WorldWideScience

Sample records for antifungal food preservative

  1. Food preservation using antifungal lactic acid bacteria

    OpenAIRE

    Crowley, Sarah Catherine Mary

    2013-01-01

    Fungal spoilage of food and feed prevails as a major problem for the food industry. The use antifungal-producing lactic acid bacteria (LAB) may represent a safer, natural alternative to the use of chemical preservatives in foods. A large scale screen was undertaken to identify a variety of LAB with antifungal properties from plant, animal and human sources. A total of 6,720 LAB colonies were isolated and screened for antifungal activity against the indicator Penicillium expansum. 94 broad-spe...

  2. Oat (Avena sativa) Seed Extract as an Antifungal Food Preservative Through the Catalytic Activity of a Highly Abundant Class I Chitinase

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Hans; Madsen, Lone; Petersen, Jørgen;

    2009-01-01

    Extracts from different higher plants were screened for the ability to inhibit the growth of Penicillium roqueforti, a major contaminating species in industrial food processing. Oat (Avena sativa) seed extracts exhibited a high degree of antifungal activity and could be used directly on rye bread...... similarity to class I chitinases of wheat (Triticum aestivum), barley (Hordeum vulgare), and rye (Secale cereale). Oat, wheat, barley, and rye seed extracts were compared with respect to the abundance of the class I chitinase and decrease in antifungal activity when class I chitinase is removed. We found...... that the oat seed class I chitinase is at least ten times more abundant than the wheat, barley, and rye homologs and that oat seed extracts are highly active toward P. roqueforti as opposed to extracts of other cereal seeds....

  3. Oat (Avena sativa) seed extract as an antifungal food preservative through the catalytic activity of a highly abundant class I chitinase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sørensen, Hans Peter; Madsen, Lone Søvad; Petersen, Jørgen; Andersen, Jesper Tapdrup; Hansen, Anne Maria; Beck, Hans Christian

    2010-03-01

    Extracts from different higher plants were screened for the ability to inhibit the growth of Penicillium roqueforti, a major contaminating species in industrial food processing. Oat (Avena sativa) seed extracts exhibited a high degree of antifungal activity and could be used directly on rye bread to prevent the formation of P. roqueforti colonies. Proteins in the oat seed extracts were fractionated by column chromatography and proteins in fractions containing antifungal activity were identified by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) and database searches. Identified antifungal candidates included thaumatin-like proteins, 1,3-beta-glucanase, permatin precursor, pathogenesis-related protein type 1, and chitinases of class I and II. Class I chitinase could be specifically removed from the extracts and was found to be indispensable for 50% of the P. roqueforti inhibiting activity. The purified class I chitinase has a molecular weight of approximately 34 kDa, optimal chitinase activity at pH 7, and exists as at least two basic isoforms (pI values of 7.6 and 8.0). Partial sequencing of the class I chitinase isoforms by LC-MS/MS revealed a primary structure with high similarity to class I chitinases of wheat (Triticum aestivum), barley (Hordeum vulgare), and rye (Secale cereale). Oat, wheat, barley, and rye seed extracts were compared with respect to the abundance of the class I chitinase and decrease in antifungal activity when class I chitinase is removed. We found that the oat seed class I chitinase is at least ten times more abundant than the wheat, barley, and rye homologs and that oat seed extracts are highly active toward P. roqueforti as opposed to extracts of other cereal seeds. PMID:19224400

  4. How to preserve foods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The use of gamma and fast electron radiations for food preservation is described. Examples are given of the application of ionizing radiation for retarding potato germination, onion growth, and fruit ripening, for limiting the action of microorganisms, and removing salmonella from meat products. The method has remarkable prospects although it may not be considered to be a general-purpose method. Geographic and economic conditions should always be taken into consideration. (J.P.)

  5. Food preservation by irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As shortages of food and energy still continue to constitute the major threats to the well-being of the human race, all actions aiming at overcoming these problems must be assigned vital importance. Of the two complementary ways of solving the food problem (i.e., increasing the production of food and decreasing the spoilage of food) a novel method designed to contribute to the latter purpose has been discussed at this symposium hosted by The Netherlands and held under the aegis of the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, the International Atomic Energy Agency and the World Health Organization. Progress made since the last symposium of this kind (Bombay, India, 1972) was reviewed from the technological, economic and wholesomeness points of view by participants from 39 countries (60% of the latter were of the developing world). From the reports presented on the use of radiations to control physiological changes in plants, feasibility of radiation preservation of potatoes, onions, garlic, as well as of some tropical and subtropical fruits (mangoes, papayas, litchis and avocado) was confirmed. For potatoes, onions and mangoes, optimal conditions of treatment and storage were established on a larger scale, combined with sizeable consumer trials. Combinations of ionizing radiation with chemicals (salycilic acid, for potatoes), and physical agents (ultraviolet rays, for papayas) have been reported to be successful against the incidence of rot. A considerable number of papers dealt with the control of microbiological spoilage of foods. Work since 1972 has shown that radurization of fruits and vegetables (bananas, mangoes, dried dates, endive, chickory, onions, soup-greens), meat, poultry, marine products (mackerel, cod and plaice fillets, shrimps), decontamination of food ingredients and food technology aids (enzyme preparations, proteins, starch, spices), radappertization of meat and animal feedstuffs as well as combination treatments with salt, heat

  6. Hybrid Food Preservation Program Improves Food Preservation and Food Safety Knowledge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francis, Sarah L.

    2014-01-01

    The growing trend in home food preservation raises concerns about whether the resulting food products will be safe to eat. The increased public demand for food preservation information led to the development of the comprehensive food preservation program, Preserve the Taste of Summer (PTTS). PTTS is a comprehensive hybrid food preservation program…

  7. A revolution in food preservation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A brief consumer guide to food irradiation is presented. Aspects covered include some of the advantages of food irradiation compared to other methods of food preservation, the type of radiation used, the mechanism of action, some practical applications, safety and future benefits. (UK)

  8. Radioactivity and food preservation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In food irradiation, electrons or electromagnetic radiation are used to destroy microorganisms and insects or to prevent seed germination. The economic advantages and health benefits of sterilizing food in this manner are clear, and numerous studies have confirmed that under strictly controlled conditions no undesirable changes or induced radioactivity are produced in the irradiated food

  9. Food Preservation by Irradiation (Rev.)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Urrows, Grace M.

    1968-01-01

    Up to 30% of food harvests are lost in some parts of the world because of animal pests and microorganisms. Nuclear techniques can help reduce and extend the shelf life of these foods. Around 55 countries now have food irradiation programs. The use of radiation is the most recent step in man's attempts to preserve some of his harvest for the lean part of the year.

  10. Preservation of food and radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the application of radiation to preservation of food, there are some methods; sterilization, elimination of noxious insects, prevention of germination and control of maturation. The former two utilize the lethal effect of radiation to the living things and the latter two utilize the injurious effect on the metabolism of the living things. At present, irradiation to potato is most widely permitted for the purpose of prevention of germination, and the irradiation with 15 Krad (maximum) is allowed to preserve potato for 8 months in Japan. In the other hand, a large quantity of doses, such as 4.5 to 5.6 Mrad, is necessary to sterilize completely for industrial use, degeneration of food component and high cost come into question. In addition, food is directly taken into the mouth of human being, therefore, wholesomeness, legal permission and determination of dose must be examined. (Tsukamoto, Y.)

  11. New method of preserving food

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The use of gamma radiation for food preservation is discussed. Investigations at the AAEC include: the eradication of fruit-fly larvae in oranges, tomatoes and avocadoes; treatment of shrimps; extending the shelf life of mushrooms and potatoes; treatment of imported beans to prevent germination; killing of bacterial spores with a combination of pressure and gamma radiation; and the treatment of beehives containing honey-bee larvae with foulbrood

  12. Potential of selected lactic acid bacteria to produce food compatible antifungal metabolites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Muynck, Cassandra; Leroy, Annelies I J; De Maeseneire, Sofie; Arnaut, Filip; Soetaert, Wim; Vandamme, Erick J

    2004-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the potential of lactic acid bacteria to inhibit the outgrowth of some common food-spoiling fungi. Culture supernatants of 17 Lactic acid bacterial strains as well as of three commercial probiotic cultures were evaluated for antifungal activity using an agar-diffusion method. The method parameters were chosen in order to reveal compounds for potential use in food (bio)preservation. Thirteen strains showed antifungal activity of which five strains were very promising: Lactobacillus acidophilus LMG 9433, L. amylovorus DSM 20532, L. brevis LMG 6906, L. coryniformis subsp. coryniformis LMG 9196 and L. plantarum LMG 6907. Four of these five strains were further examined; it was found that the produced antifungal metabolites were pH-dependent. The exact chemical nature of these substances has not been revealed yet. PMID:15646380

  13. Radiation preservation of cooked foods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The preservation of irradiated cooked food has been explained in this report under vacuum conditions. The samples were irradiated at dose levels of 7.5 and 10.0 LGy. Measurement of fungal count was carried immediately after irradiation and after each 15 days of storage life upto 60 days of time interval. The samples were evaluated organolepticaly as well. It has been observed that no significance difference was observed among samples of irradiated and vacuum packed controls during storage for 45 days. (A.B.)

  14. Irradiation's potential for preserving food

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The first experimental studies on the use of ionizing radiation for the preservation of foods were published over thirty years ago (1, 2) . After a period of high expectations and perhaps exaggerated optimism a series of disappointments occurred in the late '60s .The first company specifically created to operate a food irradiation plant, Newfield Products Inc, ran into financial difficulties and had to close its potato irradiation facility in 1966. The irradiator, designed to process 15,000t of potatoes per month for inhibition of sprouting, was in operation during one season only. In 1968 the US Food an Drug Administration refused approval for radiation-sterilisation of ham and withdrew the approval it had granted in 1963 for irradiated bacon. An International Project on the Irradiation of Fruit and Fruit juices, created in 1965 at Seibersdorf, Austria, with the collaboration or 9 countries, ended with general disappointment after three years. The first commercial grain irradiator, built in the Turkish harbour town of Iskenderun by the International Atomic Energy Agency with funds from the United Nations Development Program, never received the necessary operating licence from the Turkish Government and had to be dismantled in 1968. The US Atomic Energy Commission terminated its financial support to all research programmes on food irradiation in 1970. For a number of years, little chance seemed to remain that the new process would ever be practically used. However, research and development work was continued in a number of laboratories all over the world, and it appears that the temporary setbacks now have been overcome. Growing quantities of irradiated foods are being marketed in several countries and indications are that irradiated foods will eventually be as generally accepted as are frozen, dried or heatsterilised foods

  15. SMART PACKAGING FOR FOOD PRESERVATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raquel Rodríguez-Sauceda

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available One of the biggest challenges of the food industry is the preservation of its products, that is, to prevent them from being attacked by microorganisms that decompose them hauling economic losses and severe health damage to the consumer. Today, competition in the food industry is very high and any company that does not offer the quality products is doomed to fail. Consumers demand more and the industry still stands offering what is asked: quality, security and safety. The package, in addition to fulfilling its core functions is becoming a means of sophisticated interactions with content and a record of relevant information for both the end consumer and intermediate players in the value chain and concepts are born of active and intelligent packaging. A smart container is defined as a system that monitors the condition of the packaged product, being able to register and provide information about product quality or condition of the container, showing the possible "abnormal" practices that have suffered the product or the container during the entire supply chain, such as transportation or storage. These systems monitor the mechanisms of altered food due to physiological, chemical and biological processes that respond and communicate changes in the status of the product as time-temperature, Oxygen, Carbon dioxide, microbial growth, etc. There are different types of smart packaging such as time-temperature indicators, color indicators, indicators of pathogens and indicators of leaks, to name a few. Through literature review, arguments that demonstrate the usefulness and necessity of the use of smart packaging to preserve the quality and safety of the product it contains, from manufacturing to the time it is used by consumers were found, as these besides communicating or providing information about their state, acting as a marketing tool.

  16. Establishment of a world food preservation center

    OpenAIRE

    Wilson Charles L

    2013-01-01

    Abstract A World Food Preservation Center (WFPC) is proposed in response to a pending civilization-threatening food shortage and our limited ability to adequately increase food production. Some estimates put losses of food in developing countries after it is produced and before it is consumed at 50%. These losses are particularly threatening to individuals and farmers who are living in the midst of food insecurity. Although numerous organizations have attempted to address this problem worldwi...

  17. A Big Problem for Magellan: Food Preservation

    OpenAIRE

    Galvão, Cecília; Reis, Pedro; Freire, Sofia

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, we present data related to how a Portuguese teacher developed the module "A big problem for Magellan: Food preservation." Students were asked to plan an investigation in order to identify which were the best food preservation methods in the XV and XVI centuries of Portuguese overseas navigation, and then establish a parallel between those methods and current ones. Students were involved in discussing the relationship between science and social issues, and about the impact th...

  18. Nuclear Energy for food preservation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The article deals with food irradiation and its objectives, and R and D work being done in India. Detailed studies undertaken on specific low-dose radiation treatment processes on disinfestation of stored wheat, sprout inhibition of stored onions, and potatoes, delayed ripening of mangoes and bananas and extension in shelf-life of sea foods are reported. The assessment of the wholesomeness of irradiated foods and international status of approval for irradiated foods are discussed. Factors influencing the economic prospects for the large scale radiation treatment of some of the commodities are mentioned. (S.K.K.)

  19. Radioisotopes and food preservation against insects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The book describes how to preserve food from harmful insects by using radioisotopes. It focusses on the impact of ionized radiation on the different stages of insect growth and on its metabolism and immunity. It also discusses the relationship between radiation doses and insect reproduction. It explains the various methods to detect the irradiated foods

  20. Establishment of a world food preservation center

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilson Charles L

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract A World Food Preservation Center (WFPC is proposed in response to a pending civilization-threatening food shortage and our limited ability to adequately increase food production. Some estimates put losses of food in developing countries after it is produced and before it is consumed at 50%. These losses are particularly threatening to individuals and farmers who are living in the midst of food insecurity. Although numerous organizations have attempted to address this problem worldwide, the magnitude of the effort has not come close to the enormity of the problem. Most of these programs are also short-term and require continuous input by postharvest specialists from developed countries in order to be sustainable. A critical need exists for a substantial and sustainable worldwide program that can significantly reduce losses and waste of food in developing countries. The World Food Preservation Center proposed here meets this need by educating young scientists in developing countries about low-input, appropriate technologies for preserving food postharvest. It also conducts research on postharvest technologies especially suited for application in developing countries such as biological control, solar refrigeration, and coordinated transport and marketing schemes that support and sustain the local production of food commodities.

  1. Radiation in response to food preservation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Preservation of food items is a pre-requisite for food security. The seasonal nature of production, perishable nature of food materials (fruits, vegetables and other value added products) and the rising gap between demand and supply have posed great challenges to conventional techniques of food preservation and thereby to food security. Food irradiation, one of the beneficial applications of atomic energy, is an important innovation in food preservation, since the development of canning in the 19th century. It provides an effective alternative to fumigants, which are being phased out owing to their adverse effects on the environment and human health. Moreover, exposure of food material to radiation has strong advantages over conventional methods of preservation such as cold storage, fumigation, salting and drying because it does not lead to loss of taste, texture, flavour, odour etc. or overall quality attributes. Generally, two types of radiations are used i.e., ionizing and non-ionizing. Since radiation does not generate heat, it is termed 'cold sterilization'. Gamma rays, E-beam and X-rays are used for irradiation. Irradiation under approved conditions has been demonstrated to have no dangerous effects on food, either chemical or microbial in nature and does not cause any significant loss of macronutrients. Proteins, fats and carbohydrates undergo little change in nutritional value during irradiation even with doses over 10 kGy, though there may be sensory changes. Similarly, the essential amino acids, essential fatty acids, minerals and trace elements are also unaffected. There can be a decrease in certain vitamins (particularly thiamin) but these are of the same order of magnitude as occurs in other manufacturing processes such as drying/dehydration or canning (thermal sterilization). So, there is urgent need to exploit the benefits of irradiation involve standardization, communication and education. The potential benefits of irradiation technology have been

  2. Food irradiation: a question of preservation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Although it has been around for years, food irradiation has yet to make its mark in the commercial world, but scientific evidence may now be on its side Food poisoning is not a pleasant experience, and severe cases can even be fatal. Stopping your dinner from turning into a gastronomic nightmare calls for good hygiene and careful storage. Unfortunately, food does not stay fresh - bread goes stale, milk goes sour - so finding ways to prevent deterioration and control infection by microorganisms has occupied man for centuries. Controls, such as refrigeration or pasteurisation, have become commonplace, but one technique remains somewhat controversial. Food irradiation - using ionising radiation to preserve food - has been around for over 60 years and can offer a number of potential benefits. Until recently, however, concerns about the safety of this technique have left it languishing in the laboratory. But now, with approvals for use on various foodstuffs in 40 countries, and reports from groups such as the World Health Organization acknowledging it as safe,[1,2] food irradiation may at last be ready to take centre stage

  3. Application of Bacillus sp. as a biopreservative for food preservation

    OpenAIRE

    S. Nath,; Chowdhury, S.

    2015-01-01

    Food preservation is enhancing shelf-life and food quality to eliminate food-related illness and product spoilage, especially by the use of food additives.The growing consumer demand for effective preservation of food without altering its nutritional quality and free of potential health risks andto find an attractive and alternative approach to chemical preservatives, have stimulated research in the field of biopreservation by the use of natural or controlled microbiota and/or the...

  4. Antifungal activity of some marine organisms from India, against food spoilage Aspergillus strains

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Bhosale, S.H.; Jagtap, T.G.; Naik, C.G.

    Crude aqueous methanol extracts obtained from 31 species of various marine organisms (including floral and faunal), were screened for their antifungal activity against food poisoning strains of Aspergillus. Seventeen species exhibited mild (+ = zone...

  5. Bacteriocins: safe, natural antimicrobials for food preservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cleveland, J; Montville, T J; Nes, I F; Chikindas, M L

    2001-12-01

    Bacteriocins are antibacterial proteins produced by bacteria that kill or inhibit the growth of other bacteria. Many lactic acid bacteria (LAB) produce a high diversity of different bacteriocins. Though these bacteriocins are produced by LAB found in numerous fermented and non-fermented foods, nisin is currently the only bacteriocin widely used as a food preservative. Many bacteriocins have been characterized biochemically and genetically, and though there is a basic understanding of their structure-function, biosynthesis, and mode of action, many aspects of these compounds are still unknown. This article gives an overview of bacteriocin applications, and differentiates bacteriocins from antibiotics. A comparison of the synthesis. mode of action, resistance and safety of the two types of molecules is covered. Toxicity data exist for only a few bacteriocins, but research and their long-time intentional use strongly suggest that bacteriocins can be safely used. PMID:11764886

  6. Food Preservation by Irradiation. Vol. I. Proceedings of an International Symposium on Food Preservation by Irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the task of alleviating the distress caused by the world-wide food shortage it is essential to preserve what has been grown and harvested in the fields. Clearly all suitable methods for preserving agricultural produce and food should be made use of. In this context treatment with ionizing radiation has proved its value as an environmentally clean, physical method o f food preservation which is low in its energy requirement, but the volume of food being processed in this way is still low. The introduction o f food irradiation on a global basis poses certain economic, legal, regulatory and health-related questions, the solution o f which requires close international collaboration. Such collaboration between many international, intergovernmental and national organizations began over a decade ago. The need for dissemination and discussion o f information gained through research and development work on this subject became apparent, and a number of inter-regional meetings were held. The last international symposium on the topic was held jointly by FAO and the IAEA in 1972 in Bombay. To review progress made since then, FAO and the IAEA, together with WHO, convened the present Symposium on 21-25 November 1977. It appeared timely to hold this Symposium for the following reasons: (1) Apart from significant scientific work reported in the literature, progress in other directions between 1972 and 1977 had also been made. For example, the number of food items authorized by governments, with or without restriction, had grown from 19 to 26, and the number of countries accepting one or more irradiated foods for human consumption had increased from 11 to 19. (2) Largely on the basis of the work of the International Project in the Field of Food Irradiation (Karlsruhe), already described at the Bombay Symposium, an international expert committee, jointly convened by FAO, the IAEA and WHO in August-September 1976, had made important statements on the philosophy of wholesomeness

  7. Food Preservation by Irradiation. Vol. II. Proceedings of an International Symposium on Food Preservation by Irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the task of alleviating the distress caused by the world-wide food shortage it is essential to preserve what has been grown and harvested in the fields. Clearly all suitable methods for preserving agricultural produce and food should be made use of. In this context treatment with ionizing radiation has proved its value as an environmentally clean, physical method of food preservation which is low in its energy requirement, but the volume of food being processed in this way is still low. The introduction of food irradiation on a global basis poses certain economic, legal, regulatory and health-related questions, the solution of which requires close international collaboration. Such collaboration between many international, intergovernmental and national organizations began over a decade ago. The need for dissemination and discussion of information gained through research and development work on this subject became apparent, and a number of inter-regional meetings were held. The last international symposium on the topic was held jointly by FAO and the IAEA in 1972 in Bombay. To review progress made since then, FAO and the IAEA, together with WHO, convened the present Symposium on 21-25 November 1977. It appeared timely to hold this Symposium for the following reasons: (1) Apart from significant scientific work reported in the literature, progress in other directions between 1972 and 1977 had also been made. For example, the number of food items authorized by governments, with or without restriction, had grown from 19 to 26, and the number of countries accepting one or more irradiated foods for human consumption had increased from 11 to 19. (2) Largely on the basis of the work of the International Project in the Field of Food Irradiation (Karlsruhe), already described at the Bombay Symposium, an international expert committee, jointly convened by FAO, the IAEA and WHO in August-September 1976, had made important statements on the philosophy of wholesomeness studies

  8. Utilization of irradiation on food preservation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present project was intended to ascertain the efficacy of irradiation both in the decontamination and storeability of mixed condiments for convenience food and in the long-term preservation of a Kimchi. Based upon the preliminary studies, irradiated sample with doses at 1-3 kGy were evaluated during the storage for 30 days at 10 deg C from the points of view of microbiological (total aerobic bacteria, lactic acid bacteria, yeasts and molds, and coliforms), physicochemical (pH, total acidity, volatile acid, reducing sugar, ascorbic acid, and texture) and organoleptic qualities. Besides, the combined effect of irradiation with heating on the storeability was investigated for five species of the lactic acid bacteria associated with the Kimchi fermentation. Under the room temperature storage conditions, physicochemical qualities of the irradiated samples were evaluated by determining pH, rancidity (TBA number), proximate composition, amino nitrogen, amino acid, and color changes. In the overall evaluation of sensory quality for the irradiated Kimchi, the nonirradiated control group was inedible after 15 days of storage, whereas 2-3 kGy irradiation could prolong the storage-life of the Kimchi over 2 times compared with the nonirradiated control, showing the good sensory quality even after 30 days of storage. In comparative effects of irradiation and ethylene oxide both treatments affected more or less rancidity, color, and amino acid content, but less than 10 kGy irradiation was shown to be safer than ethylene oxide fumigation. Form the foregoing results, it can be concluded that if a selective method could be applied to the radiation sterilization of minor ingredients capable of mainly contaminating the mixed condiments, even lower doses of irradiation should be effective for the microbial control. (Author)

  9. Technology of food preservation by irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Food Technology Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai has demonstrated that radiation processing of foods can contribute to nations food security by reducing post-harvest losses caused by insect infestation, microbial-spoilage and physiological changes. The technology has commercial potential for the conservation of cereals, pulses and their products, spices, onions, potatoes, garlic, some tropical fruits, sea foods, meat and poultry. Irradiation can ensure hygienic quality in foods including frozen foods by eliminating food borne pathogens and parasitic organisms. It offers a viable environment friendly alternative to chemical fumigants for quarantine treatment against insect pests in agricultural and horticultural products entering international trade. The safety and nutritional adequacy of irradiated foods for human consumption is well established. About 40 countries including India have regulations permitting irradiation of foods and 28 countries are irradiating foods for processing industries and institutional catering

  10. Application of Bacillus sp. as a biopreservative for food preservation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Nath,

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Food preservation is enhancing shelf-life and food quality to eliminate food-related illness and product spoilage, especially by the use of food additives.The growing consumer demand for effective preservation of food without altering its nutritional quality and free of potential health risks andto find an attractive and alternative approach to chemical preservatives, have stimulated research in the field of biopreservation by the use of natural or controlled microbiota and/or their antimicrobial compounds including very recent innovation: Bacillus sp., the ubiquitous, Gram positive bacteria, producing inhibitory substances like cyclic peptides and bacteriocins, with a broad antimicrobial spectrum and a history of safe use in food. Bacillus spores are also being used extensively as probiotic food supplements where they are used in human as dietary supplements and in feed for livestock and aquaculture as growth promoters.A novel concept multi-target food preservation has emerged in relation to hurdle technology stating the microbial safety, stability, sensorial and nutritional qualities of foods are based on the application of combined preservative factors (called hurdles including Bacillus sp. that microorganisms present in the food are unable to overcome, thus leading to inhibition of microbial growth by disturbing their homeostasis and metabolic exhaustion and avoiding tress reaction by bacteria. Future exploration of the natural preservatives and/or their metabolites, in combination with advanced technologies could result in replacement of chemical preservatives, or could allow less severe processing (e.g. heat treatments, while still maintaining adequate microbiological safety and quality in foods.

  11. Irradiation pilot plants and experimental facilities available for food preservation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    With the ever-increasing world food crisis mankind has to face today, the prevention of spoilage of perishable food is gaining in momentum. The World Food Conference (Rome, November 1974) of the United Nations clearly recognized the importance of food preservation and urged action in this field. Irradiation is one of the recently discovered methods to preserve food. Its practical introduction largely depends on three main factors: (a) proof of the safety for human consumption of the irradiated product, (b) technological feasibility and (c) economic competitiveness of the process. As data on safety for consumption ('wholesomeness') continue to become available, the number of countries authorizing the irradiation of certain food items is growing (present total: 17 countries), and the same is true for the number of licensed irradiated commodities (total: 23). Under these conditions, testing of the technological and economic feasibility of food irradiation is a matter of increasing importance. Economic feasibility of any industrial operation can only be studied in larger-scale experiments. Thus, they can only be performed with radiation sources larger than those found in laboratories, i.e. in pilot irradiators, capable of handling from a few hundred to a few thousand kilograms of material within a short period of time. The Food Preservation Section of the Joint FAO/IAEA Division of Atomic Energy in Food and Agriculture has attempted to collect data on the availability, for food preservation, of suitable irradiators in Member States

  12. Recent advances in the preservation of food by irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    There are two ways in which the world food problem can be attacked: (1) by increasing food production, that is, growing more food by utilizing agricultural knowledge and material input, and (2) by preserving more of the food that is already being produced by utilizing food science and technology. While both lines of action should be followed, it is logical that preservation should play a key role not only because it would reduce wastage of existing food that is desperately needed by millions of people, but also prevent the wastage of the energy invested in growing food. The preservation of food is, therefore, a vital technology, and studies of both traditional food preservation methods and new techniques should be actively pursued. The irradiation of food, usually by gamma rays from a cobalt-60 source, offers advantages over traditional methods, irradiation not only can delay the processes that lead to the onset of undesirable physiological changes (sprouting, over-ripening), microbial spoilage (rot, mould formation) and damage caused by insects, but also can kill disease-causing organisms that will infect the food if it is left untreated. It is rather surprising to find that after 25 years of extensive studies, practical introduction of food preservation by irradiation has only recently been started in one Member State of the IAEA. The main obstacles are of a psychological nature, but a number of other problems also remains to be solved. Nevertheless, it is clear that many questions have already been settled and significant progress has been made. Some of these developments will be briefly enumerated below. However, it should be noted right at the onset that, like the conventional methods, irradiation also has its limitations and cannot be considered a cure-all for all food problems under all conditions

  13. Food preservation technologies developed at BARC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Food irradiation is important as it is being used to disinfest food grains, pulses, wheat flour, rice, semolina, raisins etc; quarantining and shelf life increasing of fruits like mangoes; microbial decontamination of spices; sprout inhibition of tubers and bulbs; shelf life increasing and pathogen control of meat and fish. Category-IV type irradiators based on gamma rays exposure of food are currently being employed for this purpose. Cobalt-60 isotope is produced in the nuclear reactors. Isotope gives gamma rays as its nucleus is unstable. The gamma rays pass through the food items and inhibit sprouting of tubers and bulbs, kill bacteria, virus and the larvae of insects

  14. Effect of essential oils on Aspergillus spore germination, growth and mycotoxin production:a potential source of botanical food preservative

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Negero Gemeda; Yimtubezinash Woldeamanuel; Daniel Asrat; Asfaw Debella

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To investigate effect of essential oils on Aspergillus spore germination, growth and mycotoxin production.Method: In vitro antifungal and antiaflatoxigenic activity of essential oils was carried out using poisoned food techniques, spore germination assay, agar dilution assay, and aflatoxin arresting assay on toxigenic strains of Aspergillus species.Results: Cymbopogon martinii, Foeniculum vulgare and Trachyspermum ammi (T. ammi) essential oils were tested against toxicogenic isolates of Aspergillus species. T. ammi oil showed highest antifungal activity. Absolute mycelial inhibition was recorded at 1 µl/mL by essential oils of T. ammi. The oil also showed, complete inhibition of spore germination at a concentration of 2 µl/mL. In addition, T. ammi oil showed significant antiaflatoxigenic potency by totally inhibiting aflatoxin production from Aspergillus niger and Aspergillus flavus at 0.5 and 0.75 µl/mL, respectively. Cymbopogon martinii, Foeniculum vulgare and T. ammi oils as antifungal were found superior over synthetic preservative. Moreover, a concentration of 5 336.297 µl/kg body weight was recorded for LC50 on mice indicating the low mammalian toxicity and strengthening its traditional reputations.Conclusions:In conclusion, the essential oils from T. ammi can be a potential source of safe natural food preservative for food commodities contamination by storage fungi.

  15. Radiation preservation of food. Efficiency and wholesomeness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document reviews the applications of ionizing radiations in the food industry. The two first chapters feature the characteristics of the three types of ionizing radiations that can be used (gamma rays from cobalt 60 and caesium 137, X rays, electron beams) and their action on foodstuff and the food spoilage organisms. The third chapter is a review of toxicological studies based on two complementary approaches: animal assays and studies on the radiolysis products. It provides the evidences that lead the international experts to regard irradiated food as safe for human consumption. In the fourth chapter, the problems of identification of irradiated food and the possible controls are exposed. The authors conclude by suggesting the measures that would allow commercial application in France

  16. Workshop report: The application of technology for food preservation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A workshop on the application of ionizing technology for food preservation is reviewed. The major aim of this workshop is to introduce this new technology to the layman and local scientists so as to promote the new treatment in the local food industry

  17. Utilization of irradiation on food preservation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The research programme in 1982 was conducted not only to develop the commercial storage method of sprouting foods by irradiation combined with natural low temperature and to sterilize the E.coli of ginseng and ginseng product but also to approach the development of the long term storage method of rice and barley. (Author)

  18. Why the concern about irradiation as a food preservation technique?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Irradiation is a food preservation process that like the more traditional and alternative methods is intended to keep food safe to eat by delaying the natural decomposition processes that result from bacterial action. Preservation of foods by irradiation, although still not available in Australia, is readily accepted in some 44 countries, including France. This project is set up to examine if a sample of fresh fruits and vegetables, when irradiated to the recommended 'preservation' dose level, becomes 'radioactive'. By placing the 'irradiated' sample, together with an identical 'control' sample of the same fresh fruit and vegetables, in an x-radiography cassette in a shielded 'cave', differences in film 'blackening' over the exposure period would indicate relative radioactivity from within the respective samples. Also, using simultaneous daily photographs of both the 'irradiated' and non-irradiated 'control' samples, the delay of onset of visible decay of both can be determined

  19. Air Purifiers Eliminate Pathogens, Preserve Food

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    NASA-funded researchers produced an ethylene reduction device for a plant growth unit. KES Science & Technology Inc., a Kennesaw, Georgia-based company specializing in sustaining perishable foods, licensed the ethylene scrubbing technology. KES partnered with Akida Holdings, of Jacksonville, Florida, which now markets the NASA-developed technology as AiroCide. According to the company, it is the only air purifier that completely destroys airborne bacteria, mold, fungi, mycotoxins, viruses, volatile organic compounds (like ethylene), and odors. What?s more, the devices have no filters that need changing and produce no harmful byproducts, such as the ozone created by some filtration systems.

  20. Development of Food Preservation and Processing Technologies by Radiation Technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To secure national food resources, development of energy-saving food processing and preservation technologies, establishment of method on improvement of national health and safety by development of alternative techniques of chemicals and foundation of the production of hygienic food and public health related products by irradiation technology were studied. Results at current stage are following: As the first cooperative venture business technically invested by National Atomic Research Development Project, institute/company's [technology-invested technology foundation No. 1] cooperative venture, Sun-BioTech Ltd., was founded and stated its business. This suggested new model for commercialization and industrialization of the research product by nation-found institute. From the notice of newly approved product list about irradiated food, radiation health related legal approval on 7 food items was achieved from the Ministry of health and wellfare, the Korea Food and Drug Administration, and this contributed the foundation of enlargement of practical use of irradiated food. As one of the foundation project for activation of radiation application technology for the sanitation and secure preservation of special food, such as military meal service, food service for patient, and food for sports, and instant food, such as ready-to-eat/ready-to-cook food, the proposal for radiation application to the major military commander at the Ministry of National Defence and the Joint Chiefs of Staff was accepted for the direction of military supply development in mid-termed plan for the development of war supply. Especially, through the preliminary research and the development of foundation technology for the development of the Korean style space food and functional space food, space Kimch with very long shelf life was finally developed. The development of new item/products for food and life science by combining RT/BT, the development of technology for the elimination/reduction of

  1. Development of Food Preservation and Processing Technologies by Radiation Technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Byun, Myung Woo; Lee, Ju Won; Kim, Jae Hun (and others)

    2007-07-15

    To secure national food resources, development of energy-saving food processing and preservation technologies, establishment of method on improvement of national health and safety by development of alternative techniques of chemicals and foundation of the production of hygienic food and public health related products by irradiation technology were studied. Results at current stage are following: As the first cooperative venture business technically invested by National Atomic Research Development Project, institute/company's [technology-invested technology foundation No. 1] cooperative venture, Sun-BioTech Ltd., was founded and stated its business. This suggested new model for commercialization and industrialization of the research product by nation-found institute. From the notice of newly approved product list about irradiated food, radiation health related legal approval on 7 food items was achieved from the Ministry of health and wellfare, the Korea Food and Drug Administration, and this contributed the foundation of enlargement of practical use of irradiated food. As one of the foundation project for activation of radiation application technology for the sanitation and secure preservation of special food, such as military meal service, food service for patient, and food for sports, and instant food, such as ready-to-eat/ready-to-cook food, the proposal for radiation application to the major military commander at the Ministry of National Defence and the Joint Chiefs of Staff was accepted for the direction of military supply development in mid-termed plan for the development of war supply. Especially, through the preliminary research and the development of foundation technology for the development of the Korean style space food and functional space food, space Kimch with very long shelf life was finally developed. The development of new item/products for food and life science by combining RT/BT, the development of technology for the elimination/reduction of

  2. Utilization of irradiation on food preservation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The number of total viable bacteria in chicken meat was reduced by over 90% with irradiation treatments of 5-10 kGy, and also an irradiation dose of yeasts, molds, coliforms, and especially Salmonella for 2-4 weeks of storage. In physicochemical properties of stored chichen, such as water holding capacity, TBA number, UBN, odor, color, overall appearance, cooking quality and organoleptic characteristics, the irradiated samples were superior to the nonirradiated samples, so the freshness of irradiated chicken was retained until 30 days ofter storage at 3-4degC. Commercial fried fish paste was comtaminated by 2.2x103 counts in total variable bacteria, 2.8x102 counts in yeasts and models, and 1.0x102 counts in coliforms, per gram of samples, but irradiation treatment of more than 3 kGy could reduce the microbial load up to 80-90%. As the storage period increased, chemical components of the irradiated samples were better than those of the nonirradiated samples, and the self-life of irradiated groups was extended by 3-4 times as compared with that of nonirradiated groups at room(10-20degC) and low(3-4degC) temperatures without apparent changes in organoleptic properties. Some packaged dried fishes, such as dried cod, dried squid, dried file fish and dried pollack, were preserved by irradiation under the room condictions. After storage of one year the by irradiated samples with doses of 3-8 kGy were found to be marketable resulting from organoleptic observations without showing any storage loss due to microbial and insect factors. (Author)

  3. Preserving food in Asia and the Pacific region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    At this time of increasing world population there is greater need than ever before to produce more food, especially in developing countries which have the fastest growth of population. Equally important, but often overlooked by most authorities, is the need to preserve food after harvest so that losses are reduced, more food is available, and the investment and energy employed in food production is effectively used. One method of reducing losses is to use ionizing energy in the form of gamma rays, electron, or X-rays to prevent food from spoiling because of micro-organisms, insect pests or physiological factors. This method can treat food in the final package without significantly altering its physico-chemical characteristics. The technique has been much studied in many countries over the past three decades. As most countries in the Asian and Pacific region are in tropical zones which make food especially vulnerable to spoilage losses this technique has received wide attention from food and nuclear scientists. In 1979, the Agency and the Government of Japan sponsored a special mission to evaluate the state of the art of this technology in India, Indonesia, Malaysia, Philippines, Singapore, and Thailand. It was evident from the mission's report that most of these countries not only have active research and development programmes in the use of ionizing energy for food preservation but also are anxious to develop their programmes to reach practical application. Moreover, most countries in Asia and the Pacific have a common interest in using this technology to preserve fishery products, tropical fruits, onions, and spices. Consequently, the Government of Japan agreed to sponsor a research programme in this field as one of the Co-ordinated Research Programmes of the Food Preservation Section of the Joint FAO/IAEA Division of Isotope and Radiation Applications of Atomic Energy for Food and Agricultural Development. Started in 1980, the project will last for three years

  4. Sensitivity of Escherichia albertii to food preservation treatments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escherichia albertii is a potential foodborne pathogen because of its documented ability to cause diarrheal disease by producing attachment and effacement lesions. Its tolerance to food preservation treatments has not been investigated. Heat, acid, and pressure tolerance were determined for stationa...

  5. Gamma irradiation for food preservation and sterilization of medical supplies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A new technology in food preservation by using gamma irradiation was introduced and its advantages over a number of conventional processes were discussed. The new technique is also applicable in the sterilization of medical supplies. It is relatively simple and does not require very highly skilled manpower

  6. Lactobacillus amylovorus DSM 19280 as a novel food-grade antifungal agent for bakery products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, Liam A M; Zannini, Emanuele; Dal Bello, Fabio; Pawlowska, Agata; Koehler, Peter; Arendt, Elke K

    2011-04-29

    Mould spoilage is the main cause of substantial economic loss in bakery industry and might also cause public health problems due to the production of mycotoxins. The reduction of mould growth in bakery products is thus of crucial importance and there is great interest to develop safe and efficient strategies for this purpose. In this study Lactobacillus amylovorus DSM19280 has been shown to produce a wide spectrum of antifungal compounds active against common bread spoilage fungi. Among the indicator moulds, Aspergillus fumigatus and Fusarium culmorum were the most sensitive organisms. Several antifungal compounds were found to be present in synthetic medium inoculated with L. amylovorus DSM19280 strain, some of them being reported here for the first time. Wheat doughs fermented with L. amylovorus DSM19280 had good rheological properties and the breads thereof were of high quality as shown by rheofermentometer and texture analyser measurements. The results were compared with those obtained with a control non-antifungal L. amylovorus DSM20531(T) strain, a non-acidified and a chemically acidified dough. The quality of sourdough and bread fermented with L. amylovorus DSM 19280 was comparable to that obtained by using L. amylovorus DSM20531 (T). Additionally, breads were evaluated for the ability to retard the growth of Fusarium culmorum FST 4.05, Aspergillus niger FST4.21, Penicillium expansum FST 4.22, Penicillium roqueforti FST 4.11 and fungal flora from the bakery environment. The biological preservation of bread with L. amylovorus DSM 19280 was also compared to the most commonly used antifungal agent Calcium propionate. Breads containing sourdough fermented with L. amylovorus DSM 19280 were more effective in extending the shelf life of bread than the calcium propionate. PMID:21429613

  7. Development of food preservation and processing techniques by radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To secure national food resources, development of energy-saving food processing and preservation technologies, establishment of method on improvement of national health and safety by development of alternative techniques of chemicals and foundation of the production of hygienic food and public health related products by irradiation technology were studied. Results at current stage are following; Processing techniques of low salted and fermented fish using gamma irradiation were developed and superiority of using irradiation to conventional food processing methods was established. Processing technique of value-added functional materials for the manufacture of food or public health products using RT/BT/NT combination technology was developed. The basic theories for the technology development to reduce toxic or undesirable compounds in food such as allergy or carcinogens were established. Exterminating methods of quarantine organisms in herbs/spices was established and the quality evaluation and detection conditions in quarantine treatment were set. From the studies on 'program of public understanding' based on safety of the gamma irradiated food, the information for public relation in enlargement of consumer acceptance/implementation and the peaceful use of nuclear energy were secured. Results from the research project will contribute on improvement of competency of domestic food industry and export market. The results also expect the improvement of public health by prevention of food borne diseases and enhancement of national economy and industry by increase of direct/indirect productivity

  8. Development of food preservation and processing techniques by radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Byun, Myung Woo; Lee, Ju Woon; Kim, Dong Ho [KAERI, Taejon (Korea, Republic of); Yook, Hong Sun [Chungnam National Univ., Taejon (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Hak Soo [Sogang Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Cherl Ho; Park, Hyun Jin [Korea Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kang, Il Jun [Hallym Univ., Chuncheon (Korea, Republic of); Kwon, Jung Ho [Kyungbook National Univ., Taegu (Korea, Republic of)

    2002-05-01

    To secure national food resources, development of energy-saving food processing and preservation technologies, establishment of method on improvement of national health and safety by development of alternative techniques of chemicals and foundation of the production of hygienic food and public health related products by irradiation technology were studied. Results at current stage are following; Processing techniques of low salted and fermented fish using gamma irradiation were developed and superiority of using irradiation to conventional food processing methods was established. Processing technique of value-added functional materials for the manufacture of food or public health products using RT/BT/NT combination technology was developed. The basic theories for the technology development to reduce toxic or undesirable compounds in food such as allergy or carcinogens were established. Exterminating methods of quarantine organisms in herbs/spices was established and the quality evaluation and detection conditions in quarantine treatment were set. From the studies on 'program of public understanding' based on safety of the gamma irradiated food, the information for public relation in enlargement of consumer acceptance/implementation and the peaceful use of nuclear energy were secured. Results from the research project will contribute on improvement of competency of domestic food industry and export market. The results also expect the improvement of public health by prevention of food borne diseases and enhancement of national economy and industry by increase of direct/indirect productivity.

  9. Essential oils: extraction, bioactivities, and their uses for food preservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tongnuanchan, Phakawat; Benjakul, Soottawat

    2014-07-01

    Essential oils are concentrated liquids of complex mixtures of volatile compounds and can be extracted from several plant organs. Essential oils are a good source of several bioactive compounds, which possess antioxidative and antimicrobial properties. In addition, some essential oils have been used as medicine. Furthermore, the uses of essential oils have received increasing attention as the natural additives for the shelf-life extension of food products, due to the risk in using synthetic preservatives. Essential oils can be incorporated into packaging, in which they can provide multifunctions termed "active or smart packaging." Those essential oils are able to modify the matrix of packaging materials, thereby rendering the improved properties. This review covers up-to-date literatures on essential oils including sources, chemical composition, extraction methods, bioactivities, and their applications, particularly with the emphasis on preservation and the shelf-life extension of food products. PMID:24888440

  10. Microbiological Problems in Food Preservation by Irradiation. Report of a Panel on Microbiological Problems in Food Preservation by Irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Irradiation is a technique that may increasingly be employed to help preserve the world's food supplies. Some countries have already given public-health clearance for particular irradiated foodstuffs, and pilot and semi-industrial irradiation plants have already been established or are under construction. Wide-spread industrial application is likely in the not too distant future. However, there are still problems to be solved; some of these are microbiological. A Panel on Microbiological Problems in Food Preservation by Irradiation was organized by the Joint FAO/IAEA Division of Atomic Energy in Food and Agriculture on 27 June to 1 July 1966. A detailed evaluation was made of research and development needs in radicidation (i.e. destroying micro-organisms harmful to human health), in radurization (i.e. extending the shelf life of perishable foods by reducing the spoilage micro-organisms in it), in the elimination of viruses and in the inactivation of preformed toxins. The Panel also considered the unification and standardization of experimental methodology. Recommendations were drawn up for the Directors General of the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations and of the International Atomic Energy Agency on how these two organizations could best fulfil their roles in this field. It was considered important to continue sponsoring and co-ordinating research.. Establishing an international pilot and demonstration plant was thought essential for progress in development work, especially on radicidation. Experts on radio- and food microbiology and a representative of the World Health Organization attended the meeting. The proceedings contains the contributions of the members of the Panel together with the general conclusions and recommendations

  11. Some Antifungal Properties of Sorbic Acid Extracted from Berries of Rowan (Sorbus Aucuparia).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunner, Ulrich

    1985-01-01

    The food preservative sorbic acid can be extracted from Eurasian mountain ash berries (commercially available) and used to show antifungal properties in microbiological investigations. Techniques for extraction, purification, ultraviolet analysis, and experiments displaying antifungal activity are described. A systematic search for similar…

  12. Silk Fibroin as Edible Coating for Perishable Food Preservation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marelli, B.; Brenckle, M. A.; Kaplan, D. L.; Omenetto, F. G.

    2016-05-01

    The regeneration of structural biopolymers into micelles or nanoparticles suspended in water has enabled the design of new materials with unique and compelling properties that can serve at the interface between the biotic and the abiotic worlds. In this study, we leveraged silk fibroin quintessential properties (i.e. polymorphism, conformability and hydrophobicity) to design a water-based protein suspension that self-assembles on the surface of food upon dip coating. The water-based post-processing control of the protein polymorphism enables the modulation of the diffusion of gases through the silk fibroin thin membranes (e.g. O2 and CO2 diffusion, water vapour permeability), which is a key parameter to manage food freshness. In particular, an increased beta-sheet content corresponds to a reduction in oxygen diffusion through silk fibroin thin films. By using the dip coating of strawberries and bananas as proof of principle, we have shown that the formation of micrometre-thin silk fibroin membranes around the fruits helps the management of postharvest physiology of the fruits. Thus, silk fibroin coatings enhance fruits’ shelf life at room conditions by reducing cell respiration rate and water evaporation. The water-based processing and edible nature of silk fibroin makes this approach a promising alternative for food preservation with a naturally derived material.

  13. Status of radiation preservation of foods in India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Food irradiation involves controlled application of radiation energy to agricultural commodities and other foodstuffs for improving hygiene, safety and shelf-life. A number of processes including hygienization of spices and condiments, disinfestation of grains, legumes, and their products, sprout inhibition of onion and potato, delay in ripening of mango and banana, radurization and radicidation of meat and fish have been studied. Collaborative studies have established the efficacy of the process. The technology offers a viable commercial proposition for food conservation and safety. The idea to use ionising radiation for preservation of foods originated almost a century ago. Though today the technology is poised for full scale commercial exploitation, it has undergone several ups and downs due mainly to the perception of users at different points of time. Even today it is difficult to eliminate completely, the fear psychosis in the public mind created by the display of devastating power of atom and radiation during World War II. The chemical revolution of 50s and 60s made all other now ecofriendly technologies appear dim. Nevertheless relentless efforts of the scientists and recognition of the hazards that chemicals posed turned the tide and the technology got its legitimate place in the service of mankind. (author). 5 refs., 6 tabs

  14. Development of food preservation and processing techniques by radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Development of food preservation and processing techniques by radiation was performed. Gamm irradiation at 5 kGy completely eliminated pathogenic bacteria in pork and chicken meats. Gamma irradiation at such doses and subsequent storage at less than 4 deg C could ensure hygienic quality and prolong the microbiological shelf-life resulting from the reduction of spoilage microorganisms. Pork loin ham with desirable color was also developed without using of sodium nitrite that is known as a carcinogen. Safety tests of gamma-irradiated meats in areas such as genotoxicity, acute toxicity, four-week oral toxicity, rat hepatocarcinogenesis and the antioxidative defense system, were not affected by gamma irradiation. Gamma irradiation at about 1 kGy completely eliminated the parasites in foods and drinking water. In the study of quarantine treatment of apple and pear for export by gamma irradiation, current fumigation(MBr) was perfect in its disinfesting capability, but it caused detrimental effects on the physical quality of apple and pear. However, irradiation doses at 1-3 kGy was suitable for controlling pests and did not induce any significant changes in the quality of the products. The result of the survey to assess the public understanding indicated that the irradiated food had somewhat negative impression to general public. Therefore, it is necessary to establish a public education and information program by using mass communication and by constructing communication system to obtain the enhanced impression from the general public

  15. Development of food preservation and processing techniques by radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Byun, Myung Woo; Yook, Hong Sun; Lee, Ju Woon and others

    2000-03-01

    Development of food preservation and processing techniques by radiation was performed. Gamm irradiation at 5 kGy completely eliminated pathogenic bacteria in pork and chicken meats. Gamma irradiation at such doses and subsequent storage at less than 4 deg C could ensure hygienic quality and prolong the microbiological shelf-life resulting from the reduction of spoilage microorganisms. Pork loin ham with desirable color was also developed without using of sodium nitrite that is known as a carcinogen. Safety tests of gamma-irradiated meats in areas such as genotoxicity, acute toxicity, four-week oral toxicity, rat hepatocarcinogenesis and the antioxidative defense system, were not affected by gamma irradiation. Gamma irradiation at about 1 kGy completely eliminated the parasites in foods and drinking water. In the study of quarantine treatment of apple and pear for export by gamma irradiation, current fumigation(MBr) was perfect in its disinfesting capability, but it caused detrimental effects on the physical quality of apple and pear. However, irradiation doses at 1-3 kGy was suitable for controlling pests and did not induce any significant changes in the quality of the products. The result of the survey to assess the public understanding indicated that the irradiated food had somewhat negative impression to general public. Therefore, it is necessary to establish a public education and information program by using mass communication and by constructing communication system to obtain the enhanced impression from the general public.

  16. Silk Fibroin as Edible Coating for Perishable Food Preservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marelli, B; Brenckle, M A; Kaplan, D L; Omenetto, F G

    2016-01-01

    The regeneration of structural biopolymers into micelles or nanoparticles suspended in water has enabled the design of new materials with unique and compelling properties that can serve at the interface between the biotic and the abiotic worlds. In this study, we leveraged silk fibroin quintessential properties (i.e. polymorphism, conformability and hydrophobicity) to design a water-based protein suspension that self-assembles on the surface of food upon dip coating. The water-based post-processing control of the protein polymorphism enables the modulation of the diffusion of gases through the silk fibroin thin membranes (e.g. O2 and CO2 diffusion, water vapour permeability), which is a key parameter to manage food freshness. In particular, an increased beta-sheet content corresponds to a reduction in oxygen diffusion through silk fibroin thin films. By using the dip coating of strawberries and bananas as proof of principle, we have shown that the formation of micrometre-thin silk fibroin membranes around the fruits helps the management of postharvest physiology of the fruits. Thus, silk fibroin coatings enhance fruits' shelf life at room conditions by reducing cell respiration rate and water evaporation. The water-based processing and edible nature of silk fibroin makes this approach a promising alternative for food preservation with a naturally derived material. PMID:27151492

  17. Manuscript title: antifungal proteins from moulds: analytical tools and potential application to dry-ripened foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delgado, Josué; Owens, Rebecca A; Doyle, Sean; Asensio, Miguel A; Núñez, Félix

    2016-08-01

    Moulds growing on the surface of dry-ripened foods contribute to their sensory qualities, but some of them are able to produce mycotoxins that pose a hazard to consumers. Small cysteine-rich antifungal proteins (AFPs) from moulds are highly stable to pH and proteolysis and exhibit a broad inhibition spectrum against filamentous fungi, providing new chances to control hazardous moulds in fermented foods. The analytical tools for characterizing the cellular targets and affected pathways are reviewed. Strategies currently employed to study these mechanisms of action include 'omics' approaches that have come to the forefront in recent years, developing in tandem with genome sequencing of relevant organisms. These techniques contribute to a better understanding of the response of moulds against AFPs, allowing the design of complementary strategies to maximize or overcome the limitations of using AFPs on foods. AFPs alter chitin biosynthesis, and some fungi react inducing cell wall integrity (CWI) pathway. However, moulds able to increase chitin content at the cell wall by increasing proteins in either CWI or calmodulin-calcineurin signalling pathways will resist AFPs. Similarly, AFPs increase the intracellular levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS), and moulds increasing G-protein complex β subunit CpcB and/or enzymes to efficiently produce glutathione may evade apoptosis. Unknown aspects that need to be addressed include the interaction with mycotoxin production by less sensitive toxigenic moulds. However, significant steps have been taken to encourage the use of AFPs in intermediate-moisture foods, particularly for mould-ripened cheese and meat products. PMID:27394712

  18. Food safety assessment of an antifungal protein from Moringa oleifera seeds in an agricultural biotechnology perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinto, Clidia E M; Farias, Davi F; Carvalho, Ana F U; Oliveira, José T A; Pereira, Mirella L; Grangeiro, Thalles B; Freire, José E C; Viana, Daniel A; Vasconcelos, Ilka M

    2015-09-01

    Mo-CBP3 is an antifungal protein produced by Moringa oleifera which has been investigated as potential candidate for developing transgenic crops. Before the use of novel proteins, food safety tests must be conducted. This work represents an early food safety assessment of Mo-CBP3, using the two-tiered approach proposed by ILSI. The history of safe use, mode of action and results for amino acid sequence homology using the full-length and short contiguous amino acids sequences indicate low risk associated to this protein. Mo-CBP3 isoforms presented a reasonable number of alignments (>35% identity) with allergens in a window of 80 amino acids. This protein was resistant to pepsin degradation up to 2 h, but it was susceptible to digestion using pancreatin. Many positive attributes were presented for Mo-CBP3. However, this protein showed high sequence homology with allergens and resistance to pepsin digestion that indicates that further hypothesis-based testing on its potential allergenicity must be done. Additionally, animal toxicity evaluations (e.g. acute and repeated dose oral exposure assays) must be performed to meet the mandatory requirements of several regulatory agencies. Finally, the approach adopted here exemplified the importance of performing an early risk assessment of candidate proteins for use in plant transformation programs. PMID:26032632

  19. Chitosan grafted monomethyl fumaric acid as a potential food preservative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Imran; Ullah, Shafi; Oh, Deog-Hwan

    2016-11-01

    The present study aims at in vitro antibacterial and antioxidant activity evaluation of chitosan modified with monomethyl fumaric acid (MFA) using 1-ethyl-3-(3-dimethylaminopropyl) carbodiimide (EDC) as mediator. Three different kinds of chitosan derivatives Ch-Ds-1,Ch-Ds-2 and Ch-Ds-3 were synthesized by feeding different concentration of MFA. The chemical structures of resulting materials were characterized by (1)H NMR, (13)C NMR, HR-XRD, FT-IR and TNBS assay. The results showed that Ch-Ds-1, Ch-Ds-2 and Ch-Ds-3 were successfully synthesized. The % amino groups of chitosan modified by MFA were evaluated by TNBS assay and ranging from 1.82±0.05% to 7.88±0.04%. All the chitosan derivatives are readily soluble in water and swelled by dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO), toluene and dimethyl formamide (DMF). The antioxidant activity for all the chitosan derivatives have been significantly improved (P<0.05) compared to the chitosan. Upon antibacterial activity at pH 4.0, all the chitosan derivatives showed significant (P<0.05) antibacterial activity against Gram positive Staphylococcus aureus, Listeria monocytogenes strains and Gram negative Escherichia coli and Salmonella enteritidis strains compared to chitosan. In conclusion, MFA modified chitosan has shown enhanced activities along with solubility, and could be used as a novel food preservative and packaging material for long time food safety and security. PMID:27516253

  20. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in Italian preserved food products in oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sannino, Anna

    2016-06-01

    A method based on gas chromatography/ tandem mass spectrometry was used to assess levels of 16 EU priority polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in 48 preserved food products in oil including foods such as vegetables in oil, fish in oil and oil-based sauces obtained from the Italian market. The benzo[a]pyrene concentrations ranged from <0.04 to 0.40 µg kg(-1), and 72.9% of the samples showed detectable levels of this compound. The highest contamination level was observed for chrysene with three additional PAHs (benzo[a]anthracene, benzo[b]fluoranthene and benzo[c]fluorene) giving mean values higher than the mean value for benzo[a]pyrene. Chrysene was detected in all the samples at concentrations ranging from 0.07 to 1.80 µg kg(-1) (median 0.31 µg kg(-1)). The contamination expressed as PAH4 (sum of benzo(a)pyrene, chrysene, benzo(a)anthracene and benzo(b)fluoranthene), for which the maximum tolerable limit has been set by Commission Regulation (EU) No. 835/2011, varied between 0.10 and 2.94 µg kg(-1). PMID:26886159

  1. Radiation technology: synergy with conventional and emerging food preservation techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conservative estimates put post-harvest losses in India between 10-40%. This hidden burden to economy translates to several thousand crore of rupees annually. Of course one reason for these large losses is our hot and humid climate. But mainly it is lack of proper infrastructure and management that is responsible. Inadequate storage, transport and very low processing or value addition to raw produce diminish return to the primary producer. With increasing population, diminishing agricultural land and expensive inputs, we can hardly afford to waste what we produce. It is estimated that by the year 2020 we may need 340 million tones of food grains to feed our ever-increasing population. It is difficult to expect the desired quantum of increase in productivity through conventional or biotechnological means, especially when arable land is shrinking and being progressively degraded. Increased agricultural productivity needs to be complemented with appropriate post-harvest processing technologies, particularly to reduce wastage, improve quality and add value. The article deals with the synergy of radiation technology with conventional and emerging food preservation techniques

  2. Lipopeptides as the antifungal and antibacterial agents: applications in food safety and therapeutics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meena, Khem Raj; Kanwar, Shamsher S

    2015-01-01

    A lot of crops are destroyed by the phytopathogens such as fungi, bacteria, and yeast leading to economic losses to the farmers. Members of the Bacillus genus are considered as the factories for the production of biologically active molecules that are potential inhibitors of growth of phytopathogens. Plant diseases constitute an emerging threat to global food security. Many of the currently available antimicrobial agents for agriculture are highly toxic and nonbiodegradable and thus cause extended environmental pollution. Moreover, an increasing number of phytopathogens have developed resistance to antimicrobial agents. The lipopeptides have been tried as potent versatile weapons to deal with a variety of phytopathogens. All the three families of Bacillus lipopeptides, namely, Surfactins, Iturins and Fengycins, have been explored for their antagonistic activities towards a wide range of phytopathogens including bacteria, fungi, and oomycetes. Iturin and Fengycin have antifungal activities, while Surfactin has broad range of potent antibacterial activities and this has also been used as larvicidal agent. Interestingly, lipopeptides being the molecules of biological origin are environmentally acceptable. PMID:25632392

  3. Improved applicability of nisin in novel combinations with other food preservation factors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pol, I.E.

