未添加任何食品防腐剂,占食品样本的47.64%,主要包括饮用水类、罐头类、米面类、食用油类、果汁饮料类及其他膨化食品等。添加防腐剂的食品占52.36%,其中使用传统防腐剂(山梨酸钾、苯甲酸钠、焦亚硫酸钠)约84.71%;而且同时使用2~3种防腐剂的食品占总样本的24.8%;天然防腐剂主要为纳他霉素、乳酸链球菌素和葡萄糖酸 ̄δ ̄内酯,使用比例较低(仅2.32%)。本次调查结果显示,市售产品中所使用的食品防腐剂仍以传统防腐剂为主。

  19. Characterization of a noncytotoxic bacteriocin from probiotic Lactobacillus plantarum DM5 with potential as a food preservative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Deeplina; Goyal, Arun

    2014-10-01

    The aim of this work was to purify and characterize the bacteriocin produced by probiotic Lactobacillus plantarum DM5 in order to evaluate its potential as nutraceuticals. Lb. plantarum DM5 exhibited in vitro probiotic properties such as high resistance to gastric juice and bile salt, adherence to human adenocarcinoma (HT-29) cells, bile salt hydrolase and cholesterol assimilation activity. Moreover, Lb. plantarum DM5 showed bacteriocin activity against several major food borne pathogens. Zymogram analysis of purified bacteriocin (plantaricin DM5) showed a molecular size of ∼15.2 kDa. Plantaricin DM5 was sensitive to proteolytic enzymes but stable in the pH range of 2.0-10.0, and it was heat resistant (121 °C for 15 min) and remained active upon treatment with surfactants and detergents. Cytotoxicity analysis of plantaricin DM5 on human embryonic kidney 293 (HEK 293) and human cervical cancer (HeLa) cell lines revealed its nontoxic and biocompatible nature. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study on the isolated strain expressing probiotic properties and broad antimicrobial activity without any cytotoxic effect on mammalian cells from indigenous fermented beverage Marcha from India, and thus contributes to the food industry as a novel bio-preservant.

  20. DNA content alterations in Tetrahymena pyriformis macronucleus after exposure to food preservatives sodium nitrate and sodium benzoate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loutsidou, Ariadni C; Hatzi, Vasiliki I; Chasapis, C T; Terzoudi, Georgia I; Spiliopoulou, Chara A; Stefanidou, Maria E

    2012-12-01

    The toxicity, in terms of changes in the DNA content, of two food preservatives, sodium nitrate and sodium benzoate was studied on the protozoan Tetrahymena pyriformis using DNA image analysis technology. For this purpose, selected doses of both food additives were administered for 2 h to protozoa cultures and DNA image analysis of T. pyriformis nuclei was performed. The analysis was based on the measurement of the Mean Optical Density which represents the cellular DNA content. The results have shown that after exposure of the protozoan cultures to doses equivalent to ADI, a statistically significant increase in the macronuclear DNA content compared to the unexposed control samples was observed. The observed increase in the macronuclear DNA content is indicative of the stimulation of the mitotic process and the observed increase in MOD, accompanied by a stimulation of the protozoan proliferation activity is in consistence with this assumption. Since alterations at the DNA level such as DNA content and uncontrolled mitogenic stimulation have been linked with chemical carcinogenesis, the results of the present study add information on the toxicogenomic profile of the selected chemicals and may potentially lead to reconsideration of the excessive use of nitrates aiming to protect public health.

  1. An evaluation of the potential of combination processes involving heat and irradiation for food preservation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Effects of combined heating and gamma radiation on Clostridium sporogenes spores and Salmonella seftenberg were examined. The order in which irradiation and heat were applied had a profound effect on the survival of the organisms. Heating of C.sporogenes spores at 95 degrees Celsius had very little effect on their sensitivity to subsequent irradiation, but irradiation of the spores at 0 degrees Celsius increased their sensitivity to subsequent heat treatment and thus reduced their heat D10 values (time required to activate the spores to 10% of their initial number). This radiation-induced heat sensitivity increased with the increase in radiation dose. The Z values (change in temperature required for a tenfold change in D10 values) of the spores were found to increase with the increase in pre-irradiation dose. Radiation-induced heat sensitivity was found to persist for at least 35 days in spores irradiated in frozen or freeze-dried states in distilled water or in phosphate buffer suspensions, and for at least 14 days in a number of food slurries. In phosphate buffer and nutrient broth suspensions, the radiation-heat synergism decreased with increasing pH of the media from pH 4.7 to pH 7.5. However, the effect of pH on synergism was less pronounced in spores suspended in some food slurries. Preliminary results indicate that pre-irradiation of S. senftenberg at 0.5 kGy did not change the heat sensitivity of this organism at 52 degrees Celsius, but when radiation and heat were applied simultaneously, synergistic inactivation was observed even at 50 degrees Celsius. Practical implications of these results are discussed

  2. Metabolic footprinting for investigation of antifungal properties of Lactobacillus paracasei

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Honoré, Anders Hans; Aunsbjerg, Stina Dissing; Ebrahimi, Parvaneh;

    2016-01-01

    footprinting proved to be a supplement to bioassay-guided fractionation for investigation of antifungal properties of bacterial ferments. Additionally, three previously identified and three novel antifungal metabolites from Lb. paracasei and their potential precursors were detected and assigned using......Lactic acid bacteria with antifungal properties are applied for biopreservation of food. In order to further our understanding of their antifungal mechanism, there is an ongoing search for bioactive molecules. With a focus on the metabolites formed, bioassay-guided fractionation and comprehensive...... screening have identified compounds as antifungal. Although these are active, the compounds have been found in concentrations that are too low to account for the observed antifungal effect. It has been hypothesized that the formation of metabolites and consumption of nutrients during bacterial fermentations...

  3. Influence of natural food preservatives combined with gamma radiation on certain microorganisms isolated from Egyptian Juices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Twelve strains were isolated from different Egyptian juices. They were identified as Micrococcus agilis. Staphylococcus aureus, S. warneri, Debaryomyces sp., Pichia sp., S. epidermidis, S. auricularls, Kluveromyces sp., Bacillus sp., Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Citrobacter frundii,and Streptococcus pedococcus. Three of the previous strains were chosen in the present work according to their common contamination in all samples and their characteristics; S. aureus represented gram positive bacteria, P. aeruginosa represented gram negative bacteria and Debaryomyces sp.to represent yeast strains. S. aureus has completely annihilated by 250 μg/ml. of nisin, or 0.2% citric acid, or 0.15% lactic acid, or 1.2 % cinnamon or 5 kGy of gamma rays. P. aeruginosa was destroyed by 0.3 % citric acid, or 0.3 % lactic acid, or 4 % cinnamon or 4 kGy of gamma rays, while Debaryomyces sp. was eliminated by 4 % citric acid, or 4.5 % lactic acid, or 4 % cinnamon or 7 kGy of gamma rays. Nisin alone has no effect on P. aeruginosa or Debaryomyces sp. Combined treatments have decreased both of natural preservatives and irradiation doses needed to eliminate the microorganisms contaminated the juices. S. aureus was completely eliminated by 3 kGy combined with only 25 μg/ml. of nisin. The lethal dose decreased to 2 kGy by combination with citric, lactic acid and cinnamon at conc. 0.05%, 0.01% and 0.4 %, respectively. The dose level of gamma rays needed to eliminate P. aeruginosa decreased to 3 kGy in combination with citric acid 0.1% or with cinnamon 0.5 % and it decreased to 2 kGy by combination with lactic acid 0.1 %. In case of Debaryomyces sp the lethal dose decreased from 7 kGy to 4 kGy by combination with citric acid 1.5 % or cinnamon 1 % and to 3 kGy with lactic acid 1.5 %. Also the combination treatment has activated the effect of nisin on both of P. aeruginosa and Debaryomyces sp. Dose level 4 kGy by combination with 200 μg/ml. nisin completely inhibited their growth

  4. Partition of selected food preservatives in fish oil-water systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cheng, Hongyuan; Friis, Alan; Leth, Torben

    2010-01-01

    The partition coefficients (Kow) of benzoic acid and sorbic acid in systems of fish oil (sand eel)–water, fish oil–buffer solution, rape oil–water and olive oil–water were experimentally determined in a temperature range from 5 to 43 °C and pH from 4.5 to 6.5 °C. The dimerization of benzoic acid...... in fish oil–water system was observed at 25 °C. Two modifications have been made to the Nordic Food Analysis Standard for the determination of sorbic acid by HPLC. The experimental results show that the Kow of benzoic acid and sorbic acid in fish oil–buffer system is ca. 100 times lower than that in fish...... oil–water system. The Kow values of benzoic acid and sorbic acid in fish oil and water system decrease with increasing system pH values. The partition coefficients of plant origin and fish origin oils are in the same order of magnitude even though their molecular structures are very different....

  5. Genotoxicity of food preservative sodium sorbate in human lymphocytes in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mamur, Sevcan; Yüzbaşıoğlu, Deniz; Unal, Fatma; Aksoy, Hüseyin

    2012-10-01

    The genotoxic effects of antimicrobial food additive sodium sorbate (SS) was assessed by using chromosome aberrations (CAs), sister-chromatid exchanges (SCEs), and micronucleus (MN) in cultured human lymphocytes and comet assay in isolated human lymphocytes. Lymphocytes were treated with four concentrations (100, 200, 400 and 800 μg/ml) of SS as well as a negative (sterile distilled water) and a positive control (Mitomycin-C: MMC for cultured lymphocytes and H(2)O(2) for isolated lymphocytes). The result of this study indicated that SS increased the frequency of CAs at both 24 and 48 h period compared to control. When gaps were included, this increase was significant at 200, 400 and 800 μg/ml concentrations at 24 h and, at all concentrations at 48 h treatment time. When gaps were excluded, this increase was significant at only 800 μg/ml concentration at both 24 and 48 h treatments. In addition, SS increased SCEs/cell and MN frequency at 400 and 800 μg/ml concentrations at both 24 and 48 h compared to negative control. Furthermore, this additive caused DNA damage at all concentrations in isolated human lymphocytes after 1 h in vitro exposure. The present results show that SS is genotoxic to the human peripheral blood lymphocytes in vitro at the highest concentrations.

  6. Sodium benzoate and potassium sorbate preservatives in food stuffs in Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amirpour, Mansooreh; Arman, Azim; Yolmeh, Ahmad; Akbari Azam, Maryam; Moradi-Khatoonabadi, Zhila

    2015-01-01

    A high-performance liquid chromatography method was applied for the determination of the levels of benzoate and sorbate in 400 food samples, including pickled cucumbers, canned tomato pastes, sour cherry jams, soft drinks, fruit juices and dairy products (UF-Feta cheeses, Lighvan cheeses, lactic cheeses, yogurts and doogh). The results showed that 270 (67.5%) of all samples contained benzoate ranging from 11.9 to 288.5 mg kg(-1) in lactic cheese and fruit juice, respectively. The levels of sorbate in 98 (24.5%) of the samples were 20.1 to 284.3 mg kg(-1) in doogh and fruit juice, respectively. Moreover, benzoate was detected in all dairy products ranging from 11.9 mg kg(-1) in lactic cheese to 91.2 mg kg(-1) in UF-Feta cheese. A low concentration of benzoate could originate naturally, due to specific biochemical mechanisms during cheese, yogurt and doogh maturation. In conclusion, a minimum level for benzoate in dairy products should be defined in the legislation. PMID:25832450

  7. Sodium benzoate and potassium sorbate preservatives in food stuffs in Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amirpour, Mansooreh; Arman, Azim; Yolmeh, Ahmad; Akbari Azam, Maryam; Moradi-Khatoonabadi, Zhila

    2015-01-01

    A high-performance liquid chromatography method was applied for the determination of the levels of benzoate and sorbate in 400 food samples, including pickled cucumbers, canned tomato pastes, sour cherry jams, soft drinks, fruit juices and dairy products (UF-Feta cheeses, Lighvan cheeses, lactic cheeses, yogurts and doogh). The results showed that 270 (67.5%) of all samples contained benzoate ranging from 11.9 to 288.5 mg kg(-1) in lactic cheese and fruit juice, respectively. The levels of sorbate in 98 (24.5%) of the samples were 20.1 to 284.3 mg kg(-1) in doogh and fruit juice, respectively. Moreover, benzoate was detected in all dairy products ranging from 11.9 mg kg(-1) in lactic cheese to 91.2 mg kg(-1) in UF-Feta cheese. A low concentration of benzoate could originate naturally, due to specific biochemical mechanisms during cheese, yogurt and doogh maturation. In conclusion, a minimum level for benzoate in dairy products should be defined in the legislation.

  8. 食品防腐剂的应用现状、问题及对策%Current application, problems and countermeasures of food preservative

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王杉; 揭琴丰; 邱伟华

    2011-01-01

    As a kind of food additive, food preservative can inhibit microbial growth, avoid food spoilage within the warranty period and prolong the conservancy period of food. Therefore, it has been widely used in the food industry. With the economic and social development, food safety issues are pay more attention, especially for the application of food preservative in food process. To protect the security and development of food preservative, various forces should work together to play their positive role. Here, classification and application foreground of the food preservative were described chiefly. Additionally, the current and main problems during the practical using of food preservative were analyzed and the corresponding strategies were put forward in this paper.%食品防腐剂作为食品添加剂的一个类别,可以抑制微生物的生长,从而保证食品在保质期内不发生腐败变质,并延长食品的保存期,其在食品工业中已被广泛应用.随着经济与社会的发展,食品安全问题越来越突出,尤其是对食品加工中使用食品添加剂的安全性问题,其中食品防腐剂是引起食品安全性问题的主要食品添加剂之一.为保障食品防腐剂能得到正确的使用与发展,多方面力量应共同努力,发挥各自的积极作用.本文主要介绍了食品防腐剂的分类及使用前景,并就其目前在实际使用中存在的主要问题提出了相应的对策.

  9. Antifungal Edible Coatings for Fresh Citrus Fruit: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lluís Palou

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available According to their origin, major postharvest losses of citrus fruit are caused by weight loss, fungal diseases, physiological disorders, and quarantine pests. Cold storage and postharvest treatments with conventional chemical fungicides, synthetic waxes, or combinations of them are commonly used to minimize postharvest losses. However, the repeated application of these treatments has led to important problems such as health and environmental issues associated with fungicide residues or waxes containing ammoniacal compounds, or the proliferation of resistant pathogenic fungal strains. There is, therefore, an increasing need to find non-polluting alternatives to be used as part of integrated disease management (IDM programs for preservation of fresh citrus fruit. Among them, the development of novel natural edible films and coatings with antimicrobial properties is a technological challenge for the industry and a very active research field worldwide. Chitosan and other edible coatings formulated by adding antifungal agents to composite emulsions based on polysaccharides or proteins and lipids are reviewed in this article. The most important antifungal ingredients are selected for their ability to control major citrus postharvest diseases like green and blue molds, caused by Penicillium digitatum and Penicillium italicum, respectively, and include low-toxicity or natural chemicals such as food additives, generally recognized as safe (GRAS compounds, plant extracts, or essential oils, and biological control agents such as some antagonistic strains of yeasts or bacteria.

  10. The use of additive and synergic effects of combination preservation methods for the self-life prolongation of food products (Review)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper gives a literary survey of more recent knowledge from the viewpoint of theoretical and practical aspects of binary, ternary or multiple combinations of preservation methods (heating, cooling, irradiation, antibiotics, dehydration, chemical additives, etc. - in their mutual combinations) to prolong the shelf-life of food products. Additive and synergic effects of individual combinations are accented

  11. Chemical Composition of Essential Oilsof Thymus and Mentha Speciesand Their Antifungal Activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leo J. L. D. van Griensven

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The potential antifungal effects of Thymus vulgaris L., Thymus tosevii L., Mentha spicata L., and Mentha piperita L. (Labiatae essential oils and their components against 17 micromycetal food poisoning, plant, animal and human pathogens are presented. The essential oils were obtained by hydrodestillation of dried plant material. Their composition was determined by GC-MS. Identification of individual constituents was made by comparison with analytical standards, and by computer matching mass spectral data with those of the Wiley/NBS Library of Mass Spectra. MIC’s and MFC’s of the oils and their components were determined by dilution assays. Thymol (48.9% and p-cymene (19.0% were the main components of T. vulgaris, while carvacrol (12.8%, a-terpinyl acetate (12.3%, cis-myrtanol (11.2% and thymol (10.4% were dominant in T. tosevii. Both Thymus species showed very strong antifungal activities. In M. piperita oil menthol (37.4%, menthyl acetate (17.4% and menthone (12.7% were the main components, whereas those of M. spicata oil were carvone (69.5% and menthone (21.9%. Mentha sp. showed strong antifungal activities, however lower than Thymus sp. The commercial fungicide, bifonazole, used as a control, had much lower antifungal activity than the oils and components investigated. It is concluded that essential oils of Thymus and Mentha species possess great antifungal potential and could be used as natural preservatives and fungicides.

  12. Sodium benzoate, a food preservative, affects the functional and activation status of splenocytes at non cytotoxic dose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yadav, Ashish; Kumar, Arvind; Das, Mukul; Tripathi, Anurag

    2016-02-01

    Sodium benzoate (SB) is a widely used food preservative due to its bacteriostatic and fungistatic properties. The acceptable daily intake of SB is 5 mg/kg-bw, however, it has been found to be used in the food commodities at relatively high levels (2119 mg/kg). Earlier studies on SB have shown its immunosuppressive properties, but comprehensive immunotoxicity data is lacking. Our studies have shown that SB was non cytotoxic in splenocytes up to 1000 μg/ml for 72 h, however at 2500 μg/ml it was found to be cytotoxic. Thus, 1000 μg/ml dose of SB was chosen for the subsequent experiments. SB significantly suppresses the proliferation of Con A and LPS stimulated splenocytes at 72 h, while allogenic response of T cells was significantly decreased after 96 h. SB did not affect the relative expression of CD3e or CD4 molecules following 72 h exposure, however, it downregulated the relative expression of CD8 co-receptor. Further, exposure of splenocytes to SB for 72 h led to reduced expression of CD28 and CD95, which play a vital role in T cell activation. SB also suppresses the relative expression of CD19, CD40 and CD95 receptors on B cells after 72 h. In addition to the functional responses, SB lowered the expression of IL4, IL6, IFNγ and IL17 cytokines in Con A stimulated splenocytes; and IL6, IFNγ and TNFα in LPS stimulated splenocytes following 48 h of exposure. Taken together, the present study is suggestive of the immunomodulatory potential of SB.

  13. Effects of sodium benzoate, a widely used food preservative, on glucose homeostasis and metabolic profiles in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lennerz, Belinda S; Vafai, Scott B; Delaney, Nigel F; Clish, Clary B; Deik, Amy A; Pierce, Kerry A; Ludwig, David S; Mootha, Vamsi K

    2015-01-01

    Sodium benzoate is a widely used preservative found in many foods and soft drinks. It is metabolized within mitochondria to produce hippurate, which is then cleared by the kidneys. We previously reported that ingestion of sodium benzoate at the generally regarded as safe (GRAS) dose leads to a robust excursion in the plasma hippurate level [1]. Since previous reports demonstrated adverse effects of benzoate and hippurate on glucose homeostasis in cells and in animal models, we hypothesized that benzoate might represent a widespread and underappreciated diabetogenic dietary exposure in humans. Here, we evaluated whether acute exposure to GRAS levels of sodium benzoate alters insulin and glucose homeostasis through a randomized, controlled, cross-over study of 14 overweight subjects. Serial blood samples were collected following an oral glucose challenge, in the presence or absence of sodium benzoate. Outcome measurements included glucose, insulin, glucagon, as well as temporal mass spectrometry-based metabolic profiles. We did not find a statistically significant effect of an acute oral exposure to sodium benzoate on glucose homeostasis. Of the 146 metabolites targeted, four changed significantly in response to benzoate, including the expected rise in benzoate and hippurate. In addition, anthranilic acid, a tryptophan metabolite, exhibited a robust rise, while acetylglycine dropped. Although our study shows that GRAS doses of benzoate do not have an acute, adverse effect on glucose homeostasis, future studies will be necessary to explore the metabolic impact of chronic benzoate exposure.

  14. Simultaneous determination of artificial sweeteners, preservatives, caffeine, theobromine and theophylline in food and pharmaceutical preparations by ion chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Q C; Wang, J

    2001-12-01

    A novel ion chromatographic method was proposed for the simultaneous determination of artificial sweeteners (sodium saccharin, aspartame, acesulfame-K), preservatives (benzoic acid, sorbic acid), caffeine, theobromine and theophylline. The separation was performed on an anion-exchange analytical column operated at 40 degrees C within 45 min by an isocratic elution with 5 mM aqueous NaH2PO4 (pH 8.20) solution containing 4% (v/v) acetonitrile as eluent, and the determination by wavelength-switching ultraviolet absorbance detection. The detection limits (signal-to-noise ratio 3:1) for all analytes were below the sub-microg/ml level. Under the experimental conditions, several organic acids, including citric acid, malic acid, tartaric acid and ascorbic acid, did not interfere with the determination. The method has been successfully applied to the analysis of various food and pharmaceutical preparations, and the average recoveries for real samples ranged from 85 to 104%. The levels of all analytes determined by this method were in good agreement with those obtained by the high-performance liquid chromatographic procedure. The results also indicated that ion chromatography would be possibly a beneficial alternative to conventional high-performance liquid chromatography for the separation and determination of these compounds.

  15. Simultaneous determination of artificial sweeteners, preservatives, caffeine, theobromine and theophylline in food and pharmaceutical preparations by ion chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Q C; Wang, J

    2001-12-01

    A novel ion chromatographic method was proposed for the simultaneous determination of artificial sweeteners (sodium saccharin, aspartame, acesulfame-K), preservatives (benzoic acid, sorbic acid), caffeine, theobromine and theophylline. The separation was performed on an anion-exchange analytical column operated at 40 degrees C within 45 min by an isocratic elution with 5 mM aqueous NaH2PO4 (pH 8.20) solution containing 4% (v/v) acetonitrile as eluent, and the determination by wavelength-switching ultraviolet absorbance detection. The detection limits (signal-to-noise ratio 3:1) for all analytes were below the sub-microg/ml level. Under the experimental conditions, several organic acids, including citric acid, malic acid, tartaric acid and ascorbic acid, did not interfere with the determination. The method has been successfully applied to the analysis of various food and pharmaceutical preparations, and the average recoveries for real samples ranged from 85 to 104%. The levels of all analytes determined by this method were in good agreement with those obtained by the high-performance liquid chromatographic procedure. The results also indicated that ion chromatography would be possibly a beneficial alternative to conventional high-performance liquid chromatography for the separation and determination of these compounds. PMID:11765085

  16. A shift toward a new holistic paradigm will help to preserve and better process grain products' food structure for improving their health effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fardet, Anthony

    2015-02-01

    This review aims at emphasizing the role played by physical characteristics and physico-chemical properties of the food matrix on the digestive and metabolic fate, and health effects of grain products. It is today obvious that the food matrix conditions the health effects of food products and that we are able to modify this matrix to control the digestive fate of foods, and the metabolic fate of nutrients and bioactive compounds (reverse engineering). In other words, there is no more reason to consider nutrition in a quantitative perspective (i.e., a food is only the sum of its macro-, micro- and phyto-nutrients) but rather according to a qualitative perspective involving concepts of interaction of nutrients within the matrix, of enzymatic bioaccessibility, bioavailability and metabolic fate in relation to release kinetics in the gastrointestinal tract, and food nutrient synergy. This new perspective on the health potential of foods also reflects the urge to consider preventive nutrition research according to a more holistic and integrative perspective after decades of reductionist research based on the study of the health effects of food components in isolation. To illustrate the importance of food structure, attention has been focused on grain-based products such as rice, leguminous seeds and nuts, and on soft technological treatments that preserve food structure such as pre-fermentation, soaking and germination. PMID:25407943

  17. Research progress of natural food preservatives from microbial source%微生物源天然食品防腐剂的研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邢海丽; 辛嘉英; 王艳; 郑洛昀; 夏春谷

    2015-01-01

    天然食品防腐剂按其来源不同可分为植物源天然防腐剂、动物源天然防腐剂和微生物源天然防腐剂。微生物源天然食品防腐剂由于其本身的优越性,越来越受到人们的青睐。本文主要介绍了微生物来源的天然食品防腐剂乳酸链球菌素、ε-聚赖氨酸、曲酸、溶菌酶和甲烷氧化菌素的最新研究进展,阐述了它们的理化性质、抑菌机制和应用现状,同时简单介绍了纳他霉素、抗菌肽、罗伊氏菌素和嗜杀酵母等微生物源天然食品防腐剂的应用现状,旨在为高效、无毒、天然食品防腐剂的研究提供参考。天然食品防腐剂最有发展的可能是将几种来源不同的天然食品防腐剂复配,或者将一种天然防腐剂与其他化学防腐剂复配使用,不仅可以减少防腐剂在食品中的用量,同时还可以使食品的杀菌或抑菌条件更加温和化,对人们的饮食健康非常有利。%Natural food preservatives can be classified into botanic, animal and microbial source food preservatives. The microbial preservatives are favored more and more because of their superiority such as strong antibacterial, safe, non-toxic, water-soluble, good thermal stability, and wide range of functions, etc. This paper reviewed the latest progress in natural food preservatives of the nisin,ε-Poly-L-lysine, kojic acid, lysozyme and methanobactin, focusing on the physical and chemical properties, antibacterial mechanism and application, and the application of natamycin, antibacterial peptide, reuterin and Killer Yeast, with an aim to provide a reference for researches on natural food preservatives with non-toxic and high activity. The most likely development of natural food preservatives are combination of different sources of natural food preservatives or use of a natural preservative and other chemical preservatives. These methods not only can reduce the amount of preservatives in the food, but also

  18. Research on application of two kinds of natural food preservatives on fresh cut vegetables preservations%2种天然食品防腐剂在鲜切蔬菜保鲜中的应用研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李晶莹; 王筠婷; 葛婷; 孙雨宏; 丁敬争; 任建军

    2015-01-01

    This paper introduces chitosan and tea polyphenols as raw material to study the effect of these two kinds of natural food preservatives on fresh cut green peppers and cucumbers storage quality. In addition, the different effects with various concentrations of chitosan and tea polyphenol as coating preservation of fresh cut green peppers and cucumbers were compared. The conclusion is as follows: 1% of Chitosan and 2% of tea polyphenol play significant role in food preservation to fresh cut green peppers and cucumber.%壳聚糖和茶多酚作为一种安全、无毒、有效的涂膜保鲜剂,近年来被广泛地研究和应用.分别以壳聚糖和茶多酚为材料,研究它们对鲜切青椒和黄瓜贮藏品质的影响,并比较了不同浓度的壳聚糖及茶多酚涂膜保鲜鲜切青椒和黄瓜的效果.试验结果表明,1%的壳聚糖、2%的茶多酚在一定的环境条件下对鲜切青椒和黄瓜贮藏具有良好的保鲜效果.

  19. Food preservative potential of essential oils and fractions from Cymbopogon citratus, Ocimum gratissimum and Thymus vulgaris against mycotoxigenic fungi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguefack, J; Dongmo, J B Lekagne; Dakole, C D; Leth, V; Vismer, H F; Torp, J; Guemdjom, E F N; Mbeffo, M; Tamgue, O; Fotio, D; Zollo, P H Amvam; Nkengfack, A E

    2009-05-31

    The food preservative potential of essential oils from three aromatic plants Cymbopogon citratus, Ocimum gratissimum and Thymus vulgaris and their fractions was investigated against two mycotoxigenic strains each of Aspergillus ochraceus, Penicillium expansum and P. verrucosum. The fungicidal activity was determined and expressed as a Number of Decimal Reduction of the colony forming units per ml (NDR cfu). The influence of pH variation on this activity was studied. The NDR cfu varied with the essential oils and its concentration, the pH of the medium and the strain tested. The essential oils from O. gratissimum exhibited the highest activity against the six fungal strains under the three pH tested. T. vulgaris and C. citratus essential oils were less active against the Penicillium species tested and A. ochraceus, respectively. Potassium sorbate did not present any activity at pH 6 and 9. At pH 3, its NDR cfu was the lowest against the six fungal strains. At the same pH and at 4000 ppm, the three essential oils presented a NRD cfu > or = 6 against strains of A. ochraceus and P. expansum. The same result was obtained with T. vulgaris and C. citratus at 8000 ppm against both strains of P. verrucosum. The highest activity of the three essential oils was recorded at pH 3 against A. ochraceus strains and at pH 9 against both species of Penicillium. From the fractionation, three active fractions were obtained each from C. citratus and O. gratissimum, and two active fractions from T. vulgaris. These active fractions exhibited a NDR cfu, two to seven folds higher than that of the complete essential oils.

  20. Potato wound-healing tissues: A rich source of natural antioxidant molecules with potential for food preservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dastmalchi, Keyvan; Wang, Isabel; Stark, Ruth E

    2016-11-01

    The need for safe, effective preservatives is a prominent issue in the food and drug industries, reflecting demand for natural alternatives to synthetic chemicals viewed as harmful to consumers and the environment. Thus, this study determined the identities and scavenging capacities of antioxidant metabolites produced as a response to potato tuber wounding, using activity-guided fractionation of polar extracts from a Yukon Gold cultivar that had previously exhibited exceptionally high radical-scavenging activity. Activity-guided fractionation using the ABTS(+) radical scavenging assay and LC-MS with TOF-MS for compositional analysis of the most potent antioxidant fractions yielded identification of nine constituents: coumaroylputrescine; feruloylquinic acid; isoferuloylputrescine; ferulic acid; 22,25-dimethoxy-3-[[2,3,4-tri-O-methyl-6-O-(2,3,4,6-tetra-O-methyl-β-d-glucopyranosyl)-β-d-glucopyranosyl]oxy]-(3β)-lanost-9(11)-en-24-one; 4-(2Z)-2-decen-1-yl-5-[1-(4-hydroxyphenyl)decyl]-1,2-benzenediol; 8-[(2E)-3,7-dimethyl-2,6-octadien-1-yl]-5-hydroxy-2,8-dimethyl-6-(3-methyl-2-buten-1-yl)-2H-1-benzopyran-4,7(3H,8H)-dione; 3-[(2-O-β-d-glucopyranosyl-β-d-glucopyranosyl)oxy]-20-[(6-O-β-d-xylopyranosyl-β-d-glucopyranosyl)oxy]-dammar-24-en-19-al; (3β)-28-oxo-28-(phenylmethoxy)oleanan-3-yl 2-O-β-d-galactopyranosyl-3-O-(phenylmethyl)-, butyl ester β-d-glucopyranosiduronic acid. A positive correlation was observed between the scavenging activities and the polarities of the active fractions. The antioxidant capacities of the fractions were also characterised by monitoring the activity throughout a 45-minute assay period. PMID:27211673

  1. 2013年食品防腐剂的应用及发展趋势调研%2013's Food Preservative Applications and Trends Research

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢纲忠; 张全

    2013-01-01

      通过对大型超市66种各类代表性食品所标示的食品防腐剂及保质期的情况调研,经统计分析,得出以下结论:第一、其中有32种即约48.5%的食品不添加任何防腐剂,其保质期为1个月~36个月,主要包括饮用水类、部分果汁类、油炸类、干货类、高糖高酸类、以及要求商业无菌的罐头类食品;另34种即约51.5%的食品必须添加食品防腐剂,其保质期为1.5个月~24个月(面包为7 d~10 d),这类食品一般是受灭菌条件、生产加工环境及包装物阻隔性等条件所限,必须添加相应的防腐剂才能达到其所标示的保质期。第二、从所标示的防腐剂可以看出,传统防腐剂苯甲酸钠、山梨酸钾仍在广泛使用,二者之和约占已添加防腐剂的食品样本的91.2%。第三、天然无毒的生物防腐剂乳酸链球菌素、纳他霉素也逐步被食品业界认识和接受,开拓了应用市场,此类防腐剂因为安全、无毒,高效,使用的系统风险小,值得大力推广,已经部分替代苯甲酸钠等化学防腐剂的应用。并且,生物防腐剂与化学防腐剂配合使用,取得用最少量的防腐剂获得最大效果的防腐作用,这将是防腐剂应用及发展的重要趋势之一。%  Statistical analysis of food preservatives and shelf life about 66 kinds of typical food in a large supermarket,we draw the following conclusions:first,32 kinds or approximately 48.5%of the foods did not add any preservatives,their shelf lives are 1 month-36 months,which include the class of drinking water,some juice,fried,dry,high in sugar,acids,as well as the requirements of commercial sterilization of canned foods;the other 34 that about 51.5%of the foods must add food preservative ,their shelf lives are 1.5 months-24 months (bread's is 7 days-10 days),such foods were generally subject to sterilization conditions,production processing environment and packaging

  2. Antifungal compounds from cyanobacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shishido, Tânia K; Humisto, Anu; Jokela, Jouni; Liu, Liwei; Wahlsten, Matti; Tamrakar, Anisha; Fewer, David P; Permi, Perttu; Andreote, Ana P D; Fiore, Marli F; Sivonen, Kaarina

    2015-04-01

    Cyanobacteria are photosynthetic prokaryotes found in a range of environments. They are infamous for the production of toxins, as well as bioactive compounds, which exhibit anticancer, antimicrobial and protease inhibition activities. Cyanobacteria produce a broad range of antifungals belonging to structural classes, such as peptides, polyketides and alkaloids. Here, we tested cyanobacteria from a wide variety of environments for antifungal activity. The potent antifungal macrolide scytophycin was detected in Anabaena sp. HAN21/1, Anabaena cf. cylindrica PH133, Nostoc sp. HAN11/1 and Scytonema sp. HAN3/2. To our knowledge, this is the first description of Anabaena strains that produce scytophycins. We detected antifungal glycolipopeptide hassallidin production in Anabaena spp. BIR JV1 and HAN7/1 and in Nostoc spp. 6sf Calc and CENA 219. These strains were isolated from brackish and freshwater samples collected in Brazil, the Czech Republic and Finland. In addition, three cyanobacterial strains, Fischerella sp. CENA 298, Scytonema hofmanni PCC 7110 and Nostoc sp. N107.3, produced unidentified antifungal compounds that warrant further characterization. Interestingly, all of the strains shown to produce antifungal compounds in this study belong to Nostocales or Stigonematales cyanobacterial orders.

  3. 国外食品包装的安全与保鲜技术%Safety and preservation technology of food packaging in foreign countries

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李进卫

    2015-01-01

    包装物在与食品接触的过程中,包装材料里的有害物质会随着接触时间的增长,逐渐迁移到食品内,当食用时有害物质就会伴随食品一同进入人体,从而影响到食用者的健康。为保障食品安全,世界各国不仅对食品本身的质量提出了越来越严格的卫生要求,同时对其包装也制定了很高的标准。分别介绍了欧盟、美国、日本的保鲜包装技术,为提高国内食品包装的安全与保鲜技术提供参考。%In the process of contacting with food,the harmful substances in the packaging materials would gradually move into food along with the increase of contacting time. When food was eaten, the harmful material would enter human body together with food,so as to affect the eater's health. In order to ensure the food safety,various countries in the world not only raised more and more strict sanitary require⁃ment for food itself,but also made very high standard for packaging materials. The preservation packing technologies of EU,USA,and Japan were introduced respectively. These provided references for improving food packaging safety and preservation technology.

  4. Influence of fatty acid precursors, including food preservatives, on the growth and fatty acid composition of Listeria monocytogenes at 37 and 10degreesC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Julotok, Mudcharee; Singh, Atul K; Gatto, Craig; Wilkinson, Brian J

    2010-03-01

    Listeria monocytogenes is a food-borne pathogen that grows at refrigeration temperatures and increases its content of anteiso-C(15:0) fatty acid, which is believed to be a homeoviscous adaptation to ensure membrane fluidity, at these temperatures. As a possible novel approach for control of the growth of the organism, the influences of various fatty acid precursors, including branched-chain amino acids and branched- and straight-chain carboxylic acids, some of which are also well-established food preservatives, on the growth and fatty acid composition of the organism at 37 degrees C and 10 degrees C were studied in order to investigate whether the organism could be made to synthesize fatty acids that would result in impaired growth at low temperatures. The results indicate that the fatty acid composition of L. monocytogenes could be modulated by the feeding of branched-chain amino acid, C(4), C(5), and C(6) branched-chain carboxylic acid, and C(3) and C(4) straight-chain carboxylic acid fatty acid precursors, but the growth-inhibitory effects of several preservatives were independent of effects on fatty acid composition, which were minor in the case of preservatives metabolized via acetyl coenzyme A. The ability of a precursor to modify fatty acid composition was probably a reflection of the substrate specificities of the first enzyme, FabH, in the condensation of primers of fatty acid biosynthesis with malonyl acyl carrier protein.

  5. Antifungal Hydroxy Fatty Acids Produced during Sourdough Fermentation: Microbial and Enzymatic Pathways, and Antifungal Activity in Bread

    OpenAIRE

    Black, Brenna A.; Zannini, Emanuele; Curtis, Jonathan M.; Gänzle, Michael G

    2013-01-01

    Lactobacilli convert linoleic acid to hydroxy fatty acids; however, this conversion has not been demonstrated in food fermentations and it remains unknown whether hydroxy fatty acids produced by lactobacilli have antifungal activity. This study aimed to determine whether lactobacilli convert linoleic acid to metabolites with antifungal activity and to assess whether this conversion can be employed to delay fungal growth on bread. Aqueous and organic extracts from seven strains of lactobacilli...

