WorldWideScience

Sample records for antifungal food preservative

  1. "Green preservatives": combating fungi in the food and feed industry by applying antifungal lactic acid bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pawlowska, Agata M; Zannini, Emanuele; Coffey, Aidan; Arendt, Elke K

    2012-01-01

    Fungal food spoilage plays a pivotal role in the deterioration of food and feed systems and some of them are also able to produce toxic compounds for humans and animals. The mycotoxins produced by fungi can cause serious health hazards, including cancerogenic, immunotoxic, teratogenic, neurotoxic, nephrotoxic and hepatotoxic effects, and Kashin-Beck disease. In addition to this, fungal spoilage/pathogens are causing losses of marketable quality and hygiene of foodstuffs, resulting in major economic problem throughout the world. Nowadays, food spoilage can be prevented using physical and chemical methods, but no efficient strategy has been proposed so far to reduce the microbial growth ensuring public health. Therefore, lactic acid bacteria (LAB) can play an important role as natural preservatives. The protection of food products using LAB is mainly due to the production of antifungal compounds such as carboxylic acids, fatty acids, ethanol, carbon dioxide, hydrogen peroxide, and bacteriocins. In addition to this, LAB can also positively contribute to the flavor, texture, and nutritional value of food products. This review mainly focuses on the use of LAB for food preservation given their extensive industrial application in a wide range of foods and feeds. The attention points out the several industrial patents concerning the use of antifungal LAB as biocontrol agent against spoilage organisms in different fermented foods and feeds.

  2. Perillaldehyde, a Promising Antifungal Agent Used in Food Preservation, Triggers Apoptosis through a Metacaspase-Dependent Pathway in Aspergillus flavus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Jun; Wang, Yanzhen; Lu, Zhaoqun; Sun, Chunhui; Zhang, Man; Zhu, Aihua; Peng, Xue

    2016-10-05

    In the present study, we provide detailed insights into perillaldehyde (PAE)'s mechanisms of action on Aspergillus flavus and offer evidence in favor of the induction of an apoptosis-like phenotype. Specifically, PAE's antifungal mode of action was investigated through the detection of mitochondrial membrane potential (MtΔψ) and phosphatidylserine (PS) exposure, as well as intracellular Ca(2+) level, reactive oxygen species accumulation, and metacaspase activation. This was done by way of fluorometry, measuring DNA fragmentation, and condensation by fluorescent microscopy. Furthermore, we searched for phenotypic changes characteristic of apoptosis by transmission electron microscopy and flow cytometry, determining the amount of cytochrome c released using Western blotting. Results indicated that cultivation of A. flavus in the presence of PAE caused depolarization of MtΔψ, rapid DNA condensation, large-scale DNA fragmentation, and an elevation of intracellular Ca(2+) level. The percentage of early apoptotic cells with exposure of PS were 27.4% and 48.7%, respectively, after 9 h incubations with 0.25 and 0.5 μL/mL of PAE. The percentage of stained cells with activated intracellular metacaspases exposed to PAE at concentrations of 0.25 and 0.5 μL/mL compared with control subjects were increased by 28.4 ± 3.25% and 37.9 ± 4.24%, respectively. The above results has revealed that PAE induces fungal apoptosis through a caspase-dependent mitochondrial pathway. In all, our findings provide a novel mechanism for exploring a possible antifungal agent used in food preservation.

  3. Oat (Avena sativa) seed extract as an antifungal food preservative through the catalytic activity of a highly abundant class I chitinase

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Hans Peter; Madsen, Lone Søvad; Petersen, Jørgen;

    2010-01-01

    to prevent the formation of P. roqueforti colonies. Proteins in the oat seed extracts were fractionated by column chromatography and proteins in fractions containing antifungal activity were identified by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) and database searches. Identified antifungal......Extracts from different higher plants were screened for the ability to inhibit the growth of Penicillium roqueforti, a major contaminating species in industrial food processing. Oat (Avena sativa) seed extracts exhibited a high degree of antifungal activity and could be used directly on rye bread...... candidates included thaumatin-like proteins, 1,3-beta-glucanase, permatin precursor, pathogenesis-related protein type 1, and chitinases of class I and II. Class I chitinase could be specifically removed from the extracts and was found to be indispensable for 50% of the P. roqueforti inhibiting activity...

  4. Antifungal adjuvants: Preserving and extending the antifungal arsenal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butts, Arielle; Palmer, Glen E; Rogers, P David

    2017-02-17

    As the rates of systemic fungal infections continue to rise and antifungal drug resistance becomes more prevalent, there is an urgent need for new therapeutic options. This issue is exacerbated by the limited number of systemic antifungal drug classes. However, the discovery, development, and approval of novel antifungals is an extensive process that often takes decades. For this reason, there is growing interest and research into the possibility of combining existing therapies with various adjuvants that either enhance activity or overcome existing mechanisms of resistance. Reports of antifungal adjuvants range from plant extracts to repurposed compounds, to synthetic peptides. This approach would potentially prolong the utility of currently approved antifungals and mitigate the ongoing development of resistance.

  5. Oat (Avena sativa) seed extract as an antifungal food preservative through the catalytic activity of a highly abundant class I chitinase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sørensen, Hans Peter; Madsen, Lone Søvad; Petersen, Jørgen; Andersen, Jesper Tapdrup; Hansen, Anne Maria; Beck, Hans Christian

    2010-03-01

    Extracts from different higher plants were screened for the ability to inhibit the growth of Penicillium roqueforti, a major contaminating species in industrial food processing. Oat (Avena sativa) seed extracts exhibited a high degree of antifungal activity and could be used directly on rye bread to prevent the formation of P. roqueforti colonies. Proteins in the oat seed extracts were fractionated by column chromatography and proteins in fractions containing antifungal activity were identified by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) and database searches. Identified antifungal candidates included thaumatin-like proteins, 1,3-beta-glucanase, permatin precursor, pathogenesis-related protein type 1, and chitinases of class I and II. Class I chitinase could be specifically removed from the extracts and was found to be indispensable for 50% of the P. roqueforti inhibiting activity. The purified class I chitinase has a molecular weight of approximately 34 kDa, optimal chitinase activity at pH 7, and exists as at least two basic isoforms (pI values of 7.6 and 8.0). Partial sequencing of the class I chitinase isoforms by LC-MS/MS revealed a primary structure with high similarity to class I chitinases of wheat (Triticum aestivum), barley (Hordeum vulgare), and rye (Secale cereale). Oat, wheat, barley, and rye seed extracts were compared with respect to the abundance of the class I chitinase and decrease in antifungal activity when class I chitinase is removed. We found that the oat seed class I chitinase is at least ten times more abundant than the wheat, barley, and rye homologs and that oat seed extracts are highly active toward P. roqueforti as opposed to extracts of other cereal seeds.

  6. Food Preservation beyond the Season.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanes, Phyllis

    1992-01-01

    Examines how current scientific knowledge of food preservation emerged from traditions handed down through the generations. Discusses various methods of preservation, their history, and current application. (LZ)

  7. Hybrid Food Preservation Program Improves Food Preservation and Food Safety Knowledge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francis, Sarah L.

    2014-01-01

    The growing trend in home food preservation raises concerns about whether the resulting food products will be safe to eat. The increased public demand for food preservation information led to the development of the comprehensive food preservation program, Preserve the Taste of Summer (PTTS). PTTS is a comprehensive hybrid food preservation program…

  8. ULTRAVIOLET TECHNOLOGY FOR FOOD PRESERVATION

    OpenAIRE

    Guedes, AMM; Novello, D; Mendes, GMD; Cristianini, M

    2009-01-01

    ULTRAVIOLET TECHNOLOGY FOR FOOD PRESERVATION This literature review article had as objective to gather information about ultraviolet (UV) technology utilization on the food industry, its effects and potential application. Aspects as the origin, concept and applications of the technology on the equipment industry and running mechanisms were approached. The application of UV radiation on food decontamination is still little used due its low penetration, but it is known that it can be easily app...

  9. Food Preservation by Irradiation (Rev.)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Urrows, Grace M.

    1968-01-01

    Up to 30% of food harvests are lost in some parts of the world because of animal pests and microorganisms. Nuclear techniques can help reduce and extend the shelf life of these foods. Around 55 countries now have food irradiation programs. The use of radiation is the most recent step in man's attempts to preserve some of his harvest for the lean part of the year.

  10. Oxygen absorbers in food preservation: a review

    OpenAIRE

    Cichello, Simon Angelo

    2014-01-01

    The preservation of packaged food against oxidative degradation is essential to establish and improve food shelf life, customer acceptability, and increase food security. Oxygen absorbers have an important role in the removal of dissolved oxygen, preserving the colour, texture and aroma of different food products, and importantly inhibition of food spoilage microbes. Active packaging technology in food preservation has improved over decades mostly due to the sealing of foods in oxygen imperme...

  11. Essential Oils: Sources of Antimicrobials and Food Preservatives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandey, Abhay K.; Kumar, Pradeep; Singh, Pooja; Tripathi, Nijendra N.; Bajpai, Vivek K.

    2017-01-01

    Aromatic and medicinal plants produce essential oils in the form of secondary metabolites. These essential oils can be used in diverse applications in food, perfume, and cosmetic industries. The use of essential oils as antimicrobials and food preservative agents is of concern because of several reported side effects of synthetic oils. Essential oils have the potential to be used as a food preservative for cereals, grains, pulses, fruits, and vegetables. In this review, we briefly describe the results in relevant literature and summarize the uses of essential oils with special emphasis on their antibacterial, bactericidal, antifungal, fungicidal, and food preservative properties. Essential oils have pronounced antimicrobial and food preservative properties because they consist of a variety of active constituents (e.g., terpenes, terpenoids, carotenoids, coumarins, curcumins) that have great significance in the food industry. Thus, the various properties of essential oils offer the possibility of using natural, safe, eco-friendly, cost-effective, renewable, and easily biodegradable antimicrobials for food commodity preservation in the near future. PMID:28138324

  12. Antifungal and antiaflatoxigenic properties of Cuminum cyminum (L.) seed essential oil and its efficacy as a preservative in stored commodities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kedia, Akash; Prakash, Bhanu; Mishra, Prashant K; Dubey, N K

    2014-01-03

    The study reports potential of Cuminum cyminum (cumin) seed essential oil (EO) as a plant based shelf life enhancer against fungal and aflatoxin contamination and lipid peroxidation. The EO showed efficacy as a preservative in food systems (stored wheat and chickpeas). A total of 1230 fungal isolates were obtained from food samples, with Aspergillus flavus LHP(C)-D6 identified as the highest aflatoxin producer. Cumin seed EO was chemically characterized through GC-MS where cymene (47.08%) was found as the major component. The minimum inhibitory concentration and minimum aflatoxin inhibitory concentration of EO were 0.6 and 0.5 μl/ml respectively. The EO showed toxicity against a broad spectrum of food borne fungi. The antifungal action of EO on ergosterol content in the plasma membrane of A. flavus was determined. The EO showed strong antioxidant potential having IC50 0.092 μl/ml. As a fumigant in food systems, the EO provided sufficient protection of food samples against fungal association without affecting seed germination. In view of the antifungal and antiaflatoxigenic nature, free radical scavenging potential and efficacy in food system, cumin seed EO may be able to provide protection of food commodities against quantitative and qualitative losses, thereby enhancing their shelf life. The present investigation comprises the first report on antifungal mode of action of cumin seed EO and its efficacy as fumigant in food systems.

  13. SMART PACKAGING FOR FOOD PRESERVATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raquel Rodríguez-Sauceda

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available One of the biggest challenges of the food industry is the preservation of its products, that is, to prevent them from being attacked by microorganisms that decompose them hauling economic losses and severe health damage to the consumer. Today, competition in the food industry is very high and any company that does not offer the quality products is doomed to fail. Consumers demand more and the industry still stands offering what is asked: quality, security and safety. The package, in addition to fulfilling its core functions is becoming a means of sophisticated interactions with content and a record of relevant information for both the end consumer and intermediate players in the value chain and concepts are born of active and intelligent packaging. A smart container is defined as a system that monitors the condition of the packaged product, being able to register and provide information about product quality or condition of the container, showing the possible "abnormal" practices that have suffered the product or the container during the entire supply chain, such as transportation or storage. These systems monitor the mechanisms of altered food due to physiological, chemical and biological processes that respond and communicate changes in the status of the product as time-temperature, Oxygen, Carbon dioxide, microbial growth, etc. There are different types of smart packaging such as time-temperature indicators, color indicators, indicators of pathogens and indicators of leaks, to name a few. Through literature review, arguments that demonstrate the usefulness and necessity of the use of smart packaging to preserve the quality and safety of the product it contains, from manufacturing to the time it is used by consumers were found, as these besides communicating or providing information about their state, acting as a marketing tool.

  14. Tailor made preservation strategies : Food Innovation Concepts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blankestijn, J.

    2013-01-01

    High quality, long shelf life, clean label, less salt: food must comply with many requirements. From genomics and mild preservation to a ‘Quick Scan’ for process hygiene, TNO helps manufacturers to develop a tailor made preservation strategy.

  15. Home Food Preservation Training for Extension Educators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goard, Linnette Mizer; Hill, Melinda; Shumaker, Katharine; Warrix, Marisa

    2013-01-01

    During times of economic downturn, there has been an increased interest in home food preservation. As the primary resource for current research-based recommendations, a team of Extension Family and Consumer Sciences educators with specialization in food safety and food preservation responded to this demand by developing a standardized food…

  16. A Big Problem for Magellan: Food Preservation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galvao, Cecilia; Reis, Pedro; Freire, Sofia

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, we present data related to how a Portuguese teacher developed the module "A big problem for Magellan: Food preservation." Students were asked to plan an investigation in order to identify which were the best food preservation methods in the XV and XVI centuries of Portuguese overseas navigation, and then establish a…

  17. [Application on food preservative of antimicrobial peptides].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Hongyan; Mu, Yu; Zhao, Baohua

    2009-07-01

    Antimicrobial peptides are an integral component of the innate immune system, it can counteract outer membrane pathogen such as bacteria, fungi, viruses, protozoan and so on. Owing to the sterilization and innocuity, it has the potential to be crude food preservative. In this paper the uses of antibacterial peptides in the food preservative were analyzed.

  18. Oxygen absorbers in food preservation: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cichello, Simon Angelo

    2015-04-01

    The preservation of packaged food against oxidative degradation is essential to establish and improve food shelf life, customer acceptability, and increase food security. Oxygen absorbers have an important role in the removal of dissolved oxygen, preserving the colour, texture and aroma of different food products, and importantly inhibition of food spoilage microbes. Active packaging technology in food preservation has improved over decades mostly due to the sealing of foods in oxygen impermeable package material and the quality of oxygen absorber. Ferrous iron oxides are the most reliable and commonly used oxygen absorbers within the food industry. Oxygen absorbers have been transformed from sachets of dried iron-powder to simple self-adhesive patches to accommodate any custom size, capacity and application. Oxygen concentration can be effectively lowered to 100 ppm, with applications spanning a wide range of food products and beverages across the world (i.e. bread, meat, fish, fruit, and cheese). Newer molecules that preserve packaged food materials from all forms of degradation are being developed, however oxygen absorbers remain a staple product for the preservation of food and pharmaceutical products to reduce food wastage in developed nations and increased food security in the developing & third world.

  19. Preservation Methods Utilized for Space Food

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vodovotz, Yael; Bourland, Charles

    2000-01-01

    Food for manned space flight has been provided by NASA-Johnson Space Center since 1962. The various mission scenarios and space craft designs dictated the type of food preservation methodologies required to meet mission objectives. The preservation techniques used in space flight include freeze-dehydration, thermostabilization, irradiation, freezing and moisture adjustment. Innovative packaging material and techniques enhanced the shelf-stability of the food items. Future space voyages may include extended duration exploration missions requiring new packaging materials and advanced preservation techniques to meet mission goals of up to 5-year shelf-life foods.

  20. Innovations in food preservation in pastoral zones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jans, C; Mulwa Kaindi, D W; Meile, L

    2016-11-01

    Food preservation makes a significant contribution to food security and food safety in pastoral communities with limited access to external food sources. Raw materials are preserved by heating, drying, smoking, pickling, salting, curing or fermentation with microorganisms. This article describes preservation techniques in the pastoral context, targeting the major dietary components of milk, meat and cereals; related health risks; and potential innovations for food preservation. Sustainable elimination of pathogenic microorganisms, preventing re-contamination, sporulation and the growth of zoonotic and foodborne microorganisms, is necessary to enhance food safety and ensure food security by reducing post-harvest losses and food waste. However, modern preservation procedures are difficult to adapt to the lifestyles of pastoralists and so are rarely implemented or accepted. Innovations should therefore focus on improving existing accepted procedures by promoting synergistic combinations to compensate for the disadvantages of these traditional techniques and ensure the quality of the raw material right up until consumption. Drying and spontaneous fermentation are key preservation techniques among pastoralists that serve as opportunities for innovation and can be shared across pastoral communities. Further potential for innovation lies in the unique, largely uncharacterised, microflora biodiversity of fermented products. The characterisation, safety assessment and conservation of these microorganisms are needed to develop locally adapted starter cultures that retain or improve on the desired characteristics of the finished product. Careful sensitisation of stakeholders, the study of social acceptance and capacitybuilding at all levels are required to achieve the sustainable implementation of such innovations, which will contribute to enhanced food security and safety.

  1. Bacteriocins and Their Applications in Food Preservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramu, Ramith; Shirahatti, Prithvi S; Devi, Aishwarya T; Prasad, Ashwini; J, Kumuda; M S, Lochana; F, Zameer; B L, Dhananjaya; M N, Nagendra Prasad

    2015-07-20

    Bacteriocins are ribosomally-synthesized antimicrobial peptides or proteinaceous compounds produced by bacterial strains. They are generally effective in inhibiting the growth of similar or closely related bacterial strains. A high diversity of various bacteriocins is produced by many lactic acid bacteria (LAB) and is found in numerous fermented and non-fermented foods. Several bacteriocins from LAB extend potential applications in food preservation, thus help foods to be naturally preserved and richer in organoleptic and nutritional properties. Though chemical preservatives for the preservation of food are successful to some extent, their quality is not as satisfying as fresh food. Hence, an alternative is required and bacteriocins serve the purpose. Nisin is currently the only bacteriocin widely used as a food preservative. Numerous bacteriocins have been characterized chemically, biochemically, genetically and also at the molecular level to understand their basic mode of action. This article gives an overview of classification of bacteriocins, isolation & characterization, and mode of action. Besides, article highlights the optimized parameters for growth of bacteria in the production of bacteriocins and various bioassays for their determination. Special emphasis has been provided on explaining the beneficial aspects of nisin.

  2. Food preservation using ionizing radiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrews, L S; Ahmedna, M; Grodner, R M; Liuzzo, J A; Murano, P S; Murano, E A; Rao, R M; Shane, S; Wilson, P W

    1998-01-01

    Irradiation processing has been researched extensively and is now in use worldwide for many food commodities. Irradiation has been successfully used to reduce pathogenic bacteria, eliminate parasites, decrease postharvest sprouting, and extend the shelf life of fresh perishable foods. Although food irradiation is widely accepted in world food markets, U.S. markets have been slower to accept the idea of irradiated food products. For fruits and vegetables, irradiation is not a cure for shelf life problems; cost and quality problems damage preclude its general use. It appears that the most likely use of irradiation in fruits and vegetables is as an insect control in those commodities for which there is no effective alternative method. For grains such as rice and wheat, irradiation has been used primarily to control insect infestation when insects have been shown to develop resistance to the traditional fumigation methods. Treatment of spices with irradiation doses of 10 kGy has proved to extend shelf life without causing significant changes in sensory or chemical quality. Higher doses that effectively sterilize spices, however, may cause undesirable chemical and sensorial changes. For meat, especially red meat, irradiation is considered a viable alternative in the effort to improve the safety of meat products. With time, the authors believe that economic realities and the technical superiority of irradiation for specific poultry products will lead to public acceptance of the process. Irradiation of seafood products is still being considered for approval by the USFDA, although it is currently used in Asian and European markets, especially for shrimp. It is our belief that scientifically based research in food irradiation and the positive results thereof will also prove economical in the twenty-first century. As we move to a more peaceful world with reduced threat of nuclear holocaust, these valid opinions will prevail and will overshadow the distortions and

  3. Establishment of a world food preservation center

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilson Charles L

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract A World Food Preservation Center (WFPC is proposed in response to a pending civilization-threatening food shortage and our limited ability to adequately increase food production. Some estimates put losses of food in developing countries after it is produced and before it is consumed at 50%. These losses are particularly threatening to individuals and farmers who are living in the midst of food insecurity. Although numerous organizations have attempted to address this problem worldwide, the magnitude of the effort has not come close to the enormity of the problem. Most of these programs are also short-term and require continuous input by postharvest specialists from developed countries in order to be sustainable. A critical need exists for a substantial and sustainable worldwide program that can significantly reduce losses and waste of food in developing countries. The World Food Preservation Center proposed here meets this need by educating young scientists in developing countries about low-input, appropriate technologies for preserving food postharvest. It also conducts research on postharvest technologies especially suited for application in developing countries such as biological control, solar refrigeration, and coordinated transport and marketing schemes that support and sustain the local production of food commodities.

  4. Application of natural antimicrobials for food preservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiwari, Brijesh K; Valdramidis, Vasilis P; O'Donnell, Colm P; Muthukumarappan, Kasiviswanathan; Bourke, Paula; Cullen, P J

    2009-07-22

    In this review, antimicrobials from a range of plant, animal, and microbial sources are reviewed along with their potential applications in food systems. Chemical and biochemical antimicrobial compounds derived from these natural sources and their activity against a range of pathogenic and spoilage microorganisms pertinent to food, together with their effects on food organoleptic properties, are outlined. Factors influencing the antimicrobial activity of such agents are discussed including extraction methods, molecular weight, and agent origin. These issues are considered in conjunction with the latest developments in the quantification of the minimum inhibitory (and noninhibitory) concentration of antimicrobials and/or their components. Natural antimicrobials can be used alone or in combination with other novel preservation technologies to facilitate the replacement of traditional approaches. Research priorities and future trends focusing on the impact of product formulation, intrinsic product parameters, and extrinsic storage parameters on the design of efficient food preservation systems are also presented.

  5. The potential of food preservation to reduce food waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martindale, Wayne

    2017-02-01

    While we state it seems unthinkable to throw away nearly a third of the food we produce, we still continue to overlook that we are all very much part of this problem because we all consume meals. The amount of food wasted clearly has an impact on our view of what we think a sustainable meal is and our research suggests food waste is a universal function that can help us determine the sustainability of diets. Achieving sustainability in food systems depends on the utilisation of both culinary skills and knowledge of how foods make meals. These are overlooked by the current food waste debate that is concerned with communicating the problem with food waste rather than solutions to it. We aim to change this oversight with the research presented here that demonstrates the need to consider the role of food preservation to reduce food waste and the requirement for new marketing terms associated with sustainability actions that can be used to stimulate changes in consumption behaviours. We have chosen frozen food to demonstrate this because our research has shown that the use of frozen foods results in 47 % less household food waste than fresh food categories. This has created a step-change in how we view food consumption and has stimulated consumer movements that act across different products and supply chains to enable the consumption of the sustainable meal.

  6. Effect of chitosan and its derivatives as antifungal and preservative agents on postharvest green asparagus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Miao; Wu, Chu; Ren, Gerui; Liang, Xinle; Wang, Xiangyang; Huang, Jianying

    2014-07-15

    The antifungal activity and effect of high-molecular weight chitosan (H-chitosan), low-molecular weight chitosan (L-chitosan) and carboxymethyl chitosan (C-chitosan) coatings on postharvest green asparagus were evaluated. L-chitosan and H-chitosan efficiently inhibited the radial growth of Fusarium concentricum separated from postharvest green asparagus at 4 mg/ml, which appeared to be more effective in inhibiting spore germination and germ tube elongation than that of C-chitosan. Notably, spore germination was totally inhibited by L-chitosan and H-chitosan at 0.05 mg/ml. Coated asparagus did not show any apparent sign of phytotoxicity and maintained good quality over 28 days of cold storage, according to the weight loss and general quality aspects. Present results inferred that chitosan could act as an attractive preservative agent for postharvest green asparagus owing to its antifungal activity and its ability to stimulate some defense responses during storage.

  7. Application of Bacillus sp. as a biopreservative for food preservation

    OpenAIRE

    S. Nath,; Chowdhury, S.

    2015-01-01

    Food preservation is enhancing shelf-life and food quality to eliminate food-related illness and product spoilage, especially by the use of food additives.The growing consumer demand for effective preservation of food without altering its nutritional quality and free of potential health risks andto find an attractive and alternative approach to chemical preservatives, have stimulated research in the field of biopreservation by the use of natural or controlled microbiota and/or the...

  8. Bacteriocins: safe, natural antimicrobials for food preservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cleveland, J; Montville, T J; Nes, I F; Chikindas, M L

    2001-12-01

    Bacteriocins are antibacterial proteins produced by bacteria that kill or inhibit the growth of other bacteria. Many lactic acid bacteria (LAB) produce a high diversity of different bacteriocins. Though these bacteriocins are produced by LAB found in numerous fermented and non-fermented foods, nisin is currently the only bacteriocin widely used as a food preservative. Many bacteriocins have been characterized biochemically and genetically, and though there is a basic understanding of their structure-function, biosynthesis, and mode of action, many aspects of these compounds are still unknown. This article gives an overview of bacteriocin applications, and differentiates bacteriocins from antibiotics. A comparison of the synthesis. mode of action, resistance and safety of the two types of molecules is covered. Toxicity data exist for only a few bacteriocins, but research and their long-time intentional use strongly suggest that bacteriocins can be safely used.

  9. Metabolic stimulation of plant phenolics for food preservation and health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarkar, Dipayan; Shetty, Kalidas

    2014-01-01

    Plant phenolics as secondary metabolites are key to a plant's defense response against biotic and abiotic stresses. These phytochemicals are also increasingly relevant to food preservation and human health in terms of chronic disease management. Phenolic compounds from different food crops with different chemical structures and biological functions have the potential to act as natural antioxidants. Plant-based human foods are rich with these phenolic phytochemicals and can be used effectively for food preservation and bioactive enrichments through metabolic stimulation of key pathways. Phenolic metabolites protect against microbial degradation of plant-based foods during postharvest storage. Phenolics not only provide biotic protection but also help to counter biochemical and physical food deteriorations and to enhance shelf life and nutritional quality. This review summarizes the role of metabolically stimulated plant phenolics in food preservation and their impact on the prevention of oxidative stress-induced human diseases.

  10. Effect of Hurdle Technology in Food Preservation: A Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Shiv; Shalini, Rachana

    2016-01-01

    Hurdle technology is used in industrialized as well as in developing countries for the gentle but effective preservation of foods. Hurdle technology was developed several years ago as a new concept for the production of safe, stable, nutritious, tasty, and economical foods. Previously hurdle technology, i.e., a combination of preservation methods, was used empirically without much knowledge of the governing principles. The intelligent application of hurdle technology has become more prevalent now, because the principles of major preservative factors for foods (e.g., temperature, pH, aw, Eh, competitive flora), and their interactions, became better known. Recently, the influence of food preservation methods on the physiology and behavior of microorganisms in foods, i.e. their homeostasis, metabolic exhaustion, stress reactions, are taken into account, and the novel concept of multi-target food preservation emerged. The present contribution reviews the concept of the potential hurdles for foods, the hurdle effect, and the hurdle technology for the prospects of the future goal of a multi-target preservation of foods.

  11. Application of Bacillus sp. as a biopreservative for food preservation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Nath,

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Food preservation is enhancing shelf-life and food quality to eliminate food-related illness and product spoilage, especially by the use of food additives.The growing consumer demand for effective preservation of food without altering its nutritional quality and free of potential health risks andto find an attractive and alternative approach to chemical preservatives, have stimulated research in the field of biopreservation by the use of natural or controlled microbiota and/or their antimicrobial compounds including very recent innovation: Bacillus sp., the ubiquitous, Gram positive bacteria, producing inhibitory substances like cyclic peptides and bacteriocins, with a broad antimicrobial spectrum and a history of safe use in food. Bacillus spores are also being used extensively as probiotic food supplements where they are used in human as dietary supplements and in feed for livestock and aquaculture as growth promoters.A novel concept multi-target food preservation has emerged in relation to hurdle technology stating the microbial safety, stability, sensorial and nutritional qualities of foods are based on the application of combined preservative factors (called hurdles including Bacillus sp. that microorganisms present in the food are unable to overcome, thus leading to inhibition of microbial growth by disturbing their homeostasis and metabolic exhaustion and avoiding tress reaction by bacteria. Future exploration of the natural preservatives and/or their metabolites, in combination with advanced technologies could result in replacement of chemical preservatives, or could allow less severe processing (e.g. heat treatments, while still maintaining adequate microbiological safety and quality in foods.

  12. Home Food Preservation among Families with Young Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorenz, Lorraine J.; Sawicki, Marjorie A.; Elliott, Michael; White, Melissa

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine preservation practices, perceived barriers, and likelihood of parents with young children to home preserve food in the future. Implications of this research relate to family and consumer sciences professionals who endeavor to improve fruit and vegetable intake and provide resources to families and…

  13. Effect of essential oils on Aspergillus spore germination, growth and mycotoxin production:a potential source of botanical food preservative

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Negero Gemeda; Yimtubezinash Woldeamanuel; Daniel Asrat; Asfaw Debella

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To investigate effect of essential oils on Aspergillus spore germination, growth and mycotoxin production.Method: In vitro antifungal and antiaflatoxigenic activity of essential oils was carried out using poisoned food techniques, spore germination assay, agar dilution assay, and aflatoxin arresting assay on toxigenic strains of Aspergillus species.Results: Cymbopogon martinii, Foeniculum vulgare and Trachyspermum ammi (T. ammi) essential oils were tested against toxicogenic isolates of Aspergillus species. T. ammi oil showed highest antifungal activity. Absolute mycelial inhibition was recorded at 1 µl/mL by essential oils of T. ammi. The oil also showed, complete inhibition of spore germination at a concentration of 2 µl/mL. In addition, T. ammi oil showed significant antiaflatoxigenic potency by totally inhibiting aflatoxin production from Aspergillus niger and Aspergillus flavus at 0.5 and 0.75 µl/mL, respectively. Cymbopogon martinii, Foeniculum vulgare and T. ammi oils as antifungal were found superior over synthetic preservative. Moreover, a concentration of 5 336.297 µl/kg body weight was recorded for LC50 on mice indicating the low mammalian toxicity and strengthening its traditional reputations.Conclusions:In conclusion, the essential oils from T. ammi can be a potential source of safe natural food preservative for food commodities contamination by storage fungi.

  14. Radiation Preservation of Foods and Its Effect on Nutrients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Josephson, Edward S.; Thomas, Miriam H.

    1970-01-01

    Presents a discussion of (1) some possible applications of ionizing radiation to the treatment and preservation of food and (2) the effects of irradiation on nutrients such as proteins, fats, oils, carbohydrates and vitamins. The authors suggest that the irradiation process has great potential in food technology. Bibliography. (LC)

  15. Antimicrobial potential of bacteriocins: in therapy, agriculture and food preservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Varish; Khan, Mohd Sajid; Jamal, Qazi Mohammad Sajid; Alzohairy, Mohammad A; Al Karaawi, Mohammad A; Siddiqui, Mughees Uddin

    2017-01-01

    Due to the appearance of antibiotic resistance and the toxicity associated with currently used antibiotics, peptide antibiotics are the need of the hour. Thus, demand for new antimicrobial agents has brought great interest in new technologies to enhance safety. One such antimicrobial molecule is bacteriocin, synthesised by various micro-organisms. Bacteriocins are widely used in agriculture, veterinary medicine as a therapeutic, and as a food preservative agent to control various infectious and food-borne pathogens. In this review, we highlight the potential therapeutic and food preservative applications of bacteriocin.

  16. Preservation of food by ionizing radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Josephson, E.S.; Peterson, M.S.

    1983-01-01

    This study is presented in three volumes. Vol. I: Presents a concise description of the philosophy of radiation, protection for people working with irradiation processes, including problems associated with the design and operation of a large facility and solutions to problems encountered. Radiation dosimetry and radiolytic effects in foods are also presented. Vol. II: Effects of radiation on bacteria and viruses are discussed as well as the lethal effect on microorganisms and insects. Also presented are the effects of irradiated food on packaging materials. Vol. III: The effects of radurization on meats, poultry, fish, shellfish, fruits, vegetables, and spices. Also included are the effects of irradiation for the use of shelf-life extension.

  17. Air Purifiers Eliminate Pathogens, Preserve Food

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    NASA-funded researchers produced an ethylene reduction device for a plant growth unit. KES Science & Technology Inc., a Kennesaw, Georgia-based company specializing in sustaining perishable foods, licensed the ethylene scrubbing technology. KES partnered with Akida Holdings, of Jacksonville, Florida, which now markets the NASA-developed technology as AiroCide. According to the company, it is the only air purifier that completely destroys airborne bacteria, mold, fungi, mycotoxins, viruses, volatile organic compounds (like ethylene), and odors. What?s more, the devices have no filters that need changing and produce no harmful byproducts, such as the ozone created by some filtration systems.

  18. Beneficial Effects of Spices in Food Preservation and Safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gottardi, Davide; Bukvicki, Danka; Prasad, Sahdeo; Tyagi, Amit K

    2016-01-01

    Spices have been used since ancient times. Although they have been employed mainly as flavoring and coloring agents, their role in food safety and preservation have also been studied in vitro and in vivo. Spices have exhibited numerous health benefits in preventing and treating a wide variety of diseases such as cancer, aging, metabolic, neurological, cardiovascular, and inflammatory diseases. The present review aims to provide a comprehensive summary of the most relevant and recent findings on spices and their active compounds in terms of targets and mode of action; in particular, their potential use in food preservation and enhancement of shelf life as a natural bioingredient.

  19. Beneficial Effects of Spices in Food Preservation and Safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gottardi, Davide; Bukvicki, Danka; Prasad, Sahdeo; Tyagi, Amit K.

    2016-01-01

    Spices have been used since ancient times. Although they have been employed mainly as flavoring and coloring agents, their role in food safety and preservation have also been studied in vitro and in vivo. Spices have exhibited numerous health benefits in preventing and treating a wide variety of diseases such as cancer, aging, metabolic, neurological, cardiovascular, and inflammatory diseases. The present review aims to provide a comprehensive summary of the most relevant and recent findings on spices and their active compounds in terms of targets and mode of action; in particular, their potential use in food preservation and enhancement of shelf life as a natural bioingredient. PMID:27708620

  20. Development of Food Preservation and Processing Technologies by Radiation Technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Byun, Myung Woo; Lee, Ju Won; Kim, Jae Hun (and others)

    2007-07-15

    To secure national food resources, development of energy-saving food processing and preservation technologies, establishment of method on improvement of national health and safety by development of alternative techniques of chemicals and foundation of the production of hygienic food and public health related products by irradiation technology were studied. Results at current stage are following: As the first cooperative venture business technically invested by National Atomic Research Development Project, institute/company's [technology-invested technology foundation No. 1] cooperative venture, Sun-BioTech Ltd., was founded and stated its business. This suggested new model for commercialization and industrialization of the research product by nation-found institute. From the notice of newly approved product list about irradiated food, radiation health related legal approval on 7 food items was achieved from the Ministry of health and wellfare, the Korea Food and Drug Administration, and this contributed the foundation of enlargement of practical use of irradiated food. As one of the foundation project for activation of radiation application technology for the sanitation and secure preservation of special food, such as military meal service, food service for patient, and food for sports, and instant food, such as ready-to-eat/ready-to-cook food, the proposal for radiation application to the major military commander at the Ministry of National Defence and the Joint Chiefs of Staff was accepted for the direction of military supply development in mid-termed plan for the development of war supply. Especially, through the preliminary research and the development of foundation technology for the development of the Korean style space food and functional space food, space Kimch with very long shelf life was finally developed. The development of new item/products for food and life science by combining RT/BT, the development of technology for the elimination/reduction of

  1. Sensitivity of Escherichia albertii to food preservation treatments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escherichia albertii is a potential foodborne pathogen because of its documented ability to cause diarrheal disease by producing attachment and effacement lesions. Its tolerance to food preservation treatments has not been investigated. Heat, acid, and pressure tolerance were determined for stationa...

  2. The Use of Plant Antimicrobial Compounds for Food Preservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hintz, Tana; Matthews, Karl K; Di, Rong

    2015-01-01

    Foodborne disease is a global issue with significant impact on human health. With the growing consumer demand for natural preservatives to replace chemical compounds, plant antimicrobial compounds must be thoroughly investigated for their potential to serve as biopreservatives. This review paper will focus on the plant-derived products as antimicrobial agents for use in food preservation and to control foodborne pathogens in foods. Structure, modes of action, stability, and resistance to these plant compounds will be discussed as well as their application in food industries and possible technologies by which they can be delivered. Benefits as well as challenges, such as the need for further research for implementation and governmental regulation, will be highlighted.

  3. Evaluation of metal impurities in foods preserved with sodium lactate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Kimberly Ferren; Carter, Gregory L

    2013-01-01

    The public is being bombarded by the media almost dailywith real and potential food health concerns leadingto a public sentiment that questions the vulnerability and quality of our food. Sodium lactate is a food-grade product that in recent years has been used in bioremediation to stimulate microbial growth and contaminant breakdown processes. In previous work, impurities including arsenic and chromium were discovered to be present in the sodium lactate concentrate. The study described in this article was performed to determine whether arsenic and chromium were at detectable levels, posing a potential concern in food products preserved with sodium lactate available to the general public. A pilot sampling of three sodium-lactate-preserved food products was obtained from a local market and used to determine the commercial laboratory's detection and reporting limits for arsenic and chromium for these food products. Once these limits were established, a random sampling and analyses of 17 food products was performed. Arsenic was not reported above the detection limits in either the pilot or subsequent study, but chromium was detected at concentrations up to 0.30 parts per million in a pilot test sample and lower concentrations in the subsequent study. This study suggests that the sodium lactate in the sampled products was diluted enough for the arsenic concentration to be below the laboratory detection limit. Chromium was detected and may be an unaccounted source of chromium in diets of vulnerable populations.

  4. Biological preservation of foods with reference to protective cultures, bacteriocins and food-grade enzymes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holzapfel, W H; Geisen, R; Schillinger, U

    1995-01-01

    A review is presented on the present status of biological preservation of foods. Recent developments are discussed with respect to underlying mechanisms of inhibition by 'protective' cultures, and special reference is made to lactic acid bacteria (LAB) and their 'food-grade' safety. The role of bacteriocins, their limitations and potentiating role in biological systems, is also addressed. The use of enzymes (e.g. lysozyme) for food preservation is mainly restricted by economic factors, their inactivation by endogenous food components and their limited activity spectrum. Practical applications of protective cultures refer to particular food commodities that either constitute novel systems with respect to packaging and/or composition, or represent special hygienic risks. It is concluded that biological preservation cannot substitute GMP; it, however, offers an additional (and acceptable) processing parameter for improving the safety and assuring the quality of a given food.

  5. Antifungal activity of food additives in vitro and as ingredients of hydroxypropyl methylcellulose-lipid edible coatings against Botrytis cinerea and Alternaria alternata on cherry tomato fruit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fagundes, Cristiane; Pérez-Gago, María B; Monteiro, Alcilene R; Palou, Lluís

    2013-09-16

    The antifungal activity of food additives or 'generally recognized as safe' (GRAS) compounds was tested in vitro against Botrytis cinerea and Alternaria alternata. Radial mycelial growth of each pathogen was measured in PDA Petri dishes amended with food preservatives at 0.2, 1.0, or 2.0% (v/v) after 3, 5, and 7 days of incubation at 25 °C. Selected additives and concentrations were tested as antifungal ingredients of hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HPMC)-lipid edible coatings. The curative activity of stable coatings was tested in in vivo experiments. Cherry tomatoes were artificially inoculated with the pathogens, coated by immersion about 24 h later, and incubated at 20 °C and 90% RH. Disease incidence and severity (lesion diameter) were determined after 6, 10, and 15 days of incubation and the 'area under the disease progress stairs' (AUDPS) was calculated. In general, HPMC-lipid antifungal coatings controlled black spot caused by A. alternata more effectively than gray mold caused by B. cinerea. Overall, the best results for reduction of gray mold on cherry tomato fruit were obtained with coatings containing 2.0% of potassium carbonate, ammonium phosphate, potassium bicarbonate, or ammonium carbonate, while 2.0% sodium methylparaben, sodium ethylparaben, and sodium propylparaben were the best ingredients for coatings against black rot.

  6. Resistance of yeasts to weak organic acid food preservatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piper, Peter W

    2011-01-01

    Carboxylate weak acids are invaluable for large-scale food and beverage preservation. However, in response to safety concerns, there is now desire to reduce the use of these additives. The resistance to these compounds displayed by spoilage yeasts and fungi is a major reason why these preservatives often have to be used in millimolar levels. This chapter summarizes the mechanisms whereby yeasts are rendered resistant to acetate, propionate, sorbate, and benzoate. In baker's yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae), resistance to high acetic acid is acquired partly by loss of the plasma membrane aquaglyceroporin that facilitates the passive diffusional entry of undissociated acid into cells (Fps1), and partly through a transcriptional response mediated by the transcription factor Haa1. Other carboxylate preservatives are too large to enter cells through the Fps1 channel but instead penetrate at appreciable rates by passive diffusion across the plasma membrane. In Saccharomyces and Candida albicans though not, it seems, in the Zygosaccharomyces, resistance to the latter acids involves activation of the War1 transcription factor, which in turn generates strong induction of a specific plasma membrane ATP-binding cassette transporter (Pdr12). The latter actively pumps the preservative anion from the cell. Other contributors to weak acid resistance include enzymes that allow preservative degradation, members of the Tpo family of major facilitator superfamily transporters, and changes to the cell envelope that minimize the diffusional entry of the preservative into the cell.

  7. The Challenges of Eliminating or Substituting Antimicrobial Preservatives in Foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erickson, Marilyn C; Doyle, Michael P

    2017-02-28

    Consumers' criteria for evaluating food safety have evolved recently from considering the food's potential to cause immediate physical harm to considering the potential long-term effects that consumption of artificial ingredients, including antimicrobial preservatives, would have on health. As bacteriostatic and bactericidal agents to prevent microbial spoilage, antimicrobials not only extend shelf life, but they also enhance the product's safety. Antimicrobials and their levels that may be used in foods are specified by regulatory agencies. This review addresses the safety of antimicrobials and the potential consequences of removing those that are chemically synthesized or replacing them with antimicrobials from so-called natural sources. Such changes can affect the microbiological safety and spoilage of food as well as reduce shelf life, increase wastage, and increase the occurrence of foodborne illnesses.

  8. Applications of ultrasound in food technology: Processing, preservation and extraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chemat, Farid; Zill-e-Huma; Khan, Muhammed Kamran

    2011-07-01

    Ultrasound is well known to have a significant effect on the rate of various processes in the food industry. Using ultrasound, full reproducible food processes can now be completed in seconds or minutes with high reproducibility, reducing the processing cost, simplifying manipulation and work-up, giving higher purity of the final product, eliminating post-treatment of waste water and consuming only a fraction of the time and energy normally needed for conventional processes. Several processes such as freezing, cutting, drying, tempering, bleaching, sterilization, and extraction have been applied efficiently in the food industry. The advantages of using ultrasound for food processing, includes: more effective mixing and micro-mixing, faster energy and mass transfer, reduced thermal and concentration gradients, reduced temperature, selective extraction, reduced equipment size, faster response to process extraction control, faster start-up, increased production, and elimination of process steps. Food processes performed under the action of ultrasound are believed to be affected in part by cavitation phenomena and mass transfer enhancement. This review presents a complete picture of current knowledge on application of ultrasound in food technology including processing, preservation and extraction. It provides the necessary theoretical background and some details about ultrasound the technology, the technique, and safety precautions. We will also discuss some of the factors which make the combination of food processing and ultrasound one of the most promising research areas in the field of modern food engineering.

  9. Alternative Food Preservation Techniques, New Technology in Food Preparation and Appropriateness of Food Supply for the Permanently Manned Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whelan, R. H.

    1985-01-01

    Alternative food preservation techniques are defined as unique processes and combinations of currently used processes for food preservation. Food preservation is the extension of the useful shelf-life of normally perishable foods (from harvest to final consumption) by controlling micro-organisms, enzymes, chemical changes, changes in sensory characteristics and the prevention of subsequent recontamination. The resulting products must comply with all applicable food manufacturing practice regulations and be safe. Most of the foods currently used in both space and military feeding are stabilized either by dehydration or the use of a terminal sterilization process. Other available options would be formulation to reduce water activity, the refrigeration and freezing of perishable foods, chemical addition, and physical treatment (ionizing or nonionizing radiation or mechanical action). These alternatives are considered and proposals made.

  10. Essential oils: extraction, bioactivities, and their uses for food preservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tongnuanchan, Phakawat; Benjakul, Soottawat

    2014-07-01

    Essential oils are concentrated liquids of complex mixtures of volatile compounds and can be extracted from several plant organs. Essential oils are a good source of several bioactive compounds, which possess antioxidative and antimicrobial properties. In addition, some essential oils have been used as medicine. Furthermore, the uses of essential oils have received increasing attention as the natural additives for the shelf-life extension of food products, due to the risk in using synthetic preservatives. Essential oils can be incorporated into packaging, in which they can provide multifunctions termed "active or smart packaging." Those essential oils are able to modify the matrix of packaging materials, thereby rendering the improved properties. This review covers up-to-date literatures on essential oils including sources, chemical composition, extraction methods, bioactivities, and their applications, particularly with the emphasis on preservation and the shelf-life extension of food products.

  11. Preservation mechanisms of trehalose in food and biosystems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patist, Alex; Zoerb, Hans

    2005-02-10

    The stability or shelf-life of food and biomaterials has always been a critical issue in the food and pharmaceutical industry. Trehalose (alpha-D-glucopyranosyl-alpha-D-glucopyranoside), a non-reducing diglucose sugar found in nature, confers to certain plant and animal cells the ability to survive dehydration for decades and to restore activity soon after rehydration. The interaction between trehalose and cell membranes or proteins, however, remains a debated subject, and a significant amount of work has been done to elucidate the mechanisms resulting in this unique behavior of preservation. This study shows how an interfacial phenomena approach has led to the use of trehalose as an excipient during freeze drying of a variety of products in the pharmaceutical industry. It also suggests opportunities as an ingredient for dried and processed food, as well as a non-toxic cryoprotectant of vaccines and organs for surgical transplants.

  12. Evaluation of Natural Food Preservatives in Domestic and Imported Cheese

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paik, Hyun-Dong

    2016-01-01

    In milk and milk products, a number of organic acids naturally occur. We investigated the contents of some naturally occurred food preservatives (sorbic acid, benzoic acid, propionic acid, nitrite, and nitrate) contained in domestic and imported cheeses to establish the standard for the allowable range of food preservatives content in cheese. 8 kinds of domestic precheeses (n=104), 16 kinds of domestic cured cheeses (n=204) and 40 kinds of imported cheeses (n=74) were collected. Each domestic cheese was aged for a suitable number of months and stored for 2 mon at 5℃ and 10℃. No preservatives were detected in domestic soft and fresh cheeses, except cream cheese. In case of semi-hard cheeses, 2-5 mg/kg of benzoic acid was detected after 1-2 mon of aging. In imported cheeses, only benzoic acid and propionic acid were detected. The average benzoic acid and propionic acid contents in semi-hard cheese were 8.73 mg/kg and 18.78 mg/kg, respectively. Specifically, 1.16 mg/kg and 6.80 mg/kg of benzoic acid and propionic acid, respectively, were contained in soft cheese, 3.27 mg/kg and 2.84 mg/kg, respectively, in fresh cheese, 1.87 mg/kg and not detected, respectively, in hard cheese, and 2.07 mg/kg and 182.26 mg/kg, respectively, in blended processed cheese. PMID:27621695

  13. Evaluation of Natural Food Preservatives in Domestic and Imported Cheese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Sun-Young; Han, Noori; Kim, Sun-Young; Yoo, Mi-Young; Paik, Hyun-Dong; Lim, Sang-Dong

    2016-01-01

    In milk and milk products, a number of organic acids naturally occur. We investigated the contents of some naturally occurred food preservatives (sorbic acid, benzoic acid, propionic acid, nitrite, and nitrate) contained in domestic and imported cheeses to establish the standard for the allowable range of food preservatives content in cheese. 8 kinds of domestic precheeses (n=104), 16 kinds of domestic cured cheeses (n=204) and 40 kinds of imported cheeses (n=74) were collected. Each domestic cheese was aged for a suitable number of months and stored for 2 mon at 5℃ and 10℃. No preservatives were detected in domestic soft and fresh cheeses, except cream cheese. In case of semi-hard cheeses, 2-5 mg/kg of benzoic acid was detected after 1-2 mon of aging. In imported cheeses, only benzoic acid and propionic acid were detected. The average benzoic acid and propionic acid contents in semi-hard cheese were 8.73 mg/kg and 18.78 mg/kg, respectively. Specifically, 1.16 mg/kg and 6.80 mg/kg of benzoic acid and propionic acid, respectively, were contained in soft cheese, 3.27 mg/kg and 2.84 mg/kg, respectively, in fresh cheese, 1.87 mg/kg and not detected, respectively, in hard cheese, and 2.07 mg/kg and 182.26 mg/kg, respectively, in blended processed cheese.

  14. Health protection and food preservation by gamma irradiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    1976-01-01

    Results of several major studies on food systems for space missions beginning with Apollo 12 through Apollo-Soyuz and investigations of the application of irradiation to food for manned space flight are reported. The study of flight food systems involved the application of radurization (pasteurizing levels) doses of gamma irradiation to flour and bread supplied by Pepperidge Farms in advance of the missions. All flights from Apollo 12 through 17 carried irradiated fresh bread. On Apollo 17, cooperation with Natick Laboratories permitted the introduction of a ham sandwich using irradiated bread and irradiated sterile ham. Investigations centered on irradiated bread were conducted during the course of these missions. Studies were applied to the concept of improving fresh bread from the point of view of mold inhibition. The studies considered how irradiation could best be applied at what levels and on a variety of bread types. Throughout the studies of the application of gamma irradiation the emphasis was placed upon using low levels of irradiation in the pasteurizing or radurizing doses--under a Megarad. The primary goal was to determine if a public health benefit could be demonstrated using radurization along with food preservation and food quality improvements. The public health benefit would be parallel to that of pasteurization of milk as a concept. Publications are included providing the details of these observations, one dealing with the flour characteristics and the other dealing with the influence on fresh bread types. These demonstrate the major findings noted during the period of the studies examining bread.

  15. Novel approaches in food-processing technology: new technologies for preserving foods and modifying function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knorr, D

    1999-10-01

    Recent advances in emerging food-processing technologies, such as high hydrostatic pressure or high-intensity electric field pulses, allow targeted and sophisticated modification and preservation of foods. We are beginning to understand the mechanisms involved in pressure inactivation of bacterial spores and have been collecting considerable amounts of kinetic data regarding inactivation mechanisms of enzymes and vegetative microorganisms. We are also gaining more insight into the permeabilization of plant membranes and related biosynthetic responses, making progress in food structure engineering and food modification for function, and have been initiating process developments for gentle processing of delicate biomaterials based on pressure-assisted phase transitions of water.

  16. Use of Cymbopogon Citratus Essential Oil in Food Preservation: Recent Advances and Future Perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekpenyong, Christopher E; Akpan, Ernest E

    2015-07-06

    The economic burdens and health implications of food spoilage are increasing. Contamination of food sources by fungi, bacteria, yeast, nematodes, insects, and rodents remains a major public health concern. Research has focused on developing safer natural products and innovations to meet consumers' acceptance as alternatives to synthetic food preservatives. Many recent novel preservative techniques and applications of both natural and synthetic origin continue to proliferate in food and chemical industries. In particular, some essential oils of plant origin are potent food preservatives and are thus attractive alternatives to synthetic preservatives. This paper provides an overview of recent advances and future prospects in assessing the efficacy of theuse of Cymbopogon citratus (lemongrass) essential oil in food preservation. The possible mechanisms of action and toxicological profile as well as evidence for or against the use of this essential oil as an alternative to synthetic food preservatives in domestic and industrial applications are discussed.

  17. Essential oils in food preservation: mode of action, synergies, and interactions with food matrix components.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyldgaard, Morten; Mygind, Tina; Meyer, Rikke Louise

    2012-01-01

    Essential oils are aromatic and volatile liquids extracted from plants. The chemicals in essential oils are secondary metabolites, which play an important role in plant defense as they often possess antimicrobial properties. The interest in essential oils and their application in food preservation has been amplified in recent years by an increasingly negative consumer perception of synthetic preservatives. Furthermore, food-borne diseases are a growing public health problem worldwide, calling for more effective preservation strategies. The antibacterial properties of essential oils and their constituents have been documented extensively. Pioneering work has also elucidated the mode of action of a few essential oil constituents, but detailed knowledge about most of the compounds' mode of action is still lacking. This knowledge is particularly important to predict their effect on different microorganisms, how they interact with food matrix components, and how they work in combination with other antimicrobial compounds. The main obstacle for using essential oil constituents as food preservatives is that they are most often not potent enough as single components, and they cause negative organoleptic effects when added in sufficient amounts to provide an antimicrobial effect. Exploiting synergies between several compounds has been suggested as a solution to this problem. However, little is known about which interactions lead to synergistic, additive, or antagonistic effects. Such knowledge could contribute to design of new and more potent antimicrobial blends, and to understand the interplay between the constituents of crude essential oils. The purpose of this review is to provide an overview of current knowledge about the antibacterial properties and antibacterial mode of action of essential oils and their constituents, and to identify research avenues that can facilitate implementation of essential oils as natural preservatives in foods.

  18. Essential oils in food preservation: mode of action, synergies, and interactions with food matrix components

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morten eHyldgaard

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Essential oils are aromatic and volatile liquids extracted from plants. The chemicals in essential oils are secondary metabolites, which play an important role in plant defence as they often possess antimicrobial properties. The interest in essential oils and their application in food preservation has been amplified in recent years by an increasingly negative consumer perception of synthetic preservatives. Furthermore, food-borne diseases are a growing public health problem worldwide, calling for more effective preservation strategies. The antibacterial properties of essential oils and their constituents have been documented extensively. Pioneering work has also elucidated the mode of action of a few essential oil constituents, but detailed knowledge about most of the compounds' mode of action is still lacking. This knowledge is particularly important to predict their effect on different microorganisms, how they interact with food matrix components, and how they work in combination with other antimicrobial compounds. The main obstacle for using essential oil constituents as food preservatives is that they are most often not potent enough as single components, and they cause negative organoleptic effects when added in sufficient amounts to provide an antimicrobial effect. Exploiting synergies between several compounds has been suggested as a solution to this problem. However, little is known about which interactions lead to synergistic, additive, or antagonistic effects. Such knowledge could contribute to design of new and more potent antimicrobial blends, and to understand the interplay between the constituents of crude essential oils. The purpose of this review is to provide an overview of current knowledge about the antibacterial properties and antibacterial mode of action of essential oils and their constituents, and to identify research avenues that can facilitate implementation of essential oils as natural preservatives in foods.

  19. Development of food preservation and processing techniques by radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Byun, Myung Woo; Yook, Hong Sun; Lee, Ju Woon and others

    2000-03-01

    Development of food preservation and processing techniques by radiation was performed. Gamm irradiation at 5 kGy completely eliminated pathogenic bacteria in pork and chicken meats. Gamma irradiation at such doses and subsequent storage at less than 4 deg C could ensure hygienic quality and prolong the microbiological shelf-life resulting from the reduction of spoilage microorganisms. Pork loin ham with desirable color was also developed without using of sodium nitrite that is known as a carcinogen. Safety tests of gamma-irradiated meats in areas such as genotoxicity, acute toxicity, four-week oral toxicity, rat hepatocarcinogenesis and the antioxidative defense system, were not affected by gamma irradiation. Gamma irradiation at about 1 kGy completely eliminated the parasites in foods and drinking water. In the study of quarantine treatment of apple and pear for export by gamma irradiation, current fumigation(MBr) was perfect in its disinfesting capability, but it caused detrimental effects on the physical quality of apple and pear. However, irradiation doses at 1-3 kGy was suitable for controlling pests and did not induce any significant changes in the quality of the products. The result of the survey to assess the public understanding indicated that the irradiated food had somewhat negative impression to general public. Therefore, it is necessary to establish a public education and information program by using mass communication and by constructing communication system to obtain the enhanced impression from the general public.

  20. Silk Fibroin as Edible Coating for Perishable Food Preservation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marelli, B.; Brenckle, M. A.; Kaplan, D. L.; Omenetto, F. G.

    2016-05-01

    The regeneration of structural biopolymers into micelles or nanoparticles suspended in water has enabled the design of new materials with unique and compelling properties that can serve at the interface between the biotic and the abiotic worlds. In this study, we leveraged silk fibroin quintessential properties (i.e. polymorphism, conformability and hydrophobicity) to design a water-based protein suspension that self-assembles on the surface of food upon dip coating. The water-based post-processing control of the protein polymorphism enables the modulation of the diffusion of gases through the silk fibroin thin membranes (e.g. O2 and CO2 diffusion, water vapour permeability), which is a key parameter to manage food freshness. In particular, an increased beta-sheet content corresponds to a reduction in oxygen diffusion through silk fibroin thin films. By using the dip coating of strawberries and bananas as proof of principle, we have shown that the formation of micrometre-thin silk fibroin membranes around the fruits helps the management of postharvest physiology of the fruits. Thus, silk fibroin coatings enhance fruits’ shelf life at room conditions by reducing cell respiration rate and water evaporation. The water-based processing and edible nature of silk fibroin makes this approach a promising alternative for food preservation with a naturally derived material.

  1. Some Antifungal Properties of Sorbic Acid Extracted from Berries of Rowan (Sorbus Aucuparia).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunner, Ulrich

    1985-01-01

    The food preservative sorbic acid can be extracted from Eurasian mountain ash berries (commercially available) and used to show antifungal properties in microbiological investigations. Techniques for extraction, purification, ultraviolet analysis, and experiments displaying antifungal activity are described. A systematic search for similar…

  2. Nisin as a Food Preservative: Part 1: Physicochemical Properties, Antimicrobial Activity, and Main Uses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gharsallaoui, Adem; Oulahal, Nadia; Joly, Catherine; Degraeve, Pascal

    2016-06-10

    Nisin is a natural preservative for many food products. This bacteriocin is mainly used in dairy and meat products. Nisin inhibits pathogenic food borne bacteria such as Listeria monocytogenes and many other Gram-positive food spoilage microorganisms. Nisin can be used alone or in combination with other preservatives or also with several physical treatments. This paper reviews physicochemical and biological properties of nisin, the main factors affecting its antimicrobial effectiveness, and its food applications as an additive directly incorporated into food matrices.

  3. EPR detection of foods preserved with ionizing radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stachowicz, W.; Burlinska, G.; Michalik, J.

    1998-06-01

    The applicability of the epr technique for the detection of dried vegetables, mushrooms, some spices, flavour additives and some condiments preserved with ionizing radiation is discussed. The epr signals recorded after exposure to gamma rays and to beams of 10 MeV electrons from linac are stable, intense and specific enough as compared with those observed with nonirradiated samples and could be used for the detection of irradiation. However, stability of radiation induced epr signals produced in these foods depends on storage condition. No differences in shapes (spectral parameters) and intensities of the epr spectra recorded with samples exposed to the same doses of gamma rays ( 60Co) and 10 MeV electrons were observed

  4. Food safety assessment of an antifungal protein from Moringa oleifera seeds in an agricultural biotechnology perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinto, Clidia E M; Farias, Davi F; Carvalho, Ana F U; Oliveira, José T A; Pereira, Mirella L; Grangeiro, Thalles B; Freire, José E C; Viana, Daniel A; Vasconcelos, Ilka M

    2015-09-01

    Mo-CBP3 is an antifungal protein produced by Moringa oleifera which has been investigated as potential candidate for developing transgenic crops. Before the use of novel proteins, food safety tests must be conducted. This work represents an early food safety assessment of Mo-CBP3, using the two-tiered approach proposed by ILSI. The history of safe use, mode of action and results for amino acid sequence homology using the full-length and short contiguous amino acids sequences indicate low risk associated to this protein. Mo-CBP3 isoforms presented a reasonable number of alignments (>35% identity) with allergens in a window of 80 amino acids. This protein was resistant to pepsin degradation up to 2 h, but it was susceptible to digestion using pancreatin. Many positive attributes were presented for Mo-CBP3. However, this protein showed high sequence homology with allergens and resistance to pepsin digestion that indicates that further hypothesis-based testing on its potential allergenicity must be done. Additionally, animal toxicity evaluations (e.g. acute and repeated dose oral exposure assays) must be performed to meet the mandatory requirements of several regulatory agencies. Finally, the approach adopted here exemplified the importance of performing an early risk assessment of candidate proteins for use in plant transformation programs.

  5. Improved applicability of nisin in novel combinations with other food preservation factors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pol, I.E.

    2001-01-01

    General discussion

    Modern consumers nowadays, have a preference for more natural, mildly preserved food products with a fresh appearance over traditionally preserved products. Mild preservation techniques applied singly are usually not sufficient to control microbial outgrowth and combinatio

  6. Nano Food Packages: from Food Preservation Efficiency to Consumer Legal Protection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodica Apan

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The paper explores some aspects related to the application of nanomaterials in food packaging. Therefore, the paper is structured into two sections. In the first section, aspects that could restrict/restrain the application of nanomaterials in food packaging industry in terms of environmental and human risks, the consumer`s rights to be informed regarding the utilization of nano-packages and regulation issues in the field of large scale application of food nano-packages are discussed. In the second section, the efficiency of a nano-package based on Ag/TiO2 to preserve for a longer time (6 days the physical attributes of wheat bread (moisture, specific volume, porosity by comparison with shorter ranges allowed by the common polyethylene bag (3 days and non-packaging respectively (1 day is demonstrated.

  7. Chitosan grafted monomethyl fumaric acid as a potential food preservative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Imran; Ullah, Shafi; Oh, Deog-Hwan

    2016-11-01

    The present study aims at in vitro antibacterial and antioxidant activity evaluation of chitosan modified with monomethyl fumaric acid (MFA) using 1-ethyl-3-(3-dimethylaminopropyl) carbodiimide (EDC) as mediator. Three different kinds of chitosan derivatives Ch-Ds-1,Ch-Ds-2 and Ch-Ds-3 were synthesized by feeding different concentration of MFA. The chemical structures of resulting materials were characterized by (1)H NMR, (13)C NMR, HR-XRD, FT-IR and TNBS assay. The results showed that Ch-Ds-1, Ch-Ds-2 and Ch-Ds-3 were successfully synthesized. The % amino groups of chitosan modified by MFA were evaluated by TNBS assay and ranging from 1.82±0.05% to 7.88±0.04%. All the chitosan derivatives are readily soluble in water and swelled by dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO), toluene and dimethyl formamide (DMF). The antioxidant activity for all the chitosan derivatives have been significantly improved (Pfood preservative and packaging material for long time food safety and security.

  8. Improved applicability of nisin in novel combinations with other food preservation factors

    OpenAIRE

    Pol, I.E.

    2001-01-01

    General discussionModern consumers nowadays, have a preference for more natural, mildly preserved food products with a fresh appearance over traditionally preserved products. Mild preservation techniques applied singly are usually not sufficient to control microbial outgrowth and combinations of measures are needed to ensure complete safe products (16). Bacteriocins, produced by lactic acid bacteria have been successfully used as biopreservatives in a number of food products to inhibit the gr...

  9. Microbiological preservation of cucumbers for bulk storage using acetic acid and food preservatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Díaz, I M; McFeeters, R F

    2008-08-01

    Microbial growth did not occur when cucumbers were preserved without a thermal process by storage in solutions containing acetic acid, sodium benzoate, and calcium chloride to maintain tissue firmness. The concentrations of acetic acid and sodium benzoate required to ensure preservation were low enough so that stored cucumbers could be converted to the finished product without the need to wash out and discard excess acid or preservative. Since no thermal process was required, this method of preservation would be applicable for storing cucumbers in bulk containers. Acid tolerant pathogens died off in less than 24 h with the pH, acetic acid, and sodium benzoate concentrations required to assure the microbial stability of cucumbers stored at 30 degrees C. Potassium sorbate as a preservative in this application was not effective. Yeast growth was observed when sulfite was used as a preservative.