    2001-01-01

    General discussion

    Modern consumers nowadays, have a preference for more natural, mildly preserved food products with a fresh appearance over traditionally preserved products. Mild preservation techniques applied singly are usually not sufficient to control microbial outgrowth and combinatio

  4. Improved applicability of nisin in novel combinations with other food preservation factors

    OpenAIRE

    Pol, I.E.

    2001-01-01

    General discussionModern consumers nowadays, have a preference for more natural, mildly preserved food products with a fresh appearance over traditionally preserved products. Mild preservation techniques applied singly are usually not sufficient to control microbial outgrowth and combinations of measures are needed to ensure complete safe products (16). Bacteriocins, produced by lactic acid bacteria have been successfully used as biopreservatives in a number of food products to inhibit the gr...

  5. Development of food preservation and processing techniques by radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Development of food preservation and processing techniques by radiation was performed. Gamma irradiation at 2-10 kGy is considered to be an effective method to control pathogenic bacteria in species including Escherichia coli O157:H7. Gamma irradiation at 5 kGy completely eliminated pathogenic bacteria in beef. Gamma irradiation at such doses and subsequent storage at less than 4 deg C could ensure hygienic quality and prolong the microbiological shelf-life resulting from the reduction of spoilage microorganisms. Gamma irradiation on pre-rigor beef shortens the aging-period, improves tenderness and enhances the beef quality. And, a new beef processing method using gamma irradiation, such as in the low salt sausage and hygienic beef patty was developed. Safety tests of gamma-irradiated meats(beefs: 0-5 kGy; porks: 0-30 kGy) in areas such as genotoxicity, acute toxicity, four-week oral toxicity, rat hepato carcinogenesis and the anti oxidative defense system, were not affected by gamma irradiation. To pre-establish an alternative technique to the toxic fumigant, methyl bromide, which is the current quarantine measure of agricultural products for export and import, some selected agricultural products, such as chestnuts, acorns, red beans and mung beans, were subjected to a preliminary study to confirm the comparative effects of gamma irradiation and MBr fumigant on their disinfestation and quality, thereby preparing the basic data for the practical approach.Current fumigation(MBr) was perfect in its disinfecting capability, but it caused detrimental effects on the physical quality of agricultural produce. However, irradiation doses suitable for controlling pests did not induce any significant changes in the quality of the products. (author)

  6. Development of food preservation and processing techniques by radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Byun, Myung Woo; Yook, Hong Sun; Lee, Ju Woon and others

    1999-03-01

    Development of food preservation and processing techniques by radiation was performed. Gamma irradiation at 2-10 kGy is considered to be an effective method to control pathogenic bacteria in species including Escherichia coli O157:H7. Gamma irradiation at 5 kGy completely eliminated pathogenic bacteria in beef. Gamma irradiation at such doses and subsequent storage at less than 4 deg C could ensure hygienic quality and prolong the microbiological shelf-life resulting from the reduction of spoilage microorganisms. Gamma irradiation on pre-rigor beef shortens the aging-period, improves tenderness and enhances the beef quality. And, a new beef processing method using gamma irradiation, such as in the low salt sausage and hygienic beef patty was developed. Safety tests of gamma-irradiated meats(beefs: 0-5 kGy; porks: 0-30 kGy) in areas such as genotoxicity, acute toxicity, four-week oral toxicity, rat hepato carcinogenesis and the anti oxidative defense system, were not affected by gamma irradiation. To pre-establish an alternative technique to the toxic fumigant, methyl bromide, which is the current quarantine measure of agricultural products for export and import, some selected agricultural products, such as chestnuts, acorns, red beans and mung beans, were subjected to a preliminary study to confirm the comparative effects of gamma irradiation and MBr fumigant on their disinfestation and quality, thereby preparing the basic data for the practical approach.Current fumigation(MBr) was perfect in its disinfecting capability, but it caused detrimental effects on the physical quality of agricultural produce. However, irradiation doses suitable for controlling pests did not induce any significant changes in the quality of the products. (author)

  7. Nisin as a Food Preservative: Part 1: Physicochemical Properties, Antimicrobial Activity, and Main Uses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gharsallaoui, Adem; Oulahal, Nadia; Joly, Catherine; Degraeve, Pascal

    2016-06-10

    Nisin is a natural preservative for many food products. This bacteriocin is mainly used in dairy and meat products. Nisin inhibits pathogenic food borne bacteria such as Listeria monocytogenes and many other Gram-positive food spoilage microorganisms. Nisin can be used alone or in combination with other preservatives or also with several physical treatments. This paper reviews physicochemical and biological properties of nisin, the main factors affecting its antimicrobial effectiveness, and its food applications as an additive directly incorporated into food matrices. PMID:25675115

  8. Gamma irradiation as a means of food preservation in Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The status of food irradiation has changed significantly in the past three years with the establishment of inter-national standards by the Codex Alimentarious Commission of the United Nations and the setting of wholesomeness guidelines for a wide variety of foods by the Joint FAO/IAEA/WHO Expert Committee on Food Irradiation. This report examines: the technology of food irradiation; the biochemical, nutritional and microbiological effects on food, with special attention paid to radiolytic products and their possible toxicity; the economic feasibility of a food irradiation industry; food irradiation in Canada -experience, outlook and regulatory proposals, and consumer reaction to irradiated foods; and presents conclusions and recommendations to Health and Welfare Canada and to Consumer and Corporate Affairs Canada

  9. Evaluating food additives as antifungal agents against Monilinia fructicola in vitro and in hydroxypropyl methylcellulose-lipid composite edible coatings for plums.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karaca, Hakan; Pérez-Gago, María B; Taberner, Verònica; Palou, Lluís

    2014-06-01

    Common food preservative agents were evaluated in in vitro tests for their antifungal activity against Monilinia fructicola, the most economically important pathogen causing postharvest disease of stone fruits. Radial mycelial growth was measured in Petri dishes of PDA amended with three different concentrations of the agents (0.01-0.2%, v/v) after 7 days of incubation at 25 °C. Thirteen out of fifteen agents tested completely inhibited the radial growth of the fungus at various concentrations. Among them, ammonium carbonate, ammonium bicarbonate and sodium bicarbonate were the most effective while sodium acetate and sodium formate were the least effective. The effective agents and concentrations were tested as ingredients of hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HPMC)-lipid edible coatings against brown rot disease on plums previously inoculated with M. fructicola (curative activity). 'Friar' and 'Larry Ann' plums were inoculated with the pathogen, coated with stable edible coatings about 24h later, and incubated at 20 °C and 90% RH. Disease incidence (%) and severity (lesion diameter) were determined after 4, 6, and 8 days of incubation and the 'area under the disease progress stairs' (AUDPS) was calculated. Coatings containing bicarbonates and parabens significantly reduced brown rot incidence in plums, but potassium sorbate, used at 1.0% in the coating formulation, was the most effective agent with a reduction rate of 28.6%. All the tested coatings reduced disease severity to some extent, but coatings containing 0.1% sodium methylparaben or sodium ethylparaben or 0.2% ammonium carbonate or ammonium bicarbonate were superior to the rest, with reduction rates of 45-50%. Overall, the results showed that most of the agents tested in this study had significant antimicrobial activity against M. fructicola and the application of selected antifungal edible coatings is a promising alternative for the control of postharvest brown rot in plums. PMID:24742996

  10. Ionizing radiation applications for a sustainable environment: food preservation processing by gamma radiation

    OpenAIRE

    Antonio, Amilcar L.; Bento, Albino; Ferreira, Isabel C. F. R.; Cabo Verde, Sandra; Quintana, Begoña

    2014-01-01

    The use of ionizing gamma radiation is regulated and authorized by international organizations (EU, EFSA, IAEA, FAO, WHO) for industrial radiation processing of several products: medical devices sterilization, materials modification, cultural heritage preservation and food decontamination. Due to the wrong association of irradiated food with radioactive food, several obstacles have to be overcome in order to promote the civil use of radioisotopes for food irradiation, as a safe and useful app...

  11. Genomics applications in food preservation and safety research

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brul, S.; Keijser, B.J.F.; Spek, H. van der; Oomes, S.J.C.M.; Montijn, R.

    2005-01-01

    Genomes are being sequenced at an ever-increasing pace. Also genomes of many of the microorganisms of concern to food safety are now known. The next step is of course how to exploit this information in an effective way. This article briefly introduces the issues in the food processing industry as fa

  12. Radiation Chemistry and the Radiation Preservation of Food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taub, Irwin A.

    1981-01-01

    Describes common features in the radiation chemistry of food components, and illustrates how product yields are predicted. Presents data that pertain to the radiolysis of the nitrate ion, metmyoglobin, myosin, and tripalmitin. (CS)

  13. Economic Feasibility Study for Using Irradiation Technology in Preservation of Animalism Foods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present study discus the economic feasibility for the preservation animalism foods by using irradiation technology. This study has included the technical data, regression foretelling for the throughput, determination of irradiators types and radiation sources activity. This study comprises the financial analysis for the establishment animalism foods irradiation facilities (types: tote box, pallet conveyor) and the national return

  14. Nuclear technology applied to food preservation and sterilization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The use of ionizing radiation to conserve and sterilize food dates back to 1995, when the first tests were performed in USA as part of the Atoms for peace program. After much controversy, the most prestigious international organizations- OECD, code Alimentarius, FDA and EC have not only authorized but also recommended its use. It is a proven fact that food irradiation provides optimum results for inhibition treatment of tuber shoots, elimination of insects from fruits and seeds, delaying the maturing processes of fruit and elimination of alternative microorganisms and pathogens in any type of food. Food is treated in two types of plants: 1.- Radioactive isotope plants or gamma radiation plants 2.- electron accelerator plants (beta radiation plants). These two types of plants are thoroughly legislated, as are the form and doses of the treatments. Commercial food irradiation is done in 32 countries in the world but is authorized in more than 40, and the WHO recommends that the method be used on a widespread basis, as it believes that it can help to improve food-related health worldwide. (Author) 5 refs.

  15. SCREENING OF FOUR FOOD SPICES OF PLANT ORIGIN FOR ANTIFUNGAL ACTIVITY AGAINST A FUSARIUM OXYSPORUM SOIL ISOLATE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Okungbowa Francisca Iziegbe

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Cold and hot water extracts of four food spices (Aframomum melegueta, Allium sativum, Zingiber officinale, and Monodora myristica were studied for antifungal activity against a Fusarium oxysporum soil isolate. The study was necessitated by the current search for bioactive substances of plant origin in the bid to control disease-causing organisms. The Fusarium isolate was grown on Potato Dextrose Agar (PDA and in Potato Dextrose Broth (PDB containing 100, 50, 25 or 12.5% of each extract and incubated for 7 days (solid cultures and 5 days (liquid cultures at room temperature (28 ±2 oC. Mycelial radial growth was measured on the 7th day while dry weight of mycelium was determined after 5 days. Results showed that all tested spice plants had antifungal effect in the liquid cultures. Cold extracts were more effective as their percentage inhibition values were consistently, though insignificantly higher, than for hot extracts, except for A. sativum which had a significantly higher value (82.4% as against 55.5% for cold and hot extracts, respectively, at 100% concentration. Allium sativum had the highest inhibitory effect (82.4% while M. myristica had the least (45.3% for cold extracts in liquid cultures. For radial growth, Z. officinale, and M. myristica had no effect (cold extract while M. myristica (hot extract had no effect. These results indicate that the tested plants have antifungal potential that could be harnessed for the control of F. oxysporum. High temperatures seem to reduce the activity of the extracts. For future studies liquid cultures would be more effective.

  16. Judgement of irradiation-preserved food by the adult population in Hungary (preliminary publication)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A wide survey by questionnaires was started in 1997 in the subject area of Nutrition and Health. Part of this survey was directed toward the acceptance of preserved food by irradiation treatment by the public. The results have been evaluated here and presented. The main problem was to find out the differences of various segments of the Hungarian adult population in their judgement of irradiated food, and what is the general knowledge in relation with radiopreservation technology of food. (R.P.)

  17. Radiation Dosimetry for Quality Control of Food Preservation and Disinfestation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McLaughlin, W.L.; Miller, Arne; Uribe, R.M.

    1983-01-01

    In the use of x and gamma rays and scanned electron beams to extend the shelf life of food by delay of sprouting and ripening, killing of microbes, and control of insect population, quality assurance is provided by standardized radiation dosimetry. By strategic placement of calibrated dosimeters...... parameters (e.g. conveyor speed) to meet changes that occur in product and source parameters (e.g. bulk density and radiation spectrum). Routine dosimetry methods and certain corrections of dosimetry data may be selected for the radiations used in typical food processes....

  18. Radiation Dosimetry for Quality Control of Food Preservation and Disinfestation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McLaughlin, W.L.; Miller, Arne; Uribe, R.M.

    1983-01-01

    In the use of x and gamma rays and scanned electron beams to extend the shelf life of food by delay of sprouting and ripening, killing of microbes, and control of insect population, quality assurance is provided by standardized radiation dosimetry. By strategic placement of calibrated dosimeters...

  19. Preservation of Fish by Irradiation. Proceedings of a Panel on the Irradiation Preservation of Foods of Marine Origin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The increasing emphasis on the need for protein-rich foods to improve the nutritional status of the world’s population has stimulated research on new methods of preserving fishery products. The sea offers a source of protein that could markedly reduce the protein gap existing in many parts of the world. The major problem in attaining a more complete exploitation of these products is how to preserve them so that they can be transported from the points of origin to areas of greatest need. The use of ionizing radiation as a preservation method has been satisfactorily demonstrated in many countries. In some respects it offers advantages over conventional methods; for example, it prolongs the market life without using heat or chemicals, and what is more, the products are treated while they are sealed in commercial types of containers. Although radiation processing appears feasible, additional research is needed to improve certain quality attributes of some treated foods and to demonstrate to the satisfaction of health authorities' that no deleterious effects result. To obtain advice on the problems that need attention a Panel on Irradiation Preservation of Foods of Marine Origin was convened in Vienna, by the Joint FAO/IAEA Division of Atomic Energy in Food and Agriculture, on 15—19 December 1969. The main purpose of the panel’s work was to advise the Director General of the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations and the Director General of the International Atomic Energy Agency on how these organizations can best fulfil their roles in radiation research on fishery products. The meeting was attended by thirteen experts from various countries and one representative of the World Health Organization. Reports were presented on research performed and detailed discussions were held on work done in perfecting the radurization treatment of fishery products. Evaluations were made of the microbiology of the radurization process, with special reference to

  20. Radiation dosimetry for quality control of food preservation and disinfestation

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLaughlin, W. L.; Miller, A.; Uribe, R. M.

    In the use of x and gamma rays and scanned electron beams to extend the shelf life of food by delay of sprouting and ripening, killing of microbes, and control of insect population, quality assurance is provided by standardized radiation dosimetry. By strategic placement of calibrated dosimeters that are sufficiently stable and reproducible, it is possible to monitor minimum and maximum radiation absorbed dose levels and dose uniformity for a given processed foodstuff. The dosimetry procedure is especially important in the commisioning of a process and in making adjustments of process parameters (e.g. conveyor speed) to meet changes that occur in product and source parameters (e.g. bulk density and radiation spectrum). Routine dosimetry methods and certain corrections of dosimetry data may be selected for the radiations used in typical food processes.

  1. Silk Fibroin as Edible Coating for Perishable Food Preservation

    OpenAIRE

    B. Marelli; M. A. Brenckle; Kaplan, D. L.; Omenetto, F. G.

    2016-01-01

    The regeneration of structural biopolymers into micelles or nanoparticles suspended in water has enabled the design of new materials with unique and compelling properties that can serve at the interface between the biotic and the abiotic worlds. In this study, we leveraged silk fibroin quintessential properties (i.e. polymorphism, conformability and hydrophobicity) to design a water-based protein suspension that self-assembles on the surface of food upon dip coating. The water-based post-proc...

  2. Active packaging with antifungal activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen Van Long, N; Joly, Catherine; Dantigny, Philippe

    2016-03-01

    There have been many reviews concerned with antimicrobial food packaging, and with the use of antifungal compounds, but none provided an exhaustive picture of the applications of active packaging to control fungal spoilage. Very recently, many studies have been done in these fields, therefore it is timely to review this topic. This article examines the effects of essential oils, preservatives, natural products, chemical fungicides, nanoparticles coated to different films, and chitosan in vitro on the growth of moulds, but also in vivo on the mould free shelf-life of bread, cheese, and fresh fruits and vegetables. A short section is also dedicated to yeasts. All the applications are described from a microbiological point of view, and these were sorted depending on the name of the species. Methods and results obtained are discussed. Essential oils and preservatives were ranked by increased efficacy on mould growth. For all the tested molecules, Penicillium species were shown more sensitive than Aspergillus species. However, comparison between the results was difficult because it appeared that the efficiency of active packaging depended greatly on the environmental factors of food such as water activity, pH, temperature, NaCl concentration, the nature, the size, and the mode of application of the films, in addition to the fact that the amount of released antifungal compounds was not constant with time. PMID:26803804

  3. Food preservation by ionizing radiation in Nigeria. Present and future status

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Research into the use of ionizing radiation in food preservation in Nigeria is still in its very infancy and most of the work done to date is at the exploratory stage. Such work has, however, demonstrated the potential of ionizing radiation in prolonging the shelf-life of yams and, possibly, onions. The paper reviews the present status of the use of radiation food preservation in Nigeria. The present research programme of the Faculty of Technology, University of Ibadan, which includes a wider application of ionizing radiation to fruit and vegetable preservation and grain storage, is also highlighted. The primary objectives of this programme are to establish the wholesomeness of the irradiated foods and the economics of the process. (author)

  4. Food Preservation by Ionizing Radiation in Nigeria. Present and Future Status

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Research into the use of ionizing radiation in food preservation in Nigeria is still in its very infancy and most of the work done to date is at the exploratory stage. Such work has, however, demonstrated the potential of ionizing radiation in prolonging the shelf-life of yams and, possibly, onions. The paper reviews the present status of the use of radiation food preservation in Nigeria. The present research programme of the Faculty of Technology, University of Ibadan, which includes a wider application of ionizing radiation to fruit and vegetable preservation and grain storage, is also highlighted. The primary objectives of this programme are to establish the wholesomeness of the irradiated foods and the economics of the process. (author)

  5. Effects of food preservatives on growth and metabolism of plaque bacteria in vitro and in vivo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leikanger, S. (Department of Operative Dentistry, Dental Faculty, University of Oslo, Oslo (Norway)); Bjertness, E. (Section for Epidemiology, Department of Community Medicine, national Institute of Public Health, Oslo (Norway)); Aamdal Scheie, A. (Department of Microbiology, Dental Faculty, University of Oslo, Oslo (Norway))

    1992-01-01

    The aims of the present study were to assess the consumption of food preservatives during the last decades, and to study the effect of the preservatives, sorbic and benzoic acid, on growth and glycolysis of oral bacteria in vitro, and on acid formation by dental plaque in vivo. Five consumption reports from the Central Bureau of Statistics of Norway were used to estimate alterations in consumption of staple food containing the two preservatives. A modified broth dilution method was used to determine the MIC values of the preservatives against Streptococcus sobrinus and Streptococcus sanguis. Extracellular [sup 14]C-glycolytic metabolites were studied by HPLC analyses. Plaque-pH measurements were used to assess possible effects on acid production. The consumption reports were used to assess possible effects on acid production. The consumption reports indicated increased consumption of preservatives. The in vitro testing suggested that legal concentrations of preservatives may inhibit the growth of oral streptococci. However, the preservatives did not inhibit in vitro glycolysis at tested concentrations. In vivo testing with similar concentrations (0.4% w/v) showed a significant effect. A higher concentration (2% w/v potassium sorbate) had a tendency to inhibit acid-formation by dental plaque even more. (au).

  6. Effects of food preservatives on growth and metabolism of plaque bacteria in vitro and in vivo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aims of the present study were to assess the consumption of food preservatives during the last decades, and to study the effect of the preservatives, sorbic and benzoic acid, on growth and glycolysis of oral bacteria in vitro, and on acid formation by dental plaque in vivo. Five consumption reports from the Central Bureau of Statistics of Norway were used to estimate alterations in consumption of staple food containing the two preservatives. A modified broth dilution method was used to determine the MIC values of the preservatives against Streptococcus sobrinus and Streptococcus sanguis. Extracellular 14C-glycolytic metabolites were studied by HPLC analyses. Plaque-pH measurements were used to assess possible effects on acid production. The consumption reports were used to assess possible effects on acid production. The consumption reports indicated increased consumption of preservatives. The in vitro testing suggested that legal concentrations of preservatives may inhibit the growth of oral streptococci. However, the preservatives did not inhibit in vitro glycolysis at tested concentrations. In vivo testing with similar concentrations (0.4% w/v) showed a significant effect. A higher concentration (2% w/v potassium sorbate) had a tendency to inhibit acid-formation by dental plaque even more. (au)

  7. Kinetic study of treatment of wastewater contains food preservative agent by anaerobic baffled reactor : An overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The characteristic of wastewater of food industries with preservative substances is high content of organic substances, degradable and high total suspended solid. High organic content in this waste forced the treatment is biologically and pointed out to anaerobic treatment. Anaerobic showed the better performance of degradation than aerobic for high content organic and also for toxic materials. During that day the treatment of food wastewater is aerobically which is high consume of energy required and high volume of sludge produced. The advantage of anaerobic is save high energy, less product of sludge, less requirement of nutrients of microorganism and high efficiency reduction of organic load. The high efficiency of reduction will reduce the load of further treatment, so that, the threshold limit based on the regulation would be easy to achieve. Research of treatment of wastewater of food industries would be utilized by both big scale industries and small industries using addition of preservative substances. The type reactor of anaerobic process is anaerobic baffled reactor that will give better contact between wastewater and microorganism in the sludge. The variables conducted in this research are the baffled configuration, sludge height, preservative agent contents, hydralic retention time and influence of micro nutrients. The respons of this research are the COD effluent, remaining preservative agent, pH, formation of volatile fatty acid and total suspended solid. The result of this research is kinetic model of the anaerobic baffled reactor, reaction kinetic of preservative agent degradation and technology of treatment wastewater contains preservative agent. The benefit of this research is to solve the treatment of wastewater of food industries with preservative substance in order to achieve wastewater limit regulation and also to prevent the environmental deterioration

  8. Kinetic study of treatment of wastewater contains food preservative agent by anaerobic baffled reactor : An overview

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sumantri, Indro; Purwanto,; Budiyono [Chemical Engineering Department, Faculty of Engineering, Diponegoro University Jl. Prof. H. Soedarto, SH, Kampus Baru Tembalang, Semarang (Indonesia)

    2015-12-29

    The characteristic of wastewater of food industries with preservative substances is high content of organic substances, degradable and high total suspended solid. High organic content in this waste forced the treatment is biologically and pointed out to anaerobic treatment. Anaerobic showed the better performance of degradation than aerobic for high content organic and also for toxic materials. During that day the treatment of food wastewater is aerobically which is high consume of energy required and high volume of sludge produced. The advantage of anaerobic is save high energy, less product of sludge, less requirement of nutrients of microorganism and high efficiency reduction of organic load. The high efficiency of reduction will reduce the load of further treatment, so that, the threshold limit based on the regulation would be easy to achieve. Research of treatment of wastewater of food industries would be utilized by both big scale industries and small industries using addition of preservative substances. The type reactor of anaerobic process is anaerobic baffled reactor that will give better contact between wastewater and microorganism in the sludge. The variables conducted in this research are the baffled configuration, sludge height, preservative agent contents, hydralic retention time and influence of micro nutrients. The respons of this research are the COD effluent, remaining preservative agent, pH, formation of volatile fatty acid and total suspended solid. The result of this research is kinetic model of the anaerobic baffled reactor, reaction kinetic of preservative agent degradation and technology of treatment wastewater contains preservative agent. The benefit of this research is to solve the treatment of wastewater of food industries with preservative substance in order to achieve wastewater limit regulation and also to prevent the environmental deterioration.

  9. Kinetic study of treatment of wastewater contains food preservative agent by anaerobic baffled reactor : An overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumantri, Indro; Purwanto, Budiyono

    2015-12-01

    The characteristic of wastewater of food industries with preservative substances is high content of organic substances, degradable and high total suspended solid. High organic content in this waste forced the treatment is biologically and pointed out to anaerobic treatment. Anaerobic showed the better performance of degradation than aerobic for high content organic and also for toxic materials. During that day the treatment of food wastewater is aerobically which is high consume of energy required and high volume of sludge produced. The advantage of anaerobic is save high energy, less product of sludge, less requirement of nutrients of microorganism and high efficiency reduction of organic load. The high efficiency of reduction will reduce the load of further treatment, so that, the threshold limit based on the regulation would be easy to achieve. Research of treatment of wastewater of food industries would be utilized by both big scale industries and small industries using addition of preservative substances. The type reactor of anaerobic process is anaerobic baffled reactor that will give better contact between wastewater and microorganism in the sludge. The variables conducted in this research are the baffled configuration, sludge height, preservative agent contents, hydralic retention time and influence of micro nutrients. The respons of this research are the COD effluent, remaining preservative agent, pH, formation of volatile fatty acid and total suspended solid. The result of this research is kinetic model of the anaerobic baffled reactor, reaction kinetic of preservative agent degradation and technology of treatment wastewater contains preservative agent. The benefit of this research is to solve the treatment of wastewater of food industries with preservative substance in order to achieve wastewater limit regulation and also to prevent the environmental deterioration.

  10. Food scientists, material scientists seek common language to preserve flavor, aroma of food

    OpenAIRE

    Trulove, Susan

    2007-01-01

    Food scientists and material scientists agree that the primary purpose of food packaging is to protect the food. Once that is accomplished, the package has to protect sensory quality. One challenge to meeting the second goal is communication between food scientists and material scientists, according to research by Susan E. Duncan, professor of food science and technology in the College of Agriculture and Life Sciences at Virginia Tech.

  11. Preservation of Food Items Using Solar Dryers: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manish Joshi

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available In order to conserve the food products like chillies, grapes, potatoes & other agricultural products, for a longer period of time & with same the quality they need to be dried by using any form of energy, for example heat energy from fossil fuels or solar energy etc. This is done to reduce the moisture content to a predetermined level which prevents the growth & reproduction of micro organisms like bacteria, yeasts etc. that causes many moisture mediated deterioration reactions. One of the drying methods involves drying the produce with the help of direct sun light by spreading them in an open space. This process is labor intensive & requires a large area for spreading the produced to dry out. The disadvantage of this method involves uneven heating, loss of produce due to birds, animals, bad weather etc. Another method of drying involves artificial mechanical drying which is an energy intensive, expensive and costly method. Green house drying or solar drying gives the best results as it does not compromise the product quality, aesthetic etc. Moreover it makes the transportation process easy as the volume of dried product reduces. This paper reviews the solar drying process & gives complete in depth of all the elements involve in solar drying.

  12. Potential use of Rosemary, Propolis and Thyme as Natural Food Preservatives

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tzima, K.; Makris, D.; Nikiforidis, C.V.; Mourtzinos, I.

    2015-01-01

    The use of preservatives in food stuffs and beverages is essential in order to prevent spoilage due to microbial growth or undesirable chemical changes. However, the use of synthetic additives has been associated with various health problems. Therefore, consumers have turned suspicious and obverted

  13. Facets of Nanotechnology as Seen in Food Processing, Packaging, and Preservation Industry

    OpenAIRE

    Neha Pradhan; Surjit Singh; Nupur Ojha; Anamika Shrivastava; Anil Barla; Vivek Rai; Sutapa Bose

    2015-01-01

    Nanotechnology has proven its competence in almost all possible fields we are aware of. However, today nanotechnology has evolved in true sense by contributing to a very large extent to the food industry. With the growing number of mouths to feed, production of food is not adequate. It has to be preserved in order to reach to the masses on a global scale. Nanotechnology made the idea a reality by increasing the shelf life of different kinds of food materials. It is not an entirely full-proof ...

  14. Economics of electron accelerators in the preservation of food by irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Since the last IAEA Symposium on Food Preservation in 1972 work on both the reliability and power level of electron beam accelerators has continued. As a result of this continued development effort, electron beam equipment is now available that can process large quantities of foodstuffs at relatively low unit costs. The combination of higher power and therefore lower-cost radiation devices in conjunction with the increasing cost of energy consumed in one manner or another in the production, distribution and storage of foodstuffs has brought about a significant improvement in the economic feasibility of radiation processing foods. The paper outlines five case studies using electron beam accelerators. Two of the five cases employ X-rays, while the other three use the electron output directly. In all instances it is evident that the economics of electron preservation of food is well within the realm of practical utility. (author)

  15. Economics of Electron Accelerators in the Preservation of Food by Irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Since the last IAEA Symposium on Food Preservation in 1972 work on both the reliability and power level of electron beam accelerators has continued. As a result of this continued development effort, electron beam equipment is now available that can process large quantities of foodstuffs at relatively low unit costs. The combination of higher power and therefore lower-cost radiation devices in conjunction with the increasing cost of energy consumed in one manner or another in the production, distribution and storage of foodstuffs has brought about a significant improvement in the economic feasibility of radiation processing foods. The paper outlines five case studies using electron beam accelerators. Two of the five cases employ X-rays, while the other three use the electron output directly. In all instances it is evident that the economics of electron preservation of food is well within the realm of practical utility. (author)

  16. Bactericidal action of carvacrol towards the food pathogen Bacillus cereus : A case study of a novel approach to mild food preservation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ultee, A.

    2000-01-01

    A new trend in food preservation is the use of mild preservation systems, instead of more severe techniques such as heating, freezing or addition of chemical preservatives. Carvacrol, a phenolic compound present in the essential oil fraction of oreganum and thyme, is known for its antimicrobial acti

  17. Exposure assessment of food preservatives (sulphites, benzoic and sorbic acid) in Austria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mischek, Daniela; Krapfenbauer-Cermak, Christine

    2012-01-01

    An exposure assessment was performed to estimate the potential intake of preservatives in the Austrian population. Food consumption data of different population groups, such as preschool children aged 3-6 years, female and male adults aged 19-65 years were used for calculation. Levels of the preservatives in food were derived from analyses conducted from January 2007 to August 2010. Dietary intakes of the preservatives were estimated and compared to the respective acceptable daily intakes (ADIs). In the average-intake scenario, assuming that consumers randomly consume food products that do or do not contain food additives, estimated dietary intakes of all studied preservatives are well below the ADI for all population groups. Sulphite exposure accounted for 34%, 84% and 89% of the ADI in preschool children, females and males, respectively. The mean estimated daily intake of benzoic acid was 32% (preschool children), 31% (males) and 36% (females) of the ADI. Sorbic acid intakes correspond to 7% of the ADI in preschool children and 6% of the ADI in adults. In the high-intake scenario assuming that consumers always consume food products that contain additives and considering a kind of brand loyalty of consumers, the ADI is exceeded for sulphites among adults (119 and 124%, respectively). Major contributors to the total intake of sulphites were wine and dried fruits for adults. Mean estimated dietary intakes of benzoic acid exceeded the ADI in all population groups, 135% in preschool children, 124% in females and 118% of the ADI in males, respectively. Dietary intakes of sorbic acid are well below the ADI, accounting for a maximum of 30% of the ADI in preschool children. The highest contributors to benzoic and sorbic acid exposure were fish and fish products mainly caused by high consumption data of this large food group, including also mayonnaise-containing fish salads. Other important sources of sorbic acid were bread, buns and toast bread and fruit and vegetable

  18. Nisin as a Food Preservative: Part 2: Antimicrobial Polymer Materials Containing Nisin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gharsallaoui, Adem; Joly, Catherine; Oulahal, Nadia; Degraeve, Pascal

    2016-06-10

    Nisin is the only bacteriocin approved as a food preservative because of its antibacterial effectiveness and its negligible toxicity for humans. Typical problems encountered when nisin is directly added to foods are mainly fat adsorption leading to activity loss, heterogeneous distribution in the food matrix, inactivation by proteolytic enzymes, and emergence of resistance in normally sensitive bacteria strains. To overcome these problems, nisin can be immobilized in solid matrices that must act as diffusional barriers and allow controlling its release rate. This strategy allows maintaining a just sufficient nisin concentration at the food surface. The design of such antimicrobial materials must consider both bacterial growth kinetics but also nisin release kinetics. In this review, nisin incorporation in polymer-based materials will be discussed and special emphasis will be on the applications and properties of antimicrobial food packaging containing this bacteriocin. PMID:25674671

  19. Using irradiation for preservation of foods and agricultural commodities in Malaysia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The National Agricultural Policy was formulated to draw the guideline for the development of Malaysian agriculture until 2000. The most important aspect of the policy is to encourage the agricultural sector to increase productivity in order to attain self-sufficiency and to promote export. To increase agricultural and food production, it is necessary to upgrade the quality and to reduce postharvest loss. The food preservation during handling, processing and storage is important, and the current preservation methods emphasize the improvement in handling, drying, chilling, freezing and the use of chemicals. The technology of food irradiation was introduced only at the research level in Malaysia in 1974. Presently, UTN (Unit Tenaga Nuklear) has a semi-commercial Co-60 facility suitable for the research and development of food irradiation. The commercial use of irradiation and the marketing of treated agricultural and food products are still prohibited. The objective of this paper is to review briefly the possibility of the practical application of food irradiation in Malaysia. The irradiation of rice, black and white pepper, frozen shrimps, cocoa, fruits and vegetables is discussed. (K.I.)

  20. The chemistry of lysozyme and its use as a food preservative and a pharmaceutical.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proctor, V A; Cunningham, F E

    1988-01-01

    The chemistry and use of lysozyme as a food preservative and a pharmaceutical are reviewed. Lysozyme inhibits the growth of deleterious organisms, thus prolonging shelf life. Chemicals used to improve the preservative effect of lysozyme and those that inhibit the enzyme are discussed, along with the stability of lysozyme in various chemical environments. Lysozyme has been used to preserve fresh fruits and vegetables, tofu bean curd, seafoods, meats and sausages, potato salad, cooked burdock with soy sauce, and varieties of semihard cheeses such as Edam, Gouda, and some Italian cheeses. Lysozyme added to infant-feeding formulas makes them more closely resemble human milk. Lysozyme has been used clinically in the treatment of periodontitis, administered in chewing gum, and implemented to prevent tooth decay. It has also been administered to patients suffering from cancer for its analgesic effect and has been used as a potentiating agent in antibiotic therapy. PMID:3280250

  1. Knowledge and attitudes of selected home ecnomists toward irradiation in food preservation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Preservation of food with ionizing radiation treatment offers many benefits to consumers. Among other factors, the lack of certainty of the acceptance of this process by the public has slowed its commercial use in the U.S. Since home economists deal with food-related issues, it is likely that they will be asked questions by the public about this process. This project was designed to obtain information using a survey method about the knowledge and attitudes of selected California home economists toward the use of irradiation to preserve food. The information was used to determine whether a need existed to provide education about the irradiation process to these professionals. The survey revealed that these home economists lacked knowledge about the irradiation process, although they had a positive attitude toward it and desired to learn more about it. Based on these findings, a 90-minute statewide teleconference was conducted and viewed by more than 300 home economists and other interested professionals. Descriptive and inferential statistical methods were used to analyze the data. Results revealed that (a) knowledge of and a positive attitude toward food irradiation increased as a result of participation in the teleconference, (b) the information provided was helpful, and (c) the objectives of the teleconference were met. This project should be replicated using a nationwide sample of home economists to obtain information about the knowledge and attitudes of a wide range of home economists about food irradiation and, if a need is demonstrated, a nationwide teleconference should be conducted

  2. IDENTITY PRESERVATION AND FALSE NON-GMO LABELING IN THE FOOD SUPPLY CHAIN

    OpenAIRE

    Saak, Alexander E.

    2003-01-01

    This paper addresses two issues pertaining to the market differentiation between non-genetically modified and genetically modified food varieties. First, a cost-efficiency explanation of the discrepancy between the observed shares of identity preserved non-genetically modified variety and the total supply of the variety is provided. Second, it is shown that when products can be falsely labeled as non-genetically modified, the share of false labeling depends on the level of identity preservati...

  3. Application of Grape Pomace as a Natural Food Preservative and Source of Biofuel

    OpenAIRE

    Ivanova, Violeta; Andonovic, Zorana; Nedelkovski, Dusko; Tasev, Krste; Beleski, Klime

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this work is utilization of the grape pomace piled up as a waste after winemaking and its application in producing biodiesel. Furthermore, a novel yoghurt product was produced, enriched with antioxidants, such as polyphenolics from the grape pomace and berries in order to improve its nutritional value, contributing to food preservation and significantly reducing the risk of diseases. In fact, for the first time we engaged these compounds in preparation of a new yoghurt product, ...

  4. Lipopeptides as the Antifungal and Antibacterial Agents: Applications in Food Safety and Therapeutics

    OpenAIRE

    Khem Raj Meena; Kanwar, Shamsher S.

    2015-01-01

    A lot of crops are destroyed by the phytopathogens such as fungi, bacteria, and yeast leading to economic losses to the farmers. Members of the Bacillus genus are considered as the factories for the production of biologically active molecules that are potential inhibitors of growth of phytopathogens. Plant diseases constitute an emerging threat to global food security. Many of the currently available antimicrobial agents for agriculture are highly toxic and nonbiodegradable and thus cause ext...

  5. Antifungal Activity of Selected Lactic Acid Bacteria and Propionic Acid Bacteria against Dairy-Associated Spoilage Fungi

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aunsbjerg, Stina Dissing

    Bacterial cultures of lactic and propionic acid bacteria are widely used in fermented products including dairy products. Spoilage fungi may constitute a quality and safety issue in these products. The antifungal properties of some lactic and propionic acid bacteria make them potential candidates...... metabolites produced. Besides diacetyl and lactic acid, 6 antifungal hydroxy acids were identified. Of these, 3 have previously been reported from antifungal lactic acid bacteria, whereas the other 3 hydroxy acids have not previously been reported produced by antifungal lactic acid bacteria....... for prolonging shelf-life of food without the addition of specific preservatives. Increased interest in the use of these bacteria for biopreservation has led to identification of a range of potent strains, and in addition, isolation and identification of various antifungal metabolites produced by...

  6. Current topics in active and intelligent food packaging for preservation of fresh foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Seung Yuan; Lee, Seung Jae; Choi, Dong Soo; Hur, Sun Jin

    2015-11-01

    The purpose of this review is to provide an overview of current packaging systems, e.g. active packaging and intelligent packaging, for various foods. Active packaging, such as modified atmosphere packaging (MAP), extends the shelf life of fresh produce, provides a high-quality product, reduces economic losses, including those caused by delay of ripening, and improves appearance. However, in active packaging, several variables must be considered, such as temperature control and different gas formulations with different product types and microorganisms. Active packaging refers to the incorporation of additive agents into packaging materials with the purpose of maintaining or extending food product quality and shelf life. Intelligent packaging is emerging as a potential advantage in food processing and is an especially useful tool for tracking product information and monitoring product conditions. Moreover, intelligent packaging facilitates data access and information exchange by altering conditions inside or outside the packaging and product. In spite of these advantages, few of these packaging systems are commercialized because of high cost, strict safety and hygiene regulations or limited consumer acceptance. Therefore more research is needed to develop cheaper, more easily applicable and effective packaging systems for various foods. PMID:25892577

  7. Influence of some physical treatments and natural food preservatives on the diversity of microorganisms in certain Egyptian juices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foods begin to lose their quality from the moment they are harvested through changes resulting from physical, chemical, enzymatic, or microbiological reactions. Food preservation prevents deteriorative reaction, extending the shelf life and assuring its safety. Microorganisms and enzymes are the main agents responsible for food spoilages and therefore the targets of preservation techniques. The idealmethod of food preservation has the following characteristics: It improves shelf life and safety by inactivating spoilage and pathogenic microorganisms. It dose not leave residues. It is cheap and convenient to apply. It encounters no objection from consumers and legislators. One of the major advances in human history was the ability to preserve food. It was the perquisite to man setting down in one place instead of moving from place to place in the never ending hunt for fresh food. The earliest preservation technologies developed were drying, smoking, chilling and heating. The use of various compounds such as salts and spices to preserve food was also used in ancient times

  8. Production of biosurfactant and antifungal compound by fermented food isolate Bacillus subtilis 20B.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshi, Sanket; Bharucha, Chirag; Desai, Anjana J

    2008-07-01

    A biosurfactant producing strain, Bacillus subtilis 20B, was isolated from fermented food in India. The strain also showed inhibition of various fungi in in-vitro experiments on Potato Dextrose Agar medium. It was capable of growth at temperature 55 degrees C and salts up to 7%. It utilized different sugars, alcohols, hydrocarbons and oil as a carbon source, with preference for sugars. In glucose based minimal medium it produced biosurfactant which reduced surface tension to 29.5 mN/m, interfacial tension to 4.5 mN/m and gave stable emulsion with crude oil and n-hexadecane. The biosurfactant activity was stable at high temperature, a wide range of pH and salt concentrations for five days. Oil displacement experiments using biosurfactant containing broth in sand pack columns with crude oil showed 30.22% recovery. The possible application of organism as biocontrol agent and use of biosurfactant in microbial enhanced oil recovery (MEOR) is discussed. PMID:17855083

  9. Does use of the polyene natamycin as a food preservative jeopardise the clinical efficacy of amphotericin B? A word of concern.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalhoff, Axel A H; Levy, Stuart B

    2015-06-01

    Natamycin is a poorly soluble, polyene macrolide antifungal agent used in the food industry for the surface treatment of cheese and sausages. This use is not of safety concern. However, highly soluble natamycin-cyclodextrin inclusion complexes have been developed for the protection of beverages. This practice leads to high drug exposures exceeding the safety level. Apart from the definition of an acceptable daily dietary exposure to natamycin, its effect on the faecal flora as a reservoir for resistance has to be examined. Consumption of food to which natamycin has been added and mixed homogeneously, such as yoghurt, and in particular the addition of cyclodextrin inclusion complexes to beverages and wine generates high faecal natamycin concentrations resulting in high drug exposures of faecal Candida spp. Development of natamycin resistance has been observed in Candida spp. colonising the intestinal tract of patients following natamycin treatment of fungal infections. Horizontal gene transfer among different Candida spp. and within Aspergillus fumigatus spreads resistance. Therefore, it cannot be denied that use of natamycin for preservation of yoghurt and beverages may foster development of resistance to polyenes in Candida spp. PMID:25862309

  10. 21 CFR 333.210 - Antifungal active ingredients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Antifungal active ingredients. 333.210 Section 333.210 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED... Antifungal Drug Products § 333.210 Antifungal active ingredients. The active ingredient of the...

  11. Influence of food preservatives, heat, and gamma radiation on protease production by aeromonas hydrophila

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effect of food preservatives, heat and gamma radiation on growth and protease production by A. Hydrophila were studied. Growth of A. hydrophila was inhibited at 5% sodium chloride, whereas protease activity was not detected at 4% sodium chloride. Sodium citrate, sodium acetate, potassium sorbate, and sodium nitrite affected growth and production at Ph 6.0 Numbers of viable cells and protease production by A. hydrophila in broth medium and in minced meat slurries decreased by increasing the time of heating in a water bath set at 50 degree C while they were rapidly reduced and no detection of protease after heating for 2 min. At 55 degree C or 60 degree C. The activity of protease was found to be stable at 60 degree C for 30 min. and the enzyme activity decreased by 50% at 80 degree C for 5 min. and retained stable at 100 degree C or 121 degree C for 5 min. indicating the thermal resistance of protease. gamma radiation at dose level of 1.5 kGy inactivated the growth and protease production. Food preservatives, heat, and gamma radiation are required to control the growth of A. hydrophila and protease production in foods

  12. 21 CFR 333.250 - Labeling of antifungal drug products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Labeling of antifungal drug products. 333.250... Antifungal Drug Products § 333.250 Labeling of antifungal drug products. (a) Statement of identity. The... “antifungal.” (b) Indications. The labeling of the product states, under the heading “Indications,” the...

  13. Nisin, an apoptogenic bacteriocin and food preservative, attenuates HNSCC tumorigenesis via CHAC1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nisin, a bacteriocin and commonly used food preservative, may serve as a novel potential therapeutic for treating head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC), as it induces preferential apoptosis, cell cycle arrest, and reduces cell proliferation in HNSCC cells, compared with primary keratinocytes. Nisin also reduces HNSCC tumorigenesis in vivo. Mechanistically, nisin exerts these effects on HNSCC, in part, through CHAC1, a proapoptotic cation transport regulator, and through a concomitant CHAC1-independent influx of extracellular calcium. In addition, although CHAC1 is known as an apoptotic mediator, its effects on cancer cell apoptosis have not been examined. Our studies are the first to report CHAC1's new role in promoting cancer cell apoptosis under nisin treatment. These data support the concept that nisin decreases HNSCC tumorigenesis in vitro and in vivo by inducing increased cell apoptosis and decreased cell proliferation; effects that are mediated by activation of CHAC1, increased calcium influxes, and induction of cell cycle arrest. These findings support the use of nisin as a potentially novel therapeutic for HNSCC, and as nisin is safe for human consumption and currently used in food preservation, its translation into a clinical setting may be facilitated

  14. Nisin, an apoptogenic bacteriocin and food preservative, attenuates HNSCC tumorigenesis via CHAC1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joo, Nam E; Ritchie, Kathryn; Kamarajan, Pachiyappan; Miao, Di; Kapila, Yvonne L

    2012-12-01

    Nisin, a bacteriocin and commonly used food preservative, may serve as a novel potential therapeutic for treating head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC), as it induces preferential apoptosis, cell cycle arrest, and reduces cell proliferation in HNSCC cells, compared with primary keratinocytes. Nisin also reduces HNSCC tumorigenesis in vivo. Mechanistically, nisin exerts these effects on HNSCC, in part, through CHAC1, a proapoptotic cation transport regulator, and through a concomitant CHAC1-independent influx of extracellular calcium. In addition, although CHAC1 is known as an apoptotic mediator, its effects on cancer cell apoptosis have not been examined. Our studies are the first to report CHAC1's new role in promoting cancer cell apoptosis under nisin treatment. These data support the concept that nisin decreases HNSCC tumorigenesis in vitro and in vivo by inducing increased cell apoptosis and decreased cell proliferation; effects that are mediated by activation of CHAC1, increased calcium influxes, and induction of cell cycle arrest. These findings support the use of nisin as a potentially novel therapeutic for HNSCC, and as nisin is safe for human consumption and currently used in food preservation, its translation into a clinical setting may be facilitated. PMID:23342279

  15. The application of irradiation techniques for food preservation and process improvement -Studies on application of radiation and radioisotopes-

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    With the increased consumption of processed food, quality control techniques are inevitably required in the food industry for its mass production and distribution. Recently, there has been a growing interest in the use of irradiation for solving the infrastructural problems in the food industry by developing viable alternatives to conventional technology and by improving the quality of processed foods. Even though food irradiation technology has been commercialized in 25 countries, and 18 items of irradiated foods have been approved for human consumption domestically, infrastructural studies are needed for the practical application of this technology. In order to enlarge the utilization of irradiation technology in solving the infrastructural problems of the food industry, this project was designed to investigate the efficacy of gamma irradiation for improving the process and physical properties of dried foods (corn and soybean), for preserving the reserved foods for emergency (red pepper) and for producing natural products (red polyketied pigment) using microbial immobilization with radiation-induced polymer

  16. Isolation of Aspergillus flavus from stored food commodities and Thymus vulgaris (L. essential oil used as a safe plant based preservative

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atul Kumar Singh

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Grain samples of Cicer arietinum (Chickpea, Zea mays (Maize, Cajanus cajan (Pigeon pea, Hordeum vulgare (Barley, Oryza sativa (Rice and Sorghum vulgare (Millet were procured from various retailers of market were subjected to their mould profile. During mycoflora analysis, 1297 fungal isolates were recorded from the food commodities. The least number of fungal isolates (189 were detected from H. vulgare while highest (244 from Z. mays. The genus Aspergillus was found to be most dominant encountered in all the samples, followed by Cladosporium cladosporoides, Alternaria alternata and Penicillium species. The highest percent relative density was recorded in case of Aspergillus flavus (36.24 followed by A. niger (28.45 and C. cladosporoides (10.95 while the lowest was found in case of Trichoderma viride (1.16. Some of the A. flavus isolates were toxigenic secreting aflatoxin B 1 . The survey reveals that the contamination of food commodities with storage fungi and mycotoxin is alarming and appropriate quality control measures should be taken urgently. The essential oil of Thymus vulgaris L. showed highest antifungal efficacy. The thyme oil absolutely inhibited the mycelial growth of A. flavus at 0.7µl ml -1 . The oil also showed significant antiaflatoxigenic efficacy as it completely arrested the aflatoxin B 1 production at 0.6µl ml -1 . Thyme oil as fungitoxicant was also found superior over most of the prevalent synthetic fungicides. The findings recommend the thyme oil as potential botanical preservative in eco-friendly control of biodeterioration of food commodities during storage.

  17. Application of ionizing irradiation for food preservation and for reducing microbiological contamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ionizing irradiation can be an alternative or combinatory technique for food preservation. Several experiments proved that relatively small dosage (2-6 kGy) effectively reduces the number of microscopic fungi and bacteria in food. In addition the survivors had become more sensitive to salt and heat. No change in the quality of the treated food has been observed while their storability improved substantially. Some results of an extended experiment using Co-60 and Co-137 radioactive isotopes are listed below: (1) The storability of raw, sliced pork and beef improved 3-4 times after a 2 kGy dosage of irradiation. (2) The storability of chicken after the same treatment can be prolonged by 4-5 times. (3) 2.5 kGy dosage allowed to keep strawberries 2-3 times longer in the cold storage. (4) Wet (18-23 water) wheat's storability can be prolonged to 60 days by a 4 kGy treatment. (5) By using irradiated spices Fo=3 heat load was satisfactory instead of the usual Fo=4-5 when making canned meat

  18. Food preservation by irradiation. V.- Economic study of the spanish potatoe market and preservation feasibility by irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A study of the spanish potatoe market is carried o nt in order to know the possibilities of preservation by irradiation. The study is initiated with a recompilation of statistical data on the production and consumption of potatoes by regions and seasons. Last years losses are then estimated. (Author) 9 refs

  19. Radiation preservation of foods of plant origin. Part 1. Potatoes and other tuber crops

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In Part 1 of a planned series of articles on preservation of foods of plant origin by gamma irradiation, the current state of research on the technological, nutritional, and biochemical aspects of sprout inhibition of potatoes and other tuber crops are reviewed. These include varietal responses, dose effects, time of irradiation, pre- and postirradiation storage, and handling requirements; postirradiation changes in carbohydrates, ascorbic acid, amino acids, and other nutrients; respiration; biochemical mechanisms involved in sprout inhibition; wound healing and microbial infection during storage; formation of wound and light-induced glycoalkaloids and identification of irradiated potatoes. The culinary and processing qualities with particular reference to darkening of boiled and processed potatoes are discussed. The prospects of irradiation on an industrial scale as an alternative to chemical sprout inhibitors or mechanical refrigeration are considered

  20. Tandem action of exercise training and food restriction completely preserves ischemic preconditioning in the aging heart.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abete, P; Testa, G; Galizia, G; Mazzella, F; Della Morte, D; de Santis, D; Calabrese, C; Cacciatore, F; Gargiulo, G; Ferrara, N; Rengo, G; Sica, V; Napoli, C; Rengo, F

    2005-01-01

    Ischemic preconditioning (IP) has been proposed as an endogenous form of protection against ischemia reperfusion injury. IP, however, does not prevent post-ischemic dysfunction in the aging heart but may be partially corrected by exercise training and food restriction. We investigated the role of exercise training combined with food restriction on restoring IP in the aging heart. Effects of IP against ischemia-reperfusion injury in isolated hearts from adult (A, 6 months old), sedentary 'ad libitum' fed (SL), trained ad libitum fed (TL), sedentary food-restricted (SR), trained- and food-restricted senescent rats (TR) (24 months old) were investigated. Norepinephrine release in coronary effluent was determined by high performance liquid cromatography. IP significantly improved final recovery of percent developed pressure in hearts from A (p<0.01) but not in those from SL (p=NS) vs unconditioned controls. Developed pressure recovery was partial in hearts from TL and SR (64.3 and 67.3%, respectively; p<0.05 vs controls) but it was total in those from TR (82.3%, p=NS vs A; p<0.05 vs hearts from TL and SR). Similarly, IP determined a similar increase of norepinephrine release in A (p<0.001) and in TR (p<0.001, p=NS vs adult). IP was abolished by depletion of myocardial norepinephrine stores by reserpine in all groups. Thus, IP reduces post-ischemic dysfunction in A but not in SL. Moreover, IP was preserved partially in TR and SR and totally in TR. Complete IP maybe due to full restoration of norepinephrine release in response to IP stimulus. PMID:15664731

  1. Marketing Study Of The Preference Of The Egyptian Consuming Family To Buy Some Dried Food Preserved By Gamma Radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alongside traditional methods of processing and preserving food, the technology of food irradiation is gaining more and more attention around the world. In 1997/10/22, the Egyptian government issued clearance for irradiating certain items of food such as spices, herbs and dried onion and garlic. The approval of some other items of food such as poultry, fish and dried vegetables will issue in the near future. This study aims to know the opinion and attitude of the preference of the consuming Egyptian family to buy some dried food preserved by gamma radiation such as wheat, dried onion and garlic, dried date, dried legumes and yamish Ramadan when available on the market. A pool of 1160 sheets was collected randomly. The questionnaire was supported with simplified information about the use of atomic energy and radiation for peaceful purpose and other alternative methods to save food. The results obtained from this study showed that 67% of the total sample size accepted to buy irradiated fresh vegetables if its available in the markets while the objection was 15% and convinced were 17%. The model of the multi regression analysis was carried out between independent variables (the local consumer attitude towards buying some dried food preserved by gamma radiation) and dependent variables (technical, environmental, marketing and hygienic methods. The results were R2= 0.877 and F-test = 322 (significant). The model of the multi regression analysis was also carried out between dependent variables (the local consumer attitude towards buying some dried food preserved by gamma radiation) and independent variables (income, Education, age and governorates). The results were R2 = 0.53 and F-test12.64 (significant).

  2. Influence of some physical treatments and natural food preservatives on the diversity of microorganisms in certain egyptian juices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foods begin to lose their quality from the moment they are harvested.Microorganisms are the main agents responsible for food spoilages . Food preservation prevents deteriorative reaction, extending the shelf life and assuring its safety. The uses of chemical preservatives have harmful effects in long term application. So, the purpose of this article is to use the natural treatments instead of chemical preservatives or application of high temperature which cause losses of some essential nutrients of the juice. In this study the following treatments were investigated: 1. Gamma irradiation . the lethal effect of ionizing radiation on the microorganisms is primarily due to DNA damage, which destroys the reproductive capabilities and other functions of the cell. 2. Pasteurized temperatures(90 degree c).Heat can damage protein, lipids, and nucleic acids of microorganisms and destabilize their membranes.3.The natural preservatives : nisin, citric acid, lactic acid, cinnamon, combination treatments : it was performed between the previous treatments.The best results obtained from our experiments for preserving the fruit juice were performed by combing the pasteurized temperature 90 degree C for 30 sec with gamma irradiation (0.2 K Gy). Or using 200 μg/ml of nisin in combination with 2% (w/v) of citric acid and pasteurized temperature 90 degree C for 30 sec.

