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Sample records for antifouling paint particles

  1. Increased persistence of antifouling paint biocides when associated with paint particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, K.V.; McHugh, M.; Hilton, M.; Waldock, M.

    2003-01-01

    Release of biocides associated with paint particles into marinas may increase their persistence in the environment. - Current regulatory risk assessment procedures only assess the impact of antifouling paint biocides that are released through leaching from a painted surface. Hull cleaning activities can lead to particles of antifouling paint containing biocides to enter the environment. Comparative pseudo-first order anaerobic degradation rate constants and half-lives were determined for a selection of common antifouling paint booster biocides, their degradation products, and associated with paint particles. Anaerobic half-lives of <0.5 days were calculated for chlorothalonil, dichlofluanid, and SeaNine 211, between 1 and 3 days for DCPMU and DCPU, between 14 and 35 days for diuron and CPDU, and over 226 days for GS26575 and Irgarol 1051. Increased persistence was observed when the compounds were introduced to sediments associated with antifouling paint particles. When present as antifouling paint particles, an increased half-life of 9.9 days for SeaNine 211 and 1.4 days was calculated for dichlofluanid, no significant degradation was observed for diuron. It is suspected that this is due to much of the biocide being initially bound within the matrix of the paint particle that is slowly released through dissolution processes into the sediment pore water prior to degradation. The release of booster biocides associated with paint particles into marinas has the potential to lead to their accumulation unless activities such as hull cleaning are strictly regulated

  2. Increased persistence of antifouling paint biocides when associated with paint particles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomas, K.V.; McHugh, M.; Hilton, M.; Waldock, M

    2003-05-01

    Release of biocides associated with paint particles into marinas may increase their persistence in the environment. - Current regulatory risk assessment procedures only assess the impact of antifouling paint biocides that are released through leaching from a painted surface. Hull cleaning activities can lead to particles of antifouling paint containing biocides to enter the environment. Comparative pseudo-first order anaerobic degradation rate constants and half-lives were determined for a selection of common antifouling paint booster biocides, their degradation products, and associated with paint particles. Anaerobic half-lives of <0.5 days were calculated for chlorothalonil, dichlofluanid, and SeaNine 211, between 1 and 3 days for DCPMU and DCPU, between 14 and 35 days for diuron and CPDU, and over 226 days for GS26575 and Irgarol 1051. Increased persistence was observed when the compounds were introduced to sediments associated with antifouling paint particles. When present as antifouling paint particles, an increased half-life of 9.9 days for SeaNine 211 and 1.4 days was calculated for dichlofluanid, no significant degradation was observed for diuron. It is suspected that this is due to much of the biocide being initially bound within the matrix of the paint particle that is slowly released through dissolution processes into the sediment pore water prior to degradation. The release of booster biocides associated with paint particles into marinas has the potential to lead to their accumulation unless activities such as hull cleaning are strictly regulated.

  3. Leaching of copper and zinc from spent antifouling paint particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, Nimisha; Turner, Andrew

    2009-01-01

    Leaching of Cu and Zn from a composite of spent antifouling paint particles, containing about 300 mg g -1 and 110 mg g -1 of the respective metals, was studied in batch experiments. For a given set of simulated environmental conditions, release of Cu was independent of paint particle concentration due to attainment of pseudo-saturation, but Zn was less constrained by solubility effects and release increased with increasing particle concentration. Leaching of Cu increased but Zn decreased with increasing salinity, consistent with mechanisms governing the dissolution of Cu 2 O in the presence of chloride and Zn acrylates in the presence of seawater cations. Because of complex reaction kinetics and the presence of calcium carbonate in the paint matrix, metal leaching appeared to be greater at 4 deg. C than 19 deg. C under many conditions. These findings have important environmental and biological implications regarding the deliberate or inadvertent disposal of antifouling paint residues. - Copper and zinc are readily leached from particles of spent antifouling paint under a range of environmental conditions

  4. Bioaccessibility of metals in soils and dusts contaminated by marine antifouling paint particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turner, Andrew; Singh, Nimisha; Richards, Jonathan P.

    2009-01-01

    Fragments of antifouling paint and environmental geosolids have been sampled from the island of Malta and analysed for total and bioaccessible metals. Total concentrations of Ba, Cd, Cu, Pb, Sn and Zn were two to three orders of magnitude higher in spent antifouling composites relative to respective values in background soils and road dusts. Paint fragments were visible in geosolids taken from the immediate vicinity of boat maintenance facilities and mass balance calculations, based on Ba as a paint tracer, suggested that the most contaminated soils, road dusts and boatyard dusts contained about 1%, 7% and 9%, respectively, of antifouling particles. Human bioaccessibilities of metals were evaluated in selected samples using a physiologically based extraction technique. Accessibilities of Cd, Cu, Pb and Zn in the most contaminated solids were sufficient to be cause for concern for individuals working in the boat repair industry and to the wider, local community. - Geosolids near boat maintenance facilities are contaminated by antifouling paint particles containing high concentrations of bioaccessible metals.

  5. Trace metals in antifouling paint particles and their heterogeneous contamination of coastal sediments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, Nimisha; Turner, Andrew

    2009-01-01

    Antifouling paint residues collected from the hard-standings of a marine leisure boat facility have been chemically characterised. Scanning electron microscopy revealed distinct layers, many containing oxidic particles of Cu and Zn. Quantitative analysis indicated concentrations of Cu and Zn averaging about 300 and 100 mg g -1 , respectively, and small proportions of these metals ( -1 , respectively. Estuarine sediment collected near a boatyard contained concentrations of Cu and Zn an order of magnitude greater than respective concentrations in 'background' sediment, and mass balance calculations suggested that the former sample was contaminated by about 1% by weight of paint particles. Clearly, antifouling residues represent a highly significant, heterogeneous source of metallic contamination in the marine environment where boating activities occur.

  6. Bioaccessibility and mobilisation of copper and zinc in estuarine sediment contaminated by antifouling paint particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, David E.; Turner, Andrew

    2010-04-01

    Clean estuarine sediment amended with antifouling paint particles has been digested in biologically relevant reagents in order to evaluate the bioaccessibilities of Cu and Zn to deposit feeders in coastal environments where boat maintenance is important. Concentrations of Cu and Zn in the estuarine sediment of about 20 and 70 μg g -1, respectively, increased to about 930 and 330 μg g -1, respectively, on addition of 1.3% of a composite of fractionated paint particles collected from a boat repair facility. Seawater containing the vertebrate bile salt, sodium taurocholate, representative of surfactants in the digestive environment of deposit feeders, mobilised significantly greater quantities of metal (up to about 2 μg g -1 of both Cu and Zn) than seawater alone, presumably through complexation and exchange reactions. Seawater solutions of the protein, bovine serum albumin (BSA), a surrogate for proteinaceous material and amino acids encountered in the digestive tract, mobilised even greater quantities of metal (up to about 80 and 40 μg g -1 of Cu and Zn, respectively) via strong complexation, although addition of taurocholate reduced this capacity through interactions between the two reagents. Overall, and through feeding, burrowing and bioirrigation, infaunal invertebrates are predicted to greatly accelerate the rate of mobilisation and local dispersal of metals in sediment contaminated by antifouling paint particles.

  7. Mathematical modelling of a self-polishing antifouling paint exposed to seawater: A parameter study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kiil, Søren; Pedersen, M. S.; Dam-Johansen, Kim

    2002-01-01

    A Fundamental mathematical model for a self-polishing antifouling paint was used to conduct a parameter study. The aims were to show how a mathematical model can reduce the amount of experimental work needed to estimate the behaviour of self-polishing antifouling paints at different conditions......, and to suggest ways of controlling biocide release rates. A case study with an antifouling paint based on the well-known tributyltin self-polishing copolymer system showed that the rate of paint polishing was influenced, to various degrees, by the following parameters: seawater pH and concentration of Na......Cl, pigment particle size. pigment volume concentration of the paint, the rate of pigment dissolution, and the pore size distribution of the leached layer. The modelling approach can be applied to any type of self-polishing antifouling paint provided that kinetic, solubility and diffusivity data are available...

  8. Does antifouling paint select for antibiotic resistance?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flach, Carl-Fredrik; Pal, Chandan; Svensson, Carl Johan; Kristiansson, Erik; Östman, Marcus; Bengtsson-Palme, Johan; Tysklind, Mats; Larsson, D G Joakim

    2017-07-15

    There is concern that heavy metals and biocides contribute to the development of antibiotic resistance via co-selection. Most antifouling paints contain high amounts of such substances, which risks turning painted ship hulls into highly mobile refuges and breeding grounds for antibiotic-resistant bacteria. The objectives of this study were to start investigate if heavy-metal based antifouling paints can pose a risk for co-selection of antibiotic-resistant bacteria and, if so, identify the underlying genetic basis. Plastic panels with one side painted with copper and zinc-containing antifouling paint were submerged in a Swedish marina and biofilms from both sides of the panels were harvested after 2.5-4weeks. DNA was isolated from the biofilms and subjected to metagenomic sequencing. Biofilm bacteria were cultured on marine agar supplemented with tetracycline, gentamicin, copper sulfate or zinc sulfate. Biofilm communities from painted surfaces displayed lower taxonomic diversity and enrichment of Gammaproteobacteria. Bacteria from these communities showed increased resistance to both heavy metals and tetracycline but not to gentamicin. Significantly higher abundance of metal and biocide resistance genes was observed, whereas mobile antibiotic resistance genes were not enriched in these communities. In contrast, we found an enrichment of chromosomal RND efflux system genes, including such with documented ability to confer decreased susceptibility to both antibiotics and biocides/heavy metals. This was paralleled by increased abundances of integron-associated integrase and ISCR transposase genes. The results show that the heavy metal-based antifouling paint exerts a strong selection pressure on marine bacterial communities and can co-select for certain antibiotic-resistant bacteria, likely by favoring species and strains carrying genes that provide cross-resistance. Although this does not indicate an immediate risk for promotion of mobile antibiotic resistance, the

  9. Significance of antifouling paint flakes to the distribution of dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethanes (DDTs) in estuarine sediment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, Chen-Chou; Bao, Lian-Jun; Tao, Shu; Zeng, Eddy Y.

    2016-01-01

    Recently published literature indicated that dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT)-containing antifouling paint flakes were heterogeneously distributed within estuarine sediments. However, the significance of antifouling paint flakes in the fate and transport of DDT compounds and other organic pollutants in estuarine sediment is yet to be adequately addressed. To fill this knowledge gap, estuarine sediment and paint flakes from cabin and boat surfaces were collected from a fishery base in Guangdong Province of South China and analyzed for DDT compounds. Coarse fractioned samples collected from the vicinity of boat maintenance facilities contained appreciable amounts of colorful particles, which were identified as paint flakes by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. The highest concentrations of DDXs (sum of DDTs and its metabolites) occurred in the heavy-density (>1.7 g cm −3 ) fraction of coarse-size (200–2000 μm) sediments from near the boat maintenance facilities, suggesting the importance of paint flakes in the distribution pattern of “hot spots” in estuarine sediment. Moreover, the desorption rates of DDT compounds from paint flakes and the heavy-density fraction of coarse-size sediment were both extremely slow. Apparently, unevenly distributed paint flakes in sediment can artificially inflate the sorption capacity of heavy-density sediment for DDT compounds, and therefore can substantially change the environmental fate and behavior of hydrophobic organic chemicals in estuarine sediment. Finally, commonly used source diagnostic indices of DDT compounds were mostly grain-size and density dependent in sediment, as a result of the occurrence of paint flakes, which may strongly compromise the outcome of any source diagnostics efforts. - Highlights: • Concentrations of DDTs were elevated in coarse and high-density fractions. • The desorption rates of DDTs from coarse and high-density fraction were extreme slow. • DDTs-containing antifouling

  10. Influence of antifouling paint on freshwater invertebrates (Mytilidae, Chironomidae and Naididae): density, richness and composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujita, D S; Takeda, A M; Coutinho, R; Fernandes, F C

    2015-11-01

    We conducted a study about invertebrates on artificial substrates with different antifouling paints in order to answer the following questions 1) is there lower accumulation of organic matter on substrates with antifouling paints, 2) is invertebrate colonization influenced by the release of biocides from antifouling paints, 3) is the colonization of aquatic invertebrates positively influenced by the material accumulated upon the substrate surface and 4) is the assemblage composition of invertebrates similar among the different antifouling paints? To answer these questions, four structures were installed in the Baía River in February 1st, 2007. Each structure was composed of 7 wood boards: 5 boards painted with each type of antifouling paints (T1, T2, T3, T4 and T5), one painted only with the primer (Pr) and the other without any paint (Cn). After 365 days, we observed a greater accumulation of organic matter in the substrates with T2 and T3 paint coatings. Limnoperna fortunei was recorded in all tested paints, with higher densities in the control, primer, T2 and T3. The colonization of Chironomidae and Naididae on the substrate was positively influenced by L. fortunei density. The non-metric multidimensional scaling (NMDS) of the invertebrate community provided evidence of the clear distinction of invertebrate assemblages among the paints. Paints T2 and T3 were the most similar to the control and primer. Our results suggest that antifouling paints applied on substrates hinder invertebrate colonization by decreasing the density and richness of invertebrates.

  11. Significance of antifouling paint flakes to the distribution of dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethanes (DDTs) in estuarine sediment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Chen-Chou; Bao, Lian-Jun; Tao, Shu; Zeng, Eddy Y

    2016-03-01

    Recently published literature indicated that dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT)-containing antifouling paint flakes were heterogeneously distributed within estuarine sediments. However, the significance of antifouling paint flakes in the fate and transport of DDT compounds and other organic pollutants in estuarine sediment is yet to be adequately addressed. To fill this knowledge gap, estuarine sediment and paint flakes from cabin and boat surfaces were collected from a fishery base in Guangdong Province of South China and analyzed for DDT compounds. Coarse fractioned samples collected from the vicinity of boat maintenance facilities contained appreciable amounts of colorful particles, which were identified as paint flakes by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. The highest concentrations of DDXs (sum of DDTs and its metabolites) occurred in the heavy-density (>1.7 g cm(-3)) fraction of coarse-size (200-2000 μm) sediments from near the boat maintenance facilities, suggesting the importance of paint flakes in the distribution pattern of "hot spots" in estuarine sediment. Moreover, the desorption rates of DDT compounds from paint flakes and the heavy-density fraction of coarse-size sediment were both extremely slow. Apparently, unevenly distributed paint flakes in sediment can artificially inflate the sorption capacity of heavy-density sediment for DDT compounds, and therefore can substantially change the environmental fate and behavior of hydrophobic organic chemicals in estuarine sediment. Finally, commonly used source diagnostic indices of DDT compounds were mostly grain-size and density dependent in sediment, as a result of the occurrence of paint flakes, which may strongly compromise the outcome of any source diagnostics efforts. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. The development of a marine natural product-based antifouling paint.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burgess, J Grant; Boyd, Kenneth G; Armstrong, Evelyn; Jiang, Zhong; Yan, Liming; Berggren, Matz; May, Ulrika; Pisacane, Tony; Granmo, Ake; Adams, David R

    2003-04-01

    Problems with tin and copper antifouling compounds have highlighted the need to develop new environmentally friendly antifouling coatings. Bacteria isolated from living surfaces in the marine environment are a promising source of natural antifouling compounds. Four isolates were used to produce extracts that were formulated into ten water-based paints. All but one of the paints showed activity against a test panel of fouling bacteria. Five of the paints were further tested for their ability to inhibit the settlement of barnacle larvae, Balanus amphitrite, and algal spores of Ulva lactuca, and for their ability to inhibit the growth of U. lactuca. Two paints caused a significant decrease in the number of settled barnacles. One paint containing extract of Pseudomonas sp. strain NUDMB50-11, showed excellent activity in all assays. The antifouling chemicals responsible for the activity of the extract were isolated, using bioassay guided fractionation, and their chemical structures determined.

  13. A new concept for anti-fouling paint for Yachts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wallstroem, Eva; Jespersen, Henrik T.; Schaumburg, Kjeld

    2011-01-01

    -fouling products for yachts. To be able to reduce the amount of biocide, in this case zinc pyrithione, it is necessary to have control over the amount of biocide present in the surface layer. The control is achieved by encapsulating the biocide in a silica gel. The silica gel is dispersed together with pigments......It is shown to be possible to develop yacht paint with a reduction of 70% of biocide, without pigments/fillers (cuprous oxide and zinc oxide) that may cause long-term adverse effects in the aquatic environment, and to obtain application and usage properties that match present commercial anti...... it is encapsulated in a gel compared to a situation where it is not. This conclusion is based on the fact that the gel swells when exposed to water, and therefore the leach of zinc pyrithione is initially delayed and the biocide may start to solubilise and degrade. The result is an anti-fouling product...

  14. Efficacy and toxicity of self-polishing biocide-free antifouling paints

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loeschau, Margit; Kraetke, Renate

    2005-01-01

    The ban on harmful substances in antifouling paints requires the development of new antifouling strategies. Alternatives should be as effective as conventional paints but of lower toxicity. In the present study two commercially available, self-polishing antifouling paints were examined in order to get information on their antifouling properties and toxicological potential. Efficacy was shown in settlement assays with the marine barnacle species Balanus amphitrite, however, efficacy was related to toxic effects observed on target and non-target organisms. Toxicity of the paint extracts was concentration-dependent and differed according to the paint and the species investigated. Toxicity could at least partially be attributed to zinc leached from the paints. Effects of a water-soluble paint were more pronounced in larvae of B. amphitrite, Artemia salina and in the green algae Dunaliella tertiolecta. Embryos of the freshwater species Danio rerio and Vibrio fisheri were more affected by a paint based on organic solvents. - For alternative antifouling paints efficacy as well as adverse effects on non-target organisms and the aquatic environment should be carefully assessed

  15. Regulating antifouling paints for leisure boats - a patchwork of rules across three Baltic Sea countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kymenvaara, Sara; Anker, Helle Tegner; Baaner, Lasse

    2017-01-01

    This article analyses how the use of antifouling paints for leisure boats is regulated in Denmark, Finland and Sweden. All three countries appear to apply a somewhat fragmented approach to the different matters related to antifouling paints, including environmental quality (e.g. water quality......’ to sufficient environmental protection. Another option could be to encourage private law arrangements and “self- enforcement” by e.g. the marinas or boat owner associations....

  16. Investigation of leaching of an antifouling agent from marine paint formulations using radiotracer technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pant, H.J.; Sharma, V.K.; Gursharan Singh; Kalgutkar, D.B.; Patil, S.P.; Jayachandran, N.; Unni, V.K.P.

    2012-01-01

    A radiotracer technique was used to investigate the leaching of an antifouling agent from different marine paint formulations with an objective to select the best paint formulation for bulk production. The antifouling agent (Diuron) itself was labeled with carbon-14 (half-life: 5,730 years, β-energy: 156 keV) and used as a radiotracer. The different paint formulations added with radiolabeled Diuron were applied onto suitably selected substrates and measured for initial intensity of β-radiation using a Geiger-Muller detector connected to a ratemeter. The painted substrates were subjected to shower tests for a pre-decided time and subsequently measured for β-radiations. The comparison of intensity of β-radiations in substrates prior and post shower tests provides information about leaching of antifouling agent Diuron from the paint formulation. The high leaching percentage of antifouling agent Diuron post shower tests indicates non-suitability of paint formulation for marine and civil structures. However, low leaching rate of Diuron will make a paint formulation more efficient and suitable. Based on the results of investigation, a paint formulation with minimum leaching rate was identified and selected for bulk production by a paint company. (author)

  17. Presence and effects of marine microbial biofilms on biocide-based antifouling paints

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yebra, Diego Meseguer; Kiil, Søren; Erik Weinell, Claus

    2006-01-01

    Marine microorganisms are capable of successfully colonizing toxic surfaces through the formation of biofilm structures. In this article, most of the literature reporting the presence of marine biofilms on chemically-active antifouling paints is briefly reviewed. Of special concern is the influence...... of the dense extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) matrix on the release rate of the compounds involved in antifouling paint performance (i.e. active compounds and controlled-release binder molecules). A deeper understanding of these phenomena is of interest for both environmental legislators and paint...

  18. Are metals of antifouling paints transferred to marine biota?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wladimir C. Paradas

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Because of its high toxicity, TBT (trybutiltin was banned since 2003, which resulted in a greater re-use of Cu as based-biocide in antifouling paints (AFP. The aim of this work is to determine if metals form of AFP are transferred to benthic organisms from Guanabara Bay (GB (Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Metal concentrations were measured in two main fouling algae species Ulva flexuosa and U. fasciata and one isopod species, Sphaeroma serratum, in two GB marinas areas from sites with artificial substrate covered by AFP and natural substrate.In addition, control samples were collected in an adjacent open ocean area. Concentrations of Cd, Cr, Cu, Pb and Zn were determined by Atomic Absortion Spectrophotometry. Higher concentrations of Cu, Pb and Zn were detected in both algal species from GB in relation to control areas. Among samples of algae and isopod species from GB, populations collected over artificial surfaces covered by AFP presented significantly higher metal concentration than population of rocky natural substrate. Our data showed that the leaching of metals by antifouling paints present on decks and boats are being taken up by algae and isopods. These results indicate that antifouling coatings are the main source of heavy metal to biota of GB marina area.Devido sua alta toxicidade, o TBT está banido desde 2003, o que resultou na re-utilização de tintas a base de cobre. O objetivo deste trabalho é determinar se os metais provenientes das tintas anti-incrustantes (AFP são transferidos para organismos bentônicos da Baía de Guanabara (BG (Rio de janeiro, Brasil. Concentrações de metais foram analisadas em duas espécies de algas Ulva flexuosa e U. fasciata e no isópoda, Sphaeroma serratum, em duas áreas de marinas em locais de substrato artificial coberto com tintas AFP e em locais de substrato natural. Também foram coletadas amostras em uma área oceânica (controle. Concentrações de Cd, Cr, Cu, Pb e Zn foram determinadas por

  19. Evaluation of low copper content antifouling paints containing natural phenolic compounds as bioactive additives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez, Miriam; García, Mónica; Blustein, Guillermo

    2015-08-01

    Cuprous oxide is the most commonly used biocide in antifouling paints. However, copper has harmful effects not only on the fouling community but also on non-target species. In the current study, we investigated the use of thymol, eugenol and guaiacol in this role combined with small quantities of copper. Phenolic compounds were tested for anti-settlement activity against cyprid larvae of the barnacle Balanus amphitrite and for their toxicity to nauplius larvae. Thymol, eugenol and guaiacol were active for anti-settlement but guaiacol had the disadvantage of being toxic to nauplius larvae. However, all of them showed therapeutic ratio>1. Antifouling paints with thymol (low copper content/thymol, LCP/T), eugenol (low copper content/eugenol, LCP/E) and guaiacol (low copper content/guaiacol, LCP/G) combined with small copper content were formulated for field trials. After 12 months exposure in the sea, statistical analysis revealed that LCP/T and LCP/E paints were the most effective combinations and had similar performances to control paints with high copper content (traditional cuprous oxide based paints). In contrast, LCP/G paint was only partially effective in preventing and inhibiting biofouling and was colonized by some hard and soft foulers. However, this antifouling paint was effective against calcareous tubeworm Hydroides elegans. In the light of various potential applications, thymol, eugenol and guaiacol have thus to be considered in future antifouling formulations. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Incorporating bioavailability into management limits for copper in sediments contaminated by antifouling paint used in aquaculture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simpson, Stuart L; Spadaro, David A; O'Brien, Dom

    2013-11-01

    Although now well embedded within many risk-based sediment quality guideline (SQG) frameworks, contaminant bioavailability is still often overlooked in assessment and management of contaminated sediments. To optimise management limits for metal contaminated sediments, we assess the appropriateness of a range methods for modifying SQGs based on bioavailability considerations. The impairment of reproduction of the amphipod, Melita plumulosa, and harpacticoid copepod, Nitocra spinipes, was assessed for sediments contaminated with copper from antifouling paint, located below aquaculture cages. The measurement of dilute acid-extractable copper (AE-Cu) was found to provide the most useful means for monitoring the risks posed by sediment copper and setting management limits. Acid-volatile sulfide was found to be ineffective as a SQG-modifying factor as these organisms live mostly at the more oxidised sediment water interface. SQGs normalised to %-silt/organic carbon were effective, but the benefits gained were too small to justify this approach. The effectiveness of SQGs based on AE-Cu was attributed to a small portion of the total copper being present in potentially bioavailable forms (typicallypaint flakes in the form of copper (I) oxide, the active ingredient of the antifoulant formulation. While the concentrations of paint-associated copper are very high in some sediments, as the transformation of this form of copper to AE-Cu appears slow, monitoring and management limits should assess the more bioavailable AE-Cu forms, and further efforts be made to limit the release of paint particles into the environment. Crown Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. The corrosivity and performance evaluation of antifouling paint exposed in seawater Muara Baru Port, Jakarta

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nuraini, L.; Prifiharni, S.; Priyotomo, G.; Sundjono

    2017-04-01

    Antifouling paints were applied on a wide range of the under seawater structures in order to protect them from the growth of fouling organisms. The performance investigation of two commercial anticorrosion and antifouling paints was conducted in Muara Baru port, Jakarta. The specimens were coated by anticorrosion and/or antifouling paint. Blank specimen (without exposed) were also prepared as a control. On the other hand, bare mild steel was prepared for measure the corrosion rate through weight loss method. The test panels containing specimens were exposed up to 3 months for immersion depths of 0, 1, 2, 3 meters from sea level. Sea water parameters such as temperature, pH, salinity, conductivity and dissolved oxygen (DO) were also measured. The evaluation of coating performance was carried out such as thickness, glossy, hardness and adhesion strength. The results showed that both surfaces of anticorrosion paint and bare mild steel specimen covered by fouling organisms, whereas no fouling took place on the surface of antifouling paint. The corrosion rate of bare mild steel in the depths of 0, 1, 2, 3 meters were 12.5; 11.6; 8.3; 10.4 mpy, respectively.

  2. Inputs of antifouling paint-derived dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethanes (DDTs) to a typical mariculture zone (South China): Potential impact on aquafarming environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu Huanyun; Shen Rulang; Liang Yan; Cheng, Hefa; Zeng, Eddy Y.

    2011-01-01

    Existing evidence indicated that dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT)-containing antifouling paints were an important source of DDT residues to mariculture zones. However, the magnitude of the impact on aquafarming environment has remained largely unknown. In the present study, the concentrations of DDT and its metabolites (designated as DDXs) were determined in harbor sediment and antifouling paint samples collected from a typical mariculture zone in South China. Compositional and concentration correlation analyses implicated the DDT-containing antifouling paints for fishing boat maintenance as an important source of DDT in the mariculture zone. The annual emission of DDXs to the study region was estimated at 0.58 tons/yr. Furthermore, a comparison of the expected DDT loadings in pelagic fish and field measurements indicated that fish feed especially trash fish was a major source of DDTs in the fish body. Nevertheless, the use of DDT-containing antifouling paints should be limited to prevent further deterioration in aquafarming environment. - Highlights: → Use of antifouling paints in boat maintenance was deemed a main source of DDTs. → The majority of antifouling paint-derived DDTs was sequestered in sediment. → Fish feed has remained the main input source of DDTs in fish body. - The potential impact from the use of DDT-containing antifouling paints on aquafarming environment is examined.

  3. Determination of diuron and the antifouling paint biocide Irgarol 1051 in Dutch marinas and coastal waters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lamoree, M.H.; Swart, C.P.; van der Horst, A.; van Hattum, A.G.M.

    2002-01-01

    A sensitive LC-electrospray MS-MS method using off-line solid-phase extraction for the determination of diuron and Irgarol 1051 has been developed, enabling determination of both compounds at sub-ppt levels. Diuron and Irgarol 1051 are used as alternatives for tributyltin in antifouling paints that

  4. Reaction rate estimation of controlled-release antifouling paint binders: Rosin-based systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meseguer Yebra, Diego; Kiil, Søren; Dam-Johansen, Kim

    2005-01-01

    accuracies. The latter is important because very low steady state reaction rates (about 0.70 +/- 0.26 mu g Zn(2+)cm(-2)day(-1) at 25 degrees C and pH 8.2) are measured. Steady state reaction rates of Cu2+- and Mg2+ -derivatives are also determined and discussed. The experimental procedures developed are used...... rather than pointing at a certain diffusion control in the reaction rate experiments. The reverse reaction is found not to affect the hydrolysis rate within the pores, of antifouling paints significantly. It is concluded, from the reaction mechanism proposed, that the observed partial exchange of Zn2......Biofouling on ship hulls is prevented by the use of antifouling (A/F) paints. Typically, sea water soluble rosin or rosin-derivatives are used as the primary means of adjusting the polishing rate of the current chemically active self-polishing paint systems to a suitable value. Previous studies...

  5. XRF measurements of tin, copper and zinc in antifouling paints coated on leisure boats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ytreberg, Erik; Bighiu, Maria Alexandra; Lundgren, Lennart; Eklund, Britta

    2016-06-01

    Tributyltin (TBT) and other organotin compounds have been restricted for use on leisure boats since 1989 in the EU. Nonetheless, release of TBT is observed from leisure boats during hull maintenance work, such as pressure hosing. In this work, we used a handheld X-ray Fluorescence analyser (XRF) calibrated for antifouling paint matrixes to measure tin, copper and zinc in antifouling paints coated on leisure boats in Sweden. Our results show that over 10% of the leisure boats (n = 686) contain >400 μg/cm(2) of tin in their antifouling coatings. For comparison, one layer (40 μm dry film) of a TBT-paint equals ≈ 800 μg Sn/cm(2). To our knowledge, tin has never been used in other forms than organotin (OT) in antifouling paints. Thus, even though the XRF analysis does not provide any information on the speciation of tin, the high concentrations indicate that these leisure boats still have OT coatings present on their hull. On several leisure boats we performed additional XRF measurements by progressively scraping off the top coatings and analysing each underlying layer. The XRF data show that when tin is detected, it is most likely present in coatings close to the hull with several layers of other coatings on top. Thus, leaching of OT compounds from the hull into the water is presumed to be negligible. The risk for environmental impacts arises during maintenance work such as scraping, blasting and high pressure hosing activities. The data also show that many boat owners apply excessive paint layers when following paint manufacturers recommendations. Moreover, high loads of copper were detected even on boats sailing in freshwater, despite the more than 20 year old ban, which poses an environmental risk that has not been addressed until now. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  6. A novel XRF method to measure environmental release of copper and zinc from antifouling paints.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ytreberg, Erik; Lagerström, Maria; Holmqvist, Albin; Eklund, Britta; Elwing, Hans; Dahlström, Magnus; Dahl, Peter; Dahlström, Mia

    2017-06-01

    The release of copper (Cu) and zinc (Zn) from vessels and leisure crafts coated with antifouling paints can pose a threat to water quality in semi-enclosed areas such as harbors and marinas as well as to coastal archipelagos. However, no reliable, practical and low-cost method exists to measure the direct release of metals from antifouling paints. Therefore, the paint industry and regulatory authorities are obliged to use release rate measurements derived from either mathematical models or from laboratory studies. To bridge this gap, we have developed a novel method using a handheld X-Ray Fluorescence spectrometer (XRF) to determine the cumulative release of Cu and Zn from antifouling paints. The results showed a strong linear relationship between XRF K α net intensities and metal concentrations, as determined by ICP-MS. The release of Cu and Zn were determined for coated panels exposed in harbors located in the Baltic Sea and in Kattegat. The field study showed salinity to have a strong impact on the release of Cu, i.e. the release increased with salinity. Contrary, the effect of salinity on Zn was not as evident. As exemplified in this work, the XRF method also makes it possible to identify the governing parameters to the release of Cu and Zn, e.g. salinity and type of paint formulation. Thus, the XRF method can be used to measure environmentally relevant releases of metallic compounds to design more efficient and optimized antifouling coatings. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  7. Estimation of Polishing and Leaching Behaviour of Antifouling Paints Using Mathematical Modelling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kiil, Søren; Dam-Johansen, Kim; Erik Weinell, Claus

    2003-01-01

    The development of chemically active antifouling paints has traditionally been based on an empirical approach. Optimisation and evaluation of novel and existing products are frequently conducted by means of, for example, systematic paint rotary tests in the laboratory or at sea sites....... In this review, the usefulness of combining rotary experiments with the development of detailed mathematical models of paint behaviour will be discussed with reference to the relevant literature. Mathematical models can generally be used in the design of suitable release systems for various active components...... such as proteins or biocides, as well as for the estimation of release rates from different compositions of paints under various seawater conditions. Insoluble matrix, soluble matrix and self-polishing paints will be considered. Simulations from recent publications that show the effects of dynamic changes...

  8. Predicted concentrations of biocides from antifouling paints in Visakhapatnam Harbour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukherjee, A; Rao, K V Mohan; Ramesh, U S

    2009-02-01

    The concentrations of biocides leached from antifouling coatings are monitored in most of the developed countries. However, in India and many other developing countries, there is very little data available on the concentrations of biocides in ports and harbours. The first step was to obtain the order of magnitude levels of concentrations of biocides in the marine environment of the Visakhapatnam Harbour, and the MAM-PEC (Marine Antifoulant Model to Predict Environmental Concentrations) model was used to predict these values. The Visakhapatnam Port lies on the eastern coast of India, roughly halfway between Chennai and Kolkata, and is the largest port in India. This port is a natural harbour; the long and narrow outlet to the open sea makes it a 'poorly flushed' harbour. Predicted concentrations of tributyltin (TBT), copper, dichlofluanid, seanine, irgarol, diuron, tolylfluanid, and zinc pyrithione were computed. The results of the computations indicate that the levels of these biocides are comparable to those in many western countries. This gives credence to the fact that persistence of TBT and some other biocides is a global problem that cannot be ignored.

  9. Marine Microcosm Experiments on Effects of Copper and Tributylin-Based Antifouling Paint Leachates

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-06-01

    SPC-4 treatment. The increased aggregation of diatoms was attributed to potential binding effects of a higher than normal secretion of mucilage by the...Technical Report 1060 June 1988 00 Marine Microcosm Experiments on 2TiC’ Effects of Copper kE LECTE wm% and Tributyltin-Based Antifouling Paint D... EFFECTS OF COPPER AND TRIBUTYLTIN-BASED ANTIFOUALING PAINT LEACHATES 12. PERSONAL AUTHOR (S) R. Scott Henderson F4DT 5PG ON13a. TYPE OF REPORT 13b TIME

  10. Dissolution rate measurements of sea water soluble pigments for antifouling paints

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yebra, Diego Meseguer; Kiil, Søren; Erik Weinell, Claus

    2006-01-01

    The dissolution of soluble pigments from both tin-based and tin-free chemically active antifouling (AF) paints is a key process influencing their polishing and biocide leaching rates. In this context, a low time- and resources-consuming method capable of screening the pigment behaviour.......3 +/- 3.7 mu g Zn2+ cm(-2) day(-1), pellets prepared by compacting and sintering technical grade ZnO pigments dissolved about three times faster according to inductively-coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) measurements. The rougher and more porous surface exposed, together with the larger number...

  11. Seawater-Soluble Pigments and Their Potential Use in Self-Polishing Antifouling Paints: Simulation-based Screening Tool

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kiil, Søren; Dam-Johansen, Kim; Erik Weinell, Claus

    2002-01-01

    This work concerns the on-going development of efficient and environmentally friendly antifouling paints for biofouling control on large ocean-going ships. It is illustrated how a detailed mathematical model for a self-polishing antifouling paint exposed to seawater can be used as a product...... engineering tool to obtain a quick estimate of the paint behaviour that a given seawater-soluble pigment will provide. In the present context, "pigment" refers to relevant particulate solids of organic-, inorganic-, or biological nature. Simulations performed at 15 and 30degreesC suggest that pigment...... solubility and seawater diffusivity of dissolved pigment species have a significant influence on the polishing and leaching behaviour of a typical self-polishing paint system. The pigment size distribution, on the other hand, only has a minor influence on the paint-seawater interaction. Simulations also...

  12. Production and use of DDT containing antifouling paint resulted in high DDTs residue in three paint factory sites and two shipyard sites, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xin, Jia; Liu, Xiang; Liu, Wei; Jiang, Lu; Wang, Jihua; Niu, Jia

    2011-06-01

    This study provides the first intensive investigation of Dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethanes (DDT) distribution in typical paint factories and shipyards in China where DDT containing antifouling paint were mass produced and used respectively. DDTs were analyzed in soil, sludge and sediment samples collected from three major paint factories and two shipyards. The results showed that the total DDTs concentrations detected in paint factory and shipyard sites ranged from 0.06 to 8387.24 mg kg(-1). In comparison with paint factory sites, the shipyard sites were much more seriously contaminated. However, for both kinds of sites, the DDTs level was found to be largely affected by history and capacity of production and use of DDT containing antifouling paint. (DDE+DDD)/DDT ratios indicated that DDT containing antifouling paint could serve as important fresh input sources for DDTs. It can be seen that most samples in shipyards were in ranges where heavy contamination and potential ecological risk were identified. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Effects of marine microbial biofilms on the biocide release rate from antifouling paints – A model-based analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yebra, Diego Meseguer; Kiil, Søren; Erik Weinell, Claus

    2006-01-01

    The antifouling (AF) paint model of Kiil et al. [S. Kiil, C.E. Weinell, M.S. Pedersen, K. Dam-Johansen, Analysis of self-polishing antifouling paints using rotary experiments and mathematical modelling, Ind. Eng. Chem. Res. 40 (2001) 3906-3920] and the simplified biofilm. growth model of Gujer......, polishing behaviour of AF paints. It is concluded that the perturbation of the local sea water conditions (e.g. pH), as a consequence of the metabolic activity of the biofilm should not affect the net biocide leaching and binder reaction rates significantly. This results from the thin and poorly active...... biofilms which presumably grow onto the highly effective modern AF paints. According to simulations, the experimental decrease in the biocide leaching rate caused by biofilm growth must be mainly attributed to adsorption of the biocide by the exopolymeric substances secreted by the microorganisms...

  14. Biofouling Growth in Cold Estuarine Waters and Evaluation of Some Chitosan and Copper Anti-Fouling Paints

    OpenAIRE

    Pelletier, ?milien; Bonnet, Claudie; Lemarchand, Karine

    2009-01-01

    Ecological concerns about antifouling paints containing non-green tin and copper compounds have highlighted the need for environmentally friendly alternatives. We report here a field test conducted in estuarine waters over two months designed to evaluate the efficiency of a number of active natural and man-made chemical ingredients added into a silicon-polyurethane marine paint. Early steps of biofouling in cold seawater of the St. Lawrence Estuary (Canada) were observed. Analyses, including ...

  15. Biofouling growth in cold estuarine waters and evaluation of some chitosan and copper anti-fouling paints.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelletier, Emilien; Bonnet, Claudie; Lemarchand, Karine

    2009-07-14

    Ecological concerns about antifouling paints containing non-green tin and copper compounds have highlighted the need for environmentally friendly alternatives. We report here a field test conducted in estuarine waters over two months designed to evaluate the efficiency of a number of active natural and man-made chemical ingredients added into a silicon-polyurethane marine paint. Early steps of biofouling in cold seawater of the St. Lawrence Estuary (Canada) were observed. Analyses, including dry biomass, flow cytometry and spectrofluorimetry, demonstrated a short-term antibacterial action of chitosan-based paints although no significant anti-algal action was observed. Cuprous oxide paints were efficient against bacteria and algae invasion in the first two weeks, especially those with added organic biocides such as isothiazolone and copper pyrithione. However, the overall dry biomass and chlorophyll a content were similar for all chitosan-and copper-based paints after 63 days. Microscopic observations revealed variation in the highly diverse benthic diatom population including species Navicula, Melosira, Cocconeis, Nitshzcia, Fragilaria and Amphora. Results suggest no real long-term efficiency for tested antifouling paints and highlight a particular need for green antifouling ingredients that are active under northern estuarine conditions.

  16. Biofouling Growth in Cold Estuarine Waters and Evaluation of Some Chitosan and Copper Anti-Fouling Paints

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karine Lemarchand

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Ecological concerns about antifouling paints containing non-green tin and copper compounds have highlighted the need for environmentally friendly alternatives. We report here a field test conducted in estuarine waters over two months designed to evaluate the efficiency of a number of active natural and man-made chemical ingredients added into a silicon-polyurethane marine paint. Early steps of biofouling in cold seawater of the St. Lawrence Estuary (Canada were observed. Analyses, including dry biomass, flow cytometry and spectrofluorimetry, demonstrated a short-term antibacterial action of chitosan-based paints although no significant anti-algal action was observed. Cuprous oxide paints were efficient against bacteria and algae invasion in the first two weeks, especially those with added organic biocides such as isothiazolone and copper pyrithione. However, the overall dry biomass and chlorophyll a content were similar for all chitosan- and copper-based paints after 63 days. Microscopic observations revealed variation in the highly diverse benthic diatom population including species Navicula, Melosira, Cocconeis, Nitshzcia, Fragilaria and Amphora. Results suggest no real long-term efficiency for tested antifouling paints and highlight a particular need for green antifouling ingredients that are active under northern estuarine conditions.

  17. Fluorescence microscopy techniques for quantitative evaluation of organic biocide distribution in antifouling paint coatings: Application to model antifouling coatings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goodes, L.R.; Dennington, S.P.; Schuppe, H.; Wharton, J.A.; Bakker, M.; Klijnstra, J.W.; Stokes, K.R.

    2012-01-01

    A test matrix of antifouling (AF) coatings including pMMA, an erodible binder and a novel trityl copolymer incorporating Cu 2O and a furan derivative (FD) natural product, were subjected to pontoon immersion and accelerated rotor tests. Fluorescence and optical microscopy techniques were applied to

  18. Structural color painting by rubbing particle powder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, ChooJin; Koh, Kunsuk; Jeong, Unyong

    2015-02-09

    Structural colors originate from purely physical structures. Scientists have been inspired to mimic the structures found in nature, the realization of these structures still presents a great challenge. We have recently introduced unidirectional rubbing of a dry particle powder on a rubbery surface as a quick, highly reproducible means to fabricate a single crystal monolayer assembly of particles over an unlimited area. This study extends the particle-rubbing process to a novel fine-art painting, structural color painting (SCP). SCP is based on structural coloring with varying iridescence according to the crystal orientation, as controlled by the rubbing direction. This painting technique can be applied on curved surfaces, which enriches the objects to be painted and helps the painter mimic the structures found in nature. It also allows for quick fabrication of complicated particle-assembly patterns, which enables replication of paintings.

  19. Antifouling paint booster biocides (Irgarol 1051 and diuron) in marinas and ports of Bushehr, Persian Gulf.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saleh, Abolfazl; Molaei, Saeideh; Sheijooni Fumani, Neda; Abedi, Ehsan

    2016-04-15

    In the present study, antifouling paint booster biocides, Irgarol 1051 and diuron were measured in ports and marinas of Bushehr, Iran. Results showed that in seawater samples taken from ports and marinas, Irgarol was found at the range of less than LOD to 63.4ngL(-1) and diuron was found to be at the range of less than LOD to 29.1ngL(-1) (in Jalali marina). 3,4-dichloroaniline (3,4-DCA), as a degradation product of diuron, was also analyzed and its maximum concentration was 390ngL(-1). Results for analysis of Irgarol 1051 in sediments showed a maximum concentration of 35.4ngg(-1) dry weight in Bandargah marina. A comparison between the results of this study and those of other published works showed that Irgarol and diuron pollutions in ports and marinas of Bushehr located in the Persian Gulf were less than the average of reports from other parts of the world. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Laboratory assessment of the antifouling potential of a soluble-matrix paint laced with the natural compound polygodial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cahill, Patrick Louis; Heasman, Kevin; Jeffs, Andrew; Kuhajek, Jeanne

    2013-09-01

    Polygodial is a potent and selective inhibitor of ascidian metamorphosis that shows promise for controlling fouling by ascidians in bivalve aquaculture. The current study examined the potency of, and associated effects of seawater exposure on, a rosin-based soluble-matrix paint laced with 0.08-160 ng polygodial g(-1) wet paint matrix. Paint-coated surfaces were soaked in seawater for 0, 2, 4 or 12 weeks prior to screening for antifouling activity using a bioassay based on the nuisance ascidian Ciona savignyi Herdman. Mortality was greater (mean 50% lethal concentration: 5 ± 2 ng g(-1); mean 75% lethal concentration: 17 ± 4 ng g(-1)) and metamorphosis was inhibited (mean 50% anti-metamorphic concentration: 2 ± 0.4 ng g(-1); mean 75% anti-metamorphic concentration: 15 ± 10 ng g(-1)) in C. savignyi larvae exposed to polygodial-laced soluble-matrix paints, relative to control paints without polygodial. Soaking in seawater prior to testing reduced the efficacy of the formulation up to nearly 12-fold, but even after soaking for 12 weeks paints laced with polygodial at 160 ng g(-1) wet paint matrix prevented ⩾90% of the larvae of C. savignyi from completing metamorphosis. The outcome of this experiment provides a positive first step in evaluating the suitability of polygodial-laced soluble-matrix paints for use in aquaculture.

  1. Metal contamination at recreational boatyards linked to the use of antifouling paints-investigation of soil and sediment with a field portable XRF.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lagerström, Maria; Norling, Matz; Eklund, Britta

    2016-05-01

    The application of a field portable X-ray fluorescence spectrometer (FPXRF) to measure Cu, Zn, and Pb in soil and sediments at recreational boatyards by Lake Mälaren in Sweden was investigated. Confirmatory chemical analysis on freeze-dried samples shows that, ex situ, the FPXRF produces definitive level data for Cu and Zn and quantitative screening data for Pb, according to USEPA criteria for data quality. Good agreement was also found between the ex situ measurements and the in situ screening. At each of the two studied boatyards, >40 in situ soil measurements were carried out. Statistical differences in soil concentration based on land use were consequently found: the areas used for boat storage and maintenance were significantly higher in Cu and Zn than the areas used for car parking and transportation. The metal pollution in the boat storage areas is therefore shown to be directly linked to hull maintenance activities during which metal-containing antifouling paint particles are shed, end up on the ground, and consequently pollute the soil. In the boat storage areas, the Cu and Zn concentrations often exceeded the national guideline values for soil. In this study, they were also shown to increase with increasing age of the boatyard operation. Pb soil concentrations were only elevated at a few measurement points, reflecting the phasing out of Pb compounds from antifouling products over the past 2 decades. In the surface sediments, concentrations of Cu and Zn were 2-3 times higher compared to deeper levels. No decrease in metal concentration with time was found in the sediments, indicating that boat owners are not complying with the ban of biocide-containing paints in freshwater introduced over 20 years ago.

  2. Toxicity of anti-fouling paints for use on ships and leisure boats to non-target organisms representing three trophic levels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karlsson, Jenny; Ytreberg, Erik; Eklund, Britta

    2010-01-01

    Leachates of anti-fouling paints for use on ships and leisure boats are examined for their ecotoxicological potential. Paint leachates were produced in both 7 per mille artificial (ASW) and natural seawater (NSW) and tested on three organisms, the bacterium Vibrio fischeri, the macroalga Ceramium tenuicorne, and the crustacean Nitocra spinipes. Generally, leaching in ASW produced a more toxic leachate and was up to 12 times more toxic to the organisms than was the corresponding NSW leachate. The toxicity could be explained by elevated concentrations of Cu and Zn in the ASW leachates. Of the NSW leachates, those from the ship paints were more toxic than those from leisure boat paints. The most toxic paint was the biocide-free leisure boat paint Micron Eco. This implies that substances other than added active agents (biocides) were responsible for the observed toxicity, which would not have been discovered without the use of biological tests. - Leachate from a biocide-free anti-fouling paint for leisure boat use was more toxic than leachates from ship paints.

  3. Toxicity of anti-fouling paints for use on ships and leisure boats to non-target organisms representing three trophic levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karlsson, Jenny; Ytreberg, Erik; Eklund, Britta

    2010-03-01

    Leachates of anti-fouling paints for use on ships and leisure boats are examined for their ecotoxicological potential. Paint leachates were produced in both 7 per thousand artificial (ASW) and natural seawater (NSW) and tested on three organisms, the bacterium Vibrio fischeri, the macroalga Ceramium tenuicorne, and the crustacean Nitocra spinipes. Generally, leaching in ASW produced a more toxic leachate and was up to 12 times more toxic to the organisms than was the corresponding NSW leachate. The toxicity could be explained by elevated concentrations of Cu and Zn in the ASW leachates. Of the NSW leachates, those from the ship paints were more toxic than those from leisure boat paints. The most toxic paint was the biocide-free leisure boat paint Micron Eco. This implies that substances other than added active agents (biocides) were responsible for the observed toxicity, which would not have been discovered without the use of biological tests. Copyright (c) 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Comparison of toxicity and release rates of Cu and Zn from anti-fouling paints leached in natural and artificial brackish seawater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ytreberg, Erik; Karlsson, Jenny; Eklund, Britta

    2010-05-15

    Biocide-containing anti-fouling paints are regulated and approved according to the added active ingredients, such as Cu. Biocide-free paints are considered to be less environmentally damaging and do not need an approval. Zn, a common ingredient in paints with the potential of causing adverse effects has received only minor attention. Laboratory experiments were conducted in artificial brackish seawater (ASW) and natural brackish seawater (NSW) to quantify release rates of Cu and Zn from biocide-containing and biocide-free labeled eroding anti-fouling paints used on commercial vessels as well as leisure boats. In addition, organisms from three trophic levels, the crustacean Nitocra spinipes, the macroalga Ceramium tenuicorne and the bacteria Vibrio fischeri, were exposed to Cu and Zn to determine the toxicity of these metals. The release rate of Cu in NSW was higher from the paints for professional use (3.2-3.6 microg cm(-)(2)d(-1)) than from the biocide leaching leisure boat paint (1.1 microg cm(-)(2)d(-1)). Biocide-free paints did leach considerably more Zn (4.4-8.2 microg cm(-)(2)d(-1)) than biocide-containing leisure boat paint (3.0 microg cm(-)(2)d(-1)) and ship paints (0.7-2.0 microg cm(-)(2)d(-1)). In ASW the release rates of both metals were notably higher than in NSW for most tested paints. The macroalga was the most sensitive species to both Cu (EC(50)=6.4 microg l(-1)) and Zn (EC(50)=25 microg l(-1)) compared to the crustacean (Cu, LC(50)=2000 microg l(-1) Zn, LC(50)=890 microg l(-1)), and the bacteria (Cu, EC(50)=800 microg l(-1) and Zn, EC(50)=2000 microg l(-1)). The results suggest that the amounts of Zn and Cu leached from anti-fouling paints may attain toxic concentrations in areas with high boat density. To fully account for potential ecological risk associated with anti-fouling paints, Zn as well as active ingredients should be considered in the regulatory process. Copyright 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Pseudoalteromonas spp. serve as initial bacterial attractants in mesocosms of coastal waters but have subsequent antifouling capacity in mesocosms and when embedded in paint.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernbom, Nete; Ng, Yoke Yin; Olsen, Stefan Møller; Gram, Lone

    2013-11-01

    The purpose of the present study was to determine if the monoculture antifouling effect of several pigmented pseudoalteromonads was retained in in vitro mesocosm systems using natural coastal seawater and when the bacteria were embedded in paint used on surfaces submerged in coastal waters. Pseudoalteromonas piscicida survived on a steel surface and retained antifouling activity for at least 53 days in sterile seawater, whereas P. tunicata survived and had antifouling activity for only 1 week. However, during the first week, all Pseudoalteromonas strains facilitated rather than prevented bacterial attachment when used to coat stainless steel surfaces and submerged in mesocosms with natural seawater. The bacterial density on surfaces coated with sterile growth medium was 10(5) cells/cm(2) after 7 days, whereas counts on surfaces precoated with Pseudoalteromonas were significantly higher, at 10(6) to 10(8) cells/cm(2). However, after 53 days, seven of eight Pseudoalteromonas strains had reduced total bacterial adhesion compared to the control. P. piscicida, P. antarctica, and P. ulvae remained on the surface, at levels similar to those in the initial coating, whereas P. tunicata could not be detected. Larger fouling organisms were observed on all plates precoated with Pseudoalteromonas; however, plates coated only with sterile growth medium were dominated by a bacterial biofilm. Suspensions of a P. piscicida strain and a P. tunicata strain were incorporated into ship paints (Hempasil x3 87500 and Hempasil 77500) used on plates that were placed at the Hempel A/S test site in Jyllinge Harbor. For the first 4 months, no differences were observed between control plates and treated plates, but after 5 to 6 months, the control plates were more fouled than the plates with pseudoalteromonad-based paint. Our study demonstrates that no single laboratory assay can predict antifouling effects and that a combination of laboratory and real-life methods must be used to determine

  6. Scanning Electron Microscope Observations of Marine Microorganisms on Surfaces Coated with Antifouling Paints.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-06-01

    99 27. Glass coated with paint Formula 196D immersed 83 days, 1000X. Sponge spicule possibly from the genus Leucosolenia i...Plate 26) along with a few sponge spicules (Plate 27). 4. Organisms Sorbed to Formula 1114 No organisms of any kind were seen attached to the...Glass coated with paint Formula 136D immers- ed 33 days, lCOOX. Sponge spicule 7ossitly from the genus Leucosolenia (Light, 19-S). 100 Plate 28. Glass

  7. Les peintures marines antisalissures à base de polymères organostanniques Antifouling Marine Paints Containing Organo-Tin Polymers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dawans F.

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Le dépôt des salissures marines sur les ouvrages immergés est influencé par plusieurs facteurs et il entraîne des conséquences néfastes, en particulier pour la maintenance des supports de plates-formes de production du pétrole en mer et pour la consommation d'énergie requise pour la propulsion des navires. Divers moyens de lutte antisalissure ont été envisagés parmi lesquels les peintures marines antisalissures occupent une place de choix. Ces peintures contiennent, en général, un composé métallique toxique envers les organismes marins d'origine animale ou végétale et différents mécanismes d'action ont été proposés. Les dérivés organostanniques sont des agents biocides très efficaces et lorsqu'ils sont liés chimiquement sur un polymère, en particulier sous forme de greffons, on obtient un contrôle amélioré de leur lixiviation dans la phase aqueuse et par conséquent la durée de vie du revêtement antisalissure est prolongée. La synthèse de polymères comportant un cation organostannique toxique peut être effectuée, soit par la polymérisation ou la copolymérisation de monomères insaturés organostanniques, soit par la réaction chimique de composés organostanniques avec un substrat polymère comportant des groupes fonctionnels appropriés. Les avantages et les inconvénients de diverses formulations de peintures à base de dérivés organostanniques sont discutés. Marine fouling deposits on submerged structures are influenced by several factors and bring about harmful consequences, especially with regard to offshore oil-production platform structures and for the energy consumption required for ship propulsion. Various antifouling methods have been considered, including antifouling marine coatings in particular. Such paints generally contain a metallic compound which is toxic with regard to marine organisms of animal or vegetable origin, and various action mechanisms have been proposed. Organo

  8. Mathematical Modeling of Tin-Free Chemically-Active Antifouling Paint Behavior

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yebra, Diego Meseguer; Kiil, Søren; Dam-Johansen, Kim

    2006-01-01

    as regards the biocide leaching and the surface polishing processes. Hence, the modeling framework developed in this work is built so as to describe any generic, chemically-active AF paint through model parameters, the values of which can be obtained or adjusted from relatively fast measurements...

  9. Pseudoalteromonas spp. Serve as Initial Bacterial Attractants in Mesocosms of Coastal Waters but Have Subsequent Antifouling Capacity in Mesocosms and when Embedded in Paint

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bernbom, Nete; Ng, Yin; Møller, Stefan

    2013-01-01

    . Larger fouling organisms were observed on all plates precoated with Pseudoalteromonas; however, plates coated only with sterile growth medium were dominated by a bacterial biofilm. Suspensions of a P. piscicida strain and a P. tunicata strain were incorporated into ship paints (Hempasil x3 87500......The purpose of the present study was to determine if the monoculture antifouling effect of several pigmented pseudoalteromonads was retained in in vitro mesocosm systems using natural coastal seawater and when the bacteria were embedded in paint used on surfaces submerged in coastal waters...... attachment when used to coat stainless steel surfaces and submerged in mesocosms with natural seawater. The bacterial density on surfaces coated with sterile growth medium was 105 cells/cm2 after 7 days, whereas counts on surfaces precoated with Pseudoalteromonas were significantly higher, at 106 to 108...

  10. Marine sponges: a potential source of eco-friendly antifouling compounds

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Wagh, A; Thakur, N.L.; Anil, A; Venkat, K.

    Antifouling protocols rely to a great extent on the application of paints or altering substratum characteristics. It has been evidence that commercial antifouling paints which are currently in use employ toxic biocides. The use of such toxic...

  11. Polymer-Particle Pressure-Sensitive Paint with High Photostability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Matsuda

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available We propose a novel fast-responding and paintable pressure-sensitive paint (PSP based on polymer particles, i.e. polymer-particle (pp-PSP. As a fast-responding PSP, polymer-ceramic (PC-PSP is widely studied. Since PC-PSP generally consists of titanium (IV oxide (TiO2 particles, a large reduction in the luminescent intensity will occur due to the photocatalytic action of TiO2. We propose the usage of polymer particles instead of TiO2 particles to prevent the reduction in the luminescent intensity. Here, we fabricate pp-PSP based on the polystyrene particle with a diameter of 1 μm, and investigate the pressure- and temperature-sensitives, the response time, and the photostability. The performances of pp-PSP are compared with those of PC-PSP, indicating the high photostability with the other characteristics comparable to PC-PSP.

  12. Dissociation of Hexavalent Chromium from Sanded Paint Particles into a Simulated Lung Fluid

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lange, Steven H

    2006-01-01

    .... Studies clearly link chromate exposure to human lung cancer. However, the few studies of the painting industry suggest that chromate exposure from paint particles does not increase the risk of lung cancer...

  13. Possibilities and impossibilites of alternative antifouling techniques

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Willemsen, P.R.; Ferrari, G.M.

    1996-01-01

    The following alternatives to TBT and other toxic paints are discussed in this paper: coatings based on naturally antifouling compounds, non-stick coatings and the periodic removal of fouling (cleaning). Other alternative antifouling techniques have not made significant developments in the last few

  14. Painting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Anne Ring

    2012-01-01

    The ongoing struggle of painting – leading to recurrent announcements of its ‘demise’ and subsequently of its ‘return’ – serves as point of departure for an examination of ‘expanded painting’. The article suggests that contemporary painting is not only a field of incessant disciplinary...... and discursive battles over the essentially self-reflective question of “What is painting?” Over the last decades it has also become an intermedial laboratory in which artists experiment with developing a connective aesthetic in the interface between painting and other media. Accordingly, it is has become...... a commonly held opinion that painting has transformed itself into an expanded field and thus renewed itself – again. The article argues that in recent decades a remarkable number of painters have explored the possibility of developing painting by redefining what ‘space’ is in relation to painting. Much...

  15. Antifouling Compounds from Marine Macroalgae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahms, Hans Uwe; Dobretsov, Sergey

    2017-08-28

    Marine macroalgae produce a wide variety of biologically-active metabolites that have been developed into commercial products, such as antibiotics, immunosuppressive, anti-inflammatory, cytotoxic agents, and cosmetic products. Many marine algae remain clean over longer periods of time, suggesting their strong antifouling potential. Isolation of biogenic compounds and the determination of their structure could provide leads for the development of environmentally-friendly antifouling paints. Isolated substances with potent antifouling activity belong to fatty acids, lipopeptides, amides, alkaloids, lactones, steroids, terpenoids, and pyrroles. It is unclear as yet to what extent symbiotic microorganisms are involved in the synthesis of these compounds. Algal secondary metabolites have the potential to be produced commercially using genetic and metabolic engineering techniques. This review provides an overview of publications from 2010 to February 2017 about antifouling activity of green, brown, and red algae. Some researchers were focusing on antifouling compounds of brown macroalgae, while metabolites of green algae received less attention. Several studies tested antifouling activity against bacteria, microalgae and invertebrates, but in only a few studies was the quorum sensing inhibitory activity of marine macroalgae tested. Rarely, antifouling compounds from macroalgae were isolated and tested in an ecologically-relevant way.

