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Sample records for antifouling compound zinc

  1. Antifouling Compounds from Marine Invertebrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Shu-Hua; Ma, Xuan

    2017-08-28

    In this review, a comprehensive overview about the antifouling compounds from marine invertebrates is described. In total, more than 198 antifouling compounds have been obtained from marine invertebrates, specifically, sponges, gorgonian and soft corals.

  2. Antifouling Compounds from Marine Invertebrates

    OpenAIRE

    Qi, Shu-Hua; Ma, Xuan

    2017-01-01

    In this review, a comprehensive overview about the antifouling compounds from marine invertebrates is described. In total, more than 198 antifouling compounds have been obtained from marine invertebrates, specifically, sponges, gorgonian and soft corals.

  3. Antifouling Compounds from Marine Macroalgae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahms, Hans Uwe; Dobretsov, Sergey

    2017-08-28

    Marine macroalgae produce a wide variety of biologically-active metabolites that have been developed into commercial products, such as antibiotics, immunosuppressive, anti-inflammatory, cytotoxic agents, and cosmetic products. Many marine algae remain clean over longer periods of time, suggesting their strong antifouling potential. Isolation of biogenic compounds and the determination of their structure could provide leads for the development of environmentally-friendly antifouling paints. Isolated substances with potent antifouling activity belong to fatty acids, lipopeptides, amides, alkaloids, lactones, steroids, terpenoids, and pyrroles. It is unclear as yet to what extent symbiotic microorganisms are involved in the synthesis of these compounds. Algal secondary metabolites have the potential to be produced commercially using genetic and metabolic engineering techniques. This review provides an overview of publications from 2010 to February 2017 about antifouling activity of green, brown, and red algae. Some researchers were focusing on antifouling compounds of brown macroalgae, while metabolites of green algae received less attention. Several studies tested antifouling activity against bacteria, microalgae and invertebrates, but in only a few studies was the quorum sensing inhibitory activity of marine macroalgae tested. Rarely, antifouling compounds from macroalgae were isolated and tested in an ecologically-relevant way.

  4. Effects on the function of three trophic levels in marine plankton communities under stress from the antifouling compound zinc pyrithione

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hjorth, M.; Dahlloef, I.; Forbes, V.E.

    2006-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate functional responses of natural marine planktonic communities to stress from the antifouling compound zinc pyrithione (ZPT). Isotope labelling techniques ( 14 C) were applied to study bacterial incorporation of leucine, photosynthetic activity of phytoplankton and grazing of labelled prey by zooplankton communities for 6 days after exposures to nominal concentrations of 0, 5, 25, 50 nM ZPT in a mesocosm experiment in Isefjord, Denmark. Significant direct effects were visible on chlorophyll a concentrations, which decreased in all exposed communities, to between 48 and 36% of control concentrations on Day 3, 1 day after the last exposure. Phytoplankton activities were also significantly affected on Day 3 with activities between 9 and 26% of control levels, as was zooplankton activities in the 25 and 50 nM exposures. In the 50 nM exposure the total community zooplankton activity was reduced to 25 ± 4%, and per individual to 46 ± 11% of control levels. Bacterial communities showed positive indirect effects with high activities (up to 183 ± 40%) due to higher amounts of available substrate from algal death. Pollution induced community tolerance analyses performed on phytoplankton and bacterial communities at the end of the experiment indicated a development of increased tolerance for phytoplankton in the 50 nM exposed communities, whereas there were no changes in tolerance in the bacterial communities. Multivariate analysis of the integrated functional response by the plankton communities revealed a significant difference (p < 0.05) between exposed communities compared to controls in the first 3 days after last exposure and in the end of the experiment. The study provides evidence of diverse effects on the functions of marine plankton communities under stress from a pollutant. Direct effects lead to cascading indirect effects throughout the community, eventually causing different developments. Continuous exposure to ZPT could lead to

  5. Potent antifouling compounds produced by marine Streptomyces

    KAUST Repository

    Xu, Ying

    2010-02-01

    Biofouling causes huge economic loss and a recent global ban on organotin compounds as antifouling agents has increased the need for safe and effective antifouling compounds. Five structurally similar compounds were isolated from the crude extract of a marine Streptomyces strain obtained from deep-sea sediments. Antifouling activities of these five compounds and four other structurally-related compounds isolated from a North Sea Streptomyces strain against major fouling organisms were compared to probe structure-activity relationships of compounds. The functional moiety responsible for antifouling activity lies in the 2-furanone ring and that the lipophilicity of compounds substantially affects their antifouling activities. Based on these findings, a compound with a straight alkyl side-chain was synthesized and proved itself as a very effective non-toxic, anti-larval settlement agent against three major fouling organisms. The strong antifouling activity, relatively low toxicity, and simple structures of these compounds make them promising candidates for new antifouling additives. © 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Potent antifouling compounds produced by marine Streptomyces

    KAUST Repository

    Xu, Ying; He, Hongping; Schulz, Stefan; Liu, Xin; Fusetani, Nobushino; Xiong, Hairong; Xiao, Xiang; Qian, Peiyuan

    2010-01-01

    of a marine Streptomyces strain obtained from deep-sea sediments. Antifouling activities of these five compounds and four other structurally-related compounds isolated from a North Sea Streptomyces strain against major fouling organisms were compared

  7. Mini-review: Molecular mechanisms of antifouling compounds

    KAUST Repository

    Qian, Pei-Yuan; Chen, Lianguo; Xu, Ying

    2013-01-01

    Various antifouling (AF) coatings have been developed to protect submerged surfaces by deterring the settlement of the colonizing stages of fouling organisms. A review of the literature shows that effective AF compounds with specific targets

  8. Sediments indicate the continued use of banned antifouling compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egardt, Jenny; Nilsson, Per; Dahllöf, Ingela

    2017-12-15

    Antifouling paints are widely used to avoid organisms settling on boat hulls. The active ingredients in the paints have differed over the years where lead, TBT, irgarol and diuron have been deemed too harmful to non-target organisms and subsequently been banned within the EU. Most of these compounds however are persistent in the environment and can cause problems long after they are deposited. We have examined if present-day and banned substances used in antifouling paints can be found in sediments in a national park on the Swedish west coast. Sampled locations include waterways, natural harbours and small marinas for leisure crafts to investigate if number of visiting boats affect the concentration of antifouling compounds in sediments. Few significant differences were found when comparing the different locations types, suggesting that overall boat presence is more important than specific mooring sites, however, several banned antifouling compounds were found in the surface sediments. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Leaching of copper and zinc from spent antifouling paint particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, Nimisha; Turner, Andrew

    2009-01-01

    Leaching of Cu and Zn from a composite of spent antifouling paint particles, containing about 300 mg g -1 and 110 mg g -1 of the respective metals, was studied in batch experiments. For a given set of simulated environmental conditions, release of Cu was independent of paint particle concentration due to attainment of pseudo-saturation, but Zn was less constrained by solubility effects and release increased with increasing particle concentration. Leaching of Cu increased but Zn decreased with increasing salinity, consistent with mechanisms governing the dissolution of Cu 2 O in the presence of chloride and Zn acrylates in the presence of seawater cations. Because of complex reaction kinetics and the presence of calcium carbonate in the paint matrix, metal leaching appeared to be greater at 4 deg. C than 19 deg. C under many conditions. These findings have important environmental and biological implications regarding the deliberate or inadvertent disposal of antifouling paint residues. - Copper and zinc are readily leached from particles of spent antifouling paint under a range of environmental conditions

  10. Leaching of copper and zinc from spent antifouling paint particles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, Nimisha [School of Earth, Ocean and Environmental Sciences, University of Plymouth, Drake Circus, Plymouth PL4 8AA (United Kingdom); Turner, Andrew [School of Earth, Ocean and Environmental Sciences, University of Plymouth, Drake Circus, Plymouth PL4 8AA (United Kingdom)], E-mail: aturner@plymouth.ac.uk

    2009-02-15

    Leaching of Cu and Zn from a composite of spent antifouling paint particles, containing about 300 mg g{sup -1} and 110 mg g{sup -1} of the respective metals, was studied in batch experiments. For a given set of simulated environmental conditions, release of Cu was independent of paint particle concentration due to attainment of pseudo-saturation, but Zn was less constrained by solubility effects and release increased with increasing particle concentration. Leaching of Cu increased but Zn decreased with increasing salinity, consistent with mechanisms governing the dissolution of Cu{sub 2}O in the presence of chloride and Zn acrylates in the presence of seawater cations. Because of complex reaction kinetics and the presence of calcium carbonate in the paint matrix, metal leaching appeared to be greater at 4 deg. C than 19 deg. C under many conditions. These findings have important environmental and biological implications regarding the deliberate or inadvertent disposal of antifouling paint residues. - Copper and zinc are readily leached from particles of spent antifouling paint under a range of environmental conditions.

  11. XRF measurements of tin, copper and zinc in antifouling paints coated on leisure boats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ytreberg, Erik; Bighiu, Maria Alexandra; Lundgren, Lennart; Eklund, Britta

    2016-01-01

    Tributyltin (TBT) and other organotin compounds have been restricted for use on leisure boats since 1989 in the EU. Nonetheless, release of TBT is observed from leisure boats during hull maintenance work, such as pressure hosing. In this work, we used a handheld X-ray Fluorescence analyser (XRF) calibrated for antifouling paint matrixes to measure tin, copper and zinc in antifouling paints coated on leisure boats in Sweden. Our results show that over 10% of the leisure boats (n = 686) contain >400 μg/cm 2 of tin in their antifouling coatings. For comparison, one layer (40 μm dry film) of a TBT-paint equals ≈ 800 μg Sn/cm 2 . To our knowledge, tin has never been used in other forms than organotin (OT) in antifouling paints. Thus, even though the XRF analysis does not provide any information on the speciation of tin, the high concentrations indicate that these leisure boats still have OT coatings present on their hull. On several leisure boats we performed additional XRF measurements by progressively scraping off the top coatings and analysing each underlying layer. The XRF data show that when tin is detected, it is most likely present in coatings close to the hull with several layers of other coatings on top. Thus, leaching of OT compounds from the hull into the water is presumed to be negligible. The risk for environmental impacts arises during maintenance work such as scraping, blasting and high pressure hosing activities. The data also show that many boat owners apply excessive paint layers when following paint manufacturers recommendations. Moreover, high loads of copper were detected even on boats sailing in freshwater, despite the more than 20 year old ban, which poses an environmental risk that has not been addressed until now. - Highlights: • A new XRF application for analysing metals in antifouling paints has been used. • Almost 700 leisure boats were analysed for tin, copper and zinc. • Over 10% of the leisure boats contained high, >400

  12. Low-Toxicity Diindol-3-ylmethanes as Potent Antifouling Compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Kai-Ling; Xu, Ying; Lu, Liang; Li, Yongxin; Han, Zhuang; Zhang, Jun; Shao, Chang-Lun; Wang, Chang-Yun; Qian, Pei-Yuan

    2015-10-01

    In the present study, eight natural products that belonged to di(1H-indol-3-yl)methane (DIM) family were isolated from Pseudovibrio denitrificans UST4-50 and tested for their antifouling activity against larval settlement (including both attachment and metamorphosis) of the barnacle Balanus (=Amphibalanus) amphitrite and the bryozoan Bugula neritina. All diindol-3-ylmethanes (DIMs) showed moderate to strong inhibitory effects against larval settlement of B. amphitrite with EC50 values ranging from 18.57 to 1.86 μM and could be considered as low-toxicity antifouling compounds since their LC50/EC50 ratios were larger than 15. Furthermore, the DIM- and 4-(di(1H-indol-3-yl)methyl)phenol (DIM-Ph-4-OH)-treated larvae completed normal settlement when they were transferred to clean seawater after being exposed to those compounds for 24 h. DIM also showed comparable antifouling performance to the commercial antifouling biocide Sea-Nine 211(™) in the field test over a period of 5 months, which further confirmed that DIMs can be considered as promising candidates of environmentally friendly antifouling compounds.

  13. A novel XRF method to measure environmental release of copper and zinc from antifouling paints.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ytreberg, Erik; Lagerström, Maria; Holmqvist, Albin; Eklund, Britta; Elwing, Hans; Dahlström, Magnus; Dahl, Peter; Dahlström, Mia

    2017-06-01

    The release of copper (Cu) and zinc (Zn) from vessels and leisure crafts coated with antifouling paints can pose a threat to water quality in semi-enclosed areas such as harbors and marinas as well as to coastal archipelagos. However, no reliable, practical and low-cost method exists to measure the direct release of metals from antifouling paints. Therefore, the paint industry and regulatory authorities are obliged to use release rate measurements derived from either mathematical models or from laboratory studies. To bridge this gap, we have developed a novel method using a handheld X-Ray Fluorescence spectrometer (XRF) to determine the cumulative release of Cu and Zn from antifouling paints. The results showed a strong linear relationship between XRF K α net intensities and metal concentrations, as determined by ICP-MS. The release of Cu and Zn were determined for coated panels exposed in harbors located in the Baltic Sea and in Kattegat. The field study showed salinity to have a strong impact on the release of Cu, i.e. the release increased with salinity. Contrary, the effect of salinity on Zn was not as evident. As exemplified in this work, the XRF method also makes it possible to identify the governing parameters to the release of Cu and Zn, e.g. salinity and type of paint formulation. Thus, the XRF method can be used to measure environmentally relevant releases of metallic compounds to design more efficient and optimized antifouling coatings. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  14. Marine sponges: a potential source of eco-friendly antifouling compounds

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Wagh, A.B.; Thakur, N.L.; Anil, A.C.; Venkat, K.

    biocides have environmental concerns. In view of this search for ecofriendly antifouling protocols gained momentum. Sourcing of such antifouling compounds has often been explored with marine organism. This paper reviews the efforts in this domain...

  15. Antifouling potential of Nature-inspired sulfated compounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almeida, Joana R.; Correia-da-Silva, Marta; Sousa, Emília; Antunes, Jorge; Pinto, Madalena; Vasconcelos, Vitor; Cunha, Isabel

    2017-02-01

    Natural products with a sulfated scaffold have emerged as antifouling agents with low or nontoxic effects to the environment. In this study 13 sulfated polyphenols were synthesized and tested for antifouling potential using the anti-settlement activity of mussel (Mytilus galloprovincialis) plantigrade post-larvae and bacterial growth inhibition towards four biofilm-forming bacterial strains. Results show that some of these Nature-inspired compounds were bioactive, particularly rutin persulfate (2), 3,6-bis(β-D-glucopyranosyl) xanthone persulfate (6), and gallic acid persulfate (12) against the settlement of plantigrades. The chemical precursors of sulfated compounds 2 and 12 were also tested for anti-settlement activity and it was possible to conclude that bioactivity is associated with sulfation. While compound 12 showed the most promising anti-settlement activity (EC50 = 8.95 μg.mL-1), compound 2 also caused the higher level of growth inhibition in bacteria Vibrio harveyi (EC20 = 12.5 μg.mL-1). All the three bioactive compounds 2, 6, and 12 were also found to be nontoxic to the non target species Artemia salina ( 1000 μg.mL-1). This study put forward the relevance of synthesizing non-natural sulfated small molecules to generate new nontoxic antifouling agents.

  16. Inorganic precursor peroxides for antifouling coatings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, S.M.; Pedersen, L.T.; Hermann, M.H.

    2009-01-01

    Modern antifouling coatings are generally based on cuprous oxide (Cu2O) and organic biocides as active ingredients. Cu2O is prone to bioaccumulation, and should therefore be replaced by more environmentally benign compounds when technically possible. However, cuprous oxide does not only provide...... antifouling properties, it is also a vital ingredient for the antifouling coating to obtain its polishing and leaching mechanism. In this paper, peroxides of strontium, calcium, magnesium, and zinc are tested as pigments in antifouling coatings. The peroxides react with seawater to create hydrogen peroxide...... matrix provides antifouling properties exceeding those of a similar coating based entirely on zinc oxide....

  17. Review on Molecular Mechanisms of Antifouling Compounds: An Update since 2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Lianguo; Qian, Pei-Yuan

    2017-08-28

    Better understanding of the mechanisms of antifouling compounds is recognized to be of high value in establishing sensitive biomarkers, allowing the targeted optimization of antifouling compounds and guaranteeing environmental safety. Despite vigorous efforts to find new antifouling compounds, information about the mechanisms of antifouling is still scarce. This review summarizes the progress into understanding the molecular mechanisms underlying antifouling activity since 2012. Non-toxic mechanisms aimed at specific targets, including inhibitors of transmembrane transport, quorum sensing inhibitors, neurotransmission blockers, adhesive production/release inhibitors and enzyme/protein inhibitors, are put forward for natural antifouling products or shelf-stable chemicals. Several molecular targets show good potential for use as biomarkers in future mechanistic screening, such as acetylcholine esterase for neurotransmission, phenoloxidase/tyrosinase for the formation of adhesive plaques, N -acyl homoserine lactone for quorum sensing and intracellular Ca 2+ levels as second messenger. The studies on overall responses to challenges by antifoulants can be categorized as general targets, including protein expression/metabolic activity regulators, oxidative stress inducers, neurotransmission blockers, surface modifiers, biofilm inhibitors, adhesive production/release inhibitors and toxic killing. Given the current situation and the knowledge gaps regarding the development of alternative antifoulants, a basic workflow is proposed that covers the indispensable steps, including preliminary mechanism- or bioassay-guided screening, evaluation of environmental risks, field antifouling performance, clarification of antifouling mechanisms and the establishment of sensitive biomarkers, which are combined to construct a positive feedback loop.

  18. Mini-review: Molecular mechanisms of antifouling compounds

    KAUST Repository

    Qian, Pei-Yuan

    2013-04-01

    Various antifouling (AF) coatings have been developed to protect submerged surfaces by deterring the settlement of the colonizing stages of fouling organisms. A review of the literature shows that effective AF compounds with specific targets are ones often considered non-toxic. Such compounds act variously on ion channels, quorum sensing systems, neurotransmitters, production/release of adhesive, and specific enzymes that regulate energy production or primary metabolism. In contrast, AF compounds with general targets may or may not act through toxic mechanisms. These compounds affect a variety of biological activities including algal photosynthesis, energy production, stress responses, genotoxic damage, immunosuppressed protein expression, oxidation, neurotransmission, surface chemistry, the formation of biofilms, and adhesive production/release. Among all the targets, adhesive production/release is the most common, possibly due to a more extensive research effort in this area. Overall, the specific molecular targets and the molecular mechanisms of most AF compounds have not been identified. Thus, the information available is insufficient to draw firm conclusions about the types of molecular targets to be used as sensitive biomarkers for future design and screening of compounds with AF potential. In this review, the relevant advantages and disadvantages of the molecular tools available for studying the molecular targets of AF compounds are highlighted briefly and the molecular mechanisms of the AF compounds, which are largely a source of speculation in the literature, are discussed. © 2013 Copyright Taylor and Francis Group, LLC.

  19. Natural antifouling compound production by microbes associated with marine macroorganisms — A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sathianeson Satheesh

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available In the marine environment, all hard surfaces including marine macroorganims are colonized by microorganisms mainly from the surrounding environment. The microorganisms associated with marine macroorganisms offer tremendous potential for exploitation of bioactive metabolites. Biofouling is a continuous problem in marine sectors which needs huge economy for control and cleaning processes. Biotechnological way for searching natural product antifouling compounds gained momentum in recent years because of the environmental pollution associated with the use of toxic chemicals to control biofouling. While, natural product based antifoulants from marine organisms particularly sponges and corals attained significance due to their activities in field assays, collection of larger amount of organisms from the sea is not a viable one. The microorganisms associated with sponges, corals, ascidians, seaweeds and seagrasses showed strong antimicrobial and also antifouling activities. This review highlights the advances in natural product antifoulants research from microbes associated with marine organisms.

  20. Survey of four marine antifoulant constituents (copper, zinc, diuron and Irgarol 1051) in two UK estuaries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comber, S D W; Gardner, M J; Boxall, A B A

    2002-06-01

    A field survey of antifoulant concentrations was undertaken in two UK estuaries (Hamble and Orwell) in 1998 and 1999. The two locations offered variations in physical aspects (Orwell estuary being significantly larger than the Hamble) as well as differences in boat densities (Hamble having almost twice as many vessels moored in the estuary and marinas). Samples were analysed for copper, zinc, diuron and Irgarol 1051, and were collected in summer and winter in order to identify potential seasonal variations in concentrations. The effect that different marina types (e.g. locked marina, one located in a natural inlet and pontooned ones in the open estuary) had on antifoulant concentrations were also investigated. Concentrations of the organic booster biocides, diuron and Irgarol 1051 in the marinas and estuaries were mainly influenced by leaching from antifoulant paints applied to the hulls of leisure craft, and so levels reflected the number of vessels present in the water. As a consequence significantly higher concentrations were found in marinas (up to ca. 900 ng l(-1) for diuron and 240 ng l(-1) for Irgarol 1051) compared with estuaries (up to ca. 400 ng l(-1) for diuron and 100 ng l(-1) for Irgarol 1051) and in summer compared with winter. Sediment concentrations of Irgarol 1051 and diuron were rarely detectable other than in the marinas where high concentrations were detected near slipways assumed to be derived from washed off paint chips. Dissolved concentration profiles for copper and zinc in the estuaries and marinas were different from those for the organic booster biocides partly because other sources of these metals contributed to estuarine and marina loads. In particular, riverine loads and inputs from sacrificial anodes attached to leisure craft, exhibited a major influence of estuarine levels of zinc. Consequently, only in the Hamble estuary for copper was there a clear distinction between summer (typically 3-4 microg l(-1)) and winter dissolved values

  1. Antifouling phenyl ethers and other compounds from the invertebrates and their symbiotic fungi collected from the South China Sea

    KAUST Repository

    Wang, Chao-Yi; Wang, Kai-Ling; Ghosheh, Yanal; Xu, Ying; Chen, Min; Zheng, Juan-Juan; Liu, Min; Shao, Chang-Lun; Wang, Chang-Yun

    2016-01-01

    for their antifouling activities and security. These compounds include 44 natural products isolated from marine invertebrates and their symbiotic microorganisms collected from the South China Sea and 11 structural modified products derived from the isolated compounds

  2. Evaluation of low copper content antifouling paints containing natural phenolic compounds as bioactive additives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez, Miriam; García, Mónica; Blustein, Guillermo

    2015-08-01

    Cuprous oxide is the most commonly used biocide in antifouling paints. However, copper has harmful effects not only on the fouling community but also on non-target species. In the current study, we investigated the use of thymol, eugenol and guaiacol in this role combined with small quantities of copper. Phenolic compounds were tested for anti-settlement activity against cyprid larvae of the barnacle Balanus amphitrite and for their toxicity to nauplius larvae. Thymol, eugenol and guaiacol were active for anti-settlement but guaiacol had the disadvantage of being toxic to nauplius larvae. However, all of them showed therapeutic ratio>1. Antifouling paints with thymol (low copper content/thymol, LCP/T), eugenol (low copper content/eugenol, LCP/E) and guaiacol (low copper content/guaiacol, LCP/G) combined with small copper content were formulated for field trials. After 12 months exposure in the sea, statistical analysis revealed that LCP/T and LCP/E paints were the most effective combinations and had similar performances to control paints with high copper content (traditional cuprous oxide based paints). In contrast, LCP/G paint was only partially effective in preventing and inhibiting biofouling and was colonized by some hard and soft foulers. However, this antifouling paint was effective against calcareous tubeworm Hydroides elegans. In the light of various potential applications, thymol, eugenol and guaiacol have thus to be considered in future antifouling formulations. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Antifouling phenyl ethers and other compounds from the invertebrates and their symbiotic fungi collected from the South China Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chao-Yi; Wang, Kai-Ling; Qian, Pei-Yuan; Xu, Ying; Chen, Min; Zheng, Juan-Juan; Liu, Min; Shao, Chang-Lun; Wang, Chang-Yun

    2016-12-01

    Marine organism-derived secondary metabolites are promising potential sources for discovering environmentally safe antifouling agents. In present study, 55 marine secondary metabolites and their synthesized derivatives were tested and evaluated for their antifouling activities and security. These compounds include 44 natural products isolated from marine invertebrates and their symbiotic microorganisms collected from the South China Sea and 11 structural modified products derived from the isolated compounds. The natural secondary metabolites, covering phenyl ether derivatives, terpenoids, 9, 11-secosteroids, anthraquinones, alkaloids, nucleoside derivatives and peptides, were isolated from two corals, one sponge and five symbiotic fungi. All of the isolated and synthesized compounds were tested for their antifouling activities against the cyprids of barnacle Balanus (Amphibalanus) amphitrite Darwin. Noticeably, five phenyl ether derivatives (9, 11, 13-15) exhibited potent anti-larval settlement activity with the EC 50 values lower than 3.05 μM and the LC 50 /EC 50 ratios higher than 15. The study of structure-activity relationship (SAR) revealed that the introduction of acetoxy groups and bromine atoms to phenyl ether derivatives could significantly improve their antifouling activities. This is the first report on the SAR of phenyl ether derivatives on antifouling activity against barnacle B. amphitrite. The polybrominated diphenyl ether derivative, 2, 4, 6, 2', 4', 6'-hexabromo-diorcinol (13), which displayed excellent antifouling activity, was considered as a promising candidate of environmentally friendly antifouling agents.

  4. Antifouling phenyl ethers and other compounds from the invertebrates and their symbiotic fungi collected from the South China Sea

    KAUST Repository

    Wang, Chao-Yi

    2016-10-26

    Marine organism-derived secondary metabolites are promising potential sources for discovering environmentally safe antifouling agents. In present study, 55 marine secondary metabolites and their synthesized derivatives were tested and evaluated for their antifouling activities and security. These compounds include 44 natural products isolated from marine invertebrates and their symbiotic microorganisms collected from the South China Sea and 11 structural modified products derived from the isolated compounds. The natural secondary metabolites, covering phenyl ether derivatives, terpenoids, 9, 11-secosteroids, anthraquinones, alkaloids, nucleoside derivatives and peptides, were isolated from two corals, one sponge and five symbiotic fungi. All of the isolated and synthesized compounds were tested for their antifouling activities against the cyprids of barnacle Balanus (Amphibalanus) amphitrite Darwin. Noticeably, five phenyl ether derivatives (9, 11, 13–15) exhibited potent anti-larval settlement activity with the EC50 values lower than 3.05 μM and the LC50/EC50 ratios higher than 15. The study of structure–activity relationship (SAR) revealed that the introduction of acetoxy groups and bromine atoms to phenyl ether derivatives could significantly improve their antifouling activities. This is the first report on the SAR of phenyl ether derivatives on antifouling activity against barnacle B. amphitrite. The polybrominated diphenyl ether derivative, 2, 4, 6, 2′, 4′, 6′-hexabromo-diorcinol (13), which displayed excellent antifouling activity, was considered as a promising candidate of environmentally friendly antifouling agents.

  5. Creation of antifouling microarrays by photopolymerization of zwitterionic compounds for protein assay and cell patterning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Xiuhua; Wang, Huaixin; Wang, Yuanyuan; Gui, Taijiang; Wang, Ke; Gao, Changlu

    2018-04-15

    Nonspecific binding or adsorption of biomolecules presents as a major obstacle to higher sensitivity, specificity and reproducibility in microarray technology. We report herein a method to fabricate antifouling microarray via photopolymerization of biomimetic betaine compounds. In brief, carboxybetaine methacrylate was polymerized as arrays for protein sensing, while sulfobetaine methacrylate was polymerized as background. With the abundant carboxyl groups on array surfaces and zwitterionic polymers on the entire surfaces, this microarray allows biomolecular immobilization and recognition with low nonspecific interactions due to its antifouling property. Therefore, low concentration of target molecules can be captured and detected by this microarray. It was proved that a concentration of 10ngmL -1 bovine serum albumin in the sample matrix of bovine serum can be detected by the microarray derivatized with anti-bovine serum albumin. Moreover, with proper hydrophilic-hydrophobic designs, this approach can be applied to fabricate surface-tension droplet arrays, which allows surface-directed cell adhesion and growth. These light controllable approaches constitute a clear improvement in the design of antifouling interfaces, which may lead to greater flexibility in the development of interfacial architectures and wider application in blood contact microdevices. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Zinc comprising coordination compounds as growth stimulants of cotton seeds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yusupov, Z.N.; Nurmatov, T.M.; Rakhimova, M.M.; Dzhafarov, M.I.; Nikolaeva, T.B.

    1991-01-01

    Present article is devoted to zinc comprising coordination compounds as growth stimulants of cotton seeds. The influence of zinc coordination compounds with physiologically active ligands on germinative energy and seed germination of cotton was studied. The biogical activity and effectiveness of zinc comprising coordination compounds at application them for humidification of cotton seeds was studied as well.

  7. Acute Toxicity of the Antifouling Compound Butenolide in Non-Target Organisms

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, Yi-Fan

    2011-08-29

    Butenolide [5-octylfuran-2(5H)-one] is a recently discovered and very promising anti-marine-fouling compound. In this study, the acute toxicity of butenolide was assessed in several non-target organisms, including micro algae, crustaceans, and fish. Results were compared with previously reported results on the effective concentrations used on fouling (target) organisms. According to OECD\\'s guideline, the predicted no effect concentration (PNEC) was 0.168 µg l^(−1), which was among one of the highest in representative new biocides. Mechanistically, the phenotype of butenolide-treated Danio rerio (zebrafish) embryos was similar to the phenotype of the pro-caspase-3 over-expression mutant with pericardial edema, small eyes, small brains, and increased numbers of apoptotic cells in the bodies of zebrafish embryos. Butenolide also induced apoptosis in HeLa cells, with the activation of c-Jun N-terminal kinases (JNK), Bcl-2 family proteins, and caspases and proteasomes/lysosomes involved in this process. This is the first detailed toxicity and toxicology study on this antifouling compound.