  10. Development of food preservation and processing techniques by radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Byun, Myung Woo; Yook, Hong Sun; Lee, Ju Woon and others

    1999-03-01

    Development of food preservation and processing techniques by radiation was performed. Gamma irradiation at 2-10 kGy is considered to be an effective method to control pathogenic bacteria in species including Escherichia coli O157:H7. Gamma irradiation at 5 kGy completely eliminated pathogenic bacteria in beef. Gamma irradiation at such doses and subsequent storage at less than 4 deg C could ensure hygienic quality and prolong the microbiological shelf-life resulting from the reduction of spoilage microorganisms. Gamma irradiation on pre-rigor beef shortens the aging-period, improves tenderness and enhances the beef quality. And, a new beef processing method using gamma irradiation, such as in the low salt sausage and hygienic beef patty was developed. Safety tests of gamma-irradiated meats(beefs: 0-5 kGy; porks: 0-30 kGy) in areas such as genotoxicity, acute toxicity, four-week oral toxicity, rat hepato carcinogenesis and the anti oxidative defense system, were not affected by gamma irradiation. To pre-establish an alternative technique to the toxic fumigant, methyl bromide, which is the current quarantine measure of agricultural products for export and import, some selected agricultural products, such as chestnuts, acorns, red beans and mung beans, were subjected to a preliminary study to confirm the comparative effects of gamma irradiation and MBr fumigant on their disinfestation and quality, thereby preparing the basic data for the practical approach.Current fumigation(MBr) was perfect in its disinfecting capability, but it caused detrimental effects on the physical quality of agricultural produce. However, irradiation doses suitable for controlling pests did not induce any significant changes in the quality of the products. (author)

  11. Status, Antimicrobial Mechanism, and Regulation of Natural Preservatives in Livestock Food Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Na-Kyoung; Paik, Hyun-Dong

    2016-01-01

    This review discusses the status, antimicrobial mechanisms, application, and regulation of natural preservatives in livestock food systems. Conventional preservatives are synthetic chemical substances including nitrates/nitrites, sulfites, sodium benzoate, propyl gallate, and potassium sorbate. The use of artificial preservatives is being reconsidered because of concerns relating to headache, allergies, and cancer. As the demand for biopreservation in food systems has increased, new natural antimicrobial compounds of various origins are being developed, including plant-derived products (polyphenolics, essential oils, plant antimicrobial peptides (pAMPs)), animal-derived products (lysozymes, lactoperoxidase, lactoferrin, ovotransferrin, antimicrobial peptide (AMP), chitosan and others), and microbial metabolites (nisin, natamycin, pullulan, ε-polylysine, organic acid, and others). These natural preservatives act by inhibiting microbial cell walls/membranes, DNA/RNA replication and transcription, protein synthesis, and metabolism. Natural preservatives have been recognized for their safety; however, these substances can influence color, smell, and toxicity in large amounts while being effective as a food preservative. Therefore, to evaluate the safety and toxicity of natural preservatives, various trials including combinations of other substances or different food preservation systems, and capsulation have been performed. Natamycin and nisin are currently the only natural preservatives being regulated, and other natural preservatives will have to be legally regulated before their widespread use. PMID:27621697

  12. Status, Antimicrobial Mechanism, and Regulation of Natural Preservatives in Livestock Food Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Na-Kyoung; Paik, Hyun-Dong

    2016-01-01

    This review discusses the status, antimicrobial mechanisms, application, and regulation of natural preservatives in livestock food systems. Conventional preservatives are synthetic chemical substances including nitrates/nitrites, sulfites, sodium benzoate, propyl gallate, and potassium sorbate. The use of artificial preservatives is being reconsidered because of concerns relating to headache, allergies, and cancer. As the demand for biopreservation in food systems has increased, new natural antimicrobial compounds of various origins are being developed, including plant-derived products (polyphenolics, essential oils, plant antimicrobial peptides (pAMPs)), animal-derived products (lysozymes, lactoperoxidase, lactoferrin, ovotransferrin, antimicrobial peptide (AMP), chitosan and others), and microbial metabolites (nisin, natamycin, pullulan, ε-polylysine, organic acid, and others). These natural preservatives act by inhibiting microbial cell walls/membranes, DNA/RNA replication and transcription, protein synthesis, and metabolism. Natural preservatives have been recognized for their safety; however, these substances can influence color, smell, and toxicity in large amounts while being effective as a food preservative. Therefore, to evaluate the safety and toxicity of natural preservatives, various trials including combinations of other substances or different food preservation systems, and capsulation have been performed. Natamycin and nisin are currently the only natural preservatives being regulated, and other natural preservatives will have to be legally regulated before their widespread use.

  13. Microbiological preservation of cucumbers for bulk storage by the use of acetic acid and food preservatives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Microbial growth did not occur when cucumbers were preserved without a thermal process by storage in solutions containing acetic acid, sodium benzoate, and calcium chloride to maintain tissue firmness. The concentrations of acetic acid and sodium benzoate required to assure preservation were low en...

  14. Antifungal activity of some marine organisms from India, against food spoilage Aspergillus strains

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Bhosale, S.H.; Jagtap, T.G.; Naik, C.G.

    ), Sinularia leptocladus (soft coral), Elysia grandifolia (Mollusks), Gorgonian sp. 2 and Haliclona sp. exhibited significant (inhibition zone of 3-5 mm) antifungal activity against one or the other strains. However, extracts of A. ilicifolius, Amphiroa sp...

  15. Antifungal activity of mango peel and seed extracts against clinically pathogenic and food spoilage yeasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorta, E; González, M; Lobo, M G; Laich, F

    2015-11-26

    The antioxidant and antifungal (antiyeast) properties of mango (Mangifera indica) peel and seed by-products were investigated. Nine extracts were obtained using three cultivars and two extraction methods. Significant differences between cultivars and extraction methods were detected in their bioactive compounds and antioxidant activity. The antifungal property was determined using agar diffusion and broth micro-dilution assays against 18 yeast species of the genera Candida, Dekkera, Hanseniaspora, Lodderomyces, Metschnikowia, Pichia, Schizosaccharomyces, Saccharomycodes and Zygosaccharomyces. All mango extracts showed antifungal activity. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and the minimum fungicidal concentration (MFC) values were lower for seed than for peel extracts. MICs and MFCs ranged from values 30 mgGAE/mL, respectively. The multivariate analysis showed a relationship between antifungal activity, the capacity to inhibit lipid peroxidation and total phenol content. These properties were associated with high levels of proanthocyanidins, gallates and gallotannins in the extracts.

  16. Safety assessment of Zanthoxylum alatum Roxb. essential oil, its antifungal, antiaflatoxin, antioxidant activity and efficacy as antimicrobial in preservation of Piper nigrum L. fruits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prakash, Bhanu; Singh, Priyanka; Mishra, Prashant Kumar; Dubey, N K

    2012-02-01

    The investigation deals with antifungal, antiaflatoxin and antioxidant efficacy of Zanthoxylum alatum Roxb. essential oil (EO), its two major constituents and their comparison with five commonly used organic acid preservatives. The chemical profile of EO, characterized through GC and GC-MS analysis, revealed linalool (56.10%) and methyl cinnamate (19.73%) as major components. The EO, linalool and methyl cinnamate completely inhibited the growth of a toxigenic strain of A. flavus (LHP-10) as well as aflatoxin B(1) secretion at different concentrations. Methyl cinnamate was found to be more efficacious than EO, linalool and five organic acid preservatives, showing antifungal and antiaflatoxigenic efficacy at a low concentration (0.6 μl/ml) and the nature of its toxicity was fungicidal. However, EO showed strong antioxidant activity with an IC(50) value at 5.6 μl/ml. Moreover, EO was found to have negligible mammalian toxicity as its LD(50) value, determined through oral administration on mice, was calculated to be 6124μl/kg body weight during safety profile assessment. During in vivo investigation on fruit systems, the Zanthoxylum EO, when tested as fumigant, provided 66.27% and 86.33% protection respectively at 1.25 μl/ml and 2.5 μl/ml against fungi infesting Piper nigrum L. fruits demonstrating its practical efficacy as a plant based antimicrobial for post harvest application.

  17. Antimicrobial and antibiofilm effects of selected food preservatives against Salmonella spp. isolated from chicken samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Er, Buket; Demirhan, Burak; Onurdag, Fatma Kaynak; Ozgacar, Selda Özgen; Oktem, Aysel Bayhan

    2014-03-01

    Salmonella spp. are widespread foodborne pathogens that contaminate egg and poultry meats. Attachment, colonization, as well as biofilm formation capacity of Salmonella spp. on food and contact surfaces of food may cause continuous contamination. Biofilm may play a crucial role in the survival of salmonellae under unfavorable environmental conditions, such as in animal slaughterhouses and processing plants. This could serve as a reservoir compromising food safety and human health. Addition of antimicrobial preservatives extends shelf lives of food products, but even when products are supplemented with adequate amounts of preservatives, it is not always possible to inhibit the microorganisms in a biofilm community. In this study, our aims were i) to determine the minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) and minimum biofilm inhibitory concentrations (MBIC) of selected preservatives against planktonic and biofilm forms of Salmonella spp. isolated from chicken samples and Salmonella Typhimurium SL1344 standard strain, ii) to show the differences in the susceptibility patterns of same strains versus the planktonic and biofilm forms to the same preservative agent, and iii) to determine and compare antimicrobial and antibiofilm effects of selected food preservatives against Salmonella spp. For this purpose, Salmonella Typhimurium SL1344 standard strain and 4 Salmonella spp. strains isolated from chicken samples were used. Investigation of antimicrobial and antibiofilm effects of selected food preservatives against Salmonella spp. was done according to Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute M100-S18 guidelines and BioTimer assay, respectively. As preservative agents, pure ciprofloxacin, sodium nitrite, potassium sorbate, sodium benzoate, methyl paraben, and propyl paraben were selected. As a result, it was determined that MBIC values are greater than the MIC values of the preservatives. This result verified the resistance seen in a biofilm community to food

  18. Fight Homemade Poisons: Home Food Care and Preservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, Rosanne

    One of a series of instructional materials produced by the Literacy Council of Alaska, this booklet provides information about food poisoning. Using a simplified vocabulary and shorter sentences, it explains the various kinds of food poisoning, how people get food poisoning, and how to prevent it. (FL)

  19. Irradiation - why we must consult before taking action. [Food preservation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lang, T. (London Food Commission (UK))

    1985-07-01

    A lecture was given by the director of the London Food Commission identifying some of the concerns that need to be considered before permitting irradiation of food in the UK for the purpose of extending the storage or shelf life of foods.

  20. 5 Steps to Food Preservation Program Meets the Needs of Idaho Families

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dye, Lorie; Hoffman, Katie

    2014-01-01

    University of Idaho FCS Extension Educators in southeastern Idaho developed a five-lesson condensed version of safe food preservation classes, driven by participants' interest to meet the needs of everyday home preservers. A post-test survey revealed that participants took the course to be self-reliant, use their own produce, and be in control of…

  1. Evaluating food additives as antifungal agents against Monilinia fructicola in vitro and in hydroxypropyl methylcellulose-lipid composite edible coatings for plums.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karaca, Hakan; Pérez-Gago, María B; Taberner, Verònica; Palou, Lluís

    2014-06-02

    Common food preservative agents were evaluated in in vitro tests for their antifungal activity against Monilinia fructicola, the most economically important pathogen causing postharvest disease of stone fruits. Radial mycelial growth was measured in Petri dishes of PDA amended with three different concentrations of the agents (0.01-0.2%, v/v) after 7 days of incubation at 25 °C. Thirteen out of fifteen agents tested completely inhibited the radial growth of the fungus at various concentrations. Among them, ammonium carbonate, ammonium bicarbonate and sodium bicarbonate were the most effective while sodium acetate and sodium formate were the least effective. The effective agents and concentrations were tested as ingredients of hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HPMC)-lipid edible coatings against brown rot disease on plums previously inoculated with M. fructicola (curative activity). 'Friar' and 'Larry Ann' plums were inoculated with the pathogen, coated with stable edible coatings about 24h later, and incubated at 20 °C and 90% RH. Disease incidence (%) and severity (lesion diameter) were determined after 4, 6, and 8 days of incubation and the 'area under the disease progress stairs' (AUDPS) was calculated. Coatings containing bicarbonates and parabens significantly reduced brown rot incidence in plums, but potassium sorbate, used at 1.0% in the coating formulation, was the most effective agent with a reduction rate of 28.6%. All the tested coatings reduced disease severity to some extent, but coatings containing 0.1% sodium methylparaben or sodium ethylparaben or 0.2% ammonium carbonate or ammonium bicarbonate were superior to the rest, with reduction rates of 45-50%. Overall, the results showed that most of the agents tested in this study had significant antimicrobial activity against M. fructicola and the application of selected antifungal edible coatings is a promising alternative for the control of postharvest brown rot in plums.

  2. Screening of antifungal agents using ethanol precipitation and bioautography of medicinal and food plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmourlo, Gracilene; Mendonça-Filho, Ricardo R; Alviano, Celuta Sales; Costa, Sônia S

    2005-01-15

    In the search for bioactive compounds, bioautography and ethanol precipitation of macromolecules (proteins, polysaccharides, etc.) of plant aqueous extracts were associated in an antifungal screening. Thus, the supernatants, precipitates (obtained by ethanol precipitation) and aqueous extracts were investigated of medicinal and fruit bearing plants used against skin diseases by the Brazilian population. The agar diffusion and broth dilution methods were used to assess the activity against three fungi: Candida albicans, Trichophyton rubrum and Cryptococcus neoformans. The results, evaluated by the diameter of the inhibition zone of fungal growth, indicate that six plant species, among the 16 investigated, showed significant antifungal activity. The minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) was determined on plant extracts that showed high efficacy against the tested microorganisms. The most susceptible yeast was Trichophyton rubrum and the best antifungal activity was shown by Xanthosoma sagittifolium supernatant. The bioautography was performed only for the aqueous extracts and supernatants of those plants that showed antifungal activity against Candida albicans and Cryptococcus neoformans, using n-butanol/acetic acid/water (BAW) 8:1:1 to develop silica gel TLC plates. Clear inhibition zones were observed for aqueous extracts of Schinus molle (R(f) 0.89) and Schinus terebinthifolius (R(f) 0.80) against Candida albicans, as for supernatant of Anacardium occidentale (R(f) 0.31) against Cryptococcus neoformans. The separation of macromolecules from metabolites, as in the case of Anacardium occidentale, Solanum sp. and Xanthosoma sagittifolium, enhances antifungal activity. In other cases, the antifungal activity is destroyed, as observed for Momordica charantia, Schinus molle and Schinus terebinthifolius.

  3. Radiation treatment of food. A new technology for preservation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wetzel, K.; Huebner, G.

    1985-09-01

    The brief survey reports on irradiation of food, especially onions, potatoes, chicken meat, spices, additives, and enzyme solutions used in food industries, demonstrating examples from several countries. Advantages, microbiological aspects of irradiation treatment and chemical radiation effects are described. Technological fundamentals of radiopreservation including irradiation plants and devices are outlined.

  4. Genomics applications in food preservation and safety research

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brul, S.; Keijser, B.J.F.; Spek, H. van der; Oomes, S.J.C.M.; Montijn, R.

    2005-01-01

    Genomes are being sequenced at an ever-increasing pace. Also genomes of many of the microorganisms of concern to food safety are now known. The next step is of course how to exploit this information in an effective way. This article briefly introduces the issues in the food processing industry as fa

  5. Nanomaterials for fresh-keeping and sterilization in food preservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Dongfang; Gu, Ning

    2009-06-01

    Food sterilizing and antistaling technologies are very important to the public's health and safety and have been attracting more and more attentions. In the past several years, new development chance was created by the introduction of nanomaterials to this critical field. Nanomaterials possess lots of outstanding properties, such as unique quantum size effect, large surface area and catalytic properties, which jointly facilitate high effective fresh-keeping, and thus were considered as promising materials in food sterilization and antistale. This review article focuses on the patented applications of nanomaterials as food biocidal agents, bacteriostatic agents, catalysts and carriers for antistaling agents.

  6. Radiation Chemistry and the Radiation Preservation of Food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taub, Irwin A.

    1981-01-01

    Describes common features in the radiation chemistry of food components, and illustrates how product yields are predicted. Presents data that pertain to the radiolysis of the nitrate ion, metmyoglobin, myosin, and tripalmitin. (CS)

  7. Food Preservation Mini-Modules Offer Options for Learners and Extension Staff

    Science.gov (United States)

    Driessen, Suzanne

    2013-01-01

    Renewed interest in growing and purchasing locally grown foods quadrupled requests for food preservation classes. Economic times tightened budgets, decreasing staffing levels of Extension educators. Offering options via the Internet was a natural progression to meet the increased demand. Extension educators created 20 5-minute online video--like…

  8. Food Preservation Manual: A Guide for School-Community Canneries in Virginia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jasper S., Ed.; Wood, Charles B.

    The manual was intended primarily for use by lay instructors and assistants involved in the daily operation of school-community canneries under the supervision of a high school agricultural education instructor. The first half deals in detail with the fundamentals of food preparation and cannery operation. Food preservation by canning, sanitation…

  9. Facets of Nanotechnology as Seen in Food Processing, Packaging, and Preservation Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neha Pradhan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Nanotechnology has proven its competence in almost all possible fields we are aware of. However, today nanotechnology has evolved in true sense by contributing to a very large extent to the food industry. With the growing number of mouths to feed, production of food is not adequate. It has to be preserved in order to reach to the masses on a global scale. Nanotechnology made the idea a reality by increasing the shelf life of different kinds of food materials. It is not an entirely full-proof measure; however it has brought down the extent of wastage of food due to microbial infestation. Not only fresh food but also healthier food is being designed with the help of nano-delivery systems which act as a carrier for the food supplements. There are regulations to follow however as several of them pose serious threats to the wellbeing of the population. In coming days, newer modes of safeguarding food are going to be developed with the help of nanotechnology. In this paper, an overview has been given of the different methods of food processing, packaging, and preservation techniques and the role nanotechnology plays in the food processing, packaging, and preservation industry.

  10. Facets of Nanotechnology as Seen in Food Processing, Packaging, and Preservation Industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pradhan, Neha; Singh, Surjit; Ojha, Nupur; Shrivastava, Anamika; Barla, Anil; Rai, Vivek; Bose, Sutapa

    2015-01-01

    Nanotechnology has proven its competence in almost all possible fields we are aware of. However, today nanotechnology has evolved in true sense by contributing to a very large extent to the food industry. With the growing number of mouths to feed, production of food is not adequate. It has to be preserved in order to reach to the masses on a global scale. Nanotechnology made the idea a reality by increasing the shelf life of different kinds of food materials. It is not an entirely full-proof measure; however it has brought down the extent of wastage of food due to microbial infestation. Not only fresh food but also healthier food is being designed with the help of nano-delivery systems which act as a carrier for the food supplements. There are regulations to follow however as several of them pose serious threats to the wellbeing of the population. In coming days, newer modes of safeguarding food are going to be developed with the help of nanotechnology. In this paper, an overview has been given of the different methods of food processing, packaging, and preservation techniques and the role nanotechnology plays in the food processing, packaging, and preservation industry.

  11. Antimicrobial activity of coriander oil and its effectiveness as food preservative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Filomena; Domingues, Fernanda C

    2017-01-02

    ABTRACT Foodborne illness represents a major economic burden worldwide and a serious public health threat, with around 48 million people affected and 3,000 death each year only in the USA. One of the possible strategies to reduce foodborne infections is the development of effective preservation strategies capable of eradicating microbial contamination of foods. Over the last years, new challenges for the food industry have arisen such as the increase of antimicrobial resistance of foodborne pathogens to common preservatives and consumers demand for naturally based products. In order to overcome this, new approaches using natural or bio-based products as food preservatives need to be investigated. Coriander (Coriandrum sativum L.) is a well-known herb widely used as spice, or in folk medicine, and in the pharmacy and food industries. Coriander seed oil is the world's second most relevant essential oil, exhibiting antimicrobial activity against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria, some yeasts, dermatophytes and filamentous fungi. This review highlights coriander oil antimicrobial activity and possible mechanisms of action in microbial cells and discusses the ability of coriander oil usage as a food preservative, pointing out possible paths for the successful evolution for these strategies towards a successful development of a food preservation strategy using coriander oil.

  12. Analysis of Mount Atlas mastic smoke: a potential food preservative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohagheghzadeh, Abdolali; Faridi, Pouya; Ghasemi, Younes

    2010-09-01

    Pistacia terebinthus L. smoke has been used traditionally in Iran as disinfectant and air purifier. Smoke was collected by a simple method, and the chemical constituents and antimicrobial activity of the smoke were analyzed. The chemical constituents of the smoke were alpha-pinene (65.1%), limonene (11.5%) and allo-ocimene (2.8%). The non polar phase of smoke noticeably inhibited the growth of different microorganisms. MIC test shows that non polar fraction of smoke can inhibit the growth of some bacteria. The results indicating that the properties of the smoke as a flavoring and preservative agent could be a potential subject for future studies.

  13. Radiation Dosimetry for Quality Control of Food Preservation and Disinfestation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McLaughlin, W.L.; Miller, Arne; Uribe, R.M.

    1983-01-01

    In the use of x and gamma rays and scanned electron beams to extend the shelf life of food by delay of sprouting and ripening, killing of microbes, and control of insect population, quality assurance is provided by standardized radiation dosimetry. By strategic placement of calibrated dosimeters...

  14. Preservation of food by cold chains. Part 4. Brief history of the industrial food preservation; Conservering van voedingsmiddelen door koudeketens. Deel 4. Korte historie van de industriele voedingsmiddelenconservering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van den Berg, C.; Berends, E.

    2011-10-01

    This is the fourth article in the series on cold chain food preservation, which describes the use of refrigeration in the food industry. Milestones were the building of cold chains for food distribution and new processes such as margarine and lager beer, and the scaling up of existing processes (e.g. for dairy, meat and fish products). By quick freezing, introduced by Clarence Birdseye in 1925, refrigeration can also be used for long term preservation of food products, as a powerful alternative for canning food. [Dutch] Dit vierde artikel in de reeks 'voedingsmiddelenconservering door koudeketens' completeert de beknopte historie van de voedingsmiddelenindustrie met een overzicht van het in gebruik nemen van de koelmachine. Mijlpalen zijn het ontstaan van koudeketens voor voedseldistributie en de nu mogelijk geworden nieuwe processen, de bereiding van pilsbier en margarine, de opschaling van bereidingsprocessen en het lange-afstandtransport van bederfelijke producten zoals zuivelproducten, vlees en vis. Door diepvriezen als methode aan te wenden, uitgevonden door Clarence Birdseye in 1925, kan koude ook worden gebruikt om voedingsmiddelen lang houdbaar te maken, een superieur alternatief voor inblikken van voedsel.

  15. Assessment of genotoxicity of some common food preservatives using Allium cepa L. as a test plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Himadri Pandey

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Food preservatives play important role in today's food supplies that are used to prolong the self-life of products by protecting them from deterioration caused by micro-organisms. In this study, investigations were carried out to study the impacts of food preservatives like butylated hydroxytoluene, butylated hydroxyanisole, sorbic acid, propyl gallate and sodium nitrate. The effects of these preservatives at concentration of 1000 ppm, 1500 ppm, 2000 ppm, 2500 ppm for 4 h, 8 h and 16 h of exposure period were studied on the root tips of Allium cepa. Cytological studies revealed statistically significant (p < 0.05 inhibition in mitotic index with an increase in concentration of the food preservatives when compared with the control. Most frequent cytological abnormalities observed were bridges, multipolarity, C-mitosis, stickiness and cell death. The total percentages of abnormalities were also increased with increasing concentration and time duration. The abnormalities (% in root system caused by used preservatives were recorded as butylated hydroxytoluene < butylated hydroxyanisole < sodium nitrate < sorbic acid < propyl gallate.

  16. Kinetic study of treatment of wastewater contains food preservative agent by anaerobic baffled reactor : An overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumantri, Indro; Purwanto, Budiyono

    2015-12-01

    The characteristic of wastewater of food industries with preservative substances is high content of organic substances, degradable and high total suspended solid. High organic content in this waste forced the treatment is biologically and pointed out to anaerobic treatment. Anaerobic showed the better performance of degradation than aerobic for high content organic and also for toxic materials. During that day the treatment of food wastewater is aerobically which is high consume of energy required and high volume of sludge produced. The advantage of anaerobic is save high energy, less product of sludge, less requirement of nutrients of microorganism and high efficiency reduction of organic load. The high efficiency of reduction will reduce the load of further treatment, so that, the threshold limit based on the regulation would be easy to achieve. Research of treatment of wastewater of food industries would be utilized by both big scale industries and small industries using addition of preservative substances. The type reactor of anaerobic process is anaerobic baffled reactor that will give better contact between wastewater and microorganism in the sludge. The variables conducted in this research are the baffled configuration, sludge height, preservative agent contents, hydralic retention time and influence of micro nutrients. The respons of this research are the COD effluent, remaining preservative agent, pH, formation of volatile fatty acid and total suspended solid. The result of this research is kinetic model of the anaerobic baffled reactor, reaction kinetic of preservative agent degradation and technology of treatment wastewater contains preservative agent. The benefit of this research is to solve the treatment of wastewater of food industries with preservative substance in order to achieve wastewater limit regulation and also to prevent the environmental deterioration.

  17. Kinetic study of treatment of wastewater contains food preservative agent by anaerobic baffled reactor : An overview

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sumantri, Indro; Purwanto,; Budiyono [Chemical Engineering Department, Faculty of Engineering, Diponegoro University Jl. Prof. H. Soedarto, SH, Kampus Baru Tembalang, Semarang (Indonesia)

    2015-12-29

    The characteristic of wastewater of food industries with preservative substances is high content of organic substances, degradable and high total suspended solid. High organic content in this waste forced the treatment is biologically and pointed out to anaerobic treatment. Anaerobic showed the better performance of degradation than aerobic for high content organic and also for toxic materials. During that day the treatment of food wastewater is aerobically which is high consume of energy required and high volume of sludge produced. The advantage of anaerobic is save high energy, less product of sludge, less requirement of nutrients of microorganism and high efficiency reduction of organic load. The high efficiency of reduction will reduce the load of further treatment, so that, the threshold limit based on the regulation would be easy to achieve. Research of treatment of wastewater of food industries would be utilized by both big scale industries and small industries using addition of preservative substances. The type reactor of anaerobic process is anaerobic baffled reactor that will give better contact between wastewater and microorganism in the sludge. The variables conducted in this research are the baffled configuration, sludge height, preservative agent contents, hydralic retention time and influence of micro nutrients. The respons of this research are the COD effluent, remaining preservative agent, pH, formation of volatile fatty acid and total suspended solid. The result of this research is kinetic model of the anaerobic baffled reactor, reaction kinetic of preservative agent degradation and technology of treatment wastewater contains preservative agent. The benefit of this research is to solve the treatment of wastewater of food industries with preservative substance in order to achieve wastewater limit regulation and also to prevent the environmental deterioration.

  18. Effect of essential oils on Aspergillus spore germination, growth and mycotoxin production: a potential source of botanical food preservative

    OpenAIRE

    Negero Gemeda; Yimtubezinash Woldeamanuel; Daniel Asrat; Asfaw Debella

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To investigate effect of essential oils on Aspergillus spore germination, growth and mycotoxin production. Method: In vitro antifungal and antiaflatoxigenic activity of essential oils was carried out using poisoned food techniques, spore germination assay, agar dilution assay, and aflatoxin arresting assay on toxigenic strains of Aspergillus species. Results: Cymbopogon martinii, Foeniculum vulgare and Trachyspermum ammi (T. ammi) essential oils were tested against toxicogeni...

  19. Active packaging with antifungal activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen Van Long, N; Joly, Catherine; Dantigny, Philippe

    2016-03-01

    There have been many reviews concerned with antimicrobial food packaging, and with the use of antifungal compounds, but none provided an exhaustive picture of the applications of active packaging to control fungal spoilage. Very recently, many studies have been done in these fields, therefore it is timely to review this topic. This article examines the effects of essential oils, preservatives, natural products, chemical fungicides, nanoparticles coated to different films, and chitosan in vitro on the growth of moulds, but also in vivo on the mould free shelf-life of bread, cheese, and fresh fruits and vegetables. A short section is also dedicated to yeasts. All the applications are described from a microbiological point of view, and these were sorted depending on the name of the species. Methods and results obtained are discussed. Essential oils and preservatives were ranked by increased efficacy on mould growth. For all the tested molecules, Penicillium species were shown more sensitive than Aspergillus species. However, comparison between the results was difficult because it appeared that the efficiency of active packaging depended greatly on the environmental factors of food such as water activity, pH, temperature, NaCl concentration, the nature, the size, and the mode of application of the films, in addition to the fact that the amount of released antifungal compounds was not constant with time.

  20. The Effect of High Hydrostatic Pressure on Microorganisms in Food Preservation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Arici

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available High hydrostatic pressure is a new food preservation technology known for its capacity to inactivate spoilage and pathogenic microorganisms. High-pressure treatments are receiving a great deal of attention for the inactivation of microorganisms in food processing, pressure instead of temperature is used as stabilizing factor. High hydrostatic pressure treatment is the most studied alternative process, many works reported successful results in inactivating a wide range of microorganisms under different operative conditions such as temperature, pressure, exposure time.

  1. Preservation of Food Items Using Solar Dryers: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manish Joshi

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available In order to conserve the food products like chillies, grapes, potatoes & other agricultural products, for a longer period of time & with same the quality they need to be dried by using any form of energy, for example heat energy from fossil fuels or solar energy etc. This is done to reduce the moisture content to a predetermined level which prevents the growth & reproduction of micro organisms like bacteria, yeasts etc. that causes many moisture mediated deterioration reactions. One of the drying methods involves drying the produce with the help of direct sun light by spreading them in an open space. This process is labor intensive & requires a large area for spreading the produced to dry out. The disadvantage of this method involves uneven heating, loss of produce due to birds, animals, bad weather etc. Another method of drying involves artificial mechanical drying which is an energy intensive, expensive and costly method. Green house drying or solar drying gives the best results as it does not compromise the product quality, aesthetic etc. Moreover it makes the transportation process easy as the volume of dried product reduces. This paper reviews the solar drying process & gives complete in depth of all the elements involve in solar drying.

  2. Knowledge and Attitudes of Selected Home Economists toward Irradiation in Food Preservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Faye C. Stucy

    1990-01-01

    A survey of the knowledge and attitudes of 485 California home economists toward the use of irradiation to preserve food revealed that they lacked the knowledge although they had a positive attitude toward it. An interactive teleconference on irradiation increased positive attitudes and improved knowledge. (JOW)

  3. Potential use of Rosemary, Propolis and Thyme as Natural Food Preservatives

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tzima, K.; Makris, D.; Nikiforidis, C.V.; Mourtzinos, I.

    2015-01-01

    The use of preservatives in food stuffs and beverages is essential in order to prevent spoilage due to microbial growth or undesirable chemical changes. However, the use of synthetic additives has been associated with various health problems. Therefore, consumers have turned suspicious and obverted

  4. Facets of Nanotechnology as Seen in Food Processing, Packaging, and Preservation Industry

    OpenAIRE

    Neha Pradhan; Surjit Singh; Nupur Ojha; Anamika Shrivastava; Anil Barla; Vivek Rai; Sutapa Bose

    2015-01-01

    Nanotechnology has proven its competence in almost all possible fields we are aware of. However, today nanotechnology has evolved in true sense by contributing to a very large extent to the food industry. With the growing number of mouths to feed, production of food is not adequate. It has to be preserved in order to reach to the masses on a global scale. Nanotechnology made the idea a reality by increasing the shelf life of different kinds of food materials. It is not an entirely full-proof ...

  5. [Investigation of antimicrobial and antibiofilm effects of some preservatives used in drugs, cosmetics and food products].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Güven, Nihal; Kaynak Onurdağ, Fatma

    2014-01-01

    Preservatives are added to food, drugs and other pharmaceutical products to avoid microbial contamination. For antimicrobial activity testing and preservative efficacy testing, vegetative forms of the standard test organisms are used. However, microbial biofilm formation may occur on living tissues, medical implants, industrial or drinking water pipes, natural aquatic systems, glass and plastic surfaces. In our study, it was aimed to determine the antimicrobial and antibiofilm effects of some preservatives used in drug, cosmetics and food products and to compare the minimum biofilm inhibitory concentration (MBIC) of microbial biofilm formed on glass surfaces which are commonly used in those areas and the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) values of the planktonic forms. In the study Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 27853, Salmonella Thyphimurium SL1344, Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 6538, Staphylococcus epidermidis NCTC 11047, Enterococcus faecalis ATCC 29212 and Candida albicans ATCC 10231 were used as the standard strains; sodium nitrate, methylparaben, prophylparaben, potassium sorbate and sodium benzoate as the preservatives; ampicillin, vancomycin, gentamicin, ciprofloxacin, amphotericin B and itraconazole as the antimicrobial agents. MIC values were determined through the guidelines of CLSI M100-S18 and M27-A3 protocols. BioTimer method was used to determine the MBIC values. The value of "colony forming unit (CFU)/glass beads" was calculated using the graphics drawn by plotting the time of color change for phenol red or resazurin against log10CFU. All experiments were done with four media at different pH values namely pH: 7, pH: 6.5, pH: 6 and pH: 5.5. According to the results of tests on planktonic forms of the microorganisms, sodium benzoate was determined to be the most effective preservative against all the microorganisms tested except S.aureus and E.faecalis. The most effective preservative against S.aureus and E.faecalis was prophylparaben. Prophylparaben

  6. Bactericidal action of carvacrol towards the food pathogen Bacillus cereus : A case study of a novel approach to mild food preservation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ultee, A.

    2000-01-01

    A new trend in food preservation is the use of mild preservation systems, instead of more severe techniques such as heating, freezing or addition of chemical preservatives. Carvacrol, a phenolic compound present in the essential oil fraction of oreganum and thyme, is known for its antimicrobial acti

  7. Susceptibility of Clostridium difficile to the food preservatives sodium nitrite, sodium nitrate and sodium metabisulphite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Su-Chen; Foster, Niki F; Riley, Thomas V

    2016-02-01

    Clostridium difficile is an important enteric pathogen of humans and food animals. Recently it has been isolated from retail foods with prevalences up to 42%, prompting concern that contaminated foods may be one of the reasons for increased community-acquired C. difficile infection (CA-CDI). A number of studies have examined the prevalence of C. difficile in raw meats and fresh vegetables; however, fewer studies have examined the prevalence of C. difficile in ready-to-eat meat. The aim of this study was to investigate the in vitro susceptibility of 11 C. difficile isolates of food animal and retail food origins to food preservatives commonly used in ready-to-eat meats. The broth microdilution method was used to determine the minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) and minimum bactericidal concentrations (MBC) for sodium nitrite, sodium nitrate and sodium metabisulphite against C. difficile. Checkerboard assays were used to investigate the combined effect of sodium nitrite and sodium nitrate, commonly used in combination in meats. Modal MIC values for sodium nitrite, sodium nitrate and sodium metabisulphite were 250 μg/ml, >4000 μg/ml and 1000 μg/ml, respectively. No bactericidal activity was observed for all three food preservatives. The checkerboard assays showed indifferent interaction between sodium nitrite and sodium nitrate. This study demonstrated that C. difficile can survive in the presence of food preservatives at concentrations higher than the current maximum permitted levels allowed in ready-to-eat meats. The possibility of retail ready-to-eat meats contaminated with C. difficile acting as a source of CDI needs to be investigated.

  8. Exposure assessment of food preservatives (sulphites, benzoic and sorbic acid) in Austria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mischek, Daniela; Krapfenbauer-Cermak, Christine

    2012-01-01

    An exposure assessment was performed to estimate the potential intake of preservatives in the Austrian population. Food consumption data of different population groups, such as preschool children aged 3-6 years, female and male adults aged 19-65 years were used for calculation. Levels of the preservatives in food were derived from analyses conducted from January 2007 to August 2010. Dietary intakes of the preservatives were estimated and compared to the respective acceptable daily intakes (ADIs). In the average-intake scenario, assuming that consumers randomly consume food products that do or do not contain food additives, estimated dietary intakes of all studied preservatives are well below the ADI for all population groups. Sulphite exposure accounted for 34%, 84% and 89% of the ADI in preschool children, females and males, respectively. The mean estimated daily intake of benzoic acid was 32% (preschool children), 31% (males) and 36% (females) of the ADI. Sorbic acid intakes correspond to 7% of the ADI in preschool children and 6% of the ADI in adults. In the high-intake scenario assuming that consumers always consume food products that contain additives and considering a kind of brand loyalty of consumers, the ADI is exceeded for sulphites among adults (119 and 124%, respectively). Major contributors to the total intake of sulphites were wine and dried fruits for adults. Mean estimated dietary intakes of benzoic acid exceeded the ADI in all population groups, 135% in preschool children, 124% in females and 118% of the ADI in males, respectively. Dietary intakes of sorbic acid are well below the ADI, accounting for a maximum of 30% of the ADI in preschool children. The highest contributors to benzoic and sorbic acid exposure were fish and fish products mainly caused by high consumption data of this large food group, including also mayonnaise-containing fish salads. Other important sources of sorbic acid were bread, buns and toast bread and fruit and vegetable

  9. Nisin as a Food Preservative: Part 2: Antimicrobial Polymer Materials Containing Nisin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gharsallaoui, Adem; Joly, Catherine; Oulahal, Nadia; Degraeve, Pascal

    2016-06-10

    Nisin is the only bacteriocin approved as a food preservative because of its antibacterial effectiveness and its negligible toxicity for humans. Typical problems encountered when nisin is directly added to foods are mainly fat adsorption leading to activity loss, heterogeneous distribution in the food matrix, inactivation by proteolytic enzymes, and emergence of resistance in normally sensitive bacteria strains. To overcome these problems, nisin can be immobilized in solid matrices that must act as diffusional barriers and allow controlling its release rate. This strategy allows maintaining a just sufficient nisin concentration at the food surface. The design of such antimicrobial materials must consider both bacterial growth kinetics but also nisin release kinetics. In this review, nisin incorporation in polymer-based materials will be discussed and special emphasis will be on the applications and properties of antimicrobial food packaging containing this bacteriocin.

  10. Eucalyptus essential oil as a natural food preservative: in vivo and in vitro antiyeast potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyagi, Amit Kumar; Bukvicki, Danka; Gottardi, Davide; Tabanelli, Giulia; Montanari, Chiara; Malik, Anushree; Guerzoni, Maria Elisabetta

    2014-01-01

    In this study, the application of eucalyptus essential oil/vapour as beverages preservative is reported. The chemical composition of eucalyptus oil was determined by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and solid phase microextraction GC-MS (SPME/GC-MS) analyses. GC-MS revealed that the major constituents were 1,8-cineole (80.5%), limonene (6.5%), α-pinene (5%), and γ-terpinene (2.9%) while SPME/GC-MS showed a relative reduction of 1,8-cineole (63.9%) and an increase of limonene (13.8%), α-pinene (8.87%), and γ-terpinene (3.98%). Antimicrobial potential of essential oil was initially determined in vitro against 8 different food spoilage yeasts by disc diffusion, disc volatilization, and microdilution method. The activity of eucalyptus vapours was significantly higher than the eucalyptus oil. Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum fungicidal concentration (MFC) varied from 0.56 to 4.50 mg/mL and from 1.13 to 9 mg/mL, respectively. Subsequently, the combined efficacy of essential oil and thermal treatment were used to evaluate the preservation of a mixed fruit juice in a time-dependent manner. These results suggest eucalyptus oil as a potent inhibitor of food spoilage yeasts not only in vitro but also in a real food system. Currently, this is the first report that uses eucalyptus essential oil for fruit juice preservation against food spoiling yeast.

  11. Nano Food Packages: from Food Preservation Efficiency to Consumer Legal Protection

    OpenAIRE

    Rodica Apan; Anca Mihaly Cozmuta; Anca Peter; Camelia Nicula

    2014-01-01

    The paper explores some aspects related to the application of nanomaterials in food packaging. Therefore, the paper is structured into two sections. In the first section, aspects that could restrict/restrain the application of nanomaterials in food packaging industry in terms of environmental and human risks, the consumer`s rights to be informed regarding the utilization of nano-packages and regulation issues in the field of large scale application of food nano-packages are discussed. In the ...

  12. Chemical stability of astaxanthin integrated into a food matrix: Effects of food processing and methods for preservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Delgado, Alejandra Anahí; Khandual, Sanghamitra; Villanueva-Rodríguez, Socorro Josefina

    2017-06-15

    Astaxanthin is a carotenoid pigment found in numerous organisms ranging from bacteria to algae, yeasts, plants, crustaceans and fish such as salmon. Technological importance of this pigment emerged from various studies demonstrating that it is a powerful antioxidant, even with higher activity than alpha-tocopherol and other carotenoids. It has been included in various pharmaceutical products because of several beneficial properties. By its nature, astaxanthin is susceptible to degradation and can undergo chemical changes during food processing. Therefore, different studies have focused on improving the stability of the carotenoid under conditions such as high temperatures, pressures and mechanical force, among others. In this review, common processes involved in food processing and their effect on the stability of astaxanthin, integrated into a food matrix are discussed. Moreover, preservation techniques such as microencapsulation, inclusion in emulsions, suspensions, liposomes, etc., that are being employed to maintain stability of the product are also reviewed.

  13. Genotoxicity of five food preservatives tested on root tips of Allium cepa L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Türkoğlu, Sifa

    2007-01-10

    The effects of the food preservatives sodium benzoate (SB), boric acid (BA), citric acid (CA), potassium citrate (PC) and sodium citrate (SC) have been studied on root tips of Allium cepa L. Roots of A. cepa were treated with a series of concentrations, ranging from 20 to 100 ppm for 5, 10 and 20 h. The results indicate that these food preservatives reduced mitotic division in A. cepa compared with the respective control. Mitotic index values were generally decreased with increasing concentrations and longer treatment times. Additionally, variations in the percentage of mitotic stages were observed. The total percentage of aberrations generally increased with increasing concentrations of these chemicals and the longer period of treatment. Different abnormal mitotic figures were observed in all mitotic phases. Among these abnormalities were anaphase bridges, C-mitosis, micronuclei, lagging, stickiness, breaks and unequal distribution.

  14. Functionality of liquid smoke as an all-natural antimicrobial in food preservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lingbeck, Jody M; Cordero, Paola; O'Bryan, Corliss A; Johnson, Michael G; Ricke, Steven C; Crandall, Philip G

    2014-06-01

    The smoking of foods, especially meats, has been used as a preservation technique for centuries. Today, smoking methods often involve the use of wood smoke condensates, commonly known as liquid smoke. Liquid smoke is produced by condensing wood smoke created by the pyrolysis of sawdust or wood chips followed by removal of the carcinogenic polyaromatic hydrocarbons. The main products of wood pyrolysis are phenols, carbonyls and organic acids which are responsible for the flavor, color and antimicrobial properties of liquid smoke. Several common food-borne pathogens such as Listeria monocytogenes, Salmonella, pathogenic Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus have shown sensitivity to liquid smoke in vitro and in food systems. Therefore liquid smoke has potential for use as an all-natural antimicrobial in commercial applications where smoke flavor is desired. This review will cover the application and effectiveness of liquid smoke and fractions of liquid smoke as an all-natural food preservative. This review will be valuable for the industrial and research communities in the food science and technology areas.

  15. Applications of Liquid Smoke Powder as Flavor and Food Preservative (Case Study : Sponge Cake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Maryam

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Liquid smoke is converted into powder will provide ease of mobilization and storage. At this time should be developed as an application of liquid smoke powder as flavor and food preservative. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of adding liquid smoke powder to the flavor and shelf life of food. Samples of food used is a sponge cake. The method used to observe the shelf life is the ESS (Extended Storage Studies. Observations flavor food with organoleptic test was used to respondents. Addition of liquid smoke powder treatment performed at the level of 0%, 2%, 4% and 6% of the weight of flour. The addition of liquid smoke powder to give effect to flavor foods and can increase shelf life. Liquid smoke contains phenolic compounds which in addition to contributing smoke flavor, also has antioxidant and bactericidal action on food. Optimal conditions of manufacture liquid smoke powder by using a spray dryer is on the treatment concentration of 5% and a inlet temperature of 160 °C. The addition of optimum is at the level of 2% which can increase the shelf life of food to 8 days and the flavor is still received  by respondents.

  16. The role of ammonites in the Mesozoic marine food web revealed by jaw preservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kruta, Isabelle; Landman, Neil; Rouget, Isabelle; Cecca, Fabrizio; Tafforeau, Paul

    2011-01-07

    Ammonites are prominent in macroevolutionary studies because of their abundance and diversity in the fossil record, but their paleobiology and position in the marine food web are not well understood due to the lack of preserved soft tissue. We present three-dimensional reconstructions of the buccal apparatus in the Mesozoic ammonite Baculites with the use of synchrotron x-ray microtomography. Buccal mass morphology, combined with the coexistence of food remains found in the buccal mass, suggests that these ammonites fed on plankton. This diet may have extended to all aptychophoran ammonites, which share the same buccal mass morphology. Understanding the role of these ammonites in the Mesozoic food web provides insights into their radiation in the Early Jurassic, as well as their extinction at the end of the Cretaceous/early Paleogene.

  17. Current topics in active and intelligent food packaging for preservation of fresh foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Seung Yuan; Lee, Seung Jae; Choi, Dong Soo; Hur, Sun Jin

    2015-11-01

    The purpose of this review is to provide an overview of current packaging systems, e.g. active packaging and intelligent packaging, for various foods. Active packaging, such as modified atmosphere packaging (MAP), extends the shelf life of fresh produce, provides a high-quality product, reduces economic losses, including those caused by delay of ripening, and improves appearance. However, in active packaging, several variables must be considered, such as temperature control and different gas formulations with different product types and microorganisms. Active packaging refers to the incorporation of additive agents into packaging materials with the purpose of maintaining or extending food product quality and shelf life. Intelligent packaging is emerging as a potential advantage in food processing and is an especially useful tool for tracking product information and monitoring product conditions. Moreover, intelligent packaging facilitates data access and information exchange by altering conditions inside or outside the packaging and product. In spite of these advantages, few of these packaging systems are commercialized because of high cost, strict safety and hygiene regulations or limited consumer acceptance. Therefore more research is needed to develop cheaper, more easily applicable and effective packaging systems for various foods.

  18. Potential role of antioxidant food supplements, preservatives and colorants in the pathogenesis of allergy and asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaknun, Daniela; Schroecksnadel, Sebastian; Kurz, Katharina; Fuchs, Dietmar

    2012-01-01

    A significant increase in the incidence of allergy and asthma has been observed during the past decades. The background of this phenomenon has not been well explained, but changes in lifestyle and habits are heavily discussed as contributing factors. Among these is a too clean environment, which may predispose individuals to increased sensitivity to allergic responses. Also the increase in dietary supplements including preservatives and colorants may contribute to this. In vitro, we and others have shown in freshly isolated human peripheral blood mononuclear cells that antioxidant compounds like vitamins C and E as well as food preservatives and colorants exert significant suppressive effects on the Th1 immune activation cascade. The effects observed may be based on the interaction of antioxidant compounds with proinflammatory cascades involving important signal transduction elements such as nuclear factor-κB. Although only obtained in vitro, these results show an anti-inflammatory property of compounds which could shift the Th1-Th2-type immune balance towards Th2-type immunity. This review article discusses the potential role of increased use of antioxidant food supplements as well as preservatives and colorants in the increase in allergy and asthma in the Western world.

  19. 食品防腐剂的应用及发展趋势%Application And Development Of Food Preservations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    任美燕

    2015-01-01

    This paper describes the application and development of food preservations. Chemical food preservations are dominant. The character of natural food preservative are natural, safety, nonpoisonous and steady, It is the hot research. Although many of the problems need to be solved, natural food preservative still have a long-term development prospects.%本文主要介绍了食品防腐剂在食品行业的应用及发展趋势,目前使用最多的是化学防腐剂,但天然防腐剂具有天然高效、安全无毒、性能稳定的特点,成为目前研究的热点,虽存在许多问题,仍具有远大的发展前景。

  20. Could essential oils of green and black pepper be used as food preservatives?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikolić, Miloš; Stojković, Dejan; Glamočlija, Jasmina; Ćirić, Ana; Marković, Tatjana; Smiljković, Marija; Soković, Marina

    2015-10-01

    Black and green pepper essential oils were used in this study in order to determine the chemical composition, in vitro antimicrobial activity against food spoilage microorganisms and in situ oils effect on food microorganism, after incorporation in chicken soup, by suggested methodology for calculation of Growth inhibition concentrations (GIC50). Chemical analysis revealed a total of 34 components. The major constituent of black pepper oil was trans-caryophyllene (30.33 %), followed by limonene (12.12 %), while β-pinene (24.42 %), δ(3)-carene (19.72 %), limonene (18.73 %) and α-pinene (10.39 %) were dominant compounds in green pepper oil. Antimicrobial activity was determined by microdilution technique and minimal inhibitory (MIC) and minimal bactericidal/fungicidal concentrations (MBC/MFC) were determined. Green pepper oil showed stronger antibacterial and antifungal activity (MIC 0.50-1.87; MBC 0.63-2.5 mg/ml; MIC 0.07-0.16; MFC 0.13-1.25 mg/ml) against black pepper oil (MIC 0.07-3.75; MBC 0.60-10.00 mg/ml; MIC 0.63-5.00; MFC 1.25-10.00 mg/ml. Oils successfully inhibited the growth of S. aureus in chicken soup in a dose dependent manner. GIC50 values were calculated after 24, 48 and 72 h and were in range of 0.156-0.689 mg/ml. The 50 % inhibitory concentrations (IC50) of EOs were 36.84 and 38.77 mg/ml with in 2, 2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) assay respectively. The obtained results revealed that black and green pepper volatiles are efficient in controlling the growth of known food-spoilage microorganisms.

  1. Potential applicability of chymotrypsin-susceptible microcin J25 derivatives to food preservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pomares, María Fernanda; Salomón, Raúl A; Pavlova, Olga; Severinov, Konstantin; Farías, Ricardo; Vincent, Paula A

    2009-09-01

    Microcin J25 (MccJ25) is a 21-residue ribosomally synthesized lariat peptide antibiotic. MccJ25 is active against such food-borne disease-causing pathogens as Salmonella spp., Shigella spp., and Escherichia coli, including E. coli O157:H7 and non-O157 strains. MccJ25 is highly resistant to digestion by proteolytic enzymes present in the stomach and intestinal contents. MccJ25 would therefore remain active in the gastrointestinal tract, affecting normal intestinal microbiota, and this limits the potential use of MccJ25 as a food preservative. In the present paper, we describe a chymotrypsin-susceptible MccJ25 derivative with a mutation of Gly(12) to Tyr that retained almost full antibiotic activity and efficiently inhibited the growth of pathogenic Salmonella enterica serovar Newport and Escherichia coli O157:H7 in skim milk and egg yolk. However, unlike the wild-type MccJ25, the MccJ25(G12Y) variant was inactivated by digestive enzymes both in vitro and in vivo. To our knowledge, our results represent the first example of a rational modification of a microcin aimed at increasing its potential use in food preservation.

  2. Simultaneous determination of ten preservatives in ten kinds of foods by micellar electrokinetic chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Xiao-Jing; Xie, Na; Zhao, Shan; Wu, Yu-Chen; Li, Jiang; Wang, Zhi

    2015-08-15

    An improved micellar electrokinetic capillary chromatography method (MEKC) for the simultaneous determination of ten preservatives in ten different kinds of food samples was reported. An uncoated fused-silica capillary with 50 μm i.d. and 70 cm total length was used. Under the optimized conditions, the linear response was observed in the range of 1.2-200mg/L for the analytes. The limits of detection (LOD, S/N=3) and limits of quantitation (LOQ, S/N=10) ranging from 0.4 to 0.5mg/L and 1.2 to 1.5mg/L, respectively were obtained. The method was used for the determination of sorbic and benzoic acids in two FAPAS® (Food Analysis Performance Assessment Scheme) proficiency test samples (jam and chocolate cake). The results showed that the current method with simple sample pretreatment and small reagent consumption could meet the needs for routine analysis of the ten preservatives in ten types of food products.

  3. Does use of the polyene natamycin as a food preservative jeopardise the clinical efficacy of amphotericin B? A word of concern.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalhoff, Axel A H; Levy, Stuart B

    2015-06-01

    Natamycin is a poorly soluble, polyene macrolide antifungal agent used in the food industry for the surface treatment of cheese and sausages. This use is not of safety concern. However, highly soluble natamycin-cyclodextrin inclusion complexes have been developed for the protection of beverages. This practice leads to high drug exposures exceeding the safety level. Apart from the definition of an acceptable daily dietary exposure to natamycin, its effect on the faecal flora as a reservoir for resistance has to be examined. Consumption of food to which natamycin has been added and mixed homogeneously, such as yoghurt, and in particular the addition of cyclodextrin inclusion complexes to beverages and wine generates high faecal natamycin concentrations resulting in high drug exposures of faecal Candida spp. Development of natamycin resistance has been observed in Candida spp. colonising the intestinal tract of patients following natamycin treatment of fungal infections. Horizontal gene transfer among different Candida spp. and within Aspergillus fumigatus spreads resistance. Therefore, it cannot be denied that use of natamycin for preservation of yoghurt and beverages may foster development of resistance to polyenes in Candida spp.

  4. Nisin, an apoptogenic bacteriocin and food preservative, attenuates HNSCC tumorigenesis via CHAC1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joo, Nam E; Ritchie, Kathryn; Kamarajan, Pachiyappan; Miao, Di; Kapila, Yvonne L

    2012-12-01

    Nisin, a bacteriocin and commonly used food preservative, may serve as a novel potential therapeutic for treating head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC), as it induces preferential apoptosis, cell cycle arrest, and reduces cell proliferation in HNSCC cells, compared with primary keratinocytes. Nisin also reduces HNSCC tumorigenesis in vivo. Mechanistically, nisin exerts these effects on HNSCC, in part, through CHAC1, a proapoptotic cation transport regulator, and through a concomitant CHAC1-independent influx of extracellular calcium. In addition, although CHAC1 is known as an apoptotic mediator, its effects on cancer cell apoptosis have not been examined. Our studies are the first to report CHAC1's new role in promoting cancer cell apoptosis under nisin treatment. These data support the concept that nisin decreases HNSCC tumorigenesis in vitro and in vivo by inducing increased cell apoptosis and decreased cell proliferation; effects that are mediated by activation of CHAC1, increased calcium influxes, and induction of cell cycle arrest. These findings support the use of nisin as a potentially novel therapeutic for HNSCC, and as nisin is safe for human consumption and currently used in food preservation, its translation into a clinical setting may be facilitated.

  5. Chromosome aberrations, micronucleus and sperm head abnormalities in mice treated with natamycin, [corrected] a food preservative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasgele, Pinar Goc; Kaymak, Fisun

    2010-03-01

    Natamycin [corrected] is used as preservative in foods. The genotoxic effects of the food preservative natamycin [corrected] were evaluated using chromosome aberrations and micronucleus test in bone marrow cells and sperm head abnormality assays in mice. Blood samples were taken from mice and levels of total testosterone in serum were also determined. Natamycin [corrected] was intraperitoneally (ip) injected at 200, 400 and 800 mg/kg. Natamycin [corrected] did not induce chromosome aberrations but significantly increased the number of micronucleated polychromatic erythrocytes in bone marrow and sperm head abnormalities at all concentrations and treatment periods. It also decreased MI at all concentrations for 6, 12 and 24h treatment periods. Natamycin [corrected] decreased PCE/NCE ratio at all concentrations for 48h in female mice, for 24 and 48h treatment periods in male mice. At the 800 mg/kg concentration, natamycin [corrected] decreased PCE/NCE ratio for 24 and 72h in female mice. A dose dependent increase was observed in the percentage of sperm head abnormalities. The levels of serum testosterone decreased dose-dependently. The obtained results indicate that natamycin [corrected] is not clastogenic, but it is aneugenic in mice bone marrow and it is a potential germ cell mutagen in sperm cells.

  6. The moisture-triggered controlled release of a natural food preservative from a microporous metal-organic framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hao; Lashkari, Elham; Lim, Hyuna; Zheng, Chong; Emge, Thomas J; Gong, Qihan; Yam, Kit; Li, Jing

    2016-02-01

    In this work we demonstrate that allyl isothiocyanate (AITC), a common food flavoring agent and food preservative, can be effectively captured by and released in a controlled manner from a microporous metal-organic framework (MOF). The extent of AITC-MOF interactions is quantitatively measured by orbital overlap population calculations. Controlled release experiments show that loaded AITC can be released by applying higher relative humidity. Further analysis reveals that the underlying mechanism of the controlled release is associated with the transformation of the MOF from a porous to a nonporous structure at high humidity. This study represents the first example of making use of MOF porosity in food preservation.

  7. [The estimation of intake of selected and permissible preservatives used in food industry among people from Podlaskie voivodeship].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szczerbiński, Robert; Karczewski, Jan

    2011-01-01

    The work aimed at estimating intake of food containing permissible preservatives. The data was comprised of food samples from 14 poviats of Podlaskie voivodeship taken to detect presence of preservatives (sodium nitrate, nitrite, benzoic acid and its salt, sorbic acid and its salt). The samples were collected between 2004 and 2007 by food inspection agency. Data concerning consumption of food provided results for an average consumption of some foodstuffs in households in which consumption of given foodstuff has been recorded by Polish Central Statistical Office, whereas data concerning consumption of soft drinks was provided by the report from March, 2008 (soft drinks market in Poland). It was stated that an average intake of the considered preservatives with an average diet is not a threat to people. Taking into account the fact data concerning consumption of foodstuffs in households is limited, it is advised to create databases comprising consumption of foodstuffs which would help in more precise evaluation of the intake.

  8. Susceptibility of food-contaminating Penicillium genus fungi to some preservatives and disinfectants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levinskaite, Loreta

    2012-01-01

    Microscopic fungi are able to contaminate and deteriorate various food products and can subsequently cause health problems. Long usage of the same preservatives and disinfectants against spoilage fungi may lead to the development of fungal resistance to those chemicals. The objective of this study was to investigate the susceptibility of 3 Penicillium genus fungi, isolated from foodstuffs, to organic acid preservatives and some disinfectants, taking into consideration 2 aspects of their development: spore germination and mycelial growth. Susceptibility of Penicillium spinulosum, P. expansum and P. verruculosum to the preservatives, namely benzoic acid, sodium lactate, potassium sorbate, as well as disinfectants such as Topax DD, Suma Bac D10, Biowash and F210 Hygisept, was investigated. The biocides were used at concentrations of 0.1, 1.0 and 10%. Of the preservatives, benzoic acid and potassium sorbate showed the best inhibition, both on spore germination and mycelial growth. Benzoic acid at a concentration of a 0.1% reduced spore germination by 33-55%, and mycelial growth by 54-97%, whereas at 1% the inhibition was 74-85% and 97-100%, respectively. The effect of the disinfectants at a concentration of 0.1% on spore germination was 25-84% and on colonial growth 68-97%, while at 1.0% the reduction in spore germination reached 53-91% and the inhibition of growth 89-100%. In most cases, the same concentrations added to the media showed higher inhibitory effect on mycelial growth than on spore germination. It was noticed that the fungi responded rather unevenly towards the biocides, showing individual susceptibility.

  9. 浅析食品防腐剂的安全应用%Food Preservatives for Security Applications

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘洋; 黄晨; 王万骞; 王乃福

    2014-01-01

    介绍了食品防腐剂的分类、研究现状,分析了食品防腐剂所产生的食品安全问题,分析表明要保证食品防腐剂的使用安全,短期内我们可以采取完善法规、严格监管和加强认识的措施,但从长远来看,通过天然防腐剂的开发利用,逐渐代替化学防腐剂,才是解决食品防腐剂安全问题的根本途径。%This paper introduces the research status and classification of food preservatives , and analyzes the security problems of food preservatives. Analysis shows, we can perfect the laws and regulations, strict supervision and strengthen the awareness recently , to ensure the security applications of food preservatives. But in the future, it is the fundamental way to solve the security problems of food preservatives is to use natural preservatives instead of chemical preservatives.

  10. Selected Essential Oils as Antifungal Agents Against Antibiotic-Resistant Candida spp.: In Vitro Study on Clinical and Food-Borne Isolates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajkowska, Katarzyna; Kunicka-Styczyńska, Alina; Maroszyńska, Marta

    2017-01-01

    Candida spp. cause significant health problems, inducing various types of superficial and deep-seated mycoses in humans. As a result of the increasing antibiotic resistance among pathogenic yeasts, the interest in alternative agents of antifungal activity is growing. This study evaluated the antimicrobial activity of selected essential oils (EOs) against Candida clinical and food-borne strains, including antibiotic-resistant isolates, in relation to yeast cell surface hydrophobicity (CSH). Candida strains showed different range of susceptibility to tea tree, thyme, peppermint, and clove oils, and peppermint oil demonstrated the lowest anticandidal activity with minimal inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of 0.03-8.0% v/v. MIC values for thyme and clove oils ranged from 0.03% to 0.25% v/v, and for tea tree oil-from 0.12% to 2.0% v/v. The exception was Candida tropicalis food-borne strain, the growth of which was inhibited after application of EOs at concentration of 8% v/v. Due to diverse yeast susceptibility to EOs, isolates were divided into five clusters in a principal component analysis model, each containing both clinical and food-borne strains. Hydrophobic properties of yeast were also diversified, and 37% of clinical and 50% of food-borne strains exhibited high hydrophobicity. The study indicates high homology of clinical and food-borne Candida isolates in relation to their susceptibility to anticandidal agents and hydrophobic properties. The susceptibility of yeasts to EOs could be partially related to their CSH. High antifungal activity of examined EOs, also against antibiotic-resistant isolates, indicates their usefulness as agents preventing the development of Candida strains of different origin.

  11. Simultaneous determination of electroactive and non-electroactive food preservatives by novel capillary electrophoresis with amperometric detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Weiyu; Wang, Yiping; Zhang, Junbo; Chu, Qingcui; Ye, Jiannong

    2010-09-23

    A novel capillary electrophoresis and amperometric detection method was achieved by adding an electroactive additive (3,4-dihydroxybenzylamine, 3,4-DHBA) to the running buffer, so that both electroactive and non-electroactive food preservatives were simultaneously determined. Under the selected optimum conditions, four electroactive preservatives (methylparaben, ethylparaben, propylparaben and butylparaben) and two non-electroactive preservatives (potassium sorbate and sodium lactate) were well separated and sensitively detected with detection limits (S/N=3) ranging from 1.06×10(-8) to 2.73×10(-6) g mL(-1). This method has been successfully employed for the determination of both electroactive and non-electroactive preservatives in several food commodities.

  12. Simultaneous analysis of acidulants and preservatives in food samples by using capillary zone electrophoresis with indirect UV detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshikawa, Kenji; Saito, Shintaro; Sakuragawa, Akio

    2011-08-01

    Capillary zone electrophoresis with indirect UV detection was developed for the simultaneous analysis of acidulants and preservatives in food samples. When a solution of tris (hydroxymethyl) aminomethane, trimellitic acid and poly (vinyl alcohol) was used as the background electrolyte, the nine acidulants and four preservatives listed in the Japanese Food Sanitation Law were detected within 8min. The calibration curves plotted from the peak height of each analyte were linear with a correlation coefficient of 0.99. The relative standard deviations (n=10) of the peak height ranged from 1.2% to 4.7%. The detection limits for these species ranged from 0.6 to 5.3mg/L at a signal-to-noise ratio of three. The method developed method was applied to the simultaneous analysis of acidulants and preservatives in a wide variety of food samples.

  13. Proteolytic activity of beef luncheon fungi as affected by incorporation of some food preservatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saleem, A; El-Said, A H M

    2009-12-01

    Screening of thirty-one fungal isolates (representing 16 genera, 28 species and 3 varieties) collected from beef luncheon meat for their abilities to produce protease enzyme revealed that eleven isolates (35.48%) exhibited high protease production. However, fifteen isolates (48.39%) had moderate ability and 5 isolates (16.13%) were low producers. Aspergillus flavus, Gibberella fujikuroi and Penicillium chrysogenum were the most active producers of protease. The incorporation of five chemical substances used as food preservatives (disodium phosphate, sodium benzoate, citric acid, potassium sorbate and sodium citrate) individually in the culture medium for protease production exhibited depressive effect on protease production as well as on mycelial growth of Aspergillus flavus, Gibberella fujikuroi and Penicillium chrysogenum , except in few cases the mycelial growth of A. flavus and G. fujikuroi was increased by the lowest concentration (100 ppm) of sodium benzoate, citric acid and disodium phosphate.

  14. Radiation preservation of foods of plant origin. Part 1. Potatoes and other tuber crops

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomas, P.

    1984-01-01

    In Part 1 of a planned series of articles on preservation of foods of plant origin by gamma irradiation, the current state of research on the technological, nutritional, and biochemical aspects of sprout inhibition of potatoes and other tuber crops are reviewed. These include varietal responses, dose effects, time of irradiation, pre- and postirradiation storage, and handling requirements; postirradiation changes in carbohydrates, ascorbic acid, amino acids, and other nutrients; respiration; biochemical mechanisms involved in sprout inhibition; wound healing and microbial infection during storage; formation of wound and light-induced glycoalkaloids and identification of irradiated potatoes. The culinary and processing qualities with particular reference to darkening of boiled and processed potatoes are discussed. The prospects of irradiation on an industrial scale as an alternative to chemical sprout inhibitors or mechanical refrigeration are considered.

  15. Effects of Food Antioxidants on the Antifungal Activities and Fresh-keeping of Litchi Fruits%食品添加剂对荔枝采后病原菌的抑菌活性及其保鲜效果

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵超; 王家保; 胡美姣; 李敏; 杨凤珍; 高兆银; 张新春

    2011-01-01

    研究18种食品添加剂对荔枝采后病原菌的抑菌活性及保鲜效果,结果表明:在100μg/mL浓度下,邻苯基苯酚钠、叔丁基对苯二酚、脱氢醋酸钠、3-叔-4-羟基苯甲醚、联苯对3种病原菌的平均抑菌活性大于70%,其它13种食品添加剂的平均抑菌活性小于50%.在常温下,维生素E、甘草抗氧化剂对荔枝具有较好的保鲜效果,防效大于38%,邻苯基苯酚钠、异抗坏血酸钙、叔丁基对苯二酚有促进荔枝果皮褐变的作用,其他13种食品添加剂对荔枝的防腐保鲜效果介于0~30%之间.在低温贮藏条件下,维生素E、甘草抗氧化剂处理的荔枝花色苷降解较对照缓慢,能显著抑制PPO、POD酶活性,延缓SOD酶活性下降,从而延缓荔枝果实的衰老.%The antifungal activities of 18 food additives against postharvest pathogenic fungi and their preservation effect on litchi fruit were studied. The results showed at the concentration of 100 μg/ml, the average antifungal activity of sodium o-phenylphenolate, tertiary butylhydroquinone, sodium dehydroacetate, 3-tert-butyl-4-hydroxyanisole and biphenyls on 3 pathogens was toeater than 70%, and other 13 food additives was less than 50%. At room temperature fruits treated with vitamin E and licorice root antioxidant had better fresh keeping effect, and the control effect was over 38%. The browning speed of pericarp accelerated after treated with sodium o-phenylphenolate, calcium erythorbate and 3-tert- butyl-4-hydroxyanisole, and the fresh keeping effect of the rest 13 food additives was between 0~30%. At lower storage temperature, compared to the control, the treatment of Vitamin E and licorice mot antioxidant significantly reduced the activities of PPO and POD, maintained higher activity of superoxide dismutase(SOD) , and significantly delayed fruit consenescence.