  16. Bioassays and selected chemical analysis of biocide-free antifouling coatings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Watermann, B.T.; Daehne, B.; Sievers, S.; Dannenberg, R.; Overbeke, J.C.; Klijnstra, J.W.; Heemken, O.

    2005-01-01

    Over the years several types of biocide-free antifouling paints have entered the market. The prohibition of biocidal antifouling paints in special areas of some European countries such as Sweden, Denmark and Germany has favoured the introduction of these paints to the market. Several types of

  17. MEASUREMENTS OF VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUNDS AND PARTICLES DURING APPLICATION OF LATEX PAINT WITH AN AIRLESS SPRAYER

    Science.gov (United States)

    The paper discusses experiments, conducted at EPA's Indoor Air Quality Research House, to measure airborne concentrations of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and particles during and following the spray-application of latex wall paint. (NOTE: Paint may be applied indoors by a v...

  18. Self Cleaning Paint: Introduction of Photocatalytic Particles into a Paint System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gunnarsson, Sverrir Grimur

    The current industrial PhD work was aimed at synthesising a photocatalytic composite material which could be used to give organic wood paint films self-cleaning and anti-microbial properties. The current PhD work was done in collaboration between Dyrup A/S and Technical University of Denmark....... The paint industry constantly faces updated restriction on toxic chemicals as for instance biocides which has prompted the search for alternative strategies for increasing the durability of their products. Photocatalysts are generally known to have adverse effects on organic coatings due to the highly...

  19. Particle size and metals concentrations of dust from a paint manufacturing plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Siew Lai; Yin, Chun-Yang; Yap, Siaw Yang

    2010-02-15

    In this study, the particle size distribution and concentration of metallic elements of solvent- and water-based paint dust from bulk dust collected from dust-collecting hoppers were determined. The mean particle size diameter over a 12-week sampling period was determined using a particle size analyzer. The metals composition and concentration of the dust were determined via acid digestion technique followed by concentration analysis using inductively coupled plasma. The volume weighted mean particle diameters were found to be 0.941+/-0.016 and 8.185+/-0.201 microm for solvent- and water-based paint dust, respectively. The mean concentrations of metals in solvent-based paint dust were found to be 100+/-20.00 microg/g (arsenic), 1550+/-550.00 microg/g (copper), 15,680+/-11,780.00 microg/g (lead) and 30,460+/-10,580.00 microg/g (zinc) while the mean concentrations of metals in water-based paint dust were found to be 20.65+/-6.11 microg/g (arsenic), 9.14+/-14.65 microg/g (copper), 57.46+/-22.42 microg/g (lead) and 1660+/-1260 microg/g (zinc). Both paint dust types could be considered as hazardous since almost all of the dust particles were smaller than 10 microm. Particular emphasis on containment of solvent-based paint dust particles should be given since it was shown that they were very fine in size (<1 microm) and had high lead and zinc concentrations.

  20. Creation of hydrophobic surfaces using a paint containing functionalized oxide particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sino, Paul Albert L.; Herrera, Marvin U.; Balela, Mary Donnabelle L.

    2017-05-01

    Hydrophobic surfaces were created by coating various substrates (aluminum sheet, soda-lime glass, silicon carbide polishing paper, glass with double-sided adhesive) with paint containing functionalized oxide particles. The paint was created by functionalizing oxide particles (ground ZnO, TiO2 nanoparticles, or TiO2 microparticles) with fluorosilane molecules in absolute ethanol. Water contact angle of samples shows that the coated substrate becomes hydrophobic (water contact angle ≥ 90°). Among the oxides that were used, ground ZnO yielded contact angle exemplifying superhydrophobicity (water contact angle ≥ 150°). Scanning electron micrograph of paint-containing TiO2 nanoparticles shows rough functionalized oxides structures which probably increase the hydrophobicity of the surface.

  1. Tuning roughness and gloss of powder coating paint by encapsulating the coating particles with thin Al

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Valdesueiro, David; Hettinga, Hans; Drijfhout, Jan Pieter; Lips, Priscilla; Meesters, G.M.H.; Kreutzer, M.T.; van Ommen, J.R.

    2017-01-01

    In this work, we report a method to change the surface finish of a standard polyester-based powder coating paint, from gloss to matt, by depositing ultrathin films of Al2O3 on the powder coating particles. The coating experiments were performed in a fluidized bed reactor at

  2. Antifouling technology-past, present and future steps towards efficient and environmentally friendly antifouling coatings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yebra, Diego Meseguer; Kiil, Søren; Dam-Johansen, Kim

    2004-01-01

    The imminent ban of environmentally harmful tributyltin (TBT)-based paint products has been the cause of a major change in the antifouling paint industry. In the past decade, several tin-free products have reached the commercial market, and claimed their effectiveness as regards the prevention......, by some of the paint-producing companies. An exhaustive review of the historical development of antifouling systems and a detailed characterisation of sea water are also included. The need for studies on the behaviour of chemically active paints under different sea water conditions is emphasised...... understanding of the biological principles of the biofouling process is also considered in this review. From the analysis of the factors affecting the biofouling process, the interference with the settlement and attachment mechanisms is the most promising environmentally benign option. This can be accomplished...

  3. Natural product antifoulants

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Raveendran, T.V.; Mol, V.P.L.

    Natural Product Antifoulants (NPAs) have been proposed as one of the best replacement options for the most successful antifouling agent, tri-n-butyl tin (TBT), which, due to its ecological incompatibility, is currently facing total global ban...

  4. Coherent x-ray diffraction imaging of paint pigment particles by scanning a phase plate modulator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Bo; Berenguer, Felisa; Bean, Richard J; Robinson, Ian K; Zhang Fucai; Rodenburg, John M; Kewish, Cameron M; Vila-Comamala, Joan; Chu, Yong S

    2011-01-01

    We have implemented a coherent x-ray diffraction imaging technique that scans a phase plate to modulate wave-fronts of the x-ray beam transmitted by samples. The method was applied to measure a decorative alkyd paint containing iron oxide red pigment particles. By employing an iterative algorithm for wave-front modulation phase retrieval, we obtained an image of the paint sample that shows the distribution of the pigment particles and is consistent with the result obtained from a transmission x-ray microscope. The technique has been experimentally proven to be a feasible coherent x-ray imaging method with about 120 nm spatial resolution and was shown to work well with industrially relevant specimens. (paper)

  5. Coherent x-ray diffraction imaging of paint pigment particles by scanning a phase plate modulator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chu, Y.S.; Chen, B.; Zhang, F.; Berenguer, F.; Bean, R.; Kewish, C.; Vila-Comamala, J.; Rodenburg, J.; Robinson, I.

    2011-01-01

    We have implemented a coherent x-ray diffraction imaging technique that scans a phase plate to modulate wave-fronts of the x-ray beam transmitted by samples. The method was applied to measure a decorative alkyd paint containing iron oxide red pigment particles. By employing an iterative algorithm for wave-front modulation phase retrieval, we obtained an image of the paint sample that shows the distribution of the pigment particles and is consistent with the result obtained from a transmission x-ray microscope. The technique has been experimentally proven to be a feasible coherent x-ray imaging method with about 120 nm spatial resolution and was shown to work well with industrially relevant specimens.

  6. Characterization of the Teotihuacan mural painting: application of the external particle beam as non destructive technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martinez, C.; Manzanilla, L.; Ruvalcaba, J.L.; Ontalba, M.A.

    2005-01-01

    The characterization of technical indicators contained in the painting mural should follow a minim methodology from their discovery in the archaeological excavations until their analysis in the laboratory, with the purpose of rescuing diagnostic elements that mark the stages of socio cultural development in the towns. With this spirit it was carried out the present study analyzing some fragments of the Teotihuacan mural painting. The analysis consisted on applying some of the analytical techniques with particle beams used for archaeometry like the Proton induced X-ray emission (PIXE) and the particle elastic backscattering (RBS), due to it is treated of complementary techniques, very sensitive, of multielemental character, but mainly because its are non destructive analytical techniques. (Author)

  7. Modified tannin extracted from black wattle tree as an environmentally friendly antifouling pigment

    OpenAIRE

    Peres, Rafael; Armelín Diggroc, Elaine Aparecida; Alemán Llansó, Carlos; Ferreira, Carlos Arthur

    2015-01-01

    The use of modified black wattle tannin as an antifouling pigment is reported in this work. A mixture of tannin adsorbed in activated carbon (soluble fraction of tannin) and low soluble fraction of tannin was used as an antifouling pigment. The soluble rosin resin was used as a paint matrix. C-13 NMR analysis confirm the modification of black wattle tannin through the cleavage of tannin interflavonoid bonds. FTIR spectra indicate the presence of tannin in the formulated antifouling coating ev...

  8. Antifouling activity of twelve demosponges from Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SM. Ribeiro

    Full Text Available Benthic marine organisms are constantly exposed to fouling, which is harmful to most host species. Thus, the production of secondary metabolites containing antifouling properties is an important ecological advantage for sessile organisms and may also provide leading compounds for the development of antifouling paints. High antifouling potential of sponges has been demonstrated in the Indian and Pacific oceans and in the Caribbean and Mediterranean seas. Brazilian sponges remain understudied concerning antifouling activities. Only two scientific articles reported this activity in sponges of Brazil. The objective of this study was to test crude extracts of twelve species of sponges from Brazil against the attachment of the mussel Perna perna through laboratorial assays, and highlight promising species for future studies. The species Petromica citrina, Amphimedon viridis, Desmapsamma anchorata, Chondrosia sp., Polymastia janeirensis, Tedania ignis, Aplysina fulva, Mycale angulosa, Hymeniacidon heliophila, Dysidea etheria, Tethya rubra, and Tethya maza were frozen and freeze-dried before extraction with acetone or dichloromethane. The crude extract of four species significantly inhibited the attachment of byssus: Tethya rubra (p = 0.0009, Tethya maza (p = 0.0039, Petromica citrina (p = 0.0277, and Hymeniacidon heliophila (p = 0.00003. These species, specially, should be the target of future studies to detail the substances involved in the ability antifouling well as to define its amplitude of action.

  9. The formation of ultra-fine particles during ozone-initiated oxidations with terpenes emitted from natural paint.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamorena, Rheo B; Jung, Sang-Guen; Bae, Gwi-Nam; Lee, Woojin

    2007-03-06

    The formation of secondary products during the ozone-initiated oxidations with biogenic VOCs emitted from natural paint was investigated in this study. Mass spectrometry and infrared spectroscopy measurements have shown that the major components of gas-phase chemicals emitted from natural paint are monoterpenes including alpha- and beta-pinenes, camphene, p-cymene, and limonene. A significant formation of gaseous carbonyl products and nano-sized particles (4.4-168nm) was observed in the presence of ozone. Carboxylic acids were also observed to form during the reactions (i.e. formic acid at 0.170ppm and acetic acid at 0.260ppm). The formation of particles increased as the volume of paint introduced into a reaction chamber increased. A secondary increase in the particle number concentration was observed after 440min, which suggests further partitioning of oxidation products (i.e. carboxylic acids) into the particles previously existing in the reaction chamber. The growth of particles increased as the mean particle diameter and particle mass concentrations increased during the reaction. The experimental results obtained in this study may provide insight into the potential exposure of occupants to irritating chemical compounds formed during the oxidations of biogenic VOCs emitted from natural paint in indoor environments.

  10. Antifouling strategies: history and regulation, ecological impacts and mitigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dafforn, Katherine A; Lewis, John A; Johnston, Emma L

    2011-03-01

    Biofouling increases drag on marine vessels resulting in higher fuel consumption and can also facilitate the transport of harmful non-indigenous species (NIS). Antifouling technologies incorporating biocides (e.g., copper and tributyltin) have been developed to prevent settlement of organisms on vessels, but their widespread use has introduced high levels of contamination into the environment and raised concerns about their toxic effects on marine communities. The recent global ban on tributyltin (1 January 2008) and increasing regulation of copper have prompted research and development of non-toxic paints. This review synthesises existing information regarding the ecological impact of biocides in a wide range of organisms and highlights directions for the management of antifouling paints. We focus particularly on representatives of the recent past (copper and tributyltin) and present (copper and 'booster') biocides. We identify knowledge gaps in antifouling research and provide recommendations relating to the regulation and phasing-out of copper. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Risks of Using Antifouling Biocides in Aquaculture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Meseguer

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Biocides are chemical substances that can deter or kill the microorganisms responsible for biofouling. The rapid expansion of the aquaculture industry is having a significant impact on the marine ecosystems. As the industry expands, it requires the use of more drugs, disinfectants and antifoulant compounds (biocides to eliminate the microorganisms in the aquaculture facilities. The use of biocides in the aquatic environment, however, has proved to be harmful as it has toxic effects on the marine environment. Organic booster biocides were recently introduced as alternatives to the organotin compounds found in antifouling products after restrictions were imposed on the use of tributyltin (TBT. The replacement products are generally based on copper metal oxides and organic biocides. The biocides that are most commonly used in antifouling paints include chlorothalonil, dichlofluanid, DCOIT (4,5-dichloro-2-n-octyl-4-isothiazolin-3-one, Sea-nine 211®, Diuron, Irgarol 1051, TCMS pyridine (2,3,3,6-tetrachloro-4-methylsulfonyl pyridine, zinc pyrithione and Zineb. There are two types of risks associated with the use of biocides in aquaculture: (i predators and humans may ingest the fish and shellfish that have accumulated in these contaminants and (ii the development of antibiotic resistance in bacteria. This paper provides an overview of the effects of antifouling (AF biocides on aquatic organisms. It also provides some insights into the effects and risks of these compounds on non-target organisms.

  12. Arene ruthenium(II) complexes with 2-acetamidothiazole derived ligands: Synthesis, structural studies, antifouling and antibacterial properties

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Singh, K.S.; PrabhaDevi; Sawant, S.G.; Kaminsky, W.

    free antifouling paints [16], including NPA’s (Natural product Antifouling) [17-21] and other metal based complexes [22, 23] have been explored as alternatives. Although NPA were claimed to be eco-friendly [17, 24- 29], there are several disadvantages...

  13. FIELD STUDY OF EXPERIMENTAL ANTIFOULING PAINT FORMULATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FRANKLIN JARAMILLO ISAZA

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available En este trabajo se presentan los resultados de la evaluación en campo de varias pinturas anti-incrustantes desarrolladas experimentalmente, luego de ser expuestas por 471 días a condiciones naturales de agua de mar en el Caribe. El lugar de exposición fue seleccionado con el fin de obtener condiciones ambientales severas, para este propósito se sumergieron paneles estáticos en agua con alta actividad biológica. Se usaron tres diferentes plastificantes y diferentes relaciones plastificante/ligante, para finalmente obtener 22 diferentes formulaciones que fueron clasificadas en tres diferentes grupos de acuerdo a la velocidad de liberación del biocida. Para efectos de comparación, se emplearon tres productos comerciales. Algunas de las formulaciones desarrolladas mostraron igual o mejor desempeño que los productos comerciales. Los mejores resultados se encontraron cuando se usó caucho clorado como plastificante. Finalmente se encontró que las condiciones físico-químicas del agua tienen un efecto significativo en la eficiencia biocida de las pinturas, particularmente la presencia de material particulado y el contenido de oxígeno.

  14. From TBT to booster biocides: Levels and impacts of antifouling along coastal areas of Panama.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batista-Andrade, Jahir Antonio; Caldas, Sergiane Souza; Batista, Rodrigo Moço; Castro, Italo Braga; Fillmann, Gilberto; Primel, Ednei Gilberto

    2018-03-01

    Antifouling biocides in surface sediments and gastropod tissues were assessed for the first time along coastal areas of Panama under the influence of maritime activities, including one of the world's busiest shipping zones: the Panama Canal. Imposex incidence was also evaluated in five muricid species distributed along six coastal areas of Panama. This TBT-related biological alteration was detected in three species, including the first report in Purpura panama. Levels of organotins (TBT, DBT, and MBT) in gastropod tissues and surficial sediments ranged from TBT inputs were observed in areas considered as moderate to highly contaminated mainly by inputs from fishing and leisure boats. Regarding booster biocides, TCMTB and dichlofluanid were not detected in any sample, while irgarol 1051, diuron and DCOIT levels ranged from TBT (149 ng Sn g -1 ) and irgarol 1051 (2.8 ng g -1 ), as well as relevant level of DCOIT (5.7 ng g -1 ), were detected in a marina used by recreational boats. Additionally, relatively high diuron values (14.1 ng g -1 ) were also detected in the Panama Canal associate to a commercial port. DCOIT concentrations were associated with the presence of antifouling paint particles in sediments obtained nearby shipyard or boat maintenance sites. The highest levels of TBT, irgarol 1051, and diuron exceeded international sediment quality guidelines indicating that toxic effects could be expected in coastal areas of Panama. Thus, the simultaneous impacts produced by new and old generations of antifouling paints highlight a serious environmental issue in Panamanian coastal areas. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. The use of nanomaterials as an alternative to biocidal antifouling coatings and their environmental impact; Einsatz von Nanomaterialien als Alternative zu biozidhaltigen Antifouling-Anstrichen und deren Umweltauswirkungen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Watermann, B.T.; Daehne, D.; Fuerle, C. [LimnoMar - Labor fuer limnische/marine Forschung und vergleichende Pathologie, Hamburg (Germany)

    2010-07-15

    This study revealed that a variety of nanomaterials are already in use for antifouling paint systems. On the market for leisure boats 22 antifouling products and 3 under water coatings to reduce the friction could be identified (after an update in Mai 2010 only 14 products could be identified). These products are available on the German, the European and the global market. For all antifouling systems and underwater coatings on the market, the specification of the used nanomaterials was not specified e.g. in the Technical Data Sheets or Safety and Health Data Sheets. A clear labelling for the consumer would be helpful and necessary Actually, nanotechnology based antifouling systems on the leisure boat market and on the professional market cannot be regarded as alternatives to antifouling systems which are not using nanotechnology This is partly due to the lacking evidence of efficacy, the fact that some products contain biocides without declaring them, some of them are even not allowed to be used as biocides in antifouling paints (e.g. zinc oxide and silver) and due to the lack of specified nanomaterials which make a risk assessment or ecotoxicological evaluation impossible. It can be expected that the next generation of nanotechnology based antifouling systems will be much more sophisticated and effective, despite of the lack of scientific sound data on their environmental impact. (orig.)

  16. Exposure to airborne particles and volatile organic compounds from polyurethane molding, spray painting, lacquering, and gluing in a workshop.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mølgaard, Bjarke; Viitanen, Anna-Kaisa; Kangas, Anneli; Huhtiniemi, Marika; Larsen, Søren Thor; Vanhala, Esa; Hussein, Tareq; Boor, Brandon E; Hämeri, Kaarle; Koivisto, Antti Joonas

    2015-04-02

    Due to the health risk related to occupational air pollution exposure, we assessed concentrations and identified sources of particles and volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in a handcraft workshop producing fishing lures. The work processes in the site included polyurethane molding, spray painting, lacquering, and gluing. We measured total VOC (TVOC) concentrations and particle size distributions at three locations representing the various phases of the manufacturing and assembly process. The mean working-hour TVOC concentrations in three locations studied were 41, 37, and 24 ppm according to photo-ionization detector measurements. The mean working-hour particle number concentration varied between locations from 3000 to 36,000 cm-3. Analysis of temporal and spatial variations of TVOC concentrations revealed that there were at least four substantial VOC sources: spray gluing, mold-release agent spraying, continuous evaporation from various lacquer and paint containers, and either spray painting or lacquering (probably both). The mold-release agent spray was indirectly also a major source of ultrafine particles. The workers' exposure can be reduced by improving the local exhaust ventilation at the known sources and by increasing the ventilation rate in the area with the continuous source.

  17. Exposure to Airborne Particles and Volatile Organic Compounds from Polyurethane Molding, Spray Painting, Lacquering, and Gluing in a Workshop

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mølgaard, Bjarke; Viitanen, Anna-Kaisa; Kangas, Anneli; Huhtiniemi, Marika; Larsen, Søren Thor; Vanhala, Esa; Hussein, Tareq; Boor, Brandon E.; Hämeri, Kaarle; Koivisto, Antti Joonas

    2015-01-01

    Due to the health risk related to occupational air pollution exposure, we assessed concentrations and identified sources of particles and volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in a handcraft workshop producing fishing lures. The work processes in the site included polyurethane molding, spray painting, lacquering, and gluing. We measured total VOC (TVOC) concentrations and particle size distributions at three locations representing the various phases of the manufacturing and assembly process. The mean working-hour TVOC concentrations in three locations studied were 41, 37, and 24 ppm according to photo-ionization detector measurements. The mean working-hour particle number concentration varied between locations from 3000 to 36,000 cm−3. Analysis of temporal and spatial variations of TVOC concentrations revealed that there were at least four substantial VOC sources: spray gluing, mold-release agent spraying, continuous evaporation from various lacquer and paint containers, and either spray painting or lacquering (probably both). The mold-release agent spray was indirectly also a major source of ultrafine particles. The workers’ exposure can be reduced by improving the local exhaust ventilation at the known sources and by increasing the ventilation rate in the area with the continuous source. PMID:25849539

  18. Exposure to Airborne Particles and Volatile Organic Compounds from Polyurethane Molding, Spray Painting, Lacquering, and Gluing in a Workshop

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bjarke Mølgaard

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Due to the health risk related to occupational air pollution exposure, we assessed concentrations and identified sources of particles and volatile organic compounds (VOCs in a handcraft workshop producing fishing lures. The work processes in the site included polyurethane molding, spray painting, lacquering, and gluing. We measured total VOC (TVOC concentrations and particle size distributions at three locations representing the various phases of the manufacturing and assembly process. The mean working-hour TVOC concentrations in three locations studied were 41, 37, and 24 ppm according to photo-ionization detector measurements. The mean working-hour particle number concentration varied between locations from 3000 to 36,000 cm−3. Analysis of temporal and spatial variations of TVOC concentrations revealed that there were at least four substantial VOC sources: spray gluing, mold-release agent spraying, continuous evaporation from various lacquer and paint containers, and either spray painting or lacquering (probably both. The mold-release agent spray was indirectly also a major source of ultrafine particles. The workers’ exposure can be reduced by improving the local exhaust ventilation at the known sources and by increasing the ventilation rate in the area with the continuous source.

  19. Antifouling activity exhibited by secondary metabolites of the marine sponge, Haliclona exigua (Kirkpatrick)

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    LimnaMol, V.P.; Raveendran, T.V.; Parameswaran, P.S.

    (Alzieu et al., 1989; Claisse and Alzieu, 1993; Evans et al., 1995; Omae, 2003; Yebra et al., 2004). The alarming environmental pressure caused by TBT has led to a worldwide ban by the International Maritime Organisation (IMO) on the use of antifouling... penalties to engineered structures such as ships and offshore platforms by way of increased use of manpower, fuel, material and dry-docking time (Chambers et al., 2006). Until recently, antifouling paints containing Tributyltin (TBT) and copper compounds...

  20. Effects of antifouling biocides to the germination and growth of the marine macroalga, Hormosira banksii (Turner) Desicaine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Myers, Jackie H. . E-mail jhmyers@deakin.edu.au; Gunthorpe, Leanne . E-mail Leanne.Gunthorpe@dpi.vic.gov.au; Allinson, Graeme . E-mail graemea@deakin.edu.au; Duda, Susan . E-mail Susan.Duda@dpi.vic.gov.au

    2006-01-01

    The International Maritime Organisation's (IMO) ban on the use of tributyltin in antifouling paints has inevitability increased the use of old fashioned antifoulants and/or the development of new paints containing 'booster biocides'. These newer paints are intended to be environmentally less harmful, however the broader environmental effects of these 'booster biocides' are poorly known. Germination and growth inhibition tests using the marine macroalga, Hormosira banksii (Turner) Desicaine were conducted to evaluate the toxicity of four new antifouling biocides in relation to tributyltin-oxide (TBTO). Each of the biocides significantly inhibited germination and growth of Hormosira banksii spores. Toxicity was in increasing order: diuron < zineb < seanine 211 < zinc pyrithione < TBTO. However, the lack of knowledge on partitioning in the environment makes it difficult to make a full assessment on whether the four biocides tested offer an advantage over organotin paints in terms of environmental impact

  1. Effects of antifouling biocides to the germination and growth of the marine macroalga, Hormosira banksii (Turner) Desicaine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Myers, Jackie H. [School of Ecology and Environment, Deakin University, P.O. Box 423, Warrnambool, Victoria 3280 (Australia) and Department of Primary Industries Research Victoria, Queenscliff, P.O. Box 114 Queenscliff, Victoria 3225 (Australia) and School of Biological Sciences, Monash University, Clayton Campus, Clayton, Victoria 3800 (Australia)]. E-mail jhmyers@deakin.edu.au; Gunthorpe, Leanne [Department of Primary Industries Research Victoria, Queenscliff, P.O. Box 114 Queenscliff, Victoria 3225 (Australia)]. E-mail Leanne.Gunthorpe@dpi.vic.gov.au; Allinson, Graeme [School of Ecology and Environment, Deakin University, P.O. Box 423, Warrnambool, Victoria 3280 (Australia)]. E-mail graemea@deakin.edu.au; Duda, Susan [Department of Primary Industries Research Victoria, Queenscliff, P.O. Box 114 Queenscliff, Victoria 3225 (Australia)]. E-mail Susan.Duda@dpi.vic.gov.au

    2006-09-15

    The International Maritime Organisation's (IMO) ban on the use of tributyltin in antifouling paints has inevitability increased the use of old fashioned antifoulants and/or the development of new paints containing 'booster biocides'. These newer paints are intended to be environmentally less harmful, however the broader environmental effects of these 'booster biocides' are poorly known. Germination and growth inhibition tests using the marine macroalga, Hormosira banksii (Turner) Desicaine were conducted to evaluate the toxicity of four new antifouling biocides in relation to tributyltin-oxide (TBTO). Each of the biocides significantly inhibited germination and growth of Hormosira banksii spores. Toxicity was in increasing order: diuron < zineb < seanine 211 < zinc pyrithione < TBTO. However, the lack of knowledge on partitioning in the environment makes it difficult to make a full assessment on whether the four biocides tested offer an advantage over organotin paints in terms of environmental impact.

  2. Studies on nano-additive for the substitution of hazardous chemical substances in antifouling coatings for the protection of ship hulls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Xiaodong; Fan, Weijie; Duan, Jizhou; Hou, Baorong

    2014-07-01

    Adhesion and growth of biofouling organisms have severe influence on the reliability, service life and environmental adaptability of marine ships. Based on the bactericidal capacity of cuprous oxide and photochemical effect of nano-additive, environment-friendly and efficient marine antifouling paints were prepared in this study. The evaluation of the antifouling paints was carried out by the laboratory method using bacteria and phytoplanktonic microorganisms as target organisms, as well as measurements with panels in shallow submergence in natural seawater. Results showed good agreement of all the tests, indicating the remarkable antifouling performance of the paints. To our knowledge, this was one of the first systematic studies on effects of nano-additive for the substitution of hazardous chemical substances in antifouling coatings for the protection of ship hulls by measurements on bacterial inhibition, algal adhesion and growth of large organisms.

  3. Worker Exposure and High Time-Resolution Analyses of Process-Related Submicrometre Particle Concentrations at Mixing Stations in Two Paint Factories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koponen, Ismo Kalevi; Koivisto, Antti Joonas; Jensen, Keld Alstrup

    2015-07-01

    The paint and coatings industry is known to have significant particulate matter (PM) emissions to the atmosphere. However, exposure levels are not studied in detail especially when considering submicrometre (PM1) and ultrafine particles (particle diameter below 100nm). The evidence is increasing that pulmonary exposures to these size fractions are potentially very harmful. This study investigates particle emissions during powder handling and paint mixing in two paint factories at two mixing stations in each factory. In each case measurements were made simultaneously at the mixing station (near-field; NF), as well as at 5-15 m distance into the workroom far-field (FF), and in the workers breathing zone. Particle concentrations (5nm to 30 µm) were measured using high time-resolution particle instruments and gravimetrically using PM1 cyclone filter samplers. The PM1 filters were also characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The NF particle and dust concentration levels were linked to pouring powder and were used to characterize the emissions and efficiencies of localized controls. NF particle number concentrations were 1000-40000cm(-3) above FF concentrations. NF particles were mainly between 100 and 500nm and emissions appeared to occur in short bursts. Personal PM1 exposure levels varied between 0.156 and 0.839mg m(-3) and were 1.6-15 times higher than stationary NF PM1 concentrations. SEM results verified that the personal exposure and NF particles were strongly dominated by the pigments and fillers used. Better understanding of the entire temporal personal exposure could be improved by using real-time particle monitors for personal exposure measurements. This study provides better insight into PM exposure characteristics and concentration levels in the paint industry. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Occupational Hygiene Society.

  4. Effects of Organoboron Antifoulants on Oyster and Sea Urchin Embryo Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noritaka Tsunemasa

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Prohibition of Ot (organotin compounds was introduced in Japan in 1997 and worldwide from September 2008. This meant that the production of paints containing TBT compounds was stopped and alternatives to the available Ot antifoulants had to be developed. It has been claimed that the degradation by-products of these alternative antifoulants were less toxic than those of Ot compounds. Since the introduction of the alternative antifoulants, the accumulation of these compounds has been reported in many countries. However, the toxicity of these compounds was still largely unreported. In this research, the toxicity of the alternative Ot antifoulants TPBP (triphenylborane pyridine and TPBOA (triphenylborane octadecylamine and their degradation products on Crassostea gigas and Hemicentrotus pulcherrimus were tested. The results showed that toxic effects in Crassostea gigas was higher for each antifouling biocide than that in Hemicentrotus pulcherrimus. Also, while the toxicity of the Organoboron antifoulants and the Ots were the same, the former’s degradation products were much less harmful.

  5. Antifouling activity of macroalgal extracts on Fragilaria pinnata (Bacillariophyceae): a comparison with Diuron.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silkina, Alla; Bazes, Alexandra; Vouvé, Florence; Le Tilly, Véronique; Douzenel, Philippe; Mouget, Jean-Luc; Bourgougnon, Nathalie

    2009-10-04

    The tributyltin-based products and organic biocides which are incorporated into antifouling paints have had a negative impact on the marine environment, and the ban on tributyltin-based antifouling products has urged the industry to find substitutes to prevent the development of fouling on ship hulls. Natural antifouling agents could be isolated from marine resources, providing an alternative option for the industry. The effects of different marine seaweed extracts from Sargassum muticum and Ceramium botryocarpum on the growth, pigment content and photosynthetic apparatus of the marine diatom Fragilaria pinnata were compared with those of Diuron, a biocide widely used in antifouling paints. The addition of the macroalgal extracts in the culture medium resulted in an inhibition of the growth of F. pinnata, but this inhibition was lower than that obtained with Diuron. After transfer to a biocide-free medium, F. pinnata cells previously exposed to the macroalgal extracts exhibited normal growth, in contrast to Diuron-treated cells, which died, demonstrating that the effects of the natural antifouling agents were reversible. Macroalgal extracts and Diuron-induced modifications in F. pinnata cellular pigment content. Chlorophyll a, fucoxanthin, and the xanthophyll pool, diadinoxanthin and diatoxanthin, were the most affected. Changes in the structure and function of the photosynthetic apparatus were studied by microspectrofluorimetry, and provided a comprehensive evaluation of the inhibition of the diatom Photosystem II (PSII) by the biocides. This study confirms that natural extracts from the macroalgae studied have the potential to be used as a substitute to commercial biocides in antifouling paints.

  6. Biological availability of lead in a paint aerosol. 2. Absorption, distribution and excretion of intratracheally instilled lead paint particles in the rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eaton, D L; Kalman, D; Garvey, D; Morgan, M; Omenn, G S

    1984-09-01

    Four groups of rats received by intratracheal instillation (1) a lead chromate paint particulate suspension, (2) lead tetraoxide suspension, (3) lead acetate solution, or (4) saline. Lead-dosed animals received an equivalent dose of 1 mg lead/kg body weight. Distribution of lead was monitored through assays of urine, feces, and tissues (lung, bone, muscle kidney, liver) obtained at post-mortem 5 weeks after exposure. Delta-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase (ALA-D) activity was measured to determine the effect of lead on heme biosynthesis. The vast majority of the dosed lead in the paint matrix remained in the lung. In contrast, in the lead acetate-dosed animals, little remained in the lung, but significant elevations were found in bone and kidney. Blood ADA-D was significantly depressed in the lead acetate-treated animals, but was not significantly different from control animals in the animals dosed with lead paint or lead tetraoxide. These findings suggest that lead chromate in an alkyd resin paint matrix is poorly absorbed from the lung compared with lead acetate and lead tetraoxide.

  7. Transport and antifouling properties of papain-based antifouling coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peres, Rafael S.; Armelin, Elaine; Moreno-Martínez, Juan A.; Alemán, Carlos; Ferreira, Carlos A.

    2015-06-01

    The aim of this work is to study the antifouling performance and water uptake behaviour of coatings formulated with papain (an environmentally friendly pigment). Antifouling coatings have been formulated using rosin (natural resin) as matrix and papain adsorbed in activated carbon as pigment. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) measurements were used to evaluate the behaviour of the formulated coatings in the marine environment and to calculate the apparent water coefficient of diffusion (D). FTIR and XPS analyses confirm the presence of papain adsorbed inside the activated carbon pores and the release of papain in water. Immersion tests in the Mediterranean Sea were carried out for 7 months to verify the degree of biofouling of the tested coatings. These field assays clearly indicate the excellent behaviour of papain-based antifouling coatings; the results being similar to those achieved using a commercial coating. Additionally, the EIS technique is shown to be a great tool to predict the coating diffusivity of antifouling coatings before immersion tests. Furthermore, the use of biodegradable papain as a nature-friendly antifouling agent can eliminate the negative environmental impact caused by metals and chemical biocides typically used in current commercial formulations.

  8. Inorganic precursor peroxides for antifouling coatings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, S.M.; Pedersen, L.T.; Hermann, M.H.

    2009-01-01

    antifouling properties, it is also a vital ingredient for the antifouling coating to obtain its polishing and leaching mechanism. In this paper, peroxides of strontium, calcium, magnesium, and zinc are tested as pigments in antifouling coatings. The peroxides react with seawater to create hydrogen peroxide...... and highly seawater-soluble ions of the metal. The goals have been to establish the antifouling potency of an antifouling coating that releases hydrogen peroxide as biocide, and to investigate the potential use of peroxides as water-soluble polishing and leaching pigments. The investigations have shown...

  9. Microfouling on biocidal and non-biocidal antifouling coatings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thirumahal Muthukrishnan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Although antifouling marine paints have been used to prevent biofouling, not much is known about their effectiveness in preventing attachment of microorganisms. The current study aims at estimating the abundance of bacteria within biofilms developed on various commercial antifouling coatings in Marina Bandar Rowdha and Marina Shangri La, Oman. Coatings tested included Pettit #1863 and #1792, West Marine #11046620, #5566252 and #10175206, Hempel Hard Racing #76484, Hempel Olympic #86950, Hempasil X3 and International YBA920. All coatings were applied on clean plastic slides. Slides without any coating were used as controls. Microbial biofilms were harvested after 2, 7 and 14 days of biofouling. Bacterial density was estimated using epifluorescence microscopy. There was a significant difference between the various treatments (coatings and control after 2, 7 and 14 days of biofouling. Although there were significant differences between both locations after 2 and 14 days of biofouling, no significant difference was observed after 7 days of biofouling at both locations. At Shangri La, the lowest bacterial density was found on International YBA920, Pettit #1792 and Hempasil X3 after 2 days, 7 days and 14 days respectively in comparison to the control treatments. However at Bandar Rowdha, International YBA920 showed the lowest bacterial density after 2 days while West Marine #10175206 showed the lowest bacterial density after both 7 days and 14 days of biofouling in comparison to the control treatment. The differential performance of tested antifouling coatings may be attributed to several factors including varying environmental conditions, difference in microfouling communities, time of exposure and physical and chemical properties of antifouling coating.

  10. Encapsulation of Antifouling Organic Biocides in Poly(lactic acid) Nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamtsikakis, Aristotelis; Kavetsou, Eleni; Chronaki, Konstantina; Kiosidou, Evangelia; Pavlatou, Evangelia; Karana, Alexandra; Papaspyrides, Constantine; Detsi, Anastasia; Karantonis, Antonis; Vouyiouka, Stamatina

    2017-09-26

    The scope of the current research was to assess the feasibility of encapsulating three commercial antifouling compounds, Irgarol 1051, Econea and Zinc pyrithione, in biodegradable poly(lactic acid) (PLA) nanoparticles. The emulsification-solvent evaporation technique was herein utilized to manufacture nanoparticles with a biocide:polymer ratio of 40%. The loaded nanoparticles were analyzed for their size and size distribution, zeta potential, encapsulation efficiency and thermal properties, while the relevant physicochemical characteristics were correlated to biocide-polymer system. In addition, the encapsulation process was scaled up and the prepared nanoparticles were dispersed in a water-based antifouling paint in order to examine the viability of incorporating nanoparticles in such coatings. Metallic specimens were coated with the nanoparticles-containing paint and examined regarding surface morphology.

  11. Encapsulation of Antifouling Organic Biocides in Poly(lactic acid) Nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamtsikakis, Aristotelis; Kavetsou, Eleni; Chronaki, Konstantina; Kiosidou, Evangelia; Pavlatou, Evangelia; Karana, Alexandra; Papaspyrides, Constantine; Detsi, Anastasia; Karantonis, Antonis; Vouyiouka, Stamatina

    2017-01-01

    The scope of the current research was to assess the feasibility of encapsulating three commercial antifouling compounds, Irgarol 1051, Econea and Zinc pyrithione, in biodegradable poly(lactic acid) (PLA) nanoparticles. The emulsification–solvent evaporation technique was herein utilized to manufacture nanoparticles with a biocide:polymer ratio of 40%. The loaded nanoparticles were analyzed for their size and size distribution, zeta potential, encapsulation efficiency and thermal properties, while the relevant physicochemical characteristics were correlated to biocide–polymer system. In addition, the encapsulation process was scaled up and the prepared nanoparticles were dispersed in a water-based antifouling paint in order to examine the viability of incorporating nanoparticles in such coatings. Metallic specimens were coated with the nanoparticles-containing paint and examined regarding surface morphology. PMID:28952560

  12. Zwitterionic materials for antifouling membrane surface construction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Mingrui; Gao, Kang; Zhou, Linjie; Jiao, Zhiwei; Wu, Mengyuan; Cao, Jialin; You, Xinda; Cai, Ziyi; Su, Yanlei; Jiang, Zhongyi

    2016-08-01

    Membrane separation processes are often perplexed by severe and ubiquitous membrane fouling. Zwitterionic materials, keeping electric neutrality with equivalent positive and negative charged groups, are well known for their superior antifouling properties and have been broadly utilized to construct antifouling surfaces for medical devices, biosensors and marine coatings applications. In recent years, zwitterionic materials have been more and more frequently utilized for constructing antifouling membrane surfaces. In this review, the antifouling mechanisms of zwitterionic materials as well as their biomimetic prototypes in cell membranes will be discussed, followed by the survey of common approaches to incorporate zwitterionic materials onto membrane surfaces including surface grafting, surface segregation, biomimetic adhesion, surface coating and so on. The potential applications of these antifouling membranes are also embedded. Finally, we will present a brief perspective on the future development of zwitterionic materials modified antifouling membranes. Membrane fouling is a severe problem hampering the application of membrane separation technology. The properties of membrane surfaces play a critical role in membrane fouling and antifouling behavior/performance. Antifouling membrane surface construction has evolved as a hot research issue for the development of membrane processes. Zwitterionic modification of membrane surfaces has been recognized as an effective strategy to resist membrane fouling. This review summarizes the antifouling mechanisms of zwitterionic materials inspired by cell membranes as well as the popular approaches to incorporate them onto membrane surfaces. It can help form a comprehensive knowledge about the principles and methods of modifying membrane surfaces with zwitterionic materials. Finally, we propose the possible future research directions of zwitterionic materials modified antifouling membranes. Copyright © 2016 Acta Materialia Inc

  13. Antifouling Cellulose Hybrid Biomembrane for Effective Oil/Water Separation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kollarigowda, Ravichandran H; Abraham, Sinoj; Montemagno, Carlo D

    2017-09-06

    Oil/water separation has been of great interest worldwide because of the increasingly serious environmental pollution caused by the abundant discharge of industrial wastewater, oil spill accidents, and odors. Here, we describe simple and economical superhydrophobic hybrid membranes for effective oil/water separation. Eco-friendly, antifouling membranes were fabricated for oil/water separation, waste particle filtration, the blocking of thiol-based odor materials, etc., by using a cellulose membrane (CM) filter. The CM was modified from its original superhydrophilic nature into a superhydrophobic surface via a reversible addition-fragmentation chain transfer technique. The block copolymer poly{[3-(trimethoxysilyl)propyl acrylate]-block-myrcene} was synthesized using a "grafting-from" approach on the CM. The surface contact angle that we obtained was >160°, and absorption tests of several organic contaminants (oils and solvents) exhibited superior levels of extractive activity and excellent reusability. These properties rendered this membrane a promising surface for oil/water separation. Interestingly, myrcene blocks thiol (through "-ene-" chemistry) contaminants, thereby bestowing a pleasant odor to polluted water by acting as an antifouling material. We exploited the structural properties of cellulose networks and simple chemical manipulations to fabricate an original material that proved to be effective in separating water from organic and nano/microparticulate contaminants. These characteristics allowed our material to effectively separate water from oily/particulate phases as well as embed antifouling materials for water purification, thus making it an appropriate absorber for chemical processes and environmental protection.

  14. Environmental management aspects for TBT antifouling wastes from the shipyards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotrikla, Anna

    2009-02-01

    Tributyltin (TBT)-based antifouling paints have been successfully used for over 40 years to protect a ship's hull from biofouling. However, due to its high toxicity to marine organisms, the International Maritime Organization (IMO), in 1990, adopted a resolution recommending governments to adopt measures to eliminate antifouling paints containing TBT. High concentrations of TBT are detected in the vicinity of ports and shipyards. TBT is also usually detected in the sediment, in which it accumulates. This study reviews recent literature for the best management practices (BMPs) in order to minimize the environmental effects of TBT. The paper focuses on the evaluation of the available techniques for the removal of TBT from shipyard wastes and from the sediment. The most effective treatment methods are highlighted. BMPs include recycling of abrasive materials, use of cleaner abrasive materials, reuse of spent abrasive materials, substitution of hydroblasting by vacuum blasting or containment or ultra-high-pressure water blasting and confinement of pollution by enclosure and containment systems. The treatment of the TBT wastes by conventional biological wastewater treatment processes is probably not suitable, because the concentrations of TBT found in shipyards' wastewaters are toxic to microorganisms. Advanced technologies such as activated carbon adsorption and dissolved air flotation, in combination with filtration and coagulation-clarification, photodegradation and electrochemical treatment, are required to remove TBT. However, advanced methods should be further optimized to meet the regulatory limit of 200 ng/L. To date, only one published work examines the efficiency of incineration for the treatment of solid sandblast wastes. Regarding the treatment of sediment, land deposition of the less polluted fraction of sediment is a feasible option. Such treatment must take into account the risk of contamination of groundwater and the surroundings, and it requires

  15. Potent antifouling compounds produced by marine Streptomyces

    KAUST Repository

    Xu, Ying

    2010-02-01

    Biofouling causes huge economic loss and a recent global ban on organotin compounds as antifouling agents has increased the need for safe and effective antifouling compounds. Five structurally similar compounds were isolated from the crude extract of a marine Streptomyces strain obtained from deep-sea sediments. Antifouling activities of these five compounds and four other structurally-related compounds isolated from a North Sea Streptomyces strain against major fouling organisms were compared to probe structure-activity relationships of compounds. The functional moiety responsible for antifouling activity lies in the 2-furanone ring and that the lipophilicity of compounds substantially affects their antifouling activities. Based on these findings, a compound with a straight alkyl side-chain was synthesized and proved itself as a very effective non-toxic, anti-larval settlement agent against three major fouling organisms. The strong antifouling activity, relatively low toxicity, and simple structures of these compounds make them promising candidates for new antifouling additives. © 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Challenges for the Development of New Non-Toxic Antifouling Solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Philippe Maréchal

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Marine biofouling is of major economic concern to all marine industries. The shipping trade is particularly alert to the development of new antifouling (AF strategies, especially green AF paint as international regulations regarding the environmental impact of the compounds actually incorporated into the formulations are becoming more and more strict. It is also recognised that vessels play an extensive role in invasive species propagation as ballast waters transport potentially threatening larvae. It is then crucial to develop new AF solutions combining advances in marine chemistry and topography, in addition to a knowledge of marine biofoulers, with respect to the marine environment. This review presents the recent research progress made in the field of new non-toxic AF solutions (new microtexturing of surfaces, foul-release coatings, and with a special emphasis on marine natural antifoulants as well as the perspectives for future research directions.

  17. Investigate the effect of antibacterial ingredients used in marine paints in sea water

    OpenAIRE

    Karsaz, Alireza

    2015-01-01

    In this study, consider to the mechanism of controlled depletion paint, has been made the Antifouling (A/F) paints that use these in a paint system which applied on the steel. As a first step, it is necessary to prove that the system subject to investigation does fit into the mechanisms proposed for the CDPs system. According to this, the machine was designed and built as for ASTM D5108-90, D4939-89. Specimens immersed in natural sea water and were rotating by 60 r/min rotor. Painted specimen...

  18. Painting "mania".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rybakowski, Janusz K

    2011-02-01

    Bipolar mood disorder (manic-depressive illness) has many artistic references, especially in the painting domain, depicting moods and associated features. The title of some paintings directly refers to the psychopathological state of the disorder. There are a great number of painting masterpieces showing the depressive pole of manic-depressive illness. In some paintings bearing the title Melancholia, some admixture of the opposite manic pole can be traced, the phenomenon named today as "mixed depressive state". On the other hand, a painting depicting a pure manic pole, as an element of bipolar mood disorder is very difficult to find. However, it seems that such criteria could be met by the painting presented on the next page entitled "Mania" whose author is Florencio Yllana, a contemporary artist of Philippine origin (born 1977), studying in USA and presently living in Brazil. The painting was done in 2001 following the acute manic episode in the course of bipolar mood disorder in the artist. © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Bio-based paints

    OpenAIRE

    Olive, Gilles; Richel, Aurore

    2013-01-01

    Le poster peut être obtenu sur https://www.researchgate.net/profile/Gilles_Olive/contributions/?ev=prf_act ou bien sur http://orbi.ulg.ac.be/browse?type=authorulg&rpp=20&value=Olive%2C+Gilles+p079922; International audience; Paints, at the coating meaning, are known since a long time. Typically, paint is a dispersion of one or more powders (pigments and fillers) in a macromolecular substance ("resin"), called film-forming material, diluted in solvents. Pigments are solid particles, used to gi...

  20. Environmentally benign sol-gel antifouling and foul-releasing coatings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Detty, Michael R; Ciriminna, Rosaria; Bright, Frank V; Pagliaro, Mario

    2014-02-18

    Biofouling on ships and boats, characterized by aquatic bacteria and small organisms attaching to the hull, is an important global issue, since over 80000 tons of antifouling paint is used annually. This biofilm, which can form in as little as 48 hours depending on water temperature, increases drag on watercraft, which greatly reduces their fuel efficiency. In addition, biofouling can lead to microbially induced corrosion (MIC) due to H2S formed by the bacteria, especially sulfate-reducing bacteria. When the International Maritime Organization (IMO) international convention banned the use of effective but environmentally damaging coatings containing tributyl tin in 2008, the development of clean and effective antifouling systems became more important than ever. New nonbiocidal coatings are now in high demand. Scientists have developed new polymers, materials, and biocides, including new elastomeric coatings that they have obtained by improving the original silicone (polydimethylsiloxane) formulation patented in 1975. However, the high cost of silicones, especially of fluoropolymer-modified silicones, has generally prevented their large-scale diffusion. In 2009, traditional antifouling coatings using cuprous oxide formulated in copolymer paints still represented 95% of the global market volume of anti-fouling paints. The sol-gel nanochemistry approach to functional materials has emerged as an attractive candidate for creating low fouling surfaces due to the unique structure and properties of silica-based coatings and of hybrid inorganic-organic silicas in particular. Sol-gel formulations easily bind to all types of surfaces, such as steel, fiberglass, aluminum, and wood. In addition, they can cure at room temperature and form thin glassy coatings that are markedly different from thick silicone elastomeric foul-releasing coatings. Good to excellent performance against biofouling, low cure temperatures, enhanced and prolonged chemical and physical stability, ease of

  1. Antifouling Activity of Marine Natural Products

    KAUST Repository

    Qian, Pei-Yuan

    2012-01-01

    With the global ban of application of organotin-based marine coatings by International Maritime Organization in 2008, there is a practical and urgent need of identifying environmentally friendly low-toxic and nontoxic antifouling compounds for marine industries. Marine natural products have been considered as one of the most promising sources of antifouling compounds in recent years. In antifouling compound screening processes, bioassay systems often play most critical/vital roles in screening efforts. To meet various needs, a variety of bioassay systems have been developed and/or adopted in both research and commercial laboratories. In this chapter, we provide a brief outline of common bioassay procedures for both antimicrofouling and antimacrofouling assays, which can serve as a general guideline for setting up bioassay systems in laboratories engaged in antifouling compound screening. Some bioassay procedures currently practiced in various laboratories are not included in this book chapter for various reasons. Individual laboratories should modify bioassay protocols based on their research interests or needs. Nevertheless, we highly recommend the research laboratories to adapt high-throughput assays as much as possible for preliminary screening assays, followed by more complex bioassay processes using multiple target species. We argue strongly for studies in mode-of-action of antifouling compounds against settling propagules, which shall lead to discovery of molecular biomarkers (genes, proteins, receptors, or receptor system) and will allow us to design more targeted bioassay systems.

  2. Paints based on renewable materials

    OpenAIRE

    Olive, Gilles; Richel, Aurore

    2014-01-01

    National audience; Paints, at the coating meaning, are known since a long time. Typically, paint is a dispersion of one or more powders (pigments and fillers) in a macromolecular substance ("resin"), called film-forming material, diluted in solvents. Pigments are solid particles, used to give opacity and/or color. Today almost all pigments have a synthetic origin. The fillers are often natural compounds. Unlike pigments, fillers have low opacity and are colorless. These very cheap products ac...

  3. Polymer Nanocomposite Membranes for Antifouling Nanofiltration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamal, Tahseen; Ali, Nauman; Naseem, Abbas A; Khan, Sher B; Asiri, Abdullah M

    2016-01-01

    Fouling refers to the unwanted and undesirable attachment of biological macromolecules, inorganic, organic matter, and microorganisms on water contact surfaces. Fouling reduces the performance of devices involving these submerged surfaces and is considered the bottle-neck issue for various applications in the biomedical industry, food processing, and water treatment, especially in reverse osmosis (RO) desalination. Investigations have proven that nanocomposite membranes can exhibit enhanced antifouling performances and can be used for longer life times. The nanocomposite means addition of nanomaterials to main matrix at low loadings, exhibiting better properties compared to virgin matrix. In this review, a summarized description about related methods and their mechanisms for the fabrication of nanocomposite membranes with antifouling properties has been documented. Around 87 manuscripts including 10 patents were used to demonstrate the antifouling applications of of various nanocomposite membranes.

  4. Survey of four marine antifoulant constituents (copper, zinc, diuron and Irgarol 1051) in two UK estuaries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comber, S D W; Gardner, M J; Boxall, A B A

    2002-06-01

    A field survey of antifoulant concentrations was undertaken in two UK estuaries (Hamble and Orwell) in 1998 and 1999. The two locations offered variations in physical aspects (Orwell estuary being significantly larger than the Hamble) as well as differences in boat densities (Hamble having almost twice as many vessels moored in the estuary and marinas). Samples were analysed for copper, zinc, diuron and Irgarol 1051, and were collected in summer and winter in order to identify potential seasonal variations in concentrations. The effect that different marina types (e.g. locked marina, one located in a natural inlet and pontooned ones in the open estuary) had on antifoulant concentrations were also investigated. Concentrations of the organic booster biocides, diuron and Irgarol 1051 in the marinas and estuaries were mainly influenced by leaching from antifoulant paints applied to the hulls of leisure craft, and so levels reflected the number of vessels present in the water. As a consequence significantly higher concentrations were found in marinas (up to ca. 900 ng l(-1) for diuron and 240 ng l(-1) for Irgarol 1051) compared with estuaries (up to ca. 400 ng l(-1) for diuron and 100 ng l(-1) for Irgarol 1051) and in summer compared with winter. Sediment concentrations of Irgarol 1051 and diuron were rarely detectable other than in the marinas where high concentrations were detected near slipways assumed to be derived from washed off paint chips. Dissolved concentration profiles for copper and zinc in the estuaries and marinas were different from those for the organic booster biocides partly because other sources of these metals contributed to estuarine and marina loads. In particular, riverine loads and inputs from sacrificial anodes attached to leisure craft, exhibited a major influence of estuarine levels of zinc. Consequently, only in the Hamble estuary for copper was there a clear distinction between summer (typically 3-4 microg l(-1)) and winter dissolved values

  5. Development of Polymeric Coatings for Antifouling Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toumayan, Edward Philip

    Fouling, or the deposition of unwanted material onto a surface, is a serious problem that can impair the function of submerged structures, such as marine-going vessels and underwater equipment. Water filtration membranes are particularly susceptible to fouling due to their microstructure and high water pressure operating conditions. For this reason, there has been considerable interest in developing fouling-resistant, or "antifouling" coatings for membranes, specifically coatings that mitigate fouling propensity while maintain high water flux. Polymer coatings have garnered significant interest in antifouling literature, due to their synthetic versatility and variety, and their promising resistance to a wide range of foulants. However, antifouling research has yet to establish a consistent framework for polymer coating synthesis and fouling evaluation, making it difficult or impossible to compare previously established methodologies. To this end, this work establishes a standardized methodology for synthesizing and evaluating polymer antifouling coatings. Specifically, antifouling coatings are synthesized using a grafting-from polymerization and fouling propensity is evaluated by quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation (QCM-D). Using this framework, a number of different surface functionalization strategies are compared, including grafting-to and grafting-from polymerization. A number of different surface functionalization strategies, including grafting-to and grafting-from, were investigated and the fouling performance of these films was evaluated. Primarily, sulfobetaine methacrylate, and poly(ethylene oxide) methacrylate monomers were investigated, among others. Grafting-to, while advantageous from a characterization standpoint, was ultimately limited to low grafting densities, which did not afford a significant improvement in fouling resistance. However, the higher grafting densities achievable by grafting-from did indicate improved fouling resistance. A

  6. Characterization of the Teotihuacan mural painting: application of the external particle beam as non destructive technique; Caracterizacion de la pintura mural Teotihuacana: aplicacion de haz de particulas externo como tecnica no destructiva

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martinez, C.; Manzanilla, L. [Instituto de Investigaciones Antropologicas, UNAM, 04510 Mexico D.F. (Mexico); Ruvalcaba, J.L. [IFUNAM, 04510 Mexico D.F. (Mexico); Ontalba, M.A. [Centro Nacional de Aceleradores, Sevilla (Spain)

    2005-07-01

    The characterization of technical indicators contained in the painting mural should follow a minim methodology from their discovery in the archaeological excavations until their analysis in the laboratory, with the purpose of rescuing diagnostic elements that mark the stages of socio cultural development in the towns. With this spirit it was carried out the present study analyzing some fragments of the Teotihuacan mural painting. The analysis consisted on applying some of the analytical techniques with particle beams used for archaeometry like the Proton induced X-ray emission (PIXE) and the particle elastic backscattering (RBS), due to it is treated of complementary techniques, very sensitive, of multielemental character, but mainly because its are non destructive analytical techniques. (Author)

  7. Natural antifouling compounds: Effectiveness in preventing invertebrate settlement and adhesion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almeida, Joana R; Vasconcelos, Vitor

    2015-01-01

    Biofouling represents a major economic issue regarding maritime industries and also raise important environmental concern. International legislation is restricting the use of biocidal-based antifouling (AF) coatings, and increasing efforts have been applied in the search for environmentally friendly AF agents. A wide diversity of natural AF compounds has been described for their ability to inhibit the settlement of macrofouling species. However poor information on the specific AF targets was available before the application of different molecular approaches both on invertebrate settlement strategies and bioadhesive characterization and also on the mechanistic effects of natural AF compounds. This review focuses on the relevant information about the main invertebrate macrofouler species settlement and bioadhesive mechanisms, which might help in the understanding of the reported effects, attributed to effective and non-toxic natural AF compounds towards this macrofouling species. It also aims to contribute to the elucidation of promising biotechnological strategies in the development of natural effective environmentally friendly AF paints. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Paint and Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... based on paints and cleaners used, ventilation, protective gear used, handling and storage, and amount of time ... U.S. federal government banned lead-based paint from housing in 1978. However, lead based paint may still ...

  9. Antifouling polymer brushes displaying antithrombogenic surface properties

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    de los Santos Pereira, Andres; Sheikh, S.; Blaszykowski, C.; Pop-Georgievski, Ognen; Fedorov, K.; Thompson, M.; Rodriguez-Emmenegger, Cesar

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 17, č. 3 (2016), s. 1179-1185 ISSN 1525-7797 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GJ15-09368Y; GA MŠk(CZ) ED1.1.00/02.0109 Grant - others:OPPK(XE) CZ.2.16/3.1.00/21545 Program:OPPK Institutional support: RVO:61389013 Keywords : polymer brushes * surface characterization * antifouling surfaces Subject RIV: BO - Biophysics Impact factor: 5.246, year: 2016

  10. Antifouling Manganese Oxide Nanoparticles: Synthesis, Characterization, and Applications for Enhanced MR Imaging of Tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Peng; Yang, Jia; Zhou, Benqing; Hu, Yong; Xing, Lingxi; Xu, Fanli; Shen, Mingwu; Zhang, Guixiang; Shi, Xiangyang

    2017-01-11

    Antifouling manganese oxide (Mn 3 O 4 ) nanoparticles (NPs) were synthesized by solvothermal decomposition of tris(2,4-pentanedionato) manganese(III) in the presence of trisodium citrate, followed by surface modification with polyethylene glycol and l-cysteine. The as-prepared nanoparticles have a uniform size distribution, good colloidal stability and good cytocompatibility. The modification of l-cysteine rendered the particles with much longer blood circulation time (half-decay time of 28.4 h) than those without l-cysteine modification (18.5 h), and decreased macrophage cellular uptake. Thanks to desirable antifouling property and relatively high r 1 relaxivity (3.66 mM -1 s -1 ), the l-cysteine-modified Mn 3 O 4 NPs can be used for enhanced tumor magnetic resonance imaging applications.

  11. Potent Antifouling Marine Dihydroquinolin-2(1H)-one-Containing Alkaloids from the Gorgonian Coral-Derived Fungus Scopulariopsis sp.