  8. Development of High-Antifouling PPSU Ultrafiltration Membrane by Using Compound Additives: Preparation, Morphologies, and Filtration Resistant Properties

    OpenAIRE

    Jie Liu; Zhencheng Zhong; Rui Ma; Weichen Zhang; Jiding Li

    2016-01-01

    In this study, flat sheet asymmetric polyphenylsulfone (PPSU) ultrafiltration membranes with enhanced antifouling properties were prepared with a non-solvent induced phase separation (NIPS) method through compound additives containing a polymeric pore-forming agent, a small molecular non-solvent and a surfactant. The formation processes of the porous asymmetric membranes with different kinds of additives were studied in detail, and the microstructure controllable preparation of membrane was a...

  9. Antifouling effect of bioactive compounds from marine sponge Acanthella elongata and different species of bacterial film on larval attachment of Balanus amphitrite (cirripedia, crustacea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viswambaran Ganapiriya

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The antifouling activity of bioactive compounds from marine sponge Acanthella elongata (Dendy and five species of bacterial biofilm were studied. Larvae of Balanus amphitrite (Cyprids and nauplii were used to monitor the settlement inhibition and the extent to which inhibition was due to toxicity. The crude extract and partially purified fractions of A.elongata showed significant inhibition over the settlement individually, and with the interaction of bacterial species. No bacterial film stimulated the barnacle settlement. The high but variable levels of antifouling activity in combination with less amount of toxicity showed the potential of these metabolites in environmentally-friendly antifouling preparations.

  10. Terrestrial plants: a potent source for isolation of eco-friendly antifouling compounds

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Sawant, S.S.; Wagh, A.B.

    by number of workers in the past. However, little attention is paid towards terrestrial plants. In light of this some selected plants have been screened for antifouling activity. These plants are Acacia pennata and Barringtonia acutangula. These plants...

  11. Adverse effect of antifouling compounds on the reproductive mechanisms of the ascidian Ciona intestinalis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallo, Alessandra; Tosti, Elisabetta

    2013-09-20

    Fertilization and embryo development that occur in sea water are sensitive to xenobiotics from anthropogenic sources. In this work, we evaluated the influence of two antifouling biocides, tributyltin (TBT) and diuron, on the reproductive mechanisms of the marine invertebrate Ciona intestinalis. By using electrophysiological techniques, we examined the impact of these compounds on the electrical properties of the mature oocytes and of events occurring at fertilization. With different toxicity assays, we studied the effect of the two biocides on the gametes by evaluating fertilization rate and embryo development. Results show that sodium (Na⁺) currents were significantly reduced by either of the two biocides, whereas conductance was significantly increased. The fertilization current frequency and amplitude, fertilization rate and larval development were affected only by TBT. This study suggests that: (i) the two biocides affect either the electrical properties of the oocyte plasma membrane and the reproductive success representing a risk factor for the survival of the species exposed to environmental pollution; (ii) the ascidian Ciona intestinalis may represent a good model organism to test toxicity of marine pollutants. Possible mechanisms of action of the two biocides are discussed.

  12. Adverse Effect of Antifouling Compounds on the Reproductive Mechanisms of the Ascidian Ciona intestinalis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandra Gallo

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Fertilization and embryo development that occur in sea water are sensitive to xenobiotics from anthropogenic sources. In this work, we evaluated the influence of two antifouling biocides, tributyltin (TBT and diuron, on the reproductive mechanisms of the marine invertebrate Ciona intestinalis. By using electrophysiological techniques, we examined the impact of these compounds on the electrical properties of the mature oocytes and of events occurring at fertilization. With different toxicity assays, we studied the effect of the two biocides on the gametes by evaluating fertilization rate and embryo development. Results show that sodium (Na+ currents were significantly reduced by either of the two biocides, whereas conductance was significantly increased. The fertilization current frequency and amplitude, fertilization rate and larval development were affected only by TBT. This study suggests that: (i the two biocides affect either the electrical properties of the oocyte plasma membrane and the reproductive success representing a risk factor for the survival of the species exposed to environmental pollution; (ii the ascidian Ciona intestinalis may represent a good model organism to test toxicity of marine pollutants. Possible mechanisms of action of the two biocides are discussed.

  13. Adverse Effect of Antifouling Compounds on the Reproductive Mechanisms of the Ascidian Ciona intestinalis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallo, Alessandra; Tosti, Elisabetta

    2013-01-01

    Fertilization and embryo development that occur in sea water are sensitive to xenobiotics from anthropogenic sources. In this work, we evaluated the influence of two antifouling biocides, tributyltin (TBT) and diuron, on the reproductive mechanisms of the marine invertebrate Ciona intestinalis. By using electrophysiological techniques, we examined the impact of these compounds on the electrical properties of the mature oocytes and of events occurring at fertilization. With different toxicity assays, we studied the effect of the two biocides on the gametes by evaluating fertilization rate and embryo development. Results show that sodium (Na+) currents were significantly reduced by either of the two biocides, whereas conductance was significantly increased. The fertilization current frequency and amplitude, fertilization rate and larval development were affected only by TBT. This study suggests that: (i) the two biocides affect either the electrical properties of the oocyte plasma membrane and the reproductive success representing a risk factor for the survival of the species exposed to environmental pollution; (ii) the ascidian Ciona intestinalis may represent a good model organism to test toxicity of marine pollutants. Possible mechanisms of action of the two biocides are discussed. PMID:24065165

  14. Antifouling Activity of Marine Natural Products

    KAUST Repository

    Qian, Pei-Yuan; Xu, Sharon Ying

    2012-01-01

    for marine industries. Marine natural products have been considered as one of the most promising sources of antifouling compounds in recent years. In antifouling compound screening processes, bioassay systems often play most critical/vital roles in screening

  15. Risks of Using Antifouling Biocides in Aquaculture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Meseguer

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Biocides are chemical substances that can deter or kill the microorganisms responsible for biofouling. The rapid expansion of the aquaculture industry is having a significant impact on the marine ecosystems. As the industry expands, it requires the use of more drugs, disinfectants and antifoulant compounds (biocides to eliminate the microorganisms in the aquaculture facilities. The use of biocides in the aquatic environment, however, has proved to be harmful as it has toxic effects on the marine environment. Organic booster biocides were recently introduced as alternatives to the organotin compounds found in antifouling products after restrictions were imposed on the use of tributyltin (TBT. The replacement products are generally based on copper metal oxides and organic biocides. The biocides that are most commonly used in antifouling paints include chlorothalonil, dichlofluanid, DCOIT (4,5-dichloro-2-n-octyl-4-isothiazolin-3-one, Sea-nine 211®, Diuron, Irgarol 1051, TCMS pyridine (2,3,3,6-tetrachloro-4-methylsulfonyl pyridine, zinc pyrithione and Zineb. There are two types of risks associated with the use of biocides in aquaculture: (i predators and humans may ingest the fish and shellfish that have accumulated in these contaminants and (ii the development of antibiotic resistance in bacteria. This paper provides an overview of the effects of antifouling (AF biocides on aquatic organisms. It also provides some insights into the effects and risks of these compounds on non-target organisms.

  16. Risks of Using Antifouling Biocides in Aquaculture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guardiola, Francisco Antonio; Cuesta, Alberto; Meseguer, José; Esteban, Maria Angeles

    2012-01-01

    Biocides are chemical substances that can deter or kill the microorganisms responsible for biofouling. The rapid expansion of the aquaculture industry is having a significant impact on the marine ecosystems. As the industry expands, it requires the use of more drugs, disinfectants and antifoulant compounds (biocides) to eliminate the microorganisms in the aquaculture facilities. The use of biocides in the aquatic environment, however, has proved to be harmful as it has toxic effects on the marine environment. Organic booster biocides were recently introduced as alternatives to the organotin compounds found in antifouling products after restrictions were imposed on the use of tributyltin (TBT). The replacement products are generally based on copper metal oxides and organic biocides. The biocides that are most commonly used in antifouling paints include chlorothalonil, dichlofluanid, DCOIT (4,5-dichloro-2-n-octyl-4-isothiazolin-3-one, Sea-nine 211®), Diuron, Irgarol 1051, TCMS pyridine (2,3,3,6-tetrachloro-4-methylsulfonyl pyridine), zinc pyrithione and Zineb. There are two types of risks associated with the use of biocides in aquaculture: (i) predators and humans may ingest the fish and shellfish that have accumulated in these contaminants and (ii) the development of antibiotic resistance in bacteria. This paper provides an overview of the effects of antifouling (AF) biocides on aquatic organisms. It also provides some insights into the effects and risks of these compounds on non-target organisms. PMID:22408407

  17. A new concept for anti-fouling paint for Yachts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wallstroem, Eva; Jespersen, Henrik T.; Schaumburg, Kjeld

    2011-01-01

    It is shown to be possible to develop yacht paint with a reduction of 70% of biocide, without pigments/fillers (cuprous oxide and zinc oxide) that may cause long-term adverse effects in the aquatic environment, and to obtain application and usage properties that match present commercial anti......-fouling products for yachts. To be able to reduce the amount of biocide, in this case zinc pyrithione, it is necessary to have control over the amount of biocide present in the surface layer. The control is achieved by encapsulating the biocide in a silica gel. The silica gel is dispersed together with pigments...... that is formulated without introducing new compounds and with reduced amount of zinc pyrithione (1/3). Finally, it is shown that it is possible to make antifouling paint for yachts without zinc or copper based pigments by using other traditional pigments and fillers, which have no known long-term adverse effect...

  18. Degradation models and ecotoxicity in marine waters of two antifouling compounds: sodium hypochlorite and an alkylamine surfactant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Galindo, Cristina; Garrido, M Carmen; Casanueva, José F; Nebot, Enrique

    2010-03-15

    Industrial wastes have a substantial impact on coastal environments. Therefore, to evaluate the impact of cooling water discharges from coastal power plants, we studied the kinetics of the degradative processes and the ecotoxicity of two antifouling products: (1) a classic antifouling product; sodium hypochlorite (NaClO) and (2) an alternative one; aliphatic amines (commercial under the registered trade mark Mexel432). To assess the persistence of both compounds the decay of sodium hypochlorite and the primary biodegradation rate of Mexel432 were determined in natural seawater at 20 degrees C. The results indicated a more rapid decay of NaClO than Mexel432. The degradation behavior of both chemicals was described following a logistic model, which permitted calculating kinetic parameters such as t(50) or t(90). The t(50) was 1h and 2d for NaClO and Mexel432, respectively. To evaluate the potential risks of the aforementioned treatments to marine organisms, the acute toxicity of both antifouling products was studied on the microalgae Isochrysis galbana and Dunaliella salina, and on the invertebrate Brachionus plicatilis, using growth inhibition and death tests as toxic response, respectively. For I. galbana, the 96-h EC(50) values were 2.91+/-0.15mg/L of NaClO and 4.55+/-0.11mg/L of Mexel432. D. salina showed values of 96-h EC(50) of 1.73+/-0.16mg/L of NaClO and 7.21+/-0.1mg/L of Mexel432. Brachionus plicatilis showed a 24-h LC(50) of 1.23+/-0.1mg/L of NaClO and 3.62+/-0.37mg/L of Mexel432. Acute toxicity was highly dependent on the chemical and species tested. NaClO presented more toxic effects than Mexel432, also B. plicatilis was the most sensitive species in both cases. The lowest NOECs obtained, 0.25mg/L for NaClO and 2.12mg/L for Mexel432, were similar to the theoretical residual concentrations of these biocides in cooling water discharges. Therefore, these discharges can cause undesirable negative effects upon the aquatic organisms present.

  19. Development of High-Antifouling PPSU Ultrafiltration Membrane by Using Compound Additives: Preparation, Morphologies, and Filtration Resistant Properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jie; Zhong, Zhencheng; Ma, Rui; Zhang, Weichen; Li, Jiding

    2016-06-21

    In this study, flat sheet asymmetric polyphenylsulfone (PPSU) ultrafiltration membranes with enhanced antifouling properties were prepared with a non-solvent induced phase separation (NIPS) method through compound additives containing a polymeric pore-forming agent, a small molecular non-solvent and a surfactant. The formation processes of the porous asymmetric membranes with different kinds of additives were studied in detail, and the microstructure controllable preparation of membrane was achieved by establishing a bridge between the membrane preparation parameters and separation performances. All prepared membranes were characterized by using a scanning electron microscope (SEM), contact angle analysis, porosity, maximum pore size, water and BSA solution permeability studies. The performance efficiency of the membrane was evaluated by using BSA as a model foulant in terms of permeability, solute rejection (R), Rm (membrane inherent resistance), Rc (cake layer resistance), and Rp (pore plugging resistance). The results showed that when the compound additives were used, the inter-connected pores were observed, maximum pore size, contact angle and membrane filtration resistance decreased, while the porosity increased. When PVP compound additives were added, the water flux increased from 80.4 to 148.1 L/(m²·h), the BSA rejection increased from 53.2% to 81.5%. A similar trend was observed for membranes with added PEG compound additives; the water flux and BSA rejection simultaneously increased. The filtration resistance decreased as a result of compound additives. The uniformity of membrane and the number of effective pores could be enhanced by adding compound additives through the cooperation of different additives.

  20. Development of High-Antifouling PPSU Ultrafiltration Membrane by Using Compound Additives: Preparation, Morphologies, and Filtration Resistant Properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jie Liu

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In this study, flat sheet asymmetric polyphenylsulfone (PPSU ultrafiltration membranes with enhanced antifouling properties were prepared with a non-solvent induced phase separation (NIPS method through compound additives containing a polymeric pore-forming agent, a small molecular non-solvent and a surfactant. The formation processes of the porous asymmetric membranes with different kinds of additives were studied in detail, and the microstructure controllable preparation of membrane was achieved by establishing a bridge between the membrane preparation parameters and separation performances. All prepared membranes were characterized by using a scanning electron microscope (SEM, contact angle analysis, porosity, maximum pore size, water and BSA solution permeability studies. The performance efficiency of the membrane was evaluated by using BSA as a model foulant in terms of permeability, solute rejection (R, Rm (membrane inherent resistance, Rc (cake layer resistance, and Rp (pore plugging resistance. The results showed that when the compound additives were used, the inter-connected pores were observed, maximum pore size, contact angle and membrane filtration resistance decreased, while the porosity increased. When PVP compound additives were added, the water flux increased from 80.4 to 148.1 L/(m2·h, the BSA rejection increased from 53.2% to 81.5%. A similar trend was observed for membranes with added PEG compound additives; the water flux and BSA rejection simultaneously increased. The filtration resistance decreased as a result of compound additives. The uniformity of membrane and the number of effective pores could be enhanced by adding compound additives through the cooperation of different additives.

  1. Evolution of the zinc compound nanostructures in zinc acetate single-source solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Ying; Li Yinhua; Zhou Zhengzhi; Zu Xihong; Deng Yulin

    2011-01-01

    A series of nanostructured zinc compounds with different nanostructures such as nanobelts, flake-like, flower-like, and twinning crystals was synthesized using zinc acetate (Zn(Ac) 2 ) as a single-source. The evolution of the zinc compounds from layered basic zinc acetate (LBZA) to bilayered basic zinc acetate (BLBZA) and twinned ZnO nano/microcrystal was studied. The low-angle X-ray diffraction spectra indicate the layered spacing is 1.34 and 2.1 nm for LBZA and BLBZA, respectively. The Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectra results confirmed that the bonding force of acetate anion with zinc cations decreases with the phase transformation from Zn(Ac) 2 to BLBZA, and finally to LBZA. The OH − groups gradually replaced the acetate groups coordinated to the matrix zinc cation, and the acetate groups were released completely. Finally, the Zn(OH) 2 and ZnO were formed at high temperature. The conversion process from Zn(Ac) 2 to ZnO with release of acetate anions can be described as Zn(Ac) 2 → BLBZA → LBZA → Zn(OH) 2 → ZnO.

  2. Antifouling processes and toxicity effects of antifouling paints on marine environment. A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amara, Intissar; Miled, Wafa; Slama, Rihab Ben; Ladhari, Neji

    2018-01-01

    The production infrastructure in aquaculture invariably is a complex assortment of submerged components with cages, nets, floats and ropes. Cages are generally made from polyamide or high density polyethylene (PEHD). All of these structures serve as surfaces for biofouling. However, cage nets and supporting infrastructure offer fouling organisms thousands of square meters of multifilament netting. That's why, before immersing them in seawater, they should be coated with an antifouling agent. It helps to prevent net occlusion and to increase its lifespan. Biofouling in marine aquaculture is a specific problem and has three main negative effects. It causes net occlusion and so restricts water and oxygen exchange. Besides, the low dissolved oxygen levels from poor water exchange increases the stress levels of fish, lowers immunity and increases vulnerability to disease. Also, the extra weight imposed by fouling causes cage deformation and structural fatigue. The maintenance and loss of equipment cause the increase of production costs for the industry. Biocides are chemical substances that can prohibit or kill microorganisms responsible for biofouling. The expansion of the aquaculture industry requires the use of more drugs, disinfectants and antifoulant compounds (biocides) to eliminate the microorganisms in the aquaculture facilities. Unfortunately, the use of biocides in the aquatic environment has proved to be harmful as it has toxic effects on the marine environment. The most commonly used biocides in antifouling paints are Tributyltin (TBT), Chlorothalonil, Dichlofluanid, Sea-Nine 211, Diuron, Irgarol 1051 and Zinc Pyrithione. Restrictions were imposed on the use of TBT, that's why organic booster biocides were recently introduced. The replacement products are generally based on copper metal oxides and organic biocides. This paper provides an overview of the effects of antifouling biocides on aquatic organisms. It will focus on the eight booster biocides in

  3. Antifouling Activity towards Mussel by Small-Molecule Compounds from a Strain of Vibrio alginolyticus Bacterium Associated with Sea Anemone Haliplanella sp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiang; Huang, Yanqiu; Sheng, Yanqing; Su, Pei; Qiu, Yan; Ke, Caihuan; Feng, Danqing

    2017-03-28

    Mussels are major fouling organisms causing serious technical and economic problems. In this study, antifouling activity towards mussel was found in three compounds isolated from a marine bacterium associated with the sea anemone Haliplanella sp. This bacterial strain, called PE2, was identified as Vibrio alginolyticus using morphology, biochemical tests, and phylogenetic analysis based on sequences of 16S rRNA and four housekeeping genes ( rpoD, gyrB, rctB, and toxR ). Three small-molecule compounds (indole, 3-formylindole, and cyclo (Pro-Leu)) were purified from the ethyl acetate extract of V. alginolyticus PE2 using column chromatography techniques. They all significantly inhibited byssal thread production of the green mussel Perna viridis , with EC 50 values of 24.45 μg/ml for indole, 50.07 μg/ml for 3-formylindole, and 49.24 μg/ml for cyclo (Pro-Leu). Previous research on the antifouling activity of metabolites from marine bacteria towards mussels is scarce. Indole, 3-formylindole and cyclo (Pro-Leu) also exhibited antifouling activity against settlement of the barnacle Balanus albicostatus (EC 50 values of 8.84, 0.43, and 11.35 μg/ml, respectively) and the marine bacterium Pseudomonas sp. (EC 50 values of 42.68, 69.68, and 39.05 μg/ml, respectively). These results suggested that the three compounds are potentially useful for environmentally friendly mussel control and/or the development of new antifouling additives that are effective against several biofoulers.

  4. Zinc-Catalyzed Synthesis of Conjugated Dienoates through Unusual Cross-Couplings of Zinc Carbenes with Diazo Compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mata, Sergio; González, María J; González, Jesús; López, Luis A; Vicente, Rubén

    2017-01-23

    Zinc-catalyzed selective cross-coupling of two carbene sources, such as vinyl diazo compounds and enynones, enabled the synthesis of conjugated dienoate derivatives. This reaction involved the unprecedented coupling of a zinc furyl carbene with vinyl diazo compounds through the γ-carbon. Alternatively, dienoates were also prepared by a commutative cross-coupling of zinc vinyl carbenes generated from cyclopropenes and simple diazo compounds. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  5. A System-Wide Approach to Identify the Mechanisms of Barnacle Attachment: Toward the Discovery of New Antifouling Compounds

    KAUST Repository

    Al-Aqeel, Sarah

    2015-11-01

    Biofouling is a significant economic problem, particularly for marine and offshore oil industries. The acorn barnacle (Amphibalanus (Balanus) amphitrite) is the main biofouling organism in marine environments. Environmental conditions, the physiology of the biofouling organism, the surrounding microbial community, and the properties of the substratum can all influence the attachment of biofouling organisms to substrates. My dissertation investigated the biological processes involved in B. amphitrite development and attachment in the unique environment of the Red Sea, where the average water surface temperature is 34°C and the salinity reaches 41‰. I profiled the transcriptome and proteome of B. amphitrite at different life stages (nauplius II, nauplius VI, and cyprid) and identified 65,784 expressed contigs and 1387 expressed proteins by quantitative proteomics. During the planktonic stage, genes related to osmotic stress, salt stress, the hyperosmotic response, and the Wnt signaling pathway were strongly up-regulated, hereas genes related to the MAPK pathway, lipid metabolism, and cuticle development were down-regulated. In the transition from the nauplius VI to cyprid stages, there was up-regulation of genes involved in blood coagulation, cuticle development, and eggshell formation, and down-regulation of genes in the nitric oxide pathway, which stimulates the swimming and feeding responses of marine invertebrates. This system-wide integrated approach elucidated the development and attachment pathways important in B. amphitrite. Enzymes and metabolites in these pathways are potential molecular targets for the development of new antifouling compounds.

  6. Various ways to reduce zinc oxide levels in S-SBR rubber compounds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heideman, G.; Noordermeer, Jacobus W.M.; Datta, Rabin; van Baarle, Ben

    2007-01-01

    Because of environmental concerns, the zinc content in rubber compounds has come under scrutiny. The research described in this article encompasses zinc-oxide, various zinc-complexes and alternative metal oxides as activators for sulphur vulcanisation. Regarding zinc complexes, it can be concluded

  7. New biocides for antifouling paints

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mazziotti, Isabella; Massanisso, Paolo; Cremisini, Carlo; Chiavarini, Salvatore; Fantini, Michele; Morabito, Roberto

    2005-01-01

    The antifouling paints are used for protecting the hulls of the boasts from the undesirable accumulation of micro-organisms, plants, and animals on artificial surfaces (marine biological fouling). These paints constitute a potential risk for the marine environment, because of the presence in their formulation, among the other potentially toxic components, of organic compounds acting as biocide. The environmental problems associated with the use of the organotin compounds as biocides in the antifouling paints, have lead to the international ban of these compounds. In the article the new antifouling paints coming up the national and international market are shortly introduced and discussed, with particular attention respect to the new organic compounds used as biocides. In Italy quite a few marine monitoring campaigns have been carried out for organotin compounds, on the contrary there is a lack of data regarding the presence of other biocides [it

  8. Structural optimization and evaluation of butenolides as potent antifouling agents: modification of the side chain affects the biological activities of compounds

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Yongxin

    2012-09-01

    A recent global ban on the use of organotin compounds as antifouling agents has increased the need for safe and effective antifouling compounds. In this study, a series of new butenolide derivatives with various amine side chains was synthesized and evaluated for their anti-larval settlement activities in the barnacle, Balanus amphitrite. Side chain modification of butenolide resulted in butenolides 3c-3d, which possessed desirable physico-chemical properties and demonstrated highly effective non-toxic anti-larval settlement efficacy. A structure-activity relationship analysis revealed that varying the alkyl side chain had a notable effect on anti-larval settlement activity and that seven to eight carbon alkyl side chains with a tert-butyloxycarbonyl (Boc) substituent on an amine terminal were optimal in terms of bioactivity. Analysis of the physico-chemical profile of butenolide analogues indicated that lipophilicity is a very important physico-chemical parameter contributing to bioactivity. © 2012 Copyright Taylor and Francis Group, LLC.

  9. Structural optimization and evaluation of butenolides as potent antifouling agents: modification of the side chain affects the biological activities of compounds

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Yongxin; Zhang, Fengying; Xu, Ying; Matsumura, Kiyotaka; Han, Zhuang; Liu, Lingli; Lin, Wenhan; Jia, Yanxing; Qian, Pei Yuan

    2012-01-01

    A recent global ban on the use of organotin compounds as antifouling agents has increased the need for safe and effective antifouling compounds. In this study, a series of new butenolide derivatives with various amine side chains was synthesized and evaluated for their anti-larval settlement activities in the barnacle, Balanus amphitrite. Side chain modification of butenolide resulted in butenolides 3c-3d, which possessed desirable physico-chemical properties and demonstrated highly effective non-toxic anti-larval settlement efficacy. A structure-activity relationship analysis revealed that varying the alkyl side chain had a notable effect on anti-larval settlement activity and that seven to eight carbon alkyl side chains with a tert-butyloxycarbonyl (Boc) substituent on an amine terminal were optimal in terms of bioactivity. Analysis of the physico-chemical profile of butenolide analogues indicated that lipophilicity is a very important physico-chemical parameter contributing to bioactivity. © 2012 Copyright Taylor and Francis Group, LLC.

  10. Comparative safety of the antifouling compound butenolide and 4,5-dichloro-2-n-octyl-4-isothiazolin-3-one (DCOIT) to the marine medaka (Oryzias melastigma)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Lianguo [Division of Life Science, Hong Kong University of Science and Technology, Clear Water Bay, Hong Kong Special Administrative Region (Hong Kong); Ye, Rui [State Key Laboratory in Marine Pollution, Department of Biology and Chemistry, City University of Hong Kong, Kowloon, Hong Kong Special Administrative Region (Hong Kong); Xu, Ying; Gao, Zhaoming [Division of Life Science, Hong Kong University of Science and Technology, Clear Water Bay, Hong Kong Special Administrative Region (Hong Kong); Au, Doris W.T. [State Key Laboratory in Marine Pollution, Department of Biology and Chemistry, City University of Hong Kong, Kowloon, Hong Kong Special Administrative Region (Hong Kong); Qian, Pei-Yuan, E-mail: boqianpy@ust.hk [Division of Life Science, Hong Kong University of Science and Technology, Clear Water Bay, Hong Kong Special Administrative Region (Hong Kong)

    2014-04-01

    Highlights: • Adverse effects of antifouling compound butenolide were studied using marine medaka. • The active ingredient in SeaNine 211, DCOIT, was employed as positive control. • Butenolide induced transient, reversible biological effects on marine medaka. • Lower toxicity of butenolide on marine biota highlights its promising application. • The increased sensitivity of male medaka addresses the gender difference. - Abstract: This study evaluated the potential adverse effects of butenolide, a promising antifouling compound, using the marine medaka (Oryzias melastigma), a model fish for marine ecotoxicology. The active ingredient used in the commercial antifoulant SeaNine 211, 4,5-dichloro-2-n-octyl-4-isothiazolin-3-one (DCOIT) was employed as the positive control. Adult marine medaka (4-month-old) were exposed to various concentrations of butenolide or DCOIT for 28 days and then depurated in clean seawater for 14 days (recovery). A suite of sensitive biomarkers, including hepatic oxidative stress, neuronal signal transmission, endocrine disruption, and reproductive function, was used to measure significant biological effects induced by the chemicals. Compared to DCOIT, chronic exposure to butenolide induced a lower extent of oxidative stress in the liver of male and female medaka. Furthermore, butenolide-exposed fish could recover faster from oxidative stress than fish exposed to DCOIT. Regarding neurotransmission, DCOIT significantly inhibited acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity in the brain of both male and female medaka, whereas this was not significant for butenolide. In addition, plasma estradiol (E{sub 2}) level was elevated and testosterone (T) level was decreased in male medaka exposed to DCOIT. This greatly imbalanced sex hormones ratio (E{sub 2}/T) in exposed males, indicating that DCOIT is a potent endocrine disruptive chemical. In contrast, butenolide induced only moderate effects on sex hormone levels in exposed males, which could be

  11. Comparative safety of the antifouling compound butenolide and 4,5-dichloro-2-n-octyl-4-isothiazolin-3-one (DCOIT) to the marine medaka (Oryzias melastigma)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Lianguo; Ye, Rui; Xu, Ying; Gao, Zhaoming; Au, Doris W.T.; Qian, Pei-Yuan

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Adverse effects of antifouling compound butenolide were studied using marine medaka. • The active ingredient in SeaNine 211, DCOIT, was employed as positive control. • Butenolide induced transient, reversible biological effects on marine medaka. • Lower toxicity of butenolide on marine biota highlights its promising application. • The increased sensitivity of male medaka addresses the gender difference. - Abstract: This study evaluated the potential adverse effects of butenolide, a promising antifouling compound, using the marine medaka (Oryzias melastigma), a model fish for marine ecotoxicology. The active ingredient used in the commercial antifoulant SeaNine 211, 4,5-dichloro-2-n-octyl-4-isothiazolin-3-one (DCOIT) was employed as the positive control. Adult marine medaka (4-month-old) were exposed to various concentrations of butenolide or DCOIT for 28 days and then depurated in clean seawater for 14 days (recovery). A suite of sensitive biomarkers, including hepatic oxidative stress, neuronal signal transmission, endocrine disruption, and reproductive function, was used to measure significant biological effects induced by the chemicals. Compared to DCOIT, chronic exposure to butenolide induced a lower extent of oxidative stress in the liver of male and female medaka. Furthermore, butenolide-exposed fish could recover faster from oxidative stress than fish exposed to DCOIT. Regarding neurotransmission, DCOIT significantly inhibited acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity in the brain of both male and female medaka, whereas this was not significant for butenolide. In addition, plasma estradiol (E 2 ) level was elevated and testosterone (T) level was decreased in male medaka exposed to DCOIT. This greatly imbalanced sex hormones ratio (E 2 /T) in exposed males, indicating that DCOIT is a potent endocrine disruptive chemical. In contrast, butenolide induced only moderate effects on sex hormone levels in exposed males, which could be gradually

  12. Thermochemical investigation into coordination ability of zinc and cadmium alkyl compounds in solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aleksandrov, Yu.A.; Fedostseva, G.A.; Tsvetkov, V.G.; Lebedev, S.A.; Kozyrkin, B.I.