  3. Effect of some food preservatives on the lipolytic activity of beef luncheon fungi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saleem, Abdel-Rahman

    2008-09-01

    Beef luncheon meat is one of the most popular meals in several countries in the world including Egypt. Thirty one fungal species and 3 species varieties were recovered from 30 samples of beef luncheon meat collected from different supermarkets in Qena. Alternaria, Aspergillus, Emericella, Mucor, Mycosphaerella, Penicillium and Rhizopus were the most common genera on the two types of media. From the above genera, the most prevalent species were Alternaria alternate, Aspergillus flavus, A. fumigatus, A. niger, A. terreus, Emericella nidulans, Mucor racemosus, Mycosphaerella tassiana, Penicillium chrysogenum and Rhizopus stolonifer. Screening of fungi for their abilities to produce lipase enzyme showed that, ten isolates represented 32.26% of total isolates appeared high lipase production, while sixteen isolates (51.61%) were moderate and 5 isolates (16.13%) were low producers. Aspergillus niger, Fusarium oxysporum and Nectria haematococca produced the highest amount of lipase enzyme, so these fungi were used in further studies. The incorporation of five food preservatives (Disodium phosphate, sodium benzoate, citric acid, potassium sorbate and sodium citrate) individually in the culture medium of lipase production exhibited an inhibitive effect on the mycelial growth and enzyme production by Aspergillus niger, Fusarium oxysporum and Nectria haematococca. PMID:23997619

  4. Critical evaluation of commonly used objective functions to optimize overall quality and nutrient retention of heat-preserved foods

    OpenAIRE

    Silva, C.; Hendrickx, M.; De Oliveira, F.; Tobback, P

    1992-01-01

    Two objective functions—volume average retention and volume average cook-value—commonly used to optimize the overall quality and nutrient retention of heat-preserved foods, were studied and optimal processing conditions based on the two approaches were compared. Case studies from the literature were run and tested for the two objective functions. The influence of the decimal reduction time (at the reference temperature, Dref value) of the quality factor on the optimal processing temperature w...

  5. Extended safe preservation period of foods of plant origin through combined technological methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The sublimation drying of fruits as an innovative technology for preservation their composition and enzyme activity is applied to various fruits: apricots, strawberries, plumbs, peaches and apples. The authors present the main methods of lyophilization as an original biotechnology for cryopreservation of fruits and afterwards are subjected to cold sterilization with 1.5 and 3 kGy doses of gamma irradiation. The combined application of both technologies provides safe and extended preservation of fresh fruits with high content of vitamins, mineral salts, maximum preserved enzyme system, aroma-tasty complex and microbiological purity

  6. The Research of Food Preservation by Irradiation and Its Industrialization in Korea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Since the late 1960s, radiation effects on the storage of potatoes, strawberry, grapes and rice have been investigated on an experimental basis in Korea, Based on the research results of batch scale storage for sprouting food (potatoes, onions, chestnuts) and white ginseng powder by the Korea Advanced Energy Research Institute (KAERI) and on the recommendation. Food irradiation is a new process that may provide an alternative to existing food processes. From the extensive research in food irradiation for more than three decades by leading international organizations and advanced countries, the efficacy of a number of applications has been established, including sprout inhibition, disinfestation of insects, sterilization, delay of ripening, and improvement of organoleptic properties in food. Owing to the recommendation on the Wholesomeness of Irradiated Food by the Joint FAO/IAEA/W/o Expert Committee in 1980 and the adaption of the Codex General Standard for Irradiated Food by the Codex Allurements Commission in 1983, as of May 1985, thirty-two countries have officially approved 227 food items in 73 food groups as safe for human consumption. Food irradiation processing is increasingly recognized as a viable technology for reducing the overall quantity of spoiled food, reducing energy used in food storage, and reducing reliance on chemicals currently used

  7. 21 CFR 101.22 - Foods; labeling of spices, flavorings, colorings and chemical preservatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION FOOD LABELING Specific Food... from a spice, fruit or fruit juice, vegetable or vegetable juice, edible yeast, herb, bark, bud, root... juice, vegetable or vegetable juice, edible yeast, herb, bark, bud, root, leaf or similar plant...

  8. Antifungal Activity of Kebar Grass Leaf Extracts on the Growth of Aflatoxigenic Aspergillus flavus in Food Model Media

    OpenAIRE

    Meike Meilan Lisangan; Rizal Syarief 1; Winiati P. Rahayu3); OKKY S. DHARMAPUTRA

    2014-01-01

    Some fungal species are toxigenic, for example Aspergillus flavus which can produce aflatoxin. Various methods have been conducted to reduce aflatoxin contamination in foods, among others using antimicrobial compounds derived from natural plant extract. Kebar grass (Biophytum petersianum Klotszch) is one of herbs that has potency as antimicrobe. The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of three types of model media i.e. carbohydrate- enriched media, fat-enriched media, and pr...

  9. Recent succcesses in realization of the program of the joint FAO/IAEA division in the field of irradiation and preservation of food-stuffs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The latest progress in the implementation of a joint FAO/IAEA programm in the field of food irradiation and preservation is reported. After giving a historic background to this program, the tasks facing the relevant UN agencies are listed, and the latest developments in foodstuff preservation by radiation treatment methods are presented. (E.T.)

  10. Characterization and expression of the antifungal protein from Monascus pilosus and its distribution among various Monascus species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tu, Ching-Yu; Chen, Yu-Pei; Yu, Ming-Chen; Hwang, Ing-Er; Wu, Dai-Ying; Liaw, Li-Ling

    2016-07-01

    Monascus species are traditionally used for food preservation. This study used the disc diffusion method to verify the antifungal activity of protein extracted from Monascus pilosus BCRC38072 against 15 fungal pathogens. An antifungal protein, designated as MAFP1, was successfully purified and confirmed through N-terminal sequencing. To further explore the antifungal gene, a mafp1 gene that is similar to that of PgAFP from Penicillium chrysogenum was cloned from M. pilosus BCRC38072. According to the N-terminal sequencing and in silico analysis, the signal peptide was assumed to have 18 amino acids and the mature MAFP1 to contain 58 peptides. Moreover, the mafp1 gene was recognized in Monascus ruber, Monascus barkeri, Monascus floridanus, and Monascus lunisporas through polymerase chain reaction and DNA sequencing and showed high homology. By contrast, the mafp1 gene was absent in Monascus kaoliang, Monascus purpureus, and Monascus sanguineus. In addition, the mafp1 gene with N-terminal polyhistidine fusion was overexpressed in Escherichia coli. However, the antifungal activity of recombinant MAFP1 was significantly lower than that of native MAFP1. According to the properties of MAFP1, Monascus species may have food preservation applications. PMID:26803705

  11. Advances of E-beam processing for food preservation in Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Food irradiation is a well known process in which food products are exposed to a controlled amount of ionizing radiation to kill harmful microorganisms, to delay ripening and also to inhibit sprouting. During last years the demand for this technology had increased in order to reduce losses all along food chain supply. E-beam processing trends to be the future's choice, once besides the possibility of being disconnected when not in use, is easily available, does not need reloading and streamlines the process, reducing logistics costs. In Brazil, the use of this technology is gaining importance day by day, mainly due to the necessity of food industry on guarantee food assurance and enhances its shelf-life. Although only few industries has already installed e-beam accelerators to its processing systems and also not many provides irradiation services to local companies, this scenery trends to change due to knowledge diffusion, high cost effectiveness relationship and government support. (author)

  12. Purification and characterization of bacteriocin like substance produced from bacillus lentus with perspective of a new biopreservative for food preservation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Molecular weight of bacteriocin like substance (BLIS) of a new strain of Bacillus lentus 121 was found to be approximately 11 kDa. Purification of BLIS was attained by single step gel exclusion chromatography. BLIS was characterized by studying the inhibitory spectrum. It was active at broad pH range, high temperature and high NaCl concentration and showed sensitivity to proteolytic enzymes like trypsin, alpha-chymotrypsin and papain, the characters desirable for food preservation. BLIS extended the shelf stability of milk upto 21 days as a biopreservative. (author)

  13. Antifungal agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryder, N S

    1999-12-01

    At this year's ICAAC Meeting, new data on approximately 20 different antifungal agents were presented, while no new agents were disclosed. Drugs in late development include the triazoles, voriconazole (Pfizer Ltd) and Sch-56592 (Schering-Plough Corp), and the echinocandins, caspofungin (Merck & Co Inc) and FK-463 (Fujisawa Pharmaceutical Co Ltd). In contrast to previous years, presentations on these and earlier developmental compounds were relatively modest in scope, with few significant new data. Little new information appeared on the most recent novel class of agents, the sordarins (Glaxo Wellcome plc). Early clinical results were presented for FK-463, showing acceptable tolerability and dose-dependent efficacy in AIDS-associated esophageal candidiasis. A new liposomal formulation of nystatin (Nyotran; Aronex Pharmaceuticals Inc) was shown to be equivalent to conventional amphotericin B in empiric therapy of presumed fungal infection in neutropenic patients, but with reduced toxicity. Intravenous itraconazole (Janssen Pharmaceutica NV) was an effective prophylactic therapy in invasive pulmonary aspergillosis, while oral itraconazole was discussed as a treatment for fungal infection in heart and liver transplant patients. The allylamine compound, terbinafine (Novartis AG), showed good clinical efficacy against fungal mycetoma, a serious tropical infection. A major highlight was the first presentation of inhibitors of fungal efflux pumps as a strategy for overcoming resistance. MC-510027 (milbemycin alpha-9; Microcide Pharmaceuticals Inc) and its derivatives, potentiated the antifungal activity of triazoles and terbinafine in a number of Candida spp. Another pump inhibitor, MC-005172 (Microcide Pharmaceuticals Inc) showed in vivo potentiation of fluconazole in a mouse kidney infection model. Microcide Pharmaceuticals Inc also presented inhibitors of bacterial efflux pumps. PMID:16113946

  14. Preserving the authenticity of food and wine festivals: the case of Italy

    OpenAIRE

    Cristina Santini; Alessio Cavicchi; Eleonora Belletti

    2013-01-01

    In the last ten years, the Academy has fostered the scientific debate over typical food products and their role in the development of rural communities and rural tourism. Background research define terroir as a harmonious bundle of territorial, climatic, historical and cultural characteristics which belong to a certain region. According to UNESCO, food and wine festivals are part of the intangible cultural heritage: during festivals product knowledge is spread among participants and local com...

  15. Combined effect of thermal sterilization and ionizing radiation on storage life of preserved foods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effect was studied of the binary combination of preservation methods, i.e., of a reduced intensity of thermosterilization and diverse doses of ionizing radiation, on the content of microorganisms in single-component tinned products (tinned beef and gravy, tinned pickled cauliflower) and in tins containing two components (beef with cauliflower) over a period of 115 days of storage at a laboratory temperature of 20 degC ± 2 degC. The experimental results showed that the chosen combined process of preservation guaranteed sufficient storage stability to the products over several months of storage. An ionizing radiation dose of 5 kGy was sufficient for both types of model samples, this both from microbiological, nutritional aspects (some group B vitamins, vitamin C, -SH groups, etc.) and with regard to organoleptic properties (outlook, color, odor, flavor, consistence, juiciness). The problems will further be studied. (author) 2 tabs., 4 figs., 14 refs

  16. Welfare Effects of Identity Preservation and Labelling of Genetically Modified Food

    OpenAIRE

    Lindner, Robert K.; Burton, Michael P.; James, Sallie; Pluske, Johanna M.

    2001-01-01

    Using a simple model of the world canola market, this paper explores the consequences of the introduction of GM canola on prices, production and consumer welfare. In particular, the model contains heterogeneous consumers who differentiate between GM and non-GM canola, but who can be captured by the GM market if the price discount for GM is sufficiently large. This leads to market segmentation, with the size of price differentials determined by identity preservation costs. A particular feature...

  17. Ramsons can deliver taste and antibacterial effect in food preservation: From nature to cultivation

    OpenAIRE

    Jensen, Martin; Hansen, Flemming; Grevsen, K.

    2014-01-01

    Ramsons (Allium ursinum) contain sulphur compounds that display strong antibacterial activity against Listeria, Salmonella and E. coli. Onion bulbs and flowers have a higher concentration of allicin than leaves and stems and display higher inhibitory activity. Grinded onion bulbs have shown strong antibacterial effects in meat test models and may potentially be used as an alternative to preserve organic meat products. Cultivation methods are investigated.

  18. Effect of food preservative and food coloring agent on some physiological and hematological parameters in albino rats and theprotective role of garlic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eman G.E. Helal* and Mervat Abdel- Rahman

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Most children, in the age of nursery consume food that contains both colorants and preservatives with great amount. This observation led us to study the interaction between sodium nitrite as a food preservative and sun set yellow as a coloring agent. The mixture of the two agents at the limited dose of each was found to be a lethal dose. So, 1/10th of this dose was used daily for 30 days. Animals were divided into three groups. The first group served as a control, while the second group was orally administered a mixture of 10 mg sod.nitrite (NaNO3/kg mixed with 0.5 mg/kg/day sun set yellow (S.S.Y. The third group received garlic (5 mcg/kg in addition to the above mentioned mixture. After 30 days of treatment, half of the animals from each group were decapitated. The other half of the animals was left for another 15 days without any additional treatment as a recovery period. Ingestion of the mixture of (NaNO3 and S.S.Y significantly decreased rat body weight, RBCs and WBCs counts, Hb%, Hct%. No changes were recorded for organ/ body weight, respiratory rate, heart rate, rectal temperature. A complete recovery from the abnormalities of most physiological and hematological parameters was observed after the recovery period or when garlic was administered

  19. Food and grain preservation through irradiation. January 1970-April 1989 (Citations from the NTIS data base). Report for January 1970-April 1989

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This bibliography contains citations concerning the principles, methods, and results of using ionized irradiation to preserve grains and foods through reduction of spoilage and infestation. The citations cover irradiation chemistry as it affects food wholesomeness, nutrition, and changes in food value. Irradiation methods include sources of irradiation, primarily gamma rays, and dosage for specific foods. Many articles reference public health and safety, studies of effect of irradiated food on laboratory animals, and associated standards and legislation. (This updated bibliography contains 338 citations, 13 of which are new entries to the previous edition.)

  20. Food and grain preservation through irradiation. January 1970-January 1988 (citations from the NTIS data base). Report for January 1970-January 1988

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This bibliography contains citations concerning the principles, methods, and results of using ionized irradiation to preserve grains and foods through reduction of spoilage and infestation. The citations cover irradiation chemistry as it affects food wholesomeness, nutrition, and changes in food value. Irradiation methods include sources of irradiation, primarily gamma rays, and dosage for specific foods. Many articles reference public health and safety, studies of effect of irradiated food on laboratory animals, and associated standards and legislation. (This updated bibliography contains 325 citations, 35 of which are new entries to the previous edition.)

  1. Radiation preservation of foods of plant origin. Part IV. Subtropical fruits: citrus, grapes, and avocados

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Current information on the use of ionizing radiation for improving the storage of subtropical fruits like citrus, grapes, and avocados is reviewed. The feasibility of applying radiation either alone or in combination with other physical or chemical treatments for the control of postharvest fungal diseases is considered. Irradiation effects on the physiology of the fruits as related to respiration, ethylene evolution, changes in major chemical constituents, and quality are discussed. The recent trends in the possible use of irradiation as an alternative treatment to chemical fumigants for disinfestation of citrus and avocados and the prospects for the future application of irradiation for preservation of some of these fruits are outlined. 128 references

  2. Update on azole antifungals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zonios, Dimitrios I; Bennett, John E

    2008-04-01

    This is a comprehensive, clinically oriented review of the four commercially available triazoles: fluconazole, itraconazole, voriconazole, and posaconazole. Emphasis is placed in pharmacology, drug interactions, adverse events, antifungal activity, and the evolving perspective of their clinical use. Key clinical trials are briefly discussed, and specific drug indications summarized. Fluconazole remains a valuable low-cost choice for the treatment of various fungal infections, including candidiasis and cryptococcosis. It has relatively few drug interactions and is safe but lacks activity against filamentous fungi. The use of itraconazole is historically plagued by erratic bioavailability of the oral capsule, improved with the oral solution. Drug interactions are numerous. Itraconazole exhibits significant activity against Aspergillus and the endemic fungi. Voriconazole has revolutionized the treatment of aspergillosis in severely immunocompromised patients, but its use is compromised by complicated pharmacokinetics, notable drug interactions, and relatively significant adverse events. Finally, posaconazole is the last addition to the azole armamentarium with extended antifungal spectrum, significant activity against the zygomycetes, and, apparently, optimal safety profile. Posaconazole has a significant role for the prophylaxis of invasive fungal infections in severely immunocompromised patients. Multiple daily dosing, a need for fatty foods for absorption, and absence of an intravenous formulation restrict its use to selected populations. PMID:18366001

  3. Lack of oestrogenic effects of food preservatives (parabens) in uterotrophic assays

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hossaini, A.; Larsen, Jens-Jørgen; Larsen, John Christian

    2000-01-01

    The oestrogenic activity of the parabens, methyl-, ethyl- and propyl p-hydroxybenzoate, widely used as antimicrobials in food, and butyl p-hydroxybenzoate, which is used in cosmetic products, and their shared main metabolite p-hydroxybenzoic acid was investigated in a mouse uterotrophic assay...

  4. Partition of selected food preservatives in fish oil-water systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cheng, Hongyuan; Friis, Alan; Leth, Torben

    2010-01-01

    fish oil–water system was observed at 25 °C. Two modifications have been made to the Nordic Food Analysis Standard for the determination of sorbic acid by HPLC. The experimental results show that the Kow of benzoic acid and sorbic acid in fish oil–buffer system is ca. 100 times lower than that in fish...

  5. The application of irradiation techniques for food preservation and processing improvement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Byun, Myung Woo; Cho, Han Ok; Jo, Sung Ki; Yook, Hong Sun; Kwon, Oh Jin; Yang, Jae Seung; Kim, Sung; Im, Sung Il

    1997-09-01

    This project has intended to develop alternative techniques to be used in food industry for food processing and utilization by safe irradiation methods. For improvement of rheology and processing in corn starch by irradiation, the production of modified starch with low viscosity as well as with excellent viscosity stability became feasible by the control of gamma irradiation dose levels and the amount of added inorganic peroxides to starch. Also, this project was developed the improvement methods of hygienic quality and long-term storage of dried red pepper by gamma irradiation. And, in Korean medicinal plants, 10 kGy gamma irradiation was effective for improving sanitary quality and increasing extraction yield of major components. For the sanitization of health and convenience foods, gamma irradiation was more effective than ozone treatment in decontamination of microorganisms, with minimal effect on the physicochemical properties analysed. In evaluation of wholesomeness, gamma-irradiated the Korean medicinal plants could be safe on the genotoxic point of view. And, thirteen groups of irradiated foods approved for human consumption from Korea Ministry of Health and Welfare. (author). 81 refs., 74 tabs.

  6. The application of irradiation techniques for food preservation and processing improvement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This project has intended to develop alternative techniques to be used in food industry for food processing and utilization by safe irradiation methods. For improvement of rheology and processing in corn starch by irradiation, the production of modified starch with low viscosity as well as with excellent viscosity stability became feasible by the control of gamma irradiation dose levels and the amount of added inorganic peroxides to starch. Also, this project was developed the improvement methods of hygienic quality and long-term storage of dried red pepper by gamma irradiation. And, in Korean medicinal plants, 10 kGy gamma irradiation was effective for improving sanitary quality and increasing extraction yield of major components. For the sanitization of health and convenience foods, gamma irradiation was more effective than ozone treatment in decontamination of microorganisms, with minimal effect on the physicochemical properties analysed. In evaluation of wholesomeness, gamma-irradiated the Korean medicinal plants could be safe on the genotoxic point of view. And, thirteen groups of irradiated foods approved for human consumption from Korea Ministry of Health and Welfare. (author). 81 refs., 74 tabs

  7. Modelling the growth/no growth boundary of Zygosaccharomyces bailii in acidic conditions: a contribution to the alternative method to preserve foods without using chemical preservatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dang, T D T; Mertens, L; Vermeulen, A; Geeraerd, A H; Van Impe, J F; Debevere, J; Devlieghere, F

    2010-01-31

    The aim of the study was to develop mathematical models describing growth/no growth (G/NG) boundaries of the highly resistant food spoilage yeast-Zygosaccharomyces bailii-in different environmental conditions, taking acidified sauces as the target product. By applying these models, the stability of products with characteristics within the investigated pH, a(w) and acetic acid ranges can be evaluated. Besides, the well-defined no growth regions can be used in the development of guidelines regarding formulation of new shelf-stable foods without using chemical preservatives, which would facilitate the innovation of additive-free products. Experiments were performed at different temperatures and periods (22 degrees C for 45 and 60days, 30 degrees C for 45days) in 150 modified Sabouraud media characterized by high amount of sugars (glucose and fructose, 15% (w/v)), acetic acid (0.0-2.5% (v/v), 6 levels), pH (3.0-5.0, 5 levels) and a(w) (0.93-0.97, 5 levels). These time and temperature combinations were chosen as they are commonly applied for shelf-stable foods. The media were inoculated with ca. 4.5 log CFU/ml and yeast growth was monitored daily using optical density measurements. Every condition was examined in 20 replicates in order to yield accurate growth probabilities. Three separate ordinary logistic regression models were developed for different tested temperatures and incubation time. The total acetic acid concentration was considered as variable for all models. In general, when one intrinsic inhibitory factor became more stringent, the G/NG boundary shifted to less stressful conditions of the other two factors, resulting in enlarged no growth zones. Abrupt changes of growth probability often occurred around the transition zones (between growth and no growth regions), which indicates that minor variations in environmental conditions near the G/NG boundaries can cause a significant impact on the growth probability. When comparing growth after 45days between the

  8. Antibacterial and antifungal activities of thymol: A brief review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchese, Anna; Orhan, Ilkay Erdogan; Daglia, Maria; Barbieri, Ramona; Di Lorenzo, Arianna; Nabavi, Seyed Fazel; Gortzi, Olga; Izadi, Morteza; Nabavi, Seyed Mohammad

    2016-11-01

    Thymol (2-isopropyl-5-methylphenol) is the main monoterpene phenol occurring in essential oils isolated from plants belonging to the Lamiaceae family (Thymus, Ocimum, Origanum, and Monarda genera), and other plants such as those belonging to the Verbenaceae, Scrophulariaceae, Ranunculaceae, and Apiaceae families. These essential oils are used in the food industry for their flavouring and preservative properties, in commercial mosquito repellent formulations for their natural repellent effect, in aromatherapy, and in traditional medicine for the treatment of headaches, coughs, and diarrhea. Many different activities of thymol such as antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, local anaesthetic, antinociceptive, cicatrizing, antiseptic, and especially antibacterial and antifungal properties have been shown. This review aims to critically evaluate the available literature regarding the antibacterial and antifungal effects of thymol. PMID:27211664

  9. Antifungal activity of Oleoresins used in meat industry on some toxigenic Aspergillus spp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Šošo Vladislava M.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Different spice oleoresins are widely used in meat industry. They contribute to the specific aroma and flavor of the end products, but they have also been reported to have strong antimicrobial activity. These properties open a plenty of possibilities to be used for defining the specific sensory profile of the product but also as natural food preservatives. This paper focuses on the antifungal activity of four oleoresins against different foodborne toxigenic Aspergillus species. Oleoresins used in the experiments were cayenne pepper, black pepper, garlic and rosemary oleoresins, and they were tested against following Aspergillus species: A. clavatus, A. flavus, A. fumigatus, A. niger, A. ochraceus and A. versicolor. Antifungal activity was tested using microtitre-plate-based assay incorporating resazurin as an indicator of cell growth and broth microdilution-method. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. III46009

  10. [Simultaneous determination of twelve sweeteners and nine preservatives in foods by solid-phase extraction and LC-MS/MS].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuruda, Sayuri; Sakamoto, Tomonori; Akaki, Kouichi

    2013-01-01

    A rapid and simple method for the simultaneous determination of twelve sweeteners and nine preservatives in various foods by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) was developed. The sweeteners and preservatives were extracted from solid samples with 80% and 50% methanol and from liquid samples with 80% methanol, followed by Oasis WAX cartridge cleanup. The LC separation was performed on a XSelect CSH Phenyl-Hexyl column (5 μm, 2.1 mm ×150 mm) with a mobile phase of 10 mmol/L acetate buffer (pH 4.0)-acetonitrile and MS detection with negative ion electrospray ionization. The quantification limits of acesulfame K (AK), alitame (AL), aspartame (ASP), cyclamic acid (CYC), neotame (NEO), saccharin Na (SAC), p-hydroxybenzoic acid methyl (PHBA-Me), p-hydroxybenzoic acid ethyl (PHBA-Et), p-hydroxybenzoic acid isopropyl (PHBA-iPr), p-hydroxybenzoic acid propyl (PHBA-Pr), p-hydroxybenzoic acid isobutyl (PHBA-iBu) and p-hydroxybenzoic acid butyl (PHBA-Bu) were 0.001 g/kg, those of dulcin (DU), glycyrrhizic acid (GLY), neohesperidin dihydrochalcone (NHDC), rebaudioside A (REB), stevioside (STV), sucralose (SUC) and benzoic acid (BA) were 0.005 g/kg, and those of sorbic acid (SOA) and dehydroacetic acid (DHA) were 0.02 g/kg. The mean recoveries from ten kinds of foods fortified at the levels of 0.02 and 0.2 g/kg were 70.9-119.0%, and their relative standard deviations were 0.1-11.7%. PMID:23863365

  11. Chemical constituents of peppers (Piper spp.) and application to food preservation: naturally occurring antioxidative compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakatani, N; Inatani, R; Ohta, H; Nishioka, A

    1986-08-01

    In a structure analysis of the compounds of the genus Piper (Family Piperaceae), we identified five phenolic amides from Piper nigrum, seven compounds from P. retrofractum, and two compounds from P. baccatum. All the phenolic amides possess significant antioxidant activities that are more effective than the naturally occurring antioxidant, alpha-tocopherol. One amide, feruperine, has antioxidant activity as high as the synthetic antioxidants, butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA) and butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT). Naturally occurring antioxidants, therefore, may surpass BHA and BHT in their ability to inactivate mutagens in food. PMID:3757949

  12. Simplified Procedures for Obtaining Clearances of Foods Preserved by Ionizing Energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    After thirteen years of intensive research, using high doses of ionizing energy, highly acceptable wholesome shelf-stable bacon, ham, pork, beef, chicken and shrimp can be produced in the laboratory. Using doses below 1 Mrad, the shelf life of highly acceptable wholesome fish, wheat and wheat products, oranges, and white potatoes can be extended. Before production in the United States can be scaled up to commercial quantities for the broad consumer market, approvals are required from the United States Food and Drug Administration (USFDA) and, for meats from mammals and birds, from the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA). These agencies have approved bacon, wheat and wheat products, and white potatoes, following receipt and evaluation of petitions containing all pertinent information including description of the process to be used and the food-package combination to be cleared, the proposed radiation source, the dose range, dosimetry methods, wholesomeness and nutritional data, positive proof of microbiological safety, absence of measurable induced radioactivity, acceptance data from taste panelists, and storage and shipping data where applicable. Collecting the data required for successful petitions has proved to be both time-consuming and expensive. To improve this situation, the whole process of data collection and of writing the petitions is being reexamined in the interest of streamlining and expediting the process. Recommendations are offered relative to some of the means helpful in achieving this end. (author)

  13. Occurrence of Antibiotic resistance in some bacterial strains due to gamma radiation, heavy metals or food preservatives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The susceptibility of bacterial strains (B. cereus, Staph. aureus, Escherichia coli and Salmonella) against 10 different antibiotics that are commonly used against food borne pathogens was studied. All the tested strains were observed to tolerate up to 100 mg/l copper sulphate or lead acetate, and there was a positive correlations between the tolerance to high levels of Cu or Pb and multiple antibiotic resistance was investigated. When the food preservatives (potassium sorbate or sodium benzoate) were added to the growth medium at different concentrations, the bacterial strains were able to tolerate up to 1000 ppm potassium sorbate or sodium benzoate (MIC). The antibiotic resistance of these strains was increased when grown on media supplemented with the MIC of sodium sorbate or potassium benzoate. When these bacterial strains were irradiated at dose levels of 1 or 3 or 5 KGy and examined for antibiotic sensitivity, a correlation was observed between the increases of radiation dose up to 5 KGy and the antibiotic resistance in all the studied strains

  14. An evaluation of the potential of combination processes involving heat and irradiation for food preservation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Effects of combined heating and gamma radiation on Clostridium sporogenes spores and Salmonella seftenberg were examined. The order in which irradiation and heat were applied had a profound effect on the survival of the organisms. Heating of C.sporogenes spores at 95 degrees Celsius had very little effect on their sensitivity to subsequent irradiation, but irradiation of the spores at 0 degrees Celsius increased their sensitivity to subsequent heat treatment and thus reduced their heat D10 values (time required to activate the spores to 10% of their initial number). This radiation-induced heat sensitivity increased with the increase in radiation dose. The Z values (change in temperature required for a tenfold change in D10 values) of the spores were found to increase with the increase in pre-irradiation dose. Radiation-induced heat sensitivity was found to persist for at least 35 days in spores irradiated in frozen or freeze-dried states in distilled water or in phosphate buffer suspensions, and for at least 14 days in a number of food slurries. In phosphate buffer and nutrient broth suspensions, the radiation-heat synergism decreased with increasing pH of the media from pH 4.7 to pH 7.5. However, the effect of pH on synergism was less pronounced in spores suspended in some food slurries. Preliminary results indicate that pre-irradiation of S. senftenberg at 0.5 kGy did not change the heat sensitivity of this organism at 52 degrees Celsius, but when radiation and heat were applied simultaneously, synergistic inactivation was observed even at 50 degrees Celsius. Practical implications of these results are discussed

  15. Use of irradiation in the preservation of traditional South African foods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A variety of traditional African foods are prepared in the home and enjoyed by a large number of consumers. Currently, hardly any of these foods are available commercially. However, these foods are laborious to prepare, not generally available commercially and have a limited shelf life. The application of irradiation (alone) or in combination with other technologies can help solve these problems. The effect of irradiation (0, 10, 20 and 30 kGy at 5 deg. C the consumer acceptability of a traditional South African ready-to-eat (RTE) meal consisting of spinach (morogo) and sorghum porridge was investigated. The two components of the meal remained acceptable up to a dose of 10 kGy. The limiting factor for using higher doses was the porridge component, especially in terms of texture (too soft) and taste (off-flavour development). Therefore the use irradiation at 10 kGy in combination with different levels of sodium nitrite was proposed to improve the storability of the RTE-meal. Research is in progress investigating the effects of combining mild heat, sodium nitrite and irradiation on the microbiological quality, shelf-life and acceptability of a RTE- meal consisting of spinach (morogo) and sorghum porridge. Washing in chlorinated water reduced inoculated Clostridium sporogenes spores in spinach by about 2 log10 cfu/g probably because hypochlorites are bacteriostatic. Blanching of spinach after the chlorine treatment did not effect the C. sporogenes counts. However, C. sporogenes counts increased by about 1 log10 cfu/g during cooking, probably due to the activation of the spores by heat. On the other hand, cooking reduced C. sporogenes counts in the porridge significantly (by about 2 log10 cfu/g). Gelatinised starch granules probably protected the spores against heat activation. In both meal components, cooking caused a significant decrease in the final nitrite levels. This may be due to the fact that nitrite can form complexes with other components during heating

  16. Influence of natural food preservatives combined with gamma radiation on certain microorganisms isolated from Egyptian Juices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Twelve strains were isolated from different Egyptian juices. They were identified as Micrococcus agilis. Staphylococcus aureus, S. warneri, Debaryomyces sp., Pichia sp., S. epidermidis, S. auricularls, Kluveromyces sp., Bacillus sp., Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Citrobacter frundii,and Streptococcus pedococcus. Three of the previous strains were chosen in the present work according to their common contamination in all samples and their characteristics; S. aureus represented gram positive bacteria, P. aeruginosa represented gram negative bacteria and Debaryomyces sp.to represent yeast strains. S. aureus has completely annihilated by 250 μg/ml. of nisin, or 0.2% citric acid, or 0.15% lactic acid, or 1.2 % cinnamon or 5 kGy of gamma rays. P. aeruginosa was destroyed by 0.3 % citric acid, or 0.3 % lactic acid, or 4 % cinnamon or 4 kGy of gamma rays, while Debaryomyces sp. was eliminated by 4 % citric acid, or 4.5 % lactic acid, or 4 % cinnamon or 7 kGy of gamma rays. Nisin alone has no effect on P. aeruginosa or Debaryomyces sp. Combined treatments have decreased both of natural preservatives and irradiation doses needed to eliminate the microorganisms contaminated the juices. S. aureus was completely eliminated by 3 kGy combined with only 25 μg/ml. of nisin. The lethal dose decreased to 2 kGy by combination with citric, lactic acid and cinnamon at conc. 0.05%, 0.01% and 0.4 %, respectively. The dose level of gamma rays needed to eliminate P. aeruginosa decreased to 3 kGy in combination with citric acid 0.1% or with cinnamon 0.5 % and it decreased to 2 kGy by combination with lactic acid 0.1 %. In case of Debaryomyces sp the lethal dose decreased from 7 kGy to 4 kGy by combination with citric acid 1.5 % or cinnamon 1 % and to 3 kGy with lactic acid 1.5 %. Also the combination treatment has activated the effect of nisin on both of P. aeruginosa and Debaryomyces sp. Dose level 4 kGy by combination with 200 μg/ml. nisin completely inhibited their growth

  17. Influence of Natural Food Preservatives Combined with Gamma Radiation on Certain Microorganisms Isolated from Egyptian Juices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Twelve strains were isolated from different Egyptian juices. The nine bacteria strains were identified as Micrococcus agilis, Staphylococcus aureus, S. warneri, S. epidermidis, S. auricularls, Bacillus sp., Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Citrobacter frundii, and Streptococcus pedococcus while the yeast strains were Debaryomyces sp., Kluveromyces sp .and Pichia sp. Three of the previous strains were chosen in the present work according to their common contamination in all samples and their characteristics; S. aureus represented gram positive bacteria, P. aeruginosa represented gram negative bacteria and Debaryomyces sp. to represent yeast strains. S. aureus has completely annihilated by 250 μ g/ml. of nisin, or 0.2% citric acid, or 0.15% lactic acid, or 1.2 % cinnamon or 5 kGy of gamma rays.; P. aeruginosa was destroyed by 0.3 % citric acid, or 0.3 % lactic acid, or 4 % cinnamon or 4 kGy of gamma rays, while Debaryomyces sp. was eliminated by 4 % citric acid, or 4.5 % lactic acid, or 2 % cinnamon or 7 kGy of gamma rays. Nisin alone has no effect on P. aeruginosa or Debaryomyces sp. Combined treatments have decreased both of natural preservatives and irradiation doses needed to eliminate the microorganisms contaminated the juices. S. aureus was completely eliminated by 3 kGy combined with only 25 μ g/ml. of nisin. The lethal dose decreased to 2 kGy by combination with citric, lactic acid and cinnamon at conc. 0.05%, 0.01% and 0.4 %, respectively .The dose level of gamma rays needed to eliminate P. aeruginosa decreased to 3 kGy in combination with citric acid 0.1% or with cinnamon 0.5 % and it decreased to 2 kGy by combination with lactic acid 0.1 %. In case of Debaryomyces sp the lethal dose decreased from 7 kGy to 4 kGy by combination with citric acid 1.5 % or cinnamon 1 % and to 3 kGy with lactic acid 1.5 %. Also, the combination treatment has activated the effect of nisin on both of P. aeruginosa and Debaryomyces sp. Dose level of 4 kGy combined with 200 μ g/ml. nisin

  18. Application of the Ames Mutagenicity Test to Food Processed by Physical Preservation Methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An irradiated (380 krad) mixture of four fresh vegetables - leek, celery, carrot, and cauliflower - was examined for mutagenicity by the Ames mutagenicity test using four different histidine-deficient strains of Salmonellae. Water extracts were prepared from the irradiated and unirradiated vegetables - a freeze dried extract (FDE) and a boiled extract (BE). Several problems were overcome in the mutagenicity testing of a complex substance such as food which contains free histidine, different species of bacteria, and a mixture of low and high molecular weight chemicals. In addition, we eliminated an omission in the usual protocols of the Ames test by testing the positive mutagen controls in the presence and absence of the test samples, thus reducing the possible incidence of false negatives and false positives. The induction and expression of mutagenesis by sodium azide (SA) and ethidium bromide (EB) in TA 100 and TA 98 mutant strains, respectively, decreased with increasing amounts of FDE, while increasing levels of BE suppressed the number of revertants in TA 98 in the presence of EB, but exerted little influence on the mutagenicity of SA in TA 100. No difference was observed in the antimutagenic action between the irradiated and unirradiated vegetable extracts. Both the FDE and BE preparations suppressed the action of a frameshift mutagen, but with a base-pair mutagen only the FDE or uncooked vegetable extracts produced suppression. (author)

  19. Application of the Ames mutagenicity test to food processed by physical preservation methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An irradiated (380 krad) mixture of four fresh vegetables - leek, celery, carrot, and cauliflower - was examined for mutagenicity by the Ames mutagenicity test using four different histidine-deficient strains of Salmonellae. Water extracts were prepared from the irradiated and unirradiated vegetables - a freeze dried extract (FDE) and a boiled extract (BE). Several problems were overcome in the mutagenicity testing of a complex substance such as food which contains free histidine, different species of bacteria, and a mixture of low and high molecular weight chemicals. In addition, we eliminated an omission in the usual protocols of the Ames test by testing the positive mutagen controls in the presence and absence of the test samples, thus reducing the possible incidence of false negatives and false positives. The induction and expression of mutagenesis by sodium azide (SA) and ethidium bromide (EB) in TA 100 and TA 98 mutant strains, respectively, decreased with increasing amounts of FDE, while increasing levels of BE suppressed the number of revertants in TA 98 in the presence of EB, but exerted little influence on the mutagenicity of SA in TA 100. No difference was observed in the antimutagenic action between the irradiated and unirradiated vegetable extracts. Both the FDE and BE preparations suppressed the action of a frameshift mutagen, but with a base-pair mutagen only the FDE or uncooked vegetable extracts produced suppression. (author)

  20. The use of additive and synergic effects of combination preservation methods for the self-life prolongation of food products (Review)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper gives a literary survey of more recent knowledge from the viewpoint of theoretical and practical aspects of binary, ternary or multiple combinations of preservation methods (heating, cooling, irradiation, antibiotics, dehydration, chemical additives, etc. - in their mutual combinations) to prolong the shelf-life of food products. Additive and synergic effects of individual combinations are accented

  1. Antifungal Edible Coatings for Fresh Citrus Fruit: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lluís Palou

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available According to their origin, major postharvest losses of citrus fruit are caused by weight loss, fungal diseases, physiological disorders, and quarantine pests. Cold storage and postharvest treatments with conventional chemical fungicides, synthetic waxes, or combinations of them are commonly used to minimize postharvest losses. However, the repeated application of these treatments has led to important problems such as health and environmental issues associated with fungicide residues or waxes containing ammoniacal compounds, or the proliferation of resistant pathogenic fungal strains. There is, therefore, an increasing need to find non-polluting alternatives to be used as part of integrated disease management (IDM programs for preservation of fresh citrus fruit. Among them, the development of novel natural edible films and coatings with antimicrobial properties is a technological challenge for the industry and a very active research field worldwide. Chitosan and other edible coatings formulated by adding antifungal agents to composite emulsions based on polysaccharides or proteins and lipids are reviewed in this article. The most important antifungal ingredients are selected for their ability to control major citrus postharvest diseases like green and blue molds, caused by Penicillium digitatum and Penicillium italicum, respectively, and include low-toxicity or natural chemicals such as food additives, generally recognized as safe (GRAS compounds, plant extracts, or essential oils, and biological control agents such as some antagonistic strains of yeasts or bacteria.

  2. Chemical Composition of Essential Oilsof Thymus and Mentha Speciesand Their Antifungal Activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leo J. L. D. van Griensven

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The potential antifungal effects of Thymus vulgaris L., Thymus tosevii L., Mentha spicata L., and Mentha piperita L. (Labiatae essential oils and their components against 17 micromycetal food poisoning, plant, animal and human pathogens are presented. The essential oils were obtained by hydrodestillation of dried plant material. Their composition was determined by GC-MS. Identification of individual constituents was made by comparison with analytical standards, and by computer matching mass spectral data with those of the Wiley/NBS Library of Mass Spectra. MIC’s and MFC’s of the oils and their components were determined by dilution assays. Thymol (48.9% and p-cymene (19.0% were the main components of T. vulgaris, while carvacrol (12.8%, a-terpinyl acetate (12.3%, cis-myrtanol (11.2% and thymol (10.4% were dominant in T. tosevii. Both Thymus species showed very strong antifungal activities. In M. piperita oil menthol (37.4%, menthyl acetate (17.4% and menthone (12.7% were the main components, whereas those of M. spicata oil were carvone (69.5% and menthone (21.9%. Mentha sp. showed strong antifungal activities, however lower than Thymus sp. The commercial fungicide, bifonazole, used as a control, had much lower antifungal activity than the oils and components investigated. It is concluded that essential oils of Thymus and Mentha species possess great antifungal potential and could be used as natural preservatives and fungicides.

  3. State of progress in the introduction of food preservation by irradiation and its economic feasibility in Morocco

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Moroccan economy is based primarily on agriculture. Production is spread out over the year and is extremely varied. The climatic conditions and the lack of storage facilities give rise to substantial losses, which can be estimated at 27%; hence Morocco has always attached great importance to food preservation techniques. Initially, a research unit will be set up with the participation of the IAEA and the Commissariat a l'energie atomique. The objectives will be to adapt the technology to Moroccan products and to implement it on an industrial scale. The possible applications include the processing of onions, potatoes, fruit and vegetables, and fish. The National Institute for Agronomic Research and the Directorate for Plant Protection, Chemical Control and Fraud Suppression will be responsible for project implementation, and other agencies will also be involved. Morocco has signed as research contract with the IAEA to study the economic feasibility of industrial scale use of this technology. Data were collected as a basis for selecting the products most suitable for irradiation and appropriate production areas. The Casablanca and Agadir regions were found to be most suitable for a first facility owing to the volume of their production of citrus fruits, market garden produce and fish and to their processing infrastructures. The Tangier region may be of special interest as all exports by road pass through that port. The processing prices are relatively low and can compete with those of other processing methods. (author). 3 tabs

  4. Simultaneous determination of artificial sweeteners, preservatives, caffeine, theobromine and theophylline in food and pharmaceutical preparations by ion chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Q C; Wang, J

    2001-12-01

    A novel ion chromatographic method was proposed for the simultaneous determination of artificial sweeteners (sodium saccharin, aspartame, acesulfame-K), preservatives (benzoic acid, sorbic acid), caffeine, theobromine and theophylline. The separation was performed on an anion-exchange analytical column operated at 40 degrees C within 45 min by an isocratic elution with 5 mM aqueous NaH2PO4 (pH 8.20) solution containing 4% (v/v) acetonitrile as eluent, and the determination by wavelength-switching ultraviolet absorbance detection. The detection limits (signal-to-noise ratio 3:1) for all analytes were below the sub-microg/ml level. Under the experimental conditions, several organic acids, including citric acid, malic acid, tartaric acid and ascorbic acid, did not interfere with the determination. The method has been successfully applied to the analysis of various food and pharmaceutical preparations, and the average recoveries for real samples ranged from 85 to 104%. The levels of all analytes determined by this method were in good agreement with those obtained by the high-performance liquid chromatographic procedure. The results also indicated that ion chromatography would be possibly a beneficial alternative to conventional high-performance liquid chromatography for the separation and determination of these compounds. PMID:11765085

  5. A shift toward a new holistic paradigm will help to preserve and better process grain products' food structure for improving their health effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fardet, Anthony

    2015-02-01

    This review aims at emphasizing the role played by physical characteristics and physico-chemical properties of the food matrix on the digestive and metabolic fate, and health effects of grain products. It is today obvious that the food matrix conditions the health effects of food products and that we are able to modify this matrix to control the digestive fate of foods, and the metabolic fate of nutrients and bioactive compounds (reverse engineering). In other words, there is no more reason to consider nutrition in a quantitative perspective (i.e., a food is only the sum of its macro-, micro- and phyto-nutrients) but rather according to a qualitative perspective involving concepts of interaction of nutrients within the matrix, of enzymatic bioaccessibility, bioavailability and metabolic fate in relation to release kinetics in the gastrointestinal tract, and food nutrient synergy. This new perspective on the health potential of foods also reflects the urge to consider preventive nutrition research according to a more holistic and integrative perspective after decades of reductionist research based on the study of the health effects of food components in isolation. To illustrate the importance of food structure, attention has been focused on grain-based products such as rice, leguminous seeds and nuts, and on soft technological treatments that preserve food structure such as pre-fermentation, soaking and germination. PMID:25407943

  6. Food hygienics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This book deals with food hygienics with eighteen chapters, which mention introduction on purpose of food hygienics, administration of food hygienics, food and microscopic organism, sanitary zoology, food poisoning, food poisoning by poisonous substance, chronic poisoning by microscopic organism, food and epidemic control , control of parasitic disease, milk hygiene meat hygiene, an egg and seafood hygiene, food deterioration and preservation, food additives, food container and field hygiene, food facilities hygiene, food hygiene and environmental pollution and food sanitation inspection.

  7. Sensory evaluation of a highly nutritive bread, formulated for populations suffering food emergencies, preserved with ionizing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of this work was to evaluate with sensorial analysis, the feasibility of extending the shelf life at room temperature of highly nutritive bread, specially formulated for people suffering alimentary emergencies such as floods, earthquakes, geographical isolation or malnourishment, by means of ionizing radiation. The shelf life of any bread is limited by microbial growth, so the food industry uses chemicals and /or refrigeration to control it. Twenty one breads were formulated and manufactured employing wheat and soybean flours, dehydrated whey, skim milk and egg, vegetal oil, water, and some commercial food additives as emulsifiers and water retention substances. A final formulation was chosen by means of a preliminary sensory evaluation. Bibliographic estimations were made on its nutritional quality as compared to that of a regular wheat bread; improvements were found on vitamins, minerals, proteins, lipids and fibre. Forty 450 g breads were manufactured, oven cooked at 220°C for 20 minutes, packaged with polyethylene film, 100 microns thickness, and irradiated at the semi industrial cobalt-60 facility of the Ezeiza Atomic Centre, about 600,000 Ci of activity, with doses of 0, 6 and 10 kilo Grays, dose rate: 10 kGy/h, dose uniformity: 1.1. Control and irradiated samples were stored at room temperature and relative humidity for 43 days. Sensory analysis was performed with a panel of about 50 consumers on days 3, 29 and 43, evaluating aroma, aspect, colour, flavour, texture and general acceptability with hedonic scores ranging from 1 to 9. No significant differences between control and irradiated samples were found, being the latter afforded scores close to 7 even at the end of the storage period. Control samples had to be discarded on day 6 due to visible mould growth. So this bread formulation, suitable to fulfill most of the nutritional requirements of a population under alimentary emergency, attained at least a 7 fold shelf life increase when treated

  8. Potato wound-healing tissues: A rich source of natural antioxidant molecules with potential for food preservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dastmalchi, Keyvan; Wang, Isabel; Stark, Ruth E

    2016-11-01

    The need for safe, effective preservatives is a prominent issue in the food and drug industries, reflecting demand for natural alternatives to synthetic chemicals viewed as harmful to consumers and the environment. Thus, this study determined the identities and scavenging capacities of antioxidant metabolites produced as a response to potato tuber wounding, using activity-guided fractionation of polar extracts from a Yukon Gold cultivar that had previously exhibited exceptionally high radical-scavenging activity. Activity-guided fractionation using the ABTS(+) radical scavenging assay and LC-MS with TOF-MS for compositional analysis of the most potent antioxidant fractions yielded identification of nine constituents: coumaroylputrescine; feruloylquinic acid; isoferuloylputrescine; ferulic acid; 22,25-dimethoxy-3-[[2,3,4-tri-O-methyl-6-O-(2,3,4,6-tetra-O-methyl-β-d-glucopyranosyl)-β-d-glucopyranosyl]oxy]-(3β)-lanost-9(11)-en-24-one; 4-(2Z)-2-decen-1-yl-5-[1-(4-hydroxyphenyl)decyl]-1,2-benzenediol; 8-[(2E)-3,7-dimethyl-2,6-octadien-1-yl]-5-hydroxy-2,8-dimethyl-6-(3-methyl-2-buten-1-yl)-2H-1-benzopyran-4,7(3H,8H)-dione; 3-[(2-O-β-d-glucopyranosyl-β-d-glucopyranosyl)oxy]-20-[(6-O-β-d-xylopyranosyl-β-d-glucopyranosyl)oxy]-dammar-24-en-19-al; (3β)-28-oxo-28-(phenylmethoxy)oleanan-3-yl 2-O-β-d-galactopyranosyl-3-O-(phenylmethyl)-, butyl ester β-d-glucopyranosiduronic acid. A positive correlation was observed between the scavenging activities and the polarities of the active fractions. The antioxidant capacities of the fractions were also characterised by monitoring the activity throughout a 45-minute assay period. PMID:27211673

  9. Isolation, identification and usefulness of antifungal compounds from Zuccagnia punctata for control of toxigenic ear rot pathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jimenez, Cristina M; Sampietro, Diego A; Sgariglia, Melina A; Soberón, José R; Vattuone, Marta A

    2014-10-01

    Infusion, tincture and decoction of leaves of Zuccagnia punctata Cav. were assayed on growth of Fusarium verticillioides, F. graminearum sensu stricto, F. boothii, F. meridionale, F. subglutinans and F. thapsinum. The tincture showed the lowest IC50 on mycelial growth. A diethyl ether fraction of the tincture showed the highest antifungal activity in microdilution assays on F. verticillioides and F. graminearum. The antifungal constituents were separated by silica gel chromatography and identified as 2',4'-dihydroxychalcone, 2',4'-dihydroxy-3'-methoxychalcone and 7-hydroxy-3',4'-dimethoxyflavone. These chalcones had the lowest MIC and MFC values on F. verticillioides and F. graminearum sensu stricto. 2',4'-Dihydroxychalcone was mildly toxic and the remaining identified compounds were non-toxic in the brine shrimp assay. 2',4'-Dihydroxychalcone in mixtures with commercial food preservatives showed additive effects on F. graminearum sensu stricto and synergistic ones on F. verticillioides. 2',4'-Dihydroxy-3'-methoxychalcone showed synergistic effects in mixtures. Our results suggest that addition of chalcones to food preservatives allows reduction in the doses of the preservatives required for control of Fusarium species. PMID:25522536

  10. 国外食品包装的安全与保鲜技术%Safety and preservation technology of food packaging in foreign countries

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李进卫

    2015-01-01

    包装物在与食品接触的过程中,包装材料里的有害物质会随着接触时间的增长,逐渐迁移到食品内,当食用时有害物质就会伴随食品一同进入人体,从而影响到食用者的健康。为保障食品安全,世界各国不仅对食品本身的质量提出了越来越严格的卫生要求,同时对其包装也制定了很高的标准。分别介绍了欧盟、美国、日本的保鲜包装技术,为提高国内食品包装的安全与保鲜技术提供参考。%In the process of contacting with food,the harmful substances in the packaging materials would gradually move into food along with the increase of contacting time. When food was eaten, the harmful material would enter human body together with food,so as to affect the eater's health. In order to ensure the food safety,various countries in the world not only raised more and more strict sanitary require⁃ment for food itself,but also made very high standard for packaging materials. The preservation packing technologies of EU,USA,and Japan were introduced respectively. These provided references for improving food packaging safety and preservation technology.

  11. Antifungal Hydroxy Fatty Acids Produced during Sourdough Fermentation: Microbial and Enzymatic Pathways, and Antifungal Activity in Bread

    OpenAIRE

    Black, Brenna A.; Zannini, Emanuele; Curtis, Jonathan M.; Gänzle, Michael G.

    2013-01-01

    Lactobacilli convert linoleic acid to hydroxy fatty acids; however, this conversion has not been demonstrated in food fermentations and it remains unknown whether hydroxy fatty acids produced by lactobacilli have antifungal activity. This study aimed to determine whether lactobacilli convert linoleic acid to metabolites with antifungal activity and to assess whether this conversion can be employed to delay fungal growth on bread. Aqueous and organic extracts from seven strains of lactobacilli...

  12. Efficacy of Mentha spicata essential oil in suppression of Aspergillus flavus and aflatoxin contamination in chickpea with particular emphasis to mode of antifungal action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kedia, Akash; Dwivedy, Abhishek Kumar; Jha, Dhruva Kumar; Dubey, Nawal Kishore

    2016-05-01

    The present study reports in vivo antifungal and antiaflatoxigenic efficacy of Mentha spicata essential oil (EO) against toxigenic Aspergillus flavus strain LHP(C)-D6 in chickpea food system up to 12 months of storage. In addition, the mode of antifungal action of EO was also determined to understand the mechanism of fungal growth inhibition. The in vivo study with different concentrations of M. spicata EO showed dose-dependent decrease in fungal colony count as well as aflatoxin B1 concentration. The EO caused >50% protection in inoculated sets and >70% protection in uninoculated sets of chickpea food system against A. flavus at 1.0 μL mL(-1) air concentration. However, at the same concentration, EO caused 100% inhibition to aflatoxin B1 production in both sets when analyzed through high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The antifungal target of EO in fumigated cells of A. flavus was found to be the plasma membrane when analyzed through electron microscopic observations and ions leakage test. The EO fumigated chickpea seeds showed 100% seed germination and seedling growth after 12 months of storage. Based on these observations, M. spicata EO can be recommended as plant-based preservative for safe protection of food commodities during storage conditions against fungal and most importantly mycotoxin contaminations. PMID:26338202

  13. 新型腊猪肝休闲食品加工技术的研究%Study on processing technology of new preserved pig liver leisure food

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林坤; 周永昌

    2015-01-01

    Production technology of a new preserved pig liver leisure food as well as possible prob⁃lems and solution in production were introduced detailedly. The production technology highlighted the characteristics of leisure food and had high innovation and practicality. It had certain significance for im⁃proving comprehensive utilization of pig by-products and economic profits of enterprise.%详细介绍了一种新型腊猪肝休闲产品的生产技术,以及生产中可能出现的问题和解决办法。该生产技术凸显休闲食品特性,具有很强创新性和实用性,对提高猪副产品的综合利用和企业经济效益有一定意义。

  14. Influence of food preservation parameters and associated microbiota on production rate, profile and stability of acylated homoserine lactones from food-derived Enterobacteriaceae

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Flodgaard, Lars; Christensen, Allan Beck; Molin, Søren; Givskov, Michael Christian; Gram, Lone

    2003-01-01

    Quorum-dependent regulation is mediated by N-acyl-L-homoserine lactones (AHLs) in several Gram-negative bacteria. The production of AHLs has typically been studied using pure bacteria cultures grown in nutrient-rich media at optimal temperature. AHLs are produced in several chill-stored foods by...... Gram-negative bacteria participating in spoilage. As part of our investigation of the role of AHLs in food quality, we studied the AHL production in two Enterobacteriaceae isolated from cold-smoked salmon under growth conditions typical of those found in cold-smoked salmon. We tested the influence of...... approximately 6 and therefore only a low degree of pH-induced turnover is expected to occur in this product. Overall, our study demonstrates that food-derived Enterobacteriaceae produce AHLs of the same type and in the same magnitude when grown under food-relevant conditions as when grown in laboratory media at...

  15. Nuclear technology applied to food preservation and sterilization; La tecnologia nuclear aplicada a la conservacion y esterilizacion de alimentos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Galvez, M.

    2011-07-01

    The use of ionizing radiation to conserve and sterilize food dates back to 1995, when the first tests were performed in USA as part of the Atoms for peace program. After much controversy, the most prestigious international organizations- OECD, code Alimentarius, FDA and EC have not only authorized but also recommended its use. It is a proven fact that food irradiation provides optimum results for inhibition treatment of tuber shoots, elimination of insects from fruits and seeds, delaying the maturing processes of fruit and elimination of alternative microorganisms and pathogens in any type of food. Food is treated in two types of plants: 1.- Radioactive isotope plants or gamma radiation plants 2.- electron accelerator plants (beta radiation plants). These two types of plants are thoroughly legislated, as are the form and doses of the treatments. Commercial food irradiation is done in 32 countries in the world but is authorized in more than 40, and the WHO recommends that the method be used on a widespread basis, as it believes that it can help to improve food-related health worldwide. (Author) 5 refs.