    KAUST Repository

    Shao, Chang Lun

    2015-04-02

    Marine biofouling has a major economic impact, especially when it occurs on ship hulls or aquaculture facilities. Since the International Maritime Organization (IMO) treaty to ban the application of organotin-based paints to ships went into effect in 2008, there is an urgent demand for the development of efficient and environmentally friendly antifouling agents. Marine microorganisms have proved to be a potential source of antifouling natural compounds. In this study, six dihydroquinolin-2-one-containing alkaloids, three monoterpenoids combined with a 4-phenyl-3,4-dihydroquinolin-2(1H)-one (1–3) and three 4-phenyl-3,4-dihydroquinolin-2(1H)-one alkaloids (4–6), were isolated from the gorgonian coral-derived fungus Scopulariopsis sp. collected in the South China Sea. These dihydroquinolin-2-one-containing alkaloids were evaluated against the larval settlement of barnacle Balanus amphitrite, and antifouling activity was detected for the first time for this class of metabolites. All of them except 6 showed strong antifouling activity. Compounds 1 and 2 were discovered to be the most promising non-toxic antilarval settlement candidates. Especially, compound 1 is the strongest antifouling compound in nature until now which showed highly potent activity with picomolar level (EC50 17.5 pM) and a very safety and high therapeutic ratio (LC50/EC50 1200). This represents an effective non-toxic, anti-larval settlement structural class of promising antifouling lead compound. © 2015 Springer Science+Business Media New York

  12. Preparation of water paint by radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Makuuchi, Keizo

    1984-01-01

    The development of coatings which do not require any organic solvent have been the social needs. The emulsion made by radiation method is considered to meet possibly this requirement, but it has not been utilized well in the application to water paint. In this review, the investigation concerning the synthesis of water paint raw material by radiation is summarized. In the introduction, radiation curing, water paint and radiation emulsion polymerization are outlined, in the section of γ-ray emulsion polymerization, clean emulsion, cross-linked polymer particles and low temperature polymerization are described, and in the section of paint characteristics of radiation-induced emulsion-polymerized emulsion, the synthesis of thermosetting emulsion, the relation between the method of polymerization and the properties of emulsion, the performance of coating film, and self-hardening emulsion are explained. In the following section of skin-core double layer structured particle emulsion, skin-core double layer structured particles, optimal monomer composition, optimal polymerization process, the manufacturing test with a pilot plant, the performance of the paint, the durability of skin-core double layer structured particle coating film and low temperature curing water paint are described, and in the section of synthesis of emulsion by utilization of electron beam, electron beam emulsion polymerization and the synthesis of water paint by electron beam graft polymerization are described. (Yoshitake, I.)

  13. Plasma-enhanced deposition of antifouling layers on silicone rubber surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Hongquan

    In food processing and medical environments, biofilms serve as potential sources of contamination, and lead to food spoilage, transmission of diseases or infections. Because of its ubiquitous and recalcitrant nature, Listeria monocytogenes biofilm is especially hard to control. Generating antimicrobial surfaces provide a method to control the bacterial attachment. The difficulty of silver deposition on polymeric surfaces has been overcome by using a unique two-step plasma-mediated method. First silicone rubber surfaces were plasma-functionalized to generate aldehyde groups. Then thin silver layers were deposited onto the functionalized surfaces according to Tollen's reaction. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), atomic force spectroscopy (AFM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) showed that silver particles were deposited. By exposing the silver coated surfaces to L. monocytogenes, it was demonstrated that they were bactericidal to L. monocytogenes. No viable bacteria were detected after 12 to 18 h on silver-coated silicone rubber surfaces. Another antifouling approach is to generate polyethylene glycol (PEG) thin layer instead of silver on polymer surfaces. Covalent bond of PEG structures of various molecular weights to cold-plasma-functionalized polymer surfaces, such as silicone rubber, opens up a novel way for the generation of PEG brush-like or PEG branch-like anti-fouling layers. In this study, plasma-generated surface free radicals can react efficiently with dichlorosilane right after plasma treatment. With the generation of halo-silane groups, this enables PEG molecules to be grafted onto the modified surfaces. XPS data clearly demonstrated the presence of PEG molecules on plasma-functionalized silicone rubber surfaces. AFM images showed the changed surface morphologies as a result of covalent attachment to the surface of PEG molecules. Biofilm experiment results suggest that the PEG brush-like films have the potential ability to be the next

  14. New Antifouling Platform Characterized by Single-Molecule Imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    Antifouling surfaces have been widely studied for their importance in medical devices and industry. Antifouling surfaces mostly achieved by methoxy-poly(ethylene glycol) (mPEG) have shown biomolecular adsorption less than 1 ng/cm2 which was measured by surface analytical tools such as surface plasmon resonance (SPR) spectroscopy, quartz crystal microbalance (QCM), or optical waveguide lightmode (OWL) spectroscopy. Herein, we utilize a single-molecule imaging technique (i.e., an ultimate resolution) to study antifouling properties of functionalized surfaces. We found that about 600 immunoglobulin G (IgG) molecules are adsorbed. This result corresponds to ∼5 pg/cm2 adsorption, which is far below amount for the detection limit of the conventional tools. Furthermore, we developed a new antifouling platform that exhibits improved antifouling performance that shows only 78 IgG molecules adsorbed (∼0.5 pg/cm2). The antifouling platform consists of forming 1 nm TiO2 thin layer, on which peptidomimetic antifouling polymer (PMAP) is robustly anchored. The unprecedented antifouling performance can potentially revolutionize a variety of research fields such as single-molecule imaging, medical devices, biosensors, and others. PMID:24503420

  15. Degradation of triphenylborane-pyridine antifouling agent in water by copper ions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuboi, Ai; Okamura, Hideo; Kaewchuay, Netnapit; Fukushi, Keiichi; Zhou, Xiaojian; Nishida, Tomoaki

    2013-01-01

    Triphenylborane-pyridine (TPBP) is an antifouling compound used in Asian countries, including Japan, and its residue has not been detected in aquatic environments to date. There are limited data on its fate for environmental management. The purpose of this study was to evaluate whether TPBP is degraded by metal ions in aquatic environments. TPBP with metal ions in 20 mM sodium acetate buffer at pH 8.0 was placed at 25 degrees C in the dark for 24 h. The concentrations of TPBP and its degradation products, such as diphenylboronic acid, phenylboronic acid (MPB), phenol, benzene, biphenyl, and boron were determined. The presence of copper ions (50 mg/l), but not zinc or manganese ions, resulted in complete degradation of TPBP in 24 h. The TPBP degradation was much faster than the boron production in the initial reaction (0-1 h) with copper salts, depending on the copper salts tested. TPBP was degraded by copper ions (5 mg/l) in 24 h, producing phenol, MPB, biphenyl, and borate. Cu2+ as copper(II) chloride or copper(II) acetate led to complete degradation of TPBP, and thylenediaminetetraacetic acid disodium salt addition suppressed the TPBP degradation. Cu+ as copper(I) acetate also completely degraded TPBP, and bathocuproine addition suppressed the TPBP degradation. This suggests that copper ions existing in natural environments might degrade TPBP released from antifouling paint into water, and this could be one of the important mechanisms to dissipate TPBP residues in aquatic environments.

  16. Nano ZnO/amine composites antimicrobial additives to acrylic paints

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H.B. Kamal

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Nano ZnO has been widely used as an antimicrobial agent not only for food packaging purposes but also in many coating processes. The present work is meant to enhance such functions through the preparation of sustainable and safe conduct of nano ZnO composites with amine derivatives that are characterized by their antimicrobial and anti-fouling functional activities. The results obtained revealed a more comprehensive approach to the antimicrobial function based on the reported active oxide species role. The oxide/amine composites and the acrylic emulsion paint were characterized chemically and structurally through FT-IR, TGA and TEM supported by biological assessment of each ZnO/amine composite action. Results of the study concluded that equilibrium between the nano ZnO particles size, their dispersion form, and amine ability to stabilize the actively produced oxygen species responsible for the antimicrobial function, should all be accounted for when persistence of antimicrobial agent efficiency is regarded.

  17. Antifouling activity of seaweed extracts from Guarujá, São Paulo, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heloisa Elias Medeiros

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Marine biofouling historically constitutes one of the major constraints faced by mankind in its oceanic activities. The search for alternatives to TBT-based antifouling paints has led several researchers to focus efforts in the development of environmentally friendly natural compounds. This work has contributed with this search, testing the antifouling potential of crude organic extracts from four seaweed species collected at Praia Branca, Guarujá district, São Paulo, Brazil. Throughout laboratory antifouling assays in which the attachment of a common fouling organism, the brown mussel Perna perna, was employed, antifouling activity (p A incrustação biológica constitui, historicamente, um dos maiores problemas encontrados pelo homem em suas atividades no mar. A busca por alternativas a tintas antiincrustantes contendo tributilestanho (TBT tem levado diversos pesquisadores a concentrar esforços no desenvolvimento de substâncias naturais menos danosas à biota marinha. Este trabalho procurou contribuir com essa busca, testando o potencial antiincrustante de quatro diferentes espécies de macroalgas da Praia Branca, município de Guarujá, SP. Através de testes antiincrustantes em laboratório utilizando a fixação de um organismo incrustante comum, o mexilhão Perna perna, foi constatado que os extratos de Jania rubens (Rhodophyta, Cryptonemiales e Bryothamnion seaforthii (Rhodophyta, Ceramiales, à concentração natural, apresentaram atividade antiincrustante significativa (p < 0,05, enquanto Dictyopteris delicatula (Phaeophyta, Dictyotales e Heterosiphonia gibbesii (Rhodophyta, Ceramiales não demonstraram eficiência na inibição da fixação de bissos do molusco. Das algas que indicaram potencial atividade contra a incrustação, J. rubens apresentou melhor desempenho em relação a B. seaforthii. Futuras investigações em campo serão necessárias para a obtenção de resultados que possam refletir melhor as condições naturais

  18. Removable camouflage paints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salonen, Pasi S.; Niinimaki-Heikkila, Tiina; Hallenberg, Ilkka

    2001-09-01

    All military objects must have basic camouflage that is usually achieved by painting. Patterned camouflage painting hides the object and blends its shape and characteristic features in with its surroundings. Basic camouflage can be complemented by using temporary camouflage such as removable camouflage paints. These paints can be used in seasons and environments where the basic pattern is not appropriate. A research project was begun at the Defence Forces Technical Research Centre (DFTRC) in 1994 in order to formulate an environmentally friendly, removable camouflage paint for military use. The paint should be easily removable when they are applied to previously painted military equipment. However, it should also be resistant to drizzle. The paint should have optical properties similar to those of its surroundings. The surface of the coatings should also be matt to avoid any conspicuous reflection. Finally, it should be possible to apply removable camouflage paints in the field using any painting method. During the project environmentally friendly and non-toxic removable paints were successfully formulated. The colors of removable paints are compromises of average operating environments. The project included numerous laboratory tests in addition to natural and accelerated weathering tests. Several field tests have been carried out. According to the tests, the removable paints are well resistant to drizzle, sufficiently resistant to abrasion, and they can be washed off with water.

  19. Performance of paint coatings in the radiation fields of nuclear reactors and of high energy particle accelerators and after contamination by radionuclides

    CERN Document Server

    Schönbacher, Helmut; Oesterle, K M; Van de Voorde, M

    1977-01-01

    Several commercially available two/component coating systems based on epoxy and polyurethane resin, as well as lithium silicate/zinc dust paint coatings, have been irradiated in a nuclear reactor up to a dose of 2*10/sup 9/ rad and in a 28 GeV proton accelerator up to a dose of 1*10/sup 9/ rad. Besides assessment by visual inspection, the irradiated specimens have been subjected to the impact hardness test, the infinitesimal hardness behaviour tests, the grid scarification test and to swelling tests in methanol and acetone. The decontaminability of these paint coatings after contamination with solutions containing Ca 45, S 35 and I 131 is also investigated. Very good results in respect of decontaminability and radiation resistance up to 1*10/sup 9/ rad have been obtained with a coating of polyurethane cross-linked with an aliphatic diisocyanate. (9 refs).

  20. Painting Education & Artistic Evolution

    OpenAIRE

    Tandirli, Emre

    2012-01-01

    Art is the most effective way of expressing human emotions. It should also be an excellent application of traditional or technological tools. In our presentation-research we will be focusing on painting, painting education and advanced artistic evolution process in terms of traditional application domains. An immortal painting-masterpiece should be the competent example of an excellent composition and also a perfect example of application. Preparation of painting tubes, choice of pertinent an...

  1. Research progress of nano self - cleaning anti-fouling coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Y.; Zhao, Y. J.; Teng, J. L.; Wang, J. H.; Wu, L. S.; Zheng, Y. L.

    2018-01-01

    There are many methods of evaluating the performance of nano self-cleaning anti-fouling coatings, such as carbon blacking method, coating reflection coefficient method, glass microbead method, film method, contact angle and rolling angle method, organic degradation method, and the application of performance evaluation method in self-cleaning antifouling coating. For the more, the types of nano self-cleaning anti-fouling coatings based on aqueous media was described, such as photocatalytic self-cleaning coatings, silicone coatings, organic fluorine coatings, fluorosilicone coatings, fluorocarbon coatings, polysilazane self-cleaning coatings. The research and application of different kinds of nano self-cleaning antifouling coatings are anlysised, and the latest research results are summed.

  2. Antifouling activities of marine sedentary invertebrates on some macrofoulers

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Wilsanand, V.; Wagh, A.B.; Bapuji, M.

    that the transient presence of active extracts did not cause irreversible damage to P. viridis. The results indicate the possible potentialities of these extracts as natural non toxic antifouling agents....

  3. Imidazole and Triazole Coordination Chemistry for Antifouling Coatings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Markus Andersson Trojer

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Fouling of marine organisms on the hulls of ships is a severe problem for the shipping industry. Many antifouling agents are based on five-membered nitrogen heterocyclic compounds, in particular imidazoles and triazoles. Moreover, imidazole and triazoles are strong ligands for Cu2+ and Cu+, which are both potent antifouling agents. In this review, we summarize a decade of work within our groups concerning imidazole and triazole coordination chemistry for antifouling applications with a particular focus on the very potent antifouling agent medetomidine. The entry starts by providing a detailed theoretical description of the azole-metal coordination chemistry. Some attention will be given to ways to functionalize polymers with azole ligands. Then, the effect of metal coordination in azole-containing polymers with respect to material properties will be discussed. Our work concerning the controlled release of antifouling agents, in particular medetomidine, using azole coordination chemistry will be reviewed. Finally, an outlook will be given describing the potential for tailoring the azole ligand chemistry in polymers with respect to Cu2+ adsorption and Cu2+→Cu+ reduction for antifouling coatings without added biocides.

  4. Recovery of spray paint traces from clothing by beating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olderiks, Maurice; Baiker, Martin; van Velzen, Jill; van der Weerd, Jaap

    2015-03-01

    Manual recovery of spray paints from textiles using a microscope, the routine method in many laboratories, is often laborious. Beating the clothing with a plastic rod, the routine method used for recovery of glass traces within the authors' laboratory, is proposed as an alternative. The efficiency of the method was evaluated by spray tests with fluorescent paint. In these tests, paint particles in the acquired debris samples, as well as those remaining on the textiles, were investigated. The results show that beating is an efficient way to recover and concentrate paint particles. A good efficiency for jeans fabric and rough knitwear is reported. The results appeared to be less satisfactory for smooth woven fabric. Application of the method in casework was effective for graffiti paints as well as for flaked car paint. © 2014 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  5. Electron beam curing paint

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maruyama, Tsutomu

    1991-04-01

    Electron beam curing (EBC) type paint is paint that is specially prepared so that it can be cured and dried by electron beam irradiation. Electron beam irradiation achieves hardly any curing and drying of ordinary normal-temperature drying type paint or heat-drying type paint. The main type of paint in which an electron beam produces a curing reaction is one in which a radical polymerization reaction takes place under irradiation. The use of this EBC painting - drying system has been considered for a variety of fields since it has a number of special features such as the fact that the paint dries instantaneously, no heat is applied and no solvent is used. (Author)

  6. Coral skeletal tin and copper concentrations at Pohnpei, Micronesia: possible index for marine pollution by toxic anti-biofouling paints.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inoue, Mayuri; Suzuki, Atsushi; Nohara, Masato; Kan, Hironobu; Edward, Ahser; Kawahata, Hodaka

    2004-06-01

    We present 40 year-long skeletal chronologies of tin (Sn) and copper (Cu) from an annually-banded coral (Porites sp.) collected from Pohnpei Island, Micronesia (western equatorial Pacific). Both the elements are present in antifouling marine paints and are released inadvertently into ambient seawater. Especially, Sn has often been used in the form of tributyltin (TBT). Based on a stepwise pretreatment examination, Sn and Cu both inside and outside the aragonite lattice of the coral skeleton show a potential for providing marine pollution indicators. High values of extra-skeletal Cu/Ca and Sn/Ca atomic ratios were found between late 1960s and late 1980s during a period of active use of TBT-based antifouling paints worldwide. However, a significant decrease in both the ratios in the beginning of 1990s can be attributed to regulation of the use of TBT on cargo ships by countries such as the USA, Japan and Australia.

  7. Antifouling evaluation of extracts from Red Sea soft corals against primary biofilm and biofouling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yosry Abdel Aziz Soliman

    2017-11-01

    Conclusions: The strong antifouling activity makes them promising candidates for new antifouling additives. After the screening and application of natural organic compounds from soft corals, marine organisms show activity against micro and macro fouling organisms.

  8. Lined canvas paintings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krarup Andersen, Cecil

    2013-01-01

    This work evaluates the lining history of the Danish Golden Age collection of canvas paintings from the nineteenths century at SMK, The National Gallery of Denmark, and seeks to understand the moisture sensitivity of the paintings before and after lining. This is done by chemical analysis...... and tensile testing samples from the tacking edges as well as lined mock-up samples. The ability of the different lining techniques to support canvas paintings is evaluated in terms of their initial stretching and during fluctuations of relative humidity. Six different combinations of lining adhesives...... and textiles were examined. These included the adhesives Beva 371, Plextol D360, wax-resin, and glue-paste. The lining textiles were linen and polyester sailcloth. A naturally aged canvas painting and a modern painting were lined using these materials and methods. Testing of the lined paintings included uni...

  9. Introductory guide to painting

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Cromarty, R.E

    1985-01-01

    Full Text Available looking list of products which, in many cases, instead of helping the decorator merely confuses him, and he may easily end up using a paint ' system that is less than ideal. There are three golden rules for a good paint job: 1. Select the correct paint... rash of claims and may not be around long enough to put your problem right. The opposite situation also bears investigation. You will find that you can buy emulsion paint at about a third of the price of a top quality product. What is the difference...

  10. Impact on the environment from steel bridge paint deterioration using lead isotopic tracing, paint compositions and soil deconstruction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gulson, Brian; Chiaradia, Massimo; Davis, Jeffrey; O'Connor, Gary

    2016-01-01

    Deterioration and repair of lead paint on steel structures can result in contamination of the ambient environment but other sources of lead such as from past use of leaded paint and gasoline and industrial activities can also contribute to the contamination. Using a combination of high precision lead isotopic tracing, detailed paint examination, including with scanning electron microscopy, and soil deconstruction we have compared paint on a steel bridge and bulk soil and lead-rich particles separated from soil. The majority of Pb found in the paint derives from Australian sources but some also has a probable US origin. The isotopic data for the bulk soils and selected particles lie on a mixing line with end members the geologically ancient Broken Hill lead and possible European lead which is suggested to be derived from old lead paint and industrial activities. Data for gasoline-derived particulates lie on this array and probably contribute to soil Pb. Although paint from the bridge can be a source of lead in the soils, isotopic tracing, paint morphology and mineralogical identification indicate that other sources, including from paint, gasoline and industrial activities, are contributing factors to the lead burden. Even though physical characteristics and elemental composition are the same in some particles, the isotopic signatures demonstrate that the sources are different. Plots using 206 Pb/ 208 Pb vs 206 Pb/ 207 Pb ratios, the common representation these days, do not allow for source discrimination in this investigation. - Highlights: • Soil Pb values up to 1200 mg/kg below Pb painted bridge • Microscopy & SEM characterised up to 6 different paint layers. • Isotopes identified different sources of Pb including paint and gasoline. • Multiple methods provide definitive answers.

  11. Hierarchical Micro-Nano Coatings by Painting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirveslahti, Anna; Korhonen, Tuulia; Suvanto, Mika; Pakkanen, Tapani A.

    2016-03-01

    In this paper, the wettability properties of coatings with hierarchical surface structures and low surface energy were studied. Hierarchically structured coatings were produced by using hydrophobic fumed silica nanoparticles and polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) microparticles as additives in polyester (PES) and polyvinyldifluoride (PVDF). These particles created hierarchical micro-nano structures on the paint surfaces and lowered or supported the already low surface energy of the paint. Two standard application techniques for paint application were employed and the presented coatings are suitable for mass production and use in large surface areas. By regulating the particle concentrations, it was possible to modify wettability properties gradually. Highly hydrophobic surfaces were achieved with the highest contact angle of 165∘. Dynamic contact angle measurements were carried out for a set of selected samples and low hysteresis was obtained. Produced coatings possessed long lasting durability in the air and in underwater conditions.

  12. Oil-based paint poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paint - oil-based - poisoning ... Hydrocarbons are the primary poisonous ingredient in oil paints. Some oil paints have heavy metals such as lead, mercury, cobalt, and barium added as pigment. These heavy metals can cause additional ...

  13. Rapid new methods for paint collection and lead extraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutknecht, William F; Harper, Sharon L; Winstead, Wayne; Sorrell, Kristen; Binstock, David A; Salmons, Cynthia A; Haas, Curtis; McCombs, Michelle; Studabaker, William; Wall, Constance V; Moore, Curtis

    2009-01-01

    Chronic exposure of children to lead can result in permanent physiological impairment. In adults, it can cause irritability, poor muscle coordination, and nerve damage to the sense organs and nerves controlling the body. Surfaces coated with lead-containing paints are potential sources of exposure to lead. In April 2008, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) finalized new requirements that would reduce exposure to lead hazards created by renovation, repair, and painting activities, which disturb lead-based paint. On-site, inexpensive identification of lead-based paint is required. Two steps have been taken to meet this challenge. First, this paper presents a new, highly efficient method for paint collection that is based on the use of a modified wood drill bit. Second, this paper presents a novel, one-step approach for quantitatively grinding and extracting lead from paint samples for subsequent lead determination. This latter method is based on the use of a high-revolutions per minute rotor with stator to break up the paint into approximately 50 micron-size particles. Nitric acid (25%, v/v) is used to extract the lead in 95% for real-world paints, National Institute of Standards and Technology's standard reference materials, and audit samples from the American Industrial Hygiene Association's Environmental Lead Proficiency Analytical Testing Program. This quantitative extraction procedure, when paired with quantitative paint sample collection and lead determination, may enable the development of a lead paint test kit that will meet the specifications of the final EPA rule.

  14. Membranes with Surface-Enhanced Antifouling Properties for Water Purification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahkaramipour, Nima; Tran, Thien N.; Ramanan, Sankara; Lin, Haiqing

    2017-01-01

    Membrane technology has emerged as an attractive approach for water purification, while mitigation of fouling is key to lower membrane operating costs. This article reviews various materials with antifouling properties that can be coated or grafted onto the membrane surface to improve the antifouling properties of the membranes and thus, retain high water permeance. These materials can be separated into three categories, hydrophilic materials, such as poly(ethylene glycol), polydopamine and zwitterions, hydrophobic materials, such as fluoropolymers, and amphiphilic materials. The states of water in these materials and the mechanisms for the antifouling properties are discussed. The corresponding approaches to coat or graft these materials on the membrane surface are reviewed, and the materials with promising performance are highlighted. PMID:28273869

  15. What's Behind A Painting?

    Science.gov (United States)

    John Zasada

    2001-01-01

    In art galleries, one often studies a painting from various angles and distances, seeking to discover all that is possible about the method and style of the artist and what the artist is trying to communicate. In other words the observer is trying to detremine "what is behind the painting."

  16. Painting for protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stepto, G.G.C.

    1981-01-01

    Despite the use of special alloys, paint is still the most economical and practical method of protecting steel. Chlorinated rubber resin based paint systems are shown to be satisfactory in areas requiring decontamination as well as for outside exposed areas of nuclear power plants. (author)

  17. Pollock without Paint?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutley, Jane

    2011-01-01

    This article describes how the author exposes her students to the world of Jackson Pollock, the artist who brings to mind dripping, meandering, splashing puddles of paint. Pollock's action paintings of the late 1940s-'50s call out for unfettered movement, fluidity, and freedom of application. Is it even possible to capture the action, rhythm and…

  18. Chromosome painting in plants.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schubert, I.; Fransz, P.F.; Fuchs, J.; Jong, de J.H.

    2001-01-01

    The current 'state-of-art' as to chromosome painting in plants is reviewed. We define different situations described as painting so far: i) Genomic in situ hybridisation (GISH) with total genomic DNA to distinguish alien chromosomes on the basis of divergent dispersed repeats, ii) 'Chromosomal in

  19. Sanding dust from nanoparticle-containing paints: Physical characterisation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koponen, I. K.; Jensen, K. A.; Schneider, T.

    2009-02-01

    Increasing use of nanoparticles in different industrial applications has raised a new potential health risk to the workers as well as to the consumers. This study investigates the particle size distributions of sanding dust released from paints produced with and without engineered nanoparticles. Dust emissions from sanding painted plates were found to consist of five size modes; three modes under 1 μm and two modes around 1 and 2 μm. We observed that the sander was the only source of particles smaller than 50 nm and they dominated the number concentration spectra. Mass and surface area spectra were dominated by the 1 and 2 μm modes. Addition of nanoparticles caused only minor changes in the geometric mean diameters of the particle modes generated during sanding of two paints doped with 17 nm TiO2 and 95 nm Carbon Black nanoparticles as compared to the size modes generated during sanding a conventional reference paint. However, the number concentrations in the different size modes varied considerably in between the two NP-doped paints and the reference paint. Therefore, from a physical point of view, there may be a difference in the exposure risk during sanding surfaces covered with nanoparticle-based paints as compared to sanding conventional paints.

  20. Sanding dust from nanoparticle-containing paints: Physical characterisation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koponen, I K; Jensen, K A; Schneider, T

    2009-01-01

    Increasing use of nanoparticles in different industrial applications has raised a new potential health risk to the workers as well as to the consumers. This study investigates the particle size distributions of sanding dust released from paints produced with and without engineered nanoparticles. Dust emissions from sanding painted plates were found to consist of five size modes; three modes under 1 μm and two modes around 1 and 2 μm. We observed that the sander was the only source of particles smaller than 50 nm and they dominated the number concentration spectra. Mass and surface area spectra were dominated by the 1 and 2 μm modes. Addition of nanoparticles caused only minor changes in the geometric mean diameters of the particle modes generated during sanding of two paints doped with 17 nm TiO2 and 95 nm Carbon Black nanoparticles as compared to the size modes generated during sanding a conventional reference paint. However, the number concentrations in the different size modes varied considerably in between the two NP-doped paints and the reference paint. Therefore, from a physical point of view, there may be a difference in the exposure risk during sanding surfaces covered with nanoparticle-based paints as compared to sanding conventional paints.

  1. Simulations of color development in tinted paints

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stuiver, A.; Barkema, G.T.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/101275080

    2010-01-01

    Monte Carlo simulations have been used to investigate how several thermodynamic and kinetic factors affect the distribution of pigments, when a water-based pigment dispersion is added to a solvent-borne paint. Our model contains three types of lattice particles: water, pigment and organic solvent,

  2. Bioinspired Surface for Low Drag, Self-Cleaning, and Antifouling: Shark Skin, Butterfly and Rice Leaf Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bixler, Gregroy D.

    In this thesis, first presented is an overview of inorganic-fouling and biofouling which is generally undesirable for many medical, marine, and industrial applications. A survey of nature's flora and fauna are studied in order to discover new antifouling methods that could be mimicked for engineering applications. New antifouling methods will presumably incorporate a combination of physical and chemical controls. Presented are mechanisms and experimental results focusing on laminar and turbulent drag reducing shark skin inspired riblet surfaces. This includes new laser etched and riblet film samples for closed channel drag using water, oil, and air as well as in wind tunnel. Also presented are mechanisms and experimental results focusing on the newly discovered rice and butterfly wing effect surfaces. Morphology, drag, self-cleaning, contact angle, and contact angle hysteresis data are presented to understand the role of sample geometrical dimensions, wettability, viscosity, and velocity. Hierarchical liquid repellent coatings combining nano- and micro-sized features and particles are utilized to recreate or combine various effects. Such surfaces have been fabricated with photolithography, soft lithography, hot embossing, and coating techniques. Discussion is provided along with new conceptual models describing the role of surface structures related to low drag, self-cleaning, and antifouling properties. Modeling provides design guidance when developing novel low drag and self-cleaning surfaces for medical, marine, and industrial applications.

  3. Environmental risk limits for antifouling substances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wezel, Annemarie P. van; Vlaardingen, P. van

    2004-01-01

    In 1989, the EU restricted the use of tributyl-tin (TBT) and the International Maritime Organisation (IMO) decided for a world-wide ban on TBT in 2003. As a replacement for TBT, new antifouling agents are entering the market. Environmental risk limits (ERLs) are derived for substances that are used as TBT-substitutes, i.e. the compounds Irgarol 1051, dichlofluanid, ziram, chlorothalonil and TCMTB. ERLs represent the potential risk of the substances to the ecosystem and are derived using data on (eco)toxicology and environmental chemistry. Only toxicity studies with endpoints related to population dynamics are taken into account. For Irgarol 1051 especially plants appear to be sensitive; the mode of action is inhibition of photosynthetic electron transport. Despite the higher sensitivity of the plants, the calculated ERL for water based on plants only is higher than the ERL based on all data due to the lower variability in the plant only dataset. Because there is a mechanistic basis to state that plants are the most sensitive species, we propose to base the ERL for water on the plants only dataset. As dichlofluanid is highly unstable in the water phase, it is recommended to base the ERL on the metabolites formed and not on the parent compound. No toxicity data of the studied compounds for organisms living in sediments were found, the ERLs for sediment are derived with help of the equilibrium partitioning method. For dichlofluanid and chlorothalonil the ERL for soil is directly based on terrestrial data, for Irgarol 1051 and ziram the ERL for soil is derived using equilibrium partitioning. Except for Irgarol 1051, no information was encountered in the open literature on the environmental occurrence in The Netherlands of the chemicals studied. The measured concentrations for Irgarol 1051 are close to the derived ERL. For this compound it is concluded that the species composition and thereby ecosystem functioning cannot be considered as protected

  4. Clickable antifouling polymer brushes for polymer pen lithography

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bog, U.; de los Santos Pereira, Andres; Mueller, S. L.; Havenridge, S.; Parrillo, Viviana; Bruns, M.; Holmes, A. E.; Rodriguez-Emmenegger, C.; Fuchs, H.; Hirtz, M.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 9, č. 13 (2017), s. 12109-12117 ISSN 1944-8244 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GJ15-09368Y Institutional support: RVO:61389013 Keywords : antifouling * biofunctional interfaces * polymer brushes Subject RIV: CD - Macromolecular Chemistry OBOR OECD: Polymer science Impact factor: 7.504, year: 2016

  5. Antifouling Activity of Secondary Metabolites Isolated from Chinese Marine Organisms

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Yong Xin

    2013-04-25

    Biofouling results in tremendous economic losses to maritime industries around the world. A recent global ban on the use of organotin compounds as antifouling agents has further raised demand for safe and effective antifouling compounds. In this study, 49 secondary metabolites, including diterpenoids, steroids, and polyketides, were isolated from soft corals, gorgonians, brown algae, and fungi collected along the coast of China, and their antifouling activity was tested against cyprids of the barnacle Balanus (Amphibalanus) amphitrite. Twenty of the compounds were found to inhibit larval settlement significantly at a concentration of 25 μg ml-1. Two briarane diterpenoids, juncin O (2) and juncenolide H (3), were the most promising non-toxic antilarval settlement candidates, with EC50 values less than 0.13 μg ml-1 and a safety ratio (LC50/EC50) higher than 400. A preliminary structure-activity relationships study indicated that both furanon and furan moieties are important for antifouling activity. Intriguingly, the presence of hydroxyls enhanced their antisettlement activity. © 2013 Springer Science+Business Media New York.

  6. Engineering Multifunctional Living Paints: Thin, Convectively-Assembled Biocomposite Coatings of Live Cells and Colloidal Latex Particles Deposited by Continuous Convective-Sedimentation Assembly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenkins, Jessica Shawn

    Advanced composite materials could be revolutionized by the development of methods to incorporate living cells into functional materials and devices. This could be accomplished by continuously and rapidly depositing thin ordered arrays of adhesive colloidal latex particles and live cells that maintain stability and preserve microbial reactivity. Convective assembly is one method of rapidly assembling colloidal particles into thin (cyanobacteria, yeast, and algae into biocomposite coatings, forming reactive biosensors, photoabsorbers, or advanced biocatalysts. This dissertation developed new continuous deposition and coating characterization methods for fabricating and characterizing sulfur-limited C. reinhardtii CC-124. These coatings demonstrated stable, sustained (>90 hours) photohydrogen production under anoxygenic conditions. Nutrient reduction slows cell division, minimizing coating outgrowth, and promotes photohydrogen generation, improving coating reactivity. Scanning electron microscopy of microstructure revealed how coating reactivity can be controlled by the size and distribution of the nanopores in the biocomposite layers. Variations in colloid microsphere size and suspension composition do not affect coating reactivity, but both parameters alter coating microstructure. Porous paper coated with thin coatings of colloidal particles and cells to enable coatings to be used in a gas-phase without dehydration may offer higher volumetric productivity for hydrogen production. Future work should focus on optimization of cell density, light intensity, media cycling, and acetate concentration.

  7. Stereo Painting Display Devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shafer, David

    1982-06-01

    The Spanish Surrealist artist Salvador Dali has recently perfected the art of producing two paintings which are stereo pairs. Each painting is separately quite remarkable, presenting a subject with the vivid realism and clarity for which Dali is famous. Due to the surrealistic themes of Dali's art, however, the subjects preser.ted with such naturalism only exist in his imagination. Despite this considerable obstacle to producing stereo art, Dali has managed to paint stereo pairs that display subtle differences of coloring and lighting, in addition to the essential perspective differences. These stereo paintings require a display method that will allow the viewer to experience stereo fusion, but which will not degrade the high quality of the art work. This paper gives a review of several display methods that seem promising in terms of economy, size, adjustability, and image quality.

  8. Review on Molecular Mechanisms of Antifouling Compounds: An Update since 2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Lianguo; Qian, Pei-Yuan

    2017-08-28

    Better understanding of the mechanisms of antifouling compounds is recognized to be of high value in establishing sensitive biomarkers, allowing the targeted optimization of antifouling compounds and guaranteeing environmental safety. Despite vigorous efforts to find new antifouling compounds, information about the mechanisms of antifouling is still scarce. This review summarizes the progress into understanding the molecular mechanisms underlying antifouling activity since 2012. Non-toxic mechanisms aimed at specific targets, including inhibitors of transmembrane transport, quorum sensing inhibitors, neurotransmission blockers, adhesive production/release inhibitors and enzyme/protein inhibitors, are put forward for natural antifouling products or shelf-stable chemicals. Several molecular targets show good potential for use as biomarkers in future mechanistic screening, such as acetylcholine esterase for neurotransmission, phenoloxidase/tyrosinase for the formation of adhesive plaques, N -acyl homoserine lactone for quorum sensing and intracellular Ca 2+ levels as second messenger. The studies on overall responses to challenges by antifoulants can be categorized as general targets, including protein expression/metabolic activity regulators, oxidative stress inducers, neurotransmission blockers, surface modifiers, biofilm inhibitors, adhesive production/release inhibitors and toxic killing. Given the current situation and the knowledge gaps regarding the development of alternative antifoulants, a basic workflow is proposed that covers the indispensable steps, including preliminary mechanism- or bioassay-guided screening, evaluation of environmental risks, field antifouling performance, clarification of antifouling mechanisms and the establishment of sensitive biomarkers, which are combined to construct a positive feedback loop.

  9. Antifouling potential of bacteria isolated from a marine biofilm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Min; Wang, Ke; Su, Rongguo; Li, Xuzhao; Lu, Wei

    2014-10-01

    Marine microorganisms are a new source of natural antifouling compounds. In this study, two bacterial strains, Kytococcus sedentarius QDG-B506 and Bacillus cereus QDG-B509, were isolated from a marine biofilm and identified. The bacteria fermentation broth could exert inhibitory effects on the growth of Skeletonema costatum and barnacle larvae. A procedure was employed to extract and identify the antifouling compounds. Firstly, a toxicity test was conducted by graduated pH and liquid-liquid extraction to determine the optimal extraction conditions. The best extraction conditions were found to be pH 2 and 100% petroleum ether. The EC 50 value of the crude extract of K. sedentarius against the test microalgae was 236.7 ± 14.08 μg mL-1, and that of B. cereus was 290.6 ± 27.11 μg mL-1. Secondly, HLB SPE columns were used to purify the two crude extracts. After purification, the antifouling activities of the two extracts significantly increased: the EC 50 of the K. sedentarius extract against the test microalgae was 86.4 ± 3.71 μg mL-1, and that of B. cereus was 92.6 ± 1.47 μg mL-1. These results suggest that the metabolites produced by the two bacterial strains are with high antifouling activities and they should be fatty acid compounds. Lastly, GC-MS was used for the structural elucidation of the compounds. The results show that the antifouling compounds produced by the two bacterial strains are myristic, palmitic and octadecanoic acids.

  10. Artists Paint ... Landscapes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herberholz, Barbara

    2012-01-01

    This article features the painting "View of Toledo," based on Toledo, a very old city located on a high plateau in Spain. By the time the artist El Greco painted the picture, he had lived there for 31 years. When one looks at the picture, one will see a storm approaching and will see the city as if it were lit by a flash of lightning. What main…

  11. Occurrence and distribution of antifouling biocide Irgarol-1051 in coral reef ecosystems, Zanzibar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheikh, Mohammed A; Juma, Fatma S; Staehr, Peter; Dahl, Karsten; Rashid, Rashid J; Mohammed, Mohammed S; Ussi, Ali M; Ali, Hassan R

    2016-08-15

    2-methythiol-4-tert-butylamino-6-cyclopropylamino-s-triazine (Irgarol-1051) has been widely used as effective alternative antifouling paint in marine structures including ships. However, it has been causing deleterious effects to marine organisms including reef building corals. The main objective of this study was to establish baseline levels of Irgarol-1051 around coral reefs and nearby ecosystems along coastline of Zanzibar Island. The levels of Irgarol-1051 ranged from 1.35ng/L around coral reefs to 15.44ng/L around harbor with average concentration of 4.11 (mean)±0.57 (SD) ng/L. This is below Environmental Risk Limit of 24ng/L as proposed by Dutch Authorities which suggests that the contamination is not alarming especially for coral reef ecosystem health. The main possible sources of the contamination are from shipping activities. This paper provides important baseline information of Irgarol-1051 around the coral reef ecosystems within the Western Indian Ocean (WIO) region and may be useful for formulation of marine conservation strategies and policies. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Antifouling activities of β-cyclodextrin stabilized peg based silver nanocomposites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Punitha, N., E-mail: punithasan@gmail.com [Department of Physics, St. Joseph’s College of Engineering, Chennai 600119 (India); Saravanan, P. [Department of Chemistry, St. Joseph’s College of Engineering, Chennai 600119 (India); Mohan, R. [Department of Physics, Surya College of Engineering and Technology, Villupuram (India); Ramesh, P.S. [Department of Physics (DDE), Annamalai University, Annamalai Nagar 608002 (India)

    2017-01-15

    Highlights: • Simple, novel and cost effective. • Functionalized Ag nanocomposites exhibit enhanced biological activity. • The SNCs were crystalline nature and shows good stability. - Abstract: Self-polishing polymer composites which release metal biocide in a controlled rate have been widely used in the design of antimicrobial agents and antifouling coatings. The present work focuses on the environmental friendly green synthesis of PEG based SNCs and their application to biocidal activity including marine biofouling. Biocompatible polymer β-CD and adhesive resistance polymer PEG were used to functionalize the SNPs and the as synthesized SNCs exhibit excellent micro fouling activities. The structural and optical properties were confirmed by XRD and UV–visible techniques respectively. The particle surface and cross sectional characteristics were examined by SEM-EDS, HR-TEM, AFM and FTIR. The surface potential was evaluated using ZP analysis and assessment of antibiofouling property was investigated using static immersion method.

  13. Antifouling activities of β-cyclodextrin stabilized peg based silver nanocomposites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Punitha, N.; Saravanan, P.; Mohan, R.; Ramesh, P. S.

    2017-01-01

    Self-polishing polymer composites which release metal biocide in a controlled rate have been widely used in the design of antimicrobial agents and antifouling coatings. The present work focuses on the environmental friendly green synthesis of PEG based SNCs and their application to biocidal activity including marine biofouling. Biocompatible polymer β-CD and adhesive resistance polymer PEG were used to functionalize the SNPs and the as synthesized SNCs exhibit excellent micro fouling activities. The structural and optical properties were confirmed by XRD and UV-visible techniques respectively. The particle surface and cross sectional characteristics were examined by SEM-EDS, HR-TEM, AFM and FTIR. The surface potential was evaluated using ZP analysis and assessment of antibiofouling property was investigated using static immersion method.

  14. Nano-sized emission from commercially available paints used for indoor surfaces during drying.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jørgensen, Rikke Bramming; Hveding, Ingrid Grav; Solheim, Karoline

    2017-12-01

    Consumers worry about the presence of nano-particles in paints and the risk of exposure. As a result, the paint industry now omits marketing paints as containing nanoparticles. The industry claims that no nanoparticles are released into the indoor environment; this, however, has yet to be documented. In this study, the emission of nano-sized emission from four indoor paints was investigated. The emission was studied for both base and full-pigmented versions of the paints, which consisted of three water-borne acrylic paints and one solvent-borne alkyd paint. All experiments were performed twice in a 6.783 m 3 stainless-steel test chamber under standardized conditions (22.98 °C, 50.08% RH, air exchange rate 0.48 h -1 ). Emissions during the paint-drying period were measured using a TSI Fast Mobility Particle Sizer (FMPS) measuring the number concentration of nano-particles and the size distribution in the range 5.6-560 nm. The results from the solvent-borne paint showed the highest concentration, with a mean concentration of 3.2·10 5 particles/cm 3 and a maximum of 1.4·10 6 particles/cm 3 . This paint also had the smallest particle size distribution, with 9.31 nm particles as the most dominant particle size. The results from this study showed that the exposure to nanoparticles for the residents evaluated over a 7 or 28 day period was low and that interior paints are probably not very important when it comes to identifying products that release nano-particles into indoor environments. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Antifouling properties of tough gels against barnacles in a long-term marine environment experiment

    OpenAIRE

    Murosaki, T.; Noguchi, T.; Hashimoto, K.; Kakugo, A.; Kurokawa, T.; Saito, J.; Chen, Y. M.; Furukawa, H.; Gong, J. P.

    2009-01-01

    In marine environment, the antifouling properties against marine sessile organisms (algae, sea squirts, barnacles, etc.) were tested on various kinds of hydrogels in a long term. The results demonstrate that most hydrogels can ensure at least 2 months in marine environment. In particular, mechanically tough PAMPS/PAAm DN and PVA gels exhibited amazing antifouling activity against marine sessile organisms, especially barnacles as long as 330 days. The antifouling ability of hydrogels to barnac...

  16. Tough Amphiphilic Gels for Antifouling Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villada, Laura M.

    Biofouling is the attachment of unwanted organisms on a surface, and it is influenced by a host of variables including the chemistry of the material as well as both the surface and bulk properties, and controlling and understanding the effect of these properties is critical for the development of effective materials to combat biofouling. All surfaces that are submerged in water are subject to the rapid colonization of a wide range of marine organisms. Marine biofouling decreases fuel efficiency, costing the Navy millions of dollars in penalty, as well as having drastic environmental effects. Previous prevention of biofouling in marine systems has been accomplished by the administration of biocides and toxic coatings. In recent years, increased concerns about the impacts of these hazardous compounds into marine ecosystems has spurred efforts to develop cost effective, non-toxic, and durable anti-fouling coatings. Hydrogels, hydrophilic crosslinked networks, are being used to modify silicone marine coatings and have demonstrated potential at combatting biofouling. Understanding the impact of amphiphilic materials, i.e. their structure and properties, on biofouling is of great importance in order to address the need in the industry. In this study, poly(2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate) (HEMA) crosslinked networks were tailored to investigate the influence of their surface and bulk properties on biofouling. Previous research utilizing HEMA-siloxane gels suggested a relationship between molecular weight between crosslinks, M c, and the attachment of soft fouling sporelings of the green algae U. linza and adsorption of the protein bovine serum albumin (BSA), and the initial thrust of this dissertation was aimed at resolving this relationship. Gel composition was modified by varying the siloxane crosslinking agent and the siloxane hydrophobic monomer concentrations. The gels exhibited an increase in elastic modulus from 0.17 to 8.55 MPa that coincided with an increasing

  17. Landscape Painting. Rewriting Painting in the Postmedium Condition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gal, Nissim

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Is landscape painting still relevant today? To answer this question the article examines the work of the contemporary artist Yehudit Sasportas. Sasporas offers a unique kind of written-drawn landscape painting that moves between the manual and the mechanical. The theoretical perspectives from which it is approached are taken, among others, from Plato, Heidegger and Derrida on the issue of writing. Sasportas painting, which may be characterized as "painting under erasure" or "Landscape Painting", serves as a key to understanding the status of painting as a relevant medium, not because it defines medium according to the modernist Greenbergian formula, but because it enables an understanding of painting as a field that exists in a variety of media. Painting as a field, in Sasportas's art, works and lives within various techniques and materials, even when it includes within itself a melancholic mark indicating doubt about its own relevance.

  18. Monet's Painting under the Microscope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dredge, Paula; Wuhrer, Richard; Phillips, Matthew R.

    2003-04-01

    An oil painting by Claude Monet, Port-Goulphar, Belle-Ile 1887 (collection of the Art Gallery of New South Wales), was examined to determine both the identity of the pigments used by the artist in this painting and his technique of mixing colors and laying paint on the canvas. The extremely complex construction of the painting was revealed by optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDS), and X-ray mapping (XRM) analysis of cross sections of paint flakes excised from damaged regions of Port-Goulphar, Belle-Ile. Nine different pigments were found on the painting. Many of the identified colors were modern pigments that became available only late in the 19th century as a result of scientific advances in pigment chemistry. Although similar colors were available in a natural mineral form, they lacked the vivid color of their manufactured counterparts. The use of these new synthetic metallic oxide colors by Monet accounts for the brilliance of his paintings. In addition, a separation between successive paint layers was observed in some areas of paint chip cross sections, indicating that oil-based paint was applied to paint that had dried, and consequently, Port-Goulphar, Belle-Ile was painted over a long period of time. This observation is contrary to the general perception of Monet's technique of painting freely and quickly.

  19. Natural product antifoulants from the octocorals of Indian waters

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Raveendran, T.V.; LimnaMol, V.P.; Parameswaran, P.S.

    1 Author version: International Biodeterioration & Biodegradation, vol.65(1); 2011; 265-268 Natural Product Antifoulants from the Octocorals of Indian waters T.V. Raveendran * , V.P. Limna Mol, P.S. Parameswaran National Institute... bioactive metabolites with potential biomedical applications. For example, eleutherobin, isolated from soft coral Eleutherobia sp., exhibited anticancer properties (Ata et al., 2004); the diterpene,13-Epi-9-deacetoxy-xenicinin, isolated from the soft...

  20. LSST Painting Risk Evaluation Memo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wolfe, Justin E. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2016-11-10

    The optics subsystem is required to paint the edges of optics black where possible. Due to the risks in applying the paint LSST requests a review of the impact of removing this requirement for the filters and L3.

  1. Thin Film Composite Membranes: Mechanical and Antifouling Properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kassim Shaari Norin Zamiah

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available As compared to membranes produced from pure polymer or pure inorganic materials, a hybrid membrane possesses better mechanical and thermal properties. This paper reported on the effect of incorporating silica nano-precursor (tetraethylorthosilicate as well as glycerol in the formulation of hybrid membrane on the mechanical properties and antifouling properties of the resultant thin film composite membranes. The mechanical properties were measured in terms of tensile strength, tensile strain and elastic modulus. Whereas for antifouling properties, it was evaluated through the measurements of relative flux decay (RFD and relative flux recovery (RFR, along with the permeate flux rate, percentage glycerol permeated and NaCl rejection. Results showed that the presence of silica and glycerol in hybrid membrane’s formulation had increased the tensile strength and elongation of the resultant membranes. In addition to that, the incorporation of glycerol has resulted in thin film composite with better antifouling properties as compared to the thin film composite with barrier layer from the pure polymer blend. Based on its performance, the fabricated thin film composite has a great potential to be used as a pathway for crude glycerol purification due to some advantages over the existing process that employ membrane.

  2. Mimetic marine antifouling films based on fluorine-containing polymethacrylates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun, Qianhui; Li, Hongqi; Xian, Chunying; Yang, Yihang; Song, Yanxi; Cong, Peihong

    2015-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Copolymers containing catechol and trifluoromethyl groups were prepared. • The copolymers could adhere to surfaces of glass, plastics and metals. • The polymer films showed excellent resistance to water, salt, base and acid. • The polymer films displayed good antifouling property. - Abstract: Novel methacrylate copolymers containing catechol and trifluoromethyl pendant side groups were synthesized by free radical polymerization of N-(3,4-dihydroxyphenyl)ethyl methacrylamide (DMA) and 2,2,2-trifluoroethyl methacrylate (TFME) with α,α′-azobisisobutyronitrile (AIBN) as initiator. A series of copolymers with different content of TFME ranging from 3% to 95% were obtained by changing the molar ratio of DMA to TFME from 25:1 to 1:25. Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy, gel permeation chromatography (GPC), thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) were used to characterize the copolymers, which displayed a certain degree of hardness and outstanding thermostability reflected from their high glass transition temperatures. The copolymers could adhere to surfaces of glass, plastics and metals due to introduction of catechol groups as multivalent hydrogen bonding anchors. Water contact angle on the polymer films was up to 117.4°. Chemicals resistance test manifested that the polymer films possessed excellent resistance to water, salt, acid and alkali. Moreover, the polymer films displayed fair antifouling property and might be used as promising environmentally friendly marine antifouling coatings

  3. Fabrication of FDTS-modified PDMS-ZnO nanocomposite hydrophobic coating with anti-fouling capability for corrosion protection of Q235 steel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arukalam, Innocent O; Oguzie, Emeka E; Li, Ying

    2016-12-15

    Perfluorodecyltrichlorosilane-based poly(dimethylsiloxane)-ZnO (FDTS-based PDMS-ZnO) nanocomposite coating with anti-corrosion and anti-fouling capabilities has been prepared using a one-step fabrication technique. XPS analysis and contact angle measurements showed the fluorine content to increase, while the hydrophobicity of the coatings decreased with addition of FDTS. XRD analysis revealed existence of ZnO nanoparticles of dimensions ranging from 11.45 to 93.01nm on the surface of coatings, with the mean particle size decreasing with FDTS addition, and was confirmed by SEM and TEM observations. Interestingly, the anti-corrosion performance and mechanical properties of the coatings increased remarkably on addition of FDTS. Indeed, the observed low adhesion strength, surface energies and the outstanding anti-corrosive properties imply that the obtained coating would be useful in anti-fouling applications. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Accelerated bridge paint test program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-06

    The accelerated bridge paint (AB-Paint) program evaluated a new Sherwin-Williams two-coat, : fast-curing paint system. The system is comprised of an organic zinc-rich primer (SW Corothane I : Galvapac One-Pack Zinc-Rich Primer B65 G11) and a polyurea...

  5. Painting Reproductions on Display

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanna Iranowska

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Paintings in museums might occasionally be replaced by a photoprint mimicking the original. This article is an investigation of what constitutes a good reproduction of an artwork (oil painting that is meant to be displayed. The article discusses what the usefulness of reproductions depends on, applying the Valuation Studies approach, which means the primary concern is with the practice of valuing itself. In other words, the study focuses on how museum experts evaluate reproduc-tions of oil paintings. The article analyses three cases of displaying digitally prin-ted copies of Edvard Munch's oil paintings between 2013 and 2015 in the Munch Museum and in the National Gallery in Oslo. The study is based on a series of semi-structured interviews with the experts, working at and for the museums, that were involved in producing and exhibiting of the photoprints: curators, con-servators, museum educators, and external manufacturers. The interviews were grouped into five clusters, which I have chosen to call registers of valuing following Frank Heuts and Annemarie Mol (2013. The described valuation practices have to do with delivering experiences to the public, obtaining mimetic resemblance, solving ethical aspects, exhibitions' budget, and last but not least, with the time perspective.

  6. Cultural Collage Paintings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coy, Mary

    2011-01-01

    In this article, the author describes a cultural collage painting project. Three things served as the impetus for this project: (1) a desire for students to explore the theme of "culture"; (2) an appreciation for the photo-montaged, layered images one sees in print media; and (3) noticing that projects from core subject areas hanging on the walls…

  7. Synergism in anticorrosive paints

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. The present work depicts synergism anticorrosive behaviour between zinc hypophosphite and zinc phos- phate in a commercial pigment mixture. Also, the performance of anticorrosive paints was evaluated. Synergism anticorrosive behaviour was evaluated by corrosion potential and linear polarization ...

  8. Artists Paint ... Fantasy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herberholz, Barbara

    2012-01-01

    When he painted a portrait of Holy Roman Emperor Rudolph II (1552-1612), Giuseppe Arcimboldo used his imagination, and portrayed him as "Vertumnus," the Roman god of vegetation and the seasons. It's fun to find the different fruits, vegetables and flowers he used: pea-pod eyelids, a gourd for the forehead. Court painters of the time usually…

  9. Paint by Numbers Revived!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hahn, Nic

    2012-01-01

    Remember paint by numbers? This revived trend was a perfect solution to teaching geometric shapes to the author's first-grade students. Geometric shapes are identified and used in early elementary art classrooms, but this lesson gives students a deeper understanding of shape, encourages problem-solving, and makes a strong correlation between math…

  10. Lined canvas paintings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krarup Andersen, Cecil

    2013-01-01

    and tensile testing samples from the tacking edges as well as lined mock-up samples. The ability of the different lining techniques to support canvas paintings is evaluated in terms of their initial stretching and during fluctuations of relative humidity. Six different combinations of lining adhesives...

  11. Antifouling Activity of Simple Synthetic Diterpenoids against Larvae of the Barnacle Balanus albicostatus Pilsbry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dan-Qing Feng

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Five new pimarane diterpenoids 1-5 were synthesized using ent-8(14-pimarene-15R,16-diol as starting material. The structures were elucidated by means of extensive NMR and MS analysis. The antifouling activity against larval settlement of the barnacle Balanus albicostatus were evaluated using capsaicin as a positive control. Compounds 1-3 and 5 showed more potent antifouling activity than capsaicin. Compound 5, which exhibited almost the same antifouling activity as starting material, showed better stability than starting material. These compounds all showed antifouling activity in a non-toxic way against larval settlement of the barnacle B. albicostatus. Analysis of structure-activity relationships (SAR demonstrated that the substituents on the C-15 and C-16 position of pimarane diterpenoid were responsible for the antifouling activity.

  12. Staicele Paint Manufactory, Ochre Deposit of Reciems: A Retrospective Journey Through the History of Staicele Paint Manufactory and Evaluation of Production Technologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kokins Aigars

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available A historical paint manufactory in Staicele, Latvia (1967, was using local resources – colour earth. Oil paint composition consisted of pigment, drying oil, varnish and siccative. It had two different tones that are obtained by using natural colour earth pigments: ochre and its burnt form (burnt umber. Pigment quality was analyzed using historical documents, modern pigment tests, and manufactory technology. Chemical composition, particle size, and pigment tone were determined, and the coating ability was calculated. A palette of oil paints based on the historical recipes for restoring Staicele oil paints was created. Properties of colour earth pigments were compared to specimens taken from the local source of iron that is located near the old paint factory. Results provide a historical and technological insight as well as insight in the properties of the basic paint composition.

  13. Oils, paintings and chemistry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Eduarda Machado de Araújo

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available In oil paintings artists use oils to apply pigments. These oils firstly are liquid and then solidify in a thin film. Many chemical reactions are involved in drying and also in the aging of these oils. Drying is a continuous process that begins with the oxidation of insaturated fatty acids from triglycerides to originate peroxides. These compounds suffer a cascade of reactions that lead to cross linking bonds between fatty acids residues, transforming the oil in a solid film. Identification of the film oil is possible using the palmitic/stearic ratio (P/S by chromatographic (GC and/or spectroscopic techniques. Sterol composition, phytosterols or cholesterol, determined by GC-MS or FTIR techniques, allows investigators to distinguish between oil painting and a temper one that used egg as the binding medium.

  14. A dry ice jet system for decontamination of painted metal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Ye; Zhang Dong; Wang Ping; Li Taowen; Sun Yu; Zhao Dan; Tan Zhaoyi

    2012-01-01

    In this work, decontamination of painting on metal surface by dry ice jet was carried out. The influence of jet parameters on decontamination efficiency was examined. The results showed that the painting weight loss decreased with increasing speed of jet movement. The optimized parameters were target distance of 25 mm, jet angle of 63 degree, and the pressure of 0.6 -0.7 MPa, with a filtration efficiency of over 99% and 5.8-9.0 μm particle sizes of the aerosol. For the painted samples polluted by 137 Cs and 235 U, the decontamination effect is excellent. For the polluted plumbum kettles,this method is effective. Therefore, the dry ice jet is an excellent technology for painting on metal surface. (authors)

  15. British Museum paintings

    OpenAIRE

    Edmonds, Frances

    2011-01-01

    Frances Edmonds is one of a group of artists selected for the show ‘Territories’ taking place at Galerie Windkracht 13 in Den Helder, Holland this July 2012. This exhibition is curated by Sharon Beavan and Gethin Evans. The artists represented work across the boundaries of two and three-dimensional and time based form. The brief – to interrogate and explore the notion of territories. Frances will be showing several paintings from the British Museum series, based on imagery collected ...

  16. Holonic Manufacturing Paint Shop

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lind, Morten; Roulet-Dubonnet, Olivier; Nyen, Per Åge; Gellein, Lars Tore; Lien, Terje; Skavhaug, Amund

    In pursuit of flexibility and agility within discrete manufacturing, the surrounding logistics and handling processes of a paint shop is under construction as a laboratory prototype application. Holonic Manufacturing seems to be a promising strategic paradigm and architecture to use for a system characterised by production logistics and control. This paper describes the physical devices to be used; the desired functionality; and the basic logic control designed. Additionally, the ideas for holonification based on the already designed logic control is presented.

  17. Various mortars for anti-fouling purposes in marine environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kanematsu, Hideyuki; Masuda, Tomoka; Miura, Yoko; Kuroda, Daisuke; Hirai, Nobumitsu; Yokoyama, Seiji

    2014-01-01

    The antifouling properties for some mortars with steel making slags were investigated by real marine immersion tests and a unique laboratory acceleration tests with a specially devised biofilm acceleration reactors. Mortars mixed with steel making slags containing abundant iron elements tended to form biofilm and also bifouling. The two kinds of biofilm formation tests were used in this study. Real immersion in marine environments and laboratory test with a specially devised biofilm acceleration reactor. The former evaluated the biofouling characteristics more properly, while the latter did the biofilm formation characteristics more effectively

  18. Enzymatic generation of hydrogen peroxide shows promising antifouling effect

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, J.B.; Olsen, Stefan Møller; Laursen, B.S.

    2010-01-01

    The antifouling (AF) potential of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) produced enzymatically in a coating containing starch, glucoamylase, and hexose oxidase was evaluated in a series of laboratory tests and in-sea field trials. Dissolved H2O2 inhibited bacterial biofilm formation by eight of nine marine...... Proteobacteria, tested in microtiter plates. However, enzymatically produced H2O2 released from a coating did not impede biofilm formation by bacteria in natural seawater tested in a biofilm reactor. A field trial revealed a noticeable effect of the enzyme system: after immersion in the North Sea for 97 days...

  19. Structuralist readings: Painting vs. picture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marinkov-Pavlović Lidija

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the paper is to point to two fundamentally different strategies of painting practice, that is, to two subsystems of painting: picture and painting. This differentiation can be made within the framework of semiotic and semiological analyses which have developed in theory under the influence of structuralism. The first part of the paper offers a basic insight into the linguistic foundation of structuralistic concept, and then sets a thesis about the possibility of analogue reconceptualisation of semiotics/semiology of painting through Julia Kristeva's semiotics and Roland Barthes' semiology. In addition, it points to the concrete concepts of structural analysis which have accentuated the opposition picture-painting with the examples of art practice concurrent to the development of structuralism. However, what is revealed is that various structuralist readings are significantly subjective to unstable relationship between the basic elements in the pictorial object, that is, in the work of painting.