    1983-01-01

    Enthalpies of zinc alkyl compounds mixing, as well as those of dimethyl cadmium mixing with hexane, previously used as a solvent during the study of liquid-phase autooxidation of Me 2 Cd and Me 2 Zn, and with a series of organic bases at 298 K and at components ratio 1:1 or 1:2, are determined. Using calorimetric method dimethyl cadmium association in liquid state has been evaluated. Coordination ability of zinc alkyl compounds is higher than for the corresponding cadmium compounds. With the increase of alkyl radical length the electron seeking ability of zinc compounds decreases. On the basis of thermochemical data relative stability of coordination compounds of zinc and cadmium alkyl compounds with certain alkyl compounds of group 6 elements is evaluated: it has the maximum value for sulfur compounds

  13. Antifouling composites with self-adaptive controlled release based on an active compound intercalated into layered double hydroxides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Miaosen; Gu, Lianghua; Yang, Bin; Wang, Li; Sun, Zhiyong; Zheng, Jiyong; Zhang, Jinwei; Hou, Jian; Lin, Cunguo

    2017-12-01

    This paper reports a novel method to prepare the antifouling composites with properties of self-adaptive controlled release (defined as control the release rate autonomously and adaptively according to the change of environmental conditions) by intercalation of sodium paeonolsilate (PAS) into MgAl and ZnAl layered double hydroxide (LDH) with the molar ratio (M2+/M3+) of 2:1 and 3:1, respectively. The powder X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) confirm the intercalation of PAS into the galleries of LDH. The controlled release behavior triggered by temperature for the PAS-LDH composites has been investigated, and the results show that the release rate of all PAS-LDH composites increases as the increase of temperature. However, the MgAl-PAS-LDH composites (Mg2Al-PAS-LDH and Mg3Al-PAS-LDH) exhibit the increased release rate of 0.21 ppm/°C from 15 to 30 °C in 3.5% NaCl solution, more than three times of the ZnAl-PAS-LDH composites (0.06 ppm/°C), owing to the confined microenvironment influenced by metal types in LDH layers. In addition, a possible diffusion-controlled process with surface diffusion, bulk diffusion and heterogeneous flat surface diffusion has been revealed via fitting four kinetic equations. Moreover, to verify the practical application of the PAS-LDH composites, a model coating denoted as Mg2Al-PAS-LDH coating was fabricated. The release result displays that the release rate increases or decreases as temperature altered at 15 and 25 °C alternately, indicating its self-adaptive controlled release behavior with temperature. Moreover, the superior resistance to the settlement of Ulva spores at 15 and 25 °C was observed for the Mg2Al-PAS-LDH coating, as a result of the controllable release of antifoulant. Therefore, this work provides a facile and effective method for the fabrication of antifouling composites with self-adaptive controlled release behavior in response to temperature, which can be used to prolong

  14. Comparative safety of the antifouling compound butenolide and 4,5-dichloro-2-n-octyl-4-isothiazolin-3-one (DCOIT) to the marine medaka (Oryzias melastigma)

    KAUST Repository

    Chen, Lianguo

    2014-04-01

    This study evaluated the potential adverse effects of butenolide, a promising antifouling compound, using the marine medaka (Oryzias melastigma), a model fish for marine ecotoxicology. The active ingredient used in the commercial antifoulant SeaNine 211, 4,5-dichloro-2-n-octyl-4-isothiazolin-3-one (DCOIT) was employed as the positive control. Adult marine medaka (4-month-old) were exposed to various concentrations of butenolide or DCOIT for 28 days and then depurated in clean seawater for 14 days (recovery). A suite of sensitive biomarkers, including hepatic oxidative stress, neuronal signal transmission, endocrine disruption, and reproductive function, was used to measure significant biological effects induced by the chemicals. Compared to DCOIT, chronic exposure to butenolide induced a lower extent of oxidative stress in the liver of male and female medaka. Furthermore, butenolide-exposed fish could recover faster from oxidative stress than fish exposed to DCOIT. Regarding neurotransmission, DCOIT significantly inhibited acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity in the brain of both male and female medaka, whereas this was not significant for butenolide. In addition, plasma estradiol (E2) level was elevated and testosterone (T) level was decreased in male medaka exposed to DCOIT. This greatly imbalanced sex hormones ratio (E2/T) in exposed males, indicating that DCOIT is a potent endocrine disruptive chemical. In contrast, butenolide induced only moderate effects on sex hormone levels in exposed males, which could be gradually recovered during depuration. Moreover, the endocrine disruptive effect induced by butenolide did not affect normal development of offspring. In contrast, DCOIT-exposed fish exhibited a decrease of egg production and impaired reproductive success. Overall, the above findings demonstrated that chronic exposure to butenolide induced transient, reversible biological effect on marine medaka, while DCOIT could impair reproductive success of fish, as

  15. Comparative safety of the antifouling compound butenolide and 4,5-dichloro-2-n-octyl-4-isothiazolin-3-one (DCOIT) to the marine medaka (Oryzias melastigma).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Lianguo; Ye, Rui; Xu, Ying; Gao, Zhaoming; Au, Doris W T; Qian, Pei-Yuan

    2014-04-01

    This study evaluated the potential adverse effects of butenolide, a promising antifouling compound, using the marine medaka (Oryzias melastigma), a model fish for marine ecotoxicology. The active ingredient used in the commercial antifoulant SeaNine 211, 4,5-dichloro-2-n-octyl-4-isothiazolin-3-one (DCOIT) was employed as the positive control. Adult marine medaka (4-month-old) were exposed to various concentrations of butenolide or DCOIT for 28 days and then depurated in clean seawater for 14 days (recovery). A suite of sensitive biomarkers, including hepatic oxidative stress, neuronal signal transmission, endocrine disruption, and reproductive function, was used to measure significant biological effects induced by the chemicals. Compared to DCOIT, chronic exposure to butenolide induced a lower extent of oxidative stress in the liver of male and female medaka. Furthermore, butenolide-exposed fish could recover faster from oxidative stress than fish exposed to DCOIT. Regarding neurotransmission, DCOIT significantly inhibited acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity in the brain of both male and female medaka, whereas this was not significant for butenolide. In addition, plasma estradiol (E2) level was elevated and testosterone (T) level was decreased in male medaka exposed to DCOIT. This greatly imbalanced sex hormones ratio (E2/T) in exposed males, indicating that DCOIT is a potent endocrine disruptive chemical. In contrast, butenolide induced only moderate effects on sex hormone levels in exposed males, which could be gradually recovered during depuration. Moreover, the endocrine disruptive effect induced by butenolide did not affect normal development of offspring. In contrast, DCOIT-exposed fish exhibited a decrease of egg production and impaired reproductive success. Overall, the above findings demonstrated that chronic exposure to butenolide induced transient, reversible biological effect on marine medaka, while DCOIT could impair reproductive success of fish, as

  16. Antifouling evaluation of extracts from Red Sea soft corals against primary biofilm and biofouling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yosry Abdel Aziz Soliman

    2017-11-01

    Conclusions: The strong antifouling activity makes them promising candidates for new antifouling additives. After the screening and application of natural organic compounds from soft corals, marine organisms show activity against micro and macro fouling organisms.

  17. Trichomes of tobacco excrete zinc as zinc-substituted calcium carbonate and other zinc-containing compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sarret, G.; Harada, E.; Choi, Y-E.; Isaure, M.-P.; Geoffroy, N.; Fakra, S.; Marcus, M.A.; Birschwilks, M.; Clemens, S.; Manceau, A.

    2006-01-01

    Tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum L. cv Xanthi) plants were exposed to toxic levels of zinc (Zn). Zn exposure resulted in toxicity signs in plants, and these damages were partly reduced by a calcium (Ca) supplement. Confocal imaging of intracellular Zn using Zinquin showed that Zn was preferentially accumulated in trichomes. Exposure to Zn and Zn + Ca increased the trichome density and induced the production of Ca/Zn mineral grains on the head cells of trichomes. These grains were aggregates of submicrometer-sized crystals and poorly crystalline material and contained Ca as major element, along with subordinate amounts of Zn, manganese, potassium, chlorine, phosphorus, silicon, and magnesium. Micro x-ray diffraction revealed that the large majority of the grains were composed essentially of metal-substituted calcite (CaCO3). CaCO3 polymorphs (aragonite and vaterite) and CaC2O4 (Ca oxalate) mono- and dihydrate also were identified, either as an admixture to calcite or in separate grains. Some grains did not diffract, although they contained Ca, suggesting the presence of amorphous form of Ca. The presence of Zn-substituted calcite was confirmed by Zn K-edge micro-extended x-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy. Zn bound to organic compounds and Zn-containing silica and phosphate were also identified by this technique. The proportion of Zn-substituted calcite relative to the other species increased with Ca exposure. The production of Zn-containing biogenic calcite and other Zn compounds through the trichomes is a novel mechanism involved in Zn detoxification. This study illustrates the potential of laterally resolved x-ray synchrotron radiation techniques to study biomineralization and metal homeostasis processes in plants

  18. Zinc

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Consumer Datos en español Health Professional Other Resources Zinc Fact Sheet for Consumers Have a question? Ask ... find out more about zinc? Disclaimer What is zinc and what does it do? Zinc is a ...

  19. Encapsulation of Antifouling Organic Biocides in Poly(lactic acid) Nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamtsikakis, Aristotelis; Kavetsou, Eleni; Chronaki, Konstantina; Kiosidou, Evangelia; Pavlatou, Evangelia; Karana, Alexandra; Papaspyrides, Constantine; Detsi, Anastasia; Karantonis, Antonis; Vouyiouka, Stamatina

    2017-01-01

    The scope of the current research was to assess the feasibility of encapsulating three commercial antifouling compounds, Irgarol 1051, Econea and Zinc pyrithione, in biodegradable poly(lactic acid) (PLA) nanoparticles. The emulsification–solvent evaporation technique was herein utilized to manufacture nanoparticles with a biocide:polymer ratio of 40%. The loaded nanoparticles were analyzed for their size and size distribution, zeta potential, encapsulation efficiency and thermal properties, while the relevant physicochemical characteristics were correlated to biocide–polymer system. In addition, the encapsulation process was scaled up and the prepared nanoparticles were dispersed in a water-based antifouling paint in order to examine the viability of incorporating nanoparticles in such coatings. Metallic specimens were coated with the nanoparticles-containing paint and examined regarding surface morphology. PMID:28952560

  20. Encapsulation of Antifouling Organic Biocides in Poly(lactic acid) Nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamtsikakis, Aristotelis; Kavetsou, Eleni; Chronaki, Konstantina; Kiosidou, Evangelia; Pavlatou, Evangelia; Karana, Alexandra; Papaspyrides, Constantine; Detsi, Anastasia; Karantonis, Antonis; Vouyiouka, Stamatina

    2017-09-26

    The scope of the current research was to assess the feasibility of encapsulating three commercial antifouling compounds, Irgarol 1051, Econea and Zinc pyrithione, in biodegradable poly(lactic acid) (PLA) nanoparticles. The emulsification-solvent evaporation technique was herein utilized to manufacture nanoparticles with a biocide:polymer ratio of 40%. The loaded nanoparticles were analyzed for their size and size distribution, zeta potential, encapsulation efficiency and thermal properties, while the relevant physicochemical characteristics were correlated to biocide-polymer system. In addition, the encapsulation process was scaled up and the prepared nanoparticles were dispersed in a water-based antifouling paint in order to examine the viability of incorporating nanoparticles in such coatings. Metallic specimens were coated with the nanoparticles-containing paint and examined regarding surface morphology.

  1. iTRAQ-Based Proteomic Profiling of the Barnacle Balanus amphitrite in Response to the Antifouling Compound Meleagrin

    KAUST Repository

    Han, Zhuang

    2013-05-03

    Marine biofouling refers to the unwanted accumulation of fouling organisms, such as barnacles, on artificial surfaces, resulting in severe consequences for marine industries. Meleagrin is a potential nontoxic antifoulant that is isolated from the fungus Penicillium sp.; however, its mechanistic effect mode of action on larval settlement remains unknown. Here, we applied iTRAQ coupled with 2D LC-MS/MS proteomic analysis to investigate the effect of meleagrin on the proteomic expression profile of cyprid development and aging in the barnacle Balanus amphitrite. Fifty proteins were differentially expressed in response to treatment with meleagrin, among which 26 proteins were associated with cyprid development/aging and 24 were specifically associated with the meleagrin treatment. The 66 proteins that were associated with aging only remained unaltered during exposure to meleagrin. Using KEGG analysis, those proteins were assigned to several groups, including metabolic pathways, ECM-receptor interactions, and the regulation of the actin cytoskeleton. Among the 24 proteins that were not related to the development/aging process, expression of the cyprid major protein (CMP), a vitellogenin-like protein, increased after the meleagrin treatment, which suggested that meleagrin might affect the endocrine system and prevent the larval molting cycle. With the exception of the chitin binding protein that mediates the molting process and ATPase-mediated energy processes, the majority of proteins with significant effects in previous studies in response to cyprid treatment with butenolide and polyether B remained unchanged in the present study, suggesting that meleagrin may exhibit a different mechanism. © 2013 American Chemical Society.

  2. iTRAQ-Based Proteomic Profiling of the Barnacle Balanus amphitrite in Response to the Antifouling Compound Meleagrin

    KAUST Repository

    Han, Zhuang; Sun, Jin; Zhang, Yu; He, Fei; Xu, Ying; Matsumura, Kiyotaka; He, Li-Sheng; Qiu, Jian-Wen; Qi, Shu-Hua; Qian, Pei-Yuan

    2013-01-01

    Marine biofouling refers to the unwanted accumulation of fouling organisms, such as barnacles, on artificial surfaces, resulting in severe consequences for marine industries. Meleagrin is a potential nontoxic antifoulant that is isolated from the fungus Penicillium sp.; however, its mechanistic effect mode of action on larval settlement remains unknown. Here, we applied iTRAQ coupled with 2D LC-MS/MS proteomic analysis to investigate the effect of meleagrin on the proteomic expression profile of cyprid development and aging in the barnacle Balanus amphitrite. Fifty proteins were differentially expressed in response to treatment with meleagrin, among which 26 proteins were associated with cyprid development/aging and 24 were specifically associated with the meleagrin treatment. The 66 proteins that were associated with aging only remained unaltered during exposure to meleagrin. Using KEGG analysis, those proteins were assigned to several groups, including metabolic pathways, ECM-receptor interactions, and the regulation of the actin cytoskeleton. Among the 24 proteins that were not related to the development/aging process, expression of the cyprid major protein (CMP), a vitellogenin-like protein, increased after the meleagrin treatment, which suggested that meleagrin might affect the endocrine system and prevent the larval molting cycle. With the exception of the chitin binding protein that mediates the molting process and ATPase-mediated energy processes, the majority of proteins with significant effects in previous studies in response to cyprid treatment with butenolide and polyether B remained unchanged in the present study, suggesting that meleagrin may exhibit a different mechanism. © 2013 American Chemical Society.

  3. Antifouling Activity of Marine Natural Products

    KAUST Repository

    Qian, Pei-Yuan

    2012-01-01

    With the global ban of application of organotin-based marine coatings by International Maritime Organization in 2008, there is a practical and urgent need of identifying environmentally friendly low-toxic and nontoxic antifouling compounds for marine industries. Marine natural products have been considered as one of the most promising sources of antifouling compounds in recent years. In antifouling compound screening processes, bioassay systems often play most critical/vital roles in screening efforts. To meet various needs, a variety of bioassay systems have been developed and/or adopted in both research and commercial laboratories. In this chapter, we provide a brief outline of common bioassay procedures for both antimicrofouling and antimacrofouling assays, which can serve as a general guideline for setting up bioassay systems in laboratories engaged in antifouling compound screening. Some bioassay procedures currently practiced in various laboratories are not included in this book chapter for various reasons. Individual laboratories should modify bioassay protocols based on their research interests or needs. Nevertheless, we highly recommend the research laboratories to adapt high-throughput assays as much as possible for preliminary screening assays, followed by more complex bioassay processes using multiple target species. We argue strongly for studies in mode-of-action of antifouling compounds against settling propagules, which shall lead to discovery of molecular biomarkers (genes, proteins, receptors, or receptor system) and will allow us to design more targeted bioassay systems.

  4. Antifouling activity of green-synthesized 7-hydroxy-4-methylcoumarin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez, Miriam; García, Mónica; Ruiz, Diego; Autino, Juan Carlos; Romanelli, Gustavo; Blustein, Guillermo

    2016-02-01

    In the search for new environmental-friendly antifoulants for replace metallic biocides, 7-hydroxy-4-methylcoumarin was synthesized according to green chemistry procedures. This compound was characterized by current organic analysis and its antifouling properties were firstly evaluated on the bivalve Mytilus edulis platensis in the laboratory. In the second stage, a soluble matrix antifouling coating formulated with this compound was assayed in marine environment. Laboratory experiments showed that 7-hydroxy-4-methylcoumarin was effective in inhibiting both the settlement as well as the byssogenesis of mussels. In addition, after exposure time in the sea, painted panels containing this compound showed strong antifouling effect on conspicuous species of the fouling community of Mar el Plata harbor. In conclusion, green-synthesized coumarin could be a suitable antifoulant candidate for marine protective coatings. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Antifouling potential of the marine microalga Dunaliella salina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Min; Li, Fengchao; Su, Rongguo; Wang, Ke; Li, Xuzhao; Lu, Wei

    2014-11-01

    Marine organisms have usually been viewed as sources of environmentally friendly compounds with antifouling activity. We performed a series of operations to investigate the antifouling potential of the marine microalga Dunaliella salina. For the ethyl acetate crude extract, the antialgal activity was significant, and the EC50 value against Skeletonema costatum was 58.9 μg ml(-1). The isolated purified extract was tested for antifouling activity, the EC 50 value against S. costatum was 21.2 μg ml(-1), and the LC50 against Balanus amphitrite larvae was 18.8 μg ml(-1). Subsequently, both UHR-TOF-MS and GC-MS were used for the structural elucidation of the compounds, and a series of unsaturated and saturated 16- and 18-carbon fatty acids were detected. The data suggested that the fatty acid extracts from D. salina possess high antifouling activity, and could be used as substitutes for potent, toxic antifouling compounds.

  6. Design and Biological Evaluation of Antifouling Dihydrostilbene Oxime Hybrids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moodie, Lindon W K; Cervin, Gunnar; Trepos, Rozenn; Labriere, Christophe; Hellio, Claire; Pavia, Henrik; Svenson, Johan

    2018-04-01

    By combining the recently reported repelling natural dihydrostilbene scaffold with an oxime moiety found in many marine antifoulants, a library of nine antifouling hybrid compounds was developed and biologically evaluated. The prepared compounds were shown to display a low antifouling effect against marine bacteria but a high potency against the attachment and growth of microalgae down to MIC values of 0.01 μg/mL for the most potent hybrid. The mode of action can be characterized as repelling via a reversible non-toxic biostatic mechanism. Barnacle cyprid larval settlement was also inhibited at low μg/mL concentrations with low levels or no toxicity observed. Several of the prepared compounds performed better than many reported antifouling marine natural products. While several of the prepared compounds are highly active as antifoulants, no apparent synergy is observed by incorporating the oxime functionality into the dihydrostilbene scaffold. This observation is discussed in light of recently reported literature data on related marine natural antifoulants and antifouling hybrids as a potentially general strategy for generation of improved antifoulants.

  7. Field results of antifouling techniques for optical instruments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strahle, W.J.; Hotchkiss, F.S.; Martini, Marinna A.

    1998-01-01

    An anti-fouling technique is developed for the protection of optical instruments from biofouling which leaches a bromide compound into a sample chamber and pumps new water into the chamber prior to measurement. The primary advantage of using bromide is that it is less toxic than the metal-based antifoulants. The drawback of the bromide technique is also discussed.

  8. A Novel Polyaminocarboxylate Compound To Treat Murine Pulmonary Aspergillosis by Interfering with Zinc Metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laskaris, Paris; Vicentefranqueira, Rocío; Helynck, Olivier; Jouvion, Grégory; Calera, José Antonio; du Merle, Laurence; Suzenet, Franck; Buron, Frédéric; de Sousa, Rodolphe Alves; Mansuy, Daniel; Cavaillon, Jean-Marc; Latgé, Jean-Paul; Munier-Lehmann, Hélène; Ibrahim-Granet, Oumaima

    2018-06-01

    Aspergillus fumigatus can cause pulmonary aspergillosis in immunocompromised patients and is associated with a high mortality rate due to a lack of reliable treatment options. This opportunistic pathogen requires zinc in order to grow and cause disease. Novel compounds that interfere with fungal zinc metabolism may therefore be of therapeutic interest. We screened chemical libraries containing 59,223 small molecules using a resazurin assay that compared their effects on an A. fumigatus wild-type strain grown under zinc-limiting conditions and on a zinc transporter knockout strain grown under zinc-replete conditions to identify compounds affecting zinc metabolism. After a first screen, 116 molecules were selected whose inhibitory effects on fungal growth were further tested by using luminescence assays and hyphal length measurements to confirm their activity, as well as by toxicity assays on HeLa cells and mice. Six compounds were selected following a rescreening, of which two were pyrazolones, two were porphyrins, and two were polyaminocarboxylates. All three groups showed good in vitro activity, but only one of the polyaminocarboxylates was able to significantly improve the survival of immunosuppressed mice suffering from pulmonary aspergillosis. This two-tier screening approach led us to the identification of a novel small molecule with in vivo fungicidal effects and low murine toxicity that may lead to the development of new treatment options for fungal infections by administration of this compound either as a monotherapy or as part of a combination therapy. Copyright © 2018 American Society for Microbiology.

  9. Aqueous Zinc Compounds as Residual Antimicrobial Agents for Textiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holt, Brandon Alexander; Gregory, Shawn Alan; Sulchek, Todd; Yee, Shannon; Losego, Mark D

    2018-03-07

    Textiles, especially those worn by patients and medical professionals, serve as vectors for proliferating pathogens. Upstream manufacturing techniques and end-user practices, such as transition-metal embedment in textile fibers or alcohol-based disinfectants, can mitigate pathogen growth, but both techniques have their shortcomings. Fiber embedment requires complete replacement of all fabrics in a facility, and the effects of embedded nanoparticles on human health remain unknown. Alcohol-based, end-user disinfectants are short-lived because they quickly volatilize. In this work, common zinc salts are explored as an end-user residual antimicrobial agent. Zinc salts show cost-effective and long-lasting antimicrobial efficacy when solution-deposited on common textiles, such as nylon, polyester, and cotton. Unlike common alcohol-based disinfectants, these zinc salt-treated textiles mitigate microbial growth for more than 30 days and withstand commercial drying. Polyester fabrics treated with ZnO and ZnCl 2 were further explored because of their commercial ubiquity and likelihood for rapid commercialization. ZnCl 2 -treated textiles were found to retain their antimicrobial coating through abrasive testing, whereas ZnO-treated textiles did not. Scanning electron microscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, and differential scanning calorimetry analyses suggest that ZnCl 2 likely hydrolyzes and reacts with portions of the polyester fiber, chemically attaching to the fiber, whereas colloidal ZnO simply sediments and binds with weaker physical interactions.

  10. Praktijktest antifouling op touwen

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kamermans, P.; Gool, van A.C.M.; Perdon, K.J.

    2003-01-01

    In een bassin op het RIVO is een praktijktest van 6 weken uitgevoerd ten behoeve van een kwantitatieve onderbouwing van de effectiviteit van antifouling op vezels voor viskooien. Er zijn twee typen antifouling (Netrex en Lago) en drie typen vezels getest. Gedurende de gehele proef vond geen aangroei

  11. Byproduct-free mass production of compound semiconductor nanowires: zinc phosphide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yixi; Polinnaya, Rakesh; Vaddiraju, Sreeram

    2018-05-01

    A method for the mass production of compound semiconductor nanowires that involves the direct reaction of component elements in a chemical vapor deposition chamber (CVD) is presented. This method results in nanowires, without the associated production of any other byproducts such as nanoparticles or three-dimensional (3D) bulk crystals. Furthermore, no unreacted reactants remain mixed with the nanowire product in this method. This byproduct-free nanowire production thus circumvents the need to tediously purify and collect nanowires from a mixture of products/reactants after their synthesis. Demonstration made using zinc phosphide (Zn3P2) material system as an example indicated that the direct reaction of zinc microparticles with phosphorus supplied via the vapor phase results in the production of gram quantities of nanowires. To enhance thermal transport and achieve the complete reaction of zinc microparticles, while simultaneously ensuring that the microparticles do not agglomerate into macroscale zinc particles and partly remain unreacted (owing to diffusion limitations), pellets composed of mixtures of zinc and a sacrificial salt, NH4Cl, were employed as the starting material. The sublimation by decomposition of NH4Cl in the early stages of the reaction leaves a highly porous pellet of zinc composed of only zinc microparticles, which allows for inward diffusion of phosphorus/outward diffusion of zinc and the complete conversion of zinc into Zn3P2 nanowires. NH4Cl also aids in removal of any native oxide layer present on the zinc microparticles that may prevent their reaction with phosphorus. This method may be used to mass produce many other nanowires in a byproduct-free manner, besides Zn3P2.

  12. Proteomic changes in brain tissues of marine medaka (Oryzias melastigma) after chronic exposure to two antifouling compounds: Butenolide and 4,5-dichloro-2-n-octyl-4-isothiazolin-3-one (DCOIT)

    KAUST Repository

    Chen, Lianguo

    2014-12-01

    SeaNine 211 with active ingredient of 4,5-dichloro-2-n-octyl-4-isothiazolin-3-one (DCOIT) has been used as a "green" antifouling agent worldwide but has raised serious biosafety concerns in coastal environments. DCOIT has the potential to disrupt the neurotransmission in nervous system, but the underlying mechanism has not been clarified. In the present study, we used TMT six-plex labeling coupled with two-dimensional LC-MS/MS analysis to investigate the protein expression profiles in brain tissues of the marine medaka (Oryzias melastigma) after a 28-day exposure to environmentally-realistic concentration of DCOIT at 2.55. μg/L (0.009. μM) or butenolide, one promising antifouling compound, at 2.31. μg/L (0.012. μM). DCOIT and butenolide induced differential expression of 26 and 18 proteins in male brains and of 27 and 23 proteins in female brains, respectively. Distinct mechanisms of toxicity were initiated by DCOIT and butenolide in males, whereas the protein expression profiles were largely similar in females treated by these two compounds. In males, DCOIT exposure mainly led to disruption of mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling pathway, while butenolide affected proteins related to the cytoskeletal disorganization that is considered as a general response to toxicant stress. Furthermore, a sex-dependent protein expression profile was also noted between male and female fish, as evident by the inverse changes in the expressions of common proteins (5 proteins for butenolide- and 2 proteins for DCOIT-exposed fish). Overall, this study provided insight into the molecular mechanisms underlying the toxicity of DCOIT and butenolide. The extremely low concentrations used in this study highlighted the ecological relevance, arguing for thorough assessments of their ecological risks before the commercialization of any new antifouling compound.

  13. Screening for negative effects of candidate ascidian antifoulant compounds on a target aquaculture species, Perna canaliculus Gmelin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cahill, Patrick Louis; Heasman, Kevin; Hickey, Anthony; Mountfort, Douglas; Jeffs, Andrew; Kuhajek, Jeannie

    2013-01-01

    The natural chemical compounds radicicol, polygodial and ubiquinone-10 (Q10) have previously been identified as inhibitors of metamorphosis in ascidian larvae. Accordingly, they have potential as a specific remedy for the costly problem of fouling ascidians in bivalve aquaculture. In this study, these compounds were screened for their effects on the physiological health of an aquaculture species, the green-lipped mussel, Perna canaliculus Gmelin, at or above the 99% effective dose (IC(99)) in ascidians. Three physiological biomarkers of mussel health were screened: growth (increases in shell height and wet weight), condition (condition index) and mitochondrial respirational function (Complex I-mediated respiration, Complex II-mediated respiration, maximum uncoupled respiration, leak respiration, respiratory control ratios and phosphorylation system control ratios). While polygodial and Q10 had no effect on mussel growth or the condition index, radicicol retarded growth and decreased the condition index. Mitochondrial respirational function was unaffected by radicicol and polygodial. Conversely, Q10 enhanced Complex I-mediated respiration, highlighting the fundamental role of this compound in the electron transport system. The present study suggests that polygodial and Q10 do not negatively affect the physiological health of P. canaliculus at the IC(99) in ascidians, while radicicol is toxic. Moreover, Q10 is of benefit in biomedical settings as a cellular antioxidant and therefore may also benefit P. canaliculus. Accordingly, polygodial and Q10 should be progressed to the next stage of testing where possible negative effects on bivalves will be further explored, followed by development of application techniques and testing in a laboratory and aquaculture setting.

  14. The solvent extraction of zinc, iron, and indium from chloride solutions by neutral organophosphorus compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Preston, J.S.; Du Preez, A.C.