  16. Modulation of physicochemical and spectroscopic properties of l-serine and l-proline by propionate based food preservatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banipal, Tarlok S; Kaur, Navalpreet; Kaur, Jaspreet; Komal; Banipal, Parampaul K

    2016-10-15

    To have an insight into the effect of preservatives on various ingredients of processed items, it is important to study their thermodynamic, transport and spectroscopic properties in aqueous solutions to elucidate various solute-co-solute interactions. The densities, viscosities and enthalpies of dilution of l-serine and l-proline have been determined in water and in aqueous solutions of sodium propionate and calcium propionate at different temperatures. The derived parameters elucidate the changes in taste quality and hydration number of l-serine and l-proline in the presence of the studied preservatives. Predominance of dehydration effect has been observed from calorimetry and changes in chemical shifts from nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy also support the above results. PMID:27173555

  17. Optimization of lactic ferment with quinoa flour as bio-preservative alternative for packed bread.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dallagnol, Andrea Micaela; Pescuma, Micaela; Rollán, Graciela; Torino, María Inés; de Valdez, Graciela Font

    2015-05-01

    The consumers' demand for food with high nutritional quality and free of chemical additives increases the need to look for new products and preservation strategies. Quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa) is an Andean pseudocereal highly appreciated because of its nutritional properties. Moreover, it is an optimal substrate for growing and production of improved amounts of antifungal compounds by Lactobacillus plantarum CRL 778. The aim of this work was to optimize a lactic ferment for packaged breads with improved nutritional value and prolonged shelf life by applying a statistical experimental design model. The addition of 30 % quinoa to the wheat semiliquid ferment (QWF) could highly improve the amino acids release (4.3 g/L) during fermentation. Moreover, this quinoa proportion was sufficient to obtain the same concentration of the antifungal compounds, phenyllactic and hydroxiphenyllactic acids (PLA and OH-PLA) as with 100 % quinoa (ca. 36 and 51 mg/L, respectively). Statistical model analysis showed that citrate and skimmed milk enhanced significantly all evaluated parameters specially PLA (ca. 71 mg/L), HO-PLA (ca. 75 mg/L), and lactate (27 g/L) with a p value <0.005. The synergic effects of higher antifungal compounds production, acid release, and pH decrease allowed lowering the amount (about 50 %) of the chemical preservative calcium propionate commonly added to bread. Moreover, these breads show increased shelf life. PMID:25758954

  18. Ecological and energy-saving technology for fish food preservation at positive temperatures and a method of checking the freshness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The procedure of maintaining eviscerated fish and fish fillet freshness is based on dilutions osmotic shock produced by deuterium depleted water with D/(D+H) concentration ratio of about 30 ppm. The studies evidenced the blocking of alteration enzymatic activities in tissues at positive temperatures within 0 - 30 deg. C. The procedure is completed with the method for evaluating the fish freshness. Its advantages are as follows; - the technology is ecologic and energy - saving as it uses natural ingredients and contributes to the ozone layer protection; - the flesh of fish can be preserved, in its natural state, immersed in deuterium depleted water with no salt addition or other metabolic blocking agents as smoke, polyphosphates or nitrides, known as carcinogenic; - the costs of technological applications are lower as compared with those of classical refrigeration; - the technology increases by 2 - 6 times the freshness period and preservation duration, respectively; - deuterium depleted water used as fish flesh preservative is a product with excellent therapeutical qualities. The procedure can be tested by a freshness checking method. Indeed by measuring the non-conventional tissue energies evidenced by the molecular electronic spectra of sample of tissue immersed in salty solution as compared with specific spectra of control samples one can establish the alteration degree from the relative maximal absorption spectra

  19. Influence of food preservation parameters and associated microbiota on production rate, profile and stability of acylated homoserine lactones from food-derived Enterobacteriaceae

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Flodgaard, Lars; Christensen, Allan Beck; Molin, Søren;

    2003-01-01

    carbon source (glucose,, sucrose, xylose, arabinose, mannose, mannitol and sorbitol), temperature (5 and 25 degreesC), salt concentration (0-7%), pH (6, 7 and 8) and co-existing lactic acid bacteria microflora on the AHL profile and production rate from Serratia proteamaculans strain B5a and Enterobacter...... approximately 6 and therefore only a low degree of pH-induced turnover is expected to occur in this product. Overall, our study demonstrates that food-derived Enterobacteriaceae produce AHLs of the same type and in the same magnitude when grown under food-relevant conditions as when grown in laboratory media at...

  20. Preserving Food by Drying. A Math/Science Teaching Manual. Appropriate Technologies for Development. Manual No. M-10.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fahy, Cynthia; And Others

    This manual presents a design for teaching science principles and mathematics concepts through a sequence of activities concentrating on weather, solar food dryers, and nutrition. Part I focuses on the effect of solar energy on air and water, examining the concepts of evaporation, condensation, radiation, conduction, and convection. These concepts…

  1. Econazole imprinted textiles with antifungal activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hossain, Mirza Akram; Lalloz, Augustine; Benhaddou, Aicha; Pagniez, Fabrice; Raymond, Martine; Le Pape, Patrice; Simard, Pierre; Théberge, Karine; Leblond, Jeanne

    2016-04-01

    In this work, we propose pharmaceutical textiles imprinted with lipid microparticles of Econazole nitrate (ECN) as a mean to improve patient compliance while maintaining drug activity. Lipid microparticles were prepared and characterized by laser diffraction (3.5±0.1μm). Using an optimized screen-printing method, microparticles were deposited on textiles, as observed by scanning electron microscopy. The drug content of textiles (97±3μg/cm(2)) was reproducible and stable up to 4months storage at 25°C/65% Relative Humidity. Imprinted textiles exhibited a thermosensitive behavior, as witnessed by a fusion temperature of 34.8°C, which enabled a larger drug release at 32°C (temperature of the skin) than at room temperature. In vitro antifungal activity of ECN textiles was compared to commercial 1% (wt/wt) ECN cream Pevaryl®. ECN textiles maintained their antifungal activity against a broad range of Candida species as well as major dermatophyte species. In vivo, ECN textiles also preserved the antifungal efficacy of ECN on cutaneous candidiasis infection in mice. Ex vivo percutaneous absorption studies demonstrated that ECN released from pharmaceutical textiles concentrated more in the upper skin layers, where the fungal infections develop, as compared to dermal absorption of Pevaryl®. Overall, these results showed that this technology is promising to develop pharmaceutical garments textiles for the treatment of superficial fungal infections. PMID:26883854

  2. Studies on application of radiation and radioisotopes -The application of irradiation techniques for food preservation and process improvement-

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The project was designed to solve the infra structural problem required for commercialization of food irradiation. In improvement of physical properties of corn starch, gamma irradiation was effective for increasing glucose productivity and for substituting traditional modified starches (acid modified starch, oxidized starch). In immobilization of microorganisms, the mass production method of natural red pigment was developed by using immobilized mold pellets. In Korean medicinal plants, 10 kGy gamma irradiation was effective for improving sanitary quality and increasing extraction yield. In evaluation of wholesomeness, gamma irradiated red ginseng could be safe on the genotoxic point of view. And also, six items of irradiated foods approved for human consumption from Korea ministry of health and welfare in May 19, 1995. 30 figs, 20 tabs, 54 refs. (Author)

  3. Studies on application of radiation and radioisotopes -The application of irradiation techniques for food preservation and process improvement-

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Byun, Myung Woo; Cho, Han Ok; Cho, Sung Kee; Kang, Il Joon; Yang, Jae Seung; Yook, Heung Sun [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1995-07-01

    The project was designed to solve the infra structural problem required for commercialization of food irradiation. In improvement of physical properties of corn starch, gamma irradiation was effective for increasing glucose productivity and for substituting traditional modified starches (acid modified starch, oxidized starch). In immobilization of microorganisms, the mass production method of natural red pigment was developed by using immobilized mold pellets. In Korean medicinal plants, 10 kGy gamma irradiation was effective for improving sanitary quality and increasing extraction yield. In evaluation of wholesomeness, gamma irradiated red ginseng could be safe on the genotoxic point of view. And also, six items of irradiated foods approved for human consumption from Korea ministry of health and welfare in May 19, 1995. 30 figs, 20 tabs, 54 refs. (Author).

  4. Radiation preservation of sea-foods : development of dehydro-irradiation processes for shrimp (Penaeus indicus) and Bombay duck (Harpodon nehereus)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bombay duck which comprises more than 10% of India's annual fish catch is not amenable to freezing and canning mainly due to the high content of free water and extreme lability of its proteins. The commercially available sun-dried product is suspect to rapid spoilage by mould leading to impairment of organoleptic qualities. The dehydro-irradiation process using heat and gamma radiation has been developed to stabilise sea foods and is studied with Bombay duck (Harpodon nehereus) and shrimp (Penaeus indicus). The process has been found to preserve Bombay duck laminates for a period of four months at ambient temperature and the products are more superior in organoleptic qualities to those prepared by the conventional sun-drying method. (M.G.B.)

  5. Foodstuffs preservation by ionization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document contains all the papers presented at the meeting on foodstuffs preservation by ionization. These papers deal especially with the food ionization process, its development and the view of the food industry on ionization. Refs and figs (F.M.)

  6. Precess-preservation Technology of Pickle-liver Complex Food%腌菜复合型畜禽肝脏食品加工保藏技术

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘达玉; 李杉杉; 徐纲; 尹显华; 张秀芬

    2016-01-01

    The pickle-liver compound food was produced with livestock's liver and Sichuan pickles as raw material. The product's fishy smell was cloaked by adding vanillin and ethyl maltol , after lactic acid fermented and pickled, the pH decreased. By adding biological preservatives, it could be preserved long-term with sterilization after vacuum packing under normal pressure.%以畜禽肝脏为原料,搭配四川腌菜(腌笋)及腌菜调味汁,开发腌菜复合型畜禽肝脏食品。产品采取抑腥提香技术手段,经过乳酸发酵与浸泡腌制同步技术措施,降低产品pH,通过添加生物防腐剂等栅栏因子协同作用,产品真空封口后经过常压杀菌,制成一种可长期保藏的美味佐餐食品。

  7. Antibody Peptide Based Antifungal Immunotherapy

    OpenAIRE

    Magliani, Walter; Conti, Stefania; Giovati, Laura; Zanello, Pier Paolo; Sperindè, Martina; Ciociola, Tecla; Polonelli, Luciano

    2012-01-01

    Fungal infections still represent relevant human illnesses worldwide and some are accompanied by unacceptably high mortality rates. The limited current availability of effective and safe antifungal agents makes the development of new drugs and approaches of antifungal vaccination/immunotherapy every day more needed. Among them, small antibody(Ab)-derived peptides are arousing great expectations as new potential antifungal agents. In this topic, the search path from the study of the yeast kill...

  8. Food preservation experiment by irradiation in the south zone of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil; Experiencia de preservacao de alimentos por irradiacao na zona sul do Rio Grande do Sul

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Levit, Vladimir; Santos, Ari S.; Foes, Altair D.R.; Vaniel, Ana P.; Louzada, Ana R.; Silveira, Cristina M.; Jardim, Lisandra F.; Mesko, Marcia F. [Pelotas Univ., RS (Brazil). Inst. de Quimica e Geociencias]. E-mail: vlevit@ufpel.tche.br

    2000-07-01

    The south zone of the state of Rio Grande do Sul is characterized as an area of great food production as fruits, vegetables, meats, fish among others. In Brazil, the state RS is the producing greater of onion and peach. It was intended to study the use of the irradiation for the propose of preservation of peaches and onions, relating the diverse doses with the capacity of conservation of the peaches and retardation in the process of budding of onions. It was objective also to follow the changes in the properties of the peaches and onions radiated related to the physic-chemical and nutritional parameters, as well as determining the dose of radiation that is more efficient in the preservation and that provokes minor number of alterations in the sensorial and nutritional properties of these foods. In the process of preservation for irradiation the foods are submitted to a field of ionizing radiation in rigorously burst conditions in mode that the food receives the amount from necessary and enough energy for the intended handling. Different doses of gamma radiation of {sup 60}Co had been used and the reached results show to the effectiveness of this technique in the preservation of studied foods.

  9. Simultaneous determination of antioxidants, preservatives and sweetener additives in food and cosmetics by flow injection analysis coupled to a monolithic column.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Jiménez, J F; Valencia, M C; Capitán-Vallvey, L F

    2007-07-01

    Today it is common to find samples with various additives from several families. This is the case of sweeteners, preservatives and antioxidants. We have selected a set of additives broadly used in foods and cosmetics with an ample variety of polarities, namely: aspartame (AS), acesulfame (AK)/saccharin (SA), methylparaben (MP), ethylparaben (EP), propylparaben (PP), butylparaben (BP), propylgallate (PG) and butylhydroxyanisole (BA). The monolithic column used as separative system is a 5 mm commercial precolumn of silica C18 coupled to a flow injection manifold working with a peristaltic pump. The mixture was separated in only 400 s with resolution factors greater than 1.1 in all cases. To achieve the separation in the FIA system we used two carriers: first, a mixture of ACN/water buffered with 10 mM pH 6.0 phosphate buffer and second, a methanol:water mixture to improve the carrier strength and speed up the more apolar analytes at 3.5 mL min(-1). Detection is accomplished by means of a diode array spectrometer at the respective wavelength of each compound. The comparison of the analytical parameters obtained for this procedure with a standard HPLC method validates our new method, obtaining a method that is quick, with high repeatability and reproducibility and with good resolution between analytes. We have successfully applied the method to real food and cosmetics samples. PMID:17586119

  10. Using a concentrate of phenols obtained from olive vegetation water to preserve chilled food: two case studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luca Fasolato

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Phenols are plant metabolites characterised by several interesting bioactive properties such as antioxidant and bactericidal activities. In this study the application of a phenols concentrate (PC from olive vegetation water to two different fresh products – gilt-head seabream (Sparus aurata and chicken breast – was described. Products were treated in a bath of PC (22 g/L; chicken breast or sprayed with two different solutions (L1:0.75 and L2:1.5 mg/mL; seabream and then stored under refrigeration conditions. The shelf life was monitored through microbiological analyses – quality index method for seabream and a specific sensory index for raw breast. The secondary products of lipid-peroxidation of the chicken breast were determined using the thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARs test on cooked samples. Multivariate statistical techniques were adopted to investigate the impact of phenols and microbiological data were fitted by DMfit software. In seabream, the levels of PC did not highlight any significant difference on microbiological and sensory features. DMfit models suggested an effect only on H2S producing bacteria with an increased lag phase compared to the control samples (C: 87 h vs L2: 136 h. The results on chicken breast showed that the PC bath clearly modified the growth of Pseudomonas and Enterobacteriaceae. The phenol dipping was effective in limiting lipid-peroxidation (TBARs after cooking. Treated samples disclosed an increase of shelf life of 2 days. These could be considered as preliminary findings suggesting the use of this concentrate as preservative in some fresh products.

  11. Preservation of cocoa antioxidant activity, total polyphenols, flavan-3-ols, and procyanidin content in foods prepared with cocoa powder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stahl, L; Miller, K B; Apgar, J; Sweigart, D S; Stuart, D A; McHale, N; Ou, B; Kondo, M; Hurst, W J

    2009-08-01

    Little is known about the effects of common cooking processes on cocoa flavanols. Antioxidant activity, total polyphenols (TP), flavanol monomers, and procyanidin oligomers were determined in chocolate frosting, a hot cocoa drink, chocolate cookies, and chocolate cake made with natural cocoa powder. Recoveries of antioxidant activity, TP, flavanol monomers, and procyanidins ranged from 86% to over 100% in the chocolate frosting, hot cocoa drink, and chocolate cookies. Losses were greatest in the chocolate cake with recoveries ranging from 5% for epicatechin to 54% for antioxidant activity. The causes of losses in baked chocolate cakes were investigated by exchanging baking soda with baking powder or combinations of the 2 leavening agents. Use of baking soda as a leavening agent was associated with increased pH and darkening color of cakes. Losses of antioxidant activity, TP, flavanol monomers, and procyanidins were associated with an increased extractable pH of the baked cakes. Chocolate cakes made with baking powder for leavening resulted in an average extractable pH of 6.2 with essentially complete retention of antioxidant activity and flavanol content, but with reduced cake heights and lighter cake color. Commercially available chocolate cake mixes had final pHs above 8.3 and contained no detectable monomeric flavanols after baking. These results suggest that baking soda causes an increase in pH and subsequent destruction of flavanol compounds and antioxidant activity. Use of an appropriate leavening agent to moderate the final cake pH to approximately 7.25 or less results in both good leavening and preservation of cocoa flavanols and procyanidins. PMID:19723182

  12. Inhibition of postharvest penicillium molds of oranges by antifungal hydroxypropyl methylcellulose-lipid edible composite films and coatings

    OpenAIRE

    Silvia A. Valencia-Chamorro; Pérez-Gago, María B.; del Río, Miguel A.; Palou, Lluís

    2010-01-01

    New hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HPMC)-lipid edible composite films and coatings containing low-toxicity chemicals with antifungal properties were developed. Tested antifungal chemicals were mainly salts of organic acids, salts of parabens, and other compounds, most of them classified as food additives or generally recognized as safe (GRAS) compounds. Stand-alone edible films were used for in vitro evaluation of their antifungal activity against the pathogens Penicillium digitat...

  13. Augmenting the Antifungal Activity of an Oxidizing Agent with Kojic Acid: Control of Penicillium Strains Infecting Crops

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Jong H.; Chan, Kathleen L.

    2014-01-01

    Oxidative treatment is one of the strategies for preventing Penicillium contamination in crops/foods. The antifungal efficacy of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2; oxidant) was investigated in Penicillium strains by using kojic acid (KA) as a chemosensitizing agent, which can enhance the susceptibility of pathogens to antifungal agents. Co-application of KA with H2O2 (chemosensitization) resulted in the enhancement of antifungal activity of either compound, when compared to the independent application ...

  14. Antifungal therapy in European hospitals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zarb, P; Amadeo, B; Muller, A;

    2012-01-01

    The study aimed to identify targets for quality improvement in antifungal use in European hospitals and determine the variability of such prescribing. Hospitals that participated in the European Surveillance of Antimicrobial Consumption Point Prevalence Surveys (ESAC-PPS) were included. The WHO...... 40,878 (3.7%) antimicrobials. Antifungals were mainly (54.2%) administered orally. Hospital-acquired infections represented 44.5% of indications for antifungals followed by medical prophylaxis at 31.2%. The site of infection was not defined in 36.0% of cases but the most commonly targeted sites were...... respiratory (19.2%) and gastrointestinal (18.8%). The most used antifungal was fluconazole (60.5%) followed by caspofungin (10.5%). Antifungal-antibacterial combinations were frequently used (77.5%). The predominance of fluconazole use in participating hospitals could result in an increase in prevalence of...

  15. Antifungal Drugs for Onychomycosis: Efficacy, Safety, and Mechanisms of Action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosen, Theodore; Stein Gold, Linda F

    2016-03-01

    In 1996, oral terbinafine joined itraconazole and fluconazole on the short list of systemic medications that could be used to treat onychomycosis (although fluconazole was not approved for this indication by the US Food and Drug Administration [FDA], it was commonly used for this purpose). In 1999, ciclopirox was the first topical treatment to be FDA approved. The addition of the topical antifungal agents efinaconazole and tavaborole in 2014 expanded the roster of medications available to more effectively manage onychomycosis in a wide range of patients, including those for whom comorbid conditions, concomitant medications, or patient preference limited the use of systemic antifungals. PMID:27074700

  16. Chalcone derivatives as potential antifungal agents: Synthesis, and antifungal activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deepa Gupta

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Much research has been carried out with the aim to discover the therapeutic values of chalcone derivatives. Chalcones possess wide range of pharmacological activity such as antibacterial, antimalarial, antiprotozoal, antitubercular, anticancer, and antifungal agents etc. The presence of reactive α,β-unsaturated keto group in chalcones is found to be responsible for their biological activity. The rapid developments of resistance to antifungal agents, led to design, and synthesize the new antifungal agents. The derivatives of chalcones were prepared using Claisen-Schmidt condensation scheme with appropriate tetralone and aldehyde derivatives. Ten derivatives were synthesized and were biologically screened for antifungal activity. The newly synthesized derivatives of chalcone showed antifungal activity against fungal species, Microsporum gypseum. The results so obtained were superior or comparable to ketoconazole. It was observed that none of the compounds tested showed positive results for fungi Candida albicans nor against fungi Aspergillus niger. Chalcone derivatives showed inhibitory effect against M. gypseum species of fungus. It was found that among the chalcone derivatives so synthesized, two of them, that is, 4-chloro derivative, and unsubstituted derivative of chalcone showed antifungal activity superior to ketoconazole. Thus, these can be the potential new molecule as antifungal agent.

  17. Chalcone derivatives as potential antifungal agents: Synthesis, and antifungal activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Deepa; Jain, D K

    2015-01-01

    Much research has been carried out with the aim to discover the therapeutic values of chalcone derivatives. Chalcones possess wide range of pharmacological activity such as antibacterial, antimalarial, antiprotozoal, antitubercular, anticancer, and antifungal agents etc. The presence of reactive α,β-unsaturated keto group in chalcones is found to be responsible for their biological activity. The rapid developments of resistance to antifungal agents, led to design, and synthesize the new antifungal agents. The derivatives of chalcones were prepared using Claisen-Schmidt condensation scheme with appropriate tetralone and aldehyde derivatives. Ten derivatives were synthesized and were biologically screened for antifungal activity. The newly synthesized derivatives of chalcone showed antifungal activity against fungal species, Microsporum gypseum. The results so obtained were superior or comparable to ketoconazole. It was observed that none of the compounds tested showed positive results for fungi Candida albicans nor against fungi Aspergillus niger. Chalcone derivatives showed inhibitory effect against M. gypseum species of fungus. It was found that among the chalcone derivatives so synthesized, two of them, that is, 4-chloro derivative, and unsubstituted derivative of chalcone showed antifungal activity superior to ketoconazole. Thus, these can be the potential new molecule as antifungal agent. PMID:26317075

  18. Phytochemical Analysis and Antifungal Activity of Extracts from Leaves and Fruit Residues of Brazilian Savanna Plants Aiming Its Use as Safe Fungicides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breda, Caroline Alves; Gasperini, Alessandra Marcon; Garcia, Vera Lucia; Monteiro, Karin Maia; Bataglion, Giovana Anceski; Eberlin, Marcos Nogueira; Duarte, Marta Cristina Teixeira

    2016-08-01

    The increasing demand for safe food without preservatives or pesticides residues has encouraged several studies on natural products with antifungal activity and low toxicity. In this study, ethanolic extracts from leaves and fruit residues (peel and seeds) of three Brazilian savanna species (Acrocomia aculeata, Campomanesia adamantium and Caryocar brasiliense) were evaluated against phytopathogenic fungi. Additionally, the most active extract was chemically characterized by ESI-MS and its oral acute toxicity was evaluated. Extracts from C. brasiliense (pequi) peel and leaves were active against Alternaria alternata, Alternaria solani and Venturia pirina with minimal inhibitory concentrations between 350 and 1000 µg/mL. When incorporated in solid media, these extracts extended the lag phase of A. alternata and A. solani and reduced the growth rate of A. solani. Pequi peel extract showed better antifungal activity and their ESI-MS analysis revealed the presence of substances widely reported as antifungal such as gallic acid, quinic acid, ellagic acid, glucogalin and corilagin. The oral acute toxicity was relatively low, being considered safe for use as a potential natural fungicide. PMID:27169570

  19. Recent advances in antifungal chemotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrikkos, George; Skiada, Anna

    2007-08-01

    For over 50 years, amphotericin B deoxycholate (AmBD) has been the 'gold standard' in antifungal chemotherapy, despite its frequent toxicities. However, improved treatment options for invasive fungal infections (IFIs) have been developed during the last 15 years. Newer antifungal agents, including less toxic lipid preparations of AmBD, triazoles and the echinocandins, have been added to our armamentarium against IFIs. Some of these newer drugs can now replace AmBD as primary therapy (e.g. caspofungin for candidiasis, voriconazole for aspergillosis), whilst others offer new therapeutic options for difficult-to-treat IFIs (e.g. posaconazole for zygomycosis, fusariosis and chromoblastomycosis). It is interesting that extended use of newer antifungals such as fluconazole, despite decreasing the mortality attributed to candidiasis, resulted in selection of species resistant to several antifungals (Candida krusei, Candida glabrata); whilst several publications suggest that prolonged use of voriconazole may expose severely immunocompromised patients to the risk of zygomycosis (breakthrough). On the other hand, the differences in the mode of action of newer antifungals such as echinocandins raise the question whether combination antifungal therapy is more effective than monotherapy. Finally, the availability of an oral formulation with excellent biosafety of several newer antifungals (e.g. posaconazole) makes them candidates for prophylactic or prolonged maintenance therapy. PMID:17524625

  20. Preservation and storage of food using natural gas as an energy source; Preservacao e armazenamento de alimentos usando gas natural como fonte de energia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Gabriel F. da; Lira, Moema de Lima; Carnelossi, Marcelo A.G.; Sousa, Mabel R. [Universidade Federal de Sergipe (UFS), Aracaju, SE (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Quimica; Jesus, Marcos Fabio de [Universidade Federal da Bahia (UFBA), Salvador, BA (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Quimica; Campos, Michel Fabianski; Martins, Ronaldo M.; Furini Filho, Roberto [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Santos, Sara Macedo dos [Centro de Tecnologias do Gas (CTGAS), Natal, RN (Brazil)

    2004-07-01

    In this work a study on preservation and storage of agricultural products was undertaken in chambers cooled through an absorption system, which used natural gas in the power plant and the results were compared with the compression system using electric energy. For the study a refrigeration pilot unit was mounted which consisted of chiller through water/ammonia absorption with direct natural gas burning, having a maximum consumption of 2,7{sup 3}/ h and capacity of 5 TR's, three refrigerating chambers with isopanel walls polyurethane, dimensions 2mx3mx2m with maximum capacity of storage of 2.000 kg each, control panel, a system of compressed natural gas supplying two carts each containing three cylinders with capacity of 71,4{sup 3} and a compression system connected to a chamber of same characteristics. Optimization studies in the storage of some fruits and vegetables were undertaken. A program was established which takes in account the food properties and characteristics of refrigeration systems to estimate the operational cost with the two systems. A techno-economic feasibility study was carried out on the two system of absorption and compression. This project was developed in the UFS, and is part of RedeGasEnergia, support for the financial aid was provided by PETROBRAS and FINEP/CTPETRO programs. (author)

  1. Metabolic footprinting for investigation of antifungal properties of Lactobacillus paracasei

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Honoré, Anders Hans; Aunsbjerg, Stina Dissing; Ebrahimi, Parvaneh;

    2016-01-01

    Lactic acid bacteria with antifungal properties are applied for biopreservation of food. In order to further our understanding of their antifungal mechanism, there is an ongoing search for bioactive molecules. With a focus on the metabolites formed, bioassay-guided fractionation and comprehensive...... screening have identified compounds as antifungal. Although these are active, the compounds have been found in concentrations that are too low to account for the observed antifungal effect. It has been hypothesized that the formation of metabolites and consumption of nutrients during bacterial fermentations...... form the basis for the antifungal effect, i.e., the composition of the exometabolome. To build a more comprehensive view of the chemical changes induced by bacterial fermentation and the effects on mold growth, a strategy for correlating the exometabolomic profiles with mold growth was applied. The...

  2. Preservatives from Nature: A Review

    OpenAIRE

    H. A. Pawar; Ashwini V. Shenoy; Pranita D. Narawade; Pranay Y. Soni; Priyanka P. Shanbhag; Vaibhav A.Rajal

    2011-01-01

    Natural food preservatives have been used and known to mankind since a very long time. These are used in both raw as well as cooked food to increase the shelf life of food so that aroma, taste and the food itself can be stored for a longer period of time. Also food degradation is prevented by them. Preservatives, whether natural or artificial, work as in three different ways: Antimicrobial, Antioxidants and Act on enzymes. In antimicrobial, the growth of microbes like bacteria and fungi is in...

  3. Effective photosensitization-based inactivation of Gram (-) food pathogens and molds using the chlorophyllin-chitosan complex: towards photoactive edible coatings to preserve strawberries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchovec, Irina; Lukseviciute, Viktorija; Marsalka, Arunas; Reklaitis, Ignas; Luksiene, Zivile

    2016-04-13

    This study is focused on the novel approaches to enhance the inactivation of the Gram (-) food pathogen Salmonella enterica and harmful molds in vitro and on the surface of strawberries using the chlorophyllin-chitosan complex. Salmonella enterica (∼1 × 10(7) CFU mL(-1)) was incubated with chlorophyllin 1.5 × 10(-5) M (Chl, food additive), chitosan 0.1% (CHS, food supplement) or the chlorophyllin-chitosan complex (1.5 × 10(-5) M Chl-0.1% CHS) and illuminated with visible light (λ = 405 nm, light dose 38 J cm(-2)) in vitro. Chlorophyllin (Chl)-based photosensitization inactivated Salmonella just by 1.8 log. Chitosan (CHS) alone incubated for 2 h with Salmonella reduced viability 2.15 log, whereas photoactivated Chl-CHS diminished bacterial viability by 7 log. SEM images indicate that the Chl-CHS complex under these experimental conditions covered the entire bacterial surface. Significant cell membrane disintegration was the main lethal injury induced in Gram (-) bacteria by this treatment. Analysis of strawberry decontamination from surface-inoculated Salmonella indicated that photoactivated Chl-CHS (1.5 × 10(-5) M Chl-0.1% CHS, 30 min incubation, light dose 38 J cm(-2)) coatings diminished the pathogen population on the surface of strawberries by 2.2 log. Decontamination of strawberries from naturally distributed yeasts/molds revealed that chitosan alone reduced the population of yeasts/molds just by 0.4 log, Chl-based photosensitization just by 0.9 log, whereas photoactivated Chl-CHS coatings reduced yeasts/molds on the surface of strawberries by 1.4 log. Electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy confirmed that no additional photosensitization-induced free radicals have been found in the strawberry matrix. Visual quality (color, texture) of the treated strawberries was not affected either. In conclusion, photoactive Chl-CHS exhibited strong antimicrobial action against more resistant to photosensitization Gram (-) Salmonella enterica in comparison with

  4. Food irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The preservation of food using irradiation may replace or be used in combination with traditional or conventional food preservation techniques. Studies have shown that the irradiation technique which uses less energy than other preservation methods is a potential way for reducing post harvest losses. However, economic feasibility among other constraints is the core factor to determine the success of the technique at commercial scale. The need and importance for considering this new technique in Malaysia are discussed here. (author)

  5. In-vitro antibacterial, antifungal, antioxidant and functional properties of Bacillus amyloliquefaciens

    OpenAIRE

    Kadaikunnan, Shine; Rejiniemon, Thankappan Sarasam; Khaled, Jamal M.; Alharbi, Naiyf S; Mothana, Ramzi

    2015-01-01

    Background Food born pathogenic bacteria and filamentous fungi are able to grow on most foods, including natural foods, processed foods, and fermented foods and create considerable economic loss. The aim of this study was to determine the antibacterial, antifungal, antioxidant and functional properties of Bacillus amyloliquefaciens recovered from silage. Methods Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC) of the compounds was assessed by using broth micro dilution method. The 1,1-diphenyl–2-picryl...

  6. Solidago canadensis L. Essential Oil Vapor Effectively Inhibits Botrytis cinerea Growth and Preserves Postharvest Quality of Strawberry as a Food Model System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Shumin; Shao, Xingfeng; Wei, Yanzhen; Li, Yonghua; Xu, Feng; Wang, Hongfei

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the anti-fungal properties of Solidago canadensis L. essential oil (SCLEO) against Botrytis cinerea in vitro, and its ability to control gray mold and maintain quality in strawberry fruits. SCLEO exhibited dose-dependent antifungal activity against B. cinerea and profoundly altered mycelial morphology, cellular ultrastructure, and membrane permeability as evaluated by scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, and fluorescence microscopy. SCLEO vapor at 0.1 mL/L maintained higher sensory acceptance and reduced decay of fresh strawberry fruit, and also reduced gray mold in artificially inoculated fruit. SCLEO treatment did not, however, stimulate phenylalanin ammonia-lyase, polyphenol oxidase, or chitinase, enzymes related to disease resistance. This suggests that SCLEO reduces gray mold by direct inhibition of pathogen growth. SCLEO vapor may provide a new and effective strategy for controlling postharvest disease and maintaining quality in strawberries. PMID:27531994

  7. Chalcone derivatives as potential antifungal agents: Synthesis, and antifungal activity

    OpenAIRE

    Deepa Gupta; Jain, D. K.

    2015-01-01

    Much research has been carried out with the aim to discover the therapeutic values of chalcone derivatives. Chalcones possess wide range of pharmacological activity such as antibacterial, antimalarial, antiprotozoal, antitubercular, anticancer, and antifungal agents etc. The presence of reactive α,β-unsaturated keto group in chalcones is found to be responsible for their biological activity. The rapid developments of resistance to antifungal agents, led to design, and synthesize the new antif...

  8. Topical antifungals for seborrhoeic dermatitis

    OpenAIRE

    Okokon, Enembe O; Verbeek, Jos H.; Ruotsalainen, Jani H; Ojo, Olumuyiwa A; Bakhoya, Victor Nyange

    2015-01-01

    Background Seborrhoeic dermatitis is a chronic inflammatory skin condition that is distributed worldwide. It commonly affects the scalp, face and flexures of the body. Treatment options include antifungal drugs, steroids, calcineurin inhibitors, keratolytic agents and phototherapy. Objectives To assess the effects of antifungal agents for seborrhoeic dermatitis of the face and scalp in adolescents and adults. A secondary objective is to assess whether the same interventions are effective in t...

  9. Radiation entomology in food preservation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The insects for which this type of treatment may be considered belong to three broad groups, the Coleoptera (beetles), the Lepidoptera (moths) and the Diptera (flies). The desirable effects of ionizing energy on insect pests include reproductive sterilisation as well as killing. The dose levels required for the former are generally considerably lower than for killing. As mortality may, at lower doses, be by starvation, due to damage to cells of the alimentary canal, death is generally not immediate, but may be delayed for a number of days. This may be a disadvantage for this method of control, especially if the product is for immediate export and there is a NIL live insect requirement. Lepidoptera are generally more resistant to irradiation than Coleoptera or Diptera

  10. Antifungal and antiviral products of marine organisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheung, Randy Chi Fai; Wong, Jack Ho; Pan, Wen Liang; Chan, Yau Sang; Yin, Cui Ming; Dan, Xiu Li; Wang, He Xiang; Fang, Evandro Fei; Lam, Sze Kwan; Ngai, Patrick Hung Kui; Xia, Li Xin; Liu, Fang; Ye, Xiu Yun; Zhang, Guo Qing; Liu, Qing Hong; Sha, Ou; Lin, Peng; Ki, Chan; Bekhit, Adnan A; Bekhit, Alaa El-Din; Wan, David Chi Cheong; Ye, Xiu Juan; Xia, Jiang; Ng, Tzi Bun

    2014-04-01

    Marine organisms including bacteria, fungi, algae, sponges, echinoderms, mollusks, and cephalochordates produce a variety of products with antifungal activity including bacterial chitinases, lipopeptides, and lactones; fungal (-)-sclerotiorin and peptaibols, purpurides B and C, berkedrimane B and purpuride; algal gambieric acids A and B, phlorotannins; 3,5-dibromo-2-(3,5-dibromo-2-methoxyphenoxy)phenol, spongistatin 1, eurysterols A and B, nortetillapyrone, bromotyrosine alkaloids, bis-indole alkaloid, ageloxime B and (-)-ageloxime D, haliscosamine, hamigeran G, hippolachnin A from sponges; echinoderm triterpene glycosides and alkene sulfates; molluscan kahalalide F and a 1485-Da peptide with a sequence SRSELIVHQR; and cepalochordate chitotriosidase and a 5026.9-Da antifungal peptide. The antiviral compounds from marine organisms include bacterial polysaccharide and furan-2-yl acetate; fungal macrolide, purpurester A, purpurquinone B, isoindolone derivatives, alterporriol Q, tetrahydroaltersolanol C and asperterrestide A, algal diterpenes, xylogalactofucan, alginic acid, glycolipid sulfoquinovosyldiacylglycerol, sulfated polysaccharide p-KG03, meroditerpenoids, methyl ester derivative of vatomaric acid, lectins, polysaccharides, tannins, cnidarian zoanthoxanthin alkaloids, norditerpenoid and capilloquinol; crustacean antilipopolysaccharide factors, molluscan hemocyanin; echinoderm triterpenoid glycosides; tunicate didemnin B, tamandarins A and B and; tilapia hepcidin 1-5 (TH 1-5), seabream SauMx1, SauMx2, and SauMx3, and orange-spotted grouper β-defensin. Although the mechanisms of antifungal and antiviral activities of only some of the aforementioned compounds have been elucidated, the possibility to use those known to have distinctly different mechanisms, good bioavailability, and minimal toxicity in combination therapy remains to be investigated. It is also worthwhile to test the marine antimicrobials for possible synergism with existing drugs. The prospects of

  11. Synthesis, antibacterial and antifungal activity of some derivatives of 2-phenyl-chromen-4-one

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Sayed Alam

    2004-11-01

    Some derivatives of 2-phenyl-chromen-4-one (flavone ring) have been synthesized and tested for antibacterial and antifungal activities along with their chalcone precursors against four human pathogenic bacteria and five plant mould fungi. The structures of the synthesized compounds were elucidated by UV, IR and 1H NMR spectroscopic techniques, and elemental analysis. The antibacterial and antifungal screens of the synthesized compounds were performed in vitro by the filter paper disc diffusion method and the poisoned food technique.

  12. Formulation and antifungal performance of natamycin-loaded liposomal suspensions: the benefits of sterol-enrichment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouaoud, Clotilde; Lebouille, Jérôme G J L; Mendes, Eduardo; De Braal, Henriette E A; Meesters, Gabriel M H

    2016-06-01

    The aim of this study is to develop and evaluate food-grade liposomal delivery systems for the antifungal compound natamycin. Liposomes made of various soybean lecithins are prepared by solvent injection, leading to small unilamellar vesicles (Fine-tuning of sterol concentration allows preparation of liposomal suspensions presenting modulated in vitro release kinetics rates and enhanced antifungal activity against the model yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. PMID:26009272

  13. Antibacterial and antifungal activity of Xylopia aethiopica, Monodora myristica, Zanthoxylum xanthoxyloi;des and Zanthoxylum leprieurii from Cameroon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tatsadjieu, L N; Essia Ngang, J J; Ngassoum, M B; Etoa, F-X

    2003-07-01

    The essential oils of Xylopia aethiopica, Monodora myristica, Zanthoxylum xanthoxyloïdes and Z. leprieurii, four Cameroonian plants used as spices in local food, showed antibacterial and antifungal activity. PMID:12837363

  14. Research Status of Anti-microbial Peptide and Application Foreground in Food Preservative%抗菌肽的研究现状及在食品防腐保鲜中的应用前景

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王玲

    2011-01-01

    Antimicrobial peptide,a protective active material which can resist out-sourced pathogen,was induced by various kinds of biological cells based on the outside condition.It can resist bacteria,epiphyte,virus,protozoa and kill tumour cells.Its advantage of safety and innocuity makes it have the potential value of being a preservative for natural food.However,anti-microbial peptide used as a food preservative is not so common at present,study and exploiting anti-microbial peptide as a food preservative still face many problems.The research status of different kinds of anti-microbial peptides,problems that affect the application of anti-microbial peptides and the application foreground in food preservative were discussed in this paper.%抗菌肽是由多种生物细胞经外界条件诱导产生的对抗外源病原体的防御性肽类活性物质,具有广谱抗细菌、真菌、病毒、原虫、抑杀肿瘤细胞等的作用。它的安全无毒害作用的优势使得它具有作为天然食品防腐保鲜剂的潜在应用价值。但是,目前抗菌肽作为食品防腐保鲜剂的实际使用并不多见,抗菌肽型天然食品防腐保鲜剂的研究与开发仍存在很多问题。分别综述了不同类型抗菌肽的研究现状,影响抗菌肽应用的问题及在食品防腐保鲜中的应用前景。

  15. Resistance to antifungals that target CYP51.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Josie E; Warrilow, Andrew G S; Price, Claire L; Mullins, Jonathan G L; Kelly, Diane E; Kelly, Steven L

    2014-10-01

    Fungal diseases are an increasing global burden. Fungi are now recognised to kill more people annually than malaria, whilst in agriculture, fungi threaten crop yields and food security. Azole resistance, mediated by several mechanisms including point mutations in the target enzyme (CYP51), is increasing through selection pressure as a result of widespread use of triazole fungicides in agriculture and triazole antifungal drugs in the clinic. Mutations similar to those seen in clinical isolates as long ago as the 1990s in Candida albicans and later in Aspergillus fumigatus have been identified in agriculturally important fungal species and also wider combinations of point mutations. Recently, evidence that mutations originate in the field and now appear in clinical infections has been suggested. This situation is likely to increase in prevalence as triazole fungicide use continues to rise. Here, we review the progress made in understanding azole resistance found amongst clinically and agriculturally important fungal species focussing on resistance mechanisms associated with CYP51. Biochemical characterisation of wild-type and mutant CYP51 enzymes through ligand binding studies and azole IC50 determinations is an important tool for understanding azole susceptibility and can be used in conjunction with microbiological methods (MIC50 values), molecular biological studies (site-directed mutagenesis) and protein modelling studies to inform future antifungal development with increased specificity for the target enzyme over the host homologue. PMID:25320648

  16. Software preservation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tadej Vodopivec

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Comtrade Ltd. covers a wide range of activities related to information and communication technologies; its deliverables include web applications, locally installed programs,system software, drivers, embedded software (used e.g. in medical devices, auto parts,communication switchboards. Also the extensive knowledge and practical experience about digital long-term preservation technologies have been acquired. This wide spectrum of activities puts us in the position to discuss the often overlooked aspect of the digital preservation - preservation of software programs. There are many resources dedicated to digital preservation of digital data, documents and multimedia records,but not so many about how to preserve the functionalities and features of computer programs. Exactly these functionalities - dynamic response to inputs - render the computer programs rich compared to documents or linear multimedia. The article opens the questions on the beginning of the way to the permanent digital preservation. The purpose is to find a way in the right direction, where all relevant aspects will be covered in proper balance. The following questions are asked: why at all to preserve computer programs permanently, who should do this and for whom, when we should think about permanent program preservation, what should be persevered (such as source code, screenshots, documentation, and social context of the program - e.g. media response to it ..., where and how? To illustrate the theoretic concepts given the idea of virtual national museum of electronic banking is also presented.

  17. Food preservation by irradiation. V.- Economic study of the spanish potatoe market and preservation feasibility by irradiation; Conservacion de alimentos por irradiacion. V.- Estudio economico del mercado de patatas en Espana y posibilidades de su conservacion por irradiacion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rivas, A.; Garcia de Mateos, A.; Ortin Sune, N.; Val Cob, M. del

    1967-07-01

    A study of the spanish potatoe market is carried o nt in order to know the possibilities of preservation by irradiation. The study is initiated with a recompilation of statistical data on the production and consumption of potatoes by regions and seasons. Last years losses are then estimated. (Author) 9 refs.

  18. Isolation and characterisation of antifungal compounds from lactic acid bacteria and their application in wheat and gluten-free bread

    OpenAIRE

    Axel, Claudia

    2015-01-01

    As part of the “free-from” trend, biopreservation for bread products has increasingly become important to prevent spoilage since artificial preservatives are more and more rejected by consumers. A literature review conducted as part of this thesis revealed that the evaluation of more suitable antifungal strains of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) is important. Moreover, increasing the knowledge about the origin of the antifungal effect is fundamental for further enhancement of biopreservation. This...

  19. Antifungal therapy with an emphasis on biofilms

    OpenAIRE

    Pierce, Christopher G.; Srinivasan, Anand; Uppuluri, Priya; Anand K. Ramasubramanian; López-Ribot, José Luis

    2013-01-01

    Fungal infections are on the rise as advances in modern medicine prolong the lives of severely ill patients. Fungi are eukaryotic organisms and there are a limited number of targets for antifungal drug development; as a result the antifungal arsenal is exceedingly limited. Azoles, polyenes and echinocandins, constitute the mainstay of antifungal therapy for patients with life-threatening mycoses. One of the main factors complicating antifungal therapy is the formation of fungal biofilms, micr...

  20. On the Development of Food-Oriented Health-Preserving from the Perspective of TCM Feeding Performance%中医食性视野下食养发展刍议

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    柴可夫; 谷英敏; 马纲

    2011-01-01

    透过食性的角度来研究食养理论与实践的萌芽、初步形成、形成、补充、发展.旨在得出如下结论:食养理念是在食性的认识基础上并以中医药理论为依托,它的进一步发展提高有赖于中医药理论的应用及食材性能的研究,并可促进中医药事业的发展及食材的应用.%Throngh the study of the budding, initial forming, forming, renewing, and development of food-oriented health-preserving theory and practice from the perspective of feeding performance, to draw a conclusion as follows: the philosophy of food-oriented health-preserving is based on the knowledge of feeding performance and the theory of TCM; its further development depends on the application of TCM theories and the study on medicated food functions, and it will promote the development of TCM industry and the application of medicated foods.

  1. Digital preservation

    CERN Document Server

    Deegan, Marilyn

    2013-01-01

    Digital preservation is an issue of huge importance to the library and information profession right now. With the widescale adoption of the internet and the rise of the world wide web, the world has been overwhelmed by digital information. Digital data is being produced on a massive scale by individuals and institutions: some of it is born, lives and dies only in digital form, and it is the potential death of this data, with its impact on the preservation of culture, that is the concern of this book. So how can information professionals try to remedy this? Digital preservation is a complex iss

  2. Use of antifungal drugs in hematology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcio Nucci

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Invasive fungal disease represents a major complication in hematological patients. Antifungal agents are frequently used in hematologic patients for different purposes. In neutropenic patients, antifungal agents may be used as prophylaxis, as empiric or preemptive therapy, or to treat an invasive fungal disease that has been diagnosed. The hematologist must be familiar with the epidemiology, diagnostic tools and strategies of antifungal use, as well as the pharmacologic proprieties of the different antifungal agents. In this paper the principal antifungal agents used in hematologic patients will be discussed as will the clinical scenarios where these agents have been used.

  3. Antimicrobial commodities. Part 2. Antimicrobial and antifungal paint (adhesive); Kokin seikatsu yohin (dai 2 kai). Kokin / bokabi toryo (secchakuzai)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toyonaga, Y. [Shinto Paint Co. Ltd., Amagasaki, Osaka (Japan)

    1998-07-01

    Since paints or adhesives suffer damage during their practical use from microorganisms existing in the nature, antimicrobial agents are added to products. The antimicrobial agents are classified into three according to the use: preservatives for killing and inhibiting germs (bacteria), antifungal agents for killing and inhibiting eumycetes (mold); and antimicrobial agents in a narrow sense for inhibiting the propagation of bacterial which causes damage to the health, such as MRSA. This paper describes the functions and examples of compositions of paints and adhesives, and then concrete examples of compositions, methods of use, and effects of preservatives, antifungal agents and antimicrobial agents for paints and adhesives. Concerning, especially, preservatives and antifungal agents, the main uses, trade names oral toxities and solvents of 30 compounds are listed. Concerning the antimicrobial agent in a narrow sense, examples of compositions of antimicrobial pastes are enumerated. 5 refs., 1 fig., 8 tabs.

  4. XML Investigating the Phytochemical, Antibacterial and Antifungal Effects of Thymus Vulgaris and Cuminum Cyminum Essential Oils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soghra Valizadeh (MSc

    2016-02-01

    lower than the Cuminum Cyminum essential oil, which indicates the higher antifungal activity of the essential oil of Thymus vulgaris. This study has raised the possibility of using these essential oils as suitable antimicrobial compounds and alternatives for chemical preservatives in the food industry.

  5. Biocontrol of Aspergillus species on peanut kernels by antifungal diketopiperazine producing Bacillus cereus associated with entomopathogenic nematode.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sasidharan Nishanth Kumar

    Full Text Available The rhabditid entomopathogenic nematode associated Bacillus cereus and the antifungal compounds produced by this bacterium were evaluated for their activity in reducing postharvest decay of peanut kernels caused by Aspergillus species in in vitro and in vivo tests. The results showed that B. cereus had a significant effect on biocontrol effectiveness in in vitro and in vivo conditions. The antifungal compounds produced by the B. cereus were purified using silica gel column chromatography and their structure was elucidated using extensive spectral analyses. The compounds were identified as diketopiperazines (DKPs [cyclo-(L-Pro-Gly, cyclo(L-Tyr-L-Tyr, cyclo-(L-Phe-Gly and cyclo(4-hydroxy-L-Pro-L-Trp]. The antifungal activities of diketopiperazines were studied against five Aspergillus species and best MIC of 2 µg/ml was recorded against A. flavus by cyclo(4-hydroxy-L-Pro-L-Trp. To investigate the potential application of cyclo(4-hydroxy-L-Pro-L-Trp to eliminate fungal spoilage in food and feed, peanut kernels was used as a food model system. White mycelia and dark/pale green spores of Aspergillus species were observed in the control peanut kernels after 2 days incubation. However the fungal growth was not observed in peanut kernels treated with cyclo(4-hydroxy-L-Pro-L-Trp. The cyclo(4-hydroxy-L-Pro-L-Trp was nontoxic to two normal cell lines [fore skin (FS normal fibroblast and African green monkey kidney (VERO] up to 200 µg/ml in MTT assay. Thus the cyclo(4-hydroxy-L-Pro-L-Trp identified in this study may be a promising alternative to chemical preservatives as a potential biopreservative agent which prevent fungal growth in food and feed. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report demonstrating that the entomopathogenic nematode associated B. cereus and cyclo(4-hydroxy-L-Pro-L-Trp could be used as a biocontrol agents against postharvest fungal disease caused by Aspergillus species.

  6. Antibacterial property and application research progress of chitosan food preservative film%壳聚糖食品保鲜膜抗菌性及其应用的研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄志成; 唐冰; 钟杰平; 李思东; 杨子明; 李普旺

    2013-01-01

    In recent years, chitosan as a kind of natural materials for food preservation have been widely utilized in various food-packaging due to its excellent characteristics of biocompatibility, antibacterial property and film-processing ability.Based on the antibacterial mechanism of chitosan film materials, the researches and applications of chitosan films in recent years were summarized.In addition, the future development of chitosan film in food preservation was also prospected.%壳聚糖由于其良好的功能特性,近年来作为天然保鲜包装材料在各类食品的包装中已有大量的应用.该文章在对壳聚糖食品薄膜材料的抗菌机理总结的基础上,对近年来壳聚糖薄膜在食品的研究及应用现状进行了综述,并对壳聚糖食品薄膜的未来发展趋势进行了展望.

  7. Application Research on Low Sodium Health Preserved-egg Processing with Food-grade Salts Solution%食品级盐类清料法加工低钠鸡皮蛋的应用研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王茂增; 王磊; 赵兴杰

    2013-01-01

    The preserved egg is a traditional style product, nutrient-rich, unique taste, very popular with consumers. However, traditional processing technology used the lead oxide, which brought great danger in food safety. And high-sodium foods would bring some hurt to human. In this paper, the application of food grade Lead substitute, the recipe of low-sodium and high-potassium health preserved eggs processing with diluted material were studied comparatively. This paper explorated new formula and new technology, which provided a new theoretical reference for processing low-sodium and high-potassium health preserved eggs.%  皮蛋是我国传统的风味制品,营养丰富,口味独特,很受消费者欢迎。但是,传统的加工工艺中使用的氧化铅给食品安全带来很大的危险,且高钠食品会给人的身体健康带来一定的危害,本研究通过对食品级代铅物质的选择、使用清料法加工低钠高钾保健鸡皮蛋的配方进行反复的比较研究,探讨新配方、新工艺,为清料加工低钠鸡高钾保健皮蛋提供了新的理论参考。

  8. Antifungal activities of thiosemicarbazones and semicarbazones against mycotoxigenic fungi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rojane de Oliveira Paiva

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Mycotoxigenic fungi can compromise the quality of food, exposing human and animal health at risk. The antifungal activity of eight thiosemicarbazones (1-8 and nine semicarbazones (9-17 was evaluated against Aspergillus flavus, A. nomius, A. ochraceus, A. parasiticus and Fusarium verticillioides. Thiosemicarbazones had MIC values of 125-500 µg/ml. The thiosemicarbazones 1 and 2 exerted fungistatic activity against Aspergillus spp., and thiosemicarbazone 2 exerted fungicidal activity against F. verticillioides. Compound 2 showed an iron chelating effect of 63%. The ergosterol content of A. parasiticus had a decrease of 28 and 71% for the 31.2 and 62.5 µg/ml concentrations of thiosemicarbazone 2 compared to the control. The obtained results of antifungal activity revealed that thiosemicarbazone class was more active when compared to semicarbazone class and, the thiosemicarbazone 2 was the most active compound, specially, against Aspergillus spp.

  9. Influence of relative humidity in the preservation of irradiated avocados. Part of a coordinated programme on insect disinfestation of food and agricultural products by irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Avocados were irradiated with gamma rays (Cs-137) and subjected to thermal treatment. Relative humidity (RH) is an important factor in this preservation; the higher the RH the longer the shelf-life. PVC was used to maintain the humidity of the fruits

  10. 21 CFR 150.160 - Fruit preserves and jams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Fruit preserves and jams. 150.160 Section 150.160 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION FRUIT BUTTERS, JELLIES, PRESERVES, AND RELATED PRODUCTS Requirements...

  11. Digital Preservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yakel, Elizabeth

    2001-01-01

    Reviews research on digital preservation issues, including born-digital and digitally recreated documents. Discusses electronic records research; metadata and other standards; electronic mail; Web-based documents; moving images media; selection of materials for digitization, including primary sources; administrative issues; media stability…

  12. Advancements in Topical Antifungal Vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kircik, Leon H

    2016-02-01

    The primary treatment for superficial fungal infections is antifungal topical formulations, and allylamines and azoles represent the two major classes of topical formulations that are used to treat these infections. The stratum corneum (SC) is composed of keratinocytes that are surrounded by a matrix of lipids. The efficacy of topically applied formulations depends on their ability to penetrate this lipid matrix, and the vehicle plays an integral role in the penetration of active molecule into skin. There are several challenges to formulating topical drugs, which include the biotransformation of the active molecules as they pass through the SC and the physical changes that occur to the vehicle itself when it is applied to the skin. This article will review current and emerging topical antifungal vehicles. PMID:26885798

  13. Antifungal effect of cumin essential oil alone and in combination with antifungal drugs

    OpenAIRE

    SAHADEO PATIL; PANKAJ MAKNIKAR; SUSHILKUMAR WANKHADE; CHANDRAKIRAN UKESH; MAHENDRA RA

    2015-01-01

    Abstract. Patil S, Maknikar P, Wankhade S, Ukesh C, Rai M. 2015. Antifungal effect of cumin essential oil alone and in combination with antifungal drugs. Nusantara Bioscience 7: 55-59. We report evaluation of antifungal activity of cumin seed oil and its pharmacological interactions when used in combination with some of the widely used conventional antifungal drugs using CLSI broth microdilution, agar disc diffusion and checkerboard microtitre assay against Candida. The essential oil was obta...

  14. Isavuconazole: Pharmacology, Pharmacodynamics, and Current Clinical Experience with a New Triazole Antifungal Agent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rybak, Jeffrey M; Marx, Kayleigh R; Nishimoto, Andrew T; Rogers, P David

    2015-11-01

    Coinciding with the continually increasing population of immunocompromised patients worldwide, the incidence of invasive fungal infections has grown over the past 4 decades. Unfortunately, infections caused by both yeasts such as Candida and molds such as Aspergillus or Mucorales remain associated with unacceptably high morbidity and mortality. In addition, the available antifungals with proven efficacy in the treatment of these infections remain severely limited. Although previously available second-generation triazole antifungals have significantly expanded the spectrum of the triazole antifungal class, these agents are laden with shortcomings in their safety profiles as well as formulation and pharmacokinetic challenges. Isavuconazole, administered as the prodrug isavuconazonium, is the latest second-generation triazole antifungal to receive U.S. Food and Drug Administration approval. Approved for the treatment of both invasive aspergillosis and invasive mucormycosis, and currently under investigation for the treatment of candidemia and invasive candidiasis, isavuconazole may have therapeutic advantages over its predecessors. With clinically relevant antifungal potency against a broad range of yeasts, dimorphic fungi, and molds, isavuconazole has a spectrum of activity reminiscent of the polyene amphotericin B. Moreover, clinical experience thus far has revealed isavuconazole to be associated with fewer toxicities than voriconazole, even when administered without therapeutic drug monitoring. These characteristics, in an agent available in both a highly bioavailable oral and a β-cyclodextrin-free intravenous formulation, will likely make isavuconazole a welcome addition to the triazole class of antifungals. PMID:26598096

  15. Defensins: antifungal lessons from eukaryotes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrícia M. Silva

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Over the last years, antimicrobial peptides (AMPs have been the focus of intense research towards the finding of a viable alternative to current antifungal drugs. Defensins are one of the major families of AMPs and the most represented among all eukaryotic groups, providing an important first line of host defense against pathogenic microorganisms. Several of these cysteine-stabilized peptides present a relevant effect against fungi. Defensins are the AMPs with the broader distribution across all eukaryotic kingdoms, namely, Fungi, Plantæ and Animalia, and were recently shown to have an ancestor in a bacterial organism. As a part of the host defense, defensins act as an important vehicle of information between innate and adaptive immune system and have a role in immunomodulation. This multidimensionality represents a powerful host shield, hard for microorganisms to overcome using single approach resistance strategies. Pathogenic fungi resistance to conventional antimycotic drugs is becoming a major problem. Defensins, as other AMPs, have shown to be an effective alternative to the current antimycotic therapies, demonstrating potential as novel therapeutic agents or drug leads. In this review, we summarize the current knowledge on some eukaryotic defensins with antifungal action. An overview of the main targets in the fungal cell and the mechanism of action of these AMPs (namely, the selectivity for some fungal membrane components are presented. Additionally, recent works on antifungal defensins structure, activity and citotoxicity are also reviewed.