  20. 46 CFR 72.05-45 - Paint.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Paint. 72.05-45 Section 72.05-45 Shipping COAST GUARD... Protection § 72.05-45 Paint. (a) An excessive number of coats of paint will be discouraged unless noncombustible paint is used. (b) Nitrocellulose or other highly flammable or noxious fume-producing paints or...

  1. Structuralist readings: Painting vs. picture

    OpenAIRE

    Marinkov-Pavlović Lidija

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the paper is to point to two fundamentally different strategies of painting practice, that is, to two subsystems of painting: picture and painting. This differentiation can be made within the framework of semiotic and semiological analyses which have developed in theory under the influence of structuralism. The first part of the paper offers a basic insight into the linguistic foundation of structuralistic concept, and then sets a thesis about the possibility of analogue reconceptu...

  2. Searching for “Environmentally-Benign” Antifouling Biocides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Ting Cui

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available As the result of the ecological impacts from the use of tributyltins (TBT in shipping, environmental legislation for the registration of chemicals for use in the environment has grown to a monumental challenge requiring product dossiers to include information on the environmental fate and behavior of any chemicals. Specifically, persistence, bioaccumulation and toxicity, collectively known as PBT, are properties of concern in the assessment of chemicals. However, existing measurements of PBT properties are a cumbersome and expensive process, and thus not applied in the early stages of the product discovery and development. Inexpensive methods for preliminary PBT screening would minimize risks arising with the subsequent registration of products. In this article, we evaluated the PBT properties of compounds reported to possess anti-fouling properties using QSAR (quantitative structure-activity relationship prediction programs such as BIOWIN™ (a biodegradation probability program, KOWWIN™ (log octanol-water partition coefficient calculation program and ECOSAR™ (Ecological Structure Activity Relationship Programme. The analyses identified some small (Mr < 400 synthetic and natural products as potential candidates for environmentally benign biocides. We aim to demonstrate that while these methods of estimation have limitations, when applied with discretion, they are powerful tools useful in the early stages of research for compound selection for further development as anti-foulants.

  3. Nanoscale Pillar-Enhanced Tribological Surfaces as Antifouling Membranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Wansuk; Chan, Edwin P; Park, Jong-Hyun; Ahn, Won-Gi; Jung, Hyun Wook; Hong, Seungkwan; Lee, Jong Suk; Han, Ji-Young; Park, Sangpil; Ko, Doo-Hyun; Lee, Jung-Hyun

    2016-11-16

    We present a nonconventional membrane surface modification approach that utilizes surface topography to manipulate the tribology of foulant accumulation on water desalination membranes via imprinting of submicron titanium dioxide (TiO 2 ) pillar patterns onto the molecularly structured, flat membrane surface. This versatile approach overcomes the constraint of the conventional approach relying on interfacial polymerization that inevitably leads to the formation of ill-defined surface topography. Compared to the nonpatterned membranes, the patterned membranes showed significantly improved fouling resistance for both organic protein and bacterial foulants. The use of hydrophilic TiO 2 as a pattern material increases the membrane hydrophilicity, imparting improved chemical antifouling resistance to the membrane. Fouling behavior was also interpreted in terms of the topographical effect depending on the relative size of foulants to the pattern dimension. In addition, computational fluid dynamics simulation suggests that the enhanced antifouling of the patterned membrane is attributed to the enhancement in overall and local shear stress at the fluid-TiO 2 pattern interface.

  4. DLVO THEORY APPLIED TO TIO2 PIGMENTS AND OTHER MATERIALS IN LATEX PAINTS. (R828081E01)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Understanding how a paint formulation translates into comparative numbers of particles, how the spacing between particles compares to their size and what controls their stabilization mechanisms improves efficient formulation design. The application of Derjaguin, Landau, Verwey...

  5. MC Contracting, Paint, & Roofing, LLC Information Sheet

    Science.gov (United States)

    MC Contracting, Paint, & Roofing, LLC, d/b/a M.C. Painting & Contractor and M.C. Painting Group (the Company) is located in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. The settlement involves renovation activities conducted at property constructed prior to 1978.

  6. Fabrication and calibration of a piezoelectric nanocomposite paint

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osho, Samuel; Wu, Nan; Aramfard, Mohammad; Deng, Chuang; Ojo, Olanrewaju

    2018-03-01

    A new liquid form piezoelectric nanocomposite paint material is fabricated with possible applications as dynamic strain sensors and/or piezoelectric transducers. The applied coating is in the form of low-cost paint, which is flexible and bonds strongly on a metallic surface after drying out via the solvent-casting method. The nanocomposite is produced by an ultrasonic mixture of varying percentages of zinc oxide (ZnO) nanoparticle water dispersion, poly vinyl acetate glue (PVA) and carbon nanotubes (CNTs). ZnO nanoparticles are used as the piezoelectric sensing elements in a PVA matrix of the paint, while CNTs are introduced as robust bridge of ZnO particles enhancing the piezoelectricity and material properties. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) images confirmed the linkages of ZnO nanoparticles in the composite by CNTs. Through piezoelectricity calibration, the optimum mixing ratio with the highest piezoelectricity is 78.1 wt% ZnO, 19.5 wt% PVA glue and 2.4 wt% multi-wall carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs). Through nanoindentation tests for the characterization of the mechanical properties of the nano-composite paint, it is found that Young’s modulus and hardness reached a threshold point in the increment in the addition of CNTs to the paint before showing signs of decline. Detailed analysis and explanation of the calibration results and physical phenomenon are provided. The stable paint material is ready to be applied on rough area of engineering structures as sensor and transducer.

  7. Recycling of paint-contaminated grit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taha, R; al-Alawi, D; al-Nabhani, M; Pillay, A E; al-Hamdi, A

    2001-08-01

    The impact on the environment of using paint-contaminated grit (PCG) as a partial or full replacement for sand in Portland cement mortar and asphalt concrete mixtures was investigated. The grit waste material originated from abrasive blasting of offshore steel structures. There is a major environmental concern regarding the safe disposal of the spent blasting abrasives that contain paint chips or paint particles and other debris removed from the surface of the steel structures. This work investigated the potential reuse of PCG in Portland cement concrete (PCC) and hot mix asphalt concrete. Several studies were conducted to establish the integrity of the materials containing the recycled grit. These included the chemical and physical characterization of natural sand and PCG, the assay of leaches associated with the grit material for hazardous metal contaminants, such as Cr, Cd and Pb, and the assessment of the mechanical properties of the PCG-substituted mortars by applying special tests (such as Marshall stability and determination of the flow properties) to the PCG-substituted asphalt concrete mixtures. The overall results demonstrated that the potential reuse of PCG in PCC and asphalt concrete mixtures would not pose any environmental threat and could produce several benefits, such as reduced disposal costs, protection of water sources from improper disposal practices and reduced costs in the production of natural aggregates and asphalt cement.

  8. Smart paint sensor for monitoring structural vibrations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Saffar, Y; Baz, A; Aldraihem, O

    2012-01-01

    A class of smart paint sensors is proposed for monitoring the structural vibration of beams. The sensor is manufactured from an epoxy resin which is mixed with carbon black nano-particles to make it electrically conducting and sensitive to mechanical vibrations. A comprehensive theoretical and experimental investigation is presented to understand the underlying phenomena governing the operation of this class of paint sensors and evaluate its performance characteristics. A theoretical model is presented to model the electromechanical behavior of the sensor system using molecular theory. The model is integrated with an amplifier circuit in order to predict the current and voltage developed by the paint sensor when subjected to loading. Furthermore, the sensor/amplifier circuit models are coupled with a finite element model of a base beam to which the sensor is bonded. The resulting multi-field model is utilized to predict the behavior of both the sensor and the beam when subjected to a wide variety of vibration excitations. The predictions of the multi-field finite element model are validated experimentally and the behavior of the sensor is evaluated both in the time and the frequency domains. The performance of the sensor is compared with the performance of conventional strain gages to emphasize its potential and merits. The presented techniques are currently being extended to sensors that can monitor the vibration and structural power flow of two-dimensional structures. (paper)

  9. Pioneer marine biofilms on artificial surfaces including antifouling coatings immersed in two contrasting French Mediterranean coast sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briand, Jean-François; Djeridi, Ikram; Jamet, Dominique; Coupé, Stéphane; Bressy, Christine; Molmeret, Maëlle; Le Berre, Brigitte; Rimet, Frédéric; Bouchez, Agnès; Blache, Yves

    2012-01-01

    Marine biofilm communities that developed on artificial substrata were investigated using molecular and microscopic approaches. Polystyrene, Teflon® and four antifouling (AF) paints were immersed for 2 weeks at two contrasting sites near Toulon on the French Mediterranean coast (Toulon military harbour and the natural protected area of Porquerolles Island). Biofilms comprising bacteria and diatoms were detected on all the coatings. The population structure as well as the densities of the microorganisms differed in terms of both sites and coatings. Lower fouling densities were observed at Porquerolles Island compared to Toulon harbour. All bacterial communities (analysed by PCR-DGGE) showed related structure, controlled both by the sites and the type of substrata. Pioneer microalgal communities were dominated by the same two diatom species, viz. Licmophora gracilis and Cylindrotheca closterium, at both sites, irrespective of the substrata involved. However, the density of diatoms followed the same trend at both sites with a significant effect of all the AF coatings compared to Teflon and polystyrene.

  10. LOVE AESTHETICS AND PAINTING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ZUhal ARDA

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Talking about love, while we are talking about a culture and world view means. People love for the people, the passion that inhabited the earth of mankind, the "love" for the first time since love always makes life meaningful emotions has been replaced in the front row between. Throughout history, many artists, scientist, philosopher, and polymath has committed about love are in the works. Poetry, music, theatre, dance, painting, sculpture, each with its own specific language, an art form they are given immortal works about love. Sense of friendship and love of antiquity, Medieval spiritual journeys, when more stunning and dramatic to modern times, trends, human love, to the concept of gaining various dimensions of divine love. Understanding by seeing through these exchanges pictures-meaning maybe the concept of "love" will shed light on the changing values, too. When you do this, both from the east and from the west, giving examples to do a comparison over the years has diversified, changing the concept of "love" art of painting will be an indication that reflected how.

  11. Additive Transforms Paint into Insulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-01-01

    Tech Traders Inc. sought assistance developing low-cost, highly effective coatings and paints that created useful thermal reflectance and were safe and non-toxic. In cooperation with a group of engineers at Kennedy Space Center., Tech Traders created Insuladd, a powder additive made up of microscopic, inert gas-filled, ceramic microspheres that can be mixed into ordinary interior or exterior paint, allowing the paint to act like a layer of insulation. When the paint dries, this forms a radiant heat barrier, turning the ordinary house paint into heat-reflecting thermal paint. According to Tech Traders, the product works with all types of paints and coatings and will not change the coverage rate, application, or adhesion of the paint. Other useful applications include feed storage silos to help prevent feed spoilage, poultry hatcheries to reduce the summer heat and winter cold effects, and on military vehicles and ships. Tech Traders has continued its connection to the aerospace community by recently providing Lockheed Martin Corporation with one of its thermal products for use on the F-22 Raptor.

  12. Microscale radiocarbon dating of paintings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hendriks, Laura; Hajdas, Irka; McIntyre, Cameron [ETH Zurich, Ion Beam Physics, Zurich (Switzerland); Kueffner, Markus; Ferreira, Ester S.B. [SIK-ISEA, Zurich, Zurich (Switzerland); Scherrer, Nadim C. [Bern University of Applied Sciences, HKB, Bern (Switzerland)

    2016-03-15

    In this paper, radiocarbon dating of paintings using minimal sample sizes has been investigated, in an effort to address the problem of limited access to sample material in paintings. {sup 14}C analyses were conducted on signed and dated paintings from two Swiss artists of the twentieth century. The selected paintings dated from the 1930s and 1960s, provided the opportunity to evaluate the dating accuracy on paintings realized before and after 1950 AD when the {sup 14}C bomb peak was created, as a result of the nuclear tests conducted in the 1950/1960s. The work focused on the one hand on minimizing the size of the canvas sample required for accelerator mass spectrometer radiocarbon measurement on the gas ion source of the MICADAS and, on the other hand, on testing the possibility of dating the organic binder of the paint. Following careful characterization of the paint composition by X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy, Fourier transformed infrared spectroscopy, and Raman spectroscopy, paints containing no other carbon source than the natural organic binder were identified and dated. (orig.)

  13. Microscale radiocarbon dating of paintings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hendriks, Laura; Hajdas, Irka; McIntyre, Cameron; Kueffner, Markus; Ferreira, Ester S.B.; Scherrer, Nadim C.

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, radiocarbon dating of paintings using minimal sample sizes has been investigated, in an effort to address the problem of limited access to sample material in paintings. 14 C analyses were conducted on signed and dated paintings from two Swiss artists of the twentieth century. The selected paintings dated from the 1930s and 1960s, provided the opportunity to evaluate the dating accuracy on paintings realized before and after 1950 AD when the 14 C bomb peak was created, as a result of the nuclear tests conducted in the 1950/1960s. The work focused on the one hand on minimizing the size of the canvas sample required for accelerator mass spectrometer radiocarbon measurement on the gas ion source of the MICADAS and, on the other hand, on testing the possibility of dating the organic binder of the paint. Following careful characterization of the paint composition by X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy, Fourier transformed infrared spectroscopy, and Raman spectroscopy, paints containing no other carbon source than the natural organic binder were identified and dated. (orig.)

  14. Laser assisted graffiti paints removing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novikov, B. Y.; Chikalev, Y. V.; Shakhno, E. A.

    2011-02-01

    It's hard to imagine a modern city view without some drawings and inscriptions, usually called "graffiti". Traditional cleaning methods do not suit modern requirements. Investigation of possibilities of laser assisted paints removing is described in this article. The conditions for removing different paints from different surfaces were defined.

  15. Microscale radiocarbon dating of paintings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendriks, Laura; Hajdas, Irka; McIntyre, Cameron; Küffner, Markus; Scherrer, Nadim C.; Ferreira, Ester S. B.

    2016-03-01

    In this paper, radiocarbon dating of paintings using minimal sample sizes has been investigated, in an effort to address the problem of limited access to sample material in paintings. 14C analyses were conducted on signed and dated paintings from two Swiss artists of the twentieth century. The selected paintings dated from the 1930s and 1960s, provided the opportunity to evaluate the dating accuracy on paintings realized before and after 1950 AD when the 14C bomb peak was created, as a result of the nuclear tests conducted in the 1950/1960s. The work focused on the one hand on minimizing the size of the canvas sample required for accelerator mass spectrometer radiocarbon measurement on the gas ion source of the MICADAS and, on the other hand, on testing the possibility of dating the organic binder of the paint. Following careful characterization of the paint composition by X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy, Fourier transformed infrared spectroscopy, and Raman spectroscopy, paints containing no other carbon source than the natural organic binder were identified and dated.

  16. Coral skeletal tin and copper concentrations at Pohnpei, Micronesia: possible index for marine pollution by toxic anti-biofouling paints

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inoue, Mayuri; Suzuki, Atsushi; Nohara, Masato; Kan, Hironobu; Edward, Ahser; Kawahata, Hodaka

    2004-01-01

    We present 40 year-long skeletal chronologies of tin (Sn) and copper (Cu) from an annually-banded coral (Porites sp.) collected from Pohnpei Island, Micronesia (western equatorial Pacific). Both the elements are present in antifouling marine paints and are released inadvertently into ambient seawater. Especially, Sn has often been used in the form of tributyltin (TBT). Based on a stepwise pretreatment examination, Sn and Cu both inside and outside the aragonite lattice of the coral skeleton show a potential for providing marine pollution indicators. High values of extra-skeletal Cu/Ca and Sn/Ca atomic ratios were found between late 1960s and late 1980s during a period of active use of TBT-based antifouling paints worldwide. However, a significant decrease in both the ratios in the beginning of 1990s can be attributed to regulation of the use of TBT on cargo ships by countries such as the USA, Japan and Australia. - A new index of coral marine pollution is proposed

  17. Isocyanides Derived from α,α-Disubstituted Amino Acids: Synthesis and Antifouling Activity Assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inoue, Yuki; Takashima, Shuhei; Nogata, Yasuyuki; Yoshimura, Erina; Chiba, Kazuhiro; Kitano, Yoshikazu

    2018-03-01

    Herein, we contribute to the development of environmentally friendly antifoulants by synthesizing eighteen isocyanides derived from α,α-disubstituted amino acids and evaluating their antifouling activity/toxicity against the cypris larvae of the Balanus amphitrite barnacle. Almost all isocyanides showed good antifouling activity without significant toxicity and exhibited EC 50 values of 0.07 - 7.30 μg/mL after 120-h exposure. The lowest EC 50 values were observed for valine-, methionine-, and phenylalanine-derived isocyanides, which achieved > 95% cypris larvae settlement inhibition at concentrations of less than 30 μg/mL without exhibiting significant toxicity. Thus, the prepared isocyanides should be useful for further research focused on the development of environmentally friendly antifouling agents. © 2018 Wiley-VHCA AG, Zurich, Switzerland.

  18. Natural antifouling compound production by microbes associated with marine macroorganisms — A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sathianeson Satheesh

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available In the marine environment, all hard surfaces including marine macroorganims are colonized by microorganisms mainly from the surrounding environment. The microorganisms associated with marine macroorganisms offer tremendous potential for exploitation of bioactive metabolites. Biofouling is a continuous problem in marine sectors which needs huge economy for control and cleaning processes. Biotechnological way for searching natural product antifouling compounds gained momentum in recent years because of the environmental pollution associated with the use of toxic chemicals to control biofouling. While, natural product based antifoulants from marine organisms particularly sponges and corals attained significance due to their activities in field assays, collection of larger amount of organisms from the sea is not a viable one. The microorganisms associated with sponges, corals, ascidians, seaweeds and seagrasses showed strong antimicrobial and also antifouling activities. This review highlights the advances in natural product antifoulants research from microbes associated with marine organisms.

  19. Terrestrial plants: a potent source for isolation of eco-friendly antifouling compounds

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Sawant, S.S.; Wagh, A.B.

    by number of workers in the past. However, little attention is paid towards terrestrial plants. In light of this some selected plants have been screened for antifouling activity. These plants are Acacia pennata and Barringtonia acutangula. These plants...

  20. Construction and screening of 2-aryl benzimidazole library identifies a new antifouling and antifungal agent.

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Majik, M.S.; Tilvi, S.; Mascarenhas, S.; Kumar, Vikash.; Chatterjee, Amrita; Banerjee, Mainak.

    Biofouling is the undesirable growth of organisms on artificial and natural structures immersed in either seawater or freshwater. It causes huge economic loss and also the global prohibition on known antifouling agents has led to an increased search...

  1. Studies on the antifouling properties of some natural products from Goa

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Sawant, S.S.; Wagh, A.B.

    Methanol extracts of the fruits of the terrestrial plants @iRandia brandisii@@ and @iSapindus trifoliatus@@ were screened for their antifouling activities on the marine fouling diatoms @iNavicula subinflata@@ and @iN. crucicula@@. Both extracts...

  2. Antifouling property of the fruits of Randia brandisii (Rubiaceae) and Sapindus trifoliatus (Sapindaceae)

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Sawant, S.S.; Wagh, A.B.

    Methanol extracts of fruits of Randia brandisii (Gamble) and Sapindus trifoliatus (Vah) were assessed for marine antifouling properties. The coatings of these crude extracts on aluminium coupons were found to inhibit settlement of macrofoulers...

  3. Non-Leaching, Benign Antifouling Multilayer Polymer Coatings for Marine Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-01

    Surfaces that Resist Settlement of Barnacle Larvae.” PMSE Preprints, 2007, 96, 597-598. 7. S. Krishnan, J. A. Finlay, D. Park, C. J. Weinman, R...Ambiguous Polymeric Surfaces for Marine Antifouling Applications.” PMSE Preprints, 2008, 98, 83-84. 8. S. Krishnan, C. J. Weinman, C. K. Ober...Antifouling ABC Triblock Copolymers with Grafted Functionality.” PMSE Preprints, 2008, 98, 639-640. 116 10. Krishnan, S.; Weinman, C. J.; Ober, C

  4. The painted shoes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noronha, Natália; Rosa Alexandre, André; Cavaca Santos, Joana; Rodrigues, Fernanda

    2015-01-01

    A previously well 4-year-old boy presented to the emergency room with progressive cyanosis, pallor and vomiting over the last 5 h. Oxygen saturation on pulse oximetry was 87–89% despite 9 L/min of supplemental oxygen. He was tachypnoeic and had a systolic heart murmur, with no other findings on clinical examination. In his medical history, there was record of a restrictive atrial septal defect, with a normal echocardiogram from 3 years before. He had no relevant family history. His shoes appeared to have been recently painted, which raised the suspicion of methaemoglobinaemia, presumptively caused by aniline-containing shoe dye. The shoes were removed promptly and his feet washed profusely. After confirming the diagnosis, methylene blue was started. The level of methaemoglobin decreased rapidly and the boy made a full recovery. PMID:26338243

  5. Size distribution of chromate paint aerosol generated in a bench-scale spray booth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabty-Daily, Rania A; Hinds, William C; Froines, John R

    2005-01-01

    Spray painters are potentially exposed to aerosols containing hexavalent chromium [Cr(VI)] via inhalation of chromate-based paint sprays. Evaluating the particle size distribution of a paint spray aerosol, and the variables that may affect this distribution, is necessary to determine the site and degree of respiratory deposition and the damage that may result from inhaled Cr(VI)-containing paint particles. This study examined the effect of spray gun atomization pressure, aerosol generation source and aerosol aging on the size distribution of chromate-based paint overspray aerosols generated in a bench-scale paint spray booth. The study also determined the effect of particle bounce inside a Marple personal cascade impactor on measured size distributions of paint spray aerosols. Marple personal cascade impactors with a modified inlet were used for sample collection. The data indicated that paint particle bounce did not occur inside the cascade impactors sufficiently to affect size distribution when using uncoated stainless steel or PVC substrate sampling media. A decrease in paint aerosol mass median aerodynamic diameter (MMAD) from 8.2 to 7.0 mum was observed as gun atomization pressure increased from 6 to 10 psi. Overspray aerosols were sampled at two locations in the spray booth. A downstream sampling position simulated the exposure of a worker standing between the painted surface and exhaust, a situation encountered in booths with multiple workers. The measured mean MMAD was 7.2 mum. The distance between the painted surface and sampler was varied to sample oversprays of varying ages between 2.8 and 7.7 s. Age was not a significant factor for determining MMAD. Overspray was sampled at a 90 degrees position to simulate a worker standing in front of the surface being painted with air flowing to the worker's side, a common situation in field applications. The resulting overspray MMAD averaged 5.9 mum. Direct-spray aerosols were sampled at ages from 5.3 to 11.7 s

  6. Radiation safety in radioluminous paint workshop handling tritium activated paint

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaur, P.K.; Venkateswaran, T.V.

    1986-01-01

    This paper discusses the safety features related to a workshop when tritium activated luminous paint is handled by workmen. Salient features of the workshop and the methods employed for monitoring the radiation levels are briefly outlined and results are discussed. The importance of proper ventilation of the workplace and precautions to be taken in the storage of painted articles are highlighted. (author). 1 table, 3 figs

  7. 49 CFR 173.173 - Paint, paint-related material, adhesives, ink and resins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Paint, paint-related material, adhesives, ink and... Than Class 1 and Class 7 § 173.173 Paint, paint-related material, adhesives, ink and resins. (a) When..., paint-related material, adhesives, ink and resins must be packaged as follows: (1) As prescribed in...

  8. The transdisciplinary potential of remediated painting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Anne Ring

    2011-01-01

    "The Transdisciplinary Potential of Remediated Painting" Over the last decades the notion of what painting is has been considerably widened due to intermediality, i.e. crossovers between artistic media such as painting and sculpture, painting and photography, painting and installation, painting...... painting as a point of departure but moves beyond the limitations of dialogic intermedia into the field of transdisciplinary aesthetics. In support of my argument, I turn to the concept of remediation as it was first applied in new media theory by Jay David Bolter and Richard Grusin. The ambition...... that starts from the transdisciplinary potential of painting instead of its historical disciplinarity and the attendant assumption that, as a discipline, painting functions independently and establishes its own separate space of cultural meaning. Secondly, it defines painting as active, performative...

  9. Neural correlates of viewing paintings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vartanian, Oshin; Skov, Martin

    2014-01-01

    Many studies involving functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) have exposed participants to paintings under varying task demands. To isolate neural systems that are activated reliably across fMRI studies in response to viewing paintings regardless of variation in task demands, a quantitative...... meta-analysis of fifteen experiments using the activation likelihood estimation (ALE) method was conducted. As predicted, viewing paintings was correlated with activation in a distributed system including the occipital lobes, temporal lobe structures in the ventral stream involved in object (fusiform...... gyrus) and scene (parahippocampal gyrus) perception, and the anterior insula-a key structure in experience of emotion. In addition, we also observed activation in the posterior cingulate cortex bilaterally-part of the brain's default network. These results suggest that viewing paintings engages not only...

  10. Studying Landforms through Landscape Painting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glenn, William H.

    1981-01-01

    Using three specific works of art, the author demonstrates how a study of selected landscape paintings can be integrated into units on landforms in secondary school earth science and general science courses. (Author/SJL)

  11. Skin painting studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Witschi, H.P.; Smith, L.H.; Goad, M.E.; Anthony, W.B.; Gipson, L.C.; Stephens, T.J.; Whitaker, M.S.

    1987-01-01

    In order to estimate eventual risks to human health as a consequence of incidental and prolonged skin contact, it is necessary to obtain some information on the potential of coal-derived liquids to elicit skin cancer. In addition, it also must be established whether prolonged dermal exposure will produce signs of toxicity not only on the skin but to internal organs. During the past 2 years, they completed a life-long skin painting study with mice designed to answer some of these questions. The following materials were tested: Raw H-coal blend, containing 5700 ppm N; H-coal blend after low hydrotreatment (2650 ppm N); H-coal blend after high hydrotreatment (0.2 ppm N); H-coal home heating oil, a devolatilized version of the high-hydrotreatment H-coal blend; and an H-coal reformed naphtha. Two petroleum-derived references samples were used: Petroleum No. 2 fuel oil and high catalytically cracked naphtha. Benzo(a)pyrene was used as reference substance. Experimental animals were male and female C3H mice

  12. Formulation effects on the release of silica dioxide nanoparticles from paint debris to water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuin, Stefano; Massari, Andrea; Ferrari, Arlen; Golanski, Luana

    2014-04-01

    Waterborne paints with integrated nanoparticles have been recently introduced into the market as nanoparticles offer improved or novel functionalities to paints. However, the release of nanoparticles during the life cycle of nano-enhanced paint has only been studied to a very limited extent. The paint composition could determine in what quantities and forms the nanoparticles are released. In this work, paint formulations containing the same amount of silicon dioxide (SiO2) nanoparticles but differing in the pigment volume concentration (PVC) and in amount and type of binder and pigment, were studied through leaching test to investigate the influence of these parameters on release of Si from paint. The results indicate greater release of Si, about 1.7 wt.% of the SiO2 nanoparticles in the paint, for paint formulated with higher PVC value (63%), suggesting that the PVC is a crucial factor for release of SiO2 nanoparticles from paints. This hypothesis was also based on the fact that agglomerates of SiO2 nanoparticles were only found in leachates from paint with higher PVC. A paint sample with the higher amount of binder and less calcite filler exhibited a lower release of Si among the paints with a low PVC value (35%), and no SiO2 particles were detected in leachates collected from this paint. This could be due to the fact that a high portion of binder forms a suitable matrix to hold the SiO2 ENPs in paint. The paint sample in which the amount of calcite was partially substituted with TiO2 pigment did not show an important reduction on Si release. Our work suggests that paint debris containing SiO2 nanoparticles may release a limited amount of Si into the environment, and that by adjusting the properties of the binder in combination with common pigments it is possible to reduce the release of SiO2 nanoparticles. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. The transdisciplinary potential of remediated painting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Anne Ring

    2011-01-01

    "The Transdisciplinary Potential of Remediated Painting" Over the last decades the notion of what painting is has been considerably widened due to intermediality, i.e. crossovers between artistic media such as painting and sculpture, painting and photography, painting and installation, painting...... and performance etc. This paper suggests that the transformation of the discipline of painting into an expanded field has not only liberated painting from its ties to its traditional repertoire of materials and modes of representation. It has also released a tremendous potential for image making that takes...... painting as a point of departure but moves beyond the limitations of dialogic intermedia into the field of transdisciplinary aesthetics. In support of my argument, I turn to the concept of remediation as it was first applied in new media theory by Jay David Bolter and Richard Grusin. The ambition...

  14. The Transdisciplinary Potential of Remediated Painting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Anne Ring

    2010-01-01

    Over the last decades the notion of what painting is has been considerably widened due to intermediality, i.e. crossovers between artistic media such as painting and sculpture, painting and photography, painting and installation, painting and performance etc. This paper suggests...... that the transformation of the discipline of painting into an expanded field has not only liberated painting from its ties to its traditional repertoire of materials and modes of representation. It has also released a tremendous potential for image making that takes painting as a point of departure but moves beyond...... the limitations of dialogic intermedia into the field of transdisciplinary aesthetics. In support of my argument, I turn to the concept of remediation as it was first applied in new media theory by Jay David Bolter and Richard Grusin. The ambition is to develop an apprehension of painting not as an artistic...

  15. Preparation and Characterization of Amphiphilic Triblock Terpolymer-Based Nanofibers as Antifouling Biomaterials

    KAUST Repository

    Cho, Youngjin

    2012-05-14

    Antifouling surfaces are critical for the good performance of functional materials in various applications including water filtration, medical implants, and biosensors. In this study, we synthesized amphiphilic triblock terpolymers (tri-BCPs, coded as KB) and fabricated amphiphilic nanofibers by electrospinning of solutions prepared by mixing the KB with poly(lactic acid) (PLA) polymer. The resulting fibers with amphiphilic polymer groups exhibited superior antifouling performance to the fibers without such groups. The adsorption of bovine serum albumin (BSA) on the amphiphilic fibers was about 10-fold less than that on the control surfaces from PLA and PET fibers. With the increase of the KB content in the amphiphilic fibers, the resistance to adsorption of BSA was increased. BSA was released more easily from the surface of the amphiphilic fibers than from the surface of hydrophobic PLA or PET fibers. We have also investigated the structural conformation of KB in fibers before and after annealing by contact angle measurements, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX), and coarse-grained molecular dynamics (CGMD) simulation to probe the effect of amphiphilic chain conformation on antifouling. The results reveal that the amphiphilic KB was evenly distributed within as-spun hybrid fibers, while migrated toward the core from the fiber surface during thermal treatment, leading to the reduction in antifouling. This suggests that the antifouling effect of the amphiphilic fibers is greatly influenced by the arrangement of amphiphilic groups in the fibers. © 2012 American Chemical Society.

  16. Amino acid-based zwitterionic polymers: antifouling properties and low cytotoxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wenchen; Liu, Qingsheng; Liu, Lingyun

    2014-01-01

    A group of five amino acid containing zwitterionic vinyl monomers, based on serine, lysine, ornithine, glutamic acid, and aspartic acid, respectively, were proposed and developed for potential antifouling applications. Their polymer brushes were grafted on gold chips by surface-initiated photoiniferter-mediated polymerization. We then compared their performance in resisting protein adsorption from full human serum and plasma. All five polymers can reduce protein adsorption by more than 90% compared to the unmodified gold. The ornithine-based and aspartic acid-based poly(methacrylamide) can most strongly resist protein adsorption from serum and plasma, compared to the other three. The ability of surfaces to suppress bacterial adhesion is another criterion in evaluating antifouling properties of materials. Our results show that the five polymer-grafted surfaces can significantly suppress Escherichia coli K12 adhesion to 99% compared to the bare gold surface. The zwitterionic structure of amino acids, with homogenously distributed and balanced positive and negative charges, is responsible for the outstanding antifouling properties. Considering multiple potential applications (e.g. medical devices and drug delivery) of the antifouling materials, we further systematically evaluated the cytotoxicity of both monomers and polymer nanogels for all five materials at various concentrations. Very low cytotoxicity was observed for all tested amino acid-based monomers and nanogels, which is comparable or even lower than the traditional and some newly developed antifouling materials, which might be related to the biomimetic nature of amino acids.

  17. Copper and copper-nickel alloys as zebra mussel antifoulants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dormon, J.M.; Cottrell, C.M.; Allen, D.G.; Ackerman, J.D.; Spelt, J.K. [Univ. of Toronto, Ontario (Canada)

    1996-04-01

    Copper has been used in the marine environment for decades as cladding on ships and pipes to prevent biofouling by marine mussels (Mytilus edulis L.). This motivated the present investigation into the possibility of using copper to prevent biofouling in freshwater by both zebra mussels and quagga mussels (Dreissena polymorpha and D. bugensis collectively referred to as zebra mussels). Copper and copper alloy sheet proved to be highly effective in preventing biofouling by zebra mussels over a three-year period. Further studies were conducted with copper and copper-nickel mesh (lattice of expanded metal) and screen (woven wire with a smaller hole size), which reduced the amount of copper used. Copper screen was also found to be strongly biofouling-resistant with respect to zebra mussels, while copper mesh reduced zebra mussel biofouling in comparison to controls, but did not prevent it entirely. Preliminary investigations into the mechanism of copper antifouling, using galvanic couples, indicated that the release of copper ions from the surface of the exposed metal into the surrounding water is directly or indirectly responsible for the biofouling resistance of copper.

  18. Mini-review: Molecular mechanisms of antifouling compounds

    KAUST Repository

    Qian, Pei-Yuan

    2013-04-01

    Various antifouling (AF) coatings have been developed to protect submerged surfaces by deterring the settlement of the colonizing stages of fouling organisms. A review of the literature shows that effective AF compounds with specific targets are ones often considered non-toxic. Such compounds act variously on ion channels, quorum sensing systems, neurotransmitters, production/release of adhesive, and specific enzymes that regulate energy production or primary metabolism. In contrast, AF compounds with general targets may or may not act through toxic mechanisms. These compounds affect a variety of biological activities including algal photosynthesis, energy production, stress responses, genotoxic damage, immunosuppressed protein expression, oxidation, neurotransmission, surface chemistry, the formation of biofilms, and adhesive production/release. Among all the targets, adhesive production/release is the most common, possibly due to a more extensive research effort in this area. Overall, the specific molecular targets and the molecular mechanisms of most AF compounds have not been identified. Thus, the information available is insufficient to draw firm conclusions about the types of molecular targets to be used as sensitive biomarkers for future design and screening of compounds with AF potential. In this review, the relevant advantages and disadvantages of the molecular tools available for studying the molecular targets of AF compounds are highlighted briefly and the molecular mechanisms of the AF compounds, which are largely a source of speculation in the literature, are discussed. © 2013 Copyright Taylor and Francis Group, LLC.

  19. Improved antifouling properties of photobioreactors by surface grafted sulfobetaine polymers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Dongwei; Wu, Xia; Long, Lixia; Yuan, Xubo; Zhang, Qinghua; Xue, Shengzhang; Wen, Shumei; Yan, Chenghu; Wang, Jianming; Cong, Wei

    2017-11-01

    To improve the antifouling (AF) properties of photobioreactors (PBR) for microalgal cultivation, using trihydroxymethyl aminomethane (tris) as the linking agent, a series of polyethylene (PE) films grafted with sulfobetaine (PE-SBMA) with grafting density ranging from 23.11 to 112 μg cm -2 were prepared through surface-initiated atom transfer radical polymerization (SI-ATRP). It was found that the contact angle of PE-SBMA films decreased with the increase in the grafting density. When the grafting density was 101.33 μg cm -2 , it reached 67.27°. Compared with the PE film, the adsorption of protein on the PE-SBMA film decreased by 79.84% and the total weight of solid and absorbed microalgae decreased by 54.58 and 81.69%, respectively. Moreover, the transmittance of PE-SBMA film recovered to 86.03% of the initial value after cleaning, while that of the PE film recovered to only 47.27%. The results demonstrate that the AF properties of PE films were greatly improved on polySBMA-grafted surfaces.

  20. Nontoxic piperamides and their synthetic analogues as novel antifouling reagents

    KAUST Repository

    Huang, Xiang-Zhong

    2014-03-25

    Bioassay-guided isolation of an acetone extract from a terrestrial plant Piper betle produced four known piperamides with potent antifouling (AF) activities, as evidenced by inhibition of settlement of barnacle cypris larvae. The AF activities of the four piperamides and 15 synthesized analogues were compared and their structure-activity relationships were probed. Among the compounds, piperoleine B and 1-[1-oxo-7-(3′,4′-methylenedioxyphenyl)-6E-heptenyl]-piperidine (MPHP) showed strong activity against settlement of cyprids of the barnacle Balanus amphitrite, having EC50 values of 1.1 ± 0.3 and 0.5 ± 0.2 μg ml-1, respectively. No toxicity against zebra fish was observed following incubation with these two compounds. Besides being non-toxic, 91% of piperoleine B-treated cyprids and 84% of MPHP-treated cyprids at a concentration of 100 μM completed normal metamorphosis in recovery bioassays, indicating that the anti-settlement effect of these two compounds was reversible. Hydrolysis and photolysis experiments indicated that MPHP could be decomposed in the marine environment. It is concluded that piperamides are promising compounds for use in marine AF coatings. © 2014 © 2014 Taylor & Francis.

  1. Development of antifouling surfaces to reduce bacterial attachment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, Mary Viola

    Bacteria are exceptionally good at adhering to surfaces and forming complex structures known as biofilms. This process, known as biofouling, can cause problems for infrastructure (eg, clogging and damaging pipes), for the food industry (eg, contamination of processing surfaces and equipment, and for the medical industry (eg, contamination of indwelling medical devices). Accordingly, multiple strategies have been explored to combat biofouling, including chemical modification of surfaces, development of antibiotic coatings, and more recently, the use of engineered surface topography. When designed properly, engineered surface topographies can significantly reduce bacterial surface attachment, ultimately limiting surface colonization. In this work, we hypothesized that the morphology, size, spacing, and surface pre-treatment of topographical features should directly correlate with the size and shape of target organisms, in order to reduce biofouling. Topographical features with size and spacing from 0.25 to 2 mum were fabricated in silicone elastomer and tested against rod shaped bacteria with an average size of 0.5 x 2 mum and spherical bacteria (cocci) ranging from 0.5 - 1 μm in diameter. Antifouling properties of the different topographical features were tested in both static and flow-based assays, and under oxygen plasma-treated (hydrophilic) and untreated (hydrophobic) surface conditions. We found that surface pre-treatment universally affects the ability bacteria to attach to surfaces, while surface topography limits attachment in a manner dependent on the bacterial size/shape and the size/spacing of the topography.

  2. Ultrasonic Mastering of Filter Flow and Antifouling of Renewable Resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radziuk, Darya; Möhwald, Helmuth

    2016-04-04

    Inadequate access to pure water and sanitation requires new cost-effective, ergonomic methods with less consumption of energy and chemicals, leaving the environment cleaner and sustainable. Among such methods, ultrasound is a unique means to control the physics and chemistry of complex fluids (wastewater) with excellent performance regarding mass transfer, cleaning, and disinfection. In membrane filtration processes, it overcomes diffusion limits and can accelerate the fluid flow towards the filter preventing antifouling. Here, we outline the current state of knowledge and technological design, with a focus on physicochemical strategies of ultrasound for water cleaning. We highlight important parameters of ultrasound for the delivery of a fluid flow from a technical perspective employing principles of physics and chemistry. By introducing various ultrasonic methods, involving bubbles or cavitation in combination with external fields, we show advancements in flow acceleration and mass transportation to the filter. In most cases we emphasize the main role of streaming and the impact of cavitation with a perspective to prevent and remove fouling deposits during the flow. We also elaborate on the deficiencies of present technologies and on problems to be solved to achieve a wide-spread application. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  3. Zinc, Paint loss and Harmony in blue

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Cecil Krarup; Taube, Michelle; Vila, Anna

    2016-01-01

    P.S. Krøyer’s late and most popular paintings have proven very difficult to preserve, and as zinc white has been known to cause structural problems in paintings, the authors investigate if the damage seen in the late paintings can be related to the use of this relatively new pigment. Eight...... paintings were examined and the results suggest that the shift from using one white pigment to another took place between 1884 and 1889. After 1889, only zinc white was found in the analyzed paint layers. However, the results indicate that the recurring damage in Krøyer’s later paintings cannot be explained...

  4. Painting digitally : with Photoshop's brush tool

    OpenAIRE

    Mäkinen, Saara

    2011-01-01

    The reason I wanted to study Photoshop brushes is that with the right settings you can not only paint faster but also create more unique painting effects and styles. Photoshop is my main tool when painting digitally, but I noticed that I tend to use only the same type of default brush for everything I paint, be it smooth surfaces, organic shapes or modern structures. To be a concept artist you have to be able to paint fast. This means you need good tools to speed up the painting process. Look...

  5. Antifouling effect of hydrogen peroxide release from enzymatic marine coatings: Exposure testing under equatorial and Mediterranean conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, S.M.; Kristensen, J.B.; Laursen, B.S.

    2010-01-01

    Hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) may be considered an environmentally friendly antifouling alternative to common biocides such as Cu2O and various organic compounds. In this work, the efficiency of antifouling coatings releasing hydrogen peroxide via enzyme-mediated conversion of starch, under Mediterran......Hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) may be considered an environmentally friendly antifouling alternative to common biocides such as Cu2O and various organic compounds. In this work, the efficiency of antifouling coatings releasing hydrogen peroxide via enzyme-mediated conversion of starch, under...... exceeding that of two commercial references over 67 days. The release rate of hydrogen peroxide from the coatings is shown to be greatly influenced by temperature, and therefore the results provided here suggest an antifouling effect that is highly dependent on the environment of the coating....

  6. Neutron autoradiography: working-out method and application in investigations of test paintings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalicki, A.; Panczyk, E.; Rowinska, L.; Sartowska, B.; Walis, L.; Pytel, K.; Pytel, B.; Koziel, A.; Dabkowski, L.; Wierzchnicka, M.; Strzalkowski, L.; Ostrowski, T.

    2001-01-01

    Neutron-induced autoradiography was carried out at MARIA research reactor in Poland. The paintings were exposed to the thermal neutrons. As a result, the radionuclides emitting beta particles and gamma rays were created from some of the elements existing in the painting. Beta particles were detected during successive exposure to a series of X-ray medical-sensitive films. The obtained images--blackening of the films depends mainly on the nuclear characteristic of recorded radionuclides and exposure parameters. The main purpose of this work was to work out a method, build a special stand and test sample paintings using neutron autoradiography. Samples of paintings were investigated and according to the obtained results, optimum test parameters have been selected: neutron irradiation conditions and autoradiographs exposure conditions

  7. Drag resistance measurements for newly applied antifouling coatings and welding seams on ship hull surface

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Xueting; Olsen, S. M.; Andres, E.

    in their newly applied conditions. The effects of water absorption of newly applied antifouling coatings on frictional resistance were measured. A flexible rotor with artificial welding seams on its periphery has been designed and constructed to estimate the influence of welding seams on drag resistance. Both......Drag resistances of newly applied antifouling coatings and welding seams on ship hull surface have been investigated using a pilot-scale rotary setup. Both conventional biocide-based antifouling (AF) coatings and silicone-based fouling release (FR) coatings have been studied and compared...... the density of welding seams (number per 5 m ship side) and the height of welding seams had a significant effect on drag resistance....

  8. Field experimental evaluation of secondary metabolites from marine invertebrates as antifoulants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PEREIRA R. C

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The crude organic extracts of the endemic gorgonian Phyllogorgia dilatata and two sponge species Aplysina fulva and Mycale microsigmatosa were evaluated for anti-fouling properties through field experiments. To investigate this property in ecologically meaningful conditions, crude extracts from these invertebrates were incorporated at concentrations naturally found in these marine organisms into a stable gel used as a substratum for fouling settlement. Crude extract from A. fulva showed no significant anti-fouling property at the natural concentrations used in the field experiments. In fact, fouling organisms settled significantly more on gels treated with A. fulva extract than on the control gel. On the other hand, both M. microsigmatosa and P. dilatata yielded crude extracts that exhibited a selective action inhibiting only the settlement of barnacles. The evidences obtained here by means of field experiments can provide a basis for future development of one kind of natural antifoulant technology to prevent marine biofouling.

  9. Super-resolution microscopy with DNA-PAINT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schnitzbauer, Joerg; Strauss, Maximilian T; Schlichthaerle, Thomas; Schueder, Florian; Jungmann, Ralf

    2017-06-01

    Super-resolution techniques have begun to transform biological and biomedical research by allowing researchers to observe structures well below the classic diffraction limit of light. DNA points accumulation for imaging in nanoscale topography (DNA-PAINT) offers an easy-to-implement approach to localization-based super-resolution microscopy, owing to the use of DNA probes. In DNA-PAINT, transient binding of short dye-labeled ('imager') oligonucleotides to their complementary target ('docking') strands creates the necessary 'blinking' to enable stochastic super-resolution microscopy. Using the programmability and specificity of DNA molecules as imaging and labeling probes allows researchers to decouple blinking from dye photophysics, alleviating limitations of current super-resolution techniques, making them compatible with virtually any single-molecule-compatible dye. Recent developments in DNA-PAINT have enabled spectrally unlimited multiplexing, precise molecule counting and ultra-high, molecular-scale (sub-5-nm) spatial resolution, reaching ∼1-nm localization precision. DNA-PAINT can be applied to a multitude of in vitro and cellular applications by linking docking strands to antibodies. Here, we present a protocol for the key aspects of the DNA-PAINT framework for both novice and expert users. This protocol describes the creation of DNA origami test samples, in situ sample preparation, multiplexed data acquisition, data simulation, super-resolution image reconstruction and post-processing such as drift correction, molecule counting (qPAINT) and particle averaging. Moreover, we provide an integrated software package, named Picasso, for the computational steps involved. The protocol is designed to be modular, so that individual components can be chosen and implemented per requirements of a specific application. The procedure can be completed in 1-2 d.

  10. Assessment of the risk posed by the antifouling booster biocides Irgarol 1051 and diuron to freshwater macrophytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambert, S J; Thomas, K V; Davy, A J

    2006-05-01

    Antifouling paints are used to reduce the attachment of living organisms to the submerged surfaces of ships, boats and aquatic structures, usually by the release of a biocide. Two 'booster' biocides in common use are the triazine herbicide Irgarol 1051 (N-2-methylthio-4-tert-butylamino-6-cyclopropylamino-s-triazine), and diuron (1-(3,4-dichlorophenyl)-3,3-dimethylurea), which are designed to inhibit algal photosynthesis. Previous research has been directed at the effects of these compounds in marine and estuarine environments. In 2001 we sampled the main rivers and shallow freshwater lakes (Broads) of East Anglia UK for Irgarol 1051, its metabolite GS26575 (2-methylamino-4-tert-butylamino-6-amino-s-triazine) and diuron in order to establish the baseline environmental concentrations of these compounds in freshwater systems of eastern UK and to investigate their possible effects on aquatic plants. Irgarol 1051, GS26575 and diuron were found in water samples collected from 21 locations. The highest concentrations were found in the Norfolk and Suffolk Broads in May. The rivers Great Ouse, Wissey, Bure and Yare also contained all three compounds, as did the Great Ouse Cut-off Channel. The toxicity of these biocides to three macrophyte species (Apium nodiflorum, Chara vulgaris, and Myriophyllum spicatum) was investigated. Deleterious effects on relative growth rate, the maximum quantum efficiency (Fv/Fm) of photosystem II and, for Apium, root mass production were found. C. vulgaris was generally most sensitive; growth, especially of roots, was strongly affected in A. nodiflorum; growth rate of M. spicatum was sensitive to diuron. No observed effect concentrations (NOEC) were interpolated using standard toxicological analysis. These were compared with measured environmental concentrations (MEC) to determine the ranges of risk quotients (MEC/NOEC). Both Irgarol 1051 and diuron represented significant risks to A. nodiflorum and C. vulgaris in this area.

  11. Influence of paints formulations on nanoparticles release during their life cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiorentino, Brice; Golanski, Luana; Guiot, Arnaud; Damlencourt, Jean-François; Boutry, Delphine

    2015-03-01

    Pristine nanoparticles (NPs) may present a hazard to humans and the environment, and hence it is important to know to what extent NPs can be freely released from commercialized products in which they are added. The purpose of this study was to identify the parameters of the paint formulation containing SiO2 NPs of 19-nm diameter that could have an impact on the release induced by aging and abrasion. In order to simulate outdoor aging during the life cycle of the product, painted panels were exposed to accelerated weathering experiments in accordance with the norm EN ISO 16474-3:2013. The surface modification of these paints was characterized by scanning electron microscope coupled with energy dispersive spectrometry (SEM-EDS). These analyses showed that the acrylic copolymer binder has undergone a more significant chemical degradation compared with the styrene-acrylic copolymer. To simulate a mechanical aging, abrasion tests were conducted using a Taber Abraser, simulating critical scenarios of the abrasion standard. The particle size distributions and particle concentrations of the abraded particles were measured using an electric low-pressure impactor. After accelerated aging and abrasion tests, we observed a link between the paint degradations occurring with the release of pristine NPs and the embedded pristine NPs. Surface degradation of acrylic copolymer paints was more significant than that of the styrene-acrylic copolymer paints, and this induced a release of NPs 2.7 times higher. Other parameters like TiO2 addition as pigments induced a strong stability of paint against light and water, decreasing the total number of NPs released from paints from 30,000 to 1200 particles/cm3. These results revealed that formulations can be tuned to decrease the number of free NPs released and get a "safe-by-design" product.

  12. Influence of paints formulations on nanoparticles release during their life cycle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fiorentino, Brice, E-mail: brice.fiorentino@cea.fr; Golanski, Luana; Guiot, Arnaud; Damlencourt, Jean-François; Boutry, Delphine [Commissariat à l’énergie atomique et aux énergies alternatives (France)

    2015-03-15

    Pristine nanoparticles (NPs) may present a hazard to humans and the environment, and hence it is important to know to what extent NPs can be freely released from commercialized products in which they are added. The purpose of this study was to identify the parameters of the paint formulation containing SiO{sub 2} NPs of 19-nm diameter that could have an impact on the release induced by aging and abrasion. In order to simulate outdoor aging during the life cycle of the product, painted panels were exposed to accelerated weathering experiments in accordance with the norm EN ISO 16474-3:2013. The surface modification of these paints was characterized by scanning electron microscope coupled with energy dispersive spectrometry (SEM–EDS). These analyses showed that the acrylic copolymer binder has undergone a more significant chemical degradation compared with the styrene-acrylic copolymer. To simulate a mechanical aging, abrasion tests were conducted using a Taber Abraser, simulating critical scenarios of the abrasion standard. The particle size distributions and particle concentrations of the abraded particles were measured using an electric low-pressure impactor. After accelerated aging and abrasion tests, we observed a link between the paint degradations occurring with the release of pristine NPs and the embedded pristine NPs. Surface degradation of acrylic copolymer paints was more significant than that of the styrene-acrylic copolymer paints, and this induced a release of NPs 2.7 times higher. Other parameters like TiO{sub 2} addition as pigments induced a strong stability of paint against light and water, decreasing the total number of NPs released from paints from 30,000 to 1200 particles/cm{sup 3}. These results revealed that formulations can be tuned to decrease the number of free NPs released and get a “safe-by-design” product.

  13. Microclimate boxes for panel paintings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wadum, Jørgen

    1998-01-01

    The use of microclimate boxes to protect vulnerable panel paintings is, therefore, not a new phenomenon of the past two or three decades. Rather, it has been a concern for conservators and curators to protect these objects of art at home and in transit since the end of the nineteenth century....... The increased number of travelling exhibitions in recent years has heightened the need to protect paintings during circulation (Thomson 1961; Mecklenburg 1991). The use and design of microclimate boxes have been evolving since 1892. These boxes may be divided into three broad groups: those using an active...

  14. The Conservation of Panel paintings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Until the early 17th century almost all portable paintings were created on wood supports, including masterpieces by famous painters, ranging from Giotto to Dürer to Rembrandt. The structural conservation of these paintings requires specific knowledge and skills as the supports are susceptible...... and conservation of these artworks. The Netherlands Organisation for Scientific Research (NWO) and the Rijksmuseum Amsterdam brought together a group of experts from different disciplines to recommend specific areas in the field that would benefit from systematic research. The experts concluded that targeted...

  15. Neural correlates of viewing paintings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vartanian, Oshin; Skov, Martin

    2014-01-01

    meta-analysis of fifteen experiments using the activation likelihood estimation (ALE) method was conducted. As predicted, viewing paintings was correlated with activation in a distributed system including the occipital lobes, temporal lobe structures in the ventral stream involved in object (fusiform...... gyrus) and scene (parahippocampal gyrus) perception, and the anterior insula-a key structure in experience of emotion. In addition, we also observed activation in the posterior cingulate cortex bilaterally-part of the brain's default network. These results suggest that viewing paintings engages not only...

  16. EVALUATION OF LOW-VOC LATEX PAINTS

    Science.gov (United States)

    The paper gives results of an evaluation of four commercially available low-VOC (volatile organic compound) latex paints as substitutes for conventional latex paints by assessing both their emission characteristics and their performance as coatings. Bulk analysis indicated that ...

  17. Stripping Paint From Exterior Wood Surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mark T. Knaebe

    2013-01-01

    Removing paint and other film-forming finishes is a time consuming and often difficult process. In some cases, finishes need to be removed prior to repainting; for example, if the old surface is covered with severely peeled or blistered paint or if excessive paint buildup has caused cross-grain cracking. You must also remove the finish before applying a penetrating...

  18. Mural Painting as Inclusive Art Learning Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Kong

    2010-01-01

    Traditional art education, like other academic disciplines, emphasizes competitiveness and individualism. Through a mural painting curriculum, learners participate in mural art and history appreciation, are active in mural theme or content construction, and engage in hands-on mural design and painting processes. When mural paintings are produced…

  19. Miniature Paintings: Small Size, Big Impact!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hicks, Bill

    2011-01-01

    This article describes a miniature painting project that allows students to research a master painter and then replicate the work on a smaller scale. This lesson focuses on the students' ability to learn to identify style, subject matter, themes, and content in painting through the study of historical paintings, and the application of various…

  20. Bringing Art to Life through Living Paintings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stillwagon, Joanne

    2005-01-01

    In this article, the author relates how she and other art teachers developed a "living painting" lesson, an art lesson that incorporates art history and painting. The lesson was developed also in part to help new student-teachers plan a memorable lesson. With the living painting lesson, students will have to choose and recreate famous paintings…

  1. Materials science challenges in paintings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walter, Philippe; de Viguerie, Laurence

    2018-02-01

    Through the paintings of the old masters, we showcase how materials science today provides us with a vision of the processes involved in the creation of a work of art: the choice of materials, the painter's skill in handling these materials, and the perception of the finished work.

  2. Desalination of painted brick vaults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Poul Klenz

    The subject of the thesis is salt and moisture movement that causes damage to wall paintings on church vaults. The deterioration was studied in the churches of Fanefjord, Kirkerup and Brarup. A desalination method was tested om location. The salt and moisture transfer was examined in detail...

  3. Drying a liquid paint layer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Susanto, H.; van de Fliert, B.W.

    2001-01-01

    Subject of this study is the free boundary problem of a liquid layer that is dried by evaporation. Using a Stefan type problem, we model the diffusion driven drying of a layer of liquid paint consisting of resin and solvent. The effect of a small perturbation of the flat boundary is considered. We

  4. Stop and Paint the Flowers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Shelley

    2002-01-01

    Describes an art lesson where students used watercolors to paint a flower bouquet arranged in a vase. Explains that the students viewed examples of flower bouquets by artists such as Vincent van Gogh and Odilon Redon. Discusses, in detail, the process of creating the artworks. (CMK)

  5. The Painting on the Wall

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara Alfano

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This personal essay describes what influenced my development as a creative writer, in my childhood and adolescence. It delineates the effect on my imagination of family story-telling and of images—paintings and prints. I grew up in Italy, where I spent the first thirty years of my life.

  6. Perspective: Landscape Drawing and Painting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandstadter, Judith

    1972-01-01

    Author suggests teaching the principles of perspective outdoors where pupils can sketch neighboring trees, houses and streets. These sessions can be followed by painting lessons in which the use of color to gain perspective is then emphasized. Author includes useful hints and questions to evaluate students' grasp of subject. (PD)

  7. Human health risk of ingested nanoparticles that are added as multifunctional agents to paints: an in vitro study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaiser, Jean-Pierre; Roesslein, Matthias; Diener, Liliane; Wick, Peter

    2013-01-01

    Microorganisms growing on painted surfaces are not only an aesthetic problem, but also actively contribute to the weathering and deterioration of materials. A widely used strategy to combat microbial colonization is the addition of biocides to the paint. However, ecotoxic, non-degradable biocides with a broad protection range are now prohibited in Europe, so the paint industry is considering engineered nanoparticles (ENPs) as an alternative biocide. There is concern that ENPs in paint might be released in run-off water and subsequently consumed by animals and/or humans, potentially coming into contact with cells of the gastrointestinal tract and affecting the immune system. Therefore, in the present study we evaluated the cytotoxic effects of three ENPs (nanosilver, nanotitanium dioxide and nanosilicon dioxide) that have a realistic potential for use in paints in the near future. When exposed to nanotitanium dioxide and nanosilicon dioxide in concentrations up to 243 µg/mL for 48 h, neither the gastrointestinal cells (CaCo-2) nor immune system cells (Jurkat) were significantly affected. However, when exposed to nanosilver, several cell parameters were affected, but far less than by silver ions used as a control. No differences in cytotoxicity were observed when cells were exposed to ENP-containing paint particles, compared with the same paint particles without ENPs. Paint particles containing ENPs did not affect cell morphology, the release of reactive oxygen species or cytokines, cell activity or cell death in a different manner to the same paint particles without ENPs. The results suggest that paints doped with ENPs do not pose an additional acute health hazard for humans.

  8. Human health risk of ingested nanoparticles that are added as multifunctional agents to paints: an in vitro study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Pierre Kaiser

    Full Text Available Microorganisms growing on painted surfaces are not only an aesthetic problem, but also actively contribute to the weathering and deterioration of materials. A widely used strategy to combat microbial colonization is the addition of biocides to the paint. However, ecotoxic, non-degradable biocides with a broad protection range are now prohibited in Europe, so the paint industry is considering engineered nanoparticles (ENPs as an alternative biocide. There is concern that ENPs in paint might be released in run-off water and subsequently consumed by animals and/or humans, potentially coming into contact with cells of the gastrointestinal tract and affecting the immune system. Therefore, in the present study we evaluated the cytotoxic effects of three ENPs (nanosilver, nanotitanium dioxide and nanosilicon dioxide that have a realistic potential for use in paints in the near future. When exposed to nanotitanium dioxide and nanosilicon dioxide in concentrations up to 243 µg/mL for 48 h, neither the gastrointestinal cells (CaCo-2 nor immune system cells (Jurkat were significantly affected. However, when exposed to nanosilver, several cell parameters were affected, but far less than by silver ions used as a control. No differences in cytotoxicity were observed when cells were exposed to ENP-containing paint particles, compared with the same paint particles without ENPs. Paint particles containing ENPs did not affect cell morphology, the release of reactive oxygen species or cytokines, cell activity or cell death in a different manner to the same paint particles without ENPs. The results suggest that paints doped with ENPs do not pose an additional acute health hazard for humans.