  6. Efficacy of Mentha spicata essential oil in suppression of Aspergillus flavus and aflatoxin contamination in chickpea with particular emphasis to mode of antifungal action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kedia, Akash; Dwivedy, Abhishek Kumar; Jha, Dhruva Kumar; Dubey, Nawal Kishore

    2016-05-01

    The present study reports in vivo antifungal and antiaflatoxigenic efficacy of Mentha spicata essential oil (EO) against toxigenic Aspergillus flavus strain LHP(C)-D6 in chickpea food system up to 12 months of storage. In addition, the mode of antifungal action of EO was also determined to understand the mechanism of fungal growth inhibition. The in vivo study with different concentrations of M. spicata EO showed dose-dependent decrease in fungal colony count as well as aflatoxin B1 concentration. The EO caused >50% protection in inoculated sets and >70% protection in uninoculated sets of chickpea food system against A. flavus at 1.0 μL mL(-1) air concentration. However, at the same concentration, EO caused 100% inhibition to aflatoxin B1 production in both sets when analyzed through high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The antifungal target of EO in fumigated cells of A. flavus was found to be the plasma membrane when analyzed through electron microscopic observations and ions leakage test. The EO fumigated chickpea seeds showed 100% seed germination and seedling growth after 12 months of storage. Based on these observations, M. spicata EO can be recommended as plant-based preservative for safe protection of food commodities during storage conditions against fungal and most importantly mycotoxin contaminations.

  7. Efficacy of Mentha spicata essential oil in suppression of Aspergillus flavus and aflatoxin contamination in chickpea with particular emphasis to mode of antifungal action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kedia, Akash; Dwivedy, Abhishek Kumar; Jha, Dhruva Kumar; Dubey, Nawal Kishore

    2016-05-01

    The present study reports in vivo antifungal and antiaflatoxigenic efficacy of Mentha spicata essential oil (EO) against toxigenic Aspergillus flavus strain LHP(C)-D6 in chickpea food system up to 12 months of storage. In addition, the mode of antifungal action of EO was also determined to understand the mechanism of fungal growth inhibition. The in vivo study with different concentrations of M. spicata EO showed dose-dependent decrease in fungal colony count as well as aflatoxin B1 concentration. The EO caused >50% protection in inoculated sets and >70% protection in uninoculated sets of chickpea food system against A. flavus at 1.0 μL mL(-1) air concentration. However, at the same concentration, EO caused 100% inhibition to aflatoxin B1 production in both sets when analyzed through high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The antifungal target of EO in fumigated cells of A. flavus was found to be the plasma membrane when analyzed through electron microscopic observations and ions leakage test. The EO fumigated chickpea seeds showed 100% seed germination and seedling growth after 12 months of storage. Based on these observations, M. spicata EO can be recommended as plant-based preservative for safe protection of food commodities during storage conditions against fungal and most importantly mycotoxin contaminations. PMID:26338202

  8. Sodium Alginate Application as Food Preservative%海藻酸钠在食品保鲜中的应用研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高翠丽; 李传平; 李倩; 夏延致; 王宗花; 龙晓静

    2013-01-01

    In order to reduce apperal customization deviation that led by using single Benchmark Block in background data system. This paper extracts and analysis the characteristics of the female body data, obtains 9 somatotype classification using fuzzy clustering recognition method. Based on large quantity of three-dimensional measured body data, by using factor analysis, correlation analysis and 3 - In recent years, as a new type of eco-friendly food preservative agent,sodium alginate is widely used in food preservation industry, such as fruits, meat and sea food, etc. Possessed of good antimicrobial activity, moisture retention and film forming, sodium alginate is a top choice for food preservation agent. Sodium alginate as preservative agent will have high-performance by single coating, composite coating and nano particle coating. This paper summarizes the current problems in the application of sodium alginate as well as its development prospect.%针对人们对食品保鲜质量越来越高的要求,本文对天然食品保鲜剂海藻酸钠在食品保鲜中存在的问题进行分析和总结.介绍了海藻酸钠的保鲜机理——抑菌性、保湿性和成膜性;分析了海藻酸钠单一涂膜、复合涂膜和纳米粒子复合涂膜等工艺在水果、蔬菜、水产品和肉类保鲜中的应用效果,结果表明,对于不同的食品,海藻酸钠的保鲜效果差异很大.因海藻酸钠从天然生物中提取,其来源广泛,成本低廉,在食品保鲜产业中具有广阔的应用前景.

  9. Optimization of lactic ferment with quinoa flour as bio-preservative alternative for packed bread.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dallagnol, Andrea Micaela; Pescuma, Micaela; Rollán, Graciela; Torino, María Inés; de Valdez, Graciela Font

    2015-05-01

    The consumers' demand for food with high nutritional quality and free of chemical additives increases the need to look for new products and preservation strategies. Quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa) is an Andean pseudocereal highly appreciated because of its nutritional properties. Moreover, it is an optimal substrate for growing and production of improved amounts of antifungal compounds by Lactobacillus plantarum CRL 778. The aim of this work was to optimize a lactic ferment for packaged breads with improved nutritional value and prolonged shelf life by applying a statistical experimental design model. The addition of 30 % quinoa to the wheat semiliquid ferment (QWF) could highly improve the amino acids release (4.3 g/L) during fermentation. Moreover, this quinoa proportion was sufficient to obtain the same concentration of the antifungal compounds, phenyllactic and hydroxiphenyllactic acids (PLA and OH-PLA) as with 100 % quinoa (ca. 36 and 51 mg/L, respectively). Statistical model analysis showed that citrate and skimmed milk enhanced significantly all evaluated parameters specially PLA (ca. 71 mg/L), HO-PLA (ca. 75 mg/L), and lactate (27 g/L) with a p value <0.005. The synergic effects of higher antifungal compounds production, acid release, and pH decrease allowed lowering the amount (about 50 %) of the chemical preservative calcium propionate commonly added to bread. Moreover, these breads show increased shelf life. PMID:25758954

  10. 新型腊猪肝休闲食品加工技术的研究%Study on processing technology of new preserved pig liver leisure food

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林坤; 周永昌

    2015-01-01

    Production technology of a new preserved pig liver leisure food as well as possible prob⁃lems and solution in production were introduced detailedly. The production technology highlighted the characteristics of leisure food and had high innovation and practicality. It had certain significance for im⁃proving comprehensive utilization of pig by-products and economic profits of enterprise.%详细介绍了一种新型腊猪肝休闲产品的生产技术,以及生产中可能出现的问题和解决办法。该生产技术凸显休闲食品特性,具有很强创新性和实用性,对提高猪副产品的综合利用和企业经济效益有一定意义。

  11. Antifungal activity of diethyldithiocarbamate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allerberger, F; Reisinger, E C; Söldner, B; Dierich, M P

    1989-10-01

    Sodium diethyldithiocarbamate (DTC) was evaluated for its ability to combat four different species of fungi in vitro. Using a microtiter-broth-dilution method we were able to demonstrate an antifungal activity against Candida albicans, Cryptococcus neoformans, Aspergillus fumigatus and Mucor mucedo in doses achievable by intravenous administration in man.

  12. Modulation of physicochemical and spectroscopic properties of l-serine and l-proline by propionate based food preservatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banipal, Tarlok S; Kaur, Navalpreet; Kaur, Jaspreet; Komal; Banipal, Parampaul K

    2016-10-15

    To have an insight into the effect of preservatives on various ingredients of processed items, it is important to study their thermodynamic, transport and spectroscopic properties in aqueous solutions to elucidate various solute-co-solute interactions. The densities, viscosities and enthalpies of dilution of l-serine and l-proline have been determined in water and in aqueous solutions of sodium propionate and calcium propionate at different temperatures. The derived parameters elucidate the changes in taste quality and hydration number of l-serine and l-proline in the presence of the studied preservatives. Predominance of dehydration effect has been observed from calorimetry and changes in chemical shifts from nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy also support the above results.

  13. Modulation of physicochemical and spectroscopic properties of l-serine and l-proline by propionate based food preservatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banipal, Tarlok S; Kaur, Navalpreet; Kaur, Jaspreet; Komal; Banipal, Parampaul K

    2016-10-15

    To have an insight into the effect of preservatives on various ingredients of processed items, it is important to study their thermodynamic, transport and spectroscopic properties in aqueous solutions to elucidate various solute-co-solute interactions. The densities, viscosities and enthalpies of dilution of l-serine and l-proline have been determined in water and in aqueous solutions of sodium propionate and calcium propionate at different temperatures. The derived parameters elucidate the changes in taste quality and hydration number of l-serine and l-proline in the presence of the studied preservatives. Predominance of dehydration effect has been observed from calorimetry and changes in chemical shifts from nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy also support the above results. PMID:27173555

  14. 复合食品防腐剂对小麦生长的影响%Influence of Composite Food Preservative on the Growth of Wheat

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡春红; 杨同文; 周琳; 李淑梅

    2013-01-01

    试验以温麦8号为研究对象,采用土培法研究复合食品防腐剂(苯甲酸钠和山梨酸钾)对小麦种子萌发和幼苗生长的影响.结果表明,低浓度(2g/L)的复合食品防腐剂对小麦种子萌发无显著效果,但明显促进幼苗生长;高浓度(≥4g/L)的复合食品防腐剂对小麦种子的萌发和幼苗生长均表现出抑制作用.%Using the soil culture method,the influence of composite food preservative (formed by sodium benzoate and potassium sorbate) on the morphological indexes and physiological indexes of wheat,Wenmai 8 was studied.The results showed that low concentration of preservatives (2 g/L) had no significant influence on the wheat seed germination,but could promote the seedling growth of wheat.While,high concentration of compound preservatives (≥4 g/L) had obvious inhibition on the seed germination and seedling growth.

  15. Nuclear technology applied to food preservation and sterilization; La tecnologia nuclear aplicada a la conservacion y esterilizacion de alimentos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Galvez, M.

    2011-07-01

    The use of ionizing radiation to conserve and sterilize food dates back to 1995, when the first tests were performed in USA as part of the Atoms for peace program. After much controversy, the most prestigious international organizations- OECD, code Alimentarius, FDA and EC have not only authorized but also recommended its use. It is a proven fact that food irradiation provides optimum results for inhibition treatment of tuber shoots, elimination of insects from fruits and seeds, delaying the maturing processes of fruit and elimination of alternative microorganisms and pathogens in any type of food. Food is treated in two types of plants: 1.- Radioactive isotope plants or gamma radiation plants 2.- electron accelerator plants (beta radiation plants). These two types of plants are thoroughly legislated, as are the form and doses of the treatments. Commercial food irradiation is done in 32 countries in the world but is authorized in more than 40, and the WHO recommends that the method be used on a widespread basis, as it believes that it can help to improve food-related health worldwide. (Author) 5 refs.

  16. Influence of food preservation parameters and associated microbiota on production rate, profile and stability of acylated homoserine lactones from food-derived Enterobacteriaceae

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Flodgaard, Lars; Christensen, Allan Beck; Molin, Søren;

    2003-01-01

    Quorum-dependent regulation is mediated by N-acyl-L-homoserine lactones (AHLs) in several Gram-negative bacteria. The production of AHLs has typically been studied using pure bacteria cultures grown in nutrient-rich media at optimal temperature. AHLs are produced in several chill-stored foods...... by Gram-negative bacteria participating in spoilage. As part of our investigation of the role of AHLs in food quality, we studied the AHL production in two Enterobacteriaceae isolated from cold-smoked salmon under growth conditions typical of those found in cold-smoked salmon. We tested the influence......H is approximately 6 and therefore only a low degree of pH-induced turnover is expected to occur in this product. Overall, our study demonstrates that food-derived Enterobacteriaceae produce AHLs of the same type and in the same magnitude when grown under food-relevant conditions as when grown in laboratory media...

  17. Development of Pediocin' s Application in Food Preservative%片球菌素在食品防腐保鲜中的应用研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘晨; 齐凡; 陈颖怡; 黄亦存

    2012-01-01

    片球菌素是一类未修饰的具有良好热稳定性的小分子蛋白质,其理化性质稳定,抑菌谱较广,能抑制多种革兰氏阳性菌,尤其对单核细胞增多症李氏杆菌的抑制作用最为显著.本文综述了近年来片球菌素在食品防腐保鲜应用方面取得的研究进展,分析了其作为天然食品防腐剂的发展前景,同对就片球菌素当前产业化开发与市场应用所面临的问题进行了深入探讨.%Pediocin is often described as small, heat-stable and unmodified peptides. This antimicrobial peptide is a broad-spectrum lactic acid bacteria bacteriocin that shows a particularly strong activity against Lisleria monocyiogenes. This article summarized the research progress of pediocin's application in food preservation in recent years, analyzed the propect of padiocin as natural food preservative, and further discussed the problems of industrialization development and market application of padiocin.

  18. 壳聚糖双胍盐酸盐涂膜保鲜龙眼及其抑菌活性的研究%Study on chitosan diguanidinylated coating preservation of longan and its antifungal activities

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈佳阳; 黄山华; 陆旺金; 陈实; 付银莲; 乐学义

    2012-01-01

    以龙眼为试材,对比壳聚糖(CTS)与其衍生物壳聚糖双胍盐酸盐(CSG)对龙眼在常温下的涂膜保鲜效果及两者对龙眼焦腐病菌和龙眼炭疽菌生长的抑制作用。将龙眼分别浸泡于质量分数为1.0%的CTS与0.2%、0.5%、1.0%的CSG溶液中,取出晾干,分装于聚乙烯篮中,于(28±2)℃的室内存放5d。测定果实的细胞膜渗透率、丙二醛(MDA)、失重率、VC、可溶性固形物(TSS)、可滴定酸(TA)含量的变化和烂果率。结果表明,用质量分数为1.0%CSG处理后的龙眼的各项生理指标均优于其他各组,说明1.0%CSG的保鲜效果优于其他几种涂膜处理。当CSG浓度为4.0mg/mL时,可完全抑制龙眼焦腐病菌菌丝的生长,当浓度大于1.0mg/mL时对龙眼炭疽菌菌丝的生长有明显的抑制作用。%The objective of this study was to contrast the effect of chitosan diguanidinylated(CSG) which derived from chitosan coating on Dimocarpus longan Lour.with chitosan(CTS).Effect of CSG coating in extending shelf life of longan fruits,maintaining their quality and the antifungal activity of Lasiodiplodia theobromae and Colletotrichum gloeosporioides Penz.were investigated.The longan were dipped in aqueous solutions of 1% chitosan,0.2%,0.5%,and 1% CSG,respectively,and followed by draining,and packaged in commercial perforated plastic baskets and stored at(28±2)℃ for 5d.Changes in ion leakage,malonaldehyde(MDA),mass loss,ascorbic acid,total soluble solids(TSS),titratable acid(TA),and decay rate were measured.The result showed that coating with 1% CSG had a significant effect on maintaining fruit quality and decreasing fruit decay.CSG could completely inhibit the growth of Lasiodiplodia theobromae at 4mg/mL and had a good antifungal activity against Colletotrichum gloeosporioides Penz.at concentrations of more than 1mg/mL.

  19. Augmenting antifungal activity of oxidizing agent with kojic acid: Control of Penicillium strains infecting crops

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oxidative treatment is a strategy for preventing Penicillium contamination in foods or crops. Antifungal efficacy of oxidant [hydrogen peroxide (H2O2)], biotic effector [kojic acid (KA)] and abiotic stress (heat), alone or in combination, was investigated in Penicillium. The levels of antifungal int...

  20. Purification and characterization of antifungal compounds from Lactobacillus plantarum HD1 isolated from kimchi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryu, Eun Hye; Yang, Eun Ju; Woo, Eun Rhan; Chang, Hae Choon

    2014-08-01

    Strain HD1 with antifungal activity was isolated from kimchi and identified as Lactobacillus plantarum. Antifungal compounds from Lb. plantarum HD1 were active against food- and feed-borne filamentous fungi and yeasts in a spot-on-the-lawn assay. Antifungal activity of Lb. plantarum HD1 was stronger against filamentous fungi than yeast. Antifungal compounds were purified using solid phase extraction (SPE) and recycling preparative-HPLC. Structures of the antifungal compounds were elucidated by electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry and nuclear magnetic resonance. Active compounds from Lb. plantarum HD1 were identified as 5-oxododecanoic acid (MW 214), 3-hydroxy decanoic acid (MW 188), and 3-hydroxy-5-dodecenoic acid (MW 214). To investigate the potential application of these antifungal compounds for reduction of fungal spoilage in foods, Korean draft rice wine was used as a food model. White film-forming yeasts were observed in control draft rice wine after 11 days of incubation. However, film-forming yeasts were not observed in draft rice wine treated with SPE-prepared culture supernatant of Lb. plantarum HD1 (equivalent to 2.5% addition of culture supernatant) until 27 days of incubation. The addition of antifungal compounds to Korean draft rice wine extended shelf-life up to 27 days at 10 °C without any sterilization process. Therefore, the antifungal activity of Lb. plantarum HD1 may lead to the development of powerful biopreservative systems capable of preventing food- and feed-borne fungal spoilage.

  1. Econazole imprinted textiles with antifungal activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hossain, Mirza Akram; Lalloz, Augustine; Benhaddou, Aicha; Pagniez, Fabrice; Raymond, Martine; Le Pape, Patrice; Simard, Pierre; Théberge, Karine; Leblond, Jeanne

    2016-04-01

    In this work, we propose pharmaceutical textiles imprinted with lipid microparticles of Econazole nitrate (ECN) as a mean to improve patient compliance while maintaining drug activity. Lipid microparticles were prepared and characterized by laser diffraction (3.5±0.1μm). Using an optimized screen-printing method, microparticles were deposited on textiles, as observed by scanning electron microscopy. The drug content of textiles (97±3μg/cm(2)) was reproducible and stable up to 4months storage at 25°C/65% Relative Humidity. Imprinted textiles exhibited a thermosensitive behavior, as witnessed by a fusion temperature of 34.8°C, which enabled a larger drug release at 32°C (temperature of the skin) than at room temperature. In vitro antifungal activity of ECN textiles was compared to commercial 1% (wt/wt) ECN cream Pevaryl®. ECN textiles maintained their antifungal activity against a broad range of Candida species as well as major dermatophyte species. In vivo, ECN textiles also preserved the antifungal efficacy of ECN on cutaneous candidiasis infection in mice. Ex vivo percutaneous absorption studies demonstrated that ECN released from pharmaceutical textiles concentrated more in the upper skin layers, where the fungal infections develop, as compared to dermal absorption of Pevaryl®. Overall, these results showed that this technology is promising to develop pharmaceutical garments textiles for the treatment of superficial fungal infections. PMID:26883854

  2. Preserving Food by Drying. A Math/Science Teaching Manual. Appropriate Technologies for Development. Manual No. M-10.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fahy, Cynthia; And Others

    This manual presents a design for teaching science principles and mathematics concepts through a sequence of activities concentrating on weather, solar food dryers, and nutrition. Part I focuses on the effect of solar energy on air and water, examining the concepts of evaporation, condensation, radiation, conduction, and convection. These concepts…

  3. Biocontrol of Aspergillus species on peanut kernels by antifungal diketopiperazine producing Bacillus cereus associated with entomopathogenic nematode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Sasidharan Nishanth; Sreekala, Sreerag Ravikumar; Chandrasekaran, Dileep; Nambisan, Bala; Anto, Ruby John

    2014-01-01

    The rhabditid entomopathogenic nematode associated Bacillus cereus and the antifungal compounds produced by this bacterium were evaluated for their activity in reducing postharvest decay of peanut kernels caused by Aspergillus species in in vitro and in vivo tests. The results showed that B. cereus had a significant effect on biocontrol effectiveness in in vitro and in vivo conditions. The antifungal compounds produced by the B. cereus were purified using silica gel column chromatography and their structure was elucidated using extensive spectral analyses. The compounds were identified as diketopiperazines (DKPs) [cyclo-(L-Pro-Gly), cyclo(L-Tyr-L-Tyr), cyclo-(L-Phe-Gly) and cyclo(4-hydroxy-L-Pro-L-Trp)]. The antifungal activities of diketopiperazines were studied against five Aspergillus species and best MIC of 2 µg/ml was recorded against A. flavus by cyclo(4-hydroxy-L-Pro-L-Trp). To investigate the potential application of cyclo(4-hydroxy-L-Pro-L-Trp) to eliminate fungal spoilage in food and feed, peanut kernels was used as a food model system. White mycelia and dark/pale green spores of Aspergillus species were observed in the control peanut kernels after 2 days incubation. However the fungal growth was not observed in peanut kernels treated with cyclo(4-hydroxy-L-Pro-L-Trp). The cyclo(4-hydroxy-L-Pro-L-Trp) was nontoxic to two normal cell lines [fore skin (FS) normal fibroblast and African green monkey kidney (VERO)] up to 200 µg/ml in MTT assay. Thus the cyclo(4-hydroxy-L-Pro-L-Trp) identified in this study may be a promising alternative to chemical preservatives as a potential biopreservative agent which prevent fungal growth in food and feed. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report demonstrating that the entomopathogenic nematode associated B. cereus and cyclo(4-hydroxy-L-Pro-L-Trp) could be used as a biocontrol agents against postharvest fungal disease caused by Aspergillus species.

  4. Antibody Peptide Based Antifungal Immunotherapy

    OpenAIRE

    Magliani, Walter; Conti, Stefania; Giovati, Laura; Zanello, Pier Paolo; Sperindè, Martina; Ciociola, Tecla; Polonelli, Luciano

    2012-01-01

    Fungal infections still represent relevant human illnesses worldwide and some are accompanied by unacceptably high mortality rates. The limited current availability of effective and safe antifungal agents makes the development of new drugs and approaches of antifungal vaccination/immunotherapy every day more needed. Among them, small antibody(Ab)-derived peptides are arousing great expectations as new potential antifungal agents. In this topic, the search path from the study of the yeast kill...

  5. Chemical composition and antifungal activity of Aaronsohnia pubescens essential oil from Algeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makhloufi, Ahmed; Ben Larbi, L; Moussaoui, Abdallah; Lazouni, Hamadi A; Romane, Abderrahmane; Wanner, Jürgen; Schmidt, Erich; Jirovetz, Leopold; Höferle, Martina

    2015-01-01

    In the present study, the chemical composition of the essential oil obtained from the aerial parts of Aaronsohnia pubescens (Desf.) K.Bremer & Humphries (Asteraceae), a chamomile-like medicinal plant, was studied. Using both GC-MS and GC-FID methods, 58 volatile compounds could be identified representing 96.6% of the total essential oil composition. The main compounds in the essential oil were monoterpene hydrocarbons such as (Z)-β-ocimene (53.8%), myrcene (15.2%) and α-pinene (7.7%). Moreover, the essential oil of A. pubescens was tested for its antifungal activity against seven strains of phytopathogenic fungi , i.e. Aspergillus niger, A. flavus, Penicillium purpurogenum, P. jensenii, P. expansum, and Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. albedinis, using the disc diffusion method. With the exception of P. jensenii, A. pubescens essential oil demonstrated a considerable antifungal activity against all tested strains. The present results confirm the traditional use of A. pubescens as a food preservative. PMID:25920238

  6. Studies on application of radiation and radioisotopes -The application of irradiation techniques for food preservation and process improvement-

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Byun, Myung Woo; Cho, Han Ok; Cho, Sung Kee; Kang, Il Joon; Yang, Jae Seung; Yook, Heung Sun [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1995-07-01

    The project was designed to solve the infra structural problem required for commercialization of food irradiation. In improvement of physical properties of corn starch, gamma irradiation was effective for increasing glucose productivity and for substituting traditional modified starches (acid modified starch, oxidized starch). In immobilization of microorganisms, the mass production method of natural red pigment was developed by using immobilized mold pellets. In Korean medicinal plants, 10 kGy gamma irradiation was effective for improving sanitary quality and increasing extraction yield. In evaluation of wholesomeness, gamma irradiated red ginseng could be safe on the genotoxic point of view. And also, six items of irradiated foods approved for human consumption from Korea ministry of health and welfare in May 19, 1995. 30 figs, 20 tabs, 54 refs. (Author).

  7. Studies on application of radiation and radioisotopes -The application of irradiation techniques for food preservation and process improvement-

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The project was designed to solve the infra structural problem required for commercialization of food irradiation. In improvement of physical properties of corn starch, gamma irradiation was effective for increasing glucose productivity and for substituting traditional modified starches (acid modified starch, oxidized starch). In immobilization of microorganisms, the mass production method of natural red pigment was developed by using immobilized mold pellets. In Korean medicinal plants, 10 kGy gamma irradiation was effective for improving sanitary quality and increasing extraction yield. In evaluation of wholesomeness, gamma irradiated red ginseng could be safe on the genotoxic point of view. And also, six items of irradiated foods approved for human consumption from Korea ministry of health and welfare in May 19, 1995. 30 figs, 20 tabs, 54 refs. (Author)

  8. Bioprocess development for the production of sonorensin by Bacillus sonorensis MT93 and its application as a food preservative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chopra, Lipsy; Singh, Gurdeep; Jena, Kautilya Kumar; Verma, Himanshu; Sahoo, Debendra K

    2015-01-01

    Media composition and environmental conditions were optimized using statistical tools, Plackett Burman design and response surface methodology, to maximize the yield of a bacteriocin, named as sonorensin, from a new marine isolate Bacillus sonorensis MT93 showing broad spectrum of antimicrobial activity. Under optimized conditions, MT93 produced 15-fold higher yield of sonorensin compared to that under initial fermentation conditions. As oxygen supply is a critical parameter controlling growth and product formation in aerobic bioprocesses and used as a parameter for bioprocess scale up, the effects of oxygen transfer, in terms of volumetric oxygen transfer coefficient (kLa), on production of sonorensin was investigated using optimized medium composition in a bioreactor. Studies on effectiveness of sonorensin against Staphylococcus aureus and Listeria monocytogenes in fruit juice and as a preservative in pasteurized milk demonstrated its potential as a biopreservative in fruit products and shelf life extender of the pasteurized milk.

  9. Foodstuffs preservation by ionization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document contains all the papers presented at the meeting on foodstuffs preservation by ionization. These papers deal especially with the food ionization process, its development and the view of the food industry on ionization. Refs and figs (F.M.)

  10. Precess-preservation Technology of Pickle-liver Complex Food%腌菜复合型畜禽肝脏食品加工保藏技术

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘达玉; 李杉杉; 徐纲; 尹显华; 张秀芬

    2016-01-01

    The pickle-liver compound food was produced with livestock's liver and Sichuan pickles as raw material. The product's fishy smell was cloaked by adding vanillin and ethyl maltol , after lactic acid fermented and pickled, the pH decreased. By adding biological preservatives, it could be preserved long-term with sterilization after vacuum packing under normal pressure.%以畜禽肝脏为原料,搭配四川腌菜(腌笋)及腌菜调味汁,开发腌菜复合型畜禽肝脏食品。产品采取抑腥提香技术手段,经过乳酸发酵与浸泡腌制同步技术措施,降低产品pH,通过添加生物防腐剂等栅栏因子协同作用,产品真空封口后经过常压杀菌,制成一种可长期保藏的美味佐餐食品。

  11. A successful virtual screening application: prediction of anticonvulsant activity in MES test of widely used pharmaceutical and food preservatives methylparaben and propylparaben.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talevi, Alan; Bellera, Carolina L; Castro, Eduardo A; Bruno-Blanch, Luis E

    2007-09-01

    A discriminant function based on topological descriptors was derived from a training set composed by anticonvulsants of clinical use or in clinical phase of development and compounds with other therapeutic uses. This model was internally and externally validated and applied in the virtual screening of chemical compounds from the Merck Index 13th. Methylparaben (Nipagin), a preservative widely used in food, cosmetics and pharmaceutics, was signaled as active by the discriminant function and tested in mice in the Maximal Electroshock (MES) test (i.p. administration), according to the NIH Program for Anticonvulsant Drug Development. Based on the results of Methylparaben, Propylparaben (Nipasol), another preservative usually used in association with the former, was also tested. Both methyl and propylparaben were found active in mice at doses of 30, 100, and 300 mg/kg. The discovery of the anticonvulsant activities in the MES test of methylparaben and propylparaben might be useful for the development of new anticonvulsant medications, specially considering the well-known toxicological profile of these drugs.

  12. Chromosome aberrations and sister chromatid exchanges in cultured human lymphocytes treated with sodium metabisulfite, a food preservative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rencüzogullari, E; Ila, H B; Kayraldiz, A; Topaktaş, M

    2001-02-20

    The aim of this study was to investigate the ability of sodium metabisulfite (SMB) which is used as an antimicrobial substance in food, to induce chromosome aberrations (CA) and sister chromatid exchanges (SCE) in human lymphocytes. SMB-induced CAs and SCEs at all concentrations (75, 150 and 300 microg/ml) and treatment periods (24 and 48h) dose-dependently. However, SMB decreased the replication index (RI) and the mitotic index (MI) at the concentrations of 150 and 300 microg/ml for 24 and 48h treatment periods. This decrease was dose-dependent as well.

  13. Dietary exposure estimates for the food preservatives benzoic acid and sorbic acid in the total diet in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ling, Min-Pei; Lien, Keng-Wen; Wu, Chiu-Hua; Ni, Shih-Pei; Huang, Hui-Ying; Hsieh, Dennis P H

    2015-02-25

    The purpose was to assess the health risk to general consumers in Taiwan associated with dietary intake of benzoic acid and sorbic acid by conducting a total diet study (TDS). The hazard index (HI) in percent acceptable daily intake (%ADI) of benzoic acid and sorbic acid for eight exposure groups classified by age were calculated. In high-intake consumers, the highest HI of benzoic acid was 54.1%ADI for males aged 1-2 years old at the 95th percentile, whereas for females, the HI was 61.7%ADI for aged over 66 years old. The highest HI of sorbic acid for male and female consumers aged 3-6 years old at the 95th percentile were 14.0%ADI and 12.2%ADI, respectively. These results indicate that the use of benzoic acid and sorbic acid as preservatives at the current level of use in the Taiwanese diet does not constitute a public health and safety concern.

  14. The Present Situation and Prospect of Nature Food Antiseptic and Preservation Agent%天然食品防腐保鲜剂的发展现状及前景

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张海霞

    2015-01-01

    The natural food preservative agent is an additive in food processing, which plays an extremely important role in food preservation. However, it is not reasonable to use of natural food additives, this will have a bad impact on food quality, and food safety is threatened. Therefore, according to the development of natural food preservative agent, according to the actual situation of the development of natural food preservative, combining with the actual situation of social development, this paper analyzed its development prospect, and the relevant opinions and suggestions of the use of natural food antiseptic was put forward.%天然食品防腐保鲜剂是食品加工中必须加入的添加剂,其对食品保鲜起着极为重要的作用。但是,不合理地使用天然食品添加剂,会对食品质量造成不良的影响,使得食品的安全受到一定的威胁。因此,针对天然食品防腐保鲜剂的发展进行具体分析,根据天然食品防腐保鲜剂发展的实际情况,结合社会发展实际,分析其发展的前景,并对天然食品防腐保鲜剂的使用提出相关的意见和建议。

  15. Mapping the structural requirements of inducers and substrates for decarboxylation of weak acid preservatives by the food spoilage mould Aspergillus niger.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stratford, Malcolm; Plumridge, Andrew; Pleasants, Mike W; Novodvorska, Michaela; Baker-Glenn, Charles A G; Pattenden, Gerald; Archer, David B

    2012-07-16

    Moulds are able to cause spoilage in preserved foods through degradation of the preservatives using the Pad-decarboxylation system. This causes, for example, decarboxylation of the preservative sorbic acid to 1,3-pentadiene, a volatile compound with a kerosene-like odour. Neither the natural role of this system nor the range of potential substrates has yet been reported. The Pad-decarboxylation system, encoded by a gene cluster in germinating spores of the mould Aspergillus niger, involves activity by two decarboxylases, PadA1 and OhbA1, and a regulator, SdrA, acting pleiotropically on sorbic acid and cinnamic acid. The structural features of compounds important for the induction of Pad-decarboxylation at both transcriptional and functionality levels were investigated by rtPCR and GCMS. Sorbic and cinnamic acids served as transcriptional inducers but ferulic, coumaric and hexanoic acids did not. 2,3,4,5,6-Pentafluorocinnamic acid was a substrate for the enzyme but had no inducer function; it was used to distinguish induction and competence for decarboxylation in combination with the analogue chemicals. The structural requirements for the substrates of the Pad-decarboxylation system were probed using a variety of sorbic and cinnamic acid analogues. High decarboxylation activity, ~100% conversion of 1mM substrates, required a mono-carboxylic acid with an alkenyl double bond in the trans (E)-configuration at position C2, further unsaturation at C4, and an overall molecular length between 6.5Å and 9Å. Polar groups on the phenyl ring of cinnamic acid abolished activity (no conversion). Furthermore, several compounds were shown to block Pad-decarboxylation. These compounds, primarily aldehyde analogues of active substrates, may serve to reduce food spoilage by moulds such as A. niger. The possible ecological role of Pad-decarboxylation of spore self-inhibitors is unlikely and the most probable role for Pad-decarboxylation is to remove cinnamic acid-type inhibitors from

  16. Characterization of a bacteriocin produced by Enterococcus faecalis N1-33 and its application as a food preservative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hata, Tomomi; Alemu, Melaku; Kobayashi, Miho; Suzuki, Chise; Nitisinprasert, Sunee; Ohmomo, Sadahiro

    2009-03-01

    A bacteriocin-producing strain, N1-33, isolated from fermented bamboo shoot was identified as Enterococcus faecalis. The pH-adjusted culture supernatant of this strain consisted of several peptides with bacteriocin activity, and the supernatant inhibited the growth of pathogenic bacteria such as Listeria monocytogenes. The major peptide with bacteriocin activity was purified, and the first 39 amino acid residues of the bacteriocin were found to be identical to enterocin MR10A produced by E. faecalis MRR10-3. Addition of the pH-adjusted and concentrated culture supernatant of strain N1-33 caused a marked reduction in the growth of Bacillus cereus in custard cream and L. monocytogenes in pickled cucumber. These results suggest the potential use of the bacteriocin produced by strain N1-33 in food biopreservation.

  17. Inhibitory effects of some plant essential oils against Arcobacter butzleri and potential for rosemary oil as a natural food preservative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irkin, Reyhan; Abay, Secil; Aydin, Fuat

    2011-03-01

    We investigated the inhibitory activity of commercially marketed essential oils of mint, rosemary, orange, sage, cinnamon, bay, clove, and cumin against Arcobacter butzleri and Arcobacter skirrowii and the effects of the essential oil of rosemary against A. butzleri in a cooked minced beef system. Using the disc diffusion method to determine the inhibitory activities of these plant essential oils against strains of Arcobacter, we found that those of rosemary, bay, cinnamon, and clove had strong inhibitory activity against these organisms, whereas the essential oils of cumin, mint, and sage failed to show inhibitory activity against most of the Arcobacter strains tested. The 0.5% (vol/wt) essential oil of rosemary was completely inhibitory against A. butzleri in the cooked minced beef system at 4°C. These essential oils may be further investigated as a natural solution to the food industry by creating an additional barrier (hurdle technology) to inhibit the growth of Arcobacter strains.

  18. Development of food preservation and processing techniques by radiation - Studies on the safety and consumer acceptance of gamma irradiated meats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, Il Jun; Lee, Young Jin; Lee, Young Sook; Kim, Ha Kyung [Hallym University, Chunchon (Korea)

    2000-04-01

    Gamma irradiation was applied to chickens for evaluation of their possible genotoxicity, acute toxicity, four-week oral toxicity and nutritional safety. The results were negative in the bacterial reversion assay with S. typhimurium TA98, TA100, TA1535, TA1537. Clastogenic effects of the irradiated samples tested were not shown in vivo mouse micronucleus assay and in chromosomal aberration tests with CHL cells. In an acute toxicity test, the maximal dose of 5,000 mg/kg did not change any toxic parameter examined in this study. In four-week oral toxicity study, appearance, behavior, mortality, food and water consumption of mouse of treated groups were not affected during the experimental periods(four-weeks). In urine analysis, in hematological examination as well as in serum biochemical experiment, no significant differences were found between the control and treatment groups. Although minor changes in some hematological and biochemical parameters were observed, they were in the normal range and were not dose dependent. In nutritional safety, the proximate composition of foods were not significantly changed by irradiation dose. No significant difference in the components of fatty acids were observed by gamma irradiation. In general, the amount of released free amino acid was not significantly changed by gamma irradiation. There was no difference in total amino acid content between non irradiated and irradiated samples. The SDS electrophoresis patterns of samples were not significantly different between nonirradiated and irradiated samples. The major mineral compositions of chicken were phosphorus, potassium, sodium, magnesium. The content of mineral was not significantly changed by gamma irradiation. 58 refs., 11 figs., 16 tabs. (Author)

  19. Preservation of cocoa antioxidant activity, total polyphenols, flavan-3-ols, and procyanidin content in foods prepared with cocoa powder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stahl, L; Miller, K B; Apgar, J; Sweigart, D S; Stuart, D A; McHale, N; Ou, B; Kondo, M; Hurst, W J

    2009-08-01

    Little is known about the effects of common cooking processes on cocoa flavanols. Antioxidant activity, total polyphenols (TP), flavanol monomers, and procyanidin oligomers were determined in chocolate frosting, a hot cocoa drink, chocolate cookies, and chocolate cake made with natural cocoa powder. Recoveries of antioxidant activity, TP, flavanol monomers, and procyanidins ranged from 86% to over 100% in the chocolate frosting, hot cocoa drink, and chocolate cookies. Losses were greatest in the chocolate cake with recoveries ranging from 5% for epicatechin to 54% for antioxidant activity. The causes of losses in baked chocolate cakes were investigated by exchanging baking soda with baking powder or combinations of the 2 leavening agents. Use of baking soda as a leavening agent was associated with increased pH and darkening color of cakes. Losses of antioxidant activity, TP, flavanol monomers, and procyanidins were associated with an increased extractable pH of the baked cakes. Chocolate cakes made with baking powder for leavening resulted in an average extractable pH of 6.2 with essentially complete retention of antioxidant activity and flavanol content, but with reduced cake heights and lighter cake color. Commercially available chocolate cake mixes had final pHs above 8.3 and contained no detectable monomeric flavanols after baking. These results suggest that baking soda causes an increase in pH and subsequent destruction of flavanol compounds and antioxidant activity. Use of an appropriate leavening agent to moderate the final cake pH to approximately 7.25 or less results in both good leavening and preservation of cocoa flavanols and procyanidins. PMID:19723182

  20. Using a concentrate of phenols obtained from olive vegetation water to preserve chilled food: two case studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luca Fasolato

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Phenols are plant metabolites characterised by several interesting bioactive properties such as antioxidant and bactericidal activities. In this study the application of a phenols concentrate (PC from olive vegetation water to two different fresh products – gilt-head seabream (Sparus aurata and chicken breast – was described. Products were treated in a bath of PC (22 g/L; chicken breast or sprayed with two different solutions (L1:0.75 and L2:1.5 mg/mL; seabream and then stored under refrigeration conditions. The shelf life was monitored through microbiological analyses – quality index method for seabream and a specific sensory index for raw breast. The secondary products of lipid-peroxidation of the chicken breast were determined using the thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARs test on cooked samples. Multivariate statistical techniques were adopted to investigate the impact of phenols and microbiological data were fitted by DMfit software. In seabream, the levels of PC did not highlight any significant difference on microbiological and sensory features. DMfit models suggested an effect only on H2S producing bacteria with an increased lag phase compared to the control samples (C: 87 h vs L2: 136 h. The results on chicken breast showed that the PC bath clearly modified the growth of Pseudomonas and Enterobacteriaceae. The phenol dipping was effective in limiting lipid-peroxidation (TBARs after cooking. Treated samples disclosed an increase of shelf life of 2 days. These could be considered as preliminary findings suggesting the use of this concentrate as preservative in some fresh products.