    1985-01-01

    The preparation of several neutral organophosphorus compounds and their evaluation as selective extractants for zinc in chloride media are described. The compounds belong to the series trialkyl phosphates (RO) 3 PO, dialkyl alkylphosphonates R'PO(OR) 2 , alkyl dialkylphosphinates R 2 'PO(OR), and trialkyl-phosphine oxides R 3 'PO. They were characterized by measurement of their physical properties (melting and boiling points, refractive indices, and densities), and their purities were confirmed by osmometric determination of their molecular masses; by carbon and hydrogen microanalysis; by the titrimetric determination of acidic impurities; and, for liquid products, by comparison of their experimental molar refractivities with empirical values. Metal-distribution equilibria were determined for solutions of the extractants in xylene and aqueous phase containing 0,5 to 5,0 M sodium chloride. Moderately good selectivities were shown for zinc(II) over iron(III), and excellent selectivities were shown for zinc(II) over iron(II), copper(II), lead(II), and cadmium(II). The extraction of indium(III) was similar to that of zinc(II). The extraction of zinc(III), iron(III), and indium(III) increased markedly through the series. (RO) 3 PO 2 2 'PO(OR) 3 'PO. The incorporation of phenyl groups into the compounds led to weaker extraction. The extracted complexes of zinc(II), iron(III), and indium(III) have the stoichiometries ZnCl 2 L 2 ,FeCl 3 L 2 (H 2 O), and InCl 3 L 2 (H 2 O) respectively, where L represents the neutral organophosphorus compound

  15. Antifouling properties of hydrogels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murosaki, Takayuki; Gong, Jian Ping; Ahmed, Nafees

    2011-01-01

    Marine sessile organisms easily adhere to submerged solids such as rocks, metals and plastics, but not to seaweeds and fishes, which are covered with soft and wet 'hydrogel'. Inspired by this fact, we have studied long-term antifouling properties of hydrogels against marine sessile organisms. Hydrogels, especially those containing hydroxy group and sulfonic group, show excellent antifouling activity against barnacles both in laboratory assays and in the marine environment. The extreme low settlement on hydrogels in vitro and in vivo is mainly caused by antifouling properties against the barnacle cypris. (topical review)

  16. Antifouling properties of hydrogels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takayuki Murosaki, Nafees Ahmed and Jian Ping Gong

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Marine sessile organisms easily adhere to submerged solids such as rocks, metals and plastics, but not to seaweeds and fishes, which are covered with soft and wet 'hydrogel'. Inspired by this fact, we have studied long-term antifouling properties of hydrogels against marine sessile organisms. Hydrogels, especially those containing hydroxy group and sulfonic group, show excellent antifouling activity against barnacles both in laboratory assays and in the marine environment. The extreme low settlement on hydrogels in vitro and in vivo is mainly caused by antifouling properties against the barnacle cypris.

  17. Zinc

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Some early research suggests that zinc supplementation increases sperm count, testosterone levels, and pregnancy rates in infertile men with low testosterone levels. Other research suggests that taking zinc can improve sperm shape in men with moderate enlargement of a ...

  18. Antifouling activity of twelve demosponges from Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SM. Ribeiro

    Full Text Available Benthic marine organisms are constantly exposed to fouling, which is harmful to most host species. Thus, the production of secondary metabolites containing antifouling properties is an important ecological advantage for sessile organisms and may also provide leading compounds for the development of antifouling paints. High antifouling potential of sponges has been demonstrated in the Indian and Pacific oceans and in the Caribbean and Mediterranean seas. Brazilian sponges remain understudied concerning antifouling activities. Only two scientific articles reported this activity in sponges of Brazil. The objective of this study was to test crude extracts of twelve species of sponges from Brazil against the attachment of the mussel Perna perna through laboratorial assays, and highlight promising species for future studies. The species Petromica citrina, Amphimedon viridis, Desmapsamma anchorata, Chondrosia sp., Polymastia janeirensis, Tedania ignis, Aplysina fulva, Mycale angulosa, Hymeniacidon heliophila, Dysidea etheria, Tethya rubra, and Tethya maza were frozen and freeze-dried before extraction with acetone or dichloromethane. The crude extract of four species significantly inhibited the attachment of byssus: Tethya rubra (p = 0.0009, Tethya maza (p = 0.0039, Petromica citrina (p = 0.0277, and Hymeniacidon heliophila (p = 0.00003. These species, specially, should be the target of future studies to detail the substances involved in the ability antifouling well as to define its amplitude of action.

  19. Mechanisms of inhibition of zinc-finger transcription factors by selenium compounds ebselen and selenite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larabee, Jason L; Hocker, James R; Hanas, Jay S

    2009-03-01

    The anti-inflammatory selenium compounds, ebselen (2-phenyl-1,2-benzisoselenazol-3[2H]-one) and selenite, were found to alter the DNA binding mechanisms and structures of cysteine-rich zinc-finger transcription factors. As assayed by DNase I protection, DNA binding by TFIIIA (transcription factor IIIA, prototypical Cys(2)His(2) zinc finger protein), was inhibited by micromolar amounts of ebselen. In a gel shift assay, ebselen inhibited the Cys(2)His(2) zinc finger-containing DNA binding domain (DBD) of the NF-kappaB mediated transcription factor Sp1. Ebselen also inhibited DNA binding by the p50 subunit of the pro-inflammatory Cys-containing NF-kappaB transcription factor. Electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS) was utilized to elucidate mechanisms of chemical interaction between ebselen and a zinc-bound Cys(2)His(2) zinc finger polypeptide modeled after the third finger of Sp1 (Sp1-3). Exposing Sp1-3 to micromolar amounts of ebselen resulted in Zn(2+) release from this peptide and the formation of a disulfide bond by oxidation of zinc finger SH groups, the likely mechanism for DNA binding inhibition. Selenite was shown by ESI-MS to also eject zinc from Sp1-3 as well as induce disulfide bond formation through SH oxidation. The selenite-dependent inhibition/oxidation mechanism differed from that of ebselen by inducing the formation of a stable selenotrisulfide bond. Selenite-induced selenotrisulfide formation was dependent upon the structure of the Cys(2)His(2) zinc finger as alteration in the finger structure enhanced this reaction as well as selenite-dependent zinc release. Ebselen and selenite-dependent inhibition/oxidation of Cys-rich zinc finger proteins, with concomitant release of zinc and finger structural changes, points to mechanisms at the atomic and protein level for selenium-induced alterations in Cys-rich proteins, and possible amelioration of certain inflammatory, neurodegenerative, and oncogenic responses.

  20. Design, Synthesis, and Antifouling Activity of Glucosamine-Based Isocyanides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umezawa, Taiki; Hasegawa, Yuki; Novita, Ira S; Suzuki, Junya; Morozumi, Tatsuya; Nogata, Yasuyuki; Yoshimura, Erina; Matsuda, Fuyuhiko

    2017-06-29

    Biofouling, an undesirable accumulation of organisms on sea-immersed structures such as ship hulls and fishing nets, is a serious economic issue whose effects include oil wastage and clogged nets. Organotin compounds were utilized since the 1960s as an antifouling material; however, the use of such compounds was later banned by the International Maritime Organization (IMO) due to their high toxicity toward marine organisms, resulting in masculinization and imposex. Since the ban, there have been extensive efforts to develop environmentally benign antifoulants. Natural antifouling products obtained from marine creatures have been the subject of considerable attention due to their potent antifouling activity and low toxicity. These antifouling compounds often contain isocyano groups, which are well known to have natural antifouling properties. On the basis of our previous total synthesis of natural isocyanoterpenoids, we envisaged the installation of an isocyano functional group onto glucosamine to produce an environmentally friendly antifouling material. This paper describes an effective synthetic method for various glucosamine-based isocyanides and evaluation of their antifouling activity and toxicity against cypris larvae of the barnacle Amphibalanus amphitrite . Glucosamine isocyanides with an ether functionality at the anomeric position exhibited potent antifouling activity, with EC 50 values below 1 μg/mL, without detectable toxicity even at a high concentration of 10 μg/mL. Two isocyanides had EC 50 values of 0.23 and 0.25 μg/mL, comparable to that of CuSO₄, which is used as a fouling inhibitor (EC 50 = 0.27 μg/mL).

  1. Effect of zinc compounds on Fusarium verticillioides growth, hyphae alterations, conidia, and fumonisin production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savi, Geovana D; Vitorino, Vinícius; Bortoluzzi, Adailton J; Scussel, Vildes M

    2013-10-01

    Several strategies are used to eliminate toxigenic fungi that produce fumonisins in grains. Fusarium verticillioides can be controlled by the application of synthetic fungicides in the field or during storage. However, there may also be residuals, which may remain in the foods. Inorganic compounds such as zinc are cheap, stable and could present strong antifungal activity. Some Zn compounds can be utilized as dietary supplements and are authorized for the fortification of foods. Knowing the advantages and that low concentrations of Zn can have antimicrobial activity, our objective was to evaluate the effects of Zn compounds on the growth of F. verticillioides and the production of fumonisin and conidia. In addition, we aimed to verify that Zn compounds cause morphological alterations of the hyphae, mortality and production of reactive oxygen species. Zn compounds efficiently reduced fungal growth and fumonisin production. Treatment using zinc perchlorate gave the best results. All treatments inhibited conidia production and caused morphological alterations of the hyphae. It was possible to observe cell death and production of reactive oxygen species. Zn compounds have advantages compared to other antifungal compounds. In particular, they are non-toxic for the organism in appropriate amounts. They could be studied further as potential fungicides in agriculture. © 2013 Society of Chemical Industry.

  2. Potent Antifouling Marine Dihydroquinolin-2(1H)-one-Containing Alkaloids from the Gorgonian Coral-Derived Fungus Scopulariopsis sp.

    KAUST Repository

    Shao, Chang Lun; Xu, Ru Fang; Wang, Chang Yun; Qian, Pei Yuan; Wang, Kai Ling; Wei, Mei Yan

    2015-01-01

    in 2008, there is an urgent demand for the development of efficient and environmentally friendly antifouling agents. Marine microorganisms have proved to be a potential source of antifouling natural compounds. In this study, six dihydroquinolin-2-one-containing

  3. Solubilization of insoluble zinc compounds by Gluconacetobacter diazotrophicus and the detrimental action of zinc ion (Zn2+) and zinc chelates on root knot nematode Meloidogyne incognita.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saravanan, V S; Kalaiarasan, P; Madhaiyan, M; Thangaraju, M

    2007-03-01

    To examine the zinc (Zn) solubilization potential and nematicidal properties of Gluconacetobacter diazotrophicus. Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer, Differential Pulse Polarography and Gas Chromatography Coupled Mass Spectrometry were used to estimate the total Zn and Zn(2+) ions and identify the organic acids present in the culture supernatants. The effect of culture filtrate of Zn-amended G. diazotrophicus PAl5 on Meloidogyne incognita in tomato was examined under gnotobiotic conditions. Gluconacetobacter diazotrophicus PAl5 effectively solubilized the Zn compounds tested and 5-ketogluconic acid was identified as the major organic acid aiding the solubilization of zinc oxide. The presence of Zn compounds in the culture filtrates of G. diazotrophicus enhanced the mortality and reduced the root penetration of M. incognita under in vitro conditions. 5-ketogluconic acid produced by G. diazotrophicus mediated the solubilization process and the available Zn(2+) ions enhanced the nematicidal activity of G. diazotrophicus against M. incognita. Zn solubilization and enhanced nematicidal activity of Zn-amended G. diazotrophicus provides the possibility of exploiting it as a plant growth promoting bacteria.

  4. Luminescence properties of copper(I), zinc(II) and cadmium(II) coordination compounds with picoline ligands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Małecki, Jan Grzegorz, E-mail: gmalecki@us.edu.pl; Maroń, Anna

    2017-06-15

    Mononuclear coordination compounds of copper(I) – [Cu(PPh{sub 3}){sub 2}(picoline)(NO{sub 3})], zinc(II) – [ZnCl{sub 2}(picoline){sub 2}] (picoline=3– and 4–methylpyridine) and polymeric cadmium(II) – [CdCl{sub 2}(β-picoline){sub 2}]{sub n} were prepared and their luminescence properties in solid state and acetonitrile solutions were determined. Single crystal X-ray crystallography revealed distorted tetrahedral geometry around the central ions of the compounds. The compounds exhibit green photoluminescence in solid state and in acetonitrile solutions. The emission of copper(I) compounds originated from metal-to-ligand charge transfer state combined with nitrato-to-picoline charge transfer state i.e. ({sup 1}(M+X)LCT). The presence of nitrato ligand in the coordination sphere of copper(I) compounds quenches the emission. Luminescence of zinc(II) and cadmium(II) compounds results from chloride-to-picoline charge transfer state and the quantum efficiency in the case of the polymeric Cd(II) compound reaches 39%. The photoluminescence quantum yields of the mononuclear zinc(II) compounds vary from 10 to 16% depending on the conditions (solid state, solution). - Graphical abstract: Coordination compounds of copper(I), zinc(II) and polymeric cadmium(II) with picoline ligands were prepared and their luminescence properties in solid state and acetonitrile solutions were determined. The compounds exhibit green photoluminescence in solid state and in acetonitrile solutions. Emission of copper(I) compounds originated from {sup 1}(M+X)LCT state. Luminescence of zinc(II) and cadmium(II) compounds results from chloride-to-picoline charge transfer state and the quantum efficiency in the case of the polymeric Cd(II) compound reaches 39%. The photoluminescence quantum yields of the mononuclear zinc(II) compounds vary from 10 to 16% depending on the conditions (solid state, solution).

  5. Antifouling Activity of Simple Synthetic Diterpenoids against Larvae of the Barnacle Balanus albicostatus Pilsbry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dan-Qing Feng

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Five new pimarane diterpenoids 1-5 were synthesized using ent-8(14-pimarene-15R,16-diol as starting material. The structures were elucidated by means of extensive NMR and MS analysis. The antifouling activity against larval settlement of the barnacle Balanus albicostatus were evaluated using capsaicin as a positive control. Compounds 1-3 and 5 showed more potent antifouling activity than capsaicin. Compound 5, which exhibited almost the same antifouling activity as starting material, showed better stability than starting material. These compounds all showed antifouling activity in a non-toxic way against larval settlement of the barnacle B. albicostatus. Analysis of structure-activity relationships (SAR demonstrated that the substituents on the C-15 and C-16 position of pimarane diterpenoid were responsible for the antifouling activity.

  6. Imidazole and Triazole Coordination Chemistry for Antifouling Coatings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Markus Andersson Trojer

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Fouling of marine organisms on the hulls of ships is a severe problem for the shipping industry. Many antifouling agents are based on five-membered nitrogen heterocyclic compounds, in particular imidazoles and triazoles. Moreover, imidazole and triazoles are strong ligands for Cu2+ and Cu+, which are both potent antifouling agents. In this review, we summarize a decade of work within our groups concerning imidazole and triazole coordination chemistry for antifouling applications with a particular focus on the very potent antifouling agent medetomidine. The entry starts by providing a detailed theoretical description of the azole-metal coordination chemistry. Some attention will be given to ways to functionalize polymers with azole ligands. Then, the effect of metal coordination in azole-containing polymers with respect to material properties will be discussed. Our work concerning the controlled release of antifouling agents, in particular medetomidine, using azole coordination chemistry will be reviewed. Finally, an outlook will be given describing the potential for tailoring the azole ligand chemistry in polymers with respect to Cu2+ adsorption and Cu2+→Cu+ reduction for antifouling coatings without added biocides.

  7. The use of nanomaterials as an alternative to biocidal antifouling coatings and their environmental impact; Einsatz von Nanomaterialien als Alternative zu biozidhaltigen Antifouling-Anstrichen und deren Umweltauswirkungen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Watermann, B T; Daehne, D; Fuerle, C [LimnoMar - Labor fuer limnische/marine Forschung und vergleichende Pathologie, Hamburg (Germany)

    2010-07-15

    This study revealed that a variety of nanomaterials are already in use for antifouling paint systems. On the market for leisure boats 22 antifouling products and 3 under water coatings to reduce the friction could be identified (after an update in Mai 2010 only 14 products could be identified). These products are available on the German, the European and the global market. For all antifouling systems and underwater coatings on the market, the specification of the used nanomaterials was not specified e.g. in the Technical Data Sheets or Safety and Health Data Sheets. A clear labelling for the consumer would be helpful and necessary Actually, nanotechnology based antifouling systems on the leisure boat market and on the professional market cannot be regarded as alternatives to antifouling systems which are not using nanotechnology This is partly due to the lacking evidence of efficacy, the fact that some products contain biocides without declaring them, some of them are even not allowed to be used as biocides in antifouling paints (e.g. zinc oxide and silver) and due to the lack of specified nanomaterials which make a risk assessment or ecotoxicological evaluation impossible. It can be expected that the next generation of nanotechnology based antifouling systems will be much more sophisticated and effective, despite of the lack of scientific sound data on their environmental impact. (orig.)

  8. Does antifouling paint select for antibiotic resistance?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flach, Carl-Fredrik; Pal, Chandan; Svensson, Carl Johan; Kristiansson, Erik; Östman, Marcus; Bengtsson-Palme, Johan; Tysklind, Mats; Larsson, D G Joakim

    2017-07-15

    There is concern that heavy metals and biocides contribute to the development of antibiotic resistance via co-selection. Most antifouling paints contain high amounts of such substances, which risks turning painted ship hulls into highly mobile refuges and breeding grounds for antibiotic-resistant bacteria. The objectives of this study were to start investigate if heavy-metal based antifouling paints can pose a risk for co-selection of antibiotic-resistant bacteria and, if so, identify the underlying genetic basis. Plastic panels with one side painted with copper and zinc-containing antifouling paint were submerged in a Swedish marina and biofilms from both sides of the panels were harvested after 2.5-4weeks. DNA was isolated from the biofilms and subjected to metagenomic sequencing. Biofilm bacteria were cultured on marine agar supplemented with tetracycline, gentamicin, copper sulfate or zinc sulfate. Biofilm communities from painted surfaces displayed lower taxonomic diversity and enrichment of Gammaproteobacteria. Bacteria from these communities showed increased resistance to both heavy metals and tetracycline but not to gentamicin. Significantly higher abundance of metal and biocide resistance genes was observed, whereas mobile antibiotic resistance genes were not enriched in these communities. In contrast, we found an enrichment of chromosomal RND efflux system genes, including such with documented ability to confer decreased susceptibility to both antibiotics and biocides/heavy metals. This was paralleled by increased abundances of integron-associated integrase and ISCR transposase genes. The results show that the heavy metal-based antifouling paint exerts a strong selection pressure on marine bacterial communities and can co-select for certain antibiotic-resistant bacteria, likely by favoring species and strains carrying genes that provide cross-resistance. Although this does not indicate an immediate risk for promotion of mobile antibiotic resistance, the

  9. Synthesis of silylated pyrimidines nucleosides. Catalytic condensations with organo-zinc, organo-zirconium, and organo-borane compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vincent, Patrice

    1982-01-01

    This research thesis addressed the synthesis of new desoxy-2' uridines substituted in C-5. The starting compound was the iodo-5 0-3',5' bis(trimethylsilyl) dUrd. It has been coupled with acetylenic organo-zinc in presence of organo-palladium and nickel compounds to obtain alkynyl-5 dUrd, with ethylenic organo-zirconium compounds in presence of organo-palladium complexes to obtain (E)-alkenyl-5 dUrd, with ethylenic organo-boranes in presence of organo-palladium complexes to obtain (E) and (Z) alkenyl-5 uRd, and with cyclic or heterocyclic organo-zinc compounds in presence of organo-palladium complexes. Thirty new pyrimidine nucleosides have thus been obtained, and some of them have been used for biological tests [fr

  10. Impact of sorghum processing on phytate, phenolic compounds and in vitro solubility of iron and zinc in thick porridges

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kayodé, A.P.P.; Linnemann, A.R.; Nout, M.J.R.; Boekel, van M.A.J.S.

    2007-01-01

    This study focussed on the impact of process variables on levels of phytate and phenolic compounds, and in vitro solubility of iron (Fe) and zinc (Zn) in sorghum porridges, a major staple in semi-arid tropics. The aim was to identify practices that enhance the mineral availability in this type of

  11. Effects of Zinc Compound on Body Weight and Recovery of Bone Marrow in Mice Treated with Total Body Irradiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming-Yii Huang

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to investigate if zinc compound would have effects on body weight loss and bone marrow suppression induced by total body irradiation (TBI. ICR mice were divided randomly into two groups and treated with test or control compounds. The test compound contained zinc (amino acid chelated with bovine prostate extract, and the control was reverse osmosis pure water (RO water. One week after receiving the treatment, mice were unirradiated, or irradiated with 6 or 3 Gy by 6MV photon beams to the total body. Body weight changes were examined at regular intervals. Three and 5 weeks after the radiation, animals were sacrificed to examine the histologic changes in the bone marrow. Lower body weight in the period of 1-5 weeks after radiation and poor survival rate were found after the 6 Gy TBI, as compared with the 3 Gy groups. The median survival time after 6 Gy and 3 Gy TBI for mice given the test compound were 26 and 76 days, respectively, and the corresponding figures were 14 and 70 days, respectively, for mice given the control compound (p < 0.00001. With zinc supplement, the mean body weight in mice which received the same dose of radiation was 7-8 g heavier than in the water-supplement groups during the second and third weeks (p < 0.05. Hence, there was no statistically significant difference in survival rate between zinc and water supplement in mice given the same dose of irradiation. Histopathologically there was less recovery of bone marrow cells in the 6Gy groups compared with the 3Gy groups. In the 3 Gy water-supplement group, the nucleated cells and megakaryocytes were recovered in the fifth week when recovery was still not seen in the 6Gy group. With zinc supplement, these cells were recovered in the third week. In this study, we found that zinc is beneficial to body weight in mice treated with TBI. Histologic examination of bone marrow showed better recovery of bone marrow cells in groups of mice fed with zinc. This study

  12. New spintronic superlattices composed of half-metallic compounds with zinc-blende structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fong, C Y; Qian, M C

    2004-01-01

    The successful growth of zinc-blende half-metallic compounds, namely CrAs and CrSb, in thin film forms offers a new direction to search for novel spintronic materials. By using a well documented first-principles algorithm, the VASP code, we predict the electronic and magnetic properties of superlattices made of these exciting half-metallic materials. Not only are the superlattices constructed with two of the half-metallic compounds (CrAs/MnAs) but also they are modelled to combine with both a III-V (GaAs-MnAs/CrAs/GaAs) and a IV-IV (MnC/SiC) semiconductor. We investigate variable thicknesses for the combinations. For every case, we find the equilibrium lattice constant as well as the lattice constant at which the superlattice exhibits the half-metallic properties. For CrAs/MnAs, the half-metallic properties are presented and the magnetic moments are shown to be the sum of the moments for MnAs and CrAs. The half-metallic properties of GaAs-MnAs/CrAs/GaAs are found to be crucially dependent on the completion of the d-p hybridization. The magnetic properties of MnC/SiC are discussed with respect to the properties of MnC

  13. Antifouling Activity of Secondary Metabolites Isolated from Chinese Marine Organisms

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Yong Xin

    2013-04-25

    Biofouling results in tremendous economic losses to maritime industries around the world. A recent global ban on the use of organotin compounds as antifouling agents has further raised demand for safe and effective antifouling compounds. In this study, 49 secondary metabolites, including diterpenoids, steroids, and polyketides, were isolated from soft corals, gorgonians, brown algae, and fungi collected along the coast of China, and their antifouling activity was tested against cyprids of the barnacle Balanus (Amphibalanus) amphitrite. Twenty of the compounds were found to inhibit larval settlement significantly at a concentration of 25 μg ml-1. Two briarane diterpenoids, juncin O (2) and juncenolide H (3), were the most promising non-toxic antilarval settlement candidates, with EC50 values less than 0.13 μg ml-1 and a safety ratio (LC50/EC50) higher than 400. A preliminary structure-activity relationships study indicated that both furanon and furan moieties are important for antifouling activity. Intriguingly, the presence of hydroxyls enhanced their antisettlement activity. © 2013 Springer Science+Business Media New York.

  14. Antifouling Activity of Secondary Metabolites Isolated from Chinese Marine Organisms

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Yong Xin; Wu, Hui Xian; Xu, Ying; Shao, Chang Lun; Wang, Chang Yun; Qian, Pei Yuan

    2013-01-01

    Biofouling results in tremendous economic losses to maritime industries around the world. A recent global ban on the use of organotin compounds as antifouling agents has further raised demand for safe and effective antifouling compounds. In this study, 49 secondary metabolites, including diterpenoids, steroids, and polyketides, were isolated from soft corals, gorgonians, brown algae, and fungi collected along the coast of China, and their antifouling activity was tested against cyprids of the barnacle Balanus (Amphibalanus) amphitrite. Twenty of the compounds were found to inhibit larval settlement significantly at a concentration of 25 μg ml-1. Two briarane diterpenoids, juncin O (2) and juncenolide H (3), were the most promising non-toxic antilarval settlement candidates, with EC50 values less than 0.13 μg ml-1 and a safety ratio (LC50/EC50) higher than 400. A preliminary structure-activity relationships study indicated that both furanon and furan moieties are important for antifouling activity. Intriguingly, the presence of hydroxyls enhanced their antisettlement activity. © 2013 Springer Science+Business Media New York.

  15. Effects of Organoboron Antifoulants on Oyster and Sea Urchin Embryo Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noritaka Tsunemasa

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Prohibition of Ot (organotin compounds was introduced in Japan in 1997 and worldwide from September 2008. This meant that the production of paints containing TBT compounds was stopped and alternatives to the available Ot antifoulants had to be developed. It has been claimed that the degradation by-products of these alternative antifoulants were less toxic than those of Ot compounds. Since the introduction of the alternative antifoulants, the accumulation of these compounds has been reported in many countries. However, the toxicity of these compounds was still largely unreported. In this research, the toxicity of the alternative Ot antifoulants TPBP (triphenylborane pyridine and TPBOA (triphenylborane octadecylamine and their degradation products on Crassostea gigas and Hemicentrotus pulcherrimus were tested. The results showed that toxic effects in Crassostea gigas was higher for each antifouling biocide than that in Hemicentrotus pulcherrimus. Also, while the toxicity of the Organoboron antifoulants and the Ots were the same, the former’s degradation products were much less harmful.

  16. High pressure study of the zinc phosphide semiconductor compound in two different phases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mokhtari, Ali

    2009-01-01

    Electronic and structural properties of the zinc phosphide semiconductor compound are calculated at hydrostatic pressure using the full-potential all-electron linearized augmented plane wave plus local orbital (FP-LAPW+lo) method in both cubic and tetragonal phases. The exchange-correlation potential is treated by the generalized gradient approximation within the scheme of Perdew, Burke and Ernzerhof, GGA96 (1996 Phys. Rev. Lett. 77 3865). Also, the Engel and Vosko GGA formalism, EV-GGA (Engel and Vosko 1993 Phys. Rev. B 47 13164), is used to improve the band-gap results. Internal parameters are optimized by relaxing the atomic positions in the force directions using the Hellman-Feynman approach. The lattice constants, internal parameters, bulk modulus, cohesive energy and band structures have been calculated and compared to the available experimental and theoretical results. The structural calculations predict that the stable phase is tetragonal. The effects of hydrostatic pressure on the behavior of band parameters such as band-gap, valence bandwidths and internal gaps (the energy gap between different parts of the valence bands) are studied using both GGA96 and EV-GGA.

  17. High pressure study of the zinc phosphide semiconductor compound in two different phases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mokhtari, Ali [Simulation Laboratory, Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Shahrekord University, PB 115, Shahrekord (Iran, Islamic Republic of)], E-mail: mokhtari@sci.sku.ac.ir

    2009-07-08

    Electronic and structural properties of the zinc phosphide semiconductor compound are calculated at hydrostatic pressure using the full-potential all-electron linearized augmented plane wave plus local orbital (FP-LAPW+lo) method in both cubic and tetragonal phases. The exchange-correlation potential is treated by the generalized gradient approximation within the scheme of Perdew, Burke and Ernzerhof, GGA96 (1996 Phys. Rev. Lett. 77 3865). Also, the Engel and Vosko GGA formalism, EV-GGA (Engel and Vosko 1993 Phys. Rev. B 47 13164), is used to improve the band-gap results. Internal parameters are optimized by relaxing the atomic positions in the force directions using the Hellman-Feynman approach. The lattice constants, internal parameters, bulk modulus, cohesive energy and band structures have been calculated and compared to the available experimental and theoretical results. The structural calculations predict that the stable phase is tetragonal. The effects of hydrostatic pressure on the behavior of band parameters such as band-gap, valence bandwidths and internal gaps (the energy gap between different parts of the valence bands) are studied using both GGA96 and EV-GGA.

  18. Release behavior and toxicity profiles towards A549 cell lines of ciprofloxacin from its layered zinc hydroxide intercalation compound

    OpenAIRE

    Abdul Latip, Ahmad Faiz; Hussein, Mohd Zobir; Stanslas, Johnson; Wong, Charng Choon; Adnan, Rohana

    2013-01-01

    Background Layered hydroxides salts (LHS), a layered inorganic compound is gaining attention in a wide range of applications, particularly due to its unique anion exchange properties. In this work, layered zinc hydroxide nitrate (LZH), a family member of LHS was intercalated with anionic ciprofloxacin (CFX), a broad spectrum antibiotic via ion exchange in a mixture solution of water:ethanol. Results Powder x-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) and thermogravimetric analys...

  19. Impact of sorghum processing on phytate, phenolic compounds and in vitro solubility of iron and zinc in thick porridges

    OpenAIRE

    Kayodé, A.P.P.; Linnemann, A.R.; Nout, M.J.R.; Boekel, van, M.A.J.S.

    2007-01-01

    This study focussed on the impact of process variables on levels of phytate and phenolic compounds, and in vitro solubility of iron (Fe) and zinc (Zn) in sorghum porridges, a major staple in semi-arid tropics. The aim was to identify practices that enhance the mineral availability in this type of staple food. We studied the example of the West African porridge `dibou' for which the processing methods involve grain cleaning, milling, sieving and cooking. Regional variations occur in the proces...