  9. Size distribution and speciation of chromium in paint spray aerosol at an aerospace facility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabty-Daily, Rania A; Harris, Patricia A; Hinds, William C; Froines, John R

    2005-01-01

    Spray painters are potentially exposed to aerosol containing Cr(VI) via inhalation of chromate-based paint spray. Two field studies were conducted at an aerospace facility to determine the size distribution and speciation of Cr(VI) in paint spray aerosol. Sampled paint products consisted of sparingly soluble strontium chromate in an epoxy resin matrix, a matrix generally known for its durability and toughness. Personal aerosol samples were collected using Sierra Marple personal cascade impactors and analyzed for Cr(VI) and total Cr. The size distribution of total Cr particles in the paint aerosol had a Mass Median Aerodynamic Diameter (MMAD) of 7.5 mum [Geometric Standard Deviation (GSD = 2.7 mum)] in both field studies. The MMAD of Cr(VI) particles was 8.5 mum (GSD = 2.2 mum). Particles >2 mum constituted 90% or more of the total Cr and the Cr(VI) mass, in all sampled paint aerosols and were lognormally distributed. The target site for respiratory deposition of Cr in the aerosol was estimated based on the mass distribution of Cr according to particle size. On an average, 62% of the Cr and Cr(VI) mass in the paint aerosol consisted of particles >10 mum. This study showed that 71.8% of Cr(VI) mass in paint spray aerosol potentially inhaled by a spray painter may deposit in the head airways region. Only 2.0 and 1.4% of Cr(VI) mass in the paint aerosol may potentially deposit in the alveolar and tracheobronchial region, respectively. The ratio of Cr(VI) mass to total Cr mass was determined in bulk paint and the data indicate that Cr was predominantly in the Cr(VI) valence state, before spraying. The ratio of Cr(VI) mass to total Cr mass was also determined in paint aerosol samples. The data indicated that there was a reduction of Cr(VI) regardless of Cr aerosol particle size. Cr(VI) reduction occurred most likely during the 8 h sample collection time period. These findings are in agreement with the findings that observed Cr(VI) reduction during collection of airborne

  10. Simulating reflectance at interfaces coated with household paints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prisland, Zachary

    The paint and coatings industry is constantly working to improve their product, making a more efficient product at a cheaper cost. This requires some research and learning on the part of the companies, particularly in optical studies. For example, Burgess Pigment Company has developed a method, using a flash calciner, to quickly dehydrate clay, essentially popping it like popcorn, in order to add air pockets to the individual particles of clay. Clay that has undergone this process can improve the reflective properties of paint. The human eye, as a sensory organ, relies on reflected light in order to provide vision. As the major goal of paint is to be seen, it is easy to infer that it would be of utmost importance for the paint to reflect large amounts of light to appear more visible to the human eye and so using clay that has air pockets would be more desirable. The primary goal of this thesis will be to explore optical theory in an attempt to explain why the addition of air pockets could produce a more effective product.

  11. Antifouling phenyl ethers and other compounds from the invertebrates and their symbiotic fungi collected from the South China Sea

    KAUST Repository

    Wang, Chao-Yi

    2016-10-26

    Marine organism-derived secondary metabolites are promising potential sources for discovering environmentally safe antifouling agents. In present study, 55 marine secondary metabolites and their synthesized derivatives were tested and evaluated for their antifouling activities and security. These compounds include 44 natural products isolated from marine invertebrates and their symbiotic microorganisms collected from the South China Sea and 11 structural modified products derived from the isolated compounds. The natural secondary metabolites, covering phenyl ether derivatives, terpenoids, 9, 11-secosteroids, anthraquinones, alkaloids, nucleoside derivatives and peptides, were isolated from two corals, one sponge and five symbiotic fungi. All of the isolated and synthesized compounds were tested for their antifouling activities against the cyprids of barnacle Balanus (Amphibalanus) amphitrite Darwin. Noticeably, five phenyl ether derivatives (9, 11, 13–15) exhibited potent anti-larval settlement activity with the EC50 values lower than 3.05 μM and the LC50/EC50 ratios higher than 15. The study of structure–activity relationship (SAR) revealed that the introduction of acetoxy groups and bromine atoms to phenyl ether derivatives could significantly improve their antifouling activities. This is the first report on the SAR of phenyl ether derivatives on antifouling activity against barnacle B. amphitrite. The polybrominated diphenyl ether derivative, 2, 4, 6, 2′, 4′, 6′-hexabromo-diorcinol (13), which displayed excellent antifouling activity, was considered as a promising candidate of environmentally friendly antifouling agents.

  12. Imprinting of metal receptors into multilayer polyelectrolyte films: fabrication and applications in marine antifouling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Puniredd, S.R.; Janczewski, D.; Go, D.P.; Zhu, X.; Guo, S.; Teo, S.L-M.; Lee, S.S.C.; Vancso, Gyula J.

    2015-01-01

    Polymeric films constructed using the layer-by-layer (LbL) fabrication process were employed as a platform for metal ion immobilization and applied as a marine antifouling coating. The novel Cu2+ ion imprinting process described is based on the use of metal ion templates and LbL multilayer covalent

  13. Integrated antifouling and bactericidal polymer membranes through bioinspired polydopamine/poly(N-vinyl pyrrolidone) coating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Xianghong; Yuan, Shuaishuai; Shi, Dean; Yang, Yingkui; Jiang, Tao; Yan, Shunjie; Shi, Hengchong; Luan, Shifang; Yin, Jinghua

    2016-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Antifouling and bactericidal capabilities were facilely integrated into a surface via bioinspired coating. • The modification technique was very facile and universal to different types of substrate materials. • The integrated antifouling and bactericidal surfaces have great potential in wound dressing applications. - Abstract: Polypropylene (PP) non-woven has been widely used as wound dressing; however, the hydrophobic nature of PP can initiate bacterial attachment and subsequent biofilm formation. Herein, we propose a facile approach to functionalize PP non-woven with poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) and poly(N-vinyl pyrrolidone)-iodine complex (PVP-I). PVP and PEG were successively tethered onto PP non-woven surface via versatile bioinspired dopamine (DA) chemistry, followed by complexing iodine with PVP moieties. It was demonstrated through the field emission scanning electron microscope (SEM) and spread plate method that the as-modified PP non-woven integrated both antifouling property of PEG for suppressing bacterial adhesion, and bactericidal property of PVP-I for killing the few adherent bacteria. Meanwhile, it could greatly resist platelet and red blood cell adhesion. The integrated antifouling and bactericidal PP non-woven surfaces might have great potential in various wound dressing applications.

  14. Characterization of pigment-leached antifouling coatings using BET surface area measurements and mercury porosimetry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kiil, Søren; Dam-Johansen, Kim

    2007-01-01

    In this work BET surface area measurements and mercury porosimetry are used to characterize leached layers formed when seawater-soluble pigments (Cu2O and ZnO) dissolve during accelerated leaching of simple antifouling coatings. Measurements on single-pigment coatings show that an increasing...

  15. Poly(ethylene glycol)-containing hydrogel surfaces for antifouling applications in marine and freshwater environments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ekblad, T.; Bergström, G.; Ederth, T.; Conlan, S.L.; Mutton, R.; Clare, A.S.; Wang, S.; Liu, Y.; Zhao, Q.; D'Souza, F.; Donnelly, G.T.; Willemsen, P.R.; Pettitt, M.E.; Callow, M.E.; Callow, J.A.; Liedberg, B.

    2008-01-01

    This work describes the fabrication, characterization, and biological evaluation of a thin protein-resistant poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG)-based hydrogel coating for antifouling applications. The coating was fabricated by free-radical polymerization on silanized glass and silicon and on

  16. Assessing Bioinspired Topographies for their Antifouling Potential Control Using Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ling Jacky

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Biofouling is the accumulation of unwanted material on surfaces submerged or semi submerged over an extended period. This study investigates the antifouling performance of a new bioinspired topography design. A shark riblets inspired topography was designed with Solidworks and CFD simulations were antifouling performance. The study focuses on the fluid flow velocity, the wall shear stress and the appearance of vortices are to be noted to determine the possible locations biofouling would most probably occur. The inlet mass flow rate is 0.01 kgs-1 and a no-slip boundary condition was applied to the walls of the fluid domain. Simulations indicate that Velocity around the topography averaged at 7.213 x 10-3 ms-1. However, vortices were observed between the gaps. High wall shear stress is observed at the peak of each topography. In contrast, wall shear stress is significantly low at the bed of the topography. This suggests the potential location for the accumulation of biofouling. Results show that bioinspired antifouling topography can be improved by reducing the frequency of gaps between features. Linear surfaces on the topography should also be minimized. This increases the avenues of flow for the fluid, thus potentially increasing shear stresses with surrounding fluid leading to better antifouling performance.

  17. Integrated antifouling and bactericidal polymer membranes through bioinspired polydopamine/poly(N-vinyl pyrrolidone) coating

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Xianghong [State Key Laboratory of Polymer Physics and Chemistry, Changchun Institute of Applied Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Changchun 130022 (China); Ministry of Education Key Laboratory for the Green Preparation and Application of Functional Materials, Hubei Collaborative Innovation Center for Advanced Organic Chemical Materials, Faculty of Materials Science and Engineering, Hubei University, Wuhan 430062 (China); Yuan, Shuaishuai [State Key Laboratory of Polymer Physics and Chemistry, Changchun Institute of Applied Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Changchun 130022 (China); Shi, Dean, E-mail: deanshi2012@yahoo.com [Ministry of Education Key Laboratory for the Green Preparation and Application of Functional Materials, Hubei Collaborative Innovation Center for Advanced Organic Chemical Materials, Faculty of Materials Science and Engineering, Hubei University, Wuhan 430062 (China); Yang, Yingkui; Jiang, Tao [Ministry of Education Key Laboratory for the Green Preparation and Application of Functional Materials, Hubei Collaborative Innovation Center for Advanced Organic Chemical Materials, Faculty of Materials Science and Engineering, Hubei University, Wuhan 430062 (China); Yan, Shunjie; Shi, Hengchong [State Key Laboratory of Polymer Physics and Chemistry, Changchun Institute of Applied Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Changchun 130022 (China); Luan, Shifang, E-mail: sfluan@ciac.ac.cn [State Key Laboratory of Polymer Physics and Chemistry, Changchun Institute of Applied Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Changchun 130022 (China); Yin, Jinghua [State Key Laboratory of Polymer Physics and Chemistry, Changchun Institute of Applied Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Changchun 130022 (China)

    2016-07-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Antifouling and bactericidal capabilities were facilely integrated into a surface via bioinspired coating. • The modification technique was very facile and universal to different types of substrate materials. • The integrated antifouling and bactericidal surfaces have great potential in wound dressing applications. - Abstract: Polypropylene (PP) non-woven has been widely used as wound dressing; however, the hydrophobic nature of PP can initiate bacterial attachment and subsequent biofilm formation. Herein, we propose a facile approach to functionalize PP non-woven with poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) and poly(N-vinyl pyrrolidone)-iodine complex (PVP-I). PVP and PEG were successively tethered onto PP non-woven surface via versatile bioinspired dopamine (DA) chemistry, followed by complexing iodine with PVP moieties. It was demonstrated through the field emission scanning electron microscope (SEM) and spread plate method that the as-modified PP non-woven integrated both antifouling property of PEG for suppressing bacterial adhesion, and bactericidal property of PVP-I for killing the few adherent bacteria. Meanwhile, it could greatly resist platelet and red blood cell adhesion. The integrated antifouling and bactericidal PP non-woven surfaces might have great potential in various wound dressing applications.

  18. Order-fractal transitions in abstract paintings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Calleja, E.M. de la, E-mail: elsama79@gmail.com [Instituto de Física, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Caixa Postal 15051, 91501-970, Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); Cervantes, F. [Department of Applied Physics, CINVESTAV-IPN, Carr. Antigua a Progreso km.6, Cordemex, C.P.97310, Mérida, Yucatán (Mexico); Calleja, J. de la [Department of Informatics, Universidad Politécnica de Puebla, 72640 (Mexico)

    2016-08-15

    In this study, we determined the degree of order for 22 Jackson Pollock paintings using the Hausdorff–Besicovitch fractal dimension. Based on the maximum value of each multi-fractal spectrum, the artworks were classified according to the year in which they were painted. It has been reported that Pollock’s paintings are fractal and that this feature was more evident in his later works. However, our results show that the fractal dimension of these paintings ranges among values close to two. We characterize this behavior as a fractal-order transition. Based on the study of disorder-order transition in physical systems, we interpreted the fractal-order transition via the dark paint strokes in Pollock’s paintings as structured lines that follow a power law measured by the fractal dimension. We determined self-similarity in specific paintings, thereby demonstrating an important dependence on the scale of observations. We also characterized the fractal spectrum for the painting entitled Teri’s Find. We obtained similar spectra for Teri’s Find and Number 5, thereby suggesting that the fractal dimension cannot be rejected completely as a quantitative parameter for authenticating these artworks. -- Highlights: •We determined the degree of order in Jackson Pollock paintings using the Hausdorff–Besicovitch dimension. •We detected a fractal-order transition from Pollock’s paintings between 1947 and 1951. •We suggest that Jackson Pollock could have painted Teri’s Find.

  19. Paintings discrimination by mice: Different strategies for different paintings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Shigeru

    2017-09-01

    C57BL/6 mice were trained on simultaneous discrimination of paintings with multiple exemplars, using an operant chamber with a touch screen. The number of exemplars was successively increased up to six. Those mice trained in Kandinsky/Mondrian discrimination showed improved learning and generalization, whereas those trained in Picasso/Renoir discrimination showed no improvements in learning or generalization. These results suggest category-like discrimination in the Kandinsky/Mondrian task, but item-to-item discrimination in the Picasso/Renoir task. Mice maintained their discriminative behavior in a pixelization test with various paintings; however, mice in the Picasso/Renoir task showed poor performance in a test that employed scrambling processing. These results do not indicate that discrimination strategy for any Kandinsky/Mondrian combinations differed from that for any Picasso/Monet combinations but suggest the mice employed different strategies of discrimination tasks depending upon stimuli. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Toxicity of nanoparticles embedded in paints compared to pristine nanoparticles, in vitro study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smulders, Stijn; Luyts, Katrien; Brabants, Gert; Golanski, Luana; Martens, Johan; Vanoirbeek, Jeroen; Hoet, Peter H M

    2015-01-22

    The unique physicochemical properties of nanomaterials has led to an increased use in the paint and coating industry. In this study, the in vitro toxicity of three pristine ENPs (TiO2, Ag and SiO₂), three aged paints containing ENPs (TiO₂, Ag and SiO₂) and control paints without ENPs were compared. In a first experiment, cytotoxicity was assessed using a biculture consisting of human bronchial epithelial (16HBE14o-) cells and human monocytic cells (THP-1) to determine subtoxic concentrations. In a second experiment, a new coculture model of the lung-blood barrier consisting of 16HBE14o- cells, THP-1 and human lung microvascular endothelial cells (HLMVEC) was used to study pulmonary and extrapulmonary toxicity. The results show that the pristine TiO₂ and Ag ENPs have some cytotoxic effects at relative high dose, while pristine SiO₂ ENPs and all aged paints with ENPs and control paints do not. In the complex triculture model of the lung-blood barrier, no considerable changes were observed after exposure to subtoxic concentration of the different pristine ENPs and paint particles. In conclusion, we demonstrated that although pristine ENPs show some toxic effects, no significant toxicological effects were observed when they were embedded in a complex paint matrix. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Antifouling effect of two saturated copper coatings applied on carbon steel structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guiamet, P. S.

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Biofouling is the colonization of man-made substrata by sessile organisms. The aim of this paper is to evaluate the performance of two antifouling saturated copper coating. Bioassays were carried out at a harbor in Argentine (38°02’S- 57°32’W. During six months, one series of pipes and panels were removed monthly to estimate the recruitment of macro and microfouling species and immediately replaced by clean ones. Another series was removed from the beginning of exposure to monitor the development of the established community (accumulative pipes and panels along six months. Data obtained from control (without a saturated copper coating and saturated-copper coated pipes and panels were compared in order to estimate performance of the coating. One of two saturated copper coating demonstrated a good effect antifouling.

    El biofouling es la colonización por organismos sésiles en sistemas de sustratos hechos por el hombre. El objetivo fue evaluar el efecto antifouling de dos cubiertas saturadas de cobre. Los estudios se llevaron a cabo en un puerto de la Argentina (38°02’S-57°32’W. Durante seis meses, una serie de caños y paneles fueron removidos mensualmente para estimar el reclutamiento de las especies del macro y microfouling, y fueron sustituidos inmediatamente por caños y paneles limpios. La otra serie de caños y paneles fueron removidas desde el inicio de la exposición en forma acumulativa durante los seis meses, para seguir el desarrollo de la comunidad. Los datos obtenidos de los controles sin cubierta y de los caños y paneles con las cubiertas saturadas de cobre fueron comparados para estimar el comportamiento antifouling de las mismas. Una de las dos cubiertas saturadas de cobre demostró un buen efecto antifouling.

  2. Entrapment of subtilisin in ceramic sol-gel coating for antifouling applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regina, Viduthalai Rasheedkhan; Søhoel, Helmer; Lokanathan, Arcot Raghupathi; Bischoff, Claus; Kingshott, Peter; Revsbech, Niels Peter; Meyer, Rikke Louise

    2012-11-01

    Enzymes with antifouling properties are of great interest in developing nontoxic antifouling coatings. A bottleneck in developing enzyme-based antifouling coatings is to immobilize the enzyme in a suitable coating matrix without compromising its activity and stability. Entrapment of enzymes in ceramics using the sol-gel method is known to have several advantages over other immobilization methods. The sol-gel method can be used to make robust coatings, and the aim of this study was to explore if sol-gel technology can be used to develop robust coatings harboring active enzymes for antifouling applications. We successfully entrapped a protease, subtilisin (Savinase, Novozymes), in a ceramic coating using a sol-gel method. The sol-gel formulation, when coated on a stainless steel surface, adhered strongly and cured at room temperature in less than 8 h. The resultant coating was smoother and less hydrophobic than stainless steel. Changes in the coating's surface structure, thickness and chemistry indicate that the coating undergoes gradual erosion in aqueous medium, which results in release of subtilisin. Subtilisin activity in the coating increased initially, and then gradually decreased. After 9 months, 13% of the initial enzyme activity remained. Compared to stainless steel, the sol-gel-coated surfaces with active subtilisin were able to reduce bacterial attachment of both Gram positive and Gram negative bacteria by 2 orders of magnitude. Together, our results demonstrate that the sol-gel method is a promising coating technology for entrapping active enzymes, presenting an interesting avenue for enzyme-based antifouling solutions.

  3. Antifoulant (butyltin and copper) concentrations in sediments from the Great Barrier Reef World Heritage Area, Australia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haynes, David; Loong, Dominica

    2002-01-01

    Antifoulant concentrations are generally low in the Great Barrier Reef, although ship grounding sites present a previously unidentified significant source of antifoulant pollutants in the Great Barrier Reef. - Antifoulant concentrations were determined in marine sediments collected from commercial harbours, marinas, mooring locations on mid-shelf continental islands, and outer reef sites in four regions within the Great Barrier Reef World Heritage Area in 1999. Highest copper concentrations were present in sediments collected from commercial harbour sampling sites (28-233 μg Cu g -1 dry wt.). In contrast, copper concentrations in sediments collected from boat mooring sites on mid-shelf continental islands and outer reef sites were at background concentrations (i.e. -1 dry wt.). Butyltin was only detectable in four of the 42 sediments sampled for analysis, and was only present in sediments collected from commercial harbours (18-1275 ng Sn g -1 dry wt.) and from marinas (4-5 ng Sn g -1 dry wt.). The detection of tributyltin at marina sites implies that this antifoulant may continue to be used illegally on the hulls of smaller recreational vessels. Sediment samples were also collected opportunistically from the site of a 22,000 t cargo ship grounding in May 1999 at Heath Reef, in the far northern Great Barrier Reef. Butyltin concentrations were grossly elevated (660-340,000 ng Sn g -1 dry wt.) at the grounding site. The impact of residual antifoulants at large ship grounding sites should be recognised as a significant, long-term environmental problem unless antfoulant clean-up strategies are undertaken

  4. Study of drying process of paint by dynamic speckle with B/D pixel counting technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balamurugan, R.; Rajarajan, G.

    2017-11-01

    The aim of the work is the assessment of drying process of latex paint by dynamic Laser speckle method. The basic concept of dynamic speckle technique is described. Laser light scattering by water borne sample is a time dependent surface activity. The variation of laser speckle intensity is due to the change of refractive index and the particle movements of the latex paint. A novel method, B/D counting technique to measure the dynamic activity of drying paint using co-occurrence matrix of Time History of Speckle Pattern (THSP) is presented. The result of drying process of latex paint by dynamic laser speckle method is compared with the gravimetric method and agreed well.

  5. Antifouling Properties of Fluoropolymer Brushes toward Organic Polymers: The Influence of Composition, Thickness, Brush Architecture, and Annealing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhanhua; Zuilhof, Han

    2016-07-05

    Fluoropolymer brushes are widely used to prevent nonspecific adsorption of commercial polymeric or biological materials due to their strongly hydrophobic character. Herein, a series of fluoropolymer brushes with different compositions, thicknesses and molecular architectures was prepared via surface-initiated atom transfer radical polymerization (ATRP). Subsequently, the antifouling properties of these fluoropolymer brushes against organic polymers were studied in detail using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and atomic force microscopy (AFM) measurements and polystyrene as a representative fouling polymer. Among all of the molecular architectures studied, homopolymerized methacrylate-based fluoropolymer brushes (PMAF17) show the best antifouling properties. Annealing the fluoropolymer brushes improves the antifouling property dramatically due to the reregulated surface composition. These fluoropolymer brushes can be combined with, e.g., micro- and nanostructuring and other advanced materials properties to yield even better long-term antifouling behavior under harsh environments.

  6. Conservation problems with paintings containing fluorescent layers of paint

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefanie De Winter

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available L’artiste moderne cherche continuellement de nouvelles techniques. Des nouveaux matériaux tels que l’éponge, le polyester, le sable, etc. sont devenus courants. Ces développements amènent de nouveaux problèmes dans le domaine de la conservation (préventive des matériaux en question. Chaque matériau doit être analysé individuellement afin de préserver  le mieux possible l’intention de l’artiste à long terme. La présente recherche concerne des matériaux très récents: les pigments et les couleurs fluorescentes. Ces derniers n’ont fait leur apparition qu’au vingtième siècle. Pour cette raison les données concernant leur dégradation et leur conservation sont peu nombreuses. La majorité des tableaux fluorescents sont conçus pour être montrés sous éclairage UV. En cas de dommage, si l’œuvre a besoin d’être retouchée, ceci pose un grand problème esthétique. La retouche devient visible sous les lampes UV. La première partie de la recherche concerne la composition des différentes sortes de pigments et de peintures. Par la suite, les différentes causes de dégradation- lumière UV, chaleur, etc.- sont analysées en détail. Pour conclure, un possible remède est proposé.In modern art we can see that artists are breaking with traditional techniques. New materials like sponge, polyester, sand, etc. are being used. This causes a lot of new problems in the (preventive conservation of works containing these materials. Every material needs to be researched individually so the exact intention of the artist can be preserved for a (relatively long period. My research is about very recent materials: fluorescent pigments and paints. These only started to be used by artists from the 60’s. That's why there is not much information about their aging and ways to (preventively conserve them. A lot of fluorescent paintings are meant to be shown under UV-light. If a fluorescent painting has damage and needs to be retouched

  7. Hydrogel brushes grafted from stainless steel via surface-initiated atom transfer radical polymerization for marine antifouling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Jingjing, E-mail: jjwang1@hotmail.com; Wei, Jun

    2016-09-30

    Highlights: • Crosslinked hydrogel brushes were grafted from SS surfaces for marine antifouling. • All brush-coated SS surfaces could effectively reduce the adhesion of biofouling. • The antifouling efficacy increased with the crosslinking density of hydrogels. - Abstract: Crosslinked hydrogel brushes were grafted from stainless steel (SS) surfaces for marine antifouling. The brushes were prepared by surface-initiated atom transfer radical polymerization (SI-ATRP) of 2-methacryloyloxyethyl phosphorylcholine (MPC) and poly(ethylene glycol) methyl ether methacrylate (PEGMA) respectively with different fractions of crosslinker in the feed. The grafted layers prepared with different thickness were characterized by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), atomic force microscopy (AFM), ellipsometry and water contact angle measurements. With the increase in the fraction of crosslinker in the feed, the thickness of the grafted layer increased and the surface became smooth. All the brush-coated SS surfaces could effectively reduce the adhesion of bacteria and microalgae and settlement of barnacle cyprids, as compared to the pristine SS surface. The antifouling efficacy of the PEGMA polymer (PPEGMA)-grafted surface was higher than that of the MPC polymer (PMPC)-grafted surfaces. Furthermore, the crosslinked hydrogel brush-grafted surfaces exhibited better fouling resistance than the non-crosslinked polymer brush-grafted surfaces, and the antifouling efficacy increased with the crosslinking density. These hydrogel coatings of low toxicity and excellent anti-adhesive characteristics suggested their useful applications as environmentally friendly antifouling coatings.

  8. Preparation of Water-Displacing Paint.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-10-27

    mixed in specific proportional amounts and a binder of silicone alkyd resin is completely dissolved therein. A small quantity of a titanate coupling...droplets cannot be entrapped in the coating after application. 5 The paint contains a significant portion of a silicone alkyd resin which serves as a...binder for the paint composition and provides the paint coating with its important physical characteristics. The silicone alkyd resin provides a polymer

  9. Paint Scaler. Innovative Technology Summary Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    None

    2000-01-01

    The Paint Scaler can collect paint samples quickly and efficiently for lab analysis. The Rotary Hammer Drill is a 24-V battery operated, 3/4-in. rotary hammer drill. When used with an optional chipping adapter, the Bosch Rotary Hammer Drill can be used to perform chipping and chiseling tasks such as paint removal from either concrete or metal surfaces. It is ultra-compact, lightweight with an ergonomic balanced grip. The battery operation gives the operator more flexibility during sampling activities

  10. Mercury exposure from interior latex paint.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agocs, M M; Etzel, R A; Parrish, R G; Paschal, D C; Campagna, P R; Cohen, D S; Kilbourne, E M; Hesse, J L

    1990-10-18

    Many paint companies have used phenylmercuric acetate as a preservative to prolong the shelf life of interior latex paint. In August 1989, acrodynia, a form of mercury poisoning, occurred in a child exposed to paint fumes in a home recently painted with a brand containing 4.7 mmol of mercury per liter (at that time the Environmental Protection Agency's recommended limit was 1.5 mmol or less per liter). To determine whether the recent use of that brand of paint containing phenylmercuric acetate was associated with elevated indoor-air and urinary mercury concentrations, we studied 74 "exposed" persons living in 19 homes recently painted with the brand and 28 "unexposed" persons living in 10 homes not recently painted with paint containing mercury. The paint samples from the homes of exposed persons contained a median of 3.8 mmol of mercury per liter, and air samples from the homes had a median mercury content of 10.0 nmol per cubic meter (range, less than 0.5 to 49.9). No mercury was detected in paint or air samples from the homes of unexposed persons. The median urinary mercury concentration was higher in the exposed persons (4.7 nmol of mercury per millimole of creatinine; range, 1.4 to 66.5) than in the unexposed persons (1.1 nmol per millimole; range, 0.02 to 3.9; P less than 0.001). Urinary mercury concentrations within the range that we found in exposed persons have been associated with symptomatic mercury poisoning. We found that potentially hazardous exposure to mercury had occurred among persons whose homes were painted with a brand of paint containing mercury at concentrations approximately 2 1/2 times the Environmental Protection Agency's recommended limit.

  11. The colors of paintings and viewers' preferences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nascimento, Sérgio M C; Linhares, João M M; Montagner, Cristina; João, Catarina A R; Amano, Kinjiro; Alfaro, Catarina; Bailão, Ana

    2017-01-01

    One hypothesis to explain the aesthetics of paintings is that it depends on the extent to which they mimic natural image statistics. In fact, paintings and natural scenes share several statistical image regularities but the colors of paintings seem generally more biased towards red than natural scenes. Is the particular option for colors in each painting, even if less naturalistic, critical for perceived beauty? Here we show that it is. In the experiments, 50 naïve observers, unfamiliar with the 10 paintings tested, could rotate the color gamut of the paintings and select the one producing the best subjective impression. The distributions of angles obtained are described by normal distributions with maxima deviating, on average, only 7 degrees from the original gamut orientation and full width at half maximum just above the threshold to perceive a chromatic change in the paintings. Crucially, for data pooled across observers and abstract paintings the maximum of the distribution was at zero degrees, i.e., the same as the original. This demonstrates that artists know what chromatic compositions match viewers' preferences and that the option for less naturalistic colors does not constrain the aesthetic value of paintings. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Work Management Manual - Blast and Paint General

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-08-01

    material which accelerates the har- dening of certain coatinss. Acoustic paint - paint which absorbs or deadens sound . Acrylic resin-a clear resin...AUG 1983 2. REPORT TYPE N/A 3. DATES COVERED - 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Work Managemaent Manual - Blast and Paint General 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER...WORK MANAGEMENT MANUAL BLAST/ PAINT GENERAL INDEX SECTION PAGE 1.0 .1 .2 .3 .4 2.0 .1 .2 .3 .4 .5 .6 .8 .9 3.0 .1 4.0 .1 5.0 .1 7.0 .1 .3 8.0 SCOPE PLANT

  13. Enhancing performance and surface antifouling properties of polysulfone ultrafiltration membranes with salicylate-alumoxane nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mokhtari, Samaneh; Rahimpour, Ahmad; Shamsabadi, Ahmad Arabi; Habibzadeh, Setareh; Soroush, Masoud

    2017-01-01

    To improve the hydrophilicity and antifouling properties of polysulfone (PS) ultrafiltration membranes, we studied the use of salicylate-alumoxane (SA) nanoparticles as a novel hydrophilic additive. The effects of SA nanoparticles on the membrane characteristics and performance were investigated in terms of membrane structure, permeation flux, solute rejection, hydrophilicity, and antifouling ability. The new mixed-matrix membranes (MMMs) possess asymmetric structures. They have smaller finger-like pores and smoother surfaces than the neat PS membranes. The embedment of SA nanoparticles in the polymer matrix and the improvement of surface hydrophilicity were investigated. Ultrafiltration experiments indicated that the pure-water flux of the new MMMs initially increases with SA nanoparticles loading followed by a decrease at high loadings. Higher BSA solution flux was achieved for the MMMs compared to the neat PS membranes. Membranes with 1 wt.% SA nanoparticles exhibit the highest flux recovery ratio of 87% and the lowest irreversible fouling of 13%.

  14. Antifouling effects of the periostracum on algal spore settlement in the mussel Mytilus edulis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ji-Young Kang

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In nature, marine mussels (Mytilus edulis suffer less fouling colonization on the newly formed sides of their shells. Using settlement assays with algal spores of Porphyra suborbiculata, we determined that spore attachment and germination on the periostracum decreased to 36.8 and 3.3 %, respectively. Additionally, the spore settlement was considerably diminished by periostracum dichloromethane extracts containing 19 % oleamide, a major antifouling compound. A scanning electron micrograph of the surface revealed a regular ripple structure with approximately 1.4 μm between ripples. Based on these results, mussel periostraca or their associated biomimetic materials may become environmentally friendly, antifouling agents for preventing the settlement of soft foulants.

  15. Antifouling briarane type diterpenoids from South China Sea gorgonians Dichotella gemmacea

    KAUST Repository

    Sun, Jian Fan

    2013-01-01

    Our continued investigation on the South China Sea gorgonian Dichotella gemmacea led to the isolation of 16 new briarane-type diterpenoids, dichotellides F-U (1-16), along with 18 known analogues (17-34). Their structures were determined by MS, 1D and 2D NMR spectra analyses and by comparison with those reported in literature. The absolute configuration of 15 was confirmed by single-crystal X-ray diffraction data. The antifouling test showed that compounds 3, 4, 6-11, 16, and 23 had potent antifouling activities at nontoxic concentrations with EC50 values of 4.1, 1.82, 6.3, 7.6, 4.6, 1.2, 5.6, 0.79, 2.0, and 0.2 μg/mL, respectively. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Meroditerpenoids and derivatives from the brown alga Cystoseira baccata and their antifouling properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mokrini, Redouane; Mesaoud, Mohammed Ben; Daoudi, Mohammed; Hellio, Claire; Maréchal, Jean-Philippe; El Hattab, Mohamed; Ortalo-Magné, Annick; Piovetti, Louis; Culioli, Gérald

    2008-11-01

    The brown alga Cystoseira baccata harvested along the Atlantic coasts of Morocco yielded seven new meroditerpenoids (1-4) and derivatives (5-7), whose chemical structures were elucidated mainly by 2D NMR and mass spectrometry. Surprisingly, for all these compounds, which possess a bicyclo[4.3.0]nonane ring system, a trans fusion of the bicyclic system was deduced by stereochemical studies even though such compounds isolated from Cystoseira species are known to have a typical cis orientation for the bridgehead methyls. The antifouling and antibacterial activities of compounds 1-5 and 7 were evaluated, as well as their toxicity toward nontarget species. Compounds 4, 5, and 7 showed antifouling activities against growth of microalgae, macroalgal settlement, and mussel phenoloxidase activity, while being nontoxic to larvae of sea urchins and oysters.

  17. Role of Monomer Sequence, Hydrogen Bonding and Mesoscale Architecture in Marine Antifouling Coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segalman, Rachel

    Polypeptoids are non-natural, sequence specific polymers that offer the opportunity to probe the effect of monomer sequence, chirality, and chain shape on self-assembly and surface properties. Additionally, polypeptoid synthesis is more scaleable than traditional polypeptides suggesting their utility in large area applications. We have designed efficient marine anti-fouling coatings by using triblock copolymer scaffolds to which polypeptoids are tethered in order to tune both the modulus and surface energies with great precision. Surprisingly, when short sequences are tethered to a polymer backbone, polypeptoids consistently outperform analogous polypeptides in antifouling properties. We hypothesize that the hydrogen bonding inherent to the polypeptide backbone drives the observed differences in performance. We also find that the polymer scaffold housing the polypeptoids also plays a crucial role in directing surface presentation and therefore the overall coating properties.

  18. Iron-bearing minerals of a rupestrian painting from the Manantial Solís site, Cardiel Lake, Patagonia, Argentina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duarte Cavalcante, Luis Carlos; Ferraro, Lorena; Hugon, Paulette; Soares Meneses Lage, Maria Conceição; Fabris, José Domingos

    2017-11-01

    The archaeological site Manantial Solís is located on shores of the Cardiel Lake, Santa Cruz Province, Patagonia, Argentina. The main characteristic of this site is the occurrence of 251 rupestrian paintings, namely abstract figures, anthropomorphic and zoomorphic motifs, painted in different hues of red, but also in yellow, orange, pink, violet and white; these paintings are often formed by overlapping pictorial motifs. The basaltic rock-wall supporting these graphisms has been naturally degraded and, as a consequence, covered with saline efflorescence. The chemical and mineralogical analyses of a micro-sample from a red rupestrian painting were made in the laboratory by (i) energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence; (ii) CHN elemental analysis and (iii) 57Fe transmission Mössbauer spectroscopy at 298 K and 110 K, in an effort to identify the main iron-bearing minerals composing the painting pigments. The stratigraphy of the paint layer was investigated on a polished cross-section. From the Mössbauer spectra of this red painting, two sextets assignable to hematite ( α Fe2O3) were identified. The Fe3+ central doublet is assumed to be due to superparamagnetic phases, more likely as iron (oxyhydr)oxides (likely including some goethite, α FeOOH) in very small particles and paramagnetic iron in the crystalline structure of aluminosilicates. The Fe2+ doublet was interpreted as being due to the basalt rock support of this prehistoric painting.

  19. Laser ablation of paint in nuclear industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brygo, Francois; Semerok, Alexandre; Weulersse, Jean-Marc; Thro, Pierre-Yves; Oltra, Roland; Decobert, Guy

    2006-01-01

    Nuclear dismantling faces the challenge of paint removal on large surfaces of painted walls. The conventional methods for paint stripping on concrete walls are mainly based on mechanical grinder and lead to an important volume of aerosols and wastes. Laser ablation has been evaluated as a promising method for paint removal with a number of advantages. The method reduces considerably the waste volume as the removal of paint is selective. The ablated matter can be collected by aerosol aspiration/filtration. The automation of the process can provide a higher capacity of paint removal. Laser ablation of paint was under our extensive studies. Laser ablation with different nanosecond repetition rate lasers was comparatively studied to understand the ablation mechanisms, and to obtain the highest efficiency of paint removal. The investigations were made with three Q-Switched Nd:YAG lasers (λ = 532 nm and λ = 1.064 μm). The different pulse durations (5 ns and 100 ns) demonstrated the different ablation regimes. Ablation with long pulses (100 ns) provided the best removal efficiency while the short ones (5 ns) decreased the ablation threshold fluence. It was demonstrated that the pulse repetition rate increasing in the 20 Hz - 10 kHz range induced heat accumulation in the paint. It resulted in ablation efficiency increase with a large decrease in the ablation threshold fluence. Laser ablation in the 0 - 10 J / cm 2 fluence range was investigated. Various paints were under investigation to obtain the maximum efficiency of paint removal for each specific experimental case. The ejected matter recording with a high speed imaging system allows to analyse the laser-matter interaction. (authors)

  20. The interactive effects of the antifouling herbicides Irgarol 1051 and Diuron on the seagrass Zostera marina (L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chesworth, J C; Donkin, M E; Brown, M T

    2004-02-25

    The herbicides Irgarol 1051 (2-(tert-butylamino)-4-cyclopropylamino)-6-(methylthio)-1,3,5-triazine) and Diuron (3-(3',4'-dichlorophenyl)-1,1-dimethylurea) are commonly incorporated into antifouling paints to boost the efficacy of the compound towards algae. Previous investigations have identified environmental concentrations of these herbicides as being a threat to non-target organisms, such as seagrasses. Their individual toxicity has been assessed, but they can co-occur and interact, potentially increasing their toxicity and the threat posed to seagrass meadows. Chlorophyll fluorescence (Fv:Fm) and leaf specific biomass ratio (representing plant growth) were examined in Zostera marina L. after a 10-day exposure to the individual herbicides. The EC20 for each herbicide was determined and these then used in herbicide mixtures to assess their interactive effects. Irgarol 1051 was found to be more toxic than Diuron with lowest observable effect concentrations for Fv:Fm reduction of 0.5 and 1.0 +/- microg/l and 10-day EC50 values of 1.1 and 3.2 microg/l, respectively. Plants exposed to Irgarol 1051 and Diuron showed a significant reduction in growth at concentrations of 1.0 and 5.0 microg/l, respectively. When Z. marina was exposed to mixtures, the herbicides commonly interacted additively or antagonistically, and no significant further reduction in photosynthetic efficiency was found at any concentration when compared to plants exposed to the individual herbicides. However, on addition of the Diuron EC20 to varying Irgarol 1051 concentrations and the Irgarol 1051 EC20 to varying Diuron concentrations, significant reductions in Fv:Fm were noted at an earlier stage. The growth of plants exposed to Diuron plus the Irgarol 1051 EC20 were significantly reduced when compared to plants exposed to Diuron alone, but only at the lower concentrations. Growth of plants exposed to Irgarol 1051 and the Diuron EC20 showed no significant reduction when compared to the growth of

  1. Energy recycling by co-combustion of coal and recovered paint solids from automobile paint operations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suriyawong, Achariya; Magee, Rogan; Peebles, Ken; Biswas, Pratim

    2009-05-01

    During the past decade, there has been substantial interest in recovering energy from many unwanted byproducts from industries and municipalities. Co-combustion of these products with coal seems to be the most cost-effective approach. The combustion process typically results in emissions of pollutants, especially fine particles and trace elements. This paper presents the results of an experimental study of particulate emission and the fate of 13 trace elements (arsenic [As], barium [Ba], cadmium [Cd], chromium [Cr], copper [Cu], cobalt [Co], manganese [Mn], molybdenum [Mo], nickel [Ni], lead [Pb], mercury [Hg], vanadium [V], and zinc [Zn]) during combustion tests of recovered paint solids (RPS) and coal. The emissions from combustions of coal or RPS alone were compared with those of co-combustion of RPS with subbituminous coal. The distribution/partitioning of these toxic elements between a coarse-mode ash (particle diameter [dp] > 0.5 microm), a submicrometer-mode ash (dp combustion of RPS alone were lower in concentration and smaller in size than that from combustion of coal. However, co-combustion of RPS and coal increased the formation of submicrometer-sized particles because of the higher reducing environment in the vicinity of burning particles and the higher volatile chlorine species. Hg was completely volatilized in all cases; however, the fraction in the oxidized state increased with co-combustion. Most trace elements, except Zn, were retained in ash during combustion of RPS alone. Mo was mostly retained in all samples. The behavior of elements, except Mn and Mo, varied depending on the fuel samples. As, Ba, Cr, Co, Cu, and Pb were vaporized to a greater extent from cocombustion of RPS and coal than from combustion of either fuel. Evidence of the enrichment of certain toxic elements in submicrometer particles has also been observed for As, Cd, Cr, Cu, and Ni during co-combustion.

  2. High-resolution fluorescence mapping of impurities in historical zinc oxide pigments: hard X-ray nanoprobe applications to the paints of Pablo Picasso

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casadio, Francesca; Rose, Volker

    2013-04-01

    Here for the first time we describe the use of high resolution nanoprobe X-ray fluorescence (XRF) mapping for the analysis of artists' paints, hierarchically complex materials typically composed of binder, pigments, fillers, and other additives. The work undertaken at the nanoprobe sought to obtain highly spatially resolved, highly sensitive mapping of metal impurities (Pb, Cd, Fe, and other metals) in submicron particles of zinc oxide pigments used in early 20th century artists' tube paints and enamel paints, with particular emphasis on Ripolin, a popular brand of French house paint used extensively by Pablo Picasso and some of his contemporaries. Analysis revealed that the Zn oxide particles only contain a little Fe, proving that the highest quality Zn oxide pigment, free of Pb and Cd, was used for Ripolin house paints as well as artists' paints. Nanoprobe XRF mapping also demonstrated that artists' tube paints generally have more abundant fillers and additional whites (based on Pb, Ti, Ca) than Ripolin paints, which contain mostly pure zinc oxide. The chemical characterization of paints at the nanoscale opens the path to a better understanding of their fabrication and chemical reactivity.

  3. High-resolution fluorescence mapping of impurities in historical zinc oxide pigments: hard X-ray nanoprobe applications to the paints of Pablo Picasso

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Casadio, Francesca [The Art Institute of Chicago, Chicago, IL (United States); Rose, Volker [Argonne National Laboratory, Advanced Photon Source and Center for Nanoscale Materials, Argonne, IL (United States)

    2013-04-15

    Here for the first time we describe the use of high resolution nanoprobe X-ray fluorescence (XRF) mapping for the analysis of artists' paints, hierarchically complex materials typically composed of binder, pigments, fillers, and other additives. The work undertaken at the nanoprobe sought to obtain highly spatially resolved, highly sensitive mapping of metal impurities (Pb, Cd, Fe, and other metals) in submicron particles of zinc oxide pigments used in early 20th century artists' tube paints and enamel paints, with particular emphasis on Ripolin, a popular brand of French house paint used extensively by Pablo Picasso and some of his contemporaries. Analysis revealed that the Zn oxide particles only contain a little Fe, proving that the highest quality Zn oxide pigment, free of Pb and Cd, was used for Ripolin house paints as well as artists' paints. Nanoprobe XRF mapping also demonstrated that artists' tube paints generally have more abundant fillers and additional whites (based on Pb, Ti, Ca) than Ripolin paints, which contain mostly pure zinc oxide. The chemical characterization of paints at the nanoscale opens the path to a better understanding of their fabrication and chemical reactivity. (orig.)

  4. Imprinting of metal receptors into multilayer polyelectrolyte films: fabrication and applications in marine antifouling

    OpenAIRE

    Puniredd, S.R.; Janczewski, D.; Go, D.P.; Zhu, X.; Guo, S.; Teo, S.L-M.; Lee, S.S.C.; Vancso, Gyula J.

    2015-01-01

    Polymeric films constructed using the layer-by-layer (LbL) fabrication process were employed as a platform for metal ion immobilization and applied as a marine antifouling coating. The novel Cu2+ ion imprinting process described is based on the use of metal ion templates and LbL multilayer covalent cross-linking. Custom synthesized, peptide mimicking polycations composed of histidine grafted poly(allylamine) (PAH) to bind metal ions, and methyl ester containing polyanions for convenient cross...

  5. Quantifying bacterial adhesion on antifouling polymer brushes via single-cell force spectroscopy

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Rodriguez-Emmenegger, Cesar; Janel, S.; de los Santos Pereira, Andres; Bruns, M.; Lafont, F.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 6, č. 31 (2015), s. 5740-5751 ISSN 1759-9954 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GJ15-09368Y; GA MŠk(CZ) ED1.1.00/02.0109 Grant - others:OPPK(XE) CZ.2.16/3.1.00/21545 Program:OPPK Institutional support: RVO:61389013 Keywords : antifouling polymer brushes * single-cell force spectroscopy * bacterial adhesion Subject RIV: BO - Biophysics Impact factor: 5.687, year: 2015

  6. Encapsulation of Antifouling Organic Biocides in Poly(lactic acid) Nanoparticles

    OpenAIRE

    Kamtsikakis, Aristotelis; Kavetsou, Eleni; Chronaki, Konstantina; Kiosidou, Evangelia; Pavlatou, Evangelia; Karana, Alexandra; Papaspyrides, Constantine; Detsi, Anastasia; Karantonis, Antonis; Vouyiouka, Stamatina

    2017-01-01

    The scope of the current research was to assess the feasibility of encapsulating three commercial antifouling compounds, Irgarol 1051, Econea and Zinc pyrithione, in biodegradable poly(lactic acid) (PLA) nanoparticles. The emulsification–solvent evaporation technique was herein utilized to manufacture nanoparticles with a biocide:polymer ratio of 40%. The loaded nanoparticles were analyzed for their size and size distribution, zeta potential, encapsulation efficiency and thermal properties, w...

  7. Isolation of marine fungi Aspergillus sp. and its in vitro antifouling activity against marine bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thiyagarajan, Santhananmari; Bavya, Manoharan; Jamal, Alruwaili

    2016-09-01

    Biofouling is considered as a main issue of concern in aquatic environment causing severe economic loss and pollution. The aim of the present study was to isolate marine fungus antagonistic to biofouling bacteria and to define antifouling compounds present in it. Using standard plate method five predominant biofouling bacteria viz., Methylococcus sp., Flavobacterium sp., Marinococcus sp., Serratia sp. and Pseudomonas sp. were isolated from marine solid substances on Zobell's agar. Tolerance range of these bacteria to NaCl was 2-10%. Isolation of fungi from mangrove and estuarine sediments and their screening identified Aspergillus sp. EF4 as a potential isolate. This isolate caused inhibition of all the five test bacterial cultures measuring zone diameters respectively of 11, 16, 12, 13 and 11mm.? Subsequent to submerged fermentation using shaking flask method this fungus produced bioactive compounds within 5 days. The culture parameters optimized were raffinose as carbon source, yeast extract as lone nitrogen source, pH up to 9.0 and temperature up to 40?C. Antifouling compounds of culture filtrate were separated and detected by a three-step procedure involving thin layer chromatography, bioautography and preparative TLC. The in vitro assay involving glass slide-wooden stick-biofilm method revealed that these compounds could cause inhibition and destruction of bacteria to an extent of 2.16 x 104 CFU ml-1 and 2.46 x 104 CFU ml-1 respectively while growth of bacteria in control beaker was enumerated to be 4.41 x 104 CFU ml-1. High performance liquid chromatography of culture filtrate indicated probable principal antifouling compound as Fumonisin B2. Isolation of antagonistic marine fungus from Indian coast and detection of its antifouling compound would help in planning effective strategies for controlling biofouling in marine environment.

  8. Degradation kinetics of a potent antifouling agent, butenolide, under various environmental conditions

    KAUST Repository

    Chen, Lianguo

    2015-01-01

    © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. Here, we investigated the degradation kinetics of butenolide, a promising antifouling compound, under various environmental conditions. The active ingredient of the commercial antifoulant SeaNine 211, 4,5-dichloro-2-n-octyl-4-isothiazolin-3-one (DCOIT), was used as positive control. The results showed that the degradation rate increased with increasing temperature. Half-lives of butenolide at 4. °C, 25. °C and 40. °C were. >64. d, 30.5. d and 3.9. d, respectively. Similar half-lives were recorded for DCOIT: >64. d at 4. °C, 27.9. d at 25. °C and 4.5. d at 40. °C. Exposure to sunlight accelerated the degradation of both butenolide and DCOIT. The photolysis half-lives of butenolide and DCOIT were 5.7. d and 6.8. d, respectively, compared with 9.7. d and 14.4. d for the dark control. Biodegradation led to the fastest rate of butenolide removal from natural seawater, with a half-life of 0.5. d, while no obvious degradation was observed for DCOIT after incubation for 4. d. The biodegradative ability of natural seawater for butenolide was attributed mainly to marine bacteria. During the degradation of butenolide and DCOIT, a gradual decrease in antifouling activity was observed, as indicated by the increased settlement percentage of cypris larvae from barnacle Balanus amphitrite. Besides, increased cell growth of marine diatom Skeletonema costatum demonstrated that the toxicity of seawater decreased gradually without generation of more toxic by-products. Overall, rapid degradation of butenolide in natural seawater supported its claim as a promising candidate for commercial antifouling industry.

  9. pH and redox responsive polymer for antifouling surface coating

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Kang Seok [Department of Chemical and Biological Engineering, Korea National University of Transportation, Chungju, 380-702 (Korea, Republic of); In, Insik, E-mail: in1@ut.ac.kr [Department of Polymer Science and Engineering, Korea National University of Transportation, Chungju, 380-702 (Korea, Republic of); Department of IT Convergence, Korea National University of Transportation, Chungju, 380-702 (Korea, Republic of); Park, Sung Young, E-mail: parkchem@ut.ac.kr [Department of Chemical and Biological Engineering, Korea National University of Transportation, Chungju, 380-702 (Korea, Republic of); Department of IT Convergence, Korea National University of Transportation, Chungju, 380-702 (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-09-15

    Graphical abstract: Dual responsive surface with highly fouling resistance with the formation of a pH-dependent benzoic imine and redox-sensitive disulfide bond has been developed using a catechol/benzoic acid conjugated polymer and disulfide containing amine end-capped Pluronic. - Highlights: • Stimuli-responsive antifouling surface was prepared by layer-by-layer method. • The surface contact angle showed responsive behavior via pH and redox environments. • Simply coated polymer completely prevented cell adhesion onto surfaces. - Abstract: A dual environmentally responsive polymer with a highly fouling-resistant surface has been developed using poly[(hydroxyethyl methacrylate-g-benzoic acid)-co-(dimethylaminoethyl methacrylate-g-2-chloro-3′, 4′-dihydroxyacetophenone)] [poly[(HEMA-BA)-co-(DMAEMA-CCDP)], P1] as a coating material. The redox-sensitive disulfide containing amine end-capped Pluronic [(Plu-S-S-NH{sub 2}), P2] was then introduced over the P1 surface via the formation of a pH-dependent benzoic imine bond, where the polyethylene glycol (PEG) acts as an antifouling agent. The successful adhesion of P1 and the deposition of P2 onto the P1-coated substrate were ascertained with X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). In vitro cell adhesion followed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) indicated an excellent antifouling nature of the P2 layer. Consequently, the reattachment of Hela cells was strongly observed when P2 layered on P1-coated substrates (P1–P2) was pretreated at lower pH and high redox conditions. The P1–P2 bilayer-coated substrate has exhibited a great advantage in its effective antifouling behaviors with well-tuned cell attachment and detachment.

  10. Zwitterionic sulfobetaine polymer-immobilized surface by simple tyrosinase-mediated grafting for enhanced antifouling property.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Ho Joon; Lee, Yunki; Phuong, Le Thi; Seon, Gyeung Mi; Kim, Eunsuk; Park, Jong Chul; Yoon, Hyunjin; Park, Ki Dong

    2017-10-01

    Introducing antifouling property to biomaterial surfaces has been considered an effective method for preventing the failure of implanted devices. In order to achieve this, the immobilization of zwitterions on biomaterial surfaces has been proven to be an excellent way of improving anti-adhesive potency. In this study, poly(sulfobetaine-co-tyramine), a tyramine-conjugated sulfobetaine polymer, was synthesized and simply grafted onto the surface of polyurethane via a tyrosinase-mediated reaction. Surface characterization by water contact angle measurements, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and atomic force microscopy demonstrated that the zwitterionic polymer was successfully introduced onto the surface of polyurethane and remained stable for 7days. In vitro studies revealed that poly(sulfobetaine-co-tyramine)-coated surfaces dramatically reduced the adhesion of fibrinogen, platelets, fibroblasts, and S. aureus by over 90% in comparison with bare surfaces. These results proved that polyurethane surfaces grafted with poly(sulfobetaine-co-tyramine) via a tyrosinase-catalyzed reaction could be promising candidates for an implantable medical device with excellent bioinert abilities. Antifouling surface modification is one of the key strategy to prevent the thrombus formation or infection which occurs on the surface of biomaterial after transplantation. Although there are many methods to modify the surface have been reported, necessity of simple modification technique still exists to apply for practical applications. The purpose of this study is to modify the biomaterial's surface by simply immobilizing antifouling zwitterion polymer via enzyme tyrosinase-mediated reaction which could modify versatile substrates in mild aqueous condition within fast time period. After modification, pSBTA grafted surface becomes resistant to various biological factors including proteins, cells, and bacterias. This approach appears to be a promising method to impart antifouling property on

  11. Characterization of Aerosols Generated by nano-second Laser Ablation of an Acrylic Paint

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dewalle, P.; Vendel, J.; Dewalle, P.; Weulersse, J.M.; Dewalle, P.; Herve, Ph.; Dewalle, P.; Decobert, G.

    2010-01-01

    This study focuses on particles produced during laser ablation of a green colored acrylic wall paint, which is frequently used in industrial buildings and in particular in nuclear installations. Ablation is carried out with a Nd:YAG laser at a wavelength of 532 nm and a pulse duration of 5 ns, in a cell at ambient pressure and temperature, which is ventilated by filtered air. The number of particles emitted was measured with a Condensation Particle Counter (CPC) and their size with an Engine Exhaust Particle Sizer (or EEPS) for the nano-metric range, and an AEROSIZER (for the micrometric range). The mass and shape of particles were determined by sampling on filters as well as on the different impaction plates of a Low-Pressure Impactor (LPI). Two particle populations were detected: a population of aggregates of primary nano-particles with an electrical mobility diameter ranging from 30 to 150 nm, and a population of spherical submicron particles with an aerodynamic diameter ranging from 400 to 1000 nm. The spherical particles are mainly composed of titanium dioxide, and the aggregates most likely of carbon. The presence of two types of particles with different size distributions, shapes, and chemical compositions, implies that particles originating from the ablation of paint are formed by two different mechanisms: agglomeration in the case of the nano-metric aggregates, which is preceded by steps of nucleation, condensation, and coagulation of the primary particles, while the submicron spheres result from a direct ejection mechanism. (authors)

  12. Improved antifouling properties of polymer membranes using a ‘layer-by-layer’ mediated method

    KAUST Repository

    Chen, Lin

    2013-01-01

    Polymeric reverse osmosis membranes were modified with antifouling polymer brushes through a \\'layer by layer\\' (LBL) mediated method. Based on pure physical electrostatic interaction, the attachment of LBL films did not alter separation performance of the membranes. In addition, the incorporation of an LBL film also helped to amplify the number of potential reaction sites on the membrane surfaces for attachment of antifouling polymer brushes, which were then attached to the surface. Attachment of the brushes included two different approaches, grafting to and grafting from. Attenuated total reflectance-Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and water contact angle measurements showed successful growth of the LBL films and subsequently the polymer brushes. Using this method to modify reverse osmosis membranes, preliminary performance testing showed the antifouling properties of the as-modified membranes were much better than the virgin membrane with no significant loss in water flux and salt rejection. © 2013 The Royal Society of Chemistry.

  13. Preparation and antifouling property of polyurethane film modified by chondroitin sulfate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Huihui; Xue, Jing; Qian, Bin; Chen, Huaying; Zhu, Yonggang; Lan, Minbo

    2017-02-01

    An antifouling polyurethane film modified by chondroitin sulfate (PU-CS) was prepared by chemical grafting with N-Boc-1,3-propanediamine as a spacer. The different mass fraction of N-Boc-1,3-propanediamine was investigated to obtain PU-CS films with different CS grafting density. The surface properties of PU-CS films were comprehensively characterized. Proteins adsorption and glycosaminoglycans adhesion on films were evaluated. Moreover, inorganic salt deposition on film with highest CS grafting density (3.70 μg/cm2) was briefly investigated. The results showed that the increase of CS grafting density improved not only the hydrophilicity but the antifouling performance of films. The best antifouling film reduced the adsorption of fibrinogen (BFG), human serum albumin (HSA) and lysozyme (LYS) by 81.4%, 95.0% and 76.5%, respectively, and the adhesion of chondroitin (CS), heparin (HP) and hyaluronic acid (HA) by 70.6%, 87.4% and 81.3%, respectively. In addition, the co-adsorption of proteins and glycosaminoglycans reduced up to 86.9% and 75.5%, respectively. Changes in inorganic salt deposition after co-adsorption of proteins and glycosaminoglycans on PU-CS(3) suggested that the proteins promoted the inorganic salt deposition, while glycosaminoglycans inhibited the crystal growth. The negatively charged polysaccharides might promote the generation of smaller crystals which could be conducive to provide theoretical and practical guide to develop novel urinary stents with significant anti-encrustation properties.

  14. Multivalent anchoring and cross-linking of mussel-inspired antifouling surface coatings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Qiang; Becherer, Tobias; Mutihac, Radu-Cristian; Noeske, Paul-Ludwig Michael; Paulus, Florian; Haag, Rainer; Grunwald, Ingo

    2014-08-11

    In this work, we combine nature's amazing bioadhesive catechol with the excellent bioinert synthetic macromolecule hyperbranched polyglycerol (hPG) to prepare antifouling surfaces. hPG can be functionalized by different amounts of catechol groups for multivalent anchoring and cross-linking because of its highly branched architecture. The catecholic hPGs can be immobilized on various surfaces including metal oxides, noble metals, ceramics, and polymers via simple incubation procedures. The effect of the catechol amount on the immobilization, surface morphology, stability, and antifouling performance of the coatings was studied. Both anchoring and cross-linking interactions provided by catechols can enhance the stability of the coatings. When the catechol groups on the hPG are underrepresented, the tethering of the coating is not effective; while an overrepresentation of catechol groups leads to protein adsorption and cell adhesion. Thus, only a well-balanced amount of catechols as optimized and described in this work can supply the coatings with both good stability and antifouling ability.

  15. IMAGES OF POWER IN CONTEMPORARY NIGERIAN PAINTINGS ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DR. OKECHUKWU NWAFOR

    Yaba, Lagos State. Nigeria emmairoka67@gmail.com. +234(0)8034267433. Abstract. Contemporary Nigerian paintings are replete with images and notions of power and .... attempts to analyse the impact of power on Painting and its converse depiction of social life ..... colour permutations on canvas, or at least so it seems.

  16. Lead content in household paints in India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumar, Abhay; Gottesfeld, Perry

    2008-01-01

    Lead and its compounds are used in paints not only to impart colour but also to make it durable, corrosion resistant and to improve drying. Adverse health impacts of lead especially on children have led countries to restrict or ban its use in paints. While U.S. and other developed countries instituted measures to limit the use of lead in paints, some developing countries including India have failed to regulate their lead content. The present study was undertaken to determine the levels of lead in new latex (water-based) and enamel paints (oil-based) intended for residential use in India. A total of 69 paint samples (38 latex and 31 enamel samples) from six of the most popular brands were analysed for lead concentrations. While all latex paint samples contained low levels of lead, (i.e., well below 600 ppm as regulated by United States' Consumer Products Safety Commission) the enamel paint samples of all but one brand contained significant concentrations of lead, ranging up to 140,000 ppm. In fact 84% of the enamel paints tested exceeded 600 ppm whereas only 38 % of all samples (including latex and enamel types) exceeded this regulatory level

  17. Factors effecting paint performance on wood siding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christopher G. Hunt; R. Sam Williams; Mark Knaebe; Peter Sotos; Steven Lacher

    2009-01-01

    Several different studies are compared to assess the effectiveness of commercial water repellent preservatives (WRP’s) in the late 1990’s on vertical and horizontal siding. Besides WRP, variables included wood species, exposure location (Wisconsin or Mississippi), and solid color stain vs. primer + paint. Data on substrate checking and paint flaking are presented....