  1. Antifungal therapy in European hospitals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zarb, P; Amadeo, B; Muller, A;

    2012-01-01

    The study aimed to identify targets for quality improvement in antifungal use in European hospitals and determine the variability of such prescribing. Hospitals that participated in the European Surveillance of Antimicrobial Consumption Point Prevalence Surveys (ESAC-PPS) were included. The WHO...... 40,878 (3.7%) antimicrobials. Antifungals were mainly (54.2%) administered orally. Hospital-acquired infections represented 44.5% of indications for antifungals followed by medical prophylaxis at 31.2%. The site of infection was not defined in 36.0% of cases but the most commonly targeted sites were...... respiratory (19.2%) and gastrointestinal (18.8%). The most used antifungal was fluconazole (60.5%) followed by caspofungin (10.5%). Antifungal-antibacterial combinations were frequently used (77.5%). The predominance of fluconazole use in participating hospitals could result in an increase in prevalence of...

  2. Inhibition of postharvest penicillium molds of oranges by antifungal hydroxypropyl methylcellulose-lipid edible composite films and coatings

    OpenAIRE

    Silvia A. Valencia-Chamorro; Pérez-Gago, María B.; del Río, Miguel A.; Palou, Lluís

    2010-01-01

    New hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HPMC)-lipid edible composite films and coatings containing low-toxicity chemicals with antifungal properties were developed. Tested antifungal chemicals were mainly salts of organic acids, salts of parabens, and other compounds, most of them classified as food additives or generally recognized as safe (GRAS) compounds. Stand-alone edible films were used for in vitro evaluation of their antifungal activity against the pathogens Penicillium digitat...

  3. Augmenting the Antifungal Activity of an Oxidizing Agent with Kojic Acid: Control of Penicillium Strains Infecting Crops

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Jong H.; Chan, Kathleen L.

    2014-01-01

    Oxidative treatment is one of the strategies for preventing Penicillium contamination in crops/foods. The antifungal efficacy of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2; oxidant) was investigated in Penicillium strains by using kojic acid (KA) as a chemosensitizing agent, which can enhance the susceptibility of pathogens to antifungal agents. Co-application of KA with H2O2 (chemosensitization) resulted in the enhancement of antifungal activity of either compound, when compared to the independent application ...

  4. Chalcone derivatives as potential antifungal agents: Synthesis, and antifungal activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deepa Gupta

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Much research has been carried out with the aim to discover the therapeutic values of chalcone derivatives. Chalcones possess wide range of pharmacological activity such as antibacterial, antimalarial, antiprotozoal, antitubercular, anticancer, and antifungal agents etc. The presence of reactive α,β-unsaturated keto group in chalcones is found to be responsible for their biological activity. The rapid developments of resistance to antifungal agents, led to design, and synthesize the new antifungal agents. The derivatives of chalcones were prepared using Claisen-Schmidt condensation scheme with appropriate tetralone and aldehyde derivatives. Ten derivatives were synthesized and were biologically screened for antifungal activity. The newly synthesized derivatives of chalcone showed antifungal activity against fungal species, Microsporum gypseum. The results so obtained were superior or comparable to ketoconazole. It was observed that none of the compounds tested showed positive results for fungi Candida albicans nor against fungi Aspergillus niger. Chalcone derivatives showed inhibitory effect against M. gypseum species of fungus. It was found that among the chalcone derivatives so synthesized, two of them, that is, 4-chloro derivative, and unsubstituted derivative of chalcone showed antifungal activity superior to ketoconazole. Thus, these can be the potential new molecule as antifungal agent.

  5. Research Progress on Effects of Ultra-high Pressure Technology on the Preservation of Food%超高压技术在食品保鲜上的研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    熊建文

    2012-01-01

    Ultra high pressure technology was an effective and safe preservative technology. It was more and more used in food industry. Basic principle of high pressure and preservation, the application in food preservation, and the future were reviewed, which will provide the theoretical references for the further research.%超高压技术作为一种高效、安全的保鲜技术,越来越多的应用于食品加工中。就超高压技术在加工过程中的原理、保鲜原理、在食品保鲜中的应用以及展望作一简要概述,以期为进一步的研究提供理论指导和参考依据。

  6. Phytochemical Analysis and Antifungal Activity of Extracts from Leaves and Fruit Residues of Brazilian Savanna Plants Aiming Its Use as Safe Fungicides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breda, Caroline Alves; Gasperini, Alessandra Marcon; Garcia, Vera Lucia; Monteiro, Karin Maia; Bataglion, Giovana Anceski; Eberlin, Marcos Nogueira; Duarte, Marta Cristina Teixeira

    2016-08-01

    The increasing demand for safe food without preservatives or pesticides residues has encouraged several studies on natural products with antifungal activity and low toxicity. In this study, ethanolic extracts from leaves and fruit residues (peel and seeds) of three Brazilian savanna species (Acrocomia aculeata, Campomanesia adamantium and Caryocar brasiliense) were evaluated against phytopathogenic fungi. Additionally, the most active extract was chemically characterized by ESI-MS and its oral acute toxicity was evaluated. Extracts from C. brasiliense (pequi) peel and leaves were active against Alternaria alternata, Alternaria solani and Venturia pirina with minimal inhibitory concentrations between 350 and 1000 µg/mL. When incorporated in solid media, these extracts extended the lag phase of A. alternata and A. solani and reduced the growth rate of A. solani. Pequi peel extract showed better antifungal activity and their ESI-MS analysis revealed the presence of substances widely reported as antifungal such as gallic acid, quinic acid, ellagic acid, glucogalin and corilagin. The oral acute toxicity was relatively low, being considered safe for use as a potential natural fungicide. PMID:27169570

  7. Antifungal hydroxy fatty acids produced during sourdough fermentation: microbial and enzymatic pathways, and antifungal activity in bread.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, Brenna A; Zannini, Emanuele; Curtis, Jonathan M; Gänzle, Michael G

    2013-03-01

    Lactobacilli convert linoleic acid to hydroxy fatty acids; however, this conversion has not been demonstrated in food fermentations and it remains unknown whether hydroxy fatty acids produced by lactobacilli have antifungal activity. This study aimed to determine whether lactobacilli convert linoleic acid to metabolites with antifungal activity and to assess whether this conversion can be employed to delay fungal growth on bread. Aqueous and organic extracts from seven strains of lactobacilli grown in modified De Man Rogosa Sharpe medium or sourdough were assayed for antifungal activity. Lactobacillus hammesii exhibited increased antifungal activity upon the addition of linoleic acid as a substrate. Bioassay-guided fractionation attributed the antifungal activity of L. hammesii to a monohydroxy C(18:1) fatty acid. Comparison of its antifungal activity to those of other hydroxy fatty acids revealed that the monohydroxy fraction from L. hammesii and coriolic (13-hydroxy-9,11-octadecadienoic) acid were the most active, with MICs of 0.1 to 0.7 g liter(-1). Ricinoleic (12-hydroxy-9-octadecenoic) acid was active at a MIC of 2.4 g liter(-1). L. hammesii accumulated the monohydroxy C(18:1) fatty acid in sourdough to a concentration of 0.73 ± 0.03 g liter(-1) (mean ± standard deviation). Generation of hydroxy fatty acids in sourdough also occurred through enzymatic oxidation of linoleic acid to coriolic acid. The use of 20% sourdough fermented with L. hammesii or the use of 0.15% coriolic acid in bread making increased the mold-free shelf life by 2 to 3 days or from 2 to more than 6 days, respectively. In conclusion, L. hammesii converts linoleic acid in sourdough and the resulting monohydroxy octadecenoic acid exerts antifungal activity in bread.

  8. Chalcone derivatives as potential antifungal agents: Synthesis, and antifungal activity

    OpenAIRE

    Deepa Gupta; Jain, D. K.

    2015-01-01

    Much research has been carried out with the aim to discover the therapeutic values of chalcone derivatives. Chalcones possess wide range of pharmacological activity such as antibacterial, antimalarial, antiprotozoal, antitubercular, anticancer, and antifungal agents etc. The presence of reactive α,β-unsaturated keto group in chalcones is found to be responsible for their biological activity. The rapid developments of resistance to antifungal agents, led to design, and synthesize the new antif...

  9. Preservation and storage of food using natural gas as an energy source; Preservacao e armazenamento de alimentos usando gas natural como fonte de energia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Gabriel F. da; Lira, Moema de Lima; Carnelossi, Marcelo A.G.; Sousa, Mabel R. [Universidade Federal de Sergipe (UFS), Aracaju, SE (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Quimica; Jesus, Marcos Fabio de [Universidade Federal da Bahia (UFBA), Salvador, BA (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Quimica; Campos, Michel Fabianski; Martins, Ronaldo M.; Furini Filho, Roberto [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Santos, Sara Macedo dos [Centro de Tecnologias do Gas (CTGAS), Natal, RN (Brazil)

    2004-07-01

    In this work a study on preservation and storage of agricultural products was undertaken in chambers cooled through an absorption system, which used natural gas in the power plant and the results were compared with the compression system using electric energy. For the study a refrigeration pilot unit was mounted which consisted of chiller through water/ammonia absorption with direct natural gas burning, having a maximum consumption of 2,7{sup 3}/ h and capacity of 5 TR's, three refrigerating chambers with isopanel walls polyurethane, dimensions 2mx3mx2m with maximum capacity of storage of 2.000 kg each, control panel, a system of compressed natural gas supplying two carts each containing three cylinders with capacity of 71,4{sup 3} and a compression system connected to a chamber of same characteristics. Optimization studies in the storage of some fruits and vegetables were undertaken. A program was established which takes in account the food properties and characteristics of refrigeration systems to estimate the operational cost with the two systems. A techno-economic feasibility study was carried out on the two system of absorption and compression. This project was developed in the UFS, and is part of RedeGasEnergia, support for the financial aid was provided by PETROBRAS and FINEP/CTPETRO programs. (author)

  10. Topical antifungals for seborrhoeic dermatitis

    OpenAIRE

    Okokon, Enembe O; Verbeek, Jos H.; Ruotsalainen, Jani H; Ojo, Olumuyiwa A; Bakhoya, Victor Nyange

    2015-01-01

    Background Seborrhoeic dermatitis is a chronic inflammatory skin condition that is distributed worldwide. It commonly affects the scalp, face and flexures of the body. Treatment options include antifungal drugs, steroids, calcineurin inhibitors, keratolytic agents and phototherapy. Objectives To assess the effects of antifungal agents for seborrhoeic dermatitis of the face and scalp in adolescents and adults. A secondary objective is to assess whether the same interventions are effective in t...

  11. Solidago canadensis L. Essential Oil Vapor Effectively Inhibits Botrytis cinerea Growth and Preserves Postharvest Quality of Strawberry as a Food Model System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Shumin; Shao, Xingfeng; Wei, Yanzhen; Li, Yonghua; Xu, Feng; Wang, Hongfei

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the anti-fungal properties of Solidago canadensis L. essential oil (SCLEO) against Botrytis cinerea in vitro, and its ability to control gray mold and maintain quality in strawberry fruits. SCLEO exhibited dose-dependent antifungal activity against B. cinerea and profoundly altered mycelial morphology, cellular ultrastructure, and membrane permeability as evaluated by scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, and fluorescence microscopy. SCLEO vapor at 0.1 mL/L maintained higher sensory acceptance and reduced decay of fresh strawberry fruit, and also reduced gray mold in artificially inoculated fruit. SCLEO treatment did not, however, stimulate phenylalanin ammonia-lyase, polyphenol oxidase, or chitinase, enzymes related to disease resistance. This suggests that SCLEO reduces gray mold by direct inhibition of pathogen growth. SCLEO vapor may provide a new and effective strategy for controlling postharvest disease and maintaining quality in strawberries. PMID:27531994

  12. Comparison study on regulation standards of food preservatives between two sides of Taiwan Strait%海峡两岸食品防腐剂法规标准对比研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐敦明; 理云露; 李建军; 陈鹭平; 林立毅; 周昱; 刘光明

    2013-01-01

    With the rapid establishment and development of the West Coast Economic Zone, economy of Taiwan area is highly integrated into the mainland economy. The Cross-Strait food accelerates the Cross-Border flow of each other, so the Chinese food contains both mainland products and products in Taiwan area. Due to objective reasons, enterprises on both sides perform two sets of food additive laws and standard systems. The differences will hinder the development of Cross-Strait trade on food. In this paper, food preservatives will be taken as an example, from which we could compare the Cross-Strait food preservatives regulations and stan-dards, including the range of usage and limitation, category name, type differences, the range of foods involved, and the similarities and differences of the variety and limitation of food additives listed in the Cross-Strait di-rectory. Finally, the application prospects of food preservatives and some suggestions related to Cross-Strait food preservatives in import and export trade are also discussed.%随着海西经济区的确立与快速发展,台湾地区经济已高度融入大陆经济体,海峡两岸食品加速相互跨境流通,中国食品不仅包括大陆产品、也涵盖了台湾地区产品。虽然同为中国食品,但由于客观原因,两岸企业分别执行两套食品添加剂法规及标准体系,其中的差别将阻碍两岸食品贸易的发展。本文主要以食品防腐剂为例,对比海峡两岸食品防腐剂的法规标准,包括使用范围及限量、类别名称、种类差异,涉及的食品范围。最后,阐述食品防腐剂的应用前景及对海峡两岸食品添加剂在进出口贸易方面提出一些建议。

  13. Food irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The preservation of food using irradiation may replace or be used in combination with traditional or conventional food preservation techniques. Studies have shown that the irradiation technique which uses less energy than other preservation methods is a potential way for reducing post harvest losses. However, economic feasibility among other constraints is the core factor to determine the success of the technique at commercial scale. The need and importance for considering this new technique in Malaysia are discussed here. (author)

  14. Application of Zataria multiflora Boiss. and Cinnamon zeylanicum essential oils as two natural preservatives in cake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kordsardouei, Habibe; Barzegar, Mohsen; Sahari, Mohamad Ali

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Oxidation of oils has an important effect on nutritional and organoleptic properties of foodstuffs. Nowadays, new tendency has created a necessity to use natural compounds such as essential oils for producing functional foods. In this study, antioxidant, antifungal, and organoleptic properties of Zataria multiflora Boiss. (ZMEO) and Cinnamon zeylanicum essential oils (CZEO) have been checked as two natural preservatives in the cakes. Materials and Methods: The antioxidant activity of essential oils were determined by measuring thiobarbituric, peroxide, and free fatty acid values of prepared cakes during 60 days storage at 25 ˚C. Antifungal properties of essential oils were determined and given as the ratio of colony number in samples containing ZMEO and CZEO to the control. Results: Different concentrations of essential oils prevented oxidation rate and reducd preliminary and secondary oxidation products compared with butylate hydroxyanisole (BHA (100 and 200 ppm)) and control cakes. Moreover, ZMEO and CZEO at three concentrations (500, 1000, and 1500 ppm) reduced the fungal growth more than samples containing BHA (100 and 200 ppm) and the control. Conclusion: Our results showed that optimum concenteration of ZMEO and CZEO for using in the cakes was 500 ppm therefore it can be replaced instead of synthetic preservatives in foodstuffs. PMID:25050280

  15. High Pdr12 levels in spoilage yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) correlate directly with sorbic acid levels in the culture medium but are not sufficient to provide cells with acquired resistance to the food preservative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papadimitriou, Minas N B; Resende, Catarina; Kuchler, Karl; Brul, Stanley

    2007-01-25

    Sorbic acid is a commonly used food preservative against yeast and fungal food spoilage. Understanding its effect on the molecular physiology of yeast cells will allow the food industry to develop knowledge-based strategies to make more optimal use of its preservative action. Here we show that the yeast membrane protein Pdr12, previously shown to be prominently involved in sorbic acid resistance development in laboratory strains, was strongly induced by the presence of sorbic acid in the culture medium in Saccharomyces strains isolated from spoiled foods. Induction of Pdr12 expression was seen both under laboratory conditions and upon growth in a commercial soft drink. Induction was rapid and maintained for the duration of the stress. No Pdr12-like protein induction was seen in Zygosaccharomyces bailii or Zygosaccharomyces lentus, two well-known beverages spoilage organisms. Finally, unexpectedly, our studies showed for the first time that pre-inducing Pdr12p to maximal levels by subjecting cells to a mild sorbic acid stress did not lead to cells with an acquired resistance. Neither more rapid growth in the presence of the acid nor growth at higher sorbic acid concentrations at a given environmental pH was observed. Thus we have shown that while important in resistance development against sorbic acid, by itself induction of the pump is not sufficient to acquire resistance to the preservative.

  16. Antifungal and antiviral products of marine organisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheung, Randy Chi Fai; Wong, Jack Ho; Pan, Wen Liang; Chan, Yau Sang; Yin, Cui Ming; Dan, Xiu Li; Wang, He Xiang; Fang, Evandro Fei; Lam, Sze Kwan; Ngai, Patrick Hung Kui; Xia, Li Xin; Liu, Fang; Ye, Xiu Yun; Zhang, Guo Qing; Liu, Qing Hong; Sha, Ou; Lin, Peng; Ki, Chan; Bekhit, Adnan A; Bekhit, Alaa El-Din; Wan, David Chi Cheong; Ye, Xiu Juan; Xia, Jiang; Ng, Tzi Bun

    2014-04-01

    Marine organisms including bacteria, fungi, algae, sponges, echinoderms, mollusks, and cephalochordates produce a variety of products with antifungal activity including bacterial chitinases, lipopeptides, and lactones; fungal (-)-sclerotiorin and peptaibols, purpurides B and C, berkedrimane B and purpuride; algal gambieric acids A and B, phlorotannins; 3,5-dibromo-2-(3,5-dibromo-2-methoxyphenoxy)phenol, spongistatin 1, eurysterols A and B, nortetillapyrone, bromotyrosine alkaloids, bis-indole alkaloid, ageloxime B and (-)-ageloxime D, haliscosamine, hamigeran G, hippolachnin A from sponges; echinoderm triterpene glycosides and alkene sulfates; molluscan kahalalide F and a 1485-Da peptide with a sequence SRSELIVHQR; and cepalochordate chitotriosidase and a 5026.9-Da antifungal peptide. The antiviral compounds from marine organisms include bacterial polysaccharide and furan-2-yl acetate; fungal macrolide, purpurester A, purpurquinone B, isoindolone derivatives, alterporriol Q, tetrahydroaltersolanol C and asperterrestide A, algal diterpenes, xylogalactofucan, alginic acid, glycolipid sulfoquinovosyldiacylglycerol, sulfated polysaccharide p-KG03, meroditerpenoids, methyl ester derivative of vatomaric acid, lectins, polysaccharides, tannins, cnidarian zoanthoxanthin alkaloids, norditerpenoid and capilloquinol; crustacean antilipopolysaccharide factors, molluscan hemocyanin; echinoderm triterpenoid glycosides; tunicate didemnin B, tamandarins A and B and; tilapia hepcidin 1-5 (TH 1-5), seabream SauMx1, SauMx2, and SauMx3, and orange-spotted grouper β-defensin. Although the mechanisms of antifungal and antiviral activities of only some of the aforementioned compounds have been elucidated, the possibility to use those known to have distinctly different mechanisms, good bioavailability, and minimal toxicity in combination therapy remains to be investigated. It is also worthwhile to test the marine antimicrobials for possible synergism with existing drugs. The prospects of

  17. Synthesis, antibacterial and antifungal activity of some derivatives of 2-phenyl-chromen-4-one

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Sayed Alam

    2004-11-01

    Some derivatives of 2-phenyl-chromen-4-one (flavone ring) have been synthesized and tested for antibacterial and antifungal activities along with their chalcone precursors against four human pathogenic bacteria and five plant mould fungi. The structures of the synthesized compounds were elucidated by UV, IR and 1H NMR spectroscopic techniques, and elemental analysis. The antibacterial and antifungal screens of the synthesized compounds were performed in vitro by the filter paper disc diffusion method and the poisoned food technique.

  18. In vitro antifungal effect of black cumin seed quinones against dairy spoilage yeasts at different acidity levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halamova, Katerina; Kokoska, Ladislav; Flesar, Jaroslav; Sklenickova, Olga; Svobodova, Blanka; Marsik, Petr

    2010-12-01

    The antiyeast activity of the black cumin seed (Nigella sativa) quinones dithymoquinone, thymohydroquinone (THQ), and thymoquinone (TQ) were evaluated in vitro with a broth microdilution method against six dairy spoilage yeast species. Antifungal effects of the quinones were compared with those of preservatives commonly used in milk products (calcium propionate, natamycin, and potassium sorbate) at two pH levels (4.0 and 5.5). THQ and TQ possessed significant antiyeast activity and affected the growth of all strains tested at both pH levels, with MICs ranging from 8 to 128 μg/ml. With the exception of the antibiotic natamycin, the inhibitory effects of all food preservatives against the yeast strains tested in this study were strongly affected by differences in pH, with MICs of ≥16 and ≥512 μg/ml at pH 4.0 and 5.5, respectively. These findings suggest that HQ and TQ are effective antiyeast agents that could be used in the dairy industry as chemical preservatives of natural origin.

  19. Resistance to antifungals that target CYP51.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Josie E; Warrilow, Andrew G S; Price, Claire L; Mullins, Jonathan G L; Kelly, Diane E; Kelly, Steven L

    2014-10-01

    Fungal diseases are an increasing global burden. Fungi are now recognised to kill more people annually than malaria, whilst in agriculture, fungi threaten crop yields and food security. Azole resistance, mediated by several mechanisms including point mutations in the target enzyme (CYP51), is increasing through selection pressure as a result of widespread use of triazole fungicides in agriculture and triazole antifungal drugs in the clinic. Mutations similar to those seen in clinical isolates as long ago as the 1990s in Candida albicans and later in Aspergillus fumigatus have been identified in agriculturally important fungal species and also wider combinations of point mutations. Recently, evidence that mutations originate in the field and now appear in clinical infections has been suggested. This situation is likely to increase in prevalence as triazole fungicide use continues to rise. Here, we review the progress made in understanding azole resistance found amongst clinically and agriculturally important fungal species focussing on resistance mechanisms associated with CYP51. Biochemical characterisation of wild-type and mutant CYP51 enzymes through ligand binding studies and azole IC50 determinations is an important tool for understanding azole susceptibility and can be used in conjunction with microbiological methods (MIC50 values), molecular biological studies (site-directed mutagenesis) and protein modelling studies to inform future antifungal development with increased specificity for the target enzyme over the host homologue. PMID:25320648

  20. Analysis of Food Additives in Preserved Fruits in Zhejiang Province in 2012%2012年浙江地区蜜饯中食品添加剂情况分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    阮鑫; 孙亮

    2013-01-01

    [Objective] To understand the use of food additives in preserved fruits in Zhejiang province to provide technical support for the risk assessment of food additives exceeding the standard,explore the causes and harm of excessive additives,and put forward reasonable proposals.[Method] Preserved food in Zhejiang province were sampled randomly and detected and evaluated according to the relevant national standards.[Result] The qualified rate of preserved fruits in Zhejiang area was 96.51%.The exceeding standard rate of preservatives and sweeteners were 2.32% and 1.16% respectively.[Conclusion] The overall conditions of preserved fruits in Zhejiang province was good,but individual products were having problems.%目的:了解浙江地区蜜饯中食品添加剂的使用情况,为蜜饯中食品添加剂超标情况的风险评估提供技术支持并探讨添加剂超限量的起因和危害,提出合理建议.方法:对浙江地区蜜饯类食品进行随机采样,按照相应的国家标准进行检测和评价.结果:蜜饯合格率96.51%,防腐剂、甜味剂的超标率分别为2.32%和1.16%.结论:浙江地区的蜜饯产品总体情况较好,个别产品存在问题.

  1. Software preservation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tadej Vodopivec

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Comtrade Ltd. covers a wide range of activities related to information and communication technologies; its deliverables include web applications, locally installed programs,system software, drivers, embedded software (used e.g. in medical devices, auto parts,communication switchboards. Also the extensive knowledge and practical experience about digital long-term preservation technologies have been acquired. This wide spectrum of activities puts us in the position to discuss the often overlooked aspect of the digital preservation - preservation of software programs. There are many resources dedicated to digital preservation of digital data, documents and multimedia records,but not so many about how to preserve the functionalities and features of computer programs. Exactly these functionalities - dynamic response to inputs - render the computer programs rich compared to documents or linear multimedia. The article opens the questions on the beginning of the way to the permanent digital preservation. The purpose is to find a way in the right direction, where all relevant aspects will be covered in proper balance. The following questions are asked: why at all to preserve computer programs permanently, who should do this and for whom, when we should think about permanent program preservation, what should be persevered (such as source code, screenshots, documentation, and social context of the program - e.g. media response to it ..., where and how? To illustrate the theoretic concepts given the idea of virtual national museum of electronic banking is also presented.

  2. Research Status of Anti-microbial Peptide and Application Foreground in Food Preservative%抗菌肽的研究现状及在食品防腐保鲜中的应用前景

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王玲

    2011-01-01

    Antimicrobial peptide,a protective active material which can resist out-sourced pathogen,was induced by various kinds of biological cells based on the outside condition.It can resist bacteria,epiphyte,virus,protozoa and kill tumour cells.Its advantage of safety and innocuity makes it have the potential value of being a preservative for natural food.However,anti-microbial peptide used as a food preservative is not so common at present,study and exploiting anti-microbial peptide as a food preservative still face many problems.The research status of different kinds of anti-microbial peptides,problems that affect the application of anti-microbial peptides and the application foreground in food preservative were discussed in this paper.%抗菌肽是由多种生物细胞经外界条件诱导产生的对抗外源病原体的防御性肽类活性物质,具有广谱抗细菌、真菌、病毒、原虫、抑杀肿瘤细胞等的作用。它的安全无毒害作用的优势使得它具有作为天然食品防腐保鲜剂的潜在应用价值。但是,目前抗菌肽作为食品防腐保鲜剂的实际使用并不多见,抗菌肽型天然食品防腐保鲜剂的研究与开发仍存在很多问题。分别综述了不同类型抗菌肽的研究现状,影响抗菌肽应用的问题及在食品防腐保鲜中的应用前景。

  3. Isolation and characterisation of antifungal compounds from lactic acid bacteria and their application in wheat and gluten-free bread

    OpenAIRE

    Axel, Claudia

    2015-01-01

    As part of the “free-from” trend, biopreservation for bread products has increasingly become important to prevent spoilage since artificial preservatives are more and more rejected by consumers. A literature review conducted as part of this thesis revealed that the evaluation of more suitable antifungal strains of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) is important. Moreover, increasing the knowledge about the origin of the antifungal effect is fundamental for further enhancement of biopreservation. This...

  4. Antifungal therapy with an emphasis on biofilms

    OpenAIRE

    Pierce, Christopher G.; Srinivasan, Anand; Uppuluri, Priya; Anand K. Ramasubramanian; López-Ribot, José Luis

    2013-01-01

    Fungal infections are on the rise as advances in modern medicine prolong the lives of severely ill patients. Fungi are eukaryotic organisms and there are a limited number of targets for antifungal drug development; as a result the antifungal arsenal is exceedingly limited. Azoles, polyenes and echinocandins, constitute the mainstay of antifungal therapy for patients with life-threatening mycoses. One of the main factors complicating antifungal therapy is the formation of fungal biofilms, micr...

  5. Treating chromoblastomycosis with systemic antifungals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonifaz, Alexandro; Paredes-Solís, Vanessa; Saúl, Amado

    2004-02-01

    Chromoblastomycosis is a subcutaneous mycosis for which there is no treatment of choice but rather, several treatment options, with low cure rates and many relapses. The choice of treatment should consider several conditions, such as the causal agent (the most common one being Fonsecaea pedrosoi ), extension of the lesions, clinical topography and health status of the patient. Most oral and systemic antifungals have been used; the best results have been obtained with itraconazole and terbinafine at high doses, for a mean of 6 - 12 months. In extensive and refractory cases, chemotherapy with oral antifungals may be associated with thermotherapy (local heat and/or cryosurgery). Limited or early cases may be managed with surgical methods, always associated with oral antifungal agents. It is important to determine the in vitro sensitivity of the major causal agents to the various drugs, by estimating the minimum inhibitory concentration, as well as drug tolerability and drug interactions.

  6. Food preservation by irradiation. V.- Economic study of the spanish potatoe market and preservation feasibility by irradiation; Conservacion de alimentos por irradiacion. V.- Estudio economico del mercado de patatas en Espana y posibilidades de su conservacion por irradiacion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rivas, A.; Garcia de Mateos, A.; Ortin Sune, N.; Val Cob, M. del

    1967-07-01

    A study of the spanish potatoe market is carried o nt in order to know the possibilities of preservation by irradiation. The study is initiated with a recompilation of statistical data on the production and consumption of potatoes by regions and seasons. Last years losses are then estimated. (Author) 9 refs.

  7. Digital preservation

    CERN Document Server

    Deegan, Marilyn

    2013-01-01

    Digital preservation is an issue of huge importance to the library and information profession right now. With the widescale adoption of the internet and the rise of the world wide web, the world has been overwhelmed by digital information. Digital data is being produced on a massive scale by individuals and institutions: some of it is born, lives and dies only in digital form, and it is the potential death of this data, with its impact on the preservation of culture, that is the concern of this book. So how can information professionals try to remedy this? Digital preservation is a complex iss

  8. Contribution of volatiles to the antifungal effect of Lactobacillus paracasei in defined medium and yogurt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aunsbjerg, S D; Honoré, A H; Marcussen, J; Ebrahimi, P; Vogensen, F K; Benfeldt, C; Skov, T; Knøchel, S

    2015-02-01

    Lactic acid bacteria with antifungal properties can be used to control spoilage of food and feed. Previously, most of the identified metabolites have been isolated from cell-free fermentate of lactic acid bacteria with methods suboptimal for detecting possible contribution from volatiles to the antifungal activity. The role of volatile compounds in the antifungal activity of Lactobacillus paracasei DGCC 2132 in a chemically defined interaction medium (CDIM) and yogurt was therefore investigated with a sampling technique minimizing volatile loss. Diacetyl was identified as the major volatile produced by L. paracasei DGCC 2132 in CDIM. When the strain was added to a yogurt medium diacetyl as well as other volatiles also increased but the metabolome was more complex. Removal of L. paracasei DGCC 2132 cells from CDIM fermentate resulted in loss of both volatiles, including diacetyl, and the antifungal activity towards two strains of Penicillium spp. When adding diacetyl to CDIM or yogurt without L. paracasei DGCC 2132, marked inhibition was observed. Besides diacetyl, the antifungal properties of acetoin were examined, but no antifungal activity was observed. Overall, the results demonstrate the contribution of diacetyl in the antifungal effect of L. paracasei DGCC 2132 and indicate that the importance of volatiles may have been previously underestimated.

  9. Research Progress on Biological Preservative of Food Products%生物源食品保鲜剂研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赖小龙; 李文平; 廖鹏运; 李锐; 常争艳

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, we reviewed the composition and preservative mechanism of microbial, botanic and creat-ural preservative. Furthermore, the advantages, disadvantages and applications of biological preservative have also been discussed.%  本文介绍了微生物源、植物源以及动物源食品保鲜剂的有效成分、保鲜方法、保鲜机理及其应用状况的研究进展,分析了各种保鲜剂的利弊和应用前景。

  10. Biochemical approaches to selective antifungal activity. Focus on azole antifungals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanden Bossche, H; Marichal, P; Gorrens, J; Coene, M C; Willemsens, G; Bellens, D; Roels, I; Moereels, H; Janssen, P A

    1989-01-01

    Azole antifungals (e.g. the imidazoles: miconazole, clotrimazole, bifonazole, imazalil, ketoconazole, and the triazoles: diniconazole, triadimenol, propiconazole, fluconazole and itraconazole) inhibit in fungal cells the 14 alpha-demethylation of lanosterol or 24-methylenedihydrolanosterol. The consequent inhibition of ergosterol synthesis originates from binding of the unsubstituted nitrogen (N-3 or N-4) of their imidazole or triazole moiety to the heme iron and from binding of their N-1 substituent to the apoprotein of a cytochrome P-450 (P-450(14)DM) of the endoplasmic reticulum. Great differences in both potency and selectivity are found between the different azole antifungals. For example, after 16h of growth of Candida albicans in medium supplemented with [14C]-acetate and increasing concentrations of itraconazole, 100% inhibition of ergosterol synthesis is achieved at 3 x 10(-8) M. Complete inhibition of this synthesis by fluconazole is obtained at 10(-5) M only. The agrochemical imidazole derivative, imazalil, shows high selectivity, it has almost 80 and 98 times more affinity for the Candida P-450(s) than for those of the piglet testes microsomes and bovine adrenal mitochondria, respectively. However, the topically active imidazole antifungal, bifonazole, has the highest affinity for P-450(s) of the testicular microsomes. The triazole antifungal itraconazole inhibits at 10(-5) M the P-450-dependent aromatase by 17.9, whereas 50% inhibition of this enzyme is obtained at about 7.5 x 10(-6)M of the bistriazole derivative fluconazole. The overall results show that both the affinity for the fungal P-450(14)DM and the selectivity are determined by the nitrogen heterocycle and the hydrophobic N-1 substituent of the azole antifungals. The latter has certainly a greater impact. The presence of a triazole and a long hypdrophobic nonligating portion form the basis for itraconazole's potency and selectivity.

  11. On the Development of Food-Oriented Health-Preserving from the Perspective of TCM Feeding Performance%中医食性视野下食养发展刍议

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    柴可夫; 谷英敏; 马纲

    2011-01-01

    透过食性的角度来研究食养理论与实践的萌芽、初步形成、形成、补充、发展.旨在得出如下结论:食养理念是在食性的认识基础上并以中医药理论为依托,它的进一步发展提高有赖于中医药理论的应用及食材性能的研究,并可促进中医药事业的发展及食材的应用.%Throngh the study of the budding, initial forming, forming, renewing, and development of food-oriented health-preserving theory and practice from the perspective of feeding performance, to draw a conclusion as follows: the philosophy of food-oriented health-preserving is based on the knowledge of feeding performance and the theory of TCM; its further development depends on the application of TCM theories and the study on medicated food functions, and it will promote the development of TCM industry and the application of medicated foods.

  12. Mechanism and application progress of high-pressure-shift-freezing in food preservation%高压切换冻结在食品保鲜中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邹妍; 龙道崎; 陶兵兵; 赵国华

    2012-01-01

    高压切换冻结是一种新兴的食品保鲜技术,在冻结过程中利用高压与温度来控制冻结过程,改变冰晶体的大小、形态与分布,从而改善冻品的品质。文章详细阐述了高压切换冻结法的基本原理以及在食品保鲜领域研究的进展,最后分析了该技术存在的问题,以对高压切换冻结技术的进一步研究提供参考。%High-pressure-shift-freezing(HPSF),an emerging food preservation technique,takes advantages of different ice crystals properties such as size,shape and distribution resulting from controlling of high pressure and temperature to improve the quality of frozen food.The basic principle of HPSF as well as the study of technique in food industry was depicted.In addition,the main problems were listed,and it could be a reference for further research of HPSF in food preservation.

  13. 21 CFR 146.154 - Concentrated orange juice with preservative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Concentrated orange juice with preservative. 146... are any safe and suitable preservatives or combinations thereof. (c) The name of the food is... the percent by weight of the preservative used. If the food is packed in container sizes that are...