  20. Efficacy and Ecotoxicity of Novel Anti-Fouling Nanomaterials in Target and Non-Target Marine Species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avelelas, Francisco; Martins, Roberto; Oliveira, Tânia; Maia, Frederico; Malheiro, Eliana; Soares, Amadeu M V M; Loureiro, Susana; Tedim, João

    2017-04-01

    Biofouling is a global problem that affects virtually all the immersed structures. Currently, several novel environmentally friendly approaches are being tested worldwide to decrease the toxicity of biocides in non-fouling species, such as the encapsulation/immobilization of commercially available biocides, in order to achieve control over the leaching rate. The present study addresses the toxicity of two widely used booster biocides, zinc pyrithione (ZnPT) and copper pyrithione (CuPT), in its free and incorporated forms in order to assess their toxicity and anti-fouling efficacy in target and non-target species. To achieve this goal, the following marine organisms were tested; the green microalgae Tetraselmis chuii (non-target species) and both target species, the diatom Phaeodactylum tricornutum and the mussel Mytilus edulis. Organisms were exposed to both biocides, two unloaded nanostructured materials and nanomaterials loaded with biocides, from 10 μg/L to 100 mg/L total weight, following standard protocols. The most eco-friendly and simultaneously efficient anti-fouling solution against the two photosynthetic species (nanoclays loaded with ZnPT) was then tested on mussels to assess its lethal efficacy (LC 50  = 123 μg/L) and compared with free biocide (LC 50  = 211 μg/L) and unloaded material (LC 50  > 1000 μg/L). A second exposure test with sub-lethal concentrations (lower than 100 μg/L), using mussels, was carried out to assess biochemical changes caused by the tested compounds. Oxidative stress, detoxification and neurotransmission markers were not responsive; however, different antioxidant patterns were found with free ZnPT and loaded nanoclay exposures. Thus, the immobilization of the biocide ZnPT into nanoclays proved to be a promising efficient and eco-friendly anti-fouling strategy.

  1. Structural and thermomechanical properties of the zinc-blende AlX (X = P, As, Sb) compounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ha, Vu Thi Thanh; Hung, Vu Van; Hanh, Pham Thi Minh; Nguyen, Viet Tuyen; Hieu, Ho Khac

    2017-08-01

    The structural and thermomechanical properties of zinc-blende aluminum class of III-V compounds have been studied based on the statistical moment method (SMM) in quantum statistical mechanics. Within the SMM scheme, we derived the analytical expressions of the nearest-neighbor distance, thermal expansion coefficient, atomic mean-square displacement and elastic moduli (Young’s modulus, bulk modulus and shear modulus). Numerical calculations have been performed for zinc-blende AlX (X = As, P, Sb) at ambient conditions up to the temperature of 1000 K. Our results are in good and reasonable agreements with earlier measurements and can provide useful references for future experimental and theoretical works. This research presents a systematic approach to investigate the thermodynamic and mechanical properties of materials.

  2. Poly-ethers from Winogradskyella poriferorum: Antifouling potential, time-course study of production and natural abundance

    KAUST Repository

    Dash, Swagatika; Nogata, Yasuyuki; Zhou, Xiaojian; Zhang, Yifan; Xü , Ying; Guo, Xian Rong; Zhang, Xixiang; Qian, Peiyuan

    2011-01-01

    A sponge-associated bacterium, Winogradskyella poriferorum strain UST030701-295T was cultured up to 100l for extraction of antifouling bioactive compounds. Five poly-ethers were isolated and partially characterized based on nuclear magnetic

  3. Isolation and Antifouling Activity of Azulene Derivatives from the Antarctic Gorgonian Acanthogorgia laxa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patiño Cano, Laura P; Quintana Manfredi, Rodrigo; Pérez, Miriam; García, Mónica; Blustein, Guillermo; Cordeiro, Ralf; Pérez, Carlos D; Schejter, Laura; Palermo, Jorge A

    2018-01-01

    Three azulenoid sesquiterpenes (1 - 3) were isolated from the Antarctic gorgonian Acanthogorgia laxa collected by bottom trawls at -343 m. Besides linderazulene (1), and the known ketolactone 2, a new brominated C 16 linderazulene derivative (3) was also identified. This compound has an extra carbon atom at C(7) of the linderazulene framework. The antifouling activity of compounds 1 and 2 was assayed in the laboratory with Artemia salina larvae, and also in field tests, by incorporation in soluble-matrix experimental antifouling paints. The results obtained after a 45 days field trial of the paints, showed that compounds 1 and 2 displayed good antifouling potencies against a wide array of organisms. Compound 3, a benzylic bromide, was unstable and for this reason was not submitted to bioassays. Two known cembranolides: pukalide and epoxypukalide, were also identified as minor components of the extract. © 2018 Wiley-VHCA AG, Zurich, Switzerland.

  4. Characterization of Terpenoids from the Root of Ceriops tagal with Antifouling Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jun-De; Yi, Rui-Zao; Lin, Yi-Ming; Feng, Dan-Qing; Zhou, Hai-Chao; Wang, Zhan-Chang

    2011-01-01

    One new dimeric diterpenoid, 8(14)-enyl-pimar-2′(3′)-en-4′(18′)-en-15′(16′)-endolabr- 16,15,2′,3′-oxoan-16-one (1) and five known terpenoids: Tagalsin C (2), Tagalsin I (3), lup-20(29)-ene-3β,28-diol (4), 3-oxolup-20(29)-en-28-oic acid (5) and 28-hydroxylup- 20(29)-en-3-one (6) were isolated from the roots of the mangrove plant Ceriops tagal. Their structures and relative stereochemistry were elucidated by means of extensive NMR, IR and MS analysis. The antifouling activity against larval settlement of the barnacle Balanus albicostatus were evaluated using capsaicin as a positive control. All these terpenoids exhibited antifouling activity against cyprid larvae of the barnacle without significant toxicity. The structure-activity relationship results demonstrated that the order of antifouling activity was diterpenoid (Compound 2) > triterpenoid (Compounds 4, 5 and 6) > dimeric diterpenoid (Compounds 1 and 3). The functional groups on the C-28 position of lupane triterpenoid significantly affect the antifouling activity. The diterpenoid dimmer with two identical diterpenoid subunits might display more potent antifouling activity than one with two different diterpenoid subunits. The stability test showed that Compounds 2, 4, 5 and 6 remained stable over 2-month exposure under filtered seawater. PMID:22072902

  5. Low temperature solution synthesis of zinc antimonide, manganese antimonide, and strontium ruthenate compounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noblitt, Jennifer Lenkner

    2011-12-01

    Increasing energy demands are fueling research in the area of renewable energy and energy storage. In particular, Li-ion batteries and superconducting wires are attractive choices for energy storage. Improving safety, simplifying manufacturing processes, and advancing technology to increase energy storage capacity is necessary to compete with current marketed energy storage devices. These advancements are accomplished through the study of new materials and new morphologies. Increasing dependence on and rising demand for portable electronic devices has continued to drive research in the area of Li-ion batteries. In order to compete with existing batteries and be applicable to future energy needs such as powering hybrid vehicles, the drawbacks of Li-ion batteries must be addressed including (i) low power density, (ii) safety, and (iii) high manufacturing costs. These drawbacks can be addressed through new materials and morphologies for the anode, cathode, and electrolyte. New intermetallic anode materials such as ZnSb, MnSb, and Mn2Sb are attractive candidates to replace graphite, the current industry standard anode material, because they are safer while maintaining comparable theoretical capacity. Electrodeposition is an inexpensive method that could be used for the synthesis of these electrode materials. Direct electrodeposition allows for excellent electrical contact to the current collector without the use of a binder. To successfully electrodeposit zinc and manganese antimonides, metal precursors with excellent solubility in water were needed. To promote solubility, particularly for the antimony precursor, coordinating ligands were added to the deposition bath solutions. This work shows that the choice of coordinating ligand and metal-ligand speciation can alter both the electrochemistry and the film composition. This work focuses on the search for appropriate coordinating ligands, solution pH, and bath temperatures so that high quality films of ZnSb, MnSb, and

  6. Influence of zinc oxide during different stages of sulfur vulcanization. Elucidated by model compound studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heideman, G.; Datta, Rabin; Noordermeer, Jacobus W.M.; van Baarle, B.

    2005-01-01

    The addition of zinc oxide (ZnO) as an activator for the sulfur vulcanization of rubbers enhances the vulcanization efficiency and vulcanizate properties and reduces the vulcanization time. The first part of this article deals with the reduction and optimization of the amount of ZnO. Two different

  7. Efficacy and toxicity of self-polishing biocide-free antifouling paints

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loeschau, Margit; Kraetke, Renate

    2005-01-01

    The ban on harmful substances in antifouling paints requires the development of new antifouling strategies. Alternatives should be as effective as conventional paints but of lower toxicity. In the present study two commercially available, self-polishing antifouling paints were examined in order to get information on their antifouling properties and toxicological potential. Efficacy was shown in settlement assays with the marine barnacle species Balanus amphitrite, however, efficacy was related to toxic effects observed on target and non-target organisms. Toxicity of the paint extracts was concentration-dependent and differed according to the paint and the species investigated. Toxicity could at least partially be attributed to zinc leached from the paints. Effects of a water-soluble paint were more pronounced in larvae of B. amphitrite, Artemia salina and in the green algae Dunaliella tertiolecta. Embryos of the freshwater species Danio rerio and Vibrio fisheri were more affected by a paint based on organic solvents. - For alternative antifouling paints efficacy as well as adverse effects on non-target organisms and the aquatic environment should be carefully assessed

  8. Presence and effects of marine microbial biofilms on biocide-based antifouling paints

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yebra, Diego Meseguer; Kiil, Søren; Erik Weinell, Claus

    2006-01-01

    of the dense extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) matrix on the release rate of the compounds involved in antifouling paint performance (i.e. active compounds and controlled-release binder molecules). A deeper understanding of these phenomena is of interest for both environmental legislators and paint...

  9. Enzyme-based antifouling coatings: a review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Stefan Møller; Pedersen, Leif Toudal; Laursen, M.H.

    2007-01-01

    A systematic overview is presented of the literature that reports the antifouling (AF) protection of underwater structures via the action of enzymes. The overall aim of this review is to assess the state of the art of enzymatic AF technology, and to highlight the obstacles that have to be overcome...... for successful development of enzymatic AF coatings. The approaches described in the literature are divided into direct and indirect enzymatic AF, depending on the intended action of the enzymes. Direct antifouling is used when the enzymes themselves are active antifoulants. Indirect antifouling refers...

  10. Combustion synthesis: A new approach for preparation of thermoelectric zinc antimonide compounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rouessac, F., E-mail: Florence.Rouessac@univ-montp2.fr [Institut Charles Gerhardt Montpellier, UMR 5253 CNRS-UM2-ENSCM-UM1, C2M Universite Montpellier 2, CC 1504 Place Eugene Bataillon, 34095 Montpellier Cedex 5 (France); Ayral, R.-M. [Institut Charles Gerhardt Montpellier, UMR 5253 CNRS-UM2-ENSCM-UM1, C2M Universite Montpellier 2, CC 1504 Place Eugene Bataillon, 34095 Montpellier Cedex 5 (France)

    2012-07-25

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Reliable preparation method of thermoelectric materials. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Formation of zinc antimonide by the combustion synthesis method is investigated. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer XRD and Raman spectroscopy as a function of temperature. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer SHS: a new way for synthesizing thermoelectric materials. - Abstract: Due to the interesting properties of Zn{sub 4}Sb{sub 3} thermoelectric material, a reliable preparation method of this material is required. In this study, the formation of zinc antimonides by the combustion synthesis method is investigated and subjected to characterization using X-ray diffraction and Raman spectroscopy as a function of temperature. The results show that combustion synthesis can be a new way for synthesizing these thermoelectric materials.

  11. Release behavior and toxicity profiles towards A549 cell lines of ciprofloxacin from its layered zinc hydroxide intercalation compound.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdul Latip, Ahmad Faiz; Hussein, Mohd Zobir; Stanslas, Johnson; Wong, Charng Choon; Adnan, Rohana

    2013-01-01

    Layered hydroxides salts (LHS), a layered inorganic compound is gaining attention in a wide range of applications, particularly due to its unique anion exchange properties. In this work, layered zinc hydroxide nitrate (LZH), a family member of LHS was intercalated with anionic ciprofloxacin (CFX), a broad spectrum antibiotic via ion exchange in a mixture solution of water:ethanol. Powder x-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) confirmed the drug anions were successfully intercalated in the interlayer space of LZH. Specific surface area of the obtained compound was increased compared to that of the host due to the different pore textures between the two materials. CFX anions were slowly released over 80 hours in phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) solution due to strong interactions that occurred between the intercalated anions and the host lattices. The intercalation compound demonstrated enhanced antiproliferative effects towards A549 cancer cells compared to the toxicity of CFX alone. Strong host-guest interactions between the LZH lattice and the CFX anion give rise to a new intercalation compound that demonstrates sustained release mode and enhanced toxicity effects towards A549 cell lines. These findings should serve as foundations towards further developments of the brucite-like host material in drug delivery systems.

  12. (Pyridine)(tetrahydroborato)zinc complex, (Zn(BH4)2(py)), as a new stable, efficient and chemoselective reducing agent for reduction of carbonyl compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zeynizadeh, Behzad; Faraji, Fariba

    2003-01-01

    (Pyridine)(tetrahydroborato)zinc complex, (Zn(BH 4 ) 2 (py)), as a stable white solid, was prepared quantitatively by complexation of an equimolar amount of zinc tetrahydroborate and pyridine at room temperature. This reagent can easily reduce variety of carbonyl compounds such as aldehydes, ketones, acyloins, α-diketones and α,β-unsaturated carbonyl compounds to their corresponding alcohols in good to excellent yields. Reduction reactions were performed in ether or THF at room temperature or under reflux conditions. In addition, the chemoselective reduction of aldehydes over ketones was accomplished successfully with this reducing agent

  13. (Pyridine)(tetrahydroborato)zinc complex, (Zn(BH{sub 4}){sub 2}(py)), as a new stable, efficient and chemoselective reducing agent for reduction of carbonyl compounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zeynizadeh, Behzad; Faraji, Fariba [Urima Univ., Urima (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2003-04-01

    (Pyridine)(tetrahydroborato)zinc complex, (Zn(BH{sub 4}){sub 2}(py)), as a stable white solid, was prepared quantitatively by complexation of an equimolar amount of zinc tetrahydroborate and pyridine at room temperature. This reagent can easily reduce variety of carbonyl compounds such as aldehydes, ketones, acyloins, {alpha}-diketones and {alpha},{beta}-unsaturated carbonyl compounds to their corresponding alcohols in good to excellent yields. Reduction reactions were performed in ether or THF at room temperature or under reflux conditions. In addition, the chemoselective reduction of aldehydes over ketones was accomplished successfully with this reducing agent.

  14. Zinc oxide nanostructures and its nano-compounds for efficient visible light photo-catalytic processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adam, Rania E.; Alnoor, Hatim; Elhag, Sami; Nur, Omer; Willander, Magnus

    2017-02-01

    Zinc oxide (ZnO) in its nanostructure form is a promising material for visible light emission/absorption and utilization in different energy efficient photocatalytic processes. We will first present our recent results on the effect of varying the molar ratio of the synthesis nutrients on visible light emission. Further we will use the optimized conditions from the molar ration experiments to vary the synthesis processing parameters like stirring time etc. and the effect of all these parameters in order to optimize the efficiency and control the emission spectrum are investigated using different complementary techniques. Cathodoluminescence (CL) is combined with photoluminescence (PL) and electroluminescence (EL) as the techniques to investigate and optimizes visible light emission from ZnO/GaN light emitting diodes. We will then show and discuss our recent finding of the use of high quality ZnO nanoparticles (NPs) for efficient photo-degradation of toxic dyes using the visible spectra, namely with a wavelength up to 800 nm. In the end, we show how ZnO nanorods (NRs) are used as the first template to be transferred to bismuth zinc vanadate (BiZn2VO6). The BiZn2VO6 is then used to demonstrate efficient and cost effective hydrogen production through photoelectrochemical water splitting using solar radiation.

  15. Zwitterionic materials for antifouling membrane surface construction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Mingrui; Gao, Kang; Zhou, Linjie; Jiao, Zhiwei; Wu, Mengyuan; Cao, Jialin; You, Xinda; Cai, Ziyi; Su, Yanlei; Jiang, Zhongyi

    2016-08-01

    Membrane separation processes are often perplexed by severe and ubiquitous membrane fouling. Zwitterionic materials, keeping electric neutrality with equivalent positive and negative charged groups, are well known for their superior antifouling properties and have been broadly utilized to construct antifouling surfaces for medical devices, biosensors and marine coatings applications. In recent years, zwitterionic materials have been more and more frequently utilized for constructing antifouling membrane surfaces. In this review, the antifouling mechanisms of zwitterionic materials as well as their biomimetic prototypes in cell membranes will be discussed, followed by the survey of common approaches to incorporate zwitterionic materials onto membrane surfaces including surface grafting, surface segregation, biomimetic adhesion, surface coating and so on. The potential applications of these antifouling membranes are also embedded. Finally, we will present a brief perspective on the future development of zwitterionic materials modified antifouling membranes. Membrane fouling is a severe problem hampering the application of membrane separation technology. The properties of membrane surfaces play a critical role in membrane fouling and antifouling behavior/performance. Antifouling membrane surface construction has evolved as a hot research issue for the development of membrane processes. Zwitterionic modification of membrane surfaces has been recognized as an effective strategy to resist membrane fouling. This review summarizes the antifouling mechanisms of zwitterionic materials inspired by cell membranes as well as the popular approaches to incorporate them onto membrane surfaces. It can help form a comprehensive knowledge about the principles and methods of modifying membrane surfaces with zwitterionic materials. Finally, we propose the possible future research directions of zwitterionic materials modified antifouling membranes. Copyright © 2016 Acta Materialia Inc

  16. Antifouling Activity of Lipidic Metabolites Derived from Padina tetrastromatica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suresh, Murugan; Iyapparaj, Palanisamy; Anantharaman, Perumal

    2016-07-01

    An attempt has been made to identify the potential seaweed for antifouling property due to the growing need for environmentally safe antifouling systems. The antibacterial, antimicroalgal, and antimussel foot adherence potentials of methanol, dichloromethane, and hexane extracts of the chosen seaweeds such as Padina tetrastromatica, Caulerpa taxifolia, and Amphiroa fragilissima have been compared against copper sulfate. Among the extracts, the maximum antibacterial activities were exhibited by the methanol extract of P. tetrastromatica. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of the methanolic extract of P. tetrastromatica was found to be 10 and 1 μg/ml against test biofilm bacteria and diatoms, respectively. The antimussel foot adherence assay indicated that the extract had inhibited the foot adherence of the green mussels Perna viridis with the effective concentration (EC50) of 25.51 ± 0.03 μg/ml, and lethal concentration for 50 % mortality (LC50) was recorded at 280.22 ± 0.12 μg/ml. Based on the prolific results, the crude methanolic extract of P. tetrastromatica was subjected to purification using silica gel column and thin-layer chromatography (TLC). Then, the active compounds of the bioassay-guided fraction (F13) were identified using gas chromatography coupled with mass spectroscopy (GC-MS), and it was observed that fatty acids were the major components, which may be responsible for the antifouling properties.

  17. Influence of the compound effect between nitrogen and zinc on the resource of nitrogen of herbage in mixed and pure culture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    He Zhongjun; Hua Luo

    2002-01-01

    Under pot culture, the influence of compound effect between nitrogen and zinc on the resource of nitrogen of ryegrass in mono-culture and ryegrass/clover in mixture were studied on yellow brown earth which collected from sub-tropic mountain sward of southern China. The result showed as follows: (1) The percentage of nitrogen derived from atmosphere (% Ndfa) was decreased by nitrogen application in early growth stage and suitable amount of nitrogen application increased it in later growth stage. The % Ndfa of white clover in mixture was the highest with 6 mg/kg zinc application in all nitrogen levels. The transfer of fixed nitrogen by white clover to ryegrass was decreased by nitrogen application and increased by low amount of zinc application. (2) The percentage of nitrogen derived from fertilizer (% Ndff) was significantly increased by nitrogen application, of which the treatments with 6-20 mg/kg zinc application was higher than other zinc application treatments on ryegrass in monoculture, and the treatments with 6-20 mg/kg zinc application on white clover/ryegrass in mixture was lower than other zinc treatments at the range from 30 to 90 mg/kg nitrogen application. (3) The percentage of nitrogen derived from soil (% Ndfs) of ryegrass both in pure and in mixture was significantly decreased as the increasing of the levels of nitrogen application, of which ryegrass in mono-culture was not obviously influenced by zinc application, and ryegrass/clover in mixture was decreased by 6-20 mg/kg zinc application under all nitrogen levels

  18. Environmental risk limits for antifouling substances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wezel, Annemarie P. van; Vlaardingen, P. van

    2004-01-01

    In 1989, the EU restricted the use of tributyl-tin (TBT) and the International Maritime Organisation (IMO) decided for a world-wide ban on TBT in 2003. As a replacement for TBT, new antifouling agents are entering the market. Environmental risk limits (ERLs) are derived for substances that are used as TBT-substitutes, i.e. the compounds Irgarol 1051, dichlofluanid, ziram, chlorothalonil and TCMTB. ERLs represent the potential risk of the substances to the ecosystem and are derived using data on (eco)toxicology and environmental chemistry. Only toxicity studies with endpoints related to population dynamics are taken into account. For Irgarol 1051 especially plants appear to be sensitive; the mode of action is inhibition of photosynthetic electron transport. Despite the higher sensitivity of the plants, the calculated ERL for water based on plants only is higher than the ERL based on all data due to the lower variability in the plant only dataset. Because there is a mechanistic basis to state that plants are the most sensitive species, we propose to base the ERL for water on the plants only dataset. As dichlofluanid is highly unstable in the water phase, it is recommended to base the ERL on the metabolites formed and not on the parent compound. No toxicity data of the studied compounds for organisms living in sediments were found, the ERLs for sediment are derived with help of the equilibrium partitioning method. For dichlofluanid and chlorothalonil the ERL for soil is directly based on terrestrial data, for Irgarol 1051 and ziram the ERL for soil is derived using equilibrium partitioning. Except for Irgarol 1051, no information was encountered in the open literature on the environmental occurrence in The Netherlands of the chemicals studied. The measured concentrations for Irgarol 1051 are close to the derived ERL. For this compound it is concluded that the species composition and thereby ecosystem functioning cannot be considered as protected

  19. Environmental risk limits for antifouling substances

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wezel, Annemarie P. van; Vlaardingen, P. van

    2004-03-10

    In 1989, the EU restricted the use of tributyl-tin (TBT) and the International Maritime Organisation (IMO) decided for a world-wide ban on TBT in 2003. As a replacement for TBT, new antifouling agents are entering the market. Environmental risk limits (ERLs) are derived for substances that are used as TBT-substitutes, i.e. the compounds Irgarol 1051, dichlofluanid, ziram, chlorothalonil and TCMTB. ERLs represent the potential risk of the substances to the ecosystem and are derived using data on (eco)toxicology and environmental chemistry. Only toxicity studies with endpoints related to population dynamics are taken into account. For Irgarol 1051 especially plants appear to be sensitive; the mode of action is inhibition of photosynthetic electron transport. Despite the higher sensitivity of the plants, the calculated ERL for water based on plants only is higher than the ERL based on all data due to the lower variability in the plant only dataset. Because there is a mechanistic basis to state that plants are the most sensitive species, we propose to base the ERL for water on the plants only dataset. As dichlofluanid is highly unstable in the water phase, it is recommended to base the ERL on the metabolites formed and not on the parent compound. No toxicity data of the studied compounds for organisms living in sediments were found, the ERLs for sediment are derived with help of the equilibrium partitioning method. For dichlofluanid and chlorothalonil the ERL for soil is directly based on terrestrial data, for Irgarol 1051 and ziram the ERL for soil is derived using equilibrium partitioning. Except for Irgarol 1051, no information was encountered in the open literature on the environmental occurrence in The Netherlands of the chemicals studied. The measured concentrations for Irgarol 1051 are close to the derived ERL. For this compound it is concluded that the species composition and thereby ecosystem functioning cannot be considered as protected.

  20. Generation of Hybrid Peptide-Silver Nanoparticles for Antibacterial and Antifouling Applications

    KAUST Repository

    Seferji, Kholoud

    2018-01-01

    and antifouling agents. Our innovative antibacterial agents are hybrid peptide silver nanoparticles (CH-01-AgNPs) that are created de novo and in situ from a silver nitrate solution (AgNO3) in the presence of ultrashort self-assembling peptides compounds

  1. Determination of diuron and the antifouling paint biocide Irgarol 1051 in Dutch marinas and coastal waters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lamoree, M.H.; Swart, C.P.; van der Horst, A.; van Hattum, A.G.M.

    2002-01-01

    A sensitive LC-electrospray MS-MS method using off-line solid-phase extraction for the determination of diuron and Irgarol 1051 has been developed, enabling determination of both compounds at sub-ppt levels. Diuron and Irgarol 1051 are used as alternatives for tributyltin in antifouling paints that

  2. Antifouling sesquiterpene from the Indian soft coral, Sinularia kavarattiensis Alderslade and Prita

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    LimnaMol, V.P.; Raveendran, T.V.; Parameswaran, P.S.; Kunnath, R.J.; Sathyan, N.

    analysis of preference data, Appl Entomol Zool, 33 (1998) 339-347. 16 Williams D H & Faulkner D J, Two practical syntheses of an anti-inflammatory sesquiterpene furoic acid from Sinularia spp. Tetrahedron, 52 (1996) 4245-4256. 17 Rittschof D, Lai C H..., Kok L M & Teo S L M, Pharmaceuticals as antifoulants: Concept and principles, Biofouling, 19 (2003) 207-212. 18 Kwong T F N, Miao L, Li X & Qian P Y, Novel Antifouling and Antimicrobial Compound from a Marine-Derived Fungus Ampelomyces sp., Mar...

  3. Thermal, spectral and antimicrobial properties of new zinc(II) isobutyrate compounds. Part I. Papaverine, phenazone

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Györyová, K.; Kovářová, Jana; Andogová, E.; Zeleňák, V.; Nour El-Dien, F. A.

    2002-01-01

    Roč. 67, č. 1 (2002), s. 119-128 ISSN 1418-2874 R&D Projects: GA MŠk OK 395 Keywords : complex compounds * isobutyrate * papaverine Subject RIV: CD - Macromolecular Chemistry Impact factor: 0.598, year: 2002

  4. Study of physicochemical properties of zinc(II) butyrate complex compounds with some heterocyclic ligands

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Szakácsová, M.; Györová, K.; Szunyogová, E.; Kovářová, Jana

    2002-01-01

    Roč. 96, - (2002), s. 383 ISSN 0009-2770. [Meeting of Chemical Societies /54./. 30.06.2002-04.07.2002, Brno] R&D Projects: GA AV ČR KSK4050111; GA MŠk VEGA 1/9247/02; GA MŠk VEGA 047/074 Keywords : butyrate complex compounds * heterocyclic ligands Subject RIV: CD - Macromolecular Chemistry

  5. Increased persistence of antifouling paint biocides when associated with paint particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, K.V.; McHugh, M.; Hilton, M.; Waldock, M.

    2003-01-01

    Release of biocides associated with paint particles into marinas may increase their persistence in the environment. - Current regulatory risk assessment procedures only assess the impact of antifouling paint biocides that are released through leaching from a painted surface. Hull cleaning activities can lead to particles of antifouling paint containing biocides to enter the environment. Comparative pseudo-first order anaerobic degradation rate constants and half-lives were determined for a selection of common antifouling paint booster biocides, their degradation products, and associated with paint particles. Anaerobic half-lives of <0.5 days were calculated for chlorothalonil, dichlofluanid, and SeaNine 211, between 1 and 3 days for DCPMU and DCPU, between 14 and 35 days for diuron and CPDU, and over 226 days for GS26575 and Irgarol 1051. Increased persistence was observed when the compounds were introduced to sediments associated with antifouling paint particles. When present as antifouling paint particles, an increased half-life of 9.9 days for SeaNine 211 and 1.4 days was calculated for dichlofluanid, no significant degradation was observed for diuron. It is suspected that this is due to much of the biocide being initially bound within the matrix of the paint particle that is slowly released through dissolution processes into the sediment pore water prior to degradation. The release of booster biocides associated with paint particles into marinas has the potential to lead to their accumulation unless activities such as hull cleaning are strictly regulated

  6. Increased persistence of antifouling paint biocides when associated with paint particles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomas, K.V.; McHugh, M.; Hilton, M.; Waldock, M

    2003-05-01

    Release of biocides associated with paint particles into marinas may increase their persistence in the environment. - Current regulatory risk assessment procedures only assess the impact of antifouling paint biocides that are released through leaching from a painted surface. Hull cleaning activities can lead to particles of antifouling paint containing biocides to enter the environment. Comparative pseudo-first order anaerobic degradation rate constants and half-lives were determined for a selection of common antifouling paint booster biocides, their degradation products, and associated with paint particles. Anaerobic half-lives of <0.5 days were calculated for chlorothalonil, dichlofluanid, and SeaNine 211, between 1 and 3 days for DCPMU and DCPU, between 14 and 35 days for diuron and CPDU, and over 226 days for GS26575 and Irgarol 1051. Increased persistence was observed when the compounds were introduced to sediments associated with antifouling paint particles. When present as antifouling paint particles, an increased half-life of 9.9 days for SeaNine 211 and 1.4 days was calculated for dichlofluanid, no significant degradation was observed for diuron. It is suspected that this is due to much of the biocide being initially bound within the matrix of the paint particle that is slowly released through dissolution processes into the sediment pore water prior to degradation. The release of booster biocides associated with paint particles into marinas has the potential to lead to their accumulation unless activities such as hull cleaning are strictly regulated.

  7. Molecular Understanding and Structural-Based Design of Polyacrylamides and Polyacrylates as Antifouling Materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hong; Zhao, Chao; Zhang, Mingzhen; Chen, Qiang; Ma, Jie; Zheng, Jie

    2016-04-12

    Design and synthesis of highly bioinert and biocompatible antifouling materials are crucial for a broad range of biomedical and engineering applications. Among antifouling materials, polyacrylamides and polyacrylates have proved so promising because of cheap raw materials, ease of synthesis and applicability, and abundant functional groups. The strong surface hydration and the high surface packing density of polyacrylamides and polyacrylates are considered to be the key contributors to their antifouling property. In this article, we review our studies on the design and synthesis of a series of polyacrylamides and polyacrylates with different molecular structures. These polymers can be fabricated into different architectural forms (brushes, nanoparticles, nanogels, and hydrogels), all of which are highly resistant to the attachment of proteins, cells, and bacteria. We find that small structural changes in the polymers can lead to large enhancement in surface hydration and antifouling performance, both showing a positive correlation. This reveals a general design rule for effective antifouling materials. Furthermore, polyacrylamides and polyacrylates are readily functionalized with other bioactive compounds to achieve different new multifunctionalities.