  16. Cytotoxicity of food preservatives in cultured rat hepatocytes loaded with linolenic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugihara, N; Shimomichi, K; Furuno, K

    1997-06-01

    We investigated the ability of eight food preservatives to induce lipid peroxidation in normal and alpha-linolenic acid (LNA)-loaded cultured rat hepatocytes. On the addition of sodium dehydroacetate (DHA-Na), potassium sorbate (SA-K) or thiabendazole (TBZ) to the cell culture, lipid peroxidation, assessed in terms of the production of malondialdehyde (MDA), was induced in LNA-loaded cells, but not in normal cells. At the low concentrations, induction of lipid peroxidation in LNA-loaded cells was highest with TBZ, whereas at high concentrations DHA-Na greatly induced lipid peroxidation. The occurrence of lipid peroxidation in LNA-loaded cells was accompanied by a decrease in cellular GSH levels with the three preservatives and by a decrease in cellular protein-SH levels with DHA-Na and TBZ. Furthermore, cell injury, measured by the release of LDH, was produced in LNA-loaded cells exposed to DHA-Na and SA-K. The addition of TBZ caused substantial cell injury in normal cells, and even greater injury in LNA-loaded cells. The prevention of lipid peroxidation in LNA-loaded hepatocytes by addition of an antioxidant, N,N'-diphenyl-p-phenylenediamine (DPPD) almost completely prevented DHA-Na- and SA-K-induced cell injury, and reduced TBZ-induced cell injury. The addition of diphenyl (DP), o-phenylphenol (OPP) or butyl p-hydroxybenzoate (BHB) caused severe cell injury, in association with a marked decrease in cellular levels of both of GSH and protein-SH in both groups of cells. However, lipid peroxidation was not detectable in either group of cells exposed to these preservatives. Sodium propionate (PA-Na) and sodium benzoate (BA-Na) had little effect on any cytotoxic parameter in either group of cells.

  17. Tandem action of exercise training and food restriction completely preserves ischemic preconditioning in the aging heart.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abete, P; Testa, G; Galizia, G; Mazzella, F; Della Morte, D; de Santis, D; Calabrese, C; Cacciatore, F; Gargiulo, G; Ferrara, N; Rengo, G; Sica, V; Napoli, C; Rengo, F

    2005-01-01

    Ischemic preconditioning (IP) has been proposed as an endogenous form of protection against ischemia reperfusion injury. IP, however, does not prevent post-ischemic dysfunction in the aging heart but may be partially corrected by exercise training and food restriction. We investigated the role of exercise training combined with food restriction on restoring IP in the aging heart. Effects of IP against ischemia-reperfusion injury in isolated hearts from adult (A, 6 months old), sedentary 'ad libitum' fed (SL), trained ad libitum fed (TL), sedentary food-restricted (SR), trained- and food-restricted senescent rats (TR) (24 months old) were investigated. Norepinephrine release in coronary effluent was determined by high performance liquid cromatography. IP significantly improved final recovery of percent developed pressure in hearts from A (p<0.01) but not in those from SL (p=NS) vs unconditioned controls. Developed pressure recovery was partial in hearts from TL and SR (64.3 and 67.3%, respectively; p<0.05 vs controls) but it was total in those from TR (82.3%, p=NS vs A; p<0.05 vs hearts from TL and SR). Similarly, IP determined a similar increase of norepinephrine release in A (p<0.001) and in TR (p<0.001, p=NS vs adult). IP was abolished by depletion of myocardial norepinephrine stores by reserpine in all groups. Thus, IP reduces post-ischemic dysfunction in A but not in SL. Moreover, IP was preserved partially in TR and SR and totally in TR. Complete IP maybe due to full restoration of norepinephrine release in response to IP stimulus.

  18. Effect of preservatives for food grade C-Phycoerythrin, isolated from marine cyanobacteria Pseudanabaena sp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, Sanjiv K; Shrivastav, Anupama; Pancha, Imran; Jain, Deepti; Mishra, Sandhya

    2010-12-01

    C-Phycoerythrin is water soluble red color chromo-protein, which is used as a natural food colorant. The effect of selected edible preservatives like citric acid, sodium chloride, sucrose and calcium chloride on the stability of C-Phycoerythrin at 0±5°C and 35±5°C was studied in aqueous solution. Experiment was carried out to select a stabilizing agent having Hofmeister series behavior acting on hydrophobic interactions. The denaturation of phycoerythrin with urea as denaturant and effect of different pH on C-Phycoerythrin was studied. Citric acid (4 mg/ml) was observed to be one of the best preservative for C-Phycoerythrin at 35±5°C and 0±5°C in aqueous solution for 45 days. Citric acid was able to maintain the stability of C-Phycoerythrin in the solution. The amount of C-Phycoerythrin left in the solution containing citric acid after 30 and 45 days was 46 and 37.8% respectively at higher temperature.

  19. 浅谈食品防腐剂的安全%Talking about the safety of food preservatives

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张雪梅

    2014-01-01

    classification of food preservatives , food preservatives in food safety issues arising . As consumers increase the " return to nature" desire , put a higher demand for food : it is necessary to keep the original state of food raw materials, reduce heat treatment process , but also to try to extend the shelf life of food . The short term we can take to improve the legal , regulatory and strict measures to raise awareness , but in the long run, through the development and utilization of natural preservatives , and gradualy replace chemical preservatives, food preservatives safety issue is resolved fundamental way .%介绍食品的防腐剂分类,分析食品防腐剂所产生的食品安全问题。随着消费者“回归自然”愿望的增加,对食品提出了更高要求:既要尽量保持食品原料的原始状态、减少热处理等加工过程,又要尽量延长食品保质期。短期内我们可以采取完善法规、严格监管和加强认识的措施,但从长远来看,通过天然防腐剂的开发利用,逐渐代替化学防腐剂,才是解决食品防腐剂安全问题的根本途径。

  20. Antimicrobial Activity of Emilia sonchifolia DC., Tridax procumbens L. and Vernonia cinerea L. of Asteracea Family: Potential as Food Preservatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoga Latha, L; Darah, I; Sasidharan, S; Jain, K

    2009-09-01

    Chemical preservatives have been used in the food industry for many years. However, with increased health concerns, consumers prefer additive-free products or food preservatives based on natural products. This study evaluated antimicrobial activities of extracts from Emilia sonchifolia L. (Common name: lilac tassel flower), Tridax procumbens L. (Common name: tridax daisy) and Vernonia cinerea L. (Common name: Sahadevi), belonging to the Asteracea family, to explore their potential for use against general food spoilage and human pathogens so that new food preservatives may be developed. Three methanol extracts of these plants were tested in vitro against 20 bacterial species, 3 yeast species, and 12 filamentous fungi by the agar diffusion and broth dilution methods. The V. cinerea extract was found to be most effective against all of the tested organisms and the methanol fraction showed the most significant (p extracts determined by the broth dilution method ranged from 1.56 to 100.00mg/mL. The MIC of methanol fraction was the lowest in comparison to the other four extracts. The study findings indicate that bioactive natural products from these plants may be isolated for further testing as leads in the development of new pharmaceuticals in food preservation as well as natural plant-based medicine.

  1. 食品防腐剂的使用现状及安全性分析%Application Status of Food Preservatives and Their Security Analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刁益韶; 贾萌; 朱璐瑶

    2012-01-01

    Food preservatives are mainly used to inhibit the growth and reproduction of microorganism, and extend the preservation of food. To analyze the application status of food preservatives in China, types and properties of commonly used preservatives,problems of food preservative using and security evaluation indexes, put forward the suggestions of safe using of food preservative.%食品防腐剂主要用于抑制微生物的生长繁殖,以延长食品的保存期。分析了我国食品防腐剂的使用现状、常用的防腐剂的种类及性能、防腐剂使用中存在的问题及安全性评价指标,提出了安全使用防腐剂的建议。

  2. Food preservatives sodium benzoate and propionic acid and colorant curcumin suppress Th1-type immune response in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maier, Elisabeth; Kurz, Katharina; Jenny, Marcel; Schennach, Harald; Ueberall, Florian; Fuchs, Dietmar

    2010-07-01

    Food preservatives sodium benzoate and propionic acid and colorant curcumin are demonstrated to suppress in a dose-dependent manner Th1-type immune response in human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) in vitro. Results show an anti-inflammatory property of compounds which however could shift the Th1-Th2-type immune balance towards Th2-type immunity.

  3. Preservative effect of food-based fermentate from Lactobacillus acidophilus NX2-6 on chilled pork patties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qianying; Lu, Yingjian; Liu, Xiaoxi; Bie, Xiaomei; Lv, Fengxia; Lu, Zhaoxin

    2014-03-01

    The food-based fermentate (FBF) from Lactobacillus acidophilus NX2-6 has a broad-spectrum antibacterial activity but has not previously been reported as a food preservative. Experiments were conducted to assess its application as a preservative in pork patties. The effect of freeze-dried FBF on the microbiological parameters, physicochemical changes, and sensory evaluations of chilled pork patties stored for 15 days at 4°C was investigated. The five treatments evaluated included a control (meat only), nisin (meat plus 0.5% nisin), L.1 (meat plus 2% freeze-dried FBF), L.2 (meat plus 4% freeze-dried FBF), and L.3 (meat plus 8% freeze-dried FBF). The results showed that freeze-dried FBF could significantly (P preservative in chilled pork patties.

  4. Evaluation of Galleria mellonella larvae as an in vivo model for assessing the relative toxicity of food preservative agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maguire, Ronan; Duggan, Orla; Kavanagh, Kevin

    2016-06-01

    Larvae of Galleria mellonella are widely used for evaluating the virulence of microbial pathogens and for measuring the efficacy of anti-microbial agents and produce results comparable to those that can be obtained using mammals. In this work, the suitability of using G. mellonella larvae to measure the relative toxicity of a variety of food preservatives was evaluated. The response of larvae to eight commonly used food preservatives (potassium nitrate, potassium nitrite, potassium sorbate, sodium benzoate, sodium nitrate, sodium chloride, sodium nitrite and sodium acetate) administered by feeding or by intra-haemocoel injection was measured. A significant correlation between the LD50 (R (2) = 0.8766, p = 0.0006) and LD80 (R (2) = 0.7629, p = 0.0046) values obtained due to oral or intra-haemocoel administration of compounds was established. The response of HEp-2 cells to the food preservatives was determined, and a significant correlation (R (2) = 0.7217, p = 0.0076) between the LD50 values of the compounds administered by feeding in larvae with the IC50 values of the compounds in HEp-2 cells was established. A strong correlation between the LD50 values of the eight food preservatives in G. mellonella larvae and rats (R (2) = 0.6506, p = 0.0156) was demonstrated. The results presented here indicate that G. mellonella larvae may be used as a model to evaluate the relative toxicity of food preservatives, and the results show a strong positive correlation to those obtained using established cell culture and mammalian models.

  5. Plasma membrane H+ and K+ transporters are involved in the weak-acid preservative response of disparate food spoilage yeasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macpherson, Neil; Shabala, Lana; Rooney, Henrietta; Jarman, Marcus G; Davies, Julia M

    2005-06-01

    The food spoilage yeasts Zygosaccharomyces bailii and Saccharomyces cerevisiae have been proposed to resist weak-acid preservative stress by different means; Z. bailii by limiting influx of preservative combined with its catabolism, S. cerevisiae by active extrusion of the preservative weak-acid anion and H(+). Measurement of H(+) extrusion by exponential-phase Z. bailii cells suggest that, in common with S. cerevisiae, this yeast uses a plasma membrane H(+)-ATPase to expel H(+) when challenged by weak-acid preservative (benzoic acid). Simultaneous measurement of Z. bailii net H(+) and K(+) fluxes showed that net K(+) influx accompanies net H(+) efflux during acute benzoic acid stress. Such ionic coupling is known for S. cerevisiae in short-term preservative stress. Both yeasts significantly accumulated K(+) on long-term exposure to benzoic acid. Analysis of S. cerevisiae K(+) transporter mutants revealed that loss of the high affinity K(+) uptake system Trk1 confers sensitivity to growth in preservative. The results suggest that cation accumulation is an important factor in adaptation to weak-acid preservatives by spoilage yeasts and that Z. bailii and S. cerevisiae share hitherto unsuspected adaptive responses at the level of plasma membrane ion transport.

  6. Nisin ZP, a Bacteriocin and Food Preservative, Inhibits Head and Neck Cancer Tumorigenesis and Prolongs Survival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamarajan, Pachiyappan; Hayami, Takayuki; Matte, Bibiana; Liu, Yang; Danciu, Theodora; Ramamoorthy, Ayyalusamy; Worden, Francis; Kapila, Sunil; Kapila, Yvonne

    2015-01-01

    The use of small antimicrobial peptides or bacteriocins, like nisin, to treat cancer is a new approach that holds great promise. Nisin exemplifies this new approach because it has been used safely in humans for many years as a food preservative, and recent laboratory studies support its anti-tumor potential in head and neck cancer. Previously, we showed that nisin (2.5%, low content) has antitumor potential in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) in vitro and in vivo. The current studies explored a naturally occurring variant of nisin (nisin ZP; 95%, high content) for its antitumor effects in vitro and in vivo. Nisin ZP induced the greatest level of apoptosis in HNSCC cells compared to low content nisin. HNSCC cells treated with increasing concentrations of nisin ZP exhibited increasing levels of apoptosis and decreasing levels of cell proliferation, clonogenic capacity, and sphere formation. Nisin ZP induced apoptosis through a calpain-dependent pathway in HNSCC cells but not in human oral keratinocytes. Nisin ZP also induced apoptosis dose-dependently in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC) with concomitant decreases in vascular sprout formation in vitro and reduced intratumoral microvessel density in vivo. Nisin ZP reduced tumorigenesis in vivo and long-term treatment with nisin ZP extended survival. In addition, nisin treated mice exhibited normal organ histology with no evidence of inflammation, fibrosis or necrosis. In summary, nisin ZP exhibits greater antitumor effects than low content nisin, and thus has the potential to serve as a novel therapeutic for HNSCC.

  7. Saving lives, preserving livelihoods: understanding risk, decision-making and child health in a food crisis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hampshire, Katherine Rebecca; Panter-Brick, Catherine; Kilpatrick, Kate; Casiday, Rachel E

    2009-02-01

    The purpose of this paper is to analyse household decision-making regarding resource allocation in the aftermath of a food crisis in rural Niger. International attention had resulted in humanitarian agencies launching emergency nutrition programmes to alleviate persistently high levels of acute child malnutrition. We conducted participant observation, 93 in-depth interviews, 15 focus groups, 44 feeding and illness histories for children under 5, and debriefing sessions with local humanitarian staff. The impetus for this study came from observations of marked intra-household differences in child growth and health status, despite the caregivers' ethos of treating children equally. Egalitarian input, however, does not always result in equal outcomes: vulnerable children become "victims of non-discrimination" through a form of benign neglect engendered by pervasive poverty. The ethos and practices of equal investment in children are rooted in a need to balance the perceived risks to children with the preservation of long-term livelihoods. We discuss the mismatch of views between external interventions, which focus on saving individual children's lives, and local priorities, aimed at spreading risk. This mismatch is rooted in the different ways in which humanitarian agencies and local communities weigh up risks and vulnerabilities in matters of child health.

  8. Mechanism of bacterial inactivation by (+)-limonene and its potential use in food preservation combined processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espina, Laura; Gelaw, Tilahun K; de Lamo-Castellví, Sílvia; Pagán, Rafael; García-Gonzalo, Diego

    2013-01-01

    This work explores the bactericidal effect of (+)-limonene, the major constituent of citrus fruits' essential oils, against E. coli. The degree of E. coli BJ4 inactivation achieved by (+)-limonene was influenced by the pH of the treatment medium, being more bactericidal at pH 4.0 than at pH 7.0. Deletion of rpoS and exposure to a sub-lethal heat or an acid shock did not modify E. coli BJ4 resistance to (+)-limonene. However, exposure to a sub-lethal cold shock decreased its resistance to (+)-limonene. Although no sub-lethal injury was detected in the cell envelopes after exposure to (+)-limonene by the selective-plating technique, the uptake of propidium iodide by inactivated E. coli BJ4 cells pointed out these structures as important targets in the mechanism of action. Attenuated Total Reflectance Infrared Microspectroscopy (ATR-IRMS) allowed identification of altered E. coli BJ4 structures after (+)-limonene treatments as a function of the treatment pH: β-sheet proteins at pH 4.0 and phosphodiester bonds at pH 7.0. The increased sensitivity to (+)-limonene observed at pH 4.0 in an E. coli MC4100 lptD4213 mutant with an increased outer membrane permeability along with the identification of altered β-sheet proteins by ATR-IRMS indicated the importance of this structure in the mechanism of action of (+)-limonene. The study of mechanism of inactivation by (+)-limonene led to the design of a synergistic combined process with heat for the inactivation of the pathogen E. coli O157:H7 in fruit juices. These results show the potential of (+)-limonene in food preservation, either acting alone or in combination with lethal heat treatments.

  9. Nisin ZP, a Bacteriocin and Food Preservative, Inhibits Head and Neck Cancer Tumorigenesis and Prolongs Survival.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pachiyappan Kamarajan

    Full Text Available The use of small antimicrobial peptides or bacteriocins, like nisin, to treat cancer is a new approach that holds great promise. Nisin exemplifies this new approach because it has been used safely in humans for many years as a food preservative, and recent laboratory studies support its anti-tumor potential in head and neck cancer. Previously, we showed that nisin (2.5%, low content has antitumor potential in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC in vitro and in vivo. The current studies explored a naturally occurring variant of nisin (nisin ZP; 95%, high content for its antitumor effects in vitro and in vivo. Nisin ZP induced the greatest level of apoptosis in HNSCC cells compared to low content nisin. HNSCC cells treated with increasing concentrations of nisin ZP exhibited increasing levels of apoptosis and decreasing levels of cell proliferation, clonogenic capacity, and sphere formation. Nisin ZP induced apoptosis through a calpain-dependent pathway in HNSCC cells but not in human oral keratinocytes. Nisin ZP also induced apoptosis dose-dependently in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC with concomitant decreases in vascular sprout formation in vitro and reduced intratumoral microvessel density in vivo. Nisin ZP reduced tumorigenesis in vivo and long-term treatment with nisin ZP extended survival. In addition, nisin treated mice exhibited normal organ histology with no evidence of inflammation, fibrosis or necrosis. In summary, nisin ZP exhibits greater antitumor effects than low content nisin, and thus has the potential to serve as a novel therapeutic for HNSCC.

  10. Water-based oligochitosan and nanowhisker chitosan as potential food preservatives for shelf-life extension of minced pork.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chantarasataporn, Patomporn; Tepkasikul, Preenapha; Kingcha, Yutthana; Yoksan, Rangrong; Pichyangkura, Rath; Visessanguan, Wonnop; Chirachanchai, Suwabun

    2014-09-15

    Water-based chitosans in the forms of oligochitosan (OligoCS) and nanowhisker chitosan (CSWK) are proposed as a novel food preservative based on a minced pork model study. The high surface area with a positive charge over the neutral pH range (pH 5-8) of OligoCS and CSWK lead to an inhibition against Gram-positive (Staphylococcus aureus, Listeria monocytogenes, and Bacillus cereus) and Gram-negative microbes (Salmonella enteritidis and Escherichia coli O157:H7). In the minced pork model, OligoCS effectively performs a food preservative for shelf-life extension as clarified from the retardation of microbial growth, biogenic amine formation and lipid oxidation during the storage. OligoCS maintains almost all myosin heavy chain protein degradation as observed in the electrophoresis. The present work points out that water-based chitosan with its unique morphology not only significantly inhibits antimicrobial activity but also maintains the meat quality with an extension of shelf-life, and thus has the potential to be used as a food preservative.

  11. Assessment of dietary exposure in the French population to 13 selected food colours, preservatives, antioxidants, stabilizers, emulsifiers and sweeteners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bemrah, Nawel; Leblanc, Jean-Charles; Volatier, Jean-Luc

    2008-01-01

    The results of French intake estimates for 13 food additives prioritized by the methods proposed in the 2001 Report from the European Commission on Dietary Food Additive Intake in the European Union are reported. These 13 additives were selected using the first and second tiers of the three-tier approach. The first tier was based on theoretical food consumption data and the maximum permitted level of additives. The second tier used real individual food consumption data and the maximum permitted level of additives for the substances which exceeded the acceptable daily intakes (ADI) in the first tier. In the third tier reported in this study, intake estimates were calculated for the 13 additives (colours, preservatives, antioxidants, stabilizers, emulsifiers and sweeteners) according to two modelling assumptions corresponding to two different food habit scenarios (assumption 1: consumers consume foods that may or may not contain food additives, and assumption 2: consumers always consume foods that contain additives) when possible. In this approach, real individual food consumption data and the occurrence/use-level of food additives reported by the food industry were used. Overall, the results of the intake estimates are reassuring for the majority of additives studied since the risk of exceeding the ADI was low, except for nitrites, sulfites and annatto, whose ADIs were exceeded by either children or adult consumers or by both populations under one and/or two modelling assumptions. Under the first assumption, the ADI is exceeded for high consumers among adults for nitrites and sulfites (155 and 118.4%, respectively) and among children for nitrites (275%). Under the second assumption, the average nitrites dietary exposure in children exceeds the ADI (146.7%). For high consumers, adults exceed the nitrite and sulfite ADIs (223 and 156.4%, respectively) and children exceed the nitrite, annatto and sulfite ADIs (416.7, 124.6 and 130.6%, respectively).

  12. An Overview on the Effects of Sodium Benzoate as a Preservative in Food Products

    OpenAIRE

    Shahmohammadi; Javadi; Nassiri-Asl

    2016-01-01

    Context Food spoilage has been a common problem throughout history, and much of the spoilage is caused the activity of microorganisms or enzymatic reactions during the storage of food. Thus, using chemical substances could prevent or delay food spoilage and this has led to the great success of these compounds in the treatment of human diseases. Sodium benzoate is one of the synthetic additives that are widely used in the food industry. Evidenc...

  13. The Research of Food Preservation by Irradiation and Its Industrialization in Korea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, Han Ok [Korea Advanced Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    1987-04-15

    Since the late 1960s, radiation effects on the storage of potatoes, strawberry, grapes and rice have been investigated on an experimental basis in Korea, Based on the research results of batch scale storage for sprouting food (potatoes, onions, chestnuts) and white ginseng powder by the Korea Advanced Energy Research Institute (KAERI) and on the recommendation. Food irradiation is a new process that may provide an alternative to existing food processes. From the extensive research in food irradiation for more than three decades by leading international organizations and advanced countries, the efficacy of a number of applications has been established, including sprout inhibition, disinfestation of insects, sterilization, delay of ripening, and improvement of organoleptic properties in food. Owing to the recommendation on the Wholesomeness of Irradiated Food by the Joint FAO/IAEA/W/o Expert Committee in 1980 and the adaption of the Codex General Standard for Irradiated Food by the Codex Allurements Commission in 1983, as of May 1985, thirty-two countries have officially approved 227 food items in 73 food groups as safe for human consumption. Food irradiation processing is increasingly recognized as a viable technology for reducing the overall quantity of spoiled food, reducing energy used in food storage, and reducing reliance on chemicals currently used.

  14. Total antioxidant and ascorbic acid content of fresh fruits and vegetables: implications for dietary planning and food preservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szeto, Yim Tong; Tomlinson, Brian; Benzie, Iris F F

    2002-01-01

    Epidemiological evidence links high intake of ascorbic acid (AA) and other antioxidant micronutrients to health promotion. It would be useful to know the overall, or 'total' antioxidant capacity of foods, to establish the contribution of AA to this, and to assess how this information may translate into dietary intakes to meet the new US daily reference intake for AA. In this study, the total antioxidant capacity, as the ferric reducing-antioxidant power (FRAP) value, and AA content of thirty-four types of fruits and vegetables were measured using a modified version of the FRAP assay, known as FRASC. This measures AA (reduced form only) simultaneously with the FRAP value. Results covered a wide range: 880-15940 micromol/kg fresh wet weight and food production, preparation, preservation, and aid dietary choices to increase antioxidant and AA intake. Furthermore, FRASC will facilitate bioavailability studies of antioxidants from different foods of known antioxidant capacity and AA content.

  15. 基于虾类食品的保鲜保藏技术研究进展%Food preservation technology based on shrimp food

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    魏静; 崔峰; 张永进; 王伟; 林琳; 叶应旺; 赖年悦; 姜绍通; 陆剑锋

    2013-01-01

    随着世界渔业的迅速发展,虾类食品的消费与贸易在国际水产品市场上占据着日益重要的地位。我国是世界上最大的虾类食品生产国,也是主要的虾类食品出口国,但与发达国家相比,目前我国的虾类食品生产和加工技术水平仍然较低,尤其是在虾类食品的保鲜、保藏技术方面。因此有必要对虾类食品的各种杀菌技术及其应用进行研究,并总结有效的保鲜、保藏方法。本文综述了传统保藏、化学和生物技术、低温保鲜、加热处理、气调保藏、物理杀菌技术等基于虾类食品的保鲜、保藏技术研究进展,为虾类食品的货架期延长提供一定的理论参考和实践依据。%With the development of the fishing industry in the world , the consumption and trade of shrimp products in the international fish markets occupy an increasingly important position .China is one of the world's largest producer of shrimp products , also a major exporter of shrimp products , but the technical level of China's shrimp production and processing is lower than that of other developed countries , especially in food preservation technology based on shrimp food .Therefore , it's necessary to study the various sterilization technologies and their applications in shrimp food , summarize the effective preservation methods .In this paper, we summarized the progress of the shrimp fresh preservation technology , such as traditional preservation , chemical technology and biotechnology , low-temperature preservation , heat treatment , controlled atmosphere preservation , physical sterilization technologies , in order to provide a theoretical reference and practical basis to extend the shelf life of shrimp products .

  16. Chemical composition of essential oils of Thymus and Mentha species and their antifungal activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soković, Marina D; Vukojević, Jelena; Marin, Petar D; Brkić, Dejan D; Vajs, Vlatka; van Griensven, Leo J L D

    2009-01-07

    The potential antifungal effects of Thymus vulgaris L., Thymus tosevii L., Mentha spicata L., and Mentha piperita L. (Labiatae) essential oils and their components against 17 micromycetal food poisoning, plant, animal and human pathogens are presented. The essential oils were obtained by hydrodestillation of dried plant material. Their composition was determined by GC-MS. Identification of individual constituents was made by comparison with analytical standards, and by computer matching mass spectral data with those of the Wiley/NBS Library of Mass Spectra. MIC's and MFC's of the oils and their components were determined by dilution assays. Thymol (48.9%) and p-cymene (19.0%) were the main components of T. vulgaris, while carvacrol (12.8%), a-terpinyl acetate (12.3%), cis-myrtanol (11.2%) and thymol (10.4%) were dominant in T. tosevii. Both Thymus species showed very strong antifungal activities. In M. piperita oil menthol (37.4%), menthyl acetate (17.4%) and menthone (12.7%) were the main components, whereas those of M. spicata oil were carvone (69.5%) and menthone (21.9%). Mentha sp. showed strong antifungal activities, however lower than Thymus sp. The commercial fungicide, bifonazole, used as a control, had much lower antifungal activity than the oils and components investigated. It is concluded that essential oils of Thymus and Mentha species possess great antifungal potential and could be used as natural preservatives and fungicides.

  17. An Overview on the Effects of Sodium Benzoate as a Preservative in Food Products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahmohammadi

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Context Food spoilage has been a common problem throughout history, and much of the spoilage is caused the activity of microorganisms or enzymatic reactions during the storage of food. Thus, using chemical substances could prevent or delay food spoilage and this has led to the great success of these compounds in the treatment of human diseases. Sodium benzoate is one of the synthetic additives that are widely used in the food industry. Evidence Acquisition In this review we summarized the history and role of benzoate sodium in the food industry, its limited value in different food, other uses, pharmacokinetics, and its toxicity in animal studies. A literature search was carried out using MEDLINE, Scopus, Science Direct, and Scientific Information Databases (SID. Results Sodium benzoate is used in different industries as well as the food industry and it has adverse effects similar to other food additives. Conclusions Studies on natural ingredients in foods to find compounds with similar effects as benzoate with less adverse effects is necessary.

  18. Encapsulation for preservation of functionality and targeted delivery of bioactive food components

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Vos, Paul; Faas, Marijke M.; Spasojevic, Milica; Sikkema, Jan

    2010-01-01

    There has been a tremendous increase in the number of food products containing bioactive components with a health promoting or disease preventing effect. Bioactive food components can be divided into bioactive molecules and bioactive living cells (probiotics). Both bioactive molecules and bioactive

  19. Ergonomic intervention in aonla pricking operation during preserve preparation in food processing industries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rai, Arpana; Gandhi, Sudesh; Kumar, Nitin; Sharma, D K; Garg, M K

    2012-01-01

    Aonla is an important Indian fruit crop with great potential for processing into various quality products. Aonla preserve making is an important economic activity in our country. The pricking methods are age old, hence a hand operated aonla pricking machine was introduced in preserve making industries to speed up the pricking task. OWAS and RULA two of the most commonly used ergonomic assessment tools were evaluated for their efficacy in the assessment pricking along with Rating of perceived exertion scale. Analysis of working posture using RULA revealed that the pricking task with existing methods i.e. fork and hand tool requires immediate investigation and changes in working posture while with machine pricking investigations and changes are required soon. The results of OWAS indicated that the posture maintained while pricking with existing methods need to be changed in future planning while with machine was acceptable. The subjective assessment revealed that machine pricking was less exerting activity as compared to the existing methods. The preserve prepared from machine pricked fruit was most acceptable among consumers. Hence, in the form of machine ergonomic intervention was brought about in preservation industries which have proved beneficial for workers in terms of their safety and productivity.

  20. Identification and quantification of antifungal compounds produced by lactic acid bacteria and propionibacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Lay, Céline; Coton, Emmanuel; Le Blay, Gwenaëlle; Chobert, Jean-Marc; Haertlé, Thomas; Choiset, Yvan; Van Long, Nicolas Nguyen; Meslet-Cladière, Laurence; Mounier, Jérôme

    2016-12-19

    Fungal growth in bakery products represents the most frequent cause of spoilage and leads to economic losses for industrials and consumers. Bacteria, such as lactic acid bacteria and propionibacteria, are commonly known to play an active role in preservation of fermented food, producing a large range of antifungal metabolites. In a previous study (Le Lay et al., 2016), an extensive screening performed both in vitro and in situ allowed for the selection of bacteria exhibiting an antifungal activity. In the present study, active supernatants against Penicillium corylophilum and Aspergillus niger were analyzed to identify and quantify the antifungal compounds associated with the observed activity. Supernatant treatments (pH neutralization, heating and addition of proteinase K) suggested that organic acids played the most important role in the antifungal activity of each tested supernatant. Different methods (HPLC, mass spectrometry, colorimetric and enzymatic assays) were then applied to analyze the supernatants and it was shown that the main antifungal compounds corresponded to lactic, acetic and propionic acids, ethanol and hydrogen peroxide, as well as other compounds present at low levels such as phenyllactic, hydroxyphenyllactic, azelaic and caproic acids. Based on these results, various combinations of the identified compounds were used to evaluate their effect on conidial germination and fungal growth of P. corylophilum and Eurotium repens. Some combinations presented the same activity than the bacterial culture supernatant thus confirming the involvement of the identified molecules in the antifungal activity. The obtained results suggested that acetic acid was mainly responsible for the antifungal activity against P. corylophilum and played an important role in E. repens inhibition.

  1. The EPR detection of foods preserved with the use of ionizing radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stachowicz, W.; Burlińska, G.; Michalik, J.; Dziedzic-Gocławska, A.; Ostrowski, K.

    1995-02-01

    Solid constituents extracted from irradiated foods have been examined by the epr (esr) spectroscopy. It has been proved that some epr active species produced by radiation in foods are specific and stable enough to be used for the detection of irradiation treatment. The most promising results have been obtained with bones extracted from frozen raw meat (beef, pork, poultry and fish), with seeds of fruits (dates and figs), with dried mushrooms, gelatin and macaroni.

  2. Characterization and expression of the antifungal protein from Monascus pilosus and its distribution among various Monascus species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tu, Ching-Yu; Chen, Yu-Pei; Yu, Ming-Chen; Hwang, Ing-Er; Wu, Dai-Ying; Liaw, Li-Ling

    2016-07-01

    Monascus species are traditionally used for food preservation. This study used the disc diffusion method to verify the antifungal activity of protein extracted from Monascus pilosus BCRC38072 against 15 fungal pathogens. An antifungal protein, designated as MAFP1, was successfully purified and confirmed through N-terminal sequencing. To further explore the antifungal gene, a mafp1 gene that is similar to that of PgAFP from Penicillium chrysogenum was cloned from M. pilosus BCRC38072. According to the N-terminal sequencing and in silico analysis, the signal peptide was assumed to have 18 amino acids and the mature MAFP1 to contain 58 peptides. Moreover, the mafp1 gene was recognized in Monascus ruber, Monascus barkeri, Monascus floridanus, and Monascus lunisporas through polymerase chain reaction and DNA sequencing and showed high homology. By contrast, the mafp1 gene was absent in Monascus kaoliang, Monascus purpureus, and Monascus sanguineus. In addition, the mafp1 gene with N-terminal polyhistidine fusion was overexpressed in Escherichia coli. However, the antifungal activity of recombinant MAFP1 was significantly lower than that of native MAFP1. According to the properties of MAFP1, Monascus species may have food preservation applications.

  3. 植物精油在食品保鲜中的应用研究%Research Progress in Preservative Effect of Plant Essential Oil on Food

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    段伟丽; 包怡红

    2015-01-01

    Food preservation is a big problem of industry .We often add preservative in food to prevent food spoilage and extend shelf life .Essential oils as an important source of natural preservative ,form inhibitory atmosphere a‐round food in direct contact or fumigation way .In this paper ,antibacterial activity ,the effects and possible mecha‐nisms of plant essential oils involved in the preservation of food are discussed ,which is expected to provide a theo‐retical reference for the development of natural food preservatives .%食品保鲜是食品工业所面临的一大难题,为了防止食品腐败变质,延长食品货架期,常常在食品中添加保鲜剂。植物精油作为天然源保鲜剂的重要来源,是一种挥发性较好的保鲜剂,以直接接触或熏蒸的方式在食物周围形成抑菌氛围,从而达到防腐保鲜。主要阐述了植物精油的抑菌活性、抑菌机理及其在食品保鲜中的应用,为食品天然源保鲜剂的开发和应用提供参考。

  4. Effect of food preservative and food coloring agent on some physiological and hematological parameters in albino rats and theprotective role of garlic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eman G.E. Helal* and Mervat Abdel- Rahman

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Most children, in the age of nursery consume food that contains both colorants and preservatives with great amount. This observation led us to study the interaction between sodium nitrite as a food preservative and sun set yellow as a coloring agent. The mixture of the two agents at the limited dose of each was found to be a lethal dose. So, 1/10th of this dose was used daily for 30 days. Animals were divided into three groups. The first group served as a control, while the second group was orally administered a mixture of 10 mg sod.nitrite (NaNO3/kg mixed with 0.5 mg/kg/day sun set yellow (S.S.Y. The third group received garlic (5 mcg/kg in addition to the above mentioned mixture. After 30 days of treatment, half of the animals from each group were decapitated. The other half of the animals was left for another 15 days without any additional treatment as a recovery period. Ingestion of the mixture of (NaNO3 and S.S.Y significantly decreased rat body weight, RBCs and WBCs counts, Hb%, Hct%. No changes were recorded for organ/ body weight, respiratory rate, heart rate, rectal temperature. A complete recovery from the abnormalities of most physiological and hematological parameters was observed after the recovery period or when garlic was administered

  5. Radiation preservation of foods of plant origin. Part IV. Subtropical fruits: citrus, grapes, and avocados

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomas, P.

    1986-01-01

    Current information on the use of ionizing radiation for improving the storage of subtropical fruits like citrus, grapes, and avocados is reviewed. The feasibility of applying radiation either alone or in combination with other physical or chemical treatments for the control of postharvest fungal diseases is considered. Irradiation effects on the physiology of the fruits as related to respiration, ethylene evolution, changes in major chemical constituents, and quality are discussed. The recent trends in the possible use of irradiation as an alternative treatment to chemical fumigants for disinfestation of citrus and avocados and the prospects for the future application of irradiation for preservation of some of these fruits are outlined. 128 references.

  6. Modelling the growth/no growth boundary of Zygosaccharomyces bailii in acidic conditions: a contribution to the alternative method to preserve foods without using chemical preservatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dang, T D T; Mertens, L; Vermeulen, A; Geeraerd, A H; Van Impe, J F; Debevere, J; Devlieghere, F

    2010-01-31

    The aim of the study was to develop mathematical models describing growth/no growth (G/NG) boundaries of the highly resistant food spoilage yeast-Zygosaccharomyces bailii-in different environmental conditions, taking acidified sauces as the target product. By applying these models, the stability of products with characteristics within the investigated pH, a(w) and acetic acid ranges can be evaluated. Besides, the well-defined no growth regions can be used in the development of guidelines regarding formulation of new shelf-stable foods without using chemical preservatives, which would facilitate the innovation of additive-free products. Experiments were performed at different temperatures and periods (22 degrees C for 45 and 60days, 30 degrees C for 45days) in 150 modified Sabouraud media characterized by high amount of sugars (glucose and fructose, 15% (w/v)), acetic acid (0.0-2.5% (v/v), 6 levels), pH (3.0-5.0, 5 levels) and a(w) (0.93-0.97, 5 levels). These time and temperature combinations were chosen as they are commonly applied for shelf-stable foods. The media were inoculated with ca. 4.5 log CFU/ml and yeast growth was monitored daily using optical density measurements. Every condition was examined in 20 replicates in order to yield accurate growth probabilities. Three separate ordinary logistic regression models were developed for different tested temperatures and incubation time. The total acetic acid concentration was considered as variable for all models. In general, when one intrinsic inhibitory factor became more stringent, the G/NG boundary shifted to less stressful conditions of the other two factors, resulting in enlarged no growth zones. Abrupt changes of growth probability often occurred around the transition zones (between growth and no growth regions), which indicates that minor variations in environmental conditions near the G/NG boundaries can cause a significant impact on the growth probability. When comparing growth after 45days between the

  7. Feeding a hungry world: the challenge of developing safe and effective methods of food preservation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preventing the loss of harvested commodities due to either postharvest diseases or physiological breakdown (uncontrolled ripening) offers a significant approach to providing the increased yields of food that will be needed to feed the world population in the 21st century (Wilson 2013). Activities ...

  8. 21 CFR 101.22 - Foods; labeling of spices, flavorings, colorings and chemical preservatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... units thereof are so small that a statement of artificial flavoring, artificial coloring, or chemical... this chapter. (i) If the label, labeling, or advertising of a food makes any direct or indirect..., printed, or graphic matter, except: (i) Where the characterizing flavor and a trademark or brand...

  9. 21 CFR 501.22 - Animal foods; labeling of spices, flavorings, colorings, and chemical preservatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... act if it is not in package form and the units thereof are so small that a statement of artificial... true smoked flavor. (i) If the label, labeling, or advertising of a food makes any direct or indirect..., printed, or graphic matter, except: (i) Where the characterizing flavor and a trademark or brand...

  10. The application of irradiation techniques for food preservation and processing improvement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Byun, Myung Woo; Cho, Han Ok; Jo, Sung Ki; Yook, Hong Sun; Kwon, Oh Jin; Yang, Jae Seung; Kim, Sung; Im, Sung Il

    1997-09-01

    This project has intended to develop alternative techniques to be used in food industry for food processing and utilization by safe irradiation methods. For improvement of rheology and processing in corn starch by irradiation, the production of modified starch with low viscosity as well as with excellent viscosity stability became feasible by the control of gamma irradiation dose levels and the amount of added inorganic peroxides to starch. Also, this project was developed the improvement methods of hygienic quality and long-term storage of dried red pepper by gamma irradiation. And, in Korean medicinal plants, 10 kGy gamma irradiation was effective for improving sanitary quality and increasing extraction yield of major components. For the sanitization of health and convenience foods, gamma irradiation was more effective than ozone treatment in decontamination of microorganisms, with minimal effect on the physicochemical properties analysed. In evaluation of wholesomeness, gamma-irradiated the Korean medicinal plants could be safe on the genotoxic point of view. And, thirteen groups of irradiated foods approved for human consumption from Korea Ministry of Health and Welfare. (author). 81 refs., 74 tabs.

  11. Functional genomics for food microbiology: Molecular mechanisms of weak organic acid preservative adaptation in yeast

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S. Brul; W. Kallemeijn; G. Smits

    2008-01-01

    The recent era of genomics has offered tremendous possibilities to biology. This concise review describes the possibilities of applying (functional) genomics studies to the field of microbial food stability. In doing so, the studies on weak-organic-acid stress response in yeast are discussed by way

  12. Lack of oestrogenic effects of food preservatives (parabens) in uterotrophic assays

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hossaini, A.; Larsen, Jens-Jørgen; Larsen, John Christian

    2000-01-01

    The oestrogenic activity of the parabens, methyl-, ethyl- and propyl p-hydroxybenzoate, widely used as antimicrobials in food, and butyl p-hydroxybenzoate, which is used in cosmetic products, and their shared main metabolite p-hydroxybenzoic acid was investigated in a mouse uterotrophic assay...

  13. Sorbic and benzoic acid in non-preservative-added food products in Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cakir, Ruziye; Cagri-Mehmetoglu, Arzu

    2013-01-01

    Sorbic acid (SA) and benzoic acid (BA) were determined in yoghurt, tomato and pepper paste, fruit juices, chocolates, soups and chips in Turkey by using high-pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC). Levels were compared with Turkish Food Codex limits. SA was detected only in 2 of 21 yoghurt samples, contrary to BA, which was found in all yoghurt samples but one, ranging from 10.5 to 159.9 mg/kg. Both SA and BA were detected also in 3 and 6 of 23 paste samples in a range of 18.1-526.4 and 21.7-1933.5 mg/kg, respectively. Only 1 of 23 fruit juices contained BA. SA was not detected in any chips, fruit juice, soup, or chocolate sample. Although 16.51% of the samples was not compliant with the Turkish Food Codex limits, estimated daily intake of BA or SA was below the acceptable daily intake.

  14. Plasma treated polyethylene terephthalate/polypropylene films assembled with chitosan and various preservatives for antimicrobial food packaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, Jieqiong; Yang, Lingxiao; Zhan, Yingfei; Wang, Yuntao; Ye, Ting; Li, Yan; Deng, Hongbing; Li, Bin

    2014-02-01

    In this study, polyethylene terephthalate/polypropylene (PET/PP) films were treated via atmospheric pressure plasma, assembled with chitosan and various preservatives and applied for antimicrobial food packaging. Surface properties of these obtained films were studied by contact angle measurement, atomic force microscopy (ATM), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), Fourier transformed infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) and dynamic laser scattering (DLS). The above results showed that the surface hydrophilicity and roughness of the films increased after the plasma treatment. Besides, chitosan and the preservatives were successfully assembled onto the surface of the films. In addition, the antimicrobial activities of the films against three kinds of microorganisms (Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilis and Escherichia coli) were investigated and the results indicated that the inhibition ratios against B. subtilis and E. coli reached almost 100% while the inhibition ratios against S. aureus were lower than 85%. Moreover, the accumulative release profiles of the antimicrobial substances migrating from the assembled films into the release solutions revealed that their release speed increased with the increment of temperature and acidity, but decreased with enhancing the ionic strength regulated by sodium chloride or with lowering the ionic mobility regulated by sucrose.

  15. Bacterial spore inhibition and inactivation in foods by pressure, chemical preservatives, and mild heat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shearer, A E; Dunne, C P; Sikes, A; Hoover, D G

    2000-11-01

    Sucrose laurates, sucrose palmitate, sucrose stearates, and monolaurin (Lauricidin) were evaluated for inhibitory effects against spores of Bacillus sp., Clostridium sporogenes PA3679, and Alicyclobacillus sp. in a model agar system. The combined treatment of sucrose laurate, high hydrostatic pressure, and mild heat was evaluated on spores of Bacillus and Alicyclobacillus in foods. The minimum inhibitory concentrations of the sucrose esters were higher than that of Lauricidin for all spores tested in the model agar system, but Lauricidin was not the most readily suspended in the test media. The sucrose laurates and sucrose palmitate were more effective and more readily suspended than the sucrose stearates. A combined treatment of sucrose laurate (<1.0%), 392 megaPascals (MPa) at 45 degrees C for 10 to 15 min provided 3- to 5.5-log10 CFU/ml reductions from initial populations of 10(6) CFU/ml for Bacillus subtilis 168 in milk, Bacillus cereus 14579 in beef, Bacillus coagulans 7050 in tomato juice (pH 4.5), Alicyclobacillus sp. N1089 in tomato juice (pH 4.5), and Alicyclobacillus sp. N1098 in apple juice. The most notable change in the appearance of the products was temporary foaming during mixing of the sucrose laurate in the foods. The effect of sucrose laurate appeared to be inhibitory rather than lethal to the spores. The inhibitory effects observed on Bacillus and Alicyclobacillus spores by the combined treatment of pressure, mild heat, and sucrose laurate appear promising for food applications where alternatives to high heat processing are desired.

  16. A survey on food preservative application in 2015%2015年食品防腐剂使用调研及分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱小华; 方东亚; 刘幼兰; 李美玲; 梁鹏

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, the research was designed to investigate what food preservatives were utilized among 254 kinds of food in the hypermarket located in Fuzhou City. The results showed that there were 121 kinds of the foodstuffs without any food preservative ( 47.64% to the total samples) , including drinking water, canned foods, rice, flour, oil, fruit juice and puffed food. The foodstuffs added with food preservatives accounted for 52.36% to the total samples, the most food preservatives were utilized as potassium sor ̄bate, sodium benzoate and sodium metabisulfite (84.71%). The foodstuffs added with two or more kinds of food preservatives ac ̄counted for 24.8% to the total samples, but natural preservatives were 2.32%, including natamycin, nisin and gluconate ̄δ ̄lactone. It has been concluded that food preservatives utilized now were still traditional types.%对福州市某大型超市所售254种食品中所标示的食品防腐剂进行调研。结果发现:121种食品未添加任何食品防腐剂,占食品样本的47.64%,主要包括饮用水类、罐头类、米面类、食用油类、果汁饮料类及其他膨化食品等。添加防腐剂的食品占52.36%,其中使用传统防腐剂(山梨酸钾、苯甲酸钠、焦亚硫酸钠)约84.71%;而且同时使用2~3种防腐剂的食品占总样本的24.8%;天然防腐剂主要为纳他霉素、乳酸链球菌素和葡萄糖酸 ̄δ ̄内酯,使用比例较低(仅2.32%)。本次调查结果显示,市售产品中所使用的食品防腐剂仍以传统防腐剂为主。

  17. Variable Efficacy of the Proteinaceous Antifungal YvgO in Select Fruit Juices and Teas as a Complement with UV Methods of Food Protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manns, David C; Churey, John J; Worobo, Randy W

    2015-10-01

    Heat-resistant fungal spores present a processing challenge for beverages and fruit juices, as thermal and UV strategies are often inadequate in reducing heat-resistant fungal burdens to acceptable levels. While effective against pathogenic or invasive bacteria, germicidal UV light treatments also fail to achieve an appreciable reduction of heat-resistant fungal spores. As an alternative, the efficacy of the antifungal protein YvgO was examined across a selection of fruit juices and teas, as well as solid model matrices. Compared with its efficacy in analogous liquid matrices, the apparent efficacy of YvgO was diminished on acidified solid matrices due to a reduction in YvgO diffusion. Using an XTT [2,3-bis(2-methoxy-4-nitro-5-sulfophenyl)-2H-tetrazolium-5-carboxanilide] tetrazolium dye cytotoxicity assay, the effective concentrations to reduce growth by 50% were elucidated in samples challenged with Byssochlamys fulva H25. The MICs were determined and ranged from 2 ppm in apple juice and acidified teas to approximately 3 to 12 ppm for lemonade and orange, white cranberry, blueberry, prune, cherry, and grape juices. Apple cider and nonacidified teas showed reduced efficacy, with MICs exceeding 100 ppm. Tannin-rich products readily removed YvgO from the product, impairing its efficacy. Adding bovine serum albumin as a competitive inhibitor effectively reversed the YvgO-tannin association and restored efficacy in black but not green tea matrices. When challenged with a 5-log CFU inoculum of B. fulva, the shelf lives of the products were extended for various times up to 28 days in a concentrationdependent manner. However, initial efficacy was not predictive of shelf life extension, as some products exhibited improved protection at just two- and fourfold concentrations above the MIC, while others only exhibited long-term stability when concentrations exceeded 20 times the MIC. As such, YvgO may be an attractive alternative to currently available protection strategies

  18. Alicyclobacillus spp.: New Insights on Ecology and Preserving Food Quality through New Approaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emanuela Ciuffreda

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Alicyclobacillus spp. includes spore-forming and thermo-acidophilic microorganisms, usually recovered from soil, acidic drinks, orchards and equipment from juice producers. The description of the genus is generally based on the presence of ω-fatty acids in the membrane, although some newly described species do not possess them. The genus includes different species and sub-species, but A. acidoterrestris is generally regarded as the most important spoiler for acidic drinks and juices. The main goal of this review is a focus on the ecology of the genus, mainly on the species A. acidoterrestris, with a special emphasis on the different phenotypic properties and genetic traits, along with the correlation among them and with the primary source of isolation. Finally, the last section of the review reports on some alternative approaches to heat treatments (natural compounds and other chemical treatments to control and/or reduce the contamination of food by Alicyclobacillus.

  19. Characterization of a noncytotoxic bacteriocin from probiotic Lactobacillus plantarum DM5 with potential as a food preservative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Deeplina; Goyal, Arun

    2014-10-01

    The aim of this work was to purify and characterize the bacteriocin produced by probiotic Lactobacillus plantarum DM5 in order to evaluate its potential as nutraceuticals. Lb. plantarum DM5 exhibited in vitro probiotic properties such as high resistance to gastric juice and bile salt, adherence to human adenocarcinoma (HT-29) cells, bile salt hydrolase and cholesterol assimilation activity. Moreover, Lb. plantarum DM5 showed bacteriocin activity against several major food borne pathogens. Zymogram analysis of purified bacteriocin (plantaricin DM5) showed a molecular size of ∼15.2 kDa. Plantaricin DM5 was sensitive to proteolytic enzymes but stable in the pH range of 2.0-10.0, and it was heat resistant (121 °C for 15 min) and remained active upon treatment with surfactants and detergents. Cytotoxicity analysis of plantaricin DM5 on human embryonic kidney 293 (HEK 293) and human cervical cancer (HeLa) cell lines revealed its nontoxic and biocompatible nature. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study on the isolated strain expressing probiotic properties and broad antimicrobial activity without any cytotoxic effect on mammalian cells from indigenous fermented beverage Marcha from India, and thus contributes to the food industry as a novel bio-preservant.

  20. DNA content alterations in Tetrahymena pyriformis macronucleus after exposure to food preservatives sodium nitrate and sodium benzoate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loutsidou, Ariadni C; Hatzi, Vasiliki I; Chasapis, C T; Terzoudi, Georgia I; Spiliopoulou, Chara A; Stefanidou, Maria E

    2012-12-01

    The toxicity, in terms of changes in the DNA content, of two food preservatives, sodium nitrate and sodium benzoate was studied on the protozoan Tetrahymena pyriformis using DNA image analysis technology. For this purpose, selected doses of both food additives were administered for 2 h to protozoa cultures and DNA image analysis of T. pyriformis nuclei was performed. The analysis was based on the measurement of the Mean Optical Density which represents the cellular DNA content. The results have shown that after exposure of the protozoan cultures to doses equivalent to ADI, a statistically significant increase in the macronuclear DNA content compared to the unexposed control samples was observed. The observed increase in the macronuclear DNA content is indicative of the stimulation of the mitotic process and the observed increase in MOD, accompanied by a stimulation of the protozoan proliferation activity is in consistence with this assumption. Since alterations at the DNA level such as DNA content and uncontrolled mitogenic stimulation have been linked with chemical carcinogenesis, the results of the present study add information on the toxicogenomic profile of the selected chemicals and may potentially lead to reconsideration of the excessive use of nitrates aiming to protect public health.

  1. Antifungal activity of Oleoresins used in meat industry on some toxigenic Aspergillus spp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Šošo Vladislava M.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Different spice oleoresins are widely used in meat industry. They contribute to the specific aroma and flavor of the end products, but they have also been reported to have strong antimicrobial activity. These properties open a plenty of possibilities to be used for defining the specific sensory profile of the product but also as natural food preservatives. This paper focuses on the antifungal activity of four oleoresins against different foodborne toxigenic Aspergillus species. Oleoresins used in the experiments were cayenne pepper, black pepper, garlic and rosemary oleoresins, and they were tested against following Aspergillus species: A. clavatus, A. flavus, A. fumigatus, A. niger, A. ochraceus and A. versicolor. Antifungal activity was tested using microtitre-plate-based assay incorporating resazurin as an indicator of cell growth and broth microdilution-method. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. III46009

  2. Genotoxicity of food preservative sodium sorbate in human lymphocytes in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mamur, Sevcan; Yüzbaşıoğlu, Deniz; Unal, Fatma; Aksoy, Hüseyin

    2012-10-01

    The genotoxic effects of antimicrobial food additive sodium sorbate (SS) was assessed by using chromosome aberrations (CAs), sister-chromatid exchanges (SCEs), and micronucleus (MN) in cultured human lymphocytes and comet assay in isolated human lymphocytes. Lymphocytes were treated with four concentrations (100, 200, 400 and 800 μg/ml) of SS as well as a negative (sterile distilled water) and a positive control (Mitomycin-C: MMC for cultured lymphocytes and H(2)O(2) for isolated lymphocytes). The result of this study indicated that SS increased the frequency of CAs at both 24 and 48 h period compared to control. When gaps were included, this increase was significant at 200, 400 and 800 μg/ml concentrations at 24 h and, at all concentrations at 48 h treatment time. When gaps were excluded, this increase was significant at only 800 μg/ml concentration at both 24 and 48 h treatments. In addition, SS increased SCEs/cell and MN frequency at 400 and 800 μg/ml concentrations at both 24 and 48 h compared to negative control. Furthermore, this additive caused DNA damage at all concentrations in isolated human lymphocytes after 1 h in vitro exposure. The present results show that SS is genotoxic to the human peripheral blood lymphocytes in vitro at the highest concentrations.

  3. Sodium benzoate and potassium sorbate preservatives in food stuffs in Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amirpour, Mansooreh; Arman, Azim; Yolmeh, Ahmad; Akbari Azam, Maryam; Moradi-Khatoonabadi, Zhila

    2015-01-01

    A high-performance liquid chromatography method was applied for the determination of the levels of benzoate and sorbate in 400 food samples, including pickled cucumbers, canned tomato pastes, sour cherry jams, soft drinks, fruit juices and dairy products (UF-Feta cheeses, Lighvan cheeses, lactic cheeses, yogurts and doogh). The results showed that 270 (67.5%) of all samples contained benzoate ranging from 11.9 to 288.5 mg kg(-1) in lactic cheese and fruit juice, respectively. The levels of sorbate in 98 (24.5%) of the samples were 20.1 to 284.3 mg kg(-1) in doogh and fruit juice, respectively. Moreover, benzoate was detected in all dairy products ranging from 11.9 mg kg(-1) in lactic cheese to 91.2 mg kg(-1) in UF-Feta cheese. A low concentration of benzoate could originate naturally, due to specific biochemical mechanisms during cheese, yogurt and doogh maturation. In conclusion, a minimum level for benzoate in dairy products should be defined in the legislation.

  4. 食品防腐剂的应用现状、问题及对策%Current application, problems and countermeasures of food preservative

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王杉; 揭琴丰; 邱伟华

    2011-01-01

    As a kind of food additive, food preservative can inhibit microbial growth, avoid food spoilage within the warranty period and prolong the conservancy period of food. Therefore, it has been widely used in the food industry. With the economic and social development, food safety issues are pay more attention, especially for the application of food preservative in food process. To protect the security and development of food preservative, various forces should work together to play their positive role. Here, classification and application foreground of the food preservative were described chiefly. Additionally, the current and main problems during the practical using of food preservative were analyzed and the corresponding strategies were put forward in this paper.%食品防腐剂作为食品添加剂的一个类别,可以抑制微生物的生长,从而保证食品在保质期内不发生腐败变质,并延长食品的保存期,其在食品工业中已被广泛应用.随着经济与社会的发展,食品安全问题越来越突出,尤其是对食品加工中使用食品添加剂的安全性问题,其中食品防腐剂是引起食品安全性问题的主要食品添加剂之一.为保障食品防腐剂能得到正确的使用与发展,多方面力量应共同努力,发挥各自的积极作用.本文主要介绍了食品防腐剂的分类及使用前景,并就其目前在实际使用中存在的主要问题提出了相应的对策.

  5. Sodium benzoate, a food preservative, affects the functional and activation status of splenocytes at non cytotoxic dose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yadav, Ashish; Kumar, Arvind; Das, Mukul; Tripathi, Anurag

    2016-02-01

    Sodium benzoate (SB) is a widely used food preservative due to its bacteriostatic and fungistatic properties. The acceptable daily intake of SB is 5 mg/kg-bw, however, it has been found to be used in the food commodities at relatively high levels (2119 mg/kg). Earlier studies on SB have shown its immunosuppressive properties, but comprehensive immunotoxicity data is lacking. Our studies have shown that SB was non cytotoxic in splenocytes up to 1000 μg/ml for 72 h, however at 2500 μg/ml it was found to be cytotoxic. Thus, 1000 μg/ml dose of SB was chosen for the subsequent experiments. SB significantly suppresses the proliferation of Con A and LPS stimulated splenocytes at 72 h, while allogenic response of T cells was significantly decreased after 96 h. SB did not affect the relative expression of CD3e or CD4 molecules following 72 h exposure, however, it downregulated the relative expression of CD8 co-receptor. Further, exposure of splenocytes to SB for 72 h led to reduced expression of CD28 and CD95, which play a vital role in T cell activation. SB also suppresses the relative expression of CD19, CD40 and CD95 receptors on B cells after 72 h. In addition to the functional responses, SB lowered the expression of IL4, IL6, IFNγ and IL17 cytokines in Con A stimulated splenocytes; and IL6, IFNγ and TNFα in LPS stimulated splenocytes following 48 h of exposure. Taken together, the present study is suggestive of the immunomodulatory potential of SB.

  6. Antifungal Poly(lactic acid Films Containing Thymol and Carvone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boonruang Kanchana

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The goal of this study was to develop antifungal poly(lactic acid films for food packaging applications. The antifungal compounds, thymol and R-(--carvone were incorporated into poly(lactic acid (PLA-based polymer at 10, 15 and 20% by weight. Film converting process consists of three steps including melt blending, sheet extrusion and biaxial stretching. The incorporation of antifungal compounds into the polymer matrix resulted in decreased Tg and Tm, increased gas permeabilility, reduced tensile strength and increased elongation at break of the antifungal PLA films.

  7. Effects of sodium benzoate, a widely used food preservative, on glucose homeostasis and metabolic profiles in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lennerz, Belinda S; Vafai, Scott B; Delaney, Nigel F; Clish, Clary B; Deik, Amy A; Pierce, Kerry A; Ludwig, David S; Mootha, Vamsi K

    2015-01-01

    Sodium benzoate is a widely used preservative found in many foods and soft drinks. It is metabolized within mitochondria to produce hippurate, which is then cleared by the kidneys. We previously reported that ingestion of sodium benzoate at the generally regarded as safe (GRAS) dose leads to a robust excursion in the plasma hippurate level [1]. Since previous reports demonstrated adverse effects of benzoate and hippurate on glucose homeostasis in cells and in animal models, we hypothesized that benzoate might represent a widespread and underappreciated diabetogenic dietary exposure in humans. Here, we evaluated whether acute exposure to GRAS levels of sodium benzoate alters insulin and glucose homeostasis through a randomized, controlled, cross-over study of 14 overweight subjects. Serial blood samples were collected following an oral glucose challenge, in the presence or absence of sodium benzoate. Outcome measurements included glucose, insulin, glucagon, as well as temporal mass spectrometry-based metabolic profiles. We did not find a statistically significant effect of an acute oral exposure to sodium benzoate on glucose homeostasis. Of the 146 metabolites targeted, four changed significantly in response to benzoate, including the expected rise in benzoate and hippurate. In addition, anthranilic acid, a tryptophan metabolite, exhibited a robust rise, while acetylglycine dropped. Although our study shows that GRAS doses of benzoate do not have an acute, adverse effect on glucose homeostasis, future studies will be necessary to explore the metabolic impact of chronic benzoate exposure.

  8. Simultaneous determination of artificial sweeteners, preservatives, caffeine, theobromine and theophylline in food and pharmaceutical preparations by ion chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Q C; Wang, J

    2001-12-07

    A novel ion chromatographic method was proposed for the simultaneous determination of artificial sweeteners (sodium saccharin, aspartame, acesulfame-K), preservatives (benzoic acid, sorbic acid), caffeine, theobromine and theophylline. The separation was performed on an anion-exchange analytical column operated at 40 degrees C within 45 min by an isocratic elution with 5 mM aqueous NaH2PO4 (pH 8.20) solution containing 4% (v/v) acetonitrile as eluent, and the determination by wavelength-switching ultraviolet absorbance detection. The detection limits (signal-to-noise ratio 3:1) for all analytes were below the sub-microg/ml level. Under the experimental conditions, several organic acids, including citric acid, malic acid, tartaric acid and ascorbic acid, did not interfere with the determination. The method has been successfully applied to the analysis of various food and pharmaceutical preparations, and the average recoveries for real samples ranged from 85 to 104%. The levels of all analytes determined by this method were in good agreement with those obtained by the high-performance liquid chromatographic procedure. The results also indicated that ion chromatography would be possibly a beneficial alternative to conventional high-performance liquid chromatography for the separation and determination of these compounds.

  9. A shift toward a new holistic paradigm will help to preserve and better process grain products' food structure for improving their health effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fardet, Anthony

    2015-02-01

    This review aims at emphasizing the role played by physical characteristics and physico-chemical properties of the food matrix on the digestive and metabolic fate, and health effects of grain products. It is today obvious that the food matrix conditions the health effects of food products and that we are able to modify this matrix to control the digestive fate of foods, and the metabolic fate of nutrients and bioactive compounds (reverse engineering). In other words, there is no more reason to consider nutrition in a quantitative perspective (i.e., a food is only the sum of its macro-, micro- and phyto-nutrients) but rather according to a qualitative perspective involving concepts of interaction of nutrients within the matrix, of enzymatic bioaccessibility, bioavailability and metabolic fate in relation to release kinetics in the gastrointestinal tract, and food nutrient synergy. This new perspective on the health potential of foods also reflects the urge to consider preventive nutrition research according to a more holistic and integrative perspective after decades of reductionist research based on the study of the health effects of food components in isolation. To illustrate the importance of food structure, attention has been focused on grain-based products such as rice, leguminous seeds and nuts, and on soft technological treatments that preserve food structure such as pre-fermentation, soaking and germination.

  10. Research progress of natural food preservatives from microbial source%微生物源天然食品防腐剂的研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邢海丽; 辛嘉英; 王艳; 郑洛昀; 夏春谷

    2015-01-01

    天然食品防腐剂按其来源不同可分为植物源天然防腐剂、动物源天然防腐剂和微生物源天然防腐剂。微生物源天然食品防腐剂由于其本身的优越性,越来越受到人们的青睐。本文主要介绍了微生物来源的天然食品防腐剂乳酸链球菌素、ε-聚赖氨酸、曲酸、溶菌酶和甲烷氧化菌素的最新研究进展,阐述了它们的理化性质、抑菌机制和应用现状,同时简单介绍了纳他霉素、抗菌肽、罗伊氏菌素和嗜杀酵母等微生物源天然食品防腐剂的应用现状,旨在为高效、无毒、天然食品防腐剂的研究提供参考。天然食品防腐剂最有发展的可能是将几种来源不同的天然食品防腐剂复配,或者将一种天然防腐剂与其他化学防腐剂复配使用,不仅可以减少防腐剂在食品中的用量,同时还可以使食品的杀菌或抑菌条件更加温和化,对人们的饮食健康非常有利。%Natural food preservatives can be classified into botanic, animal and microbial source food preservatives. The microbial preservatives are favored more and more because of their superiority such as strong antibacterial, safe, non-toxic, water-soluble, good thermal stability, and wide range of functions, etc. This paper reviewed the latest progress in natural food preservatives of the nisin,ε-Poly-L-lysine, kojic acid, lysozyme and methanobactin, focusing on the physical and chemical properties, antibacterial mechanism and application, and the application of natamycin, antibacterial peptide, reuterin and Killer Yeast, with an aim to provide a reference for researches on natural food preservatives with non-toxic and high activity. The most likely development of natural food preservatives are combination of different sources of natural food preservatives or use of a natural preservative and other chemical preservatives. These methods not only can reduce the amount of preservatives in the food, but also

  11. Antifungal Edible Coatings for Fresh Citrus Fruit: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lluís Palou

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available According to their origin, major postharvest losses of citrus fruit are caused by weight loss, fungal diseases, physiological disorders, and quarantine pests. Cold storage and postharvest treatments with conventional chemical fungicides, synthetic waxes, or combinations of them are commonly used to minimize postharvest losses. However, the repeated application of these treatments has led to important problems such as health and environmental issues associated with fungicide residues or waxes containing ammoniacal compounds, or the proliferation of resistant pathogenic fungal strains. There is, therefore, an increasing need to find non-polluting alternatives to be used as part of integrated disease management (IDM programs for preservation of fresh citrus fruit. Among them, the development of novel natural edible films and coatings with antimicrobial properties is a technological challenge for the industry and a very active research field worldwide. Chitosan and other edible coatings formulated by adding antifungal agents to composite emulsions based on polysaccharides or proteins and lipids are reviewed in this article. The most important antifungal ingredients are selected for their ability to control major citrus postharvest diseases like green and blue molds, caused by Penicillium digitatum and Penicillium italicum, respectively, and include low-toxicity or natural chemicals such as food additives, generally recognized as safe (GRAS compounds, plant extracts, or essential oils, and biological control agents such as some antagonistic strains of yeasts or bacteria.