  18. Detecting Corrosion Under Paint and Insulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bastin, Gary L.

    2011-01-01

    Corrosion is a major concern at the Kennedy Space Center in Florida due to the proximity of the center to the Atlantic Ocean and to salt water lagoons. High humidity, salt fogs, and ocean breezes, provide an ideal environment in which painted steel structures become corroded. Maintenance of painted steel structures is a never-ending process.

  19. Roosters Rule: A Painted Paper Collage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brady, Susan

    2011-01-01

    On perusing American collage artist Eric Carle's book, "Rooster's Off to See the World," at an annual school book fair, the author, mesmerized by the carnival of colors and collage on each page, thought "What a wonderful visual aid for a combination painting and collage unit." Her first-graders were involved in a painting unit, and knowing their…

  20. Texton-based analysis of paintings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van der Maaten, L.J.P.; Postma, E.O.

    2010-01-01

    The visual examination of paintings is traditionally performed by skilled art historians using their eyes. Recent advances in intelligent systems may support art historians in determining the authenticity or date of creation of paintings. In this paper, we propose a technique for the examination of

  1. The Sign System in Chinese Landscape Paintings

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMahon, Cliff G.

    2003-01-01

    Paintings emerge from a culture field and must be interpreted in relation to the net of culture. A given culture will be implicated by the sign system used by the painter. Everyone agrees that in Chinese landscape paintings, the most important cultural bond is to ancient Chinese Taoism, and to a lesser degree, to Confucianism. Obviously, then, the…

  2. THz reflectometric imaging of medieval wall paintings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dandolo, Corinna Ludovica Koch; Jepsen, Peter Uhd

    2013-01-01

    Terahertz time-domain reflectometry has been applied to the investigation of a medieval Danish wall painting. The technique has been able to detect the presence of carbonblack layer on the surface of the wall painting and a buried insertion characterized by high reflectivity values has been found...

  3. PIXE analysis of historical paintings: Is the gain worth the risk?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calligaro, T.; Gonzalez, V.; Pichon, L.

    2015-01-01

    The PIXE analysis of easel paintings constitutes a challenging task. Despite recognized merits and a few emblematic applications, PIXE has never been routinely applied to these fragile, complex and precious targets. The present work discusses the place of PIXE in the study of easel paintings and opens up perspectives for a more systematic usage of this analytical technique. Progress achieved since decades in the implementation of PIXE to study such fragile cultural heritage artefacts is reviewed, notably at the LABEC laboratory in Italy and at the AGLAE facility of the C2RMF in France. Two specific techniques developed for paintings are detailed and exemplified on Renaissance painting masterpieces: differential PIXE for paint layers depth profiling and multi-scale elemental mapping for the imaging of pigment distribution. Beam-induced damage, a major concern, notably depends on the employed beam fluence in particle/cm 2 or μC/cm 2 . After recalling previous works on damage induced in chemical products comparable to pigments, we present the behaviour under different fluences of protons of a few MeV (1–300 μC/cm 2 ) of targets having high resemblance to historical easel paintings: pellets of specially synthesized lead white pigments, layers of lead white mixed with linseed oil and areas containing lead white of two 19th century paintworks. The results shed new lights on the behaviour of paintworks under the beam and pave the way to strategies for damage mitigation. In particular, the lowering of PIXE performance induced by the decrease of the beam fluence sets a trade-off between risk of damage and gained information which also impacts the PIXE scanning protocol for paintings. As an illustration of an adequate adjustment of this balance, we report the exploratory application of PIXE mapping to a large area of a 19th century easel painting without damage. The recorded elemental maps are compared to elemental maps collected on the same area using laboratory

  4. Emissions of odorous aldehydes from alkyd paint

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, John C. S.; Guo, Zhishi

    Aldehyde emissions are widely held responsible for the acrid after-odor of drying alkyd-based paint films. The aldehyde emissions from three different alkyd paints were measured in small environ-mental chambers. It was found that, for each gram of alkyd paint applied, more than 2 mg of aldehydes (mainly hexanal) were emitted during the curing (drying) period. Since no measurable hexanal was found in the original paint, it is suspected that the aldehydes emitted were produced by autoxidation of the unsaturated fatty acid esters in the alkyd resins. The hexanal emission rate was simulated by a model assuming that the autoxidation process was controlled by a consecutive first-order reaction mechanism. Using the emission rate model, indoor air quality simulation indicated that the hexanal emissions can result in prolonged (several days) exposure risk to occupants. The occupant exposure to aldehydes emitted from alkyd paint also could cause sensory irritation and other health concerns.

  5. [Obesity and thinness in painting].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schüller Pérez, Amador

    2004-01-01

    The obesity, serious frequenty sanitary problem, cause of complications that effects to the expectation of life, with aesthetic repercussion and with an increase in the last decades. Admitted the obesity android, gynoide, central or abdominal, wide aesthetic repercussion and physiopathologic like hyperdislipemias, metabolic alterations (diabetes mellitus, etc...), arterial hypertension, column arthrosis and outlying. Ethiopathologics co-factors, sedentariness, genotypic predisposition, endocrine alterations and of the leptina secretion. Illustrative cases of obesity in the painting of those that characteristic models are exposed, from slight grades to intense affecting to both genders. The thinness counterpoint of the obesity, multicausal process, less frequent than the obesity with aesthetic and psychological repercussion. It is the formed aesthetic thinness to the diverse types physiopathologic, without forgetting the constitutional and family form and the anorexy, the serial ones to disasters, wars, famines, etc..., the mystic thinness of saints and ascetics, and the serial one to consuming processes.

  6. KLIMT, FROM PAINTING TO FASHION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    URDEA Olimpia

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Fashion has been a subject for most fields of art, starting from visual arts to cinema and literature. The metamorphoses of fashion, an art in itself, are under the sign of history that marked the social during the evolution of humanity. The present paper makes a reference to the links between fashion and Klimt’s work. Klimt proved to be a visionary by means of his visual, unique and unmistakable signature concerning the way he treated the clothed woman. As he worshipped the female body, he portrayed it, reflecting the fashion style of an era that was meant to be renewed. His work, strongly influenced by feminine values, became conspicuous as a manifesto against the rigidity of the Viennese society in the late nineteenth century and early twentieth century. The modernity of Klimt’s vision generated the metamorphosis of the woman model, from the corseted woman until that time, and not only in terms of fashion, to the freed woman, using the metaphorical instruments of his art. The artist’s complex creativity helps us find him in four different situations, all in close connection with fashion art: the painter Klimt, who portrays woman who shows herself by showing her garment; the fashion designer Klimt who suggests outfits for his collaborator, Emilie Flöge, remoulding the dress as a clothing item; the fashion photographer from the photographs of Emilie Flöge wearing his creations; and, indirectly, by his paintings from the cycle Women, which had a powerful impact on contemporary fashion. Such a complex, visionary creator, whose painting and fashion interfere, is worth mentioning for his contribution to the fashion art avatars.

  7. Denotative and connotative meanings of paintings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasić Sandra

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study the relationships between judgments of paintings denotative and connotative meanings was investigated. Denotative domain was defined as motif (represented object, e.g. portrait, landscape etc. and message (information carried by paintings, e.g. celebration of patriotism. Connotative domain was defined as subjective experience, i.e. affective or metaphoric impression produced by painting (e.g. feeling of pleasure, impression of dynamics, and so on. In preliminary study the list of 39 motifs was specified empirically. The four dimensions of pictorial message were taken from the previous study (Marković, 2006: Subjectivism, Ideology, Decoration and Constructivism vs. Realism. The four dimensions of paintings subjective experience were taken from the previous study as well (Radonjić and Marković, 2005: Regularity, Attraction, Arousal and Relaxation. In Experiment 1 subjects were asked to associate 39 motifs with 18 paintings. In Experiment 2 subjects were asked to judge 24 paintings on four dimensions of pictorial message. Results form Experiment 1 have shown that dimensions of paintings subjective experience were significantly correlated with only five motifs (e.g. everyday life was negatively correlated with Arousal, battle was negatively correlated with Relaxation, and so on. Results from Experiment 2 have shown that Subjectivism and Constructivism are negatively correlated with Regularity, and positively correlated with Arousal. Decoration is negatively correlated with Arousal and positively with Attraction and Relaxation.

  8. Inadvertent polychlorinated biphenyls in commercial paint pigments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Dingfei; Hornbuckle, Keri C

    2010-04-15

    A polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) that was not produced as part of the Aroclor mixtures banned in the 1980s was recently reported in air samples collected in Chicago, Philadelphia, the Arctic, and several sites around the Great Lakes. In Chicago, the congener 3,3'-dichlorobiphenyl or PCB11 was found to be the fifth most concentrated congener and ubiquitous throughout the city. The congener exhibited strong seasonal concentration trends that suggest volatilization of this compound from common outdoor surfaces. Due to these findings and also the compound's presence in waters that received waste from paint manufacturing facilities, we hypothesized that PCB11 may be present in current commercial paint. In this study we measured PCBs in paint sold on the current retail market. We tested 33 commercial paint pigments purchased from three local paint stores. The pigment samples were analyzed for all 209 PCB congeners using gas chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry (GC-MS/MS). More than 50 PCB congeners including several dioxin-like PCBs were detected, and the PCB profiles varied due to different types of pigments and different manufacturing processes. PCB congeners were detected in azo and phthalocyanine pigments which are commonly used in paint but also in inks, textiles, paper, cosmetics, leather, plastics, food and other materials. Our findings suggest several possible mechanisms for the inadvertent production of specific PCB congeners during the manufacturing of paint pigments.

  9. Inadvertent Polychlorinated Biphenyls in Commercial Paint Pigments†

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    A polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) that was not produced as part of the Aroclor mixtures banned in the 1980s was recently reported in air samples collected in Chicago, Philadelphia, the Arctic, and several sites around the Great Lakes. In Chicago, the congener 3,3′-dichlorobiphenyl or PCB11 was found to be the fifth most concentrated congener and ubiquitous throughout the city. The congener exhibited strong seasonal concentration trends that suggest volatilization of this compound from common outdoor surfaces. Due to these findings and also the compound’s presence in waters that received waste from paint manufacturing facilities, we hypothesized that PCB11 may be present in current commercial paint. In this study we measured PCBs in paint sold on the current retail market. We tested 33 commercial paint pigments purchased from three local paint stores. The pigment samples were analyzed for all 209 PCB congeners using gas chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry (GC-MS/MS). More than 50 PCB congeners including several dioxin-like PCBs were detected, and the PCB profiles varied due to different types of pigments and different manufacturing processes. PCB congeners were detected in azo and phthalocyanine pigments which are commonly used in paint but also in inks, textiles, paper, cosmetics, leather, plastics, food and other materials. Our findings suggest several possible mechanisms for the inadvertent production of specific PCB congeners during the manufacturing of paint pigments. PMID:19957996

  10. Self Cleaning Paint: Introduction of Photocatalytic Particles into a Paint System

    OpenAIRE

    Gunnarsson, Sverrir Grimur; Møller, Per; Poulsen, Søren; Ottosen, Lisbeth M.

    2012-01-01

    Denne erhvervs PhD afhandling har søgt at udvikle et fotokatalytisk kompositmateriale, som kan anvendes til at give en organisk træmalingsfilm selvrensende og antimikrobielle egenskaber. Projektet er et samarbejde mellem Dyrup A/S og DTU.Malingsindustrien søger til stadighed at mindske brugen af potentielt skadelige tilsætningsstoffer, som f.eks. biocider, hvilket har bevirket at der søges alternative strategier til at forøge holdbarheden af malingsprodukter. Fotokatalysatorer er almindeligt ...

  11. Measurement of tritium in dial painting industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sawant, J.V.; Rudran, Kamala

    1995-01-01

    Tritium in the form of polystyrene is used coated on zinc sulphide as the active component for the manufacture of self-luminous paint. To study the radiological implication of airborne tritium in the luminous paint industry air monitoring study was conducted by cold strip method and Andersen method. Airborne particulate in different locations in luminous paint (LP) building and background areas were observed to be associated with activity median aerodynamic diameter (AMAD) of 1.8 to 5.0 um. Dose to soft tissue and lungs and effective whole body dose were evaluated. (author). 6 refs., 2 figs., 4 tabs., 2 ills

  12. PAINT SUPPLIES AND LOCATION: EXAMINING ICI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Herron

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available How important is location to an international retailer? Not just any retailer but the second largest paint retailer in the world. Imperial Chemical Industries (ICI was a British chemical company and was at one stage the largest manufacturer in Britain. Formed from the merger of several leading British chemical companies in 1926, ICI makes paints and speciality products, including food ingredients, speciality polymers, electronic materials, fragrances and flavourings. ICI paints purchased the Cleveland Ohiobased Glidden Coatings & Resins (Glidden Paint Company in 1986 for USD$580 million. The addition of Glidden to ICI's North American operations more than doubled that subsidiary's annual sales to $3 billion and increased ICI's corporate presence in the United States dramatically. A decline in paint and solvent consumption during the 2000 decade slowed the average growth of the paint industry to about 2% annually. Rauch Associates, the leading US paint analyst firm, predicted near-term growth to slow even further to 1.2% per annum. Through the 1990’s and early 2000’s Glidden paint was sold only through Glidden-badged paint stores and smaller retailers under licence, developing a strong identifiable brand and reputation. How were potential Glidden retail paint store locations chosen across America to enable and support this market growth? This paper investigates the real process that was developed and applied to construct a national network of retail outlets across the United States. It also highlights the change in direction that occurred at ICI paints culminating in its eventual acquisition by AkzoNobel in 2008 who immediately sold parts of ICI to Henkel, and integrated ICI's remaining operations within its existing organisation. This sale and the associated corporate restructure caused considerable change in marketing directions allowing for the first time the selling of Glidden paint products to mass market centres

  13. Historical origins of Petrykivsky decorative painting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. A. Harkava

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Petrykivsky decorative painting is a part of Ukrainian folk art. Domestic science of folk art has originated and has been developing primarily as a study of archaeological antiquities and artistic monuments of the past. Scientific papers, which comprehended the process of folk art development, began to appear in the late nineteenth century, Archaeological Congresses became the impetus for their appearance. Being a representative of the decorative painting, Petrikivsky decorative painting is rooted by its murals to Tripoli. It was created as a peasant domestic drawing. Inexhaustible diversity of local variants of Petrikivsky decorative painting, its evolutionary change, the individual characteristics of paintings of hundreds of famous Ukrainian artists do not even allow comparing it to any other European counterparts, each of which is characterized only by some individual techniques. Petrikivsky decorative painting got the significant boost in its distribution and development when it «came down» from walls to paper. Paper pictures - malyovky - were stucked to walls following the traditional rules of domestic interior’s decoration. Petrikivsky decorative painting got the official status in 1913, when E. Evenbah, by the initiative of D.I. Yavornytsky, gathered the collection of Petrikivsky decorative painting’s malyovkas and organized the exhibition in St. Petersburg. Motives of painting are rooted into the local flora and fauna and into the historical tradition. However, Petrikivsky decorative painting is not a direct reflection of natural motifs. World, created in paintings, is the product of the imagination of folk artist, it is the stylization of local flowers, fruits and birds. First names of Masters of Petrikivsky decorative painting, which appeared in historical sources, were T. Pata, N. Bilokin, I. Pavlenko. Their official recognition happened in 1930 after their participation in the first republican exhibition, which was later shown

  14. Color alteration of the paint used for iris painting in ocular prostheses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandes, Aline Ursula Rocha; Goiato, Marcelo Coelho; Batista, Marcos Antônio Jacó; Santos, Daniela Micheline Dos

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess color alteration of the paints used for iris painting in artificial eyes. Five disks of heat cured acrylic resin were confectioned by microwave energy for each paint analyzed, in a total of 40 specimens. Each specimen consisted of a colorless acrylic resin disk and another of equal size, of scleral white colored acrylic resin, with the painting interposed between the two disks. The specimens were submitted to an accelerated aging process in a chamber under ultraviolet radiation for 1,008 hours. To assess color variation, a reflective spectrophotometer was used. The results were statistically analyzed by ANOVA and the Tukey test (p < 0.05). All the paints underwent chromatic alteration. The oil paint presented the highest resistance to accelerated aging.

  15. Color alteration of the paint used for iris painting in ocular prostheses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aline Úrsula Rocha Fernandes

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to assess color alteration of the paints used for iris painting in artificial eyes. Five disks of heat cured acrylic resin were confectioned by microwave energy for each paint analyzed, in a total of 40 specimens. Each specimen consisted of a colorless acrylic resin disk and another of equal size, of scleral white colored acrylic resin, with the painting interposed between the two disks. The specimens were submitted to an accelerated aging process in a chamber under ultraviolet radiation for 1,008 hours. To assess color variation, a reflective spectrophotometer was used. The results were statistically analyzed by ANOVA and the Tukey test (p < 0.05. All the paints underwent chromatic alteration. The oil paint presented the highest resistance to accelerated aging.

  16. 24 CFR 3280.814 - Painting of wiring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 5 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Painting of wiring. 3280.814 Section 3280.814 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban Development... Painting of wiring. During painting or staining of the manufactured home, it shall be permitted to paint...

  17. 24 CFR 35.135 - Use of paint containing lead.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Use of paint containing lead. 35... Urban Development LEAD-BASED PAINT POISONING PREVENTION IN CERTAIN RESIDENTIAL STRUCTURES General Lead-Based Paint Requirements and Definitions for All Programs. § 35.135 Use of paint containing lead. (a...

  18. 24 CFR 598.408 - Lead-based paint requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Lead-based paint requirements. 598... DESIGNATIONS Post-Designation Requirements § 598.408 Lead-based paint requirements. The Lead-Based Paint Poisoning Prevention Act (42 U.S.C. 4821-4846), the Residential Lead-Based Paint Hazard Reduction Act of...

  19. Towards a durable alternative medium in mural painting: the auto ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In the traditional parlance of mural painting among Nigerian artists, the use of emulsion paint has become universal. After years of professional practice, the observation is that these emulsion-paint murals do not last on the walls. The reason is that the emulsion paint made in Nigeria is of very poor quality. Under the ...

  20. 24 CFR 35.140 - Prohibited methods of paint removal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Prohibited methods of paint removal... and Urban Development LEAD-BASED PAINT POISONING PREVENTION IN CERTAIN RESIDENTIAL STRUCTURES General Lead-Based Paint Requirements and Definitions for All Programs. § 35.140 Prohibited methods of paint...

  1. 24 CFR 200.800 - Lead-based paint.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Lead-based paint. 200.800 Section... DEVELOPMENT GENERAL INTRODUCTION TO FHA PROGRAMS Lead-Based Paint Poisoning Prevention § 200.800 Lead-based paint. The Lead-Based Paint Poisoning Prevention Act (42 U.S.C. 4821-4846), the Residential Lead-Based...

  2. Edge-Based Shading as a Depth Cue in Paintings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Venderbosch, M. E.; van Doorn, Andrea J; Koenderink, Jan J; te Pas, Susan F

    2015-01-01

    We explored how an artist who uses a particular monochrome modern painting style generates the impression of relief in paintings. Three portraits, painted after model, were created especially for the experiment. Photographs of the paintings were presented on a computer screen. To investigate the

  3. A Case Study Application Of Time Study Model In Paint ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper presents a case study in the development and application of a time study model in a paint manufacturing company. The organization specializes in the production of different grades of paint and paint containers. The paint production activities include; weighing of raw materials, drying of raw materials, dissolving ...

  4. High-resolution non-invasive 3D imaging of paint microstructure by synchrotron-based X-ray laminography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reischig, Peter; Helfen, Lukas; Wallert, Arie; Baumbach, Tilo; Dik, Joris

    2013-01-01

    The characterisation of the microstructure and micromechanical behaviour of paint is key to a range of problems related to the conservation or technical art history of paintings. Synchrotron-based X-ray laminography is demonstrated in this paper to image the local sub-surface microstructure in paintings in a non-invasive and non-destructive way. Based on absorption and phase contrast, the method can provide high-resolution 3D maps of the paint stratigraphy, including the substrate, and visualise small features, such as pigment particles, voids, cracks, wood cells, canvas fibres etc. Reconstructions may be indicative of local density or chemical composition due to increased attenuation of X-rays by elements of higher atomic number. The paint layers and their interfaces can be distinguished via variations in morphology or composition. Results of feasibility tests on a painting mockup (oak panel, chalk ground, vermilion and lead white paint) are shown, where lateral and depth resolution of up to a few micrometres is demonstrated. The method is well adapted to study the temporal evolution of the stratigraphy in test specimens and offers an alternative to destructive sampling of original works of art. (orig.)

  5. Paint for detection of radiological or chemical agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farmer, Joseph C [Tracy, CA; Brunk, James L [Martinez, CA; Day, Sumner Daniel [Danville, CA

    2010-08-24

    A paint that warns of radiological or chemical substances comprising a paint operatively connected to the surface, an indicator material carried by the paint that provides an indication of the radiological or chemical substances, and a thermo-activation material carried by the paint. In one embodiment, a method of warning of radiological or chemical substances comprising the steps of painting a surface with an indicator material, and monitoring the surface for indications of the radiological or chemical substances. In another embodiment, a paint is operatively connected to a vehicle and an indicator material is carried by the paint that provides an indication of the radiological or chemical substances.

  6. Effects of Antifouling Biocides on Molecular and Biochemical Defense System in the Gill of the Pacific Oyster Crassostrea gigas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Mi Seon; Kim, Young Dae; Kim, Bo-Mi; Kim, Youn-Jung; Kim, Jang Kyun; Rhee, Jae-Sung

    2016-01-01

    Antifouling biocides such as organotin compounds and their alternatives are potent toxicants in marine ecosystems. In this study, we employed several molecular and biochemical response systems of the Pacific oyster Crassostrea gigas to understand a potential mode of action of antifouling biocides (i.e. tributyltin (TBT), diuron and irgarol) after exposure to different concentrations (0.01, 0.1, and 1 μg L-1) for 96 h. As a result, all the three antifouling biocides strongly induced the antioxidant defense system. TBT reduced both enzymatic activity and mRNA expression of Na+/K+-ATPase and acetylcholinesterase (AChE). Lower levels of both Na+/K+-ATPase activity and AChE mRNA expression were observed in the diuron-exposed oysters compared to the control, while the irgarol treatment reduced only the transcriptional expression of AChE gene. We also analyzed transcript profile of heat shock protein (Hsp) superfamily in same experimental conditions. All antifouling biocides tested in this study significantly modulated mRNA expression of Hsp superfamily with strong induction of Hsp70 family. Taken together, overall results indicate that representative organotin TBT and alternatives have potential hazardous effects on the gill of C. gigas within relatively short time period. Our results also suggest that analyzing a series of molecular and biochemical parameters can be a way of understanding and uncovering the mode of action of emerging antifouling biocides. In particular, it was revealed that Pacific oysters have different sensitivities depend on the antifouling biocides. PMID:28006823

  7. Chemical study and antifouling activity of Caribbean octocoral Eunicea laciniata;Estudio quimico y evaluacion de la actividad antifouling del octocoral caribeno Eunicea laciniata

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cuadrado Silva, Carmen Tatiana; Castellanos Hernandez, Leonardo; Osorno Reyes, Oscar Eduardo; Ramos Rodriguez, Freddy Alejandro; Duque Beltran, Carmenza, E-mail: lcastellanosh@bt.unal.edu.c [Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Bogota (Colombia). Fac. de Ciencias. Dept. de Quimica; Puyana Hegedus, Monica [Universidad Jorge Tadeo Lozano, Bogota (Colombia)

    2010-07-01

    The bioassay guided purification of the octocoral Eunicea laciniata organic extract, collected at Santa Marta bay, Colombia, allowed the isolation of the new compound (-)-3beta-pregna-5,20-dienyl-beta-D-arabinopyranoside (1), along with the known compounds 1(S{sup *}),11(R{sup *})-dolabell-3(E),7(E),12(18)-triene (2), 13-keto-1(S),11(R)-dolabell-3(E),7(E),12(18)-triene (3), cholest- 5,22-dien-3beta-ol (4), cholesterol (5), y brassicasterol (6). The structure and absolute configuration of 1 was determined on based spectroscopic analyses (NMR and CD). The extract showed antifouling activity against five strains of marine bacteria associated to heavy fouled surfaces. Also showed activity against the cypris of the cosmopolitan barnacle Balanus amphitrite, and low toxicity in Artemia salina test. (author)

  8. Microstudies on thermal and UV treated silicone-acrylic paints with different pigment volume concentrations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chew, K.W.; Abdul Kariem Arof; Yahaya, A.H.; Yahya, R.; Puteh, R.

    2002-01-01

    The effect of pigment volume concentration (PVC) on morphology of pigment particles employed in the silicone-acrylic compositions suitable for high temperature corrosion protection application, has been investigated using SEM. Silicone-acrylic based paints with 50% silicone resin have been selected to prepare paints with PVC values from 10% to 60%. The paints were applied on mild steel panels of size of 5 cm x 7.5 cm. After curing for one week, the panels were subjected to 24 hours of heating ranging from room temperature up to 300 degree C and 400 hours of UV weathering. After the corrosion test, SEM micrographs were taken to investigate the gloss, rusting and adhesion properties of the coating films. (Author)

  9. H$^{-}$ painting injection system for the JKJ 3 GeV high-intensity proton synchrotron

    CERN Document Server

    Sakai, I; Irie, Y; Ishi, Y; Machida, S; Noda, F; Shigaki, K; Shimada, T; Sugai, I; Takeda, Y; Watanabe, Y; Yamamoto, K

    2002-01-01

    The JAERI KEK Joint Project 3 GeV proton synchrotron is designed to accelerate 8.3*l0/sup 13/ protons per pulse at a 25 Hz repetition rate. The incoming beam emittance of the 400 MeV linac is 4 pi .mm.mrad and the acceptance in the 3 GeV synchrotron is 324 pi .mm.mrad in both the horizontal and vertical planes. Painting injection is designed to realize a uniform distribution of charged particles in real space. The bump orbit for painting injection is designed to have a full acceptance of the circulating orbit through the injection period. A full-acceptance bump orbit will enable both correlated and anticorrelated painting injection. (4 refs).

  10. Investigation of paint drying by radiotracers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hecht, P.; Otto, R.

    1984-01-01

    14 C-labelled solvents (toluene, 1-buthanol, acetone) have been used to follow the drying process of paint coats (alkyd varnish, polyurethane resin, chlorinated polyethylene, chlorinated polyvinyl chloride)

  11. Lead-Based Paint and Demolition

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Lead Renovation, Repair, and Painting Rule does not apply to total demolition of a structure. Learn about EPA recommended lead-safe practices during total demolition activities to prevent and minimize exposure to lead.

  12. Wall Paint Exposure Assessment Model (WPEM)

    Science.gov (United States)

    WPEM uses mathematical models developed from small chamber data to estimate the emissions of chemicals from oil-based (alkyd) and latex wall paint which is then combined with detailed use, workload and occupancy data to estimate user exposure.

  13. Practice of using the multiple painting method

    CERN Document Server

    Drapchinsky, L V; Soloviev, S M

    1999-01-01

    A technique for the preparation of homogeneous minor-actinide layers by the multiple-painting method is described in detail. The advantages of the method used, as well as characteristics of the layers, are discussed.

  14. Electrochemical assessment of magnetite anti corrosive paints

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Escobar, D. M.; Arroyave, C.; Jaramillo, F.; Mattos, O. R.; Margarit, I. c.; Calderon, J.

    2003-01-01

    With the purpose of deepening in the understanding of the mechanisms of protection of anticorrosive pigments based on iron oxides, this work has been carried out on the production of pure magnetite, and copper and chromium doped magnetite, which were evaluated by different characterization techniques. The paints were prepared with a solvent less epoxy resin maintaining the Pigment volume Content near the Practical Critical value (CPVC), established for each pigment. The paints were applied on polished steel and monitored with electrochemical techniques at total immersion conditions. Permeability and impedance measurements of free films were also done. Impedance data were simulated with the Boukamp software. Results show that the paints pigmented with doped magnetite present better behaviour than a paint prepared with commercial hematite. (Author) 8 refs

  15. Pointillist Watercolor Paintings: Exploring Optical Mixing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamwi, Richard

    2001-01-01

    Focuses on the pointillist painting process offering background information about technique and how it can be used in the art classroom. Explores the appropriateness of the process for elementary through secondary school students. Includes educational objectives. (CMK)

  16. 75 FR 13127 - Lead-Based Paint Renovation, Repair and Painting Activities in Target Housing and Child Occupied...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-18

    ... AGENCY Lead-Based Paint Renovation, Repair and Painting Activities in Target Housing and Child Occupied... for a renovation, repair and painting program in accordance with section 402(c)(3) of TSCA, 15 U.S.C... administer and enforce requirements for a renovation, repair and painting program in accordance with section...

  17. 75 FR 51808 - Lead-Based Paint Renovation, Repair and Painting Activities in Target Housing and Child Occupied...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-23

    ...-9] Lead-Based Paint Renovation, Repair and Painting Activities in Target Housing and Child Occupied... for renovation, repair and painting programs in accordance with section 402(c)(3) of TSCA, 15 U.S.C... CFR 745.324(d)(2), to administer and enforce requirements for a renovation, repair and painting...

  18. 24 CFR 35.1320 - Lead-based paint inspections, paint testing, risk assessments, lead-hazard screens, and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Lead-based paint inspections, paint... Urban Development Office of the Secretary, Department of Housing and Urban Development LEAD-BASED PAINT POISONING PREVENTION IN CERTAIN RESIDENTIAL STRUCTURES Methods and Standards for Lead-Paint Hazard...

  19. 75 FR 39524 - Lead-Based Paint Renovation, Repair and Painting, and Pre-Renovation Education Activities in...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-09

    ... AGENCY Lead-Based Paint Renovation, Repair and Painting, and Pre- Renovation Education Activities in... enforce requirements for a renovation, repair and painting program in accordance with section 402(c)(3) of TSCA, 15 U.S.C. 2682(c)(3), and a lead-based paint pre-renovation education program in accordance with...

  20. Standard Operating Procedure for the Preparation of Lead-Containing Paint Films and Lead-in-Paint Diagnostic Test Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    This SOP describes the preparation of stand-alone, lead paint films, prepared according to the old paint recipes. Further, this SOP describes the use of these paint films for the preparation of simulated old paints on a variety of substrates. Substrates used included wood, stee...

  1. 76 FR 12106 - Lead-Based Paint Renovation, Repair and Painting Activities in Target Housing and Child Occupied...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-04

    ... AGENCY Lead-Based Paint Renovation, Repair and Painting Activities in Target Housing and Child Occupied..., repair and painting program in accordance with section 402(c)(3) of TSCA. This notice also announces that... a renovation, repair and painting program in accordance with section 402(c)(3) of TSCA. This notice...

  2. A New, Sensitive Marine Microalgal Recombinant Biosensor Using Luminescence Monitoring for Toxicity Testing of Antifouling Biocides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez-Ferandin, Sophie; Leroy, Fanny; Bouget, François-Yves

    2013-01-01

    In this study, we propose the use of the marine green alga Ostreococcus tauri, the smallest free-living eukaryotic cell known to date, as a new luminescent biosensor for toxicity testing in the environment. Diuron and Irgarol 1051, two antifouling biocides commonly encountered in coastal waters, were chosen to test this new biosensor along with two degradation products of diuron. The effects of various concentrations of the antifoulants on four genetic constructs of O. tauri (based on genes involved in photosynthesis, cell cycle, and circadian clock) were compared using 96-well culture microplates and a luminometer to automatically measure luminescence over 3 days. This was compared to growth inhibition of O. tauri wild type under the same conditions. Luminescence appeared to be more sensitive than growth inhibition as an indicator of toxicity. Cyclin-dependent kinase (CDKA), a protein involved in the cell cycle, fused to luciferase (CDKA-Luc) was found to be the most sensitive of the biosensors, allowing an accurate determination of the 50% effective concentration (EC50) after only 2 days (diuron, 5.65 ± 0.44 μg/liter; Irgarol 1015, 0.76 ± 0.10 μg/liter). The effects of the antifoulants on the CDKA-Luc biosensor were then compared to growth inhibition in natural marine phytoplankton. The effective concentrations of diuron and Irgarol 1051 were found to be similar, indicating that this biosensor would be suitable as a reliable ecotoxicological test. The advantage of this biosensor over cell growth inhibition testing is that the process can be easily automated and could provide a high-throughput laboratory approach to perform short-term toxicity tests. The ability to genetically transform and culture recombinant O. tauri gives it huge potential for screening many other toxic compounds. PMID:23144143

  3. Optimisation and Characterisation of Anti-Fouling Ternary SAM Layers for Impedance-Based Aptasensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Miodek

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available An aptasensor with enhanced anti-fouling properties has been developed. As a case study, the aptasensor was designed with specificity for human thrombin. The sensing platform was developed on screen printed electrodes and is composed of a self-assembled monolayer made from a ternary mixture of 15-base thiolated DNA aptamers specific for human thrombin co-immobilised with 1,6-hexanedithiol (HDT and further passivated with 1-mercapto-6-hexanol (MCH. HDT binds to the surface by two of its thiol groups forming alkyl chain bridges and this architecture protects from non-specific attachment of molecules to the electrode surface. Using Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy (EIS, the aptasensor is able to detect human thrombin as variations in charge transfer resistance (Rct upon protein binding. After exposure to a high concentration of non-specific Bovine Serum Albumin (BSA solution, no changes in the Rct value were observed, highlighting the bio-fouling resistance of the surface generated. In this paper, we present the optimisation and characterisation of the aptasensor based on the ternary self-assembled monolayer (SAM layer. We show that anti-fouling properties depend on the type of gold surface used for biosensor construction, which was also confirmed by contact angle measurements. We further studied the ratio between aptamers and HDT, which can determine the specificity and selectivity of the sensing layer. We also report the influence of buffer pH and temperature used for incubation of electrodes with proteins on detection and anti-fouling properties. Finally, the stability of the aptasensor was studied by storage of modified electrodes for up to 28 days in different buffers and atmospheric conditions. Aptasensors based on ternary SAM layers are highly promising for clinical applications for detection of a range of proteins in real biological samples.

  4. Library of Antifouling Surfaces Derived From Natural Amino Acids by Click Reaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Chen; Hu, Xin; Wang, Jie; Zhang, Ye-Min; Liu, Xiao-Jiu; Xie, Bin-Bin; Yao, Chen; Li, Yi; Li, Xin-Song

    2015-08-12

    Biofouling is of great concern in numerous applications ranging from ophthalmological implants to catheters, and from bioseparation to biosensors. In this report, a general and facile strategy to combat surface fouling is developed by grafting of amino acids onto polymer substrates to form zwitterionic structure through amino groups induced epoxy ring opening click reaction. First of all, a library of poly(2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate-co-glycidyl methacrylate) hydrogels with zwitterionic surfaces were prepared, resulting in the formation of pairs of carboxyl anions and protonated secondary amino cations. The analysis of attenuated total reflectance Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy confirmed the successful immobilization of amino acids on the hydrogel surfaces. After that, the contact angle and equilibrium water content of the modified hydrogels showed that the hydrogels exhibited improved hydrophilicity compared with the parent hydrogel. Furthermore, the protein deposition was evaluated by bicinchoninic acid assay using bovine serum albumin (BSA) and lysozyme as models. The results indicated that the performance of the hydrogels was determined by the nature of incorporated amino acid: the hydrogels incorporated with neutral amino acids had nonspecific antiadsorption capability to both BSA and lysozyme; the hydrogels incorporated with charged amino acids showed antiadsorption behaviors against protein with same charge and enhanced adsorption to the protein with opposite charge; the optimal antiadsorption performance was observed on the hydrogels incorporated with polar amino acids with a hydroxyl residual. The improvement of antiprotein fouling of the neutral amino acids grafted hydrogels can be ascribed to the formation of zwitterionic surfaces. Finally, a couple of soft contact lenses grafted with amino acids were fabricated having improved antifouling property and hydrophilicity. The result demonstrated the success of

  5. Preparation of hydrophilic and antifouling polysulfone ultrafiltration membrane derived from phenolphthalin by copolymerization method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Zhixiao; Mi, Zhiming; Chen, Chunhai; Zhou, Hongwei; Zhao, Xiaogang; Wang, Daming, E-mail: wangdaming@jlu.edu.cn

    2017-04-15

    Graphical abstract: The mechanisms fouling and cleaning process of PSF-COOH membranes (A) the content of carboxyl less than 80%. (B) the content of carboxyl at 80%, 100%. - Highlights: • Phenolphthalin (PPL) containing carboxyl was successfully introduced into the molecule backbone of polysulfone (PSF). • A series of PSF-COOH copolymers with different carboxylation degree was synthesized and prepared as ultrafiltration membranes. • The introduction of PPL significantly improved the hydrophilicity, permeation flux and antifouling property of membranes. • This method is valuable for large-scale industrial production of hydrophilic membrane material. - Abstract: In this task, carboxylated polysulfone (PSF-COOH) was achieved by introducing the monomer of phenolphthalin (PPL) containing carboxyl to the molecule backbone of polysulfone (PSF). And a series of PSF-COOH copolymers with different carboxylation degree was synthesized by adjusting the molar (%) of bisphenol A (BPA) and PPL in direct copolymerization method and was prepared as PSF-COOH ultrafiltration membranes via phase separation method. The effect of PPL molar (%) in copolymers on the morphology, hydrophilicity, permeation flux, antifouling and mechanical properties of membranes was investigated by scanning electron microscope (SEM), atomic force microscope (AFM), water contact angle, ultrafiltration experiments and universal testing machine, respectively. The results showed that with the increased carboxyl content in membranes, the hydrophilicity, permeation fluxes and antifouling properties of membranes gradually increased. When the molar (%) of PPL to BPA was 100:0, the membrane exhibited the highest pure water flux (329.6 L/m{sup 2} h) and the maximum flux recovery rate (92.5%). When the content of carboxyl in the membrane was 80% or more, after three cycles of BSA solution (1 g/L) filtration, the flux recovery rate was basically constant or showed a slightly increase. Thus, it can achieve the

  6. Painting a Data-Rich Picture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Earl, Lorna; Katz, Steven

    2005-01-01

    Using data for school reform is like painting a series of pictures--pictures that are subtle and capture the nuances of the subject. This is a far cry from drawing stick figures or paint-by-numbers. Imagine the experiences of the French painter Claude Monet as he wandered through his garden at Giverny at different times of the day and year,…

  7. [The eye in Ion Tuculescu's paintings].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cernea, P

    2003-01-01

    The painter Ion Tuculescu was placed through his painting, in the current of the abstract expressionism. He endowed his pictural skill with a personal vision of life and people, through introduction the eye like a stylized aspect and its loading with spiritual meanings. The eye is practically in every picture of the painter, constituting a philosophy of his interior experiences and attitude given the existence. The subject painting has not figurative plans but mental impulses through the artist constitutes a new visual language.

  8. External-PIXE analysis for the study of pigments from a painting from the Museum of Contemporary Art

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rizzutto, M.A., E-mail: rizzutto@if.usp.br [Institute of Physics, University of São Paulo, SP 05508-090 (Brazil); Moro, M.V.; Silva, T.F.; Trindade, G.F.; Added, N.; Tabacniks, M.H.; Kajiya, E.M.; Campos, P.H.V. [Institute of Physics, University of São Paulo, SP 05508-090 (Brazil); Magalhães, A.G.; Barbosa, M. [Museum of Contemporary Art, University of São Paulo, SP 05508-090 (Brazil)

    2014-08-01

    External Ion Beam Analysis is a useful tool for the characterization of cultural heritage objects. During the last decade, several significant collaborations have been established between Ion Beam Analysis (IBA) scientists and art or archeology professionals, demanding in-air IBA for a variety of different cultural heritage objects. In-air Particle Induced X-ray Emission (PIXE) analyses of an oil painting by the Italian painter, Mario Sironi, from the Museum of Contemporary Art of the University of São Paulo (MAC-USP), were examined. This painting is particularly interesting due to paintings on both sides (oil on canvas on the front and oil on wood on the back side). PIXE analysis helped the identification of the pigment similarities on both sides of the painting, suggesting the same authorship.

  9. External-PIXE analysis for the study of pigments from a painting from the Museum of Contemporary Art

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rizzutto, M.A.; Moro, M.V.; Silva, T.F.; Trindade, G.F.; Added, N.; Tabacniks, M.H.; Kajiya, E.M.; Campos, P.H.V.; Magalhães, A.G.; Barbosa, M.

    2014-01-01

    External Ion Beam Analysis is a useful tool for the characterization of cultural heritage objects. During the last decade, several significant collaborations have been established between Ion Beam Analysis (IBA) scientists and art or archeology professionals, demanding in-air IBA for a variety of different cultural heritage objects. In-air Particle Induced X-ray Emission (PIXE) analyses of an oil painting by the Italian painter, Mario Sironi, from the Museum of Contemporary Art of the University of São Paulo (MAC-USP), were examined. This painting is particularly interesting due to paintings on both sides (oil on canvas on the front and oil on wood on the back side). PIXE analysis helped the identification of the pigment similarities on both sides of the painting, suggesting the same authorship

  10. Preparation of PES ultrafiltration membranes with natural amino acids based zwitterionic antifouling surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu, Chen; Liu, Xiaojiu; Xie, Binbin; Yao, Chen; Hu, Wenhan; Li, Yi; Li, Xinsong

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Amino acids have been successfully grafted onto the surface of PES membranes via amino groups induced epoxy ring opening. • Zwitterionic PES ultrafiltration membranes exhibit excellent antifouling performance and improved permeation properties. • A facile strategy to combat fouling of PES ultrafiltration membranes is developed by grafting natural amino acids. - Abstract: In this report, a simple and facile approach to enhance the antifouling property of poly(ether sulfone) (PES) ultrafiltration membrane was developed by grafting natural amino acids onto surface. First of all, poly(ether sulfone) composite membranes blended with poly(glycidyl methacrylate) were fabricated by phase inversion method followed by grafting of different types of natural amino acids onto the membrane surface through epoxy ring opening reaction. The analysis of attenuated total reflectance Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (ATR/FTIR) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) verified the substantial enrichment of amino acids onto the surface of PES membranes. The hydrophilicity of the PES membranes was improved after grafting amino acids. The mechanical property and morphologies of the PES membranes proved that their basic performances were not obviously affected by grafting reaction, and these parameters were all still in the typical range for ultrafiltration membranes. The antifouling property of the grafted PES membranes against bovine serum albumin (BSA) and lysozyme (Lyz) was investigated in detail. It was found that PES membranes incorporated with neutral amino acids exhibited higher fouling resistance to both BSA and Lyz than the parent PES membrane. It can be ascribed to the formation of zwitterionic structure on the surface consisting of protonated secondary amino cations and carboxyl anions. Meanwhile, PES membranes grafted with charged amino acids had better antifouling properties against protein with same electric charges and improved adsorption

  11. Fabrication of Robust and Antifouling Superhydrophobic Surfaces via Surface-Initiated Atom Transfer Radical Polymerization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Chao-Hua; Guo, Xiao-Jing; Ma, Jian-Zhong; Jia, Shun-Tian

    2015-04-22

    Superhydrophobic surfaces were fabricated via surface-initiated atom transfer radical polymerization of fluorinated methacrylates on poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET) fabrics. The hydrophobicity of the PET fabric was systematically tunable by controlling the polymerization time. The obtained superhydrophobic fabrics showed excellent chemical robustness even after exposure to different chemicals, such as acid, base, salt, acetone, and toluene. Importantly, the fabrics maintained superhydrophobicity after 2500 abrasion cycles, 100 laundering cycles, and long time exposure to UV irradiation. Also, the surface of the superhydrophobic fabrics showed excellent antifouling properties.

  12. Preparation of PES ultrafiltration membranes with natural amino acids based zwitterionic antifouling surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Chen; Liu, Xiaojiu; Xie, Binbin; Yao, Chen [School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Southeast University, Nanjing, 211189 (China); Hu, Wenhan; Li, Yi [Suzhou Faith & Hope Membrane Technology Co., Ltd., Suzhou, 215000 (China); Li, Xinsong, E-mail: lixs@seu.edu.cn [School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Southeast University, Nanjing, 211189 (China)

    2016-11-01

    Highlights: • Amino acids have been successfully grafted onto the surface of PES membranes via amino groups induced epoxy ring opening. • Zwitterionic PES ultrafiltration membranes exhibit excellent antifouling performance and improved permeation properties. • A facile strategy to combat fouling of PES ultrafiltration membranes is developed by grafting natural amino acids. - Abstract: In this report, a simple and facile approach to enhance the antifouling property of poly(ether sulfone) (PES) ultrafiltration membrane was developed by grafting natural amino acids onto surface. First of all, poly(ether sulfone) composite membranes blended with poly(glycidyl methacrylate) were fabricated by phase inversion method followed by grafting of different types of natural amino acids onto the membrane surface through epoxy ring opening reaction. The analysis of attenuated total reflectance Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (ATR/FTIR) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) verified the substantial enrichment of amino acids onto the surface of PES membranes. The hydrophilicity of the PES membranes was improved after grafting amino acids. The mechanical property and morphologies of the PES membranes proved that their basic performances were not obviously affected by grafting reaction, and these parameters were all still in the typical range for ultrafiltration membranes. The antifouling property of the grafted PES membranes against bovine serum albumin (BSA) and lysozyme (Lyz) was investigated in detail. It was found that PES membranes incorporated with neutral amino acids exhibited higher fouling resistance to both BSA and Lyz than the parent PES membrane. It can be ascribed to the formation of zwitterionic structure on the surface consisting of protonated secondary amino cations and carboxyl anions. Meanwhile, PES membranes grafted with charged amino acids had better antifouling properties against protein with same electric charges and improved adsorption

  13. Antifouling sesquiterpene from the Indian soft coral, Sinularia kavarattiensis Alderslade and Prita

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    LimnaMol, V.P.; Raveendran, T.V.; Parameswaran, P.S.; Kunnath, R.J; Sathyan, N.

    of Marine Sciences Vol. 39(2), June 2010, pp. 270-273 Antifouling sesquiterpene from the Indian soft coral, Sinularia kavarattiensis Alderslade and Prita V P Limna Mol, T V Raveendrana,*, P S Parameswaran, R J Kunnath and N Sathyan a... kavarattiensis, is an INDIAN J. MAR. SCI., VOL. 39, NO. 2, JUNE 2010 272 abundant species in the Gulf of Mannar region and Lakshadweep islands. The only reported chemical examination of S. kavarattiensis is the isolation of methyl (1′E, 5′Z)-5...

  14. Observation of drying process of multilayered paint using fOCT based on dynamic speckles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukai, T.; Kadono, H.

    2015-08-01

    Recently, a demand for the precise observation of a multilayered paint system have been increasing such as in car industry. However, conventional methods can observe only the surface condition of the paint. In this study, we propose a new method to observe a three dimensional drying process of the multilayered paint using functional Optical Coherence Tomography (fOCT). In this method, the dynamic speckles that appear in OCT signal were utilized. The temporal properties of the dynamic speckle is related to the Brownian motion of the scattering particles in the paint, and thus depends on the drying condition. Autocorrelation function of the speckle signal was calculated and its width, i.e., correlation length (CL), was used as a measure. In the experiment, two layer system consisting of different paints on the thin glass plate, and the drying process was observed for two hours. In the second layer exposed to the air, CL showed a monotonic increment indicating a steady progress of the drying process while in the first layer (deeper layer), CL decreased slightly for the first 50min. and then started to increase. This implies that drying process has been reversed due to the transport of the solvent from the second layer in the early stage. Such a complicated drying process of the multilayer system could also be confirmed from OCT signal image of the interface between the layers. This analysis was performed using the phase term obtained in the OCT interference signal with an accuracy of 0.1μm.

  15. Leaching of nanoparticles from experimental water-borne paints under laboratory test conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuin, Stefano; Gaiani, Marco; Ferrari, Arlen; Golanski, Luana

    2014-01-01

    In this study we investigated the release of titanium dioxide (TiO2), silver (Ag) and silica (SiO2) engineered nanoparticles (ENPs) from three different paints by using standardized water immersion test for coatings. Fibre-cement panels were coated with paints containing ENPs and then exposed to UV light and abraded to simulate weathering. After the static water immersion test, we observed a very low release of Ti (4-8 μg/l), while the Ag measured in leachates was under detection limit (0.1 μg/l). A small release of Si was measured in leachates, with 73 mg/l of Si released from paints containing SiO2 ENPs after 120 h of water immersion. The cumulative loss of Si was about 1.8 % with respect to initial amount of Si in paint. Microscopic results highlighted that SiO2 ENPs are mainly released in form of agglomerates with other particles, and only very few single SiO2 ENPs were found in leachates. The results confirmed that Si migration is related to immersion cycles (wetting and drying cycles) of tested paints.

  16. A ‘painted chamber’ in Beverwijk by Jacobus Luberti Augustini: novel insights into the working methods and painting practices in a painted wall-hanging factory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verslype, I.; Verhave, J.; Smelt, S.; Keune, K.; Sigmond, H.; van Eikema Hommes, M.; Evans, H.; Muir, K.

    2015-01-01

    The restoration of the ‘painted chamber’ in Beverwijk by Jacobus Luberti Augustini instigated an in-depth technical study of the room and its painted canvas wall hangings. Through close observation with the naked eye, ultraviolet light, infrared reflectography and the study of paint samples in

  17. Metalanguage of painting: Semiotics and geometry as lingua franca of interpreting painting works

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bučan Jagor

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The author of this paper considers the question whether semiotics can be used as a potential metalanguage that enables reasonable discussion on painting, or that provides a linguistic substitute for visual artworks. In contrast to iconography and iconology which are primarily diachronic disciplines directed to historical aspect of works of art, the semiotics of painting is based on synchronism; it deals with articulation and transformation of visual codes from the point of view of the 'textuality' of the painting. The aim of the text is to sum up the basic problems of the discipline, representing them through the viewpoints of acknowledged authors. Its aim is also to point to the limitations of semiotics of painting, and to its ideological aspects. Finally, the author offers a possible alternative to the semiotics as a metalanguage of painting in the form of geometry (i.e. geometrical analysis, which he compares with Chomsky's model of generative grammar.

  18. Improved antifouling performance of ultrafiltration membrane via preparing novel zwitterionic polyimide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Haitao; Yu, Jiayu; Guo, Hanxiang; Shen, Yibo; Yang, Fan; Wang, Han; Liu, Rong; Liu, Yang

    2018-01-01

    On the basis of the outstanding fouling resistance of zwitterionic polymers, an antifouling ultrafiltration membrane was fabricated through phase inversion induced by immersion precipitation method, directly using the novel zwitterionic polyimide (Z-PI), which was synthesized via a two-step procedure including polycondensation and quaternary amination reaction, as membrane material. The chemical structure and composition of the obtained polymer were confirmed by using FTIR, 1H NMR and XPS analysis, and its thermal stability was thoroughly characterized by TGA measurement, respectively. The introduction of zwitterionic groups into polyimide could effectively increase membrane pore size, porosity and wettability, and convert the membrane surface from hydrophobic to highly hydrophilic. As a result, Z-PI membrane displayed significantly improved water permeability compared with that of the reference polyimide (R-PI) membrane without having an obvious compromise in protein rejection. According to the static adsorption and dynamic cycle ultrafiltration experiments of bovine serum albumin (BSA) solution, Z-PI membrane exhibited better fouling resistant ability, especially irreversible fouling resistant ability, suggesting superior antifouling property and long-term performance stability. Moreover, Z-PI membrane had a water flux recovery ratio of 93.7% after three cycle of BSA solution filtration, whereas only about 68.5% was obtained for the control R-PI membrane. These findings demonstrated the advantages of Z-PI membrane material and aimed to provide a facile and scalable method for the large-scale preparation of low fouling ultrafiltration membranes for potential applications.

  19. Antifouling activity of bromotyrosine-derived sponge metabolites and synthetic analogues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortlepp, Sofia; Sjögren, Martin; Dahlström, Mia; Weber, Horst; Ebel, Rainer; Edrada, RuAngelie; Thoms, Carsten; Schupp, Peter; Bohlin, Lars; Proksch, Peter

    2007-01-01

    Eighteen brominated sponge-derived metabolites and synthetic analogues were analyzed for antilarval settlement of Balanus improvisus. Only compounds exhibiting oxime substituents including bastadin-3 (4), -4 (1), -9 (2), and -16 (3), hemibastadin-1 (6), aplysamine-2 (5), and psammaplin A (10) turned out to inhibit larval settling at 1 to 10 microM. Analogues of hemibastadin-1 (6) were synthesized and tested for structure activity studies. Debromohemibastadin-1 (8) inhibited settling of B. improvisus, albeit at lower concentrations than hemibastadin-1 (6). Both 6 and 8 also induced cyprid mortality. 5,5'-dibromohemibastadin-1 (7) proved to be nontoxic, but settlement inhibition was observed at 10 microM. Tyrosinyltyramine (9), lacking the oxime function, was not antifouling active and was non-toxic at 100 microM. Hemibastadin-1 (6) and the synthetic products showed no general toxicity when tested against brine shrimp larvae. In contrast to the lipophilic psammaplin A (10), the hydrophilic sulfated psammaplin A derivative (11) showed no antifouling activity even though it contains an oxime group. We therefore hypothesize that the compound needs to cross membranes (probably by diffusion) and that the target for psammaplin A lies intracellularly.

  20. Control of biofouling on reverse osmosis polyamide membranes modified with biocidal nanoparticles and antifouling polymer brushes

    KAUST Repository

    Rahaman, Md. Saifur

    2014-01-01

    Thin-film composite (TFC) polyamide reverse osmosis (RO) membranes are prone to biofouling due to their inherent physicochemical surface properties. In order to address the biofouling problem, we have developed novel surface coatings functionalized with biocidal silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) and antifouling polymer brushes via polyelectrolyte layer-by-layer (LBL) self-assembly. The novel surface coating was prepared with polyelectrolyte LBL films containing poly(acrylic acid) (PAA) and poly(ethylene imine) (PEI), with the latter being either pure PEI or silver nanoparticles coated with PEI (Ag-PEI). The coatings were further functionalized by grafting of polymer brushes, using either hydrophilic poly(sulfobetaine) or low surface energy poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS). The presence of both LBL films and sulfobetaine polymer brushes at the interface significantly increased the hydrophilicity of the membrane surface, while PDMS brushes lowered the membrane surface energy. Overall, all surface modifications resulted in significant reduction of irreversible bacterial cell adhesion. In microbial adhesion tests with E. coli bacteria, a normalized cell adhesion in the range of only 4 to 16% on the modified membrane surfaces was observed. Modified surfaces containing silver nanoparticles also exhibited strong antimicrobial activity. Membranes coated with LBL films of PAA/Ag-PEI achieved over 95% inactivation of bacteria attached to the surface within 1 hour of contact time. Both the antifouling and antimicrobial results suggest the potential of using these novel surface coatings in controlling the fouling of RO membranes. © The Royal Society of Chemistry 2014.

  1. Flexible hydrophobic antifouling coating with oriented nanotopography and non-leaking capsaicin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Zhiwei; Chen, Zhuo; Guo, Yi; Ju, Yanyun; Liu, Yang; Feng, Rui; Xiong, Chuanxi; Ober, Christopher K; Dong, Lijie

    2018-02-21

    Incorporating natural product antifoulants (NPAs) into coatings with controlled surface topography is considered a promising way to suppress marine fouling. However, the rapid leakage of NPAs and the relatively complicated process of constructing well-patterned topography remain unresolved problems for practical applications. In this work, capsaicin bonded to CoFe2O4/gelatin magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) was mixed with polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS)-based block copolymer. When applied together by a simple spray coating method, these materials formed a film. The leakage of capsaicin was restrained by the chemical bonds with the CoFe2O4/gelatin nanospheres. The primary nanorough structure was constructed by the phase separation of the PDMS-based copolymer. The secondary nanorough structure was formed by the incorporation of capsaicin-loaded CoFe2O4/gelatin nanospheres, which were demonstrated to improve the orientation of the PDMS-based block copolymer chains. The combination of oriented nanotopography and non-leaking capsaicin endows the coating with enhanced, long-lasting antifouling ability.

  2. Proteomic and metabolomic profiles of marine Vibrio sp. 010 in response to an antifoulant challenge

    KAUST Repository

    Chandramouli, Kondethimmanahalli

    2013-08-01

    Vibrio spp. have the ability to form biofilms, which may contribute to the subsequent successful colonization by microfouling and macrofouling organisms. The effects of an antifouling compound, poly-ether B, on Vibrio sp. 010 were investigated using flow cytometry, proteomics, and metabolomics. A 2-D gel-based proteomic analysis was used to identify proteins responsive to poly-ether B treatment. The profiles of biofilm metabolites were analyzed by ultra-performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. Poly-ether B caused a significant reduction in viability. The proteins affected by the treatment were related to nucleotide metabolism, the glyoxylate cycle, and stress responses. Metabolites such as tripeptides, fatty acids, and quorum-sensing molecules were regulated differentially. Down-regulation of proteins and metabolites potentially led to a loss in colonisation ability, thereby affecting the structure of the biofilm. These results suggest that the proteins and metabolites identified may serve as target molecules for potent antifouling compounds. © 2013 Copyright Taylor and Francis Group, LLC.

  3. Comparison of dust release from epoxy and paint nanocomposites and conventional products during sanding and sawing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomez, Virginia; Levin, Marcus; Saber, Anne T; Irusta, Silvia; Dal Maso, Miikka; Hanoi, Roberto; Santamaria, Jesus; Jensen, Keld A; Wallin, Håkan; Koponen, Ismo K

    2014-10-01

    The release of dust generated during sanding or sawing of nanocomposites was compared with conventional products without nanomaterials. Epoxy-based polymers with and without carbon nanotubes, and paints with different amounts of nano-sized titanium dioxide, were machined in a closed aerosol chamber. The temporal evolution of the aerosol concentration and size distribution were measured simultaneously. The morphology of collected dust by scanning electron microscopy was different depending on the type of nanocomposites: particles from carbon nanotubes (CNTs) nanocomposites had protrusions on their surfaces and aggregates and agglomerates are attached to the paint matrix in particles emitted from alkyd paints. We observed no significant differences in the particle size distributions when comparing sanding dust from nanofiller containing products with dust from conventional products. Neither did we observe release of free nanomaterials. Instead, the nanomaterials were enclosed or partly enclosed in the matrix. A source strength term Si (cm(-3) s(-1)) that describes particle emission rates from continuous sources was introduced. Comparison between the Si parameters derived from sanding different materials allows identification of potential effects of addition of engineered nanoparticles to a composite. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Occupational Hygiene Society.

  4. Characterization of abrasion-induced nanoparticle release from paints into liquids and air

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golanski, L.; Gaborieau, A.; Guiot, A.; Uzu, G.; Chatenet, J.; Tardif, F.

    2011-07-01

    Two standard methods for the characterization of the abrasion nanoparticle release into air and liquid from coatings containing nanoparticles were developed. Details of the abrasion processes and the measurement methods are shown. Paints were formulated in an industrial facility. Standard abrasion conditions in wet environments were simulated. The size distribution of the particles abraded into liquid was analyzed by a laser granulometer: submicrometric and micrometric particles were observed, but no nanometric particles. The nanoparticles released in liquid were deposited on filters for SEM (Scanning Electron Microscopy) analysis. No free or agglomerated nanoparticles were observed by SEM: nanoparticles seem to remain embedded in the paint matrix. The same coatings were abraded in the air using another standard method. The ELPI (Electrical Low Pressure Impactor) was used to determine the number size distribution of the dust generated. Abrasion is found to produce submicrometric and micrometric particles in the air but no nanoparticles. Further characterizations by SEM confirmed that no free or agglomerated nanoparticles were emitted: nanoparticles seem to remain embedded in the paint matrix.