  16. Evaluation of vaginal antifungal formulations in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McRipley, R. J.; Erhard, P. J.; Schwind, R. A.; Whitney, R. R.

    1979-01-01

    Relatively simple and rapid procedures have been developed for evaluating the local efficacy of vaginal antifungal agents in vivo in a vaginal candidiasis model in ovariectomized rats. The results of this investigation indicate that the model and methods described are quite suitable for screening potential antifungal substances and for assessing the chemotherapeutic effectiveness of new antifungal agents and formulations before carrying out clinical studies. PMID:392480

  17. Antifungal Activity of C-27 Steroidal Saponins

    OpenAIRE

    Yang, Chong-Ren; Zhang, Ying; Jacob, Melissa R.; Khan, Shabana I.; Zhang, Ying-Jun; Li, Xing-Cong

    2006-01-01

    As part of our search for new antifungal agents from natural resources, 22 C-27 steroidal saponins and 6 steroidal sapogenins isolated from several monocotyledonous plants were tested for their antifungal activity against the opportunistic pathogens Candida albicans, Candida glabrata, Candida krusei, Cryptococcus neoformans, and Aspergillus fumigatus. The results showed that the antifungal activity of the steroidal saponins was associated with their aglycone moieties and the number and struct...

  18. Antifungal Activity of Micafungin in Serum ▿

    OpenAIRE

    Ishikawa, Jun; Maeda, Tetsuo; Matsumura, Itaru; Yasumi, Masato; Ujiie, Hidetoshi; Masaie, Hiroaki; Nakazawa, Tsuyoshi; Mochizuki, Nobuo; Kishino, Satoshi; Kanakura, Yuzuru

    2009-01-01

    We have evaluated the antifungal activity of micafungin in serum by using the disk diffusion method with serum-free and serum-added micafungin standard curves. Serum samples from micafungin-treated patients have been shown to exhibit adequate antifungal activity, which was in proportion to both the applied dose and the actual concentration of micafungin measured by high-performance liquid chromatography. The antifungal activity of micafungin in serum was also confirmed with the broth microdil...

  19. Antibacterial and Antifungal Compounds from Marine Fungi

    OpenAIRE

    Lijian Xu; Wei Meng; Cong Cao; Jian Wang; Wenjun Shan; Qinggui Wang

    2015-01-01

    This paper reviews 116 new compounds with antifungal or antibacterial activities as well as 169 other known antimicrobial compounds, with a specific focus on January 2010 through March 2015. Furthermore, the phylogeny of the fungi producing these antibacterial or antifungal compounds was analyzed. The new methods used to isolate marine fungi that possess antibacterial or antifungal activities as well as the relationship between structure and activity are shown in this review.

  20. Use of antifungal drugs in hematology

    OpenAIRE

    Marcio Nucci

    2012-01-01

    Invasive fungal disease represents a major complication in hematological patients. Antifungal agents are frequently used in hematologic patients for different purposes. In neutropenic patients, antifungal agents may be used as prophylaxis, as empiric or preemptive therapy, or to treat an invasive fungal disease that has been diagnosed. The hematologist must be familiar with the epidemiology, diagnostic tools and strategies of antifungal use, as well as the pharmacologic proprieties of the dif...

  1. Antimicrobial and antifungal activities of the extracts and essential oils of Bidens tripartita.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michał Tomczyk

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the antibacterial and antifungal properties of the extracts, subextracts and essential oils of Bidens tripartita flowers and herbs. In the study, twelve extracts and two essential oils were investigated for activity against different Gram-positive Bacillus subtilis, Micrococcus luteus, Staphylococcus aureus, Gram-negative bacteria Escherichia coli, E. coli (beta-laktamase+, Klebsiella pneumoniae (ESBL+, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and some fungal organisms Candida albicans, C. parapsilosis, Aspergillus fumigatus, A. terreus using a broth microdilution and disc diffusion methods. The results obtained indicate antimicrobial activity of the tested extracts (except butanolic extracts, which however did not inhibit the growth of fungi used in this study. Bacteriostatic effect of both essential oils is insignificant, but they have strong antifungal activity. These results support the use of B. tripartita to treat a microbial infections and it is indicated as an antimicrobial and antifungal agent, which may act as pharmaceuticals and preservatives.

  2. Power Preservation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Galster, Kjeld

    Power Preservation (Abstract) In the 17th century, just as today, coalitions needed ‘lead nations’. This was assumed to be a power with great military and economic potentials, and Denmark endeavoured to act as such a leader in the Thirty Years War from 1626 to 28. The results were not encouraging...... stage gradually declined. Thus, Denmark of the 17th century is not to be counted amongst the great powers, but since Christian V’s accession to the throne in 1670 Denmark-Norway has developed into one of Europe’s most highly militarised states. Apart from a permanently combat ready navy, the country......-Scottish double monarchy, it is fair to assume that his political ambitions are of a far reaching nature. King Christian wants revenge on Sweden and he wishes to preserve the military and naval power generated during the latest war with that country. However, this is certainly not to be achieved cheaply. To...

  3. Software preservation

    OpenAIRE

    Tadej Vodopivec

    2011-01-01

    Comtrade Ltd. covers a wide range of activities related to information and communication technologies; its deliverables include web applications, locally installed programs,system software, drivers, embedded software (used e.g. in medical devices, auto parts,communication switchboards). Also the extensive knowledge and practical experience about digital long-term preservation technologies have been acquired. This wide spectrum of activities puts us in the position to discuss the often overloo...

  4. Experimental evidence for a novel mechanism driving variation in habitat quality in a food-caching bird.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strickland, Dan; Kielstra, Brian; Ryan Norris, D

    2011-12-01

    Variation in habitat quality can have important consequences for fitness and population dynamics. For food-caching species, a critical determinant of habitat quality is normally the density of storable food, but it is also possible that quality is driven by the ability of habitats to preserve food items. The food-caching gray jay (Perisoreus canadensis) occupies year-round territories in the coniferous boreal and subalpine forests of North America, but does not use conifer seed crops as a source of food. Over the last 33 years, we found that the occupancy rate of territories in Algonquin Park (ON, Canada) has declined at a higher rate in territories with a lower proportion of conifers compared to those with a higher proportion. Individuals occupying territories with a low proportion of conifers were also less likely to successfully fledge young. Using chambers to simulate food caches, we conducted an experiment to examine the hypothesis that coniferous trees are better able to preserve the perishable food items stored in summer and fall than deciduous trees due to their antibacterial and antifungal properties. Over a 1-4 month exposure period, we found that mealworms, blueberries, and raisins all lost less weight when stored on spruce and pine trees compared to deciduous and other coniferous trees. Our results indicate a novel mechanism to explain how habitat quality may influence the fitness and population dynamics of food-caching animals, and has important implications for understanding range limits for boreal breeding animals. PMID:21681486

  5. Antifungal Activity of Essential Oils from Some Medicinal Plants of Iran against Alternaria alternate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Hadizadeh

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Increasing public concern over the level of pesticide residues in food especially fresh produce has built up adequate pressure for scientists to look for less hazardous and environmentally safer compounds for controlling post harvest diseases. Essential oils as registered food grade materials have the potential to be applied as alternative anti-fungal treatments for fresh fruits and vegetables. Approach: We present in this study, the identification of the essential oils with antifungal activity from some medicinal plants of Iran (nettle (Urtica dioica L., thyme (Thymus vulgaris L., eucalyptus (Eucalyptus spp., Rue (Ruta graveolens L. and common yarrow (Achillea millefolium L., and their potential application as "generally regarded as safe" antifungal compounds against Alternaria alternate on tomato as a model pathosystem. Results: Both the nettle and the thyme oils exhibited antifungal activity against A. alternata. The thyme oil exhibited a lower degree of inhibition 68.5 and 74.8% at 1500 and 2000 ppm, respectively. Spore germination and germ tube elongation of the pathogens in potato dextrose broth was strongly reduced in the presence of 1500 ppm of the nettle oil. The same concentration of this oil reduced the percentage of decayed tomatoes. The experiments on reducing the development of natural tomato rot gave similar results. Conclusions: Application of essential oils for postharvest disease control of fresh produce, as a novel emerging alternative to hazardous anti-fungal treatments will allow a safer and environmentally more acceptable management of postharvest diseases.

  6. Food irradiation: A contribution to food security

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For food security at the national level every country needs to evolve its own strategies to maintain a continuous supply of food between seasons. Research and development over the past 30 years have clearly demonstrated that food irradiation is a safe, effective and environmentally clean process of food preservation. The technology is beginning to play an important role in reducing post-harvest losses of food and in facilitating wider distribution of food in the trade. 1 fig., 1 tab

  7. An overview of antifungal peptides derived from insect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faruck, Mohammad Omer; Yusof, Faridah; Chowdhury, Silvia

    2016-06-01

    Fungi are not classified as plants or animals. They resemble plants in many ways but do not produce chlorophyll or make their own food photosynthetically like plants. Fungi are useful for the production of beer, bread, medicine, etc. More complex than viruses or bacteria; fungi can be destructive human pathogens responsible for various diseases in humans. Most people have a strong natural immunity against fungal infection. However, fungi can cause diseases when this immunity breaks down. In the last few years, fungal infection has increased strikingly and has been accompanied by a rise in the number of deaths of cancer patients, transplant recipients, and acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) patients owing to fungal infections. The growth rate of fungi is very slow and quite difficult to identify. A series of molecules with antifungal activity against different strains of fungi have been found in insects, which can be of great importance to tackle human diseases. Insects secrete such compounds, which can be peptides, as a part of their immune defense reactions. Active antifungal peptides developed by insects to rapidly eliminate infectious pathogens are considered a component of the defense munitions. This review focuses on naturally occurring antifungal peptides from insects and their challenges to be used as armaments against human diseases. PMID:26093218

  8. Pyridine-grafted chitosan derivative as an antifungal agent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Ruixiu; Duan, Yunfei; Fang, Qiang; Wang, Xiangyang; Huang, Jianying

    2016-04-01

    Pyridine moieties were introduced into chitosan by nucleophilic substitution to afford N-(1-carboxybutyl-4-pyridinium) chitosan chloride (pyridine chitosan). The resulting chitosan derivative was well characterized, and its antifungal activity was examined, based on the inhibition of mycelial growth and spore germination. The results indicated that pyridine chitosan exhibited enhanced antifungal activity by comparison with pristine chitosan. The values of the minimum inhibitory concentration and the minimal fungicidal concentration of pyridine chitosan against Fulvia fulva were 0.13 mg/ml and 1 mg/ml, respectively, while the corresponding values against Botrytis cinerea were 0.13 mg/ml and 4 mg/ml, respectively. Severe morphological changes of pyridine chitosan-treated B. cinerea were observed, indicative that pyridine chitosan could damage and deform the structure of fungal hyphae and subsequently inhibit strain growth. Non-toxicity of pyridine chitosan was demonstrated by an acute toxicity study. These results are beneficial for assessing the potential utilization of this chitosan derivative and for exploring new functional antifungal agents with chitosan in the food industry. PMID:26593505

  9. Chemical composition of essential oils of Thymus and Mentha species and their antifungal activities.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sokovic, M.D.; Vukojevic, J.; Marin, P.D.; Brkic, D.D.; Vajs, V.; Griensven, van L.J.L.D.

    2009-01-01

    The potential antifungal effects of Thymus vulgaris L., Thymus tosevii L., Mentha spicata L., and Mentha piperita L. (Labiatae) essential oils and their components against 17 micromycetal food poisoning, plant, animal and human pathogens are presented. The essential oils were obtained by hydrodestil

  10. Comparative Antifungal Effect of Lactic Acid Bacteria Strains on Penicillium digitatum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrian Matei

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Lactic acid bacteria (LAB are natural alternative to chemical preservatives for fruits. The aim of the research was to select LAB strains with high antifungal activity against Penicillium digitatum for the biopreservation of fruits. The antifungal activity of eight lactic acid bacteria strains has been evaluated against Penicilliuum digitatum isolated from orange, by overlay assay method and by optical microscope examination. The reversion of inhibition zone after 96 h was recorded as a fungistatic effect while those with inhibition zone for at least 7 days were recorded as fungicidal. The antifungal effect of efficient LAB strains was assessed by comparing inhibition of fungal biofilm formation in liquid media. The strains Lpl, Lpa, LAB 13, LAB 15, LAB 43 and LAB 58 presented intense antifungal activity with clear inhibition zones diameter over 20 mm. The microscopy evidenced atypical hyphae and delaying of conidial chain formation. The strains Lpa, LAB 13, LAB 15 fully inhibited the mycelia growth, strains LAB 43 and LAB 58 partly with delaying of biofilm formation on the surface of culture medium. The results of comparative antifungal activity of LAB strains evidenced the highest inhibition of fungal biofilm formation and structural damages of hyphae and spores caused by the strains Lpa, LAB 13 and LAB 15. These strains could be efficient biocontrol agents of Penicillium digitatum in fruits.

  11. Feasibility of gamma irradiation for coffee beans preservation. Part of a coordinated programme on technological and economic feasibility of food irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    No abstract is needed as most of the work under this contract was presented at the International Symposium on Food Irradiation, Wageningen, the Netherlands in November 1977. The proceedings of this symposium including a paper on this study has already been published by the Agency

  12. Preservation Priority

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    China ratified the UNESCO Convention Concerning the Protection of World Cultural and Natural Heritage in 1985. This set the tone for a course of action aimed at protecting the common heritage of mankind in tandem with the international community. Recently, Chao Huashan, a renowned expert on world heritage studies in China, spoke to Beijing Review reporter Zan Jifang, sharing his understanding about the value of the World Heritage Convention and his suggestions for China’s future work on preserving its heritage. Excerpts follow:

  13. Bacteriostatic mechanisms of plants antimicrobials and their applications in food preservation%植物抗菌剂抑菌机理及其在食品防腐中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王晓岑; 井晶; 于艳燕; 卢卫红; 王振宇

    2013-01-01

    This review covered recent trends on using plants antimicrobials in food and their functions and mechanisms on controlling food preservation.Bacteriostatic mechanisms of plants antimicrobials,the effect of food ingredients on antimicrobials activities of plants extracts,interactions of several plants extracts and their combinations with other technologies were summarized.In most cases,antimicrobials activities were decreased due to interactions with food ingredients.As the higher concentrations of plants extracts could lead to unfavorable taste and smell of food.The antimicrobials activities of extracts in in-vitro studies were quite different to their activities in food systems.These could be challenges in the utilization of plants antimicrobials.In conclusion,the author suggested that it was important to understand the effects of plants extracts on the behaviours of microbial population in food systems.Furthermore,scientists should conduct more advanced researches on the developments of plants resources and the utilizations of plants antimicrobials in the processing,packing and storage of food.%综述了植物抗菌剂在食品中的应用,控制食品腐败的作用和机理,及其发展趋势.通过总结前人在抑菌作用机理、食品成分对植物提取物的影响、植物提取物间的交互作用和植物提取物与其他技术相结合贮藏食品的研究成果,总结出植物抗菌剂与食品成分的相互作用会使其活性降低;较高的抗菌剂浓度会导致食品味道和香气的改变;体外条件下植物提取物的抗菌活性与其在食品体系中的活性有很大差别等影响植物抗菌剂使用的问题.这需要通过深入研究植物提取物与食品微生态的关系,加大力度开发有效植物资源,植物抗菌剂与食品加工、包装和贮藏技术相结合等才可能得到解决.

  14. Chemistry and antifungal potential of Alantolides from Inula racemosa H

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Dalvir Kataria; K K Chahal

    2013-01-01

    Alantolactone and isoalantolactone were isolated from powdered roots of Inula racemosa H. using Soxhlet extraction followed by the column chromatography. Pyrazolines of alantolactone and isoalantolactone were synthesized using diazomethane, diazoethane and diazopropane. The structure elucidation of the compounds were carried out using IR and 1H NMR spectroscopic techniques. All the compounds were screened in vitro for their antifungal potential at various concentrations against Alternaria brassicae and Penicillium italicum using spore germination inhibition technique and against Rhizoctonia solani by poisoned food technique. All the compounds exhibited fairly good fungitoxicity against the test fungi with ED50 values of less than 500 g mL-1.

  15. Antifungal saponins from Swartzia langsdorffii

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chromatographic fractionation of the EtOH extract from the leaves of Swartzia langsdorffii afforded the pentacyclic triterpenes oleanolic acid and lupeol, and two saponins: oleanolic acid 3-sophoroside and the new ester 3-O-β-D-(6'-methyl)-glucopyranosyl-28-O-β-D-glucopyranosyl-oleanate.Their structures were elucidated from spectral data, including 2D NMR and HRESIMS experiments. Antifungal activity of all isolated compounds was evaluated, using phytopathogens Cladosporium cladosporioides and C. sphaerospermum, and human pathogens Candida albicans, C. krusei, C. parapsilosis and Cryptococcus neoformans. (author)

  16. Natural and synthetic peptides with antifungal activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciociola, Tecla; Giovati, Laura; Conti, Stefania; Magliani, Walter; Santinoli, Claudia; Polonelli, Luciano

    2016-08-01

    In recent years, the increase of invasive fungal infections and the emergence of antifungal resistance stressed the need for new antifungal drugs. Peptides have shown to be good candidates for the development of alternative antimicrobial agents through high-throughput screening, and subsequent optimization according to a rational approach. This review presents a brief overview on antifungal natural peptides of different sources (animals, plants, micro-organisms), peptide fragments derived by proteolytic cleavage of precursor physiological proteins (cryptides), synthetic unnatural peptides and peptide derivatives. Antifungal peptides are schematically reported based on their structure, antifungal spectrum and reported effects. Natural or synthetic peptides and their modified derivatives may represent the basis for new compounds active against fungal infections. PMID:27502155

  17. Ionizing radiation applications for food preservation: effects of gamma and e-beam irradiation on physical and chemical parameters of chestnut fruits

    OpenAIRE

    António, Amílcar Manuel Lopes

    2014-01-01

    [EN]In Mediterranean countries chestnut fruits represent an important food product with a high economic relevance in local economy. The production of European chestnut (Castanea sativa Mill.) varieties in E.U. countries represents more than 100 kton, with an income for the producers of several million of euros, value that increases along the market chain. These fruits are also exported to other countries that, due to international phytosanitary laws, impose the absence of insects. Until recen...

  18. Effect of oxygen availability and pH on the furan concentration formed during thermal preservation of plant-based foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmers, Stijn; Grauwet, Tara; Vanden Avenne, Laura; Verhaeghe, Thomas; Kebede, Biniam T; Hendrickx, Marc E; Van Loey, Ann

    2016-04-01

    Thermally treated fruit- and vegetable-based foods are important contributors to the furan exposure of children and adults. Furan reduction by adding or removing precursors from the product has proven to be challenging because of major food constituents and interactions involved in the reaction pathways leading to furan formation. Instead of intervening at the precursor level, it might be more feasible to influence these formation pathways by adjusting the matrix properties of the product. As opposed to many previous literature sources, the present study investigated the effects of oxygen availability (normal versus reduced) and pH (acid versus low acid) on the furan formation in a real food system. Different combinations of both matrix properties were prepared in a reconstituted potato purée and subjected to a thermal treatment with a pasteurisation or sterilisation intensity. Irrespective of the addition of the furan precursors ascorbic acid, fructose and fatty acids, a considerable furan reduction was observed for the sterilised purées (F121(10) = 15 min) with either a reduced oxygen availability (0.1-1.8 mg l(-1)) or at pH 3. The effects of both matrix properties were less pronounced in the pasteurised purées (P90(10) = 10 min), because of the lower furan concentrations. Even though the mechanisms of furan reduction for both types of matrix properties could not be fully elucidated, the results showed that lowering the oxygen concentration or pH prior to thermal processing offers a powerful, additional strategy for furan mitigation in thermally treated plant-based foods. PMID:26879747

  19. Isolation of Aspergillus flavus from stored food commodities and Thymus vulgaris (L.) essential oil used as a safe plant based preservative

    OpenAIRE

    Atul Kumar Singh; Chandrabhan Seniya; Shriram Prasad

    2009-01-01

    Grain samples of Cicer arietinum (Chickpea), Zea mays (Maize), Cajanus cajan (Pigeon pea), Hordeum vulgare (Barley), Oryza sativa (Rice) and Sorghum vulgare (Millet) were procured from various retailers of market were subjected to their mould profile. During mycoflora analysis, 1297 fungal isolates were recorded from the food commodities. The least number of fungal isolates (189) were detected from H. vulgare while highest (244) from Z. mays. The genus Aspergillus was found to be most dominan...

  20. 21 CFR 146.152 - Orange juice with preservative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Orange juice with preservative. 146.152 Section 146.152 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... Fruit Juices and Beverages § 146.152 Orange juice with preservative. (a) Orange juice with...

  1. Food preservative potential of essential oils and fractions from Cymbopogon citratus, Ocimum gratissimum and Thymus vulgaris against mycotoxigenic fungi

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nguefack, J.; Dongmo, J. B. Lekagne; Dakole, C. D.; Leth, Vibeke; Vismer, H. F.; Pedersen, Jan Georg Torp; Guemdjom, E. F. N.; Mbeffo, M.; Tamgue, O.; Fotio, D.; Zollo, P. H. Amvam; Nkengfack, A. E.

    The food preservative potential of essential oils from three aromatic plants Cymbopogon citratus, Ocimum gratissimum and Thymus vulgaris and their fractions was investigated against two mycotoxigenic strains each of Aspergillus ochraceus, Penicillium expansum and P. verrucosum. The fungicidal...... from O. gratissimum exhibited the highest activity against the six fungal strains under the three pH tested. T. vulgaris and C. citratus essential oils were less active against the Penicillium species tested and A. ochraceus, respectively. Potassium sorbate did not present any activity at pH 6 and 9....... At pH 3, its NDR cfu was the lowest against the six fungal strains. At the same pH and at 4000 ppm, the three essential oils presented a NRD cfu = 6 against strains of A. ochraceus and P. expansum. The same result was obtained with T. vulgaris and C. citratus at 8000 ppm against both strains of P...

  2. Antifungal effect of cumin essential oil alone and in combination with antifungal drugs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SAHADEO PATIL

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. Patil S, Maknikar P, Wankhade S, Ukesh C, Rai M. 2015. Antifungal effect of cumin essential oil alone and in combination with antifungal drugs. Nusantara Bioscience 7: 55-59. We report evaluation of antifungal activity of cumin seed oil and its pharmacological interactions when used in combination with some of the widely used conventional antifungal drugs using CLSI broth microdilution, agar disc diffusion and checkerboard microtitre assay against Candida. The essential oil was obtained from cumin seeds using hydrodistillation technique and was later evaluated for the presence of major chemical constituents present in it using gas chromatography and mass spectrometry (GC-MS assay. The GC-MS assay revealed the abundance of γ-terpinene (35.42% followed by p-cymene (30.72%. The agar disc diffusion assay demonstrated highly potent antifungal effect against Candida species. Moreover, the combination of cumin essential oil (CEO with conventional antifungal drugs was found to reduce the individual MIC of antifungal drug suggesting the occurrence of synergistic interactions. Therefore, the therapy involving combinations of CEO and conventional antifungal drugs can be used for reducing the toxicity induced by antifungal drugs and at the same time enhancing their antifungal efficacy in controlling the infections caused due to Candida species.

  3. Fish Spoilage Mechanisms and Preservation Techniques: Review

    OpenAIRE

    Abdel E. Ghaly; Dave, D; Budge, S; Brooks, M S

    2010-01-01

    Problem statement: Spoilage of food products is due to chemical, enzymatic or microbial activities One-fourth of the worlds food supply and 30% of landed fish are lost through microbial activity alone. With the ever growing world population and the need to store and transport the food from one place to another where it is needed, food preservation becomes necessary in order to increase its shelf life and maintain its nutritional value, texture and flavor. The freshness and quality of fish hav...

  4. Assessment of Antifungal Activity of Lactic Acid Bacteria Strains Against Bread Spoilage Fungus Aspergillus ochraceus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrian Matei

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Lactic acid bacteria (LAB are generally recognized as safe and can be used against fungi that contaminate various food commodities. The aim of the research was to select LAB strains with high antifungal activity for the biocontrol of Aspergillus ochraceus. The antifungal activity of eight strains of lactic acid bacteria has been evaluated by overlay assay method against the spoilage fungus, Aspergillus ochraceus isolated from white bread. The antifungal effect was assessed by co-cultivation of lactic acid bacteria strains and Aspergillus ochraceus in liquid media and mycelium growth inhibition was monitored for over 14 days. The LAB strains Lpl, LAB 43 and LAB 13 presented intense antifungal activity with large inhibition zones of fungal growth and sporulation, but smaller for Lpa and LAB 15 strains. Total inhibition of mycelia growth was induced by the strains LAB 43, LAB 13 and Lpa. The strains LAB 15 and LAB 35 had a moderate inhibition activity on the mycelia growth. The results of this study demonstrated the antifungal activity of several LAB strains by overlay assay and by co-cultivation method. Therefore, it was confirmed the inhibitory effect of the strains LAB 43 and LAB 13 against Aspergillus ochraceus. The experiment revealed that these LAB strains could be further used as biocontrol agents.

  5. Study on Preserved Fruit Foods Series of Sechium Edule%佛手瓜果脯系列食品的研制

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    戴云; 董学畅

    2001-01-01

    Sechium edule, abundant and cheap in south provinces was used as a new material to be processed into the sechium edlile foods series, suchas fruit.jam,jelly,juice, cake and softsweets. Anew saccharifing and dying technological process was researched and adopted.%要以南方丰产而价廉的蔬果-佛手瓜为果脯加工的理想新材料,采用混合糖渍蜜化和串味引色新工艺,生产具有天然水果色、香、味的佛手瓜果脯、果酱、果糕和水晶软糖等系列食品。

  6. Synthesis and antifungal activity of trichodermin derivatives

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jing Li Cheng; Yong Zhou; Jin Hao Zhao; Chu Long Zhang; Fu Cheng Lin

    2010-01-01

    A series of derivatives were synthesized from trichodermin(1)which was an antifungal metabolite produced by Trichoderma taxi sp.nov.Their structures were confirmed by 1H NMR,MS spectrum.Their antifungal activities were evaluated in vitro.The preliminary structure activity relationships(SAR)results indicated that the double bond,epoxide moiety and ester group were main pharmacophore elements,the stereochemistry of C4 position played a key role as well,and the compounds 1e-1g displayed stronger antifungal activity against Magnaporthe grisea than 1.

  7. Is the kisspeptin system involved in responses to food restriction in order to preserve reproduction in pubertal male sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax)?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escobar, Sebastián; Felip, Alicia; Zanuy, Silvia; Carrillo, Manuel

    2016-09-01

    Previous works on European sea bass have determined that long-term exposure to restrictive feeding diets alters the rhythms of some reproductive/metabolic hormones, delaying maturation and increasing apoptosis during gametogenesis. However, exactly how these diets affect key genes and hormones on the brain-pituitary-gonad (BPG) axis to trigger puberty is still largely unknown. We may hypothesize that all these signals could be integrated, at least in part, by the kisspeptin system. In order to capture a glimpse of these regulatory mechanisms, kiss1 and kiss2 mRNA expression levels and those of their kiss receptors (kiss1r, kiss2r) were analyzed in different areas of the brain and in the pituitary of pubertal male sea bass during gametogenesis. Furthermore, other reproductive hormones and factors as well as the percentage of males showing full spermiation were also analyzed. Treated fish fed maintenance diets provided evidence of overexpression of the kisspeptin system in the main hypophysiotropic regions of the brain throughout the entire sexual cycle. Conversely, Gnrh1 and gonadotropin pituitary content and plasma sexual steroid levels were downregulated, except for Fsh levels, which were shown to increase during spermiation. Treated fish exhibited lower rates of spermiation as compared to control group and a delay in its accomplishment. These results demonstrate how the kisspeptin system and plasma Fsh levels are differentially affected by maintenance diets, causing a retardation, but not a full blockage of the reproductive process in the teleost fish European sea bass. This suggests that a hormonal adaptive strategy may be operating in order to preserve reproductive function in this species. PMID:27164487

  8. Antifungal isopimaranes from Hypoestes serpens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasoamiaranjanahary, L; Guilet, D; Marston, A; Randimbivololona, F; Hostettmann, K

    2003-09-01

    Five isopimarane diterpenes (7beta-hydroxyisopimara-8,15-dien-14-one, 14alpha-hydroxyisopimara-7,15-dien-1-one, 1beta,14alpha-dihydroxyisopimara-7,15-diene, 7beta-hydroxyisopimara-8(14),15-dien-1-one and 7beta-acetoxyisopimara-8(14),15-dien-1-one) have been isolated from the leaves of Hypoestes serpens (Acanthaceae). All compounds exhibited antifungal activity against both the plant pathogenic fungus Cladosporium cucumerinum and the yeast Candida albicans; two of them also displayed an acetylcholinesterase inhibition. The structures of the compounds were determined by means of spectrometric methods, including 1D and 2D NMR experiments and MS analysis. PMID:12943772

  9. Early State Research on Antifungal Natural Products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melyssa Negri

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Nosocomial infections caused by fungi have increased greatly in recent years, mainly due to the rising number of immunocompromised patients. However, the available antifungal therapeutic arsenal is limited, and the development of new drugs has been slow. Therefore, the search for alternative drugs with low resistance rates and fewer side effects remains a major challenge. Plants produce a variety of medicinal components that can inhibit pathogen growth. Studies of plant species have been conducted to evaluate the characteristics of natural drug products, including their sustainability, affordability, and antimicrobial activity. A considerable number of studies of medicinal plants and alternative compounds, such as secondary metabolites, phenolic compounds, essential oils and extracts, have been performed. Thus, this review discusses the history of the antifungal arsenal, surveys natural products with potential antifungal activity, discusses strategies to develop derivatives of natural products, and presents perspectives on the development of novel antifungal drug candidates.

  10. Synthesis of Pyridazinonethiadiazoles as Possible Antifungal Agents

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Several 5-[1-aryl-1,4-dihydro-6-methylpyridazin-4-one-3-yl]-2-arylamino-1,3,4-thia diazoles were synthesized.The preliminary bio-active test shows that these compounds exhibit high antifungal activity.

  11. Antifungal drugs and resistance: Current concepts

    OpenAIRE

    Pramod Kumar Nigam

    2015-01-01

    Recently, clinical failure and relapses have been observed in patients treated with antifungals. Drug resistance has become an important problem leading to significant negative social, psychological, and occupational health effects and quality of life. Early recognition and treatment is essential to reduce morbidity and possibility of transmission. The increased use, inappropriate prescribing and over the counter sale of antifungal agents has also added in the development of resistance to the...

  12. Antifungal properties of Brazilian cerrado plants

    OpenAIRE

    Souza Lúcia Kioko Hasimoto e; Oliveira Cecília Maria Alves de; Ferri Pedro Henrique; Santos Suzana Costa; Oliveira Júnior Juldásio Galdino de; Miranda André Thiago Borges; Lião Luciano Morais; Silva Maria do Rosário Rodrigues

    2002-01-01

    Ethanolic extracts from leaves of Hyptis ovalifolia, H. suaveolens, H. saxatilis, Hyptidendrum canum, Eugenia uniflora, E. dysenterica, Caryocar brasiliensis and Lafoensia pacari were investigated for their antifungal activity against dermatophytes. The most effective plants were H. ovalifolia and E. uniflora, while Trichophyton rubrum was the most sensitive among the four dermatophytes species evaluated. This study has demonstrated antifungal properties of Brazilian Cerrado plant extracts in...

  13. Antifungal properties of Brazilian cerrado plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Souza Lúcia Kioko Hasimoto e

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Ethanolic extracts from leaves of Hyptis ovalifolia, H. suaveolens, H. saxatilis, Hyptidendrum canum, Eugenia uniflora, E. dysenterica, Caryocar brasiliensis and Lafoensia pacari were investigated for their antifungal activity against dermatophytes. The most effective plants were H. ovalifolia and E. uniflora, while Trichophyton rubrum was the most sensitive among the four dermatophytes species evaluated. This study has demonstrated antifungal properties of Brazilian Cerrado plant extracts in "in vitro" assays.

  14. Food spoilage - interactions between food spoilage bacteria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gram, Lone; Flodgaard, Lars; Rasch, Maria;

    2002-01-01

    Food spoilage is a complex process and excessive amounts of foods are lost due to microbial spoilage even with modem day preservation techniques. Despite the heterogeneity in raw materials and processing conditions, the microflora that develops during storage and in spoiling foods can be predicted...... based on knowledge of the origin of the food, the substrate base and a few central preservation parameters such as temperature, atmosphere, a(w) and pH. Based on such knowledge, more detailed sensory, chemical and microbiological analysis can be carried out on the individual products to determine the...... phenotypes potentially involved in spoilage through cell-to-cell communication. In particular, we report for the first time the widespread occurrence of N-acyl homoserine lactones (AHL) in stored and spoiling fresh foods and we discuss the potential implications for spoilage and food preservation....

  15. 烟台市市售散装酱腌菜中7种防腐剂含量状况调查%Investigation of 7 food preservative residuals from 300 pickled vegetables in bulk at retail

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    董桂贤; 王朝霞; 宫春波; 张桂芳; 王颖; 周晓歌; 杨翠云

    2013-01-01

    目的 掌握烟台市市售散装酱腌菜中防腐剂含量情况.方法 采用超高效液相色谱(UPLC)-二极管阵列检测器(PDA)法检测300份市售散装酱腌菜中7种防腐剂(山梨酸、苯甲酸、脱氢乙酸、尼泊金甲酯、尼泊金乙酯、尼泊金丙酯、尼泊金丁酯)含量.结果 苯甲酸检出率为99.7%(299/300),合格率仅为37.3% (112/300),含量平均值为1.55 g/kg,最大检出值5.31 g/kg,是GB 2760-2011规定最大使用量的5.3倍.9种酱腌菜中,什锦菜苯甲酸平均值最高(2.34 g/kg),合格率最低(13.9%).山梨酸的检出率为68.7% (206/300),平均值0.10 g/kg,最大检出值2.35 g/kg,是GB 2760-2011规定最大使用量的2.3倍.脱氢乙酸检出率为25.0% (75/300),脱氢乙酸含量平均值为0.032 g/kg,合格率100%.结论 酱腌菜中苯甲酸含量的合格率最低,超标严重,建议应作为今后重点监督、监测的对象;加强散装酱腌菜的监管力度.%Objective To investigate 7 food preservative residuals of pickled vegetables in bulk at retail market of Yantai,and provide scientific basis for customer making decisions for such product.Methods The residue content of 7 food preservatives including sorbic acid,benzoic acid,dehydroacetic acid were detected by ultra performance liquid chromatography with photodiode array detector (UPLC-PDA).The quality of pickled vegetable was judged by GB 2760-2011.Results The detection rate of benzoic acid was 99.7% (299/300),higher than that of sorbic acid which was 68.7% (206/300),while the detection rate of dehydroacetic acid was only 25.0%.There were 188 samples exceeded the benzoic acid limit of GB 2760-2011,the maximum value was 5.31 g/kg which was 4.3 times higher than the limit.In addition,the maximum value of sorbic acid was 2.35 g/kg,2.3 times higher than the limit.Olio had the highest residual level among 300 samples.The parabens were not detected in this investigation.Conclusion The content of benzoic acid was the highest

  16. Antifungal activity of triterpenoid isolated from Azima tetracantha leaves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present study was designed to evaluate the antifungal activity of Azima tetracantha extracts and isolated compound (friedelin) against fungi. Antifungal activity was carried out using broth micro dilution method and fractions were collected using (silica gel) column chromatography. The antifungal activity of Azima tetracantha crude extracts and isolated compound (friedelin) were evaluated using the micro dilution method. Hexane extract showed some antifungal activity. The compound also exhibited antifungal activity against tested fungi. The lowest MIC against Trichophyton rubrum (296) was 62.5 micro g/ml and the MIC for Curvularia lunata was 62.5 micro g/ml. These results suggest that Friedelin is a promising antifungal agent. (authors)

  17. [Identification and characterization of a Bacillus amyloliquefaciens with high antifungal activity].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quan, Chun-shan; Wang, Jun-hua; Xu, Hong-tao; Fan, Sheng-di

    2006-02-01

    Plant disease can cause serious crop losses, and chemical control of disease is costly both to the environment and to the farmer. Some microorganism can produce the substance which has the preventing and exterminating functions to plant pathogens. These substances are valid to plant pathogens with only lower concentration, in addition the substances do not remain in soil and crops without being decomposed. If composization is performed with the microorganism, or the microorganism is mixed into compost, the functional compost having preventing and exterminating action will be made out and that can be more useful to environmental preservation. In order to screen antifungal bacteria for use in biological control, 200 compost samples were taken from different regions in China, over 10 bacterium with clear antifungal activity were isolated from composts, among them, strain Q-12 exhibited the highest antifungal activity which was strongly inhibits the growth of many plant pathogenic fungi such as Fusarium oxysporum and Rhizoctonia solan. According to the characteristics of morphology, physiology and biochemistry tests (API 50 CHB/E system) and the comparison of 16S rDNA sequence, the strain Q-12 was similar to B. subtilis and B. amyloliquefaciens. Some specific genes yyaR, yyaO and tetB, which have previously been shown to be effective for resolving these closely related taxa of the B. subtilis group, were analysed to clarify further the classification of Q-12, and two pairs of primers YyaR _ F/TetB _ R and YyaO _ F/TetB _ R were designed. From the analysis of fingerprints obtained with the two primers, strain Q-12 and B. amyloliquefaciens showed identical genomic fingerprints with primers YyaR _ F/TetB R, indicating their closely genetic relationship, and was identified as B. amyloliquefaciens. In the investigation of the culture condition, growth was carried out in a basal medium and gradually supplemented with the various ingredients to be investigated. The major

  18. Food chemistry. 2. ed.

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This second edition of the textbook deals with all essential aspects of food chemistry. The revision improved in particular the chapters on food preservation, including irradiation of food, food additives, and pollutants and residues, including radionuclides. The chapter on the German legal regime for foodstuffs has been updated to cover the recent amendments of the law, and the information on processes applied in food technology has been largely enhanced. (VHE) With 153 figs., 78 tabs

  19. Antifungal drugs and resistance: Current concepts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pramod Kumar Nigam

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Recently, clinical failure and relapses have been observed in patients treated with antifungals. Drug resistance has become an important problem leading to significant negative social, psychological, and occupational health effects and quality of life. Early recognition and treatment is essential to reduce morbidity and possibility of transmission. The increased use, inappropriate prescribing and over the counter sale of antifungal agents has also added in the development of resistance to these drugs. The main biochemical and molecular mechanisms that contribute to antifungal resistance include reduced uptake of the drug, an active transport out of the cell or modified drug metabolic degradation of the cell, changes in the interaction of the drug to the target site or other enzymes involved in the process by point mutations, overexpression of the target molecule, overproduction or mutation of the target enzyme, amplification and gene conversion (recombination, and increased cellular efflux and occurrence of biofilm. Although, there is considerable knowledge concerning the biochemical, genetic and clinical aspects of resistance to antifungal agents, expansion of our understanding of the mechanisms by which antifungal resistance emerges and spreads, quicker methods for the determination of resistance, targetting efflux pumps, especially ATP binding cassette (ABC transporters and heat shock protein 90, new drug delivery systems, optimizing therapy according to pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic characteristics, new classes of antifungal drugs that are active against azole-resistant isolates, and use of combinations of antifungal drugs or use of adjunctive immunostimulatory therapy and other modalities of treatment will clearly be important for future treatment strategies and in preventing development of resistance.

  20. 21 CFR 146.154 - Concentrated orange juice with preservative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Concentrated orange juice with preservative. 146... Canned Fruit Juices and Beverages § 146.154 Concentrated orange juice with preservative. (a) Concentrated orange juice with preservative complies with the requirements for composition and labeling of...

  1. Novel, Synergistic Antifungal Combinations that Target Translation Fidelity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno-Martinez, Elena; Vallieres, Cindy; Holland, Sara L; Avery, Simon V

    2015-01-01

    There is an unmet need for new antifungal or fungicide treatments, as resistance to existing treatments grows. Combination treatments help to combat resistance. Here we develop a novel, effective target for combination antifungal therapy. Different aminoglycoside antibiotics combined with different sulphate-transport inhibitors produced strong, synergistic growth-inhibition of several fungi. Combinations decreased the respective MICs by ≥8-fold. Synergy was suppressed in yeast mutants resistant to effects of sulphate-mimetics (like chromate or molybdate) on sulphate transport. By different mechanisms, aminoglycosides and inhibition of sulphate transport cause errors in mRNA translation. The mistranslation rate was stimulated up to 10-fold when the agents were used in combination, consistent with this being the mode of synergistic action. A range of undesirable fungi were susceptible to synergistic inhibition by the combinations, including the human pathogens Candida albicans, C. glabrata and Cryptococcus neoformans, the food spoilage organism Zygosaccharomyces bailii and the phytopathogens Rhizoctonia solani and Zymoseptoria tritici. There was some specificity as certain fungi were unaffected. There was no synergy against bacterial or mammalian cells. The results indicate that translation fidelity is a promising new target for combinatorial treatment of undesirable fungi, the combinations requiring substantially decreased doses of active components compared to each agent alone. PMID:26573415

  2. Containers in food irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The preservation of food by irradiation is promising technology which increases industrial application. Packaging of irradiated foods is an integral part of the process. Judicious selection of the package material for successful trade is essential. In this paper is presented a brief review of important aspects of packaging in food irradiation

  3. Chemical Composition of Essential Oilsof Thymus and Mentha Speciesand Their Antifungal Activities

    OpenAIRE

    Van Griensven, Leo J. L. D.; Vlatka Vajs; Dejan D. Brkić; Petar D. Marin; Jelena Vukojević; Marina D. Soković

    2009-01-01

    The potential antifungal effects of Thymus vulgaris L., Thymus tosevii L., Mentha spicata L., and Mentha piperita L. (Labiatae) essential oils and their components against 17 micromycetal food poisoning, plant, animal and human pathogens are presented. The essential oils were obtained by hydrodestillation of dried plant material. Their composition was determined by GC-MS. Identification of individual constituents was made by comparison with analytical standards, and by computer matching mass ...

  4. Chemical composition of essential oils of Thymus and Mentha species and their antifungal activities.

    OpenAIRE

    Sokovic,, M.D.; Vukojevic,, J.; Marin, P.D.; Brkic, D.D.; Vajs, V.; Griensven, van, L.J.L.D.

    2009-01-01

    The potential antifungal effects of Thymus vulgaris L., Thymus tosevii L., Mentha spicata L., and Mentha piperita L. (Labiatae) essential oils and their components against 17 micromycetal food poisoning, plant, animal and human pathogens are presented. The essential oils were obtained by hydrodestillation of dried plant material. Their composition was determined by GC-MS. Identification of individual constituents was made by comparison with analytical standards, and by computer matching mass ...

  5. Antifungal activity, kinetics and molecular mechanism of action of garlic oil against Candida albicans

    OpenAIRE

    Wen-Ru Li; Qing-Shan Shi; Huan-Qin Dai; Qing Liang; Xiao-Bao Xie; Xiao-Mo Huang; Guang-Ze Zhao; Li-Xin Zhang

    2016-01-01

    The antifungal activity, kinetics, and molecular mechanism of action of garlic oil against Candida albicans were investigated in this study using multiple methods. Using the poisoned food technique, we determined that the minimum inhibitory concentration of garlic oil was 0.35 μg/mL. Observation by transmission electron microscopy indicated that garlic oil could penetrate the cellular membrane of C. albicans as well as the membranes of organelles such as the mitochondria, resulting in organel...

  6. Antiproliferative, Antibacterial and Antifungal Activity of the Lichen Xanthoria parietina and Its Secondary Metabolite Parietin

    OpenAIRE

    Adriana Basile; Daniela Rigano; Stefano Loppi; Annalisa Di Santi; Angela Nebbioso; Sergio Sorbo; Barbara Conte; Luca Paoli; Francesca De Ruberto; Anna Maria Molinari; Lucia Altucci; Paola Bontempo

    2015-01-01

    Lichens are valuable natural resources used for centuries throughout the world as medicine, food, fodder, perfume, spices and dyes, as well as for other miscellaneous purposes. This study investigates the antiproliferative, antibacterial and antifungal activity of the acetone extract of the lichen Xanthoria parietina (Linnaeus) Theodor Fries and its major secondary metabolite, parietin. The extract and parietin were tested for antimicrobial activity against nine American Type Culture Collecti...

  7. The impact of consumer demands and trends on food processing.

    OpenAIRE

    Zink, D L

    1997-01-01

    In the United States, consumer demand for new foods and changes in eating habits and food safety risks are affecting the food processing industry. The population is becoming older on average; moreover, consumers want fresh and minimally processed food without synthetic chemical preservatives. To address the need for safer food and compete for consumer acceptance, manufacturers are exploring new food processing and preservation methods.

  8. Antifungal activity of triterpenoid isolated from Azima tetracantha leaves.

    OpenAIRE

    Duraipandiyan, V; M Gnanasekar; S Ignacimuthu

    2010-01-01

    The present study was designed to evaluate the antifungal activity of Azima tetracantha extracts and isolated compound (friedelin) against fungi. Antifungal activity was carried out using broth microdilution method and fractions were collected using (silica gel) column chromatography. The antifungal activity of Azima tetracantha crude extracts and isolated compound (friedelin) were evaluated using the micro dilution method. Hexane extract showed some antifungal activity. The compound also exh...

  9. Catfish Preservation using Porphyra Yezoensis Composites Preservatives

    OpenAIRE

    Zhi-Gang Qian; Long-Fa Jiang; Li-Qiang Rui

    2013-01-01

    This study aims to preserve fresh catfish meat by using Porphyra Yezoensis extract, chitosan and lactic acid Nisin. The composite preservative obtained by sensory evaluation can effectively maintain the color, odor and texture of fresh catfish meat, as well as inhibit bacterial growth. Results show that treatment using a preservative solution (Porphyra Yezoensis extract 10%, Nisin 0.2% and chitosan 15%) extended the shelf life of the fresh catfish meat from 12 h to 24 h when stored at room te...

  10. 21 CFR 150.161 - Artificially sweetened fruit preserves and jams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Artificially sweetened fruit preserves and jams. 150.161 Section 150.161 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION FRUIT BUTTERS, JELLIES, PRESERVES, AND RELATED...

  11. Epidemiology and antifungal resistance in invasive candidiasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodloff AC

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The epidemiology of Candida infections has changed over the last two decades: The number of patients suffering from such infections has increased dramatically and the Candida species involved have become more numerous as Candida albicans is replaced as an infecting agent by various non-C. albicans species (NAC. At the same time, additional antifungal agents have become available. The different Candida species may vary in their susceptibility for these various antifungals. This draws more attention to in vitro susceptibility testing. Unfortunately, several different test methods exist that may deliver different results. Moreover, clinical breakpoints (CBP that classify test results into susceptible, intermediate and resistant are controver- sial between CLSI and EUCAST. Therefore, clinicians should be aware that interpretations may vary with the test system being followed by the microbiological laboratory. Thus, knowledge of actual MIC values and pharmacokinetic properties of individual antifungal agents is important in delivering appropriate therapy to patients

  12. Antifungal drug discovery: the process and outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calderone, Richard; Sun, Nuo; Gay-Andrieu, Francoise; Groutas, William; Weerawarna, Pathum; Prasad, Sridhar; Alex, Deepu; Li, Dongmei

    2014-01-01

    New data suggest that the global incidence of several types of fungal diseases have traditionally been under-documented. Of these, mortality caused by invasive fungal infections remains disturbingly high, equal to or exceeding deaths caused by drug-resistant tuberculosis and malaria. It is clear that basic research on new antifungal drugs, vaccines and diagnostic tools is needed. In this review, we focus upon antifungal drug discovery including in vitro assays, compound libraries and approaches to target identification. Genome mining has made it possible to identify fungal-specific targets; however, new compounds to these targets are apparently not in the antimicrobial pipeline. We suggest that 'repurposing' compounds (off patent) might be a more immediate starting point. Furthermore, we examine the dogma on antifungal discovery and suggest that a major thrust in technologies such as structural biology, homology modeling and virtual imaging is needed to drive discovery. PMID:25046525

  13. Design,Synthesis and Antifungal Activity of Novel Triazole Derivatives

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chun Quan SHENG; Wan Nian ZHANG; Hai Tao JI; Yun Long SONG; Min ZHANG; You Jun ZHOU; Jia Guo LU; Jü ZHU

    2004-01-01

    Twenty-one 1-(1H-1,2,4-triazolyl)-2-(2,4-diflurophenyl)-3-(4-substituted-1- piperazinyl)-2-propanol derivatives were designed and synthesized,on the basis of the active site of lanosterol 14(-demethylase.In vitro antifungal activities showed that some of the target compounds had higher antifungal activity and broader antifungal spectrum than fluconazole.

  14. Antifungal Activity of Lactobacillus sp. Bacteria in the Presence of Xylitol and Galactosyl-Xylitol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipińska, Lidia; Klewicki, Robert; Klewicka, Elżbieta; Kołodziejczyk, Krzysztof; Sójka, Michał; Nowak, Adriana

    2016-01-01

    Lactic acid fermentation is a natural method of antimicrobial food protection. Antagonistic activity of Lactobacillus sp. bacteria, taking part in this process, is directed mainly against the same or other microorganisms. In this work we determine the impact of the presence of xylitol and galactosyl-xylitol on the antagonistic activity of 60 Lactobacillus sp. strains against indicator molds (Alternaria alternata, Alternaria brassicicola, Aspergillus niger, Fusarium latenicum, Geotrichum candidum, and Mucor hiemalis) and yeasts (Candida vini). We used double-layer method to select antifungal strains of Lactobacillus bacteria and poisoned medium method to confirm their fungistatic properties. Additionally, we examined the inhibition of Alternaria brassicicola by Lactobacillus paracasei ŁOCK 0921 cultivated with xylitol or galactosyl-xylitol directly on wild cherries. The presence of xylitol and its galactosyl derivative led to increase of spectrum of antifungal activity in most of the studied plant-associated lactobacilli strains. However, no single strain exhibited activity against all the indicator microorganisms. The antifungal activity of Lactobacillus bacteria against molds varied considerably and depended on both the indicator strain and the composition of the medium. The presence of xylitol and galactosyl-xylitol in the growth medium is correlated with the antifungal activity of the studied Lactobacillus sp. bacteria against selected indicator molds. PMID:27294124

  15. Antifungal Activity of Lactobacillus sp. Bacteria in the Presence of Xylitol and Galactosyl-Xylitol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lidia Lipińska

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Lactic acid fermentation is a natural method of antimicrobial food protection. Antagonistic activity of Lactobacillus sp. bacteria, taking part in this process, is directed mainly against the same or other microorganisms. In this work we determine the impact of the presence of xylitol and galactosyl-xylitol on the antagonistic activity of 60 Lactobacillus sp. strains against indicator molds (Alternaria alternata, Alternaria brassicicola, Aspergillus niger, Fusarium latenicum, Geotrichum candidum, and Mucor hiemalis and yeasts (Candida vini. We used double-layer method to select antifungal strains of Lactobacillus bacteria and poisoned medium method to confirm their fungistatic properties. Additionally, we examined the inhibition of Alternaria brassicicola by Lactobacillus paracasei ŁOCK 0921 cultivated with xylitol or galactosyl-xylitol directly on wild cherries. The presence of xylitol and its galactosyl derivative led to increase of spectrum of antifungal activity in most of the studied plant-associated lactobacilli strains. However, no single strain exhibited activity against all the indicator microorganisms. The antifungal activity of Lactobacillus bacteria against molds varied considerably and depended on both the indicator strain and the composition of the medium. The presence of xylitol and galactosyl-xylitol in the growth medium is correlated with the antifungal activity of the studied Lactobacillus sp. bacteria against selected indicator molds.

  16. Antifungal Activity of Lactobacillus sp. Bacteria in the Presence of Xylitol and Galactosyl-Xylitol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipińska, Lidia; Klewicki, Robert; Klewicka, Elżbieta; Kołodziejczyk, Krzysztof; Sójka, Michał; Nowak, Adriana

    2016-01-01

    Lactic acid fermentation is a natural method of antimicrobial food protection. Antagonistic activity of Lactobacillus sp. bacteria, taking part in this process, is directed mainly against the same or other microorganisms. In this work we determine the impact of the presence of xylitol and galactosyl-xylitol on the antagonistic activity of 60 Lactobacillus sp. strains against indicator molds (Alternaria alternata, Alternaria brassicicola, Aspergillus niger, Fusarium latenicum, Geotrichum candidum, and Mucor hiemalis) and yeasts (Candida vini). We used double-layer method to select antifungal strains of Lactobacillus bacteria and poisoned medium method to confirm their fungistatic properties. Additionally, we examined the inhibition of Alternaria brassicicola by Lactobacillus paracasei ŁOCK 0921 cultivated with xylitol or galactosyl-xylitol directly on wild cherries. The presence of xylitol and its galactosyl derivative led to increase of spectrum of antifungal activity in most of the studied plant-associated lactobacilli strains. However, no single strain exhibited activity against all the indicator microorganisms. The antifungal activity of Lactobacillus bacteria against molds varied considerably and depended on both the indicator strain and the composition of the medium. The presence of xylitol and galactosyl-xylitol in the growth medium is correlated with the antifungal activity of the studied Lactobacillus sp. bacteria against selected indicator molds. PMID:27294124

  17. Identification of Antifungal Substances of Lactobacillus sakei subsp. ALI033 and Antifungal Activity against Penicillium brevicompactum Strain FI02

    OpenAIRE

    Huh, Chang Ki; Hwang, Tae Yean

    2016-01-01

    This study was performed to investigate the antifungal substances and the antifungal activity against fungi of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) isolated from kimchi. LAB from kimchi in Imsil showed antifungal activity against Penicillium brevicompactum strain FI02. LAB LI031 was identified as Lactobacillus sakei subsp. Antifungal substances contained in L. sakei subsp. ALI033 culture media were unstable at high pH levels. Both, the control and proteinase K and protease treated samples showed clear ...

  18. Screening antifungal activities of selected medicinal plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quiroga, E N; Sampietro, A R; Vattuone, M A

    2001-01-01

    Plants synthesise a vast array of secondary metabolites that are gaining importance for their biotechnological applications. The antifungal activity of the ethanolic extracts of ten Argentinean plants used in native medicine is reported. Antifungal assays included radial growth inhibition, disk and well diffusion assays and growth inhibition by broth dilution tests. The chosen test fungi were yeasts, microfungi and wood-rot causing Basidiomycetes. Extracts of Larrea divaricata, Zuccagnia punctata and Larrea cuneifolia displayed remarkable activity in the assays against the majority of the test fungi. In addition to the former plants, Prosopanche americana also inhibited yeast growth. PMID:11137353

  19. Properties of Mint as a Food Preservative

    OpenAIRE

    Penko, Rok

    2011-01-01

    This study was designed to evaluate antimicrobial and antioxidant activities of the mint extracts from Mentha piperita L. and Mentha aquatica L. In vitro antibacterial activity against two foodborne bacteria (Listeria monocytogenes, Staphylococcus aureus) was evaluated by the well diffusion method. The activity was assessed by the diameter of the inhibition zone. Four of the five extracts from Mentha piperita were active against S. aureus, but none of the extracts was active against L. monocy...