  12. Chemical Composition of Essential Oilsof Thymus and Mentha Speciesand Their Antifungal Activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leo J. L. D. van Griensven

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The potential antifungal effects of Thymus vulgaris L., Thymus tosevii L., Mentha spicata L., and Mentha piperita L. (Labiatae essential oils and their components against 17 micromycetal food poisoning, plant, animal and human pathogens are presented. The essential oils were obtained by hydrodestillation of dried plant material. Their composition was determined by GC-MS. Identification of individual constituents was made by comparison with analytical standards, and by computer matching mass spectral data with those of the Wiley/NBS Library of Mass Spectra. MIC’s and MFC’s of the oils and their components were determined by dilution assays. Thymol (48.9% and p-cymene (19.0% were the main components of T. vulgaris, while carvacrol (12.8%, a-terpinyl acetate (12.3%, cis-myrtanol (11.2% and thymol (10.4% were dominant in T. tosevii. Both Thymus species showed very strong antifungal activities. In M. piperita oil menthol (37.4%, menthyl acetate (17.4% and menthone (12.7% were the main components, whereas those of M. spicata oil were carvone (69.5% and menthone (21.9%. Mentha sp. showed strong antifungal activities, however lower than Thymus sp. The commercial fungicide, bifonazole, used as a control, had much lower antifungal activity than the oils and components investigated. It is concluded that essential oils of Thymus and Mentha species possess great antifungal potential and could be used as natural preservatives and fungicides.

  13. Research on application of two kinds of natural food preservatives on fresh cut vegetables preservations%2种天然食品防腐剂在鲜切蔬菜保鲜中的应用研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李晶莹; 王筠婷; 葛婷; 孙雨宏; 丁敬争; 任建军

    2015-01-01

    This paper introduces chitosan and tea polyphenols as raw material to study the effect of these two kinds of natural food preservatives on fresh cut green peppers and cucumbers storage quality. In addition, the different effects with various concentrations of chitosan and tea polyphenol as coating preservation of fresh cut green peppers and cucumbers were compared. The conclusion is as follows: 1% of Chitosan and 2% of tea polyphenol play significant role in food preservation to fresh cut green peppers and cucumber.%壳聚糖和茶多酚作为一种安全、无毒、有效的涂膜保鲜剂,近年来被广泛地研究和应用.分别以壳聚糖和茶多酚为材料,研究它们对鲜切青椒和黄瓜贮藏品质的影响,并比较了不同浓度的壳聚糖及茶多酚涂膜保鲜鲜切青椒和黄瓜的效果.试验结果表明,1%的壳聚糖、2%的茶多酚在一定的环境条件下对鲜切青椒和黄瓜贮藏具有良好的保鲜效果.

  14. Antifungal activity of two Lactobacillus strains with potential probiotic properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerbaldo, Gisela A; Barberis, Carla; Pascual, Liliana; Dalcero, Ana; Barberis, Lucila

    2012-07-01

    Aflatoxin (highly toxic and carcinogenic secondary metabolites produced by fungi) contamination is a serious problem worldwide. Modern agriculture and animal production systems need to use high-quality and mycotoxin-free feedstuffs. The use of microorganisms to preserve food has gained importance in recent years due to the demand for reduced use of chemical preservatives by consumers. Lactic acid bacteria are known to produce various antimicrobial compounds that are considered to be important in the biopreservation of food and feed. Lactobacillus rhamnosus L60 and Lactobacillus fermentum L23 are producers of secondary metabolites, such as organic acids, bacteriocins and, in the case of L60, hydrogen peroxide. The antifungal activity of lactobacilli strains was determined by coculture with Aspergillus section Flavi strains by two qualitative and one quantitative methods. Both L23 and L60 completely inhibited the fungal growth of all aflatoxicogenic strains assayed. Aflatoxin B (1) production was reduced 95.7-99.8% with L60 and 27.5-100% with L23. Statistical analysis of the data revealed the influence of L60 and L23 on growth parameters and aflatoxin B (1) production. These results are important given that these aflatoxicogenic fungi are natural contaminants of feed used for animal production, and could be effectively controlled by Lactobacillus L60 and L23 strains with probiotic properties.

  15. Potato wound-healing tissues: A rich source of natural antioxidant molecules with potential for food preservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dastmalchi, Keyvan; Wang, Isabel; Stark, Ruth E

    2016-11-01

    The need for safe, effective preservatives is a prominent issue in the food and drug industries, reflecting demand for natural alternatives to synthetic chemicals viewed as harmful to consumers and the environment. Thus, this study determined the identities and scavenging capacities of antioxidant metabolites produced as a response to potato tuber wounding, using activity-guided fractionation of polar extracts from a Yukon Gold cultivar that had previously exhibited exceptionally high radical-scavenging activity. Activity-guided fractionation using the ABTS(+) radical scavenging assay and LC-MS with TOF-MS for compositional analysis of the most potent antioxidant fractions yielded identification of nine constituents: coumaroylputrescine; feruloylquinic acid; isoferuloylputrescine; ferulic acid; 22,25-dimethoxy-3-[[2,3,4-tri-O-methyl-6-O-(2,3,4,6-tetra-O-methyl-β-d-glucopyranosyl)-β-d-glucopyranosyl]oxy]-(3β)-lanost-9(11)-en-24-one; 4-(2Z)-2-decen-1-yl-5-[1-(4-hydroxyphenyl)decyl]-1,2-benzenediol; 8-[(2E)-3,7-dimethyl-2,6-octadien-1-yl]-5-hydroxy-2,8-dimethyl-6-(3-methyl-2-buten-1-yl)-2H-1-benzopyran-4,7(3H,8H)-dione; 3-[(2-O-β-d-glucopyranosyl-β-d-glucopyranosyl)oxy]-20-[(6-O-β-d-xylopyranosyl-β-d-glucopyranosyl)oxy]-dammar-24-en-19-al; (3β)-28-oxo-28-(phenylmethoxy)oleanan-3-yl 2-O-β-d-galactopyranosyl-3-O-(phenylmethyl)-, butyl ester β-d-glucopyranosiduronic acid. A positive correlation was observed between the scavenging activities and the polarities of the active fractions. The antioxidant capacities of the fractions were also characterised by monitoring the activity throughout a 45-minute assay period.

  16. Food preservative potential of essential oils and fractions from Cymbopogon citratus, Ocimum gratissimum and Thymus vulgaris against mycotoxigenic fungi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguefack, J; Dongmo, J B Lekagne; Dakole, C D; Leth, V; Vismer, H F; Torp, J; Guemdjom, E F N; Mbeffo, M; Tamgue, O; Fotio, D; Zollo, P H Amvam; Nkengfack, A E

    2009-05-31

    The food preservative potential of essential oils from three aromatic plants Cymbopogon citratus, Ocimum gratissimum and Thymus vulgaris and their fractions was investigated against two mycotoxigenic strains each of Aspergillus ochraceus, Penicillium expansum and P. verrucosum. The fungicidal activity was determined and expressed as a Number of Decimal Reduction of the colony forming units per ml (NDR cfu). The influence of pH variation on this activity was studied. The NDR cfu varied with the essential oils and its concentration, the pH of the medium and the strain tested. The essential oils from O. gratissimum exhibited the highest activity against the six fungal strains under the three pH tested. T. vulgaris and C. citratus essential oils were less active against the Penicillium species tested and A. ochraceus, respectively. Potassium sorbate did not present any activity at pH 6 and 9. At pH 3, its NDR cfu was the lowest against the six fungal strains. At the same pH and at 4000 ppm, the three essential oils presented a NRD cfu > or = 6 against strains of A. ochraceus and P. expansum. The same result was obtained with T. vulgaris and C. citratus at 8000 ppm against both strains of P. verrucosum. The highest activity of the three essential oils was recorded at pH 3 against A. ochraceus strains and at pH 9 against both species of Penicillium. From the fractionation, three active fractions were obtained each from C. citratus and O. gratissimum, and two active fractions from T. vulgaris. These active fractions exhibited a NDR cfu, two to seven folds higher than that of the complete essential oils.

  17. Triazole antifungals: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peyton, L R; Gallagher, S; Hashemzadeh, M

    2015-12-01

    Invasive fungal infections and systemic mycosis, whether from nosocomial infection or immunodeficiency, have been on an upward trend for numerous years. Despite advancements in antifungal medication, treatment in certain patients can still be difficult for reasons such as impaired organ function, limited administration routes or poor safety profiles of the available antifungal medications. The growing number of invasive fungal species becoming resistant to current antifungal medications is of appreciable concern. Triazole compounds containing one or more 1,2,4-triazole rings have been shown to contain some of the most potent antifungal properties. Itracon-azole and fluconazole were some of the first triazoles synthesized, but had limitations associated with their use. Second-generation triazoles such as voriconazole, posa-conazole, albaconazole, efinaconazole, ravuconazole and isavuconazole are all derivatives of either itraconazole or fluconazole, and designed to overcome the deficiencies of their parent drugs. The goal of this manuscript is to review antifungal agents derived from triazole.

  18. 2013年食品防腐剂的应用及发展趋势调研%2013's Food Preservative Applications and Trends Research

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢纲忠; 张全

    2013-01-01

      通过对大型超市66种各类代表性食品所标示的食品防腐剂及保质期的情况调研,经统计分析,得出以下结论:第一、其中有32种即约48.5%的食品不添加任何防腐剂,其保质期为1个月~36个月,主要包括饮用水类、部分果汁类、油炸类、干货类、高糖高酸类、以及要求商业无菌的罐头类食品;另34种即约51.5%的食品必须添加食品防腐剂,其保质期为1.5个月~24个月(面包为7 d~10 d),这类食品一般是受灭菌条件、生产加工环境及包装物阻隔性等条件所限,必须添加相应的防腐剂才能达到其所标示的保质期。第二、从所标示的防腐剂可以看出,传统防腐剂苯甲酸钠、山梨酸钾仍在广泛使用,二者之和约占已添加防腐剂的食品样本的91.2%。第三、天然无毒的生物防腐剂乳酸链球菌素、纳他霉素也逐步被食品业界认识和接受,开拓了应用市场,此类防腐剂因为安全、无毒,高效,使用的系统风险小,值得大力推广,已经部分替代苯甲酸钠等化学防腐剂的应用。并且,生物防腐剂与化学防腐剂配合使用,取得用最少量的防腐剂获得最大效果的防腐作用,这将是防腐剂应用及发展的重要趋势之一。%  Statistical analysis of food preservatives and shelf life about 66 kinds of typical food in a large supermarket,we draw the following conclusions:first,32 kinds or approximately 48.5%of the foods did not add any preservatives,their shelf lives are 1 month-36 months,which include the class of drinking water,some juice,fried,dry,high in sugar,acids,as well as the requirements of commercial sterilization of canned foods;the other 34 that about 51.5%of the foods must add food preservative ,their shelf lives are 1.5 months-24 months (bread's is 7 days-10 days),such foods were generally subject to sterilization conditions,production processing environment and packaging

  19. 国外食品包装的安全与保鲜技术%Safety and preservation technology of food packaging in foreign countries

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李进卫

    2015-01-01

    包装物在与食品接触的过程中,包装材料里的有害物质会随着接触时间的增长,逐渐迁移到食品内,当食用时有害物质就会伴随食品一同进入人体,从而影响到食用者的健康。为保障食品安全,世界各国不仅对食品本身的质量提出了越来越严格的卫生要求,同时对其包装也制定了很高的标准。分别介绍了欧盟、美国、日本的保鲜包装技术,为提高国内食品包装的安全与保鲜技术提供参考。%In the process of contacting with food,the harmful substances in the packaging materials would gradually move into food along with the increase of contacting time. When food was eaten, the harmful material would enter human body together with food,so as to affect the eater's health. In order to ensure the food safety,various countries in the world not only raised more and more strict sanitary require⁃ment for food itself,but also made very high standard for packaging materials. The preservation packing technologies of EU,USA,and Japan were introduced respectively. These provided references for improving food packaging safety and preservation technology.

  20. 温度测量在食品加热与保鲜中的运用%The Using of Temperature Measurement in the Food Heating and Preservation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈昊

    2016-01-01

    In order to maintain food healthy and delicious, it must be applied to the modernization food preservation technology, these technologies provide a suitable environment by heating or refrigerating to keep food fresh. Therefore, in order to improve food heating preservation is reasonable effectively, the researchers should focus on the role of temperature measurement.%保持食品的健康和美味,必须运用到现代化的食品保鲜技术,依靠这些技术进行合理的加热或冷藏,可使食品不易变质。在食品保鲜技术中,温度的控制一直是较难掌握的技术之一,而只有合适的温度才能为食品加热与保鲜创造最有效的储藏环境,为此,必须着重发挥温度测量的作用,以有效提高食品加热保鲜的合理性。

  1. A ready-to-use antifungal starter culture improves the shelf life of packaged bread.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerez, C L; Torino, M I; Obregozo, M D; Font de Valdez, G

    2010-04-01

    Fungal spoilage is the main cause of economic loss in the baking industry. In this study, we developed a ready-to-use biopreserver (slurry [SL]) for nonsliced packed bread by using selected antifungal lactic acid bacteria (LAB) and low-cost ingredients that are compatible with the food matrix. Four LAB strains (Lactobacillus brevis CRL 772, L. brevis CRL 796, L. plantarum CRL 778, and L. reuteri CRL 1100) tested in bread preservation were able to inhibit Penicillium sp. growth and lengthen shelf life twofold with respect to breads prepared using only Saccharomyces cerevisiae (2 days shelf life). The best biopreservation effect (5 days shelf life) was obtained with 40% antifungal slurry SL778 containing L. plantarum CRL 778; this was as effective as 0.2% calcium propionate (PCa). The antifungal effect of SL778 was related to the synthesis of acetic and phenyllactic acid as well as lactic acid, which was produced at a high concentration (31.2 mmol/kg) and lowered the pH of the dough, favoring the undissociated fraction of the organic acids. The combination of the starter SL778 with 0.4% PCa extended the shelf life of packaged bread to 24 days, 2.6-fold longer than breads prepared with only 0.4% PCa.

  2. Influence of fatty acid precursors, including food preservatives, on the growth and fatty acid composition of Listeria monocytogenes at 37 and 10degreesC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Julotok, Mudcharee; Singh, Atul K; Gatto, Craig; Wilkinson, Brian J

    2010-03-01

    Listeria monocytogenes is a food-borne pathogen that grows at refrigeration temperatures and increases its content of anteiso-C(15:0) fatty acid, which is believed to be a homeoviscous adaptation to ensure membrane fluidity, at these temperatures. As a possible novel approach for control of the growth of the organism, the influences of various fatty acid precursors, including branched-chain amino acids and branched- and straight-chain carboxylic acids, some of which are also well-established food preservatives, on the growth and fatty acid composition of the organism at 37 degrees C and 10 degrees C were studied in order to investigate whether the organism could be made to synthesize fatty acids that would result in impaired growth at low temperatures. The results indicate that the fatty acid composition of L. monocytogenes could be modulated by the feeding of branched-chain amino acid, C(4), C(5), and C(6) branched-chain carboxylic acid, and C(3) and C(4) straight-chain carboxylic acid fatty acid precursors, but the growth-inhibitory effects of several preservatives were independent of effects on fatty acid composition, which were minor in the case of preservatives metabolized via acetyl coenzyme A. The ability of a precursor to modify fatty acid composition was probably a reflection of the substrate specificities of the first enzyme, FabH, in the condensation of primers of fatty acid biosynthesis with malonyl acyl carrier protein.

  3. Antifungal compounds from cyanobacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shishido, Tânia K; Humisto, Anu; Jokela, Jouni; Liu, Liwei; Wahlsten, Matti; Tamrakar, Anisha; Fewer, David P; Permi, Perttu; Andreote, Ana P D; Fiore, Marli F; Sivonen, Kaarina

    2015-04-13

    Cyanobacteria are photosynthetic prokaryotes found in a range of environments. They are infamous for the production of toxins, as well as bioactive compounds, which exhibit anticancer, antimicrobial and protease inhibition activities. Cyanobacteria produce a broad range of antifungals belonging to structural classes, such as peptides, polyketides and alkaloids. Here, we tested cyanobacteria from a wide variety of environments for antifungal activity. The potent antifungal macrolide scytophycin was detected in Anabaena sp. HAN21/1, Anabaena cf. cylindrica PH133, Nostoc sp. HAN11/1 and Scytonema sp. HAN3/2. To our knowledge, this is the first description of Anabaena strains that produce scytophycins. We detected antifungal glycolipopeptide hassallidin production in Anabaena spp. BIR JV1 and HAN7/1 and in Nostoc spp. 6sf Calc and CENA 219. These strains were isolated from brackish and freshwater samples collected in Brazil, the Czech Republic and Finland. In addition, three cyanobacterial strains, Fischerella sp. CENA 298, Scytonema hofmanni PCC 7110 and Nostoc sp. N107.3, produced unidentified antifungal compounds that warrant further characterization. Interestingly, all of the strains shown to produce antifungal compounds in this study belong to Nostocales or Stigonematales cyanobacterial orders.

  4. Sodium Alginate Application as Food Preservative%海藻酸钠在食品保鲜中的应用研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高翠丽; 李传平; 李倩; 夏延致; 王宗花; 龙晓静

    2013-01-01

    In order to reduce apperal customization deviation that led by using single Benchmark Block in background data system. This paper extracts and analysis the characteristics of the female body data, obtains 9 somatotype classification using fuzzy clustering recognition method. Based on large quantity of three-dimensional measured body data, by using factor analysis, correlation analysis and 3 - In recent years, as a new type of eco-friendly food preservative agent,sodium alginate is widely used in food preservation industry, such as fruits, meat and sea food, etc. Possessed of good antimicrobial activity, moisture retention and film forming, sodium alginate is a top choice for food preservation agent. Sodium alginate as preservative agent will have high-performance by single coating, composite coating and nano particle coating. This paper summarizes the current problems in the application of sodium alginate as well as its development prospect.%针对人们对食品保鲜质量越来越高的要求,本文对天然食品保鲜剂海藻酸钠在食品保鲜中存在的问题进行分析和总结.介绍了海藻酸钠的保鲜机理——抑菌性、保湿性和成膜性;分析了海藻酸钠单一涂膜、复合涂膜和纳米粒子复合涂膜等工艺在水果、蔬菜、水产品和肉类保鲜中的应用效果,结果表明,对于不同的食品,海藻酸钠的保鲜效果差异很大.因海藻酸钠从天然生物中提取,其来源广泛,成本低廉,在食品保鲜产业中具有广阔的应用前景.

  5. Science, practice, and human errors in controlling Clostridium botulinum in heat-preserved food in hermetic containers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pflug, Irving J

    2010-05-01

    The incidence of botulism in canned food in the last century is reviewed along with the background science; a few conclusions are reached based on analysis of published data. There are two primary aspects to botulism control: the design of an adequate process and the delivery of the adequate process to containers of food. The probability that the designed process will not be adequate to control Clostridium botulinum is very small, probably less than 1.0 x 10(-6), based on containers of food, whereas the failure of the operator of the processing equipment to deliver the specified process to containers of food may be of the order of 1 in 40, to 1 in 100, based on processing units (retort loads). In the commercial food canning industry, failure to deliver the process will probably be of the order of 1.0 x 10(-4) to 1.0 x 10(-6) when U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) regulations are followed. Botulism incidents have occurred in food canning plants that have not followed the FDA regulations. It is possible but very rare to have botulism result from postprocessing contamination. It may thus be concluded that botulism incidents in canned food are primarily the result of human failure in the delivery of the designed or specified process to containers of food that, in turn, result in the survival, outgrowth, and toxin production of C. botulinum spores. Therefore, efforts in C. botulinum control should be concentrated on reducing human errors in the delivery of the specified process to containers of food.

  6. Metabolic footprinting for investigation of antifungal properties of Lactobacillus paracasei

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Honoré, Anders Hans; Aunsbjerg, Stina Dissing; Ebrahimi, Parvaneh

    2016-01-01

    Lactic acid bacteria with antifungal properties are applied for biopreservation of food. In order to further our understanding of their antifungal mechanism, there is an ongoing search for bioactive molecules. With a focus on the metabolites formed, bioassay-guided fractionation and comprehensive....... The antifungal properties were assessed by measuring mold growth of two Penicillium strains on cell-free ferments of three strains of Lactobacillus paracasei pre-fermented in a chemically defined medium. Exometabolomic profiling was performed by reversed-phase liquid chromatography in combination with mass...

  7. Nuclear technology applied to food preservation and sterilization; La tecnologia nuclear aplicada a la conservacion y esterilizacion de alimentos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Galvez, M.

    2011-07-01

    The use of ionizing radiation to conserve and sterilize food dates back to 1995, when the first tests were performed in USA as part of the Atoms for peace program. After much controversy, the most prestigious international organizations- OECD, code Alimentarius, FDA and EC have not only authorized but also recommended its use. It is a proven fact that food irradiation provides optimum results for inhibition treatment of tuber shoots, elimination of insects from fruits and seeds, delaying the maturing processes of fruit and elimination of alternative microorganisms and pathogens in any type of food. Food is treated in two types of plants: 1.- Radioactive isotope plants or gamma radiation plants 2.- electron accelerator plants (beta radiation plants). These two types of plants are thoroughly legislated, as are the form and doses of the treatments. Commercial food irradiation is done in 32 countries in the world but is authorized in more than 40, and the WHO recommends that the method be used on a widespread basis, as it believes that it can help to improve food-related health worldwide. (Author) 5 refs.

  8. Modulation of physicochemical and spectroscopic properties of l-serine and l-proline by propionate based food preservatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banipal, Tarlok S; Kaur, Navalpreet; Kaur, Jaspreet; Komal; Banipal, Parampaul K

    2016-10-15

    To have an insight into the effect of preservatives on various ingredients of processed items, it is important to study their thermodynamic, transport and spectroscopic properties in aqueous solutions to elucidate various solute-co-solute interactions. The densities, viscosities and enthalpies of dilution of l-serine and l-proline have been determined in water and in aqueous solutions of sodium propionate and calcium propionate at different temperatures. The derived parameters elucidate the changes in taste quality and hydration number of l-serine and l-proline in the presence of the studied preservatives. Predominance of dehydration effect has been observed from calorimetry and changes in chemical shifts from nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy also support the above results.

  9. 复合食品防腐剂对小麦生长的影响%Influence of Composite Food Preservative on the Growth of Wheat

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡春红; 杨同文; 周琳; 李淑梅

    2013-01-01

    试验以温麦8号为研究对象,采用土培法研究复合食品防腐剂(苯甲酸钠和山梨酸钾)对小麦种子萌发和幼苗生长的影响.结果表明,低浓度(2g/L)的复合食品防腐剂对小麦种子萌发无显著效果,但明显促进幼苗生长;高浓度(≥4g/L)的复合食品防腐剂对小麦种子的萌发和幼苗生长均表现出抑制作用.%Using the soil culture method,the influence of composite food preservative (formed by sodium benzoate and potassium sorbate) on the morphological indexes and physiological indexes of wheat,Wenmai 8 was studied.The results showed that low concentration of preservatives (2 g/L) had no significant influence on the wheat seed germination,but could promote the seedling growth of wheat.While,high concentration of compound preservatives (≥4 g/L) had obvious inhibition on the seed germination and seedling growth.

  10. Development of Pediocin' s Application in Food Preservative%片球菌素在食品防腐保鲜中的应用研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘晨; 齐凡; 陈颖怡; 黄亦存

    2012-01-01

    片球菌素是一类未修饰的具有良好热稳定性的小分子蛋白质,其理化性质稳定,抑菌谱较广,能抑制多种革兰氏阳性菌,尤其对单核细胞增多症李氏杆菌的抑制作用最为显著.本文综述了近年来片球菌素在食品防腐保鲜应用方面取得的研究进展,分析了其作为天然食品防腐剂的发展前景,同对就片球菌素当前产业化开发与市场应用所面临的问题进行了深入探讨.%Pediocin is often described as small, heat-stable and unmodified peptides. This antimicrobial peptide is a broad-spectrum lactic acid bacteria bacteriocin that shows a particularly strong activity against Lisleria monocyiogenes. This article summarized the research progress of pediocin's application in food preservation in recent years, analyzed the propect of padiocin as natural food preservative, and further discussed the problems of industrialization development and market application of padiocin.

  11. Efficacy of Mentha spicata essential oil in suppression of Aspergillus flavus and aflatoxin contamination in chickpea with particular emphasis to mode of antifungal action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kedia, Akash; Dwivedy, Abhishek Kumar; Jha, Dhruva Kumar; Dubey, Nawal Kishore

    2016-05-01

    The present study reports in vivo antifungal and antiaflatoxigenic efficacy of Mentha spicata essential oil (EO) against toxigenic Aspergillus flavus strain LHP(C)-D6 in chickpea food system up to 12 months of storage. In addition, the mode of antifungal action of EO was also determined to understand the mechanism of fungal growth inhibition. The in vivo study with different concentrations of M. spicata EO showed dose-dependent decrease in fungal colony count as well as aflatoxin B1 concentration. The EO caused >50% protection in inoculated sets and >70% protection in uninoculated sets of chickpea food system against A. flavus at 1.0 μL mL(-1) air concentration. However, at the same concentration, EO caused 100% inhibition to aflatoxin B1 production in both sets when analyzed through high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The antifungal target of EO in fumigated cells of A. flavus was found to be the plasma membrane when analyzed through electron microscopic observations and ions leakage test. The EO fumigated chickpea seeds showed 100% seed germination and seedling growth after 12 months of storage. Based on these observations, M. spicata EO can be recommended as plant-based preservative for safe protection of food commodities during storage conditions against fungal and most importantly mycotoxin contaminations.

  12. 植物精油在食品保鲜中的研究进展%Research progress of the food preservation by plant essential oils

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李殿鑫; 江琳琳; 朱娜; 潘磊庆; 屠康

    2012-01-01

    Plant essential oils are important secondary metabolites of plant.It is composed by the simple compounds which have relatively small molecular weight and a certain aroma.Plant essential oils are used more and more widely as a natural fresh keeping agent in the field of food preservation with a variety of biological activity.This article introduced its application in fruits preservation,vegetables,meat and meat products,fish products,dairy products and so on.The problems of essential oils applied in the field of food preservation were summarized.The future development trends and application prospects of essential oils were forecasted.The article provided a basis for future research and application.%植物精油是重要的植物次生代谢产物,由分子量相对较小的简单化合物组成,具有一定芳香气味。由于植物精油具有多种生物活性,作为一种天然保鲜剂在食品保鲜领域的应用越来越广泛。本文介绍了其在水果、蔬菜、肉及肉制品、鱼类产品、乳制品等保鲜领域的应用,并探讨了植物精油在食品保鲜方面存在的问题,并对其发展方向和应用前景作了展望,为植物精油的进一步开发研究及应用提供了依据。

  13. Antifungal pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lepak, Alexander J; Andes, David R

    2014-11-10

    Successful treatment of infectious diseases requires choice of the most suitable antimicrobial agent, comprising consideration of drug pharmacokinetics (PK), including penetration into infection site, pathogen susceptibility, optimal route of drug administration, drug dose, frequency of administration, duration of therapy, and drug toxicity. Antimicrobial pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic (PK/PD) studies consider these variables and have been useful in drug development, optimizing dosing regimens, determining susceptibility breakpoints, and limiting toxicity of antifungal therapy. Here the concepts of antifungal PK/PD studies are reviewed, with emphasis on methodology and application. The initial sections of this review focus on principles and methodology. Then the pharmacodynamics of each major antifungal drug class (polyenes, flucytosine, azoles, and echinocandins) is discussed. Finally, the review discusses novel areas of pharmacodynamic investigation in the study and application of combination therapy.

  14. Optimization of lactic ferment with quinoa flour as bio-preservative alternative for packed bread.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dallagnol, Andrea Micaela; Pescuma, Micaela; Rollán, Graciela; Torino, María Inés; de Valdez, Graciela Font

    2015-05-01

    The consumers' demand for food with high nutritional quality and free of chemical additives increases the need to look for new products and preservation strategies. Quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa) is an Andean pseudocereal highly appreciated because of its nutritional properties. Moreover, it is an optimal substrate for growing and production of improved amounts of antifungal compounds by Lactobacillus plantarum CRL 778. The aim of this work was to optimize a lactic ferment for packaged breads with improved nutritional value and prolonged shelf life by applying a statistical experimental design model. The addition of 30 % quinoa to the wheat semiliquid ferment (QWF) could highly improve the amino acids release (4.3 g/L) during fermentation. Moreover, this quinoa proportion was sufficient to obtain the same concentration of the antifungal compounds, phenyllactic and hydroxiphenyllactic acids (PLA and OH-PLA) as with 100 % quinoa (ca. 36 and 51 mg/L, respectively). Statistical model analysis showed that citrate and skimmed milk enhanced significantly all evaluated parameters specially PLA (ca. 71 mg/L), HO-PLA (ca. 75 mg/L), and lactate (27 g/L) with a p value <0.005. The synergic effects of higher antifungal compounds production, acid release, and pH decrease allowed lowering the amount (about 50 %) of the chemical preservative calcium propionate commonly added to bread. Moreover, these breads show increased shelf life.

  15. Preserving Food by Drying. A Math/Science Teaching Manual. Appropriate Technologies for Development. Manual No. M-10.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fahy, Cynthia; And Others

    This manual presents a design for teaching science principles and mathematics concepts through a sequence of activities concentrating on weather, solar food dryers, and nutrition. Part I focuses on the effect of solar energy on air and water, examining the concepts of evaporation, condensation, radiation, conduction, and convection. These concepts…

  16. Solidago canadensis L. Essential Oil Vapor Effectively Inhibits Botrytis cinerea Growth and Preserves Postharvest Quality of Strawberry as a Food Model System

    OpenAIRE

    Shumin Liu; Xingfeng Shao; Yanzhen Wei; Yonghua Li; Feng Xu; Hongfei Wang

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the anti-fungal properties of Solidago canadensis L essential oil (SCLEO) against Botrytis cinerea in vitro, and its ability to control gray mold and maintain quality in strawberry fruits. SCLEO exhibited dose-dependent antifungal activity against B. cinerea and profoundly altered mycelial morphology, cellular ultrastructure, and membrane permeability as evaluated by scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, and fluorescence microscopy. SCLEO vapo...

  17. Antifungal activity of diethyldithiocarbamate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allerberger, F; Reisinger, E C; Söldner, B; Dierich, M P

    1989-10-01

    Sodium diethyldithiocarbamate (DTC) was evaluated for its ability to combat four different species of fungi in vitro. Using a microtiter-broth-dilution method we were able to demonstrate an antifungal activity against Candida albicans, Cryptococcus neoformans, Aspergillus fumigatus and Mucor mucedo in doses achievable by intravenous administration in man.

  18. Studies on application of radiation and radioisotopes -The application of irradiation techniques for food preservation and process improvement-

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Byun, Myung Woo; Cho, Han Ok; Cho, Sung Kee; Kang, Il Joon; Yang, Jae Seung; Yook, Heung Sun [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1995-07-01

    The project was designed to solve the infra structural problem required for commercialization of food irradiation. In improvement of physical properties of corn starch, gamma irradiation was effective for increasing glucose productivity and for substituting traditional modified starches (acid modified starch, oxidized starch). In immobilization of microorganisms, the mass production method of natural red pigment was developed by using immobilized mold pellets. In Korean medicinal plants, 10 kGy gamma irradiation was effective for improving sanitary quality and increasing extraction yield. In evaluation of wholesomeness, gamma irradiated red ginseng could be safe on the genotoxic point of view. And also, six items of irradiated foods approved for human consumption from Korea ministry of health and welfare in May 19, 1995. 30 figs, 20 tabs, 54 refs. (Author).

  19. Bioprocess development for the production of sonorensin by Bacillus sonorensis MT93 and its application as a food preservative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chopra, Lipsy; Singh, Gurdeep; Jena, Kautilya Kumar; Verma, Himanshu; Sahoo, Debendra K

    2015-01-01

    Media composition and environmental conditions were optimized using statistical tools, Plackett Burman design and response surface methodology, to maximize the yield of a bacteriocin, named as sonorensin, from a new marine isolate Bacillus sonorensis MT93 showing broad spectrum of antimicrobial activity. Under optimized conditions, MT93 produced 15-fold higher yield of sonorensin compared to that under initial fermentation conditions. As oxygen supply is a critical parameter controlling growth and product formation in aerobic bioprocesses and used as a parameter for bioprocess scale up, the effects of oxygen transfer, in terms of volumetric oxygen transfer coefficient (kLa), on production of sonorensin was investigated using optimized medium composition in a bioreactor. Studies on effectiveness of sonorensin against Staphylococcus aureus and Listeria monocytogenes in fruit juice and as a preservative in pasteurized milk demonstrated its potential as a biopreservative in fruit products and shelf life extender of the pasteurized milk.

  20. Purification and characterization of antifungal compounds from Lactobacillus plantarum HD1 isolated from kimchi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryu, Eun Hye; Yang, Eun Ju; Woo, Eun Rhan; Chang, Hae Choon

    2014-08-01

    Strain HD1 with antifungal activity was isolated from kimchi and identified as Lactobacillus plantarum. Antifungal compounds from Lb. plantarum HD1 were active against food- and feed-borne filamentous fungi and yeasts in a spot-on-the-lawn assay. Antifungal activity of Lb. plantarum HD1 was stronger against filamentous fungi than yeast. Antifungal compounds were purified using solid phase extraction (SPE) and recycling preparative-HPLC. Structures of the antifungal compounds were elucidated by electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry and nuclear magnetic resonance. Active compounds from Lb. plantarum HD1 were identified as 5-oxododecanoic acid (MW 214), 3-hydroxy decanoic acid (MW 188), and 3-hydroxy-5-dodecenoic acid (MW 214). To investigate the potential application of these antifungal compounds for reduction of fungal spoilage in foods, Korean draft rice wine was used as a food model. White film-forming yeasts were observed in control draft rice wine after 11 days of incubation. However, film-forming yeasts were not observed in draft rice wine treated with SPE-prepared culture supernatant of Lb. plantarum HD1 (equivalent to 2.5% addition of culture supernatant) until 27 days of incubation. The addition of antifungal compounds to Korean draft rice wine extended shelf-life up to 27 days at 10 °C without any sterilization process. Therefore, the antifungal activity of Lb. plantarum HD1 may lead to the development of powerful biopreservative systems capable of preventing food- and feed-borne fungal spoilage.

  1. A successful virtual screening application: prediction of anticonvulsant activity in MES test of widely used pharmaceutical and food preservatives methylparaben and propylparaben

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talevi, Alan; Bellera, Carolina L.; Castro, Eduardo A.; Bruno-Blanch, Luis E.

    2007-09-01

    A discriminant function based on topological descriptors was derived from a training set composed by anticonvulsants of clinical use or in clinical phase of development and compounds with other therapeutic uses. This model was internally and externally validated and applied in the virtual screening of chemical compounds from the Merck Index 13th. Methylparaben (Nipagin), a preservative widely used in food, cosmetics and pharmaceutics, was signaled as active by the discriminant function and tested in mice in the Maximal Electroshock (MES) test (i.p. administration), according to the NIH Program for Anticonvulsant Drug Development. Based on the results of Methylparaben, Propylparaben (Nipasol), another preservative usually used in association with the former, was also tested. Both methyl and propylparaben were found active in mice at doses of 30, 100, and 300 mg/kg. The discovery of the anticonvulsant activities in the MES test of methylparaben and propylparaben might be useful for the development of new anticonvulsant medications, specially considering the well-known toxicological profile of these drugs.

  2. A successful virtual screening application: prediction of anticonvulsant activity in MES test of widely used pharmaceutical and food preservatives methylparaben and propylparaben.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talevi, Alan; Bellera, Carolina L; Castro, Eduardo A; Bruno-Blanch, Luis E

    2007-09-01

    A discriminant function based on topological descriptors was derived from a training set composed by anticonvulsants of clinical use or in clinical phase of development and compounds with other therapeutic uses. This model was internally and externally validated and applied in the virtual screening of chemical compounds from the Merck Index 13th. Methylparaben (Nipagin), a preservative widely used in food, cosmetics and pharmaceutics, was signaled as active by the discriminant function and tested in mice in the Maximal Electroshock (MES) test (i.p. administration), according to the NIH Program for Anticonvulsant Drug Development. Based on the results of Methylparaben, Propylparaben (Nipasol), another preservative usually used in association with the former, was also tested. Both methyl and propylparaben were found active in mice at doses of 30, 100, and 300 mg/kg. The discovery of the anticonvulsant activities in the MES test of methylparaben and propylparaben might be useful for the development of new anticonvulsant medications, specially considering the well-known toxicological profile of these drugs.

  3. Chromosome aberrations and sister chromatid exchanges in cultured human lymphocytes treated with sodium metabisulfite, a food preservative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rencüzogullari, E; Ila, H B; Kayraldiz, A; Topaktaş, M

    2001-02-20

    The aim of this study was to investigate the ability of sodium metabisulfite (SMB) which is used as an antimicrobial substance in food, to induce chromosome aberrations (CA) and sister chromatid exchanges (SCE) in human lymphocytes. SMB-induced CAs and SCEs at all concentrations (75, 150 and 300 microg/ml) and treatment periods (24 and 48h) dose-dependently. However, SMB decreased the replication index (RI) and the mitotic index (MI) at the concentrations of 150 and 300 microg/ml for 24 and 48h treatment periods. This decrease was dose-dependent as well.

  4. Econazole imprinted textiles with antifungal activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hossain, Mirza Akram; Lalloz, Augustine; Benhaddou, Aicha; Pagniez, Fabrice; Raymond, Martine; Le Pape, Patrice; Simard, Pierre; Théberge, Karine; Leblond, Jeanne

    2016-04-01

    In this work, we propose pharmaceutical textiles imprinted with lipid microparticles of Econazole nitrate (ECN) as a mean to improve patient compliance while maintaining drug activity. Lipid microparticles were prepared and characterized by laser diffraction (3.5±0.1 μm). Using an optimized screen-printing method, microparticles were deposited on textiles, as observed by scanning electron microscopy. The drug content of textiles (97±3 μg/cm(2)) was reproducible and stable up to 4 months storage at 25 °C/65% Relative Humidity. Imprinted textiles exhibited a thermosensitive behavior, as witnessed by a fusion temperature of 34.8 °C, which enabled a larger drug release at 32 °C (temperature of the skin) than at room temperature. In vitro antifungal activity of ECN textiles was compared to commercial 1% (wt/wt) ECN cream Pevaryl®. ECN textiles maintained their antifungal activity against a broad range of Candida species as well as major dermatophyte species. In vivo, ECN textiles also preserved the antifungal efficacy of ECN on cutaneous candidiasis infection in mice. Ex vivo percutaneous absorption studies demonstrated that ECN released from pharmaceutical textiles concentrated more in the upper skin layers, where the fungal infections develop, as compared to dermal absorption of Pevaryl®. Overall, these results showed that this technology is promising to develop pharmaceutical garments textiles for the treatment of superficial fungal infections.

  5. Dietary exposure estimates for the food preservatives benzoic acid and sorbic acid in the total diet in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ling, Min-Pei; Lien, Keng-Wen; Wu, Chiu-Hua; Ni, Shih-Pei; Huang, Hui-Ying; Hsieh, Dennis P H

    2015-02-25

    The purpose was to assess the health risk to general consumers in Taiwan associated with dietary intake of benzoic acid and sorbic acid by conducting a total diet study (TDS). The hazard index (HI) in percent acceptable daily intake (%ADI) of benzoic acid and sorbic acid for eight exposure groups classified by age were calculated. In high-intake consumers, the highest HI of benzoic acid was 54.1%ADI for males aged 1-2 years old at the 95th percentile, whereas for females, the HI was 61.7%ADI for aged over 66 years old. The highest HI of sorbic acid for male and female consumers aged 3-6 years old at the 95th percentile were 14.0%ADI and 12.2%ADI, respectively. These results indicate that the use of benzoic acid and sorbic acid as preservatives at the current level of use in the Taiwanese diet does not constitute a public health and safety concern.

  6. The Present Situation and Prospect of Nature Food Antiseptic and Preservation Agent%天然食品防腐保鲜剂的发展现状及前景

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张海霞

    2015-01-01

    The natural food preservative agent is an additive in food processing, which plays an extremely important role in food preservation. However, it is not reasonable to use of natural food additives, this will have a bad impact on food quality, and food safety is threatened. Therefore, according to the development of natural food preservative agent, according to the actual situation of the development of natural food preservative, combining with the actual situation of social development, this paper analyzed its development prospect, and the relevant opinions and suggestions of the use of natural food antiseptic was put forward.%天然食品防腐保鲜剂是食品加工中必须加入的添加剂,其对食品保鲜起着极为重要的作用。但是,不合理地使用天然食品添加剂,会对食品质量造成不良的影响,使得食品的安全受到一定的威胁。因此,针对天然食品防腐保鲜剂的发展进行具体分析,根据天然食品防腐保鲜剂发展的实际情况,结合社会发展实际,分析其发展的前景,并对天然食品防腐保鲜剂的使用提出相关的意见和建议。

  7. Mapping the structural requirements of inducers and substrates for decarboxylation of weak acid preservatives by the food spoilage mould Aspergillus niger.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stratford, Malcolm; Plumridge, Andrew; Pleasants, Mike W; Novodvorska, Michaela; Baker-Glenn, Charles A G; Pattenden, Gerald; Archer, David B

    2012-07-16

    Moulds are able to cause spoilage in preserved foods through degradation of the preservatives using the Pad-decarboxylation system. This causes, for example, decarboxylation of the preservative sorbic acid to 1,3-pentadiene, a volatile compound with a kerosene-like odour. Neither the natural role of this system nor the range of potential substrates has yet been reported. The Pad-decarboxylation system, encoded by a gene cluster in germinating spores of the mould Aspergillus niger, involves activity by two decarboxylases, PadA1 and OhbA1, and a regulator, SdrA, acting pleiotropically on sorbic acid and cinnamic acid. The structural features of compounds important for the induction of Pad-decarboxylation at both transcriptional and functionality levels were investigated by rtPCR and GCMS. Sorbic and cinnamic acids served as transcriptional inducers but ferulic, coumaric and hexanoic acids did not. 2,3,4,5,6-Pentafluorocinnamic acid was a substrate for the enzyme but had no inducer function; it was used to distinguish induction and competence for decarboxylation in combination with the analogue chemicals. The structural requirements for the substrates of the Pad-decarboxylation system were probed using a variety of sorbic and cinnamic acid analogues. High decarboxylation activity, ~100% conversion of 1mM substrates, required a mono-carboxylic acid with an alkenyl double bond in the trans (E)-configuration at position C2, further unsaturation at C4, and an overall molecular length between 6.5Å and 9Å. Polar groups on the phenyl ring of cinnamic acid abolished activity (no conversion). Furthermore, several compounds were shown to block Pad-decarboxylation. These compounds, primarily aldehyde analogues of active substrates, may serve to reduce food spoilage by moulds such as A. niger. The possible ecological role of Pad-decarboxylation of spore self-inhibitors is unlikely and the most probable role for Pad-decarboxylation is to remove cinnamic acid-type inhibitors from

  8. Biochemical characterization of fruit-specific pathogenesis-related antifungal protein from basrai banana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yasmin, Nusrat; Saleem, Mahjabeen

    2014-01-01

    Pathogenesis-related/thaumatin like (PR-5/TL) antifungal protein from basrai banana was purified by using a simple protocol consisting of ammonium sulphate precipitation, affinity chromatography (Affi-gel blue gel), Q-Sepharose chromatography and gel filtration on Sephadex G-75. The purified protein with acidic character (pI 6.67) has molecular weight of 21.155 kDa, as determined by MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry. The purified protein shared N-terminal sequence homology with other TLPs. Crude banana extract inhibited the growth of Fusarium oxysporum, Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus fumigatus and Trichoderma viride with IC₅₀ values (determined by Probit analysis) 15 μM (slope=0.086, χ(2)=17.843, P=0.033), 17 μM (slope=0.183, χ(2)=61.533, P=0.011), 6.5 μM (slope=0.211, χ(2)=14.380, P=0.023) and 29.11 μM (slope=0.072, χ(2)=45.768, P=0.014). The purified antifungal protein repressed the growth of F. oxysporum, A. niger, A. fumigatus and T. viride with IC₅₀ values 9.7 μM (slope=0.056, χ(2)=11.538, P=0.021), 11.83 μM (slope=0.127, χ(2)=42.82, P=0.00), 4.61 μM (slope=0.150, χ(2)=10.199, P=0.017) and 21.43 μM (slope=0.053, χ(2)=33.693, P=0.00), respectively. The IC50 values of antifungal activity of crude banana extract were higher than the purified antifungal protein. It indicated that proteins in crude banana extract have antagonistic effect on the fungal growth. White bread is particularly vulnerable by fungal pathogens. Purified antifungal protein suppressed the growth of Aspergillus phoenicis and Aspergillus flavus on white bread suggesting that this protein can be used as a preservative in the bakery industry as well as in other relevant food processing industries.

  9. Inhibitory effects of some plant essential oils against Arcobacter butzleri and potential for rosemary oil as a natural food preservative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irkin, Reyhan; Abay, Secil; Aydin, Fuat

    2011-03-01

    We investigated the inhibitory activity of commercially marketed essential oils of mint, rosemary, orange, sage, cinnamon, bay, clove, and cumin against Arcobacter butzleri and Arcobacter skirrowii and the effects of the essential oil of rosemary against A. butzleri in a cooked minced beef system. Using the disc diffusion method to determine the inhibitory activities of these plant essential oils against strains of Arcobacter, we found that those of rosemary, bay, cinnamon, and clove had strong inhibitory activity against these organisms, whereas the essential oils of cumin, mint, and sage failed to show inhibitory activity against most of the Arcobacter strains tested. The 0.5% (vol/wt) essential oil of rosemary was completely inhibitory against A. butzleri in the cooked minced beef system at 4°C. These essential oils may be further investigated as a natural solution to the food industry by creating an additional barrier (hurdle technology) to inhibit the growth of Arcobacter strains.

  10. Characterization of a bacteriocin produced by Enterococcus faecalis N1-33 and its application as a food preservative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hata, Tomomi; Alemu, Melaku; Kobayashi, Miho; Suzuki, Chise; Nitisinprasert, Sunee; Ohmomo, Sadahiro

    2009-03-01

    A bacteriocin-producing strain, N1-33, isolated from fermented bamboo shoot was identified as Enterococcus faecalis. The pH-adjusted culture supernatant of this strain consisted of several peptides with bacteriocin activity, and the supernatant inhibited the growth of pathogenic bacteria such as Listeria monocytogenes. The major peptide with bacteriocin activity was purified, and the first 39 amino acid residues of the bacteriocin were found to be identical to enterocin MR10A produced by E. faecalis MRR10-3. Addition of the pH-adjusted and concentrated culture supernatant of strain N1-33 caused a marked reduction in the growth of Bacillus cereus in custard cream and L. monocytogenes in pickled cucumber. These results suggest the potential use of the bacteriocin produced by strain N1-33 in food biopreservation.

  11. Development of food preservation and processing techniques by radiation - Studies on the safety and consumer acceptance of gamma irradiated meats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, Il Jun; Lee, Young Jin; Lee, Young Sook; Kim, Ha Kyung [Hallym University, Chunchon (Korea)

    2000-04-01

    Gamma irradiation was applied to chickens for evaluation of their possible genotoxicity, acute toxicity, four-week oral toxicity and nutritional safety. The results were negative in the bacterial reversion assay with S. typhimurium TA98, TA100, TA1535, TA1537. Clastogenic effects of the irradiated samples tested were not shown in vivo mouse micronucleus assay and in chromosomal aberration tests with CHL cells. In an acute toxicity test, the maximal dose of 5,000 mg/kg did not change any toxic parameter examined in this study. In four-week oral toxicity study, appearance, behavior, mortality, food and water consumption of mouse of treated groups were not affected during the experimental periods(four-weeks). In urine analysis, in hematological examination as well as in serum biochemical experiment, no significant differences were found between the control and treatment groups. Although minor changes in some hematological and biochemical parameters were observed, they were in the normal range and were not dose dependent. In nutritional safety, the proximate composition of foods were not significantly changed by irradiation dose. No significant difference in the components of fatty acids were observed by gamma irradiation. In general, the amount of released free amino acid was not significantly changed by gamma irradiation. There was no difference in total amino acid content between non irradiated and irradiated samples. The SDS electrophoresis patterns of samples were not significantly different between nonirradiated and irradiated samples. The major mineral compositions of chicken were phosphorus, potassium, sodium, magnesium. The content of mineral was not significantly changed by gamma irradiation. 58 refs., 11 figs., 16 tabs. (Author)

  12. Production of phenyllactic acid by lactic acid bacteria: an approach to the selection of strains contributing to food quality and preservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valerio, Francesca; Lavermicocca, Paola; Pascale, Michelangelo; Visconti, Angelo

    2004-04-15

    The ability of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) to produce phenyllactic (PLA) and 4-hydroxy-phenyllactic (OH-PLA) acids, metabolites involved in food quality and preservation, has been evaluated by HPLC analysis in 29 LAB strains belonging to 12 species widely used in the production of fermented foods. Metabolite production was demonstrated for all strains of the species Lactobacillus plantarum, Lactobacillus alimentarius, Lactobacillus rhamnosus, Lactobacillus sanfranciscensis, Lactobacillus hilgardii, Leuconostoc citreum, and for some strains of Lactobacillus brevis, Lactobacillus acidophilus and Leuconostoc mesenteroides subsp. mesenteroides. Strains were distinguished by analysis of variance in three groups including 15 strains that produced both metabolites (0.16-0.46 mM PLA and 0.07-0.29 mM OH-PLA), five strains accumulating in culture only PLA (0.17-0.57 mM) and nine non-producer strains (acid production was obtained in a selected L. plantarum strain by increasing the concentration of phenylalanine in culture and using low amounts of tyrosine.

  13. Biocontrol of Aspergillus species on peanut kernels by antifungal diketopiperazine producing Bacillus cereus associated with entomopathogenic nematode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Sasidharan Nishanth; Sreekala, Sreerag Ravikumar; Chandrasekaran, Dileep; Nambisan, Bala; Anto, Ruby John

    2014-01-01

    The rhabditid entomopathogenic nematode associated Bacillus cereus and the antifungal compounds produced by this bacterium were evaluated for their activity in reducing postharvest decay of peanut kernels caused by Aspergillus species in in vitro and in vivo tests. The results showed that B. cereus had a significant effect on biocontrol effectiveness in in vitro and in vivo conditions. The antifungal compounds produced by the B. cereus were purified using silica gel column chromatography and their structure was elucidated using extensive spectral analyses. The compounds were identified as diketopiperazines (DKPs) [cyclo-(L-Pro-Gly), cyclo(L-Tyr-L-Tyr), cyclo-(L-Phe-Gly) and cyclo(4-hydroxy-L-Pro-L-Trp)]. The antifungal activities of diketopiperazines were studied against five Aspergillus species and best MIC of 2 µg/ml was recorded against A. flavus by cyclo(4-hydroxy-L-Pro-L-Trp). To investigate the potential application of cyclo(4-hydroxy-L-Pro-L-Trp) to eliminate fungal spoilage in food and feed, peanut kernels was used as a food model system. White mycelia and dark/pale green spores of Aspergillus species were observed in the control peanut kernels after 2 days incubation. However the fungal growth was not observed in peanut kernels treated with cyclo(4-hydroxy-L-Pro-L-Trp). The cyclo(4-hydroxy-L-Pro-L-Trp) was nontoxic to two normal cell lines [fore skin (FS) normal fibroblast and African green monkey kidney (VERO)] up to 200 µg/ml in MTT assay. Thus the cyclo(4-hydroxy-L-Pro-L-Trp) identified in this study may be a promising alternative to chemical preservatives as a potential biopreservative agent which prevent fungal growth in food and feed. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report demonstrating that the entomopathogenic nematode associated B. cereus and cyclo(4-hydroxy-L-Pro-L-Trp) could be used as a biocontrol agents against postharvest fungal disease caused by Aspergillus species.

  14. Research Progress on Effects of Ultra-high Pressure Technology on the Preservation of Food%超高压技术在食品保鲜上的研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    熊建文

    2012-01-01

    Ultra high pressure technology was an effective and safe preservative technology. It was more and more used in food industry. Basic principle of high pressure and preservation, the application in food preservation, and the future were reviewed, which will provide the theoretical references for the further research.%超高压技术作为一种高效、安全的保鲜技术,越来越多的应用于食品加工中。就超高压技术在加工过程中的原理、保鲜原理、在食品保鲜中的应用以及展望作一简要概述,以期为进一步的研究提供理论指导和参考依据。

  15. Antifungal therapy in European hospitals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zarb, P; Amadeo, B; Muller, A;

    2012-01-01

    respiratory (19.2%) and gastrointestinal (18.8%). The most used antifungal was fluconazole (60.5%) followed by caspofungin (10.5%). Antifungal-antibacterial combinations were frequently used (77.5%). The predominance of fluconazole use in participating hospitals could result in an increase in prevalence...

  16. Preservation and storage of food using natural gas as an energy source; Preservacao e armazenamento de alimentos usando gas natural como fonte de energia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Gabriel F. da; Lira, Moema de Lima; Carnelossi, Marcelo A.G.; Sousa, Mabel R. [Universidade Federal de Sergipe (UFS), Aracaju, SE (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Quimica; Jesus, Marcos Fabio de [Universidade Federal da Bahia (UFBA), Salvador, BA (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Quimica; Campos, Michel Fabianski; Martins, Ronaldo M.; Furini Filho, Roberto [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Santos, Sara Macedo dos [Centro de Tecnologias do Gas (CTGAS), Natal, RN (Brazil)

    2004-07-01

    In this work a study on preservation and storage of agricultural products was undertaken in chambers cooled through an absorption system, which used natural gas in the power plant and the results were compared with the compression system using electric energy. For the study a refrigeration pilot unit was mounted which consisted of chiller through water/ammonia absorption with direct natural gas burning, having a maximum consumption of 2,7{sup 3}/ h and capacity of 5 TR's, three refrigerating chambers with isopanel walls polyurethane, dimensions 2mx3mx2m with maximum capacity of storage of 2.000 kg each, control panel, a system of compressed natural gas supplying two carts each containing three cylinders with capacity of 71,4{sup 3} and a compression system connected to a chamber of same characteristics. Optimization studies in the storage of some fruits and vegetables were undertaken. A program was established which takes in account the food properties and characteristics of refrigeration systems to estimate the operational cost with the two systems. A techno-economic feasibility study was carried out on the two system of absorption and compression. This project was developed in the UFS, and is part of RedeGasEnergia, support for the financial aid was provided by PETROBRAS and FINEP/CTPETRO programs. (author)

  17. Effective photosensitization-based inactivation of Gram (-) food pathogens and molds using the chlorophyllin-chitosan complex: towards photoactive edible coatings to preserve strawberries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchovec, Irina; Lukseviciute, Viktorija; Marsalka, Arunas; Reklaitis, Ignas; Luksiene, Zivile

    2016-04-01

    This study is focused on the novel approaches to enhance the inactivation of the Gram (-) food pathogen Salmonella enterica and harmful molds in vitro and on the surface of strawberries using the chlorophyllin-chitosan complex. Salmonella enterica (∼1 × 10(7) CFU mL(-1)) was incubated with chlorophyllin 1.5 × 10(-5) M (Chl, food additive), chitosan 0.1% (CHS, food supplement) or the chlorophyllin-chitosan complex (1.5 × 10(-5) M Chl-0.1% CHS) and illuminated with visible light (λ = 405 nm, light dose 38 J cm(-2)) in vitro. Chlorophyllin (Chl)-based photosensitization inactivated Salmonella just by 1.8 log. Chitosan (CHS) alone incubated for 2 h with Salmonella reduced viability 2.15 log, whereas photoactivated Chl-CHS diminished bacterial viability by 7 log. SEM images indicate that the Chl-CHS complex under these experimental conditions covered the entire bacterial surface. Significant cell membrane disintegration was the main lethal injury induced in Gram (-) bacteria by this treatment. Analysis of strawberry decontamination from surface-inoculated Salmonella indicated that photoactivated Chl-CHS (1.5 × 10(-5) M Chl-0.1% CHS, 30 min incubation, light dose 38 J cm(-2)) coatings diminished the pathogen population on the surface of strawberries by 2.2 log. Decontamination of strawberries from naturally distributed yeasts/molds revealed that chitosan alone reduced the population of yeasts/molds just by 0.4 log, Chl-based photosensitization just by 0.9 log, whereas photoactivated Chl-CHS coatings reduced yeasts/molds on the surface of strawberries by 1.4 log. Electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy confirmed that no additional photosensitization-induced free radicals have been found in the strawberry matrix. Visual quality (color, texture) of the treated strawberries was not affected either. In conclusion, photoactive Chl-CHS exhibited strong antimicrobial action against more resistant to photosensitization Gram (-) Salmonella enterica in comparison with

  18. Chalcone derivatives as potential antifungal agents: Synthesis, and antifungal activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deepa Gupta

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Much research has been carried out with the aim to discover the therapeutic values of chalcone derivatives. Chalcones possess wide range of pharmacological activity such as antibacterial, antimalarial, antiprotozoal, antitubercular, anticancer, and antifungal agents etc. The presence of reactive α,β-unsaturated keto group in chalcones is found to be responsible for their biological activity. The rapid developments of resistance to antifungal agents, led to design, and synthesize the new antifungal agents. The derivatives of chalcones were prepared using Claisen-Schmidt condensation scheme with appropriate tetralone and aldehyde derivatives. Ten derivatives were synthesized and were biologically screened for antifungal activity. The newly synthesized derivatives of chalcone showed antifungal activity against fungal species, Microsporum gypseum. The results so obtained were superior or comparable to ketoconazole. It was observed that none of the compounds tested showed positive results for fungi Candida albicans nor against fungi Aspergillus niger. Chalcone derivatives showed inhibitory effect against M. gypseum species of fungus. It was found that among the chalcone derivatives so synthesized, two of them, that is, 4-chloro derivative, and unsubstituted derivative of chalcone showed antifungal activity superior to ketoconazole. Thus, these can be the potential new molecule as antifungal agent.

  19. Comparison study on regulation standards of food preservatives between two sides of Taiwan Strait%海峡两岸食品防腐剂法规标准对比研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐敦明; 理云露; 李建军; 陈鹭平; 林立毅; 周昱; 刘光明

    2013-01-01

    With the rapid establishment and development of the West Coast Economic Zone, economy of Taiwan area is highly integrated into the mainland economy. The Cross-Strait food accelerates the Cross-Border flow of each other, so the Chinese food contains both mainland products and products in Taiwan area. Due to objective reasons, enterprises on both sides perform two sets of food additive laws and standard systems. The differences will hinder the development of Cross-Strait trade on food. In this paper, food preservatives will be taken as an example, from which we could compare the Cross-Strait food preservatives regulations and stan-dards, including the range of usage and limitation, category name, type differences, the range of foods involved, and the similarities and differences of the variety and limitation of food additives listed in the Cross-Strait di-rectory. Finally, the application prospects of food preservatives and some suggestions related to Cross-Strait food preservatives in import and export trade are also discussed.%随着海西经济区的确立与快速发展,台湾地区经济已高度融入大陆经济体,海峡两岸食品加速相互跨境流通,中国食品不仅包括大陆产品、也涵盖了台湾地区产品。虽然同为中国食品,但由于客观原因,两岸企业分别执行两套食品添加剂法规及标准体系,其中的差别将阻碍两岸食品贸易的发展。本文主要以食品防腐剂为例,对比海峡两岸食品防腐剂的法规标准,包括使用范围及限量、类别名称、种类差异,涉及的食品范围。最后,阐述食品防腐剂的应用前景及对海峡两岸食品添加剂在进出口贸易方面提出一些建议。

  20. Solidago canadensis L. Essential Oil Vapor Effectively Inhibits Botrytis cinerea Growth and Preserves Postharvest Quality of Strawberry as a Food Model System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Shumin; Shao, Xingfeng; Wei, Yanzhen; Li, Yonghua; Xu, Feng; Wang, Hongfei

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the anti-fungal properties of Solidago canadensis L. essential oil (SCLEO) against Botrytis cinerea in vitro, and its ability to control gray mold and maintain quality in strawberry fruits. SCLEO exhibited dose-dependent antifungal activity against B. cinerea and profoundly altered mycelial morphology, cellular ultrastructure, and membrane permeability as evaluated by scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, and fluorescence microscopy. SCLEO vapor at 0.1 mL/L maintained higher sensory acceptance and reduced decay of fresh strawberry fruit, and also reduced gray mold in artificially inoculated fruit. SCLEO treatment did not, however, stimulate phenylalanin ammonia-lyase, polyphenol oxidase, or chitinase, enzymes related to disease resistance. This suggests that SCLEO reduces gray mold by direct inhibition of pathogen growth. SCLEO vapor may provide a new and effective strategy for controlling postharvest disease and maintaining quality in strawberries.

  1. Solidago canadensis L. Essential Oil Vapor Effectively Inhibits Botrytis cinerea Growth and Preserves Postharvest Quality of Strawberry as a Food Model System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Shumin; Shao, Xingfeng; Wei, Yanzhen; Li, Yonghua; Xu, Feng; Wang, Hongfei

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the anti-fungal properties of Solidago canadensis L. essential oil (SCLEO) against Botrytis cinerea in vitro, and its ability to control gray mold and maintain quality in strawberry fruits. SCLEO exhibited dose-dependent antifungal activity against B. cinerea and profoundly altered mycelial morphology, cellular ultrastructure, and membrane permeability as evaluated by scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, and fluorescence microscopy. SCLEO vapor at 0.1 mL/L maintained higher sensory acceptance and reduced decay of fresh strawberry fruit, and also reduced gray mold in artificially inoculated fruit. SCLEO treatment did not, however, stimulate phenylalanin ammonia-lyase, polyphenol oxidase, or chitinase, enzymes related to disease resistance. This suggests that SCLEO reduces gray mold by direct inhibition of pathogen growth. SCLEO vapor may provide a new and effective strategy for controlling postharvest disease and maintaining quality in strawberries. PMID:27531994

  2. Solidago canadensis L essential oil vapor effectively inhibits Botrytis cinerea growth and preserves postharvest quality of strawberry as a food model system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shumin Liu

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the anti-fungal properties of Solidago canadensis L essential oil (SCLEO against Botrytis cinerea in vitro, and its ability to control gray mold and maintain quality in strawberry fruits. SCLEO exhibited dose-dependent antifungal activity against B. cinerea and profoundly altered mycelial morphology, cellular ultrastructure, and membrane permeability as evaluated by scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, and fluorescence microscopy. SCLEO vapor at 0.1 mL/L maintained higher sensory acceptance and reduced decay of fresh strawberry fruit, and also reduced gray mold in artificially inoculated fruit. SCLEO treatment did not however, stimulate phenylalanin ammonia-lyase (PAL, polyphenol oxidase (POD, or chitinase (CHI, enzymes related to disease resistance. This suggests that SCLEO reduces gray mold by direct inhibition of pathogen growth. SCLEO vapor may provide a new and effective strategy for controlling postharvest disease and maintaining quality in strawberries.

  3. Phytochemical Analysis and Antifungal Activity of Extracts from Leaves and Fruit Residues of Brazilian Savanna Plants Aiming Its Use as Safe Fungicides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breda, Caroline Alves; Gasperini, Alessandra Marcon; Garcia, Vera Lucia; Monteiro, Karin Maia; Bataglion, Giovana Anceski; Eberlin, Marcos Nogueira; Duarte, Marta Cristina Teixeira

    2016-08-01

    The increasing demand for safe food without preservatives or pesticides residues has encouraged several studies on natural products with antifungal activity and low toxicity. In this study, ethanolic extracts from leaves and fruit residues (peel and seeds) of three Brazilian savanna species (Acrocomia aculeata, Campomanesia adamantium and Caryocar brasiliense) were evaluated against phytopathogenic fungi. Additionally, the most active extract was chemically characterized by ESI-MS and its oral acute toxicity was evaluated. Extracts from C. brasiliense (pequi) peel and leaves were active against Alternaria alternata, Alternaria solani and Venturia pirina with minimal inhibitory concentrations between 350 and 1000 µg/mL. When incorporated in solid media, these extracts extended the lag phase of A. alternata and A. solani and reduced the growth rate of A. solani. Pequi peel extract showed better antifungal activity and their ESI-MS analysis revealed the presence of substances widely reported as antifungal such as gallic acid, quinic acid, ellagic acid, glucogalin and corilagin. The oral acute toxicity was relatively low, being considered safe for use as a potential natural fungicide.

  4. High Pdr12 levels in spoilage yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) correlate directly with sorbic acid levels in the culture medium but are not sufficient to provide cells with acquired resistance to the food preservative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papadimitriou, Minas N B; Resende, Catarina; Kuchler, Karl; Brul, Stanley

    2007-01-25

    Sorbic acid is a commonly used food preservative against yeast and fungal food spoilage. Understanding its effect on the molecular physiology of yeast cells will allow the food industry to develop knowledge-based strategies to make more optimal use of its preservative action. Here we show that the yeast membrane protein Pdr12, previously shown to be prominently involved in sorbic acid resistance development in laboratory strains, was strongly induced by the presence of sorbic acid in the culture medium in Saccharomyces strains isolated from spoiled foods. Induction of Pdr12 expression was seen both under laboratory conditions and upon growth in a commercial soft drink. Induction was rapid and maintained for the duration of the stress. No Pdr12-like protein induction was seen in Zygosaccharomyces bailii or Zygosaccharomyces lentus, two well-known beverages spoilage organisms. Finally, unexpectedly, our studies showed for the first time that pre-inducing Pdr12p to maximal levels by subjecting cells to a mild sorbic acid stress did not lead to cells with an acquired resistance. Neither more rapid growth in the presence of the acid nor growth at higher sorbic acid concentrations at a given environmental pH was observed. Thus we have shown that while important in resistance development against sorbic acid, by itself induction of the pump is not sufficient to acquire resistance to the preservative.