  8. Zebra Mussel Antifouling Activity of the Marine Natural Product Aaptamine and Analogs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diers, Jeffrey A.; Bowling, John J.; Duke, Stephen O.; Wahyuono, Subagus; Kelly, Michelle; Hamann, Mark T.

    2016-01-01

    Several aaptamine derivatives were selected as potential zebra mussel (Dreissena polymorpha) antifoulants because of the noteworthy absence of fouling observed on Aaptos sponges. Sponges of the genus Aaptos collected in Manado, Indonesia consistently produce aaptamine-type alkaloids. To date, aaptamine and its derivatives have not been carefully evaluated for their antifoulant properties. Structure–activity relationship studies were conducted using several aaptamine derivatives in a zebra mussel antifouling assay. From these data, three analogs have shown significant antifouling activity against zebra mussel attachment. Aaptamine, isoaaptamine, and the demethylated aaptamine compounds used in the zebra mussel assay produced EC50 values of 24.2, 11.6, and 18.6 μM, respectively. In addition, neither aaptamine nor isoaaptamine produced a phytotoxic response (as high as 300 μM) toward a nontarget organism, Lemna pausicostata, in a 7-day exposure. The use of these aaptamine derivatives from Aaptos sp. as potential environmentally benign antifouling alternatives to metal-based paints and preservatives is significant, not only as a possible control of fouling organisms, but also to highlight the ecological importance of these and similar biochemical defenses. PMID:16718618

  9. Hepatic Proteomic Responses in Marine Medaka ( Oryzias melastigma ) Chronically Exposed to Antifouling Compound Butenolide [5-octylfuran-2(5H)-one] or 4,5-Dichloro-2- N -Octyl-4-Isothiazolin-3-One (DCOIT)

    KAUST Repository

    Chen, Lianguo

    2015-02-03

    The pollution of antifoulant SeaNine 211, with 4,5-dichloro-2-n-octyl-4-isothiazolin-3-one (DCOIT) as active ingredient, in coastal environment raises concerns on its adverse effects, including endocrine disruption and impairment of reproductive function in marine organisms. In the present study, we investigated the hepatic protein expression profiles of both male and female marine medaka (Oryzias melastigma) exposed to low concentrations of DCOIT at 2.55 mu g/L (0.009 mu M) or butenolide, a promising antifouling agent, at 2.31 mu g/L (0.012 mu M) for 28 days. The results showed that proteins involved in phase I (CYP450 enzyme) metabolism, phase II (UDPGT and GST) conjugation as well as mobilization of retinoid storage, an effective nonenzymatic antioxidant, were consistently up-regulated, possibly facilitating the accelerated detoxification of butenolide. Increased synthesis of bile acid would promote the immediate excretion of butenolide metabolites. Activation of fatty acid beta-oxidation and ATP synthesis were consistent with elevated energy consumption for butenolide degradation and excretion. However, DCOIT did not significantly affect the detoxification system of male medaka, but induced a marked increase of vitellogenin (VTG) by 2.3-fold in the liver of male medaka, suggesting that there is estrogenic activity of DCOIT in endocrine disruption. Overall, this study identified the molecular mechanisms and provided sensitive biomarkers characteristic of butenolide and DCOIT in the liver of marine medaka. The low concentrations of butenolide and DCOIT used in the exposure regimes highlight the needs for systematic evaluation of their environmental risk. In addition, the potent estrogenic activity of DCOIT should be considered in the continued applications of SeaNine 211.

  10. Effects of antifouling biocides to the germination and growth of the marine macroalga, Hormosira banksii (Turner) Desicaine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Myers, Jackie H. [School of Ecology and Environment, Deakin University, P.O. Box 423, Warrnambool, Victoria 3280 (Australia) and Department of Primary Industries Research Victoria, Queenscliff, P.O. Box 114 Queenscliff, Victoria 3225 (Australia) and School of Biological Sciences, Monash University, Clayton Campus, Clayton, Victoria 3800 (Australia)]. E-mail jhmyers@deakin.edu.au; Gunthorpe, Leanne [Department of Primary Industries Research Victoria, Queenscliff, P.O. Box 114 Queenscliff, Victoria 3225 (Australia)]. E-mail Leanne.Gunthorpe@dpi.vic.gov.au; Allinson, Graeme [School of Ecology and Environment, Deakin University, P.O. Box 423, Warrnambool, Victoria 3280 (Australia)]. E-mail graemea@deakin.edu.au; Duda, Susan [Department of Primary Industries Research Victoria, Queenscliff, P.O. Box 114 Queenscliff, Victoria 3225 (Australia)]. E-mail Susan.Duda@dpi.vic.gov.au

    2006-09-15

    The International Maritime Organisation's (IMO) ban on the use of tributyltin in antifouling paints has inevitability increased the use of old fashioned antifoulants and/or the development of new paints containing 'booster biocides'. These newer paints are intended to be environmentally less harmful, however the broader environmental effects of these 'booster biocides' are poorly known. Germination and growth inhibition tests using the marine macroalga, Hormosira banksii (Turner) Desicaine were conducted to evaluate the toxicity of four new antifouling biocides in relation to tributyltin-oxide (TBTO). Each of the biocides significantly inhibited germination and growth of Hormosira banksii spores. Toxicity was in increasing order: diuron < zineb < seanine 211 < zinc pyrithione < TBTO. However, the lack of knowledge on partitioning in the environment makes it difficult to make a full assessment on whether the four biocides tested offer an advantage over organotin paints in terms of environmental impact.

  11. Effects of antifouling biocides to the germination and growth of the marine macroalga, Hormosira banksii (Turner) Desicaine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Myers, Jackie H. . E-mail jhmyers@deakin.edu.au; Gunthorpe, Leanne . E-mail Leanne.Gunthorpe@dpi.vic.gov.au; Allinson, Graeme . E-mail graemea@deakin.edu.au; Duda, Susan . E-mail Susan.Duda@dpi.vic.gov.au

    2006-01-01

    The International Maritime Organisation's (IMO) ban on the use of tributyltin in antifouling paints has inevitability increased the use of old fashioned antifoulants and/or the development of new paints containing 'booster biocides'. These newer paints are intended to be environmentally less harmful, however the broader environmental effects of these 'booster biocides' are poorly known. Germination and growth inhibition tests using the marine macroalga, Hormosira banksii (Turner) Desicaine were conducted to evaluate the toxicity of four new antifouling biocides in relation to tributyltin-oxide (TBTO). Each of the biocides significantly inhibited germination and growth of Hormosira banksii spores. Toxicity was in increasing order: diuron < zineb < seanine 211 < zinc pyrithione < TBTO. However, the lack of knowledge on partitioning in the environment makes it difficult to make a full assessment on whether the four biocides tested offer an advantage over organotin paints in terms of environmental impact

  12. Antifouling Activity of Synthetic Alkylpyridinium Polymers Using the Barnacle Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piazza, Veronica; Dragić, Ivanka; Sepčić, Kristina; Faimali, Marco; Garaventa, Francesca; Turk, Tom; Berne, Sabina

    2014-01-01

    Polymeric alkylpyridinium salts (poly-APS) isolated from the Mediterranean marine sponge, Haliclona (Rhizoniera) sarai, effectively inhibit barnacle larva settlement and natural marine biofilm formation through a non-toxic and reversible mechanism. Potential use of poly-APS-like compounds as antifouling agents led to the chemical synthesis of monomeric and oligomeric 3-alkylpyridinium analogues. However, these are less efficient in settlement assays and have greater toxicity than the natural polymers. Recently, a new chemical synthesis method enabled the production of poly-APS analogues with antibacterial, antifungal and anti-acetylcholinesterase activities. The present study examines the antifouling properties and toxicity of six of these synthetic poly-APS using the barnacle (Amphibalanus amphitrite) as a model (cyprids and II stage nauplii larvae) in settlement, acute and sub-acute toxicity assays. Two compounds, APS8 and APS12-3, show antifouling effects very similar to natural poly-APS, with an anti-settlement effective concentration that inhibits 50% of the cyprid population settlement (EC50) after 24 h of 0.32 mg/L and 0.89 mg/L, respectively. The toxicity of APS8 is negligible, while APS12-3 is three-fold more toxic (24-h LC50: nauplii, 11.60 mg/L; cyprids, 61.13 mg/L) than natural poly-APS. This toxicity of APS12-3 towards nauplii is, however, 60-fold and 1200-fold lower than that of the common co-biocides, Zn- and Cu-pyrithione, respectively. Additionally, exposure to APS12-3 for 24 and 48 h inhibits the naupliar swimming ability with respective IC50 of 4.83 and 1.86 mg/L. PMID:24699112

  13. Antifouling Activity of Synthetic Alkylpyridinium Polymers Using the Barnacle Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veronica Piazza

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Polymeric alkylpyridinium salts (poly-APS isolated from the Mediterranean marine sponge, Haliclona (Rhizoniera sarai, effectively inhibit barnacle larva settlement and natural marine biofilm formation through a non-toxic and reversible mechanism. Potential use of poly-APS-like compounds as antifouling agents led to the chemical synthesis of monomeric and oligomeric 3-alkylpyridinium analogues. However, these are less efficient in settlement assays and have greater toxicity than the natural polymers. Recently, a new chemical synthesis method enabled the production of poly-APS analogues with antibacterial, antifungal and anti-acetylcholinesterase activities. The present study examines the antifouling properties and toxicity of six of these synthetic poly-APS using the barnacle (Amphibalanus amphitrite as a model (cyprids and II stage nauplii larvae in settlement, acute and sub-acute toxicity assays. Two compounds, APS8 and APS12-3, show antifouling effects very similar to natural poly-APS, with an anti-settlement effective concentration that inhibits 50% of the cyprid population settlement (EC50 after 24 h of 0.32 mg/L and 0.89 mg/L, respectively. The toxicity of APS8 is negligible, while APS12-3 is three-fold more toxic (24-h LC50: nauplii, 11.60 mg/L; cyprids, 61.13 mg/L than natural poly-APS. This toxicity of APS12-3 towards nauplii is, however, 60-fold and 1200-fold lower than that of the common co-biocides, Zn- and Cu-pyrithione, respectively. Additionally, exposure to APS12-3 for 24 and 48 h inhibits the naupliar swimming ability with respective IC50 of 4.83 and 1.86 mg/L.

  14. Potent Antifouling Marine Dihydroquinolin-2(1H)-one-Containing Alkaloids from the Gorgonian Coral-Derived Fungus Scopulariopsis sp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, Chang-Lun; Xu, Ru-Fang; Wang, Chang-Yun; Qian, Pei-Yuan; Wang, Kai-Ling; Wei, Mei-Yan

    2015-08-01

    Marine biofouling has a major economic impact, especially when it occurs on ship hulls or aquaculture facilities. Since the International Maritime Organization (IMO) treaty to ban the application of organotin-based paints to ships went into effect in 2008, there is an urgent demand for the development of efficient and environmentally friendly antifouling agents. Marine microorganisms have proved to be a potential source of antifouling natural compounds. In this study, six dihydroquinolin-2-one-containing alkaloids, three monoterpenoids combined with a 4-phenyl-3,4-dihydroquinolin-2(1H)-one (1-3) and three 4-phenyl-3,4-dihydroquinolin-2(1H)-one alkaloids (4-6), were isolated from the gorgonian coral-derived fungus Scopulariopsis sp. collected in the South China Sea. These dihydroquinolin-2-one-containing alkaloids were evaluated against the larval settlement of barnacle Balanus amphitrite, and antifouling activity was detected for the first time for this class of metabolites. All of them except 6 showed strong antifouling activity. Compounds 1 and 2 were discovered to be the most promising non-toxic antilarval settlement candidates. Especially, compound 1 is the strongest antifouling compound in nature until now which showed highly potent activity with picomolar level (EC50 17.5 pM) and a very safety and high therapeutic ratio (LC50/EC50 1200). This represents an effective non-toxic, anti-larval settlement structural class of promising antifouling lead compound.

  15. Optical properties of zinc oxide-based ternary compounds synthesized by electrodeposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cembrero, J. [Departament d' Enginyeria Mecanica i Materials, Universitat Politecnica de Valencia, Cami de Vera s/n, 46022 Valencia (Spain); Mollar, M.; Tortosa, M. [Departament de Fisica Aplicada, Universitat Politecnica de Valencia, Cami de Vera s/n, 46022 Valencia (Spain); Mari, B.

    2008-07-01

    Structure, morphology and optical properties of ZnO thin films grown by electrodeposition under different conditions changing both solvent (water or dimethylsulfoxide) and substrate (polycrystalline FTO or monocrystalline GaN) are reported. The results point out the advantage of using dimethylsulfoxide when uniform, oriented and highly transparent films are required. On the other hand electrodeposition in aqueous bath produces perfectly defined hexagonal ZnO columns which can be fully oriented by chosing a suitable substrate. Photoluminescence has only been observed for ZnO films grown in aqueous bath. Ternary compounds as ZnMO (M=Cd,Co,Mn) with a controlled ratio between both cations, and morphology and structure like binary ZnO can be easily obtained from dimethylsulfoxide. (copyright 2008 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  16. Implant-bone boundary, management with coordinative of zinc and vanadium compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Granciuc, Victoria; Manascurta, Ghenadie; Granciuc, Gheorge

    2013-01-01

    Theoretical concept about description of the implant integration into the bone on a microscopic view remains to be a wide studied subject. The study of the morphological samples with sections on the border implant-bone had been done on different depths and sides of the implant using hematoxylin-eosin stain. Remarkable result had been observed on comparative analysis of studied groups on administrating TS-2Z and TS-1Z,TS-9V that did stimulate bone regeneration. Histological studies confirm the results of improvement of biochemical and blood indexes after implant surgery at the laboratory animals that had received coordinative compounds of Zn(L-H)2; Zn(L-H)etazol; [Vo(L- H)etazol]2SO4. (authors)

  17. Searching for “Environmentally-Benign” Antifouling Biocides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Ting Cui

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available As the result of the ecological impacts from the use of tributyltins (TBT in shipping, environmental legislation for the registration of chemicals for use in the environment has grown to a monumental challenge requiring product dossiers to include information on the environmental fate and behavior of any chemicals. Specifically, persistence, bioaccumulation and toxicity, collectively known as PBT, are properties of concern in the assessment of chemicals. However, existing measurements of PBT properties are a cumbersome and expensive process, and thus not applied in the early stages of the product discovery and development. Inexpensive methods for preliminary PBT screening would minimize risks arising with the subsequent registration of products. In this article, we evaluated the PBT properties of compounds reported to possess anti-fouling properties using QSAR (quantitative structure-activity relationship prediction programs such as BIOWIN™ (a biodegradation probability program, KOWWIN™ (log octanol-water partition coefficient calculation program and ECOSAR™ (Ecological Structure Activity Relationship Programme. The analyses identified some small (Mr < 400 synthetic and natural products as potential candidates for environmentally benign biocides. We aim to demonstrate that while these methods of estimation have limitations, when applied with discretion, they are powerful tools useful in the early stages of research for compound selection for further development as anti-foulants.

  18. Characterization and Influence of Green Synthesis of Nano-Sized Zinc Complex with 5-Aminolevulinic Acid on Bioactive Compounds of Aniseed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tavallali, Vahid; Rahmati, Sadegh; Rowshan, Vahid

    2017-11-01

    A new water soluble zinc-aminolevulinic acid nano complex (n[Zn(ALA) 2 ]), which was characterized by TEM, IR, and EDX spectra, has been prepared via sonochemical method under green conditions in water. In the current study, the effectiveness of foliar Zn amendment using synthetic Zn-ALA nano complex, as a new introduced Zn-fertilizer here, was evaluated. As the model plant, Pimpinella anisum, the most valuable spice and medicinal plant grown in warm regions, was used. By using zinc nano complex, further twenty compounds were obtained in the essential oil of anise plants. Application of 0.2% (w/v) Zn-ALA nano complex increased the levels of (E)-anethole, β-bisabolene, germacrene D, methyl chavicol, and α-zingiberene in the essential oil. Nano Zn complex at the rate of 0.2% induced considerable high phenolic compounds and zinc content of shoots and seeds. Chlorogenic acid had the highest level between four detected phenolic compounds. The maximum antioxidant activity was monitored through the application of Zn nano complex. According to the results, nanoscale nutrients can be provided with further decreased doses for medicinal plants. Using Zn-ALA nano complex is a new and efficient method to improve the pharmaceutical and food properties of anise plants. © 2017 Wiley-VHCA AG, Zurich, Switzerland.

  19. Effect of the Medium Composition on the Zn2+ Lixiviation and the Antifouling Properties of a Glass with a High ZnO Content

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leticia Esteban-Tejeda

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The dissolution of an antimicrobial ZnO-glass in the form of powder and in the form of sintered pellets were studied in water, artificial seawater, biological complex media such as common bacterial/yeast growth media (Luria Bertani (LB, yeast extract, tryptone, and human serum. It has been established that the media containing amino acids and proteins produce a high lixiviation of Zn2+ from the glass due to the ability of zinc and zinc oxide to react with amino acids and proteins to form complex organic compounds. The process of Zn2+ lixiviation from the glass network has been studied by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS. From these results we can state that the process of lixiviation of Zn2+ from the glass network is similar to the one observed in sodalime glasses, where Na+ is lixiviated to the media first and the fraction of Zn that acts as modifiers (~2/3 is lixiviated in second place. After the subsequent collapse of the outer surface glass layer (about 200–300 nm thick layer the dissolution process starts again. Antifouling properties against different bacteria (S. epidermidis, S. aureus, P. aeruginosa, E. coli, and M. lutea have also been established for the glass pellets.

  20. Surface compounds and the routes of formation of the reaction products in the interaction of propylene with zinc oxide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davydov, A.A.; Yefremov, A.A.; Mikhalchenko, V.G.; Sokolovskii, V.D.

    1979-06-15

    Temperature programed desorption of propylene and allyl bromide from zinc oxide in the absence and presence of oxygen and an IR spectroscopic study of the adsorbed allyl bromide showed that propylene chemisorbed reversibly as a m-allyl species which may undergo dimerization at higher pressures or temperatures but does not form acrolein because the necessary electron transfer does not proceed on the n-type zinc oxide; that propylene also forms carbon dioxide and water via carbonate/carboxylate intermediates; and that the allyl bromide, which forms cations on the zinc oxide surface, is oxidized to acrolein.

  1. Chemical study and antifouling activity of Caribbean octocoral Eunicea laciniata

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cuadrado Silva, Carmen Tatiana; Castellanos Hernandez, Leonardo; Osorno Reyes, Oscar Eduardo; Ramos Rodriguez, Freddy Alejandro; Duque Beltran, Carmenza

    2010-01-01

    The bioassay guided purification of the octocoral Eunicea laciniata organic extract, collected at Santa Marta bay, Colombia, allowed the isolation of the new compound (-)-3β-pregna-5,20-dienyl-β-D-arabinopyranoside (1), along with the known compounds 1(S * ),11(R * )-dolabell-3(E),7(E),12(18)-triene (2), 13-keto-1(S),11(R)-dolabell-3(E),7(E),12(18)-triene (3), cholest- 5,22-dien-3β-ol (4), cholesterol (5), y brassicasterol (6). The structure and absolute configuration of 1 was determined on based spectroscopic analyses (NMR and CD). The extract showed antifouling activity against five strains of marine bacteria associated to heavy fouled surfaces. Also showed activity against the cypris of the cosmopolitan barnacle Balanus amphitrite, and low toxicity in Artemia salina test. (author)

  2. Polymer Nanocomposite Membranes for Antifouling Nanofiltration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamal, Tahseen; Ali, Nauman; Naseem, Abbas A; Khan, Sher B; Asiri, Abdullah M

    2016-01-01

    Fouling refers to the unwanted and undesirable attachment of biological macromolecules, inorganic, organic matter, and microorganisms on water contact surfaces. Fouling reduces the performance of devices involving these submerged surfaces and is considered the bottle-neck issue for various applications in the biomedical industry, food processing, and water treatment, especially in reverse osmosis (RO) desalination. Investigations have proven that nanocomposite membranes can exhibit enhanced antifouling performances and can be used for longer life times. The nanocomposite means addition of nanomaterials to main matrix at low loadings, exhibiting better properties compared to virgin matrix. In this review, a summarized description about related methods and their mechanisms for the fabrication of nanocomposite membranes with antifouling properties has been documented. Around 87 manuscripts including 10 patents were used to demonstrate the antifouling applications of of various nanocomposite membranes.

  3. Antifouling leaching technique for optical lenses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strahle, William J.; Perez, C. L.; Martini, Marinna A.

    1994-01-01

    The effectiveness of optical lenses deployed in water less than 100 m deep is significantly reduced by biofouling caused by the settlement of macrofauna, such as barnacles, hydroids, and tunicates. However, machineable porous plastic rings can be used to dispense antifoulant into the water in front of the lens to retard macrofaunal growth without obstructing the light path. Unlike coatings which can degrade the optical performance, antifouling rings do not interfere with the instrument optics. The authors have designed plastic, reusable cup-like antifouling rings to slip over the optical lenses of a transmissometer. These rings have been used for several deployments on shallow moorings in Massachusetts Bay, MA and have increased the time before fouling degrades optical characteristics

  4. Preparation of Zinc Oxide (ZnO) Thin Film as Transparent Conductive Oxide (TCO) from Zinc Complex Compound on Thin Film Solar Cells: A Study of O2 Effect on Annealing Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muslih, E. Y.; Kim, K. H.

    2017-07-01

    Zinc oxide (ZnO) thin film as a transparent conductive oxide (TCO) for thin film solar cell application was successfully prepared through two step preparations which consisted of deposition by spin coating at 2000 rpm for 10 second and followed by annealing at 500 °C for 2 hours under O2 and ambient atmosphere. Zinc acetate dehydrate was used as a precursor which dissolved in ethanol and acetone (1:1 mol) mixture in order to make a zinc complex compound. In this work, we reported the O2 effect, reaction mechanism, structure, morphology, optical and electrical properties. ZnO thin film in this work shows a single phase of wurtzite, with n-type semiconductor and has band gap, carrier concentration, mobility, and resistivity as 3.18 eV, 1.21 × 10-19cm3, 11 cm2/Vs, 2.35 × 10-3 Ωcm respectively which is suitable for TCO at thin film solar cell.

  5. Concentration of Antifouling Biocides and Metals in Sediment Core Samples in the Northern Part of Hiroshima Bay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noritaka Tsunemasa

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Accumulation of Ot alternative antifoulants in sediment is the focus of this research. Much research had been done on surface sediment, but in this report, the accumulation in the sediment core was studied. The Ot alternative antifoulants, Diuron, Sea-Nine211, and Irgarol 1051, and the latter’s degradation product, M1, were investigated in five samples from the northern part of Hiroshima Bay. Ot compounds (tributyltin (TBT and triphenyltin (TPT were also investigated for comparison. In addition, metal (Pb, Cu, Zn, Fe and Mn levels and chronology were measured to better understand what happens after accumulation on the sea floor. It was discovered that Ot alternative antifoulant accumulation characteristics in sediment were like Ot compounds, with the concentration in the sediment core being much higher than surface sediment. The concentration in sediment seems to have been affected by the regulation of Ot compounds in 1990, due to the concentration of Ot alternative antifoulants and Ot compounds at the survey point in front of the dock, showing an increase from almost the same layer after the regulation.

  6. Seawater-Soluble Pigments and Their Potential Use in Self-Polishing Antifouling Paints: Simulation-based Screening Tool

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kiil, Søren; Dam-Johansen, Kim; Erik Weinell, Claus

    2002-01-01

    This work concerns the on-going development of efficient and environmentally friendly antifouling paints for biofouling control on large ocean-going ships. It is illustrated how a detailed mathematical model for a self-polishing antifouling paint exposed to seawater can be used as a product...... solubility and seawater diffusivity of dissolved pigment species have a significant influence on the polishing and leaching behaviour of a typical self-polishing paint system. The pigment size distribution, on the other hand, only has a minor influence on the paint-seawater interaction. Simulations also...... indicate that only compounds which are effective against biofouling at very low seawater concentrations are useful as active antifouling paint ingredients. The need for model verification and exploration of practical issues, subsequent a given pigment has been found of interest, is discussed. The model...

  7. Antifouling Metabolites from the Mangrove Plant Ceriops tagal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi Ming Lin

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The new diterpene methoxy-ent-8(14-pimarenely-15-one (1 and three knownmetabolites: ent-8(14-pimarene-15R,16-diol (2, stigmasterol (3 and β-sitosterol (4, wereisolated from the roots of the mangrove plant Ceriops tagal. Their structures and relativestereochemistry were elucidated by means of extensive NMR, IR and MS analysis.Compounds 1, 2, 3 and 4 exhibited significant antifouling activities against cyprid larvaeof the barnacle Balanus albicostatus Pilsbry, with EC50 values of 0.32 ± 0.01, 0.04 ± 0.00,4.05 ± 0.15 and 18.47 ± 0.40 μg/cm2, respectively, whereas their toxicities towards cypridswere very low, with LC50 values all above 10 μg/cm2.

  8. Occurrence of lead, copper, zinc, and arsenic compounds in atmospheric dusts, and the sources of these impurities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dunn, J T; Bloxam, H C.L.

    1933-06-30

    The authors indicate that the combustion of fossil fuels such as coal for industrial and electrical power causes the deposition of zinc, arsenic, copper, and lead which are then found in the dust and soots of most urban areas. They express the fear that these dusts, if not poisonous, may be expected to be injurious to the health of man, animals, and plants.

  9. Use of emanation thermal analysis and evolved gas analysis in thermal study of zinc(II) benzoate complex compounds

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Findoráková, L.; Györyová, K.; Večerníková, Eva; Balek, V.

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 98, č. 3 (2009), s. 765-769 ISSN 1388-6150 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40320502 Keywords : zinc(II) benzoate * caffeine * urea * thermogravimetry Subject RIV: CA - Inorganic Chemistry Impact factor: 1.587, year: 2009

  10. Synthesis of carbon quantum dots and zinc oxide nanosheets by pyrolysis of novel metal–organic framework compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma, Qiliang; Zhang, Zhaochun; Yu, Zhenwei

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Thermodynamic and kinetic analysis of porous MOFs. • One step synthesis of CQDs and ZnO nanosheets. • The coexistence of CQDs and ZnO nanosheets show strong ultraviolet emission. - Abstract: Here, the carbon quantum dots and zinc oxide nanosheets with novel superstructures are successfully synthesized simultaneously from a hydrothermal preparation and thermal decomposition of a porous precursor of metal–organic frameworks. Porous metal–organic frameworks are prepared by the hydrothermal process by using zinc nitrate hexahydrate, 4,4′-oxybisbenzoic acid and 4,4′-bipyridine as the starting materials. Fluorescence spectrophotometer, X-ray powder diffraction, transmission electron microscopy and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy were used to characterize the structure and property. The results show the coexistence of carbon quantum dots and zinc oxide nanosheets. The carbon quantum dots size is about 4 nm. Particularly, zinc oxide nanosheets show a new triangular sheet structure that has almost the same size. Strong ultraviolet emission of this coexistence system should be useful in developing visible light-emitting and nanophotonic devices

  11. Synthesis of carbon quantum dots and zinc oxide nanosheets by pyrolysis of novel metal–organic framework compounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ma, Qiliang; Zhang, Zhaochun, E-mail: zhangzhaochun@shu.edu.cn; Yu, Zhenwei

    2015-09-05

    Highlights: • Thermodynamic and kinetic analysis of porous MOFs. • One step synthesis of CQDs and ZnO nanosheets. • The coexistence of CQDs and ZnO nanosheets show strong ultraviolet emission. - Abstract: Here, the carbon quantum dots and zinc oxide nanosheets with novel superstructures are successfully synthesized simultaneously from a hydrothermal preparation and thermal decomposition of a porous precursor of metal–organic frameworks. Porous metal–organic frameworks are prepared by the hydrothermal process by using zinc nitrate hexahydrate, 4,4′-oxybisbenzoic acid and 4,4′-bipyridine as the starting materials. Fluorescence spectrophotometer, X-ray powder diffraction, transmission electron microscopy and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy were used to characterize the structure and property. The results show the coexistence of carbon quantum dots and zinc oxide nanosheets. The carbon quantum dots size is about 4 nm. Particularly, zinc oxide nanosheets show a new triangular sheet structure that has almost the same size. Strong ultraviolet emission of this coexistence system should be useful in developing visible light-emitting and nanophotonic devices.

  12. Layer-by-layer-assembled healable antifouling films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Dongdong; Wu, Mingda; Li, Bochao; Ren, Kefeng; Cheng, Zhongkai; Ji, Jian; Li, Yang; Sun, Junqi

    2015-10-21

    Healable antifouling films are fabricated by the exponential layer-by-layer assembly of PEGylated branched poly(ethylenimine) and hyaluronic acid followed by post-crosslinking. The antifouling function originates from the grafted PEG and the extremely soft nature of the films. The rapid and multiple healing of damaged antifouling functions caused by cuts and scratches can be readily achieved by immersing the films in normal saline solution. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  13. Nontoxic piperamides and their synthetic analogues as novel antifouling reagents

    KAUST Repository

    Huang, Xiang-Zhong

    2014-03-25

    Bioassay-guided isolation of an acetone extract from a terrestrial plant Piper betle produced four known piperamides with potent antifouling (AF) activities, as evidenced by inhibition of settlement of barnacle cypris larvae. The AF activities of the four piperamides and 15 synthesized analogues were compared and their structure-activity relationships were probed. Among the compounds, piperoleine B and 1-[1-oxo-7-(3′,4′-methylenedioxyphenyl)-6E-heptenyl]-piperidine (MPHP) showed strong activity against settlement of cyprids of the barnacle Balanus amphitrite, having EC50 values of 1.1 ± 0.3 and 0.5 ± 0.2 μg ml-1, respectively. No toxicity against zebra fish was observed following incubation with these two compounds. Besides being non-toxic, 91% of piperoleine B-treated cyprids and 84% of MPHP-treated cyprids at a concentration of 100 μM completed normal metamorphosis in recovery bioassays, indicating that the anti-settlement effect of these two compounds was reversible. Hydrolysis and photolysis experiments indicated that MPHP could be decomposed in the marine environment. It is concluded that piperamides are promising compounds for use in marine AF coatings. © 2014 © 2014 Taylor & Francis.