  20. Utilization of irradiation on food preservation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dried marine products showed some higher microbial contaminations than dried agricultural products and the load of microorganisms was different depending on the kind of samples. In comparative effects of radiation and ethylene oxide (E.O) fumigation, total aerobic and acid tolerant bacteria were reduced by 2 to 3 log orders by gamma irradiation at 3 to 5 KGy. The sterilizing doses for coliforms, fungi and total bacterial count were shown to be 5 KGy, 5 to 7 KGy, and 7 tp 10 KGy, respectively. D values of total bacterial count in dried agricultural and marine products ranged from 0.80 to 3.99 KGy. In the meantime, E.O. treatment proved insufficient to reduce the microbial load of highly contaminated samples below the 10 per gram of the international hygienic standard, especially in total aerobic bacteria, thermophiles and gun fungi. An optimum dose of irradiation had little detrimental effect on the chemical components of the sample, but E.O. treatment brought about a significant reduction especially in amino acid and ascorbic acid contents. The values of thiobarbituric acid(TBA), PH and trimethyleamine(TMA), as quality parameters, were more stable during the storage period in the irradiated groups than the control and E.O. treatment caused changes in color, leading to deterioration of overall appearance of the samples. Sensory evaluation after three months of storage at room temperatures indicated that the irradiated samples with doses of 5 to 10 KGy were more acceptable in the overall flavor and appearance of each product than the nontreated control group as well as the E.O. fumigated samples

  1. Radiation preservation of fishery products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The U.S. Food and Drug Administration is in the process of considering radiation technology as a safe process for treatment of any food at doses less than 1.0kGy, while higher doses of up to 35kGy are allowed for treatment of a wide variety of dried spices. However, radiation preservation of fresh fish and dozen/packaged fish products requires selections of doses ranging from 1.0kGy up to 10kGy to achieve the intended effect. The treatment needs to be accompanied by good handling and manufacturing practices. Studies have showed that irradiated food is wholesome while the process itself possesses economic and health benefits. (author)

  2. Glycolipid biosurfactants: main properties and potential applications in agriculture and food industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mnif, Inès; Ghribi, Dhouha

    2016-10-01

    Glycolipids, consisting of a carbohydrate moiety linked to fatty acids, are microbial surface active compounds produced by various microorganisms. They are characterized by high structural diversity and have the ability to decrease the surface and interfacial tension at the surface and interface, respectively. Rhamnolipids, trehalolipids, mannosylerythritol lipids and cellobiose lipids are among the most popular glycolipids. They have received much practical attention as biopesticides for controlling plant diseases and protecting stored products. As a result of their antifungal activity towards phytopathogenic fungi and larvicidal and mosquitocidal potencies, glycolipid biosurfactants permit the preservation of plants and plant crops from pest invasion. Also, as a result of their emulsifying and antibacterial activities, glycolipids have great potential as food additives and food preservatives. Furthermore, the valorization of food byproducts via the production of glycolipid biosurfactant has received much attention because it permits the bioconversion of byproducts on valuable compounds and decreases the cost of production. Generally, the use of glycolipids in many fields requires their retention from fermentation media. Accordingly, different strategies have been developed to extract and purify glycolipids. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. PMID:27098847

  3. Food irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A worldwide standard on food irradiation was adopted in 1983 by codex Alimentarius Commission of the Joint Food Standard Programme of the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) of the United Nations and The World Health Organization (WHO). As a result, 41 countries have approved the use of irradiation for treating one or more food items and the number is increasing. Generally, irradiation is used to: food loses, food spoilage, disinfestation, safety and hygiene. The number of countries which use irradiation for processing food for commercial purposes has been increasing steadily from 19 in 1987 to 33 today. In the frames of the national programme on the application of irradiation for food preservation and hygienization an experimental plant for electron beam processing has been established in Inst. of Nuclear Chemistry and Technology. The plant is equipped with a small research accelerator Pilot (19 MeV, 1 kW) and industrial unit Electronika (10 MeV, 10 kW). On the basis of the research there were performed at different scientific institutions in Poland, health authorities have issued permissions for irradiation for; spices, garlic, onions, mushrooms, potatoes, dry mushrooms and vegetables. (author)

  4. Synthesis, Antifungal Activities and Qualitative Structure Activity Relationship of Carabrone Hydrazone Derivatives as Potential Antifungal Agents

    OpenAIRE

    Hao Wang; Shuang-Xi Ren; Ze-Yu He; De-Long Wang; Xiao-Nan Yan; Jun-Tao Feng; Xing Zhang

    2014-01-01

    Aimed at developing novel fungicides for relieving the ever-increasing pressure of agricultural production caused by phytopathogenic fungi, 28 new hydrazone derivatives of carabrone, a natural bioactive sesquisterpene, in three types were designed, synthesized and their antifungal activities against Botrytis cinerea and Colletotrichum lagenarium were evaluated. The result revealed that all the derivatives synthesized exhibited considerable antifungal activities in vitro and in vivo, which l...

  5. Impact of New Antifungal Breakpoints on Antifungal Resistance in Candida Species

    OpenAIRE

    Fothergill, Annette W.; Sutton, Deanna A.; McCarthy, Dora I.; Wiederhold, Nathan P.

    2014-01-01

    We reviewed our antifungal susceptibility data for micafungin, anidulafungin, fluconazole, and voriconazole against Candida species and compared resistance rates determined by the previous and recently revised CLSI antifungal breakpoints. With the new breakpoints, resistance was significantly increased for micafungin (from 0.8% to 7.6%), anidulafungin (from 0.9% to 7.3%), and voriconazole (from 6.1% to 18.4%) against Candida glabrata. Resistance was also increased for fluconazole against Cand...

  6. Food irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The first part of this data is relative to the study of chemical modifications induced by gamma radiations (60Co, 137Cs) on macromolecules of food and their contaminates with the help of two examples: starch and nucleic acids. Then the second part shows what are the consequences of irradiation on food and their preservation; we make distinction between useful effects (for instance germination inhibition of tubercules, destruction of insects or micro-organisms) and the results which are contingently bad for nutritional, technological and above all toxicologic aspects. The last part is relative to a short restatement of the problems inherent in the industrialization of this treatment

  7. Antifungal prophylaxis during neutropenia and immunodeficiency.

    OpenAIRE

    Lortholary, O; Dupont, B

    1997-01-01

    Fungal infections represent a major source of morbidity and mortality in patients with almost all types of immunodeficiencies. These infections may be nosocomial (aspergillosis) or community acquired (cryptococcosis), or both (candidiasis). Endemic mycoses such as histoplasmosis, coccidioidomycosis, and penicilliosis may infect many immunocompromised hosts in some geographic areas and thereby create major public health problems. With the wide availability of oral azoles, antifungal prophylact...

  8. Mystery unraveled about antifungal drug targets

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    @@ A long-standing mystery about the functional roles of the N-terminal region of protein N-myristoyltransferase, an ideal target for antifungal drugs, was recently decoded, thanks to the threeyear joint efforts of researchers from the CAS Key Laboratory of Molecular Biology and their US colleagues at the DuPont Stine Haskell Research Center.

  9. Studies of antifungal activity of forsskalea tenacissima

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Antifungal activity of different extracts from Forsskalea tenacissima prepared by solvent-solvent extraction and vacuum liquid chromatography (VLC) was determined. Extracts were found to be active against Candida albicans, Trichophyton mentagrophyte, Allescheria boydii, Microsporum canis, Aspergillus niger, Drechslera rostrata, Nigrospora oryzae, Stachybotrys atra, Curvularia lunata, Trichophyton semii and Trichophyton schoenleinii. (author)

  10. Antifungal activity of ajoene derived from garlic.

    OpenAIRE

    Yoshida, S.(Department of Physics, Chiba University, 263-8522, Chiba, Japan); Kasuga, S; Hayashi, N; Ushiroguchi, T; Matsuura, H.; Nakagawa, S

    1987-01-01

    The antifungal activity of six fractions derived from garlic was investigated in an in vitro system. Ajoene had the strongest activity in these fractions. The growth of both Aspergillus niger and Candida albicans was inhibited by ajoene at less than 20 micrograms/ml.

  11. Application of irradiated chitosan for fruit preservation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Application of irradiated chitosan has been investigated for coating of fruit preservation. Anti-fungal activity of chitosan was induced by γ-ray irradiation in dry condition at 25 kGy. The irradiated chitosan can suppress the growth of Aspergillus. spp. and Fusarium. spp. isolated from Vietnam mango. Fusarium. spp. was sensitive for irradiated chitosan than the other strains. The coating from irradiated chitosan solution at dose 31 kGy has prolonged the storage life of mango from 7 to 15 days. At the 15th day mango keeps good colour, natural ripening, without spoilage, weight loss 10%, whereas the control is spoiled completely and the sample of fruit with unirradiated chitosan coating could not ripe. The effect is due to the anti-fungal activity and change in physico-chemical properties of chitosan by irradiation. Radiation causes the decrease in viscosity affecting the gas permeability of coating film. The irradiated chitosan coating has positive effect on mango that is susceptible to chilling injury at low storage temperature. (author)

  12. PHYTOCHEMICAL SCREENING AND IN-VITRO ANTIFUNGAL INVESTIGATION OF PARTHENIUM HYSTEROPHORUS EXTRACTS AGAINST ALTERNARIA ALTERNATA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Singh Padma

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The extensive use of fungicides are polluting the environment and giving rise to undesirable biological effects on animal and human beings. Therefore use of plant extracts as biological control agents is being popularized in recent years. Alternaria alternata is reported for causing foliage disease in several important vegetables and crops. In an approach towards the development of eco friendly antifungal compound for controlling plant diseases caused by Alternaria alternata different extracts of Parthenium hysterophorus were tested for their antifungal potential. Parthenium hysterophorus is considered as an obnoxious weed, growing on waste land. The four different solvent extracts viz., aqueous, methanol, acetone and ethanol extracts of leaves of Parthenium hysterophorus was evaluated from antifungal potential against four different isolates of Alternaria alternata isolated from potato (Solanum tuberosum, onion (Allium cepa, tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum and mustard (Brassica compestris by food poison technique. The ethanolic extract showed complete inhibition against the four isolates i.e. 100 % followed by acetone and methanol extracts which was approximately 96 % and 76 % respectively, while aqueous extract do not showed any antifungal activity. Thus the result showed that the ethanolic extract was the best extract to be used. The phytochemical analysis revealed the presence of alkaloid, glycoside, steroid, saponin in varying concentration in different extracts which might be the cause of antifungal potential. The present study supports the use of leaf extract of Parthenium hysterophorus as biofungicides for the disease caused by Alternaria alternata. This will help to save the environment from chemical hazards as most of the synthetic fungicide constitute mercury, zinc etc which are toxic for nature.

  13. ADDITIVES USED TO OBTAIN FOOD

    OpenAIRE

    Dorina Ardelean; Daniela Popa

    2012-01-01

    Use of food additives in food is determined by the growth of contemporary food needs of the world population. Additives used in food, both natural and artificial ones, contribute to: improving the organoleptic characteristics and to preserve the food longer, but we must not forget that all these additives should not be found naturally in food products. Some of these additives are not harmful and human pests in small quantities, but others may have harmful effects on health.

  14. ADDITIVES USED TO OBTAIN FOOD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorina Ardelean

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Use of food additives in food is determined by the growth of contemporary food needs of the world population. Additives used in food, both natural and artificial ones, contribute to: improving the organoleptic characteristics and to preserve the food longer, but we must not forget that all these additives should not be found naturally in food products. Some of these additives are not harmful and human pests in small quantities, but others may have harmful effects on health.

  15. 食品级非离子表面活性剂微乳的制备及抗菌性研究%Study on the Preparation and Self-preserving Property of Food-grade Nonionic surfactant Microemulsions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵家亮; 李春; 刘宁; 侯莹

    2011-01-01

    制备一种稳定的食品和药剂包埋载体—食品级非离子表面活性剂空白微乳,并评价其抗菌性。通过滴定法绘制伪三元相图来筛选形成微乳的组分及条件,以高速离心法和37℃恒温1个月考察微乳稳定性,利用透射电镜和粒径分析仪研究微乳粒子的形态和粒径分布,并分析其抗菌能力。以丁酸乙酯为油相、聚氧乙烯醚蓖麻油酯EL-35为表面活性剂、正丁醇为助表面活性剂、Km(表面活性剂与助表面活性剂的质量比)为3时微乳区最大,可无限稀释,平均粒径约17 nm。丁酸乙酯、聚氧乙烯蓖麻油EL-35、正丁醇和水复合液(1︰21︰7︰274)对金黄色葡萄球菌、大肠杆菌、沙门氏菌作用150 min后,能将其全部杀灭。该微乳性状稳定、毒性低、抗菌性强,适合作为食品、药剂等的载体。%To prepare a kind of stable food and pharmaceutical embedding carrier that is a food-grade non-ionic surfactant microemulsion,then evaluate its self-preserving property.Pseudo ternary phase diagrams were prepared by using the method of titration,then the components and conditions of the formation of microemulsion were filtered.The physical stability of the microemulsion was assessed by centrifugation and by storage at 37 ℃ for one month.Microemulsion particle shape and size distribution were examined by TEM and particle size analyzer.The antimicrobial activity of the microemulsion was tested using USP method for the examination of antimicrobial effectiveness in pharmaceutical preparations.The extent of the region of the microemulsion was larger,the system can be diluted infinitly and average size was about 17 nm when ethyl butyrate was used as the oil phase,polyoxyethylene castor oil esters EL-35 as surfactant,butanol as cosurfactant.The microemulsion composed of ethyl butyrate,polyoxyethylene castor oil esters EL-35,butanol and water in accordance with the rate of 12︰21︰7︰274 can kill Staphylococcus

  16. Identification and characterization of antifungal active substances of Streptomyces hygroscopicus BS-112.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Nan; Song, Zhen; Xie, Yuhua; Cui, Ping; Jiang, Hongxia; Yang, Tao; Ju, Ruicheng; Zhao, Yuhua; Li, Jinyu; Liu, Xunli

    2013-08-01

    An antifungal Actinomyces BS-112 strain, with Aspergillus flavus as the target pathogen, was isolated from soil in the forest land of Mountain Tai. This strain showed a strong antagonistic activity against various mold fungi in food and feed. Strain BS-112 was identified as Streptomyces hygroscopicus based on its morphologic, cultural, physiological, biochemical characteristics, cell wall components and 16S rDNA sequence. Four active components were separated and purified from strain BS-112. These four antifungal components were identified as tetrins A and B and tetramycins A and B using spectroscopic analysis including mass spectrometry and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Tetrins A and B and tetramycins A and B strongly inhibited the growth of A. flavus, A. alutaceus, A. niger, and A. fumigatus in vitro. PMID:23468248

  17. Antifungal activity of lactobacilli and its relationship with 3-phenyllactic acid production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cortés-Zavaleta, O; López-Malo, A; Hernández-Mendoza, A; García, H S

    2014-03-01

    In this study, 13 lactic acid bacteria (LAB) strains (including 5 Lactobacillus casei, 2 Lactobacillus rhamnosus, 2 Lactobacillus fermentum, 1 Lactobacillus acidophilus, 1 Lactobacillus plantarum, 1 Lactobacillus sakei, and 1 Lactobacillus reuteri species) were assessed for both their antifungal activity against four food spoilage molds (Colletotrichum gloeosporioides, Botrytis cinerea, Penicillium expansum, and Aspergillus flavus) and their capability to produce the novel antimicrobial compound 3-phenyllactic acid (PLA). Results demonstrated that all molds were sensitive to varying degrees to the cell-free supernatants (CFS) from LAB fermentations (pPLA ranging from 0.021 to 0.275 mM. The high minimum inhibitory concentration for commercial PLA (3.01-36.10mM) suggests that it cannot be considered the only compound related with the antifungal potential of studied LAB and that synergistic effects may exist among other metabolism products. PMID:24412414

  18. Chemical Composition and Antifungal Activity of Ocimum basilicum L. Essential Oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neveen Helmy Abou El-Soud

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The leaves of Ocimum basilicum L. (basil are used in traditional cuisine as spices; its essential oil has found a wide application in perfumery, dental products as well as antifungal agents. AIM: To assess the chemical composition as well as the in vitro antifungal activity of O. basilicum L. essential oil against Aspergillus flavus fungal growth and aflatoxin B1 production. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The essential oil of O. basilicum was obtained by hydrodistillation and analysed using gas chromatography (GC and GC coupled with mass spectrometry (GC/MS. The essential oil was tested for its effects on Aspergillus flavus (A. flavus mycelial growth and aflatoxin B1 production in Yeast Extract Sucrose (YES growth media. Aflatoxin B1 production was determined by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC. RESULTS: Nineteen compounds, representing 96.7% of the total oil were identified. The main components were as follows: linalool (48.4%, 1,8-cineol (12.2%, eugenol (6.6%, methyl cinnamate (6.2%, α-cubebene (5.7%, caryophyllene (2.5%, β-ocimene (2.1% and α-farnesene (2.0%.The tested oil showed significant antifungal activity that was dependent on the used oil concentration. The complete inhibition of A. flavus growth was observed at 1000 ppm oil concentration, while marked inhibition of aflatoxin B1 production was observed at all oil concentrations tested (500, 750 and 1000 ppm. CONCLUSION: These results confirm the antifungal activities of O. basilicum L. oil and its potential use to cure mycotic infections and act as pharmaceutical preservative against A. flavus growth and aflatoxin B1 production.

  19. Food irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Food treatment by means of ionizing energy, or irradiation, is an innovative method for its preservation. In order to treat important volumes of food, it is necessary to have industrial irradiation installations. The effect of radiations on food is analyzed in the present special work and a calculus scheme for an Irradiation Plant is proposed, discussing different aspects related to its project and design: ionizing radiation sources, adequate civil work, security and auxiliary systems to the installations, dosimetric methods and financing evaluation methods of the project. Finally, the conceptual design and calculus of an irradiation industrial plant of tubercles is made, based on the actual needs of a specific agricultural zone of our country. (Author)

  20. From antidiabetic to antifungal: discovery of highly potent triazole-thiazolidinedione hybrids as novel antifungal agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Shanchao; Zhang, Yongqiang; He, Xiaomeng; Che, Xiaoying; Wang, Shengzheng; Liu, Yang; Jiang, Yan; Liu, Na; Dong, Guoqiang; Yao, Jianzhong; Miao, Zhenyuan; Wang, Yan; Zhang, Wannian; Sheng, Chunquan

    2014-12-01

    In an attempt to discover a new generation of triazole antifungal agents, a series of triazole-thiazolidinedione hybrids were designed and synthesized by molecular hybridization of the antifungal agent fluconazole and rosiglitazone (an antidiabetic). Most of the target compounds showed good to excellent inhibitory activity against a variety of clinically important fungal pathogens. In particular, compounds (Z)-5-(2,4-dichlorobenzylidene)-3-(2-(2,4-difluorophenyl)-2-hydroxy-3-(1H-1,2,4-triazol-1-yl)propyl)thiazolidine-2,4-dione) (15 c), (Z)-3-(2-(2,4-difluorophenyl)-2-hydroxy-3-(1H-1,2,4-triazol-1-yl)propyl)-5-(furan-3-ylmethylene)thiazolidine-2,4-dione (15 j), and (Z)-3-(2-(2,4-difluorophenyl)-2-hydroxy-3-(1H-1,2,4-triazol-1-yl)propyl)-5-(furan-3-ylmethylene)thiazolidine-2,4-dione (15 r) were highly active against Candida albicans, with MIC80 values in the range of 0.03-0.15 μM. Moreover, compounds 15 j and 15 r were found to be effective against four fluconazole-resistant clinical isolates; these two compounds are particularly promising antifungal leads for further optimization. Molecular docking studies revealed that the hydrogen bonding interactions between thiazolidinedione and CYP51 from C. albicans are important for antifungal activity. This study also demonstrates the effectiveness of molecular hybridization in antifungal drug discovery. PMID:25196996

  1. Antifungal and antibacterial activities of Petroselinum crispum essential oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linde, G A; Gazim, Z C; Cardoso, B K; Jorge, L F; Tešević, V; Glamoćlija, J; Soković, M; Colauto, N B

    2016-01-01

    Parsley [Petroselinum crispum (Mill.) Fuss] is regarded as an aromatic, culinary, and medicinal plant and is used in the cosmetic, food, and pharmaceutical industries. However, few studies with conflicting results have been conducted on the antimicrobial activity of parsley essential oil. In addition, there have been no reports of essential oil obtained from parsley aerial parts, except seeds, as an alternative natural antimicrobial agent. Also, microorganism resistance is still a challenge for health and food production. Based on the demand for natural products to control microorganisms, and the re-evaluation of potential medicinal plants for controlling diseases, the objective of this study was to determine the chemical composition and antibacterial and antifungal activities of parsley essential oil against foodborne diseases and opportunistic pathogens. Seven bacteria and eight fungi were tested. The essential oil major compounds were apiol, myristicin, and b-phellandrene. Parsley essential oil had bacteriostatic activity against all tested bacteria, mainly Staphylococcus aureus, Listeria monocytogenes, and Salmonella enterica, at similar or lower concentrations than at least one of the controls, and bactericidal activity against all tested bacteria, mainly S. aureus, at similar or lower concentrations than at least one of the controls. This essential oil also had fungistatic activity against all tested fungi, mainly, Penicillium ochrochloron and Trichoderma viride, at lower concentrations than the ketoconazole control and fungicidal activity against all tested fungi at higher concentrations than the controls. Parsley is used in cooking and medicine, and its essential oil is an effective antimicrobial agent. PMID:27525894

  2. ANTIFUNGAL ACTIVITIES OF CUNNINGHAMIA LANCEOLATA HEARTWOOD EXTRACTIVES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Wang

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Three extractives from China-fir were obtained by a sequential extraction processes with hexane, ethyl acetate, and methanol. The components of the three extractives were analyzed: (1 The gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS analysis showed that in addition to the presence of cedrol, naphthalenes comprised a relatively large percentage of both the hexane extract (10.39% and the ethyl acetate extract (9.43%. (2 Total phenolic contents analysis showed that phenols took up 6.66 % of the ethyl acetate extract and 22.8% of the methanol extract. All extracts, even with low concentrations, presented fair antifungal activities against two white-rot fungi, Trametes versicolor and Irpex lacteus and two brown-rot fungi, Postia placenta and Gloeophyllum trabeum. Cedrol and naphthalenes were partly responsible for the bioactivities. The synergistic effect of phenols and antifungal compounds also contributed to the wood decay resistance.

  3. Tolerability and safety of antifungal drugs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Scaglione

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available When treating critically ill patients, as those with fungal infections, attention should be focused on the appropriate use of drugs, especially in terms of dose, safety, and tolerability. The fungal infection itself and the concomitant physiological disorders concur to increase the risk of mortality in these patients, therefore the use of any antifungal agent should be carefully evaluated, considering both the direct action on the target fungus and the adverse effects eventually caused. Among antifungal drugs, echinocandins have the greatest tolerability. In fact, unlike amphotericin B, showing nephrotoxicity, and azoles, which are hepatotoxic, the use of echinocandins doesn’t result in major adverse events.http://dx.doi.org/10.7175/rhc.v4i2s.873

  4. Antifungal activity of 10 Guadeloupean plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biabiany, Murielle; Roumy, Vincent; Hennebelle, Thierry; François, Nadine; Sendid, Boualem; Pottier, Muriel; Aliouat, El Moukhtar; Rouaud, Isabelle; Lohézic-Le Dévéhat, Françoise; Joseph, Henry; Bourgeois, Paul; Sahpaz, Sevser; Bailleul, François

    2013-11-01

    Screening of the antifungal activities of ten Guadeloupean plants was undertaken to find new extracts and formulations against superficial mycoses such as onychomycosis, athlete's foot, Pityriasis versicolor, as well as the deep fungal infection Pneumocystis pneumonia. For the first time, the CMI of these plant extracts [cyclohexane, ethanol and ethanol/water (1:1, v/v)] was determined against five dermatophytes, five Candida species, Scytalidium dimidiatum, a Malassezia sp. strain and Pneumocystis carinii. Cytotoxicity tests of the most active extracts were also performed on an HaCat keratinocyte cell line. Results suggest that the extracts of Bursera simaruba, Cedrela odorata, Enterolobium cyclocarpum and Pluchea carolinensis have interesting activities and could be good candidates for developing antifungal formulations. PMID:23280633

  5. Agriculture and food processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This chapter discuss the application of nuclear technology in agriculture sector. Nuclear Technology has help agriculture and food processing to develop tremendously. Two techniques widely use in both clusters are ionization radiation and radioisotopes. Among techniques for ionizing radiation are plant mutation breeding, SIT and food preservation. Meanwhile radioisotopes use as a tracer for animal research, plant soil relations water sedimentology

  6. Penetration of Candida Biofilms by Antifungal Agents

    OpenAIRE

    Al-Fattani, Mohammed A.; Douglas, L. Julia

    2004-01-01

    A filter disk assay was used to investigate the penetration of antifungal agents through biofilms containing single and mixed-species biofilms containing Candida. Fluconazole permeated all single-species Candida biofilms more rapidly than flucytosine. The rates of diffusion of either drug through biofilms of three strains of Candida albicans were similar. However, the rates of drug diffusion through biofilms of C. glabrata or C. krusei were faster than those through biofilms of C. parapsilosi...

  7. Early State Research on Antifungal Natural Products

    OpenAIRE

    Melyssa Negri; Tânia P. Salci; Cristiane S. Shinobu-Mesquita; Isis R. G. Capoci; Terezinha I. E. Svidzinski; Erika Seki Kioshima

    2014-01-01

    Nosocomial infections caused by fungi have increased greatly in recent years, mainly due to the rising number of immunocompromised patients. However, the available antifungal therapeutic arsenal is limited, and the development of new drugs has been slow. Therefore, the search for alternative drugs with low resistance rates and fewer side effects remains a major challenge. Plants produce a variety of medicinal components that can inhibit pathogen growth. Studies of plant species have been cond...

  8. Screening of Embelia ribes for Antifungal Activity

    OpenAIRE

    Maulik Suthar; Rakesh Patel; Kalindi Hapani; Avani Patel

    2009-01-01

    The fruits of Embelia ribes reported to contain mainly benzoquinone derivatives such as Embelin (2, 5-dihydroxy-3-undecyl-2, 5-cyclohexadiene-1, 4-benzoquinone). Chemical structure of Embelin is having quite resemblance with the structure of natural Coenzyme Q10 (ubiquinones) and the role of this is well defined in various biochemical protective mechanism. Aim of the present study was to evaluate the antifungal activity of Embelia ribes (Myrsinaceae) plant extracts using standard in vitro an...

  9. Antifungal Activity of Soil Chitinolytic Bacilli

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eiri, AJ. (MSc

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objective: Chitin, which is a linear polymer of N-acetyl glucosamine residues, has been the most abundant polymer in nature after cellulose. In recent decades, Chitinases have received increased attention because of their wide range of applications, especially in biological control against fungi. Material and Methods: the isolation of bacilli producing chitinolytic enzymes was performed by collecting 40 soil samples from various regions of Gorgan, northern of Iran. The chitinolytic potential of the isolates was indicated by observation of clear zone in colloidal chitin agar medium. Identification of selected strains was performed by polyphasic taxonomy, and subtler identification and sequensing were carried out by extraction DNA. Antifungal effect was evaluated by well method against Candida albicans (ATCC 10231 Aspergillus niger (ATCC 2029،Aspergillu sflavus (IR6 Fusarium oxyporum (PTCC 5115 and Alternaria alternata (PTCC 5224. Results: Nine colonies of chitinase positive bacillus were isolated on choloidal Chitin Agar (CCA and five of them had antifungal effect. R6 strain had the highest, and R2 and R3 had the lowest effect on fungi. The 16S rRNA sequence of these isolations in comparison with the known bacteria has 95-97% similarity. Conclusion: Some of the soil bacteria can have antagonestic effects on human and phytopathogenic agents existed in soil. Keywords: Bacillus; Chitinase; Soil; Antifungal

  10. Antifungal ellagitannin isolated from Euphorbia antisyphilitica Zucc

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Juan; Ascacio-Valdés; Edgardo; Burboa; Antonio; F; Aguilera-Carbo; Mario; Aparicio; Ramón; Pérez-Schmidt; Raúl; Rodríguez; Cristóbal; N; Aguilar

    2013-01-01

    Objective:To study antifungal activity of a new ellagitannin isolated from the plant residues of Euphorbia antisyphilitica(E.antisyphilitica)Zucc in the wax extraction process.Methods:An extract was prepared from dehydrated and pulverized residues and fractionated by liquid chromatography on Amberilte XAD-16,until obtained an ellagitannin-rich ethanolic fraction which was treated by rotaevaporation to recover the ellagitannin as fine powder.An aqueous solution was prepared and treated through ionic exchange liquid chromatography(Q XL)and gel permeation chromatography(G 25).The ellagitannin-rich fraction was thermogravimetrically evaluated(TGA and DTA)to test the thermo-stability of ellagic acid(monomeric unit).Then ellagitannin powder was analyzed by infrared spectrospcopy to determinate the functional groups and.also mass spectroscopy was used to determine the molecular ion.Results:The principal functional groups of ellagitannin were determined,the molecular weight was 860.7 g/mol;and an effective antifungal activity against phytopathogenic fungi was demonstrated.Conclusions:It can be concluded that the new ellagitannin(860.7 g/mol)isolated from E.antisyphilitica Zucc is an effective antifungal agent against Alternaria alternata,Fusarium oxyzporum,Colletotrichum gloeosporoides and Rhizoctnia solani.

  11. [New antifungal agents: voriconazole and caspofungin].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dupont, B

    2003-12-01

    Among new available antifungal agents voriconazole is a new triazole with an intravenous (i.v.) and oral formulation, and caspofungin is an echinocandin, new family with a new mode of action on the cell wall. It is available as an i.v. preparation. Both drugs have a broad spectrum targeting most of the usual pathogens: Candida and Aspergillus, even with low suceptibility or resistance to other antifungals. Voriconazole is also active on Scedosporium and Fusarium. The efficacy of these molecules was established in vitro and in experimental infections in animals either normal or immunosuppressed. Voriconazole is active in oropharyngeal and esophageal candidiasis, in refractory invasive candidiasis and as a first line treatment of invasive aspergillosis with better results than amphotéricine B. It was also effective in scedosporiosis and in fusariosis. Caspofungin is active in oropharyngeal and esophageal candidiasis, in invasive candidiasis ranking among the best drugs in non neutropenic patients. It was shown effective in refractory aspergillosis. As empirical treatment of febrile neutropenic patients, these molecules should probably be restricted to the highest risk-population. Safety is good, side effects are a rare cause of discontinuation of treatment, class specific drug-drug interactions occur with voriconazole. These molecules open an important field of investigations with combination of antifungal agents. PMID:15022787

  12. Antifungal serum concentration monitoring: an update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodwin, Megan L; Drew, Richard H

    2008-01-01

    Invasive fungal infections (IFIs) are occurring with increasing incidence and are associated with significant morbidity and mortality. Understanding the relationship between the pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic properties of antifungals is essential to optimize the potential for favourable clinical and microbiological outcomes while minimizing risks of treatment-related toxicity. Antifungal serum concentrations may aid in the determination of appropriate dosing in select circumstances. The polyene and echinocandin classes of antifungals lack sufficient data to justify serum concentration monitoring in routine clinical practice. In contrast, serum concentration monitoring of flucytosine may help to reduce the risk of treatment-related haematological toxicity. Determination of itraconazole serum concentrations is advised in situations where the drug is used for prolonged periods to treat serious IFIs (such as invasive aspergillosis or histoplasmosis) because of variability in absorption following oral administration (most notable for the capsule formulation). The use of serum concentration monitoring during therapy with the extended-spectrum triazoles (i.e. voriconazole and posaconazole) is still evolving, due primarily to inter-patient variability in drug exposure combined with sparse data regarding relationships with efficacy (posaconazole) and both safety and efficacy (voriconazole). PMID:17999982

  13. New antifungal agents for the systemic mycoses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ringel, S M

    1990-02-01

    The azoles are the prominent broad spectrum oral antifungal agents in use or under clinical investigation for the systemic mycoses. This class of antifungal agents is represented by the marketed drug ketoconazole (Nizoral) and the experimental triazoles furthest along in clinical trials in the United States, itraconazole and fluconazole. Ketoconazole use is limited by its side effect profile and activity spectrum. Itraconazole appears to be better tolerated and less toxic to liver function, does not cause adrenal suppression and is more active against Aspergillus and Sporothrix schenckii. Fluconazole appears to be a highly promising agent due its highly favorable pharmacokinetic profile; it is water soluble, is well tolerated, is not metabolized to inactive constituents, it has a long half-life and, unlike the other azoles, high cerebrospinal fluid levels are readily attained for consideration in meningeal mycoses. It remains to be determined what place these new triazoles have in managing immunosuppressed patients including those with acquired immune deficiency syndrome known as AIDS. Other experimental antifungal agents, including ambruticin, amphotericin B methyl ester and saramycetin are also described. Sales figures are presented of drugs marketed in the United States for the systemic mycoses and reflect the growing problem of fungal diseases in the population. PMID:2157984

  14. Screening of Embelia ribes for Antifungal Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maulik Suthar

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available The fruits of Embelia ribes reported to contain mainly benzoquinone derivatives such as Embelin (2, 5-dihydroxy-3-undecyl-2, 5-cyclohexadiene-1, 4-benzoquinone. Chemical structure of Embelin is having quite resemblance with the structure of natural Coenzyme Q10 (ubiquinones and the role of this is well defined in various biochemical protective mechanism. Aim of the present study was to evaluate the antifungal activity of Embelia ribes (Myrsinaceae plant extracts using standard in vitro antifungal susceptibility test methods like NCCLS M27- A2 protocol (The National Committee for Clinical Laboratory Standards , USA and EUCAST (European Committee for Antifungal Susceptibility Tests. Values of the MIC50 obtained by NCCLS method revealed that Methanol extract and Embelin exhibited lowest MIC50 values against C. albican (183 which was 120 mg/L. Embelin's MIC50 values were below 700 mg/L for C. albican, C. tropicalis, C. parapsilosis, C. albidus and A. flavus. Diethyl ether extract, petroleum ether extract, methanol extract and embelin obtained MIC50 in range of 300-700 mg/L against C. albican and C. parapsilosis. Petroleum ether extract showed lowest MIC50 values for C. parapsilosis (250 mg/L; C. laurintis (360 mg/L; I.orientalis (180 mg/L and A. fumigatus(170 mg/L.

  15. Antifungal activity of Terminalia superba (combretaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SIAKA Sohro

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to optimize the anticandidosic activities of Terminalia superba (TEKAM4 and the identification of major compounds present in the most active chromatographic fraction. The hydroethanolic extract TEKAM4-X0 was prepared by homogenization employing a blender. Two derivatives extracts of TEKAM4-X0 (X1-1 and X1-2 were obtained by a liquid/liquid partition of TEKAM4-X0 in a mixture of hexane and water (v/v. Three chromatographic fractions (F1, F2 and F3 from X1-2 were separated by means of Sephadex-LH20 gel filtration chromatography. All the extracts were incorporated to Sabouraud according to the agar slanted double dilution method. Ketoconazole was used as standards for antifungal assay. The entire fractions were tested on the previously prepared medium culture containing 1000 cells of C. albicans. Antifungal activity was determined by evaluating antifungal parameters values (MFC and IC50. Lastly, the structures of 2 isolated compounds were elucidated by combination of Flash chromatography and spectroscopic methods, including MS, and multiple stage RMN experiments.

  16. Antifungal ellagitannin isolated from Euphorbia antisyphilitica Zucc

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Juan Ascacio-Valds; Edgardo Burboa; Antonio F Aguilera-Carbo; Mario Aparicio; Ramn Prez-Schmidt; Ral Rodrguez; Cristbal N Aguilar

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To study antifungal activity of a new ellagitannin isolated from the plant residues of Euphorbia antisyphilitica (E. antisyphilitica) Zucc in the wax extraction process. Methods:An extract was prepared from dehydrated and pulverized residues and fractionated by liquid chromatography on Amberilte XAD-16, until obtained an ellagitannin-rich ethanolic fraction which was treated by rotaevaporation to recover the ellagitannin as fine powder. An aqueous solution was prepared and treated through ionic exchange liquid chromatography (Q XL) and gel permeation chromatography (G 25). The ellagitannin-rich fraction was thermogravimetrically evaluated (TGA and DTA) to test the thermo-stability of ellagic acid (monomeric unit). Then ellagitannin powder was analyzed by infrared spectrospcopy to determinate the functional groups and, also mass spectroscopy was used to determine the molecular ion. Results: The principal functional groups of ellagitannin were determined, the molecular weight was 860.7 g/mol; and an effective antifungal activity against phytopathogenic fungi was demonstrated. Conclusions: It can be concluded that the new ellagitannin (860.7 g/mol) isolated from E. antisyphilitica Zucc is an effective antifungal agent against Alternaria alternata, Fusarium oxyzporum, Colletotrichum gloeosporoides and Rhizoctnia solani.

  17. Antifungals of acromyrmex, allomerus, and tetraponera ant- and cultivarassociated bacteria

    OpenAIRE

    Barke, Joerg

    2013-01-01

    The central purpose of this thesis is to test the utility of ant-microbe associations for discovering antifungal compounds with novel molecular (sub-) structures. Novel antifungals displaying reduced adverse side-effects, increased water-solubilities, and/or strong fungicidal properties would be helpful in medical science for responding to the rising prevalence of human mycoses and for solving problems with adverse side-effects in currently used antifungal drugs. Host-symbiont systems m...

  18. Design, synthesis and antifungal activity of novel triazole derivatives

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qing lie Zhao; Yan Song; Hong Gang Hu; Shi Chong Yu; Qiu Ye Wu

    2007-01-01

    Twenty-three 1 -(1H-1,2,4-triazole-1-yl)-2-(2,4-difluorophenyl)-3-(N-cycloproyl-N-substituted-amino)-2-propanols were designed and synthesized on the basis of the active site of lanosterol 14α-demethylase.In vitro antifungal activities showed that some of the title compounds had higher antifungal activity and broader antifungal spectrum than fluconazole.

  19. Factors predicting prolonged empirical antifungal treatment in critically ill patients

    OpenAIRE

    Zein, Mohamed; Parmentier-Decrucq, Erika; Kalaoun, Amer; Bouton, Olivier; Wallyn, Frédéric; Baranzelli, Anne; Elmanser, Dia; Sendid, Boualem; Nseir, Saad

    2014-01-01

    Objective To determine the incidence, risk factors, and impact on outcome of prolonged empirical antifungal treatment in ICU patients. Methods Retrospective observational study performed during a one-year period. Patients who stayed in the ICU >48 h, and received empirical antifungal treatment were included. Patients with confirmed invasive fungal disease were excluded. Prolonged antifungal treatment was defined as percentage of days in the ICU with antifungals > median percentage in the whol...

  20. ANTIFUNGAL ACTIVITY OF SOME COLEUS SPECIES GROWING IN NILGIRIS

    OpenAIRE

    P Nilani; Duraisamy, B.; Dhanabal, P.S.; khan, Saleemullah; Suresh, B.; Shankar, V; Kavitha, K.Y.; Syamala, G.

    2006-01-01

    The in vitro antifungal activity of solvent extracts of Coleus forskohlii, Coleus blumei and Coleus barbatus were compared by testing against some pathogenic fungi like Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus fumigatus, Aspergillus ruantii, Proteus vulgaris and Candida albicans. The petroleum ether extract of Coleus forskohlii and Coleus barbatus exhibited significant antifungal activity against all the selected organisms. The extracts of Coleus blumei did not show any significant antifungal activity ...

  1. Emerging Threats in Antifungal-Resistant Fungal Pathogens

    OpenAIRE

    Sanglard, Dominique

    2016-01-01

    The use of antifungal drugs in the therapy of fungal diseases can lead to the development of antifungal resistance. Resistance has been described for virtually all antifungal agents in diverse pathogens, including Candida and Aspergillus species. The majority of resistance mechanisms have also been elucidated at the molecular level in these pathogens. Drug resistance genes and genome mutations have been identified. Therapeutic choices are limited for the control of fungal diseases, and it is ...

  2. In vitro Antifungal Activity of Cucumis melo on Candida albicans

    OpenAIRE

    Issa Gholampour-Azizi; Samaneh Rouhi; Fahimeh Yahyayi

    2015-01-01

    Background: With respect to the emergence of susceptibility of some fungi to antifungal agents, making use of medicinal plants is progressing. Objectives: The aim of this study was to verify the anti-fungal characteristics of mature and immature Cucumis melo fruit on Candida albicans. Materials and Methods: In this descriptive study, antifungal activity of aqueous, ethnolic and methanolic extracts of C. melo fruits were tested on C. albicans; also results were obtained by disc and well ...

  3. Antifungal Susceptibility Testing of Ascomycetous Yeasts Isolated from Animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Álvarez-Pérez, Sergio; García, Marta E; Peláez, Teresa; Martínez-Nevado, Eva; Blanco, José L

    2016-08-01

    Recent studies suggest that antifungal resistance in yeast isolates of veterinary origin may be an underdiagnosed threat. We tested a collection of 92 ascomycetous yeast isolates that were obtained in Spain from birds, mammals and insects for antifungal susceptibility. MICs to amphotericin B and azoles were low, and no resistant isolates were detected. Despite these results, and given the potential role of animals as reservoirs of resistant strains, continuous monitoring of antifungal susceptibility in the veterinary setting is recommended. PMID:27216048

  4. Preformed antifungal compounds in strawberry fruit and flower tissues

    OpenAIRE

    Terry, Leon A.; Joyce, Daryl C.; Adikaram, Nimal K. B.; Khambay, Bhupinder P. S.

    2004-01-01

    Antifungal activity against the pathogen, Botrytis cinerea, and a bioassay organism, Cladosporium cladosporioides, declined with advancing strawberry fruit maturity as shown by thin layer chromatography (TLC) bioassays. Preformed antifungal activity was also present in flower tissue. The fall in fruit antifungal compounds was correlated with a decline in natural disease resistance (NDR) against B. cinerea in-planta. Crude extracts of green stage I fruit (7 days after anthesi...

  5. Effect of Origanum heracleoticum L. essential oil on food-borne Penicillium aurantiogriseum and Penicilium chrysogenum isolates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Čabarkapa Ivana S.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Molds are ubiquitously distributed in nature and their spores can be found in the atmosphere even at high altitudes. The difficulty of controlling these undesirable molds, as well as the growing interest of the consumers in natural products, have been forcing the industry to find new alternatives for food preservation. The modern trends in nutrition suggest the limitation of synthetic food additives or substitution with natural ones. Aromatic herbs are probably the most important source of natural antimicrobial agents. Origanum heracleoticum L. essential oil has been known as an interesting source of antimicrobial compounds to be applied in food preservation. In the this work, we have investigated the effect of essential oil obtained from O. heracleoticum on growth of six isolates of Penicillium aurantiogriseum and four isolates of Penicillium chrysogenum isolated from meat plant for traditional Petrovacka sausage (Petrovská klobása production. The findings reveal that the essential oil of O. heracleoticum provides inhibition of all of fungal isolates tested. O. heracleoticum L. essential oil exhibited higher antifungal activity against the isolates of P. chrysogenum than the isolates of P. aurantiogriseum. O. heracleoticum essential oil showed a MIC value ranging from 25 to 100 μL/mL. The fungi cultivated in the medium with higher concentration of essential oil showed certain morphological changes. The alterations included lack of sporulation and loss of pigmentation.

  6. Chronopolis Digital Preservation Network

    OpenAIRE

    David Minor; Don Sutton; Ardys Kozbial; Brad Westbrook; Michael Burek; Michael Smorul

    2010-01-01

    The Chronopolis Digital Preservation Initiative, one of the Library of Congress’ latest efforts to collect and preserve at-risk digital information, has completed its first year of service as a multi-member partnership to meet the archival needs of a wide range of domains.Chronopolis is a digital preservation data grid framework developed by the San Diego Supercomputer Center (SDSC) at UC San Diego, the UC San Diego Libraries (UCSDL), and their partners at the National Center for Atmospheric ...

  7. Software Preservation Benefits Framework

    OpenAIRE

    Chue Hong, Neil; Crouch, Steve; Hettrick, Simon; Parkinson, Tim; Shreeve, Matt

    2010-01-01

    An investigation of software preservation has been carried out by Curtis+Cartwright Consulting Limited, in partnership with the Software Sustainability Institute (SSI), on behalf of the JISC. The aim of the study was to raise awareness and build capacity throughout the Further and Higher Education (FE/HE) sector to engage with preservation issues as part of the process of software development. Part of this involved examining the purpose and benefits of employing preservation measures in relat...

  8. Preserving Digital Materials

    CERN Document Server

    Harvey, Ross

    2011-01-01

    This book provides a single-volume introduction to the principles, strategies and practices currently applied by librarians and recordkeeping professionals to the critical issue of preservation of digital information. It incorporates practice from both the recordkeeping and the library communities, taking stock of current knowledge about digital preservation and describing recent and current research, to provide a framework for reflecting on the issues that digital preservation raises in professional practice.

  9. 1st HPV Test for Use with Preservative Fluid

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_159789.html 1st HPV Test for Use With Preservative Fluid Human papillomavirus ... Food and Drug Administration has approved Roche's cobas HPV Test -- the first diagnostic to be used with ...

  10. Defence Food Research in India

    OpenAIRE

    Sharma, T. R.

    1984-01-01

    "The Defence Food Research Laboratory, Mysore, is a major centre of research in India, particularly in defence feeding. It is multi-disciplinary laboratory, well equipped to do research work in food technology, food preservation, packaging, nutrition and biochemistry and food microbiology. Special emphasis is laid on development of light weight processed food suiting Indian palate. This paper gives a bird's eye view of the activities and achievements of the laboratory and indicates the...

  11. Food; Energy; Developing Countries; Food Irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The use of energy in food production is increasing, and the cost of that energy use is a very significant part of the cost of food. It is important, therefore, to minimize food losses. It is shown that the energy used to produce raw food, such as grain, pulses, and vegetables, to feed the increasing population is about 17-25 MJ per person per day. (The energy of one litre petrol is 35 MJ.) Owing to increasing cost of energy, any food losses are very expensive. Irradiation processing of food, which uses very little energy, can be used to reduce the losses significantly. Irradiation kills microorganisms, parasites and insects and stops sprouting of tubers. But, more is needed to preserve food. Irradiation is usually most effective, therefore, if used in combination with other processes. (author)

  12. Potato Dextrose Agar Antifungal Susceptibility Testing for Yeasts and Molds: Evaluation of Phosphate Effect on Antifungal Activity of CMT-3

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Yu; Tortora, George; Ryan, Maria E.; Lee, Hsi-Ming; Lorne M. Golub

    2002-01-01

    The broth macrodilution method (BMM) for antifungal susceptibility testing, approved by the National Committee for Clinical Laboratory Standards (NCCLS), was found to have deficiencies in testing of the antifungal activity of a new type of antifungal agent, a nonantibacterial chemically modified tetracycline (CMT-3). The high content of phosphate in the medium was found to greatly increase the MICs of CMT-3. To avoid the interference of phosphate in the test, a new method using potato dextros...

  13. Ergosterol biosynthesis in Aspergillus fumigatus: its relevance as an antifungal target and role in antifungal drug resistance

    OpenAIRE

    Alcazar-Fuoli, Laura; Mellado, Emilia

    2013-01-01

    Ergosterol, the major sterol of fungal membranes, is essential for developmental growth and the main target of antifungals that are currently used to treat fatal fungal infections. Emergence of resistance to existing antifungals is a current problem and several secondary resistance mechanisms have been described in Aspergillus fumigatus clinical isolates. A full understanding of ergosterol biosynthetic control therefore appears to be essential for improvement of antifungal efficacy and to pre...

  14. Food irradiation processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An international symposium on food irradiation processing dealing with issues which affect the commercial introduction of the food irradiation process was held in Vienna in 1985. The symposium, which attracted close to 300 participants, was planned to interest not only scientists and food technologists, but also representatives of government agencies, the food industry, trade associations and consumer organizations. The symposium included a discussion of the technological and economic feasibility of applying ionizing energy for the preservation of food, and focused on the specific needs of developing countries. Separate abstracts were prepared for the various presentations at this meeting

  15. Identification of Antifungal Substances of Lactobacillus sakei subsp. ALI033 and Antifungal Activity against Penicillium brevicompactum Strain FI02.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huh, Chang Ki; Hwang, Tae Yean

    2016-03-01

    This study was performed to investigate the antifungal substances and the antifungal activity against fungi of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) isolated from kimchi. LAB from kimchi in Imsil showed antifungal activity against Penicillium brevicompactum strain FI02. LAB LI031 was identified as Lactobacillus sakei subsp. Antifungal substances contained in L. sakei subsp. ALI033 culture media were unstable at high pH levels. Both, the control and proteinase K and protease treated samples showed clear zones, suggesting that the antifungal substances produced by ALI033 were non-protein substances unaffected by protesases. Both, the control and catalase showed clear zones, suggesting that the antifungal metabolite was not H2O2. The molecular weights of the antifungal substances were ≤3,000 Da. The organic acid content of crude antifungal substances produced by L. sakei subsp. ALI033 showed high concentrations of lactic acid (502.47 mg/100 g). Therefore, these results suggest that antifungal substance produced by L. sakei subsp. ALI033 is most likely due to its ability in producing organic acid. PMID:27069906

  16. Fish Spoilage Mechanisms and Preservation Techniques: Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdel E. Ghaly

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Spoilage of food products is due to chemical, enzymatic or microbial activities One-fourth of the worlds food supply and 30% of landed fish are lost through microbial activity alone. With the ever growing world population and the need to store and transport the food from one place to another where it is needed, food preservation becomes necessary in order to increase its shelf life and maintain its nutritional value, texture and flavor. The freshness and quality of fish have always gained the attention by Food Regulatory Agencies and Food Processing Industry. Proper handling, pretreatment and preservation techniques can improve the quality fish and fish products and increase their shelf life. Methodology: Historically salting, drying, smoking, fermentation and canning were the methods to prevent fish spoilage and extend its shelf life. In response to consumer demand for texture, appearance and taste, new methods were developed including: Cooling, freezing and chemical preservation. A comprehensive review of the literature on the subject of fish spoilage and modern preservation techniques was carried out. Conclusion: Fish spoilage results from three basic mechanisms: Enzymatic autolysis, oxidation, microbial growth. Low temperature storage and chemical techniques for controlling water activity, enzymatic, oxidative and microbial spoilage are the most common in the industry today. A process involving the addition of an EDTA (1 mM-TBHQ (0.02% combination and ascorbic acid and storage at refrigerated temperatures (5°C in darkness can be the most positive for controlling the spoilage of fish and fish product. The suggested process would address antimicrobial activity as well as destructive oxidation of the desired lipids and fats. However, more efforts are required to understand the role of proximate composition of fish, post harvest history, environmental conditions, initial microbial load, type and nature of bacteria and their

  17. Modes of fossil preservation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schopf, J.M.

    1975-01-01

    The processes of geologic preservation are important for understanding the organisms represented by fossils. Some fossil differences are due to basic differences in organization of animals and plants, but the interpretation of fossils has also tended to be influenced by modes of preservation. Four modes of preservation generally can be distinguished: (1) Cellular permineralization ("petrifaction") preserves anatomical detail, and, occasionally, even cytologic structures. (2) Coalified compression, best illustrated by structures from coal but characteristic of many plant fossils in shale, preserves anatomical details in distorted form and produces surface replicas (impressions) on enclosing matrix. (3) Authigenic preservation replicates surface form or outline (molds and casts) prior to distortion by compression and, depending on cementation and timing, may intergrade with fossils that have been subject to compression. (4) Duripartic (hard part) preservation is characteristic of fossil skeletal remains, predominantly animal. Molds, pseudomorphs, or casts may form as bulk replacements following dissolution of the original fossil material, usually by leaching. Classification of the kinds of preservation in fossils will aid in identifying the processes responsible for modifying the fossil remains of both animals and plants. ?? 1975.

  18. Mass Preserving Image Registration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gorbunova, V.; Sporring, J.; Lo, P.;

    2010-01-01

    The paper presents results the mass preserving image registration method in the Evaluation of Methods for Pulmonary Image Registration 2010 (EMPIRE10) Challenge. The mass preserving image registration algorithm was applied to the 20 image pairs. Registration was evaluated using four different...

  19. Food products for space applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cope, P. S.; Larson, R. W.

    1968-01-01

    Specially-prepared foodstuffs supply an astronaut with a diet containing his basic nutritional requirements in a form that is useful in his enironment. Several edible coatings preserve foods and give loose foods form and firmness. These coatings aid in packaging and give the food slip for easy removal from the package.

  20. Fertility Preservation for Female

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jack Huang; Seang Lin Tan; Ri-Cheng Chian

    2006-01-01

    Preservation of female fertility is an important issue today. However, there are few effective clinical options for preserving female fertility. Firstly, conventional in vitro fertilization (IVF) followed by embryo cryopreservation is an accepted procedure but is not applicable to all women. Embryo freezing is suitable only for women with a male partner and may not be acceptable to some patients due to moral and religious reasons. Ovarian tissue freezing is another option of female fertility preservation but is an invasive procedure and the efficacy of this technique remains to be determined.Oocyte cryopreservation is also method for fertility preservation. Egg freezing is minimally invasive and can avoid the ethical and moral concerns related to cryopreservation of embryos. However, conventional slow freezing/rapid thawing methods are associated with low survival of oocytes. Recent development in vitrification of oocytes appears promising. Therefore, vitrification of unfertilized eggs may be a novel method to preserve female fertility.

  1. Antifungal Effect of Streptomyces 702 Antifungal Monomer Component DZP8 on Rhizoctonia solani and Magnaporthe grisea

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the in vitro antifungal effects of antifungal monomer component DZP8 isolated from Streptomyces 702 on the mycelium growth, sclerotium formation and germination of Rhizoctonia solani and on the mycelium growth, conidial formation, germination, appressorium formation of Magnaporthe grisea. The results showed that the antifungal monomer component DZP8 has strong antifungal effect on both the R. solani and M. grisea. The EC50 and EC90 of DZP8 were 1.81 and 3.35 μg/ml on Ft. solani respectively, and 37.01 and 136.21 μg/ml on M. grisea respectively. Under the treatment of 48.01 μg/ml DZP8, the sclerotium formation rate of R. solani was just 39.21%, the formation time delayed by 216 h and the dry weight decreased by 81.37% in comparison the con- trol; and 33.51 μg/ml DZP8 significantly inhibited the sclerotium germination. In the presence of 160.08 μg/ml DZP8, the sporulation of M. grisea was just 9.29% of control sample; 20.14 μg/ml DZP8 inhibited the conidial germination suppression rate by 95.16%, and the appressorium formation by 100%.

  2. In vitro antifungal effect of EDTA disodium salt in tested black aspergilli

    OpenAIRE

    Abrunhosa, Luís; Venâncio, Armando

    2008-01-01

    The antifungal effect of Na2EDTA on an Aspergillus carbonarius, an A. ibericus, an ochratoxigenic A. niger and a non-ochratoxigenic A. niger strain was studied. Also, the effect of Na2EDTA on the production of ochratoxin A by A. carbonarius and the ochratoxigenic A. niger was evaluated. The poisoned food technique was used with CYA medium supplemented with 0, 1 and 10 mmol L-1 of Na2EDTA. The colony diameters were recorded daily and the amount of ochratoxin A produced was quantified every two...

  3. Antifungal activity of traditional medicinal plants from Tamil Nadu, India

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Duraipandiyan V; Ignacimuthu S

    2011-01-01

    Objective:To assess the antifungal activity of hexane, ethyl acetate and methanol extracts of 45 medicinal plants and to determine the minimum inhibitory concentration for each extract against human pathogenic fungi. Methods:A total of 45 medicinal plants were collected from different places of Tamil Nadu and identified. Hexane, ethyl acetate and methanol extracts of 45 medicinal plants were assessed for antifungal susceptibility using broth microdilution method. Two known antifungal agents were used as positive controls. Results: Most of the extracts inhibited more than four fungal strains. From the evaluation we found that ethyl acetate extracts inhibited large number of fungal growth. Hexane extracts also nearly showed the same level of inhibition against fungal growth. Methanol extracts showed the minimum antifungal activity. Among the 45 plants tested, broad spectrum antifungal activity was detected in Albizzia procera (A. procera), Atalantia monophylla, Asclepias curassavica, Azima tetracantha, Cassia fistula (C. fistula), Cinnomomum verum, Costus speciosus (C. speciosus), Nymphaea stellata, Osbeckia chinensis, Piper argyrophyllum, Punica granatum, Tinospora cordifolia and Toddalia asiatica (T. asiatica). Promising antifungal activity was seen in A. procera, C. speciosus, C. fistula and T. asiatica. Conclusions:It can be concluded that the plant species assayed possess antifungal properties. Further phytochemical research is needed to identify the active principles responsible for the antifungal effects of some of these medicinal plants.

  4. Antifungal activity of Piper diospyrifolium Kunth (Piperaceae) essential oil

    OpenAIRE

    Vieira, Silvia Cristina Heredia; de Paulo, Luis Fernando; Svidzinski, Terezinha Inez Estivaleti; Dias Filho, Benedito Prado; Nakamura, Celso Vataru; Souza, Amanda de; Young, Maria Cláudia Marx; Cortez, Diógenes Aparício Garcia

    2011-01-01

    In vitro activity of the essential oil from Piper diospyrifolium leaves was tested using disk diffusion techniques. The antifungal assay showed significant potencial antifungal activity: the oil was effective against several clinical fungal strains. The majority compounds in the essential oil were identified as sesquiterpenoids by GC-MS and GC-FID techniques.