  5. Antifungal hydroxy fatty acids produced during sourdough fermentation: microbial and enzymatic pathways, and antifungal activity in bread.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, Brenna A; Zannini, Emanuele; Curtis, Jonathan M; Gänzle, Michael G

    2013-03-01

    Lactobacilli convert linoleic acid to hydroxy fatty acids; however, this conversion has not been demonstrated in food fermentations and it remains unknown whether hydroxy fatty acids produced by lactobacilli have antifungal activity. This study aimed to determine whether lactobacilli convert linoleic acid to metabolites with antifungal activity and to assess whether this conversion can be employed to delay fungal growth on bread. Aqueous and organic extracts from seven strains of lactobacilli grown in modified De Man Rogosa Sharpe medium or sourdough were assayed for antifungal activity. Lactobacillus hammesii exhibited increased antifungal activity upon the addition of linoleic acid as a substrate. Bioassay-guided fractionation attributed the antifungal activity of L. hammesii to a monohydroxy C(18:1) fatty acid. Comparison of its antifungal activity to those of other hydroxy fatty acids revealed that the monohydroxy fraction from L. hammesii and coriolic (13-hydroxy-9,11-octadecadienoic) acid were the most active, with MICs of 0.1 to 0.7 g liter(-1). Ricinoleic (12-hydroxy-9-octadecenoic) acid was active at a MIC of 2.4 g liter(-1). L. hammesii accumulated the monohydroxy C(18:1) fatty acid in sourdough to a concentration of 0.73 ± 0.03 g liter(-1) (mean ± standard deviation). Generation of hydroxy fatty acids in sourdough also occurred through enzymatic oxidation of linoleic acid to coriolic acid. The use of 20% sourdough fermented with L. hammesii or the use of 0.15% coriolic acid in bread making increased the mold-free shelf life by 2 to 3 days or from 2 to more than 6 days, respectively. In conclusion, L. hammesii converts linoleic acid in sourdough and the resulting monohydroxy octadecenoic acid exerts antifungal activity in bread.

  6. Self-preserving cosmetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varvaresou, A; Papageorgiou, S; Tsirivas, E; Protopapa, E; Kintziou, H; Kefala, V; Demetzos, C

    2009-06-01

    Preservatives are added to products for two reasons: first, to prevent microbial spoilage and therefore to prolong the shelf life of the product; second, to protect the consumer from a potential infection. Although chemical preservatives prevent microbial growth, their safety is questioned by a growing segment of consumers. Therefore, there is a considerable interest in the development of preservative-free or self-preserving cosmetics. In these formulations traditional/chemical preservatives have been replaced by other cosmetic ingredients with antimicrobial properties that are not legislated as preservatives according to the Annex VI of the Commission Directive 76/768/EEC and the amending directives (2003/15/EC, 2007/17/EC and 2007/22/EC). 'Hurdle Technology', a technology that has been used for the control of product safety in the food industry since 1970s, has also been applied for the production of self-preserving cosmetics. 'Hurdle Technology' is a term used to describe the intelligent combination of different preservation factors or hurdles to deteriorate the growth of microorganisms. Adherence to current good manufacturing practice, appropriate packaging, careful choice of the form of the emulsion, low water activity and low or high pH values are significant variables for the control of microbial growth in cosmetic formulations. This paper describes the application of the basic principles of 'Hurdle Technology' in the production of self-preserving cosmetics. Multifunctional antimicrobial ingredients and plant-derived essential oils and extracts that are used as alternative or natural preservatives and are not listed in Annex VI of the Cosmetic Directive are also reported.

  7. Analysis of Food Additives in Preserved Fruits in Zhejiang Province in 2012%2012年浙江地区蜜饯中食品添加剂情况分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    阮鑫; 孙亮

    2013-01-01

    [Objective] To understand the use of food additives in preserved fruits in Zhejiang province to provide technical support for the risk assessment of food additives exceeding the standard,explore the causes and harm of excessive additives,and put forward reasonable proposals.[Method] Preserved food in Zhejiang province were sampled randomly and detected and evaluated according to the relevant national standards.[Result] The qualified rate of preserved fruits in Zhejiang area was 96.51%.The exceeding standard rate of preservatives and sweeteners were 2.32% and 1.16% respectively.[Conclusion] The overall conditions of preserved fruits in Zhejiang province was good,but individual products were having problems.%目的:了解浙江地区蜜饯中食品添加剂的使用情况,为蜜饯中食品添加剂超标情况的风险评估提供技术支持并探讨添加剂超限量的起因和危害,提出合理建议.方法:对浙江地区蜜饯类食品进行随机采样,按照相应的国家标准进行检测和评价.结果:蜜饯合格率96.51%,防腐剂、甜味剂的超标率分别为2.32%和1.16%.结论:浙江地区的蜜饯产品总体情况较好,个别产品存在问题.

  8. Microencapsulation of Food Additives and Its Application in Preserved Fruit Processing%食品添加剂的微胶囊化及其在蜜饯加工中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    章斌; 侯小桢; 李远志; 赖宣

    2012-01-01

      介绍了微胶囊技术的定义,芯材、壁材的种类及选用,常用的微胶囊化方法;阐述了微胶囊技术在食品添加剂中的应用与研究现状,指出食品添加剂在蜜饯加工中存在的问题;并对微胶囊技术在佛手果蜜饯加工中的应用做了展望。%  The definition of microcapsule technique, choosing of core material and wall-material, meth-ods of microencapsulation were summarized. Research and application of microencapsulation in food additives and main processing problems of food additives in preserved fruit were illustrated. Meanwhile, the application prospect of microencapsulation in process of bergomat preserved fruit was described.

  9. Application of Zataria multiflora Boiss. and Cinnamon zeylanicum essential oils as two natural preservatives in cake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kordsardouei, Habibe; Barzegar, Mohsen; Sahari, Mohamad Ali

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Oxidation of oils has an important effect on nutritional and organoleptic properties of foodstuffs. Nowadays, new tendency has created a necessity to use natural compounds such as essential oils for producing functional foods. In this study, antioxidant, antifungal, and organoleptic properties of Zataria multiflora Boiss. (ZMEO) and Cinnamon zeylanicum essential oils (CZEO) have been checked as two natural preservatives in the cakes. Materials and Methods: The antioxidant activity of essential oils were determined by measuring thiobarbituric, peroxide, and free fatty acid values of prepared cakes during 60 days storage at 25 ˚C. Antifungal properties of essential oils were determined and given as the ratio of colony number in samples containing ZMEO and CZEO to the control. Results: Different concentrations of essential oils prevented oxidation rate and reducd preliminary and secondary oxidation products compared with butylate hydroxyanisole (BHA (100 and 200 ppm)) and control cakes. Moreover, ZMEO and CZEO at three concentrations (500, 1000, and 1500 ppm) reduced the fungal growth more than samples containing BHA (100 and 200 ppm) and the control. Conclusion: Our results showed that optimum concenteration of ZMEO and CZEO for using in the cakes was 500 ppm therefore it can be replaced instead of synthetic preservatives in foodstuffs. PMID:25050280

  10. Application of Zataria multiflora Boiss. and Cinnamon zeylanicum essential oils as two natural preservatives in cake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Habibe Kordsardouei

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Oxidation of oils has an important effect on nutritional and organoleptic properties of foodstuffs. Nowadays, new tendency has created a necessity to use natural compounds such as essential oils for producing functional foods. In this study, antioxidant, antifungal, and organoleptic properties of Zataria multiflora Boiss.(ZMEO and Cinnamon zeylanicum essential oils (CZEO have been checked as two natural preservatives in the cakes. Materials and Methods:The antioxidant activity of essential oils were determined by measuring thiobarbituric, peroxide, and free fatty acid values of prepared cakes during 60 days storage at 25˚C. Antifungal properties of essential oils were determined and given as the ratio of colony number in samples containing ZMEO and CZEO to the control. Results: Different concentrations of essential oils prevented oxidation rate and reducd preliminary and secondary oxidation products compared with butylate hydroxyanisole (BHA (100 and 200 ppm and control cakes. Moreover, ZMEO and CZEO at three concentrations (500, 1000, and 1500 ppm reduced the fungal growth more than samples containing BHA (100 and 200 ppm and the control. Conclusion: Our results showed that optimum concenteration of ZMEO and CZEO for using in the cakes was 500 ppm therefore it can be replaced instead of synthetic preservatives in foodstuffs.

  11. Novel approaches to antifungal prophylaxis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostrosky-Zeichner, Luis

    2004-06-01

    Antifungal prophylaxis represents a significant advance in the management of patients at risk from fungal infections in a variety of settings. Identification of patients at the highest risk and the utilisation of safe and effective drugs maximises the benefits of prophylaxis. Situations in which antifungal prophylaxis has been shown to be useful are bone marrow transplantation, liver and lung transplantation, surgical and neonatal intensive care units, secondary prophylaxis of fungal infections associated with HIV and neutropenia associated haematological malignancies and their treatment. New antifungal agents, such as the echinocandins and the new azoles, are available and have a potential role in antifungal prophylaxis. Future studies should evaluate which strategy is more useful; prophylaxis or pre-emptive therapy.

  12. Software preservation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tadej Vodopivec

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Comtrade Ltd. covers a wide range of activities related to information and communication technologies; its deliverables include web applications, locally installed programs,system software, drivers, embedded software (used e.g. in medical devices, auto parts,communication switchboards. Also the extensive knowledge and practical experience about digital long-term preservation technologies have been acquired. This wide spectrum of activities puts us in the position to discuss the often overlooked aspect of the digital preservation - preservation of software programs. There are many resources dedicated to digital preservation of digital data, documents and multimedia records,but not so many about how to preserve the functionalities and features of computer programs. Exactly these functionalities - dynamic response to inputs - render the computer programs rich compared to documents or linear multimedia. The article opens the questions on the beginning of the way to the permanent digital preservation. The purpose is to find a way in the right direction, where all relevant aspects will be covered in proper balance. The following questions are asked: why at all to preserve computer programs permanently, who should do this and for whom, when we should think about permanent program preservation, what should be persevered (such as source code, screenshots, documentation, and social context of the program - e.g. media response to it ..., where and how? To illustrate the theoretic concepts given the idea of virtual national museum of electronic banking is also presented.

  13. Research Status of Anti-microbial Peptide and Application Foreground in Food Preservative%抗菌肽的研究现状及在食品防腐保鲜中的应用前景

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王玲

    2011-01-01

    Antimicrobial peptide,a protective active material which can resist out-sourced pathogen,was induced by various kinds of biological cells based on the outside condition.It can resist bacteria,epiphyte,virus,protozoa and kill tumour cells.Its advantage of safety and innocuity makes it have the potential value of being a preservative for natural food.However,anti-microbial peptide used as a food preservative is not so common at present,study and exploiting anti-microbial peptide as a food preservative still face many problems.The research status of different kinds of anti-microbial peptides,problems that affect the application of anti-microbial peptides and the application foreground in food preservative were discussed in this paper.%抗菌肽是由多种生物细胞经外界条件诱导产生的对抗外源病原体的防御性肽类活性物质,具有广谱抗细菌、真菌、病毒、原虫、抑杀肿瘤细胞等的作用。它的安全无毒害作用的优势使得它具有作为天然食品防腐保鲜剂的潜在应用价值。但是,目前抗菌肽作为食品防腐保鲜剂的实际使用并不多见,抗菌肽型天然食品防腐保鲜剂的研究与开发仍存在很多问题。分别综述了不同类型抗菌肽的研究现状,影响抗菌肽应用的问题及在食品防腐保鲜中的应用前景。

  14. AN OVERVIEW ON ANTIFUNGAL THERAPY

    OpenAIRE

    Karki, Nirmal K.; Ahmed, Azhar; Charde, Rita; Charde, Manoj; Gandhare, Bhushan

    2011-01-01

    The number of fungi causing systemic disease is growing and the number of systemic diseases caused by fungi is increasing. The currently available antifungal agents for the treatment of systemic mycoses include polyene antibiotics (Amphotericin B), fluoropyrimidine (Flu cytosine), and Nystatin andazole group of drugs (Ketoconazole, Fluconazole, and Itraconazole). Novel drug delivery systems for antifungal therapy, based on the type of formulation are classified as Liposomes Nanocochleates, Na...

  15. Food preservation by irradiation. V.- Economic study of the spanish potatoe market and preservation feasibility by irradiation; Conservacion de alimentos por irradiacion. V.- Estudio economico del mercado de patatas en Espana y posibilidades de su conservacion por irradiacion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rivas, A.; Garcia de Mateos, A.; Ortin Sune, N.; Val Cob, M. del

    1967-07-01

    A study of the spanish potatoe market is carried o nt in order to know the possibilities of preservation by irradiation. The study is initiated with a recompilation of statistical data on the production and consumption of potatoes by regions and seasons. Last years losses are then estimated. (Author) 9 refs.

  16. Antifungal and antiviral products of marine organisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheung, Randy Chi Fai; Wong, Jack Ho; Pan, Wen Liang; Chan, Yau Sang; Yin, Cui Ming; Dan, Xiu Li; Wang, He Xiang; Fang, Evandro Fei; Lam, Sze Kwan; Ngai, Patrick Hung Kui; Xia, Li Xin; Liu, Fang; Ye, Xiu Yun; Zhang, Guo Qing; Liu, Qing Hong; Sha, Ou; Lin, Peng; Ki, Chan; Bekhit, Adnan A; Bekhit, Alaa El-Din; Wan, David Chi Cheong; Ye, Xiu Juan; Xia, Jiang; Ng, Tzi Bun

    2014-04-01

    Marine organisms including bacteria, fungi, algae, sponges, echinoderms, mollusks, and cephalochordates produce a variety of products with antifungal activity including bacterial chitinases, lipopeptides, and lactones; fungal (-)-sclerotiorin and peptaibols, purpurides B and C, berkedrimane B and purpuride; algal gambieric acids A and B, phlorotannins; 3,5-dibromo-2-(3,5-dibromo-2-methoxyphenoxy)phenol, spongistatin 1, eurysterols A and B, nortetillapyrone, bromotyrosine alkaloids, bis-indole alkaloid, ageloxime B and (-)-ageloxime D, haliscosamine, hamigeran G, hippolachnin A from sponges; echinoderm triterpene glycosides and alkene sulfates; molluscan kahalalide F and a 1485-Da peptide with a sequence SRSELIVHQR; and cepalochordate chitotriosidase and a 5026.9-Da antifungal peptide. The antiviral compounds from marine organisms include bacterial polysaccharide and furan-2-yl acetate; fungal macrolide, purpurester A, purpurquinone B, isoindolone derivatives, alterporriol Q, tetrahydroaltersolanol C and asperterrestide A, algal diterpenes, xylogalactofucan, alginic acid, glycolipid sulfoquinovosyldiacylglycerol, sulfated polysaccharide p-KG03, meroditerpenoids, methyl ester derivative of vatomaric acid, lectins, polysaccharides, tannins, cnidarian zoanthoxanthin alkaloids, norditerpenoid and capilloquinol; crustacean antilipopolysaccharide factors, molluscan hemocyanin; echinoderm triterpenoid glycosides; tunicate didemnin B, tamandarins A and B and; tilapia hepcidin 1-5 (TH 1-5), seabream SauMx1, SauMx2, and SauMx3, and orange-spotted grouper β-defensin. Although the mechanisms of antifungal and antiviral activities of only some of the aforementioned compounds have been elucidated, the possibility to use those known to have distinctly different mechanisms, good bioavailability, and minimal toxicity in combination therapy remains to be investigated. It is also worthwhile to test the marine antimicrobials for possible synergism with existing drugs. The prospects of

  17. Contribution of volatiles to the antifungal effect of Lactobacillus paracasei in defined medium and yogurt

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aunsbjerg, Stina Dissing; Honoré, Anders Hans; Marcussen, J.

    2015-01-01

    Lactic acid bacteria with antifungal properties can be used to control spoilage of food and feed. Previously, most of the identified metabolites have been isolated from cell-free fermentate of lactic acid bacteria with methods suboptimal for detecting possible contribution from volatiles...... to the antifungal activity. The role of volatile compounds in the antifungal activity of Lactobacillus paracasei DGCC 2132 in a chemically defined interaction medium (CDIM) and yogurt was therefore investigated with a sampling technique minimizing volatile loss. Diacetyl was identified as the major volatile...

  18. Digital preservation

    CERN Document Server

    Deegan, Marilyn

    2013-01-01

    Digital preservation is an issue of huge importance to the library and information profession right now. With the widescale adoption of the internet and the rise of the world wide web, the world has been overwhelmed by digital information. Digital data is being produced on a massive scale by individuals and institutions: some of it is born, lives and dies only in digital form, and it is the potential death of this data, with its impact on the preservation of culture, that is the concern of this book. So how can information professionals try to remedy this? Digital preservation is a complex iss

  19. Synthesis, antibacterial and antifungal activity of some derivatives of 2-phenyl-chromen-4-one

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Sayed Alam

    2004-11-01

    Some derivatives of 2-phenyl-chromen-4-one (flavone ring) have been synthesized and tested for antibacterial and antifungal activities along with their chalcone precursors against four human pathogenic bacteria and five plant mould fungi. The structures of the synthesized compounds were elucidated by UV, IR and 1H NMR spectroscopic techniques, and elemental analysis. The antibacterial and antifungal screens of the synthesized compounds were performed in vitro by the filter paper disc diffusion method and the poisoned food technique.

  20. In vitro antifungal effect of black cumin seed quinones against dairy spoilage yeasts at different acidity levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halamova, Katerina; Kokoska, Ladislav; Flesar, Jaroslav; Sklenickova, Olga; Svobodova, Blanka; Marsik, Petr

    2010-12-01

    The antiyeast activity of the black cumin seed (Nigella sativa) quinones dithymoquinone, thymohydroquinone (THQ), and thymoquinone (TQ) were evaluated in vitro with a broth microdilution method against six dairy spoilage yeast species. Antifungal effects of the quinones were compared with those of preservatives commonly used in milk products (calcium propionate, natamycin, and potassium sorbate) at two pH levels (4.0 and 5.5). THQ and TQ possessed significant antiyeast activity and affected the growth of all strains tested at both pH levels, with MICs ranging from 8 to 128 μg/ml. With the exception of the antibiotic natamycin, the inhibitory effects of all food preservatives against the yeast strains tested in this study were strongly affected by differences in pH, with MICs of ≥16 and ≥512 μg/ml at pH 4.0 and 5.5, respectively. These findings suggest that HQ and TQ are effective antiyeast agents that could be used in the dairy industry as chemical preservatives of natural origin.

  1. Research Progress on Biological Preservative of Food Products%生物源食品保鲜剂研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赖小龙; 李文平; 廖鹏运; 李锐; 常争艳

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, we reviewed the composition and preservative mechanism of microbial, botanic and creat-ural preservative. Furthermore, the advantages, disadvantages and applications of biological preservative have also been discussed.%  本文介绍了微生物源、植物源以及动物源食品保鲜剂的有效成分、保鲜方法、保鲜机理及其应用状况的研究进展,分析了各种保鲜剂的利弊和应用前景。

  2. Mechanism and application progress of high-pressure-shift-freezing in food preservation%高压切换冻结在食品保鲜中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邹妍; 龙道崎; 陶兵兵; 赵国华

    2012-01-01

    高压切换冻结是一种新兴的食品保鲜技术,在冻结过程中利用高压与温度来控制冻结过程,改变冰晶体的大小、形态与分布,从而改善冻品的品质。文章详细阐述了高压切换冻结法的基本原理以及在食品保鲜领域研究的进展,最后分析了该技术存在的问题,以对高压切换冻结技术的进一步研究提供参考。%High-pressure-shift-freezing(HPSF),an emerging food preservation technique,takes advantages of different ice crystals properties such as size,shape and distribution resulting from controlling of high pressure and temperature to improve the quality of frozen food.The basic principle of HPSF as well as the study of technique in food industry was depicted.In addition,the main problems were listed,and it could be a reference for further research of HPSF in food preservation.

  3. On the Development of Food-Oriented Health-Preserving from the Perspective of TCM Feeding Performance%中医食性视野下食养发展刍议

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    柴可夫; 谷英敏; 马纲

    2011-01-01

    透过食性的角度来研究食养理论与实践的萌芽、初步形成、形成、补充、发展.旨在得出如下结论:食养理念是在食性的认识基础上并以中医药理论为依托,它的进一步发展提高有赖于中医药理论的应用及食材性能的研究,并可促进中医药事业的发展及食材的应用.%Throngh the study of the budding, initial forming, forming, renewing, and development of food-oriented health-preserving theory and practice from the perspective of feeding performance, to draw a conclusion as follows: the philosophy of food-oriented health-preserving is based on the knowledge of feeding performance and the theory of TCM; its further development depends on the application of TCM theories and the study on medicated food functions, and it will promote the development of TCM industry and the application of medicated foods.

  4. Chemical composition and antifungal activity of essential oil from Cicuta virosa L. var. latisecta Celak.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Jun; Ban, Xiaoquan; Zeng, Hong; He, Jingsheng; Huang, Bo; Wang, Youwei

    2011-02-28

    The essential oil extracted from the fruits of Cicuta virosa L. var. latisecta Celak was tested in vitro and in vivo against four foodborne fungi, Aspergillus flavus, Aspergillus oryzae, Aspergillus niger, and Alternaria alternata. Forty-five different components accounting for 98.4% of the total oil composition were identified by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The major components were γ-terpinene (40.92%), p-cymene (27.93%), and cumin aldehyde (21.20%). Antifungal activity was tested by the poisoned food technique against the four fungi. Minimum inhibitory concentration against the fungi was 5 μL/mL and percentage inhibition of mycelial growth was determined at day 9. The essential oil had a strong inhibitory effect on spore production and germination in all tested fungi proportional to concentration. The oil exhibited noticeable inhibition on dry mycelium weight and synthesis of aflatoxin B₁ (AFB₁) by A. flavus, completely inhibiting AFB(1) production at 4 μL/mL. The effect of the essential oil on inhibition of decay development in cherry tomatoes was tested in vivo by exposing inoculated and control fruit to essential oil vapor at a concentration of 200 μL/mL. Results indicated that the essential oil from C. virosa var. latisecta (CVEO) has potential as a preservative to control food spoilage.

  5. 21 CFR 146.154 - Concentrated orange juice with preservative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Concentrated orange juice with preservative. 146... are any safe and suitable preservatives or combinations thereof. (c) The name of the food is... the percent by weight of the preservative used. If the food is packed in container sizes that are...

  6. AN OVERVIEW OF AZOLE ANTIFUNGALS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pratibha Shivaji Gavarkar*, Rahul Shivaji Adnaik, and Shrinivas Krishna Mohite

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Fungal infections in critically ill or immunosuppressed patients were increasing in incidence in the human population over the last 1-2 decades. There were few advances in antifungal therapy and, until recently, there were few choices from which to select a treatment for systemic mycoses. However, in the past decade, there have been several developments in this area. Antifungal agents are sufficiently diverse in activity, toxicity, and drug interaction potential. Azoles are synthetic and semi-synthetic compounds. They have a broad spectrum of activity. Triazole antifungals are active to treat an array of fungal pathogens, whereas imidazoles are used almost exclusively in the treatment of superficial mycoses and vaginal candidiasis. Despite the advances, serious fungal infections remain difficult to treat, and resistance to the available drugs is emerging. Use of the currently available azoles in combination with other antifungal agents with different mechanisms of action is likely to provide enhanced efficacy. The present review aims to explore the pharmacology, pharmacokinetics, spectrum of activity, safety, toxicity and potential for drug–drug interactions of the azole antifungal agents.

  7. 植物源食品防腐剂抑菌机理和效果及在食品保鲜中的应用%Antibacterial mechanism and effects of botanical food preservatives and their application in food fresh -keeping

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张媛媛; 李艳利; 李书国

    2014-01-01

    Due to their good safety,strong antibacterial property and abundant resources,natural botanical food preservatives have become one of the attractive research fields in food preservation.The variety,an-tibacterial effect and mechanism of several kinds of botanical food preservatives and their application in food preservation were systematically introduced.The botanical preservatives include proteins,peptides, polysaccharides and flavonoids,polyphenols,terpenes,essential oils and enzymatic hydrolysates in some plant materials themselves.Although many fruit in research of botanical food preservatives have been a-chieved,some problems,such as identification of antimicrobial active constituents,dosage -effect,syn-ergistic effects between different antimicrobial active components and the mechanism,risk analysis and so on,still existed.Some suggestions about research,development and application of botanical food pre-servatives were put forward.%植物源天然食品防腐剂因其安全性高、抗菌性强以及来源广泛等优点,已成为食品防腐保鲜研究的热点。系统地介绍了几类天然植物源防腐剂种类、抑菌效果、抑菌机理及在食品贮藏保鲜中的应用。植物源防腐剂主要包括蛋白类、肽类、多糖类、黄酮类、多酚类、萜类、精油及植物自身成分的酶解产物等。目前从植物中提取有效成分作为天然防腐剂已经取得了一定的成果,但仍存在一定的问题,如防腐剂成分的鉴定、量效关系、不同防腐物质间协同增效作用效果及机理、风险分析等方面的问题。提出了天然食品防腐剂研究、开发及应用方面的建议。

  8. Penetratin and derivatives acting as antifungal agents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Masman, Marcelo F.; Rodriguez, Ana M.; Raimondi, Marcela; Zacchino, Susana A.; Luiten, Paul G. M.; Somlai, Csaba; Kortvelyesi, Tamas; Penke, Botond; Enriz, Ricardo D.

    2009-01-01

    The synthesis, in vitro evaluation, and conformational study of RQIKTWFQNRRMKWKK-NH(2) (penetratin) and related derivatives acting as antifungal agents are reported. Penetratin and some of its derivatives displayed antifungal activity against the human opportunistic pathogenic standardized ATCC stra

  9. 气相色谱内标法测定食品中多种常见防腐剂的含量%Determination of eleven preservatives in food by gas chromatography

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    顾秀英; 欧菊芳; 王东铭; 鲍忠定; 许荣年

    2012-01-01

    采用乙醚提取,进%GC—FID,采用内标(十一烷酸)法对食品中11种防腐剂进行定量测定,该方法线性良好,检出限为0.84~5.01mg/kg,精密度为2.0%~3.6%,回收率在90.6%-98.8%,此方法操作简便,抗基质干扰、结果可靠,适合食品中多种防腐剂含量的准确测定。%A method was developed for determination of eleven preservatives in food sample by GC-FID, and preservatives were extracted by diethyl ether and were quantified by internal standard (undecanoic acid) method, the regression coefficient for the determination of the method is good, the detection limit and the accuracy for the determination of the method were 0.84-5.01 mg/kg and 2.0%-3.6%. The recoveris were 90.6%-98.8%. It showed that the method was simple and easy to handle, obstruction of bases decreased obviously, It's suit for the determination of preservatives in food.

  10. Special Issue: Novel Antifungal Drug Discovery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maurizio Del Poeta

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This Special Issue is designed to highlight the latest research and development on new antifungal compounds with mechanisms of action different from the ones of polyenes, azoles, and echinocandins. The papers presented here highlight new pathways and targets that could be exploited for the future development of new antifungal agents to be used alone or in combination with existing antifungals. A computational model for better predicting antifungal drug resistance is also presented.

  11. Treating chromoblastomycosis with systemic antifungals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonifaz, Alexandro; Paredes-Solís, Vanessa; Saúl, Amado

    2004-02-01

    Chromoblastomycosis is a subcutaneous mycosis for which there is no treatment of choice but rather, several treatment options, with low cure rates and many relapses. The choice of treatment should consider several conditions, such as the causal agent (the most common one being Fonsecaea pedrosoi ), extension of the lesions, clinical topography and health status of the patient. Most oral and systemic antifungals have been used; the best results have been obtained with itraconazole and terbinafine at high doses, for a mean of 6 - 12 months. In extensive and refractory cases, chemotherapy with oral antifungals may be associated with thermotherapy (local heat and/or cryosurgery). Limited or early cases may be managed with surgical methods, always associated with oral antifungal agents. It is important to determine the in vitro sensitivity of the major causal agents to the various drugs, by estimating the minimum inhibitory concentration, as well as drug tolerability and drug interactions.

  12. ANTIFUNGAL PROPHYLAXIS IN IMMUNOCOMPROMISED PATIENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lourdes Vazquez

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Invasive fungal infections (IFIs represent significant complications in patients with hematological malignancies. Chemoprevention of IFIs may be important in this setting, but most antifungal drugs have demonstrated poor efficacy, particularly in the prevention of invasive aspergillosis. Antifungal prophylaxis in hematological patients is currently regarded as the gold standard in situations with a high risk of infection, such as acute leukemia, myelodysplastic syndromes, and autologous or allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. Over the years, various scientific societies have established a series of recommendations for antifungal prophylaxis based on prospective studies performed with different drugs. However, the prescription of each agent must be personalized, adapting its administration to the characteristics of individual patients and taking into account possible interactions with concomitant medication.

  13. Antibacterial property and application research progress of chitosan food preservative film%壳聚糖食品保鲜膜抗菌性及其应用的研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄志成; 唐冰; 钟杰平; 李思东; 杨子明; 李普旺

    2013-01-01

    In recent years, chitosan as a kind of natural materials for food preservation have been widely utilized in various food-packaging due to its excellent characteristics of biocompatibility, antibacterial property and film-processing ability.Based on the antibacterial mechanism of chitosan film materials, the researches and applications of chitosan films in recent years were summarized.In addition, the future development of chitosan film in food preservation was also prospected.%壳聚糖由于其良好的功能特性,近年来作为天然保鲜包装材料在各类食品的包装中已有大量的应用.该文章在对壳聚糖食品薄膜材料的抗菌机理总结的基础上,对近年来壳聚糖薄膜在食品的研究及应用现状进行了综述,并对壳聚糖食品薄膜的未来发展趋势进行了展望.

  14. Contribution of volatiles to the antifungal effect of Lactobacillus paracasei in defined medium and yogurt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aunsbjerg, S D; Honoré, A H; Marcussen, J; Ebrahimi, P; Vogensen, F K; Benfeldt, C; Skov, T; Knøchel, S

    2015-02-02

    Lactic acid bacteria with antifungal properties can be used to control spoilage of food and feed. Previously, most of the identified metabolites have been isolated from cell-free fermentate of lactic acid bacteria with methods suboptimal for detecting possible contribution from volatiles to the antifungal activity. The role of volatile compounds in the antifungal activity of Lactobacillus paracasei DGCC 2132 in a chemically defined interaction medium (CDIM) and yogurt was therefore investigated with a sampling technique minimizing volatile loss. Diacetyl was identified as the major volatile produced by L. paracasei DGCC 2132 in CDIM. When the strain was added to a yogurt medium diacetyl as well as other volatiles also increased but the metabolome was more complex. Removal of L. paracasei DGCC 2132 cells from CDIM fermentate resulted in loss of both volatiles, including diacetyl, and the antifungal activity towards two strains of Penicillium spp. When adding diacetyl to CDIM or yogurt without L. paracasei DGCC 2132, marked inhibition was observed. Besides diacetyl, the antifungal properties of acetoin were examined, but no antifungal activity was observed. Overall, the results demonstrate the contribution of diacetyl in the antifungal effect of L. paracasei DGCC 2132 and indicate that the importance of volatiles may have been previously underestimated.

  15. Biochemical approaches to selective antifungal activity. Focus on azole antifungals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanden Bossche, H; Marichal, P; Gorrens, J; Coene, M C; Willemsens, G; Bellens, D; Roels, I; Moereels, H; Janssen, P A

    1989-01-01

    Azole antifungals (e.g. the imidazoles: miconazole, clotrimazole, bifonazole, imazalil, ketoconazole, and the triazoles: diniconazole, triadimenol, propiconazole, fluconazole and itraconazole) inhibit in fungal cells the 14 alpha-demethylation of lanosterol or 24-methylenedihydrolanosterol. The consequent inhibition of ergosterol synthesis originates from binding of the unsubstituted nitrogen (N-3 or N-4) of their imidazole or triazole moiety to the heme iron and from binding of their N-1 substituent to the apoprotein of a cytochrome P-450 (P-450(14)DM) of the endoplasmic reticulum. Great differences in both potency and selectivity are found between the different azole antifungals. For example, after 16h of growth of Candida albicans in medium supplemented with [14C]-acetate and increasing concentrations of itraconazole, 100% inhibition of ergosterol synthesis is achieved at 3 x 10(-8) M. Complete inhibition of this synthesis by fluconazole is obtained at 10(-5) M only. The agrochemical imidazole derivative, imazalil, shows high selectivity, it has almost 80 and 98 times more affinity for the Candida P-450(s) than for those of the piglet testes microsomes and bovine adrenal mitochondria, respectively. However, the topically active imidazole antifungal, bifonazole, has the highest affinity for P-450(s) of the testicular microsomes. The triazole antifungal itraconazole inhibits at 10(-5) M the P-450-dependent aromatase by 17.9, whereas 50% inhibition of this enzyme is obtained at about 7.5 x 10(-6)M of the bistriazole derivative fluconazole. The overall results show that both the affinity for the fungal P-450(14)DM and the selectivity are determined by the nitrogen heterocycle and the hydrophobic N-1 substituent of the azole antifungals. The latter has certainly a greater impact. The presence of a triazole and a long hypdrophobic nonligating portion form the basis for itraconazole's potency and selectivity.

  16. Effect of Extract from Lilac and Food Preservation Agents on Keeping Fresh of Day Lily%食品保鲜剂协同丁香提取液预处理黄花菜的保鲜效果

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨大伟; 湛奎; 原松梅

    2012-01-01

    为探索食品保鲜剂协同丁香提取液预处理黄花菜的保鲜效果,分别以丁香提取液和食品保鲜剂协同丁香提取液浸泡黄花菜1 min,PVC塑料袋包装于室温下贮藏,贮藏期间测定黄花菜的开花率、腐烂率、失重率和褐变率.结果表明,单纯的丁香提取液对黄花菜的保鲜效果不显著,食品保鲜剂协同丁香提取液预处理黄花菜的保鲜效果显著,保鲜期达到6天,避免了阴雨天气不能及时日光干燥造成的损失.%In order to explore effect of extract from lilac and food preservation agents on keeping fresh of day lily,the day lily was immersed in the extract from lilac and the extract from lilac and food preservation a-gerits respectively for one minute,then packed in the PVC plastic bag for determining rate of blooming,rate of being decayed,rate of losing weight and rate of browning. The results showed that effect of extract from lilac on keeping fresh of day lily was not remarkable,and which of extract from lilac and food preservation agents on keeping fresh of day lily was significant,and the shelf life of day lily was up to six days to avoid loss of day lily due to rainy weather.

  17. Application Research on Low Sodium Health Preserved-egg Processing with Food-grade Salts Solution%食品级盐类清料法加工低钠鸡皮蛋的应用研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王茂增; 王磊; 赵兴杰

    2013-01-01

    The preserved egg is a traditional style product, nutrient-rich, unique taste, very popular with consumers. However, traditional processing technology used the lead oxide, which brought great danger in food safety. And high-sodium foods would bring some hurt to human. In this paper, the application of food grade Lead substitute, the recipe of low-sodium and high-potassium health preserved eggs processing with diluted material were studied comparatively. This paper explorated new formula and new technology, which provided a new theoretical reference for processing low-sodium and high-potassium health preserved eggs.%  皮蛋是我国传统的风味制品,营养丰富,口味独特,很受消费者欢迎。但是,传统的加工工艺中使用的氧化铅给食品安全带来很大的危险,且高钠食品会给人的身体健康带来一定的危害,本研究通过对食品级代铅物质的选择、使用清料法加工低钠高钾保健鸡皮蛋的配方进行反复的比较研究,探讨新配方、新工艺,为清料加工低钠鸡高钾保健皮蛋提供了新的理论参考。

  18. Digital Preservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yakel, Elizabeth

    2001-01-01

    Reviews research on digital preservation issues, including born-digital and digitally recreated documents. Discusses electronic records research; metadata and other standards; electronic mail; Web-based documents; moving images media; selection of materials for digitization, including primary sources; administrative issues; media stability…

  19. XML Investigating the Phytochemical, Antibacterial and Antifungal Effects of Thymus Vulgaris and Cuminum Cyminum Essential Oils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soghra Valizadeh (MSc

    2016-02-01

    lower than the Cuminum Cyminum essential oil, which indicates the higher antifungal activity of the essential oil of Thymus vulgaris. This study has raised the possibility of using these essential oils as suitable antimicrobial compounds and alternatives for chemical preservatives in the food industry.

  20. Antifungal constituents of Melicope borbonica

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simonsen, Henrik Toft; Adsersen, Anne; Bremner, Paul

    2004-01-01

    , as the major constituents. All three compounds exhibited moderate antifungal activity against Candida albicans and Penicillium expansum, in accordance with the traditional use of the plant. Moreover, 2,4,6-trimethoxyacetophenone (methylxanthoxylin), three other coumarins [7-(3-methyl-2-butenyloxy)-6...

  1. Biocontrol of Aspergillus species on peanut kernels by antifungal diketopiperazine producing Bacillus cereus associated with entomopathogenic nematode.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sasidharan Nishanth Kumar

    Full Text Available The rhabditid entomopathogenic nematode associated Bacillus cereus and the antifungal compounds produced by this bacterium were evaluated for their activity in reducing postharvest decay of peanut kernels caused by Aspergillus species in in vitro and in vivo tests. The results showed that B. cereus had a significant effect on biocontrol effectiveness in in vitro and in vivo conditions. The antifungal compounds produced by the B. cereus were purified using silica gel column chromatography and their structure was elucidated using extensive spectral analyses. The compounds were identified as diketopiperazines (DKPs [cyclo-(L-Pro-Gly, cyclo(L-Tyr-L-Tyr, cyclo-(L-Phe-Gly and cyclo(4-hydroxy-L-Pro-L-Trp]. The antifungal activities of diketopiperazines were studied against five Aspergillus species and best MIC of 2 µg/ml was recorded against A. flavus by cyclo(4-hydroxy-L-Pro-L-Trp. To investigate the potential application of cyclo(4-hydroxy-L-Pro-L-Trp to eliminate fungal spoilage in food and feed, peanut kernels was used as a food model system. White mycelia and dark/pale green spores of Aspergillus species were observed in the control peanut kernels after 2 days incubation. However the fungal growth was not observed in peanut kernels treated with cyclo(4-hydroxy-L-Pro-L-Trp. The cyclo(4-hydroxy-L-Pro-L-Trp was nontoxic to two normal cell lines [fore skin (FS normal fibroblast and African green monkey kidney (VERO] up to 200 µg/ml in MTT assay. Thus the cyclo(4-hydroxy-L-Pro-L-Trp identified in this study may be a promising alternative to chemical preservatives as a potential biopreservative agent which prevent fungal growth in food and feed. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report demonstrating that the entomopathogenic nematode associated B. cereus and cyclo(4-hydroxy-L-Pro-L-Trp could be used as a biocontrol agents against postharvest fungal disease caused by Aspergillus species.

  2. Centauries as underestimated food additives: antioxidant and antimicrobial potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siler, Branislav; Zivković, Suzana; Banjanac, Tijana; Cvetković, Jelena; Nestorović Živković, Jasmina; Cirić, Ana; Soković, Marina; Mišić, Danijela

    2014-03-15

    Methanol extracts of aerial parts and roots of five centaury species (Centaurium erythraea, C. tenuiflorum, C. littorale ssp. uliginosum, C. pulchellum, and Schenkia spicata) were analysed for their main secondary metabolites: secoiridoid glycosides, a group of monoterpenoid compounds, and phenolics (xanthones and flavonoids), and further investigated for antioxidant capacity and antimicrobial activity. The results of ABTS, DPPH, and FRAP assays showed that above ground parts generally displayed up to 13 times higher antioxidant activity compared to roots, which should be related to higher phenolics content, especially flavonoids, in green plant organs. Secoiridoid glycosides showed no antioxidant activity. All the tested extracts demonstrated appreciative antibacterial (0.05-0.5 mg ml(-1)) and strong antifungal activity (0.1-0.6 mg ml(-1)). Our results imply that above ground parts of all centaury species studied, could be recommended for human usage as a rich source of natural antioxidants and also in food industry as strong antimicrobial agents for food preservation.

  3. Preservation of functionality of Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis INL1 after incorporation of freeze-dried cells into different food matrices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinderola, G; Zacarías, M F; Bockelmann, W; Neve, H; Reinheimer, J; Heller, K J

    2012-05-01

    The aim of this work was to investigate how production and freeze-drying conditions of Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis INL1, a probiotic strain isolated from breast milk, affected its survival and resistance to simulated gastric digestion during storage in food matrices. The determination of the resistance of bifidobacteria to simulated gastric digestion was useful for unveiling differences in cell sensitivity to varying conditions during biomass production, freeze-drying and incorporation of the strain into food products. These findings show that bifidobacteria can become sensitive to technological variables (biomass production, freeze-drying and the food matrix) without this fact being evidenced by plate counts.

  4. Preserving Chile

    OpenAIRE

    Brennand, Charlotte P.

    2010-01-01

    The best way to preserve chile depends on how you plan to use it and your available storage space. Frozen or canned chile is best for chile rellenos and salsas. Stews can use frozen, canned or dried chile. Dried chile has minimal storage requirements and is light-weight for taking on camping trips. Pickled chiles can be used on a relish plate or as an ingredient in other dishes.

  5. Contact dermatitis caused by preservatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yim, Elizabeth; Baquerizo Nole, Katherine L; Tosti, Antonella

    2014-01-01

    Preservatives are biocidal chemicals added to food, cosmetics, and industrial products to prevent the growth of microorganisms. They are usually nontoxic and inexpensive and have a long shelf life. Unfortunately, they commonly cause contact dermatitis. This article reviews the most important classes of preservatives physicians are most likely to encounter in their daily practice, specifically isothiazolinones, formaldehyde and formaldehyde-releasers, iodopropynyl butylcarbamate, methyldibromoglutaronitrile, and parabens. For each preservative mentioned, the prevalence of sensitization, clinical presentation of contact dermatitis, patch testing concentrations, cross reactions, and related legislation will be discussed. Mandatory labeling of preservatives is required in some countries, but not required in others. Until policies are made, physicians and patients must be proactive in identifying potential sensitizers and removing their use. We hope that this article will serve as a guide for policy makers in creating legislation and future regulations on the use and concentration of certain preservatives in cosmetics and industrial products.

  6. Preservation Priority

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    China ratified the UNESCO Convention Concerning the Protection of World Cultural and Natural Heritage in 1985. This set the tone for a course of action aimed at protecting the common heritage of mankind in tandem with the international community. Recently, Chao Huashan, a renowned expert on world heritage studies in China, spoke to Beijing Review reporter Zan Jifang, sharing his understanding about the value of the World Heritage Convention and his suggestions for China’s future work on preserving its heritage. Excerpts follow:

  7. Defensins: antifungal lessons from eukaryotes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrícia M. Silva

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Over the last years, antimicrobial peptides (AMPs have been the focus of intense research towards the finding of a viable alternative to current antifungal drugs. Defensins are one of the major families of AMPs and the most represented among all eukaryotic groups, providing an important first line of host defense against pathogenic microorganisms. Several of these cysteine-stabilized peptides present a relevant effect against fungi. Defensins are the AMPs with the broader distribution across all eukaryotic kingdoms, namely, Fungi, Plantæ and Animalia, and were recently shown to have an ancestor in a bacterial organism. As a part of the host defense, defensins act as an important vehicle of information between innate and adaptive immune system and have a role in immunomodulation. This multidimensionality represents a powerful host shield, hard for microorganisms to overcome using single approach resistance strategies. Pathogenic fungi resistance to conventional antimycotic drugs is becoming a major problem. Defensins, as other AMPs, have shown to be an effective alternative to the current antimycotic therapies, demonstrating potential as novel therapeutic agents or drug leads. In this review, we summarize the current knowledge on some eukaryotic defensins with antifungal action. An overview of the main targets in the fungal cell and the mechanism of action of these AMPs (namely, the selectivity for some fungal membrane components are presented. Additionally, recent works on antifungal defensins structure, activity and citotoxicity are also reviewed.

  8. Bacteriostatic mechanisms of plants antimicrobials and their applications in food preservation%植物抗菌剂抑菌机理及其在食品防腐中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王晓岑; 井晶; 于艳燕; 卢卫红; 王振宇

    2013-01-01

    This review covered recent trends on using plants antimicrobials in food and their functions and mechanisms on controlling food preservation.Bacteriostatic mechanisms of plants antimicrobials,the effect of food ingredients on antimicrobials activities of plants extracts,interactions of several plants extracts and their combinations with other technologies were summarized.In most cases,antimicrobials activities were decreased due to interactions with food ingredients.As the higher concentrations of plants extracts could lead to unfavorable taste and smell of food.The antimicrobials activities of extracts in in-vitro studies were quite different to their activities in food systems.These could be challenges in the utilization of plants antimicrobials.In conclusion,the author suggested that it was important to understand the effects of plants extracts on the behaviours of microbial population in food systems.Furthermore,scientists should conduct more advanced researches on the developments of plants resources and the utilizations of plants antimicrobials in the processing,packing and storage of food.%综述了植物抗菌剂在食品中的应用,控制食品腐败的作用和机理,及其发展趋势.通过总结前人在抑菌作用机理、食品成分对植物提取物的影响、植物提取物间的交互作用和植物提取物与其他技术相结合贮藏食品的研究成果,总结出植物抗菌剂与食品成分的相互作用会使其活性降低;较高的抗菌剂浓度会导致食品味道和香气的改变;体外条件下植物提取物的抗菌活性与其在食品体系中的活性有很大差别等影响植物抗菌剂使用的问题.这需要通过深入研究植物提取物与食品微生态的关系,加大力度开发有效植物资源,植物抗菌剂与食品加工、包装和贮藏技术相结合等才可能得到解决.

  9. Antimicrobial and antifungal activities of the extracts and essential oils of Bidens tripartita.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michał Tomczyk

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the antibacterial and antifungal properties of the extracts, subextracts and essential oils of Bidens tripartita flowers and herbs. In the study, twelve extracts and two essential oils were investigated for activity against different Gram-positive Bacillus subtilis, Micrococcus luteus, Staphylococcus aureus, Gram-negative bacteria Escherichia coli, E. coli (beta-laktamase+, Klebsiella pneumoniae (ESBL+, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and some fungal organisms Candida albicans, C. parapsilosis, Aspergillus fumigatus, A. terreus using a broth microdilution and disc diffusion methods. The results obtained indicate antimicrobial activity of the tested extracts (except butanolic extracts, which however did not inhibit the growth of fungi used in this study. Bacteriostatic effect of both essential oils is insignificant, but they have strong antifungal activity. These results support the use of B. tripartita to treat a microbial infections and it is indicated as an antimicrobial and antifungal agent, which may act as pharmaceuticals and preservatives.

  10. Nutrient-Dependent Efficacy of the Antifungal Protein YvgO Correlates to Cellular Proliferation Rate in Candida albicans 3153A and Byssochlamys fulva H25.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manns, David C; Churey, John J; Worobo, Randy W

    2014-12-01

    YvgO is a recently characterized antifungal protein isolated from Bacillus thuringiensis SF361 that exhibits a broad spectrum of activity and pH stability. Customized colorimetric metabolic assays based on standard broth microdilution techniques were used to determine the variable tolerance of Byssochlamys fulva H25 and Candida albicans 3153A to YvgO exposure under select matrix conditions impacting cellular proliferation. Normalization of the solution pH after antifungal challenge expanded the available pH range under consideration allowing for a comprehensive in vitro assessment of YvgO efficacy. Indicator susceptibility was examined across an array of elementary growth-modifying conditions, including media pH, incubation temperature, ionic strength, and carbohydrate supplementation. Under suboptimal temperature and pH conditions, the indicator growth rate reduced, and YvgO-mediated susceptibility was attenuated. While YvgO association but not efficacy was somewhat influenced by solution ionic strength, carbohydrate supplementation was shown to be the most influential susceptibility factor, particularly for C. albicans. Although the specific choice of carbohydrate/nutrient supplement dictated the extent of enhanced YvgO efficacy, D-glucose additionally improved the association between antifungal and target. Indeed, when exposed to YvgO under conditions that lead to increased cellular proliferation, both indicators displayed a stronger association and susceptibility to YvgO when compared to carbohydrate-deprived media or suboptimal incubation environments. With further study, YvgO may have the capacity to function as a prophylaxis for food safety and preservation, as well as a pharmaceutical agent against opportunistic fungal pathogens either independently or in combination with other established treatments applied to both livestock and human health concerns.

  11. Validation of reference genes for normalization of qPCR mRNA expression levels in Staphylococcus aureus exposed to osmotic and lactic acid stress conditions encountered during food production and preservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sihto, Henna-Maria; Tasara, Taurai; Stephan, Roger; Johler, Sophia

    2014-07-01

    Staphylococcus aureus represents the most prevalent cause of food-borne intoxications worldwide. While being repressed by competing bacteria in most matrices, this pathogen exhibits crucial competitive advantages during growth at high salt concentrations or low pH, conditions frequently encountered in food production and preservation. We aimed to identify reference genes that could be used to normalize qPCR mRNA expression levels during growth of S. aureus in food-related osmotic (NaCl) and acidic (lactic acid) stress adaptation models. Expression stability of nine housekeeping genes was evaluated in full (LB) and nutrient-deficient (CYGP w/o glucose) medium under conditions of osmotic (4.5% NaCl) and acidic stress (lactic acid, pH 6.0) after 2-h exposure. Among the set of candidate reference genes investigated, rplD, rpoB,gyrB, and rho were most stably expressed in LB and thus represent the most suitable reference genes for normalization of qPCR data in osmotic or lactic acid stress models in a rich medium. Under nutrient-deficient conditions, expression of rho and rpoB was highly stable across all tested conditions. The presented comprehensive data on changes in expression of various S. aureus housekeeping genes under conditions of osmotic and lactic acid stress facilitate selection of reference genes for qPCR-based stress response models.

  12. Characterization of the novel antifungal chitosanase PgChP and the encoding gene from Penicillium chrysogenum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Martín, Andrea; Acosta, Raquel; Liddell, Susan; Núñez, Félix; Benito, María José; Asensio, Miguel A

    2010-09-01

    The protein PgChP is a new chitosanase produced by Penicillium chrysogenum AS51D that showed antifungal activity against toxigenic molds. Two isoforms were found by SDS-PAGE in the purified extract of PgChP. After enzymatic deglycosylation, only the smaller isoform was observed by SDS-PAGE. Identical amino acid sequences were obtained from the two isoforms. Analysis of the molecular mass by electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry revealed six major peaks from 30 to 31 kDa that are related to different levels of glycosylation. The pgchp gene has 1,146 bp including four introns and an open reading frame encoding a protein of 304 amino acids. The translated open reading frame has a predicted mass of 32 kDa, with the first 21 amino acids comprising a signal peptide. Two N glycosylation consensus sequences are present in the protein sequence. The deduced sequence showed high identity with fungal chitosanases. A high level of catalytic activity on chitosan was observed. PgChP is the first chitosanase described from P. chrysogenum. Given that enzymes produced by this mold species are granted generally recognized as safe status, PgChP could be used as a food preservative against toxigenic molds and to obtain chitosan oligomers for food additives and nutraceuticals.

  13. Chemical composition, antifungal and antiaflatoxigenic activities of Ocimum sanctum L. essential oil and its safety assessment as plant based antimicrobial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Ashok; Shukla, Ravindra; Singh, Priyanka; Dubey, Nawal Kishore

    2010-02-01

    The study deals with the efficacy of Ocimum sanctum essential oil (EO) and its major component, eugenol against the fungi causing biodeterioration of food stuffs during storage. O. sanctum EO and eugenol were found efficacious in checking growth of Aspergillus flavus NKDHV8; and, their minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) were recorded as 0.3 and 0.2 microl ml(-1), respectively. The O. sanctum EO and eugenol also inhibited the aflatoxin B1 production completely at 0.2 and 0.1 microl ml(-1), respectively. Both of these were found superior over some prevalent synthetic antifungals and exhibited broad fungitoxic spectrum against 12 commonly occurring fungi. The LD50 value of O. sanctum EO on mice was found to be 4571.43 microl kg(-1) suggesting its non-mammalian toxic nature. The findings of present study reveals the possible exploitation of O. sanctum EO and eugenol as plant based safe preservatives against fungal spoilage of food stuffs during storage.

  14. Data Preservation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlo Meghini

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Digital information is a vital resource in our knowledge economy, valuable for research and education, science and the humanities, creative and cultural activities, and public policy (The Blue Ribbon Task Force on Sustainable Digital Preservation and Access, 2010. New high-throughput instruments, telescopes, satellites, accelerators, supercomputers, sensor networks, and running simulations are generating massive amounts of data (Thanos, 2011. These data are used by decision makers for improving the quality of life of citizens. Moreover, researchers are employing sophisticated technologies to analyse these data to address questions that were unapproachable just a few years ago (Helbing & Balietti, 2011. Digital technologies have fostered a new world of research characterized by immense datasets, unprecedented levels of openness among researchers, and new connections among researchers, policy makers, and the public (The National Academy of Sciences, 2009.

  15. Power Preservation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Galster, Kjeld

    Power Preservation (Abstract) In the 17th century, just as today, coalitions needed ‘lead nations’. This was assumed to be a power with great military and economic potentials, and Denmark endeavoured to act as such a leader in the Thirty Years War from 1626 to 28. The results were not encouraging...... in the military field and they were disastrous as far as fiscal matters were concerned. Sweden took over the leadership of the protestant side and she took over Denmark’s place amongst the great powers of the Baltic Region. From that time onwards, Danish influence and options on the international stage gradually...... declined. Thus, Denmark of the 17th century is not to be counted amongst the great powers, but since Christian V’s accession to the throne in 1670 Denmark-Norway has developed into one of Europe’s most highly militarised states. Apart from a permanently combat ready navy, the country maintains a standing...

  16. LANTIBIOTIC NISIN: NATURAL PRESERVATIVE FROM LACTOCOCCUS LACTIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suganthi.V

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The increasing demand for high quality safe foods that are not extensively processed has created a niche for natural food preservative. Studies confirm that food allergies due to chemical preservatives affect as much as 2.5% of the population. Recent research had suggested bacteriocins (Nisin are the ideal biological food preservative. Nisin was proteinaceous antibacterial substances produced by Lactococcus lactis, a homofermentative bacterium. Naturally nisin occurs in two different forms nisin A and nisin Z. Nisin has wide range of inhibitory mode of action on Gram negative bacteria and food borne pathogens. Food preservation is a continuous war against the microorganisms spoiling the food or making it unsafe. So, nisin is actually the only lantibiotic bacteriocins used as a food preservative. This review paper will discuss about the Lactococcal strain used for the production of nisin, different forms of nisin, the mode of action of nisin, the cost reductive methods for the production and purification of nisin. So that it can be used in large scale industry for the high yield of nisin and the wide application of nisin in food industries.

  17. The role of sigmaB in the stress response of Gram-positive bacteria -- targets for food preservation and safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Schaik, Willem; Abee, Tjakko

    2005-04-01

    The alternative sigma factor sigmaB modulates the stress response of several Gram-positive bacteria, including Bacillus subtilis and the food-borne human pathogens Bacillus cereus, Listeria monocytogenes and Staphylococcus aureus. In all these bacteria, sigmaB is responsible for the transcription of genes that can confer stress resistance to the vegetative cell. Recent findings indicate that sigmaB also plays an important role in antibiotic resistance, pathogenesis and cellular differentiation processes such as biofilm formation and sporulation. Although there are important differences in the regulation of sigmaB and in the set of genes regulated by sigmaB in B. subtilis, B. cereus, L. monocytogenes and S. aureus, there are also some conserved themes. A mechanistic understanding of the sigmaB activation processes and assessment of its regulon could provide tools for pathogen control and inactivation both in the food industry and clinical settings.

  18. Food preservative potential of gassericin A-containing concentrate prepared from a cheese whey culture supernatant from Lactobacillus gasseri LA39.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Kiyoshi; Arakawa, Kensuke; Kawai, Yasushi; Yasuta, Narimi; Chujo, Takahiro; Watanabe, Masamichi; Iioka, Hiroyuki; Tanioka, Masashi; Nishimura, Junko; Kitazawa, Haruki; Tsurumi, Koichi; Saito, Tadao

    2013-02-01

    Gassericin A (GA) is a circular bacteriocin produced by Lactobacillus gasseri LA39. In this study, GA-containing concentrate was prepared using a cross-flow membrane filtration device (30 kDa cut-off) from the culture supernatant of Lb. gasseri LA39 cultivated in a cheese whey-based food-grade medium. The bacteriocin activity titer in the concentrate was 16 times as high as that of the culture supernatant and was completely maintained through each incubation at 4°C for 3 months, 37°C for 2 months, 60°C for 5 h, and 100°C for 30 min. The GA-containing concentrate was used with glycine powder to make custard creams, and then four representative strains of custard cream spoilage bacteria (Bacillus cereus, Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis, Achromobacter denitrificans and Pseudomonas fluorescens) were individually inoculated at c. 10(3) colony forming units/g in the custard creams. Throughout 30 days of incubation at 30°C, all of the inoculated bacteria were completely inhibited by the combination of 5% (w/w) of the GA-containing concentrate and 0.5% (w/w) glycine. This is the first highly practical application of GA to foods as a biopreservative, and the concentration method and the bacteriocin concentrate would contribute to biopreservation of several foods.

  19. 21 CFR 1002.31 - Preservation and inspection of records.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Preservation and inspection of records. 1002.31 Section 1002.31 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) RADIOLOGICAL HEALTH RECORDS AND REPORTS Manufacturers' Records § 1002.31 Preservation...

  20. 21 CFR 26.74 - Preservation of regulatory authority.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Preservation of regulatory authority. 26.74 Section 26.74 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL... COMMUNITY âFrameworkâ Provisions § 26.74 Preservation of regulatory authority. (a) Nothing in this...

  1. 21 CFR 146.152 - Orange juice with preservative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Orange juice with preservative. 146.152 Section... any safe and suitable preservatives or combinations thereof. (c) The name of the food is “Orange juice with preservative”. (d) Label declaration. Each of the ingredients used in the food shall be...

  2. Antifungal Activity of Essential Oils from Some Medicinal Plants of Iran against Alternaria alternate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Hadizadeh

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Increasing public concern over the level of pesticide residues in food especially fresh produce has built up adequate pressure for scientists to look for less hazardous and environmentally safer compounds for controlling post harvest diseases. Essential oils as registered food grade materials have the potential to be applied as alternative anti-fungal treatments for fresh fruits and vegetables. Approach: We present in this study, the identification of the essential oils with antifungal activity from some medicinal plants of Iran (nettle (Urtica dioica L., thyme (Thymus vulgaris L., eucalyptus (Eucalyptus spp., Rue (Ruta graveolens L. and common yarrow (Achillea millefolium L., and their potential application as "generally regarded as safe" antifungal compounds against Alternaria alternate on tomato as a model pathosystem. Results: Both the nettle and the thyme oils exhibited antifungal activity against A. alternata. The thyme oil exhibited a lower degree of inhibition 68.5 and 74.8% at 1500 and 2000 ppm, respectively. Spore germination and germ tube elongation of the pathogens in potato dextrose broth was strongly reduced in the presence of 1500 ppm of the nettle oil. The same concentration of this oil reduced the percentage of decayed tomatoes. The experiments on reducing the development of natural tomato rot gave similar results. Conclusions: Application of essential oils for postharvest disease control of fresh produce, as a novel emerging alternative to hazardous anti-fungal treatments will allow a safer and environmentally more acceptable management of postharvest diseases.

  3. An overview of antifungal peptides derived from insect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faruck, Mohammad Omer; Yusof, Faridah; Chowdhury, Silvia

    2016-06-01

    Fungi are not classified as plants or animals. They resemble plants in many ways but do not produce chlorophyll or make their own food photosynthetically like plants. Fungi are useful for the production of beer, bread, medicine, etc. More complex than viruses or bacteria; fungi can be destructive human pathogens responsible for various diseases in humans. Most people have a strong natural immunity against fungal infection. However, fungi can cause diseases when this immunity breaks down. In the last few years, fungal infection has increased strikingly and has been accompanied by a rise in the number of deaths of cancer patients, transplant recipients, and acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) patients owing to fungal infections. The growth rate of fungi is very slow and quite difficult to identify. A series of molecules with antifungal activity against different strains of fungi have been found in insects, which can be of great importance to tackle human diseases. Insects secrete such compounds, which can be peptides, as a part of their immune defense reactions. Active antifungal peptides developed by insects to rapidly eliminate infectious pathogens are considered a component of the defense munitions. This review focuses on naturally occurring antifungal peptides from insects and their challenges to be used as armaments against human diseases.

  4. Pyridine-grafted chitosan derivative as an antifungal agent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Ruixiu; Duan, Yunfei; Fang, Qiang; Wang, Xiangyang; Huang, Jianying

    2016-04-01

    Pyridine moieties were introduced into chitosan by nucleophilic substitution to afford N-(1-carboxybutyl-4-pyridinium) chitosan chloride (pyridine chitosan). The resulting chitosan derivative was well characterized, and its antifungal activity was examined, based on the inhibition of mycelial growth and spore germination. The results indicated that pyridine chitosan exhibited enhanced antifungal activity by comparison with pristine chitosan. The values of the minimum inhibitory concentration and the minimal fungicidal concentration of pyridine chitosan against Fulvia fulva were 0.13 mg/ml and 1 mg/ml, respectively, while the corresponding values against Botrytis cinerea were 0.13 mg/ml and 4 mg/ml, respectively. Severe morphological changes of pyridine chitosan-treated B. cinerea were observed, indicative that pyridine chitosan could damage and deform the structure of fungal hyphae and subsequently inhibit strain growth. Non-toxicity of pyridine chitosan was demonstrated by an acute toxicity study. These results are beneficial for assessing the potential utilization of this chitosan derivative and for exploring new functional antifungal agents with chitosan in the food industry.

  5. Chemical composition of essential oils of Thymus and Mentha species and their antifungal activities.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sokovic, M.D.; Vukojevic, J.; Marin, P.D.; Brkic, D.D.; Vajs, V.; Griensven, van L.J.L.D.

    2009-01-01

    The potential antifungal effects of Thymus vulgaris L., Thymus tosevii L., Mentha spicata L., and Mentha piperita L. (Labiatae) essential oils and their components against 17 micromycetal food poisoning, plant, animal and human pathogens are presented. The essential oils were obtained by hydrodestil

  6. Risk assessment for exposure to food additives in preserved fruits among female college students%女大学生人群凉果添加剂暴露的风险评估

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    柳春红; 谢艳云; 孙远明; 张明明; 邓颖妍

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To evaluate the risk for exposure to food additives in preserved fruits, and provide reference for risk management of preserved fruits. METHODS Preserved fruits intake data was collected by food frequency questionnaire. The additives residues of sodium saccharin, sodium cyclumate, sulfur dioxide, benzoic acid and sorbic acid in preserved fruits were detected by the national standards. Exposure assessments of the additives were carried out by point assessment and simplified distribution models. RESULTS The point estimation based on the mean intake and residue showed that the intakes of the five additives were 18.29% (sulfur dioxide) , 27.72% (sorbic acid), 60.24% (benzoic acid) , 68.14% (sodium saccharin) and 94.25% (sodium cyclamate) of the ADIs. The simplified distribution model showed that 95% confidence limit (CL) of the intakes of the five additives were 1.24%-1.57% (sulfur dioxide) , 1.73%-2.20% (benzoic acid and sorbic acid) , 12.61%-15.99% (sodium cyclamate) and 17.33%-21.99% (sodium saccharin) of the ADIs. CONCLUSION The findings suggest that the exposure risk of sweetener was higher than preservative and bleaching agent. It should be paid more attention to supervision of the sweetener in risk management of preserved fruits in future.%目的 评估广式凉果添加剂残留的人群暴露风险,为凉果的风险管理提供依据.方法 以食物频率问卷法收集大学生人群凉果摄入量数据,依国标方法检测凉果中糖精钠、甜蜜素、二氧化硫、苯甲酸、山梨酸5种添加剂残留量,采用点评估和简单分布模型评价广式凉果添加剂的暴露风险.结果 点评估(按平均值估计)显示,5种添加剂摄入量占ADI值的百分比分别为18.29%(二氧化硫)、27.72%(山梨酸)、60.24%(苯甲酸)、68.14%(糖精钠)和94.25%(甜蜜素).简单分布模型则显示,摄入量95%上下限占ADI的百分比分别为:1.24%~1.57%(二氧化硫)、1.73%~2.20

  7. Comparative Antifungal Effect of Lactic Acid Bacteria Strains on Penicillium digitatum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrian Matei

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Lactic acid bacteria (LAB are natural alternative to chemical preservatives for fruits. The aim of the research was to select LAB strains with high antifungal activity against Penicillium digitatum for the biopreservation of fruits. The antifungal activity of eight lactic acid bacteria strains has been evaluated against Penicilliuum digitatum isolated from orange, by overlay assay method and by optical microscope examination. The reversion of inhibition zone after 96 h was recorded as a fungistatic effect while those with inhibition zone for at least 7 days were recorded as fungicidal. The antifungal effect of efficient LAB strains was assessed by comparing inhibition of fungal biofilm formation in liquid media. The strains Lpl, Lpa, LAB 13, LAB 15, LAB 43 and LAB 58 presented intense antifungal activity with clear inhibition zones diameter over 20 mm. The microscopy evidenced atypical hyphae and delaying of conidial chain formation. The strains Lpa, LAB 13, LAB 15 fully inhibited the mycelia growth, strains LAB 43 and LAB 58 partly with delaying of biofilm formation on the surface of culture medium. The results of comparative antifungal activity of LAB strains evidenced the highest inhibition of fungal biofilm formation and structural damages of hyphae and spores caused by the strains Lpa, LAB 13 and LAB 15. These strains could be efficient biocontrol agents of Penicillium digitatum in fruits.