  5. Characterization of abrasion-induced nanoparticle release from paints into liquids and air

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Golanski, L; Guiot, A; Uzu, G; Tardif, F; Gaborieau, A; Chatenet, J

    2011-01-01

    Two standard methods for the characterization of the abrasion nanoparticle release into air and liquid from coatings containing nanoparticles were developed. Details of the abrasion processes and the measurement methods are shown. Paints were formulated in an industrial facility. Standard abrasion conditions in wet environments were simulated. The size distribution of the particles abraded into liquid was analyzed by a laser granulometer: submicrometric and micrometric particles were observed, but no nanometric particles. The nanoparticles released in liquid were deposited on filters for SEM (Scanning Electron Microscopy) analysis. No free or agglomerated nanoparticles were observed by SEM: nanoparticles seem to remain embedded in the paint matrix. The same coatings were abraded in the air using another standard method. The ELPI (Electrical Low Pressure Impactor) was used to determine the number size distribution of the dust generated. Abrasion is found to produce submicrometric and micrometric particles in the air but no nanoparticles. Further characterizations by SEM confirmed that no free or agglomerated nanoparticles were emitted: nanoparticles seem to remain embedded in the paint matrix.

  6. The anti-bacterial effect of an electrochemical anti-fouling method intended for the protection of miniaturised oceanographic sensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McQuillan, Jonathan S; Morris, Andrew K; Arundell, Martin; Pascal, Robin; Mowlem, Matthew C

    2017-10-01

    An electrochemical anti-fouling method, based upon the generation of chlorine from seawater, was applied to a proprietary design of Lab on a Chip conductivity, temperature and dissolved oxygen sensor. The method was evaluated using PCR after a six-week field trial in which it significantly reduced the burden of bacterial biofouling. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Concentration of Antifouling Biocides and Metals in Sediment Core Samples in the Northern Part of Hiroshima Bay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noritaka Tsunemasa

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Accumulation of Ot alternative antifoulants in sediment is the focus of this research. Much research had been done on surface sediment, but in this report, the accumulation in the sediment core was studied. The Ot alternative antifoulants, Diuron, Sea-Nine211, and Irgarol 1051, and the latter’s degradation product, M1, were investigated in five samples from the northern part of Hiroshima Bay. Ot compounds (tributyltin (TBT and triphenyltin (TPT were also investigated for comparison. In addition, metal (Pb, Cu, Zn, Fe and Mn levels and chronology were measured to better understand what happens after accumulation on the sea floor. It was discovered that Ot alternative antifoulant accumulation characteristics in sediment were like Ot compounds, with the concentration in the sediment core being much higher than surface sediment. The concentration in sediment seems to have been affected by the regulation of Ot compounds in 1990, due to the concentration of Ot alternative antifoulants and Ot compounds at the survey point in front of the dock, showing an increase from almost the same layer after the regulation.

  8. Fabrication of high flux and antifouling mixed matrix fumarate-alumoxane/PAN membranes via electrospinning for application in membrane bioreactors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moradi, Golshan; Zinadini, Sirus; Rajabi, Laleh; Dadari, Soheil

    2018-01-01

    The nanofibrous Polyacrylonitrile (PAN) membranes embedded with fumarate-alumoxane (Fum-A) nanoparticles were prepared via electrospinning technique as high flux and antifouling membranes for membrane bioreactor (MBR) applications. The effect of Fum-A nanoparticles on membrane morphology, surface hydrophilicity, pure water flux, effluent turbidity and the antifouling property was investigated. Fum-A is a carboxylate-alumoxane nanoparticle covered by extra hydroxyl and carboxylate groups on its surface. By embedding Fum-A nanoparticles into the spinning solution, the surface hydrophilicity and pure water flux of the resulted membranes were improved. The smooth surface of fibers at the low amount of nanoparticles and the agglomeration of nanoparticles at their high concentration were shown in SEM images of the membranes surface. The energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) analysis of the prepared Fum-A/PAN membrane confirmed the presence of carboxylate and hydroxyl functional groups of Fum-A nanoparticles on the surface of the Fum-A nanoparticles containing membrane. The results obtained from the filtration of activated sludge suspension revealed that by addition of a low amount of Fum-A nanoparticles, the irreversible fouling was significantly decreased due to the higher hydrophilicity. The Fum-A/PAN membranes showed superior permeate flux and antifouling properties compared to bare electrospun PAN membrane. Finally, 2 wt.% Fum-A/PAN membrane exhibited the highest FRR of 96% and the lowest irreversible fouling of 4% with excellent durability of antifouling property during twenty repeated activated sludge filtrations.

  9. Novel electrospun polyvinylidene fluoride-graphene oxide-silver nanocomposite membranes with protein and bacterial antifouling characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Liu

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available We developed and fabricated novel polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF-(0.5–2%Ag and PVDF-(0.5–2%Ag-1% graphene oxide (GO nanocomposite membranes with antifouling properties through electrospinning. Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs were in situ synthesized from silver nitrate precursor directly. The tensile properties, wetting, antifouling characteristics of pristine PVDF and its nanocomposite membranes were studied. Tensile tests showed that the addition of 0.5–2% AgNPs to PVDF improves its elastic modulus and tensile strength markedly. A further increase in both tensile modulus and strength of PVDF were obtained by hybridizing AgNPs with 1% GO. Water contact angle measurements revealed that the incorporation of AgNPs or AgNPs/GO nanofillers into PVDF decreases its degree of hydrophobicity. This led to the nanocomposite membranes having higher water flux permeation. In addition, AgNPs and AgNPs/GO fillers played a crucial role against protein and bacterial fouling of the resulting composite membranes. The antibacterial activities of electrospun nanocomposite membranes were assessed against Gram-negative Escherichia coli and Gram-positive Staphylococcus aureus. On the basis of water contact angle, water permeation flux and antifouling results, electrospun PVDF-2% Ag-GO composite membrane was found to exhibit excellent filtration performance, protein antifouling and bactericidal activities. Thus such a fibrous nanocomposite is considered as a high-potential membrane for water purification and disinfection applications.

  10. Fabrication of Copper Nanowire Films and their Incorporation into Polymer Matrices for Antibacterial and Marine Antifouling Applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jiang, S.; Sreethawong, T.; Siew Chen Lee, S.; Bee Jin Low, M.; Yin Win, BrzozowskaK.; Brzozowska, A.M.; Lay Ming Teo, S.; Vancso, Gyula J.; Janczewski, D.; Han, M-Y

    2015-01-01

    With the ban of tributyltin, copper-based biocides are now widely used in antifouling coatings as the major active ingredients. Given the past experience of heavy-metal accumulation in harbors with limited water exchange, there is a significant interest in developing copper materials that greatly

  11. Novel antifouling self-healing poly(carboxybetaine methacrylamide-co-HEMA) nanocomposite hydrogels with superior mechanical properties

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kostina, Nina Yu.; Sharifi, Shahriar; Pereira, Andres de los Santos; Michalek, Jiri; Grijpma, Dirk W.; Rodriguez-Emmenegger, Cesar

    2013-01-01

    Novel antifouling highly wettable hydrogels with superior mechanical and self-healing properties are presented. Hydrogels were prepared by UV-initiated copolymerisation of non-fouling zwitterionic carboxybetaine methacrylamide (CBMAA-3) and 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate (HEMA) in the presence of

  12. Enhanced antifouling behaviours of polyvinylidene fluoride membrane modified through blending with nano-TiO{sub 2}/polyethylene glycol mixture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Jie [State Key Laboratory of Pollution Control and Resource Reuse, School of Environmental Science and Engineering, Tongji University, Shanghai, 200092 (China); Wang, Zhiwei, E-mail: zwwang@tongji.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Pollution Control and Resource Reuse, School of Environmental Science and Engineering, Tongji University, Shanghai, 200092 (China); Zhang, Xingran [State Key Laboratory of Pollution Control and Resource Reuse, School of Environmental Science and Engineering, Tongji University, Shanghai, 200092 (China); Zheng, Xiang, E-mail: zhengxiang7825@163.com [School of Environment and Natural Resources, Renmin University of China, Beijing, 100872 (China); Wu, Zhichao [State Key Laboratory of Pollution Control and Resource Reuse, School of Environmental Science and Engineering, Tongji University, Shanghai, 200092 (China)

    2015-08-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Nano-TiO{sub 2}/polyethylene glycol (PEG) mixture was used to modify PVDF membranes. • The steric hindrance effects of PEG enabled the dispersion of nanoparticles. • The energy barrier between SMP and modified membranes was increased. • The modification by nano-TiO{sub 2}/PEG well improved the anti-fouling ability. - Abstract: Titanium dioxide (TiO{sub 2}) nanoparticles/polyethylene glycol (PEG) mixture was used to modify polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) membranes aiming to improve their antifouling ability. The use of PEG could improve the dispersion of nanoparticles thanks to steric hindrance effects. Test results showed that compared to the original PVDF membrane, the modified membranes had higher hydrophilicity and lower negative Zeta potential, facilitating membrane fouling control. The extended Derjaguin-Landau-Verwey-Overbeek (XDLVO) analysis indicated that the addition of TiO{sub 2} nanoparticles improved their electron donor monopolarity, i.e., enhanced electron-donating ability. The interaction energy barrier between soluble microbial products (SMP) and membrane surfaces was also improved, indicating that anti-fouling ability of the modified membrane was elevated. The optimal dosage of nano-TiO{sub 2} was found to be 0.15%, and further increase of dosage resulted in the aggregation of nanoparticles which consequently impaired the modification efficiency. Quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation (QCM-D) monitoring and SMP filtration tests confirmed the antifouling ability of the modified membrane.

  13. Antifouling effect of bioactive compounds from marine sponge Acanthella elongata and different species of bacterial film on larval attachment of Balanus amphitrite (cirripedia, crustacea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viswambaran Ganapiriya

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The antifouling activity of bioactive compounds from marine sponge Acanthella elongata (Dendy and five species of bacterial biofilm were studied. Larvae of Balanus amphitrite (Cyprids and nauplii were used to monitor the settlement inhibition and the extent to which inhibition was due to toxicity. The crude extract and partially purified fractions of A.elongata showed significant inhibition over the settlement individually, and with the interaction of bacterial species. No bacterial film stimulated the barnacle settlement. The high but variable levels of antifouling activity in combination with less amount of toxicity showed the potential of these metabolites in environmentally-friendly antifouling preparations.

  14. Subconjunctival latex paint from occupational injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odhav, Ashika; Kollipara, Ramya; Teymoorian, Savak; Lord, Ron K; Lyon, David B

    2013-05-01

    Accidental eye trauma with spray guns are rare, but potentially very serious, injuries. Although it is agreed that these injuries require immediate and vigorous therapy, the specifics of such therapy are poorly defined. With latex paint sprayer injuries to hands and extremities, resulting chemical-induced inflammation, high-pressure necrosis, ischemic necrosis, and gangrene require surgical debridement and possibly, amputation. With eye injuries, treatment is directed at preservation of vision, as there is a potential risk of visual loss. There is currently no consensus on optimal treatment of ocular spray paint injuries. Here we propose a management approach to ocular spray paint injuries with a successful outcome in the case reported. We report the first case, to our knowledge, of an industrial airless spray gun injury that resulted in subconjunctival deposition of latex paint in a soft contact lens wearer. Vision was preserved with medical management consisting of irrigation and topical corticosteroids, antibiotics and cycloplegics. Although latex paint spray gun injuries to the eye are not encountered frequently in practice, this case shows that conservative medical management with no surgical intervention is effective for ocular injuries with preserved vision. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Painting with polygons: a procedural watercolor engine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DiVerdi, Stephen; Krishnaswamy, Aravind; Měch, Radomír; Ito, Daichi

    2013-05-01

    Existing natural media painting simulations have produced high-quality results, but have required powerful compute hardware and have been limited to screen resolutions. Digital artists would like to be able to use watercolor-like painting tools, but at print resolutions and on lower end hardware such as laptops or even slates. We present a procedural algorithm for generating watercolor-like dynamic paint behaviors in a lightweight manner. Our goal is not to exactly duplicate watercolor painting, but to create a range of dynamic behaviors that allow users to achieve a similar style of process and result, while at the same time having a unique character of its own. Our stroke representation is vector based, allowing for rendering at arbitrary resolutions, and our procedural pigment advection algorithm is fast enough to support painting on slate devices. We demonstrate our technique in a commercially available slate application used by professional artists. Finally, we present a detailed analysis of the different vector-rendering technologies available.

  16. Laser cleaning treatment of burnt paintings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antonopoulou-Athera, N.; Chatzitheodoridis, E.; Doulgerides, M.; Evangelatos, Ch.; Serafetinides, A. A.; Terlixi, A.

    2015-01-01

    Three samples taken from two paintings partly burned by fire are investigated for cleaning with lasers. The paintings belong to the collection of the National Gallery of Athens and were made by the great Greek artist Konstantinos Parthenis. To remove the damaged surface and achieve an acceptable restoration result, the optimum combination of fluence and wavelength are sought. Seven different wavelengths with a set of fluences where used, i.e., the five harmonics of a Nd:YAG laser (1064, 532, 355, 266, and 213 nm), a TEA 10.6 μm CO2 and a free running laser Er:YAG 2.94 μm. Characterization was performed prior and after the cleaning process by optical and electron microscopy and analysis (SEM/BSE EDS), as well as X-Ray Diffraction (XRD). The results of this work indicate that the wavelength in the visible spectrum (532 nm) with fluences between 0.1-0.4J/cm2 show the optimum cleaning. The optical microscopy observation shows that with these laser parameters the burnt layer was preferentially removed, exposing the original colors that Parthenis had used in these paintings. Electron microscopy imaging and chemical analysis revealed that the original texture and materials of these samples are preserved after irradiation. Since the damage varies along the surface of the painting, more experiments should be performed in order to find and optimize the full cleaning and characterization process for the homogeneous cleaning of the whole surface of the painting.

  17. Polymer transistors fabricated by painting of metallic nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, S. P.; Russell, D. M.; Newsome, C. J.; Kugler, T.; Shimoda, T.

    2006-09-01

    In this letter the authors describe the fabrication of high performance polymer thin film transistors using an aqueous based silver colloid to form source and drain electrodes patterned by brush painting. The electrode dimensions were controlled by a surface energy pattern defined by soft contact printing of a self-assembled monolayer 1H,1H,2H,2H-perfluorodecyl-trichlorosilane on a SiO2 surface which acted as a dewetting layer for the painted silver particle suspension. Another self-assembled monolayer of 1H ,1H,2H,2H-perfluorodecanethiol was also used to increase the work function of the patterned silver electrodes in order to decrease the barrier for charge injection into the polymer semiconductor. The field-effect mobility of the thin film transistors fabricated by this method approached 0.02cm2V-1s-1 with an on/off current ratio of 105. The relative high mobility may be influenced by the ordering of the poly(3-hexylthiophene) semiconductor layer by the self-assembled monolayer used to define the source and drain electrodes.

  18. Preference for and discrimination of paintings by mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shigeru Watanabe

    Full Text Available I measured preference for paintings (Renoir vs. Picasso or Kandinsky vs. Mondrian in mice. In general mice did not display a painting preference except for two mice: one preferred Renoir to Picasso, and the other preferred Kandinsky to Mondrian. Thereafter, I examined discrimination of paintings with new mice. When exposure to paintings of one artist was associated with an injection of morphine (3.0 mg/kg, mice displayed conditioned preference for those paintings, showing discrimination of paintings by Renoir from those by Picasso, and paintings by Kandinsky from those by Mondrian after the conditioning. They also exhibited generalization of the preference to novel paintings of the artists. After conditioning with morphine for a set of paintings consisting of two artists, mice showed discrimination between two sets of paintings also from the two artists but not in association with morphine. These results suggest that mice can discriminate not only between an artist's style but also among paintings of the same artist. When mice were trained to discriminate a pair of paintings by Kandinsky and Renoir in an operant chamber equipped with a touch screen, they showed transfer of the discrimination to new pairs of the artists, but did not show transfer of discrimination of paintings by other artists, suggesting generalization.

  19. Preference for and discrimination of paintings by mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Shigeru

    2013-01-01

    I measured preference for paintings (Renoir vs. Picasso or Kandinsky vs. Mondrian) in mice. In general mice did not display a painting preference except for two mice: one preferred Renoir to Picasso, and the other preferred Kandinsky to Mondrian. Thereafter, I examined discrimination of paintings with new mice. When exposure to paintings of one artist was associated with an injection of morphine (3.0 mg/kg), mice displayed conditioned preference for those paintings, showing discrimination of paintings by Renoir from those by Picasso, and paintings by Kandinsky from those by Mondrian after the conditioning. They also exhibited generalization of the preference to novel paintings of the artists. After conditioning with morphine for a set of paintings consisting of two artists, mice showed discrimination between two sets of paintings also from the two artists but not in association with morphine. These results suggest that mice can discriminate not only between an artist's style but also among paintings of the same artist. When mice were trained to discriminate a pair of paintings by Kandinsky and Renoir in an operant chamber equipped with a touch screen, they showed transfer of the discrimination to new pairs of the artists, but did not show transfer of discrimination of paintings by other artists, suggesting generalization.

  20. Water-Based Pressure-Sensitive Paints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordan, Jeffrey D.; Watkins, A. Neal; Oglesby, Donald M.; Ingram, JoAnne L.

    2006-01-01

    Water-based pressure-sensitive paints (PSPs) have been invented as alternatives to conventional organic-solvent-based pressure-sensitive paints, which are used primarily for indicating distributions of air pressure on wind-tunnel models. Typically, PSPs are sprayed onto aerodynamic models after they have been mounted in wind tunnels. When conventional organic-solvent-based PSPs are used, this practice creates a problem of removing toxic fumes from inside the wind tunnels. The use of water-based PSPs eliminates this problem. The waterbased PSPs offer high performance as pressure indicators, plus all the advantages of common water-based paints (low toxicity, low concentrations of volatile organic compounds, and easy cleanup by use of water).

  1. [Infrared spectrum characteristics of vehicle body paint].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Tao; Long, Xian-Jun; Wei, Lang; Gong, Biao; Li, Chun-Ming

    2012-07-01

    Two hundred eighty seven samples of vehicle paint were collected, and 940 spectra were obtained by Fourier transform infrared micro spectrometer. The spectral features of varnish, finish layer, and coated layers of different models and different color were analyzed, and the spectra similarities were compared. The results show that the varnish similarity on the same models with different color is 99.5%, and some similar model with the same manufacturer had high similarity. The finish spectra have remarkable differences with different model and different color, and the similarity degree is under 70%. The coated layer similarity varies between 83.33% and 96.91% among the common lacquer putty, and it ranges between 70.12% and 96.44% among the water-based lacquer putty. The metal components of paint will influence the spectrum characteristics. The spectra of the vehicle paint will change with the usage time.

  2. Examination of paints by trace element analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishnan, S S

    1976-10-01

    Trace element analysis using neutron activation analysis is effective and valuable, particularly in the examination of white household paint. Although physical appearance and resin composition are generally similar in these paint samples, trace element composition provides an effective way of distinguishing among them. In the case of automobile paint samples, NAA serves as an important additional technique for discrimination. The technique is important when sample sizes are very small. The technique developed takes a few minutes for sample preparation, a few hours of irradiation time (during which the examiner's presence is not required), and then a few minutes for counting and obtaining quantitative multielement concentration patterns. A technician can easily handle 30 to 50 samples per day.

  3. Painting the Palace of Apries I

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brøns, Cecilie; Rasmussen, Kaare Lund; Di Crescenzo, Marta Melchiorre

    2018-01-01

    of compounds belonging to the chemical families identified by FTIR. The detection of polysaccharides in the paint layers on the capital and on two of the fragments indicates the use of plant gums as binding media. The interpretation of the sugar profiles was not straightforward so botanical classification......, the second protein indicates that either the paint layer was bound in a mixture of different binding materials or that the paint layer, bound in a plant gum, was then coated with a proteinaceous material. The surface of two of the investigated samples was partially covered by translucent waxy materials...... that were identified as a synthetic wax (applied during old conservation treatments) and as beeswax, respectively. It is possible that the beeswax is of ancient origin, selectively applied on yellow areas in order to create a certain glossiness or highlight specific elements....

  4. The actinobacterial colonization of Etruscan paintings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diaz-Herraiz, Marta; Jurado, Valme; Cuezva, Soledad; Laiz, Leonila; Pallecchi, Pasquino; Tiano, Piero; Sanchez-Moral, Sergio; Saiz-Jimenez, Cesareo

    2013-01-01

    The paintings from Tomba della Scimmia, in Tuscany, are representative of the heavy bacterial colonization experienced in most Etruscan necropolises. The tomb remained open until the late 70's when it was closed because of severe deterioration of the walls, ceiling and paintings after decades of visits. The deterioration is the result of environmental changes and impacts suffered since its discovery in 1846. We show scanning electron microscopy and molecular studies that reveal the extent and nature of the biodeterioration. Actinobacteria, mainly Nocardia and Pseudonocardia colonize and grow on the tomb walls and this process is linked to the availability of organic matter, phyllosilicates (e.g. clay minerals) and iron oxides. Nocardia is found metabolically active in the paintings. The data confirm the specialization of the genera Nocardia and Pseudonocardia in the colonization of subterranean niches.

  5. Self-Cleaning Limestone Paint Modified by Nanoparticles TiO2 Synthesized from TiCl3 as Precursors and PEG6000 as Dispersant

    OpenAIRE

    Nur Fadhilah; Niki Etruly; Maktum Muharja; Dyah Sawitri

    2017-01-01

    Limestone is commonly used for wall painting, but it is easy to be dirty. In this study, a self-cleaning limestone paint was synthesized by modifying dispersant and TiO2 nanoparticles. The TiO2 that prepared by TiCl3 were functionalized with PEG6000 as a surface activating agent. The paint achieved highest impurity degradation of 83.11 % for the mass ratio of TiO2 and PEG6000 (MRTP) of 1: 6, in which TiO2 average size distribution was 75.81 µm2, the particle surface area of TiO2 was 2,544 µm2...

  6. Resistance of cyanobacterial fouling on architectural paint films to cleaning by water jet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirakawa, Marcia Aiko; Loh, Kai; John, Vanderley Moacir; Gaylarde, Christine Claire

    2012-04-01

    Mortar panels painted with three different white acrylic coatings were exposed to the environment in urban (São Paulo) and rural (Pirassununga) sites in Brazil for 7 years. After this time, all panels were almost equally discoloured, and paint detachment was observed to only a small degree. The biofilms were composed mainly of cyanobacteria and filamentous fungi, principal genera being Gloeocapsa and Chroococcidiopsis of the cyanobacteria, and Cladosporium and Alternaria of the fungi. Two of the three paints in Pirassununga became covered by a pink film that contained red-encapsulated Gloeocapsa and clay particles. The third, an 800% elastomeric matt formulation, became discoloured with a grey, only slightly pink, film, although the same cyanobacteria were present. The levels of paint detachments from all films in both locations were low, with rating range of 0-1 of a maximum 5 (100% detachment). After high-pressure water jetting, paint detachments increased at both locations, up to 2 in Pirassununga and 3 in São Paulo. Discoloration decreased; L*A*B* analysis of surface discoloration showed that ΔE (alteration in colour from the original paint film) changed from 28-39 before cleaning to 13-16 afterwards. The pink coloration was not entirely removed from Pirassununga samples, suggesting that cyanobacterial cells are difficult to detach, and microscopic analysis of the biofilms confirmed that Gloeocapsa was still present as the principal contaminant on all surfaces, with Chroococcidiopsis being present as the second most common. Almost no fungi were detected after water jet application.

  7. VOC emissions during outdoor ship painting and health-risk assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malherbe, Laure; Mandin, Corinne

    Painting of ship external surfaces in building or repair shipyards generates significant emissions of volatile organic compounds (VOC) to the atmosphere. Such emissions have not been specifically regulated so far. The purpose of our study is therefore to evaluate the quantities and as far as possible the nature of the emitted VOC, to characterize the dispersion of these chemicals in the atmosphere and to assess the exposure and resulting health risks for surrounding populations. This study is focused on VOC emitted during outdoor work involving use of paints and solvents. VOC emissions are diffuse, since they come from the whole painted surfaces. A methodology for quantifying them is developed and tested, using information provided by ALSTOM—Chantiers de l'Atlantique and data found in paint technical sheets. Its reliability is checked against emission values established by ALSTOM or found in literature. Then, for two particular situations, construction on one hand, repair on the other hand, atmospheric dispersion of total VOC is simulated to assess the long-term impact (characterized by the plume extension and the annual mean concentrations) of these compounds. Finally, a health-risk assessment based on the estimates is carried out to evaluate the risks by inhalation for people living near the site. Considering the presumed composition of paints and the available reference toxicological values, total VOC are entirely assimilated to toluene. In both examples (construction and repair) and in the current state of knowledge, the calculated risk is not of health concern. Several ways for taking this study further are proposed: a more exhaustive collection of data relative to VOC and other substances contained in paints, on-site measurement of VOC in the ambient air, characterization of diffuse emissions related to other activities, such as purging or welding, and other pollutants, like particles.

  8. Controlling the Color of Lead-Free Red Overglaze Enamels and a Process for Preparing High-Quality Red Paints.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashimoto, Hideki; Inada, Hirofumi; Okazaki, Yuki; Takaishi, Taigo; Fujii, Tatsuo; Takada, Jun

    2016-05-04

    Akae porcelain, an artistic Japanese traditional overglaze ceramic typically known for Kakiemon-style ware, has fascinated porcelain lovers around the world for over 400 years because of the graceful red color displayed by akae that matches so well with white porcelain bodies. In this work, we clarified the factors that control the color of akae and those that are conventionally controlled by artisans based on empirical experience. Inspired by a recent particle-design method, we also developed a practical facile process to prepare red paints that yields high-quality akae. Various akae samples were prepared from a combination of lead-free alkali borosilicate glass frits with different particle sizes and hematite powders with differing dispersibilities. Polarized light microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, and transmission electron microscopy analyses indicate that considering only the dispersibility of hematite powders is not sufficient, but the frit-particle size must be controlled to obtain high-quality akae with a high reflectance value for ≥580 nm visible light. In addition, we developed a process for preparing high-quality red paints that uses a large-particle frit powder and a strongly aggregated-hematite powder, both of which are easily obtainable. The red paint composed of frit, hematite, and the solvent is mixed until the paint is drying. By adding more solvent and repeating this process three times, we obtained high-quality akae with a higher reflectance value than for the akae prepared from a frit with submicron-sized particles and weakly aggregated-hematite powder. On the basis of transmission electron microscopic observations, we consider the red paint to consist of a core/shell-like composite structure of frit and hematite, forming a three-dimensional network in the akae glass layer. The good dispersibility of these particles leads to high-quality akae.

  9. Nanoscale investigation of the degradation mechanism of a historical chrome yellow paint by quantitative electron energy loss spectroscopy mapping of chromium species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Haiyan; Tian, He; Verbeeck, Jo; Monico, Letizia; Janssens, Koen; Van Tendeloo, Gustaaf

    2013-10-18

    Getting the picture: The investigation of 100 year old chrome yellow paint by transmission electron microscopy and spectroscopy has led to the identification of four types of core-shell particles. This nanoscale investigation has allowed a mechanism to be proposed for the darkening of some bright yellow colors in Van Gogh's paintings (e.g. in Falling leaves (Les Alyscamps), 1888). Copyright © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  10. Health hazards in drawing and painting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spandorfer, M; Curtiss, D; Snyder, J W

    2001-01-01

    Most health hazards in drawing and painting fall into two primary categories: volatile organic solvents used in many painting mediums and fixatives for dry drawing mediums; and respirable powders and dusts such as powdered pigments and dyes, which may be toxic and/or suspected or known carcinogens. User safeguards, such as appropriate ventilation and protective attire, and protection of the environment through careful emission and waste disposal, can be readily implemented with the education of artists and their employers. This chapter succinctly outlines the risk factors, symptomatology, and remedies to assist medical professionals in providing diagnosis and treatment.

  11. The Future of Aircraft Paint Removal Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-09-01

    cotton blast suits, cotton gloves, ear plugs, a sound deadening hard helmet with hospital grade clean air, and leather shoes is all that is required...AIR FORCE INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY Wright-Palterson Air Force Base, Ohio • i’- 0165 AFIT/GLM/LSM/89S-67 THE FUTURE OF AIRCRAFT PAINT REMOVAL METHODS...apc d/oa Dist I special. AFIT/GLM/LSM/89S-67 THE FUTURE OF AIRCRAFT PAINT REMOVAL METHODS THESIS Presented to the Faculty of the School of Systems and

  12. Breast Mass in a Rubens Painting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazzeri, Davide; Lippi, Donatella; Castello, Manuel Francisco; Weisz, George M

    2016-04-19

    Deformity of the breast and axilla observed in famous paintings is a fascinating field for the medico-artists. The attempt of a retrospective diagnosis of breast tumors is highly challenging. This paper deals with a Rubens painting portraying the heroine Judith with a visible but previously unreported left breast mass. Though speculative, the present medico-artistic diagnosis is of a tumor likely to be of benign nature. It is of interest that the present case is the sixth breast disease discovered in Rubens's works.

  13. Miniature paint-spray gun for recessed areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanasse, M. A.

    1968-01-01

    Miniature spray gun regulates paints and other liquids to spray at close range, facilitating spraying of remote or recessed areas. Individual valves for regulating air pressure and paint maximizes atomization for low pressure spraying.

  14. BICARBONATE OF SODA BLASTING TECHNOLOGY FOR AIRCRAFT WHEEL PAINTING

    Science.gov (United States)

    This evaluation addressed product quality, waste reduction/pollution prevention and economics in replacing chemical solvent strippers with a bicarbonate of soda blasting technology for removal of paint from aircraft wheels. The evaluation was conducted in the Paint Stripping Sho...

  15. What You Should Know about Using Paint Strippers

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... in the developing fetus have been noted in laboratory animals exposed to some of the chemicals in paint strippers. Therefore, women of child-bearing age who work with or use paint strippers on a regular basis, such as ...

  16. The First Normal Stress Difference in Waterborne Paints Thickened by Hydrophobically Ethoxylated Urethane (HEUR) Rheology Modifier: A Simplified Phase Diagram

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatterjee, Tirtha; van Dyk, Antony; Ginzburg, Valeriy; Nakatani, Alan

    Since their invention in the 1970s, hydrophobically ethoxylated urethane (HEUR) associative thickeners are widely used to modify the rheology of waterborne paints. While their flow curves (viscosity vs. shear rate) and microstructure have been studied extensively in recent years, there is surprisingly little information on the paint normal stress under application conditions. However, understanding of normal stress behavior is critical for many applications such as brush drag and spatter. In this work we will demonstrate that in HEUR-based paints the first normal stress difference (N1) is controlled by two factors: (a) adsorption of HEUR molecules on latex particles and (b) ability of non-adsorbed HEUR to form transient bridges between particles with HEUR shells. By controlling these two effects, one can design a paint formulation with targeted N1 behavior (positive or negative N1 under high shear). Finally, a simplified phase diagram will be presented connecting formulation composition-microstructure- and N1 behavior. The results would serve as guidelines to formulate paints to meet the specific customer needs.

  17. 24 CFR 574.635 - Lead-based paint.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Lead-based paint. 574.635 Section....635 Lead-based paint. The Lead-Based Paint Poisoning Prevention Act (42 U.S.C. 4821-4846), the Residential Lead-Based Paint Hazard Reduction Act of 1992 (42 U.S.C. 4851-4856), and implementing regulations...

  18. 24 CFR 1003.607 - Lead-based paint.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Lead-based paint. 1003.607 Section... § 1003.607 Lead-based paint. The requirements of the Lead-Based Paint Poisoning Prevention Act (42 U.S.C. 4821-4846), the Residential Lead-Based Paint Hazard Reduction Act of 1992 (42 U.S.C. 4851-4856), and...

  19. 24 CFR 570.608 - Lead-based paint.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Lead-based paint. 570.608 Section...-based paint. The Lead-Based Paint Poisoning Prevention Act (42 U.S.C. 4821-4846), the Residential Lead-Based Paint Hazard Reduction Act of 1992 (42 U.S.C. 4851-4856), and implementing regulations at part 35...

  20. Lead concentrations and labeling of new paint in cameroon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gottesfeld, P; Kuepouo, G; Tetsopgang, S; Durand, K

    2013-01-01

    In spite of the availability of substitutes for lead compounds used in paints, manufacturers continue to produce these paints for decorative and industrial applications. We report here on the concentration of lead in new paint sold in Cameroon and provide a summary of labeling practices on paints available in the country, based on a market survey. Investigators visited 76 retail and wholesale paint suppliers in Cameroon to collect information from paint product labels and to collect samples of paints to analyze for lead content. Only 8.5% of paints had labels identifying any of the ingredients, and none of the lead paints included any warning language. Based on a convenience sample (weighted to include multiple colors from the most common brands), 61 mostly enamel paints were purchased from retail outlets and analyzed for lead content (median: 2150 ppm; range: paint samples had concentrations exceeding the U.S. standard of 90 ppm total lead. All but one of the samples with lead concentrations greater than 90 ppm were also greater than 600 ppm. The largest manufacturer in the country-Seigneurie, a subsidiary of the U.S.-based company PPG-had significant lead concentrations in 9 out of 22 (41%) paints tested. There is an immediate need to adopt mandatory standards to limit the lead content of paint manufactured, imported, and sold in the country. To promote safer paint products we recommend the development of a third-party certification program for paints without added lead. These recommendations are consistent with the objectives of the Global Alliance to Eliminate Lead Paint established under the auspices of the United Nations to address this problem on a global scale.

  1. 24 CFR 511.15 - Lead-based paint.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Lead-based paint. 511.15 Section... Lead-based paint. The Lead-Based Paint Poisoning Prevention Act (42 U.S.C. 4821-4846), the Residential Lead-Based Paint Hazard Reduction Act of 1992 (42 U.S.C. 4851-4856), and implementing regulations at...

  2. Spectroscopic techniques and the conservation of artists’ acrylic emulsion paints

    OpenAIRE

    Willneff, EA; Schroeder, SLM; Ormsby, BA

    2014-01-01

    Artists’ acrylic emulsion paints are used in many contexts such as paintings, murals, sculptures, works on paper and mixed media; and are forming increasing proportions of modern and contemporary art collections. Although acrylic emulsion paints have been the focus of museum-led research over the past decade, the impact of artists’ technique and conservation treatment on the upper-most surface of these paints remains essentially unexplored ; This paper summarises previous studies using vibrat...

  3. Metal soaps in oil paint : Structure, mechanisms and dynamics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hermans, J.J.

    2017-01-01

    From a chemical point of view, oil paintings are not stable objects. Visually, changes in the appearance of an oil painting might be very slow, but over the course of centuries, chemical reactions and physical processes do affect the colour, texture and integrity of oil paint layers. This thesis

  4. Terahertz imaging for subsurface investigation of art paintings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Locquet, A.; Dong, J.; Melis, M.; Citrin, D. S.

    2017-08-01

    Terahertz (THz) reflective imaging is applied to the stratigraphic and subsurface investigation of oil paintings, with a focus on the mid-20th century Italian painting, `After Fishing', by Ausonio Tanda. THz frequency-wavelet domain deconvolution, which is an enhanced deconvolution technique combining frequency-domain filtering and stationary wavelet shrinkage, is utilized to resolve the optically thin paint layers or brush strokes. Based on the deconvolved terahertz data, the stratigraphy of the painting including the paint layers is reconstructed and subsurface features are clearly revealed. Specifically, THz C-scans and B-scans are analyzed based on different types of deconvolved signals to investigate the subsurface features of the painting, including the identification of regions with more than one paint layer, the refractive-index difference between paint layers, and the distribution of the paint-layer thickness. In addition, THz images are compared with X-ray images. The THz image of the thickness distribution of the paint exhibits a high degree of correlation with the X-ray transmission image, but THz images also reveal defects in the paperboard that cannot be identified in the X-ray image. Therefore, our results demonstrate that THz imaging can be considered as an effective tool for the stratigraphic and subsurface investigation of art paintings. They also open up the way for the use of non-ionizing THz imaging as a potential substitute for ionizing X-ray analysis in nondestructive evaluation of art paintings.

  5. A Hunt for Tennyson: Teaching Poetry through Painting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lask-Spinac, Sabina

    Tennyson's poem "The Lady of Shalott" and Holman Hunt's painting of the same subject are excellent examples of the value of exploring poetry through painting. One of the biggest questions raised in relation to the poem's theme is the problem of its ambiguity. By looking at the painting in class, one can sense the lack of definite…

  6. PAINT SPRAY BOOTH DESIGN USING RECIRCULATION/PARTITIONING VENTILATION

    Science.gov (United States)

    Many spray painting facility operators have been attempting to reduce the discharge of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from paint spray booths to the atmosphere. Some have been able to convert to lower VOC containing paints and coatings such as powder coating, waterborne coatin...

  7. TeraHertz imaging of hidden paint layers on canvas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Adam, A.J.L.; Planken, P.C.M.; Meloni, S.; Dik, J.

    2009-01-01

    We show terahertz reflection images of hidden paint layers in a painting on canvas and compare the results with X-ray Radiography and Infrared Reflectography. Our terahertz measurements show strong reflections from both the canvas/paint interface and from the raw umber/lead white interface,

  8. 13 CFR 120.173 - Lead-based paint.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Lead-based paint. 120.173 Section... to All Business Loans Requirements Imposed Under Other Laws and Orders § 120.173 Lead-based paint. If loan proceeds are for the construction or rehabilitation of a residential structure, lead-based paint...

  9. 24 CFR 92.355 - Lead-based paint.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Lead-based paint. 92.355 Section 92... HOME INVESTMENT PARTNERSHIPS PROGRAM Other Federal Requirements § 92.355 Lead-based paint. Housing assisted with HOME funds is subject to the Lead-Based Paint Poisoning Prevention Act (42 U.S.C. 4821-4846...

  10. 47 CFR 17.53 - Lighting equipment and paint.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Lighting equipment and paint. 17.53 Section 17.53 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION GENERAL CONSTRUCTION, MARKING, AND LIGHTING OF... Lighting equipment and paint. The lighting equipment, color or filters, and shade of paint referred to in...

  11. 24 CFR 891.325 - Lead-based paint requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Lead-based paint requirements. 891... Section 811 Supportive Housing for Persons With Disabilities § 891.325 Lead-based paint requirements. The requirements of the Lead-Based Paint Poisoning Prevention Act (42 U.S.C. 4821-4846), the Residential Lead-Based...

  12. 29 CFR 1915.33 - Chemical paint and preservative removers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Preparation and Preservation § 1915.33 Chemical paint and preservative removers. (a) Employees shall be protected against skin contact during the handling and application of chemical paint and preservative... 29 Labor 7 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Chemical paint and preservative removers. 1915.33 Section...

  13. Drying paint: from micro-scale dynamics to mechanical instabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goehring, Lucas; Li, Joaquim; Kiatkirakajorn, Pree-Cha

    2017-04-01

    Charged colloidal dispersions make up the basis of a broad range of industrial and commercial products, from paints to coatings and additives in cosmetics. During drying, an initially liquid dispersion of such particles is slowly concentrated into a solid, displaying a range of mechanical instabilities in response to highly variable internal pressures. Here we summarize the current appreciation of this process by pairing an advection-diffusion model of particle motion with a Poisson-Boltzmann cell model of inter-particle interactions, to predict the concentration gradients in a drying colloidal film. We then test these predictions with osmotic compression experiments on colloidal silica, and small-angle X-ray scattering experiments on silica dispersions drying in Hele-Shaw cells. Finally, we use the details of the microscopic physics at play in these dispersions to explore how two macroscopic mechanical instabilities-shear-banding and fracture-can be controlled. This article is part of the themed issue 'Patterning through instabilities in complex media: theory and applications.'

  14. Surface-sediment and hermit-crab contamination by butyltins in southeastern Atlantic estuaries after ban of TBT-based antifouling paints.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sant'Anna, B S; Santos, D M; Marchi, M R R; Zara, F J; Turra, A

    2014-05-01

    Butyltin (BT) contamination was evaluated in hermit crabs from 25 estuaries and in sediments from 13 of these estuaries along about 2,000 km of the Brazilian coast. BT contamination in hermit crabs ranged from 2.22 to 1,746 ng Sn g(-1) of DBT and 1.32 to 318 ng Sn g(-1) of TBT. In sediment samples, the concentration also varied widely, from 25 to 1,304 ng Sn g(-1) of MBT, from 7 to 158 ng Sn g(-1) of DBT, and from 8 to 565 ng Sn g(-1) of TBT. BTs are still being found in surface sediments and biota of the estuaries after the international and Brazilian bans, showing heterogeneous distribution among and within estuaries. Although hermit crabs were previously tested as an indicator of recent BT contamination, the results indicate the presence of contamination, probably from resuspension of BTs from deeper water of the estuary.

  15. Ecotoxicity and Preliminary Risk Assessment of Nonivamide as a Promising Marine Antifoulant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sujing Liu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The unclear environmental performance of nonivamide limits its application as a marine antifoulant. In this study, the natural degradation of nonivamide was studied in seawater and tap water. The half-life was 5.8 d, 8.8 d, 12.2 d, and 14.7 d in seawater and tap water in photolysis and biolysis, respectively. Furthermore, the ecotoxicity of nonivamide was assessed using marine microalgae, Chlorella vulgaris and Platymonas sp.; EC50,  6 d values on the growth of Chlorella vulgaris and Platymonas sp. were 16.9 mg L−1 and 19.21 mg L−1, respectively. The toxicity and environmental risk of nonivamide on microalgae were significantly decreased due to the natural degradation in seawater.

  16. PIXE analysis of historical paintings: Is the gain worth the risk?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Calligaro, T. [Centre de recherche et de restauration des musées de France, C2RMF, Palais du Louvre – Porte des Lions, 14 Quai François Mitterrand, 75001 Paris (France); PSL Research University, Chimie ParisTech – CNRS, Institut de Recherche Chimie Paris, UMR8247, 75005 Paris (France); Fédération de recherche NewAGLAE, FR3506 CNRS – Ministère de la Culture – IRCP, Palais du Louvre, 75001 Paris (France); Gonzalez, V. [Centre de recherche et de restauration des musées de France, C2RMF, Palais du Louvre – Porte des Lions, 14 Quai François Mitterrand, 75001 Paris (France); PSL Research University, Chimie ParisTech – CNRS, Institut de Recherche Chimie Paris, UMR8247, 75005 Paris (France); Pichon, L. [Centre de recherche et de restauration des musées de France, C2RMF, Palais du Louvre – Porte des Lions, 14 Quai François Mitterrand, 75001 Paris (France); Fédération de recherche NewAGLAE, FR3506 CNRS – Ministère de la Culture – IRCP, Palais du Louvre, 75001 Paris (France)

    2015-11-15

    The PIXE analysis of easel paintings constitutes a challenging task. Despite recognized merits and a few emblematic applications, PIXE has never been routinely applied to these fragile, complex and precious targets. The present work discusses the place of PIXE in the study of easel paintings and opens up perspectives for a more systematic usage of this analytical technique. Progress achieved since decades in the implementation of PIXE to study such fragile cultural heritage artefacts is reviewed, notably at the LABEC laboratory in Italy and at the AGLAE facility of the C2RMF in France. Two specific techniques developed for paintings are detailed and exemplified on Renaissance painting masterpieces: differential PIXE for paint layers depth profiling and multi-scale elemental mapping for the imaging of pigment distribution. Beam-induced damage, a major concern, notably depends on the employed beam fluence in particle/cm{sup 2} or μC/cm{sup 2}. After recalling previous works on damage induced in chemical products comparable to pigments, we present the behaviour under different fluences of protons of a few MeV (1–300 μC/cm{sup 2}) of targets having high resemblance to historical easel paintings: pellets of specially synthesized lead white pigments, layers of lead white mixed with linseed oil and areas containing lead white of two 19th century paintworks. The results shed new lights on the behaviour of paintworks under the beam and pave the way to strategies for damage mitigation. In particular, the lowering of PIXE performance induced by the decrease of the beam fluence sets a trade-off between risk of damage and gained information which also impacts the PIXE scanning protocol for paintings. As an illustration of an adequate adjustment of this balance, we report the exploratory application of PIXE mapping to a large area of a 19th century easel painting without damage. The recorded elemental maps are compared to elemental maps collected on the same area using

  17. Piezoelectric paint: characterization for further applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, C; Fritzen, C-P

    2012-01-01

    Piezoelectric paint is a very attractive piezoelectric composite in many fields, such as non-destructive testing, or structural health monitoring. However, there are still many obstacles which restrict the real application of it. One of the main problems is that piezoelectric paint lacks a standard fabrication procedure, thus characterization is needed before use. The work presented here explores the characterization of piezoelectric paint. It starts with fabrication of samples with certain piezoelectric powder weight percentages. The microstructures of the samples are investigated by a scanning electron microscope; the results indicate that the fabrication method can produce high quality samples. This is followed by measurements of Young’s modulus and sensitivity. The piezoelectric charge constant d 31 is then deduced from the experimental data; the results agree well with a published result, which validates the effectiveness of the fabrication and characterization method. The characterized piezoelectric paint can expand its applications into different fields and therefore becomes a more promising and competitive smart material. (paper)

  18. Painting: Is It Indigenous to Ghanaian Culture?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emmanuel Antwi

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Painting could be said to be well grounded in all cultures worldwide. This is underpinned by the vast record of cave art as globally represented, even though this phenomenon does not seamlessly continue into some ancient traditions that followed. In the face of the above however, to find the traditional period of a people one has to identify the geographical area of this group in order to consider the autochthonous art practice of the place so as to determine its cultural beginnings, extent, and forms of art explored. In the case of Ghana, one observes that, art historians usually site the beginning of painting at the time when colonial educational training of the arts was begun in Achimota from the 1900s. The study was conducted using historical review and analysis, unstructured interview guides as well as participant and non-participant observational techniques in a descriptive design at Sirigu, Ahwiaa and Ntonso, revealing the forms of painting that existed in the country before the introduction of formal training by the colonial masters. The result showed that Ghanaians traditionally practiced different kinds of painting, long before the colonial art training programme was introduced. We feel it should be of concern for any people to be able to tell, not only how, and why but also when they started doing the things that matter to their existence and cultural heritage.

  19. Failure-probability driven dose painting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vogelius, Ivan R; Håkansson, Katrin; Due, Anne K

    2013-01-01

    To demonstrate a data-driven dose-painting strategy based on the spatial distribution of recurrences in previously treated patients. The result is a quantitative way to define a dose prescription function, optimizing the predicted local control at constant treatment intensity. A dose planning study...

  20. Soap bubbles in paintings: Art and science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behroozi, F.

    2008-12-01

    Soap bubbles became popular in 17th century paintings and prints primarily as a metaphor for the impermanence and fragility of life. The Dancing Couple (1663) by the Dutch painter Jan Steen is a good example which, among many other symbols, shows a young boy blowing soap bubbles. In the 18th century the French painter Jean-Simeon Chardin used soap bubbles not only as metaphor but also to express a sense of play and wonder. In his most famous painting, Soap Bubbles (1733/1734) a translucent and quavering soap bubble takes center stage. Chardin's contemporary Charles Van Loo painted his Soap Bubbles (1764) after seeing Chardin's work. In both paintings the soap bubbles have a hint of color and show two bright reflection spots. We discuss the physics involved and explain how keenly the painters have observed the interaction of light and soap bubbles. We show that the two reflection spots on the soap bubbles are images of the light source, one real and one virtual, formed by the curved surface of the bubble. The faint colors are due to thin film interference effects.

  1. 29 CFR 1915.35 - Painting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Painting. 1915.35 Section 1915.35 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR (CONTINUED... sufficient slack to prevent undue stress or chafing. (9) The face, eyes, head, hands, and all other exposed...

  2. Understanding Korean food culture from Korean paintings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hae Kyung Chung

    2016-03-01

    Conclusion: Beyond the basic value of food in maximizing nutrients and energy, Korean food culture has developed distinctive cultural characteristics through more than 5,000 years of agricultural history. Although the genre paintings analyzed in this paper are limited to a certain era, this paper will serve as a milestone in providing direction for future studies.

  3. "The Ancient Master Painted like Me"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiu, Son-Mey

    2009-01-01

    By following their wonderful ideas or critical exploration, three eighth graders learned how to do traditional Chinese painting, which is taught by copying old masters' work from the Ming Dynasty in the 17th century. The standard manual, which most learners have been using for these three hundred years, is the "Mustard Seed Garden Manual of…

  4. The Ancient Art of Silk Painting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yonker, Kim

    2010-01-01

    In this article, the author describes a silk-painting project with a sea-creature theme for eighth-grade students. Other themes can be used such as geometric quilt designs, tropical rain forest, large flowers, Art Nouveau motifs, portraits and more. (Contains 2 resources.)

  5. Recirculating sprayer for fiber-filled paints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Major, R. K.

    1980-01-01

    Recirculating paint sprayer applies spray of coarse filler in highly volatile solvent. Sprayer was developed for applying insulation material containing epxoy resin, glass fibers, and inert fillers suspended in chlorinated solvents. Sprayer resists abrasive action of fiberglass filler and chemical activity of solvent. Pump and position ensure more uniform pressure at spray gun without backpressure regulator, which tended to clog in old sprayer.

  6. PAINT SPRAY BOOTH MODIFICATIONS FOR RECIRCULATION VENTILATION

    Science.gov (United States)

    The control of emissions from spray painting operations has historically been cost prohibitive, due to the high exhaust flow rates coupled with low volatile organic compound (VOC) and hazardous air pollutant (HAP) Concentrations. Past studies, conducted by the U.S. EPA and U.S. ...

  7. Remarks on the 'Spray-Paint' Issue

    OpenAIRE

    Okuno, Tadanori

    1991-01-01

    It is generally believed that the locative variant of the 'spray-paint' construction makesthe object NP partitive in a certain sense while the transposed one makes it holistic.Arguing that there are in fact many more factors operative, this paper attempts to get aclearer perspective on the issue.

  8. Artists Paint ... Fall: Grades K-1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herberholz, Barbara

    2012-01-01

    Artists often paint the different seasonal activities people engage in and the way the world looks as changes take place. The weather for each of the four seasons is different. Farmers plant crops and gardens in the spring and harvest their crops in the fall, just like "The Harvesters" by Pieter Bruegel the Elder. To begin, children will observe…

  9. Lead Paint Test Kits Workshop: Summary Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) Office of Research and Development (ORD) designed and conducted the Lead Paint Test Kits Workshop on October 19 and 20, 2006, at the Environmental Protection Agency's Research Triangle Park, NC campus. The workshop was conducted as...

  10. IMAGES OF POWER IN CONTEMPORARY NIGERIAN PAINTINGS ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DR. OKECHUKWU NWAFOR

    centres on the manner in which these differing notions influence the social life of the people without distorting the intrinsic .... The paintings have been executed in oils, acrylics and mixed media as it best enables the production of the artists' ... In Nigeria this activity is called sexual gratification. It could be postulated that this.

  11. Rendering Visible: Painting and Sexuate Subjectivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daley, Linda

    2015-01-01

    In this essay, I examine Luce Irigaray's aesthetic of sexual difference, which she develops by extrapolating from Paul Klee's idea that the role of painting is to render the non-visible rather than represent the visible. This idea is the premise of her analyses of phenomenology and psychoanalysis and their respective contributions to understanding…

  12. Aesthetic value of paintings affects pain thresholds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Tommaso, Marina; Sardaro, Michele; Livrea, Paolo

    2008-12-01

    Pain is modulated by cognitive factors, including attention and emotions. In this study we evaluated the distractive effect of aesthetic appreciation on subjectively rated pain (visual analogue scale;VAS) and multi-channel evoked potentials induced by CO(2) laser stimulation of the left hand in twelve healthy volunteers. Subjects were stimulated by laser in the absence of other external stimulation (baseline condition) and while looking at different paintings they had previously rated as beautiful, neutral or ugly. The view of paintings previously appreciated as beautiful produced lower pain scores and a clear inhibition of the P2 wave amplitude, localized in the anterior cingulate cortex; the inhibition of P2 wave amplitude was lesser or not significant during the presentation of the ugly or neutral paintings, respectively. Dipole source localization analysis of the LEP peaks showed significant changes during different conditions, with a shift from the posterior to the anterior right cingulated cortex while looking at paintings previously rated as beautiful. Our results provide evidence that pain may be modulated at cortical level by the aesthetic content of the distracting stimuli.

  13. Two paintings by Francisco Bayeu in Vergara

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Ignacio Calvo Ruata

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Two unpublished paintings by Francisco Bayeu are presented, located in the church of Saint Marina in Oxirondo (Vergara, Guipúzcoa. Both are dedicated to Saint Roch and Saint Sebastian, as they are two versions of the same subject because the work had to be repeated.

  14. Landscape Painting: Artists Who Love the Land.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andre, Linda; Casey, Douglas, Ed.

    1996-01-01

    Through the study of several works of art by Albert Bierstadt, George Catlin, Winslow Homer, and Thomas Moran, this resource explores the way that people felt about their growing nation during the period of westward expansion until the end of the 19th century. It introduces students to basic principles of landscape painting and has students…

  15. Nabokov and the Art of Painting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vries, de Gerard J.M.; Johnson, D. Barton

    2005-01-01

    Vladimir Nabokov was one of the greatest novelists of the previous century and his mastery of English and Russian prose is unequalled. Nabokov had originally trained to become a painter and shared Marc Chagall's tutor in Paris. In Nabokov and the Art of Painting the authors demonstrate how the art

  16. Radiocarbon dating of ancient rock paintings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ilger, W.A.; Hyman, M.; Rowe, M.W.

    1995-01-01

    This report presents progress made on a technique for 14 C dating pictographs. A low-temperature oxygen plasma is used coupled with high-vacuum technologies to selectively remove C-containing material in the paints without contamination from inorganic carbon from rock substrates or accretions

  17. Dermal exposure due to airless spray painting : a semi-experimental study during spray painting of a container

    OpenAIRE

    Lansink, C.J.M.; Hengstum, C. van; Brouwer, D.H.

    1998-01-01

    In this study dermal exposure by spray painting has been investigated. After a pilot-study it was decided to start a study in the offshore industry, where the airless spray painting technique was used. The main purpose of the present study was to determine the range of potential dermal exposure to paint during airless spray painting. It was also investigated whether the observed exposure corresponds with the estimates made by the exposure model EASE. Skin exposure was measured in three offsho...

  18. Tethering of hyperbranched polyols using PEI as a building block to synthesize antifouling PVDF membranes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xushan; Wang, Zihong; Wang, Zhe; Cao, Yu; Meng, Jianqiang

    2017-10-01

    Antifouling PVDF membranes were prepared by grafting hyperbranched polyols on the membrane surface via a three-step modification method. The membrane was first prepared by alkaline treatment to introduce alkenyl groups, then chemically immobilizing hyperbranched poly(ethyleneimine) (HPEI) on membrane surface through Michael reaction followed by ring opening reaction of the glycidol with amine groups. Chemical compositions, surface morphology and physicochemical properties of the original and modified membranes were characterized via attenuated total refection-Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), water contact angle (WCA) and zeta potential measurements. The antifouling property of the modified membrane was assessed by the static bovine serum albumin (BSA) and lysozyme (LZM) adsorption as well as cross-flow filtration of BSA aqueous solution. The results explicate that surface modification using hyperbranched polymers can alter membrane chemistry and morphology significantly. In contrast to the original PVDF membrane, the modified membrane shows superhydrophilic property and relatively high capability to resist nonspecific protein adsorption. Three HPEIs were used for modification and the obtained PVDFA-g-PG60,000 membrane has a static BSA protein adsorption of 45 μg/cm2 and shows the highest protein resistance. However, the PVDF-g-PG membrane is positively charged due to the unreacted amine groups. As a result, the PVDF-g-PG membranes also show high flux decline during the filtration of BSA aqueous solution due to the electrostatic interaction. In spite of that, the PVDF-g-PG membranes still maintain high flux recovery ratio and good washing properties.

  19. Paintings - high-energy protons detect pigments and paint-layers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Denker, A.; Opitz-Coutureau, J.

    2004-01-01

    High-energy PIXE was used to identify pigment composition, sequencing and the thickness of paint-layers. Before applying the technique to valuable masterpieces, mock-ups were examined in a collaboration with the Kunsthistorisches Museum, Vienna. The results of high-energy PIXE were compared to conventional cross-section analysis. In addition, the non-destructiveness of the technique was investigated thoroughly. After this preparative work, two ancient paintings have been examined and the results are presented in this paper

  20. Study of the Wall Paintings of the Cenador Del Leon in the Real Alcazar of Seville

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robador, Maria Dolores; Mancera, Inmaculada; Perez-Maqueda, Rafael; Albardonedo, Antonio

    2017-10-01

    The paintings on the walls of the Cenador del Leon located in the gardens of the Real Alcazar in Seville next to the Pabellon de Carlos V in the Jardin Ingles area have been studied. The components of the wall paintings cross-sections, which were prepared using small samples taken from the walls of Cenador del Leon, were characterized using infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) with energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) analysis. The cross-sections of the collected samples indicated that the paint layer is well adhered to the preparation layer without any discontinuity, and only one carbonation layer exists at the top of the sequence of layers. These data suggest that the paint was applied on a fresco surface, and therefore, the adopted technique was fresco. Based on the different elements detected by EDX analysis of the cross-sections, the detected pigments included iron oxides accompanied by clay minerals (or earths) in the red pink, golden yellow and yellow colours, blue smelt for the blue colour and basic copper chloride (atacamite) for the green colour. In one sample, the particles were composed of Ba and S from barium sulphate and Ti and O from rutile titanium oxide due to a modern pigment.

  1. Nanoparticles Ni electroplating and black paint for solar collector applications

    OpenAIRE

    Nady, J.; Kashyout, A.B.; Ebrahim, Sh.; Soliman, M.B.

    2017-01-01

    A nanoparticles layer of bright nickel base was deposited on copper substrates using electrodeposition technique before spraying the paint. IR reflectance of the paint was found to be around 0.4 without bright nickel layer and the reflectance increased to 0.6 at a Ni layer thickness of 750 nm. The efficiency of the constructed solar collectors using black paint and black paint combined with bright nickel was found to be better than black paint individually. After aging tests under high temper...

  2. Characterization of paint layers by simultaneous self-consistent fitting of RBS/PIXE spectra using simulated annealing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beck, L.; Jeynes, C.; Barradas, N.P.

    2008-01-01

    Particle induced X-ray emission (PIXE) is now routinely used for analyzing paint layers. Various setups have been developed to investigate the elemental composition of samples or wood/canvas paintings. However, the characterisation of paint layers is difficult due to their layered structure and due to the presence of organic binders. Also, standard PIXE codes do not support the quantitation of depth profiles in the general case. Elastic backscattering (both Rutherford and non-Rutherford) is usually used in ion beam analysis to determine depth profiles. However, traditional data processing using iteration between standard PIXE codes and particle scattering simulation codes is very time consuming and does not always give satisfactory results. Using two PIXE detectors and one particle detector recording simultaneously in an external beam geometry, we have applied a global minimisation code to all three spectra to solve these depth profiles self-consistently. This data treatment was applied to various different cases of paint layers and we demonstrate that the structures can be solved unambiguously, assuming that roughness effects do not introduce ambiguity

  3. High flux and antifouling filtration membrane based on non-woven fabric with chitosan coating for membrane bioreactors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chanchan; Yang, Fenglin; Meng, Fangang; Zhang, Hanmin; Xue, Yuan; Fu, Gang

    2010-07-01

    To prepare a high flux and antifouling filtration membrane used for submerged membrane bioreactors, non-woven fabric (NWF) was modified by coating chitosan (CS) on both internal and outer surface. Chemical structural and morphological changes were characterized. The changes of surface free energy were monitored by dynamic contact angle, which showed an increase after modification. The CS/NWF composite membranes were found to be with high flux, high effluent quality and excellent antifouling property. The results of fouling resistance distribution indicated that irreversible fouling resistance was decreased by coating CS. Especially, there were fewer gel layers existing on the outer surface. The adsorption of EPS on the NWF membrane internal surface decreased after being coated with CS. Modification improved filtration performance, and made fouling less troublesome and membrane regeneration efficient. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Thielavins W–Z7, New Antifouling Thielavins from the Marine-Derived Fungus Thielavia sp. UST030930-004

    KAUST Repository

    Han, Zhuang

    2017-05-02

    Eleven new depsides-thielavins W-Z (1-4) and thielavins Z₁-Z₇ (5-11)-and also four known thielavins-A, H, J, and K (12-15)-were isolated from the ethyl acetate extract of a marine-derived fungal strain Thielavia sp UST030930-004. All of these compounds were evaluated for antifouling activity against cyprids of the barnacle Balanus (=Amphibalanus) amphitrite. The results showed that compounds 1-3 and 6-13 were active, with EC50 values ranging from 2.95 ± 0.59 to 69.19 ± 9.51 μM, respectively. The inhibitive effect of compounds 1-3 and 7 was reversible. This is the first description of the antifouling activity of thielavins against barnacle cyprids.