  5. Rapid determination of antifungal activity by flow cytometry.

    OpenAIRE

    Green, L.; Petersen, B.; Steimel, L; Haeber, P; Current, W

    1994-01-01

    We have developed a rapid assay of antifungal activity which utilizes flow cytometry to detect accumulation of a vital dye in drug-damaged fungal cells. Results of these studies suggest that flow cytometry may provide an improved, rapid method for determining and comparing the antifungal activities of compounds with differing modes of action.

  6. Chemical modification of antifungal polyene macrolide antibiotics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The review summarizes advances in the methods for the synthesis of polyene antibiotics (amphotericin B, partricin A, etc.) and investigations of the structure-activity relationship made in the last 15 years. State-of-the-art approaches based on the combination of the chemical synthesis and genetic engineering are considered. Emphasis is given to the design of semisynthetic antifungal agents against chemotherapy-resistant pathogens having the highest therapeutic indices. Recent results of research on the mechanisms of action of polyenes are outlined.

  7. Synthesis of Novel Antifungal Triazole Compounds

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yong CHU; Ming Xia XU; Ding LU

    2004-01-01

    Based on our previous studies of 3D-QSAR, 38 novel objective compounds belonging to 4 series were designed and successfully synthesized directed by the idea of reconstructing the structure of non-pharmacophores while reserving essential ones in triazoles. In vitro pilot studies on their antifungal activities showed that most compounds have inhibitory effects on C.albicans and some inhibit S.cerevisiae also. The effects on C.albicans of 5 compounds are more potent than or equal to that of fluconazole or itraconazole.

  8. Bioanalytical Methods for Food Contaminant Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foods are complex mixtures of lipids, carbohydrates, proteins, vitamins, organic compounds and other naturally occurring compounds. Sometimes added to this mixture are residues of pesticides, veterinary and human drugs, microbial toxins, preservatives, contaminants from food proc...

  9. Chronopolis Digital Preservation Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Minor

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available The Chronopolis Digital Preservation Initiative, one of the Library of Congress’ latest efforts to collect and preserve at-risk digital information, has completed its first year of service as a multi-member partnership to meet the archival needs of a wide range of domains.Chronopolis is a digital preservation data grid framework developed by the San Diego Supercomputer Center (SDSC at UC San Diego, the UC San Diego Libraries (UCSDL, and their partners at the National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR in Colorado and the University of Maryland's Institute for Advanced Computer Studies (UMIACS.Chronopolis addresses a critical problem by providing a comprehensive model for the cyberinfrastructure of collection management, in which preserved intellectual capital is easily accessible, and research results, education material, and new knowledge can be incorporated smoothly over the long term. Integrating digital library, data grid, and persistent archive technologies, Chronopolis has created trusted environments that span academic institutions and research projects, with the goal of long-term digital preservation.A key goal of the Chronopolis project is to provide cross-domain collection sharing for long-term preservation. Using existing high-speed educational and research networks and mass-scale storage infrastructure investments, the partnership is leveraging the data storage capabilities at SDSC, NCAR, and UMIACS to provide a preservation data grid that emphasizes heterogeneous and highly redundant data storage systems.In this paper we will explore the major themes within Chronopolis, including:a The philosophy and theory behind a nationally federated data grid for preservation. b The core tools and technologies used in Chronopolis. c The metadata schema that is being developed within Chronopolis for all of the data elements. d Lessons learned from the first year of the project.e Next steps in digital preservation using Chronopolis: how we

  10. Synthesis and investigation of novel benzimidazole derivatives as antifungal agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandrika, Nishad Thamban; Shrestha, Sanjib K; Ngo, Huy X; Garneau-Tsodikova, Sylvie

    2016-08-15

    The rise and emergence of resistance to antifungal drugs by diverse pathogenic fungal strains have resulted in an increase in demand for new antifungal agents. Various heterocyclic scaffolds with different mechanisms of action against fungi have been investigated in the past. Herein, we report the synthesis and antifungal activities of 18 alkylated mono-, bis-, and trisbenzimidazole derivatives, their toxicities against mammalian cells, as well as their ability to induce reactive oxygen species (ROS) in yeast cells. Many of our bisbenzimidazole compounds exhibited moderate to excellent antifungal activities against all tested fungal strains, with MIC values ranging from 15.6 to 0.975μg/mL. The fungal activity profiles of our bisbenzimidazoles were found to be dependent on alkyl chain length. Our most potent compounds were found to display equal or superior antifungal activity when compared to the currently used agents amphotericin B, fluconazole, itraconazole, posaconazole, and voriconazole against many of the strains tested. PMID:27301676

  11. Advances in synthetic approach to and antifungal activity of triazoles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pramod Kumar Sharma

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Several five membered ring systems, e.g., triazole, oxadiazole dithiazole and thiadiazole with three heteroatoms at symmetrical or asymmetrical positions have been studied because of their interesting pharmacological properties. In this article our emphasis is on synthetic development and pharmacological activity of the triazole moiety which exhibit a broad spectrum of pharmacological activity such as antifungal, antibacterial, anti-inflammatory and anticancer etc. Triazoles have increased our ability to treat many fungal infections, for example, candidiasis, cryptococcal meningitis, aspergillosis etc. However, mortality due to these infections even with antifungal therapy is still unacceptably high. Therefore, the development of new antifungal agents targeting specific fungal structures or functions is being actively pursued. Rapid developments in molecular mycology have led to a concentrated search for more target antifungals. Although we are entering a new era of antifungal therapy in which we will continue to be challenged by systemic fungal diseases, the options for treatment will have greatly expanded.

  12. Isolation of antifungally active lactobacilli from edam cheese

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tuma, S.; Vogensen, Finn Kvist; Plocková, M.;

    2007-01-01

    The antifungal activity of 322 lactobacilli strains isolated from Edam cheese at different stages of the ripening process was tested against Fusarium proliferatum M 5689 using a dual overlay spot assay. Approximately 21% of the isolates showed a certain level of inhibitory activity. Seven strains...... with the strongest antifungal activity were examined by the milk agar plate method with three different mould strains isolated from spoiled dairy products as target microorganisms and were compared with the antifungal effectiveness of standard antifungal strains Lactobacillus rhamnosus VT1 and Lb...... Lb. fermentum ST 41, was comparable to or slightly higher than that of standard strains. By use of both ST 41, was comparable to or slightly higher than that of standard strains. By use of both phenotypic and genotypic methods (REP-PCR, 16S rDNA), four out of seven antifungally active isolates were...

  13. Textbook on food chemistry and food technology. Vol. 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The textbook presents the basic material and knowledge required in the food industry, relating to food technology and food chemistry, and to the legal aspects of food processing. Apart from information on specific analytical methods, which are discussed in detail, information is given other means and approaches for a comprehensive evaluation of food quality, as e.g. sensory evaluation, statistics, microbiology, dietetics, toxicology. There is one chapter dealing with the available methods of food preservation by physical treatment, as e.g. by food irradiation. (VT) With 159 figs

  14. Antimicrobial activity of plant essential oils against bacterial and fungal species involved in food poisoning and/or food decay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lixandru, Brînduşa-Elena; Drăcea, Nicoleta Olguţa; Dragomirescu, Cristiana Cerasella; Drăgulescu, Elena Carmina; Coldea, Ileana Luminiţa; Anton, Liliana; Dobre, Elena; Rovinaru, Camelia; Codiţă, Irina

    2010-01-01

    The currative properties of aromatic and medicinal plants have been recognized since ancient times and, more recently, the antimicrobial activity of plant essential oils has been used in several applications, including food preservation. The purpose of this study was to create directly comparable, quantitative data on the antimicrobial activity of some plant essential oils prepared in the National Institute of Research-Development for Chemistry and Petrochemistry, Bucharest to be used for the further development of food packaging technology, based on their antibacterial and antifungal activity. The essential oils extracted from thyme (Thymus vulgaris L.), basil (Ocimum basilicum L.), coriander (Coriandrum sativum L.), rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis L.), sage (Salvia officinalis L.), fennel (Foeniculum vulgare L.), spearmint (Mentha spicata L.) and carraway (Carum carvi L.) were investigated for their antimicrobial activity against eleven different bacterial and three fungal strains belonging to species reported to be involved in food poisoning and/or food decay: S. aureus ATCC 25923, S. aureus ATCC 6538, S. aureus ATCC 25913, E. coli ATCC 25922, E. coli ATCC 35218, Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis Cantacuzino Institute Culture Collection (CICC) 10878, Listeria monocytogenes ATCC 19112, Bacillus cereus CIP 5127, Bacillus cereus ATCC 11778, Candida albicans ATCC 10231, Aspergillus niger ATCC 16404, Penicillium spp. CICC 251 and two E. coli and Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis clinical isolates. The majority of the tested essential oils exibited considerable inhibitory capacity against all the organisms tested, as supported by growth inhibition zone diameters, MICs and MBC's. Thyme, coriander and basil oils proved the best antibacterial activity, while thyme and spearmint oils better inhibited the fungal species. PMID:21462837

  15. The possibilities of using essential oils as an active ingredients or preservatives in cosmetic products

    OpenAIRE

    Adaszy?ska, Michalina; Swarcewicz, Maria

    2011-01-01

    An important trend in the development of the cosmetics industry is searching for new biologically active, natural compounds and preservative systems, which will find application in the natural cosmetics production. Natural cosmetics are of considerable interest nowadays and essential oils could be employed in theirs production. The huge potential of essential oils indicates the possibility of applying them in practice because of theirs antibacterial, antiseptic, antifungal, and antioxidant...

  16. Food Physics and Radiation Techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the lecture information is given about food physics, which is a rather new, interdisciplinary field of science, connecting food science and applied physics. The topics of radioactivity of foodstuffs and radiation techniques in the food industry are important parts of food physics. Detailed information will be given about the main fields (e.g. radio stimulation, food preservation) of radiation techniques in the agro-food sector. Finally some special questions of radioactive contamination of foodstuffs in Hungary and applicability of radioanalytical techniques (e.g. INAA) for food investigation will be analyzed and discussed

  17. Food physics and radiation techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the lecture information is given about food physics, which is a rather new, interdisciplinary field of science, connecting food science and applied physics. The topics of radioactivity of foodstuffs and radiation techniques in the food industry are important parts of food physics detailed information will be given about the main fields (e.g. radio stimulation, food preservation) of radiation techniques in the agro-food sector. Finally some special questions of radioactive contamination of foodstuffs in hungary and applicability of radioanalytical techniques (e.g. Inaa) for food investigation will be analyzed and discussed

  18. Radiation processing of food - safety and quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Food is vital for human existence. Conservation and preservation of food is a prerequisite for food security and it provides economic stability and self-reliance to a nation. The need to preserve food has been felt by mankind since time immemorial. The seasonal nature of production, long distances between production and consumption centres and rising gap between demand and supply have made this need even more relevant today

  19. Radiation preservation of maize

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radiation preservation of maize was carried out. Radiation doses and sources, shielding materials, packaging materials, chemical radiation effects, biological radiation effects, were discussed. Experimental methods, samples and accessories were also presented. (SMN)

  20. Two preservation theorems

    OpenAIRE

    Zapletal, Jindrich

    2005-01-01

    I prove preservation theorems for countable support iteration of proper forcing concerning certain classes of capacities and submeasures. New examples of forcing notions and connections with measure theory are included.

  1. What Is Fertility Preservation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... is the process of saving or protecting eggs, sperm, or reproductive tissue so that a person can ... children 2 . Fertility-preserving options for men include: Sperm cryopreservation (pronounced krahy-oh-prez-er-VEY-shuhn ). ...

  2. Novel antifungal peptides from Ceylon spinach seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, H; Ng, T B

    2001-11-01

    Two novel antifungal peptides, designated alpha- and beta-basrubrins, respectively, were isolated from seeds of the Ceylon spinach Basella rubra. The purification procedure involved saline extraction, (NH(4))(2)SO(4) precipitation, ion exchange chromatography on DEAE-cellulose, affinity chromatography on Affi-gel blue gel, ion exchange chromatography on CM-cellulose and FPLC-gel filtration on Superdex peptide column. alpha- and beta-basrubrins exhibited a molecular weight of 4.3 and 5 kDa, respectively. They inhibited translation in a rabbit reticulocyte system with an IC(50) value of 400 and 100 nM, respectively. alpha- and beta-basrubrin inhibited HIV-1 reverse transcriptase by (79.4 +/- 7.8)% and (54.6 +/- 3.6)%, respectively, at a concentration of 400 microM, and (10.56 +/- 0.92)% and (2.12 +/- 0.81)%, respectively, at a concentration of 40 microM. Both alpha- and beta-basrubrins exerted potent antifungal activity toward Botrytis cinerea, Mycosphaerella arachidicola, and Fusarium oxysporum. PMID:11688973

  3. DYSREGULATION OF ION HOMEOSTASIS BY ANTIFUNGAL AGENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RajiniRao

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Ion signaling and transduction networks are central to fungal development and virulence because they regulate gene expression, filamentation, host association and invasion, pathogen stress response and survival. Dysregulation of ion homeostasis rapidly mediates cell death, forming the mechanistic basis by which a growing number of amphipathic but structurally unrelated compounds elicit antifungal activity. Included in this group is carvacrol, a terpenoid phenol that is a prominent component of oregano and other plant essential oils. Carvacrol triggers an early dose dependent Ca2+ burst and long lasting pH changes in the model yeast S. cerevisiae. The distinct phases of ionic transients and a robust transcriptional response that overlaps with Ca2+ stress and nutrient starvation point to specific signaling events elicited by plant terpenoid phenols, rather than a non-specific lesion of the membrane as was previously considered. We discuss the potential use of plant essential oils and other agents that disrupt ion signaling pathways as chemosensitizers to augment conventional antifungal therapy, and to convert fungistatic drugs with strong safety profiles into fungicides.

  4. FARMLAND PRESERVATION PROGRAMS

    OpenAIRE

    Colyer, Dale

    1998-01-01

    Paper presented at the Seventh International Symposium on Society and Resource Management, University of Missouri, Columbia, May 25-27, 1998. The preservation of farmland is an important issue in most areas of the U.S. and all states have enacted legislation to promote this activity. This article reviews the various policy tools for preserving farmland. Use valuation of farmland for property tax purposes is the most common remedy but it is not effective where there are strong incentives to co...

  5. Digital preservation for heritages

    CERN Document Server

    Lu, Dongming

    2011-01-01

    ""Digital Preservation for Heritages: Technologies and Applications"" provides a comprehensive and up-to-date coverage of digital technologies in the area of cultural heritage preservation, including digitalization, research aiding, conservation aiding, digital exhibition, and digital utilization. Processes, technical frameworks, key technologies, as well as typical systems and applications are discussed in the book. It is intended for researchers and students in the fields of computer science and technology, museology, and archaeology. Dr. Dongming Lu is a professor at College of Computer Sci

  6. Geospatial Data Preservation Prime

    OpenAIRE

    Lauriault, Tracey P.; Hackett, Yvette; Kennedy, Ed

    2013-01-01

    This primer is one in a series of Operational Policy documents being developed by GeoConnections. It is intended to inform Canadian Geospatial Data Infrastructure (CGDI) stakeholders about the nature and scope of digital geospatial data archiving and preservation and the realities, challenges and good practices of related operational policies. Burgeoning growth of online geospatial applications and the deluge of data, combined with the growing complexity of archiving and preserving digita...

  7. Contamination versus preservation of cosmetics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundov, Michael Dyrgaard; Moesby, Lise; Zachariae, Claus;

    2009-01-01

    is dominated by a few preservatives: parabens, formaldehyde, formaldehyde releasers, and methylchloroisothiazolinone/methylisothiazolinone. Allergy to preservatives is one of the main reasons for contact eczema caused by cosmetics. Concentration of the same preservative in similar products varies greatly...

  8. Food irradiation in South Africa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The article indicates the necessity for additional methods of food preservation and emphasises that food irradiation is developing into an important method of food preservation because it has been proved scientifically and practically that food irradiation can be applied effectively; also that there is absolute certainty that radiation-processed products are safe and nutritious and that such food is acceptable to the consumer and food trade, also with a view to costs. It discusses the joint food irradiation programme of the AEB and Department of Agriculture and Fisheries and points out that exemption for the irradiation of potatoes was already obtained in 1977 and later for mango's, paw-paws, chicken, onions, garlic and strawberries. Conditional exemption was obtained for avocado's and dried bananas. Other food-kinds on which research is being continued are grapes, melons, mushrooms, stone fruit and spices

  9. Novel approaches in food microbiology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Montijn, R.; Schuren, F.; Spek, H.D. van; Keijser, B.; Brul, S.

    2004-01-01

    The development of genomics technologies for guiding the predictive modeling of microorganism behavior to make food preservation treatments effective, are discussed. A fully genomewide description of cellular response to environmental conditions lies in the combination of a transcriptome and proteom

  10. Historic Preservation Information CFM Website

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Veterans Affairs — The VA Historic Preservation Office keeps information about VA's programs to comply with Federal preservation requirements, and also interesting information about...

  11. Antifungal activity of multifunctional Fe3O4-Ag nanocolloids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In recent years, rapid increase has been observed in the population of microbes that are resistant to conventionally used antibiotics. Antifungal drug therapy is no exception and now resistance to many of the antifungal agents in use has emerged. Therefore, there is an inevitable and urgent medical need for antibiotics with novel antimicrobial mechanisms. Aspergillus glaucus is the potential cause of fatal brain infections and hypersensitivity pneumonitis in immunocompromised patients and leads to death despite aggressive multidrug antifungal therapy. In the present article, we describe the antifungal activity of multifunctional core-shell Fe3O4-Ag nanocolloids against A. glaucus isolates. Controlled experiments are also carried out with Ag nanocolloids in order to understand the role of core (Fe3O4) in the antifungal action. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of nanocolloids is determined by the micro-dilution method. MIC of A. glaucus is 2000 μg/mL. The result is quite promising and requires further investigations in order to develop a treatment methodology against this death causing fungus in immunocompromised patients. - Research Highlights: →Synthesis of Fe3O4-Ag core-shell nanocolloids. →Antifungal activity of Fe3O4-Ag nanocolloids against Aspergillus glaucus isolates. →The MIC value for A. glaucus is 2000 μg/mL. →Antifungal activity is better or comparable with most prominent antibiotics.

  12. 全二维气相色谱/飞行时间质谱快速定性筛查食品中32种防腐剂和抗氧化剂%Fast Qualitative Analysis of 32 Preservatives and Antioxidants in Food Sample by Comprehensive Two Dimensional Gas Chromatography Coupled Time of Flight Mass Spectrometry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈琦; 黄峻榕; 凌云; 张峰; 李玉玉; 吴永宁; 储晓刚

    2011-01-01

    Comprehensive two dimensional gas chromatography(GC× GC-TOFMS) has been applied to fast qualitative analysis of 32 preservatives, antioxidants in food. GC × GC-TOFMS parameters were evaluated and optimized to yield complete separation for 32 analytes from interference, and to attain the high sensitivity. After optimization, al1 analytes were separated in 20.5 min and qualitativly analyzed by retention time of GC× GC and mass spectrum library. The method was used to analyze food sample, and the detection limit of most analytes was lower than 0. 5 mg/kg, meanwhile, the addition level of food addictives in the field of food industry was usually higher than 100 mg/kg. The method could be used for the rapid qualitative analysis of food preservatives, antioxidants and illegal addictives in food.%建立了全二维气相色谱/行时间质谱法(GC×GC-TOFMS)快速定性筛查食品样品中19种防腐剂和抗氧化剂,13种超范围使用的非法添加物的方法.以40 mL乙腈为溶剂,对20 g均质样品进行液体萃取,萃取液经过离心过滤后.使用无水MgSO4脱水(含油样品使用40 mL正己烷去除油脂);萃取液再用乙腈稀释5倍进样.本方法采用GC×GC二维特征谱图、TOFMS谱图库检索的定性手段,能在20.5 min内快速分离和定性分析食品中19种防腐剂和抗氧化剂.使用GC×GC-TOFMS技术对含量大于0.3 mg/kg的样品有较好的灵敏度,而在食品添加剂领域,添加量一般都大于100 mg/kg.因此,本方法可以作为一种快速定性筛查的手段.

  13. Caspofungin as secondary antifungal prophylaxis and subsequent maintenance antifungal prophylaxis therapy in hematological malignancy patients

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Mingjuan; Li, Yan; Zhao, Xiaoli; Zhang, Yongqing; Zhai, Bing; Zhang, Qingyi; Wang, Lijun; Zhao, Yu; Li, Honghua; Wang, Quanshun; Gao, Chunji; Huang, Wenrong; Yu, Li

    2015-01-01

    Aim: This study aimed to investigate the efficacy and safety of caspofungin as secondary antifungal prophylaxis (SAP) and subsequent maintenance therapy for SAP in hematological malignancy patients. Methods: Forty four patients receiving caspofungin for SAP and 43 patients not receiving any SAP agents during their subsequent chemotherapy or HSCT were reviewed retrospectively. The clinical characteristics and diagnosis were analyzed according to the diagnostic criteria for IFD. Results: The re...

  14. Methods to preserve potentially toxigenic fungi

    OpenAIRE

    Lucas Costa Guimarães; Ana Paula Fernandes; Sara Maria Chalfoun; Luís Roberto Batista

    2014-01-01

    Microorganisms are a source of many high-value compounds which are useful to every living being, such as humans, plants and animals. Since the process of isolating and improving a microorganism can be lengthy and expensive, preserving the obtained characteristic is of paramount importance, so the process does not need to be repeated. Fungi are eukaryotic, achlorophyllous, heterotrophic organisms, usually filamentous, absorb their food, can be either macro or microscopic, propagate themselves ...

  15. Preservation of potatoes by gamma irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In Algeria, potatoes are a major food item in nutrition habits. Because of lack of cold storage facilities, losses can reach up to 40% of the total output of summer harvest. This paper describes the first experiments on the application of gamma irradiation for the preservation of local varieties of potatoes. Losses are strongly reduced by inhibition sprouting effect of irradiation and reduction of sugars content has no significant influence on the acceptability of irradiated potatoes

  16. Antifungal activities of Terminalia ivorensis A. Chev. bark extracts against Candida albicans and Aspergillus fumigatus.

    OpenAIRE

    Ouattara Sitapha; KPOROU KOUASSI ELISEE; Djaman Allico Joseph

    2013-01-01

    Abstract The present study was undertaken to evaluate in vitro antifungal activity of aqueous and hydroacoholic extracts from bark of Terminalia ivorensis A. Chev. (Combretaceae). In vitro antifungal activity of all the extracts was done by agar slant double dilution method. Candida albicans and Aspergillus fumigatus clinically important strains were used for the study. ketoconazole was used as standards for antifungal assay. Antifungal activity was determinated by evaluating of antifung...

  17. Functionalised isocoumarins as antifungal compounds: Synthesis and biological studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simic, Milena; Paunovic, Nikola; Boric, Ivan; Randjelovic, Jelena; Vojnovic, Sandra; Nikodinovic-Runic, Jasmina; Pekmezovic, Marina; Savic, Vladimir

    2016-01-01

    A series of novel 3-substituted isocoumarins was prepared via Pd-catalysed coupling processes and screened in vitro for antifungal activity against Candida species. The study revealed antifungal potential of isocoumarins possessing the azole substituents, which, in some cases, showed biological properties equal to those of clinically used voriconazole. Selected compounds were also screened against voriconazole resistant Candida krusei 6258 and a clinical isolate Candida parapsilosis CA-27. Although the activity against these targets needs to be improved further, the results emphasise additional potential of this new class of antifungal compounds. PMID:26586600

  18. Heuksalim City Farming System and Native Seed Preservation Movement

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Tae Geun

    2014-01-01

    Heuksalim is one of the leading organic agriculture associations in South Korea. It does research, training, seed preservation, certification, international cooperation work and carries out many urban agriculture projects in South Korea. Heuksalim has set up urban gardens in the cities and schools using traditional seeds and an innovative food wastes management system to train the publis and school children on the velue of organic agriculture, safe food and the value of food sufficiency.

  19. Training for Preservation Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirjam M. Foot

    1999-05-01

    Full Text Available In August 1997 the first of a series of summer schools in Preservation Management was held at the Archivschule in Marburg (Germany. The school was organised by the ECPA, the LIBER Division on Preservation, ICA and the Archivschule itself and was aimed at archivists and librarians in management positions from European institutions. It dealt with managerial, organisational and financial aspects of preservation and required active participation by those attending. Apart from introductory sessions by the teaching staff at the Archivschule, a large part of the course took the form of working groups, discussions, assignments and role play, to which participants were expected to take their own experience and problems. The school was conducted in German. Topics, spread over five days, ranged from preservation in the context of the core activities of libraries and archives; planning of preservation projects; general management issues, such as resource management, budgeting, priority setting, communication and effecting change; to more detailed considerations of day-to-day issues, such as storage, disaster control, microfilming and digitising, mass conservation processes, and moulds and fungi.

  20. Fresh Food Online Supermarket Development Study

    OpenAIRE

    Xie Xiang; Liu Jiashi; Guan Zhongliang; Ke Xinsheng

    2014-01-01

    The preservation of fresh food is difficult, so the problems of food safety and the waste of it are very serious. The development of Fresh food online supermarkets will contribute to solve the problem. On the basis of describing the concept, scope and development status of fresh food, the development advantage and disadvantage of fresh food online supermarket is analyzed by SWOT method, future development analysis of the fresh food online supermarkets is been done. Predictive analysis of the ...

  1. 77 FR 71746 - Artificially Sweetened Fruit Jelly and Artificially Sweetened Fruit Preserves and Jams; Proposed...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-04

    ... fruit preserves and jams (artificially sweetened preserves and jams) (21 CFR 150.161) (24 FR 8896... for their use in food labeling (58 FR 2302; January 6, 1993). FDA also prescribed at the same time in... a traditional standardized food term (58 FR 2431; January 6, 1993). A nutrient content claim...

  2. Preliminary study on antifungal effect of commercial essential oils against white rot fungi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalid, Nurul Izzaty; Baharum, Azizah; Daud, Fauzi

    2015-09-01

    Protecting and preserving wood plastic composite from deterioration caused by fungal attack is a high challenge issue to cater nowadays. The objective of this study was to carry out a screening test towards antifungal effect of essential oil and to investigate the potential of raw materials that will be used as basic material for manufacturing wood plastic composite against white rot fungi. Essential oils from four types of natural products comprising cinnamon, lemongrass, lavender and geranium have been screened for their ability to inhibit five types of white rot fungi species which are Lentinus squarrosulus, Pleuorotus pulmonarius, Lentinus sp., Pleuorotus sajor-caju and Lignosus rhinocerus. The antifungal evaluation showed that no inhibitory effect against tested white rot fungi since the mycelia completely filled the plates. From the observation, mycelia of L. squarrosulus, P. pulmonarius and Lentinus sp. were found to filled the surface of falcon tubes with rubber sawdust after 15 days. Mycelia of L. squarrosulus and P. pulmonarius also were found to completely covered the surface of media that contain polypropylene and maleic anhydride grafted polypropylene on it. Therefore, this report proved that the main materials that will be applicable in manufacturing of wood plastic composite had potential to be degraded by this type of fungal attack.

  3. Voriconazole: a new triazole antifungal agent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Leonard B; Kauffman, Carol A

    2003-03-01

    Voriconazole is a second-generation azole antifungal agent that shows excellent in vitro activity against a wide variety of yeasts and molds. It can be given by either the intravenous or the oral route; the oral formulation has excellent bioavailability. The side effect profile of voriconazole is unique in that non-sight-threatening, transient visual disturbances occur in approximately 30% of patients given the drug. Rash (which can manifest as photosensitivity) and hepatitis also occur. The potential for drug-drug interactions is high and requires that careful attention be given to dosage regimens and monitoring of serum levels and effects of interacting drugs. Voriconazole has been approved for the treatment of invasive aspergillosis and refractory infections with Pseudallescheria/Scedosporium and Fusarium species, and it will likely become the drug of choice for treatment of serious infections with those filamentous fungi. PMID:12594645

  4. Antifungal steroid saponins from Dioscorea cayenensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sautour, M; Mitaine-Offer, A-C; Miyamoto, T; Dongmo, A; Lacaille-Dubois, M-A

    2004-01-01

    From the rhizomes of Dioscorea cayenensis Lam.-Holl (Dioscoreaceae), the new 26- O- beta- D-glucopyranosyl-22-methoxy-3 beta,26-dihydroxy-25( R)-furost-5-en-3- O- alpha- L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1-->4)- alpha- L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1-->4)-[ alpha- L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1-->2)]- beta- D-glucopyranoside ( 1) was isolated together with the known dioscin ( 2) and diosgenin 3- O- alpha- L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1-->4)- alpha- L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1-->4)-[ alpha- L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1-->2)]- beta- D-glucopyranoside ( 3). Their structures were established on the basis of spectral data. Compound 2 exhibited antifungal activity against the human pathogenic yeasts Candida albicans, C. glabrata and C. tropicalis (MICs of 12.5, 12.5 and 25 micro g/mL, respectively) whereas 3 showed weak activity and 1 was inactive. PMID:14765305

  5. Naturally occurring antifungal aromatic esters and amides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    During the search of antifungal natural products from terrestrial plants, a new long chained aromatic ester named grandiflorate along with spatazoate from Portulaca grandiflora and N-[2-methoxy-2-(4-methoxyphenyl) ethyl]-trans-cinnamide and aegeline from Solanum erianthum of Nigeria were isolated and tested against six fungal species. The known constituents have not been reported so far from mentioned investigated plants. Structures of the isolated compounds were elucidated with the aid of spectroscopic techniques including two dimensional NMR experiments. Among the compounds, the esters found more potent than amides against Candida albicans and Aspergillus flavus. The new compound grandiflorate gave response against all tested fungal species while aegeline was found to give lowest inhibition during this study. (author)

  6. Anti-fungal activity of irradiated chitosan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anti-fungal activity of chitosan induced by irradiation has been investigated. Commercial chitosan samples of 8B (80% deacetylation) and l0B (99% deacetylation) were irradiated by γ-ray in dry condition. Highly deacethylated chitosan (10B) at low dose irradiation (75 kGy) was effective for inhibition of fungal growth. The sensitivities of Exobasidium vexans, Septoria chrysanthemum and Gibberella fujikuroi for the irradiated chitosan were different and the necessary concentrations of chitosan were 550, 350 and 250 μg/ml, respectively. For the plant growth, low deacethylation (chitosan 8B) and high dose (500 kGy) was effective and the growth of chrysanthemum was promoted by spraying the irradiated chitosan. (author)

  7. Probiotics as Antifungals in Mucosal Candidiasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsubara, Victor H; Bandara, H M H N; Mayer, Marcia P A; Samaranayake, Lakshman P

    2016-05-01

    Candidais an opportunistic pathogen that causes mucosal and deep systemic candidiasis. The emergence of drug resistance and the side effects of currently available antifungals have restricted their use as long-term prophylactic agents for candidal infections. Given this scenario, probiotics have been suggested as a useful alternative for the management of candidiasis. We analyzed the available data on the efficacy of probiotics in candidal colonization of host surfaces. A number of well-controlled studies indicate that probiotics, particularly lactobacilli, suppressCandidagrowth and biofilm development in vitro.A few clinical trials have also shown the beneficial effects of probiotics in reducing oral, vaginal, and enteric colonization byCandida; alleviation of clinical signs and symptoms; and, in some cases, reducing the incidence of invasive fungal infection in critically ill patients. Probiotics may serve in the future as a worthy ally in the battle against chronic mucosal candidal infections. PMID:26826375

  8. Antifungal Activity of the Essential Oil of Illicium verum Fruit and Its Main Component trans-Anethole

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qi Wang

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available In order to identify natural products for plant disease control, the essential oil of star anise (Illicium verum Hook. f. fruit was investigated for its antifungal activity on plant pathogenic fungi. The fruit essential oil obtained by hydro-distillation was analyzed for its chemical composition by gas chromatography (GC and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS. trans-Anethole (89.5%, 2-(1-cyclopentenyl-furan (0.9% and cis-anethole (0.7% were found to be the main components among 22 identified compounds, which accounted for 94.6% of the total oil. The antifungal activity of the oil and its main component trans-anethole against plant pathogenic fungi were determined. Both the essential oil and trans-anethole exhibited strong inhibitory effect against all test fungi indicating that most of the observed antifungal properties was due to the presence of trans-anethole in the oil, which could be developed as natural fungicides for plant disease control in fruit and vegetable preservation.

  9. Advanced Digital Preservation

    CERN Document Server

    Giaretta, David

    2011-01-01

    There is growing recognition of the need to address the fragility of digital information, on which our society heavily depends for smooth operation in all aspects of daily life. This has been discussed in many books and articles on digital preservation, so why is there a need for yet one more? Because, for the most part, those other publications focus on documents, images and webpages -- objects that are normally rendered to be simply displayed by software to a human viewer. Yet there are clearly many more types of digital objects that may need to be preserved, such as databases, scientific da

  10. Research to Identify Effective Antifungal Agents, 1993 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schreck, Carl

    1993-10-01

    This study is a continuation of ``Research to Identify Effective Antifungal Agents'' sponsored by Bonneville Power Administration (Schreck et al. 1990, 1991, and 1992). The objectives of the present study were to select and evaluate candidate fungicides.

  11. Research to Identify Effective Antifungal Agents, 1991 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schreck, Carl

    1991-09-01

    This study is a continuation of ``Research to Identify Effective Antifungal Agents'' sponsored by Bonneville Power Administration (Schreck et al. 1990). The objectives of the present study was to evaluate up to 10 candidate fungicides.

  12. Inhibition of Rat and Human Steroidogenesis by Triazole Antifungals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Environmental chemicals that alter steroid production could interfere with male reproductive development and function. Three agricultural antifungal triazoles (myclobutanil, propiconazole and triadimefon) that are known to modulate expression of cytochrome P450 (CYP) genes and e...

  13. Antifungal activity of fruit pulp extract from Bromelia pinguin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camacho-Hernández, I L; Chávez-Velázquez, J A; Uribe-Beltrán, M J; Ríos-Morgan, A; Delgado-Vargas, F

    2002-08-01

    The methanol extract of the fruit pulp of Bromelia pinguin was evaluated for its antifungal activity. The extract showed a significant activity against some Trichophyton strains, although Candida strains were generally insensitive. PMID:12165338

  14. Antifungal Effect of (+-Pinoresinol Isolated from Sambucus williamsii

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bomi Hwang

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we investigated the antifungal activity and mechanism of action of (+-pinoresinol, a biphenolic compound isolated from the herb Sambucus williamsii,used in traditional medicine. (+-Pinoresinol displays potent antifungal properties without hemolytic effects on human erythrocytes. To understand the antifungal mechanism of (+-pinoresinol, we conducted fluorescence experiments on the human pathogen Candida albicans. Fluorescence analysis using 1,6-diphenyl-1,3,5-hexatriene (DPH indicated that the (+-pinoresinol caused damage to the fungal plasma membrane. This result was confirmed by using rhodamine-labeled giant unilamellar vesicle (GUV experiments. Therefore, the present study indicates that (+-pinoresinol possesses fungicidal activities and therapeutic potential as an antifungal agent for the treatment of fungal infectious diseases in humans.

  15. Antifungal drug discovery through the study of invertebrate model hosts

    OpenAIRE

    Pukkila-Worley, R.; Holson, E.; Wagner, F.; Mylonakis, E.

    2009-01-01

    There is an urgent need for new antifungal agents that are both effective and non-toxic in the therapy of systemic mycoses. The model nematode Caenorhabditis elegans has been used both to elucidate evolutionarily conserved components of host-pathogen interactions and to screen large chemical libraries for novel antimicrobial compounds. Here we review the use of C. elegans models in drug discovery and discuss caffeic acid phenethyl ester, a novel antifungal agent identified using an in vivo sc...

  16. Screening of Iranian plants for antifungal activity: Part 1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amin Gh.R

    2002-07-01

    Full Text Available In this study, 250 species from 37 families of native Iranian plants were screened for in vitro antifungal activity against 19 fungal strains in vitro. Primarily, the crude extracts at concentration of 100μg/ml were tested. Of 250 extracts tested, 185(74% showed antifungal activity against at least one fungal strain. The outstanding species were Artemisia aucheri, Artemisia scoparia, Carthamus oxyacantha, Francoeuria undulate, Tripleurospermum disciform, and Xanthium spinosum.

  17. Recent advances in topical formulation carriers of antifungal agents

    OpenAIRE

    Eman Ahmed Bseiso; Maha Nasr; Omaima Sammour; Nabaweya A Abd El Gawad

    2015-01-01

    Fungal infections are amongst the most commonly encountered diseases affecting the skin. Treatment approaches include both topical and oral antifungal agents. The topical route is generally preferred due to the possible side effects of oral medication. Advances in the field of formulation may soon render outdated conventional products such as creams, ointments and gels. Several carrier systems loaded with antifungal drugs have demonstrated promising results in the treatment of skin fungal inf...

  18. Design, Synthesis and Evaluation of Macrocyclic Antifungal Peptides

    OpenAIRE

    Mulder, M.P.C.

    2012-01-01

    Fungi are increasingly recognised as major additional pathogens in already critically ill patients. Invasive fungal infections represent a growing threat and over the past two decades the incidence and diversity of fungal infections has increased enormously, especially among immunocompromised patients and patients hospitalized with serious underlying diseases. Resistance against and toxicity of the current antifungal agents underscores the urgent need for development of new antifungal compoun...

  19. Antifungal Chemical Compounds Identified Using a C. elegans Pathogenicity Assay

    OpenAIRE

    Breger, Julia; Fuchs, Beth Burgwyn; Aperis, George; Moy, Terence I.; Cormack, Brendan P.; Ausubel, Frederick M; Mylonakis, Eleftherios

    2007-01-01

    There is an urgent need for the development of new antifungal agents. A facile in vivo model that evaluates libraries of chemical compounds could solve some of the main obstacles in current antifungal discovery. We show that Candida albicans, as well as other Candida species, are ingested by Caenorhabditis elegans and establish a persistent lethal infection in the C. elegans intestinal track. Importantly, key components of Candida pathogenesis in mammals, such as filament formation, are also ...

  20. Antifungal activity in plants from Chinese traditional and folk medicine

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Qingfei; Luyten, Walter; Pellens, Klaartje; Wang, Yiming; Thevissen, Karin; Liang, Qionglin; Cammue, Bruno; Schoofs, Liliane; Luo, Guoan

    2012-01-01

    ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: From over 100 Chinese clinical trial publications, we retrieved 22 commercial preparations and 17 clinical prescriptions used as Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) for treating mycotic vaginitis, typically caused by Candida albicans. The 8 most frequently used plants as well as another 7 TCM and 18 folk medicinal plants used in the South of China for antifungal therapy were investigated for in vitro antifungal activity. CONCLUSIONS: The majority of plants, ...

  1. SCREENING OF ANTIFUNGAL EFFECTS OF PSEUDOCLITOCYBE CYATHIFORMIS Bull. (Singer)

    OpenAIRE

    Perihan Güler; Fatih Kutluer; Taşkın Erol; Erkan Eren; İlknur Kunduz; Hayriye Biçer

    2013-01-01

    In this study, antifungal activities of Pseudoclitocybe cyathiformis extracts with the help of acetone and chloroform against to Fusarium species (Fusarium culmorum and Fusarium moniliforme) were investigated. Pseudoclitocybe cyathiformis was dried at aseptic conditions and put thru extractions for 12 hours in solvents. Than the evaporator at 40°C and finally dried material stored at + 4°C.(Jonathan and Fasidi, 2003). Antifungal activities were measured by Disc Diffusion method (Stoke and Rid...

  2. Selection for digital preservation

    OpenAIRE

    Seadle, Michael

    2004-01-01

    This editorial discusses long-term archiving and long-term access to digital documents, with an emphasis on criteria for selection. Selecting materials for digital preservation depends on whether the materials are both valuable and endangered, whether appropriate digitization procedures and standards for these materials exist, and whether copyright allows reasonable access for educational and research purposes.

  3. Preservation in New Buildings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher Kitching

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available In the United Kingdom (as in many other countries increasing attention is being paid to the importance of each library and archive having a written preservation strategy endorsed by its governing body. So increasingly we are asking: where does „preservation“ begin and what are its top priorities? Some would say preservation begins with the definition of collecting policies to ensure that only relevant items are acquired in the first place, and therefore that no unnecessary costs are incurred on the long-term care of unwanted and unconsulted items. Others might argue that the first priority must be the careful appraisal of existing holdings to determine their preservation and conservation requirements and to prioritise their treatment. Or should preservation begin with damage-limitation: restricting the physical handling of books and documents, on the one hand by providing whenever possible surrogate copies in digital formats or microform, and on the other hand by offering at least basic protection through appropriate boxing and packaging? This, surely, goes hand-in-hand with the education of staff and readers about the importance of treating rare or unique materials with proper respect.

  4. Sharing the Preservation Burden

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Preserving digitally encoded information which is not just to be rendered, as a document, but which must processed, like data, is even harder than one might think, because understandability of the information which is encoded in the digital object(s) is what is required. Information about Nuclear Waste will include both documents as well as data. Moreover one must be able to understand the relationship between the many individual pieces of information. Furthermore the volume of information involved will require us to allow automated processing of such information. Preserving the ability to understand and process digitally encoded information over long periods of time is especially hard when so many things will change, including hardware, software, environment and the tacit and implicit knowledge that people have. Since we cannot predict these changes this cannot be just a one-off action; continued effort is required. However it seems reasonable to say that no organization, project or person can ever say for certain that their ability to provide this effort is going to last forever. What can be done? Can anything be guaranteed? Probably not guaranteed - but at least one can try to reduce the risk of losing the information. We argue that if no single organization, project or person can guarantee funding or effort (or even interest), then somehow we must share the 'preservation load', and this is more than a simple chain of preservation consisting of handing on the collection of bits from one holder to the next. Clearly the bits must be passed on (but may be transformed along the way), however something more is required - because of the need to maintain understandability, not just access. This paper describes the tools, techniques and infrastructure components which the CASPAR project is producing to help in sharing the preservation burden. In summary: CASPAR is attempting to use OAIS concepts rigorously and to the fullest extent possible, supplementing these where

  5. An antifungal peptide from Phaseolus vulgaris cv. brown kidney bean

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yau Sang Chan; Jack Ho Wong; Evandro Fei Fang; Wen Liang Pan; Tzi Bun Ng

    2012-01-01

    A 5.4-kDa antifungal peptide,with an N-terminal sequence highly homologous to defensins and inhibitory activity against Mycosphaerella arachidicola (IC5o=3 μM),Setospaeria turcica and Bipolaris maydis,was isolated from the seeds of Phaseolus vulgaris cv.brown kidney bean.The peptide was purified by employing a protocol that entailed adsorption on Affi-gel blue gel and Mono S and finally gel filtration on Superdex 75.The antifungal activity of the peptide against M.arachidicola was stable in the pH range 3-12 and in the temperature range 0℃ to 80℃.There was a slight reduction of the antifungal activity at pH 2 and 13,and the activity was indiscernible at pH 0,1,and 14.The activity at 90℃ and 100℃ was slightly diminished.Deposition of Congo red at the hyphal tips of M.arachidicola was induced by the peptide indicating inhibition of hyphal growth.The lack of antiproliferative activity of brown kidney bean antifungal peptide toward tumor cells,in contrast to the presence of such activity of other antifungal peptides,indicates that different domains are responsible for the antifungal and antiproliferative activities.

  6. Update on antifungal drug resistance mechanisms of Aspergillus fumigatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chamilos, G; Kontoyiannis, D P

    2005-12-01

    Although the arsenal of agents with anti-Aspergillus activity has expanded over the last decade, mortality due to invasive aspergillosis (IA) remains unacceptably high. Aspergillus fumigatus still accounts for the majority of cases of IA; however less susceptible to antifungals non-fumigatus aspergilli began to emerge. Antifungal drug resistance of Aspergillus might partially account for treatment failures. Recent advances in our understanding of mechanisms of antifungal drug action in Aspergillus, along with the standardization of in vitro susceptibility testing methods, has brought resistance testing to the forefront of clinical mycology. In addition, molecular biology has started to shed light on the mechanisms of resistance of A. fumigatus to azoles and the echinocandins, while genome-based assays show promise for high-throughput screening for genotypic antifungal resistance. Several problems remain, however, in the study of this complex area. Large multicenter clinical studies--point prevalence or longitudinal--to capture the incidence and prevalence of antifungal resistance in A. fumigatus isolates are lacking. Correlation of in vitro susceptibility with clinical outcome and susceptibility breakpoints has not been established. In addition, the issue of cross-resistance between the newer triazoles is of concern. Furthermore, in vitro resistance testing for polyenes and echinocandins is difficult, and their mechanisms of resistance are largely unknown. This review examines challenges in the diagnosis, epidemiology, and mechanisms of antifungal drug resistance in A. fumigatus. PMID:16488654

  7. Studies in Phylogeny, Development of Rapid IdentificationMethods, Antifungal Susceptibility, and Growth Rates of Clinical Strains of Sporothrix schenckii Complex in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Rumi; Yikelamu, Alimu; Tanaka, Reiko; Igawa, Ken; Yokozeki, Hiroo; Yaguchi, Takashi

    2016-01-01

    Sporotrichosis is a fungal infection caused by the Sporothrix species, which have distinct virulence profiles and geographic distributions. We performed a phylogenetic study in strains morphologically identified as Sporothrix schenckii from clinical specimens in Japan, which were preserved at the Medical Mycology Research Center, Chiba University. In addition, we examined the in vitro antifungal susceptibility and growth rate to evaluate their physiological features. Three hundred strains were examined using sequence analysis of the partial calmodulin gene, or polymerase chain reaction(PCR)method using newly designed species-specific primers; 291 strains were Sporothrix globosa and 9 strains were S. schenckii sensu stricto (in narrow sense, s. s.). S. globosa strains were further clustered into two subclades, and S. schenckii s. s. strains were divided into three subclades. In 38 strains of S. globosa for which antifungal profiles were determined, 4 strains (11%) showed high minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) value for itraconazole. All tested strains of S. schenckii s. s. and S. globosa showed low sensitivity for amphotericin B. These antifungals are used for treatment of sporotrichosis when infection is severe. S. schenckii s. s. grew better than S. globosa; wherein S. globosa showed restricted growth at 35℃ and did not grow at 37℃. Our molecular data showed that S. globosa is the main causal agent of sporotrichosis in Japan. It is important to determine the antifungal profiles of each case, in addition to accurate species-level identification, to strategize the therapy for sporotrichosis. PMID:27581775

  8. Bacterial food-borne pathogens in Indian food

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Food technology and food processing techniques have made tremendous advances in preservation of food and ensuring safety of food by killing food-borne pathogens. In addition to old techniques such as pasteurization, canning, dehydration, fermentation and salting, a number of new techniques such as radiation processing, high pressure technology and pulsed electric field technology are being applied for preservation of food and to ensure food safety. Total Quality Management (TQM) concepts have been developed to take care of food safety from farm to table. Hazard Analysis at Critical Control Points (HACCP) is being applied for mass scale production of food to make food free from pathogens. Despite these advances, food-borne diseases have become one of the most widespread public health problems in the world. About two thirds of all the outbreaks are traced to microbial contaminated food. According to World Health Organization (WHO) estimates, food-borne and waterborne diarrhoeal diseases kill an estimated 2 million people annually, including many children. Food safety is a major concern not only for developing countries but also for the developed countries. A number of factors such as emergence of new food-borne pathogens, development of drug resistance in pathogens, changing life style, globalization of the food supply etc. are responsible for the continuous persistence of food-borne diseases. The food-borne disease outbreaks due to E. coli O157:H7, Listeria monocytogenes, Salmonella and Campylobacter, are responsible for recall of many foods resulting in heavy losses to food industry. Due to consumer demand, a number of Ready-To-Eat (RTE) minimally processed foods are increasingly marketed; however, there is increased risk of foodborne diseases with these products. Food Technology Division of Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai, has been working on food-borne bacterial pathogens particularly Salmonella, Campylobacter, Listeria monocytogenes, Vibrio and Aeromonasf

  9. Toxicology of Processed and Packaged Foods

    OpenAIRE

    A. N. Srivatsa; Sharma, T. R.

    1987-01-01

    Modem food production, processing and preservation use a large number of additives at various stages. These include food sweetners, preservatives, colours, antioxidants and pesticides. In addition, the foods come in contact with packaging materials which by themselves contain a large number of additives. Some of these are potential sources of hazards to consumers. This paper is a review of investigations which have been carried out on some of the additives, the migration of additives from pac...

  10. Pharmacokinetics of antifungal agents in onychomycoses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Debruyne, D; Coquerel, A

    2001-01-01

    Onychomycosis is caused by infection by fungi, mainly dermatophytes and nondermatophyte yeasts or moulds; it affects the fingernails and, more frequently, the toenails. Dermatophytes are responsible for about 90 to 95% of fungal infections. Trichophyton rubrum is the most common dermatophyte; Candida albicans is the major nondermatophyte yeast. Although topical therapy of onchomycosis does not lead to systemic adverse effects or interactions with concomitantly taken drugs, it does not provide high cure rates and requires complete compliance from the patient. At present there are 3 oral antifungal medications that are generally used for the short term treatment of onychomycosis: itraconazole, terbinafine and fluconazole. The persistence of these active drugs in nails allows weekly administration, reduced treatment or a pulse regimen. Good clinical and mycological efficacies are obtained with itraconazole 100 to 200 mg daily, terbinafine 250mg daily for 3 months, or fluconazole 150 mg weekly for at least 6 months. Itraconazole is a synthetic triazole with a broad spectrum of action. It is well absorbed when administered orally and can be detected in nails 1 to 2 weeks after the start of therapy. The nail : plasma ratio stabilises at around 1 by week 18 of treatment. Itraconazole is still detectable in nails 27 weeks after stopping administration. Nail concentrations are higher than the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) for most dermatophytes and Candida species from the first month of treatment. The elimination half-life of itraconazole from nails is long, ranging from 32 to 147 days. Terbinafine is a synthetic allylamine that is effective against dermatophytes. Terbinafine is well absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract, and the time to reach effective concentrations in nail is 1 to 2 weeks. The half-life is from 24 to 156 days, explaining the observed persistence of terbinafine in nails for longer than 252 days. Fluconazole is a bis-triazole broad spectrum

  11. View of food industry on acceptance of food irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Food processing with irradiation improve food quality, extend shelf life, reduce losses, but how make this process acceptable and interesting to food industries? In France the 'Association pour la promotion de l'industrie et de l'agriculture (APRIA)' has achieved qualitative and quantitative studies on the acceptability of food irradiation to french industrialists and consumers. Their views are opposing: the food industries consider the food irradiation as technology ahead of its time. The consumer is frightened by such a process which do not change or change slightly the product. This paper reports the analysis and the content of the french industry speech and the public opinion on food preservation methods notably food irradiation. The factors of food irradiation acceptance are discussed and recommendations are given. 1 fig. (F.M.)

  12. Comparative study of antifungal activities of six selected essential oils against fungal isolates from cheese wagashi in Benin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sessou, P; Farougou, S; Ahounou, S; Hounnankpon, Y; Azokpota, P; Youssao, I; Sohounhloue, D

    2013-12-01

    The study has compared the antifungal efficacy of six essential oils, Cinnamomum zeylanicum, Cymbopogon citratus, Ocimum gratissimum, Pimenta racemosa, Syzygium aromaticum and Zingiber officinale, tested in culture medium and in traditional cheese wagashi system against moulds belonging to Aspergillus, Penicillium, Fusarium and Scopulariopsis genera in perspective to select the most actives as substitutes of chemical preservatives for wagashi preservation. Results obtained from this work indicated that Syzygium aromaticum, Pimenta racemosa, Ocimum gratissimum and Cymbopogon citratus essentials oils were the most actives extracts at in vitro assay in decreasing order with strong fungistatic activity against the isolates tested; the pronounced activity was provided by S. aromaticum essential oil. The effectiveness of these actives oils on the less sensitive moulds common to these oils showed that, among these extracts that of Syzygium aromaticum in particular exerted high sporale reduction against all the strains tested. In sum, Syzygium aromaticum essential oil possessed the highest antifungal activity both in culture medium and in wagashi system. Essential oils of C. citratus, O. gratissimum, P. racemosa and above all that of S. aromaticum, among the six extracts investigated, were the most promising oils as wagashi additives in substitution of synthetic chemicals ones to extend shelf life time of this by-product of milk for its valorization. Further studies are needed to be performed on the safety of oils for human, the shelf life time of this cheese and its acceptability when treated with essential oils to reduce and control pathogen contamination or native microflora. PMID:24506043

  13. On Distribution Preserving Quantization

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Minyue; Kleijn, W Bastiaan

    2011-01-01

    Upon compressing perceptually relevant signals, conventional quantization generally results in unnatural outcomes at low rates. We propose distribution preserving quantization (DPQ) to solve this problem. DPQ is a new quantization concept that confines the probability space of the reconstruction to be identical to that of the source. A distinctive feature of DPQ is that it facilitates a seamless transition between signal synthesis and quantization. A theoretical analysis of DPQ leads to a distribution preserving rate-distortion function (DP-RDF), which serves as a lower bound on the rate of any DPQ scheme, under a constraint on distortion. In general situations, the DP-RDF approaches the classic rate-distortion function for the same source and distortion measure, in the limit of an increasing rate. A practical DPQ scheme based on a multivariate transformation is also proposed. This scheme asymptotically achieves the DP-RDF for i.i.d. Gaussian sources and the mean squared error.

  14. Patch test with preservatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kar Sumit

    1992-01-01

    Full Text Available Of the 705 patients patch tested between March 88 to March 91, 317 were tested for sensitivity to preservatives with antigens obtained from Chemo technique AB, Sweden. Paraben was the commonest sensitizer (22.4% followed by Groton B K (8.1% and Triclosan (6.5%. We stress the need to consider these allergens as source of dermatitis and advocate complete labelling of topical preparations marketed.

  15. Privacy Preserving Data Mining

    OpenAIRE

    A.T. Ravi; Chitra, S.

    2011-01-01

    Recent interest in data collection and monitoring using data mining for security and business-related applications has raised privacy. Privacy Preserving Data Mining (PPDM) techniques require data modification to disinfect them from sensitive information or to anonymize them at an uncertainty level. This study uses PPDM with adult dataset to investigate effects of K-anonymization for evaluation metrics. This study uses Artificial Bee Colony (ABC) algorithm for feature generalization and suppr...

  16. Methods to preserve potentially toxigenic fungi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucas Costa Guimarães

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Microorganisms are a source of many high-value compounds which are useful to every living being, such as humans, plants and animals. Since the process of isolating and improving a microorganism can be lengthy and expensive, preserving the obtained characteristic is of paramount importance, so the process does not need to be repeated. Fungi are eukaryotic, achlorophyllous, heterotrophic organisms, usually filamentous, absorb their food, can be either macro or microscopic, propagate themselves by means of spores and store glycogen as a source of storage. Fungi, while infesting food, may produce toxic substances such as mycotoxins. The great genetic diversity of the Kingdom Fungi renders the preservation of fungal cultures for many years relevant. Several international reference mycological culture collections are maintained in many countries. The methodologies that are most fit for preserving microorganisms for extended periods are based on lowering the metabolism until it reaches a stage of artificial dormancy . The goal of this study was to analyze three methods for potentially toxigenic fungal conservation (Castellani's, continuous subculture and lyophilization and to identify the best among them.

  17. Grain preservation in SSSR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    First the importance of cereals collected in the S.S.S.R., the reason why the government had to put in practice a storage chain, composed of large capacity store houses (200 000 metric tonnes, or more) is reminded. When climatic conditions result in wet harvested grains, cereals are dried either in state enterprise dryers (32 to 50 tonnes/hour) or in kolkhozes' dryers (2 to 16 tonnes/hour). A new type of drying with recycling, has been developped, economizing 10 to 15 p. 100. Then the possibilities offered by the technique of partial drying of very wet grains are studied and the preservation processes using fresh ventilation, or hot ventilation with drying effect are described. The question of silage of wet grains destined to animal consumption is then examined as well as preservation by sodium pyrosulfide; the use of propionic acid, little developped in SSSR, is studied now, just as storage with inert gas. The struggle technics against insects, either with chemical agents, or with irradiation are described. Finally the modalities of technicians formation, specialized in preservation, are discussed

  18. Aspects of food hygiene and demands on irradiation of food

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Legislation of food irradiation in the GDR has been entailing a number of topical demands on food research and monitoring. International literature has been evaluated for aspects of food hygiene in the context of irradiation, with the view to ensure proper preservation and hygiene of foodstuff. Dose-dependent induced radioactivity, formation of toxic substances as well as the impact of radiation on biological valence and on sensorial food conditions are discussed, with particular reference to microbicidal action of ionizidng radiation. Conclusions are drawn in the context of food hygiene, with general demands on irradiation of foodstuff. (author)

  19. Interaction of Common Azole Antifungals with P Glycoprotein

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Er-jia; Lew, Karen; Casciano, Christopher N.; Clement, Robert P.; Johnson, William W.