  8. Food preservative potential of essential oils and fractions from Cymbopogon citratus, Ocimum gratissimum and Thymus vulgaris against mycotoxigenic fungi

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nguefack, J.; Dongmo, J. B. Lekagne; Dakole, C. D.

    2009-01-01

    The food preservative potential of essential oils from three aromatic plants Cymbopogon citratus, Ocimum gratissimum and Thymus vulgaris and their fractions was investigated against two mycotoxigenic strains each of Aspergillus ochraceus, Penicillium expansum and P. verrucosum. The fungicidal...... from O. gratissimum exhibited the highest activity against the six fungal strains under the three pH tested. T. vulgaris and C. citratus essential oils were less active against the Penicillium species tested and A. ochraceus, respectively. Potassium sorbate did not present any activity at pH 6 and 9....... At pH 3, its NDR cfu was the lowest against the six fungal strains. At the same pH and at 4000 ppm, the three essential oils presented a NRD cfu = 6 against strains of A. ochraceus and P. expansum. The same result was obtained with T. vulgaris and C. citratus at 8000 ppm against both strains of P...

  9. Effect of Common Food Preservatives and Acidic Condition on the Growth of Lactobacillus spp%常用食品防腐剂以及酸性条件对乳酸菌的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王晨波

    2014-01-01

    Lactobacillus spp.are well known as probiotics and also spoilage microorganisms.In order to study their survivability under acidic condition with the addition of potassium sorbate and sodium benzoate,five species of Lactobacillus spp.were selected for this study.These species were inoculated at different pH values and different concentrations of preservative.The results showed that Lactobacillus spp.had strong tolerance to-ward low pH value(> 3.0)and the addition of common food preservatives(such as sodium benzoate< 500 × 10-6 ).%乳酸菌是常见的益生菌和食源性酸败菌,为了研究它们对酸性条件、山梨酸钾、苯甲酸钠的耐受性,5株常见的乳酸菌被挑选出来,在不同 pH 值和防腐剂浓度下进行生长情况的监测和分析。结果表明,乳酸菌对于低 pH 值(>3.0)和防腐剂(如苯甲酸钠浓度<500×10-6)的耐受性均较强。

  10. Insuficiência respiratória aguda após exposição a conservantes de alimentos Acute respiratory failure after occupational exposure to food preservatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Auxiliadora Carmo Moreira

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Este é um relato de caso de exposição ocupacional a conservantes de alimentos que resultou em insuficiência respiratória aguda em três trabalhadores. A análise toxicológica demonstrou que a mistura dos conservantes, por eles realizada, produziu NO2 que inalado causou quadro compatível com edema pulmonar e insuficiência respiratória aguda. Na evolução, o dano pulmonar regrediu de forma completa nos três indivíduos. Faz-se uma breve revisão sobre dano pulmonar agudo relacionado a exposição ocupacional. Enfatiza-se a importância do treinamento dos trabalhadores que manipulam substâncias químicas bem com da utilização de equipamentos de proteção adequados.Herein, we report an instance of occupational exposure to food preservatives and resultant acute respiratory failure in three workers. The toxicological analysis revealed that mixing the particular food preservatives involved, a procedure that was performed by the three workers involved, produced NO2, the inhalation of which caused the pulmonary edema and respiratory failure. With time, the pulmonary damage was completely reversed in all three individuals. Accompanying this case report is a brief review of the literature regarding acute pulmonary injury resulting from occupational exposure to chemicals. We emphasize the importance of training, as well as of the use of protective gear, for workers who handle chemical substances.

  11. Chemistry and antifungal potential of Alantolides from Inula racemosa H

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Dalvir Kataria; K K Chahal

    2013-01-01

    Alantolactone and isoalantolactone were isolated from powdered roots of Inula racemosa H. using Soxhlet extraction followed by the column chromatography. Pyrazolines of alantolactone and isoalantolactone were synthesized using diazomethane, diazoethane and diazopropane. The structure elucidation of the compounds were carried out using IR and 1H NMR spectroscopic techniques. All the compounds were screened in vitro for their antifungal potential at various concentrations against Alternaria brassicae and Penicillium italicum using spore germination inhibition technique and against Rhizoctonia solani by poisoned food technique. All the compounds exhibited fairly good fungitoxicity against the test fungi with ED50 values of less than 500 g mL-1.

  12. Fish Spoilage Mechanisms and Preservation Techniques: Review

    OpenAIRE

    Abdel E. Ghaly; Dave, D; Budge, S; M. S. Brooks

    2010-01-01

    Problem statement: Spoilage of food products is due to chemical, enzymatic or microbial activities One-fourth of the worlds food supply and 30% of landed fish are lost through microbial activity alone. With the ever growing world population and the need to store and transport the food from one place to another where it is needed, food preservation becomes necessary in order to increase its shelf life and maintain its nutritional value, texture and flavor. The freshness and quality of fish hav...

  13. Growth and membrane fluidity of food-borne pathogen Listeria monocytogenes in the presence of weak acid preservatives and hydrochloric acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioannis eDiakogiannis

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This study addresses a major issue in microbial food safety, the elucidation of correlations between acid stress and changes in membrane fluidity of the pathogen Listeria monocytogenes. In order to assess the possible role that membrane fluidity changes play in L. monocytogenes tolerance to antimicrobial acids (acetic, lactic, hydrochloric acid at low pH or benzoic acid at neutral pH, the growth of the bacterium and the gel-to-liquid crystalline transition temperature point (Tm of cellular lipids of each adapted culture was measured and compared with unexposed cells. The Tm of extracted lipids was measured by Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC. A trend of increasing Tm values but not of equal extent was observed upon acid tolerance for all samples and this increase is not directly proportional to each acid antibacterial action. The smallest increase in Tm value was observed in the presence of lactic acid, which presented the highest antibacterial action. In the presence of acids with high antibacterial action such as acetic, hydrochloric acid or low antibacterial action such as benzoic acid, increased Tm values were measured. The Tm changes of lipids were also correlated with our previous data about fatty acid changes to acid adaptation. The results imply that the fatty acid changes are not the sole adaptation mechanism for decreased membrane fluidity (increased Tm. Therefore, this study indicates the importance of conducting an in-depth structural study on how acids commonly used in food systems affect the composition of individual cellular membrane lipid molecules.

  14. 常见腌制食品中亚硝酸盐含量的测定%Determination of Nitrite Content in Common Preserved Foods

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    彭晓娅; 董祥

    2016-01-01

    采用可见分光光度法,利用亚硝酸根可与中性红试剂、8-羟基喹啉发生重氮反应,然后在氨性溶液中又会生成偶氮染料,反应体系在λ=560nm处有最大吸收峰,测得亚硝酸根的标准吸收曲线方程为A=0.26232C-0.00169,相关系数R=0.99873。此方法测定腌制食品中亚硝酸盐含量均没有超过国家食品中亚硝酸盐含量规定标准(≤20mg/kg),但散装产品较正规包装产品的亚硝酸根含量高,消费者应尽量以新鲜蔬菜为主食,少吃腌菜,特别是散装类型的,注重健康饮食。%By using visible spectrophotometry, the nature could occur diazotization reaction with reagent neutral red, 8-hydroxyquinoline, and then the azo dyes were formed in the ammonia solution. The reaction system had the maximum absorption peak at the wavelength of λ=560 nm, the standard nitrite absorption curve equation wasA=0.262 32C-0.001 69, the correlation coeffcientR was 0.998 73. Using this method to determine the content of nitrite in pickled foods did not exceed the range of Chinese National Food Standard, but the bulk product is higher than the regular packing product's nitrite content. Consumers should try to eat fresh vegetables as the staple food, less sour pickles, especially bulk types, focus on healthy eating.

  15. Augmenting the Antifungal Activity of an Oxidizing Agent with Kojic Acid: Control of Penicillium Strains Infecting Crops

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jong H. Kim

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Oxidative treatment is one of the strategies for preventing Penicillium contamination in crops/foods. The antifungal efficacy of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2; oxidant was investigated in Penicillium strains by using kojic acid (KA as a chemosensitizing agent, which can enhance the susceptibility of pathogens to antifungal agents. Co-application of KA with H2O2 (chemosensitization resulted in the enhancement of antifungal activity of either compound, when compared to the independent application of each agent alone. Of note, heat enhanced the activity of H2O2 to a greater extent during chemosensitization, whereby the minimum inhibitory or minimum fungicidal concentrations of H2O2 was decreased up to 4 or 13 fold, respectively, at 35–45 °C (heat, when compared to that at 28 °C (normal growth temperature. However, heat didn’t increase the antifungal activity of KA, indicating specificity exists between heat and types of antifungals applied. The effect of chemosensitization was also strain-specific, where P. expansum (both parental and fludioxonil-resistant mutants or P. italicum 983 exhibited relatively higher susceptibility to the chemosensitization, comparing to other Penicillium strains tested. Collectively, chemosensitization can serve as a potent antifungal strategy to lower effective dosages of toxic antifungal substances, such as H2O2. This can lead to coincidental lowering of environmental and health risks.

  16. 7种食品防腐剂对肉制品污染微生物的抑菌效果比较研究%Comparison of Antibacterial Effects of Seven Food Preservatives on Spoilage Microorganisms in Meat

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨晓韬; 李春; 周晓宏

    2012-01-01

    通过测定抑菌率和最低抑菌质量浓度,研究化学防腐剂山梨酸钾、双乙酸钠、单辛酸甘油酯、乙二胺四乙酸二钠(EDTA)以及生物防腐剂乳酸链球菌素(Nisin)、壳聚糖、ε-聚赖氨酸(ε-PL)对12株肉制品腐败(包括2株环状芽孢杆菌(Bacillus circulans)、3株枯草芽孢杆菌(Bacillus subtilis)、3株地衣芽孢杆菌(Bacillus lichenifotrois)、2株凝结芽孢杆菌(Bacillus coagulans)、1株蜂房哈夫尼亚菌(Hafnia alvei)以及1株肠球菌(Enterococcus))的抑菌活性。结果表明:7种防腐剂对供试菌都有一定的抑菌效果,抑菌效果强弱顺序为:Nisin〉壳聚糖〉ε—PL〉单辛酸甘油酯〉EDTA〉双乙酸钠〉山梨酸钾。3种生物防腐剂的抑菌效果明显强于其他4种化学防腐剂。通过比较各种防腐剂对不同种和同种不同株的细菌的抑菌效果,表明同一种防腐剂不仅对不同种的细菌抑菌效果不同,即使对同种不同株的细菌其抑菌效果也有很大差异。%The antibacterial activities of food preservatives including potassium sorbate, sodium diacetate, capryl monoglyceride, disodium ethylene-diamine-tetraacetate (EDTA), nisin, chitosan and ε -polylysine (ε-PL) against 12 meat spoilage strains such as 2 Bacillus circulans strains, 3 Bacillus subtilis strains, 3 Bacillus licheniformis strains, 2 Bacillus coagulans strains, 1 Hafnia alvei strain and an Enterococcus strain were investigated based on inhibitory rate and minimum inhibitory concentration. The results showed that seven food preservatives had inhibitory effect on all tested bacteria at different levels. They could be ranked in decreasing order of antibacterial activity as follows: nisin 〉 chitosan 〉 ε-PL 〉 capryl monoglyceride 〉 EDTA 〉 sodium diacetate 〉potassium sorbate. Three bio-preservatives including nisin, chitosan and ε-PL had better antibacterial activity than other four

  17. Growth and membrane fluidity of food-borne pathogen Listeria monocytogenes in the presence of weak acid preservatives and hydrochloric acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diakogiannis, Ioannis; Berberi, Anita; Siapi, Eleni; Arkoudi-Vafea, Angeliki; Giannopoulou, Lydia; Mastronicolis, Sofia K

    2013-01-01

    This study addresses a major issue in microbial food safety, the elucidation of correlations between acid stress and changes in membrane fluidity of the pathogen Listeria monocytogenes. In order to assess the possible role that membrane fluidity changes play in L. monocytogenes tolerance to antimicrobial acids (acetic, lactic, hydrochloric acid at low pH or benzoic acid at neutral pH), the growth of the bacterium and the gel-to-liquid crystalline transition temperature point (T m) of cellular lipids of each adapted culture was measured and compared with unexposed cells. The T m of extracted lipids was measured by differential scanning calorimetry. A trend of increasing T m values but not of equal extent was observed upon acid tolerance for all samples and this increase is not directly proportional to each acid antibacterial action. The smallest increase in T m value was observed in the presence of lactic acid, which presented the highest antibacterial action. In the presence of acids with high antibacterial action such as acetic, hydrochloric acid or low antibacterial action such as benzoic acid, increased T m values were measured. The T m changes of lipids were also correlated with our previous data about fatty acid changes to acid adaptation. The results imply that the fatty acid changes are not the sole adaptation mechanism for decreased membrane fluidity (increased T m). Therefore, this study indicates the importance of conducting an in-depth structural study on how acids commonly used in food systems affect the composition of individual cellular membrane lipid molecules.

  18. Antifungal effect of cumin essential oil alone and in combination with antifungal drugs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SAHADEO PATIL

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. Patil S, Maknikar P, Wankhade S, Ukesh C, Rai M. 2015. Antifungal effect of cumin essential oil alone and in combination with antifungal drugs. Nusantara Bioscience 7: 55-59. We report evaluation of antifungal activity of cumin seed oil and its pharmacological interactions when used in combination with some of the widely used conventional antifungal drugs using CLSI broth microdilution, agar disc diffusion and checkerboard microtitre assay against Candida. The essential oil was obtained from cumin seeds using hydrodistillation technique and was later evaluated for the presence of major chemical constituents present in it using gas chromatography and mass spectrometry (GC-MS assay. The GC-MS assay revealed the abundance of γ-terpinene (35.42% followed by p-cymene (30.72%. The agar disc diffusion assay demonstrated highly potent antifungal effect against Candida species. Moreover, the combination of cumin essential oil (CEO with conventional antifungal drugs was found to reduce the individual MIC of antifungal drug suggesting the occurrence of synergistic interactions. Therefore, the therapy involving combinations of CEO and conventional antifungal drugs can be used for reducing the toxicity induced by antifungal drugs and at the same time enhancing their antifungal efficacy in controlling the infections caused due to Candida species.

  19. Antifungal drug resistance to azoles and polyenes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masiá Canuto, Mar; Gutiérrez Rodero, Félix

    2002-09-01

    There is an increased awareness of the morbidity and mortality associated with fungal infections caused by resistant fungi in various groups of patients. Epidemiological studies have identified risk factors associated with antifungal drug resistance. Selection pressure due to the continuous exposure to azoles seems to have an essential role in developing resistance to fluconazole in Candida species. Haematological malignancies, especially acute leukaemia with severe and prolonged neutropenia, seem to be the main risk factors for acquiring deep-seated mycosis caused by resistant filamentous fungi, such us Fusarium species, Scedosporium prolificans, and Aspergillus terreus. The still unacceptably high mortality rate associated with some resistant mycosis indicates that alternatives to existing therapeutic options are needed. Potential measures to overcome antifungal resistance ranges from the development of new drugs with better antifungal activity to improving current therapeutic strategies with the present antifungal agents. Among the new antifungal drugs, inhibitors of beta glucan synthesis and second-generation azole and triazole derivatives have characteristics that render them potentially suitable agents against some resistant fungi. Other strategies including the use of high doses of lipid formulations of amphotericin B, combination therapy, and adjunctive immune therapy with cytokines are under investigation. In addition, antifungal control programmes to prevent extensive and inappropriate use of antifungals may be needed.

  20. PENGGUNAAN PENGAWET DAN PEMANIS BUATAN PADA PANGAN JAJANAN ANAK SEKOLAH (PJAS DI WILAYAH KABUPATEN KULON PROGO-DIY (The Use of Preservatives and Artificial Sweeteners in Elementary School-Food in Kulon Progo District of DIY Province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chatarina Wariyah

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available School-food (SF is processed-foods sold by vendor in the elementary school. Recently, many SF has been found to contain excessive food additives and used hazardous substances those are prohibited i.e. formalin, boric acid and rhodamin. The prebious survey showed that the considerations for buying food of most people in Kulon Progo District of DIY province were price, taste, appearance, and were not of the quality and nutrition. The purpose of this research was to determine the SF profile in Kulon Progo District, especially those used excessive food additive (preservative and artificial sweetener, SF with hazardous substances, and the relation between SF condition and the education level of the vendor. The sampling method used Proportionate Random Sampling consists of two stages, namely: 1 sampling to determine the sub-district samples and 2 sampling to determine the amount of the elementary-school of each sub-district for SF sampling. The data were collected by direct observation, interview and experimental method. Analysis of sodium benzoat and sorbic acid, saccharin, sodium cyclamate, and unrecommended/hazardous substances were conducted in BBPOM Laboratory and BLK of Yoyakarta. The data were statistically analyzed by statistic-descriptive and processed with microsoft excell and SPSS for window version 13 for Spearman correlative test.The research showed that SF at the elementary school in Kulon Progo District indicated to contain excessive food additives and hazardous substances. There were 4% samples containing excessive sodium benzoat, sorbic acid and 8% samples containing excessive artificial sweetener of sodium cyclamate. SF with boric acid was 3% samples (cilok, sosis, kerupuk rambak and with formalin was 1% samples (burjo,cimol. There was a significant correlation between the education level of the SF vendor with knowledge about formalin, boric acid and artificial sweetener. Keywords: School-food, food-additives, unrecommended

  1. Interaction of gelatin with polyenes modulates antifungal activity and biocompatibility of electrospun fiber mats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lakshminarayanan, Rajamani; Sridhar, Radhakrishnan; Loh, Xian Jun; Nandhakumar, Muruganantham; Barathi, Veluchamy Amutha; Kalaipriya, Madhaiyan; Kwan, Jia Lin; Liu, Shou Ping; Beuerman, Roger Wilmer; Ramakrishna, Seeram

    2014-01-01

    Topical application of antifungals does not have predictable or well-controlled release characteristics and requires reapplication to achieve therapeutic local concentration in a reasonable time period. In this article, the efficacy of five different US Food and Drug Administration-approved antifungal-loaded (amphotericin B, natamycin, terbinafine, fluconazole, and itraconazole) electrospun gelatin fiber mats were compared. Morphological studies show that incorporation of polyenes resulted in a two-fold increase in fiber diameter and the mats inhibit the growth of yeasts and filamentous fungal pathogens. Terbinafine-loaded mats were effective against three filamentous fungal species. Among the two azole antifungals compared, the itraconazole-loaded mat was potent against Aspergillus strains. However, activity loss was observed for fluconazole-loaded mats against all of the test organisms. The polyene-loaded mats displayed rapid candidacidal activities as well. Biophysical and rheological measurements indicate strong interactions between polyene antifungals and gelatin matrix. As a result, the polyenes stabilized the triple helical conformation of gelatin and the presence of gelatin decreased the hemolytic activity of polyenes. The polyene-loaded fiber mats were noncytotoxic to primary human corneal and sclera fibroblasts. The reduction of toxicity with complete retention of activity of the polyene antifungal-loaded gelatin fiber mats can provide new opportunities in the management of superficial skin infections.

  2. An antifungal protein from ginger rhizomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hexiang; Ng, Tzi Bun

    2005-10-14

    There are very few reports on antifungal proteins from rhizomes and there is none from the family of Zingiberaceae. An antifungal protein with a novel N-terminal sequence was isolated from ginger rhizomes utilizing a protocol that involved ion exchange chromatography on DEAE-cellulose, affinity chromatography on Affi-gel blue gel, and fast protein liquid chromatography on Superdex 75. The protein was unadsorbed on DEAE-cellulose and adsorbed on Affi-gel blue gel. It exhibited an apparent molecular mass of 32kDa and exerted antifungal activity toward various fungi including Botrytis cinerea, Fusarium oxysporum, Mycosphaerella arachidicola, and Physalospora piricola.

  3. Antifungal properties of halofumarate esters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gershon, H; Shanks, L

    1978-04-01

    Alkyl esters (C1--C4) of the four halofumaric acids were tested for antifungal activity against Candida albicans, Aspergillus niger, Mucor mucedo, and Trichophyton mentagrophytes at pH 5.6 and 7.0 in the absence and presence of 10% beef serum in Sabouraud dextrose agar. The most toxic compound to each organism was: C. albicans, ethyl iodofumarate (0.054 mmole/liter); A. niger, methyl bromofumarate (0.090 mmole/liter); M. mucedo, methyl fluorofumarate (0.037 mmole/liter); and T. mentagrophytes, ethyl iodofumarate (0.020 mmole/liter). The order of overall activity of the six most toxic compounds was: ethyl iodofumarate greater than ethyl chlorofumarate greater than methyl iodofumarate = methyl bromofumarate greater than methyl chlorofumarate greater than bromofumarate.

  4. Study on Antimicrobial Activity and Stability of New Food Preservative Methyl-furfuryl Fumarate%新型食品抗菌剂富马酸糠醇甲酯的抗菌活性及稳定性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李妍; 宁正祥

    2005-01-01

    研究合成了一种具有α,β-不饱和羰基结构的化学抗菌剂--富马酸糠醇甲酯,并对其抗菌活性进行研究.结果表明,其抑菌谱较广,对细菌、酵母和霉菌均具有较强的抑制作用,同时可以有效延长混合微生物的生长适应期,显著降低其生长量,而且效果明显优于常用抗菌剂苯甲酸钠,另外,糠醇甲酯具有较好的热稳定性并且在不同pH均表现良好的抗菌活性,说明它可以用于更多食品的防腐,是一种具有广泛开发前景的抗菌剂.%In this article a new preservative,Methyl-furfuryl fumarate,was prepared.And its antimicrobial activity was studied.The result of antimicrobial activity showed that it could inhibit bacteria,yeast and mold remarkably.At the same time it could effectively prolong adaptive phase and decrease growth quantity of milk spoilage microorganism and its effect was better than common preservative sodium benzoate.Furthermore it had better heat stability and could be used at different pH value.These suggested that it could be used for many kinds of foods.Therefore it had wide prospect of development and application.

  5. 高效液相色谱法同时测定蜜饯中的16种食品添加剂%Determination of Sixteen Food Additives in Preserved Fruits by High Performance Liquid Chromatography

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘英; 尹州; 邹晓筱; 曹丽芬

    2011-01-01

    建立了同时检测蜜饯中16种食品添加剂(安赛蜜、糖精钠、苯甲酸、山梨酸、脱氢乙酸、新红、诱惑红、柠檬黄、苋菜红、胭脂红、日落黄、亮蓝、赤藓红、对羟基苯甲酸甲酯、对羟基苯甲酸乙酯、对羟基苯甲酸丙酯)含量的高效液相色谱法.选用Athena C18-wp色谱柱(4.6 mm×250 mm,5 μm),以0.02mol/L乙酸铵-甲醇为流动相梯度洗脱,通过二极管阵列检测器进行检测.该方法在1~100mg/L质量浓度范围内线性良好,相关系数r≥0.999 88,检出限(S/N=3)为0.016~0.45mg/L,相对标准偏差(n=10)为0.14%~1.5%,回收率为76%~106%.该法具有较高的准确度和精密度,适用于蜜饯中添加剂含量的分析.%A high performance liquid chromatographic method was established for the simultaneous detection of contents of sixteen food additives, including acesulfame-K, saccharin sodium, benzoic acid, sorbic acid, dehydroacetic acid, new red, fancy red, tartrazine, amaranth, carmine, sunset yellow, brilliant blue, erythrosine, methyl p-hydroxybenzoate, ethyl p-hydroxybenzoate and propyl p-hydroxybenzoate, in preserved fruits. The sixteen food additives were separated on an Athena C18-wp column (4. 6 mm x250 mm, 5 μm) by gradient elution using methanol -0. 02 mol/L ammonium acetate as mobile phase, and analyzed with a diode-array detector. The calibration curves were linear in the concentration range of 1 - 100 mg/L, with correlation coefficient not less than 0. 999 88 and LOD of 0. 016 - 0. 45 mg/L. The relative standard deviations ( n = 10 ) of the method was between 0. 14% and 1.5% , and the spiked recoveries of sixteen compounds in preserved fruits ranged from 76% to 106%. The method was suitable for the analysis of food additives contents in preserved fruits with good accuracy and precision.

  6. Food spoilage - interactions between food spoilage bacteria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gram, Lone; Flodgaard, Lars; Rasch, Maria

    2002-01-01

    Food spoilage is a complex process and excessive amounts of foods are lost due to microbial spoilage even with modem day preservation techniques. Despite the heterogeneity in raw materials and processing conditions, the microflora that develops during storage and in spoiling foods can be predicted...... based on knowledge of the origin of the food, the substrate base and a few central preservation parameters such as temperature, atmosphere, a(w) and pH. Based on such knowledge, more detailed sensory, chemical and microbiological analysis can be carried out on the individual products to determine......-regulation of phenotypes potentially involved in spoilage through cell-to-cell communication. In particular, we report for the first time the widespread occurrence of N-acyl homoserine lactones (AHL) in stored and spoiling fresh foods and we discuss the potential implications for spoilage and food preservation....

  7. Early State Research on Antifungal Natural Products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melyssa Negri

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Nosocomial infections caused by fungi have increased greatly in recent years, mainly due to the rising number of immunocompromised patients. However, the available antifungal therapeutic arsenal is limited, and the development of new drugs has been slow. Therefore, the search for alternative drugs with low resistance rates and fewer side effects remains a major challenge. Plants produce a variety of medicinal components that can inhibit pathogen growth. Studies of plant species have been conducted to evaluate the characteristics of natural drug products, including their sustainability, affordability, and antimicrobial activity. A considerable number of studies of medicinal plants and alternative compounds, such as secondary metabolites, phenolic compounds, essential oils and extracts, have been performed. Thus, this review discusses the history of the antifungal arsenal, surveys natural products with potential antifungal activity, discusses strategies to develop derivatives of natural products, and presents perspectives on the development of novel antifungal drug candidates.

  8. Antifungal properties of Brazilian cerrado plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Souza Lúcia Kioko Hasimoto e

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Ethanolic extracts from leaves of Hyptis ovalifolia, H. suaveolens, H. saxatilis, Hyptidendrum canum, Eugenia uniflora, E. dysenterica, Caryocar brasiliensis and Lafoensia pacari were investigated for their antifungal activity against dermatophytes. The most effective plants were H. ovalifolia and E. uniflora, while Trichophyton rubrum was the most sensitive among the four dermatophytes species evaluated. This study has demonstrated antifungal properties of Brazilian Cerrado plant extracts in "in vitro" assays.

  9. Antifungal activity of five species of Polygala

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susana Johann

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Crude extracts and fractions of five species of Polygala - P. campestris, P. cyparissias, P. paniculata, P. pulchella and P. sabulosa - were investigated for their in vitro antifungal activity against opportunistic Candida species, Cryptococcus gattii and Sporothrix schenckii with bioautographic and microdilution assays. In the bioautographic assays, the major extracts were active against the fungi tested. In the minimal concentration inhibitory (MIC assay, the hexane extract of P. paniculata and EtOAc fraction of P. sabulosa showed the best antifungal activity, with MIC values of 60 and 30 µg/mL, respectively, against C. tropicalis, C. gattii and S. schenckii. The compounds isolated from P. sabulosa prenyloxycoumarin and 1,2,3,4,5,6-hexanehexol displayed antifungal activity against S. schenckii (with MICs of 125 µg/mL and 250 µg/mL, respectively and C. gattii (both with MICs of 250 µg/mL. Rutin and aurapten isolated from P. paniculata showed antifungal activity against C. gattii with MIC values of 60 and 250 µg/mL, respectively. In the antifungal screening, few of the isolated compounds showed good antifungal inhibition. The compound α-spinasterol showed broad activity against the species tested, while rutin had the best activity with the lowest MIC values for the microorganisms tested. These two compounds may be chemically modified by the introduction of a substitute group that would alter several physico-chemical properties of the molecule, such as hydrophobicity, electronic density and steric strain.

  10. 21 CFR 1305.27 - Preservation of electronic orders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Preservation of electronic orders. 1305.27 Section 1305.27 Food and Drugs DRUG ENFORCEMENT ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE ORDERS FOR SCHEDULE I AND II CONTROLLED SUBSTANCES Electronic Orders § 1305.27 Preservation of electronic orders. (a)...

  11. 21 CFR 1305.17 - Preservation of DEA Forms 222.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Preservation of DEA Forms 222. 1305.17 Section 1305.17 Food and Drugs DRUG ENFORCEMENT ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE ORDERS FOR SCHEDULE I AND II CONTROLLED SUBSTANCES DEA Form 222 § 1305.17 Preservation of DEA Forms 222. (a) The purchaser...

  12. Optimized Dispersive Liquid-Liquid Microextraction Method and High Performance Liquid Chromatography with Ultraviolet Detection for Simultaneous Determination of Sorbic and Benzoic Acids and Evaluation of Contamination of These Preservatives in Iranian Foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Javanmardi, Fardin; Arefhosseini, Seyyed Rafie; Ansarin, Masood; Nemati, Mahboob

    2015-01-01

    A rapid, simple, and sensitive dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction procedure followed by HPLC-UV was applied to determine the benzoate and sorbate in foods. The method was optimized for some variables including extraction solvent type and volume, dispersing solvent type and volume, and the effects of salt and pH. Optimum conditions were determined as follows: sample volume, 5 mL; extraction solvent (chloroform) volume, 250 μL; disperser solvent (acetone) volume, 1.2 mL; NaCl amount, 0.75 g/5 mL at pH 4. Sixty samples were analyzed, including 15 doogh, 15 fruit juice, 15 cookie, and 15 tomato paste; benzoic acid was detected in 57 samples (95%) at levels up to 448.1 μg/mL and sorbic acid in 31 samples (51.6%) at levels up to 1369 μg/mL. Under the optimum experimental conditions, the LOD and LOQ were determined as 0.1 and 0.5 μg/mL for benzoate and 0.08 and 0.3 μg/mL for sorbate, respectively. The results showed that these preservatives are commonly used at high levels in yogurt drinks (dooghs) and cookies. Also, the concentration of benzoic acid that was detected in the tomato paste and fruit juice samples was low but may affect children and sensitive persons.

  13. Catfish Preservation using Porphyra Yezoensis Composites Preservatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhi-Gang Qian

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to preserve fresh catfish meat by using Porphyra Yezoensis extract, chitosan and lactic acid Nisin. The composite preservative obtained by sensory evaluation can effectively maintain the color, odor and texture of fresh catfish meat, as well as inhibit bacterial growth. Results show that treatment using a preservative solution (Porphyra Yezoensis extract 10%, Nisin 0.2% and chitosan 15% extended the shelf life of the fresh catfish meat from 12 h to 24 h when stored at room temperature and from 6 d to 9 d when stored at 4°C. These results provide a practical method of preserving fresh catfish meat.

  14. Novel, Synergistic Antifungal Combinations that Target Translation Fidelity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno-Martinez, Elena; Vallieres, Cindy; Holland, Sara L.; Avery, Simon V.

    2015-01-01

    There is an unmet need for new antifungal or fungicide treatments, as resistance to existing treatments grows. Combination treatments help to combat resistance. Here we develop a novel, effective target for combination antifungal therapy. Different aminoglycoside antibiotics combined with different sulphate-transport inhibitors produced strong, synergistic growth-inhibition of several fungi. Combinations decreased the respective MICs by ≥8-fold. Synergy was suppressed in yeast mutants resistant to effects of sulphate-mimetics (like chromate or molybdate) on sulphate transport. By different mechanisms, aminoglycosides and inhibition of sulphate transport cause errors in mRNA translation. The mistranslation rate was stimulated up to 10-fold when the agents were used in combination, consistent with this being the mode of synergistic action. A range of undesirable fungi were susceptible to synergistic inhibition by the combinations, including the human pathogens Candida albicans, C. glabrata and Cryptococcus neoformans, the food spoilage organism Zygosaccharomyces bailii and the phytopathogens Rhizoctonia solani and Zymoseptoria tritici. There was some specificity as certain fungi were unaffected. There was no synergy against bacterial or mammalian cells. The results indicate that translation fidelity is a promising new target for combinatorial treatment of undesirable fungi, the combinations requiring substantially decreased doses of active components compared to each agent alone. PMID:26573415

  15. Novel Antifungal Peptides Produced by Leuconostoc mesenteroides DU15 Effectively Inhibit Growth of Aspergillus niger.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muhialdin, Belal J; Hassan, Zaiton; Abu Bakar, Fatimah; Algboory, Hussein L; Saari, Nazamid

    2015-05-01

    The ability of Leuconostoc mesenteroides DU15 to produce antifungal peptides that inhibit growth of Aspergillus niger was evaluated under optimum growth conditions of 30 °C for 48 h. The cell-free supernatant showed inhibitory activity against A. niger. Five novel peptides were isolated with the sequences GPFPL, YVPLF, LLHGVPLP, GPFPLEMTLGPT, and TVYPFPGPL as identified by de novo sequencing using PEAKS 6 software. Peptide LLHGVPLP was the only positively charged (cationic peptides) and peptide GPFPLEMTLGPT negatively charged (anionic), whereas the rest are neutral. The identified peptides had high hydrophobicity ratio and low molecular weights with amino acids sequences ranging from 5 to 12 residues. The mode of action of these peptides is observed under the scanning electron microscope and is due to cell lysis of fungi. This work reveals the potential of peptides from L. mesenteroides DU15 as natural antifungal preservatives in inhibiting the growth of A. niger that is implicated to the spoilage during storage.

  16. Chemical Composition of Essential Oilsof Thymus and Mentha Speciesand Their Antifungal Activities

    OpenAIRE

    Leo J. L. D. van Griensven; Vlatka Vajs; Dejan D. Brkić; Marin, Petar D.; Jelena Vukojević; Marina D. Soković

    2009-01-01

    The potential antifungal effects of Thymus vulgaris L., Thymus tosevii L., Mentha spicata L., and Mentha piperita L. (Labiatae) essential oils and their components against 17 micromycetal food poisoning, plant, animal and human pathogens are presented. The essential oils were obtained by hydrodestillation of dried plant material. Their composition was determined by GC-MS. Identification of individual constituents was made by comparison with analytical standards, and by computer matching mass ...

  17. Epidemiology and antifungal resistance in invasive candidiasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodloff AC

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The epidemiology of Candida infections has changed over the last two decades: The number of patients suffering from such infections has increased dramatically and the Candida species involved have become more numerous as Candida albicans is replaced as an infecting agent by various non-C. albicans species (NAC. At the same time, additional antifungal agents have become available. The different Candida species may vary in their susceptibility for these various antifungals. This draws more attention to in vitro susceptibility testing. Unfortunately, several different test methods exist that may deliver different results. Moreover, clinical breakpoints (CBP that classify test results into susceptible, intermediate and resistant are controver- sial between CLSI and EUCAST. Therefore, clinicians should be aware that interpretations may vary with the test system being followed by the microbiological laboratory. Thus, knowledge of actual MIC values and pharmacokinetic properties of individual antifungal agents is important in delivering appropriate therapy to patients

  18. Antifungal sourdough lactic acid bacteria as biopreservation tool in quinoa and rice bread.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Axel, Claudia; Brosnan, Brid; Zannini, Emanuele; Furey, Ambrose; Coffey, Aidan; Arendt, Elke K

    2016-12-19

    The use of sourdough fermented with specific strains of antifungal lactic acid bacteria can reduce chemical preservatives in bakery products. The main objective of this study was to investigate the production of antifungal carboxylic acids after sourdough fermentation of quinoa and rice flour using the antifungal strains Lactobacillus reuteri R29 and Lactobacillus brevis R2Δ as bioprotective cultures and the non-antifungal L. brevis L1105 as a negative control strain. The impact of the fermentation substrate was evaluated in terms of metabolic activity, acidification pattern and quantity of antifungal carboxylic acids. These in situ produced compounds (n=20) were extracted from the sourdough using a QuEChERS method and detected by a new UHPLC-MS/MS chromatography. Furthermore, the sourdough was applied in situ using durability tests against environmental moulds to investigate the biopreservative potential to prolong the shelf life of bread. Organic acid production and TTA values were lowest in rice sourdough. The sourdough fermentation of the different flour substrates generated a complex and significantly different profile of carboxylic acids. Extracted quinoa sourdough detected the greatest number of carboxylic acids (n=11) at a much higher concentration than what was detected from rice sourdough (n=9). Comparing the lactic acid bacteria strains, L. reuteri R29 fermented sourdoughs contained generally higher concentrations of acetic and lactic acid but also the carboxylic acids. Among them, 3-phenyllactic acid and 2-hydroxyisocaproic acid were present at a significant concentration. This was correlated with the superior protein content of quinoa flour and its high protease activity. With the addition of L. reuteri R29 inoculated sourdough, the shelf life was extended by 2 days for quinoa (+100%) and rice bread (+67%) when compared to the non-acidified controls. The L. brevis R2Δ fermented sourdough bread reached a shelf life of 4 days for quinoa (+100%) and

  19. Synthesis, Antifungal Activities and Qualitative Structure Activity Relationship of Carabrone Hydrazone Derivatives as Potential Antifungal Agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hao Wang

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Aimed at developing novel fungicides for relieving the ever-increasing pressure of agricultural production caused by phytopathogenic fungi, 28 new hydrazone derivatives of carabrone, a natural bioactive sesquisterpene, in three types were designed, synthesized and their antifungal activities against Botrytis cinerea and Colletotrichum lagenarium were evaluated. The result revealed that all the derivatives synthesized exhibited considerable antifungal activities in vitro and in vivo, which led to the improved activities for carabrone and its analogues and further confirmed their potential as antifungal agents.

  20. Design,Synthesis and Antifungal Activity of Novel Triazole Derivatives

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chun Quan SHENG; Wan Nian ZHANG; Hai Tao JI; Yun Long SONG; Min ZHANG; You Jun ZHOU; Jia Guo LU; Jü ZHU

    2004-01-01

    Twenty-one 1-(1H-1,2,4-triazolyl)-2-(2,4-diflurophenyl)-3-(4-substituted-1- piperazinyl)-2-propanol derivatives were designed and synthesized,on the basis of the active site of lanosterol 14(-demethylase.In vitro antifungal activities showed that some of the target compounds had higher antifungal activity and broader antifungal spectrum than fluconazole.

  1. Human mycoses and advances in antifungal therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fromtling, R A

    2001-04-01

    The 11th Focus on Fungal Infections meeting was held in Washington, D.C., U.S.A., March 1416, 2001. At the conference, there were well-attended sessions that focused on the pathogenesis and therapy of fungal disease. This report focuses on new information on fungal incidence and pathogenesis as well as on the in vitro and clinical experience of established antifungal drugs (fluconazole, itraconazole, amphotericin B, liposomal formulations of amphotericin B, terbinafine) and the newer antifungal compounds approved for use (e.g., caspofungin) and in development (the new-generation azoles: voriconazole, posaconazole, ravuconazole, and the candins, micafungin and anidulafungin).

  2. Antifungal agents in neonates: issues and recommendations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almirante, Benito; Rodríguez, Dolors

    2007-01-01

    Fungal infections are responsible for considerable morbidity and mortality in the neonatal period, particularly among premature neonates. Four classes of antifungal agents are commonly used in the treatment of fungal infections in pediatric patients: polyene macrolides, fluorinated pyrimidines, triazoles, and echinocandins. Due to the paucity of pediatric data, many recommendations for the use of antifungal agents in this population are derived from the experience in adults. The purpose of this article was to review the published data on fungal infections and antifungal agents, with a focus on neonatal patients, and to provide an overview of the differences in antifungal pharmacology in neonates compared with adults. Pharmacokinetic data suggest dosing differences in children versus adult patients with some antifungals, but not all agents have been fully evaluated. The available pharmacokinetic data on the amphotericin B deoxycholate formulation in neonates exhibit considerable variability; nevertheless, the dosage regimen suggested in the neonatal population is similar to that used in adults. More pharmacokinetic information is available on the liposomal and lipid complex preparations of amphotericin B and fluconazole, and it supports their use in neonates; however, the optimal dosage and duration of therapy is difficult to establish. All amphotericin-B formulations, frequently used in combination with flucytosine, are useful for treating disseminated fungal infections and Candida meningitis in neonates. Fluconazole, with potent in vitro activity against Cryptococcus neoformans and almost all Candida spp., has been used in neonates with invasive candidiasis at dosages of 6 mg/kg/day, and for antifungal prophylaxis in high-risk neonates. There are limited data on itraconazole, voriconazole, and posaconazole use in neonates. Caspofungin, which is active against Candida spp. and Aspergillus spp., requires higher doses in children relative to adults, and dosing is

  3. [Food irradiation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Migdał, W

    1995-01-01

    A worldwide standard on food irradiation was adopted in 1983 by Codex Alimentarius Commission of the Joint Food Standard Programme of the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) of the United Nations and the World Health Organization (WHO). As a result, 41 countries have approved the use of irradiation for treating one or more food items and the number is increasing. Generally, irradiation is used to: food loses, food spoilage, disinfestation, safety and hygiene. The number of countries which use irradiation for processing food for commercial purposes has been increasing steadily from 19 in 1987 to 33 today. In the frames of the national programme on the application of irradiation for food preservation and hygienization an experimental plant for electron beam processing has been established in Institute of Nuclear Chemistry and Technology. The plant is equipped with a small research accelerator Pilot (19MeV, 1 kW) and an industrial unit Elektronika (10MeV, 10 kW). On the basis of the research there were performed at different scientific institutions in Poland, health authorities have issued permission for irradiation for: spices, garlic, onions, mushrooms, potatoes, dry mushrooms and vegetables.

  4. Characterization of Antifungal Activity and Nail Penetration of ME1111, a New Antifungal Agent for Topical Treatment of Onychomycosis

    OpenAIRE

    Tabata, Yuji; Takei-Masuda, Naomi; Kubota, Natsuki; Takahata, Sho; Ohyama, Makoto; Kaneda, Kaori; Iida, Maiko; Maebashi, Kazunori

    2016-01-01

    Fungal nail infection (onychomycosis) is a prevalent disease in many areas of the world, with a high incidence approaching 23%. Available antifungals to treat the disease suffer from a number of disadvantages, necessitating the discovery of new efficacious and safe antifungals. Here, we evaluate the in vitro antifungal activity and nail penetration ability of ME1111, a novel antifungal agent, along with comparator drugs, including ciclopirox, amorolfine, terbinafine, and itraconazole. ME1111 ...

  5. Chilled storage of foods - principles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chilled storage is the most common method for preserving perishable foods. The consumers’ increasing demand for convenient, minimally processed foods has caused food manufacturers to increase production of refrigerated foods worldwide. This book chapter reviews the development of using low tempera...

  6. Glycolipid biosurfactants: main properties and potential applications in agriculture and food industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mnif, Inès; Ghribi, Dhouha

    2016-10-01

    Glycolipids, consisting of a carbohydrate moiety linked to fatty acids, are microbial surface active compounds produced by various microorganisms. They are characterized by high structural diversity and have the ability to decrease the surface and interfacial tension at the surface and interface, respectively. Rhamnolipids, trehalolipids, mannosylerythritol lipids and cellobiose lipids are among the most popular glycolipids. They have received much practical attention as biopesticides for controlling plant diseases and protecting stored products. As a result of their antifungal activity towards phytopathogenic fungi and larvicidal and mosquitocidal potencies, glycolipid biosurfactants permit the preservation of plants and plant crops from pest invasion. Also, as a result of their emulsifying and antibacterial activities, glycolipids have great potential as food additives and food preservatives. Furthermore, the valorization of food byproducts via the production of glycolipid biosurfactant has received much attention because it permits the bioconversion of byproducts on valuable compounds and decreases the cost of production. Generally, the use of glycolipids in many fields requires their retention from fermentation media. Accordingly, different strategies have been developed to extract and purify glycolipids. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  7. ADDITIVES USED TO OBTAIN FOOD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorina Ardelean

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Use of food additives in food is determined by the growth of contemporary food needs of the world population. Additives used in food, both natural and artificial ones, contribute to: improving the organoleptic characteristics and to preserve the food longer, but we must not forget that all these additives should not be found naturally in food products. Some of these additives are not harmful and human pests in small quantities, but others may have harmful effects on health.

  8. Lipid-based antifungal agents: current status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arikan, S; Rex, J H

    2001-03-01

    Immunocompromised patients are well known to be predisposed to developing invasive fungal infections. These infections are usually difficult to diagnose and more importantly, the resulting mortality rate is high. The limited number of antifungal agents available and their high rate of toxicity are the major factors complicating the issue. However, the development of lipid-based formulations of existing antifungal agents has opened a new era in antifungal therapy. The best examples are the lipid-based amphotericin B preparations, amphotericin B lipid complex (ABLC; Abelcet), amphotericin B colloidal dispersion (ABCD; Amphotec or Amphocil), and liposomal amphotericin B (AmBisome). These formulations have shown that antifungal activity is maintained while toxicity is reduced. This progress is followed by the incorporation of nystatin into liposomes. Liposomal nystatin formulation is under development and studies of it have provided encouraging data. Finally, lipid-based formulations of hamycin, miconazole, and ketoconazole have been developed but remain experimental. Advances in technology of liposomes and other lipid formulations have provided promising new tools for management of fungal infections.

  9. 基于耕地压力指数和GM(1,1)模型的区域粮食安全状况研究——以甘肃省天水市为例%A Case Study of Tianshui City in Gansu: Plantation Preservation Quantity Research Based on Food Security and GM( 1,1 )Model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高小琛; 石培基; 潘竟虎; 吕立刚

    2011-01-01

    Taking Tianshui city in Cansu province for example, the aera of cultivated land and the plantation preservation quantity were determined based on Land - use changing data, population and food statistics between 1996 and 2005. The plantation preservation quantity of Tianshui the next 15 years was calculated in mathematical method of CM( 1,1)model. The results show that; the minimum area of cultivated land per capita and the plantation preservation quantity decreased between 1996 and 2005. Moreover, the plantation preservation quantity was alawys 1. The reason was that although per capita cultivated land continued to decline in Tianshui,the food production and per capita continued to increase because of increasing food productivity. The plantation preservation quantity will father reduce and the supply of land productivity was higher than the level of food consumption and regional food security risks was smalle in the next 15 years%在分析天水市1996-2005年耕地、人口、粮食动态变化的基础上,计算最小人均耕地面积和耕地压力指数,运用GM(1,1)模型对未来15 a天水市耕地压力指数进行了预测.研究结果显示:1996-2005年,虽然天水人均耕地面积持续减少,但由于耕地生产率不断提高,粮食产量和人均占有量在持续增加,最小人均耕地面积和耕地压力指数呈现降低的趋势,但是耕地压力指数始终在1之上.未来15 a耕地压力指数将进一步降低,耕地生产力的供给水平高于食物消费水平,区域粮食安全隐患较小.图5,表1,参10.

  10. 四种食品防腐剂对桔皮黄酮清除自由基影响%Effect of four food preservative on flavonoid from orange peel eliminating radical

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李蜀眉; 王丽荣; 盛显良; 辛启凤

    2014-01-01

    Flavonoids from orange peel were extracted with 90% alcohol. Effect of four food preservatives on ability in flavonoids from orange peel elimination radical was studied by DPPH method when their concentration and temperature are different. The result showed that when temperature is 40 ℃,0.1%sorbistat and 0.1%benzoic acid can improve ability for elimination radical of flavonoids from orange peel,0.1%sodium propionate and 0.06%ethyl-4-hydroxybenzoate can reduce ability for elimination radical of flavonoids from orange peel. 0.1%sorbistat and 0.1%benzoic acid and 0.06%ethyl-4-hydroxybenzoate can reduce ability for elimination radical of flavonoids from orange peel when temperature is 60℃. Effect of 0.1%sodium propionate on ability in flavonoids from orange peel elimination radical has no relation with temperature.%用90%的乙醇提取桔皮中的黄酮类化合物,通过DPPH法研究四种食品防腐剂在不同浓度和温度下对桔皮黄酮类化合物清除自由基能力的影响。结果表明,在温度40℃时,0.1%山梨酸、0.1%苯甲酸可以提高桔皮黄酮类化合物清除自由基的能力;0.1%丙酸钠、0.06%对羟基苯甲酸乙酯使桔皮黄酮类化合物清除自由基的能力下降。在温度60℃时,0.1%山梨酸、0.1%苯甲酸、0.06%对羟基苯甲酸乙酯使桔皮黄酮类化合物清除自由基的能力下降。0.1%丙酸钠对桔皮黄酮类化合物清除自由基能力的影响与温度没有关系。

  11. PHYTOCHEMICAL SCREENING AND IN-VITRO ANTIFUNGAL INVESTIGATION OF PARTHENIUM HYSTEROPHORUS EXTRACTS AGAINST ALTERNARIA ALTERNATA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Singh Padma

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The extensive use of fungicides are polluting the environment and giving rise to undesirable biological effects on animal and human beings. Therefore use of plant extracts as biological control agents is being popularized in recent years. Alternaria alternata is reported for causing foliage disease in several important vegetables and crops. In an approach towards the development of eco friendly antifungal compound for controlling plant diseases caused by Alternaria alternata different extracts of Parthenium hysterophorus were tested for their antifungal potential. Parthenium hysterophorus is considered as an obnoxious weed, growing on waste land. The four different solvent extracts viz., aqueous, methanol, acetone and ethanol extracts of leaves of Parthenium hysterophorus was evaluated from antifungal potential against four different isolates of Alternaria alternata isolated from potato (Solanum tuberosum, onion (Allium cepa, tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum and mustard (Brassica compestris by food poison technique. The ethanolic extract showed complete inhibition against the four isolates i.e. 100 % followed by acetone and methanol extracts which was approximately 96 % and 76 % respectively, while aqueous extract do not showed any antifungal activity. Thus the result showed that the ethanolic extract was the best extract to be used. The phytochemical analysis revealed the presence of alkaloid, glycoside, steroid, saponin in varying concentration in different extracts which might be the cause of antifungal potential. The present study supports the use of leaf extract of Parthenium hysterophorus as biofungicides for the disease caused by Alternaria alternata. This will help to save the environment from chemical hazards as most of the synthetic fungicide constitute mercury, zinc etc which are toxic for nature.

  12. [Preservatives in ophthalmology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Messmer, E M

    2012-11-01

    Preservatives are a legal requirement for eye drops in multidose containers. Moreover, they are necessary for stabilization and intraocular penetration for a number of ophthalmic preparations. Most preservatives act in a relatively unspecific manner as detergents or by oxidative mechanisms and thereby cause side effects at the ocular surface. They may also affect the lens, trabecular meshwork and the retina. Benzalkonium chloride is the most commonly used preservative in ophthalmology and is more toxic than other or newer preservatives, such as polyquaternium-1 (Polyquad), sodium perborate, oxychloro-complex (Purite®) and SofZia. Preservative-free topical medication is highly recommended for patients with ocular surface disease, frequent eye drop administration, proven allergy to preservatives and contact lens wear.

  13. Food Processing: Technology and Nutritive Value.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerbouin-Rerolle, Pascale

    1993-01-01

    This booklet examines the principles of food preservation, food preservation techniques, and nutrition-related consequences of food processing. All foodstuffs in their natural state will deteriorate and become unfit for human consumption due to internal factors, such as enzyme activity, or external factors, such as insects, rodents, and…

  14. Preserving Digital Materials

    CERN Document Server

    Harvey, Ross

    2011-01-01

    This book provides a single-volume introduction to the principles, strategies and practices currently applied by librarians and recordkeeping professionals to the critical issue of preservation of digital information. It incorporates practice from both the recordkeeping and the library communities, taking stock of current knowledge about digital preservation and describing recent and current research, to provide a framework for reflecting on the issues that digital preservation raises in professional practice.

  15. A new furoquinoline alkaloid with antifungal activity from the leaves of Ruta chalepensis L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emam, A; Eweis, M; Elbadry, M

    2010-12-01

    Bioassay-guided separation with an eye toward antifungal activity led to the isolation of the new alkaloid 5-(1̀,1̀-dimethylallyl)-8-hydroxyfuro[2-3-b] quinoline (1) and the known biscoumarin daphnoretin (2) as the active constituents of the chloroform extract obtained from the leaves of Ruta chalepensis. The structures of the metabolites were elucidated on the basis of their spectral characteristics (NMR, UV, and MS) and were compared with the literature. The antifungal activity of the isolated compounds was evaluated against the phytopathogenic fungi Rhizoctonia solani, Sclerotium rolfsii, and Fusarium solani, which cause root-rot and wilt diseases in several economically important food crops such as potato, sugar beet, and tomato.

  16. 抗菌性乳酸菌的筛选及鉴定%Screening of Antifungal Lactic acid Bacteria and Appraisal

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘紫艳

    2013-01-01

      抗菌性乳酸菌是一种天然、安全性能好、适用范围广且性能稳定的生物防腐剂,将其应用到食品中具有重要的实际应用价值,其应用前景也很广阔。采用双层培养法从泡菜水中筛选出2株具有明显的抑菌作用菌种,供试菌为枯草芽孢杆菌(Bacillus subtilis)、大肠杆菌(E.coli)、黑曲霉(Aspergillus niger),通过抑菌实验,综合菌株的形态学特征、生理生化特征确定了B株菌株为乳酸菌。%  Antifungal lactic acid bacteria are biological preservative properties of a natural, safety, wide application range and stable performance, its application to food has important practical application value, its application prospect is very wide. Using the double cultivation from pickled cabbage water screened 2 strains of bacteria with antimicrobial effect obviously, the tested strains of Bacillus subtilis (Bacillus subtilis), Escherichia coli (E.coli), Kuroma (Aspergillus Niger). Through the antibacterial experiment, physiological and biochemical characteristics, morphological characteristics, comprehensive strains were identified by B strains of lactic acid bacteria.

  17. Chemical Composition and Antifungal Activity of Ocimum basilicum L. Essential Oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neveen Helmy Abou El-Soud

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The leaves of Ocimum basilicum L. (basil are used in traditional cuisine as spices; its essential oil has found a wide application in perfumery, dental products as well as antifungal agents. AIM: To assess the chemical composition as well as the in vitro antifungal activity of O. basilicum L. essential oil against Aspergillus flavus fungal growth and aflatoxin B1 production. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The essential oil of O. basilicum was obtained by hydrodistillation and analysed using gas chromatography (GC and GC coupled with mass spectrometry (GC/MS. The essential oil was tested for its effects on Aspergillus flavus (A. flavus mycelial growth and aflatoxin B1 production in Yeast Extract Sucrose (YES growth media. Aflatoxin B1 production was determined by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC. RESULTS: Nineteen compounds, representing 96.7% of the total oil were identified. The main components were as follows: linalool (48.4%, 1,8-cineol (12.2%, eugenol (6.6%, methyl cinnamate (6.2%, α-cubebene (5.7%, caryophyllene (2.5%, β-ocimene (2.1% and α-farnesene (2.0%.The tested oil showed significant antifungal activity that was dependent on the used oil concentration. The complete inhibition of A. flavus growth was observed at 1000 ppm oil concentration, while marked inhibition of aflatoxin B1 production was observed at all oil concentrations tested (500, 750 and 1000 ppm. CONCLUSION: These results confirm the antifungal activities of O. basilicum L. oil and its potential use to cure mycotic infections and act as pharmaceutical preservative against A. flavus growth and aflatoxin B1 production.

  18. 36 CFR 13.35 - Preservation of natural features.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Preservation of natural... INTERIOR NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM UNITS IN ALASKA General Provisions § 13.35 Preservation of natural features... food items, including fruits, berries and mushrooms, but not including threatened or endangered...

  19. Antifungal and antibacterial activities of Petroselinum crispum essential oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linde, G A; Gazim, Z C; Cardoso, B K; Jorge, L F; Tešević, V; Glamoćlija, J; Soković, M; Colauto, N B

    2016-07-29

    Parsley [Petroselinum crispum (Mill.) Fuss] is regarded as an aromatic, culinary, and medicinal plant and is used in the cosmetic, food, and pharmaceutical industries. However, few studies with conflicting results have been conducted on the antimicrobial activity of parsley essential oil. In addition, there have been no reports of essential oil obtained from parsley aerial parts, except seeds, as an alternative natural antimicrobial agent. Also, microorganism resistance is still a challenge for health and food production. Based on the demand for natural products to control microorganisms, and the re-evaluation of potential medicinal plants for controlling diseases, the objective of this study was to determine the chemical composition and antibacterial and antifungal activities of parsley essential oil against foodborne diseases and opportunistic pathogens. Seven bacteria and eight fungi were tested. The essential oil major compounds were apiol, myristicin, and b-phellandrene. Parsley essential oil had bacteriostatic activity against all tested bacteria, mainly Staphylococcus aureus, Listeria monocytogenes, and Salmonella enterica, at similar or lower concentrations than at least one of the controls, and bactericidal activity against all tested bacteria, mainly S. aureus, at similar or lower concentrations than at least one of the controls. This essential oil also had fungistatic activity against all tested fungi, mainly, Penicillium ochrochloron and Trichoderma viride, at lower concentrations than the ketoconazole control and fungicidal activity against all tested fungi at higher concentrations than the controls. Parsley is used in cooking and medicine, and its essential oil is an effective antimicrobial agent.

  20. Tolerability and safety of antifungal drugs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Scaglione

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available When treating critically ill patients, as those with fungal infections, attention should be focused on the appropriate use of drugs, especially in terms of dose, safety, and tolerability. The fungal infection itself and the concomitant physiological disorders concur to increase the risk of mortality in these patients, therefore the use of any antifungal agent should be carefully evaluated, considering both the direct action on the target fungus and the adverse effects eventually caused. Among antifungal drugs, echinocandins have the greatest tolerability. In fact, unlike amphotericin B, showing nephrotoxicity, and azoles, which are hepatotoxic, the use of echinocandins doesn’t result in major adverse events.http://dx.doi.org/10.7175/rhc.v4i2s.873

  1. An antifungal peptide from the coconut.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, H X; Ng, T B

    2005-12-01

    A chromatographic procedure consisting of ion exchange chromatography on DEAE-cellulose, affinity chromatography on Affi-gel blue gel, ion exchange chromatography on CM-cellulose, and gel filtration by fast performance liquid chromatography on Supedex 75 was utilized to isolate a 10 kDa antifungal peptide from coconut flesh. The peptide was unadsorbed on DEAE-cellulose, but adsorbed on Affi-gel blue gel and CM-cellulose. It displayed antifungal activity against Fusarium oxysporum, Mycosphaerella arachidicola and Physalospora piricola. The IC50 values of its inhibitory activities on mycelial growth in M. arachidicola and HIV-1 reverse transcriptase activity were respectively 1.2 and 52.5 microM.

  2. How Microorganisms Affect Food Safety and Quality

    OpenAIRE

    Bacon, Karleigh

    2012-01-01

    The main methods of preservation for shelf-stable foods are controlling the water activity or lowering the pH. Factors are often combined, like lowering pH AND using refrigeration. Understanding how food supports the growth of microorganisms can help improve both food safety AND food quality. This guide can help you manipulate your food to create a safe product.

  3. Modes of fossil preservation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schopf, J.M.

    1975-01-01

    The processes of geologic preservation are important for understanding the organisms represented by fossils. Some fossil differences are due to basic differences in organization of animals and plants, but the interpretation of fossils has also tended to be influenced by modes of preservation. Four modes of preservation generally can be distinguished: (1) Cellular permineralization ("petrifaction") preserves anatomical detail, and, occasionally, even cytologic structures. (2) Coalified compression, best illustrated by structures from coal but characteristic of many plant fossils in shale, preserves anatomical details in distorted form and produces surface replicas (impressions) on enclosing matrix. (3) Authigenic preservation replicates surface form or outline (molds and casts) prior to distortion by compression and, depending on cementation and timing, may intergrade with fossils that have been subject to compression. (4) Duripartic (hard part) preservation is characteristic of fossil skeletal remains, predominantly animal. Molds, pseudomorphs, or casts may form as bulk replacements following dissolution of the original fossil material, usually by leaching. Classification of the kinds of preservation in fossils will aid in identifying the processes responsible for modifying the fossil remains of both animals and plants. ?? 1975.

  4. Fish Spoilage Mechanisms and Preservation Techniques: Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdel E. Ghaly

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Spoilage of food products is due to chemical, enzymatic or microbial activities One-fourth of the worlds food supply and 30% of landed fish are lost through microbial activity alone. With the ever growing world population and the need to store and transport the food from one place to another where it is needed, food preservation becomes necessary in order to increase its shelf life and maintain its nutritional value, texture and flavor. The freshness and quality of fish have always gained the attention by Food Regulatory Agencies and Food Processing Industry. Proper handling, pretreatment and preservation techniques can improve the quality fish and fish products and increase their shelf life. Methodology: Historically salting, drying, smoking, fermentation and canning were the methods to prevent fish spoilage and extend its shelf life. In response to consumer demand for texture, appearance and taste, new methods were developed including: Cooling, freezing and chemical preservation. A comprehensive review of the literature on the subject of fish spoilage and modern preservation techniques was carried out. Conclusion: Fish spoilage results from three basic mechanisms: Enzymatic autolysis, oxidation, microbial growth. Low temperature storage and chemical techniques for controlling water activity, enzymatic, oxidative and microbial spoilage are the most common in the industry today. A process involving the addition of an EDTA (1 mM-TBHQ (0.02% combination and ascorbic acid and storage at refrigerated temperatures (5°C in darkness can be the most positive for controlling the spoilage of fish and fish product. The suggested process would address antimicrobial activity as well as destructive oxidation of the desired lipids and fats. However, more efforts are required to understand the role of proximate composition of fish, post harvest history, environmental conditions, initial microbial load, type and nature of bacteria and their

  5. Antifungal Efficacy of Myrtus communis Linn

    OpenAIRE

    Sadeghi Nejad; Erfani Nejad; Yusef Naanaie; Zarrin

    2014-01-01

    Background The ethanolic extract of Myrtus communis Linn. leaves was assayed in vitro as a growth inhibitor against opportunistic fungi such as Candida and Aspergillus species. Myrtus communis Linn. (Family, Myrtaceae) is an aromatic evergreen shrub or small tree. It is native to the Mediterranean region. Objectives This study aimed to assess antifungal activity (in vitro) of the ethanolic extracts of Myrtus communis leaves as a g...

  6. Antifungal Drug Resistance - Concerns for Veterinarians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bharat B. Bhanderi

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available In the 1990s, there were increased incidences of fungal infectious diseases in human population which might be due to increase in immunosuppressive diseases. But the major concern was increase in prevalence of resistance to antifungal drugs which were reported both in the fungal isolates of human beings and that of animal origin. In both animals and human beings, resistance to antimicrobial agents has important implications for morbidity, mortality and health care costs, because resistant strains are responsible for bulk of infection in animals and human beings, and large number of antimicrobial classes offers more diverse range of resistance mechanisms to study and resistance determinants move into standard well-characterized strains that facilitates the detailed study of molecular mechanisms of resistance in microorganisms. Studies on resistance to antifungal agents has been lagging behind that of antibacterial resistance for several reasons, the foremost reason might be fungal agents were not recognized as important animal and human pathogens, until relatively in recent past. But the initial studies of antifungal drug resistance in the early 1980s, have accumulated a wealth of knowledge concerning the clinical, biochemical, and genetic aspects of this phenomenon. Presently, exploration of the molecular aspects for antifungal drug resistance has been undertaken. Recently, the focus was on several points like developing a more detailed understanding of the mechanisms of antimicrobial resistance, improved methods to detect resistance when it occurs, methods to prevent the emergence and spread of resistance and new antimicrobial options for the treatment of infections caused by resistant organisms. [Vet. World 2009; 2(5.000: 204-207

  7. Fertility Preservation for Female

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jack Huang; Seang Lin Tan; Ri-Cheng Chian

    2006-01-01

    Preservation of female fertility is an important issue today. However, there are few effective clinical options for preserving female fertility. Firstly, conventional in vitro fertilization (IVF) followed by embryo cryopreservation is an accepted procedure but is not applicable to all women. Embryo freezing is suitable only for women with a male partner and may not be acceptable to some patients due to moral and religious reasons. Ovarian tissue freezing is another option of female fertility preservation but is an invasive procedure and the efficacy of this technique remains to be determined.Oocyte cryopreservation is also method for fertility preservation. Egg freezing is minimally invasive and can avoid the ethical and moral concerns related to cryopreservation of embryos. However, conventional slow freezing/rapid thawing methods are associated with low survival of oocytes. Recent development in vitrification of oocytes appears promising. Therefore, vitrification of unfertilized eggs may be a novel method to preserve female fertility.

  8. Antifungal Efficacy of Myrtus communis Linn

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sadeghi Nejad

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Background The ethanolic extract of Myrtus communis Linn. leaves was assayed in vitro as a growth inhibitor against opportunistic fungi such as Candida and Aspergillus species. Myrtus communis Linn. (Family, Myrtaceae is an aromatic evergreen shrub or small tree. It is native to the Mediterranean region. Objectives This study aimed to assess antifungal activity (in vitro of the ethanolic extracts of Myrtus communis leaves as a growth inhibitor against 24 clinical isolates of Candida, including C. albicans, C. glabrata, and C. tropicalis also three species of Aspergillus, including A. niger, A. flavus, and A. terreus. Materials and Methods The ethanolic extract of myrtle leaves was prepared by maceration method and minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC of Myrtus communis leaves extract was determined by agar-well diffusion technique. Amphotericin B and clotrimazole were used as the positive control in this assay. Results The minimal inhibitory concentration (MICs values of Myrtus communis leaves extract ranged 0.625-5.0 µg/µL and 5-40 µg/µL against tested Candida spp. and Aspergillus spp., respectively. Conclusions Results revealed that the ethanolic extract of Myrtus communis leaves have antifungal potency against both pathogenic tested fungi, and it can be used as a natural antifungal agent.