  14. Use of antifungal drugs in hematology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcio Nucci

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Invasive fungal disease represents a major complication in hematological patients. Antifungal agents are frequently used in hematologic patients for different purposes. In neutropenic patients, antifungal agents may be used as prophylaxis, as empiric or preemptive therapy, or to treat an invasive fungal disease that has been diagnosed. The hematologist must be familiar with the epidemiology, diagnostic tools and strategies of antifungal use, as well as the pharmacologic proprieties of the different antifungal agents. In this paper the principal antifungal agents used in hematologic patients will be discussed as will the clinical scenarios where these agents have been used.

  15. Antimicrobial commodities. Part 2. Antimicrobial and antifungal paint (adhesive); Kokin seikatsu yohin (dai 2 kai). Kokin / bokabi toryo (secchakuzai)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toyonaga, Y. [Shinto Paint Co. Ltd., Amagasaki, Osaka (Japan)

    1998-07-01

    Since paints or adhesives suffer damage during their practical use from microorganisms existing in the nature, antimicrobial agents are added to products. The antimicrobial agents are classified into three according to the use: preservatives for killing and inhibiting germs (bacteria), antifungal agents for killing and inhibiting eumycetes (mold); and antimicrobial agents in a narrow sense for inhibiting the propagation of bacterial which causes damage to the health, such as MRSA. This paper describes the functions and examples of compositions of paints and adhesives, and then concrete examples of compositions, methods of use, and effects of preservatives, antifungal agents and antimicrobial agents for paints and adhesives. Concerning, especially, preservatives and antifungal agents, the main uses, trade names oral toxities and solvents of 30 compounds are listed. Concerning the antimicrobial agent in a narrow sense, examples of compositions of antimicrobial pastes are enumerated. 5 refs., 1 fig., 8 tabs.

  16. Antifungal activity of juniper extracts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawdust from three species of Juniperus (i.e., J. virginianna, J. occidentalis, and J. ashei) were extracted with hexane or ethanol and the extracts tested for antifungal activity against four species of wood-rot fungi. These species studied represent the junipers with the greatest potential for co...

  17. XML Investigating the Phytochemical, Antibacterial and Antifungal Effects of Thymus Vulgaris and Cuminum Cyminum Essential Oils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soghra Valizadeh (MSc

    2016-02-01

    lower than the Cuminum Cyminum essential oil, which indicates the higher antifungal activity of the essential oil of Thymus vulgaris. This study has raised the possibility of using these essential oils as suitable antimicrobial compounds and alternatives for chemical preservatives in the food industry.

  18. 植物源食品防腐剂抑菌机理和效果及在食品保鲜中的应用%Antibacterial mechanism and effects of botanical food preservatives and their application in food fresh -keeping

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张媛媛; 李艳利; 李书国

    2014-01-01

    Due to their good safety,strong antibacterial property and abundant resources,natural botanical food preservatives have become one of the attractive research fields in food preservation.The variety,an-tibacterial effect and mechanism of several kinds of botanical food preservatives and their application in food preservation were systematically introduced.The botanical preservatives include proteins,peptides, polysaccharides and flavonoids,polyphenols,terpenes,essential oils and enzymatic hydrolysates in some plant materials themselves.Although many fruit in research of botanical food preservatives have been a-chieved,some problems,such as identification of antimicrobial active constituents,dosage -effect,syn-ergistic effects between different antimicrobial active components and the mechanism,risk analysis and so on,still existed.Some suggestions about research,development and application of botanical food pre-servatives were put forward.%植物源天然食品防腐剂因其安全性高、抗菌性强以及来源广泛等优点,已成为食品防腐保鲜研究的热点。系统地介绍了几类天然植物源防腐剂种类、抑菌效果、抑菌机理及在食品贮藏保鲜中的应用。植物源防腐剂主要包括蛋白类、肽类、多糖类、黄酮类、多酚类、萜类、精油及植物自身成分的酶解产物等。目前从植物中提取有效成分作为天然防腐剂已经取得了一定的成果,但仍存在一定的问题,如防腐剂成分的鉴定、量效关系、不同防腐物质间协同增效作用效果及机理、风险分析等方面的问题。提出了天然食品防腐剂研究、开发及应用方面的建议。

  19. Biocontrol of Aspergillus species on peanut kernels by antifungal diketopiperazine producing Bacillus cereus associated with entomopathogenic nematode.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sasidharan Nishanth Kumar

    Full Text Available The rhabditid entomopathogenic nematode associated Bacillus cereus and the antifungal compounds produced by this bacterium were evaluated for their activity in reducing postharvest decay of peanut kernels caused by Aspergillus species in in vitro and in vivo tests. The results showed that B. cereus had a significant effect on biocontrol effectiveness in in vitro and in vivo conditions. The antifungal compounds produced by the B. cereus were purified using silica gel column chromatography and their structure was elucidated using extensive spectral analyses. The compounds were identified as diketopiperazines (DKPs [cyclo-(L-Pro-Gly, cyclo(L-Tyr-L-Tyr, cyclo-(L-Phe-Gly and cyclo(4-hydroxy-L-Pro-L-Trp]. The antifungal activities of diketopiperazines were studied against five Aspergillus species and best MIC of 2 µg/ml was recorded against A. flavus by cyclo(4-hydroxy-L-Pro-L-Trp. To investigate the potential application of cyclo(4-hydroxy-L-Pro-L-Trp to eliminate fungal spoilage in food and feed, peanut kernels was used as a food model system. White mycelia and dark/pale green spores of Aspergillus species were observed in the control peanut kernels after 2 days incubation. However the fungal growth was not observed in peanut kernels treated with cyclo(4-hydroxy-L-Pro-L-Trp. The cyclo(4-hydroxy-L-Pro-L-Trp was nontoxic to two normal cell lines [fore skin (FS normal fibroblast and African green monkey kidney (VERO] up to 200 µg/ml in MTT assay. Thus the cyclo(4-hydroxy-L-Pro-L-Trp identified in this study may be a promising alternative to chemical preservatives as a potential biopreservative agent which prevent fungal growth in food and feed. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report demonstrating that the entomopathogenic nematode associated B. cereus and cyclo(4-hydroxy-L-Pro-L-Trp could be used as a biocontrol agents against postharvest fungal disease caused by Aspergillus species.

  20. 气相色谱内标法测定食品中多种常见防腐剂的含量%Determination of eleven preservatives in food by gas chromatography

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    顾秀英; 欧菊芳; 王东铭; 鲍忠定; 许荣年

    2012-01-01

    采用乙醚提取,进%GC—FID,采用内标(十一烷酸)法对食品中11种防腐剂进行定量测定,该方法线性良好,检出限为0.84~5.01mg/kg,精密度为2.0%~3.6%,回收率在90.6%-98.8%,此方法操作简便,抗基质干扰、结果可靠,适合食品中多种防腐剂含量的准确测定。%A method was developed for determination of eleven preservatives in food sample by GC-FID, and preservatives were extracted by diethyl ether and were quantified by internal standard (undecanoic acid) method, the regression coefficient for the determination of the method is good, the detection limit and the accuracy for the determination of the method were 0.84-5.01 mg/kg and 2.0%-3.6%. The recoveris were 90.6%-98.8%. It showed that the method was simple and easy to handle, obstruction of bases decreased obviously, It's suit for the determination of preservatives in food.

  1. Antifungal activities of thiosemicarbazones and semicarbazones against mycotoxigenic fungi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rojane de Oliveira Paiva

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Mycotoxigenic fungi can compromise the quality of food, exposing human and animal health at risk. The antifungal activity of eight thiosemicarbazones (1-8 and nine semicarbazones (9-17 was evaluated against Aspergillus flavus, A. nomius, A. ochraceus, A. parasiticus and Fusarium verticillioides. Thiosemicarbazones had MIC values of 125-500 µg/ml. The thiosemicarbazones 1 and 2 exerted fungistatic activity against Aspergillus spp., and thiosemicarbazone 2 exerted fungicidal activity against F. verticillioides. Compound 2 showed an iron chelating effect of 63%. The ergosterol content of A. parasiticus had a decrease of 28 and 71% for the 31.2 and 62.5 µg/ml concentrations of thiosemicarbazone 2 compared to the control. The obtained results of antifungal activity revealed that thiosemicarbazone class was more active when compared to semicarbazone class and, the thiosemicarbazone 2 was the most active compound, specially, against Aspergillus spp.

  2. Antibacterial property and application research progress of chitosan food preservative film%壳聚糖食品保鲜膜抗菌性及其应用的研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄志成; 唐冰; 钟杰平; 李思东; 杨子明; 李普旺

    2013-01-01

    In recent years, chitosan as a kind of natural materials for food preservation have been widely utilized in various food-packaging due to its excellent characteristics of biocompatibility, antibacterial property and film-processing ability.Based on the antibacterial mechanism of chitosan film materials, the researches and applications of chitosan films in recent years were summarized.In addition, the future development of chitosan film in food preservation was also prospected.%壳聚糖由于其良好的功能特性,近年来作为天然保鲜包装材料在各类食品的包装中已有大量的应用.该文章在对壳聚糖食品薄膜材料的抗菌机理总结的基础上,对近年来壳聚糖薄膜在食品的研究及应用现状进行了综述,并对壳聚糖食品薄膜的未来发展趋势进行了展望.

  3. Digital Preservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yakel, Elizabeth

    2001-01-01

    Reviews research on digital preservation issues, including born-digital and digitally recreated documents. Discusses electronic records research; metadata and other standards; electronic mail; Web-based documents; moving images media; selection of materials for digitization, including primary sources; administrative issues; media stability…

  4. Effect of Extract from Lilac and Food Preservation Agents on Keeping Fresh of Day Lily%食品保鲜剂协同丁香提取液预处理黄花菜的保鲜效果

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨大伟; 湛奎; 原松梅

    2012-01-01

    为探索食品保鲜剂协同丁香提取液预处理黄花菜的保鲜效果,分别以丁香提取液和食品保鲜剂协同丁香提取液浸泡黄花菜1 min,PVC塑料袋包装于室温下贮藏,贮藏期间测定黄花菜的开花率、腐烂率、失重率和褐变率.结果表明,单纯的丁香提取液对黄花菜的保鲜效果不显著,食品保鲜剂协同丁香提取液预处理黄花菜的保鲜效果显著,保鲜期达到6天,避免了阴雨天气不能及时日光干燥造成的损失.%In order to explore effect of extract from lilac and food preservation agents on keeping fresh of day lily,the day lily was immersed in the extract from lilac and the extract from lilac and food preservation a-gerits respectively for one minute,then packed in the PVC plastic bag for determining rate of blooming,rate of being decayed,rate of losing weight and rate of browning. The results showed that effect of extract from lilac on keeping fresh of day lily was not remarkable,and which of extract from lilac and food preservation agents on keeping fresh of day lily was significant,and the shelf life of day lily was up to six days to avoid loss of day lily due to rainy weather.

  5. Application Research on Low Sodium Health Preserved-egg Processing with Food-grade Salts Solution%食品级盐类清料法加工低钠鸡皮蛋的应用研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王茂增; 王磊; 赵兴杰

    2013-01-01

    The preserved egg is a traditional style product, nutrient-rich, unique taste, very popular with consumers. However, traditional processing technology used the lead oxide, which brought great danger in food safety. And high-sodium foods would bring some hurt to human. In this paper, the application of food grade Lead substitute, the recipe of low-sodium and high-potassium health preserved eggs processing with diluted material were studied comparatively. This paper explorated new formula and new technology, which provided a new theoretical reference for processing low-sodium and high-potassium health preserved eggs.%  皮蛋是我国传统的风味制品,营养丰富,口味独特,很受消费者欢迎。但是,传统的加工工艺中使用的氧化铅给食品安全带来很大的危险,且高钠食品会给人的身体健康带来一定的危害,本研究通过对食品级代铅物质的选择、使用清料法加工低钠高钾保健鸡皮蛋的配方进行反复的比较研究,探讨新配方、新工艺,为清料加工低钠鸡高钾保健皮蛋提供了新的理论参考。

  6. Advancements in Topical Antifungal Vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kircik, Leon H

    2016-02-01

    The primary treatment for superficial fungal infections is antifungal topical formulations, and allylamines and azoles represent the two major classes of topical formulations that are used to treat these infections. The stratum corneum (SC) is composed of keratinocytes that are surrounded by a matrix of lipids. The efficacy of topically applied formulations depends on their ability to penetrate this lipid matrix, and the vehicle plays an integral role in the penetration of active molecule into skin. There are several challenges to formulating topical drugs, which include the biotransformation of the active molecules as they pass through the SC and the physical changes that occur to the vehicle itself when it is applied to the skin. This article will review current and emerging topical antifungal vehicles. PMID:26885798

  7. Influence of relative humidity in the preservation of irradiated avocados. Part of a coordinated programme on insect disinfestation of food and agricultural products by irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Avocados were irradiated with gamma rays (Cs-137) and subjected to thermal treatment. Relative humidity (RH) is an important factor in this preservation; the higher the RH the longer the shelf-life. PVC was used to maintain the humidity of the fruits

  8. Antifungal effect of cumin essential oil alone and in combination with antifungal drugs

    OpenAIRE

    SAHADEO PATIL; PANKAJ MAKNIKAR; SUSHILKUMAR WANKHADE; CHANDRAKIRAN UKESH; MAHENDRA RA

    2015-01-01

    Abstract. Patil S, Maknikar P, Wankhade S, Ukesh C, Rai M. 2015. Antifungal effect of cumin essential oil alone and in combination with antifungal drugs. Nusantara Bioscience 7: 55-59. We report evaluation of antifungal activity of cumin seed oil and its pharmacological interactions when used in combination with some of the widely used conventional antifungal drugs using CLSI broth microdilution, agar disc diffusion and checkerboard microtitre assay against Candida. The essential oil was obta...

  9. Defensins: antifungal lessons from eukaryotes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrícia M. Silva

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Over the last years, antimicrobial peptides (AMPs have been the focus of intense research towards the finding of a viable alternative to current antifungal drugs. Defensins are one of the major families of AMPs and the most represented among all eukaryotic groups, providing an important first line of host defense against pathogenic microorganisms. Several of these cysteine-stabilized peptides present a relevant effect against fungi. Defensins are the AMPs with the broader distribution across all eukaryotic kingdoms, namely, Fungi, Plantæ and Animalia, and were recently shown to have an ancestor in a bacterial organism. As a part of the host defense, defensins act as an important vehicle of information between innate and adaptive immune system and have a role in immunomodulation. This multidimensionality represents a powerful host shield, hard for microorganisms to overcome using single approach resistance strategies. Pathogenic fungi resistance to conventional antimycotic drugs is becoming a major problem. Defensins, as other AMPs, have shown to be an effective alternative to the current antimycotic therapies, demonstrating potential as novel therapeutic agents or drug leads. In this review, we summarize the current knowledge on some eukaryotic defensins with antifungal action. An overview of the main targets in the fungal cell and the mechanism of action of these AMPs (namely, the selectivity for some fungal membrane components are presented. Additionally, recent works on antifungal defensins structure, activity and citotoxicity are also reviewed.

  10. Evaluation of vaginal antifungal formulations in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McRipley, R. J.; Erhard, P. J.; Schwind, R. A.; Whitney, R. R.

    1979-01-01

    Relatively simple and rapid procedures have been developed for evaluating the local efficacy of vaginal antifungal agents in vivo in a vaginal candidiasis model in ovariectomized rats. The results of this investigation indicate that the model and methods described are quite suitable for screening potential antifungal substances and for assessing the chemotherapeutic effectiveness of new antifungal agents and formulations before carrying out clinical studies. PMID:392480

  11. Antifungal Activity of C-27 Steroidal Saponins

    OpenAIRE

    Yang, Chong-Ren; Zhang, Ying; Jacob, Melissa R.; Khan, Shabana I.; Zhang, Ying-Jun; Li, Xing-Cong

    2006-01-01

    As part of our search for new antifungal agents from natural resources, 22 C-27 steroidal saponins and 6 steroidal sapogenins isolated from several monocotyledonous plants were tested for their antifungal activity against the opportunistic pathogens Candida albicans, Candida glabrata, Candida krusei, Cryptococcus neoformans, and Aspergillus fumigatus. The results showed that the antifungal activity of the steroidal saponins was associated with their aglycone moieties and the number and struct...

  12. Antifungal Activity of Micafungin in Serum ▿

    OpenAIRE

    Ishikawa, Jun; Maeda, Tetsuo; Matsumura, Itaru; Yasumi, Masato; Ujiie, Hidetoshi; Masaie, Hiroaki; Nakazawa, Tsuyoshi; Mochizuki, Nobuo; Kishino, Satoshi; Kanakura, Yuzuru

    2009-01-01

    We have evaluated the antifungal activity of micafungin in serum by using the disk diffusion method with serum-free and serum-added micafungin standard curves. Serum samples from micafungin-treated patients have been shown to exhibit adequate antifungal activity, which was in proportion to both the applied dose and the actual concentration of micafungin measured by high-performance liquid chromatography. The antifungal activity of micafungin in serum was also confirmed with the broth microdil...

  13. Antibacterial and Antifungal Compounds from Marine Fungi

    OpenAIRE

    Lijian Xu; Wei Meng; Cong Cao; Jian Wang; Wenjun Shan; Qinggui Wang

    2015-01-01

    This paper reviews 116 new compounds with antifungal or antibacterial activities as well as 169 other known antimicrobial compounds, with a specific focus on January 2010 through March 2015. Furthermore, the phylogeny of the fungi producing these antibacterial or antifungal compounds was analyzed. The new methods used to isolate marine fungi that possess antibacterial or antifungal activities as well as the relationship between structure and activity are shown in this review.

  14. Use of antifungal drugs in hematology

    OpenAIRE

    Marcio Nucci

    2012-01-01

    Invasive fungal disease represents a major complication in hematological patients. Antifungal agents are frequently used in hematologic patients for different purposes. In neutropenic patients, antifungal agents may be used as prophylaxis, as empiric or preemptive therapy, or to treat an invasive fungal disease that has been diagnosed. The hematologist must be familiar with the epidemiology, diagnostic tools and strategies of antifungal use, as well as the pharmacologic proprieties of the dif...

  15. Antimicrobial and antifungal activities of the extracts and essential oils of Bidens tripartita.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michał Tomczyk

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the antibacterial and antifungal properties of the extracts, subextracts and essential oils of Bidens tripartita flowers and herbs. In the study, twelve extracts and two essential oils were investigated for activity against different Gram-positive Bacillus subtilis, Micrococcus luteus, Staphylococcus aureus, Gram-negative bacteria Escherichia coli, E. coli (beta-laktamase+, Klebsiella pneumoniae (ESBL+, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and some fungal organisms Candida albicans, C. parapsilosis, Aspergillus fumigatus, A. terreus using a broth microdilution and disc diffusion methods. The results obtained indicate antimicrobial activity of the tested extracts (except butanolic extracts, which however did not inhibit the growth of fungi used in this study. Bacteriostatic effect of both essential oils is insignificant, but they have strong antifungal activity. These results support the use of B. tripartita to treat a microbial infections and it is indicated as an antimicrobial and antifungal agent, which may act as pharmaceuticals and preservatives.

  16. The antibacterial activity of plant polyphenols and its application in food preservation%植物多酚的抑菌活性及其在食品保鲜中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张笑; 李颖畅

    2013-01-01

      Plant polyphenols, with complex structures and multiple functions, are a class of plant secondary metabolites and widely used in food because of its antibacterial activity. This paper reviewed the constitute, properties, antibacterial mechanism of the plant polyphenols and its application in food preservation.%  植物多酚是一种植物次生代谢物,其结构多样,具有多种生物活性。植物多酚的抑菌活性是其重要活性之一,并在食品中得到了广泛的应用。本文主要综述了植物多酚的组成、性质,抑菌机制以及在食品保鲜中的应用。

  17. Contact dermatitis caused by preservatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yim, Elizabeth; Baquerizo Nole, Katherine L; Tosti, Antonella

    2014-01-01

    Preservatives are biocidal chemicals added to food, cosmetics, and industrial products to prevent the growth of microorganisms. They are usually nontoxic and inexpensive and have a long shelf life. Unfortunately, they commonly cause contact dermatitis. This article reviews the most important classes of preservatives physicians are most likely to encounter in their daily practice, specifically isothiazolinones, formaldehyde and formaldehyde-releasers, iodopropynyl butylcarbamate, methyldibromoglutaronitrile, and parabens. For each preservative mentioned, the prevalence of sensitization, clinical presentation of contact dermatitis, patch testing concentrations, cross reactions, and related legislation will be discussed. Mandatory labeling of preservatives is required in some countries, but not required in others. Until policies are made, physicians and patients must be proactive in identifying potential sensitizers and removing their use. We hope that this article will serve as a guide for policy makers in creating legislation and future regulations on the use and concentration of certain preservatives in cosmetics and industrial products.

  18. Antifungal Activity of Essential Oils from Some Medicinal Plants of Iran against Alternaria alternate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Hadizadeh

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Increasing public concern over the level of pesticide residues in food especially fresh produce has built up adequate pressure for scientists to look for less hazardous and environmentally safer compounds for controlling post harvest diseases. Essential oils as registered food grade materials have the potential to be applied as alternative anti-fungal treatments for fresh fruits and vegetables. Approach: We present in this study, the identification of the essential oils with antifungal activity from some medicinal plants of Iran (nettle (Urtica dioica L., thyme (Thymus vulgaris L., eucalyptus (Eucalyptus spp., Rue (Ruta graveolens L. and common yarrow (Achillea millefolium L., and their potential application as "generally regarded as safe" antifungal compounds against Alternaria alternate on tomato as a model pathosystem. Results: Both the nettle and the thyme oils exhibited antifungal activity against A. alternata. The thyme oil exhibited a lower degree of inhibition 68.5 and 74.8% at 1500 and 2000 ppm, respectively. Spore germination and germ tube elongation of the pathogens in potato dextrose broth was strongly reduced in the presence of 1500 ppm of the nettle oil. The same concentration of this oil reduced the percentage of decayed tomatoes. The experiments on reducing the development of natural tomato rot gave similar results. Conclusions: Application of essential oils for postharvest disease control of fresh produce, as a novel emerging alternative to hazardous anti-fungal treatments will allow a safer and environmentally more acceptable management of postharvest diseases.

  19. Chemical composition of essential oils of Thymus and Mentha species and their antifungal activities.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sokovic, M.D.; Vukojevic, J.; Marin, P.D.; Brkic, D.D.; Vajs, V.; Griensven, van L.J.L.D.

    2009-01-01

    The potential antifungal effects of Thymus vulgaris L., Thymus tosevii L., Mentha spicata L., and Mentha piperita L. (Labiatae) essential oils and their components against 17 micromycetal food poisoning, plant, animal and human pathogens are presented. The essential oils were obtained by hydrodestil

  20. Preservation Priority

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    China ratified the UNESCO Convention Concerning the Protection of World Cultural and Natural Heritage in 1985. This set the tone for a course of action aimed at protecting the common heritage of mankind in tandem with the international community. Recently, Chao Huashan, a renowned expert on world heritage studies in China, spoke to Beijing Review reporter Zan Jifang, sharing his understanding about the value of the World Heritage Convention and his suggestions for China’s future work on preserving its heritage. Excerpts follow:

  1. 21 CFR 178.3800 - Preservatives for wood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Preservatives for wood. 178.3800 Section 178.3800... Certain Adjuvants and Production Aids § 178.3800 Preservatives for wood. Preservatives may be safely used... agricultural products subject to the provisions of this section: (a) The preservatives are prepared...

  2. Chemistry and antifungal potential of Alantolides from Inula racemosa H

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Dalvir Kataria; K K Chahal

    2013-01-01

    Alantolactone and isoalantolactone were isolated from powdered roots of Inula racemosa H. using Soxhlet extraction followed by the column chromatography. Pyrazolines of alantolactone and isoalantolactone were synthesized using diazomethane, diazoethane and diazopropane. The structure elucidation of the compounds were carried out using IR and 1H NMR spectroscopic techniques. All the compounds were screened in vitro for their antifungal potential at various concentrations against Alternaria brassicae and Penicillium italicum using spore germination inhibition technique and against Rhizoctonia solani by poisoned food technique. All the compounds exhibited fairly good fungitoxicity against the test fungi with ED50 values of less than 500 g mL-1.

  3. Antifungal saponins from Swartzia langsdorffii

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chromatographic fractionation of the EtOH extract from the leaves of Swartzia langsdorffii afforded the pentacyclic triterpenes oleanolic acid and lupeol, and two saponins: oleanolic acid 3-sophoroside and the new ester 3-O-β-D-(6'-methyl)-glucopyranosyl-28-O-β-D-glucopyranosyl-oleanate.Their structures were elucidated from spectral data, including 2D NMR and HRESIMS experiments. Antifungal activity of all isolated compounds was evaluated, using phytopathogens Cladosporium cladosporioides and C. sphaerospermum, and human pathogens Candida albicans, C. krusei, C. parapsilosis and Cryptococcus neoformans. (author)

  4. Antifungal constituents of Melicope borbonica

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simonsen, Henrik Toft; Adsersen, Anne; Bremner, Paul;

    2004-01-01

    Fractionation of extracts of the leaves of Melicope borbonica (syn. Euodia borbonica var. borbonica), a medicinal plant from the Réunion Island that is traditionally used for wound healing and other ailments, afforded an acetophenone (xanthoxylin) and two coumarins, scoparone and limettin......, as the major constituents. All three compounds exhibited moderate antifungal activity against Candida albicans and Penicillium expansum, in accordance with the traditional use of the plant. Moreover, 2,4,6-trimethoxyacetophenone (methylxanthoxylin), three other coumarins [7-(3-methyl-2-butenyloxy)-6...

  5. Natural and synthetic peptides with antifungal activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciociola, Tecla; Giovati, Laura; Conti, Stefania; Magliani, Walter; Santinoli, Claudia; Polonelli, Luciano

    2016-08-01

    In recent years, the increase of invasive fungal infections and the emergence of antifungal resistance stressed the need for new antifungal drugs. Peptides have shown to be good candidates for the development of alternative antimicrobial agents through high-throughput screening, and subsequent optimization according to a rational approach. This review presents a brief overview on antifungal natural peptides of different sources (animals, plants, micro-organisms), peptide fragments derived by proteolytic cleavage of precursor physiological proteins (cryptides), synthetic unnatural peptides and peptide derivatives. Antifungal peptides are schematically reported based on their structure, antifungal spectrum and reported effects. Natural or synthetic peptides and their modified derivatives may represent the basis for new compounds active against fungal infections. PMID:27502155

  6. The role of sigmaB in the stress response of Gram-positive bacteria - targets for food preservation and safety

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schaik, van W.; Abee, T.

    2005-01-01

    The alternative sigma factor ¿B modulates the stress response of several Gram-positive bacteria, including Bacillus subtilis and the food-borne human pathogens Bacillus cereus, Listeria monocytogenes and Staphylococcus aureus. In all these bacteria, ¿B is responsible for the transcription of genes t

  7. Bacteriostatic mechanisms of plants antimicrobials and their applications in food preservation%植物抗菌剂抑菌机理及其在食品防腐中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王晓岑; 井晶; 于艳燕; 卢卫红; 王振宇

    2013-01-01

    This review covered recent trends on using plants antimicrobials in food and their functions and mechanisms on controlling food preservation.Bacteriostatic mechanisms of plants antimicrobials,the effect of food ingredients on antimicrobials activities of plants extracts,interactions of several plants extracts and their combinations with other technologies were summarized.In most cases,antimicrobials activities were decreased due to interactions with food ingredients.As the higher concentrations of plants extracts could lead to unfavorable taste and smell of food.The antimicrobials activities of extracts in in-vitro studies were quite different to their activities in food systems.These could be challenges in the utilization of plants antimicrobials.In conclusion,the author suggested that it was important to understand the effects of plants extracts on the behaviours of microbial population in food systems.Furthermore,scientists should conduct more advanced researches on the developments of plants resources and the utilizations of plants antimicrobials in the processing,packing and storage of food.%综述了植物抗菌剂在食品中的应用,控制食品腐败的作用和机理,及其发展趋势.通过总结前人在抑菌作用机理、食品成分对植物提取物的影响、植物提取物间的交互作用和植物提取物与其他技术相结合贮藏食品的研究成果,总结出植物抗菌剂与食品成分的相互作用会使其活性降低;较高的抗菌剂浓度会导致食品味道和香气的改变;体外条件下植物提取物的抗菌活性与其在食品体系中的活性有很大差别等影响植物抗菌剂使用的问题.这需要通过深入研究植物提取物与食品微生态的关系,加大力度开发有效植物资源,植物抗菌剂与食品加工、包装和贮藏技术相结合等才可能得到解决.

  8. Power Preservation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Galster, Kjeld

    Power Preservation (Abstract) In the 17th century, just as today, coalitions needed ‘lead nations’. This was assumed to be a power with great military and economic potentials, and Denmark endeavoured to act as such a leader in the Thirty Years War from 1626 to 28. The results were not encouraging...... in the military field and they were disastrous as far as fiscal matters were concerned. Sweden took over the leadership of the protestant side and she took over Denmark’s place amongst the great powers of the Baltic Region. From that time onwards, Danish influence and options on the international stage gradually...... declined. Thus, Denmark of the 17th century is not to be counted amongst the great powers, but since Christian V’s accession to the throne in 1670 Denmark-Norway has developed into one of Europe’s most highly militarised states. Apart from a permanently combat ready navy, the country maintains a standing...

  9. Antifungal effect of cumin essential oil alone and in combination with antifungal drugs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SAHADEO PATIL

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. Patil S, Maknikar P, Wankhade S, Ukesh C, Rai M. 2015. Antifungal effect of cumin essential oil alone and in combination with antifungal drugs. Nusantara Bioscience 7: 55-59. We report evaluation of antifungal activity of cumin seed oil and its pharmacological interactions when used in combination with some of the widely used conventional antifungal drugs using CLSI broth microdilution, agar disc diffusion and checkerboard microtitre assay against Candida. The essential oil was obtained from cumin seeds using hydrodistillation technique and was later evaluated for the presence of major chemical constituents present in it using gas chromatography and mass spectrometry (GC-MS assay. The GC-MS assay revealed the abundance of γ-terpinene (35.42% followed by p-cymene (30.72%. The agar disc diffusion assay demonstrated highly potent antifungal effect against Candida species. Moreover, the combination of cumin essential oil (CEO with conventional antifungal drugs was found to reduce the individual MIC of antifungal drug suggesting the occurrence of synergistic interactions. Therefore, the therapy involving combinations of CEO and conventional antifungal drugs can be used for reducing the toxicity induced by antifungal drugs and at the same time enhancing their antifungal efficacy in controlling the infections caused due to Candida species.

  10. LANTIBIOTIC NISIN: NATURAL PRESERVATIVE FROM LACTOCOCCUS LACTIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suganthi.V

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The increasing demand for high quality safe foods that are not extensively processed has created a niche for natural food preservative. Studies confirm that food allergies due to chemical preservatives affect as much as 2.5% of the population. Recent research had suggested bacteriocins (Nisin are the ideal biological food preservative. Nisin was proteinaceous antibacterial substances produced by Lactococcus lactis, a homofermentative bacterium. Naturally nisin occurs in two different forms nisin A and nisin Z. Nisin has wide range of inhibitory mode of action on Gram negative bacteria and food borne pathogens. Food preservation is a continuous war against the microorganisms spoiling the food or making it unsafe. So, nisin is actually the only lantibiotic bacteriocins used as a food preservative. This review paper will discuss about the Lactococcal strain used for the production of nisin, different forms of nisin, the mode of action of nisin, the cost reductive methods for the production and purification of nisin. So that it can be used in large scale industry for the high yield of nisin and the wide application of nisin in food industries.

  11. 21 CFR 146.152 - Orange juice with preservative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Orange juice with preservative. 146.152 Section... any safe and suitable preservatives or combinations thereof. (c) The name of the food is “Orange juice with preservative”. (d) Label declaration. Each of the ingredients used in the food shall be...

  12. 21 CFR 26.74 - Preservation of regulatory authority.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Preservation of regulatory authority. 26.74 Section 26.74 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL... COMMUNITY âFrameworkâ Provisions § 26.74 Preservation of regulatory authority. (a) Nothing in this...

  13. 21 CFR 1002.31 - Preservation and inspection of records.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Preservation and inspection of records. 1002.31 Section 1002.31 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) RADIOLOGICAL HEALTH RECORDS AND REPORTS Manufacturers' Records § 1002.31 Preservation...

  14. Effect of oxygen availability and pH on the furan concentration formed during thermal preservation of plant-based foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmers, Stijn; Grauwet, Tara; Vanden Avenne, Laura; Verhaeghe, Thomas; Kebede, Biniam T; Hendrickx, Marc E; Van Loey, Ann

    2016-01-01

    Thermally treated fruit- and vegetable-based foods are important contributors to the furan exposure of children and adults. Furan reduction by adding or removing precursors from the product has proven to be challenging because of major food constituents and interactions involved in the reaction pathways leading to furan formation. Instead of intervening at the precursor level, it might be more feasible to influence these formation pathways by adjusting the matrix properties of the product. As opposed to many previous literature sources, the present study investigated the effects of oxygen availability (normal versus reduced) and pH (acid versus low acid) on the furan formation in a real food system. Different combinations of both matrix properties were prepared in a reconstituted potato purée and subjected to a thermal treatment with a pasteurisation or sterilisation intensity. Irrespective of the addition of the furan precursors ascorbic acid, fructose and fatty acids, a considerable furan reduction was observed for the sterilised purées (F121(10) = 15 min) with either a reduced oxygen availability (0.1-1.8 mg l(-1)) or at pH 3. The effects of both matrix properties were less pronounced in the pasteurised purées (P90(10) = 10 min), because of the lower furan concentrations. Even though the mechanisms of furan reduction for both types of matrix properties could not be fully elucidated, the results showed that lowering the oxygen concentration or pH prior to thermal processing offers a powerful, additional strategy for furan mitigation in thermally treated plant-based foods. PMID:26879747

  15. Isolation of Aspergillus flavus from stored food commodities and Thymus vulgaris (L.) essential oil used as a safe plant based preservative

    OpenAIRE

    Atul Kumar Singh; Chandrabhan Seniya; Shriram Prasad

    2009-01-01

    Grain samples of Cicer arietinum (Chickpea), Zea mays (Maize), Cajanus cajan (Pigeon pea), Hordeum vulgare (Barley), Oryza sativa (Rice) and Sorghum vulgare (Millet) were procured from various retailers of market were subjected to their mould profile. During mycoflora analysis, 1297 fungal isolates were recorded from the food commodities. The least number of fungal isolates (189) were detected from H. vulgare while highest (244) from Z. mays. The genus Aspergillus was found to be most dominan...

  16. Food preservative potential of gassericin A-containing concentrate prepared from a cheese whey culture supernatant from Lactobacillus gasseri LA39.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Kiyoshi; Arakawa, Kensuke; Kawai, Yasushi; Yasuta, Narimi; Chujo, Takahiro; Watanabe, Masamichi; Iioka, Hiroyuki; Tanioka, Masashi; Nishimura, Junko; Kitazawa, Haruki; Tsurumi, Koichi; Saito, Tadao

    2013-02-01

    Gassericin A (GA) is a circular bacteriocin produced by Lactobacillus gasseri LA39. In this study, GA-containing concentrate was prepared using a cross-flow membrane filtration device (30 kDa cut-off) from the culture supernatant of Lb. gasseri LA39 cultivated in a cheese whey-based food-grade medium. The bacteriocin activity titer in the concentrate was 16 times as high as that of the culture supernatant and was completely maintained through each incubation at 4°C for 3 months, 37°C for 2 months, 60°C for 5 h, and 100°C for 30 min. The GA-containing concentrate was used with glycine powder to make custard creams, and then four representative strains of custard cream spoilage bacteria (Bacillus cereus, Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis, Achromobacter denitrificans and Pseudomonas fluorescens) were individually inoculated at c. 10(3) colony forming units/g in the custard creams. Throughout 30 days of incubation at 30°C, all of the inoculated bacteria were completely inhibited by the combination of 5% (w/w) of the GA-containing concentrate and 0.5% (w/w) glycine. This is the first highly practical application of GA to foods as a biopreservative, and the concentration method and the bacteriocin concentrate would contribute to biopreservation of several foods.