  14. Antifouling and antibacterial polyketides from marine gorgonian coral-associated fungus Penicillium sp. SCSGAF 0023.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bao, Jie; Sun, Yu-Lin; Zhang, Xiao-Yong; Han, Zhuang; Gao, Hai-Chun; He, Fei; Qian, Pei-Yuan; Qi, Shu-Hua

    2013-04-01

    Two new polyketides, 6,8,5'6'-tetrahydroxy-3'-methylflavone (1) and paecilin C (2), together with six known analogs secalonic acid D (3), secalonic acid B (4) penicillixanthone A (5), emodin (6), citreorosein (7) and isorhodoptilometrin (8) were obtained from a broth of gorgonian coral-associated fungus Penicillium sp. SCSGAF 0023. Compounds 1 and 6-8 had significant antifouling activity against Balanus amphitrite larvae settlement with EC50 values of 6.7, 6.1, 17.9 and 13.7 μg ml(-1), respectively, and 3-5 showed medium antibacterial activity against four tested bacterial strains. This was the first report of antibacterial activity of 3-5 against marine bacteria and antifouling activity of 6-8 against marine biofouling organism's larvae. The results indicated that gorgonian coral-associated fungus Penicillium sp. SCSGAF 0023 strain could produce antifouling and antibacterial compounds that might aid the host gorgonian coral in protection against marine pathogen bacteria, biofouling organisms and other intruders.

  15. Antifouling briarane type diterpenoids from South China Sea gorgonians Dichotella gemmacea

    KAUST Repository

    Sun, Jian Fan; Han, Zhuang; Zhou, Xue Feng; Yang, Bin; Lin, Xiuping; Liu, Juan; Peng, Yan; Yang, Xian Wen; Liu, Yonghong

    2013-01-01

    Our continued investigation on the South China Sea gorgonian Dichotella gemmacea led to the isolation of 16 new briarane-type diterpenoids, dichotellides F-U (1-16), along with 18 known analogues (17-34). Their structures were determined by MS, 1D and 2D NMR spectra analyses and by comparison with those reported in literature. The absolute configuration of 15 was confirmed by single-crystal X-ray diffraction data. The antifouling test showed that compounds 3, 4, 6-11, 16, and 23 had potent antifouling activities at nontoxic concentrations with EC50 values of 4.1, 1.82, 6.3, 7.6, 4.6, 1.2, 5.6, 0.79, 2.0, and 0.2 μg/mL, respectively. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Assessment of organotin and tin-free antifouling paints contamination in the Korean coastal area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Mi-Ri-Nae; Kim, Un-Jung; Lee, In-Seok; Choi, Minkyu; Oh, Jeong-Eun

    2015-10-15

    Twelve organotins (methyl-, octyl-, butyl-, and phenyl-tin), and eight tin-free antifouling paints and their degradation products were measured in marine sediments from the Korean coastal area, and Busan and Ulsan bays, the largest harbor area in Korea. The total concentration of tin-free antifouling paints was two- to threefold higher than the total concentration of organotins. Principal component analysis was used to identify sites with relatively high levels of contamination in the inner bay area of Busan and Ulsan bays, which were separated from the coastal area. In Busan and Ulsan bays, chlorothalonil and DMSA were more dominant than in the coastal area. However, Sea-Nine 211 and total diurons, including their degradation products, were generally dominant in the Korean coastal area. The concentrations of tin and tin-free compounds were significantly different between the east and west coasts. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Challenges for the Development of New Non-Toxic Antifouling Solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Philippe Maréchal

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Marine biofouling is of major economic concern to all marine industries. The shipping trade is particularly alert to the development of new antifouling (AF strategies, especially green AF paint as international regulations regarding the environmental impact of the compounds actually incorporated into the formulations are becoming more and more strict. It is also recognised that vessels play an extensive role in invasive species propagation as ballast waters transport potentially threatening larvae. It is then crucial to develop new AF solutions combining advances in marine chemistry and topography, in addition to a knowledge of marine biofoulers, with respect to the marine environment. This review presents the recent research progress made in the field of new non-toxic AF solutions (new microtexturing of surfaces, foul-release coatings, and with a special emphasis on marine natural antifoulants as well as the perspectives for future research directions.

  18. Switchable antifouling coatings and uses thereof

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denton, Michele L. Baca; Dirk, Shawn M.; Johnson, Ross Stefan

    2017-02-28

    The present invention relates to antifouling coatings capable of being switched by using heat or ultraviolet light. Prior to switching, the coating includes an onium cation component having antimicrobial and antibacterial properties. Upon switching, the coating is converted to a conjugated polymer state, and the cationic component is released with any adsorbed biofilm layer. Thus, the coatings herein have switchable and releasable properties. Methods of making and using such coatings are also described.

  19. Antifouling polymer brushes displaying antithrombogenic surface properties

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    de los Santos Pereira, Andres; Sheikh, S.; Blaszykowski, C.; Pop-Georgievski, Ognen; Fedorov, K.; Thompson, M.; Rodriguez-Emmenegger, Cesar

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 17, č. 3 (2016), s. 1179-1185 ISSN 1525-7797 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GJ15-09368Y; GA MŠk(CZ) ED1.1.00/02.0109 Grant - others:OPPK(XE) CZ.2.16/3.1.00/21545 Program:OPPK Institutional support: RVO:61389013 Keywords : polymer brushes * surface characterization * antifouling surfaces Subject RIV: BO - Biophysics Impact factor: 5.246, year: 2016

  20. Effects of Antifouling Biocides on Molecular and Biochemical Defense System in the Gill of the Pacific Oyster Crassostrea gigas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Mi Seon; Kim, Young Dae; Kim, Bo-Mi; Kim, Youn-Jung; Kim, Jang Kyun; Rhee, Jae-Sung

    2016-01-01

    Antifouling biocides such as organotin compounds and their alternatives are potent toxicants in marine ecosystems. In this study, we employed several molecular and biochemical response systems of the Pacific oyster Crassostrea gigas to understand a potential mode of action of antifouling biocides (i.e. tributyltin (TBT), diuron and irgarol) after exposure to different concentrations (0.01, 0.1, and 1 μg L-1) for 96 h. As a result, all the three antifouling biocides strongly induced the antioxidant defense system. TBT reduced both enzymatic activity and mRNA expression of Na+/K+-ATPase and acetylcholinesterase (AChE). Lower levels of both Na+/K+-ATPase activity and AChE mRNA expression were observed in the diuron-exposed oysters compared to the control, while the irgarol treatment reduced only the transcriptional expression of AChE gene. We also analyzed transcript profile of heat shock protein (Hsp) superfamily in same experimental conditions. All antifouling biocides tested in this study significantly modulated mRNA expression of Hsp superfamily with strong induction of Hsp70 family. Taken together, overall results indicate that representative organotin TBT and alternatives have potential hazardous effects on the gill of C. gigas within relatively short time period. Our results also suggest that analyzing a series of molecular and biochemical parameters can be a way of understanding and uncovering the mode of action of emerging antifouling biocides. In particular, it was revealed that Pacific oysters have different sensitivities depend on the antifouling biocides. PMID:28006823

  1. Effects of Antifouling Biocides on Molecular and Biochemical Defense System in the Gill of the Pacific Oyster Crassostrea gigas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Mi Seon; Kim, Young Dae; Kim, Bo-Mi; Kim, Youn-Jung; Kim, Jang Kyun; Rhee, Jae-Sung

    2016-01-01

    Antifouling biocides such as organotin compounds and their alternatives are potent toxicants in marine ecosystems. In this study, we employed several molecular and biochemical response systems of the Pacific oyster Crassostrea gigas to understand a potential mode of action of antifouling biocides (i.e. tributyltin (TBT), diuron and irgarol) after exposure to different concentrations (0.01, 0.1, and 1 μg L-1) for 96 h. As a result, all the three antifouling biocides strongly induced the antioxidant defense system. TBT reduced both enzymatic activity and mRNA expression of Na+/K+-ATPase and acetylcholinesterase (AChE). Lower levels of both Na+/K+-ATPase activity and AChE mRNA expression were observed in the diuron-exposed oysters compared to the control, while the irgarol treatment reduced only the transcriptional expression of AChE gene. We also analyzed transcript profile of heat shock protein (Hsp) superfamily in same experimental conditions. All antifouling biocides tested in this study significantly modulated mRNA expression of Hsp superfamily with strong induction of Hsp70 family. Taken together, overall results indicate that representative organotin TBT and alternatives have potential hazardous effects on the gill of C. gigas within relatively short time period. Our results also suggest that analyzing a series of molecular and biochemical parameters can be a way of understanding and uncovering the mode of action of emerging antifouling biocides. In particular, it was revealed that Pacific oysters have different sensitivities depend on the antifouling biocides.

  2. Antifouling technology-past, present and future steps towards efficient and environmentally friendly antifouling coatings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yebra, Diego Meseguer; Kiil, Søren; Dam-Johansen, Kim

    2004-01-01

    , by some of the paint-producing companies. An exhaustive review of the historical development of antifouling systems and a detailed characterisation of sea water are also included. The need for studies on the behaviour of chemically active paints under different sea water conditions is emphasised...... in two main ways: imitation of the natural antifouling processes and modification of the characteristics of the substrate. The former mostly focuses on the study of the large amount of secondary metabolites secreted by many different marine organisms to control the fouling on their surfaces. The many...

  3. Significance of antifouling paint flakes to the distribution of dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethanes (DDTs) in estuarine sediment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, Chen-Chou; Bao, Lian-Jun; Tao, Shu; Zeng, Eddy Y.

    2016-01-01

    Recently published literature indicated that dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT)-containing antifouling paint flakes were heterogeneously distributed within estuarine sediments. However, the significance of antifouling paint flakes in the fate and transport of DDT compounds and other organic pollutants in estuarine sediment is yet to be adequately addressed. To fill this knowledge gap, estuarine sediment and paint flakes from cabin and boat surfaces were collected from a fishery base in Guangdong Province of South China and analyzed for DDT compounds. Coarse fractioned samples collected from the vicinity of boat maintenance facilities contained appreciable amounts of colorful particles, which were identified as paint flakes by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. The highest concentrations of DDXs (sum of DDTs and its metabolites) occurred in the heavy-density (>1.7 g cm"−"3) fraction of coarse-size (200–2000 μm) sediments from near the boat maintenance facilities, suggesting the importance of paint flakes in the distribution pattern of “hot spots” in estuarine sediment. Moreover, the desorption rates of DDT compounds from paint flakes and the heavy-density fraction of coarse-size sediment were both extremely slow. Apparently, unevenly distributed paint flakes in sediment can artificially inflate the sorption capacity of heavy-density sediment for DDT compounds, and therefore can substantially change the environmental fate and behavior of hydrophobic organic chemicals in estuarine sediment. Finally, commonly used source diagnostic indices of DDT compounds were mostly grain-size and density dependent in sediment, as a result of the occurrence of paint flakes, which may strongly compromise the outcome of any source diagnostics efforts. - Highlights: • Concentrations of DDTs were elevated in coarse and high-density fractions. • The desorption rates of DDTs from coarse and high-density fraction were extreme slow. • DDTs-containing antifouling

  4. Potent Antifouling Marine Dihydroquinolin-2(1H)-one-Containing Alkaloids from the Gorgonian Coral-Derived Fungus Scopulariopsis sp.

    KAUST Repository

    Shao, Chang Lun

    2015-04-02

    Marine biofouling has a major economic impact, especially when it occurs on ship hulls or aquaculture facilities. Since the International Maritime Organization (IMO) treaty to ban the application of organotin-based paints to ships went into effect in 2008, there is an urgent demand for the development of efficient and environmentally friendly antifouling agents. Marine microorganisms have proved to be a potential source of antifouling natural compounds. In this study, six dihydroquinolin-2-one-containing alkaloids, three monoterpenoids combined with a 4-phenyl-3,4-dihydroquinolin-2(1H)-one (1–3) and three 4-phenyl-3,4-dihydroquinolin-2(1H)-one alkaloids (4–6), were isolated from the gorgonian coral-derived fungus Scopulariopsis sp. collected in the South China Sea. These dihydroquinolin-2-one-containing alkaloids were evaluated against the larval settlement of barnacle Balanus amphitrite, and antifouling activity was detected for the first time for this class of metabolites. All of them except 6 showed strong antifouling activity. Compounds 1 and 2 were discovered to be the most promising non-toxic antilarval settlement candidates. Especially, compound 1 is the strongest antifouling compound in nature until now which showed highly potent activity with picomolar level (EC50 17.5 pM) and a very safety and high therapeutic ratio (LC50/EC50 1200). This represents an effective non-toxic, anti-larval settlement structural class of promising antifouling lead compound. © 2015 Springer Science+Business Media New York

  5. New antifouling platform characterized by single-molecule imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryu, Ji Young; Song, In Taek; Lau, K H Aaron; Messersmith, Phillip B; Yoon, Tae-Young; Lee, Haeshin

    2014-03-12

    Antifouling surfaces have been widely studied for their importance in medical devices and industry. Antifouling surfaces mostly achieved by methoxy-poly(ethylene glycol) (mPEG) have shown biomolecular adsorption less than 1 ng/cm(2) which was measured by surface analytical tools such as surface plasmon resonance (SPR) spectroscopy, quartz crystal microbalance (QCM), or optical waveguide lightmode (OWL) spectroscopy. Herein, we utilize a single-molecule imaging technique (i.e., an ultimate resolution) to study antifouling properties of functionalized surfaces. We found that about 600 immunoglobulin G (IgG) molecules are adsorbed. This result corresponds to ∼5 pg/cm(2) adsorption, which is far below amount for the detection limit of the conventional tools. Furthermore, we developed a new antifouling platform that exhibits improved antifouling performance that shows only 78 IgG molecules adsorbed (∼0.5 pg/cm(2)). The antifouling platform consists of forming 1 nm TiO2 thin layer, on which peptidomimetic antifouling polymer (PMAP) is robustly anchored. The unprecedented antifouling performance can potentially revolutionize a variety of research fields such as single-molecule imaging, medical devices, biosensors, and others.

  6. New Antifouling Platform Characterized by Single-Molecule Imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    Antifouling surfaces have been widely studied for their importance in medical devices and industry. Antifouling surfaces mostly achieved by methoxy-poly(ethylene glycol) (mPEG) have shown biomolecular adsorption less than 1 ng/cm2 which was measured by surface analytical tools such as surface plasmon resonance (SPR) spectroscopy, quartz crystal microbalance (QCM), or optical waveguide lightmode (OWL) spectroscopy. Herein, we utilize a single-molecule imaging technique (i.e., an ultimate resolution) to study antifouling properties of functionalized surfaces. We found that about 600 immunoglobulin G (IgG) molecules are adsorbed. This result corresponds to ∼5 pg/cm2 adsorption, which is far below amount for the detection limit of the conventional tools. Furthermore, we developed a new antifouling platform that exhibits improved antifouling performance that shows only 78 IgG molecules adsorbed (∼0.5 pg/cm2). The antifouling platform consists of forming 1 nm TiO2 thin layer, on which peptidomimetic antifouling polymer (PMAP) is robustly anchored. The unprecedented antifouling performance can potentially revolutionize a variety of research fields such as single-molecule imaging, medical devices, biosensors, and others. PMID:24503420

  7. Controlled release of environmentally friendly antifouling agents from marine coatings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Stefan Møller

    som antifouling agent er derfor en central del i dette arbejde. Det overordnede mål er at kunne evaluere antifouling effekten af en maling, der ved hjælp af to enzymer omdanner stivelse til hydrogenperoxid. I første kapitel vil der blive givet en introduktion til fouling, det marine miljø, og...

  8. Thielavins W–Z7, New Antifouling Thielavins from the Marine-Derived Fungus Thielavia sp. UST030930-004

    KAUST Repository

    Han, Zhuang

    2017-05-02

    Eleven new depsides-thielavins W-Z (1-4) and thielavins Z₁-Z₇ (5-11)-and also four known thielavins-A, H, J, and K (12-15)-were isolated from the ethyl acetate extract of a marine-derived fungal strain Thielavia sp UST030930-004. All of these compounds were evaluated for antifouling activity against cyprids of the barnacle Balanus (=Amphibalanus) amphitrite. The results showed that compounds 1-3 and 6-13 were active, with EC50 values ranging from 2.95 ± 0.59 to 69.19 ± 9.51 μM, respectively. The inhibitive effect of compounds 1-3 and 7 was reversible. This is the first description of the antifouling activity of thielavins against barnacle cyprids.

  9. Thielavins W–Z7, New Antifouling Thielavins from the Marine-Derived Fungus Thielavia sp. UST030930-004

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhuang Han

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Eleven new depsides—thielavins W–Z (1–4 and thielavins Z1–Z7 (5–11—and also four known thielavins—A, H, J, and K (12–15—were isolated from the ethyl acetate extract of a marine-derived fungal strain Thielavia sp UST030930-004. All of these compounds were evaluated for antifouling activity against cyprids of the barnacle Balanus (=Amphibalanus amphitrite. The results showed that compounds 1–3 and 6–13 were active, with EC50 values ranging from 2.95 ± 0.59 to 69.19 ± 9.51 μM, respectively. The inhibitive effect of compounds 1–3 and 7 was reversible. This is the first description of the antifouling activity of thielavins against barnacle cyprids.

  10. Thielavins W–Z7, New Antifouling Thielavins from the Marine-Derived Fungus Thielavia sp. UST030930-004

    KAUST Repository

    Han, Zhuang; Li, Yong-Xin; Liu, Ling-Li; Lu, Liang; Guo, Xianrong; Zhang, Xixiang; Zhang, Xiao-Yong; Qi, Shu-Hua; Xu, Ying; Qian, Pei-Yuan

    2017-01-01

    Eleven new depsides-thielavins W-Z (1-4) and thielavins Z₁-Z₇ (5-11)-and also four known thielavins-A, H, J, and K (12-15)-were isolated from the ethyl acetate extract of a marine-derived fungal strain Thielavia sp UST030930-004. All of these compounds were evaluated for antifouling activity against cyprids of the barnacle Balanus (=Amphibalanus) amphitrite. The results showed that compounds 1-3 and 6-13 were active, with EC50 values ranging from 2.95 ± 0.59 to 69.19 ± 9.51 μM, respectively. The inhibitive effect of compounds 1-3 and 7 was reversible. This is the first description of the antifouling activity of thielavins against barnacle cyprids.

  11. Zinc phosphate conversion coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugama, Toshifumi

    1997-01-01

    Zinc phosphate conversion coatings for producing metals which exhibit enhanced corrosion prevention characteristics are prepared by the addition of a transition-metal-compound promoter comprising a manganese, iron, cobalt, nickel, or copper compound and an electrolyte such as polyacrylic acid, polymethacrylic acid, polyitaconic acid and poly-L-glutamic acid to a phosphating solution. These coatings are further improved by the incorporation of Fe ions. Thermal treatment of zinc phosphate coatings to generate .alpha.-phase anhydrous zinc phosphate improves the corrosion prevention qualities of the resulting coated metal.

  12. Role of defects on the electronic and magnetic properties of CrAs, CrSe and CrSb zinc-blende compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galanakis, I.; Pouliasis, S.G.

    2009-01-01

    We present an extended study of single impurity atoms and atomic swaps in half-metallic CrAs, CrSb and CrSe zinc-blende compounds. Although the perfect alloys present a rather large gap in the minority-spin band, all defects under study, with the exception of void impurities at Cr and sp sites and Cr impurities at sp sites (as long as no swap occurs), induce new states within the gap. The Fermi level can be pinned within these new minority states depending on the lattice constant used for the calculations and the electronegativity of the sp atoms. Although these impurity states are localized in space around the impurity atoms and very fast we regain the bulk behavior, their interaction can lead to wide bands within the gap and thus loss of the half-metallic character

  13. Coordination compounds of cobalt(II), nickel(II), copper(II), and zinc(II) with pantothenic acid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shabilalov, A.A.; Yunuskhodzhaev, A.N.; Khodzhaev, O.F.; Azizov, M.A.

    1986-11-01

    The compounds Ni(PANA - H)/sub 2/ x 4H/sub 2/O (PANA stands for pantothenic acid, and - H indicates a deprotonated ligand), Cu(PANA - H)/sub 2/ x 2H/sub 2/O, Zn(PANA - H)/sub 2/ x H/sub 2/O, Co(PANA - H)Cl x H/sub 2/O, and Ni(PANA - H)Cl x 3H/sub 2/O have been synthesized on the basis of pantothenic acid and Co(II), Ni(II), Cu(II), and Zn(II) salts in aqueous media. The compounds have been identified by elemental and x-ray diffraction analysis. Some physicochemical properties (solubility, melting point, molar conductivity) of the compounds obtained have been studied. The structure of the compounds isolated has been established on the basis of an analysis of their IR, ESR, and electronic spectra, as well as derivatograms.

  14. Degradation kinetics of a potent antifouling agent, butenolide, under various environmental conditions

    KAUST Repository

    Chen, Lianguo

    2015-01-01

    © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. Here, we investigated the degradation kinetics of butenolide, a promising antifouling compound, under various environmental conditions. The active ingredient of the commercial antifoulant SeaNine 211, 4,5-dichloro-2-n-octyl-4-isothiazolin-3-one (DCOIT), was used as positive control. The results showed that the degradation rate increased with increasing temperature. Half-lives of butenolide at 4. °C, 25. °C and 40. °C were. >64. d, 30.5. d and 3.9. d, respectively. Similar half-lives were recorded for DCOIT: >64. d at 4. °C, 27.9. d at 25. °C and 4.5. d at 40. °C. Exposure to sunlight accelerated the degradation of both butenolide and DCOIT. The photolysis half-lives of butenolide and DCOIT were 5.7. d and 6.8. d, respectively, compared with 9.7. d and 14.4. d for the dark control. Biodegradation led to the fastest rate of butenolide removal from natural seawater, with a half-life of 0.5. d, while no obvious degradation was observed for DCOIT after incubation for 4. d. The biodegradative ability of natural seawater for butenolide was attributed mainly to marine bacteria. During the degradation of butenolide and DCOIT, a gradual decrease in antifouling activity was observed, as indicated by the increased settlement percentage of cypris larvae from barnacle Balanus amphitrite. Besides, increased cell growth of marine diatom Skeletonema costatum demonstrated that the toxicity of seawater decreased gradually without generation of more toxic by-products. Overall, rapid degradation of butenolide in natural seawater supported its claim as a promising candidate for commercial antifouling industry.

  15. Innovative uses for zinc in dermatology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bae, Yoon Soo; Hill, Nikki D; Bibi, Yuval; Dreiher, Jacob; Cohen, Arnon D

    2010-07-01

    Severe zinc deficiency states, such as acrodermatitis enteropathica, are associated with a variety of skin manifestations, such as perioral, acral, and perineal dermatitis. These syndromes can be reversed with systemic zinc repletion. In addition to skin pathologies that are clearly zinc-dependent, many dermatologic conditions (eg, dandruff, acne, and diaper rash) have been associated and treated with zinc. Success rates for treatment with zinc vary greatly depending on the disease, mode of administration, and precise zinc preparation used. With the exception of systemic zinc deficiency states, there is little evidence that convincingly demonstrates the efficacy of zinc as a reliable first-line treatment for most dermatologic conditions. However, zinc may be considered as an adjunctive treatment modality. Further research is needed to establish the indications for zinc treatment in dermatology, optimal mode of zinc delivery, and best type of zinc compound to be used. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Ciprofloxacin-intercalated Zinc Layered Hydroxides Hybrid Material: Synthesis and in Vitro Release Profiles of an Antibiotic Compound

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohd Zobir Hussein; Mohd Zobir Hussein; Stanslas, J.; Abdul Halim Abdullah

    2011-01-01

    The intriguing anion exchange properties of layered hydroxides salts, combined with its high layer charge density have provided strong motivations for the potential use of the inorganic layered host material in drug delivery applications. Ciprofloxacin (CFX), a wide spectrum antibiotic has been anion exchanged with nitrate of zinc hydroxide nitrate (ZHN), which belongs to the LHS family, resulted in the expansion of the basal spacing from 9.92 Amstrom of ZHN to 21.5 Angstrom of ZCFX, the obtained hybrid material. Other characterizations, such as Fourier transform infra red spectroscopy (FTIR), CHNS analysis and TGA/ DTG have further corroborated this finding. Electron microscopy study reveals the plate-like structure of the nano hybrid material. The in vitro release of CFX was performed in phosphate saline buffer at pH 7.4 and it behaves in a slow and sustained release profile over a period of 72 hours. This study suggests that ZHN, which demonstrates a controlled release behavior, could be a potential host material in the drug delivery applications. (author)

  17. Surface thiolation of silicon for antifouling application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiaoning; Gao, Pei; Hollimon, Valerie; Brodus, DaShan; Johnson, Arion; Hu, Hongmei

    2018-02-07

    Thiol groups grafted silicon surface was prepared as previously described. 1H,1H,2H,2H-perfluorodecanethiol (PFDT) molecules were then immobilized on such a surface through disulfide bonds formation. To investigate the contribution of PFDT coating to antifouling, the adhesion behaviors of Botryococcus braunii (B. braunii) and Escherichia coli (E. coli) were studied through biofouling assays in the laboratory. The representative microscope images suggest reduced B. braunii and E. coli accumulation densities on PFDT integrated silicon substrate. However, the antifouling performance of PFDT integrated silicon substrate decreased over time. By incubating the aged substrate in 10 mM TCEP·HCl solution for 1 h, the fouled PFDT coating could be removed as the disulfide bonds were cleaved, resulting in reduced absorption of algal cells and exposure of non-fouled silicon substrate surface. Our results indicate that the thiol-terminated substrate can be potentially useful for restoring the fouled surface, as well as maximizing the effective usage of the substrate.

  18. On the synthesis of a compound with positive enthalpy of formation: Zinc-blende-like RuN thin films obtained by rf-magnetron sputtering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cattaruzza, E., E-mail: cattaruz@unive.it [Department of Molecular Sciences and Nanosystems, Ca’ Foscari University of Venice, Via Torino 155/B, 30172 Mestre-VE (Italy); Battaglin, G.; Riello, P. [Department of Molecular Sciences and Nanosystems, Ca’ Foscari University of Venice, Via Torino 155/B, 30172 Mestre-VE (Italy); Cristofori, D. [Department of Molecular Sciences and Nanosystems, Ca’ Foscari University of Venice and Centre for Electron Microscopy “Giovanni Stevanato”, Via Torino 155/B, 30172 Mestre-VE (Italy); Tamisari, M. [Department of Physics and Earth Sciences, University of Ferrara, Via Saragat 1, 44121 Ferrara (Italy)

    2014-11-30

    Highlights: • RuN thin films in the zinc-blende structure have been synthesized by rf-magnetron sputtering. • Contribute is given to the understanding of phase-formation mechanisms in systems that under ambient conditions present positive enthalpies of formation. • Contribute is given to the understanding of phenomena occurring during reactive sputtering processes. • Nanopillar structure: suitable for application requiring a high effective area, like sensing, catalysis, and electrode material for energy-storage devices. - Abstract: 4d- and 5d-transition metal nitrides are of interest both because of their importance for the understanding of mechanisms of phase formation in systems that under ambient conditions present positive enthalpies of formation and because of their appealing structural and electronic properties. In this study, we report the synthesis of thin films of ruthenium mononitride (RuN) in the zinc-blende structure by radio-frequency-magnetron sputtering. Films present a characteristic structure of packed columns ending with tetrahedral tips. The effect of changing the synthesis parameters was investigated in detail. It was found that RuN can be formed if the nitrogen partial pressure exceeds a minimum value and that the addition of argon has the major effect of increasing the deposition rate because of its higher sputter ability. Temperature plays an important role: if it is too high, decomposition/desorption effects overcome those leading to the formation of the compound. Phenomena resulting in the formation of RuN occur at the surface of the growing films and are related to the interactions of ruthenium with energetic nitrogen ions, or atoms, which can penetrate the first atomic layers by low energy implantation. Because of its properties and structure, this material is a promising candidate for applications like sensing, catalysis, and electrode material for energy-storage devices.