  9. Antifungal ellagitannin isolated from Euphorbia antisyphilitica Zucc

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Juan; Ascacio-Valdés; Edgardo; Burboa; Antonio; F; Aguilera-Carbo; Mario; Aparicio; Ramón; Pérez-Schmidt; Raúl; Rodríguez; Cristóbal; N; Aguilar

    2013-01-01

    Objective:To study antifungal activity of a new ellagitannin isolated from the plant residues of Euphorbia antisyphilitica(E.antisyphilitica)Zucc in the wax extraction process.Methods:An extract was prepared from dehydrated and pulverized residues and fractionated by liquid chromatography on Amberilte XAD-16,until obtained an ellagitannin-rich ethanolic fraction which was treated by rotaevaporation to recover the ellagitannin as fine powder.An aqueous solution was prepared and treated through ionic exchange liquid chromatography(Q XL)and gel permeation chromatography(G 25).The ellagitannin-rich fraction was thermogravimetrically evaluated(TGA and DTA)to test the thermo-stability of ellagic acid(monomeric unit).Then ellagitannin powder was analyzed by infrared spectrospcopy to determinate the functional groups and.also mass spectroscopy was used to determine the molecular ion.Results:The principal functional groups of ellagitannin were determined,the molecular weight was 860.7 g/mol;and an effective antifungal activity against phytopathogenic fungi was demonstrated.Conclusions:It can be concluded that the new ellagitannin(860.7 g/mol)isolated from E.antisyphilitica Zucc is an effective antifungal agent against Alternaria alternata,Fusarium oxyzporum,Colletotrichum gloeosporoides and Rhizoctnia solani.

  10. Antifungal ellagitannin isolated from Euphorbia antisyphilitica Zucc

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Juan Ascacio-Valds; Edgardo Burboa; Antonio F Aguilera-Carbo; Mario Aparicio; Ramn Prez-Schmidt; Ral Rodrguez; Cristbal N Aguilar

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To study antifungal activity of a new ellagitannin isolated from the plant residues of Euphorbia antisyphilitica (E. antisyphilitica) Zucc in the wax extraction process. Methods:An extract was prepared from dehydrated and pulverized residues and fractionated by liquid chromatography on Amberilte XAD-16, until obtained an ellagitannin-rich ethanolic fraction which was treated by rotaevaporation to recover the ellagitannin as fine powder. An aqueous solution was prepared and treated through ionic exchange liquid chromatography (Q XL) and gel permeation chromatography (G 25). The ellagitannin-rich fraction was thermogravimetrically evaluated (TGA and DTA) to test the thermo-stability of ellagic acid (monomeric unit). Then ellagitannin powder was analyzed by infrared spectrospcopy to determinate the functional groups and, also mass spectroscopy was used to determine the molecular ion. Results: The principal functional groups of ellagitannin were determined, the molecular weight was 860.7 g/mol; and an effective antifungal activity against phytopathogenic fungi was demonstrated. Conclusions: It can be concluded that the new ellagitannin (860.7 g/mol) isolated from E. antisyphilitica Zucc is an effective antifungal agent against Alternaria alternata, Fusarium oxyzporum, Colletotrichum gloeosporoides and Rhizoctnia solani.

  11. Antifungal activity of Terminalia superba (combretaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SIAKA Sohro

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to optimize the anticandidosic activities of Terminalia superba (TEKAM4 and the identification of major compounds present in the most active chromatographic fraction. The hydroethanolic extract TEKAM4-X0 was prepared by homogenization employing a blender. Two derivatives extracts of TEKAM4-X0 (X1-1 and X1-2 were obtained by a liquid/liquid partition of TEKAM4-X0 in a mixture of hexane and water (v/v. Three chromatographic fractions (F1, F2 and F3 from X1-2 were separated by means of Sephadex-LH20 gel filtration chromatography. All the extracts were incorporated to Sabouraud according to the agar slanted double dilution method. Ketoconazole was used as standards for antifungal assay. The entire fractions were tested on the previously prepared medium culture containing 1000 cells of C. albicans. Antifungal activity was determined by evaluating antifungal parameters values (MFC and IC50. Lastly, the structures of 2 isolated compounds were elucidated by combination of Flash chromatography and spectroscopic methods, including MS, and multiple stage RMN experiments.

  12. Effect of Origanum heracleoticum L. essential oil on food-borne Penicillium aurantiogriseum and Penicilium chrysogenum isolates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Čabarkapa Ivana S.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Molds are ubiquitously distributed in nature and their spores can be found in the atmosphere even at high altitudes. The difficulty of controlling these undesirable molds, as well as the growing interest of the consumers in natural products, have been forcing the industry to find new alternatives for food preservation. The modern trends in nutrition suggest the limitation of synthetic food additives or substitution with natural ones. Aromatic herbs are probably the most important source of natural antimicrobial agents. Origanum heracleoticum L. essential oil has been known as an interesting source of antimicrobial compounds to be applied in food preservation. In the this work, we have investigated the effect of essential oil obtained from O. heracleoticum on growth of six isolates of Penicillium aurantiogriseum and four isolates of Penicillium chrysogenum isolated from meat plant for traditional Petrovacka sausage (Petrovská klobása production. The findings reveal that the essential oil of O. heracleoticum provides inhibition of all of fungal isolates tested. O. heracleoticum L. essential oil exhibited higher antifungal activity against the isolates of P. chrysogenum than the isolates of P. aurantiogriseum. O. heracleoticum essential oil showed a MIC value ranging from 25 to 100 μL/mL. The fungi cultivated in the medium with higher concentration of essential oil showed certain morphological changes. The alterations included lack of sporulation and loss of pigmentation.

  13. 乳酸菌细菌素作为天然生物防腐剂在食品工业中的应用进展%Advances on Application of Bacteriocins Produced by Lactic Acid Bacteria as Natural Bio-preservative in Food Industry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘国荣; 李平兰; 王成涛

    2012-01-01

    Bacteriocins were antibacterial activity protein or peptide produced by lactic acid bacteria,and they were identified with great potential as natural food bio-preservative because of their strongly antibacterial activity against food borne pathogens and spoilage organism.In this review,the development of the application of bacteriocin as preservative in food industry was reviewed.The existing problems and future research consideration were pointed out.%乳酸菌细菌素是乳酸菌在代谢过程中合成的天然抑菌多肽或蛋白质,由于其对食品腐败菌和致病菌的强烈抑菌活性,已成为天然食品生物防腐剂研究与开发的热点.对乳酸菌细菌素在食品工业中的应用研究作了全面系统的综述,并指出了目前存在的主要问题和今后的研究方向.

  14. ANTIFUNGAL ACTIVITY OF SOME COLEUS SPECIES GROWING IN NILGIRIS

    OpenAIRE

    Nilani, P.; Duraisamy, B.; Dhanabal, P.S.; khan, Saleemullah; Suresh, B.; Shankar, V.; Kavitha, K.Y.; Syamala, G.

    2006-01-01

    The in vitro antifungal activity of solvent extracts of Coleus forskohlii, Coleus blumei and Coleus barbatus were compared by testing against some pathogenic fungi like Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus fumigatus, Aspergillus ruantii, Proteus vulgaris and Candida albicans. The petroleum ether extract of Coleus forskohlii and Coleus barbatus exhibited significant antifungal activity against all the selected organisms. The extracts of Coleus blumei did not show any significant antifungal activity ...

  15. Antifungal activity of some coleus species growing in nilgiris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nilani, P; Duraisamy, B; Dhanabal, P S; Khan, Saleemullah; Suresh, B; Shankar, V; Kavitha, K Y; Syamala, G

    2006-07-01

    The in vitro antifungal activity of solvent extracts of Coleus forskohlii, Coleus blumei and Coleus barbatus were compared by testing against some pathogenic fungi like Aspergillus niger, Aspergillusfumigatus, Aspergillus ruantii, Proteus vulgaris and Candida albicans. The petroleum ether extract of Coleus forskohlii and Coleus barbatus exhibited significant antifungal activity against all the selected organisms. The extracts of Coleus blumei did not show any significant antifungal activity against the selected organisms.

  16. Design, synthesis and antifungal activity of novel triazole derivatives

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qing lie Zhao; Yan Song; Hong Gang Hu; Shi Chong Yu; Qiu Ye Wu

    2007-01-01

    Twenty-three 1 -(1H-1,2,4-triazole-1-yl)-2-(2,4-difluorophenyl)-3-(N-cycloproyl-N-substituted-amino)-2-propanols were designed and synthesized on the basis of the active site of lanosterol 14α-demethylase.In vitro antifungal activities showed that some of the title compounds had higher antifungal activity and broader antifungal spectrum than fluconazole.

  17. Chronopolis Digital Preservation Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Minor

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available The Chronopolis Digital Preservation Initiative, one of the Library of Congress’ latest efforts to collect and preserve at-risk digital information, has completed its first year of service as a multi-member partnership to meet the archival needs of a wide range of domains.Chronopolis is a digital preservation data grid framework developed by the San Diego Supercomputer Center (SDSC at UC San Diego, the UC San Diego Libraries (UCSDL, and their partners at the National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR in Colorado and the University of Maryland's Institute for Advanced Computer Studies (UMIACS.Chronopolis addresses a critical problem by providing a comprehensive model for the cyberinfrastructure of collection management, in which preserved intellectual capital is easily accessible, and research results, education material, and new knowledge can be incorporated smoothly over the long term. Integrating digital library, data grid, and persistent archive technologies, Chronopolis has created trusted environments that span academic institutions and research projects, with the goal of long-term digital preservation.A key goal of the Chronopolis project is to provide cross-domain collection sharing for long-term preservation. Using existing high-speed educational and research networks and mass-scale storage infrastructure investments, the partnership is leveraging the data storage capabilities at SDSC, NCAR, and UMIACS to provide a preservation data grid that emphasizes heterogeneous and highly redundant data storage systems.In this paper we will explore the major themes within Chronopolis, including:a The philosophy and theory behind a nationally federated data grid for preservation. b The core tools and technologies used in Chronopolis. c The metadata schema that is being developed within Chronopolis for all of the data elements. d Lessons learned from the first year of the project.e Next steps in digital preservation using Chronopolis: how we

  18. Introduction to Innovative Food Processing and Technology

    OpenAIRE

    Tokusoglu, Ozlem

    2015-01-01

    Consumers, the food industry and the regulatory agencies demand the innovative technologies to provide safe and stable foods. Nonthermal processing technologies offer unprecedented opportunities and challenges for the food industry to market safe, high quality health-promoting foods. Those innovative food processing is often perceived as an alternative to thermal food processing, yet there are many nonthermal preparatory unit operations as well as food processing and preservation opportunitie...

  19. Interaction of gelatin with polyenes modulates antifungal activity and biocompatibility of electrospun fiber mats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lakshminarayanan R

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Rajamani Lakshminarayanan,1,2 Radhakrishnan Sridhar,3,4 Xian Jun Loh,5 Muruganantham Nandhakumar,1 Veluchamy Amutha Barathi,1,6 Madhaiyan Kalaipriya,3,4 Jia Lin Kwan,1 Shou Ping Liu,1,2 Roger Wilmer Beuerman,1,2 Seeram Ramakrishna3,4,7 1Singapore Eye Research Institute, 2Signature Research Program in Neuroscience and Behavioral Disorders, Duke-NUS Graduate Medical School, 3Department of Mechanical Engineering, National University of Singapore, 4Center for Nanofibers and Nanotechnology, National University of Singapore, 5Institute of Materials Research and Engineering, A*STAR (Agency for Science, Technology and Research, 3 Research Link, Singapore, 6Department of Ophthalmology, Yong Loo Lin School of Medicine, National University of Singapore, 7NUS Nanoscience and Nanotechnology Initiative, Singapore Abstract: Topical application of antifungals does not have predictable or well-controlled release characteristics and requires reapplication to achieve therapeutic local concentration in a reasonable time period. In this article, the efficacy of five different US Food and Drug Administration-approved antifungal-loaded (amphotericin B, natamycin, terbinafine, fluconazole, and itraconazole electrospun gelatin fiber mats were compared. Morphological studies show that incorporation of polyenes resulted in a two-fold increase in fiber diameter and the mats inhibit the growth of yeasts and filamentous fungal pathogens. Terbinafine-loaded mats were effective against three filamentous fungal species. Among the two azole antifungals compared, the itraconazole-loaded mat was potent against Aspergillus strains. However, activity loss was observed for fluconazole-loaded mats against all of the test organisms. The polyene-loaded mats displayed rapid candidacidal activities as well. Biophysical and rheological measurements indicate strong interactions between polyene antifungals and gelatin matrix. As a result, the polyenes stabilized the triple helical

  20. The Aspergillus niger growth on the treated concrete substrate using variable antifungals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parjo, U. K.; Sunar, N. M.; Leman, A. M.; Gani, P.; Embong, Z.; Tajudin, S. A. A.

    2016-11-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the Aspergillus niger (A. niger) growth on substrates after incorporates with different compounds of antifungals which is normally used in food industry. The antifungals named as potassium sorbate (PS), calcium benzoate (CB) and zinc salicylate (ZS) were applied on concrete substrate covered with different wall finishing such as acrylic paint (AP), glycerol based paint (GBP), thin wallpaper (THIN) and thick wallpaper (THICK). The concrete substrate were inoculated with spore suspension, incubated at selected temperature (30oC) and relative humidity (90%)in plant growth chamber. The observations were done from the Day 3 until Day 27. The results showed that the growth of the A. niger for concrete treated by PS for AP, GBP, THIN, and THICK were 64%, 32%, 11% and 100%, respectively. Meanwhile for CB, the growth of A. niger on AP, GBP, THIN, and THICK were 100%, 12%, 41%, and 13%, respectively. Similarly, treated concrete by ZS revealed that the growth of A. niger on the same substrate cover were 33%, 47%, 40%, and 39%, respectively. The results obtained in this study provide a valuable knowledge on the abilities of antifungals to remediate A. niger that inoculated on the concrete substrate. Consequently, this study proved that the PS covering with THIN more efficiency compares CB and ZS to prevent A. niger growth.

  1. Chemical Composition, Antifungal and Antibiofilm Activities of the Essential Oil of Mentha piperita L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saharkhiz, Mohammad Jamal; Motamedi, Marjan; Zomorodian, Kamiar; Pakshir, Keyvan; Miri, Ramin; Hemyari, Kimia

    2012-01-01

    Variations in quantity and quality of essential oil (EO) from the aerial parts of cultivated Mentha piperita were determined. The EO of air-dried sample was obtained by a hydrodistillation method and analyzed by a gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS). The antifungal activity of the EO was investigated by broth microdilution methods as recommended by Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute. A biofilm formation inhibition was measured by using an XTT reduction assay. Menthol (53.28%) was the major compound of the EO followed by Menthyl acetate (15.1%) and Menthofuran (11.18%). The EO exhibited strong antifungal activities against the examined fungi at concentrations ranging from 0.12 to 8.0 μL/mL. In addition, the EO inhibited the biofilm formation of Candida albicans and C. dubliniensis at concentrations up to 2 μL/mL. Considering the wide range of the antifungal activities of the examined EO, it might be potentially used in the management of fungal infections or in the extension of the shelf life of food products.

  2. Antifungal activity of zinc oxide nanoparticles against Botrytis cinerea and Penicillium expansum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Lili; Liu, Yang; Mustapha, Azlin; Lin, Mengshi

    2011-03-20

    Antifungal activities of zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO NPs) and their mode of action against two postharvest pathogenic fungi (Botrytis cinerea and Penicillium expansum) were investigated in this study. ZnO NPs with sizes of 70 ± 15 nm and concentrations of 0, 3, 6 and 12 mmol l(-1) were used. Traditional microbiological plating, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and Raman spectroscopy were used to study antifungal activities of ZnO NPs and to characterize the changes in morphology and cellular compositions of fungal hyphae treated with ZnO NPs. Results show that ZnO NPs at concentrations greater than 3 mmol l(-1) can significantly inhibit the growth of B. cinerea and P. expansum. P. expansum was more sensitive to the treatment with ZnO NPs than B. cinerea. SEM images and Raman spectra indicate two different antifungal activities of ZnO NPs against B. cinerea and P. expansum. ZnO NPs inhibited the growth of B. cinerea by affecting cellular functions, which caused deformation in fungal hyphae. In comparison, ZnO NPs prevented the development of conidiophores and conidia of P. expansum, which eventually led to the death of fungal hyphae. These results suggest that ZnO NPs could be used as an effective fungicide in agricultural and food safety applications.

  3. Clinicomycological Profile and Antifungal Sensitivity Pattern of Commonly Used Azoles in Dermatophytosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahesh Mathur

    2015-06-01

    Conclusions: This study highlighted the increasing resistance of the antifungals, which is responsible for the treatment failure in dermatophye infections. Keywords: antifungal resistance; dermatophyte; epidemiology.

  4. VT Historic Preservation Grant

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — The State-funded Historic Preservation Grant Program helps municipalities and non-profit organizations rehabilitate the historic buildings that are a vital part of...

  5. Digital preservation for heritages

    CERN Document Server

    Lu, Dongming

    2011-01-01

    ""Digital Preservation for Heritages: Technologies and Applications"" provides a comprehensive and up-to-date coverage of digital technologies in the area of cultural heritage preservation, including digitalization, research aiding, conservation aiding, digital exhibition, and digital utilization. Processes, technical frameworks, key technologies, as well as typical systems and applications are discussed in the book. It is intended for researchers and students in the fields of computer science and technology, museology, and archaeology. Dr. Dongming Lu is a professor at College of Computer Sci

  6. Optimization of Antifungal Extracts from Ficus hirta Fruits Using Response Surface Methodology and Antifungal Activity Tests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chuying Chen

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The fruits of Ficus hirta (FH display strong antifungal activity against Penicillium italicum and Penicillium digitatum. In order to optimize the extraction conditions of antifungal extracts from FH fruit, various extraction parameters, such as ethanol concentration, extraction time, solvent to solid ratio and temperature, were chosen to identify their effects on the diameters of inhibition zones (DIZs against these two Penicillium molds. Response surface methodology (RSM was applied to obtain the optimal combination of these parameters. Results showed that the optimal extraction parameters for maximum antifungal activity were: 90% (v/v ethanol concentration, 65 min extraction time, 31 mL/g solvent to solid ratio and 51 °C temperature. Under the abovementioned extraction conditions, the experimental DIZs values obtained experimentally were 57.17 ± 0.75 and 39.33 ± 0.82 mm, which were very close to the values of 57.26 and 39.29 mm predicted by the model. Further, nine kinds of phytopathogens were tested in vitro to explore the antifungal activity of the FH extracts. It was found for the first time that the FH extracts showed significant inhibition on the growth of P. italicum, A. citri, P. vexans, P. cytosporella and P. digitatum.

  7. The possibilities of using essential oils as an active ingredients or preservatives in cosmetic products

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    An important trend in the development of the cosmetics industry is searching for new biologically active, natural compounds and preservative systems, which will find application in the natural cosmetics production. Natural cosmetics are of considerable interest nowadays and essential oils could be employed in theirs production. The huge potential of essential oils indicates the possibility of applying them in practice because of theirs antibacterial, antiseptic, antifungal, and antioxidant...

  8. Progress in antibacterial and antifungal chemotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fromtling, R A

    2000-08-01

    The European Society of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases sponsored the 10th European Congress on Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases in Stockholm, Sweden, May 28-31, 2000. At the ECMID, well-attended sessions were held which focused on the pathogenesis and therapy of viral, bacterial and fungal diseases. This report focuses on new information on resistance to antibacterial agents, including data from recent surveillance studies, and the in vitro and investigational clinical activity of new antibacterial (moxifloxacin, telithromycin) and antifungal (fluconazole, itraconazole, voriconazole, amphotericin B, liposomal formulations of amphotericin B, terbinafine and the candins) drugs.

  9. Nylon-3 polymers with selective antifungal activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Runhui; Chen, Xinyu; Hayouka, Zvi; Chakraborty, Saswata; Falk, Shaun P; Weisblum, Bernard; Masters, Kristyn S; Gellman, Samuel H

    2013-04-10

    Host-defense peptides inhibit bacterial growth but show little toxicity toward mammalian cells. A variety of synthetic polymers have been reported to mimic this antibacterial selectivity; however, achieving comparable selectivity for fungi is more difficult because these pathogens are eukaryotes. Here we report nylon-3 polymers based on a novel subunit that display potent antifungal activity (MIC = 3.1 μg/mL for Candida albicans ) and favorable selectivity (IC10 > 400 μg/mL for 3T3 fibroblast toxicity; HC10 > 400 μg/mL for hemolysis).

  10. Chemical modification of antifungal polyene macrolide antibiotics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solovieva, S. E.; Olsufyeva, E. N.; Preobrazhenskaya, M. N.

    2011-02-01

    The review summarizes advances in the methods for the synthesis of polyene antibiotics (amphotericin B, partricin A, etc.) and investigations of the structure-activity relationship made in the last 15 years. State-of-the-art approaches based on the combination of the chemical synthesis and genetic engineering are considered. Emphasis is given to the design of semisynthetic antifungal agents against chemotherapy-resistant pathogens having the highest therapeutic indices. Recent results of research on the mechanisms of action of polyenes are outlined.

  11. Chemical modification of antifungal polyene macrolide antibiotics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Solovieva, S E; Olsufyeva, E N; Preobrazhenskaya, M N [G.F.Gause Institute of New Antibiotics, Russian Academy of Medical Sciences (Russian Federation)

    2011-02-28

    The review summarizes advances in the methods for the synthesis of polyene antibiotics (amphotericin B, partricin A, etc.) and investigations of the structure-activity relationship made in the last 15 years. State-of-the-art approaches based on the combination of the chemical synthesis and genetic engineering are considered. Emphasis is given to the design of semisynthetic antifungal agents against chemotherapy-resistant pathogens having the highest therapeutic indices. Recent results of research on the mechanisms of action of polyenes are outlined.

  12. Synthesis of Novel Antifungal Triazole Compounds

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yong CHU; Ming Xia XU; Ding LU

    2004-01-01

    Based on our previous studies of 3D-QSAR, 38 novel objective compounds belonging to 4 series were designed and successfully synthesized directed by the idea of reconstructing the structure of non-pharmacophores while reserving essential ones in triazoles. In vitro pilot studies on their antifungal activities showed that most compounds have inhibitory effects on C.albicans and some inhibit S.cerevisiae also. The effects on C.albicans of 5 compounds are more potent than or equal to that of fluconazole or itraconazole.

  13. Historic Preservation Information CFM Website

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Veterans Affairs — The VA Historic Preservation Office keeps information about VA's programs to comply with Federal preservation requirements, and also interesting information about VA...

  14. Antifungal and antioxidant activities of the phytomedicine pipsissewa, Chimaphila umbellata.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Galván, I.; Mir-Rashed, N.; Jessulat, M.; Atanya, M.; Golshani, A.; Boekhout, T.; Durst, T.; Petit, P.; Amiguet, V.T.; Summerbell, R.C.; Cruz, I.; Arnason, J.T.; Smith, M.L.

    2008-01-01

    Bioassay-guided fractionation of Chimaphila umbellata (L.) W. Bart (Pyrolaceae) ethanol extracts led to the identification of 2,7-dimethyl-1,4-naphthoquinone (chimaphilin) as the principal antifungal component. The structure of chimaphilin was confirmed by 1H and 13C NMR spectroscopy. The antifungal

  15. Antifungal activity of traditional medicinal plants from Tamil Nadu, India

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Duraipandiyan V; Ignacimuthu S

    2011-01-01

    Objective:To assess the antifungal activity of hexane, ethyl acetate and methanol extracts of 45 medicinal plants and to determine the minimum inhibitory concentration for each extract against human pathogenic fungi. Methods:A total of 45 medicinal plants were collected from different places of Tamil Nadu and identified. Hexane, ethyl acetate and methanol extracts of 45 medicinal plants were assessed for antifungal susceptibility using broth microdilution method. Two known antifungal agents were used as positive controls. Results: Most of the extracts inhibited more than four fungal strains. From the evaluation we found that ethyl acetate extracts inhibited large number of fungal growth. Hexane extracts also nearly showed the same level of inhibition against fungal growth. Methanol extracts showed the minimum antifungal activity. Among the 45 plants tested, broad spectrum antifungal activity was detected in Albizzia procera (A. procera), Atalantia monophylla, Asclepias curassavica, Azima tetracantha, Cassia fistula (C. fistula), Cinnomomum verum, Costus speciosus (C. speciosus), Nymphaea stellata, Osbeckia chinensis, Piper argyrophyllum, Punica granatum, Tinospora cordifolia and Toddalia asiatica (T. asiatica). Promising antifungal activity was seen in A. procera, C. speciosus, C. fistula and T. asiatica. Conclusions:It can be concluded that the plant species assayed possess antifungal properties. Further phytochemical research is needed to identify the active principles responsible for the antifungal effects of some of these medicinal plants.

  16. Antifungal cyclic peptides from the marine sponge Microscleroderma herdmani

    Science.gov (United States)

    Screening natural product extracts from National Cancer Institute Open Repository for antifungal discovery afforded hits for bioassay-guided fractionation. Upon LC-MS analysis of column fractions with antifungal activities to generate information on chemical structure, two new cyclic hexapeptides, m...

  17. Nosocomial Candidiasis: Antifungal Stewardship and the Importance of Rapid Diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfaller, Michael A; Castanheira, Mariana

    2016-01-01

    Candidemia and other forms of candidiasis are associated with considerable excess mortality and costs. Despite the addition of several new antifungal agents with improved spectrum and potency, the frequency of Candida infection and associated mortality have not decreased in the past two decades. The lack of rapid and sensitive diagnostic tests has led to considerable overuse of antifungal agents resulting in increased costs, selection pressure for resistance, unnecessary drug toxicity, and adverse drug interactions. Both the lack of timely diagnostic tests and emergence of antifungal resistance pose considerable problems for antifungal stewardship. Whereas antifungal stewardship with a focus on nosocomial candidiasis should be able to improve the administration of antifungal therapy in terms of drug selection, proper dose and duration, source control and de-escalation therapy, an important parameter, timeliness of antifungal therapy, remains a victim of slow and insensitive diagnostic tests. Fortunately, new proteomic and molecular diagnostic tools are improving the time to species identification and detection. In this review we will describe the potential impact that rapid diagnostic testing and antifungal stewardship can have on the management of nosocomial candidiasis.

  18. Advances in synthetic approach to and antifungal activity of triazoles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pramod Kumar Sharma

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Several five membered ring systems, e.g., triazole, oxadiazole dithiazole and thiadiazole with three heteroatoms at symmetrical or asymmetrical positions have been studied because of their interesting pharmacological properties. In this article our emphasis is on synthetic development and pharmacological activity of the triazole moiety which exhibit a broad spectrum of pharmacological activity such as antifungal, antibacterial, anti-inflammatory and anticancer etc. Triazoles have increased our ability to treat many fungal infections, for example, candidiasis, cryptococcal meningitis, aspergillosis etc. However, mortality due to these infections even with antifungal therapy is still unacceptably high. Therefore, the development of new antifungal agents targeting specific fungal structures or functions is being actively pursued. Rapid developments in molecular mycology have led to a concentrated search for more target antifungals. Although we are entering a new era of antifungal therapy in which we will continue to be challenged by systemic fungal diseases, the options for treatment will have greatly expanded.

  19. Secretive Expression of Insect Antifungal Peptide-Encoded Genes in Pichia pastoris and Activity Assay of the Products

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SANG Yan-xia; DENG Xiao-juan; YANG Wan-ying; WANG Wen-xian; WEN Shuo-yang; LIU Wen-quan; HUANG Ya-dong; CAO Yang

    2007-01-01

    The antifungal peptides, drosomycin (Drs) and its isoform drosomycin-like C (Drs-lC) from Drosophila melanogaster and Thanatin from Podisus maculiventris, have potent activity with broad spectrum against filamentous fungi. Secretive expression of these genes in yeasts makes it possible to utilize the supernatants of yeast culture as protective reagents on fruit, vegetable, food and other agricultural products. So the study of effective secretion by yeast expression system is of great importance. Three genes, Drs, Drs-lC, and Thanatin, were cloned into pPICZαA and the recombinant vectors,pPICZαA-Drs, pPICZαA-Drs-IC, and pPICZαA-Thanatin were transformed into Pichia pastoris by the electric transfer method. The recombinant P. pastoris, which was screened by phenotype selection and PCR amplification, wasinduced to express antifungal peptide by methanol. The expressive products of the three recombinants showed antifungal activity against 5 out of 6 test fungi strains, and the products of Thanatin also had strong activity against the tested bacteria. The three antifungal peptide genes, Drs, Drs-lC, and Thanatin, were constructed into yeast P. pastoris. The expressed peptides were successfully secreted into the culture medium and exhibited potent activities against the test strains.

  20. Training for Preservation Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirjam M. Foot

    1999-05-01

    Full Text Available In August 1997 the first of a series of summer schools in Preservation Management was held at the Archivschule in Marburg (Germany. The school was organised by the ECPA, the LIBER Division on Preservation, ICA and the Archivschule itself and was aimed at archivists and librarians in management positions from European institutions. It dealt with managerial, organisational and financial aspects of preservation and required active participation by those attending. Apart from introductory sessions by the teaching staff at the Archivschule, a large part of the course took the form of working groups, discussions, assignments and role play, to which participants were expected to take their own experience and problems. The school was conducted in German. Topics, spread over five days, ranged from preservation in the context of the core activities of libraries and archives; planning of preservation projects; general management issues, such as resource management, budgeting, priority setting, communication and effecting change; to more detailed considerations of day-to-day issues, such as storage, disaster control, microfilming and digitising, mass conservation processes, and moulds and fungi.

  1. 21 CFR 150.161 - Artificially sweetened fruit preserves and jams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Artificially sweetened fruit preserves and jams... Artificially sweetened fruit preserves and jams. (a) The artificially sweetened fruit preserves or artificially sweetened fruit jams for which definitions and standards of identity are prescribed by this section are...

  2. Novel approaches in food microbiology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Montijn, R.; Schuren, F.; Spek, H.D. van; Keijser, B.; Brul, S.

    2004-01-01

    The development of genomics technologies for guiding the predictive modeling of microorganism behavior to make food preservation treatments effective, are discussed. A fully genomewide description of cellular response to environmental conditions lies in the combination of a transcriptome and proteom

  3. 全二维气相色谱/飞行时间质谱快速定性筛查食品中32种防腐剂和抗氧化剂%Fast Qualitative Analysis of 32 Preservatives and Antioxidants in Food Sample by Comprehensive Two Dimensional Gas Chromatography Coupled Time of Flight Mass Spectrometry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈琦; 黄峻榕; 凌云; 张峰; 李玉玉; 吴永宁; 储晓刚

    2011-01-01

    Comprehensive two dimensional gas chromatography(GC× GC-TOFMS) has been applied to fast qualitative analysis of 32 preservatives, antioxidants in food. GC × GC-TOFMS parameters were evaluated and optimized to yield complete separation for 32 analytes from interference, and to attain the high sensitivity. After optimization, al1 analytes were separated in 20.5 min and qualitativly analyzed by retention time of GC× GC and mass spectrum library. The method was used to analyze food sample, and the detection limit of most analytes was lower than 0. 5 mg/kg, meanwhile, the addition level of food addictives in the field of food industry was usually higher than 100 mg/kg. The method could be used for the rapid qualitative analysis of food preservatives, antioxidants and illegal addictives in food.%建立了全二维气相色谱/行时间质谱法(GC×GC-TOFMS)快速定性筛查食品样品中19种防腐剂和抗氧化剂,13种超范围使用的非法添加物的方法.以40 mL乙腈为溶剂,对20 g均质样品进行液体萃取,萃取液经过离心过滤后.使用无水MgSO4脱水(含油样品使用40 mL正己烷去除油脂);萃取液再用乙腈稀释5倍进样.本方法采用GC×GC二维特征谱图、TOFMS谱图库检索的定性手段,能在20.5 min内快速分离和定性分析食品中19种防腐剂和抗氧化剂.使用GC×GC-TOFMS技术对含量大于0.3 mg/kg的样品有较好的灵敏度,而在食品添加剂领域,添加量一般都大于100 mg/kg.因此,本方法可以作为一种快速定性筛查的手段.

  4. DYSREGULATION OF ION HOMEOSTASIS BY ANTIFUNGAL AGENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongqiang eZhang

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Ion signaling and transduction networks are central to fungal development and virulence because they regulate gene expression, filamentation, host association and invasion, pathogen stress response and survival. Dysregulation of ion homeostasis rapidly mediates cell death, forming the mechanistic basis by which a growing number of amphipathic but structurally unrelated compounds elicit antifungal activity. Included in this group is carvacrol, a terpenoid phenol that is a prominent component of oregano and other plant essential oils. Carvacrol triggers an early dose dependent Ca2+ burst and long lasting pH changes in the model yeast S. cerevisiae. The distinct phases of ionic transients and a robust transcriptional response that overlaps with Ca2+ stress and nutrient starvation point to specific signaling events elicited by plant terpenoid phenols, rather than a non-specific lesion of the membrane as was previously considered. We discuss the potential use of plant essential oils and other agents that disrupt ion signaling pathways as chemosensitizers to augment conventional antifungal therapy, and to convert fungistatic drugs with strong safety profiles into fungicides.

  5. Selective sweeps in Cryptocercus woodroach antifungal proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velenovsky, Joseph F; Kalisch, Jessica; Bulmer, Mark S

    2016-10-01

    We identified the antifungal gene termicin in three species of Cryptocercus woodroaches. Cryptocercus represents the closest living cockroach lineage of termites, which suggests that the antifungal role of termicin evolved prior to the divergence of termites from other cockroaches. An analysis of Cryptocercus termicin and two β-1,3-glucanase genes (GNBP1 and GNBP2), which appear to work synergistically with termicin in termites, revealed evidence of selection in these proteins. We identified the signature of past selective sweeps within GNBP2 from Cryptocercus punctulatus and Cryptocercus wrighti. The signature of past selective sweeps was also found within termicin from Cryptocercus punctulatus and Cryptocercus darwini. Our analysis further suggests a phenotypically identical variant of GNBP2 was maintained within Cryptocercus punctulatus, Cryptocercus wrighti, and Cryptocercus darwini while synonymous sites diverged. Cryptocercus termicin and GNBP2 appear to have experienced similar selective pressure to that of their termite orthologues in Reticulitermes. This selective pressure may be a result of ubiquitous entomopathogenic fungal pathogens such as Metarhizium. This study further reveals the similarities between Cryptocercus woodroaches and termites.

  6. Mass Preserving Image Registration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gorbunova, V.; Sporring, J.; Lo, P.;

    2010-01-01

    The paper presents results the mass preserving image registration method in the Evaluation of Methods for Pulmonary Image Registration 2010 (EMPIRE10) Challenge. The mass preserving image registration algorithm was applied to the 20 image pairs. Registration was evaluated using four different...... scores: lung boundary alignment, major fissure lignment, landmark alignment and transform singularity scores. The registration algorithm achieved an average landmark alignment score of 2.20 } 2.05 mm and the median of 1.29 mm. In 19 out of 20 image pairs, the method produced invertible deformations....... Overall, the masspreserving image registration method was ranked 20th out of 34 participants...

  7. Advanced Digital Preservation

    CERN Document Server

    Giaretta, David

    2011-01-01

    There is growing recognition of the need to address the fragility of digital information, on which our society heavily depends for smooth operation in all aspects of daily life. This has been discussed in many books and articles on digital preservation, so why is there a need for yet one more? Because, for the most part, those other publications focus on documents, images and webpages -- objects that are normally rendered to be simply displayed by software to a human viewer. Yet there are clearly many more types of digital objects that may need to be preserved, such as databases, scientific da

  8. Cancer and fertility preservation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lambertini, Matteo; Del Mastro, Lucia; Pescio, Maria C

    2016-01-01

    in Genova (Italy) to participate in a workshop on the topic of "cancer and fertility preservation". A total of ten controversial issues were discussed at the conference. Experts were asked to present an up-to-date review of the literature published on these topics and the presentation of own unpublished...... data was encouraged. On the basis of the data presented, as well as the expertise of the invited speakers, a total of ten recommendations were discussed and prepared with the aim to help physicians in counseling their young patients interested in fertility preservation.Although there is a great...

  9. Moving Image Preservation in Libraries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Stefano, Paula

    2003-01-01

    Examines the current practices of film and video preservation in libraries and examines barriers that have hindered the development of full-fledged preservation programs for them. Topics include advances in education and training; preservation paradigms; and mechanics of film production that affect preservation. (Author/LRW)

  10. Food nanotechnology - an overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sekhon, Bhupinder S

    2010-05-04

    Food nanotechnology is an area of emerging interest and opens up a whole universe of new possibilities for the food industry. The basic categories of nanotechnology applications and functionalities currently in the development of food packaging include: the improvement of plastic materials barriers, the incorporation of active components that can deliver functional attributes beyond those of conventional active packaging, and the sensing and signaling of relevant information. Nano food packaging materials may extend food life, improve food safety, alert consumers that food is contaminated or spoiled, repair tears in packaging, and even release preservatives to extend the life of the food in the package. Nanotechnology applications in the food industry can be utilized to detect bacteria in packaging, or produce stronger flavors and color quality, and safety by increasing the barrier properties. Nanotechnology holds great promise to provide benefits not just within food products but also around food products. In fact, nanotechnology introduces new chances for innovation in the food industry at immense speed, but uncertainty and health concerns are also emerging. EU/WE/global legislation for the regulation of nanotechnology in food are meager. Moreover, current legislation appears unsuitable to nanotechnology specificity.

  11. Extraction of antibacterial substances from fructus schisandrae chinensis and their application in food preservation of wheat flour products%五味子抑菌成分的提取及在面制食品保鲜中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张媛媛; 李艳利; 李书国

    2014-01-01

    研究了五味子中抗菌抑菌成分的提取、抑菌效果及在食品保鲜中的应用。以乙醇为提取溶剂,利用正交试验优化了抑菌成分最佳提取条件:乙醇体积分数85%、提取温度85℃、料液比1∶16、提取时间3 h;利用高效液相色谱法测得五味子中主要的抑菌成分五味子甲素质量分数为0.93%;通过牛津杯法评价了抑菌效果,五味子乙醇提取物对毛霉、金黄色葡萄球菌的平均抑菌圈直径分别为28 mm和26 mm,其抑菌效果优于常用化学防腐剂脱氢乙酸钠、丙酸钙。对五味子乙醇提取物对面制食品的贮存保鲜效果进行了研究,添加五味子乙醇提取物的面制食品经保温试验后,其菌落总数、理化性质、食源性微生物等指标均优于对照样,对面制食品的贮存保鲜有较好的效果,具有开发成为安全高效的天然食品防腐剂的潜力。%Theresearchwascarriedouttostudytheextractedantibacterial componentsfromFructusSchisandraeChinensis (FSC).Effects of these extracted substances and their applications in food preservations were also included.Choosing ethanol as extraction solvent,the optimum extraction conditions were determined by the orthogonal test.Specific data was listed as fol-lows:85%ethanol concentration,temperature 85℃,and solid-liquid ratio 1∶16,time of 3h.In addition,contents of deoxyschi-zandrin was identified as 0.93%by HPLC method.Bacteriostatic effect was tested in the method of Oxford cup.Bacteriostatic circle diameters of the extract of FSC were found as 28 mm,26 mm to mucor and staphylococcus aureus respectively.Compared with the common chemical preservatives (such as sodium dehydroacetate and calcium propionate),a better result in terms of bacterostaticactionswasgotbyusingtheextractedcomponentsofFSC.Ethanol extractsofFSCwerefurthertestedtolearn their influences on the food preservation of wheat flour products.With the extracts added,better results have

  12. Food glowing with freshness

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Desautels, L.

    1984-12-01

    Irradiation is gaining ground as a food preservation technique in Canada. Some fears remain among members of the public about the safety of irradiated foods, but government standards are being met. Two radiation sources can be used in food irradiation: gamma radiation from a cobalt 60 source, or electrons from an accelerator. The radiation affects the DNA of cells within food such as potatoes, preventing sprouting. It also causes changes within lipids, producing an undesirable rancid flavour. As a result, radiation processing is used primarily on fruits, vegetables, cereals and lean meats. The dose required for preservation is around 0.3 kGy, but higher doses are required for sterilization: 1 to 10 kGy, or even as high as 50 kGy for complete sterilization.

  13. Biopreservative in Foods: Nisin (E234)

    OpenAIRE

    Başar Uymaz; Pınar Şanlıbaba

    2015-01-01

    Fermentation is the oldest traditional method in order to protect against spoilage and pathogenic microorganisms. Thermal treatment, pH and water activity lowering and preservative addition other food preservation techniques that are commonly used. Although, as preservatives, many improved antibiotic and chemical agents have been gained, there are some other factors such as rapid resistance to antibiotics used in bacteria, in order to limit their use in food, to be found dimensions of threate...

  14. Preservation in New Buildings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher Kitching

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available In the United Kingdom (as in many other countries increasing attention is being paid to the importance of each library and archive having a written preservation strategy endorsed by its governing body. So increasingly we are asking: where does „preservation“ begin and what are its top priorities? Some would say preservation begins with the definition of collecting policies to ensure that only relevant items are acquired in the first place, and therefore that no unnecessary costs are incurred on the long-term care of unwanted and unconsulted items. Others might argue that the first priority must be the careful appraisal of existing holdings to determine their preservation and conservation requirements and to prioritise their treatment. Or should preservation begin with damage-limitation: restricting the physical handling of books and documents, on the one hand by providing whenever possible surrogate copies in digital formats or microform, and on the other hand by offering at least basic protection through appropriate boxing and packaging? This, surely, goes hand-in-hand with the education of staff and readers about the importance of treating rare or unique materials with proper respect.

  15. Preserving Southwest Virginia's Folklore.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burgin, Ramond

    1997-01-01

    Describes Southwest Virginia's rich tradition of folklore and culture and the need for its preservation. Summarizes the author's time-consuming process of preparing an inventory and indexing the vast archival collections gathered by students in American Folklore classes at Mountain Empire Community College and by the Southwest Virginia Folklore…

  16. Paints and Preservatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, Larry E.; Miller, Larry E.

    The publication contains an outline for use by agriculture teachers in developing a teaching plan for a unit on paints and preservatives. The topics included are (1) recognizing, solving, and preventing paint problems and (2) operating and using power spray painting equipment. Items presented for each topic are: the situation, (intended to inform…

  17. Comparative Analysis of the Composition and Active Property Evaluation of Certain Essential Oils to Assess their Potential Applications in Active Food Packaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cornelia Vasile

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The antifungal, antibacterial, and antioxidant activity of four commercial essential oils (EOs (thyme, clove, rosemary, and tea tree from Romanian production were studied in order to assess them as bioactive compounds for active food packaging applications. The chemical composition of the oils was determined with the Folin–Ciocâlteu method and gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry and flame ionization detectors, and it was found that they respect the AFNOR/ISO standard limits. The EOs were tested against three food spoilage fungi—Fusarium graminearum, Penicillium corylophilum, and Aspergillus brasiliensis—and three potential pathogenic food bacteria—Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, and Listeria monocytogenes—using the disc diffusion method. It was found that the EOs of thyme, clove, and tea tree can be used as antimicrobial agents against the tested fungi and bacteria, thyme having the highest inhibitory effect. Concerning antioxidant activity determined by 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH and 2,2’-azino-bis 3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulfonic acid (ABTS methods, it has been established that the clove oil exhibits the highest activity because of its high phenolic content. Promising results were obtained by their incorporation into chitosan emulsions and films, which show potential for food packaging. Therefore, these essential oils could be suitable alternatives to chemical additives, satisfying the consumer demand for naturally preserved food products ensuring its safety.

  18. Synergized antimicrobial activity of eugenol incorporated polyhydroxybutyrate films against food spoilage microorganisms in conjunction with pediocin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narayanan, Aarthi; Neera; Mallesha; Ramana, Karna Venkata

    2013-07-01

    Biopolymers and biopreservatives produced by microorganisms play an essential role in food technology. Polyhydroxyalkanoates and bacteriocins produced by bacteria are promising components to safeguard the environment and for food preservation applications. Polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB)-based antimicrobial films were prepared incorporating eugenol, from 10 to 200 μg/g of PHB. The films were evaluated for antimicrobial activity against foodborne pathogens, spoilage bacteria, and fungi such as Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Salmonella typhimurium, Bacillus cereus, Aspergillus flavus, Aspergillus niger, Penicillium sp., and Rhizopus sp. The synergistic antimicrobial activity of the films in the presence of crude pediocin was also investigated. The broth system containing pediocin (soluble form) as well as antimicrobial PHB film demonstrated an extended lag phase and a significant growth reduction at the end of 24 h against the bacteria. Crude pediocin alone could not elicit antifungal activity, while inhibition of growth and sporulation were observed in the presence of antimicrobial PHB film containing eugenol (80 μg/g) until 7 days in the case of molds, i.e., A. niger, A. flavus, Penicillium sp., and Rhizopus sp. in potato dextrose broth. In the present study, we identified that use of pediocin containing broth in conjunction with eugenol incorporated PHB film could function in synergized form, providing effective hurdle toward food contaminating microorganisms. Furthermore, tensile strength, percent crystallinity, melting point, percent elongation to break, glass transition temperature, and seal strength of the PHB film with and without eugenol incorporation were investigated. The migration of eugenol on exposure to different liquid food simulants was also analyzed using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. The study is expected to provide applications for pediocin in conjunction with eugenol containing PHB film to enhance the shelf life of foods in the

  19. Functional properties and antifungal activity of films based on gliadins containing cinnamaldehyde and natamycin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balaguer, Mari Pau; Fajardo, Paula; Gartner, Hunter; Gomez-Estaca, Joaquin; Gavara, Rafael; Almenar, Eva; Hernandez-Munoz, Pilar

    2014-03-03

    Gliadin films cross-linked with cinnamaldehyde (1.5, 3, and 5%) and incorporated with natamycin (0.5%) were prepared by casting, and their antifungal activity, water resistance, and barrier properties were characterized. Incorporation of natamycin gave rise to films with greater water uptake, weight loss and diameter gain, and higher water vapor and oxygen permeabilities. These results may be associated to a looser packing of the protein chains as a consequence of the presence of natamycin. The different cross-linking degree of the matrices influenced the natamycin migration to the agar test media, increasing from 13.3 to 23.7 (μg/g of film) as the percentage of cinnamaldehyde was reduced from 5% to 1.5%. Antifungal activity of films was assayed against common food spoilage fungi (Penicillium species, Alternaria solani, Colletotrichum acutatum). The greatest effectiveness was obtained for films containing natamycin and treated with 5% of cinnamaldehyde. The level of cinnamaldehyde reached in the head-space of the test assay showed a diminishing trend as a function of time, which was in agreement with fungal growth and cinnamaldehyde metabolization. Developed active films were used in the packaging of cheese slices showing promising results for their application in active packaging against food spoilage.

  20. Screening of Iranian plants for antifungal activity: Part 2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    "Amin Gh.R

    2002-08-01

    Full Text Available In this study, 278 species from 37 families of native Iranian plants were screened for in vitro antifungal activity against 19 fungal strains. Initially, the crude extracts in concentration of 100 μg/ml were tested. Among 278 plant extracts, 201(71.27% of them showed antifungal activity against at least one fungal strain. A wide range of total extracts of different species were shown to have potentially noticeable antifungal effects. The outstanding species were: Mentha longifolia, Saliva multicaulis, Thymus transcaspicus, Zataria multiflora, Glycyrrhiza glabra, Hulthemia persica, Heracleum persicum, Pimpinella anisum, Pragnos ferulacea, Pragnos uloptera, and Viola odorata.

  1. Antifungal Treatment in Stem Cell Transplantation Centers in Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akan, Hamdi; Atilla, Erden

    2016-03-05

    Despite the development of various guidelines, the approach to antifungal treatment in stem cell transplantation centers differs according to country or even between centers. This led to the development of another survey that aims to understand the antifungal treatment policies of Turkish stem cell transplantation centers. Although there has been an increasing trend towards the use of diagnostic-based treatments in Turkey in the last few years, empirical treatment is still the main approach. The practices of the stem cell transplantation centers reflect the general trends and controversies in this area, while there is a considerable use of antifungal combination therapy.

  2. Caerulomycin A- An antifungal compound isolated from marine actinomycetes.

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Ambavane, V.; Tokdar, P.; Parab, R.; Sreekumar, E.S.; Mahajan, G.B.; Mishra, P.D.; DeSouza, L.; Ranadive, P.

    krusei GO3FlucR 0.78 - 1.56 0.313 - 0.625 64 NT: Not Tested. 4. Discussion The global antifungal market was estimated at $9.4 billion in 2010 and is expected to grow at a rate of 1.9% during 2010-2017. The major class of antifungal compound includes... Genetics Analysis Using Maximum Likelihood, Evolutionary Distance and Maximum Parsimony Methods. Molecular Biology and Evolution, 28, 2731-2739. http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/molbev/msr121 [24] Antifungals Market to 2017—Generic Erosion of Major Polyenes...

  3. Can agricultural fungicides accelerate the discovery of human antifungal drugs?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myung, Kyung; Klittich, Carla J R

    2015-01-01

    Twelve drugs from four chemical classes are currently available for treatment of systemic fungal infections in humans. By contrast, more than 100 structurally distinct compounds from over 30 chemical classes have been developed as agricultural fungicides, and these fungicides target many modes of action not represented among human antifungal drugs. In this article we introduce the diverse aspects of agricultural fungicides and compare them with human antifungal drugs. We propose that the information gained from the development of agricultural fungicides can be applied to the discovery of new mechanisms of action and new antifungal agents for the management of human fungal infections.

  4. Isobolographic Analysis of Pharmacodynamic Interactions between Antifungal Agents and Ciprofloxacin against Candida albicans and Aspergillus fumigatus▿

    OpenAIRE

    Stergiopoulou, Theodouli; Meletiadis, Joseph; Sein, Tin; Papaioannidou, Paraskevi; Tsiouris, Ioannis; Roilides, Emmanuel; Walsh, Thomas J.

    2008-01-01

    Patients suffering from invasive mycoses often receive concomitant antifungal therapy and antibacterial agents. Assessment of pharmacodynamic interactions between antifungal and antibacterial agents is complicated by the absence of a common antifungal end point for both agents. Ciprofloxacin has no intrinsic antifungal activity but may interact with antifungal agents, since it inhibits DNA gyrase (topoisomerase II), which is abundant in fungi. We therefore employed isobolographic analysis ada...

  5. EFFECT OF EXTRACTION METHODS ON ANTIFUNGAL ACTIVITY OF SEA CUCUMBER (Stichopus japonicus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amir Husni

    2014-05-01

    Both SM and CS exhibited their highest antifungal activity when extracted by HRE with 70% ethanol and by HRE with water, respectively, while their highest yields were obtained when extracted by PSE with water. SM has more antifungal than potassium sorbate but weaker than propyl paraben, while CS has more antifungal than the two antifungal agents. Keywords: Antifungal, heat reflux extraction, pressurized solvent extraction, Stichopus japonicus

  6. Anti-bacteria Characteristics of Glycerol Monolaurate and Complex Preservative against Food Spoilage Bacteria%月桂酸单甘油酯及其复配物对食品腐败菌的抑菌特性

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张希; 阙斐; 宗红; 宋飞; 张辉; 冯凤琴

    2016-01-01

    Five typical putrid bacteria including Listeria monocytogenes,Staphylococcus aureus,Streptococcus faecalls,Salmonella enteritidis,and Pseudomonas fluorescens have been selected and the minimum inhibitory concentrations for GML and other common used preservatives inclucding lactic acid,sodium dehydroacetate,sodium diacetate,potassium sorbate and nisin against the chosen bacteria at pH 7.2 and pH 5.7,respectively.GML were assessed,it exhibited effective inhibitory activities against gram-positive bacteria and the MICs were both below 25 μg/mL at pH 7.2,and pH 5.7.The other preservatives exhibited wider antibacterial spectrum in weak acidic than in neutral environment.The interactions of GML and commonly used antimicrobials against 5 strains at pH 7.2 and pH 5.7 have been assessed,and the results showed that GML-lactic acid combination was synergistic against all strains.These results will lay the foundations for development of safe and high effective preservative.%选取食品中主要的致腐致病菌鼠伤寒沙门氏菌、荧光假单胞菌、单核增生李斯特菌、金黄色葡萄球菌及粪肠球菌等,测定月桂酸单甘油酯(GML)和其它常见防腐剂在中性(pH 7.2)及弱酸性(pH 5.7)条件下对它们的抑制效果(以最低抑制浓度表示),结果表明GML在中性及弱酸性条件下能有效抑制革兰氏阳性菌(单核增生李斯特菌及金黄色葡萄球菌),最低抑制质量浓度低于25 μg/mL,其抑制活性在弱酸性条件下有所增强.以GML为主体,与其它保鲜剂复配,测定复配体系在两种pH条件下的抑菌增效作用,结果GML与乳酸的复配效果最佳.该研究结果为开发适用于中性或弱酸性食品的安全、高效复配防腐剂奠定了基础.

  7. Probiotics as Antifungals in Mucosal Candidiasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsubara, Victor H; Bandara, H M H N; Mayer, Marcia P A; Samaranayake, Lakshman P

    2016-05-01

    Candidais an opportunistic pathogen that causes mucosal and deep systemic candidiasis. The emergence of drug resistance and the side effects of currently available antifungals have restricted their use as long-term prophylactic agents for candidal infections. Given this scenario, probiotics have been suggested as a useful alternative for the management of candidiasis. We analyzed the available data on the efficacy of probiotics in candidal colonization of host surfaces. A number of well-controlled studies indicate that probiotics, particularly lactobacilli, suppressCandidagrowth and biofilm development in vitro.A few clinical trials have also shown the beneficial effects of probiotics in reducing oral, vaginal, and enteric colonization byCandida; alleviation of clinical signs and symptoms; and, in some cases, reducing the incidence of invasive fungal infection in critically ill patients. Probiotics may serve in the future as a worthy ally in the battle against chronic mucosal candidal infections.

  8. An antifungal peptide from baby lima bean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, H X; Ng, T B

    2006-12-01

    A 6-kDa antifungal peptide with inhibitory activity on mycelial growth in Fusarium oxysporum, Mycosphaerella arachidicola, and Physalospora piricola was isolated from baby lima beans. The peptide suppressed growth in M. arachidicola with an IC(50) of 0.87 muM and inhibited activity of HIV-1 reverse transcriptase with an IC(50) of 4 muM. The peptide exhibited an N-terminal amino acid sequence similar to those of leguminous defensins. The isolation procedure comprised ion exchange chromatography on diethylaminoethyl (DEAE)-cellulose, affinity chromatography on Affi-gel blue gel, ion exchange chromatography on carboxymethyl (CM)-cellulose, and gel filtration by fast protein liquid chromatography on Superdex 75. The peptide was unadsorbed on DEAE-cellulose and Affi-gel blue gel but was adsorbed on CM-cellulose.

  9. Pomegranin, an antifungal peptide from pomegranate peels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Guang; Wang, He Xiang; Ng, Tzi Bun

    2009-01-01

    A new antifungal peptide designated as pomegranin, with an N-terminal sequence resembling that of rice disease resistance NB-S-LRR-like protein, was isolated from fresh pomegranate peels by ion exchange chromatography on DEAE-cellulose, affinity chromatography on Affi-gel blue gel, and gel filtration by fast protein liquid chromatography on Superdex 75. Pomegranin was unadsorbed on DEAE-cellulose but adsorbed on Affi-gel blue gel. It exhibited a molecular mass of 11 kDa in both gel filtration and sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. It inhibited mycelial growth in the fungi Botrytis cinerea and Fusarium oxysporum with an IC(50) of 2 microM and 6.1 microM, respectively. It was devoid of hemagglutinating, ribonuclease, deoxyribonuclease and protease inhibitory activities.

  10. Antifungal susceptibilities of bloodstream isolates of Candida species from nine hospitals in Korea: application of new antifungal breakpoints and relationship to antifungal usage.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eun Jeong Won

    Full Text Available We applied the new clinical breakpoints (CBPs of the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI to a multicenter study to determine the antifungal susceptibility of bloodstream infection (BSI isolates of Candida species in Korea, and determined the relationship between the frequency of antifungal-resistant Candida BSI isolates and antifungal use at hospitals. Four hundred and fifty BSI isolates of Candida species were collected over a 1-year period in 2011 from nine hospitals. The susceptibilities of the isolates to four antifungal agents were determined using the CLSI M27 broth microdilution method. By applying the species-specific CBPs, non-susceptibility to fluconazole was found in 16.4% (70/428 of isolates, comprising 2.6% resistant and 13.8% susceptible-dose dependent isolates. However, non-susceptibility to voriconazole, caspofungin, or micafungin was found in 0% (0/370, 0% (0/437, or 0.5% (2/437 of the Candida BSI isolates, respectively. Of the 450 isolates, 72 (16.0% showed decreased susceptibility to fluconazole [minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC ≥4 μg/ml]. The total usage of systemic antifungals varied considerably among the hospitals, ranging from 190.0 to 7.7 defined daily dose per 1,000 patient days, and fluconazole was the most commonly prescribed agent (46.3%. By Spearman's correlation analysis, fluconazole usage did not show a significant correlation with the percentage of fluconazole resistant isolates at hospitals. However, fluconazole usage was significantly correlated with the percentage of fluconazole non-susceptible isolates (r = 0.733; P = 0.025 or the percentage of isolates with decreased susceptibility to fluconazole (MIC ≥4 μg/ml (r = 0.700; P = 0.036 at hospitals. Our work represents the first South Korean multicenter study demonstrating an association between antifungal use and antifungal resistance among BSI isolates of Candida at hospitals using the new CBPs of the CLSI.

  11. Educating for preserving biodiversity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Méndez, I. E.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The notion of “culture of diversity” is presented in a new dimension. “That of educating for preserving biodiversity” is advanced together with its main challenges. The need of educating the masses for preserving biodiversity is perhaps the most outstanding to be faced, particularly if pedagogic requirements and the diversity of population is to be met. Likewise, it should help to put individuals in contact with the many elements conforming biodiversity and lead them to recognize its value ethically and esthetically. The research presents the framework for designing educating programs enhancing the genetic level, the ecosystem and the qualitative dimension and including materials and energy flood and its meaning for the homeostasis and autopoiesis of the system, together with its interactions with other components for achieving an equilibrium and stability. The importance of the natural evolution tendency is highlighted.

  12. Patch test with preservatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kar Sumit

    1992-01-01

    Full Text Available Of the 705 patients patch tested between March 88 to March 91, 317 were tested for sensitivity to preservatives with antigens obtained from Chemo technique AB, Sweden. Paraben was the commonest sensitizer (22.4% followed by Groton B K (8.1% and Triclosan (6.5%. We stress the need to consider these allergens as source of dermatitis and advocate complete labelling of topical preparations marketed.

  13. Inhibition of Rat and Human Steroidogenesis by Triazole Antifungals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Environmental chemicals that alter steroid production could interfere with male reproductive development and function. Three agricultural antifungal triazoles (myclobutanil, propiconazole and triadimefon) that are known to modulate expression of cytochrome P450 (CYP) genes and e...

  14. Antifungal activity of fruit pulp extract from Bromelia pinguin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camacho-Hernández, I L; Chávez-Velázquez, J A; Uribe-Beltrán, M J; Ríos-Morgan, A; Delgado-Vargas, F

    2002-08-01

    The methanol extract of the fruit pulp of Bromelia pinguin was evaluated for its antifungal activity. The extract showed a significant activity against some Trichophyton strains, although Candida strains were generally insensitive.

  15. Antifungal activity of Bacillus sp. isolated from compost.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czaczyk, K; Stachowiak, B; Trojanowska, K; Gulewicz, K

    2000-01-01

    Four strains of Bacillus isolated from lupine compost exhibited an antifungal activity against six plant fungal pathogens (Rhizoctonia solani, Bipolaris sorokiniana, Sclerotinia sclerotiorum, Trichothecium roseum, Fusarium solani, Fusarium oxysporum). It was significantly influenced by the composition of the cultivation media.

  16. Cryptic antifungal compounds active by synergism with polyene antibiotics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinoshita, Hiroshi; Yoshioka, Mariko; Ihara, Fumio; Nihira, Takuya

    2016-04-01

    The majority of antifungal compounds reported so far target the cell wall or cell membrane of fungi, suggesting that other types of antibiotics cannot exert their activity because they cannot penetrate into the cells. Therefore, if the permeability of the cell membrane could be enhanced, many antibiotics might be found to have antifungal activity. We here used the polyene antibiotic nystatin, which binds to ergosterol and forms pores at the cell membrane, to enhance the cellular permeability. In the presence of nystatin, many culture extracts from entomopathogenic fungi displayed antifungal activity. Among all the active extracts, two active components were purified and identified as helvolic acid and terramide A. Because the minimum inhibitory concentration of either compound was reduced four-fold in the presence of nystatin, it can be concluded that this screening method is useful for detecting novel antifungal activity.

  17. Taxonomy and antifungal susceptibility of clinically important Rasamsonia species

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Houbraken, J.; Giraud, S.; Meijer, M.

    2013-01-01

    In recent years, Geosmithia argillacea has been increasingly reported in humans and animals and can be considered an emerging pathogen. The taxonomy of Geosmithia was recently studied, and Geosmithia argillacea and related species were transferred to the new genus Rasamsonia. The diversity among...... a set of Rasamsonia argillacea strains, including 28 clinical strains, was studied, and antifungal susceptibility profiles were generated. Data obtained from morphological studies and from phylogenetic analyses of internal transcribed spacer (ITS) and partial _-tubulin and calmodulin sequences revealed...... was the least active of the antifungals tested. The phenotypically similar species R. brevistipitata and R. cylindrospora had different antifungal susceptibility profiles, and this indicates that correct species identification is important to help guide appropriate antifungal therapy....

  18. Antifungal Effect of (+-Pinoresinol Isolated from Sambucus williamsii

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bomi Hwang

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we investigated the antifungal activity and mechanism of action of (+-pinoresinol, a biphenolic compound isolated from the herb Sambucus williamsii,used in traditional medicine. (+-Pinoresinol displays potent antifungal properties without hemolytic effects on human erythrocytes. To understand the antifungal mechanism of (+-pinoresinol, we conducted fluorescence experiments on the human pathogen Candida albicans. Fluorescence analysis using 1,6-diphenyl-1,3,5-hexatriene (DPH indicated that the (+-pinoresinol caused damage to the fungal plasma membrane. This result was confirmed by using rhodamine-labeled giant unilamellar vesicle (GUV experiments. Therefore, the present study indicates that (+-pinoresinol possesses fungicidal activities and therapeutic potential as an antifungal agent for the treatment of fungal infectious diseases in humans.

  19. Research to Identify Effective Antifungal Agents, 1993 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schreck, Carl

    1993-10-01

    This study is a continuation of ``Research to Identify Effective Antifungal Agents'' sponsored by Bonneville Power Administration (Schreck et al. 1990, 1991, and 1992). The objectives of the present study were to select and evaluate candidate fungicides.

  20. Antifungal effect of (+)-pinoresinol isolated from Sambucus williamsii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Bomi; Lee, Juneyoung; Liu, Qing-He; Woo, Eun-Rhan; Lee, Dong Gun

    2010-05-14

    In this study, we investigated the antifungal activity and mechanism of action of (+)-pinoresinol, a biphenolic compound isolated from the herb Sambucus williamsii,used in traditional medicine. (+)-Pinoresinol displays potent antifungal properties without hemolytic effects on human erythrocytes. To understand the antifungal mechanism of (+)-pinoresinol, we conducted fluorescence experiments on the human pathogen Candida albicans. Fluorescence analysis using 1,6-diphenyl-1,3,5-hexatriene (DPH) indicated that the (+)-pinoresinol caused damage to the fungal plasma membrane. This result was confirmed by using rhodamine-labeled giant unilamellar vesicle (GUV) experiments. Therefore, the present study indicates that (+)-pinoresinol possesses fungicidal activities and therapeutic potential as an antifungal agent for the treatment of fungal infectious diseases in humans.

  1. Solubility, photostability and antifungal activity of phenylpropanoids encapsulated in cyclodextrins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kfoury, Miriana; Lounès-Hadj Sahraoui, Anissa; Bourdon, Natacha; Laruelle, Frédéric; Fontaine, Joël; Auezova, Lizette; Greige-Gerges, Hélène; Fourmentin, Sophie

    2016-04-01

    Effects of the encapsulation in cyclodextrins (CDs) on the solubility, photostability and antifungal activities of some phenylpropanoids (PPs) were investigated. Solubility experiments were carried out to evaluate the effect of CDs on PPs aqueous solubility. Loading capacities and encapsulation efficiencies of freeze-dried inclusion complexes were determined. Moreover, photostability assays for both inclusion complexes in solution and solid state were performed. Finally, two of the most widespread phytopathogenic fungi, Fusarium oxysporum and Botrytis cinerea, were chosen to examine the antifungal activity of free and encapsulated PPs. Results showed that encapsulation in CDs significantly increased the solubility and photostability of studied PPs (by 2 to 17-fold and 2 to 44-fold, respectively). Free PPs revealed remarkable antifungal properties with isoeugenol showing the lowest half-maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50) values of mycelium growth and spore germination inhibition. Encapsulated PPs, despite their reduced antifungal activity, could be helpful to solve drawbacks such as solubility and stability.

  2. Combination antifungal therapy: a critical review of the evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostrosky-Zeichner, L

    2008-05-01

    Invasive fungal infections have extremely high rates of morbidity and mortality, particularly in immunocompromised hosts. Combination antifungal therapy is conceptually attractive as a life-saving measure. However, in-vitro and in-vivo evidence is often conflicting and clinical trials in this area are limited. Most clinical studies show similar outcomes for combination antifungal therapy when compared to monotherapy, although secondary endpoints and sub-analyses often show advantages for the combinations in endpoints such as culture sterilisation. The logistics of large clinical trials of combination therapy are highly complex. Combination of antifungals with immune modulators is an exciting new research area. Until more data are available, clinicians should approach combination antifungal therapy with caution.

  3. THE ANTIFUNGAL AND ANTIBACTERIAL ACTIVITY OF TWO PLANTS FROM ASTEMCEAE

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    In this study, we have found that, Chlysanthemum coronarium has shownantifungal and antibacterial activity, but Inula viscosa didn't show any antifungalor antibacterial activity.Key words: Chrysanthemum coronarium; Inula viscosa; antifungal andantibacterial activities.