  17. Risk assessment for exposure to food additives in preserved fruits among female college students%女大学生人群凉果添加剂暴露的风险评估

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    柳春红; 谢艳云; 孙远明; 张明明; 邓颖妍

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To evaluate the risk for exposure to food additives in preserved fruits, and provide reference for risk management of preserved fruits. METHODS Preserved fruits intake data was collected by food frequency questionnaire. The additives residues of sodium saccharin, sodium cyclumate, sulfur dioxide, benzoic acid and sorbic acid in preserved fruits were detected by the national standards. Exposure assessments of the additives were carried out by point assessment and simplified distribution models. RESULTS The point estimation based on the mean intake and residue showed that the intakes of the five additives were 18.29% (sulfur dioxide) , 27.72% (sorbic acid), 60.24% (benzoic acid) , 68.14% (sodium saccharin) and 94.25% (sodium cyclamate) of the ADIs. The simplified distribution model showed that 95% confidence limit (CL) of the intakes of the five additives were 1.24%-1.57% (sulfur dioxide) , 1.73%-2.20% (benzoic acid and sorbic acid) , 12.61%-15.99% (sodium cyclamate) and 17.33%-21.99% (sodium saccharin) of the ADIs. CONCLUSION The findings suggest that the exposure risk of sweetener was higher than preservative and bleaching agent. It should be paid more attention to supervision of the sweetener in risk management of preserved fruits in future.%目的 评估广式凉果添加剂残留的人群暴露风险,为凉果的风险管理提供依据.方法 以食物频率问卷法收集大学生人群凉果摄入量数据,依国标方法检测凉果中糖精钠、甜蜜素、二氧化硫、苯甲酸、山梨酸5种添加剂残留量,采用点评估和简单分布模型评价广式凉果添加剂的暴露风险.结果 点评估(按平均值估计)显示,5种添加剂摄入量占ADI值的百分比分别为18.29%(二氧化硫)、27.72%(山梨酸)、60.24%(苯甲酸)、68.14%(糖精钠)和94.25%(甜蜜素).简单分布模型则显示,摄入量95%上下限占ADI的百分比分别为:1.24%~1.57%(二氧化硫)、1.73%~2.20

  18. Effect of Common Food Preservatives and Acidic Condition on the Growth of Lactobacillus spp%常用食品防腐剂以及酸性条件对乳酸菌的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王晨波

    2014-01-01

    Lactobacillus spp.are well known as probiotics and also spoilage microorganisms.In order to study their survivability under acidic condition with the addition of potassium sorbate and sodium benzoate,five species of Lactobacillus spp.were selected for this study.These species were inoculated at different pH values and different concentrations of preservative.The results showed that Lactobacillus spp.had strong tolerance to-ward low pH value(> 3.0)and the addition of common food preservatives(such as sodium benzoate< 500 × 10-6 ).%乳酸菌是常见的益生菌和食源性酸败菌,为了研究它们对酸性条件、山梨酸钾、苯甲酸钠的耐受性,5株常见的乳酸菌被挑选出来,在不同 pH 值和防腐剂浓度下进行生长情况的监测和分析。结果表明,乳酸菌对于低 pH 值(>3.0)和防腐剂(如苯甲酸钠浓度<500×10-6)的耐受性均较强。

  19. Insuficiência respiratória aguda após exposição a conservantes de alimentos Acute respiratory failure after occupational exposure to food preservatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Auxiliadora Carmo Moreira

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Este é um relato de caso de exposição ocupacional a conservantes de alimentos que resultou em insuficiência respiratória aguda em três trabalhadores. A análise toxicológica demonstrou que a mistura dos conservantes, por eles realizada, produziu NO2 que inalado causou quadro compatível com edema pulmonar e insuficiência respiratória aguda. Na evolução, o dano pulmonar regrediu de forma completa nos três indivíduos. Faz-se uma breve revisão sobre dano pulmonar agudo relacionado a exposição ocupacional. Enfatiza-se a importância do treinamento dos trabalhadores que manipulam substâncias químicas bem com da utilização de equipamentos de proteção adequados.Herein, we report an instance of occupational exposure to food preservatives and resultant acute respiratory failure in three workers. The toxicological analysis revealed that mixing the particular food preservatives involved, a procedure that was performed by the three workers involved, produced NO2, the inhalation of which caused the pulmonary edema and respiratory failure. With time, the pulmonary damage was completely reversed in all three individuals. Accompanying this case report is a brief review of the literature regarding acute pulmonary injury resulting from occupational exposure to chemicals. We emphasize the importance of training, as well as of the use of protective gear, for workers who handle chemical substances.

  20. Synthesis and antifungal activity of trichodermin derivatives

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jing Li Cheng; Yong Zhou; Jin Hao Zhao; Chu Long Zhang; Fu Cheng Lin

    2010-01-01

    A series of derivatives were synthesized from trichodermin(1)which was an antifungal metabolite produced by Trichoderma taxi sp.nov.Their structures were confirmed by 1H NMR,MS spectrum.Their antifungal activities were evaluated in vitro.The preliminary structure activity relationships(SAR)results indicated that the double bond,epoxide moiety and ester group were main pharmacophore elements,the stereochemistry of C4 position played a key role as well,and the compounds 1e-1g displayed stronger antifungal activity against Magnaporthe grisea than 1.

  1. Isolation, characterization and antifungal activity of major constituents of the Himalayan lichen Parmelia reticulata Tayl.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goel, Mayurika; Dureja, Prem; Rani, Archna; Uniyal, Prem L; Laatsch, Hartmut

    2011-03-23

    Antifungal activity of hexane, ethyl acetate and methanol extracts of Parmelia reticulata was evaluated against soilborne pathogenic fungi, namely, Sclerotium rolfsii, Rhizoctonia solani, R. bataticola, Fusarium udum, Pythium aphanidermatum and P. debaryanum by poisoned food technique. Maximum antifungal activity was exhibited by hexane and ethyl acetate extracts against most of the test pathogens. Secondary metabolites, namely, (±)-isousnic acid, (±)-protolichesterinic acid, atranorin, evernyl, ethyl hematommate, ethyl orsellinate, methyl hematommate (3-formyl-2,4-dihydroxy-6-methylbenzoic acid methyl ester), 2-hydroxy-4-methoxy-3,6-dimethylbenzoic acid, 1-hydroxy-3,6-dimethoxy-8-methyl-xanthen-9-one, baeomycesic acid and salazinic acid, were isolated from the above extracts and identified by 1H NMR, 13C NMR and mass spectroscopic methods. When these metabolites were tested for antifungal activity against test pathogens, maximum antifungal activity was exhibited by (±)-protolichesterinic acid against R. solani (ED50=23.09 μg mL(-1)) and P. debaryanum (ED50=16.07 μg mL(-1)) and by atranorin against S. rolfsii (ED50=39.70 μg mL(-1)). The antifungal activity of protolichesterinic acid was found to be comparable to that of hexaconazole, a commercial fungicide. PMID:21351753

  2. Fish Spoilage Mechanisms and Preservation Techniques: Review

    OpenAIRE

    Abdel E. Ghaly; Dave, D; Budge, S; Brooks, M S

    2010-01-01

    Problem statement: Spoilage of food products is due to chemical, enzymatic or microbial activities One-fourth of the worlds food supply and 30% of landed fish are lost through microbial activity alone. With the ever growing world population and the need to store and transport the food from one place to another where it is needed, food preservation becomes necessary in order to increase its shelf life and maintain its nutritional value, texture and flavor. The freshness and quality of fish hav...

  3. Antifungal isopimaranes from Hypoestes serpens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasoamiaranjanahary, L; Guilet, D; Marston, A; Randimbivololona, F; Hostettmann, K

    2003-09-01

    Five isopimarane diterpenes (7beta-hydroxyisopimara-8,15-dien-14-one, 14alpha-hydroxyisopimara-7,15-dien-1-one, 1beta,14alpha-dihydroxyisopimara-7,15-diene, 7beta-hydroxyisopimara-8(14),15-dien-1-one and 7beta-acetoxyisopimara-8(14),15-dien-1-one) have been isolated from the leaves of Hypoestes serpens (Acanthaceae). All compounds exhibited antifungal activity against both the plant pathogenic fungus Cladosporium cucumerinum and the yeast Candida albicans; two of them also displayed an acetylcholinesterase inhibition. The structures of the compounds were determined by means of spectrometric methods, including 1D and 2D NMR experiments and MS analysis. PMID:12943772

  4. Antifungal properties of halofumarate esters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gershon, H; Shanks, L

    1978-04-01

    Alkyl esters (C1--C4) of the four halofumaric acids were tested for antifungal activity against Candida albicans, Aspergillus niger, Mucor mucedo, and Trichophyton mentagrophytes at pH 5.6 and 7.0 in the absence and presence of 10% beef serum in Sabouraud dextrose agar. The most toxic compound to each organism was: C. albicans, ethyl iodofumarate (0.054 mmole/liter); A. niger, methyl bromofumarate (0.090 mmole/liter); M. mucedo, methyl fluorofumarate (0.037 mmole/liter); and T. mentagrophytes, ethyl iodofumarate (0.020 mmole/liter). The order of overall activity of the six most toxic compounds was: ethyl iodofumarate greater than ethyl chlorofumarate greater than methyl iodofumarate = methyl bromofumarate greater than methyl chlorofumarate greater than bromofumarate.

  5. Growth and membrane fluidity of food-borne pathogen Listeria monocytogenes in the presence of weak acid preservatives and hydrochloric acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioannis eDiakogiannis

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This study addresses a major issue in microbial food safety, the elucidation of correlations between acid stress and changes in membrane fluidity of the pathogen Listeria monocytogenes. In order to assess the possible role that membrane fluidity changes play in L. monocytogenes tolerance to antimicrobial acids (acetic, lactic, hydrochloric acid at low pH or benzoic acid at neutral pH, the growth of the bacterium and the gel-to-liquid crystalline transition temperature point (Tm of cellular lipids of each adapted culture was measured and compared with unexposed cells. The Tm of extracted lipids was measured by Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC. A trend of increasing Tm values but not of equal extent was observed upon acid tolerance for all samples and this increase is not directly proportional to each acid antibacterial action. The smallest increase in Tm value was observed in the presence of lactic acid, which presented the highest antibacterial action. In the presence of acids with high antibacterial action such as acetic, hydrochloric acid or low antibacterial action such as benzoic acid, increased Tm values were measured. The Tm changes of lipids were also correlated with our previous data about fatty acid changes to acid adaptation. The results imply that the fatty acid changes are not the sole adaptation mechanism for decreased membrane fluidity (increased Tm. Therefore, this study indicates the importance of conducting an in-depth structural study on how acids commonly used in food systems affect the composition of individual cellular membrane lipid molecules.

  6. 7种食品防腐剂对肉制品污染微生物的抑菌效果比较研究%Comparison of Antibacterial Effects of Seven Food Preservatives on Spoilage Microorganisms in Meat

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨晓韬; 李春; 周晓宏

    2012-01-01

    通过测定抑菌率和最低抑菌质量浓度,研究化学防腐剂山梨酸钾、双乙酸钠、单辛酸甘油酯、乙二胺四乙酸二钠(EDTA)以及生物防腐剂乳酸链球菌素(Nisin)、壳聚糖、ε-聚赖氨酸(ε-PL)对12株肉制品腐败(包括2株环状芽孢杆菌(Bacillus circulans)、3株枯草芽孢杆菌(Bacillus subtilis)、3株地衣芽孢杆菌(Bacillus lichenifotrois)、2株凝结芽孢杆菌(Bacillus coagulans)、1株蜂房哈夫尼亚菌(Hafnia alvei)以及1株肠球菌(Enterococcus))的抑菌活性。结果表明:7种防腐剂对供试菌都有一定的抑菌效果,抑菌效果强弱顺序为:Nisin〉壳聚糖〉ε—PL〉单辛酸甘油酯〉EDTA〉双乙酸钠〉山梨酸钾。3种生物防腐剂的抑菌效果明显强于其他4种化学防腐剂。通过比较各种防腐剂对不同种和同种不同株的细菌的抑菌效果,表明同一种防腐剂不仅对不同种的细菌抑菌效果不同,即使对同种不同株的细菌其抑菌效果也有很大差异。%The antibacterial activities of food preservatives including potassium sorbate, sodium diacetate, capryl monoglyceride, disodium ethylene-diamine-tetraacetate (EDTA), nisin, chitosan and ε -polylysine (ε-PL) against 12 meat spoilage strains such as 2 Bacillus circulans strains, 3 Bacillus subtilis strains, 3 Bacillus licheniformis strains, 2 Bacillus coagulans strains, 1 Hafnia alvei strain and an Enterococcus strain were investigated based on inhibitory rate and minimum inhibitory concentration. The results showed that seven food preservatives had inhibitory effect on all tested bacteria at different levels. They could be ranked in decreasing order of antibacterial activity as follows: nisin 〉 chitosan 〉 ε-PL 〉 capryl monoglyceride 〉 EDTA 〉 sodium diacetate 〉potassium sorbate. Three bio-preservatives including nisin, chitosan and ε-PL had better antibacterial activity than other four

  7. Synthesis of Pyridazinonethiadiazoles as Possible Antifungal Agents

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Several 5-[1-aryl-1,4-dihydro-6-methylpyridazin-4-one-3-yl]-2-arylamino-1,3,4-thia diazoles were synthesized.The preliminary bio-active test shows that these compounds exhibit high antifungal activity.

  8. Antifungal susceptibility of Malassezia pachydermatis biofilm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Figueredo, Luciana A; Cafarchia, Claudia; Otranto, Domenico

    2013-11-01

    Antifungal resistance has been associated with biofilm formation in many microorganisms, but not yet in Malassezia pachydermatis. This saprophytic yeast can cause otitis and dermatitis in dogs and has emerged as an important human pathogen, responsible for systemic infections in neonates in intensive care units. This study aims to evaluate the in vitro antifungal susceptibility of M. pachydermatis strains, in both their planktonic and sessile forms, to fluconazole, miconazole, ketoconazole, itraconazole, posaconazole, terbinafine and voriconazole using the XTT assay and Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) microdilution method. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) values recorded for each drug were significantly higher for sessile cells relative to planktonic cells to the extent that ≥ 90% of M. pachydermatis strains in their sessile form were classified as resistant to all antifungal agents tested. Data suggest that M. pachydermatis biofilm formation is associated with antifungal resistance, paving the way towards investigating drug resistance mechanisms in Malassezia spp. PMID:23834283

  9. Early State Research on Antifungal Natural Products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melyssa Negri

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Nosocomial infections caused by fungi have increased greatly in recent years, mainly due to the rising number of immunocompromised patients. However, the available antifungal therapeutic arsenal is limited, and the development of new drugs has been slow. Therefore, the search for alternative drugs with low resistance rates and fewer side effects remains a major challenge. Plants produce a variety of medicinal components that can inhibit pathogen growth. Studies of plant species have been conducted to evaluate the characteristics of natural drug products, including their sustainability, affordability, and antimicrobial activity. A considerable number of studies of medicinal plants and alternative compounds, such as secondary metabolites, phenolic compounds, essential oils and extracts, have been performed. Thus, this review discusses the history of the antifungal arsenal, surveys natural products with potential antifungal activity, discusses strategies to develop derivatives of natural products, and presents perspectives on the development of novel antifungal drug candidates.

  10. Study on Preserved Fruit Foods Series of Sechium Edule%佛手瓜果脯系列食品的研制

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    戴云; 董学畅

    2001-01-01

    Sechium edule, abundant and cheap in south provinces was used as a new material to be processed into the sechium edlile foods series, suchas fruit.jam,jelly,juice, cake and softsweets. Anew saccharifing and dying technological process was researched and adopted.%要以南方丰产而价廉的蔬果-佛手瓜为果脯加工的理想新材料,采用混合糖渍蜜化和串味引色新工艺,生产具有天然水果色、香、味的佛手瓜果脯、果酱、果糕和水晶软糖等系列食品。

  11. Growth and membrane fluidity of food-borne pathogen Listeria monocytogenes in the presence of weak acid preservatives and hydrochloric acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diakogiannis, Ioannis; Berberi, Anita; Siapi, Eleni; Arkoudi-Vafea, Angeliki; Giannopoulou, Lydia; Mastronicolis, Sofia K

    2013-01-01

    This study addresses a major issue in microbial food safety, the elucidation of correlations between acid stress and changes in membrane fluidity of the pathogen Listeria monocytogenes. In order to assess the possible role that membrane fluidity changes play in L. monocytogenes tolerance to antimicrobial acids (acetic, lactic, hydrochloric acid at low pH or benzoic acid at neutral pH), the growth of the bacterium and the gel-to-liquid crystalline transition temperature point (T m) of cellular lipids of each adapted culture was measured and compared with unexposed cells. The T m of extracted lipids was measured by differential scanning calorimetry. A trend of increasing T m values but not of equal extent was observed upon acid tolerance for all samples and this increase is not directly proportional to each acid antibacterial action. The smallest increase in T m value was observed in the presence of lactic acid, which presented the highest antibacterial action. In the presence of acids with high antibacterial action such as acetic, hydrochloric acid or low antibacterial action such as benzoic acid, increased T m values were measured. The T m changes of lipids were also correlated with our previous data about fatty acid changes to acid adaptation. The results imply that the fatty acid changes are not the sole adaptation mechanism for decreased membrane fluidity (increased T m). Therefore, this study indicates the importance of conducting an in-depth structural study on how acids commonly used in food systems affect the composition of individual cellular membrane lipid molecules.

  12. Antifungal drugs and resistance: Current concepts

    OpenAIRE

    Pramod Kumar Nigam

    2015-01-01

    Recently, clinical failure and relapses have been observed in patients treated with antifungals. Drug resistance has become an important problem leading to significant negative social, psychological, and occupational health effects and quality of life. Early recognition and treatment is essential to reduce morbidity and possibility of transmission. The increased use, inappropriate prescribing and over the counter sale of antifungal agents has also added in the development of resistance to the...

  13. Antifungal activities of some indole derivatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Hui; Wang, Qin; Yang, Wen-Bin

    2010-01-01

    Nine indole derivatives were evaluated in vitro against Fusarium graminearum, Alternaria alternata, Helminthosporium sorokinianum, Pyricularia oryzae, Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. vasinfectum, Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cucumarinum, and Alternaria brassicae. Most of the compounds were found to possess antifungal activities. Especially compounds 2, 5, 8, and 9 exhibited broad-spectrum antifungal activities against the above-mentioned seven phytopathogenic fungi, and showed more potent activities than hymexazole, a commercial agricultural fungicide. PMID:20737910

  14. Antifungal properties of Brazilian cerrado plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Souza Lúcia Kioko Hasimoto e

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Ethanolic extracts from leaves of Hyptis ovalifolia, H. suaveolens, H. saxatilis, Hyptidendrum canum, Eugenia uniflora, E. dysenterica, Caryocar brasiliensis and Lafoensia pacari were investigated for their antifungal activity against dermatophytes. The most effective plants were H. ovalifolia and E. uniflora, while Trichophyton rubrum was the most sensitive among the four dermatophytes species evaluated. This study has demonstrated antifungal properties of Brazilian Cerrado plant extracts in "in vitro" assays.

  15. Is the kisspeptin system involved in responses to food restriction in order to preserve reproduction in pubertal male sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax)?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escobar, Sebastián; Felip, Alicia; Zanuy, Silvia; Carrillo, Manuel

    2016-09-01

    Previous works on European sea bass have determined that long-term exposure to restrictive feeding diets alters the rhythms of some reproductive/metabolic hormones, delaying maturation and increasing apoptosis during gametogenesis. However, exactly how these diets affect key genes and hormones on the brain-pituitary-gonad (BPG) axis to trigger puberty is still largely unknown. We may hypothesize that all these signals could be integrated, at least in part, by the kisspeptin system. In order to capture a glimpse of these regulatory mechanisms, kiss1 and kiss2 mRNA expression levels and those of their kiss receptors (kiss1r, kiss2r) were analyzed in different areas of the brain and in the pituitary of pubertal male sea bass during gametogenesis. Furthermore, other reproductive hormones and factors as well as the percentage of males showing full spermiation were also analyzed. Treated fish fed maintenance diets provided evidence of overexpression of the kisspeptin system in the main hypophysiotropic regions of the brain throughout the entire sexual cycle. Conversely, Gnrh1 and gonadotropin pituitary content and plasma sexual steroid levels were downregulated, except for Fsh levels, which were shown to increase during spermiation. Treated fish exhibited lower rates of spermiation as compared to control group and a delay in its accomplishment. These results demonstrate how the kisspeptin system and plasma Fsh levels are differentially affected by maintenance diets, causing a retardation, but not a full blockage of the reproductive process in the teleost fish European sea bass. This suggests that a hormonal adaptive strategy may be operating in order to preserve reproductive function in this species. PMID:27164487

  16. Antifungal activity of five species of Polygala

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susana Johann

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Crude extracts and fractions of five species of Polygala - P. campestris, P. cyparissias, P. paniculata, P. pulchella and P. sabulosa - were investigated for their in vitro antifungal activity against opportunistic Candida species, Cryptococcus gattii and Sporothrix schenckii with bioautographic and microdilution assays. In the bioautographic assays, the major extracts were active against the fungi tested. In the minimal concentration inhibitory (MIC assay, the hexane extract of P. paniculata and EtOAc fraction of P. sabulosa showed the best antifungal activity, with MIC values of 60 and 30 µg/mL, respectively, against C. tropicalis, C. gattii and S. schenckii. The compounds isolated from P. sabulosa prenyloxycoumarin and 1,2,3,4,5,6-hexanehexol displayed antifungal activity against S. schenckii (with MICs of 125 µg/mL and 250 µg/mL, respectively and C. gattii (both with MICs of 250 µg/mL. Rutin and aurapten isolated from P. paniculata showed antifungal activity against C. gattii with MIC values of 60 and 250 µg/mL, respectively. In the antifungal screening, few of the isolated compounds showed good antifungal inhibition. The compound α-spinasterol showed broad activity against the species tested, while rutin had the best activity with the lowest MIC values for the microorganisms tested. These two compounds may be chemically modified by the introduction of a substitute group that would alter several physico-chemical properties of the molecule, such as hydrophobicity, electronic density and steric strain.

  17. Antifungal activity of triterpenoid isolated from Azima tetracantha leaves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present study was designed to evaluate the antifungal activity of Azima tetracantha extracts and isolated compound (friedelin) against fungi. Antifungal activity was carried out using broth micro dilution method and fractions were collected using (silica gel) column chromatography. The antifungal activity of Azima tetracantha crude extracts and isolated compound (friedelin) were evaluated using the micro dilution method. Hexane extract showed some antifungal activity. The compound also exhibited antifungal activity against tested fungi. The lowest MIC against Trichophyton rubrum (296) was 62.5 micro g/ml and the MIC for Curvularia lunata was 62.5 micro g/ml. These results suggest that Friedelin is a promising antifungal agent. (authors)

  18. Study on Antimicrobial Activity and Stability of New Food Preservative Methyl-furfuryl Fumarate%新型食品抗菌剂富马酸糠醇甲酯的抗菌活性及稳定性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李妍; 宁正祥

    2005-01-01

    研究合成了一种具有α,β-不饱和羰基结构的化学抗菌剂--富马酸糠醇甲酯,并对其抗菌活性进行研究.结果表明,其抑菌谱较广,对细菌、酵母和霉菌均具有较强的抑制作用,同时可以有效延长混合微生物的生长适应期,显著降低其生长量,而且效果明显优于常用抗菌剂苯甲酸钠,另外,糠醇甲酯具有较好的热稳定性并且在不同pH均表现良好的抗菌活性,说明它可以用于更多食品的防腐,是一种具有广泛开发前景的抗菌剂.%In this article a new preservative,Methyl-furfuryl fumarate,was prepared.And its antimicrobial activity was studied.The result of antimicrobial activity showed that it could inhibit bacteria,yeast and mold remarkably.At the same time it could effectively prolong adaptive phase and decrease growth quantity of milk spoilage microorganism and its effect was better than common preservative sodium benzoate.Furthermore it had better heat stability and could be used at different pH value.These suggested that it could be used for many kinds of foods.Therefore it had wide prospect of development and application.

  19. 高效液相色谱法同时测定蜜饯中的16种食品添加剂%Determination of Sixteen Food Additives in Preserved Fruits by High Performance Liquid Chromatography

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘英; 尹州; 邹晓筱; 曹丽芬

    2011-01-01

    建立了同时检测蜜饯中16种食品添加剂(安赛蜜、糖精钠、苯甲酸、山梨酸、脱氢乙酸、新红、诱惑红、柠檬黄、苋菜红、胭脂红、日落黄、亮蓝、赤藓红、对羟基苯甲酸甲酯、对羟基苯甲酸乙酯、对羟基苯甲酸丙酯)含量的高效液相色谱法.选用Athena C18-wp色谱柱(4.6 mm×250 mm,5 μm),以0.02mol/L乙酸铵-甲醇为流动相梯度洗脱,通过二极管阵列检测器进行检测.该方法在1~100mg/L质量浓度范围内线性良好,相关系数r≥0.999 88,检出限(S/N=3)为0.016~0.45mg/L,相对标准偏差(n=10)为0.14%~1.5%,回收率为76%~106%.该法具有较高的准确度和精密度,适用于蜜饯中添加剂含量的分析.%A high performance liquid chromatographic method was established for the simultaneous detection of contents of sixteen food additives, including acesulfame-K, saccharin sodium, benzoic acid, sorbic acid, dehydroacetic acid, new red, fancy red, tartrazine, amaranth, carmine, sunset yellow, brilliant blue, erythrosine, methyl p-hydroxybenzoate, ethyl p-hydroxybenzoate and propyl p-hydroxybenzoate, in preserved fruits. The sixteen food additives were separated on an Athena C18-wp column (4. 6 mm x250 mm, 5 μm) by gradient elution using methanol -0. 02 mol/L ammonium acetate as mobile phase, and analyzed with a diode-array detector. The calibration curves were linear in the concentration range of 1 - 100 mg/L, with correlation coefficient not less than 0. 999 88 and LOD of 0. 016 - 0. 45 mg/L. The relative standard deviations ( n = 10 ) of the method was between 0. 14% and 1.5% , and the spiked recoveries of sixteen compounds in preserved fruits ranged from 76% to 106%. The method was suitable for the analysis of food additives contents in preserved fruits with good accuracy and precision.

  20. 烟台市市售散装酱腌菜中7种防腐剂含量状况调查%Investigation of 7 food preservative residuals from 300 pickled vegetables in bulk at retail

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    董桂贤; 王朝霞; 宫春波; 张桂芳; 王颖; 周晓歌; 杨翠云

    2013-01-01

    目的 掌握烟台市市售散装酱腌菜中防腐剂含量情况.方法 采用超高效液相色谱(UPLC)-二极管阵列检测器(PDA)法检测300份市售散装酱腌菜中7种防腐剂(山梨酸、苯甲酸、脱氢乙酸、尼泊金甲酯、尼泊金乙酯、尼泊金丙酯、尼泊金丁酯)含量.结果 苯甲酸检出率为99.7%(299/300),合格率仅为37.3% (112/300),含量平均值为1.55 g/kg,最大检出值5.31 g/kg,是GB 2760-2011规定最大使用量的5.3倍.9种酱腌菜中,什锦菜苯甲酸平均值最高(2.34 g/kg),合格率最低(13.9%).山梨酸的检出率为68.7% (206/300),平均值0.10 g/kg,最大检出值2.35 g/kg,是GB 2760-2011规定最大使用量的2.3倍.脱氢乙酸检出率为25.0% (75/300),脱氢乙酸含量平均值为0.032 g/kg,合格率100%.结论 酱腌菜中苯甲酸含量的合格率最低,超标严重,建议应作为今后重点监督、监测的对象;加强散装酱腌菜的监管力度.%Objective To investigate 7 food preservative residuals of pickled vegetables in bulk at retail market of Yantai,and provide scientific basis for customer making decisions for such product.Methods The residue content of 7 food preservatives including sorbic acid,benzoic acid,dehydroacetic acid were detected by ultra performance liquid chromatography with photodiode array detector (UPLC-PDA).The quality of pickled vegetable was judged by GB 2760-2011.Results The detection rate of benzoic acid was 99.7% (299/300),higher than that of sorbic acid which was 68.7% (206/300),while the detection rate of dehydroacetic acid was only 25.0%.There were 188 samples exceeded the benzoic acid limit of GB 2760-2011,the maximum value was 5.31 g/kg which was 4.3 times higher than the limit.In addition,the maximum value of sorbic acid was 2.35 g/kg,2.3 times higher than the limit.Olio had the highest residual level among 300 samples.The parabens were not detected in this investigation.Conclusion The content of benzoic acid was the highest

  1. [Identification and characterization of a Bacillus amyloliquefaciens with high antifungal activity].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quan, Chun-shan; Wang, Jun-hua; Xu, Hong-tao; Fan, Sheng-di

    2006-02-01

    Plant disease can cause serious crop losses, and chemical control of disease is costly both to the environment and to the farmer. Some microorganism can produce the substance which has the preventing and exterminating functions to plant pathogens. These substances are valid to plant pathogens with only lower concentration, in addition the substances do not remain in soil and crops without being decomposed. If composization is performed with the microorganism, or the microorganism is mixed into compost, the functional compost having preventing and exterminating action will be made out and that can be more useful to environmental preservation. In order to screen antifungal bacteria for use in biological control, 200 compost samples were taken from different regions in China, over 10 bacterium with clear antifungal activity were isolated from composts, among them, strain Q-12 exhibited the highest antifungal activity which was strongly inhibits the growth of many plant pathogenic fungi such as Fusarium oxysporum and Rhizoctonia solan. According to the characteristics of morphology, physiology and biochemistry tests (API 50 CHB/E system) and the comparison of 16S rDNA sequence, the strain Q-12 was similar to B. subtilis and B. amyloliquefaciens. Some specific genes yyaR, yyaO and tetB, which have previously been shown to be effective for resolving these closely related taxa of the B. subtilis group, were analysed to clarify further the classification of Q-12, and two pairs of primers YyaR _ F/TetB _ R and YyaO _ F/TetB _ R were designed. From the analysis of fingerprints obtained with the two primers, strain Q-12 and B. amyloliquefaciens showed identical genomic fingerprints with primers YyaR _ F/TetB R, indicating their closely genetic relationship, and was identified as B. amyloliquefaciens. In the investigation of the culture condition, growth was carried out in a basal medium and gradually supplemented with the various ingredients to be investigated. The major

  2. Antifungal drugs and resistance: Current concepts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pramod Kumar Nigam

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Recently, clinical failure and relapses have been observed in patients treated with antifungals. Drug resistance has become an important problem leading to significant negative social, psychological, and occupational health effects and quality of life. Early recognition and treatment is essential to reduce morbidity and possibility of transmission. The increased use, inappropriate prescribing and over the counter sale of antifungal agents has also added in the development of resistance to these drugs. The main biochemical and molecular mechanisms that contribute to antifungal resistance include reduced uptake of the drug, an active transport out of the cell or modified drug metabolic degradation of the cell, changes in the interaction of the drug to the target site or other enzymes involved in the process by point mutations, overexpression of the target molecule, overproduction or mutation of the target enzyme, amplification and gene conversion (recombination, and increased cellular efflux and occurrence of biofilm. Although, there is considerable knowledge concerning the biochemical, genetic and clinical aspects of resistance to antifungal agents, expansion of our understanding of the mechanisms by which antifungal resistance emerges and spreads, quicker methods for the determination of resistance, targetting efflux pumps, especially ATP binding cassette (ABC transporters and heat shock protein 90, new drug delivery systems, optimizing therapy according to pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic characteristics, new classes of antifungal drugs that are active against azole-resistant isolates, and use of combinations of antifungal drugs or use of adjunctive immunostimulatory therapy and other modalities of treatment will clearly be important for future treatment strategies and in preventing development of resistance.

  3. 21 CFR 1305.27 - Preservation of electronic orders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Preservation of electronic orders. 1305.27 Section 1305.27 Food and Drugs DRUG ENFORCEMENT ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE ORDERS FOR SCHEDULE I AND II CONTROLLED SUBSTANCES Electronic Orders § 1305.27 Preservation of electronic orders. (a)...

  4. 21 CFR 1305.17 - Preservation of DEA Forms 222.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Preservation of DEA Forms 222. 1305.17 Section 1305.17 Food and Drugs DRUG ENFORCEMENT ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE ORDERS FOR SCHEDULE I AND II CONTROLLED SUBSTANCES DEA Form 222 § 1305.17 Preservation of DEA Forms 222. (a) The purchaser...

  5. Chemical composition of essential oils of Thymus and Mentha species and their antifungal activities.

    OpenAIRE

    Sokovic,, M.D.; Vukojevic,, J.; Marin, P.D.; Brkic, D.D.; Vajs, V.; Griensven, van, L.J.L.D.

    2009-01-01

    The potential antifungal effects of Thymus vulgaris L., Thymus tosevii L., Mentha spicata L., and Mentha piperita L. (Labiatae) essential oils and their components against 17 micromycetal food poisoning, plant, animal and human pathogens are presented. The essential oils were obtained by hydrodestillation of dried plant material. Their composition was determined by GC-MS. Identification of individual constituents was made by comparison with analytical standards, and by computer matching mass ...

  6. Antiproliferative, Antibacterial and Antifungal Activity of the Lichen Xanthoria parietina and Its Secondary Metabolite Parietin

    OpenAIRE

    Adriana Basile; Daniela Rigano; Stefano Loppi; Annalisa Di Santi; Angela Nebbioso; Sergio Sorbo; Barbara Conte; Luca Paoli; Francesca De Ruberto; Anna Maria Molinari; Lucia Altucci; Paola Bontempo

    2015-01-01

    Lichens are valuable natural resources used for centuries throughout the world as medicine, food, fodder, perfume, spices and dyes, as well as for other miscellaneous purposes. This study investigates the antiproliferative, antibacterial and antifungal activity of the acetone extract of the lichen Xanthoria parietina (Linnaeus) Theodor Fries and its major secondary metabolite, parietin. The extract and parietin were tested for antimicrobial activity against nine American Type Culture Collecti...

  7. Chemical Composition of Essential Oilsof Thymus and Mentha Speciesand Their Antifungal Activities

    OpenAIRE

    Van Griensven, Leo J. L. D.; Vlatka Vajs; Dejan D. Brkić; Petar D. Marin; Jelena Vukojević; Marina D. Soković

    2009-01-01

    The potential antifungal effects of Thymus vulgaris L., Thymus tosevii L., Mentha spicata L., and Mentha piperita L. (Labiatae) essential oils and their components against 17 micromycetal food poisoning, plant, animal and human pathogens are presented. The essential oils were obtained by hydrodestillation of dried plant material. Their composition was determined by GC-MS. Identification of individual constituents was made by comparison with analytical standards, and by computer matching mass ...

  8. Antifungal activity of triterpenoid isolated from Azima tetracantha leaves.

    OpenAIRE

    Duraipandiyan, V.; M Gnanasekar; S Ignacimuthu

    2010-01-01

    The present study was designed to evaluate the antifungal activity of Azima tetracantha extracts and isolated compound (friedelin) against fungi. Antifungal activity was carried out using broth microdilution method and fractions were collected using (silica gel) column chromatography. The antifungal activity of Azima tetracantha crude extracts and isolated compound (friedelin) were evaluated using the micro dilution method. Hexane extract showed some antifungal activity. The compound also exh...

  9. Optimized Dispersive Liquid-Liquid Microextraction Method and High Performance Liquid Chromatography with Ultraviolet Detection for Simultaneous Determination of Sorbic and Benzoic Acids and Evaluation of Contamination of These Preservatives in Iranian Foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Javanmardi, Fardin; Arefhosseini, Seyyed Rafie; Ansarin, Masood; Nemati, Mahboob

    2015-01-01

    A rapid, simple, and sensitive dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction procedure followed by HPLC-UV was applied to determine the benzoate and sorbate in foods. The method was optimized for some variables including extraction solvent type and volume, dispersing solvent type and volume, and the effects of salt and pH. Optimum conditions were determined as follows: sample volume, 5 mL; extraction solvent (chloroform) volume, 250 μL; disperser solvent (acetone) volume, 1.2 mL; NaCl amount, 0.75 g/5 mL at pH 4. Sixty samples were analyzed, including 15 doogh, 15 fruit juice, 15 cookie, and 15 tomato paste; benzoic acid was detected in 57 samples (95%) at levels up to 448.1 μg/mL and sorbic acid in 31 samples (51.6%) at levels up to 1369 μg/mL. Under the optimum experimental conditions, the LOD and LOQ were determined as 0.1 and 0.5 μg/mL for benzoate and 0.08 and 0.3 μg/mL for sorbate, respectively. The results showed that these preservatives are commonly used at high levels in yogurt drinks (dooghs) and cookies. Also, the concentration of benzoic acid that was detected in the tomato paste and fruit juice samples was low but may affect children and sensitive persons.

  10. Antifungal drug discovery: the process and outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calderone, Richard; Sun, Nuo; Gay-Andrieu, Francoise; Groutas, William; Weerawarna, Pathum; Prasad, Sridhar; Alex, Deepu; Li, Dongmei

    2014-01-01

    New data suggest that the global incidence of several types of fungal diseases have traditionally been under-documented. Of these, mortality caused by invasive fungal infections remains disturbingly high, equal to or exceeding deaths caused by drug-resistant tuberculosis and malaria. It is clear that basic research on new antifungal drugs, vaccines and diagnostic tools is needed. In this review, we focus upon antifungal drug discovery including in vitro assays, compound libraries and approaches to target identification. Genome mining has made it possible to identify fungal-specific targets; however, new compounds to these targets are apparently not in the antimicrobial pipeline. We suggest that 'repurposing' compounds (off patent) might be a more immediate starting point. Furthermore, we examine the dogma on antifungal discovery and suggest that a major thrust in technologies such as structural biology, homology modeling and virtual imaging is needed to drive discovery. PMID:25046525

  11. Catfish Preservation using Porphyra Yezoensis Composites Preservatives

    OpenAIRE

    Zhi-Gang Qian; Long-Fa Jiang; Li-Qiang Rui

    2013-01-01

    This study aims to preserve fresh catfish meat by using Porphyra Yezoensis extract, chitosan and lactic acid Nisin. The composite preservative obtained by sensory evaluation can effectively maintain the color, odor and texture of fresh catfish meat, as well as inhibit bacterial growth. Results show that treatment using a preservative solution (Porphyra Yezoensis extract 10%, Nisin 0.2% and chitosan 15%) extended the shelf life of the fresh catfish meat from 12 h to 24 h when stored at room te...

  12. Design,Synthesis and Antifungal Activity of Novel Triazole Derivatives

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chun Quan SHENG; Wan Nian ZHANG; Hai Tao JI; Yun Long SONG; Min ZHANG; You Jun ZHOU; Jia Guo LU; Jü ZHU

    2004-01-01

    Twenty-one 1-(1H-1,2,4-triazolyl)-2-(2,4-diflurophenyl)-3-(4-substituted-1- piperazinyl)-2-propanol derivatives were designed and synthesized,on the basis of the active site of lanosterol 14(-demethylase.In vitro antifungal activities showed that some of the target compounds had higher antifungal activity and broader antifungal spectrum than fluconazole.