  5. Surface sensing and stress-signalling in Ulva and fouling diatoms - potential targets for antifouling: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Stephanie E M; Coates, Juliet C

    2017-05-01

    Understanding the underlying signalling pathways that enable fouling algae to sense and respond to surfaces is essential in the design of environmentally friendly coatings. Both the green alga Ulva and diverse diatoms are important ecologically and economically as they are persistent biofoulers. Ulva spores exhibit rapid secretion, allowing them to adhere quickly and permanently to a ship, whilst diatoms secrete an abundance of extracellular polymeric substances (EPS), which are highly adaptable to different environmental conditions. There is evidence, now supported by molecular data, for complex calcium and nitric oxide (NO) signalling pathways in both Ulva and diatoms being involved in surface sensing and/or adhesion. Moreover, adaptation to stress has profound effects on the biofouling capability of both types of organism. Targets for future antifouling coatings based on surface sensing are discussed, with an emphasis on pursuing NO-releasing coatings as a potentially universal antifouling strategy.

  6. Remarkable Anti-Fouling Performance of TiO2-Modified TFC Membranes with Mussel-Inspired Polydopamine Binding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rui-Xin Zhang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available It has been proven that a versatile bio-glue, polydopamine, can firmly bind TiO2 (titanium dioxide nanoparticles on thin film composite (TFC membranes. In this work, the anti-fouling behaviour of this novel polydopamine-TiO2-modified membrane is evaluated, based on the static bovine serum albumin (BSA surface adhesion of the membranes and the relative flux decline. The results show that the anti-fouling performance of this new membrane is significantly improved in dark conditions when compared with the neat TFC membrane and the membranes only modified by polydopamine or TiO2. When filtrating a 0.5 g·L−1 BSA solution in dark conditions, the flux of the polydopamine-TiO2-modified membrane remains constant, at 95% of its pure water flux after 30 min filtration for 8 h of the experiment. This indicates a significant increase in anti-fouling performance when compared to the 25% flux decline observed for the neat TFC membrane, and to the 15% flux decline of those only modified by polydopamine or TiO2. This remarkable anti-fouling behaviour is attributed to an improved and uniform hydrophilicity, due to the presence of TiO2 and to the regular nanosized papillae structure of the polydopamine-TiO2 coating. Furthermore, since dopamine-modified TiO2 has visible light-induced photocatalytic properties, the membrane’s photocatalytic performance was also tested in light conditions. However an increase of flux and decrease of retention were observed after 24 h of continuous illumination, indicating that light may also affect the top layer of the membrane.

  7. Antifouling coatings: recent developments in the design of surfaces that prevent fouling by proteins, bacteria, and marine organisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banerjee, Indrani; Pangule, Ravindra C; Kane, Ravi S

    2011-02-08

    The major strategies for designing surfaces that prevent fouling due to proteins, bacteria, and marine organisms are reviewed. Biofouling is of great concern in numerous applications ranging from biosensors to biomedical implants and devices, and from food packaging to industrial and marine equipment. The two major approaches to combat surface fouling are based on either preventing biofoulants from attaching or degrading them. One of the key strategies for imparting adhesion resistance involves the functionalization of surfaces with poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) or oligo(ethylene glycol). Several alternatives to PEG-based coatings have also been designed over the past decade. While protein-resistant coatings may also resist bacterial attachment and subsequent biofilm formation, in order to overcome the fouling-mediated risk of bacterial infection it is highly desirable to design coatings that are bactericidal. Traditional techniques involve the design of coatings that release biocidal agents, including antibiotics, quaternary ammonium salts (QAS), and silver, into the surrounding aqueous environment. However, the emergence of antibiotic- and silver-resistant pathogenic strains has necessitated the development of alternative strategies. Therefore, other techniques based on the use of polycations, enzymes, nanomaterials, and photoactive agents are being investigated. With regard to marine antifouling coatings, restrictions on the use of biocide-releasing coatings have made the generation of nontoxic antifouling surfaces more important. While considerable progress has been made in the design of antifouling coatings, ongoing research in this area should result in the development of even better antifouling materials in the future. Copyright © 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  8. Novel antifouling self-healing poly(carboxybetaine methacrylamide-co-HEMA) nanocomposite hydrogels with superior mechanical properties

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kostina, Nina Yu.; Sharifi, S.; de los Santos Pereira, Andres; Michálek, Jiří; Grijpma, D. W.; Rodriguez-Emmenegger, Cesar

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 1, č. 41 (2013), s. 5644-5650 ISSN 2050-750X R&D Projects: GA AV ČR KAN200520804; GA ČR GA13-00939S; GA ČR GAP205/12/1702; GA ČR GAP106/12/1451; GA ČR GBP205/12/G118 Institutional support: RVO:61389013 Keywords : hydrogels * self-healing * antifouling Subject RIV: CD - Macromolecular Chemistry

  9. Synthesis and evaluation of polystyrene-polybutadiene-polystyrene-dodecafluoroheptyl methacrylate/polystyrene-polybutadiene-polystyrene hybrid antifouling coating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jiang; Wang, Guoqing; Ding, Chunhua; Jiang, Hong; Wang, Peiqing

    2014-11-15

    Copolymers SBS-DFHMA and mesoporous silica SBA-15 were respectively synthesized and SBS-DFHMA were mixed with SBA-15 to prepared hybrid antifouling coatings by a spin-coater. By measuring the surface water contact angle and the attachment of Pseudomonas fluorescens, Chlorella and Diatoms, the antifouling properties of coatings were evaluated. The results shown that the surface of hybrid coatings, the water contact angle arrived 120°, were more hydrophobic than the SBS-DFHMA coatings. In terms of resistance of adhesion, low surface energy coatings of SBS-DFHMA could effectively weaken the adhesion behavior of P.fluorescens and Diatoms, but the role to Chlorella was not obvious. When 0.01 g/ml SBA-15 was added, the adhesion of three marine microorganisms all had a very significant decrease to the hybrid coatings. These indicated that the fluorinated low surface energy antifouling coatings had limitation on resisting Chlorella attaching, and the addition of SBA-15 not only enhanced the ability of resistance to adhesion but also widen the applicability to more fouling and narrowed its limitations. This surprising effect was due to micro-nano convex structure of the coatings surface caused by hybrid. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  10. Conductive paint-filled cement paste sensor for accelerated percolation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laflamme, Simon; Pinto, Irvin; Saleem, Hussam S.; Elkashef, Mohamed; Wang, Kejin; Cochran, Eric

    2015-04-01

    Cementitious-based strain sensors can be used as robust monitoring systems for civil engineering applications, such as road pavements and historic structures. To enable large-scale deployments, the fillers used in creating a conductive material must be inexpensive and easy to mix homogeneously. Carbon black (CB) particles constitute a promising filler due to their low cost and ease of dispersion. However, a relatively high quantity of these particles needs to be mixed with cement in order to reach the percolation threshold. Such level may influence the physical properties of the cementitious material itself, such as compressive and tensile strengths. In this paper, we investigate the possibility of utilizing a polymer to create conductive chains of CB more quickly than in a cementitious-only medium. This way, while the resulting material would have a higher conductivity, the percolation threshold would be reached with fewer CB particles. Building on the principle that the percolation threshold provides great sensing sensitivity, it would be possible to fabricate sensors using less conducting particles. We present results from a preliminary investigation comparing the utilization of a conductive paint fabricated from a poly-Styrene-co-Ethylene-co-Butylene-co-Styrene (SEBS) polymer matrix and CB, and CB-only as fillers to create cementitious sensors. Preliminary results show that the percolation threshold can be attained with significantly less CB using the SEBS+CB mix. Also, the study of the strain sensing properties indicates that the SEBS+CB sensor has a strain sensitivity comparable to the one of a CB-only cementitious sensor when comparing specimens fabricated at their respective percolation thresholds.

  11. Allergic reactions to decorative skin paintings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikkels, A F; Henry, F; Piérard, G E

    2001-03-01

    Dye mixtures containing henna, P-phenylenediamine (PPD), and indigo are applied to the skin in various parts of the world for religious purposes, social recognition or fun. To identify eventual allergens responsible for contact sensitization to skin decoration in three young children. Lesions remained strictly limited to the site painted during the summer holiday. None of the children had a previous history of contact dermatitis, but two of them suffered from severe seasonal allergic rhinoconjunctivitis. Patch testing revealed severe contact hypersensitivity to PPD in all three patients, and one child presented a positive prick test to 1% henna in water. The eruptions resolved following spontaneous elimination of the dyes and topical applications of corticosteroids, but left residual depigmentation. PPD is the main allergen identified in allergic reactions to decorative skin paintings.

  12. Water-Based Pressure Sensitive Paint

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oglesby, Donald M.; Ingram, JoAnne L.; Jordan, Jeffrey D.; Watkins, A. Neal; Leighty, Bradley D.

    2004-01-01

    Preparation and performance of a water-based pressure sensitive paint (PSP) is described. A water emulsion of an oxygen permeable polymer and a platinum porphyrin type luminescent compound were dispersed in a water matrix to produce a PSP that performs well without the use of volatile, toxic solvents. The primary advantages of this PSP are reduced contamination of wind tunnels in which it is used, lower health risk to its users, and easier cleanup and disposal. This also represents a cost reduction by eliminating the need for elaborate ventilation and user protection during application. The water-based PSP described has all the characteristics associated with water-based paints (low toxicity, very low volatile organic chemicals, and easy water cleanup) but also has high performance as a global pressure sensor for PSP measurements in wind tunnels. The use of a water-based PSP virtually eliminates the toxic fumes associated with the application of PSPs to a model in wind tunnels.

  13. Coatings for rubber bonding and paint adhesion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boulos, M. S.; Petschel, M.

    1997-08-01

    Conversion coatings form an important base for the adhesion of paint to metal substrates and for the bonding of rubber to metal parts. Four types of conversion coatings were assessed as base treatments for the bonding of rubber to steel and for the corrosion protection of metal substrates under paint: amorphous iron phosphate, heavy zinc phosphate, and three types of modified zinc phosphates that utilized one or more metal cations in addition to zinc. When applied, these conversion coatings formed a thin film over the metal substrate that was characterized by scanning electron microscopy, x-ray diffraction, and chemical methods. The performance of the coatings was assessed using physical methods such as dry adhesion, conical mandrel, impact, and stress adhesion for the rubber-bonded parts, and by corrosion resistance methods such as humidity, salt spray, and cyclic corrosion. Coating characterization and performance were correlated.

  14. Prediction of optical properties of paints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ďurikovič, Roman; Ágošton, Tomaš

    2007-09-01

    The field of predictive rendering concerns itself with those methods of image synthesis which yield results that do not only look real, but are also radiometrically correct renditions of nature, i.e., which are accurate predictions of what a real scene would look like under given lighting conditions. A real coating consists of pigments, effect pigments, clear lacquer and glaze. A novel and unique combination of real parameters that are commonly measured in the industry and a theoretical reflectance model consisting of measurable parameters is required. Here, the authors design perception parameters and put them into well known surface reflection functions such as He and Torrance. The original contributions are the study of the sub-surface scattering of real paint and the prediction of its appearance in rendered images by the proposed model of light reflection beneath the paint surface.

  15. Pressure-Sensitive Paint: Effect of Substrate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinn, Mark Kenneth; Yang, Leichao; Kontis, Konstantinos

    2011-01-01

    There are numerous ways in which pressure-sensitive paint can be applied to a surface. The choice of substrate and application method can greatly affect the results obtained. The current study examines the different methods of applying pressure-sensitive paint to a surface. One polymer-based and two porous substrates (anodized aluminum and thin-layer chromatography plates) are investigated and compared for luminescent output, pressure sensitivity, temperature sensitivity and photodegradation. Two luminophores [tris-Bathophenanthroline Ruthenium(II) Perchlorate and Platinum-tetrakis (pentafluorophenyl) Porphyrin] will also be compared in all three of the substrates. The results show the applicability of the different substrates and luminophores to different testing environments. PMID:22247685

  16. Noise resistance applied to the study paints

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lanchas Garcia-Zarco, S.; Alfosin Perez, V.; Suarez Garcia, A.; Urrejola Madrinan, S.; Sanchez Bermudez, A.

    2015-01-01

    Electrochemical noise is one of the methods of analysis used to interpret the phenomenon of corrosion. It has a number of advantages over other methodology types including its simplicity, its low cost and the fact that it does not disturb the system. This methodology appears to be effective together with other techniques in metal-electrolyte systems. In this case the technique is applied on its own on commercial anti-corrosion paints for which no information is available from other techniques. The main result of this study reveals the effectiveness of the noise resistance parameter, which had already been tested in the lab, when it is used to explain how the paint system behaves in industry. (Author)

  17. Visibility of sparkle in metallic paints

    OpenAIRE

    Kirchner, Eric; Van der Lans, Ivo; Perales Romero, Esther; Martínez Verdú, Francisco Miguel; Campos Acosta, Joaquín; Ferrero Turrión, Alejandro

    2015-01-01

    For suitable illumination and observation conditions, sparkles may be observed in metallic coatings. The visibility of these sparkles depends critically on their intensity, and on the paint medium surrounding the metallic flakes. Based on previous perception studies from other disciplines, we derive equations for the threshold for sparkles to be visible. The resulting equations show how the visibility of sparkles varies with the luminosity and distance of the light source, the diameter of the...

  18. Electrochemical assessment of magnetite anticorrosive paints

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Escobar, D. M.

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available With the purpose of deepening in the understanding of the mechanisms of protection of anticorrosive pigments based on iron oxides, this work has been carried out on the production of pure magnetite, and copper and chromium doped magnetite, which were evaluated by different characterization techniques. The paints were prepared with a solvent less epoxy resin maintaining the Pigment Volume Content near the Practical Critical value (CPVC, established for each pigment. The paints were applied on polished steel and monitored with electrochemical techniques at total immersion conditions. Permeability and impedance measurements of free films were also done. Impedance data were simulated with the Boukamp software. Results show that the paints pigmented with doped magnetite present better behavior than a paint prepared with commercial hematite.

    Con el propósito de profundizar en el entendimiento de los mecanismos de protección de los pigmentos anticorrosivos a base de óxidos de hierro, se sintetizaron y caracterizaron magnetitas puras y dopadas con cobre y cromo, con las cuales se prepararon pinturas anticorrosivas que fueron evaluadas en ensayos acelerados de campo y laboratorio. Las pinturas fueron especialmente preparadas con una resina libre de solvente manteniendo la Concentración Pigmentaria en Volumen cercana al valor Crítico (CPVC, establecida para cada pigmento. Las pinturas fueron aplicadas sobre acero pulido y evaluadas con técnicas electroquímicas en condiciones de inmersión total. Para complementar el estudio se realizaron medidas de permeabilidad e impedancia sobre las películas libres. Los datos de impedancia se simularon con el programa Boukamp. Los resultados muestran que las pinturas pigmentadas con magnetitas dopadas presentan mejor comportamiento que las preparadas con hematita comercial.

  19. Solar Paint: From Synthesis to Printing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaojing Zhou

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Water-based polymer nanoparticle dispersions (solar paint offer the prospect of addressing two of the main challenges associated with printing large area organic photovoltaic devices; namely, how to control the nanoscale architecture of the active layer and eliminate the need for hazardous organic solvents during device fabrication. In this paper, we review progress in the field of nanoparticulate organic photovoltaic (NPOPV devices and future prospects for large-scale manufacturing of solar cells based on this technology.

  20. Understanding Korean food culture from Korean paintings

    OpenAIRE

    Hae Kyung Chung; Kyung Rhan Chung; Hung Ju Kim

    2016-01-01

    Background: In Korea, there are many traditional foods that have developed along with the country's rich history. In addition, various food cultures have developed through agricultural traditions, ritual ceremonies, and the sharing of affection. Paintings, works of calligraphy, and music demonstrate some of these cultural characteristics of Korean foods. Further research and analysis of Korean food culture using these data sources is currently underway. Methods: This paper focuses on the c...

  1. Colour Dematerialization in Spiritual Literature and Painting

    OpenAIRE

    Sudrajat, Dadang; Piliang, Yasraf Amir; Sanjaya, Tisna; Kusmara, Andriyanto Rikrik

    2017-01-01

    Colour in variety of art expression can be interpreted differently. This study is aiming at analyzing the colour dematerialization of Javanese spiritual literature “Falsafah Jeroning Warna” by Suprapto Kadis and a painting by Ahmad Sadali entitled “Gunung Mas”. Research was done by employing qualitative research, while data was collected by observation, interview, discussion, and documentation study. The analysis of meanings in the two art works was done in descriptive way by using the theory...

  2. Biological Treatment of Solvent-Based Paint

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    COVERED (From - To) Mar 2005- Mar 2010 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Biological Treatment of Solvent-Based Paint 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER WP 200520 5b...GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) Torres, Tom; Hoffard, Theresa 5d. PROJECT NUMBER WP 200520 Lagerquist, Jenny 5e. TASK...nonhazardous and can be landfarmed, composted , or captured in a filter press and landfilled. Most industrial biological treatment systems will also require

  3. Intumescent paint as fire protection coating

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. B. R.S. OLIVEIRA

    Full Text Available Abstract This paper is a compendium on intumescent paint and its main features regarding chemical composition, thermophysical properties and performance as a fire-retardant material. Some of the main technical publications and lines of research on the subject are presented herein. The purpose of this paper is to show the current stage of the technical research being conducted on the topic and enable a better understanding of this fire-retardant material.

  4. Filiform corrosion formation on painted aluminium extrusions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nordlien, J.H. [SINTEF Materials Technology, Trondheim (Norway). Dept. of Corrosion and Surface Technology; Defrancq, J. [Lab. for Strength of Materials and Welding Technology, Univ. of Gent (Belgium); Zuest, W. [Algroup Alusuisse, Technology Center, Neuhausen (Switzerland); Benmalek, M. [Pechiney, Centre de Recherches de Voreppe, Voreppe (France); Stuckart, R. [Hydro Aluminium Extrusion, Lausanne (Switzerland)

    2000-07-01

    The filiform corrosion susceptibility of extruded, chromated and coated AA 6060/6063 alloys has been investigated. It is shown that, provided sufficient metal is removed before chromating, these alloys will exhibit high filiform corrosion resistance. In those cases where extensive filiform corrosion attack is observed during corrosion testing it is shown to be due to a reactive surface region, formed during the thermo-mechanical processing of the alloy and remaining after chemical pretreatment for painting. (orig.)

  5. Drawing organic photovoltaics using paint marker pens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Kaori; Izawa, Seiichiro; Chen, Yujiao; Nakano, Kyohei; Tajima, Keisuke

    2017-11-01

    Active layers for organic photovoltaic devices (OPVs) were prepared by hand drawing with paint marker pens containing solutions of the materials. Although the pen-coated organic films were visually non-uniform with quite high surface roughness, OPV devices using these films exhibited similar or slightly better performances than those using spin-coated films. As such, the pen-coating technique represents an easily accessible, inexpensive, and highly material-efficient method for fabricating OPVs.

  6. Mapping the opacity of paint layers in paintings with coloured grounds using optical coherence tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ping; Hall-Aquitania, Moorea; Hermens, Erma; Groves, Roger M.

    2017-07-01

    Optical diagnostics techniques are becoming important for technical art history (TAH) as well as for heritage conservation. In recent years, optical coherence tomography (OCT) has been increasingly used as a novel technique for the inspection of artwork, revealing the stratigraphy of paintings. It has also shown to be an effective tool for vanish layer inspection. OCT is a contactless and non-destructive technique for microstructural imaging of turbid media, originally developed for medical applications. However current OCT instruments have difficulty in paint layer inspection due to the opacity of most pigments. This paper explores the potential of OCT for the investigation of paintings with coloured grounds. Depth scans were processed to determine the light penetration depth at the optical wavelength based on a 1/e light attenuation calculation. The variation in paint opacity was mapped based on the microstructural images and 3D penetration depth profiles was calculated and related back to the construction of the artwork. By determining the light penetration depth over a range of wavelengths the 3D depth perception of a painting with coloured grounds can be characterized optically.

  7. Toxicity of nanoparticles embedded in paints compared with pristine nanoparticles in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smulders, Stijn; Luyts, Katrien; Brabants, Gert; Landuyt, Kirsten Van; Kirschhock, Christine; Smolders, Erik; Golanski, Luana; Vanoirbeek, Jeroen; Hoet, Peter H M

    2014-09-01

    The unique physical and chemical properties of nanomaterials have led to their increased use in many industrial applications, including as a paint additive. For example, titanium dioxide (TiO2) engineered nanoparticles (ENPs) have well-established anti-UV, self-cleaning, and air purification effects. Silver (Ag) ENPs are renowned for their anti-microbial capabilities and silicon dioxide (SiO2) ENPs are used as fire retardants and anti-scratch coatings. In this study, the toxic effects and biodistribution of three pristine ENPs (TiO2, Ag, and SiO2), three aged paints containing ENPs (TiO2, Ag, and SiO2) along with control paints without ENPs were compared. BALB/c mice were oropharyngeally aspirated with ENPs or paint particles (20 μg/aspiration) once a week for 5 weeks and sacrificed either 2 or 28 days post final aspiration treatment. A bronchoalveolar lavage was performed and systemic blood toxicity was evaluated to ascertain cell counts, induction of inflammatory cytokines, and key blood parameters. In addition, the lung, liver, kidney, spleen, and heart were harvested and metal concentrations were determined. Exposure to pristine ENPs caused subtle effects in the lungs and negligible alterations in the blood. The most pronounced toxic effects were observed after Ag ENPs exposure; an increased neutrophil count and a twofold increase in pro-inflammatory cytokine secretion (keratinocyte chemoattractant (KC) and interleukin-1ß (IL-1ß)) were identified. The paint containing TiO2 ENPs did not modify macrophage and neutrophil counts, but mildly induced KC and IL-1ß. The paints containing Ag or SiO2 did not show significant toxicity. Biodistribution experiments showed distribution of Ag and Si outside the lung after aspiration to respectively pristine Ag or SiO2 ENPs. In conclusion, we demonstrated that even though direct exposure to ENPs induced some toxic effects, once they were embedded in a complex paint matrix little to no adverse toxicological effects were

  8. Toxicity of Nanoparticles Embedded in Paints Compared with Pristine Nanoparticles in Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smulders, Stijn; Luyts, Katrien; Brabants, Gert; Landuyt, Kirsten Van; Kirschhock, Christine; Smolders, Erik; Golanski, Luana; Vanoirbeek, Jeroen; Hoet, Peter HM

    2014-01-01

    The unique physical and chemical properties of nanomaterials have led to their increased use in many industrial applications, including as a paint additive. For example, titanium dioxide (TiO2) engineered nanoparticles (ENPs) have well-established anti-UV, self-cleaning, and air purification effects. Silver (Ag) ENPs are renowned for their anti-microbial capabilities and silicon dioxide (SiO2) ENPs are used as fire retardants and anti-scratch coatings. In this study, the toxic effects and biodistribution of three pristine ENPs (TiO2, Ag, and SiO2), three aged paints containing ENPs (TiO2, Ag, and SiO2) along with control paints without ENPs were compared. BALB/c mice were oropharyngeally aspirated with ENPs or paint particles (20 μg/aspiration) once a week for 5 weeks and sacrificed either 2 or 28 days post final aspiration treatment. A bronchoalveolar lavage was performed and systemic blood toxicity was evaluated to ascertain cell counts, induction of inflammatory cytokines, and key blood parameters. In addition, the lung, liver, kidney, spleen, and heart were harvested and metal concentrations were determined. Exposure to pristine ENPs caused subtle effects in the lungs and negligible alterations in the blood. The most pronounced toxic effects were observed after Ag ENPs exposure; an increased neutrophil count and a twofold increase in pro-inflammatory cytokine secretion (keratinocyte chemoattractant (KC) and interleukin-1ß (IL-1ß)) were identified. The paint containing TiO2 ENPs did not modify macrophage and neutrophil counts, but mildly induced KC and IL-1ß. The paints containing Ag or SiO2 did not show significant toxicity. Biodistribution experiments showed distribution of Ag and Si outside the lung after aspiration to respectively pristine Ag or SiO2 ENPs. In conclusion, we demonstrated that even though direct exposure to ENPs induced some toxic effects, once they were embedded in a complex paint matrix little to no adverse toxicological effects were

  9. Difference in brain activations during appreciating paintings and photographic analogues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshinori eMizokami

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Several studies have investigated neural correlates of aesthetic appreciation for paintings but to date the findings have been heterogeneous. This heterogeneity may be attributed to previous studies’ measurement of aesthetic appreciation of not only the beauty of paintings but also the beauty of motifs of the paintings. In order to better elucidate the beauty of paintings, it seems necessary to compare aesthetic appreciation of paintings and photographic analogues which included corresponding real images. We prepared for famous painters’ pictures and their photographic analogues which were set up to resemble each painting in order to investigate the hypothesis that there exist specific neural correlates associated with the aesthetic appreciation for paintings. Forty-four subjects participated in functional magnetic resonance study which required comparisons of aesthetic appreciation of paintings of still life and landscape versus photographic analogues including corresponding real images of still life and landscape. Bilateral cuneus and the left lingual gyrus were activated in the comparison of aesthetic appreciation of paintings versus photographic analogues. In conclusion, the present findings suggest a possibility of the existence of specific neural correlates associated with the aesthetic appreciation for paintings and that bilateral cuneus and the left lingual gyrus may be involved.

  10. Nanoparticles Ni electroplating and black paint for solar collector applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. El Nady

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available A nanoparticles layer of bright nickel base was deposited on copper substrates using electrodeposition technique before spraying the paint. IR reflectance of the paint was found to be around 0.4 without bright nickel layer and the reflectance increased to 0.6 at a Ni layer thickness of 750 nm. The efficiency of the constructed solar collectors using black paint and black paint combined with bright nickel was found to be better than black paint individually. After aging tests under high temperature, Bright nickel improved the stability of the absorber paint. The collector optical gain FR(τα was lowered by 24.7% for the commercial paint and lowered by 19.3% for the commercial paint combined with bright nickel. The overall heat loss FR(UL was increased by 3.3% for the commercial paint and increased by 2.7% for the commercial paint combined with bright nickel after the temperature aging test.

  11. Difference in brain activations during appreciating paintings and photographic analogs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mizokami, Yoshinori; Terao, Takeshi; Hatano, Koji; Hoaki, Nobuhiko; Kohno, Kentaro; Araki, Yasuo; Kodama, Kensuke; Makino, Mayu; Izumi, Toshihiko; Shimomura, Tsuyoshi; Fujiki, Minoru; Kochiyama, Takanori

    2014-01-01

    Several studies have investigated neural correlates of aesthetic appreciation for paintings but to date the findings have been heterogeneous. This heterogeneity may be attributed to previous studies’ measurement of aesthetic appreciation of not only the beauty of paintings but also the beauty of motifs of the paintings. In order to better elucidate the beauty of paintings, it seems necessary to compare aesthetic appreciation of paintings and photographic analogs which included corresponding real images. We prepared for famous painters’ pictures and their photographic analogs which were set up to resemble each painting in order to investigate the hypothesis that there exist specific neural correlates associated with the aesthetic appreciation for paintings. Forty-four subjects participated in functional magnetic resonance study which required comparisons of aesthetic appreciation of paintings of still life and landscape versus photographic analogs including corresponding real images of still life and landscape. Bilateral cuneus and the left lingual gyrus were activated in the comparison of aesthetic appreciation of paintings versus photographic analogs. In conclusion, the present findings suggest a possibility of the existence of specific neural correlates associated with the aesthetic appreciation for paintings and that bilateral cuneus and the left lingual gyrus may be involved. PMID:25071508

  12. Brain activity accompanying perception of implied motion in abstract paintings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Chai-Youn; Blake, Randolph

    2007-01-01

    Early 20th century artists including Duchamp and Balla tried to portray moving objects on a static canvas by superimposing objects in successive portrayals of an action. We investigated whether implied motion in those paintings is associated with activation of motion-sensitive area MT+. In Experiment 1, we found that observers rated these kinds of paintings higher in portraying motion than they did other abstract paintings in which motion is not intended. We also found that observers who had previously experienced abstract paintings with implied motion tended to give higher motion ratings to that class of paintings. In Experiment 2, we used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to measure brain activity of observers while viewing abstract paintings receiving the highest and the lowest motion rating scores in Experiment 1. We found MT+, but not primary visual cortex (V1), showed greater BOLD responses to abstract paintings with implied motion than to abstract paintings with little motion impression, but only in observers with prior experience viewing those kinds of paintings. These results imply that the neural machinery ordinarily engaged during perception of real visual motion is activated when people view paintings explicitly designed to convey a sense of visual motion. Experience, however, is necessary to achieve this sense of motion.

  13. Difference in brain activations during appreciating paintings and photographic analogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mizokami, Yoshinori; Terao, Takeshi; Hatano, Koji; Hoaki, Nobuhiko; Kohno, Kentaro; Araki, Yasuo; Kodama, Kensuke; Makino, Mayu; Izumi, Toshihiko; Shimomura, Tsuyoshi; Fujiki, Minoru; Kochiyama, Takanori

    2014-01-01

    Several studies have investigated neural correlates of aesthetic appreciation for paintings but to date the findings have been heterogeneous. This heterogeneity may be attributed to previous studies' measurement of aesthetic appreciation of not only the beauty of paintings but also the beauty of motifs of the paintings. In order to better elucidate the beauty of paintings, it seems necessary to compare aesthetic appreciation of paintings and photographic analogs which included corresponding real images. We prepared for famous painters' pictures and their photographic analogs which were set up to resemble each painting in order to investigate the hypothesis that there exist specific neural correlates associated with the aesthetic appreciation for paintings. Forty-four subjects participated in functional magnetic resonance study which required comparisons of aesthetic appreciation of paintings of still life and landscape versus photographic analogs including corresponding real images of still life and landscape. Bilateral cuneus and the left lingual gyrus were activated in the comparison of aesthetic appreciation of paintings versus photographic analogs. In conclusion, the present findings suggest a possibility of the existence of specific neural correlates associated with the aesthetic appreciation for paintings and that bilateral cuneus and the left lingual gyrus may be involved.

  14. Physiology of biodeterioration on canvas paintings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poyatos, Fernando; Morales, Fátima; Nicholson, Allen W; Giordano, Antonio

    2018-04-01

    The study of the physiological action of microorganisms in artistic materials is one of the most interesting topics in biodeterioration nowadays. Pathologies and illnesses of organic and inorganic materials provoked by microorganisms can be treated by experts by a variety of preventive interventions. Artistic medicine encompasses the monitoring of the exhibition and storage of art, as well as proper environmental conditions and the regular cleaning of museums. Biodeterioration control is essential in order to prevent fungal and bacterial contamination in artwork. Biodeterioration of canvas paintings is a complex phenomenon, not well-known at the moment. Canvas paintings are created by several artistic techniques on textile supports that are not always kept in the best conditions, and the best parameters of preventive conservation are often not applied. Therefore, we need to research the agents and the main causes that provoke canvas painting biodeterioration. By applying new methodologies, we can identify the alterations and the treatments needed in order to manage the diverse materials employed in artwork correctly. Herein, we review the causes of biodeterioration that affect artwork, especially art created on textile supports. We also study the alterations of the natural filmogenic materials employed in traditional pictorial techniques, such as agglutinants and protection layers, and the biodeterioration agents that impact them. Additionally, we review current scientific methods employed for the identification of microbial species, and the types of alterations of the materials where the organisms grow. Finally, we summarize the different biocides and preventive conservation treatments that are currently employed. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Isocyanate Exposure Below Analytical Detection When a Paint Brush and Roller Are Used to Apply Moisture-Cure Polyurethane Paint.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reeb-Whitaker, Carolyn K; Schoonover, Todd M

    2016-05-01

    Isocyanate exposure is known to be hazardous when polyurethane paints are applied with a spray gun, but less is known of exposure when paint is applied with a paint brush and roller. Concentrations of 1,6-hexamethylene diisocyanate (HDI) monomer and three HDI polymers were assessed when two moisture-cure polyurethane paints containing 31-35% isocyanates were applied with a paint roller and brush. Short-term 15-min samples were taken during paint application in an indoor test environment with no ventilation (n= 12); in an outdoor test environment (n= 11); and in an outdoor in-situ assessment (n= 22). The outdoor in-situ assessment involved the painting of a bus shelter and light poles at a public transit station over two night shifts. All isocyanate samples were below analytical detection. The analytical limits of detection for HDI monomer, HDI biuret, HDI isocyanurate, and HDI uretdione were 0.005, 0.84, 0.87, and 0.88 µg, respectively. The finding that isocyanate concentrations were below detection is attributed to the use of paint roller and brush which minimize paint aerosolization and the paint formulation itself which contained <1% of volatile HDI monomer. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Occupational Hygiene Society.

  16. A palette of particles

    CERN Document Server

    Bernstein, Jeremy

    2013-01-01

    From molecules to stars, much of the cosmic canvas can be painted in brushstrokes of primary color: the protons, neutrons, and electrons we know so well. But for meticulous detail, we have to dip into exotic hues - leptons, mesons, hadrons, quarks. Bringing particle physics to life as few authors can, Jeremy Bernstein here unveils nature in all its subatomic splendor. In this graceful account, Bernstein guides us through high-energy physics from the early twentieth century to the present, including such highlights as the newly discovered Higgs boson. Beginning with Ernest Rutherford's 1911 explanation of the nucleus, a model of atomic structure emerged that sufficed until the 1930s, when new particles began to be theorized and experimentally confirmed. In the postwar period, the subatomic world exploded in a blaze of unexpected findings leading to the theory of the quark, in all its strange and charmed variations. An eyewitness to developments at Harvard University and the Institute for Advanced Study in Prin...

  17. Emission of Isothiazolinones from Water-Based Paints

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundov, Michael; Bossi, Rossana; Gunnarsen, Lars

    2014-01-01

    The isothiazolinone preservatives methylisothiazolinone (MI), methylchloroisothiazolinone (MCI), and benzisothiazolinone (BIT) are used in a wide variety of products including paint and cosmetics, and they are known to cause allergic contact dermatitis. Among painters they are one of the most...... common causes of contact dermatitis. Furthermore, they are all volatile, and severe reactions caused by emissions of especially MI from paint have been reported recently. In this study the concentrations of MI, BIT, and MCI in water-based paint were analyzed by LC-MS-MS, and the emissions from the paints...... were measured in climate chambers and in an apartment. Nineteen paints were analyzed for the content of MI, MCI, and BIT. All 19 paints contained MI, 16 contained BIT, and 4 contained MCI. In the chamber experiment emission of MI peaked within hours of application but then continued at a slow rate...

  18. [Effectiveness of a repellent paint against the spider Loxosceles laeta].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catalán, Alejandro; Araya, Jorge E; Varela, Héctor; Cortés, William; Sagua, Hernán; González Cortés, Jorge

    2009-02-01

    Loxoscelism is a severe reaction to the bite of the spider Loxosceles laeta. In recent years, a paint with repellent properties has been promoted in the commerce. However, there are no reports of experiments evaluating its effectiveness. To evaluate experimentally the repellent properties of a paint against Loxosceles laeta. Males, females and nymphs of L laeta were deposited in cockpits that allow the free displacement of the spider. Half of the cockpit was covered with repellent paint. Daily observations during one week, determined how frequently the spiders occupied the space covered with repellent paint. The experiments were run in triplicate. No statistical differences in the occupancy of spaces covered with repellent paint or not covered with it were observed for nymphs (87% and 67%, respectively), males (72% and 77%, respectively) or females (91% and 84%, respectively). The tested paint does not have a repellent action against the spider Loxosceles laeta.

  19. Performance study of the paints for use in nuclear installations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamashita, T.

    1978-01-01

    The performance of some Brazilian commercial paints under physical, chemical and radiation conditions typical of nuclear installations is studied. Resistance to gama rays in the range of 10 4 - 10 9 rad as well as the susceptibility to contamination, ease of decontamination and chemical resistance in 9 different types of paints are studied. Finally, suggestions are provided for the best choice of commercial paints according to their specific uses [pt

  20. Study of decontamination and radiation resistance properties of Indian paints

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shah, S.M.; Gopinathan, E.; Bhagwath, A.M.

    1976-01-01

    A brief introduction to the study of contamination and radiation resistance properties of Indian paints used as coating for structural materials in the nuclear industry is given. The general composition of paints such as epoxy, vinyl, alkyd, phenolic, chlesimated rubber, etc. is given. Method of sample preparation, processing and actual evaluation of decontaminability are described. The results have been discussed in terms of decontamination factors. Some recommendations based on the performance of the paints studied are also included. (K.B.)

  1. Particle Pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Your Health Particle Pollution Public Health Issues Particle Pollution Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Particle pollution — ... see them in the air. Where does particle pollution come from? Particle pollution can come from two ...

  2. Corals like it waxed: paraffin-based antifouling technology enhances coral spat survival.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Tebben

    Full Text Available The early post-settlement stage is the most sensitive during the life history of reef building corals. However, few studies have examined the factors that influence coral mortality during this period. Here, the impact of fouling on the survival of newly settled coral spat of Acropora millepora was investigated by manipulating the extent of fouling cover on settlement tiles using non-toxic, wax antifouling coatings. Survival of spat on coated tiles was double that on control tiles. Moreover, there was a significant negative correlation between percentage cover of fouling and spat survival across all tiles types, suggesting that fouling in direct proximity to settled corals has detrimental effects on early post-settlement survival. While previous studies have shown that increased fouling negatively affects coral larval settlement and health of juvenile and adult corals, to the best of our knowledge, this is the first study to show a direct relationship between fouling and early post-settlement survival for a broadcast spawning scleractinian coral. The negative effects of fouling on this sensitive life history stage may become more pronounced in the future as coastal eutrophication increases. Our results further suggest that targeted seeding of coral spat on artificial surfaces in combination with fouling control could prove useful to improve the efficiency of sexual reproduction-based coral propagation for reef rehabilitation.

  3. Acetylcholinesterase in Biofouling Species: Characterization and Mode of Action of Cyanobacteria-Derived Antifouling Agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almeida, Joana R; Freitas, Micaela; Cruz, Susana; Leão, Pedro N; Vasconcelos, Vitor; Cunha, Isabel

    2015-07-24

    Effective and ecofriendly antifouling (AF) compounds have been arising from naturally produced chemicals. The objective of this study is to use cyanobacteria-derived agents to investigate the role of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity as an effect and/or mode of action of promising AF compounds, since AChE inhibitors were found to inhibit invertebrate larval settlement. To pursue this objective, in vitro quantification of AChE activity under the effect of several cyanobacterial strain extracts as potential AF agents was performed along with in vivo AF (anti-settlement) screening tests. Pre-characterization of different cholinesterases (ChEs) forms present in selected tissues of important biofouling species was performed to confirm the predominance of AChE, and an in vitro AF test using pure AChE activity was developed. Eighteen cyanobacteria strains were tested as source of potential AF and AChE inhibitor agents. Results showed effectiveness in selecting promising eco-friendly AF agents, allowing the understanding of the AF biochemical mode of action induced by different compounds. This study also highlights the potential of cyanobacteria as source of AF agents towards invertebrate macrofouling species.

  4. Acetylcholinesterase in Biofouling Species: Characterization and Mode of Action of Cyanobacteria-Derived Antifouling Agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joana R. Almeida

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Effective and ecofriendly antifouling (AF compounds have been arising from naturally produced chemicals. The objective of this study is to use cyanobacteria-derived agents to investigate the role of acetylcholinesterase (AChE activity as an effect and/or mode of action of promising AF compounds, since AChE inhibitors were found to inhibit invertebrate larval settlement. To pursue this objective, in vitro quantification of AChE activity under the effect of several cyanobacterial strain extracts as potential AF agents was performed along with in vivo AF (anti-settlement screening tests. Pre-characterization of different cholinesterases (ChEs forms present in selected tissues of important biofouling species was performed to confirm the predominance of AChE, and an in vitro AF test using pure AChE activity was developed. Eighteen cyanobacteria strains were tested as source of potential AF and AChE inhibitor agents. Results showed effectiveness in selecting promising eco-friendly AF agents, allowing the understanding of the AF biochemical mode of action induced by different compounds. This study also highlights the potential of cyanobacteria as source of AF agents towards invertebrate macrofouling species.

  5. Adverse Effect of Antifouling Compounds on the Reproductive Mechanisms of the Ascidian Ciona intestinalis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandra Gallo

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Fertilization and embryo development that occur in sea water are sensitive to xenobiotics from anthropogenic sources. In this work, we evaluated the influence of two antifouling biocides, tributyltin (TBT and diuron, on the reproductive mechanisms of the marine invertebrate Ciona intestinalis. By using electrophysiological techniques, we examined the impact of these compounds on the electrical properties of the mature oocytes and of events occurring at fertilization. With different toxicity assays, we studied the effect of the two biocides on the gametes by evaluating fertilization rate and embryo development. Results show that sodium (Na+ currents were significantly reduced by either of the two biocides, whereas conductance was significantly increased. The fertilization current frequency and amplitude, fertilization rate and larval development were affected only by TBT. This study suggests that: (i the two biocides affect either the electrical properties of the oocyte plasma membrane and the reproductive success representing a risk factor for the survival of the species exposed to environmental pollution; (ii the ascidian Ciona intestinalis may represent a good model organism to test toxicity of marine pollutants. Possible mechanisms of action of the two biocides are discussed.

  6. Adverse effect of antifouling compounds on the reproductive mechanisms of the ascidian Ciona intestinalis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallo, Alessandra; Tosti, Elisabetta

    2013-09-20

    Fertilization and embryo development that occur in sea water are sensitive to xenobiotics from anthropogenic sources. In this work, we evaluated the influence of two antifouling biocides, tributyltin (TBT) and diuron, on the reproductive mechanisms of the marine invertebrate Ciona intestinalis. By using electrophysiological techniques, we examined the impact of these compounds on the electrical properties of the mature oocytes and of events occurring at fertilization. With different toxicity assays, we studied the effect of the two biocides on the gametes by evaluating fertilization rate and embryo development. Results show that sodium (Na⁺) currents were significantly reduced by either of the two biocides, whereas conductance was significantly increased. The fertilization current frequency and amplitude, fertilization rate and larval development were affected only by TBT. This study suggests that: (i) the two biocides affect either the electrical properties of the oocyte plasma membrane and the reproductive success representing a risk factor for the survival of the species exposed to environmental pollution; (ii) the ascidian Ciona intestinalis may represent a good model organism to test toxicity of marine pollutants. Possible mechanisms of action of the two biocides are discussed.

  7. PES Surface Modification Using Green Chemistry: New Generation of Antifouling Membranes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norhan Nady

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available A major limitation in using membrane-based separation processes is the loss of performance due to membrane fouling. This drawback can be addressed thanks to surface modification treatments. A new and promising surface modification using green chemistry has been recently investigated. This modification is carried out at room temperature and in aqueous medium using green catalyst (enzyme and nontoxic modifier, which can be safely labelled “green surface modification”. This modification can be considered as a nucleus of new generation of antifouling membranes and surfaces. In the current research, ferulic acid modifier and laccase bio-catalyst were used to make poly(ethersulfone (PES membrane less vulnerable to protein adsorption. The blank and modified PES membranes are evaluated based on e.g., their flux and protein repellence. Both the blank and the modified PES membranes (or laminated PES on silicon dioxide surface are characterized using many techniques e.g., SEM, EDX, XPS and SPM, etc. The pure water flux of the most modified membranes was reduced by 10% on average relative to the blank membrane, and around a 94% reduction in protein adsorption was determined. In the conclusions section, a comparison between three modifiers—ferulic acid, and two other previously used modifiers (4-hydroxybenzoic acid and gallic acid—is presented.

  8. Potent Antifouling Resorcylic Acid Lactones from the Gorgonian-Derived Fungus Cochliobolus lunatus

    KAUST Repository

    Shao, Chang Lun

    2011-04-25

    Three new 14-membered resorcylic acid lactones, two with a rare natural acetonide group and one with a 5-chloro-substituted lactone, named cochliomycins A-C (1-3), together with four known analogues, zeaenol (4), LL-Z1640-1 (5), LL-Z1640-2 (6), and paecilomycin F (7), were isolated from the culture broth of Cochliobolus lunatus, a fungus obtained from the gorgonian Dichotella gemmacea collected in the South China Sea. Their structures and the relative configurations of 1-3 were elucidated using comprehensive spectroscopic methods including NOESY spectra and chemical conversions. A transetherification reaction was also observed in which cochliomycin B (2) in a solution of CDCl3 slowly rearranged to give cochliomycin A (1) at room temperature. These resorcylic acid lactones were evaluated against the larval settlement of barnacle Balanus amphitrite, and antifouling activity was detected for the first time for this class of metabolites. The antibacterial and cytotoxic activities of these compounds were also examined. © 2011 The American Chemical Society and American Society of Pharmacognosy.

  9. Industrial Market Research Report: Feasibility of commercialization of the advanced antifouling coating of Copperlok, Inc

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gormley, G.J.

    1990-10-01

    The Copperlok antifouling process was designed to prevent marine growth on surfaces exposed to sea water. It is a method of bonding thermally sprayed Cu and Cu alloys onto an epoxy material containing microballoons (hollow spheres). After the epoxy cures, the surface is abraded so that the microballoons are fractured, exposing microscopic concave porosity. The sprayed material is directed to the surface, where it impregnates the pores, bridges and then welds across the surface, creating a very thin laminate of the metal materials security bonded to the bond coat and to the substrate. The Copperlok process laminates an approximate layer of Cu-Ni alloy 8 mils thick with an expected active life of 15--20 y. This report addresses the perceived acceptability of the process in several different marketplaces with the hope of directing the invention to the most receptive consumer group. The opinion surveys of the recreational marine industry were limited to the three coastal areas of the Atlantic, Gulf, and Pacific.

  10. Industrial Market Research Report: Feasibility of commercialization of the advanced antifouling coating of Copperlok, Inc.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gormley, G.J.

    1990-10-01

    The Copperlok antifouling process was designed to prevent marine growth on surfaces exposed to sea water. It is a method of bonding thermally sprayed Cu and Cu alloys onto an epoxy material containing microballoons (hollow spheres). After the epoxy cures, the surface is abraded so that the microballoons are fractured, exposing microscopic concave porosity. The sprayed material is directed to the surface, where it impregnates the pores, bridges and then welds across the surface, creating a very thin laminate of the metal materials security bonded to the bond coat and to the substrate. The Copperlok process laminates an approximate layer of Cu-Ni alloy 8 mils thick with an expected active life of 15--20 y. This report addresses the perceived acceptability of the process in several different marketplaces with the hope of directing the invention to the most receptive consumer group. The opinion surveys of the recreational marine industry were limited to the three coastal areas of the Atlantic, Gulf, and Pacific.

  11. Antifouling activity in some benthic Antarctic invertebrates by "in situ" experiments at Deception Island, Antarctica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angulo-Preckler, Carlos; Cid, Cristina; Oliva, Francesc; Avila, Conxita

    2015-04-01

    Competition for space is a remarkable ecological force, comparable to predation, producing a strong selective pressure on benthic invertebrates. Some invertebrates, thus, possess antimicrobial compounds to reduce surface bacterial growth. Antimicrobial inhibition is the first step in avoiding being overgrown by other organisms, which may have a negative impact in feeding, respiration, reproduction … The in situ inhibition of bacterial biofilm was used here as an indicator of antifouling activity by testing hydrophilic extracts of twelve Antarctic invertebrates. Using two different approaches (genetics and confocal techniques) different levels of activity were found in the tested organisms. In fact, differences within body parts of the studied organisms were determined, in agreement with the Optimal Defense Theory. Eight out of 15 extracts tested had negative effects on fouling after 28 days submerged in Antarctic waters. Thus, although chemical defenses may be quite species-specific in their ecological roles, these results suggest that different chemical strategies exist to deal with space competition. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Assessment of anti-fouling strategies for membrane coupled with upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (MUASB) process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, Thao Minh; Ye, Yun; Chen, Vicki; Stuetz, Richard; Le-Clech, Pierre

    2013-01-01

    In this novel process, domestic wastewater was filtered by a hollow-fibre membrane coupled with an upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (MUASB) bioreactor. To improve the process sustainability and decrease energy costs, the membranes were operated under low fluxes with little, or no, shear. The efficiency of anti-fouling strategies, including relaxation, backwashing and supply of low aeration and stir rates, was assessed through detailed characterization of the fouling layers. Results indicated that backwashing was more efficient than relaxation, even when the systems were operated under the same flux productivity. In terms of shear supply, stir provided a better fouling limitation strategy compared to aeration, at similar shear stress values. Physical and chemical cleaning methods were applied to recover three fouling fractions (i.e. cake, residual and irreversible) for better characterization of the fouling layers. Under the sustainable operating conditions used in this study, most of the fouling was easily reversible by simple rinsing. In addition, permanent and irreversible fouling, resulting in the need for frequent chemical cleanings and potential membrane degradation, is limited once small shear stresses are applied. These outcomes are expected to form the basis for the future assessment of trade-off between operation, maintenance and replacement costs of membrane filtration processes used in wastewater treatment.

  13. Tailoring Novel PTFE Surface Properties: Promoting Cell Adhesion and Antifouling Properties via a Wet Chemical Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabriel, Matthias; Niederer, Kerstin; Becker, Marc; Raynaud, Christophe Michel; Vahl, Christian-Friedrich; Frey, Holger

    2016-05-18

    Many biomaterials used for tissue engineering applications lack cell-adhesiveness and, in addition, are prone to nonspecific adsorption of proteins. This is especially important for blood-contacting devices such as vascular grafts and valves where appropriate surface properties should inhibit the initial attachment of platelets and promote endothelial cell colonization. As a consequence, the long-term outcome of the implants would be improved and the need for anticoagulation therapy could be reduced or even abolished. Polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE), a frequently used polymer for various medical applications, was wet-chemically activated and subsequently modified by grafting the endothelial cell (EC) specific peptide arginine-glutamic acid-aspartic acid-valine (REDV) using a bifunctional polyethylene glycol (PEG)-spacer (known to reduce platelet and nonspecific protein adhesion). Modified and control surfaces were both evaluated in terms of EC adhesion, colonization, and the attachment of platelets. In addition, samples underwent bacterial challenges. The results strongly suggested that PEG-mediated peptide immobilization renders PTFE an excellent substrate for cellular growth while simultaneously endowing the material with antifouling properties.

  14. PES Surface Modification Using Green Chemistry: New Generation of Antifouling Membranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nady, Norhan

    2016-04-18

    A major limitation in using membrane-based separation processes is the loss of performance due to membrane fouling. This drawback can be addressed thanks to surface modification treatments. A new and promising surface modification using green chemistry has been recently investigated. This modification is carried out at room temperature and in aqueous medium using green catalyst (enzyme) and nontoxic modifier, which can be safely labelled "green surface modification". This modification can be considered as a nucleus of new generation of antifouling membranes and surfaces. In the current research, ferulic acid modifier and laccase bio-catalyst were used to make poly(ethersulfone) (PES) membrane less vulnerable to protein adsorption. The blank and modified PES membranes are evaluated based on e.g., their flux and protein repellence. Both the blank and the modified PES membranes (or laminated PES on silicon dioxide surface) are characterized using many techniques e.g., SEM, EDX, XPS and SPM, etc. The pure water flux of the most modified membranes was reduced by 10% on average relative to the blank membrane, and around a 94% reduction in protein adsorption was determined. In the conclusions section, a comparison between three modifiers-ferulic acid, and two other previously used modifiers (4-hydroxybenzoic acid and gallic acid)-is presented.

  15. Antifouling Biomimetic Liquid-Infused Stainless Steel: Application to Dairy Industrial Processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zouaghi, Sawsen; Six, Thierry; Bellayer, Séverine; Moradi, Sona; Hatzikiriakos, Savvas G; Dargent, Thomas; Thomy, Vincent; Coffinier, Yannick; André, Christophe; Delaplace, Guillaume; Jimenez, Maude

    2017-08-09

    Fouling is a widespread and costly issue, faced by all food-processing industries. Particularly, in the dairy sector, where thermal treatments are mandatory to ensure product safety, heat-induced fouling represents up to 80% of the total production costs. Significant environmental impacts, due the massive consumption of water and energy, are also to deplore. Fouling control solutions are thus desperately needed, as they would lead to substantial financial gains as well as tremendous progress toward eco-responsible processes. This work aims at presenting a novel and very promising dairy fouling-mitigation strategy, inspired by nature, and to test its antifouling performances in real industrial conditions. Slippery liquid-infused surfaces were successfully designed directly on food grade stainless steel, via femtosecond laser ablation, followed by fluorosilanization and impregnation with an inert perfluorinated oil. Resulting hydrophobic surfaces (water contact angle of 112°) exhibited an extremely slippery nature (contact angle hysteresis of 0.6°). Outstanding fouling-release performances were obtained for these liquid-infused surfaces as absolutely no trace of dairy deposit was found after 90 min of pasteurization test in pilot-scale equipment followed by a short water rinse.

  16. Surface modification of polyamide reverse osmosis membrane with sulfonated polyvinyl alcohol for antifouling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yang; Wan, Ying; Pan, Guoyuan; Shi, Hongwei; Yan, Hao; Xu, Jian; Guo, Min; Wang, Zhe; Liu, Yiqun

    2017-10-01

    Sulfonated polyvinyl alcohol (SPVA) was synthesized by esterification reaction of PVA and sulfuric acid, and the structure was characterized by FTIR spectrum. Then a series of TFC membranes modified with cross-linked SPVA layer were fabricated by coating method, with glutaraldehyde as the cross-linker. The resulting TFC membranes were characterized by SEM, AFM, ATR-FTIR, XPS, streaming potential as well as static contact angle. The TFC membranes modified with SPVA exhibit decreased water flux and increased NaCl rejection with SPVA content increasing in the coating aqueous solution. The optimal PA-SPVA-0.5 sample exhibits a NaCl rejection of 99.18%, which is higher than the 98.32% of the virgin PA membrane. More importantly, the PA-SPVA-0.5 membrane shows much more improved fouling resistance to BSA and CTAB than virgin PA membrane and the TFC sample modified with PVA (PA-PVA-0.5). PA-SPVA-0.5 membrane loses about 8% of the initial flux after BSA fouling for 12 h, which is much lower than those of virgin PA and PA-PVA-0.5 membranes (28% and 15%, respectively). Furthermore, the flux recovery of the PA-SPVA-0.5 membrane reaches above 95% after cleaning. Thus, the PA-SPVA-0.5 membrane shows potential applications as antifouling RO membrane for desalination and purification.

  17. Antifouling 26,27-cyclosterols from the Vietnamese marine sponge Xestospongia testudinaria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Xuan Cuong; Longeon, Arlette; Pham, Van Cuong; Urvois, Félix; Bressy, Christine; Trinh, Thi Thanh Van; Nguyen, Hoai Nam; Phan, Van Kiem; Chau, Van Minh; Briand, Jean-François; Bourguet-Kondracki, Marie-Lise

    2013-07-26

    Three new C29 sterols with a cyclopropane ring cyclized between C-26 and C-27 of the side chain, aragusterol I (1), 21-O-octadecanoyl-xestokerol A (4), and 7β-hydroxypetrosterol (5b), were isolated from the Vietnamese marine sponge Xestospongia testudinaria, along with the known compounds, aragusterol B (2), xestokerol A (3), 7α-hydroxypetrosterol (5a), 7-oxopetrosterol (6), and petrosterol (7). The structures of the new compounds were established by analysis of spectroscopic data including 1D and 2D NMR, and high-resolution electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (HRESIMS). Their capacity to inhibit the adhesion of isolated bacteria from marine biofilms was evaluated against the bacterial strains Pseudoalteromonas sp. D41, Pseudoalteromonas sp. TC8, and Polaribacter sp. TC5. Aragusterol B (2) and 21-O-octadecanoyl-xestokerol A (4) exhibited the most potent antifouling activity with EC50 values close to these reported in the literature for tributyltin oxide, a marine anti-biofouling agent now considered to be a severe marine pollutant. Due to its comparable activity to tributyltin oxide and its absence of toxicity, the new 26,27-cyclosterol, 21-O-octadecanoyl-xestokerol A (4) constitutes a promising scaffold for further investigations.

  18. Development of Antifouling and Bactericidal Coatings for Platelet Storage Bags Using Dopamine Chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadjesfandiari, Narges; Weinhart, Marie; Kizhakkedathu, Jayachandran N; Haag, Rainer; Brooks, Donald E

    2018-03-01

    Platelets have a limited shelf life, due to the risk of bacterial contamination and platelet quality loss. Most platelet storage bags are made of a mixture of polyvinyl chloride with a plasticizer, denoted as pPVC. To improve biocompatibility of pPVC with platelets and to inhibit bacterial biofilm formation, an antifouling polymer coating is developed using mussel-inspired chemistry. A copolymer of N,N-dimethylacrylamide and N-(3-aminopropyl)methacrylamide hydrochloride is synthesized and coupled with catechol groups, named DA51-cat. Under mild aqueous conditions, pPVC is first equilibrated with an anchoring polydopamine layer, followed by a DA51-cat layer. Measurements show this coating decreases fibrinogen adsorption to 5% of the control surfaces. One-step coating with DA51-cat does not coat pPVC efficiently although it is sufficient for coating silicon wafers and gold substrates. The dual layer coating on platelet bags resists bacterial biofilm formation and considerably decreases platelet adhesion. A cationic antimicrobial peptide, E6, is conjugated to DA51-cat then coated on silicon wafers and introduces bactericidal activity to these surfaces. Time-of-flight second ion-mass spectroscopy is successfully applied to characterize these surfaces. pPVC is widely used in medical devices; this method provides an approach to controlling biofouling and bacterial growth on it without elaborate surface modification procedures. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  19. Acute Toxicity of the Antifouling Compound Butenolide in Non-Target Organisms

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, Yi-Fan

    2011-08-29

    Butenolide [5-octylfuran-2(5H)-one] is a recently discovered and very promising anti-marine-fouling compound. In this study, the acute toxicity of butenolide was assessed in several non-target organisms, including micro algae, crustaceans, and fish. Results were compared with previously reported results on the effective concentrations used on fouling (target) organisms. According to OECD\\'s guideline, the predicted no effect concentration (PNEC) was 0.168 µg l^(−1), which was among one of the highest in representative new biocides. Mechanistically, the phenotype of butenolide-treated Danio rerio (zebrafish) embryos was similar to the phenotype of the pro-caspase-3 over-expression mutant with pericardial edema, small eyes, small brains, and increased numbers of apoptotic cells in the bodies of zebrafish embryos. Butenolide also induced apoptosis in HeLa cells, with the activation of c-Jun N-terminal kinases (JNK), Bcl-2 family proteins, and caspases and proteasomes/lysosomes involved in this process. This is the first detailed toxicity and toxicology study on this antifouling compound.

  20. Oxygen-Independent Pressure Sensitive Paint, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Pressure sensitive paint (PSP) systems are excellent tools for performing global pressure measurements in aerodynamic testing, especially in wind tunnel studies. The...