    2002-01-01

    Both eucaryotic and procaryotic cells are resistant to a large number of antibiotics because of the activities of export transporters. The most studied transporter in the mammalian ATP-binding cassette transporter superfamily, P glycoprotein (P-gp), ejects many structurally unrelated amphiphilic and lipophilic xenobiotics. Observed clinical interactions and some in vitro studies suggest that azole antifungals may interact with P-gp. Such an interaction could both affect the disposition and exposure to azole antifungal therapeutics and partially explain the clinical drug interactions observed with some antifungals. Using a whole-cell assay in which the retention of a marker substrate is evaluated and quantified, we studied the abilities of the most widely prescribed orally administered azole antifungals to inhibit the function of this transporter. In a cell line presenting an overexpressed amount of the human P-gp transporter, itraconazole and ketoconazole inhibited P-gp function with 50% inhibitory concentrations (IC50s) of ∼2 and ∼6 μM, respectively. Cyclosporin A was inhibitory with an IC50 of 1.4 μM in this system. Uniquely, fluconazole had no effect in this assay, a result consistent with known clinical interactions. The effects of these azole antifungals on ATP consumption by P-gp (representing transport activity) were also assessed, and the Km values were congruent with the IC50s. Therefore, exposure of tissue to the azole antifungals may be modulated by human P-gp, and the clinical interactions of azole antifungals with other drugs may be due, in part, to inhibition of P-gp transport. PMID:11751127

  20. Antifungal Indole Alkaloids from Winchia calophylla.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Mei-Li; Chen, Jia; Sun, Meng; Zhang, Dong-Bo; Gao, Kun

    2016-05-01

    Ten indole alkaloids (1-10) were obtained from an antifungal extract of Winchia calophylla, of which two (2 and 4) were new. N(4)-Methyl-10-hydroxyl-desacetylakuammilin (2) was an akuammiline-type indole alkaloid. N(1)-Methyl-echitaminic acid (4) was an unusual zwitterion with a basic vincorine-type skeleton. This is the first report of 10 in W. calophylla. The structures of all of the compounds were determined based on spectroscopic data, and their bioactivities were assessed. Compound 1 showed potent activity against the plant pathogenic fungi of Penicillium italicum and Fusarium oxysporum f.sp cubens with IC50 s of 10.4 and 11.5 µM, respectively, and 3 inhibited Rhizoctonia solani with an IC50 of 11.7 µM. Compounds 2 and 4 showed weak cytotoxicity against the human leukemic cell line HL-60 in vitro with IC50 s of 51.4 and 75.3 µM, respectively. Compounds 1 and 2 displayed weak activity against acetylcholinesterase with IC50 s around 61.3 and 52.6 µM, respectively. PMID:27002397

  1. Antifungal activity of oregano extract against A. Versicolor, E. Nidulans and Eurotium spp.: Producers of sterigmatocystin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kocić-Tanackov Sunčica D.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the influence of oregano extract (Origanum vulgare L. on growth of Aspergillus versicolor, Emericella nidulans, Eurotium herbariorum, E. amstelodami, E. chevalieri and E. rubrum - producers of sterigmatocystin (STC isolated from salads. Antifungal tests were performed by agar plates method. The composition of the active component of extract was determined by GC-MS method and the major components were: carvacrol (34.20%, triacetin (22.91%, carvone (18.05%, p-cymene (8.05% and thymol (3.74%. The examined extract showed the ability to reduce mold growth at all applied concentrations. Minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC for E. nidulans, E. chevalieri and E. amstelodami were 2.5% (v/v and over 2.5% (v/v for A. versicolor. At 1.5% (v/v concentration the extract completely inhibited the growth of E. rubrum, whereas higher dose of 2.5% (v/v was fungicidal against E. herbariorum. Besides its sensory role in food products, the examined oregano extract also exhibits antifungal activities against producers of STC.

  2. Efficacy of Cow Urine as Plant Growth Enhancer and Antifungal Agent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Savita Jandaik

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study was conducted to determine antifungal activity of three different concentrations (5, 10, and 15% of cow urine against three fungal pathogens (Fusarium oxysporum, Rhizoctonia solani, and Sclerotium rolfsii isolated from infected plants of Methi and Bhindi that showed symptoms of damping off and wilting disease by poison food technique. The extent of growth of test fungi in plates poisoned with cow urine was lesser when compared with the control plates. Among these concentrations cow urine at 15% concentration was most effective. When the three fungal organisms were compared, maximum growth suppression was observed in Fusarium oxysporum (78.57% at 15% concentration of cow urine followed by Rhizoctonia solani (78.37% and Sclerotium rolfsii (73.84%. Finally we concluded that the cow urine has antifungal activities and the inhibitory activity can be used in the control of fungi. The nutritional effect of cow urine on plant growth was also tested with Trigonella foenum-graecum (Methi and Abelmoschus esculentus (Bhindi plants and the chlorophyll and protein content was also estimated.

  3. 2,3-Dideoxyglucosides of selected terpene phenols and alcohols as potent antifungal compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    James Bound, D; Murthy, Pushpa S; Srinivas, P

    2016-11-01

    The antifungal activities of novel 2,3-unsaturated and 2,3-dideoxy 1-O-glucosides of carvacrol, thymol, and perillyl alcohol were tested against Aspergillus flavus, Aspergillus ochraceus, Fusarium oxysporum, Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Candida albicans. In the agar well diffusion tests, zones of inhibition for the derivatives of carvacrol, thymol and perillyl alcohol were higher (15-30mm) in the case of filamentous fungi than those for the parent compounds. Their MIC and MFC values indicated that the 2,3-unsaturated and 2,3-dideoxy 1-O-glucosides of carvacrol and thymol exhibited more fungicidal activity than the other compounds. Further, the 2,3-dideoxyglucosides of carvacrol and thymol, exhibited antitoxigenic effects against A. ochraceus and A. flavus and inhibited the production of ochratoxin and aflatoxin-B2. Propidium iodide influx assay demonstrated the lysis of C. albicans cells by carvacrol and its 2,3-unsaturated 1-O-glucoside and the loss of the membrane integrity. These new 2,3-dideoxyglucosides can be useful as antifungal agents and condiments in foods. PMID:27211660

  4. Antifungal activity of ibuprofen against aspergillus species and its interaction with common antifungal drugs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Li-juan; CHEN Wei; XU Hui; WAN Zhe; LI Ruo-yu; LIU Wei

    2010-01-01

    Background The incidence of invasive aspergillosis (IA) has increased in frequency in immunocompromised patients with a variety of diseases. The poor prognosis might be due to limited treatment option. This study aimed to evaluate antifungal activity of ibuprofen against clinical isolates of aspergillus species, as well as its interaction with azoles or with amphotericin B or with micafungin.Methods Antifungal activity of ibuprofen against 10 strains of Aspergillus fumigatus, Aspergillus flavus, and Aspergillus terreus were tested with both disk diffusion assay and standard broth microdilution method. To determine whether ibuprofen combined with itraconazole, voriconazole, amphotericin B, or micafungin had interactive effects on aspergillus spp., we used both disk diffusion assay and Chequerboard method.Results As for disk diffusion method, ibuprofen produced a zone of growth inhibition with diameters of (20.1±3.9) mm at 48 hours of incubation. As for broth microdilution method, the minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) ranges of ibuprofen against aspergillus spp. were 1000-2000 μg/ml, and the minimal fungicidal concentration (MFC) ranges of that was 2000-8000 μg/ml. For 2 of 5 isolates, when ibuprofen combined with itraconazole or voriconazole, the zones of growth inhibition were larger than those of the individual drug. The results of Chequerboard method showed that fractional inhibitory concentration index (FICI) ranges were 1.125-2.500.Conclusions Ibuprofen is active against aspergillus spp.. And ibuprofen does not affect the in vitro activity of itraconazole, voriconazole, amphotericin B or micafungin against aspergillus spp..

  5. Food Poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Got Homework? Here's Help White House Lunch Recipes Food Poisoning KidsHealth > For Kids > Food Poisoning Print A ... find out how to avoid it. What Is Food Poisoning? Food poisoning comes from eating foods that ...

  6. Diagnosis of oral fungal infection in patients undergoing head and neck cancer radiation. Antifungal susceptibility of isolates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radiotherapy adverse effects are very common, they contribute to development of opportunistic infections. Genus Candida is often associated with oral diseases in susceptible patients. The aim of this study was to study the presence of yeast in oral lesions, in patients receiving radiotherapy for head and neck cancer, and to evaluate antifungal susceptibility of isolates. Swabs of oral mucosal lesions of 76 patients were studied. Antifungal susceptibility of the isolates was evaluated, with ATB Fungus-3 method, which tests 5-fluorcitosine (5-FC), amphotericin B (AMB), fluconazole (FCA), itraconazole (ITR) and voriconazole (VRC); and allows the estimation of the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC). Yeasts were isolated in 74% of samples, being Candida albicans, most frequent specie (53%), followed by C.tropicalis (24%), C.parapsilosis (14%), C.krusei (5%), C.dubliniensis (2%) and Saccharomyces cerevisiae (2%). All strains were susceptible to VRC. For other antifungals, there were resistant or dose-dependent-susceptible strains. Only C.krusei was resistant to the FCA. About AMB, 2 isolates of C. tropicalis presented a value of 2 mg/l MIC, dose with high incidence of adverse effects. These studies are important to establish early and suitable therapy, wich contribute to achieve lowers rates of disseminated forms of candidiasis, and to reduce the difficulties in food intake that carries the presence of oral lesions. (authors)

  7. Bioactivities of Ketones Terpenes: Antifungal Effect on F. verticillioides and Repellents to Control Insect Fungal Vector, S. zeamais

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romina P. Pizzolitto

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Maize is one the most important staple foods in the world. However, numerous pests, such as fungal pathogens, e.g., Fusarium verticillioides, and insects, such as Sitophlilus zeamais, attack maize grains during storage. Many F. verticillioides strains produce fumonisins, one of the most important mycotoxin that causes toxic effects on human and animal health. This situation is aggravated by the insect fungal vector, Sitophlilus zeamais, which contributes to the dispersal of fungal spores, and through feeding damage, provide entry points for fungal infections. The aim of this study was to evaluate in vitro bioassays, the antifungal activity on F. verticillioides M3125 and repellent effects against S. zeamais of ketone terpenes. In addition, we performed Quantitative structure–activity relationship (Q-SAR studies between physico-chemical properties of ketone terpenes and the antifungal effect. Thymoquinone was the most active compound against F. verticillioides (Minimum Inhibitory Concentration, MIC: 0.87 affecting the lag phase and the growth rate showing a total inhibition of growth at concentration higher than 2 mM (p < 0.05. The Q-SAR model revealed that the antifungal activity of ketone compounds is related to the electronic descriptor, Pi energy. Thymoquinone showed a strong repellent effect (−77.8 ± 8.5, p < 0.001 against S. zeamais. These findings make an important contribution to the search for new compounds to control two stored pests of maize.

  8. Antifungal and Zearalenone Inhibitory Activity of Pediococcus pentosaceus Isolated from Dairy Products on Fusarium graminearum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sellamani, Muthulakshmi; Kalagatur, Naveen K; Siddaiah, Chandranayaka; Mudili, Venkataramana; Krishna, Kadirvelu; Natarajan, Gopalan; Rao Putcha, Venkata L

    2016-01-01

    The present study was aimed to evaluate the bio-control efficacy of Pediococcus pentosaceus isolated from traditional fermented dairy products originated from India, against the growth and zearalenone (ZEA) production of Fusarium graminearum. The cell-free supernatants of P. pentosaceus (PPCS) were prepared and chemical profiling was carried out by GC-MS and MALDI-TOF analysis. Chemical profiling of PPCS evidenced that, the presence of phenolic antioxidants, which are responsible for the antifungal activity. Another hand, MALDI-TOF analysis also indicated the presence of antimicrobial peptides. To know the antioxidant potential of PPCS, DPPH free radical scavenging assay was carried out and IC50 value was determined as 32 ± 1.89 μL/mL. The antifungal activity of P. pentosaceus was determined by dual culture overlay technique and zone of inhibition was recorded as 47 ± 2.81%, and antifungal activity of PPCS on F. graminearum was determined by micro-well dilution and scanning electron microscopic techniques. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of PPCS was determined as 66 ± 2.18 μL/mL in the present study. Also a clear variation in the micromorphology of mycelia treated with MIC value of PPCS compared to untreated control was documented. Further, the mechanism of growth inhibition was revealed by ergosterol analysis and determination of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in PPCS treated samples. The effects of PPCS on mycelial biomass and ZEA production were observed in a dose-dependent manner. The mechanism behind the suppression of ZEA production was studied by reverse transcriptase qPCR analysis of ZEA metabolic pathway genes (PKS4 and PKS13), and results showed that there is a dose dependent down-regulation of target gene expression in PPCS treated samples. The results of the present study were collectively proved that, the antifungal and ZEA inhibitory activity of PPCS against F. graminearum and it may find a potential application in agriculture and food

  9. A Framework for Software Preservation

    OpenAIRE

    Brian Matthews; Arif Shaon; Juan Bicarregui; Catherine Jones

    2010-01-01

    Software preservation has not had detailed consideration as a research topic or in practical application. In this paper, we present a conceptual framework to capture and organise the main notions of software preservation, which are required for a coherent and comprehensive approach.  This framework has three main aspects. Firstly a discussion of what it means to preserve software via a performance model which considers how a software artefact can be rebuilt from preserved components and can t...

  10. Characterization of Antifungal Activity and Nail Penetration of ME1111, a New Antifungal Agent for Topical Treatment of Onychomycosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabata, Yuji; Takei-Masuda, Naomi; Kubota, Natsuki; Takahata, Sho; Ohyama, Makoto; Kaneda, Kaori; Iida, Maiko; Maebashi, Kazunori

    2016-02-01

    Fungal nail infection (onychomycosis) is a prevalent disease in many areas of the world, with a high incidence approaching 23%. Available antifungals to treat the disease suffer from a number of disadvantages, necessitating the discovery of new efficacious and safe antifungals. Here, we evaluate the in vitro antifungal activity and nail penetration ability of ME1111, a novel antifungal agent, along with comparator drugs, including ciclopirox, amorolfine, terbinafine, and itraconazole. ME1111 showed potent antifungal activity against Trichophyton rubrum and Trichophyton mentagrophytes (the major etiologic agents of onychomycosis) strains isolated in Japan and reference fungal strains with an MIC range of 0.12 to 0.5 mg/liter and an MIC50 and MIC90 of 0.5 mg/liter for both. Importantly, none of the tested isolates showed an elevated ME1111 MIC. Moreover, the antifungal activity of ME1111 was minimally affected by 5% wool keratin powder in comparison to the other antifungals tested. The ME1111 solution was able to penetrate human nails and inhibit fungal growth in a dose-dependent manner according to the TurChub assay. In contrast, 8% ciclopirox and 5% amorolfine nail lacquers showed no activity under the same conditions. ME1111 demonstrated approximately 60-fold-greater selectivity in inhibition of Trichophyton spp. than of human cell lines. Our findings demonstrate that ME1111 possesses potent antidermatophyte activity, maintains this activity in the presence of keratin, and possesses excellent human nail permeability. These results suggest that ME1111 is a promising topical medication for the treatment of onychomycosis and therefore warrants further clinical evaluation. PMID:26643333

  11. Development of radiation preservation technique in Beijing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The 60Co radiation preservation technique which was used to preserve persimmons, green peppers and four varieties of apple was studied. Apples and persimmons were irradiated with 0.1 ∼ 0.7kGy and 0.1 ∼ 1.0kGy respectively, then they were stored under a constant environmental temperature. Green peppers were treated with heat, irradiated with low dose and stored at low temperature. After a certain time of storing, the results showed that the quality of irradiated groups was better than control group, and there was no difference of main nutrient components between the irradiated groups and the control group. Finally, the radiation processing does not cause radioactivity increasing and microelements decreasing in the food

  12. In Search of the Holy Grail of Antifungal Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapman, Stanley W.; Sullivan, Donna C.; Cleary, John D.

    2008-01-01

    The ideal antifungal agent remains an elusive goal for treatment of life-threatening systemic fungal infections. Such an agent would have broad antifungal activity, low rates of resistance, flexible routes of administration, few associated adverse events, and limited drug-drug interactions. Only three of the seven classes of antifungal agents currently available are suitable for treatment of systemic infection: the polyenes, the azoles, and the echinocandins. None match all the characteristics of an ideal agent, the Holy Grail of antifungal therapy. Academia and industry need to collaborate in the search for new lead antifungal compounds using traditional screening methods as well as the new pharmacogenomics methods. Enhancing efficacy and reducing toxicity of the currently available therapeutic agents is also another important avenue of study. As an example, the Mycosis Research Center at the University of Mississippi Medical Center has identified pyogenic polyenes in commercial preparations of amphotericin B deoxycholate which correlate with infusion related toxicities. A highly purified formulation of amphotericin B appears promising, with a better therapeutic index compared to its parent compound as evidenced by results of in vitro and in vivo studies reviewed in this presentation. PMID:18596853

  13. Antimycobacterial and Antifungal Activities of Selected Four Salvia Species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nur Tan

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The content of essential oils of endemic Salvia cilicica was analyzed by GC-FID and GC-MS techniques. Spathulenol (23.8 %, caryophyllene oxide (14.9 % and hexadecanoic acid (10.3 % were identified as the major components in the oil of Salvia cilicica. Additionally, in this study ethanol extracts of the aerial parts and essential oils of four Salvia species ( S. cilicica, S. officinalis, S. fruticosa, S. tomentosa , as well as the roots of S. cilicica were investigated their antimycobacterial and antifungal activities including infectious diseases. The antimycobacterial activity was analyzed against three Mycobacterium tuberculosis (sensitive-, resistant-standard strains and multidrug resistance clinical isolate strains and the antifungal activity was compared with two dermotophytes (Microsporum gypseum and Trichophyton mentagrophytes var. erinacei and three Candida species by the broth microdilution method. The essentials oils of the four tested Salvia species showed high antimycobacterial and antifungal activity (MIC between 0.2-12.5 mcg/mL in comparison to the aerial parts and root extracts . The antifungal and antimycobacterial potential of the ethanol extracts and essential oils were introduced to determine whether, Salvia species can be used in phytotherapy against the yeasts, dermatophytes and M. tuberculosis. To the best of our knowledge this is the first study of S. cilicica about their antimycobacterial and antifungal activities and chemical composition of its essential oils.

  14. The contribution of food irradiation to food safety and food security

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    One of the objectives of the World Health Organization (WHO) is to assist efforts throughout the world to provide safe and nutritious food supplies. However, the safety and nutritional quality, as well as the mere availability of our food, is constantly threatened by contamination, infestation and deterioration. The most recent addition to the list of food preserving methods is irradiation, i.e., processing of food to carefully measured amounts of ionizing radiation. The paper will highlight the contribution this technology is expected to make with regard to the prevention of foodborne diseases and food losses. (orig.)

  15. Preserving the Manhattan Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Cynthia

    2014-03-01

    When future generations look back on the 20th century, few events will rival the harnessing of nuclear energy as a turning point in world history, science and society. Yet, the Department of Energy has not always embraced its Manhattan Project origins. The presentation will focus on the progress made over the last 20 years to preserve the properties and first-hand accounts that for decades have been threatened with demolition and indifference. Since the mid-1950s, most remaining Manhattan Project properties at the Los Alamos National Laboratory had been abandoned. Among them was a cluster of wooden buildings called the ``V Site.'' This is where scientists assembled the ``Gadget,'' the world's first atomic device tested on July 16, 1945. Regardless of its significance, the ``V Site'' buildings like all the rest were slated for demolition. The Advisory Council on Historic Preservation (ACHP) toured the properties in November 1998. Most could not believe that the world's first atomic bomb was designed in such humble structures. The properties were declared to be ``monumental in their lack of monumentality.'' A Save America's Treasures grant for 700,000 was awarded to restore the properties. To raise the required matching funds, I left the Federal government and soon founded the Atomic Heritage Foundation. The presentation will trace the progress made over the last decade to generate interest and support nationwide to preserve the Manhattan Project heritage. Saving both the physical properties and first-hand accounts of the men and women have been a priority. Perhaps our most significant achievement may be legislation now under consideration by Congress to create a Manhattan Project National Historical Park. Seventy years later, the Manhattan Project is finally getting the recognition it deserves.

  16. POLARISATION PRESERVING OPTICAL FIBRE

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2000-01-01

    A micro-structured optical fibre having a cladding comprising a number of elements having a non-circular cross-section. Each element has at least one part extending outside a circle having the same cross-sectional area as the element. These extending parts are directed in the same direction. This...... cladding structure provides polarisation preserving properties to the optical fibre. Optical fibres using this technology may have claddings with elements placed non-periodically as well as in a two-dimensional periodic lattice - such as cladding providing Photonic Band Gap (PBG) effects....

  17. Antifungal Susceptibility Testing with Etest for Candida Species Isolated from Patients with Oral Candidiasis

    OpenAIRE

    Song, You Bum; Suh, Moo Kyu; Ha, Gyoung Yim; Kim, Heesoo

    2015-01-01

    Background The necessity of performing antifungal susceptibility tests is recently increasing because of frequent cases of oral candidiasis caused by antifungal-resistant Candida species. The Etest (BioMerieux, Marcy l'Etoile, France) is a rapid and easy-to-perform in vitro antifungal susceptibility test. Objective The purpose of this study was to determine the minimal inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of antifungal agents by using the Etest for Candida species isolated from patients with oral...

  18. Evaluation of antifungal susceptibility testing in Candida isolates by Candifast and disk-diffusion method

    OpenAIRE

    Sidhartha Giri; Anupma Jyoti Kindo

    2014-01-01

    With the increase in invasive fungal infections due to Candida species and resistance to antifungal therapy, in vitro antifungal susceptibility testing is becoming an important part of clinical microbiology laboratories. Along with broth microdilution and disk diffusion method, various commercial methods are being increasingly used for antifungal susceptibility testing, especially in the developed world. In our study, we compared the antifungal susceptibility patterns of 39 isolates of Candid...

  19. Therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM) of antifungal agents: guidelines from the British Society for Medical Mycology

    OpenAIRE

    Ashbee, H. Ruth; Barnes, Rosemary A.; Johnson, Elizabeth M.; Richardson, Malcolm D.; Gorton, Rebecca; Hope, William W.

    2013-01-01

    The burden of human disease related to medically important fungal pathogens is substantial. An improved understanding of antifungal pharmacology and antifungal pharmacokinetics–pharmacodynamics has resulted in therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM) becoming a valuable adjunct to the routine administration of some antifungal agents. TDM may increase the probability of a successful outcome, prevent drug-related toxicity and potentially prevent the emergence of antifungal drug resistance. Much of the...

  20. Synergistic combinations of antifungals and antivirulence agents to fight against Candida albicans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cui, Jinhui; Ren, Biao; Tong, Yaojun;

    2015-01-01

    -drug resistance, demand innovative strategies for new effective antifungal drugs. Synergistic combinations of antifungals and anti-virulence agents highlight the pragmatic strategy to reduce the development of drug resistant and potentially repurpose known antifungals, which bypass the costly and time......-consuming pipeline of new drug development. Anti-virulence and synergistic combination provide new options for antifungal drug discovery by counteracting the difficulty or failure of traditional therapy for fungal infections....

  1. Microbiological Spoilage of Canned Foods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evancho, George M.; Tortorelli, Suzanne; Scott, Virginia N.

    Nicolas Appert (1749-1841) developed the first commercial process that kept foods from spoiling in response to an offer from the French government for a method of preserving food for use by the army and navy. Appert, a confectioner and chef, began to experiment in his workshop in Massy, near Paris, but since little was known about bacteriology and the causes of spoilage (Louis Pasteur had yet to formulate the germ theory), much of his work involved trial and error. In 1810, after years of experimenting, he was awarded the prize of 12,000 francs for his method of preservation, which involved cooking foods in sealed jars at high temperatures. He described his method of preserving food in a book published in 1811, "L'Art De Conserver, Pendant Plusiers Annes, Toutes les Substances Animales et Végétales," which translated means "The Art of Preserving All Kinds of Animal and Vegetable Substances for Several Years." He later built a bottling factory and began to produce preserved foods for the people of France and is credited with being the "Father of Canning."

  2. Antifungal activity of nicotine and its cobalt complex

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nicotine and its metal complex; Co(II)-nicotine were isolated from leaves of Nicotiana tabacum using various metal ions by the reported techniques and studied for their antifungal activity against fourteen different species of fungi. For comparative study, pure sample of nicotine and metal salt used for complexation; cobalt(II) chloride was also subjected to antifungal tests with the same species of fungus under similar conditions. Results indicated that nicotine had antifungal activity against all species of fungi studied except Candida albicans, Microsporum canis, Epidermophyton floccosum, Candida tropicalis, and Alternaria infectoria. Cobalt(II) nicotine was found to be effective against all selected species of fungi but ineffective against Candida solani, Penicillium notalum, Microsporum canis, Fusarium solani and Fusarium moniliforme. (author)

  3. Survey of small antifungal peptides with chemotherapeutic potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desbois, Andrew P; Tschörner, David; Coote, Peter J

    2011-08-01

    Many cationic peptides with antimicrobial properties have been isolated from bacteria, fungi, plants, and animals. These peptides vary in molecular size, potency and spectra of activities. This report surveyed the literature to highlight the peptides that have antifungal activity and greatest potential for development as new therapeutic agents. Thus, to be included in the evaluation, each peptide had to fulfil the following criteria: (i) potent antifungal activity, (ii) no, or minimal, mammalian cell toxicity, (iii) of ≤25 amino acids in length, which minimises the costs of synthesis, reduces immunogenicity and enhances bioavailability and stability in vivo, (iv) minimal post-translational modifications (also reduces the production costs). The ~80 peptides that satisfied these criteria are discussed with respect to their structures, mechanisms of antimicrobial action and in vitro and in vivo toxicities. Certainly, some of these small peptides warrant further study and have potential for future exploitation as new antifungal agents. PMID:21470150

  4. Antifungal Effect of Chitosan as Ca(2+) Channel Blocker.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Choon Geun; Koo, Ja Choon; Park, Jae Kweon

    2016-06-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate antifungal activity of a range of different molecular weight (MW) chitosan against Penicillium italicum. Our results demonstrate that the antifungal activity was dependent both the MW and concentration of the chitosan. Among a series of chitosan derived from the hydrolysis of high MW chitosan, the fractions containing various sizes of chitosan ranging from 3 to 15 glucosamine units named as chitooligomers-F2 (CO-F2) was found to show the highest antifungal activity against P. italicum. Furthermore, the effect of CO-F2 toward this fungus was significantly reduced in the presence of Ca(2+), whereas its effect was recovered by ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid, suggesting that the CO-F2 acts via disruption of Ca(2+) gradient required for survival of the fungus. Our results suggest that CO-F2 may serve as potential compounds to develop alternatives to synthetic fungicides for the control of the postharvest diseases. PMID:27298599

  5. Antifungal Effect of Chitosan as Ca2+ Channel Blocker

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Choon Geun; Koo, Ja Choon; Park, Jae Kweon

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate antifungal activity of a range of different molecular weight (MW) chitosan against Penicillium italicum. Our results demonstrate that the antifungal activity was dependent both the MW and concentration of the chitosan. Among a series of chitosan derived from the hydrolysis of high MW chitosan, the fractions containing various sizes of chitosan ranging from 3 to 15 glucosamine units named as chitooligomers-F2 (CO-F2) was found to show the highest antifungal activity against P. italicum. Furthermore, the effect of CO-F2 toward this fungus was significantly reduced in the presence of Ca2+, whereas its effect was recovered by ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid, suggesting that the CO-F2 acts via disruption of Ca2+ gradient required for survival of the fungus. Our results suggest that CO-F2 may serve as potential compounds to develop alternatives to synthetic fungicides for the control of the postharvest diseases. PMID:27298599

  6. ANTIFUNGAL ACTIVITY OF SECONDARY METABOLITES PROUCED BY PSEUDOMONAS FLUORESCENS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. M. GADE

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Thirty isolates of Pseudomonas fluorescens obtained from citrus rhizosphere were tested for antifungal activityagainst Phytophthora spp. P. fluorescens isolate Pf20 was found efficient in inhibiting the mycelial growth upto38.88%. The antifungal compounds were extracted with equal volume of ethyl acetate and were tentativelyidentified on thin layer chromatography (TLC at Rf 0.28. The antifungal compounds extracted from P. fluorescensat 5% were found inhibitory to the growth of Rhizoctonia solani (42.79%, Phytophthora parasitica (28.57%,P. palmivora (25.98% and Fusarium solani (20.45%. In case of HPTLC analysis the characteristic colour andfluorescent band after derivatization with anisaldehyde reagent proved the presence of secondary metabolites incrude extract.

  7. Mechanisms of antifungal drug resistance in Candida dubliniensis.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Coleman, David C

    2010-06-01

    Candida dubliniensis was first described in 1995 and is the most closely related species to the predominant human fungal pathogen Candida albicans. C. dubliniensis is significantly less prevalent and less pathogenic than C. albicans and is primarily associated with infections in HIV-infected individuals and other immunocompromised cohorts. The population structure of C. dubliniensis consists of three well-defined major clades and is significantly less diverse than C. albicans. The majority of C. dubliniensis isolates are susceptible to antifungal drugs commonly used to treat Candida infections. To date only two major patterns of antifungal drug resistance have been identified and the molecular mechanisms of these are very similar to the resistance mechanisms that have been described previously in C. albicans. However, significant differences are evident in the predominant antifungal drug mechanisms employed by C. dubliniensis, differences that reflect its more clonal nature, its lower prevalence and characteristics of its genome, the complete sequence of which has only recently been determined.

  8. Food irradiation in Malaysia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Food irradiation has recently been visited as a technology that can contribute to the solution of problems associated with food preservation of Malaysia's agriculture produce and products thereby improving the economic status of the rural sector. However, the history of food irradiation in Malaysia is very recent. Research carried out on food irradiation only began in 1974 as a result of the installation of a 60Co facility (initially 10,000 Ci) at the National University of Malaysia. Since its installation several studies have been carried out pertaining to the food irradiation. Presently its development has been slow. Research in this area has been confined to laboratory scale and purely academic. This limitation is due to a number of reasons, among others are: a) limited number of facilities; b) lack of expertise to conduct its research; c) other preservation methods can be improved with lower capital output. An important step towards its development was made when Malaysia actively participated in the RCA/IAEA food irradiation project, viz. the irradiation of pepper which was carried out at the National University of Malaysia in the 80's. As a result of this venture, research and development activities in food irradiation have been geared toward semi-plot scale with the view ot commercialization in the future. In 1982, a group of researchers was formed to conduct feasibility studies using irradiation techniques in trying to overcome several problems associated with our local paddy and rice. Another group is being organized by the National University of Malaysia to look into the problems associated with the preservation of frozen shrimps. (author)

  9. DMPD: C-type lectin receptors in antifungal immunity. [Dynamic Macrophage Pathway CSML Database

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 18160296 C-type lectin receptors in antifungal immunity. Willment JA, Brown GD. Tre...nds Microbiol. 2008 Jan;16(1):27-32. Epub 2007 Dec 21. (.png) (.svg) (.html) (.csml) Show C-type lectin receptors in antifungal... immunity. PubmedID 18160296 Title C-type lectin receptors in antifungal immunity. Author

  10. In Vitro Interactions between Antifungals and Immunosuppressants against Aspergillus fumigatus Isolates from Transplant and Nontransplant Patients

    OpenAIRE

    Steinbach, William J.; Singh, Nina; Miller, Jackie L.; Benjamin, Daniel K; Schell, Wiley A.; Heitman, Joseph; Perfect, John R.

    2004-01-01

    We performed in vitro antifungal checkerboard testing on 12 Aspergillus fumigatus clinical isolates (6 transplant recipients and 6 nontransplant patients) with three antifungal agents (amphotericin B, voriconazole, and caspofungin) and three immunosuppressants (FK506, cyclosporine, and rapamycin). We were not able to detect a difference in calcineurin inhibitor antifungal activity against isolates from transplant recipients and nontransplant patients.

  11. Plasma Technology as a New Preservation Technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rincón, R.; Calzada, M. D.

    The preliminary results of using the surface wave discharge at the atmospheric pressure on groups of lentils and sherry Fino wine samples are presented. In this research, the capability of active species and UV radiation from the plasma, has been assessed on preservation of food. Besides, the generation and emission of both excited molecules in a metastable state N2}(B3Π {g-> A3}Σ u{+) and the de-excitation of species NO(A2}Σ {+) producing UV radiation have been also studied.

  12. Food irradiation: chemistry and applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Food irradiation is one of the most extensively and thoroughly studied methods of food preservation. Despite voluminous data on safety and wholesomeness of irradiated foods, food irradiation is still a “process in waiting.” Although some countries are allowing the use of irradiation technology on certain foods, its full potential is not recognized. Only 37 countries worldwide permit the use of this technology. If used to its full potential, food irradiation can save millions of human lives being lost annually due to food‐borne diseases or starvation and can add billions of dollars to the world economy. This paper briefly reviews the history and chemistry of food irradiation along with its main applications, impediments to its adoption, and its role in improving food availability and health situation, particularly in developing countries of the world

  13. Sugar-mediated ‘green’ synthesis of copper nanoparticles with high antifungal activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ray, Debajyoti; Pramanik, Satadru; Prasad Mandal, Ranju; Chaudhuri, Sujata; De, Swati

    2015-10-01

    Herein we present a novel and facile approach to effectively synthesize and stabilize copper nanoparticles (CuNPs) using the sugars dextrose, dextrin and β-cyclodextrin. This approach adopts the fundamental principles of ‘green chemistry’ by usage of nontoxic, renewable chemicals and use of ambient temperature, normal pH and other mild conditions. This work shows that the amphiphilicity presented by the sugars determines the CuNP characteristics. One very important aspect of this work is that these CuNPs show significant antifungal activity towards a potent rice pathogen whose action is wide spread and difficult to control. Thus this work provides a biocompatible method to arrest the growth of a potent rice pathogen. This has widespread implications in areas where rice is the main food crop.

  14. Anti-fungal activity of cold and hot water extracts of spices against fungal pathogens of Roselle (Hibiscus sabdariffa) in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Touba, Eslaminejad Parizi; Zakaria, Maziah; Tahereh, Eslaminejad

    2012-02-01

    Crude extracts of seven spices, viz. cardamom, chilli, coriander, onion, garlic, ginger, and galangale were made using cold water and hot water extraction and they were tested for their anti-fungal effects against the three Roselle pathogens i.e. Phoma exigua, Fusarium nygamai and Rhizoctonia solani using the 'poisoned food technique'. All seven spices studied showed significant anti-fungal activity at three concentrations (10, 20 and 30% of the crude extract) in-vitro. The cold water extract of garlic exhibited good anti-fungal activity against all three tested fungi. In the case of the hot water extracts, garlic and ginger showed the best anti-fungal activity. Of the two extraction methods, cold water extraction was generally more effective than hot water extraction in controlling the pathogens. Against P. exigua, the 10% cold water extracts of galangale, ginger, coriander and cardamom achieved total (100%) inhibition of pathogen mycelial growth. Total inhibition of F. nygamai mycelial growth was similarly achieved with the 10% cold water extracts garlic. Against R. solani, the 10% cold water extract of galangale was effective in imposing 100% inhibition. Accordingly, the 10% galangale extract effectively controlled both P. exigua and R. solani in vitro. None of the hot water extracts of the spices succeeded in achieving 100% inhibition of the pathogen mycelial growth. PMID:22138549

  15. Mode of Antifungal Drugs Interaction with Cytochrome P- 450

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M- Mahmodian

    1991-07-01

    Full Text Available Computer was used to identify the interactions of substrates and antifungal drugs with the enzyme, Cytochrome P-450; and then Molplot.bas computer program was applied to get three dimensional figures of 5-hydroxy camphor.oxidation products of camphor analogues, and antifungal drugs.Cartesian characteristics of atoms building molecules, are taken from Buildz. for program, which can calculate X,Y,Z coordinates of atoms by Zmatrix data. The other program which can calculate X,Y,Z coordinates, using fractional characteristics, is the Coord, for program that, gives our cartesian characteristics of the atoms of molecule, then by using these data, we obtain three dimensional figures and distance between active atoms in compounds under consideration. Results show that distance between two oxygen atoms in 5-exo-hydroxy- camphor and the other compounds obtained from oxidation of camphor analogues, with the distance of two oxygen atoms in antifungal compounds under discussion are equal. Therefore, we can conclude that, the antifungal molecule also interacts with enzyme's active site, by its own sites, in a similar manner to the 5-hydroxy camphor molecule, which is:"n1. Nitrogen atom (N of Imidazole and Triazole ring in antifungal molecule with Iron atom in heam molecule belonging to Cytochrome P-450 enzyme, are coordinated."n2. The other atoms such as : 0,S or N in structure of the antifungal drug are coordinated with hydrogen atom of hydroxyl group belong ing to Tyr-96 in the structure of enzyme, forming hydrogen bonding.

  16. Antifungal chemical compounds identified using a C. elegans pathogenicity assay.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia Breger

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available There is an urgent need for the development of new antifungal agents. A facile in vivo model that evaluates libraries of chemical compounds could solve some of the main obstacles in current antifungal discovery. We show that Candida albicans, as well as other Candida species, are ingested by Caenorhabditis elegans and establish a persistent lethal infection in the C. elegans intestinal track. Importantly, key components of Candida pathogenesis in mammals, such as filament formation, are also involved in nematode killing. We devised a Candida-mediated C. elegans assay that allows high-throughput in vivo screening of chemical libraries for antifungal activities, while synchronously screening against toxic compounds. The assay is performed in liquid media using standard 96-well plate technology and allows the study of C. albicans in non-planktonic form. A screen of 1,266 compounds with known pharmaceutical activities identified 15 (approximately 1.2% that prolonged survival of C. albicans-infected nematodes and inhibited in vivo filamentation of C. albicans. Two compounds identified in the screen, caffeic acid phenethyl ester, a major active component of honeybee propolis, and the fluoroquinolone agent enoxacin exhibited antifungal activity in a murine model of candidiasis. The whole-animal C. elegans assay may help to study the molecular basis of C. albicans pathogenesis and identify antifungal compounds that most likely would not be identified by in vitro screens that target fungal growth. Compounds identified in the screen that affect the virulence of Candida in vivo can potentially be used as "probe compounds" and may have antifungal activity against other fungi.

  17. Wholesomeness data on irradiated food

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    There is no item of more primary importance to the welfare of the human race than food. It has long been realized that even small increases in the quality and/or quantity of food mean great benefits to people everywhere, particularly to those who are undernourished or on the threshold of starvation. Therefore, the application of food preservation technology to prevent food losses has become a major factor in solving the world's food problems. Some of the chemical additives used to preserve food have caused harmful effects on the well-being of the consumer, but the newly-developing commercial treatment of a number of food products with low doses of ionizing radiation has been shown to be technologically advantageous and economically viable.The Food Preservation Section of the Joint FA O/lAEA Division decided to set up a data system whereby wholesomeness information on irradiated food can be easily obtained and disseminated by means of publication. The data will be related to toxicological safety, nutritive value and microbial innocuity. To do this the Division has sent a questionnaire to institutes and scientists involved in programmes dealing with wholesomeness of irradiated food, requesting them to provide information on investigations already completed, on those which are currently in progress and on programmes projected for the future. Based on the responses received, a list of wholesomeness investigations recently carried out in Member Countries on different food items, can be found. Summarily it can be stated that the results from these investigations do not indicate any detrimental effects on health. Detailed data will be published periodically by the International Project in the Field of Food Irradiation in 'Food Irradiation Information'. The project has been established under the auspices of FAO, IAEA and OECD (NEA) with 22 countries at present contributing financially to the Project

  18. Modelling microbial interactions and food structure in predictive microbiology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Malakar, P.K.

    2002-01-01

    Keywords: modelling, dynamic models, microbial interactions, diffusion, microgradients, colony growth, predictive microbiology.    Growth response of microorganisms in foods is a complex process. Innovations in food production and preservation techniques have resulted in adoption of new technologies

  19. Recent advances in topical formulation carriers of antifungal agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bseiso, Eman Ahmed; Nasr, Maha; Sammour, Omaima; Abd El Gawad, Nabaweya A

    2015-01-01

    Fungal infections are amongst the most commonly encountered diseases affecting the skin. Treatment approaches include both topical and oral antifungal agents. The topical route is generally preferred due to the possible side effects of oral medication. Advances in the field of formulation may soon render outdated conventional products such as creams, ointments and gels. Several carrier systems loaded with antifungal drugs have demonstrated promising results in the treatment of skin fungal infections. Examples of these newer carriers include micelles, lipidic systems such as solid lipid nanoparticles and nanostructured lipid carriers, microemulsions and vesicular systems such as liposomes, niosomes, transfersomes, ethosomes, and penetration enhancer vesicles. PMID:26261140

  20. ANTIFUNGAL ACTIVITY OF HYBANTHUS ENNEASPERMUS ON WET CLOTHES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arumugam Napoleon

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available During rainy season, when clothes are not properly dried they develop spots. In clothes the spots appear as black or greenish black in color and these spots or mildews were cultured and microscopically examined. It was identified as fungi, viz. Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus fumigatus. Antifungal activities of different extracts of Hybanthus enneaspermus were screened. The antifungal activity was graded, based on the zone of inhibition. Among the three extracts used for the present studies, methanolic extract exhibited the maximum growth inhibition, followed by chloroform and petroleum ether extract.

  1. Antifungal activity of three mouth rinses--in vitro study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abirami, C P; Venugopal, Pankajalakshmi V

    2005-01-01

    Mouthrinses are nowadays routinely included in the home care oral hygiene maintenance besides dentifrice/tooth paste. Mouthrinses prevent bacterial attachment and prevent or slow down bacterial proliferation. Fungal organisms have now gained more importance due to increased incidence of AIDS/HIV. This has necessitated for mouthrinses to possess antifungal activity also. The mouthrinses used were Povidone iodine ( Wokadine), Thymol with Eucalyptol and Benzoic acid (Listerine) and fluoride with Triclosan (Colgate Plax), which were tested against oral isolates of different species of Candida. The agar diffusion test was used to evaluate the inhibitory activity of the mouthrinses and all of them exhibited antifungal activity especially against Candida albicans. PMID:16758789

  2. Antifungal activity against postharvest fungi by extracts from Colombian propolis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meneses, Erick A.; Durango, Diego L.; Garcia, Carlos M. [Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Medellin (Colombia). Facultad de Ciencias. Escuela de Quimica], e-mail: cmgarcia@unal.edu.co

    2009-07-01

    The aims of the present study were to evaluate the antifungal properties of Colombian propolis extracts against Colletotrichum gloeosporioides and Botryodiplodia theobromae, and to isolate and identify the main constituents from the active extracts. Therefore, propolis samples were thoroughly extracted with n-hexane/methanol (EPEM), dichloromethane, ethyl acetate, and methanol. Experimental results indicated that mycelial growth of all selected microorganisms was reduced in culture media containing EPEM and dichloromethane fractions. Furthermore, through antifungal bioassay-guided fractionation, three known labdane-type diterpenes: isocupressic acid (1), (+)-agathadiol (2) and epi-13-torulosol (3) were isolated as the main constituents from the active fractions. (author)

  3. Antifungal activity against postharvest fungi by extracts from Colombian propolis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aims of the present study were to evaluate the antifungal properties of Colombian propolis extracts against Colletotrichum gloeosporioides and Botryodiplodia theobromae, and to isolate and identify the main constituents from the active extracts. Therefore, propolis samples were thoroughly extracted with n-hexane/methanol (EPEM), dichloromethane, ethyl acetate, and methanol. Experimental results indicated that mycelial growth of all selected microorganisms was reduced in culture media containing EPEM and dichloromethane fractions. Furthermore, through antifungal bioassay-guided fractionation, three known labdane-type diterpenes: isocupressic acid (1), (+)-agathadiol (2) and epi-13-torulosol (3) were isolated as the main constituents from the active fractions. (author)

  4. Atmospheric pressure cold plasma as an antifungal therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A microhollow cathode based, direct-current, atmospheric pressure, He/O2 (2%) cold plasma microjet was used to inactive antifungal resistants Candida albicans, Candida krusei, and Candida glabrata in air and in water. Effective inactivation (>90%) was achieved in 10 min in air and 1 min in water. Antifungal susceptibility tests showed drastic reduction of the minimum inhibitory concentration after plasma treatment. The inactivation was attributed to the reactive oxygen species generated in plasma or in water. Hydroxyl and singlet molecular oxygen radicals were detected in plasma-water system by electron spin resonance spectroscopy. This approach proposed a promising clinical dermatology therapy.

  5. In Vitro antifungal potency of plant extracts against five phytopathogens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashwani Tapwal

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The antifungal activity of aqueous extract of Cannabis sativa, Parthenium hysterophorus, Urtica dioeca, Polystichum squarrosum and Adiantum venustum was investigated against Alternaria solani, Alternaria zinniae, Curvularia lunata, Rhizoctonia solani and Fusarium oxysporum at different concentrations (5, 10, 15 and 20%. At 20%, maximum antifungal potential was observed with the extracts of C. sativa, which recorded excellent inhibitory activity against C. lunata (100%, A. zinniae (59.68%, followed by leaf extract of P. hysterophorus (50% against A. solani. The application of botanical extracts for disease management could be less expensive, easily available, non-polluting and eco-friendly.

  6. Recent advances in topical formulation carriers of antifungal agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eman Ahmed Bseiso

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Fungal infections are amongst the most commonly encountered diseases affecting the skin. Treatment approaches include both topical and oral antifungal agents. The topical route is generally preferred due to the possible side effects of oral medication. Advances in the field of formulation may soon render outdated conventional products such as creams, ointments and gels. Several carrier systems loaded with antifungal drugs have demonstrated promising results in the treatment of skin fungal infections. Examples of these newer carriers include micelles, lipidic systems such as solid lipid nanoparticles and nanostructured lipid carriers, microemulsions and vesicular systems such as liposomes, niosomes, transfersomes, ethosomes, and penetration enhancer vesicles.

  7. Antifungal activity by vapor contact of essential oils added to amaranth, chitosan, or starch edible films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avila-Sosa, Raúl; Palou, Enrique; Jiménez Munguía, María Teresa; Nevárez-Moorillón, Guadalupe Virginia; Navarro Cruz, Addí Rhode; López-Malo, Aurelio

    2012-02-01

    Antimicrobial agents can be incorporated into edible films to provide microbiological stability, since films can be used as carriers of a variety of additives to extend product shelf life and reduce the risk of microbial growth on food surfaces. Addition of antimicrobial agents to edible films offers advantages such as the use of small antimicrobial concentrations and low diffusion rates. The aim of this study was to evaluate inhibition by vapor contact of Aspergillus niger and Penicillium digitatum by selected concentrations of Mexican oregano (Lippia berlandieri Schauer), cinnamon (Cinnamomum verum) or lemongrass (Cymbopogon citratus) essential oils (EOs) added to amaranth, chitosan, or starch edible films. Essential oils were characterized by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC/MS) analysis. Amaranth, chitosan and starch edible films were formulated with essential oil concentrations of 0.00, 0.25, 0.50, 0.75, 1.00, 2.00, or 4.00%. Antifungal activity was evaluated by determining the mold radial growth on agar media inoculated with A. niger and P. digitatum after exposure to vapors arising from essential oils added to amaranth, chitosan or starch films using the inverted lid technique. The modified Gompertz model adequately described mold growth curves (mean coefficient of determination 0.991 ± 0.05). Chitosan films exhibited better antifungal effectiveness (inhibition of A. niger with 0.25% of Mexican oregano and cinnamon EO; inhibition of P. digitatum with 0.50% EOs) than amaranth films (2.00 and 4.00% of cinnamon and Mexican oregano EO were needed to inhibit the studied molds, respectively). For chitosan and amaranth films a significant increase (poregano or cinnamon essential oil could improve the quality of foods by the action of the volatile compounds on surface growth of molds. PMID:22100789

  8. Consumer and food industries education on food irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A survey was conducted on Malaysian food industries to determine the interest and potential applications of food irradiation as an alternative or to complement existing food preservation treatments. A total of 37 food processors representing 5 subsectors of the food industry participated in the survey. Information collected showed that majority of respondents were aware of food irradiation but the level of knowledge was low. Half of respondents perceived food irradiation as safe and 23% will consider using it for commercial purposes. Main concerns of the food processors were safety of the process, safety of irradiated food, efficacy of the process and consumer acceptance. Food irradiation applications considered to have the most potential for use by the food industry, were those which would improve the hygienic quality of food products. Despite the limited knowledge, respondents strongly supported the need to promote food irradiation technology in Malaysia. In view of this finding. various promotional activities have been continuously carried out to increase public awareness and understanding of the technology so as to facilitate acceptance of food irradiation in Malaysia. (author)

  9. Preservation of Built Environments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pilegaard, Marie Kirstine

    When built environments and recently also cultural environments are to be preserved, the historic and architectural values are identified as the key motivations. In Denmark the SAVE system is used as a tool to identify architectural values, but in recent years it has been criticized for having a...... too narrow aesthetic goal, especially when it comes to the evaluation of built environments as a whole. Architectural value has therefore been perceived as a different concept than aesthetic value, primarily related to a static and unchanging expression. This fact creates problems in relation to...... current conservation tasks, which today include more and more untraditionally built environments, including cultural environments. Architectural value must in this case rather be associated with development, ongoing processes, and allow room for future change. The Danish architect Johannes Exner, defines...

  10. LMFRs knowledge preservation (viewgraphs)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objectives of LMFRs Knowledge Preservation program is to create an everlasting data base of documentation with easy access for consulting, in order to keep knowledge and experience acquired through the development, design, construction and operation of the French LMFR Plants (Rapsodie, Phenix, Superphenix, SPX2 and EFR Projects). The main issues to be taken into account are: History, concept approach, evolution, supporting R and D; 22 R and D Topics, 41 Superphenix Plant Systems; Common CEA, EdF and FRAMATOME-ANP realisation; More than 15 000 documents (paper and CD-ROM medium); RCC-MR 2000 version (update of mechanical analysis rules); ARCOPAC data base of measures obtained from Superphenix operation. Since there is no project on the way, the LMFRs knowledge has to be perpetuated: CEA and EDF and FRAMATOME-ANP decided to collaborate in order to build an everlasting data base

  11. PRESERVING A TRADITION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    COVER STORY The Chinese art of paper cutting has long been a popular pastime in the country’s rural areas.For more than 1,000 years,farming families have used it as a method for decorating their homes,but the tradition has struggled for survival in recent years.In Yanchuan County in China’s northwestern Shaanxi Province,however,the art form has experienced a revival thanks to the efforts of a local woman.Paper cutting master Gao Fenglian has invested her own money in establishing a paper cutting gallery in the region.The craft’s growing popularity has also fuelled a new wave of people wanting to learn how to cut.More than 10,000 of the county’s 200,000 are now skilled in the ancient craft,and its revival could serve as a model for the preservation of other Chinese traditions.

  12. Seismic Fault Preserving Diffusion

    CERN Document Server

    Lavialle, Olivier; Germain, Christian; Donias, Marc; Guillon, Sebastien; Keskes, Naamen; Berthoumieu, Yannick

    2007-01-01

    This paper focuses on the denoising and enhancing of 3-D reflection seismic data. We propose a pre-processing step based on a non linear diffusion filtering leading to a better detection of seismic faults. The non linear diffusion approaches are based on the definition of a partial differential equation that allows us to simplify the images without blurring relevant details or discontinuities. Computing the structure tensor which provides information on the local orientation of the geological layers, we propose to drive the diffusion along these layers using a new approach called SFPD (Seismic Fault Preserving Diffusion). In SFPD, the eigenvalues of the tensor are fixed according to a confidence measure that takes into account the regularity of the local seismic structure. Results on both synthesized and real 3-D blocks show the efficiency of the proposed approach.

  13. Antarctic science preserve polluted

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simarski, Lynn Teo

    Geophysicists are alarmed at the electromagnetic pollution of a research site in the Antarctic specifically set aside to study the ionosphere and magnetosphere. A private New Zealand communications company called Telecom recently constructed a satellite ground station within the boundaries of this Site of Special Scientific Interest (SSSI), protected since the mid-1970s. The placement of a commercial facility within this site sets an ominous precedent not only for the sanctity of other SSSIs, but also for Specially Protected Areas—preserves not even open to scientific research, such as certain penguin rookeries.The roughly rectangular, one-by-one-half mile site, located at Arrival Heights not far from McMurdo Station, is one of a number of areas protected under the Antarctic treaty for designated scientific activities. Many sites are set aside for geological or biological research, but this is the only one specifically for physical science.

  14. Food Allergy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Food allergy is an abnormal response to a food triggered by your body's immune system. In adults, the foods ... a severe reaction called anaphylaxis. Symptoms of food allergy include Itching or swelling in your mouth Vomiting, ...

  15. Food Allergies

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Got Homework? Here's Help White House Lunch Recipes Food Allergies KidsHealth > For Kids > Food Allergies Print A ... cow's milk eggs soy wheat What Is a Food Allergy? Food allergies happen when the immune system ...

  16. Evaluation of Bit Preservation Strategies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zierau, Eld; Kejser, Ulla Bøgvad; Kulovits, Hannes

    2010-01-01

    This article describes a methodology which supports evaluation of bit preservation strategies for different digital materials. This includes evaluation of alternative bit preservation solution. The methodology presented uses the preservation planning tool Plato for evaluations, and a BR......-ReMS prototype to calculate measures for how well bit preservation requirements are met. Planning storage of data as part of preservation planning involves classification of data with regard to requirements on confidentiality, bit safety, available and costs. Choice of storage with such parameters is quite...... complex since e.g. more copies of data means better bit safety, but higher cost and bigger risk of breaking confidentiality. Based on a case of a bit repository offering varied bit preservation solutions, the article will present results of using the methodology to make plans and choices of alternatives...

  17. Designing Parity Preserving Reversible Circuits

    OpenAIRE

    Paul, Goutam; Chattopadhyay, Anupam; Chandak, Chander

    2013-01-01

    Making a reversible circuit fault-tolerant is much more difficult than classical circuit and there have been only a few works in the area of parity-preserving reversible logic design. Moreover, all of these designs are ad hoc, based on some pre-defined parity preserving reversible gates as building blocks. In this paper, we for the first time propose a novel and systematic approach towards parity preserving reversible circuits design. We provide some related theoretical results and give two a...

  18. Food Redistribution as Optimization

    CERN Document Server

    Phillips, Caleb; Higbee, Becky

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we study the simultaneous problems of food waste and hunger in the context of the possible solution of food (waste) rescue and redistribution. To this end, we develop an empirical model that can be used in Monte Carlo simulations to study the dynamics of the underlying problem. Our model's parameters are derived from a unique data set provided by a large food bank and food rescue organization in north central Colorado. We find that food supply is a non-parametric heavy-tailed process that is well-modeled with an extreme value peaks-over-threshold model. Although the underlying process is stochastic, the basic approach of food rescue and redistribution appears to be feasible both at small and large scales. The ultimate efficacy of this model is intimately tied to the rate at which food expires and hence the ability to preserve and quickly transport and redistribute food. The cost of the redistribution is tied to the number and density of participating suppliers, and costs can be reduced (and supp...

  19. Antibacterial and antifungal activity of liriodenine and related oxoaporphine alkaloids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hufford, C D; Sharma, A S; Oguntimein, B O

    1980-10-01

    Liriodenine was evaluated for its antibacterial and antifungal activity against several microorganisms. Other related oxoaporphine alkaloids also were evaluated. Attempts to prepare oxoaporphine alkaloids from N-acetylnoraporphines were unsuccessful, but an unexpected phenanthrene alkaloid was obtained. A novel N-demethylation reaction was noted when oxogaucine methiodide and liriodenine methiodide were treated with alumina. PMID:7420287

  20. ANTIFUNGAL ACTIVITY OF GEOTHERMAL FLUIDS FROM DIFFERENT REGIONS OF TURKEY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmet Ali Var,

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Antifungal effects of geothermal fluids obtained from the Ankara, Afyon, Denizli, and Eskişehir regions of Turkey on white-rot (Trametes versicolor, MAD-697 and brown-rot (Coniophora puteana, FPRL 11E fungus (Basidiomycetes were studied. Fungal experiments were performed on kraft paper and Scots pine wood (Pinus sylvestris L.. We used non-concentrated geothermal water and concentrated geothermal water (via evaporation in ratios of 25%, 50%, and 75%. To evaluate the results, we measured the concentration of specific minerals in the geothermal fluids such as boron (B, arsenic (As, copper (Cu, sulfate (SO4, sodium (Na, chloride (Cl, fluoride (F, potassium (K, and ammonia (NH3. The highest antifungal effect was observed for a geothermal fluid from the Denizli region, followed by Ankara, Afyon, and Eskişehir, in decreasing order. Antifungal properties of GFs are thought to be associated with the type and amount of mineral substances. In addition, the antifungal effects increased with increasing concentrations of geothermal water.