  13. Catfish Preservation using Porphyra Yezoensis Composites Preservatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhi-Gang Qian

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to preserve fresh catfish meat by using Porphyra Yezoensis extract, chitosan and lactic acid Nisin. The composite preservative obtained by sensory evaluation can effectively maintain the color, odor and texture of fresh catfish meat, as well as inhibit bacterial growth. Results show that treatment using a preservative solution (Porphyra Yezoensis extract 10%, Nisin 0.2% and chitosan 15% extended the shelf life of the fresh catfish meat from 12 h to 24 h when stored at room temperature and from 6 d to 9 d when stored at 4°C. These results provide a practical method of preserving fresh catfish meat.

  14. Antifungal Activity of Lactobacillus sp. Bacteria in the Presence of Xylitol and Galactosyl-Xylitol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lidia Lipińska

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Lactic acid fermentation is a natural method of antimicrobial food protection. Antagonistic activity of Lactobacillus sp. bacteria, taking part in this process, is directed mainly against the same or other microorganisms. In this work we determine the impact of the presence of xylitol and galactosyl-xylitol on the antagonistic activity of 60 Lactobacillus sp. strains against indicator molds (Alternaria alternata, Alternaria brassicicola, Aspergillus niger, Fusarium latenicum, Geotrichum candidum, and Mucor hiemalis and yeasts (Candida vini. We used double-layer method to select antifungal strains of Lactobacillus bacteria and poisoned medium method to confirm their fungistatic properties. Additionally, we examined the inhibition of Alternaria brassicicola by Lactobacillus paracasei ŁOCK 0921 cultivated with xylitol or galactosyl-xylitol directly on wild cherries. The presence of xylitol and its galactosyl derivative led to increase of spectrum of antifungal activity in most of the studied plant-associated lactobacilli strains. However, no single strain exhibited activity against all the indicator microorganisms. The antifungal activity of Lactobacillus bacteria against molds varied considerably and depended on both the indicator strain and the composition of the medium. The presence of xylitol and galactosyl-xylitol in the growth medium is correlated with the antifungal activity of the studied Lactobacillus sp. bacteria against selected indicator molds.

  15. Antifungal Activity of Lactobacillus sp. Bacteria in the Presence of Xylitol and Galactosyl-Xylitol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipińska, Lidia; Klewicki, Robert; Klewicka, Elżbieta; Kołodziejczyk, Krzysztof; Sójka, Michał; Nowak, Adriana

    2016-01-01

    Lactic acid fermentation is a natural method of antimicrobial food protection. Antagonistic activity of Lactobacillus sp. bacteria, taking part in this process, is directed mainly against the same or other microorganisms. In this work we determine the impact of the presence of xylitol and galactosyl-xylitol on the antagonistic activity of 60 Lactobacillus sp. strains against indicator molds (Alternaria alternata, Alternaria brassicicola, Aspergillus niger, Fusarium latenicum, Geotrichum candidum, and Mucor hiemalis) and yeasts (Candida vini). We used double-layer method to select antifungal strains of Lactobacillus bacteria and poisoned medium method to confirm their fungistatic properties. Additionally, we examined the inhibition of Alternaria brassicicola by Lactobacillus paracasei ŁOCK 0921 cultivated with xylitol or galactosyl-xylitol directly on wild cherries. The presence of xylitol and its galactosyl derivative led to increase of spectrum of antifungal activity in most of the studied plant-associated lactobacilli strains. However, no single strain exhibited activity against all the indicator microorganisms. The antifungal activity of Lactobacillus bacteria against molds varied considerably and depended on both the indicator strain and the composition of the medium. The presence of xylitol and galactosyl-xylitol in the growth medium is correlated with the antifungal activity of the studied Lactobacillus sp. bacteria against selected indicator molds. PMID:27294124

  16. Characterization of Antifungal Activity and Nail Penetration of ME1111, a New Antifungal Agent for Topical Treatment of Onychomycosis

    OpenAIRE

    Tabata, Yuji; Takei-Masuda, Naomi; Kubota, Natsuki; Takahata, Sho; Ohyama, Makoto; Kaneda, Kaori; Iida, Maiko; Maebashi, Kazunori

    2016-01-01

    Fungal nail infection (onychomycosis) is a prevalent disease in many areas of the world, with a high incidence approaching 23%. Available antifungals to treat the disease suffer from a number of disadvantages, necessitating the discovery of new efficacious and safe antifungals. Here, we evaluate the in vitro antifungal activity and nail penetration ability of ME1111, a novel antifungal agent, along with comparator drugs, including ciclopirox, amorolfine, terbinafine, and itraconazole. ME1111 ...

  17. Identification of Antifungal Substances of Lactobacillus sakei subsp. ALI033 and Antifungal Activity against Penicillium brevicompactum Strain FI02

    OpenAIRE

    Huh, Chang Ki; Hwang, Tae Yean

    2016-01-01

    This study was performed to investigate the antifungal substances and the antifungal activity against fungi of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) isolated from kimchi. LAB from kimchi in Imsil showed antifungal activity against Penicillium brevicompactum strain FI02. LAB LI031 was identified as Lactobacillus sakei subsp. Antifungal substances contained in L. sakei subsp. ALI033 culture media were unstable at high pH levels. Both, the control and proteinase K and protease treated samples showed clear ...

  18. The impact of consumer demands and trends on food processing.

    OpenAIRE

    Zink, D L

    1997-01-01

    In the United States, consumer demand for new foods and changes in eating habits and food safety risks are affecting the food processing industry. The population is becoming older on average; moreover, consumers want fresh and minimally processed food without synthetic chemical preservatives. To address the need for safer food and compete for consumer acceptance, manufacturers are exploring new food processing and preservation methods.

  19. In vitro antifungal susceptibility of coelomycete agents of black grain eumycetoma to eight antifungals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ahmed, Sarah Abdalla; de Hoog, G Sybren; Stevens, David A; Fahal, Ahmed H; van de Sande, Wendy W J

    2015-01-01

    Fungal mycetoma (eumycetoma) represents one of the most difficult infections to appropriately manage. The current recommended treatment is based on extensive surgical debridement combined with prolonged antifungal therapy with ketoconazole or itraconazole. Despite the different phylogenetic position

  20. Radiation preservation of fishery products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The U.S. Food and Drug Administration is in the process of considering radiation technology as a safe process for treatment of any food at doses less than 1.0kGy, while higher doses of up to 35kGy are allowed for treatment of a wide variety of dried spices. However, radiation preservation of fresh fish and dozen/packaged fish products requires selections of doses ranging from 1.0kGy up to 10kGy to achieve the intended effect. The treatment needs to be accompanied by good handling and manufacturing practices. Studies have showed that irradiated food is wholesome while the process itself possesses economic and health benefits. (author)

  1. Synthesis, Antifungal Activities and Qualitative Structure Activity Relationship of Carabrone Hydrazone Derivatives as Potential Antifungal Agents

    OpenAIRE

    Hao Wang; Shuang-Xi Ren; Ze-Yu He; De-Long Wang; Xiao-Nan Yan; Jun-Tao Feng; Xing Zhang

    2014-01-01

    Aimed at developing novel fungicides for relieving the ever-increasing pressure of agricultural production caused by phytopathogenic fungi, 28 new hydrazone derivatives of carabrone, a natural bioactive sesquisterpene, in three types were designed, synthesized and their antifungal activities against Botrytis cinerea and Colletotrichum lagenarium were evaluated. The result revealed that all the derivatives synthesized exhibited considerable antifungal activities in vitro and in vivo, which l...

  2. Impact of New Antifungal Breakpoints on Antifungal Resistance in Candida Species

    OpenAIRE

    Fothergill, Annette W.; Sutton, Deanna A.; McCarthy, Dora I.; Wiederhold, Nathan P.

    2014-01-01

    We reviewed our antifungal susceptibility data for micafungin, anidulafungin, fluconazole, and voriconazole against Candida species and compared resistance rates determined by the previous and recently revised CLSI antifungal breakpoints. With the new breakpoints, resistance was significantly increased for micafungin (from 0.8% to 7.6%), anidulafungin (from 0.9% to 7.3%), and voriconazole (from 6.1% to 18.4%) against Candida glabrata. Resistance was also increased for fluconazole against Cand...

  3. Properties of Mint as a Food Preservative

    OpenAIRE

    Penko, Rok

    2011-01-01

    This study was designed to evaluate antimicrobial and antioxidant activities of the mint extracts from Mentha piperita L. and Mentha aquatica L. In vitro antibacterial activity against two foodborne bacteria (Listeria monocytogenes, Staphylococcus aureus) was evaluated by the well diffusion method. The activity was assessed by the diameter of the inhibition zone. Four of the five extracts from Mentha piperita were active against S. aureus, but none of the extracts was active against L. monocy...

  4. Cinnamaldehyde and its derivatives, a novel class of antifungal agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shreaz, Sheikh; Wani, Waseem A; Behbehani, Jawad M; Raja, Vaseem; Irshad, Md; Karched, Maribasappa; Ali, Intzar; Siddiqi, Weqar A; Hun, Lee Ting

    2016-07-01

    The last few decades have seen an alarming rise in fungal infections, which currently represent a global health threat. Despite extensive research towards the development of new antifungal agents, only a limited number of antifungal drugs are available in the market. The routinely used polyene agents and many azole antifungals are associated with some common side effects such as severe hepatotoxicity and nephrotoxicity. Also, antifungal resistance continues to grow and evolve and complicate patient management, despite the introduction of new antifungal agents. This suitation requires continuous attention. Cinnamaldehyde has been reported to inhibit bacteria, yeasts, and filamentous molds via the inhibition of ATPases, cell wall biosynthesis, and alteration of membrane structure and integrity. In this regard, several novel cinnamaldehyde derivatives were synthesized with the claim of potential antifungal activities. The present article describes antifungal properties of cinnamaldehyde and its derivatives against diverse classes of pathogenic fungi. This review will provide an overview of what is currently known about the primary mode of action of cinnamaldehyde. Synergistic approaches for boosting the effectiveness of cinnamaldehyde and its derivatives have been highlighted. Also, a keen analysis of the pharmacologically active systems derived from cinnamaldehyde has been discussed. Finally, efforts were made to outline the future perspectives of cinnamaldehyde-based antifungal agents. The purpose of this review is to provide an overview of current knowledge about the antifungal properties and antifungal mode of action of cinnamaldehyde and its derivatives and to identify research avenues that can facilitate implementation of cinnamaldehyde as a natural antifungal. PMID:27259370

  5. Antifungal prophylaxis during neutropenia and immunodeficiency.

    OpenAIRE

    Lortholary, O; Dupont, B

    1997-01-01

    Fungal infections represent a major source of morbidity and mortality in patients with almost all types of immunodeficiencies. These infections may be nosocomial (aspergillosis) or community acquired (cryptococcosis), or both (candidiasis). Endemic mycoses such as histoplasmosis, coccidioidomycosis, and penicilliosis may infect many immunocompromised hosts in some geographic areas and thereby create major public health problems. With the wide availability of oral azoles, antifungal prophylact...

  6. Antifungal activity of ajoene derived from garlic.

    OpenAIRE

    Yoshida, S.(Department of Physics, Chiba University, 263-8522, Chiba, Japan); Kasuga, S; Hayashi, N; Ushiroguchi, T; Matsuura, H.; Nakagawa, S

    1987-01-01

    The antifungal activity of six fractions derived from garlic was investigated in an in vitro system. Ajoene had the strongest activity in these fractions. The growth of both Aspergillus niger and Candida albicans was inhibited by ajoene at less than 20 micrograms/ml.

  7. Evaluation of antifungal combination against Cryptococcus spp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reichert-Lima, Franqueline; Busso-Lopes, Ariane F; Lyra, Luzia; Peron, Isabela Haddad; Taguchi, Hideaki; Mikami, Yuzuru; Kamei, Katsuiko; Moretti, Maria Luiza; Schreiber, Angelica Z

    2016-09-01

    The second cause of death among systemic mycoses, cryptococcosis treatment represents a challenge since that 5-flucytosine is not currently available in Brazil. Looking for alternatives, this study evaluated antifungal agents, alone and combined, correlating susceptibility to genotypes. Eighty Cryptococcus clinical isolates were genotyped by URA5 gene restriction fragment length polymorphism. Antifungal susceptibility was assessed following CLSI-M27A3 for amphotericin (AMB), 5-flucytosine (5FC), fluconazole (FCZ), voriconazole (VRZ), itraconazole (ITZ) and terbinafine (TRB). Drug interaction chequerboard assay evaluated: AMB + 5FC, AMB + FCZ, AMB + TRB and FCZ + TRB. Molecular typing divided isolates into 14 C. deuterogattii (VGII) and C. neoformans isolates were found to belong to genotype VNI (n = 62) and VNII (n = 4). C. neoformans VNII was significantly less susceptible than VNI (P = 0.0407) to AMB; C. deuterogattii was significantly less susceptible than VNI and VNII to VRZ (P neoformans VNI for FCZ (P = 0.0170), ITZ (P neoformans genotype VNI isolates and all combinations showed 100% of synergism against genotype VNII isolates, suggesting the relevance of cryptococcal genotyping as it is widely known that the various genotypes (now species) have significant impact in antifungal susceptibilities and clinical outcome. In difficult-to-treat cryptococcosis, terbinafine and different antifungal combinations might be alternatives to 5FC. PMID:27135278

  8. Mystery unraveled about antifungal drug targets

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    @@ A long-standing mystery about the functional roles of the N-terminal region of protein N-myristoyltransferase, an ideal target for antifungal drugs, was recently decoded, thanks to the threeyear joint efforts of researchers from the CAS Key Laboratory of Molecular Biology and their US colleagues at the DuPont Stine Haskell Research Center.

  9. Studies of antifungal activity of forsskalea tenacissima

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Antifungal activity of different extracts from Forsskalea tenacissima prepared by solvent-solvent extraction and vacuum liquid chromatography (VLC) was determined. Extracts were found to be active against Candida albicans, Trichophyton mentagrophyte, Allescheria boydii, Microsporum canis, Aspergillus niger, Drechslera rostrata, Nigrospora oryzae, Stachybotrys atra, Curvularia lunata, Trichophyton semii and Trichophyton schoenleinii. (author)

  10. Application of irradiated chitosan for fruit preservation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Application of irradiated chitosan has been investigated for coating of fruit preservation. Anti-fungal activity of chitosan was induced by γ-ray irradiation in dry condition at 25 kGy. The irradiated chitosan can suppress the growth of Aspergillus. spp. and Fusarium. spp. isolated from Vietnam mango. Fusarium. spp. was sensitive for irradiated chitosan than the other strains. The coating from irradiated chitosan solution at dose 31 kGy has prolonged the storage life of mango from 7 to 15 days. At the 15th day mango keeps good colour, natural ripening, without spoilage, weight loss 10%, whereas the control is spoiled completely and the sample of fruit with unirradiated chitosan coating could not ripe. The effect is due to the anti-fungal activity and change in physico-chemical properties of chitosan by irradiation. Radiation causes the decrease in viscosity affecting the gas permeability of coating film. The irradiated chitosan coating has positive effect on mango that is susceptible to chilling injury at low storage temperature. (author)

  11. PHYTOCHEMICAL SCREENING AND IN-VITRO ANTIFUNGAL INVESTIGATION OF PARTHENIUM HYSTEROPHORUS EXTRACTS AGAINST ALTERNARIA ALTERNATA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Singh Padma

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The extensive use of fungicides are polluting the environment and giving rise to undesirable biological effects on animal and human beings. Therefore use of plant extracts as biological control agents is being popularized in recent years. Alternaria alternata is reported for causing foliage disease in several important vegetables and crops. In an approach towards the development of eco friendly antifungal compound for controlling plant diseases caused by Alternaria alternata different extracts of Parthenium hysterophorus were tested for their antifungal potential. Parthenium hysterophorus is considered as an obnoxious weed, growing on waste land. The four different solvent extracts viz., aqueous, methanol, acetone and ethanol extracts of leaves of Parthenium hysterophorus was evaluated from antifungal potential against four different isolates of Alternaria alternata isolated from potato (Solanum tuberosum, onion (Allium cepa, tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum and mustard (Brassica compestris by food poison technique. The ethanolic extract showed complete inhibition against the four isolates i.e. 100 % followed by acetone and methanol extracts which was approximately 96 % and 76 % respectively, while aqueous extract do not showed any antifungal activity. Thus the result showed that the ethanolic extract was the best extract to be used. The phytochemical analysis revealed the presence of alkaloid, glycoside, steroid, saponin in varying concentration in different extracts which might be the cause of antifungal potential. The present study supports the use of leaf extract of Parthenium hysterophorus as biofungicides for the disease caused by Alternaria alternata. This will help to save the environment from chemical hazards as most of the synthetic fungicide constitute mercury, zinc etc which are toxic for nature.

  12. Glycolipid biosurfactants: main properties and potential applications in agriculture and food industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mnif, Inès; Ghribi, Dhouha

    2016-10-01

    Glycolipids, consisting of a carbohydrate moiety linked to fatty acids, are microbial surface active compounds produced by various microorganisms. They are characterized by high structural diversity and have the ability to decrease the surface and interfacial tension at the surface and interface, respectively. Rhamnolipids, trehalolipids, mannosylerythritol lipids and cellobiose lipids are among the most popular glycolipids. They have received much practical attention as biopesticides for controlling plant diseases and protecting stored products. As a result of their antifungal activity towards phytopathogenic fungi and larvicidal and mosquitocidal potencies, glycolipid biosurfactants permit the preservation of plants and plant crops from pest invasion. Also, as a result of their emulsifying and antibacterial activities, glycolipids have great potential as food additives and food preservatives. Furthermore, the valorization of food byproducts via the production of glycolipid biosurfactant has received much attention because it permits the bioconversion of byproducts on valuable compounds and decreases the cost of production. Generally, the use of glycolipids in many fields requires their retention from fermentation media. Accordingly, different strategies have been developed to extract and purify glycolipids. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. PMID:27098847

  13. Identification and characterization of antifungal active substances of Streptomyces hygroscopicus BS-112.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Nan; Song, Zhen; Xie, Yuhua; Cui, Ping; Jiang, Hongxia; Yang, Tao; Ju, Ruicheng; Zhao, Yuhua; Li, Jinyu; Liu, Xunli

    2013-08-01

    An antifungal Actinomyces BS-112 strain, with Aspergillus flavus as the target pathogen, was isolated from soil in the forest land of Mountain Tai. This strain showed a strong antagonistic activity against various mold fungi in food and feed. Strain BS-112 was identified as Streptomyces hygroscopicus based on its morphologic, cultural, physiological, biochemical characteristics, cell wall components and 16S rDNA sequence. Four active components were separated and purified from strain BS-112. These four antifungal components were identified as tetrins A and B and tetramycins A and B using spectroscopic analysis including mass spectrometry and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Tetrins A and B and tetramycins A and B strongly inhibited the growth of A. flavus, A. alutaceus, A. niger, and A. fumigatus in vitro. PMID:23468248

  14. A new furoquinoline alkaloid with antifungal activity from the leaves of Ruta chalepensis L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emam, A; Eweis, M; Elbadry, M

    2010-12-01

    Bioassay-guided separation with an eye toward antifungal activity led to the isolation of the new alkaloid 5-(1̀,1̀-dimethylallyl)-8-hydroxyfuro[2-3-b] quinoline (1) and the known biscoumarin daphnoretin (2) as the active constituents of the chloroform extract obtained from the leaves of Ruta chalepensis. The structures of the metabolites were elucidated on the basis of their spectral characteristics (NMR, UV, and MS) and were compared with the literature. The antifungal activity of the isolated compounds was evaluated against the phytopathogenic fungi Rhizoctonia solani, Sclerotium rolfsii, and Fusarium solani, which cause root-rot and wilt diseases in several economically important food crops such as potato, sugar beet, and tomato.

  15. Antifungal activity of lactobacilli and its relationship with 3-phenyllactic acid production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cortés-Zavaleta, O; López-Malo, A; Hernández-Mendoza, A; García, H S

    2014-03-01

    In this study, 13 lactic acid bacteria (LAB) strains (including 5 Lactobacillus casei, 2 Lactobacillus rhamnosus, 2 Lactobacillus fermentum, 1 Lactobacillus acidophilus, 1 Lactobacillus plantarum, 1 Lactobacillus sakei, and 1 Lactobacillus reuteri species) were assessed for both their antifungal activity against four food spoilage molds (Colletotrichum gloeosporioides, Botrytis cinerea, Penicillium expansum, and Aspergillus flavus) and their capability to produce the novel antimicrobial compound 3-phenyllactic acid (PLA). Results demonstrated that all molds were sensitive to varying degrees to the cell-free supernatants (CFS) from LAB fermentations (pPLA ranging from 0.021 to 0.275 mM. The high minimum inhibitory concentration for commercial PLA (3.01-36.10mM) suggests that it cannot be considered the only compound related with the antifungal potential of studied LAB and that synergistic effects may exist among other metabolism products. PMID:24412414

  16. Oral Antifungal Drugs in the Treatment of Dermatomycosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsunemi, Yuichiro

    2016-01-01

    Oral antifungal drugs are used primarily to treat tinea unguium; however, they are also useful for other types of tinea. For example, a combination of topical and oral antifungal drugs is effective in hyperkeratotic tinea pedis that is unresponsive to topical monotherapy. In cases of tinea facialis adjacent to the eyes, ears, or mouth, or widespread tinea corporis, or tinea cruris involving the complex skin folds of the external genitalia, it is difficult to apply topical drugs to all the lesions; therefore, oral antifungal drugs are necessary. Oral antifungal drugs are also useful not only for tinea but for widespread pityriasis versicolor and Malassezia folliculitis, candidal onychomycosis, and candidal paronychia and onychia. Topical antifungal drugs are in fact unsuitable for some mycoses. In tinea capitis, for example, irritation by topical drugs is likely to enhance inflammation; therefore, oral antifungal drug monotherapy is preferable. In interdigital tinea pedis with erosion or contact dermatitis, topical drugs are difficult to use because they tend to cause irritant dermatitis, resulting in exacerbation of the condition. In such cases, treatment should begin with a combination of topical corticosteroid therapy and oral antifungal drugs active against dermatophytes. Topical antifungal drugs are used after the complications resolve. A combination of topical and oral antifungal drugs can shorten the treatment period, thus improving patient adherence to topical treatment. Oral antifungal drugs are useful because of their wide range of applications in the treatment of dermatomycosis. PMID:27251319

  17. Food irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A worldwide standard on food irradiation was adopted in 1983 by codex Alimentarius Commission of the Joint Food Standard Programme of the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) of the United Nations and The World Health Organization (WHO). As a result, 41 countries have approved the use of irradiation for treating one or more food items and the number is increasing. Generally, irradiation is used to: food loses, food spoilage, disinfestation, safety and hygiene. The number of countries which use irradiation for processing food for commercial purposes has been increasing steadily from 19 in 1987 to 33 today. In the frames of the national programme on the application of irradiation for food preservation and hygienization an experimental plant for electron beam processing has been established in Inst. of Nuclear Chemistry and Technology. The plant is equipped with a small research accelerator Pilot (19 MeV, 1 kW) and industrial unit Electronika (10 MeV, 10 kW). On the basis of the research there were performed at different scientific institutions in Poland, health authorities have issued permissions for irradiation for; spices, garlic, onions, mushrooms, potatoes, dry mushrooms and vegetables. (author)

  18. 食品级非离子表面活性剂微乳的制备及抗菌性研究%Study on the Preparation and Self-preserving Property of Food-grade Nonionic surfactant Microemulsions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵家亮; 李春; 刘宁; 侯莹

    2011-01-01

    制备一种稳定的食品和药剂包埋载体—食品级非离子表面活性剂空白微乳,并评价其抗菌性。通过滴定法绘制伪三元相图来筛选形成微乳的组分及条件,以高速离心法和37℃恒温1个月考察微乳稳定性,利用透射电镜和粒径分析仪研究微乳粒子的形态和粒径分布,并分析其抗菌能力。以丁酸乙酯为油相、聚氧乙烯醚蓖麻油酯EL-35为表面活性剂、正丁醇为助表面活性剂、Km(表面活性剂与助表面活性剂的质量比)为3时微乳区最大,可无限稀释,平均粒径约17 nm。丁酸乙酯、聚氧乙烯蓖麻油EL-35、正丁醇和水复合液(1︰21︰7︰274)对金黄色葡萄球菌、大肠杆菌、沙门氏菌作用150 min后,能将其全部杀灭。该微乳性状稳定、毒性低、抗菌性强,适合作为食品、药剂等的载体。%To prepare a kind of stable food and pharmaceutical embedding carrier that is a food-grade non-ionic surfactant microemulsion,then evaluate its self-preserving property.Pseudo ternary phase diagrams were prepared by using the method of titration,then the components and conditions of the formation of microemulsion were filtered.The physical stability of the microemulsion was assessed by centrifugation and by storage at 37 ℃ for one month.Microemulsion particle shape and size distribution were examined by TEM and particle size analyzer.The antimicrobial activity of the microemulsion was tested using USP method for the examination of antimicrobial effectiveness in pharmaceutical preparations.The extent of the region of the microemulsion was larger,the system can be diluted infinitly and average size was about 17 nm when ethyl butyrate was used as the oil phase,polyoxyethylene castor oil esters EL-35 as surfactant,butanol as cosurfactant.The microemulsion composed of ethyl butyrate,polyoxyethylene castor oil esters EL-35,butanol and water in accordance with the rate of 12︰21︰7︰274 can kill Staphylococcus

  19. Chemical Composition and Antifungal Activity of Ocimum basilicum L. Essential Oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neveen Helmy Abou El-Soud

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The leaves of Ocimum basilicum L. (basil are used in traditional cuisine as spices; its essential oil has found a wide application in perfumery, dental products as well as antifungal agents. AIM: To assess the chemical composition as well as the in vitro antifungal activity of O. basilicum L. essential oil against Aspergillus flavus fungal growth and aflatoxin B1 production. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The essential oil of O. basilicum was obtained by hydrodistillation and analysed using gas chromatography (GC and GC coupled with mass spectrometry (GC/MS. The essential oil was tested for its effects on Aspergillus flavus (A. flavus mycelial growth and aflatoxin B1 production in Yeast Extract Sucrose (YES growth media. Aflatoxin B1 production was determined by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC. RESULTS: Nineteen compounds, representing 96.7% of the total oil were identified. The main components were as follows: linalool (48.4%, 1,8-cineol (12.2%, eugenol (6.6%, methyl cinnamate (6.2%, α-cubebene (5.7%, caryophyllene (2.5%, β-ocimene (2.1% and α-farnesene (2.0%.The tested oil showed significant antifungal activity that was dependent on the used oil concentration. The complete inhibition of A. flavus growth was observed at 1000 ppm oil concentration, while marked inhibition of aflatoxin B1 production was observed at all oil concentrations tested (500, 750 and 1000 ppm. CONCLUSION: These results confirm the antifungal activities of O. basilicum L. oil and its potential use to cure mycotic infections and act as pharmaceutical preservative against A. flavus growth and aflatoxin B1 production.

  20. From antidiabetic to antifungal: discovery of highly potent triazole-thiazolidinedione hybrids as novel antifungal agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Shanchao; Zhang, Yongqiang; He, Xiaomeng; Che, Xiaoying; Wang, Shengzheng; Liu, Yang; Jiang, Yan; Liu, Na; Dong, Guoqiang; Yao, Jianzhong; Miao, Zhenyuan; Wang, Yan; Zhang, Wannian; Sheng, Chunquan

    2014-12-01

    In an attempt to discover a new generation of triazole antifungal agents, a series of triazole-thiazolidinedione hybrids were designed and synthesized by molecular hybridization of the antifungal agent fluconazole and rosiglitazone (an antidiabetic). Most of the target compounds showed good to excellent inhibitory activity against a variety of clinically important fungal pathogens. In particular, compounds (Z)-5-(2,4-dichlorobenzylidene)-3-(2-(2,4-difluorophenyl)-2-hydroxy-3-(1H-1,2,4-triazol-1-yl)propyl)thiazolidine-2,4-dione) (15 c), (Z)-3-(2-(2,4-difluorophenyl)-2-hydroxy-3-(1H-1,2,4-triazol-1-yl)propyl)-5-(furan-3-ylmethylene)thiazolidine-2,4-dione (15 j), and (Z)-3-(2-(2,4-difluorophenyl)-2-hydroxy-3-(1H-1,2,4-triazol-1-yl)propyl)-5-(furan-3-ylmethylene)thiazolidine-2,4-dione (15 r) were highly active against Candida albicans, with MIC80 values in the range of 0.03-0.15 μM. Moreover, compounds 15 j and 15 r were found to be effective against four fluconazole-resistant clinical isolates; these two compounds are particularly promising antifungal leads for further optimization. Molecular docking studies revealed that the hydrogen bonding interactions between thiazolidinedione and CYP51 from C. albicans are important for antifungal activity. This study also demonstrates the effectiveness of molecular hybridization in antifungal drug discovery. PMID:25196996

  1. 抗菌性乳酸菌的筛选及鉴定%Screening of Antifungal Lactic acid Bacteria and Appraisal

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘紫艳

    2013-01-01

      抗菌性乳酸菌是一种天然、安全性能好、适用范围广且性能稳定的生物防腐剂,将其应用到食品中具有重要的实际应用价值,其应用前景也很广阔。采用双层培养法从泡菜水中筛选出2株具有明显的抑菌作用菌种,供试菌为枯草芽孢杆菌(Bacillus subtilis)、大肠杆菌(E.coli)、黑曲霉(Aspergillus niger),通过抑菌实验,综合菌株的形态学特征、生理生化特征确定了B株菌株为乳酸菌。%  Antifungal lactic acid bacteria are biological preservative properties of a natural, safety, wide application range and stable performance, its application to food has important practical application value, its application prospect is very wide. Using the double cultivation from pickled cabbage water screened 2 strains of bacteria with antimicrobial effect obviously, the tested strains of Bacillus subtilis (Bacillus subtilis), Escherichia coli (E.coli), Kuroma (Aspergillus Niger). Through the antibacterial experiment, physiological and biochemical characteristics, morphological characteristics, comprehensive strains were identified by B strains of lactic acid bacteria.

  2. ADDITIVES USED TO OBTAIN FOOD

    OpenAIRE

    Dorina Ardelean; Daniela Popa

    2012-01-01

    Use of food additives in food is determined by the growth of contemporary food needs of the world population. Additives used in food, both natural and artificial ones, contribute to: improving the organoleptic characteristics and to preserve the food longer, but we must not forget that all these additives should not be found naturally in food products. Some of these additives are not harmful and human pests in small quantities, but others may have harmful effects on health.

  3. ADDITIVES USED TO OBTAIN FOOD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorina Ardelean

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Use of food additives in food is determined by the growth of contemporary food needs of the world population. Additives used in food, both natural and artificial ones, contribute to: improving the organoleptic characteristics and to preserve the food longer, but we must not forget that all these additives should not be found naturally in food products. Some of these additives are not harmful and human pests in small quantities, but others may have harmful effects on health.

  4. ANTIFUNGAL ACTIVITIES OF CUNNINGHAMIA LANCEOLATA HEARTWOOD EXTRACTIVES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Wang

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Three extractives from China-fir were obtained by a sequential extraction processes with hexane, ethyl acetate, and methanol. The components of the three extractives were analyzed: (1 The gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS analysis showed that in addition to the presence of cedrol, naphthalenes comprised a relatively large percentage of both the hexane extract (10.39% and the ethyl acetate extract (9.43%. (2 Total phenolic contents analysis showed that phenols took up 6.66 % of the ethyl acetate extract and 22.8% of the methanol extract. All extracts, even with low concentrations, presented fair antifungal activities against two white-rot fungi, Trametes versicolor and Irpex lacteus and two brown-rot fungi, Postia placenta and Gloeophyllum trabeum. Cedrol and naphthalenes were partly responsible for the bioactivities. The synergistic effect of phenols and antifungal compounds also contributed to the wood decay resistance.

  5. Antifungal activity of 10 Guadeloupean plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biabiany, Murielle; Roumy, Vincent; Hennebelle, Thierry; François, Nadine; Sendid, Boualem; Pottier, Muriel; Aliouat, El Moukhtar; Rouaud, Isabelle; Lohézic-Le Dévéhat, Françoise; Joseph, Henry; Bourgeois, Paul; Sahpaz, Sevser; Bailleul, François

    2013-11-01

    Screening of the antifungal activities of ten Guadeloupean plants was undertaken to find new extracts and formulations against superficial mycoses such as onychomycosis, athlete's foot, Pityriasis versicolor, as well as the deep fungal infection Pneumocystis pneumonia. For the first time, the CMI of these plant extracts [cyclohexane, ethanol and ethanol/water (1:1, v/v)] was determined against five dermatophytes, five Candida species, Scytalidium dimidiatum, a Malassezia sp. strain and Pneumocystis carinii. Cytotoxicity tests of the most active extracts were also performed on an HaCat keratinocyte cell line. Results suggest that the extracts of Bursera simaruba, Cedrela odorata, Enterolobium cyclocarpum and Pluchea carolinensis have interesting activities and could be good candidates for developing antifungal formulations. PMID:23280633

  6. Tolerability and safety of antifungal drugs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Scaglione

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available When treating critically ill patients, as those with fungal infections, attention should be focused on the appropriate use of drugs, especially in terms of dose, safety, and tolerability. The fungal infection itself and the concomitant physiological disorders concur to increase the risk of mortality in these patients, therefore the use of any antifungal agent should be carefully evaluated, considering both the direct action on the target fungus and the adverse effects eventually caused. Among antifungal drugs, echinocandins have the greatest tolerability. In fact, unlike amphotericin B, showing nephrotoxicity, and azoles, which are hepatotoxic, the use of echinocandins doesn’t result in major adverse events.http://dx.doi.org/10.7175/rhc.v4i2s.873

  7. A new antifungal coumarin from Clausena excavata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Ramashish; Saha, Aniruddha; Saha, Dipanwita

    2012-01-01

    A new γ-lactone coumarin, named as excavarin-A, showing antifungal activity was isolated from the leaves of Clausena excavata by bioassay guided fractionation method. The structure was elucidated by spectroscopic data analysis and identified as 7((2E)-4(4,5-dihydro-3-methylene-2-oxo-5-furanyl)-3-methylbut-2-enyloxy) coumarin. Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) was determined against fifteen fungal strains pathogenic against plants and human. The least MIC was recorded against the human pathogen, Candida tropicalis and the plant pathogens Rhizoctonia solani and Sclerotinia sclerotiorum. Antifungal activities against the human pathogens, Aspergillus fumigatus and Mucor circinelloides and plant pathogens, Colletotrichum gloeosporioides, Lasiodiplodia theobromae, Fusarium oxysporum and Rhizopus stolonifer were stronger than that of the standard antimicrobials. PMID:22088496

  8. Antifungal and antibacterial activities of Petroselinum crispum essential oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linde, G A; Gazim, Z C; Cardoso, B K; Jorge, L F; Tešević, V; Glamoćlija, J; Soković, M; Colauto, N B

    2016-01-01

    Parsley [Petroselinum crispum (Mill.) Fuss] is regarded as an aromatic, culinary, and medicinal plant and is used in the cosmetic, food, and pharmaceutical industries. However, few studies with conflicting results have been conducted on the antimicrobial activity of parsley essential oil. In addition, there have been no reports of essential oil obtained from parsley aerial parts, except seeds, as an alternative natural antimicrobial agent. Also, microorganism resistance is still a challenge for health and food production. Based on the demand for natural products to control microorganisms, and the re-evaluation of potential medicinal plants for controlling diseases, the objective of this study was to determine the chemical composition and antibacterial and antifungal activities of parsley essential oil against foodborne diseases and opportunistic pathogens. Seven bacteria and eight fungi were tested. The essential oil major compounds were apiol, myristicin, and b-phellandrene. Parsley essential oil had bacteriostatic activity against all tested bacteria, mainly Staphylococcus aureus, Listeria monocytogenes, and Salmonella enterica, at similar or lower concentrations than at least one of the controls, and bactericidal activity against all tested bacteria, mainly S. aureus, at similar or lower concentrations than at least one of the controls. This essential oil also had fungistatic activity against all tested fungi, mainly, Penicillium ochrochloron and Trichoderma viride, at lower concentrations than the ketoconazole control and fungicidal activity against all tested fungi at higher concentrations than the controls. Parsley is used in cooking and medicine, and its essential oil is an effective antimicrobial agent. PMID:27525894

  9. Antifungal Drug Resistance - Concerns for Veterinarians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bharat B. Bhanderi

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available In the 1990s, there were increased incidences of fungal infectious diseases in human population which might be due to increase in immunosuppressive diseases. But the major concern was increase in prevalence of resistance to antifungal drugs which were reported both in the fungal isolates of human beings and that of animal origin. In both animals and human beings, resistance to antimicrobial agents has important implications for morbidity, mortality and health care costs, because resistant strains are responsible for bulk of infection in animals and human beings, and large number of antimicrobial classes offers more diverse range of resistance mechanisms to study and resistance determinants move into standard well-characterized strains that facilitates the detailed study of molecular mechanisms of resistance in microorganisms. Studies on resistance to antifungal agents has been lagging behind that of antibacterial resistance for several reasons, the foremost reason might be fungal agents were not recognized as important animal and human pathogens, until relatively in recent past. But the initial studies of antifungal drug resistance in the early 1980s, have accumulated a wealth of knowledge concerning the clinical, biochemical, and genetic aspects of this phenomenon. Presently, exploration of the molecular aspects for antifungal drug resistance has been undertaken. Recently, the focus was on several points like developing a more detailed understanding of the mechanisms of antimicrobial resistance, improved methods to detect resistance when it occurs, methods to prevent the emergence and spread of resistance and new antimicrobial options for the treatment of infections caused by resistant organisms. [Vet. World 2009; 2(5.000: 204-207

  10. ANTIFUNGAL ACTIVITY OF CORALLOCARPUS EPIGAEUS (HOOK. F.)

    OpenAIRE

    Vasantha K; Mohan V R

    2012-01-01

    In the present study, petroleum ether, hexane, chloroform, acetone and methanol extracts of leaf, stem and tuber of C. epigaeus were investigated for antifungal activity against Candida albicans, C. tropicalis, Aspergillus niger, A. flavus and A. versicolor by disc diffusion method. Methanol extract of C. epigaeus tuber exhibited maximum activity against most of the tested fungi. The petroleum ether and hexane extracts obtained from C. epigaeus stem was found to be active only against A. nige...