  4. Methods to preserve potentially toxigenic fungi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucas Costa Guimarães

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Microorganisms are a source of many high-value compounds which are useful to every living being, such as humans, plants and animals. Since the process of isolating and improving a microorganism can be lengthy and expensive, preserving the obtained characteristic is of paramount importance, so the process does not need to be repeated. Fungi are eukaryotic, achlorophyllous, heterotrophic organisms, usually filamentous, absorb their food, can be either macro or microscopic, propagate themselves by means of spores and store glycogen as a source of storage. Fungi, while infesting food, may produce toxic substances such as mycotoxins. The great genetic diversity of the Kingdom Fungi renders the preservation of fungal cultures for many years relevant. Several international reference mycological culture collections are maintained in many countries. The methodologies that are most fit for preserving microorganisms for extended periods are based on lowering the metabolism until it reaches a stage of artificial dormancy . The goal of this study was to analyze three methods for potentially toxigenic fungal conservation (Castellani's, continuous subculture and lyophilization and to identify the best among them.

  5. Irradiation and food processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sigurbjörnsson, B; Loaharanu, P

    1989-01-01

    After more than four decades of research and development, food irradiation has been demonstrated to be safe, effective and versatile as a process of food preservation, decontamination or disinfection. Its various applications cover: inhibition of sprouting of root crops; insect disinfestation of stored products, fresh and dried food; shelf-life extension of fresh fruits, vegetables, meat and fish; destruction of parasites and pathogenic micro-organisms in food of animal origin; decontamination of spices and food ingredients, etc. Such applications provide consumers with the increase in variety, volume and value of food. Although regulations on food irradiation in different countries are largely unharmonized, national authorities have shown increasing recognition and acceptance of this technology based on the Codex Standard for Irradiated Foods and its associated Code of Practice. Harmonization of national legislations represents an important prerequisite to international trade in irradiated food. Consumers at large are still not aware of the safety and benefits that food irradiation has to offer. Thus, national and international organizations, food industry, trade associations and consumer unions have important roles to play in introducing this technology based on its scientific values. Public acceptance of food irradiation may be slow at the beginning, but should increase at a faster rate in the foreseeable future when consumers are well informed of the safety and benefits of this technology in comparison with existing ones. Commercial applications of food irradiation has already started in 18 countries at present. The volume of food or ingredients treated on a commercial scale varies from country to country ranging from several tons of spices to hundreds of thousands of tons of grains per annum. With the increasing interest of national authorities and the food industry in applying the process, it is anticipated that some 25 countries will use some 55 commercial

  6. Antifungal activity of propolis against Fonsecaea pedrosoi, a chromoblastomycosis agent

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    Chromoblastomycosis is a subcutaneous mycosis caused by dematiaceous fungi, being Fonsecaea pedrosoi the main etiologic agent in Brazil. Propolis is a resinous material collected by honeybees, with variable composition and pharmacological properties, including antifungal activity. The antifungal activity of ethanolic extracts of propolis (EEP) obtained from different municipalities of the state of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil, against F. pedrosoi strains was assessed. The EEP showed MIC values b...

  7. Isolation of antifungally active lactobacilli from edam cheese

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tuma, S.; Vogensen, Finn Kvist; Plocková, M.

    2007-01-01

    The antifungal activity of 322 lactobacilli strains isolated from Edam cheese at different stages of the ripening process was tested against Fusarium proliferatum M 5689 using a dual overlay spot assay. Approximately 21% of the isolates showed a certain level of inhibitory activity. Seven strains...... as Lb. paracasei and three as Lb. fermentum. Lb. paracasei ST 68 was chosen for further testing as antifungal protective adjunct for Edam cheese production.  ...

  8. Antileishmanial, antimicrobial and antifungal activities of some new aryl azomethines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Kahraman, Yasser M S A; Madkour, Hassan M F; Ali, Dildar; Yasinzai, Masoom

    2010-01-28

    A series of eighteen azomethines has been synthesized by the reaction of appropriate primary aromatic amines with aryl and/or heteroaryl carboxaldehydes. The synthesized azomethines have been evaluated for their in vitro antileishmanial, antibacterial and antifungal activities. The results revealed some antifungal activity of most of the synthesized compounds, whereas the antileishmaniasis activity results highlighted that all synthesized azomethines inhibited parasite growth and most of them showed highly potent action towards Leishmania major promastigotes. No remarkable bactericidal activities were observed.

  9. 7-Chloroquinolin-4-yl Arylhydrazone Derivatives: Synthesis and Antifungal Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Auri R. Duval

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Fifteen 7-chloro-4-arylhydrazonequinolines have been evaluated for their in vitro antifungal activity against eight oral fungi: Candida albicans, C. parapsilosis, C. lipolytica, C. tropicalis, C. famata, C. glabrata, Rhodutorula mucilaginosa, and R. glutinis. Several compounds exhibited minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC and minimum fungicidal concentration (MFC activities comparable with the first-line drug fluconazole. These results could be considered as an important starting point for the rational design of new antifungal agents.

  10. The role of the multidisciplinary team in antifungal stewardship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agrawal, Samir; Barnes, Rosemary; Brüggemann, Roger J; Rautemaa-Richardson, Riina; Warris, Adilia

    2016-11-01

    There are a variety of challenges faced in the management of invasive fungal diseases (IFD), including high case-fatality rates, high cost of antifungal drugs and development of antifungal resistance. The diagnostic challenges and poor outcomes associated with IFD have resulted in excessive empirical use of antifungals in various hospital settings, exposing many patients without IFD to potential drug toxicities as well as causing spiralling antifungal drug costs. Further complexity arises as different patient groups show marked variation in their risk for IFD, fungal epidemiology, sensitivity and specificity of diagnostic tests and the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of antifungal drugs. To address these issues and to ensure optimal management of IFD, specialist knowledge and experience from a range of backgrounds is required, which extends beyond the remit of most antibiotic stewardship programmes. The first step in the development of any antifungal stewardship (AFS) programme is to build a multidisciplinary team encompassing the necessary expertise in the management of IFD to develop and implement the AFS programme. The specific roles of the key individuals within the AFS team and the importance of collaboration are discussed in this article.

  11. Potent heterologous antifungal proteins from cheeseweed (Malva parviflora).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, X; Bunkers, G J

    2000-12-20

    Two novel antifungal proteins were purified and characterized from cheeseweed (Malva parviflora). Both proteins, designated CW-1 and CW-2, are composed of two different subunits of 5000 and 3000 Da, respectively. These proteins possess very potent antifungal activities, and more interestingly the inhibition is fungicidal instead of fungistatic. At low salt condition, the IC(50) of CW-1 and CW-2 against Fusarium graminearum (Fg) is 2.5 ppm. At high salt condition which diminishes the antifungal activity of many antifungal proteins, both CW-1 and CW-2 still maintain potent activity against Fg with IC(50) of 10 ppm. The two subunits could be separated by gel filtration in the presence of 6 M urea, but their antifungal activity cannot be recovered after the removal of urea. Amino acid sequence analysis indicates that both subunits of CW-1 show homology to 2S albumin, whereas the two subunits of CW-2 have homology to vicilin protein from cotton. To our knowledge, this is the first report of isolation and characterization of heterologous antifungal proteins from any source.

  12. An antifungal peptide from Phaseolus vulgaris cv. brown kidney bean

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yau Sang Chan; Jack Ho Wong; Evandro Fei Fang; Wen Liang Pan; Tzi Bun Ng

    2012-01-01

    A 5.4-kDa antifungal peptide,with an N-terminal sequence highly homologous to defensins and inhibitory activity against Mycosphaerella arachidicola (IC5o=3 μM),Setospaeria turcica and Bipolaris maydis,was isolated from the seeds of Phaseolus vulgaris cv.brown kidney bean.The peptide was purified by employing a protocol that entailed adsorption on Affi-gel blue gel and Mono S and finally gel filtration on Superdex 75.The antifungal activity of the peptide against M.arachidicola was stable in the pH range 3-12 and in the temperature range 0℃ to 80℃.There was a slight reduction of the antifungal activity at pH 2 and 13,and the activity was indiscernible at pH 0,1,and 14.The activity at 90℃ and 100℃ was slightly diminished.Deposition of Congo red at the hyphal tips of M.arachidicola was induced by the peptide indicating inhibition of hyphal growth.The lack of antiproliferative activity of brown kidney bean antifungal peptide toward tumor cells,in contrast to the presence of such activity of other antifungal peptides,indicates that different domains are responsible for the antifungal and antiproliferative activities.

  13. An antifungal peptide from Phaseolus vulgaris cv. brown kidney bean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Yau Sang; Wong, Jack Ho; Fang, Evandro Fei; Pan, Wen Liang; Ng, Tzi Bun

    2012-04-01

    A 5.4-kDa antifungal peptide, with an N-terminal sequence highly homologous to defensins and inhibitory activity against Mycosphaerella arachidicola (IC(50)= 3 μM), Setospaeria turcica and Bipolaris maydis, was isolated from the seeds of Phaseolus vulgaris cv. brown kidney bean. The peptide was purified by employing a protocol that entailed adsorption on Affi-gel blue gel and Mono S and finally gel filtration on Superdex 75. The antifungal activity of the peptide against M. arachidicola was stable in the pH range 3-12 and in the temperature range 0°C to 80°C. There was a slight reduction of the antifungal activity at pH 2 and 13, and the activity was indiscernible at pH 0, 1, and 14. The activity at 90°C and 100°C was slightly diminished. Deposition of Congo red at the hyphal tips of M. arachidicola was induced by the peptide indicating inhibition of hyphal growth. The lack of antiproliferative activity of brown kidney bean antifungal peptide toward tumor cells, in contrast to the presence of such activity of other antifungal peptides, indicates that different domains are responsible for the antifungal and antiproliferative activities.

  14. Antifungal effect and mechanism of garlic oil on Penicillium funiculosum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wen-Ru; Shi, Qing-Shan; Liang, Qing; Huang, Xiao-Mo; Chen, Yi-Ben

    2014-10-01

    Garlic oil is a kind of fungicide, but little is known about its antifungal effects and mechanism. In this study, the chemical constituents, antifungal activity, and effects of garlic oil were studied with Penicillium funiculosum as a model strain. Results showed that the minimum fungicidal concentrations (MFCs, v/v) were 0.125 and 0.0313 % in agar medium and broth medium, respectively, suggesting that the garlic oil had a strong antifungal activity. The main ingredients of garlic oil were identified as sulfides, mainly including disulfides (36 %), trisulfides (32 %) and monosulfides (29 %) by gas chromatograph-mass spectrometer (GC/MS), which were estimated as the dominant antifungal factors. The observation results by transmission electron microscope (TEM) and scanning electron microscope (SEM) indicated that garlic oil could firstly penetrate into hyphae cells and even their organelles, and then destroy the cellular structure, finally leading to the leakage of both cytoplasm and macromolecules. Further proteomic analysis displayed garlic oil was able to induce a stimulated or weakened expression of some key proteins for physiological metabolism. Therefore, our study proved that garlic oil can work multiple sites of the hyphae of P. funiculosum to cause their death. The high antifungal effects of garlic oil makes it a broad application prospect in antifungal industries.

  15. 离子色谱法测定食品中防腐剂双乙酸钠的研究%The determination of preservative sodium diacetate in food by ion chromatography

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵娅鸿

    2011-01-01

    本文采用离子色谱法测定食品中的双乙酸钠含量,实验结果表明,该方法可准确测定食品中的双乙酸钠且有很好的线性关系,相关系数大于99%,最低检出限为 0.01mg/kg,加标回收率在 90.0%~108.0%之间,可用于食品中双乙酸钠的检测.%A new method for the determination of sodium hydrogen in several food by ion chromatography was studied.It is shown that the sodium hydrogen content was in a good linearity(r>99%).The lowest content sodium hydrogen determined was 0.01mg/kg.The recovery rate was 90.0%~108.0%.It can be applied to determine sodium hydrogen content in food.

  16. Biopreservative in Foods: Nisin (E234

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Başar Uymaz

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Fermentation is the oldest traditional method in order to protect against spoilage and pathogenic microorganisms. Thermal treatment, pH and water activity lowering and preservative addition other food preservation techniques that are commonly used. Although, as preservatives, many improved antibiotic and chemical agents have been gained, there are some other factors such as rapid resistance to antibiotics used in bacteria, in order to limit their use in food, to be found dimensions of threatening human health of the chemical protection and to cause allergic reactions. Recently, studies on bacteriocins that are produced by the safe bacteria, such as lactic acid bacteria, contain no toxic and adverse effects for human consumption have gained sudden intensity in accordance with the request against consumers in developing microbiologically safe and minimal processed food. There are some important effects using of bacteriocins accepted the new generation of antimicrobial agents as food preservatives such as extension of shelf life, reducing of the use of chemical preservatives and the economic loss caused degradation by microorganisms. Nisin, defined as GRAS (Generally Recognized as Safe by FDA and named the E234 code 'Nisin-protective' or 'natural protective' located in the food additives list, first used in 1988 as a natural preservative by prohibiting of antibiotics using in food in the US. Nowadays in more than 50 countries, there have been more successful implementation of the nisin protected up the food from milk and dairy products to canned foods many food products

  17. Studies in Phylogeny, Development of Rapid IdentificationMethods, Antifungal Susceptibility, and Growth Rates of Clinical Strains of Sporothrix schenckii Complex in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Rumi; Yikelamu, Alimu; Tanaka, Reiko; Igawa, Ken; Yokozeki, Hiroo; Yaguchi, Takashi

    2016-01-01

    Sporotrichosis is a fungal infection caused by the Sporothrix species, which have distinct virulence profiles and geographic distributions. We performed a phylogenetic study in strains morphologically identified as Sporothrix schenckii from clinical specimens in Japan, which were preserved at the Medical Mycology Research Center, Chiba University. In addition, we examined the in vitro antifungal susceptibility and growth rate to evaluate their physiological features. Three hundred strains were examined using sequence analysis of the partial calmodulin gene, or polymerase chain reaction(PCR)method using newly designed species-specific primers; 291 strains were Sporothrix globosa and 9 strains were S. schenckii sensu stricto (in narrow sense, s. s.). S. globosa strains were further clustered into two subclades, and S. schenckii s. s. strains were divided into three subclades. In 38 strains of S. globosa for which antifungal profiles were determined, 4 strains (11%) showed high minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) value for itraconazole. All tested strains of S. schenckii s. s. and S. globosa showed low sensitivity for amphotericin B. These antifungals are used for treatment of sporotrichosis when infection is severe. S. schenckii s. s. grew better than S. globosa; wherein S. globosa showed restricted growth at 35℃ and did not grow at 37℃. Our molecular data showed that S. globosa is the main causal agent of sporotrichosis in Japan. It is important to determine the antifungal profiles of each case, in addition to accurate species-level identification, to strategize the therapy for sporotrichosis.

  18. Ultrasensitive, simple and solvent-free micro-assay for determining sulphite preservatives (E220-228) in foods by HS-SDME and UV-vis micro-spectrophotometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-Otero, E; Costas, M; Lavilla, I; Bendicho, C

    2014-03-01

    A new method based on headspace single-drop microextraction in combination with UV-vis micro-spectrophotometry has been developed for the ultrasensitive determination of banned sulphite preservatives (E220-228) in fruits and vegetables. Sample acidification was used for SO2 generation, which is collected onto a 5,5'-dithiobis-(2-nitrobenzoic acid) microdrop for spectrophotometric measurement. A careful study of this reaction was necessary, including conditions for SO2 generation from different sulphating salts, drop pH, 5,5'-dithiobis-(2-nitrobenzoic acid) concentration and potential interference effects. Variables influencing mass transfer (stirring, sample volume and addition of salt) and microextraction time were also studied. A simple sulphite extraction was carried out, and problems caused by oxidation during the extraction process were addressed. A high enrichment factor (380) allows the determination of low levels of free SO2 in fruits and vegetables (limit of detection 0.06 μg g(-1), limit of quantification 0.2 μg g(-1)) with an adequate precision (repeatability, relative standard deviation 5 %). In addition, the sulphiting process was studied through the monitoring of residual SO2 in a vegetal sample, thus showing the importance of a sensitive tool for SO2 detection at low levels.

  19. Aspects of food hygiene and demands on irradiation of food

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Janetschke, P.; Voigtlaender, K.H.; Streuer, H.J.

    1985-01-01

    Legislation of food irradiation in the GDR has been entailing a number of topical demands on food research and monitoring. International literature has been evaluated for aspects of food hygiene in the context of irradiation, with the view to ensure proper preservation and hygiene of foodstuff. Dose-dependent induced radioactivity, formation of toxic substances as well as the impact of radiation on biological valence and on sensorial food conditions are discussed, with particular reference to microbicidal action of ionizidng radiation. Conclusions are drawn in the context of food hygiene, with general demands on irradiation of foodstuff.

  20. Nationwide study of candidemia, antifungal use, and antifungal drug resistance in Iceland, 2000 to 2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asmundsdottir, Lena Ros; Erlendsdottir, Helga; Gottfredsson, Magnus

    2013-03-01

    Candidemia is often a life-threatening infection, with highly variable incidence among countries. We conducted a nationwide study of candidemia in Iceland from 2000 to 2011, in order to determine recent trends in incidence rates, fungal species distribution, antifungal susceptibility patterns, and concurrent antifungal consumption. A total of 208 infection episodes in 199 patients were identified. The average incidence during the 12 years was 5.7 cases/100,000 population/year, which was significantly higher than that from 1990 to 1999 (4.3/100,000/year; P = 0.02). A significant reduction in the use of blood cultures was noted in the last 3 years of the study, coinciding with the economic crisis in the country (P 60 years, and varied by gender. Age-specific incidence among males >80 years old was 28.6/100,000/year, and it was 8.3/100,000/year for females in this age group (P = 0.028). The 30-day survival rate among adult patients remained unchanged compared to that from 1990 to 1999 (70.4% versus 69.5%, P = 0.97). Candida albicans was the predominant species (56%), followed by C. glabrata (16%) and C. tropicalis (13%). The species distribution remained stable compared to that from previous decades. Fluconazole use increased 2.4-fold from 2000 to 2011, with no increase in resistance. In summary, the incidence of candidemia in Iceland has continued to increase but may have reached a steady state, and no increase in antifungal drug resistance has been noted. Decreased use of blood cultures toward the end of the study may have influenced detection rates.

  1. POLARISATION PRESERVING OPTICAL FIBRE

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2000-01-01

    A micro-structured optical fibre having a cladding comprising a number of elements having a non-circular cross-section. Each element has at least one part extending outside a circle having the same cross-sectional area as the element. These extending parts are directed in the same direction....... This cladding structure provides polarisation preserving properties to the optical fibre. Optical fibres using this technology may have claddings with elements placed non-periodically as well as in a two-dimensional periodic lattice - such as cladding providing Photonic Band Gap (PBG) effects....

  2. Simultaneous determination of eleven preservatives in food by capillary column-gas chromatography after ultrasound-assisted dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction%超声分散液相微萃取-气相色谱法同时测定食品中11种防腐剂

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨金玲; 江阳; 薛勇; 孙成均

    2015-01-01

    目的:建立食品中11种防腐剂的超声分散液相微萃取-气相色谱法。方法样品经9∶1二氯甲烷‐乙酸乙酯超声分散液相微萃取,FFAP毛细管色谱柱分离、FID 检测器检测。结果方法线性范围为0.068~400μg/m l ,相关系数为0.9990~0.9999,回收率为84%~122%,相对标准偏差为3.11%~5.83%,方法检出限为0.026~0.23μg/m l。结论该法简便、高效、经济、环境友好,适于不同食品中11种防腐剂同时快速测定。%Objective To establish a method for simultaneous determination of eleven preservatives in foods by gas chromatography after ultrasound‐assisted dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction .Methods The target pre‐servatives in food samples were ultrasound‐assisted dispersive liquid-liquid microextracted ,and then they were separated with FFAP capillary column and detected with FID detector .Results Linear ranges of the method were between 0 .068 and 400μg/mL with correlation coefficients varying from 0 .9990 to 0 .9999 .Recoveries and rela‐tive standard deviations (RSDs)were in the range from 84% to 122% and from 3 .11% to 5 .83% ,respectively . The limitation of detection was in the range form 0 .026μg/ml to 0 .23μg/ml with enrichment factors ranging from 57 to 225 for all target compounds .Conclusion The method is simple ,efficient ,cheap ,eco‐friendly and is suitable for simultaneous determination of 11 preservatives in different foods .

  3. Antifungal Activity of Diglycerin Ester of Fatty Acids against Yeasts and Its Comparison with Those of Sucrose Monopalmitate and Sodium Benzoate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimazaki, Aiko; Sakamoto, Jin J; Furuta, Masakazu; Tsuchido, Tetsuaki

    2016-01-01

    The antifungal activities of diglycerin monoester of fatty acids (DGCs), which have been employed as food emulsifiers, were examined against three yeasts, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Candida albicans and Candida utilis and were compared with those of sucrose monoester of palmitic acid (SC16) as another type of emulsifier and sodium benzoate (SB) as a weak acid food preservative. When the minimum growth inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of diglycerin monolaurate (DGC12) against these yeasts were determined 2 d after incubation in YM broth at pH5.0, they were relatively low, being 0.01% (w/v), for both S. cerevisiae and C. utilis, whereas was high, being 4.0% (w/v), for C. albicans. On the contrary, the MICs of sucrose monopalmitate (SC16) were high, being 3.0 and 4.0% (w/v), for the former two yeasts, respectively, but 0.6% (w/v) for the last yeast. In contrast to these emulsifiers, the MICs of sodium benzoate (SB) were similar independently upon the yeast strain, being in order 0.4, 0.3 and 0.5% (w/v), for the above yeasts, respectively. The anti-yeast activities of DGC12 and SC16 were gradually increased with a decrease in pH, in a manner similar to that of SB, except for the action of SC16 on C. albicans, for which the activity was more effective at pHs 5.0 and 6.0 than at pHs 4.0 and 7.0. Among DGCs tested having different fatty acid moieties in the molecule, lauroyl ester (DGC12) was more effective than myristoyl and palmitoyl esters against S. cerevisiae and C. utilis. The inhibitory effect of DGC12 on the yeast growth depended upon both the cell density and the strength of aeration during the treatment. Further, DGC12 was found to kill S. cerevisiae and C. utilis cells at a rather low concentration of 0.005% (w/v) in 50mM acetate buffer at pH5.0, although, against C. albicans cells, only slight fungicidal activity was demonstrated at a high concentration of 0.5% (w/v). The results obtained support the effectiveness of practical application of DGC12 to acidic

  4. Food Poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... de los dientes Video: Getting an X-ray Food Poisoning KidsHealth > For Kids > Food Poisoning Print A ... find out how to avoid it. What Is Food Poisoning? Food poisoning comes from eating foods that ...

  5. Macrocyclic trichothecenes as antifungal and anticancer compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Carvalho, Maira Peres; Weich, Herbert; Abraham, Wolf-Rainer

    2016-01-01

    Trichothecenes are sesquiterpenoid metabolites produced by fungi and species of the plant genus Baccharis, family Asteraceae. They comprise a tricyclic core with an epoxide at C-12 and C-13 and can be grouped into non-macrocyclic and macrocyclic compounds. While many of these compounds are of concern in agriculture, the macrocyclic metabolites have been evaluated as antiviral, anti-cancer, antimalarial and antifungal compounds. Some known cytotoxic responses on eukaryotic cells include inhibition of protein, DNA and RNA syntheses, interference with mitochondrial function, effects on cell division and membranes. These targets however have been elucidated essentially employing non-macrocyclic trichothecenes and only one or two closely related macrocyclic compounds. For several macrocyclic trichothecenes high selectivity against fungal species and against cancer cell lines have been reported suggesting that the macrocycle and its stereochemistry are of crucial importance regarding biological activity and selectivity. This review is focused on compounds belonging to the macrocyclic type, where a cyclic diester or triester ring binds to the trichothecane moiety at C-4 and C- 15 leading to natural products belonging to the groups of satratoxins, verrucarins, roridins, myrotoxins and baccharinoids. Their biological activities, cytotoxic mechanisms and structure-activity relationships (SAR) are discussed. From the reported data it becomes evident that even small changes in the molecules can lead to pronounced effects on biological activity or selectivity against cancer cells lines. Understanding the underlying mechanisms may help to design highly specific drugs for cancer therapy.

  6. Antifungal and molluscicidal saponins from Serjania salzmanniana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekabo, O A; Farnsworth, N R; Henderson, T O; Mao, G; Mukherjee, R

    1996-04-01

    An investigation of Serjania salzmanniana for biologically active substances has led to the isolation of two novel saponins, salzmannianoside A (3-O-[[beta-D- glucopyranosyl-(1-->4)]-[alpha-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1-->2)]-alpha-L- arabinopyranosyl] gypsogenin) [3] and salzmannianoside B (3-O-[[beta-D-glucopyranosyl-(1-->4)]-[alpha-L- arabinopyranosyl-(1-->3)-alpha-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1-->2)] -alpha-L-arabinopyranosyl] hederagenin) (4). Two known saponins, pulsatilla saponin D (3-O-[[beta-D- glucopyranosyl-(1-->4)]-[alpha-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1-->2)]-alpha-L- arabinopyranosyl] hederagenin) (1) and 3-O-[[beta-D-glucopyranosyl-(1-->4)]-[alpha-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1-->2)]-a lpha-L- arabinopyranosyl] oleanolic acid (2) were also isolated from this plant. The structures of 3 and 4 were elucidated by FABMS and 2D NMR techniques. All these four saponins were mollusicidal, causing 70-100% mortality at 10 ppm against Biomphalaria alexandrina, a vector of Schistosoma mansoni in the Nile Valley. The saponins also showed antifungal activity against Cryptococcus neoformans and Candida albicans at minimal inhibitory concentrations of 8 and 16 micrograms/mL, respectively.

  7. Antifungal activity of plant extracts against dermatophytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali-Shtayeh, M S; Abu Ghdeib, S I

    1999-01-01

    The aqueous extracts (15 micrograms ml-1 medium) of 22 plants used in folkloric medicine in Palestine were investigated for their antifungal activity and minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) against nine isolates of Microsporum canis, Trichophyton mentagrophytes and Trichophyton violaceum. The extract of the different plant species reduced colony growth of the three dermatophytes by 36 to 100% compared with the control treatment. Antimycotic activity of the extract against the three dermatophytes varied significantly (P Inula viscosa, J. regia and P. lentiscus against T. mentagrophytes; and Asphodelus luteus, A. arvensis, C. spinosa, Clematis cirrhosa, I. viscosa, J. regia, P. lentiscus, Plumbago europea, Ruscus aculeatus, Retema raetam and Salvia fruticosa against T. violaceum. The MICs of these most active plants ranged from 0.6 to 40 micrograms ml-1. The three dermatophytes differed significantly with regard to their susceptibility to plant extracts. Trichophyton violaceum was the most susceptible being completely inhibited by 50% of the extracts followed by M. canis and T. mentagrophytes which were completely inhibited by only 23 and 14% of the extracts, respectively.

  8. Spectroscopic analysis of phenolic compounds for food and feed formulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phenolic compounds exhibit several bioactive properties including anti-oxidant, anti-microbial, and anti-fungal characteristics with potential applications as additives in functional food and feed formulations. Phenolic compounds occur in plants as secondary metabolites and may be recovered as a co-...

  9. Functional assignment of YvgO, a novel set of purified and chemically characterized proteinaceous antifungal variants produced by Bacillus thuringiensis SF361.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manns, David C; Churey, John J; Worobo, Randy W

    2012-04-01

    This study reports a novel class of antifungal protein derived from bacterial origin. Bacillus thuringiensis SF361, the strain also responsible for producing the novel bacteriocin thurincin H, exhibits broad antifungal activity against select members of several fungal genera, including Aspergillus, Byssochlamys, and Penicillium, as well as the pathogenic yeast Candida albicans. Optimal antifungal production and secretion were observed after-log phase growth when incubated at 37°C in a carbohydrate-free growth medium. High-performance liquid chromatography purification was performed after pH-selective ammonium sulfate precipitation and size-exclusion chromatography. Intact mass analysis and peptide mass fingerprinting identified the 13,484-Da protein to be a mass homolog to the YvgO protein construct sequenced from Bacillus cereus AH 1134. Further analysis via amino-terminal sequencing also revealed the existence of four distinct yet equally efficacious YvgO variants differing only within the first four N-terminal residues. YvgO was found to be remarkably stable, maintaining its antifungal activity under a wide pH and temperature range. When assayed against the toxigenic species Byssochlamys fulva H25, the selected primary filamentous fungal indicator, the MIC was estimated to be 1.5 ppm. Candida albicans 3153 was more resistant, exhibiting MICs between 25 and 800 ppm, depending on growth conditions. YvgO is unique among antifungals, showing no known sequential or functional homology to the typical classes of antifungal proteins, including common membrane-acting agents such as cellulases and glucanases. Due to its activity against an array of pathogenic and spoilage fungi, the potentials for clinical, agricultural, and food-processing applications are encouraging.

  10. Antifungal prophylaxis in stem cell transplantation centers in Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamdi Akan

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: This study aimed to determine the current state of antifungal prophylaxis in Turkish stem cell transplantation (SCT centers. Materials and Methods: The were 38 active stem cell transplantation centers in Turkey, 28 of which were registered with the European Group for Blood and Marrow Transplantation (EBMT. Survey questionnaires were sent to the 28 EBMT centers in an effort to collect data on antifungal prophylaxis in different settings. In all, 24 of the centers completed the survey; 1 of the 24 centers was excluded from the study, as it was under construction at the time and was not performing transplantation.Results: In all, 15 (65% of the 23 centers were adult SCT centers, 7 (31% were pediatric SCT centers, and 1 center treated both adult and pediatric patients. All centers (23/23 performed both allogeneic and autologous transplants, 20 centers performed non-myeloablative transplants, 8 performed cord blood transplants, and 7 performed unrelated transplants. Primary antifungal prophylaxis was used at all 23 centers during allogeneic transplants, whereas 18 of the 23 centers used it during every autologous transplant and 2 of the 23 centers used it during autologous transplants on a per case basis. The most common drug used for prophylaxis was fluconazole (F (21/23, followed by itraconazole (I (3/23, amphotericin-B (2/23, and posaconazole (1/23. Among the 23 centers, 3 reported that for allogenic transplants they changed the antifungal prophylactic in cases of graft versus host disease (GVHD, and 12 of the 23 centers reported that they changed the antifungal prophylactic in case of nearby construction. All 23 centers performed secondary prophylaxis. Conclusion: Antifungal prophylaxis for hematopoetic SCT patients was the standard protocol in the 23 centers included in the study, usually with such azoles as F. The introduction of posaconazole in Turkey and the potential approval of voriconazole for antifungal prophylaxis will

  11. Plasma Technology as a New Preservation Technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rincón, R.; Calzada, M. D.

    The preliminary results of using the surface wave discharge at the atmospheric pressure on groups of lentils and sherry Fino wine samples are presented. In this research, the capability of active species and UV radiation from the plasma, has been assessed on preservation of food. Besides, the generation and emission of both excited molecules in a metastable state N2}(B3Π {g-> A3}Σ u{+) and the de-excitation of species NO(A2}Σ {+) producing UV radiation have been also studied.

  12. Editorially Speaking. Food, Nutrition, and Chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lippincott, W. T.

    1975-01-01

    Proposes an attack on the world food problem which includes the realization that we can eliminate hunger and starvation, the recognition of food as a world currency, and the recognition of the role of chemistry in the improvement of food production, distribution, and preservation. (GS)

  13. Pulsed Electric Field treatment of packaged food

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roodenburg, B.

    2011-01-01

    Food manufacturers are looking for new preservation techniques that don’t influence the fresh-like characteristics of products. Non-thermal pasteurisation of food with Pulsed Electric Fields (often referred to as PEF) is an emerging technology, where the change of the food is less than with thermal

  14. 农民工对大众传统小吃的传承——基于新疆博乐圆中园名食店的个案分析%Rural Migrant Workers ' Contribution in Preserving Popular Traditional Snacks A Case Study of Yuan-zhong-yuan Food Shop in Bole, Xinjiang

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王斯

    2012-01-01

    Based on a case study of the entrepreneurship of Yuan-zhong-yuan Food Shop, the article introduces life experience of a rural migrant family under the background of Reform and Opening-up, commodity-based economy, urban migration, change and diffusions of catering culture. Then it analyzes the generality and inheritance of popular traditional snacks as intangible cultural heritage, and holds affirmative attitudes for rural migrant contributions to preserving intangible cultural heritage, including rural migrant workers undertaking food processing and catering services and those rural migrant workers as traditional low-end consumers, who involuntarily serve as inheritors of popular traditional snacks while earning a living in food services. The role of the modern family kitchen gradually gives way to outside food shops operating modes. However, the increasingly prominent food security problems are worthy of our thoughts, research and exploration.%以新疆博乐圆中园名食店的创业历程为研究个案,将河南一个农民家庭的谋生轨迹置于改革开放、商品经济、农村人口流动、饮食文化变迁与传播的时代背景下,分析大众传统小吃作为饮食领域的非物质文化遗产所具备的普泛性与承传性。同时,肯定打工族对这类饮食领域非物质文化遗产的传承,它包含从事食品加工、餐饮行业的打工者和作为传统食品中低端消费群的农民工。二者为了维持生计而自觉或不自觉地充当了传统小吃的传承者,而大众传统小吃本身的廉价、速食和对人体基本热量、大众口味的满足等特性,在相当大程度上持续其传承。外食店经营的模式将逐步取代家庭厨房在饮食传承中的角色,但其中日益凸显的饮食安全问题值得人们关注。

  15. Antifungal activity of ibuprofen against aspergillus species and its interaction with common antifungal drugs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Li-juan; CHEN Wei; XU Hui; WAN Zhe; LI Ruo-yu; LIU Wei

    2010-01-01

    Background The incidence of invasive aspergillosis (IA) has increased in frequency in immunocompromised patients with a variety of diseases. The poor prognosis might be due to limited treatment option. This study aimed to evaluate antifungal activity of ibuprofen against clinical isolates of aspergillus species, as well as its interaction with azoles or with amphotericin B or with micafungin.Methods Antifungal activity of ibuprofen against 10 strains of Aspergillus fumigatus, Aspergillus flavus, and Aspergillus terreus were tested with both disk diffusion assay and standard broth microdilution method. To determine whether ibuprofen combined with itraconazole, voriconazole, amphotericin B, or micafungin had interactive effects on aspergillus spp., we used both disk diffusion assay and Chequerboard method.Results As for disk diffusion method, ibuprofen produced a zone of growth inhibition with diameters of (20.1±3.9) mm at 48 hours of incubation. As for broth microdilution method, the minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) ranges of ibuprofen against aspergillus spp. were 1000-2000 μg/ml, and the minimal fungicidal concentration (MFC) ranges of that was 2000-8000 μg/ml. For 2 of 5 isolates, when ibuprofen combined with itraconazole or voriconazole, the zones of growth inhibition were larger than those of the individual drug. The results of Chequerboard method showed that fractional inhibitory concentration index (FICI) ranges were 1.125-2.500.Conclusions Ibuprofen is active against aspergillus spp.. And ibuprofen does not affect the in vitro activity of itraconazole, voriconazole, amphotericin B or micafungin against aspergillus spp..

  16. A single Streptomyces symbiont makes multiple antifungals to support the fungus farming ant Acromyrmex octospinosus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryan F Seipke

    Full Text Available Attine ants are dependent on a cultivated fungus for food and use antibiotics produced by symbiotic Actinobacteria as weedkillers in their fungus gardens. Actinobacterial species belonging to the genera Pseudonocardia, Streptomyces and Amycolatopsis have been isolated from attine ant nests and shown to confer protection against a range of microfungal weeds. In previous work on the higher attine Acromyrmex octospinosus we isolated a Streptomyces strain that produces candicidin, consistent with another report that attine ants use Streptomyces-produced candicidin in their fungiculture. Here we report the genome analysis of this Streptomyces strain and identify multiple antibiotic biosynthetic pathways. We demonstrate, using gene disruptions and mass spectrometry, that this single strain has the capacity to make candicidin and multiple antimycin compounds. Although antimycins have been known for >60 years we report the sequence of the biosynthetic gene cluster for the first time. Crucially, disrupting the candicidin and antimycin gene clusters in the same strain had no effect on bioactivity against a co-evolved nest pathogen called Escovopsis that has been identified in ∼30% of attine ant nests. Since the Streptomyces strain has strong bioactivity against Escovopsis we conclude that it must make additional antifungal(s to inhibit Escovopsis. However, candicidin and antimycins likely offer protection against other microfungal weeds that infect the attine fungal gardens. Thus, we propose that the selection of this biosynthetically prolific strain from the natural environment provides A. octospinosus with broad spectrum activity against Escovopsis and other microfungal weeds.

  17. A single Streptomyces symbiont makes multiple antifungals to support the fungus farming ant Acromyrmex octospinosus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seipke, Ryan F; Barke, Jörg; Brearley, Charles; Hill, Lionel; Yu, Douglas W; Goss, Rebecca J M; Hutchings, Matthew I

    2011-01-01

    Attine ants are dependent on a cultivated fungus for food and use antibiotics produced by symbiotic Actinobacteria as weedkillers in their fungus gardens. Actinobacterial species belonging to the genera Pseudonocardia, Streptomyces and Amycolatopsis have been isolated from attine ant nests and shown to confer protection against a range of microfungal weeds. In previous work on the higher attine Acromyrmex octospinosus we isolated a Streptomyces strain that produces candicidin, consistent with another report that attine ants use Streptomyces-produced candicidin in their fungiculture. Here we report the genome analysis of this Streptomyces strain and identify multiple antibiotic biosynthetic pathways. We demonstrate, using gene disruptions and mass spectrometry, that this single strain has the capacity to make candicidin and multiple antimycin compounds. Although antimycins have been known for >60 years we report the sequence of the biosynthetic gene cluster for the first time. Crucially, disrupting the candicidin and antimycin gene clusters in the same strain had no effect on bioactivity against a co-evolved nest pathogen called Escovopsis that has been identified in ∼30% of attine ant nests. Since the Streptomyces strain has strong bioactivity against Escovopsis we conclude that it must make additional antifungal(s) to inhibit Escovopsis. However, candicidin and antimycins likely offer protection against other microfungal weeds that infect the attine fungal gardens. Thus, we propose that the selection of this biosynthetically prolific strain from the natural environment provides A. octospinosus with broad spectrum activity against Escovopsis and other microfungal weeds.

  18. Synthesis, antifungal activity and structure-activity relationships of vanillin oxime-N-O-alkanoates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahluwalia, Vivek; Garg, Nandini; Kumar, Birendra; Walia, Suresh; Sati, Om P

    2012-12-01

    Vanillin oxime-N-O-alkanoates were synthesized following reaction of vanillin with hydroxylamine hydrochloride, followed by reaction of the resultant oxime with acyl chlorides. The structures of the compounds were confirmed by IR, 1H, 13C NMR and mass spectral data. The test compounds were evaluated for their in vitro antifungal activity against three phytopathogenic fungi Macrophomina phaseolina, Rhizoctonia solani and Sclerotium rolfsii by the poisoned food technique. The moderate antifungal activity of vanillin was slightly increased following its conversion to vanillin oxime, but significantly increased after conversion of the oxime to oxime-N-O-alkanoates. While vanillin oxime-N-O-dodecanoate with an EC50 value 73.1 microg/mL was most active against M. phaseolina, vanillin oxime-N-O-nonanoate with EC50 of value 66.7 microg/mL was most active against R. solani. The activity increased with increases in the acyl chain length and was maximal with an acyl chain length of nine carbons.

  19. Antifungal Activity of Essential Oil of Eucalyptus camaldulensis Dehnh. against Selected Fusarium spp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maina, Angeline W.; Wagacha, John M.

    2017-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the antifungal activity of essential oil (EO) of Eucalyptus camaldulensis Dehnh. against five Fusarium spp. commonly associated with maize. The essential oil had been extracted by steam distillation in a modified Clevenger-type apparatus from leaves of E. camaldulensis and their chemical composition characterized by gas chromatography mass spectrometry. Poisoned food technique was used to determine the percentage inhibition of mycelial growth, minimum inhibitory concentration, and minimum fungicidal concentration of the EO on the test pathogens. Antifungal activity of different concentrations of the EO was evaluated using disc diffusion method. The most abundant compounds identified in the EO were 1,8-cineole (16.2%), α-pinene (15.6%), α-phellandrene (10.0%), and p-cymene (8.1%). The EO produced complete mycelial growth inhibition in all the test pathogens at a concentration of 7-8 μL/mL after five days of incubation. The minimum inhibitory concentration and minimum fungicidal concentration of the EO on the test fungi were in the range of 7-8 μL/mL and 8–10 μL/mL, respectively. These findings confirm the fungicidal properties of E. camaldulensis essential oils and their potential use in the management of economically important Fusarium spp. and as possible alternatives to synthetic fungicides. PMID:28127308

  20. Antifungal activity of oregano extract against A. Versicolor, E. Nidulans and Eurotium spp.: Producers of sterigmatocystin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kocić-Tanackov Sunčica D.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the influence of oregano extract (Origanum vulgare L. on growth of Aspergillus versicolor, Emericella nidulans, Eurotium herbariorum, E. amstelodami, E. chevalieri and E. rubrum - producers of sterigmatocystin (STC isolated from salads. Antifungal tests were performed by agar plates method. The composition of the active component of extract was determined by GC-MS method and the major components were: carvacrol (34.20%, triacetin (22.91%, carvone (18.05%, p-cymene (8.05% and thymol (3.74%. The examined extract showed the ability to reduce mold growth at all applied concentrations. Minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC for E. nidulans, E. chevalieri and E. amstelodami were 2.5% (v/v and over 2.5% (v/v for A. versicolor. At 1.5% (v/v concentration the extract completely inhibited the growth of E. rubrum, whereas higher dose of 2.5% (v/v was fungicidal against E. herbariorum. Besides its sensory role in food products, the examined oregano extract also exhibits antifungal activities against producers of STC.

  1. Microbiological Spoilage of Canned Foods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evancho, George M.; Tortorelli, Suzanne; Scott, Virginia N.

    Nicolas Appert (1749-1841) developed the first commercial process that kept foods from spoiling in response to an offer from the French government for a method of preserving food for use by the army and navy. Appert, a confectioner and chef, began to experiment in his workshop in Massy, near Paris, but since little was known about bacteriology and the causes of spoilage (Louis Pasteur had yet to formulate the germ theory), much of his work involved trial and error. In 1810, after years of experimenting, he was awarded the prize of 12,000 francs for his method of preservation, which involved cooking foods in sealed jars at high temperatures. He described his method of preserving food in a book published in 1811, "L'Art De Conserver, Pendant Plusiers Annes, Toutes les Substances Animales et Végétales," which translated means "The Art of Preserving All Kinds of Animal and Vegetable Substances for Several Years." He later built a bottling factory and began to produce preserved foods for the people of France and is credited with being the "Father of Canning."

  2. 生鲜食品保鲜物流系统的研究及市场前景分析%Fresh Food Preservation Logistics System Research and the Analysis of Market Prospect

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李天奇

    2016-01-01

    The current state of fresh products cold chain logistics development and pattern in China were ana-lyzed. The total cost of the production and sales of logistics system is also in constant progress. However , some problems also existed. Some suggestions of the fresh food cold chain logistics development in China were pro-posed as well. Finally, the prospects based on the cold chain logistics of fresh agricultural products development were analyzed in detail.%对目前我国生鲜产品冷链物流发展现状和现有模式进行研究,提出我国近几年生鲜生产和销售总值呈上升姿态,物流系统也在不断进步,但仍存在一些问题,并针对性地提出未来我国鲜食品冷链物流系统发展的几点建议。最后提出基于冷链物流基础的生鲜农产品发展前景将十分广阔并详细分析了其原因。

  3. Applications of sonochemistry in Russian food processing industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krasulya, Olga; Shestakov, Sergey; Bogush, Vladimir; Potoroko, Irina; Cherepanov, Pavel; Krasulya, Boris

    2014-11-01

    In food industry, conventional methodologies such as grinding, mixing, and heat treatment are used for food processing and preservation. These processes have been well studied for many centuries and used in the conversion of raw food materials to consumable food products. This report is dedicated to the application of a cost-efficient method of energy transfer caused by acoustic cavitation effects in food processing, overall, having significant impacts on the development of relatively new area of food processing such as food sonochemistry.

  4. Preserving reptiles for research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gotte, Steve W.; Jacobs, Jeremy F.; Zug, George R.; Dodd, C. Kenneth

    2016-01-01

    What are voucher specimens and why do we collect them? Voucher specimens are animals and/or their parts that are deposited in a research museum to document the occurrence of a taxon at a specific location in space and time (Pleijel et al., 2008; Reynolds and McDiarmid, 2012). For field biologists, vouchers are the repeatable element of a field study as they allow other biologists, now and in the future, to confirm the identity of species that were studied. The scientific importance of a voucher specimen or series of specimens is that other people are afforded the opportunity to examine the entire animal and confirm or correct identifications. A photographic record is somewhat useful for recording the occurrence of a species, but such records can be insufficient for reliable confirmation of specific identity. Even if a photo shows diagnostic characters of currently recognized taxa, it may not show characters that separate taxa that may be described in the future. Substantial cryptic biodiversity is being found in even relatively well-known herpetofaunas (Crawford et al., 2010), and specimens allow researchers to retroactively evaluate the true diversity in a study as understanding of taxonomy evolves. They enable biologists to study the systematic relationships of populations by quantifying variation in different traits. Specimens are also a source of biological data such as behaviour, ecology, epidemiology, and reproduction through examination of their anatomy, reproductive and digestive tracts, and parasites (Suarez and Tsutsui, 2004). Preserving reptiles as vouchers is not difficult, although doing it properly requires care, effort, and time. Poorly preserved vouchers can invalidate the results and conclusions of your study because of the inability to confirm the identity of your study animals. Good science requires repeatability of observations, and the absence of vouchers or poorly preserved ones prevents such confirmation. Due to space restrictions, we are

  5. Antifungal and Zearalenone Inhibitory Activity of Pediococcus pentosaceus Isolated from Dairy Products on Fusarium graminearum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sellamani, Muthulakshmi; Kalagatur, Naveen K; Siddaiah, Chandranayaka; Mudili, Venkataramana; Krishna, Kadirvelu; Natarajan, Gopalan; Rao Putcha, Venkata L

    2016-01-01

    The present study was aimed to evaluate the bio-control efficacy of Pediococcus pentosaceus isolated from traditional fermented dairy products originated from India, against the growth and zearalenone (ZEA) production of Fusarium graminearum. The cell-free supernatants of P. pentosaceus (PPCS) were prepared and chemical profiling was carried out by GC-MS and MALDI-TOF analysis. Chemical profiling of PPCS evidenced that, the presence of phenolic antioxidants, which are responsible for the antifungal activity. Another hand, MALDI-TOF analysis also indicated the presence of antimicrobial peptides. To know the antioxidant potential of PPCS, DPPH free radical scavenging assay was carried out and IC50 value was determined as 32 ± 1.89 μL/mL. The antifungal activity of P. pentosaceus was determined by dual culture overlay technique and zone of inhibition was recorded as 47 ± 2.81%, and antifungal activity of PPCS on F. graminearum was determined by micro-well dilution and scanning electron microscopic techniques. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of PPCS was determined as 66 ± 2.18 μL/mL in the present study. Also a clear variation in the micromorphology of mycelia treated with MIC value of PPCS compared to untreated control was documented. Further, the mechanism of growth inhibition was revealed by ergosterol analysis and determination of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in PPCS treated samples. The effects of PPCS on mycelial biomass and ZEA production were observed in a dose-dependent manner. The mechanism behind the suppression of ZEA production was studied by reverse transcriptase qPCR analysis of ZEA metabolic pathway genes (PKS4 and PKS13), and results showed that there is a dose dependent down-regulation of target gene expression in PPCS treated samples. The results of the present study were collectively proved that, the antifungal and ZEA inhibitory activity of PPCS against F. graminearum and it may find a potential application in agriculture and food

  6. Antifungal and Zearalenone Inhibitory Activity of Pediococcus pentosaceus Isolated from Dairy Products on Fusarium graminearum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sellamani, Muthulakshmi; Kalagatur, Naveen K.; Siddaiah, Chandranayaka; Mudili, Venkataramana; Krishna, Kadirvelu; Natarajan, Gopalan; Rao Putcha, Venkata L.

    2016-01-01

    The present study was aimed to evaluate the bio-control efficacy of Pediococcus pentosaceus isolated from traditional fermented dairy products originated from India, against the growth and zearalenone (ZEA) production of Fusarium graminearum. The cell-free supernatants of P. pentosaceus (PPCS) were prepared and chemical profiling was carried out by GC-MS and MALDI-TOF analysis. Chemical profiling of PPCS evidenced that, the presence of phenolic antioxidants, which are responsible for the antifungal activity. Another hand, MALDI-TOF analysis also indicated the presence of antimicrobial peptides. To know the antioxidant potential of PPCS, DPPH free radical scavenging assay was carried out and IC50 value was determined as 32 ± 1.89 μL/mL. The antifungal activity of P. pentosaceus was determined by dual culture overlay technique and zone of inhibition was recorded as 47 ± 2.81%, and antifungal activity of PPCS on F. graminearum was determined by micro-well dilution and scanning electron microscopic techniques. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of PPCS was determined as 66 ± 2.18 μL/mL in the present study. Also a clear variation in the micromorphology of mycelia treated with MIC value of PPCS compared to untreated control was documented. Further, the mechanism of growth inhibition was revealed by ergosterol analysis and determination of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in PPCS treated samples. The effects of PPCS on mycelial biomass and ZEA production were observed in a dose-dependent manner. The mechanism behind the suppression of ZEA production was studied by reverse transcriptase qPCR analysis of ZEA metabolic pathway genes (PKS4 and PKS13), and results showed that there is a dose dependent down-regulation of target gene expression in PPCS treated samples. The results of the present study were collectively proved that, the antifungal and ZEA inhibitory activity of PPCS against F. graminearum and it may find a potential application in agriculture and food

  7. 9 CFR 318.8 - Preservatives and other substances permitted in product for export only; handling; such product...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Preservatives and other substances... General § 318.8 Preservatives and other substances permitted in product for export only; handling; such product not to be used for domestic food purposes. (a) Preservatives and other substances not permitted...

  8. Bioactivities of Ketones Terpenes: Antifungal Effect on F. verticillioides and Repellents to Control Insect Fungal Vector, S. zeamais

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romina P. Pizzolitto

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Maize is one the most important staple foods in the world. However, numerous pests, such as fungal pathogens, e.g., Fusarium verticillioides, and insects, such as Sitophlilus zeamais, attack maize grains during storage. Many F. verticillioides strains produce fumonisins, one of the most important mycotoxin that causes toxic effects on human and animal health. This situation is aggravated by the insect fungal vector, Sitophlilus zeamais, which contributes to the dispersal of fungal spores, and through feeding damage, provide entry points for fungal infections. The aim of this study was to evaluate in vitro bioassays, the antifungal activity on F. verticillioides M3125 and repellent effects against S. zeamais of ketone terpenes. In addition, we performed Quantitative structure–activity relationship (Q-SAR studies between physico-chemical properties of ketone terpenes and the antifungal effect. Thymoquinone was the most active compound against F. verticillioides (Minimum Inhibitory Concentration, MIC: 0.87 affecting the lag phase and the growth rate showing a total inhibition of growth at concentration higher than 2 mM (p < 0.05. The Q-SAR model revealed that the antifungal activity of ketone compounds is related to the electronic descriptor, Pi energy. Thymoquinone showed a strong repellent effect (−77.8 ± 8.5, p < 0.001 against S. zeamais. These findings make an important contribution to the search for new compounds to control two stored pests of maize.

  9. Characterization of Antifungal Activity and Nail Penetration of ME1111, a New Antifungal Agent for Topical Treatment of Onychomycosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabata, Yuji; Takei-Masuda, Naomi; Kubota, Natsuki; Takahata, Sho; Ohyama, Makoto; Kaneda, Kaori; Iida, Maiko; Maebashi, Kazunori

    2016-02-01

    Fungal nail infection (onychomycosis) is a prevalent disease in many areas of the world, with a high incidence approaching 23%. Available antifungals to treat the disease suffer from a number of disadvantages, necessitating the discovery of new efficacious and safe antifungals. Here, we evaluate the in vitro antifungal activity and nail penetration ability of ME1111, a novel antifungal agent, along with comparator drugs, including ciclopirox, amorolfine, terbinafine, and itraconazole. ME1111 showed potent antifungal activity against Trichophyton rubrum and Trichophyton mentagrophytes (the major etiologic agents of onychomycosis) strains isolated in Japan and reference fungal strains with an MIC range of 0.12 to 0.5 mg/liter and an MIC50 and MIC90 of 0.5 mg/liter for both. Importantly, none of the tested isolates showed an elevated ME1111 MIC. Moreover, the antifungal activity of ME1111 was minimally affected by 5% wool keratin powder in comparison to the other antifungals tested. The ME1111 solution was able to penetrate human nails and inhibit fungal growth in a dose-dependent manner according to the TurChub assay. In contrast, 8% ciclopirox and 5% amorolfine nail lacquers showed no activity under the same conditions. ME1111 demonstrated approximately 60-fold-greater selectivity in inhibition of Trichophyton spp. than of human cell lines. Our findings demonstrate that ME1111 possesses potent antidermatophyte activity, maintains this activity in the presence of keratin, and possesses excellent human nail permeability. These results suggest that ME1111 is a promising topical medication for the treatment of onychomycosis and therefore warrants further clinical evaluation.

  10. Seismic Fault Preserving Diffusion

    CERN Document Server

    Lavialle, Olivier; Germain, Christian; Donias, Marc; Guillon, Sebastien; Keskes, Naamen; Berthoumieu, Yannick

    2007-01-01

    This paper focuses on the denoising and enhancing of 3-D reflection seismic data. We propose a pre-processing step based on a non linear diffusion filtering leading to a better detection of seismic faults. The non linear diffusion approaches are based on the definition of a partial differential equation that allows us to simplify the images without blurring relevant details or discontinuities. Computing the structure tensor which provides information on the local orientation of the geological layers, we propose to drive the diffusion along these layers using a new approach called SFPD (Seismic Fault Preserving Diffusion). In SFPD, the eigenvalues of the tensor are fixed according to a confidence measure that takes into account the regularity of the local seismic structure. Results on both synthesized and real 3-D blocks show the efficiency of the proposed approach.

  11. Seismic fault preserving diffusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavialle, Olivier; Pop, Sorin; Germain, Christian; Donias, Marc; Guillon, Sebastien; Keskes, Naamen; Berthoumieu, Yannick

    2007-02-01

    This paper focuses on the denoising and enhancing of 3-D reflection seismic data. We propose a pre-processing step based on a non-linear diffusion filtering leading to a better detection of seismic faults. The non-linear diffusion approaches are based on the definition of a partial differential equation that allows us to simplify the images without blurring relevant details or discontinuities. Computing the structure tensor which provides information on the local orientation of the geological layers, we propose to drive the diffusion along these layers using a new approach called SFPD (Seismic Fault Preserving Diffusion). In SFPD, the eigenvalues of the tensor are fixed according to a confidence measure that takes into account the regularity of the local seismic structure. Results on both synthesized and real 3-D blocks show the efficiency of the proposed approach.

  12. Antarctic science preserve polluted

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simarski, Lynn Teo

    Geophysicists are alarmed at the electromagnetic pollution of a research site in the Antarctic specifically set aside to study the ionosphere and magnetosphere. A private New Zealand communications company called Telecom recently constructed a satellite ground station within the boundaries of this Site of Special Scientific Interest (SSSI), protected since the mid-1970s. The placement of a commercial facility within this site sets an ominous precedent not only for the sanctity of other SSSIs, but also for Specially Protected Areas—preserves not even open to scientific research, such as certain penguin rookeries.The roughly rectangular, one-by-one-half mile site, located at Arrival Heights not far from McMurdo Station, is one of a number of areas protected under the Antarctic treaty for designated scientific activities. Many sites are set aside for geological or biological research, but this is the only one specifically for physical science.

  13. PRESERVING A TRADITION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    COVER STORY The Chinese art of paper cutting has long been a popular pastime in the country’s rural areas.For more than 1,000 years,farming families have used it as a method for decorating their homes,but the tradition has struggled for survival in recent years.In Yanchuan County in China’s northwestern Shaanxi Province,however,the art form has experienced a revival thanks to the efforts of a local woman.Paper cutting master Gao Fenglian has invested her own money in establishing a paper cutting gallery in the region.The craft’s growing popularity has also fuelled a new wave of people wanting to learn how to cut.More than 10,000 of the county’s 200,000 are now skilled in the ancient craft,and its revival could serve as a model for the preservation of other Chinese traditions.

  14. Antifungal activity of essential oils against selected terverticillate penicillia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felšöciová, Soňa; Kačániová, Miroslava; Horská, Elena; Vukovič, Nenad; Hleba, Lukáš; Petrová, Jana; Rovná, Katarina; Stričík, Michal; Hajduová, Zuzana

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to screen 15 essential oils of selected plant species, viz. Lavandula angustifolia, Carum carvi, Pinus mungo var. pulmilio, Mentha piperita, Chamomilla recutita L., Pinus sylvestris, Satureia hortensis L., Origanum vulgare L., Pimpinella anisum, Rosmarinus officinalis L., Salvia officinalis L., Abietis albia etheroleum, Chamomilla recutita L. Rausch, Thymus vulgaris L., Origanum vulgare L. for antifungal activity against five Penicillium species: Penicillium brevicompactum, Penicillium citrinum, Penicillium crustosum, Penicillium expansum and Penicillium griseofulvum. The method used for screening included the disc diffusion method. The study points out the wide spectrum of antifungal activity of essential oils against Penicillium fungi. There were five essential oils of the 15 mentioned above which showed a hopeful antifungal activity: Pimpinella anisum, Chamomilla recutita L., Thymus vulgaris, Origanum vulgare L. The most hopeful antifungal activity and killing effect against all tested penicillia was found to be Origanum vulgare L. and Pimpinella anisum. The lowest level of antifungal activity was demonstrated by the oils Pinus mungo var. pulmilio, Salvia officinalis L., Abietis albia etheroleum, Chamomilla recutita L. Rausch, Rosmarinus officinalis.

  15. New targets and delivery systems for antifungal therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, T J; Viviani, M A; Arathoon, E; Chiou, C; Ghannoum, M; Groll, A H; Odds, F C

    2000-01-01

    Development of new approaches for treatment of invasive fungal infections encompasses new delivery systems for approved and investigational compounds, as well as exploiting the cell membrane, cell wall and virulence factors as putative antifungal targets. Novel delivery systems consisting of cyclodextrins, cochleates, nanoparticles/nanospheres and long circulating ('stealth') liposomes, substantially modulate the pharmacokinetics of existing compounds, and may also be useful to enhance the delivery of antifungal agents to sites of infection. Further insights into the structure-activity relationship of the antifungal triazoles that target the biosynthesis of ergosterol in the fungal cell membrane have led to the development of highly potent broad spectrum agents, including posaconazole, ravuconazole and voriconazole. Similarly, a novel generation of cell-wall active semisynthetic echinocandin 1,3 beta-glucan inhibitors (caspofungin, FK463, and VER-002) has entered clinical development. These agents have potent and broad-spectrum activity against Candida spp, and potentially useful activity against Aspergillus spp. and Pneumocystis carinii. The ongoing convergence of the fields of molecular pathogenesis, antifungal pharmacology and vaccine development will afford the opportunity to develop novel targets to complement the existing antifungal armamentarium.

  16. Antifungal susceptibilities of Candida species isolated from urine culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toka Özer, Türkan; Durmaz, Süleyman; Yula, Erkan

    2016-09-01

    Candida spp. are the most common opportunistic mycosis worldwide. Although Candida albicans is the most common cause of urinary tract infections, the frequency of non-albicans Candida species is increasing with common use of antifungal in the prophylaxis and treatment. This may lead to difficulties in treatment. Antifungal tests should be applied with identification of species for effective treatment. In this study, identification of Candida species isolated from urine culture and investigation of susceptibility of these strains to amphotericin B, flucytosine, fluconazole, voriconazole was aimed. In this study, 58 Candida strains isolated from urine cultures at Osmaniye State Hospital between January 2012 and April 2013 were included. Urine culture and antifungal susceptibility tests were applied. Incidence rate of Candida spp. was determined as C. albicans (56.9%), Candida glabrata (20.6%), Candida tropicalis (10.3%), Candida parapsilosis (7%), Candida krusei (3.4%), Candida kefyr (1.8%). Most of the isolates were susceptible to amphotericin B, flucytosine, fluconazole, voriconazole. Twenty three (39.7%) Candida strains were isolated from internal medical branches and Intensive Care Unit and 12 (20.6%) from the Surgical Medical Branches. C. albicans and C. glabrata species were isolated most frequently as a candiduria factor in this hospital between January 2012 and April 2013. The analysis of antifungal susceptibility profile shows no significant resistance to antifungals.

  17. IPC synthase as a useful target for antifungal drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugimoto, Yuichi; Sakoh, Hiroki; Yamada, Koji

    2004-12-01

    Inositol phosphorylceramide (IPC) synthase is a common and essential enzyme in fungi and plants, which catalyzes the transfer of phosphoinositol to the C-1 hydroxy of ceramide to produce IPC. This reaction is a key step in fungal sphingolipid biosynthesis, therefore the enzyme is a potential target for the development of nontoxic therapeutic antifungal agents. Natural products with a desired biological activity, aureobasidin A (AbA), khafrefungin, and galbonolide A, have been reported. AbA, a cyclic depsipeptide containing 8 amino acids and a hydroxyl acid, is a broad spectrum antifungal with strong activity against many pathogenic fungi such as Candida spp., Cryptococcus neoformans, and some Aspergillus spp. Khafrefungin, an aldonic acid ester with a C22 long alkyl chain, has antifungal activity against C. albicans, Cr. Neoformans, and Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Galbonolide A is a 14-membered macrolide with fungicidal activity against clinically important strains, and is especially potent against Cr. neoformans. These classes of natural products are potent and specific antifungal agents. We review current progress in the development of IPC synthase inhibitors with antifungal activities, and present structure-activity relationships (SAR), physicochemical and structural properties, and synthetic methodology for chemical modification.

  18. Antimycobacterial and Antifungal Activities of Selected Four Salvia Species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nur Tan

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The content of essential oils of endemic Salvia cilicica was analyzed by GC-FID and GC-MS techniques. Spathulenol (23.8 %, caryophyllene oxide (14.9 % and hexadecanoic acid (10.3 % were identified as the major components in the oil of Salvia cilicica. Additionally, in this study ethanol extracts of the aerial parts and essential oils of four Salvia species ( S. cilicica, S. officinalis, S. fruticosa, S. tomentosa , as well as the roots of S. cilicica were investigated their antimycobacterial and antifungal activities including infectious diseases. The antimycobacterial activity was analyzed against three Mycobacterium tuberculosis (sensitive-, resistant-standard strains and multidrug resistance clinical isolate strains and the antifungal activity was compared with two dermotophytes (Microsporum gypseum and Trichophyton mentagrophytes var. erinacei and three Candida species by the broth microdilution method. The essentials oils of the four tested Salvia species showed high antimycobacterial and antifungal activity (MIC between 0.2-12.5 mcg/mL in comparison to the aerial parts and root extracts . The antifungal and antimycobacterial potential of the ethanol extracts and essential oils were introduced to determine whether, Salvia species can be used in phytotherapy against the yeasts, dermatophytes and M. tuberculosis. To the best of our knowledge this is the first study of S. cilicica about their antimycobacterial and antifungal activities and chemical composition of its essential oils.

  19. Antifungal activity of multifunctional Fe 3O 4-Ag nanocolloids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chudasama, Bhupendra; Vala, Anjana K.; Andhariya, Nidhi; Upadhyay, R. V.; Mehta, R. V.

    2011-05-01

    In recent years, rapid increase has been observed in the population of microbes that are resistant to conventionally used antibiotics. Antifungal drug therapy is no exception and now resistance to many of the antifungal agents in use has emerged. Therefore, there is an inevitable and urgent medical need for antibiotics with novel antimicrobial mechanisms. Aspergillus glaucus is the potential cause of fatal brain infections and hypersensitivity pneumonitis in immunocompromised patients and leads to death despite aggressive multidrug antifungal therapy. In the present article, we describe the antifungal activity of multifunctional core-shell Fe 3O 4-Ag nanocolloids against A. glaucus isolates. Controlled experiments are also carried out with Ag nanocolloids in order to understand the role of core (Fe 3O 4) in the antifungal action. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of nanocolloids is determined by the micro-dilution method. MIC of A. glaucus is 2000 μg/mL. The result is quite promising and requires further investigations in order to develop a treatment methodology against this death causing fungus in immunocompromised patients.

  20. An antifungal defensin from Phaseolus vulgaris cv. 'Cloud Bean'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Xiangli; Sun, Jian; Zhang, Guoqing; Wang, Hexiang; Ng, Tzi Bun

    2011-01-15

    An antifungal peptide with a defensin-like sequence and exhibiting a molecular mass of 7.3kDa was purified from dried seeds of Phaseolus vulgaris 'Cloud Bean'. The isolation procedure entailed anion exchange chromatography on DEAE-cellulose, affinity chromatography an Affi-gel blue gel, cation exchange chromatography on SP-Sepharose, and gel filtration by fast protein liquid chromatography on Superdex 75. Although the antifungal peptide was unadsorbed on DEAE-cellulose, it was adsorbed on both Affi-gel blue gel and SP-Sepharose. The antifungal peptide exerted antifungal activity against Mycosphaerella arachidicola with an IC(50) value of 1.8 μM. It was also active against Fusarium oxysporum with an IC(50) value of 2.2 μM. It had no inhibitory effect on HIV-1 reverse transcriptase when tested up to 100 μM. Proliferation of L1210 mouse leukemia cells and MBL2 lymphoma cells was inhibited by the antifungal peptide with an IC(50) of 10 μM and 40 μM, respectively.