  11. Penetration of Candida Biofilms by Antifungal Agents

    OpenAIRE

    Al-Fattani, Mohammed A.; Douglas, L. Julia

    2004-01-01

    A filter disk assay was used to investigate the penetration of antifungal agents through biofilms containing single and mixed-species biofilms containing Candida. Fluconazole permeated all single-species Candida biofilms more rapidly than flucytosine. The rates of diffusion of either drug through biofilms of three strains of Candida albicans were similar. However, the rates of drug diffusion through biofilms of C. glabrata or C. krusei were faster than those through biofilms of C. parapsilosi...

  12. Early State Research on Antifungal Natural Products

    OpenAIRE

    Melyssa Negri; Tânia P. Salci; Cristiane S. Shinobu-Mesquita; Isis R. G. Capoci; Terezinha I. E. Svidzinski; Erika Seki Kioshima

    2014-01-01

    Nosocomial infections caused by fungi have increased greatly in recent years, mainly due to the rising number of immunocompromised patients. However, the available antifungal therapeutic arsenal is limited, and the development of new drugs has been slow. Therefore, the search for alternative drugs with low resistance rates and fewer side effects remains a major challenge. Plants produce a variety of medicinal components that can inhibit pathogen growth. Studies of plant species have been cond...

  13. Antifungal ellagitannin isolated from Euphorbia antisyphilitica Zucc

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Juan Ascacio-Valds; Edgardo Burboa; Antonio F Aguilera-Carbo; Mario Aparicio; Ramn Prez-Schmidt; Ral Rodrguez; Cristbal N Aguilar

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To study antifungal activity of a new ellagitannin isolated from the plant residues of Euphorbia antisyphilitica (E. antisyphilitica) Zucc in the wax extraction process. Methods:An extract was prepared from dehydrated and pulverized residues and fractionated by liquid chromatography on Amberilte XAD-16, until obtained an ellagitannin-rich ethanolic fraction which was treated by rotaevaporation to recover the ellagitannin as fine powder. An aqueous solution was prepared and treated through ionic exchange liquid chromatography (Q XL) and gel permeation chromatography (G 25). The ellagitannin-rich fraction was thermogravimetrically evaluated (TGA and DTA) to test the thermo-stability of ellagic acid (monomeric unit). Then ellagitannin powder was analyzed by infrared spectrospcopy to determinate the functional groups and, also mass spectroscopy was used to determine the molecular ion. Results: The principal functional groups of ellagitannin were determined, the molecular weight was 860.7 g/mol; and an effective antifungal activity against phytopathogenic fungi was demonstrated. Conclusions: It can be concluded that the new ellagitannin (860.7 g/mol) isolated from E. antisyphilitica Zucc is an effective antifungal agent against Alternaria alternata, Fusarium oxyzporum, Colletotrichum gloeosporoides and Rhizoctnia solani.

  14. Antifungal ellagitannin isolated from Euphorbia antisyphilitica Zucc

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Juan; Ascacio-Valdés; Edgardo; Burboa; Antonio; F; Aguilera-Carbo; Mario; Aparicio; Ramón; Pérez-Schmidt; Raúl; Rodríguez; Cristóbal; N; Aguilar

    2013-01-01

    Objective:To study antifungal activity of a new ellagitannin isolated from the plant residues of Euphorbia antisyphilitica(E.antisyphilitica)Zucc in the wax extraction process.Methods:An extract was prepared from dehydrated and pulverized residues and fractionated by liquid chromatography on Amberilte XAD-16,until obtained an ellagitannin-rich ethanolic fraction which was treated by rotaevaporation to recover the ellagitannin as fine powder.An aqueous solution was prepared and treated through ionic exchange liquid chromatography(Q XL)and gel permeation chromatography(G 25).The ellagitannin-rich fraction was thermogravimetrically evaluated(TGA and DTA)to test the thermo-stability of ellagic acid(monomeric unit).Then ellagitannin powder was analyzed by infrared spectrospcopy to determinate the functional groups and.also mass spectroscopy was used to determine the molecular ion.Results:The principal functional groups of ellagitannin were determined,the molecular weight was 860.7 g/mol;and an effective antifungal activity against phytopathogenic fungi was demonstrated.Conclusions:It can be concluded that the new ellagitannin(860.7 g/mol)isolated from E.antisyphilitica Zucc is an effective antifungal agent against Alternaria alternata,Fusarium oxyzporum,Colletotrichum gloeosporoides and Rhizoctnia solani.

  15. Antifungal activity of Terminalia superba (combretaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SIAKA Sohro

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to optimize the anticandidosic activities of Terminalia superba (TEKAM4 and the identification of major compounds present in the most active chromatographic fraction. The hydroethanolic extract TEKAM4-X0 was prepared by homogenization employing a blender. Two derivatives extracts of TEKAM4-X0 (X1-1 and X1-2 were obtained by a liquid/liquid partition of TEKAM4-X0 in a mixture of hexane and water (v/v. Three chromatographic fractions (F1, F2 and F3 from X1-2 were separated by means of Sephadex-LH20 gel filtration chromatography. All the extracts were incorporated to Sabouraud according to the agar slanted double dilution method. Ketoconazole was used as standards for antifungal assay. The entire fractions were tested on the previously prepared medium culture containing 1000 cells of C. albicans. Antifungal activity was determined by evaluating antifungal parameters values (MFC and IC50. Lastly, the structures of 2 isolated compounds were elucidated by combination of Flash chromatography and spectroscopic methods, including MS, and multiple stage RMN experiments.

  16. Antifungal Efficacy of Myrtus communis Linn

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sadeghi Nejad

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Background The ethanolic extract of Myrtus communis Linn. leaves was assayed in vitro as a growth inhibitor against opportunistic fungi such as Candida and Aspergillus species. Myrtus communis Linn. (Family, Myrtaceae is an aromatic evergreen shrub or small tree. It is native to the Mediterranean region. Objectives This study aimed to assess antifungal activity (in vitro of the ethanolic extracts of Myrtus communis leaves as a growth inhibitor against 24 clinical isolates of Candida, including C. albicans, C. glabrata, and C. tropicalis also three species of Aspergillus, including A. niger, A. flavus, and A. terreus. Materials and Methods The ethanolic extract of myrtle leaves was prepared by maceration method and minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC of Myrtus communis leaves extract was determined by agar-well diffusion technique. Amphotericin B and clotrimazole were used as the positive control in this assay. Results The minimal inhibitory concentration (MICs values of Myrtus communis leaves extract ranged 0.625-5.0 µg/µL and 5-40 µg/µL against tested Candida spp. and Aspergillus spp., respectively. Conclusions Results revealed that the ethanolic extract of Myrtus communis leaves have antifungal potency against both pathogenic tested fungi, and it can be used as a natural antifungal agent.

  17. 四种食品防腐剂对桔皮黄酮清除自由基影响%Effect of four food preservative on flavonoid from orange peel eliminating radical

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李蜀眉; 王丽荣; 盛显良; 辛启凤

    2014-01-01

    Flavonoids from orange peel were extracted with 90% alcohol. Effect of four food preservatives on ability in flavonoids from orange peel elimination radical was studied by DPPH method when their concentration and temperature are different. The result showed that when temperature is 40 ℃,0.1%sorbistat and 0.1%benzoic acid can improve ability for elimination radical of flavonoids from orange peel,0.1%sodium propionate and 0.06%ethyl-4-hydroxybenzoate can reduce ability for elimination radical of flavonoids from orange peel. 0.1%sorbistat and 0.1%benzoic acid and 0.06%ethyl-4-hydroxybenzoate can reduce ability for elimination radical of flavonoids from orange peel when temperature is 60℃. Effect of 0.1%sodium propionate on ability in flavonoids from orange peel elimination radical has no relation with temperature.%用90%的乙醇提取桔皮中的黄酮类化合物,通过DPPH法研究四种食品防腐剂在不同浓度和温度下对桔皮黄酮类化合物清除自由基能力的影响。结果表明,在温度40℃时,0.1%山梨酸、0.1%苯甲酸可以提高桔皮黄酮类化合物清除自由基的能力;0.1%丙酸钠、0.06%对羟基苯甲酸乙酯使桔皮黄酮类化合物清除自由基的能力下降。在温度60℃时,0.1%山梨酸、0.1%苯甲酸、0.06%对羟基苯甲酸乙酯使桔皮黄酮类化合物清除自由基的能力下降。0.1%丙酸钠对桔皮黄酮类化合物清除自由基能力的影响与温度没有关系。

  18. Preformed antifungal compounds in strawberry fruit and flower tissues

    OpenAIRE

    Terry, Leon A.; Joyce, Daryl C.; Adikaram, Nimal K. B.; Khambay, Bhupinder P. S.

    2004-01-01

    Antifungal activity against the pathogen, Botrytis cinerea, and a bioassay organism, Cladosporium cladosporioides, declined with advancing strawberry fruit maturity as shown by thin layer chromatography (TLC) bioassays. Preformed antifungal activity was also present in flower tissue. The fall in fruit antifungal compounds was correlated with a decline in natural disease resistance (NDR) against B. cinerea in-planta. Crude extracts of green stage I fruit (7 days after anthesi...

  19. Design, synthesis and antifungal activity of novel triazole derivatives

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qing lie Zhao; Yan Song; Hong Gang Hu; Shi Chong Yu; Qiu Ye Wu

    2007-01-01

    Twenty-three 1 -(1H-1,2,4-triazole-1-yl)-2-(2,4-difluorophenyl)-3-(N-cycloproyl-N-substituted-amino)-2-propanols were designed and synthesized on the basis of the active site of lanosterol 14α-demethylase.In vitro antifungal activities showed that some of the title compounds had higher antifungal activity and broader antifungal spectrum than fluconazole.

  20. Antifungal Susceptibility Testing of Ascomycetous Yeasts Isolated from Animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Álvarez-Pérez, Sergio; García, Marta E; Peláez, Teresa; Martínez-Nevado, Eva; Blanco, José L

    2016-08-01

    Recent studies suggest that antifungal resistance in yeast isolates of veterinary origin may be an underdiagnosed threat. We tested a collection of 92 ascomycetous yeast isolates that were obtained in Spain from birds, mammals and insects for antifungal susceptibility. MICs to amphotericin B and azoles were low, and no resistant isolates were detected. Despite these results, and given the potential role of animals as reservoirs of resistant strains, continuous monitoring of antifungal susceptibility in the veterinary setting is recommended. PMID:27216048

  1. Factors predicting prolonged empirical antifungal treatment in critically ill patients

    OpenAIRE

    Zein, Mohamed; Parmentier-Decrucq, Erika; Kalaoun, Amer; Bouton, Olivier; Wallyn, Frédéric; Baranzelli, Anne; Elmanser, Dia; Sendid, Boualem; Nseir, Saad

    2014-01-01

    Objective To determine the incidence, risk factors, and impact on outcome of prolonged empirical antifungal treatment in ICU patients. Methods Retrospective observational study performed during a one-year period. Patients who stayed in the ICU >48 h, and received empirical antifungal treatment were included. Patients with confirmed invasive fungal disease were excluded. Prolonged antifungal treatment was defined as percentage of days in the ICU with antifungals > median percentage in the whol...

  2. ANTIFUNGAL ACTIVITY OF SOME COLEUS SPECIES GROWING IN NILGIRIS

    OpenAIRE

    P Nilani; Duraisamy, B.; Dhanabal, P.S.; khan, Saleemullah; Suresh, B.; Shankar, V; Kavitha, K.Y.; Syamala, G.

    2006-01-01

    The in vitro antifungal activity of solvent extracts of Coleus forskohlii, Coleus blumei and Coleus barbatus were compared by testing against some pathogenic fungi like Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus fumigatus, Aspergillus ruantii, Proteus vulgaris and Candida albicans. The petroleum ether extract of Coleus forskohlii and Coleus barbatus exhibited significant antifungal activity against all the selected organisms. The extracts of Coleus blumei did not show any significant antifungal activity ...

  3. Emerging Threats in Antifungal-Resistant Fungal Pathogens

    OpenAIRE

    Sanglard, Dominique

    2016-01-01

    The use of antifungal drugs in the therapy of fungal diseases can lead to the development of antifungal resistance. Resistance has been described for virtually all antifungal agents in diverse pathogens, including Candida and Aspergillus species. The majority of resistance mechanisms have also been elucidated at the molecular level in these pathogens. Drug resistance genes and genome mutations have been identified. Therapeutic choices are limited for the control of fungal diseases, and it is ...

  4. Antifungals of acromyrmex, allomerus, and tetraponera ant- and cultivarassociated bacteria

    OpenAIRE

    Barke, Joerg

    2013-01-01

    The central purpose of this thesis is to test the utility of ant-microbe associations for discovering antifungal compounds with novel molecular (sub-) structures. Novel antifungals displaying reduced adverse side-effects, increased water-solubilities, and/or strong fungicidal properties would be helpful in medical science for responding to the rising prevalence of human mycoses and for solving problems with adverse side-effects in currently used antifungal drugs. Host-symbiont systems m...

  5. [Preservatives in ophthalmology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Messmer, E M

    2012-11-01

    Preservatives are a legal requirement for eye drops in multidose containers. Moreover, they are necessary for stabilization and intraocular penetration for a number of ophthalmic preparations. Most preservatives act in a relatively unspecific manner as detergents or by oxidative mechanisms and thereby cause side effects at the ocular surface. They may also affect the lens, trabecular meshwork and the retina. Benzalkonium chloride is the most commonly used preservative in ophthalmology and is more toxic than other or newer preservatives, such as polyquaternium-1 (Polyquad), sodium perborate, oxychloro-complex (Purite®) and SofZia. Preservative-free topical medication is highly recommended for patients with ocular surface disease, frequent eye drop administration, proven allergy to preservatives and contact lens wear.

  6. Software Preservation Benefits Framework

    OpenAIRE

    Chue Hong, Neil; Crouch, Steve; Hettrick, Simon; Parkinson, Tim; Shreeve, Matt

    2010-01-01

    An investigation of software preservation has been carried out by Curtis+Cartwright Consulting Limited, in partnership with the Software Sustainability Institute (SSI), on behalf of the JISC. The aim of the study was to raise awareness and build capacity throughout the Further and Higher Education (FE/HE) sector to engage with preservation issues as part of the process of software development. Part of this involved examining the purpose and benefits of employing preservation measures in relat...

  7. Preserving Digital Materials

    CERN Document Server

    Harvey, Ross

    2011-01-01

    This book provides a single-volume introduction to the principles, strategies and practices currently applied by librarians and recordkeeping professionals to the critical issue of preservation of digital information. It incorporates practice from both the recordkeeping and the library communities, taking stock of current knowledge about digital preservation and describing recent and current research, to provide a framework for reflecting on the issues that digital preservation raises in professional practice.

  8. Chronopolis Digital Preservation Network

    OpenAIRE

    David Minor; Don Sutton; Ardys Kozbial; Brad Westbrook; Michael Burek; Michael Smorul

    2010-01-01

    The Chronopolis Digital Preservation Initiative, one of the Library of Congress’ latest efforts to collect and preserve at-risk digital information, has completed its first year of service as a multi-member partnership to meet the archival needs of a wide range of domains.Chronopolis is a digital preservation data grid framework developed by the San Diego Supercomputer Center (SDSC) at UC San Diego, the UC San Diego Libraries (UCSDL), and their partners at the National Center for Atmospheric ...

  9. Potato Dextrose Agar Antifungal Susceptibility Testing for Yeasts and Molds: Evaluation of Phosphate Effect on Antifungal Activity of CMT-3

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Yu; Tortora, George; Ryan, Maria E.; Lee, Hsi-Ming; Lorne M. Golub

    2002-01-01

    The broth macrodilution method (BMM) for antifungal susceptibility testing, approved by the National Committee for Clinical Laboratory Standards (NCCLS), was found to have deficiencies in testing of the antifungal activity of a new type of antifungal agent, a nonantibacterial chemically modified tetracycline (CMT-3). The high content of phosphate in the medium was found to greatly increase the MICs of CMT-3. To avoid the interference of phosphate in the test, a new method using potato dextros...

  10. Ergosterol biosynthesis in Aspergillus fumigatus: its relevance as an antifungal target and role in antifungal drug resistance

    OpenAIRE

    Alcazar-Fuoli, Laura; Mellado, Emilia

    2013-01-01

    Ergosterol, the major sterol of fungal membranes, is essential for developmental growth and the main target of antifungals that are currently used to treat fatal fungal infections. Emergence of resistance to existing antifungals is a current problem and several secondary resistance mechanisms have been described in Aspergillus fumigatus clinical isolates. A full understanding of ergosterol biosynthetic control therefore appears to be essential for improvement of antifungal efficacy and to pre...

  11. Food Processing: Technology and Nutritive Value.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerbouin-Rerolle, Pascale

    1993-01-01

    This booklet examines the principles of food preservation, food preservation techniques, and nutrition-related consequences of food processing. All foodstuffs in their natural state will deteriorate and become unfit for human consumption due to internal factors, such as enzyme activity, or external factors, such as insects, rodents, and…

  12. Identification of Antifungal Substances of Lactobacillus sakei subsp. ALI033 and Antifungal Activity against Penicillium brevicompactum Strain FI02.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huh, Chang Ki; Hwang, Tae Yean

    2016-03-01

    This study was performed to investigate the antifungal substances and the antifungal activity against fungi of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) isolated from kimchi. LAB from kimchi in Imsil showed antifungal activity against Penicillium brevicompactum strain FI02. LAB LI031 was identified as Lactobacillus sakei subsp. Antifungal substances contained in L. sakei subsp. ALI033 culture media were unstable at high pH levels. Both, the control and proteinase K and protease treated samples showed clear zones, suggesting that the antifungal substances produced by ALI033 were non-protein substances unaffected by protesases. Both, the control and catalase showed clear zones, suggesting that the antifungal metabolite was not H2O2. The molecular weights of the antifungal substances were ≤3,000 Da. The organic acid content of crude antifungal substances produced by L. sakei subsp. ALI033 showed high concentrations of lactic acid (502.47 mg/100 g). Therefore, these results suggest that antifungal substance produced by L. sakei subsp. ALI033 is most likely due to its ability in producing organic acid. PMID:27069906

  13. 1st HPV Test for Use with Preservative Fluid

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_159789.html 1st HPV Test for Use With Preservative Fluid Human papillomavirus ... Food and Drug Administration has approved Roche's cobas HPV Test -- the first diagnostic to be used with ...

  14. Interaction of gelatin with polyenes modulates antifungal activity and biocompatibility of electrospun fiber mats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lakshminarayanan R

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Rajamani Lakshminarayanan,1,2 Radhakrishnan Sridhar,3,4 Xian Jun Loh,5 Muruganantham Nandhakumar,1 Veluchamy Amutha Barathi,1,6 Madhaiyan Kalaipriya,3,4 Jia Lin Kwan,1 Shou Ping Liu,1,2 Roger Wilmer Beuerman,1,2 Seeram Ramakrishna3,4,7 1Singapore Eye Research Institute, 2Signature Research Program in Neuroscience and Behavioral Disorders, Duke-NUS Graduate Medical School, 3Department of Mechanical Engineering, National University of Singapore, 4Center for Nanofibers and Nanotechnology, National University of Singapore, 5Institute of Materials Research and Engineering, A*STAR (Agency for Science, Technology and Research, 3 Research Link, Singapore, 6Department of Ophthalmology, Yong Loo Lin School of Medicine, National University of Singapore, 7NUS Nanoscience and Nanotechnology Initiative, Singapore Abstract: Topical application of antifungals does not have predictable or well-controlled release characteristics and requires reapplication to achieve therapeutic local concentration in a reasonable time period. In this article, the efficacy of five different US Food and Drug Administration-approved antifungal-loaded (amphotericin B, natamycin, terbinafine, fluconazole, and itraconazole electrospun gelatin fiber mats were compared. Morphological studies show that incorporation of polyenes resulted in a two-fold increase in fiber diameter and the mats inhibit the growth of yeasts and filamentous fungal pathogens. Terbinafine-loaded mats were effective against three filamentous fungal species. Among the two azole antifungals compared, the itraconazole-loaded mat was potent against Aspergillus strains. However, activity loss was observed for fluconazole-loaded mats against all of the test organisms. The polyene-loaded mats displayed rapid candidacidal activities as well. Biophysical and rheological measurements indicate strong interactions between polyene antifungals and gelatin matrix. As a result, the polyenes stabilized the triple helical

  15. Food irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Food treatment by means of ionizing energy, or irradiation, is an innovative method for its preservation. In order to treat important volumes of food, it is necessary to have industrial irradiation installations. The effect of radiations on food is analyzed in the present special work and a calculus scheme for an Irradiation Plant is proposed, discussing different aspects related to its project and design: ionizing radiation sources, adequate civil work, security and auxiliary systems to the installations, dosimetric methods and financing evaluation methods of the project. Finally, the conceptual design and calculus of an irradiation industrial plant of tubercles is made, based on the actual needs of a specific agricultural zone of our country. (Author)

  16. Effect of Origanum heracleoticum L. essential oil on food-borne Penicillium aurantiogriseum and Penicilium chrysogenum isolates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Čabarkapa Ivana S.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Molds are ubiquitously distributed in nature and their spores can be found in the atmosphere even at high altitudes. The difficulty of controlling these undesirable molds, as well as the growing interest of the consumers in natural products, have been forcing the industry to find new alternatives for food preservation. The modern trends in nutrition suggest the limitation of synthetic food additives or substitution with natural ones. Aromatic herbs are probably the most important source of natural antimicrobial agents. Origanum heracleoticum L. essential oil has been known as an interesting source of antimicrobial compounds to be applied in food preservation. In the this work, we have investigated the effect of essential oil obtained from O. heracleoticum on growth of six isolates of Penicillium aurantiogriseum and four isolates of Penicillium chrysogenum isolated from meat plant for traditional Petrovacka sausage (Petrovská klobása production. The findings reveal that the essential oil of O. heracleoticum provides inhibition of all of fungal isolates tested. O. heracleoticum L. essential oil exhibited higher antifungal activity against the isolates of P. chrysogenum than the isolates of P. aurantiogriseum. O. heracleoticum essential oil showed a MIC value ranging from 25 to 100 μL/mL. The fungi cultivated in the medium with higher concentration of essential oil showed certain morphological changes. The alterations included lack of sporulation and loss of pigmentation.

  17. Agriculture and food processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This chapter discuss the application of nuclear technology in agriculture sector. Nuclear Technology has help agriculture and food processing to develop tremendously. Two techniques widely use in both clusters are ionization radiation and radioisotopes. Among techniques for ionizing radiation are plant mutation breeding, SIT and food preservation. Meanwhile radioisotopes use as a tracer for animal research, plant soil relations water sedimentology

  18. Trends in Food Packaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ott, Dana B.

    1988-01-01

    This article discusses developments in food packaging, processing, and preservation techniques in terms of packaging materials, technologies, consumer benefits, and current and potential food product applications. Covers implications due to consumer life-style changes, cost-effectiveness of packaging materials, and the ecological impact of…

  19. Chemical Composition, Antifungal and Antibiofilm Activities of the Essential Oil of Mentha piperita L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saharkhiz, Mohammad Jamal; Motamedi, Marjan; Zomorodian, Kamiar; Pakshir, Keyvan; Miri, Ramin; Hemyari, Kimia

    2012-01-01

    Variations in quantity and quality of essential oil (EO) from the aerial parts of cultivated Mentha piperita were determined. The EO of air-dried sample was obtained by a hydrodistillation method and analyzed by a gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS). The antifungal activity of the EO was investigated by broth microdilution methods as recommended by Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute. A biofilm formation inhibition was measured by using an XTT reduction assay. Menthol (53.28%) was the major compound of the EO followed by Menthyl acetate (15.1%) and Menthofuran (11.18%). The EO exhibited strong antifungal activities against the examined fungi at concentrations ranging from 0.12 to 8.0 μL/mL. In addition, the EO inhibited the biofilm formation of Candida albicans and C. dubliniensis at concentrations up to 2 μL/mL. Considering the wide range of the antifungal activities of the examined EO, it might be potentially used in the management of fungal infections or in the extension of the shelf life of food products.

  20. Comparative evaluation of two Trichoderma harzianum strains for major secondary metabolite production and antifungal activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahluwalia, Vivek; Kumar, Jitendra; Rana, Virendra S; Sati, Om P; Walia, S

    2015-01-01

    This investigation was undertaken to identify the major secondary metabolite, produced by two Trichoderma harzianum strains (T-4 and T-5) with their antifungal activity against phytopathogenic fungi using poison food technique. The ethyl acetate extract was subjected to column chromatography using n-hexane, ethyl acetate and methanol gradually. Chromatographic separation of ethyl acetate extract of T. harzianum (T-4) resulted in the isolation and identification of palmitic acid (1), 1,8-dihydroxy-3-methylanthraquinone (2), 6-pentyl-2H-pyran-2-one (3), 2(5H)-furanone (4), stigmasterol (5) and β-sitosterol (6), while T. harzianum (T-5) gave palmitic acid (1), 1-hydroxy-3-methylanthraquinone (7), δ-decanolactone (8), 6-pentyl-2H-pyran-2-one (3), ergosterol (9), harzianopyridone (10) and 6-methyl-1,3,8-trihydroxyanthraquinone (11) as major metabolites. Among compounds screened for antifungal activity, compound 10 was found to be most active (EC50 35.9-50.2 μg mL(-1)). In conclusion, the present investigation provided significant information about antifungal activity and compounds isolated from two different strains of T. harzianum obtained from two different Himalayan locations. PMID:25248548

  1. Modes of fossil preservation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schopf, J.M.

    1975-01-01

    The processes of geologic preservation are important for understanding the organisms represented by fossils. Some fossil differences are due to basic differences in organization of animals and plants, but the interpretation of fossils has also tended to be influenced by modes of preservation. Four modes of preservation generally can be distinguished: (1) Cellular permineralization ("petrifaction") preserves anatomical detail, and, occasionally, even cytologic structures. (2) Coalified compression, best illustrated by structures from coal but characteristic of many plant fossils in shale, preserves anatomical details in distorted form and produces surface replicas (impressions) on enclosing matrix. (3) Authigenic preservation replicates surface form or outline (molds and casts) prior to distortion by compression and, depending on cementation and timing, may intergrade with fossils that have been subject to compression. (4) Duripartic (hard part) preservation is characteristic of fossil skeletal remains, predominantly animal. Molds, pseudomorphs, or casts may form as bulk replacements following dissolution of the original fossil material, usually by leaching. Classification of the kinds of preservation in fossils will aid in identifying the processes responsible for modifying the fossil remains of both animals and plants. ?? 1975.

  2. Mass Preserving Image Registration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gorbunova, V.; Sporring, J.; Lo, P.;

    2010-01-01

    The paper presents results the mass preserving image registration method in the Evaluation of Methods for Pulmonary Image Registration 2010 (EMPIRE10) Challenge. The mass preserving image registration algorithm was applied to the 20 image pairs. Registration was evaluated using four different...

  3. Fertility Preservation for Female

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jack Huang; Seang Lin Tan; Ri-Cheng Chian

    2006-01-01

    Preservation of female fertility is an important issue today. However, there are few effective clinical options for preserving female fertility. Firstly, conventional in vitro fertilization (IVF) followed by embryo cryopreservation is an accepted procedure but is not applicable to all women. Embryo freezing is suitable only for women with a male partner and may not be acceptable to some patients due to moral and religious reasons. Ovarian tissue freezing is another option of female fertility preservation but is an invasive procedure and the efficacy of this technique remains to be determined.Oocyte cryopreservation is also method for fertility preservation. Egg freezing is minimally invasive and can avoid the ethical and moral concerns related to cryopreservation of embryos. However, conventional slow freezing/rapid thawing methods are associated with low survival of oocytes. Recent development in vitrification of oocytes appears promising. Therefore, vitrification of unfertilized eggs may be a novel method to preserve female fertility.

  4. Antifungal Effect of Streptomyces 702 Antifungal Monomer Component DZP8 on Rhizoctonia solani and Magnaporthe grisea

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the in vitro antifungal effects of antifungal monomer component DZP8 isolated from Streptomyces 702 on the mycelium growth, sclerotium formation and germination of Rhizoctonia solani and on the mycelium growth, conidial formation, germination, appressorium formation of Magnaporthe grisea. The results showed that the antifungal monomer component DZP8 has strong antifungal effect on both the R. solani and M. grisea. The EC50 and EC90 of DZP8 were 1.81 and 3.35 μg/ml on Ft. solani respectively, and 37.01 and 136.21 μg/ml on M. grisea respectively. Under the treatment of 48.01 μg/ml DZP8, the sclerotium formation rate of R. solani was just 39.21%, the formation time delayed by 216 h and the dry weight decreased by 81.37% in comparison the con- trol; and 33.51 μg/ml DZP8 significantly inhibited the sclerotium germination. In the presence of 160.08 μg/ml DZP8, the sporulation of M. grisea was just 9.29% of control sample; 20.14 μg/ml DZP8 inhibited the conidial germination suppression rate by 95.16%, and the appressorium formation by 100%.

  5. Fish Spoilage Mechanisms and Preservation Techniques: Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdel E. Ghaly

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Spoilage of food products is due to chemical, enzymatic or microbial activities One-fourth of the worlds food supply and 30% of landed fish are lost through microbial activity alone. With the ever growing world population and the need to store and transport the food from one place to another where it is needed, food preservation becomes necessary in order to increase its shelf life and maintain its nutritional value, texture and flavor. The freshness and quality of fish have always gained the attention by Food Regulatory Agencies and Food Processing Industry. Proper handling, pretreatment and preservation techniques can improve the quality fish and fish products and increase their shelf life. Methodology: Historically salting, drying, smoking, fermentation and canning were the methods to prevent fish spoilage and extend its shelf life. In response to consumer demand for texture, appearance and taste, new methods were developed including: Cooling, freezing and chemical preservation. A comprehensive review of the literature on the subject of fish spoilage and modern preservation techniques was carried out. Conclusion: Fish spoilage results from three basic mechanisms: Enzymatic autolysis, oxidation, microbial growth. Low temperature storage and chemical techniques for controlling water activity, enzymatic, oxidative and microbial spoilage are the most common in the industry today. A process involving the addition of an EDTA (1 mM-TBHQ (0.02% combination and ascorbic acid and storage at refrigerated temperatures (5°C in darkness can be the most positive for controlling the spoilage of fish and fish product. The suggested process would address antimicrobial activity as well as destructive oxidation of the desired lipids and fats. However, more efforts are required to understand the role of proximate composition of fish, post harvest history, environmental conditions, initial microbial load, type and nature of bacteria and their

  6. Antifungal activity of traditional medicinal plants from Tamil Nadu, India

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Duraipandiyan V; Ignacimuthu S

    2011-01-01

    Objective:To assess the antifungal activity of hexane, ethyl acetate and methanol extracts of 45 medicinal plants and to determine the minimum inhibitory concentration for each extract against human pathogenic fungi. Methods:A total of 45 medicinal plants were collected from different places of Tamil Nadu and identified. Hexane, ethyl acetate and methanol extracts of 45 medicinal plants were assessed for antifungal susceptibility using broth microdilution method. Two known antifungal agents were used as positive controls. Results: Most of the extracts inhibited more than four fungal strains. From the evaluation we found that ethyl acetate extracts inhibited large number of fungal growth. Hexane extracts also nearly showed the same level of inhibition against fungal growth. Methanol extracts showed the minimum antifungal activity. Among the 45 plants tested, broad spectrum antifungal activity was detected in Albizzia procera (A. procera), Atalantia monophylla, Asclepias curassavica, Azima tetracantha, Cassia fistula (C. fistula), Cinnomomum verum, Costus speciosus (C. speciosus), Nymphaea stellata, Osbeckia chinensis, Piper argyrophyllum, Punica granatum, Tinospora cordifolia and Toddalia asiatica (T. asiatica). Promising antifungal activity was seen in A. procera, C. speciosus, C. fistula and T. asiatica. Conclusions:It can be concluded that the plant species assayed possess antifungal properties. Further phytochemical research is needed to identify the active principles responsible for the antifungal effects of some of these medicinal plants.

  7. Nosocomial Candidiasis: Antifungal Stewardship and the Importance of Rapid Diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfaller, Michael A; Castanheira, Mariana

    2016-01-01

    Candidemia and other forms of candidiasis are associated with considerable excess mortality and costs. Despite the addition of several new antifungal agents with improved spectrum and potency, the frequency of Candida infection and associated mortality have not decreased in the past two decades. The lack of rapid and sensitive diagnostic tests has led to considerable overuse of antifungal agents resulting in increased costs, selection pressure for resistance, unnecessary drug toxicity, and adverse drug interactions. Both the lack of timely diagnostic tests and emergence of antifungal resistance pose considerable problems for antifungal stewardship. Whereas antifungal stewardship with a focus on nosocomial candidiasis should be able to improve the administration of antifungal therapy in terms of drug selection, proper dose and duration, source control and de-escalation therapy, an important parameter, timeliness of antifungal therapy, remains a victim of slow and insensitive diagnostic tests. Fortunately, new proteomic and molecular diagnostic tools are improving the time to species identification and detection. In this review we will describe the potential impact that rapid diagnostic testing and antifungal stewardship can have on the management of nosocomial candidiasis.

  8. Antifungal cyclic peptides from the marine sponge Microscleroderma herdmani

    Science.gov (United States)

    Screening natural product extracts from National Cancer Institute Open Repository for antifungal discovery afforded hits for bioassay-guided fractionation. Upon LC-MS analysis of column fractions with antifungal activities to generate information on chemical structure, two new cyclic hexapeptides, m...

  9. Rapid determination of antifungal activity by flow cytometry.

    OpenAIRE

    Green, L.; Petersen, B.; Steimel, L; Haeber, P; Current, W

    1994-01-01

    We have developed a rapid assay of antifungal activity which utilizes flow cytometry to detect accumulation of a vital dye in drug-damaged fungal cells. Results of these studies suggest that flow cytometry may provide an improved, rapid method for determining and comparing the antifungal activities of compounds with differing modes of action.

  10. 乳酸菌细菌素作为天然生物防腐剂在食品工业中的应用进展%Advances on Application of Bacteriocins Produced by Lactic Acid Bacteria as Natural Bio-preservative in Food Industry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘国荣; 李平兰; 王成涛

    2012-01-01

    Bacteriocins were antibacterial activity protein or peptide produced by lactic acid bacteria,and they were identified with great potential as natural food bio-preservative because of their strongly antibacterial activity against food borne pathogens and spoilage organism.In this review,the development of the application of bacteriocin as preservative in food industry was reviewed.The existing problems and future research consideration were pointed out.%乳酸菌细菌素是乳酸菌在代谢过程中合成的天然抑菌多肽或蛋白质,由于其对食品腐败菌和致病菌的强烈抑菌活性,已成为天然食品生物防腐剂研究与开发的热点.对乳酸菌细菌素在食品工业中的应用研究作了全面系统的综述,并指出了目前存在的主要问题和今后的研究方向.

  11. Chemical modification of antifungal polyene macrolide antibiotics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Solovieva, S E; Olsufyeva, E N; Preobrazhenskaya, M N [G.F.Gause Institute of New Antibiotics, Russian Academy of Medical Sciences (Russian Federation)

    2011-02-28

    The review summarizes advances in the methods for the synthesis of polyene antibiotics (amphotericin B, partricin A, etc.) and investigations of the structure-activity relationship made in the last 15 years. State-of-the-art approaches based on the combination of the chemical synthesis and genetic engineering are considered. Emphasis is given to the design of semisynthetic antifungal agents against chemotherapy-resistant pathogens having the highest therapeutic indices. Recent results of research on the mechanisms of action of polyenes are outlined.

  12. Synthesis of Novel Antifungal Triazole Compounds

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yong CHU; Ming Xia XU; Ding LU

    2004-01-01

    Based on our previous studies of 3D-QSAR, 38 novel objective compounds belonging to 4 series were designed and successfully synthesized directed by the idea of reconstructing the structure of non-pharmacophores while reserving essential ones in triazoles. In vitro pilot studies on their antifungal activities showed that most compounds have inhibitory effects on C.albicans and some inhibit S.cerevisiae also. The effects on C.albicans of 5 compounds are more potent than or equal to that of fluconazole or itraconazole.

  13. Chemical modification of antifungal polyene macrolide antibiotics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The review summarizes advances in the methods for the synthesis of polyene antibiotics (amphotericin B, partricin A, etc.) and investigations of the structure-activity relationship made in the last 15 years. State-of-the-art approaches based on the combination of the chemical synthesis and genetic engineering are considered. Emphasis is given to the design of semisynthetic antifungal agents against chemotherapy-resistant pathogens having the highest therapeutic indices. Recent results of research on the mechanisms of action of polyenes are outlined.

  14. Synthesis and investigation of novel benzimidazole derivatives as antifungal agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandrika, Nishad Thamban; Shrestha, Sanjib K; Ngo, Huy X; Garneau-Tsodikova, Sylvie

    2016-08-15

    The rise and emergence of resistance to antifungal drugs by diverse pathogenic fungal strains have resulted in an increase in demand for new antifungal agents. Various heterocyclic scaffolds with different mechanisms of action against fungi have been investigated in the past. Herein, we report the synthesis and antifungal activities of 18 alkylated mono-, bis-, and trisbenzimidazole derivatives, their toxicities against mammalian cells, as well as their ability to induce reactive oxygen species (ROS) in yeast cells. Many of our bisbenzimidazole compounds exhibited moderate to excellent antifungal activities against all tested fungal strains, with MIC values ranging from 15.6 to 0.975μg/mL. The fungal activity profiles of our bisbenzimidazoles were found to be dependent on alkyl chain length. Our most potent compounds were found to display equal or superior antifungal activity when compared to the currently used agents amphotericin B, fluconazole, itraconazole, posaconazole, and voriconazole against many of the strains tested. PMID:27301676

  15. Isolation of antifungally active lactobacilli from edam cheese

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tuma, S.; Vogensen, Finn Kvist; Plocková, M.;

    2007-01-01

    The antifungal activity of 322 lactobacilli strains isolated from Edam cheese at different stages of the ripening process was tested against Fusarium proliferatum M 5689 using a dual overlay spot assay. Approximately 21% of the isolates showed a certain level of inhibitory activity. Seven strains...... with the strongest antifungal activity were examined by the milk agar plate method with three different mould strains isolated from spoiled dairy products as target microorganisms and were compared with the antifungal effectiveness of standard antifungal strains Lactobacillus rhamnosus VT1 and Lb. plantarum DC 1246...... as Lb. paracasei and three as Lb. fermentum. Lb. paracasei ST 68 was chosen for further testing as antifungal protective adjunct for Edam cheese production.  ...

  16. Advances in synthetic approach to and antifungal activity of triazoles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pramod Kumar Sharma

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Several five membered ring systems, e.g., triazole, oxadiazole dithiazole and thiadiazole with three heteroatoms at symmetrical or asymmetrical positions have been studied because of their interesting pharmacological properties. In this article our emphasis is on synthetic development and pharmacological activity of the triazole moiety which exhibit a broad spectrum of pharmacological activity such as antifungal, antibacterial, anti-inflammatory and anticancer etc. Triazoles have increased our ability to treat many fungal infections, for example, candidiasis, cryptococcal meningitis, aspergillosis etc. However, mortality due to these infections even with antifungal therapy is still unacceptably high. Therefore, the development of new antifungal agents targeting specific fungal structures or functions is being actively pursued. Rapid developments in molecular mycology have led to a concentrated search for more target antifungals. Although we are entering a new era of antifungal therapy in which we will continue to be challenged by systemic fungal diseases, the options for treatment will have greatly expanded.

  17. Food; Energy; Developing Countries; Food Irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The use of energy in food production is increasing, and the cost of that energy use is a very significant part of the cost of food. It is important, therefore, to minimize food losses. It is shown that the energy used to produce raw food, such as grain, pulses, and vegetables, to feed the increasing population is about 17-25 MJ per person per day. (The energy of one litre petrol is 35 MJ.) Owing to increasing cost of energy, any food losses are very expensive. Irradiation processing of food, which uses very little energy, can be used to reduce the losses significantly. Irradiation kills microorganisms, parasites and insects and stops sprouting of tubers. But, more is needed to preserve food. Irradiation is usually most effective, therefore, if used in combination with other processes. (author)

  18. Secretive Expression of Insect Antifungal Peptide-Encoded Genes in Pichia pastoris and Activity Assay of the Products

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SANG Yan-xia; DENG Xiao-juan; YANG Wan-ying; WANG Wen-xian; WEN Shuo-yang; LIU Wen-quan; HUANG Ya-dong; CAO Yang

    2007-01-01

    The antifungal peptides, drosomycin (Drs) and its isoform drosomycin-like C (Drs-lC) from Drosophila melanogaster and Thanatin from Podisus maculiventris, have potent activity with broad spectrum against filamentous fungi. Secretive expression of these genes in yeasts makes it possible to utilize the supernatants of yeast culture as protective reagents on fruit, vegetable, food and other agricultural products. So the study of effective secretion by yeast expression system is of great importance. Three genes, Drs, Drs-lC, and Thanatin, were cloned into pPICZαA and the recombinant vectors,pPICZαA-Drs, pPICZαA-Drs-IC, and pPICZαA-Thanatin were transformed into Pichia pastoris by the electric transfer method. The recombinant P. pastoris, which was screened by phenotype selection and PCR amplification, wasinduced to express antifungal peptide by methanol. The expressive products of the three recombinants showed antifungal activity against 5 out of 6 test fungi strains, and the products of Thanatin also had strong activity against the tested bacteria. The three antifungal peptide genes, Drs, Drs-lC, and Thanatin, were constructed into yeast P. pastoris. The expressed peptides were successfully secreted into the culture medium and exhibited potent activities against the test strains.

  19. Chronopolis Digital Preservation Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Minor

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available The Chronopolis Digital Preservation Initiative, one of the Library of Congress’ latest efforts to collect and preserve at-risk digital information, has completed its first year of service as a multi-member partnership to meet the archival needs of a wide range of domains.Chronopolis is a digital preservation data grid framework developed by the San Diego Supercomputer Center (SDSC at UC San Diego, the UC San Diego Libraries (UCSDL, and their partners at the National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR in Colorado and the University of Maryland's Institute for Advanced Computer Studies (UMIACS.Chronopolis addresses a critical problem by providing a comprehensive model for the cyberinfrastructure of collection management, in which preserved intellectual capital is easily accessible, and research results, education material, and new knowledge can be incorporated smoothly over the long term. Integrating digital library, data grid, and persistent archive technologies, Chronopolis has created trusted environments that span academic institutions and research projects, with the goal of long-term digital preservation.A key goal of the Chronopolis project is to provide cross-domain collection sharing for long-term preservation. Using existing high-speed educational and research networks and mass-scale storage infrastructure investments, the partnership is leveraging the data storage capabilities at SDSC, NCAR, and UMIACS to provide a preservation data grid that emphasizes heterogeneous and highly redundant data storage systems.In this paper we will explore the major themes within Chronopolis, including:a The philosophy and theory behind a nationally federated data grid for preservation. b The core tools and technologies used in Chronopolis. c The metadata schema that is being developed within Chronopolis for all of the data elements. d Lessons learned from the first year of the project.e Next steps in digital preservation using Chronopolis: how we

  20. Food irradiation processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An international symposium on food irradiation processing dealing with issues which affect the commercial introduction of the food irradiation process was held in Vienna in 1985. The symposium, which attracted close to 300 participants, was planned to interest not only scientists and food technologists, but also representatives of government agencies, the food industry, trade associations and consumer organizations. The symposium included a discussion of the technological and economic feasibility of applying ionizing energy for the preservation of food, and focused on the specific needs of developing countries. Separate abstracts were prepared for the various presentations at this meeting

  1. The possibilities of using essential oils as an active ingredients or preservatives in cosmetic products

    OpenAIRE

    Adaszy?ska, Michalina; Swarcewicz, Maria

    2011-01-01

    An important trend in the development of the cosmetics industry is searching for new biologically active, natural compounds and preservative systems, which will find application in the natural cosmetics production. Natural cosmetics are of considerable interest nowadays and essential oils could be employed in theirs production. The huge potential of essential oils indicates the possibility of applying them in practice because of theirs antibacterial, antiseptic, antifungal, and antioxidant...

  2. Novel antifungal peptides from Ceylon spinach seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, H; Ng, T B

    2001-11-01

    Two novel antifungal peptides, designated alpha- and beta-basrubrins, respectively, were isolated from seeds of the Ceylon spinach Basella rubra. The purification procedure involved saline extraction, (NH(4))(2)SO(4) precipitation, ion exchange chromatography on DEAE-cellulose, affinity chromatography on Affi-gel blue gel, ion exchange chromatography on CM-cellulose and FPLC-gel filtration on Superdex peptide column. alpha- and beta-basrubrins exhibited a molecular weight of 4.3 and 5 kDa, respectively. They inhibited translation in a rabbit reticulocyte system with an IC(50) value of 400 and 100 nM, respectively. alpha- and beta-basrubrin inhibited HIV-1 reverse transcriptase by (79.4 +/- 7.8)% and (54.6 +/- 3.6)%, respectively, at a concentration of 400 microM, and (10.56 +/- 0.92)% and (2.12 +/- 0.81)%, respectively, at a concentration of 40 microM. Both alpha- and beta-basrubrins exerted potent antifungal activity toward Botrytis cinerea, Mycosphaerella arachidicola, and Fusarium oxysporum. PMID:11688973

  3. DYSREGULATION OF ION HOMEOSTASIS BY ANTIFUNGAL AGENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongqiang eZhang

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Ion signaling and transduction networks are central to fungal development and virulence because they regulate gene expression, filamentation, host association and invasion, pathogen stress response and survival. Dysregulation of ion homeostasis rapidly mediates cell death, forming the mechanistic basis by which a growing number of amphipathic but structurally unrelated compounds elicit antifungal activity. Included in this group is carvacrol, a terpenoid phenol that is a prominent component of oregano and other plant essential oils. Carvacrol triggers an early dose dependent Ca2+ burst and long lasting pH changes in the model yeast S. cerevisiae. The distinct phases of ionic transients and a robust transcriptional response that overlaps with Ca2+ stress and nutrient starvation point to specific signaling events elicited by plant terpenoid phenols, rather than a non-specific lesion of the membrane as was previously considered. We discuss the potential use of plant essential oils and other agents that disrupt ion signaling pathways as chemosensitizers to augment conventional antifungal therapy, and to convert fungistatic drugs with strong safety profiles into fungicides.

  4. Radiation preservation of maize

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radiation preservation of maize was carried out. Radiation doses and sources, shielding materials, packaging materials, chemical radiation effects, biological radiation effects, were discussed. Experimental methods, samples and accessories were also presented. (SMN)

  5. What Is Fertility Preservation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... is the process of saving or protecting eggs, sperm, or reproductive tissue so that a person can ... children 2 . Fertility-preserving options for men include: Sperm cryopreservation (pronounced krahy-oh-prez-er-VEY-shuhn ). ...

  6. Two preservation theorems

    OpenAIRE

    Zapletal, Jindrich

    2005-01-01

    I prove preservation theorems for countable support iteration of proper forcing concerning certain classes of capacities and submeasures. New examples of forcing notions and connections with measure theory are included.

  7. Preservation of Built Environments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pilegaard, Marie Kirstine

    When built environments and recently also cultural environments are to be preserved, the historic and architectural values are identified as the key motivations. In Denmark the SAVE system is used as a tool to identify architectural values, but in recent years it has been criticized for having...... architectural value in preservation work as a matter of maintaining the buildings -as keeping them "alive" and allowing this to continue in the future. The predominantly aesthetic preservation approach will stop the buildings' life process, which is the same as - "letting them die". Finnebyen in Aarhus...... is an example of a residential area, where the planning authority currently has presented a preservational district plan, following guidelines from the SAVE method. The purpose is to protect the area's architectural values in the future. The predominantly aesthetic approach is here used coupled to the concept...

  8. FARMLAND PRESERVATION PROGRAMS

    OpenAIRE

    Colyer, Dale

    1998-01-01

    Paper presented at the Seventh International Symposium on Society and Resource Management, University of Missouri, Columbia, May 25-27, 1998. The preservation of farmland is an important issue in most areas of the U.S. and all states have enacted legislation to promote this activity. This article reviews the various policy tools for preserving farmland. Use valuation of farmland for property tax purposes is the most common remedy but it is not effective where there are strong incentives to co...

  9. Advances in lung preservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machuca, Tiago N; Cypel, Marcelo; Keshavjee, Shaf

    2013-12-01

    After a brief review of conventional lung preservation, this article discusses the rationale behind ex vivo lung perfusion and how it has shifted the paradigm of organ preservation from conventional static cold ischemia to the utilization of functional normothermia, restoring the lung's own metabolism and its reparative processes. Technical aspects and previous clinical experience as well as opportunities to address specific donor organ injuries in a personalized medicine approach are also reviewed. PMID:24206857

  10. Geospatial Data Preservation Prime

    OpenAIRE

    Lauriault, Tracey P.; Hackett, Yvette; Kennedy, Ed

    2013-01-01

    This primer is one in a series of Operational Policy documents being developed by GeoConnections. It is intended to inform Canadian Geospatial Data Infrastructure (CGDI) stakeholders about the nature and scope of digital geospatial data archiving and preservation and the realities, challenges and good practices of related operational policies. Burgeoning growth of online geospatial applications and the deluge of data, combined with the growing complexity of archiving and preserving digita...

  11. Digital preservation for heritages

    CERN Document Server

    Lu, Dongming

    2011-01-01

    ""Digital Preservation for Heritages: Technologies and Applications"" provides a comprehensive and up-to-date coverage of digital technologies in the area of cultural heritage preservation, including digitalization, research aiding, conservation aiding, digital exhibition, and digital utilization. Processes, technical frameworks, key technologies, as well as typical systems and applications are discussed in the book. It is intended for researchers and students in the fields of computer science and technology, museology, and archaeology. Dr. Dongming Lu is a professor at College of Computer Sci

  12. Biological preservation of plant derived animal feed with antifungal microorganisms: safety and formulation aspects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melin, Petter; Sundh, Ingvar; Håkansson, Sebastian; Schnürer, Johan

    2007-08-01

    During storage of moist animal feed, growth of detrimental fungi causing spoilage, or being mycotoxigenic or pathogenic, is a severe problem. Addition of biopreservative yeasts or lactic acid bacteria can significantly reduce this problem. However, their use requires several careful considerations. One is the safety to the animal, humans and the environment, tightly connected to legal aspects and the need for pre-market authorisation when supplementing feed with microorganisms. Although both yeasts and lactic acid bacteria are considered comparatively safe organisms due to low production of toxic metabolites, it is of great importance to understand the mechanisms behind the biopreservative abilities. Another important issue concerns practical aspects, such as the economic production of large amounts of the organisms and the development of a suitable formulation giving the organisms a long shelf life. These aspects are discussed and a recommendation of this review is that both safety and formulation aspects of a specific microbe should be considered at an early stage in the selection of new organisms with biopreservation potential.

  13. Bioanalytical Methods for Food Contaminant Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foods are complex mixtures of lipids, carbohydrates, proteins, vitamins, organic compounds and other naturally occurring compounds. Sometimes added to this mixture are residues of pesticides, veterinary and human drugs, microbial toxins, preservatives, contaminants from food proc...

  14. Antimicrobial activity of plant essential oils against bacterial and fungal species involved in food poisoning and/or food decay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lixandru, Brînduşa-Elena; Drăcea, Nicoleta Olguţa; Dragomirescu, Cristiana Cerasella; Drăgulescu, Elena Carmina; Coldea, Ileana Luminiţa; Anton, Liliana; Dobre, Elena; Rovinaru, Camelia; Codiţă, Irina

    2010-01-01

    The currative properties of aromatic and medicinal plants have been recognized since ancient times and, more recently, the antimicrobial activity of plant essential oils has been used in several applications, including food preservation. The purpose of this study was to create directly comparable, quantitative data on the antimicrobial activity of some plant essential oils prepared in the National Institute of Research-Development for Chemistry and Petrochemistry, Bucharest to be used for the further development of food packaging technology, based on their antibacterial and antifungal activity. The essential oils extracted from thyme (Thymus vulgaris L.), basil (Ocimum basilicum L.), coriander (Coriandrum sativum L.), rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis L.), sage (Salvia officinalis L.), fennel (Foeniculum vulgare L.), spearmint (Mentha spicata L.) and carraway (Carum carvi L.) were investigated for their antimicrobial activity against eleven different bacterial and three fungal strains belonging to species reported to be involved in food poisoning and/or food decay: S. aureus ATCC 25923, S. aureus ATCC 6538, S. aureus ATCC 25913, E. coli ATCC 25922, E. coli ATCC 35218, Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis Cantacuzino Institute Culture Collection (CICC) 10878, Listeria monocytogenes ATCC 19112, Bacillus cereus CIP 5127, Bacillus cereus ATCC 11778, Candida albicans ATCC 10231, Aspergillus niger ATCC 16404, Penicillium spp. CICC 251 and two E. coli and Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis clinical isolates. The majority of the tested essential oils exibited considerable inhibitory capacity against all the organisms tested, as supported by growth inhibition zone diameters, MICs and MBC's. Thyme, coriander and basil oils proved the best antibacterial activity, while thyme and spearmint oils better inhibited the fungal species. PMID:21462837

  15. Antifungal activity of multifunctional Fe3O4-Ag nanocolloids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In recent years, rapid increase has been observed in the population of microbes that are resistant to conventionally used antibiotics. Antifungal drug therapy is no exception and now resistance to many of the antifungal agents in use has emerged. Therefore, there is an inevitable and urgent medical need for antibiotics with novel antimicrobial mechanisms. Aspergillus glaucus is the potential cause of fatal brain infections and hypersensitivity pneumonitis in immunocompromised patients and leads to death despite aggressive multidrug antifungal therapy. In the present article, we describe the antifungal activity of multifunctional core-shell Fe3O4-Ag nanocolloids against A. glaucus isolates. Controlled experiments are also carried out with Ag nanocolloids in order to understand the role of core (Fe3O4) in the antifungal action. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of nanocolloids is determined by the micro-dilution method. MIC of A. glaucus is 2000 μg/mL. The result is quite promising and requires further investigations in order to develop a treatment methodology against this death causing fungus in immunocompromised patients. - Research Highlights: →Synthesis of Fe3O4-Ag core-shell nanocolloids. →Antifungal activity of Fe3O4-Ag nanocolloids against Aspergillus glaucus isolates. →The MIC value for A. glaucus is 2000 μg/mL. →Antifungal activity is better or comparable with most prominent antibiotics.

  16. Historic Preservation Information CFM Website

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Veterans Affairs — The VA Historic Preservation Office keeps information about VA's programs to comply with Federal preservation requirements, and also interesting information about...

  17. Antifungal activities of Terminalia ivorensis A. Chev. bark extracts against Candida albicans and Aspergillus fumigatus.

    OpenAIRE

    Ouattara Sitapha; KPOROU KOUASSI ELISEE; Djaman Allico Joseph

    2013-01-01

    Abstract The present study was undertaken to evaluate in vitro antifungal activity of aqueous and hydroacoholic extracts from bark of Terminalia ivorensis A. Chev. (Combretaceae). In vitro antifungal activity of all the extracts was done by agar slant double dilution method. Candida albicans and Aspergillus fumigatus clinically important strains were used for the study. ketoconazole was used as standards for antifungal assay. Antifungal activity was determinated by evaluating of antifung...

  18. Antifungal Activity of Fruit Extracts of Different Water Chestnut Varieties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad ANOWAR RAZVY

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The antifungal activity of three varieties (red, green and wild of water chestnut fruit extracts was studied against a number of fungal species. A strong antifungal activity of ethanol and petroleum extract was found against the treated fungi resulting remarkable inhibition zone in comparison to both Dithane-M45 fungicide and control. It has also been evident that wild variety of water chestnut was comparatively more efficient in respect to antifungal activity compared to the red and green variety of the same plant.

  19. Functionalised isocoumarins as antifungal compounds: Synthesis and biological studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simic, Milena; Paunovic, Nikola; Boric, Ivan; Randjelovic, Jelena; Vojnovic, Sandra; Nikodinovic-Runic, Jasmina; Pekmezovic, Marina; Savic, Vladimir

    2016-01-01

    A series of novel 3-substituted isocoumarins was prepared via Pd-catalysed coupling processes and screened in vitro for antifungal activity against Candida species. The study revealed antifungal potential of isocoumarins possessing the azole substituents, which, in some cases, showed biological properties equal to those of clinically used voriconazole. Selected compounds were also screened against voriconazole resistant Candida krusei 6258 and a clinical isolate Candida parapsilosis CA-27. Although the activity against these targets needs to be improved further, the results emphasise additional potential of this new class of antifungal compounds. PMID:26586600

  20. Antifungal activities of ethanolic extract from Jatropha curcas seed cake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saetae, Dolaporn; Suntornsuk, Worapot

    2010-02-01

    Phorbol ester extraction was carried out from Jatropha curcas seed cake, a by-product from the bio-diesel fuel industry. Four repeated extractions from 5 g J. curcas seed cake using 15 ml of 90% (v/v) ethanol and a shaking speed of 150 rev/min gave the highest yield of phosbol esters. The ethanolic extract of J. curcas seed cake showed antifungal activities against important phytofungal pathogens: Fusarium oxysporum, Pythium aphanidermatum, Lasiodiplodia theobromae, Curvularia lunata, Fusarium semitectum, Colletotrichum capsici and Colletotrichum gloeosporiodes. The extract contained phorbol esters mainly responsible for antifungal activities. The extract could therefore be used as an antifungal agent for agricultural applications. PMID:20208435

  1. Research Progress of Application of Polysaccharides and Modified Polysaccharides in Film Coatings for Food Preservation%多糖及改性多糖作为涂膜保鲜材料的研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王伏超; 李军国; 董颖超; 牛力斌; 李俊

    2012-01-01

    多糖及改性多糖作为一种安全、无毒和有效的涂膜保鲜材料近年来得到广泛的研究和应用。本文简要概述水溶性大豆多糖、壳聚糖、茁霉多糖、淀粉、魔芋多糖和纤维素等多糖及改性多糖作为涂膜保鲜材料在果蔬和禽蛋上的应用,探讨多糖及改性多糖涂膜保鲜的机理及涂膜方法,并对多糖及改性多糖涂膜作为保鲜材料的存在问题、发展方向和应用前景进行展望。%Polysaccharides and modified polysaccharides have been widely applied recently as the safe, non-toxic and effective fresh-keeping materials. The applications of polysaccharides and modified polysaccharides in film-coating preservation of fruits and vegetables as well as eggs are summarized in this paper. The mechanisms of the preservation and the film-coating methods were explored. The future development directions and application prospects of polysaccharides in film-coating preservation were proposed.

  2. Food Physics and Radiation Techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the lecture information is given about food physics, which is a rather new, interdisciplinary field of science, connecting food science and applied physics. The topics of radioactivity of foodstuffs and radiation techniques in the food industry are important parts of food physics. Detailed information will be given about the main fields (e.g. radio stimulation, food preservation) of radiation techniques in the agro-food sector. Finally some special questions of radioactive contamination of foodstuffs in Hungary and applicability of radioanalytical techniques (e.g. INAA) for food investigation will be analyzed and discussed

  3. Food physics and radiation techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the lecture information is given about food physics, which is a rather new, interdisciplinary field of science, connecting food science and applied physics. The topics of radioactivity of foodstuffs and radiation techniques in the food industry are important parts of food physics detailed information will be given about the main fields (e.g. radio stimulation, food preservation) of radiation techniques in the agro-food sector. Finally some special questions of radioactive contamination of foodstuffs in hungary and applicability of radioanalytical techniques (e.g. Inaa) for food investigation will be analyzed and discussed

  4. Preliminary study on antifungal effect of commercial essential oils against white rot fungi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalid, Nurul Izzaty; Baharum, Azizah; Daud, Fauzi

    2015-09-01

    Protecting and preserving wood plastic composite from deterioration caused by fungal attack is a high challenge issue to cater nowadays. The objective of this study was to carry out a screening test towards antifungal effect of essential oil and to investigate the potential of raw materials that will be used as basic material for manufacturing wood plastic composite against white rot fungi. Essential oils from four types of natural products comprising cinnamon, lemongrass, lavender and geranium have been screened for their ability to inhibit five types of white rot fungi species which are Lentinus squarrosulus, Pleuorotus pulmonarius, Lentinus sp., Pleuorotus sajor-caju and Lignosus rhinocerus. The antifungal evaluation showed that no inhibitory effect against tested white rot fungi since the mycelia completely filled the plates. From the observation, mycelia of L. squarrosulus, P. pulmonarius and Lentinus sp. were found to filled the surface of falcon tubes with rubber sawdust after 15 days. Mycelia of L. squarrosulus and P. pulmonarius also were found to completely covered the surface of media that contain polypropylene and maleic anhydride grafted polypropylene on it. Therefore, this report proved that the main materials that will be applicable in manufacturing of wood plastic composite had potential to be degraded by this type of fungal attack.

  5. Methods to preserve potentially toxigenic fungi

    OpenAIRE

    Lucas Costa Guimarães; Ana Paula Fernandes; Sara Maria Chalfoun; Luís Roberto Batista

    2014-01-01

    Microorganisms are a source of many high-value compounds which are useful to every living being, such as humans, plants and animals. Since the process of isolating and improving a microorganism can be lengthy and expensive, preserving the obtained characteristic is of paramount importance, so the process does not need to be repeated. Fungi are eukaryotic, achlorophyllous, heterotrophic organisms, usually filamentous, absorb their food, can be either macro or microscopic, propagate themselves ...

  6. ANTIFUNGAL ACTIVITY OF CORALLOCARPUS EPIGAEUS (HOOK. F.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasantha K

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, petroleum ether, hexane, chloroform, acetone and methanol extracts of leaf, stem and tuber of C. epigaeus were investigated for antifungal activity against Candida albicans, C. tropicalis, Aspergillus niger, A. flavus and A. versicolor by disc diffusion method. Methanol extract of C. epigaeus tuber exhibited maximum activity against most of the tested fungi. The petroleum ether and hexane extracts obtained from C. epigaeus stem was found to be active only against A. niger, A. flavus and A. versicolor. All the crude extracts exhibited activity against A. niger and A. flavus. The tuber extract of C. epigaeus showed higher inhibitory effect than leaf and stem. This kind of study could generate more such ideas for re-inventing and using herbs in combination to treat many more diseases.

  7. Antifungal steroid saponins from Dioscorea cayenensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sautour, M; Mitaine-Offer, A-C; Miyamoto, T; Dongmo, A; Lacaille-Dubois, M-A

    2004-01-01

    From the rhizomes of Dioscorea cayenensis Lam.-Holl (Dioscoreaceae), the new 26- O- beta- D-glucopyranosyl-22-methoxy-3 beta,26-dihydroxy-25( R)-furost-5-en-3- O- alpha- L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1-->4)- alpha- L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1-->4)-[ alpha- L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1-->2)]- beta- D-glucopyranoside ( 1) was isolated together with the known dioscin ( 2) and diosgenin 3- O- alpha- L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1-->4)- alpha- L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1-->4)-[ alpha- L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1-->2)]- beta- D-glucopyranoside ( 3). Their structures were established on the basis of spectral data. Compound 2 exhibited antifungal activity against the human pathogenic yeasts Candida albicans, C. glabrata and C. tropicalis (MICs of 12.5, 12.5 and 25 micro g/mL, respectively) whereas 3 showed weak activity and 1 was inactive. PMID:14765305

  8. Naturally occurring antifungal aromatic esters and amides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    During the search of antifungal natural products from terrestrial plants, a new long chained aromatic ester named grandiflorate along with spatazoate from Portulaca grandiflora and N-[2-methoxy-2-(4-methoxyphenyl) ethyl]-trans-cinnamide and aegeline from Solanum erianthum of Nigeria were isolated and tested against six fungal species. The known constituents have not been reported so far from mentioned investigated plants. Structures of the isolated compounds were elucidated with the aid of spectroscopic techniques including two dimensional NMR experiments. Among the compounds, the esters found more potent than amides against Candida albicans and Aspergillus flavus. The new compound grandiflorate gave response against all tested fungal species while aegeline was found to give lowest inhibition during this study. (author)

  9. Anti-fungal activity of irradiated chitosan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anti-fungal activity of chitosan induced by irradiation has been investigated. Commercial chitosan samples of 8B (80% deacetylation) and l0B (99% deacetylation) were irradiated by γ-ray in dry condition. Highly deacethylated chitosan (10B) at low dose irradiation (75 kGy) was effective for inhibition of fungal growth. The sensitivities of Exobasidium vexans, Septoria chrysanthemum and Gibberella fujikuroi for the irradiated chitosan were different and the necessary concentrations of chitosan were 550, 350 and 250 μg/ml, respectively. For the plant growth, low deacethylation (chitosan 8B) and high dose (500 kGy) was effective and the growth of chrysanthemum was promoted by spraying the irradiated chitosan. (author)

  10. Probiotics as Antifungals in Mucosal Candidiasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsubara, Victor H; Bandara, H M H N; Mayer, Marcia P A; Samaranayake, Lakshman P

    2016-05-01

    Candidais an opportunistic pathogen that causes mucosal and deep systemic candidiasis. The emergence of drug resistance and the side effects of currently available antifungals have restricted their use as long-term prophylactic agents for candidal infections. Given this scenario, probiotics have been suggested as a useful alternative for the management of candidiasis. We analyzed the available data on the efficacy of probiotics in candidal colonization of host surfaces. A number of well-controlled studies indicate that probiotics, particularly lactobacilli, suppressCandidagrowth and biofilm development in vitro.A few clinical trials have also shown the beneficial effects of probiotics in reducing oral, vaginal, and enteric colonization byCandida; alleviation of clinical signs and symptoms; and, in some cases, reducing the incidence of invasive fungal infection in critically ill patients. Probiotics may serve in the future as a worthy ally in the battle against chronic mucosal candidal infections. PMID:26826375

  11. Food irradiation in South Africa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The article indicates the necessity for additional methods of food preservation and emphasises that food irradiation is developing into an important method of food preservation because it has been proved scientifically and practically that food irradiation can be applied effectively; also that there is absolute certainty that radiation-processed products are safe and nutritious and that such food is acceptable to the consumer and food trade, also with a view to costs. It discusses the joint food irradiation programme of the AEB and Department of Agriculture and Fisheries and points out that exemption for the irradiation of potatoes was already obtained in 1977 and later for mango's, paw-paws, chicken, onions, garlic and strawberries. Conditional exemption was obtained for avocado's and dried bananas. Other food-kinds on which research is being continued are grapes, melons, mushrooms, stone fruit and spices

  12. Novel approaches in food microbiology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Montijn, R.; Schuren, F.; Spek, H.D. van; Keijser, B.; Brul, S.

    2004-01-01

    The development of genomics technologies for guiding the predictive modeling of microorganism behavior to make food preservation treatments effective, are discussed. A fully genomewide description of cellular response to environmental conditions lies in the combination of a transcriptome and proteom

  13. 全二维气相色谱/飞行时间质谱快速定性筛查食品中32种防腐剂和抗氧化剂%Fast Qualitative Analysis of 32 Preservatives and Antioxidants in Food Sample by Comprehensive Two Dimensional Gas Chromatography Coupled Time of Flight Mass Spectrometry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈琦; 黄峻榕; 凌云; 张峰; 李玉玉; 吴永宁; 储晓刚

    2011-01-01

    Comprehensive two dimensional gas chromatography(GC× GC-TOFMS) has been applied to fast qualitative analysis of 32 preservatives, antioxidants in food. GC × GC-TOFMS parameters were evaluated and optimized to yield complete separation for 32 analytes from interference, and to attain the high sensitivity. After optimization, al1 analytes were separated in 20.5 min and qualitativly analyzed by retention time of GC× GC and mass spectrum library. The method was used to analyze food sample, and the detection limit of most analytes was lower than 0. 5 mg/kg, meanwhile, the addition level of food addictives in the field of food industry was usually higher than 100 mg/kg. The method could be used for the rapid qualitative analysis of food preservatives, antioxidants and illegal addictives in food.%建立了全二维气相色谱/行时间质谱法(GC×GC-TOFMS)快速定性筛查食品样品中19种防腐剂和抗氧化剂,13种超范围使用的非法添加物的方法.以40 mL乙腈为溶剂,对20 g均质样品进行液体萃取,萃取液经过离心过滤后.使用无水MgSO4脱水(含油样品使用40 mL正己烷去除油脂);萃取液再用乙腈稀释5倍进样.本方法采用GC×GC二维特征谱图、TOFMS谱图库检索的定性手段,能在20.5 min内快速分离和定性分析食品中19种防腐剂和抗氧化剂.使用GC×GC-TOFMS技术对含量大于0.3 mg/kg的样品有较好的灵敏度,而在食品添加剂领域,添加量一般都大于100 mg/kg.因此,本方法可以作为一种快速定性筛查的手段.

  14. 77 FR 71746 - Artificially Sweetened Fruit Jelly and Artificially Sweetened Fruit Preserves and Jams; Proposed...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-04

    ... fruit preserves and jams (artificially sweetened preserves and jams) (21 CFR 150.161) (24 FR 8896... for their use in food labeling (58 FR 2302; January 6, 1993). FDA also prescribed at the same time in... a traditional standardized food term (58 FR 2431; January 6, 1993). A nutrient content claim...

  15. Moving Image Preservation in Libraries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Stefano, Paula

    2003-01-01

    Examines the current practices of film and video preservation in libraries and examines barriers that have hindered the development of full-fledged preservation programs for them. Topics include advances in education and training; preservation paradigms; and mechanics of film production that affect preservation. (Author/LRW)

  16. Research to Identify Effective Antifungal Agents, 1993 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schreck, Carl

    1993-10-01

    This study is a continuation of ``Research to Identify Effective Antifungal Agents'' sponsored by Bonneville Power Administration (Schreck et al. 1990, 1991, and 1992). The objectives of the present study were to select and evaluate candidate fungicides.

  17. Antifungal Effect of (+-Pinoresinol Isolated from Sambucus williamsii

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bomi Hwang

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we investigated the antifungal activity and mechanism of action of (+-pinoresinol, a biphenolic compound isolated from the herb Sambucus williamsii,used in traditional medicine. (+-Pinoresinol displays potent antifungal properties without hemolytic effects on human erythrocytes. To understand the antifungal mechanism of (+-pinoresinol, we conducted fluorescence experiments on the human pathogen Candida albicans. Fluorescence analysis using 1,6-diphenyl-1,3,5-hexatriene (DPH indicated that the (+-pinoresinol caused damage to the fungal plasma membrane. This result was confirmed by using rhodamine-labeled giant unilamellar vesicle (GUV experiments. Therefore, the present study indicates that (+-pinoresinol possesses fungicidal activities and therapeutic potential as an antifungal agent for the treatment of fungal infectious diseases in humans.

  18. Antifungal effect of (+)-pinoresinol isolated from Sambucus williamsii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Bomi; Lee, Juneyoung; Liu, Qing-He; Woo, Eun-Rhan; Lee, Dong Gun

    2010-05-14

    In this study, we investigated the antifungal activity and mechanism of action of (+)-pinoresinol, a biphenolic compound isolated from the herb Sambucus williamsii,used in traditional medicine. (+)-Pinoresinol displays potent antifungal properties without hemolytic effects on human erythrocytes. To understand the antifungal mechanism of (+)-pinoresinol, we conducted fluorescence experiments on the human pathogen Candida albicans. Fluorescence analysis using 1,6-diphenyl-1,3,5-hexatriene (DPH) indicated that the (+)-pinoresinol caused damage to the fungal plasma membrane. This result was confirmed by using rhodamine-labeled giant unilamellar vesicle (GUV) experiments. Therefore, the present study indicates that (+)-pinoresinol possesses fungicidal activities and therapeutic potential as an antifungal agent for the treatment of fungal infectious diseases in humans.

  19. Synthesis and Antifungal Activity of Musa Phytoalexins and Structural Analogs

    OpenAIRE

    Adriana Gallego; Gloria Cardona; Victor Arango; Yoni Rosero; Fernando Torres; Fernando Echeverri; Gustavo Escobar; Winston Quiñones

    2000-01-01

    Several perinaphthenone/phenylphenalenone compounds were synthesized to establish a relationship between structure and antifungal activity against Mycosphaerella fijiensis. Substitutions on the unsaturated carbonyl system or addition of a phenyl group reduced antibiotic activity.

  20. Solubility, photostability and antifungal activity of phenylpropanoids encapsulated in cyclodextrins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kfoury, Miriana; Lounès-Hadj Sahraoui, Anissa; Bourdon, Natacha; Laruelle, Frédéric; Fontaine, Joël; Auezova, Lizette; Greige-Gerges, Hélène; Fourmentin, Sophie

    2016-04-01

    Effects of the encapsulation in cyclodextrins (CDs) on the solubility, photostability and antifungal activities of some phenylpropanoids (PPs) were investigated. Solubility experiments were carried out to evaluate the effect of CDs on PPs aqueous solubility. Loading capacities and encapsulation efficiencies of freeze-dried inclusion complexes were determined. Moreover, photostability assays for both inclusion complexes in solution and solid state were performed. Finally, two of the most widespread phytopathogenic fungi, Fusarium oxysporum and Botrytis cinerea, were chosen to examine the antifungal activity of free and encapsulated PPs. Results showed that encapsulation in CDs significantly increased the solubility and photostability of studied PPs (by 2 to 17-fold and 2 to 44-fold, respectively). Free PPs revealed remarkable antifungal properties with isoeugenol showing the lowest half-maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50) values of mycelium growth and spore germination inhibition. Encapsulated PPs, despite their reduced antifungal activity, could be helpful to solve drawbacks such as solubility and stability.