  19. In situ release rates of Cu and Zn from commercial antifouling paints at different salinities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lagerström, Maria; Lindgren, J Fredrik; Holmqvist, Albin; Dahlström, Mia; Ytreberg, Erik

    2018-02-01

    Antifouling paints are environmentally risk assessed based on their biocidal release rates to the water phase. In situ release rates of copper (Cu) and zinc (Zn) were derived for five commercial paints in two recreational marinas with different salinities (5 and 14 PSU) using an X-Ray Fluorescence spectrometer (XRF). Salinity was found to significantly affect the Cu release, with twice the amount of Cu released at the higher salinity, while its influence on the Zn release was paint-specific. Site-specific release rates for water bodies with salinity gradients, e.g. the Baltic Sea, are therefore necessary for more realistic risk assessments of antifouling paints. Furthermore, the in situ release rates were up to 8 times higher than those generated using standardized laboratory or calculation methods. The environmental risk assessment repeated with the field release rates concludes that it is questionable whether the studied products should be allowed on the Swedish market. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  20. Synthesis, structural characterization, thermal analysis, and DFT calculation of a novel zinc (II)-trifluoro-β-diketonate 3D supramolecular nano organic-inorganic compound with 1,3,5-triazine derivative

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mirtamizdoust, Babak, E-mail: babakm.tamizdoust@gmail.com [Department of Chemistry, Yasouj University, Yasouj, 75918-74831 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, University of Qom, PO Box 37185-359, Qom, Islamic Republic of Iran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Ghaedi, Mehrorang [Department of Chemistry, Yasouj University, Yasouj, 75918-74831 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Hanifehpour, Younes, E-mail: y_hanifehpour@yu.ac.kr [School of Mechanical Engineering, WCU Nano Research Center, Yeungnam University, Gyongsan, 712-749 (Korea, Republic of); Mague, Joel T. [Department of Chemistry, Tulane University, New Orleans (United States); Joo, Sang Woo, E-mail: swjoo1@gmail.com [School of Mechanical Engineering, WCU Nano Research Center, Yeungnam University, Gyongsan, 712-749 (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-10-01

    A sonochemical method was used to synthesize a novel nano-structure of a zinc(II) organic-inorganic compound [Zn(dapt){sub 2}(ttfa){sub 2}] (1) [dapt = 2,4-diamino-6-phenyl-1,3,5-triazine and ttfa = 2-thenoyltrifluoroacetonate]. The new nanostructure was characterized by scanning electron microscopy, X-ray powder diffraction, elemental analysis, and thermal analysis. The single-crystal X-ray structure shows that 1 is a discrete coordination compound. Strong intra- and intermolecular hydrogen bonds are observed in the structure with the latter forming chains of molecules running parallel to (110). The chains are further extended into a three-dimensional supramolecular structure by intermolecular C−F⋯π interactions between trifluoromethyl and triazine moieties. The coordination number of the zinc(II) ion is six (ZnN{sub 2}O{sub 4}), and the coordination sphere is tetragonally elongated octahedral. The structure of the title complex was optimized by DFT calculations. - Highlights: • A new zinc(II) 3D coordination supramolecular compound was synthesized. • Ultrasound synthesis of nano coordination compound have been reported. • The X-ray crystal structure of the compound is reported.

  1. A multi-step approach for testing non-toxic amphiphilic antifouling coatings against marine microfouling at different levels of biological complexity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zecher, Karsten; Aitha, Vishwa Prasad; Heuer, Kirsten; Ahlers, Herbert; Roland, Katrin; Fiedel, Michael; Philipp, Bodo

    2018-03-01

    Marine biofouling on artificial surfaces such as ship hulls or fish farming nets causes enormous economic damage. The time for the developmental process of antifouling coatings can be shortened by reliable laboratory assays. For designing such test systems, it is important that toxic effects can be excluded, that multiple parameters can be addressed simultaneously and that mechanistic aspects can be included. In this study, a multi-step approach for testing antifouling coatings was established employing photoautotrophic biofilm formation of marine microorganisms in micro- and mesoscoms. Degree and pattern of biofilm formation was determined by quantification of chlorophyll fluorescence. For the microcosms, co-cultures of diatoms and a heterotrophic bacterium were exposed to fouling-release coatings. For the mesocosms, a novel device was developed that permits parallel quantification of a multitude of coatings under defined conditions with varying degrees of shear stress. Additionally, the antifouling coatings were tested for leaching of potential compounds and finally tested in sea trials. This multistep-approach revealed that the individual steps led to consistent results regarding antifouling activity of the coatings. Furthermore, the novel mesocosm system can be employed for advanced antifouling analysis including metagenomic approaches for determination of microbial diversity attaching to different coatings under changing shear forces. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Antifouling biocides in German marinas: Exposure assessment and calculation of national consumption and emission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daehne, Dagmar; Fürle, Constanze; Thomsen, Anja; Watermann, Burkard; Feibicke, Michael

    2017-09-01

    The authorization of biocidal antifouling products for leisure boats is the subject of the European Union Biocides Regulation 528/2012. National specifics may be regarded by the member states in their assessment of environmental risks. The aim of this survey was to collect corresponding data and to create a database for the environmental risk assessment of antifouling active substances in German surface waters. Water concentrations of current antifouling active substances and selected breakdown products were measured in a single-sampling campaign covering 50 marinas at inland and coastal areas. Increased levels were found for Zn, Cu, and cybutryne. For the latter, the maximum allowable concentration according to Directive 2013/39/EU was exceeded at 5 marinas. For Cu, local environmental quality standards were exceeded at 10 marinas. Base data on the total boat inventory in Germany were lacking until now. For that reason, a nationwide survey of mooring berths was conducted by use of aerial photos. About 206 000 mooring berths obviously used by boats with a potential antifouling application were counted. The blind spot of very small marinas was estimated at 20 000 berths. Seventy-one percent of berths were located at freshwater sites, illustrating the importance of navigable inland waterways for leisure boat activities and underlining the need for a customized exposure assessment in these areas. Moreover, the national consumption of all antifouling products for leisure boats was calculated. The total amount of 794 tonnes/annum (t/a) consisted of 179 t/a of inorganic Cu compounds, 19 t/a of organic cobiocides, and 49.5 t/a of Zn. With regard to weight proportion, 141 t/a Cu and 40 t/a Zn were consumed. Assuming an emission ratio of 50% during service life, 70.5 t/a of Cu amounted to 15% of all external sources for Cu release to German surface waters. These figures highlight the need for mitigation measures. Integr Environ Assess Manag 2017;13:892-905. © 2017 The

  3. Analytical application of coordination compounds of N,N-diphenylguanidine with zinc(2), cadmium(2), mercury(2) and cobalt(2)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zawadzki, H.; Szymendera, J.; Karczynski, F. (Akademia Medyczna, Gdansk (Poland)); Nowakowski, K. (Uniwersytet Mikolaja Kopernika, Torun (Poland). Inst. Chemii)

    1981-01-01

    Synthesis of the complexes of N,N'-diphenylguanidine with simple pseudohalide anionic complexes of Zn(2), Cd(2), Hg(2), Co(2) was described. The chemical formulas and molecular masses of these complexes were determined. The infrared spectrum analysis of synthesized complexes was performed. Insolubility of these coordination compounds was utilized in the quantitative analysis of N,N'-diphenylguanidine. Two indirect determination methods of N,N'-diphenylguanidine, based on the compleximetric titration or atomic absorption measurement excess of metal ion, are proposed.

  4. Functionalizing aluminum substrata by quaternary ammonium for antifouling performances

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Xiaoyan; Suo, Xinkun; Bai, Xiuqin; Yuan, Chengqing; Li, Hua

    2018-05-01

    Due to the great loss induced by biofouling, developing new strategies for combating biofouling has attracted extensive attention. Quaternary ammonium salts are potent cationic antimicrobials used in consumer products and their use for surface immobilization could create a contact-active antimicrobial layer. Here we report the facile preparation of a contact-active antifouling coating by tethering polyethyleneimine (PEI) onto flat/nanostructured aluminum surface by hydrogen bonding between PEI and AlOOH. Quaternized PEI (QPEI) is obtained through quaternization reactions. Biofouling testing suggests excellent antifouling performances of the samples by declining the adhesion of 95% Phaeodactylum tricornutum and 98% of Chlorella pyrenoidosa. The antifouling properties of PEI/QPEI are attributed predominately to their hydrophilic and antimicrobial nature. The technical route of PEI/QPEI surface grafting shows great potential for modifying marine infrastructures for enhanced antifouling performances.

  5. Nontoxic piperamides and their synthetic analogues as novel antifouling reagents

    KAUST Repository

    Huang, Xiang-Zhong; Xu, Ying; Zhang, Yi-Fan; Zhang, Yu; Wong, Yue Him; Han, Zhuang; Yin, Yan; Qian, Pei-Yuan

    2014-01-01

    Bioassay-guided isolation of an acetone extract from a terrestrial plant Piper betle produced four known piperamides with potent antifouling (AF) activities, as evidenced by inhibition of settlement of barnacle cypris larvae. The AF activities

  6. Adding stimuli-responsive extensions to antifouling hairy particles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Munoz Bonilla, Sandra; Herk, van A.M.; Heuts, J.P.A.

    2010-01-01

    The use of living block copolymers as stabilisers in emulsion polymerisation allowed preparation of multilayer functional hairy particles via surface-initiated ATRP. Polymer films prepared from the obtained particles present antifouling properties along with stimuli-responsive behaviour.

  7. Probing structure-antifouling activity relationships of polyacrylamides and polyacrylates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Chao; Zhao, Jun; Li, Xiaosi; Wu, Jiang; Chen, Shenfu; Chen, Qiang; Wang, Qiuming; Gong, Xiong; Li, Lingyan; Zheng, Jie

    2013-07-01

    We have synthesized two different polyacrylamide polymers with amide groups (polySBAA and polyHEAA) and two corresponding polyacrylate polymers without amide groups (polySBMA and polyHEA), with particular attention to the evaluation of the effect of amide group on the hydration and antifouling ability of these systems using both computational and experimental approaches. The influence of polymer architectures of brushes, hydrogels, and nanogels, prepared by different polymerization methods, on antifouling performance is also studied. SPR and ELISA data reveal that all polymers exhibit excellent antifouling ability to repel proteins from undiluted human blood serum/plasma, and such antifouling ability can be further enhanced by presenting amide groups in polySBAA and polyHEAA as compared to polySBMA and polyHEA. The antifouling performance is positively correlated with the hydration properties. Simulations confirm that four polymers indeed have different hydration characteristics, while all presenting a strong hydration overall. Integration of amide group with pendant hydroxyl or sulfobetaine group in polymer backbones is found to increase their surface hydration of polymer chains and thus to improve their antifouling ability. Importantly, we present a proof-of-concept experiment to synthesize polySBAA nanogels, which show a switchable property between antifouling and pH-responsive functions driven by acid-base conditions, while still maintaining high stability in undiluted fetal bovine serum and minimal toxicity to cultured cells. This work provides important structural insights into how very subtle structural changes in polymers can yield great improvement in biological activity, specifically the inclusion of amide group in polymer backbone/sidechain enables to obtain antifouling materials with better performance for biomedical applications. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Prevention of Marine Biofouling Using the Natural Allelopathic Compound Batatasin-III and Synthetic Analogues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moodie, Lindon W K; Trepos, Rozenn; Cervin, Gunnar; Bråthen, Kari Anne; Lindgård, Bente; Reiersen, Rigmor; Cahill, Patrick; Pavia, Henrik; Hellio, Claire; Svenson, Johan

    2017-07-28

    The current study reports the first comprehensive evaluation of a class of allelopathic terrestrial natural products as antifoulants in a marine setting. To investigate the antifouling potential of the natural dihydrostilbene scaffold, a library of 22 synthetic dihydrostilbenes with varying substitution patterns, many of which occur naturally in terrestrial plants, were prepared and assessed for their antifouling capacity. The compounds were evaluated in an extensive screen against 16 fouling marine organisms. The dihydrostilbene scaffold was shown to possess powerful general antifouling effects against both marine microfoulers and macrofoulers with inhibitory activities at low concentrations. The species of microalgae examined displayed a particular sensitivity toward the evaluated compounds at low ng/mL concentrations. It was shown that several of the natural and synthetic compounds exerted their repelling activities via nontoxic and reversible mechanisms. The activities of the most active compounds such as 3,5-dimethoxybibenzyl (5), 3,4-dimethoxybibenzyl (9), and 3-hydroxy-3',4,5'-trimethoxybibenzyl (20) were comparable to the commercial antifouling booster biocide Sea-nine, which was employed as a positive control. The investigation of terrestrial allelopathic natural products to counter marine fouling represents a novel strategy for the design of "green" antifouling technologies, and these compounds offer a potential alternative to traditional biocidal antifoulants.

  9. A survey of antifoulants in sediments from Ports and Marinas along the French Mediterranean coast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassi, Roberto; Tolosa, Imma; de Mora, Stephen

    2008-11-01

    Due to deleterious effects on non-target organisms, the use of organotin compounds on boat hulls of small vessels (ports and marinas along the France Mediterranean coastline (Cote d'Azur) and analysed for organotin compounds, Irgarol 1051, Sea-nine 211, Chlorothalonil, Dichlofluanid and Folpet. Every port and marina exhibited high levels of organotin compounds, with concentrations in sediments ranging from 37 ng Sn g(-1) dry wt in Menton Garavan to over 4000 ng Sn g(-1) dry wt close to the ship chandler within the port of Villefranche-sur-Mer. TBT degradation indexes suggested that fresh inputs are still made. Among the other antifoulants monitored, only Irgarol 1051 exhibited measurable concentrations in almost every port, with concentrations ranging from 40 ng g(-1) dry wt (Cannes) to almost 700 ng g(-1) dry wt (Villefranche-sur-Mer, ship chandler).

  10. Proteomic and metabolomic profiles of marine Vibrio sp. 010 in response to an antifoulant challenge

    KAUST Repository

    Chandramouli, Kondethimmanahalli; Dash, Swagatika; Zhang, Yu; Ravasi, Timothy; Qian, Peiyuan

    2013-01-01

    Vibrio spp. have the ability to form biofilms, which may contribute to the subsequent successful colonization by microfouling and macrofouling organisms. The effects of an antifouling compound, poly-ether B, on Vibrio sp. 010 were investigated using flow cytometry, proteomics, and metabolomics. A 2-D gel-based proteomic analysis was used to identify proteins responsive to poly-ether B treatment. The profiles of biofilm metabolites were analyzed by ultra-performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. Poly-ether B caused a significant reduction in viability. The proteins affected by the treatment were related to nucleotide metabolism, the glyoxylate cycle, and stress responses. Metabolites such as tripeptides, fatty acids, and quorum-sensing molecules were regulated differentially. Down-regulation of proteins and metabolites potentially led to a loss in colonisation ability, thereby affecting the structure of the biofilm. These results suggest that the proteins and metabolites identified may serve as target molecules for potent antifouling compounds. © 2013 Copyright Taylor and Francis Group, LLC.

  11. Proteomic and metabolomic profiles of marine Vibrio sp. 010 in response to an antifoulant challenge

    KAUST Repository

    Chandramouli, Kondethimmanahalli

    2013-08-01

    Vibrio spp. have the ability to form biofilms, which may contribute to the subsequent successful colonization by microfouling and macrofouling organisms. The effects of an antifouling compound, poly-ether B, on Vibrio sp. 010 were investigated using flow cytometry, proteomics, and metabolomics. A 2-D gel-based proteomic analysis was used to identify proteins responsive to poly-ether B treatment. The profiles of biofilm metabolites were analyzed by ultra-performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. Poly-ether B caused a significant reduction in viability. The proteins affected by the treatment were related to nucleotide metabolism, the glyoxylate cycle, and stress responses. Metabolites such as tripeptides, fatty acids, and quorum-sensing molecules were regulated differentially. Down-regulation of proteins and metabolites potentially led to a loss in colonisation ability, thereby affecting the structure of the biofilm. These results suggest that the proteins and metabolites identified may serve as target molecules for potent antifouling compounds. © 2013 Copyright Taylor and Francis Group, LLC.

  12. A New, Sensitive Marine Microalgal Recombinant Biosensor Using Luminescence Monitoring for Toxicity Testing of Antifouling Biocides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez-Ferandin, Sophie; Leroy, Fanny; Bouget, François-Yves

    2013-01-01

    In this study, we propose the use of the marine green alga Ostreococcus tauri, the smallest free-living eukaryotic cell known to date, as a new luminescent biosensor for toxicity testing in the environment. Diuron and Irgarol 1051, two antifouling biocides commonly encountered in coastal waters, were chosen to test this new biosensor along with two degradation products of diuron. The effects of various concentrations of the antifoulants on four genetic constructs of O. tauri (based on genes involved in photosynthesis, cell cycle, and circadian clock) were compared using 96-well culture microplates and a luminometer to automatically measure luminescence over 3 days. This was compared to growth inhibition of O. tauri wild type under the same conditions. Luminescence appeared to be more sensitive than growth inhibition as an indicator of toxicity. Cyclin-dependent kinase (CDKA), a protein involved in the cell cycle, fused to luciferase (CDKA-Luc) was found to be the most sensitive of the biosensors, allowing an accurate determination of the 50% effective concentration (EC50) after only 2 days (diuron, 5.65 ± 0.44 μg/liter; Irgarol 1015, 0.76 ± 0.10 μg/liter). The effects of the antifoulants on the CDKA-Luc biosensor were then compared to growth inhibition in natural marine phytoplankton. The effective concentrations of diuron and Irgarol 1051 were found to be similar, indicating that this biosensor would be suitable as a reliable ecotoxicological test. The advantage of this biosensor over cell growth inhibition testing is that the process can be easily automated and could provide a high-throughput laboratory approach to perform short-term toxicity tests. The ability to genetically transform and culture recombinant O. tauri gives it huge potential for screening many other toxic compounds. PMID:23144143

  13. Antifouling Thermoplastic Composites with Maleimide Encapsulated in Clay Nanotubes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Ye; Gong, Congcong; Wang, Wencai; Zhang, Liqun; Ivanov, Evgenii; Lvov, Yuri

    2017-09-06

    An antifouling ethylene-vinyl acetate copolymer (EVA) coating with halloysite clay nanotubes loaded with maleimide (TCPM) is prepared. Such antifoulant encapsulation allowed for extended release of TCPM and a long-lasting, efficient protection of the coated surface against marine microorganisms proliferation. Halloysite also induces the composite's anisotropy due to parallel alignment of the nanotubes. The maleimide loaded halloysite incorporated into the polymer matrix allowed for 12-month release of the bacterial inhibitor preventing fouling; it is much longer than the 2-3 month protection when TCPM is directly admixed into EVA. The antifouling properties of the EVA-halloysite nanocomposites were tested by monitoring surface adhesion and proliferation of marine V. natriegens bacteria with SEM. As compared to the composite directly doped with TCPM-antifoulant, there were much less bacteria accumulated on the EVA-halloysite-TCPM coating after a 2-month exposure to seawater. Field tests at South China Sea marine station further confirmed the formulation efficiency. The doping of 28 wt % TCPM loaded halloysite drastically enhanced material antifouling property, which promises wide applications for protective marine coating.

  14. Antifouling membranes for sustainable water purification: strategies and mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Runnan; Liu, Yanan; He, Mingrui; Su, Yanlei; Zhao, Xueting; Elimelech, Menachem; Jiang, Zhongyi

    2016-10-24

    One of the greatest challenges to the sustainability of modern society is an inadequate supply of clean water. Due to its energy-saving and cost-effective features, membrane technology has become an indispensable platform technology for water purification, including seawater and brackish water desalination as well as municipal or industrial wastewater treatment. However, membrane fouling, which arises from the nonspecific interaction between membrane surface and foulants, significantly impedes the efficient application of membrane technology. Preparing antifouling membranes is a fundamental strategy to deal with pervasive fouling problems from a variety of foulants. In recent years, major advancements have been made in membrane preparation techniques and in elucidating the antifouling mechanisms of membrane processes, including ultrafiltration, nanofiltration, reverse osmosis and forward osmosis. This review will first introduce the major foulants and the principal mechanisms of membrane fouling, and then highlight the development, current status and future prospects of antifouling membranes, including antifouling strategies, preparation techniques and practical applications. In particular, the strategies and mechanisms for antifouling membranes, including passive fouling resistance and fouling release, active off-surface and on-surface strategies, will be proposed and discussed extensively.

  15. Bio-inspired Design Approached Antifouling Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzsimons, L.; Chapman, J.; Lawlor, A.; Regan, F.

    2012-04-01

    Biofouling exists as the undesirable accumulation of flora and fauna on a given substrate when immersed into an aquatic media. Its presence causes a range of deleterious effects for anyone faced in tackling the problem, which is more than often financially testing. Generally, the initial biofouling stage is stochastic and the attachment of microorganisms held fast in biofilm matrices is irreversible. Stability of the biofilm occurs when exopolymeric substances (EPS) are produced forming a protective surrounding, allowing the cohered microorganisms to colonise and thrive upon the surface. Therefore, if this initial stage of biofilm development can be prevented then it could be possible to prevent subsequent macro events that ensue. Environmental monitoring is one area that faces this challenge and forms the impetus of the work presented herein. In order to improve a monitoring device's lifetime, surface coatings with biocidal agents are applied to counteract these steps. This work shows the development of a range of novel materials, which demonstrate the ability to counteract and inhibit the initial stages of biofouling for monitoring devices. Natural bio-inspired surfaces have been developed using nano-functionalised coatings. All materials are tested in the field and positive results in reducing the biofouling challenge are demonstrated. The results from the deployment of antifouling materials, together with real-time, long-term water quality data from the test site are also shown.

  16. Antifouling activity of seaweed extracts from Guarujá, São Paulo, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heloisa Elias Medeiros

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Marine biofouling historically constitutes one of the major constraints faced by mankind in its oceanic activities. The search for alternatives to TBT-based antifouling paints has led several researchers to focus efforts in the development of environmentally friendly natural compounds. This work has contributed with this search, testing the antifouling potential of crude organic extracts from four seaweed species collected at Praia Branca, Guarujá district, São Paulo, Brazil. Throughout laboratory antifouling assays in which the attachment of a common fouling organism, the brown mussel Perna perna, was employed, antifouling activity (p A incrustação biológica constitui, historicamente, um dos maiores problemas encontrados pelo homem em suas atividades no mar. A busca por alternativas a tintas antiincrustantes contendo tributilestanho (TBT tem levado diversos pesquisadores a concentrar esforços no desenvolvimento de substâncias naturais menos danosas à biota marinha. Este trabalho procurou contribuir com essa busca, testando o potencial antiincrustante de quatro diferentes espécies de macroalgas da Praia Branca, município de Guarujá, SP. Através de testes antiincrustantes em laboratório utilizando a fixação de um organismo incrustante comum, o mexilhão Perna perna, foi constatado que os extratos de Jania rubens (Rhodophyta, Cryptonemiales e Bryothamnion seaforthii (Rhodophyta, Ceramiales, à concentração natural, apresentaram atividade antiincrustante significativa (p < 0,05, enquanto Dictyopteris delicatula (Phaeophyta, Dictyotales e Heterosiphonia gibbesii (Rhodophyta, Ceramiales não demonstraram eficiência na inibição da fixação de bissos do molusco. Das algas que indicaram potencial atividade contra a incrustação, J. rubens apresentou melhor desempenho em relação a B. seaforthii. Futuras investigações em campo serão necessárias para a obtenção de resultados que possam refletir melhor as condições naturais

  17. Generation of Hybrid Peptide-Silver Nanoparticles for Antibacterial and Antifouling Applications

    KAUST Repository

    Seferji, Kholoud

    2018-05-01

    An alarming increase of antibiotic-resistant bacterial strains has made the demand for novel antibacterial agents, for example, more effective antibiotics, highly crucial. One of the oldest antimicrobial agents is elementary silver which has been used for thousands of years. Even in our days, elementary silver is used for medical purposes, such as for burns, wounds, and microbial infections. We have taken the effectiveness of elementary silver into consideration to generate novel antibacterial and antifouling agents. Our innovative antibacterial agents are hybrid peptide silver nanoparticles (CH-01-AgNPs) that are created de novo and in situ from a silver nitrate solution (AgNO3) in the presence of ultrashort self-assembling peptides compounds. The nucleation of CH-01-AgNPs is initiated by irradiating the peptide solution mixed with the AgNO3 solution using ultraviolet (UV) light at a wavelength of 254 nm, in the absence of any reducing or capping agents. Obviously, the peptide itself serves as the reducing agent. The ultrashort peptides are four amino acids in length with an innate ability to self-assemble into nanofibrous scaffolds. Using these ultrashort peptides CH-01 we were able to create hybrid peptide silver nanoparticles CH-01-AgNPs with a diameter of 4-6 nm. The synthesized CH-01-AgNPs were further characterized using ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy, dynamic light scattering, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The antibacterial and antifouling activity of CH-01-AgNPs were then investigated using either gram-negative bacteria, such as antibiotic-resistant Top10 Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa PDO300, or gram-positive bacteria, such as Staphylococcus aureus CECT 976. The hybrid nanoparticles demonstrated very promising antibacterial and antifouling activity with higher antibacterial and antifouling activity as commercial silver nanoparticles. Quantitative Polymerase Chain Reaction (qPCR) results showed

  18. Biofouling growth in cold estuarine waters and evaluation of some chitosan and copper anti-fouling paints.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelletier, Emilien; Bonnet, Claudie; Lemarchand, Karine

    2009-07-14

    Ecological concerns about antifouling paints containing non-green tin and copper compounds have highlighted the need for environmentally friendly alternatives. We report here a field test conducted in estuarine waters over two months designed to evaluate the efficiency of a number of active natural and man-made chemical ingredients added into a silicon-polyurethane marine paint. Early steps of biofouling in cold seawater of the St. Lawrence Estuary (Canada) were observed. Analyses, including dry biomass, flow cytometry and spectrofluorimetry, demonstrated a short-term antibacterial action of chitosan-based paints although no significant anti-algal action was observed. Cuprous oxide paints were efficient against bacteria and algae invasion in the first two weeks, especially those with added organic biocides such as isothiazolone and copper pyrithione. However, the overall dry biomass and chlorophyll a content were similar for all chitosan-and copper-based paints after 63 days. Microscopic observations revealed variation in the highly diverse benthic diatom population including species Navicula, Melosira, Cocconeis, Nitshzcia, Fragilaria and Amphora. Results suggest no real long-term efficiency for tested antifouling paints and highlight a particular need for green antifouling ingredients that are active under northern estuarine conditions.

  19. Biofouling Growth in Cold Estuarine Waters and Evaluation of Some Chitosan and Copper Anti-Fouling Paints

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karine Lemarchand

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Ecological concerns about antifouling paints containing non-green tin and copper compounds have highlighted the need for environmentally friendly alternatives. We report here a field test conducted in estuarine waters over two months designed to evaluate the efficiency of a number of active natural and man-made chemical ingredients added into a silicon-polyurethane marine paint. Early steps of biofouling in cold seawater of the St. Lawrence Estuary (Canada were observed. Analyses, including dry biomass, flow cytometry and spectrofluorimetry, demonstrated a short-term antibacterial action of chitosan-based paints although no significant anti-algal action was observed. Cuprous oxide paints were efficient against bacteria and algae invasion in the first two weeks, especially those with added organic biocides such as isothiazolone and copper pyrithione. However, the overall dry biomass and chlorophyll a content were similar for all chitosan- and copper-based paints after 63 days. Microscopic observations revealed variation in the highly diverse benthic diatom population including species Navicula, Melosira, Cocconeis, Nitshzcia, Fragilaria and Amphora. Results suggest no real long-term efficiency for tested antifouling paints and highlight a particular need for green antifouling ingredients that are active under northern estuarine conditions.

  20. Membranes with Surface-Enhanced Antifouling Properties for Water Purification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahkaramipour, Nima; Tran, Thien N.; Ramanan, Sankara; Lin, Haiqing

    2017-01-01

    Membrane technology has emerged as an attractive approach for water purification, while mitigation of fouling is key to lower membrane operating costs. This article reviews various materials with antifouling properties that can be coated or grafted onto the membrane surface to improve the antifouling properties of the membranes and thus, retain high water permeance. These materials can be separated into three categories, hydrophilic materials, such as poly(ethylene glycol), polydopamine and zwitterions, hydrophobic materials, such as fluoropolymers, and amphiphilic materials. The states of water in these materials and the mechanisms for the antifouling properties are discussed. The corresponding approaches to coat or graft these materials on the membrane surface are reviewed, and the materials with promising performance are highlighted. PMID:28273869

  1. Corrosion and antifouling characteristics of technetium 99 in seawater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spitsyn, V.I.; Strekalov, P.V.; Balakhovskij, O.A.; Mikhajlovskij, Yu.N.

    1982-01-01

    The results are presented of studying the corrosive and antifouling properties of metallic technetium-99 in the Barents Sea and the Sea of Japan. Foil of 99 Tc glued on acrylic plastic served as a sample. High corrosion resistance and antifouling properties exhibited by 99 Tc in seawater point to favorable prospects of further studies aimed at development of new methods for protection against corrosion and fouling of metallic structures and parts with the use of technetium. The antifouling properties of technetium would evidently be used most efficiently when coating materials of high corrosion resistance to seawater (titanium, stainless steels, special alloys, etc.) with layers of technetium. The use of technetium for coating low-alloyed or carbon steels employed in seawater is yet problematic

  2. Recent development of antifouling polymers: structure, evaluation, and biomedical applications in nano/micro-structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Lingyun; Li, Wenchen; Liu, Qingsheng

    2014-01-01

    Antifouling polymers have been proven to be vital to many biomedical applications such as medical implants, drug delivery, and biosensing. This review covers the major development of antifouling polymers in the last 2 decades, including the material chemistry, structural factors important to antifouling properties, and how to challenge or evaluate the antifouling performances. We then discuss the applications of antifouling polymers in nano/micro-biomedical applications in the form of nanoparticles, thin coatings for medical devices (e.g., artificial joint, catheter, wound dressing), and nano/microscale fibers. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Anti-fouling properties of Fab’ fragments immobilized on silane-based adlayers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crivianu-Gaita, Victor; Romaschin, Alexander; Thompson, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Simple and mixed adlayers formed with Fab’ linker and/or spacers. • Binding of Fab’ fragments through TUBTS linker resulted in oriented immobilization. • Immobilized Fab’ fragments have inherent anti-fouling character. • Up to 80% fouling reduction when Fab’ fragments introduced to surfaces. • Used the minimally fouling surfaces to detect a cancer biomarker (PTHrP) in serum. - Graphical abstract: Biosensors require surfaces that are highly specific towards the target analyte and that are minimally fouling. However, surface tuning to minimize fouling is a difficult task. The last decade has seen an increase in the use of immobilized antigen-binding antibody fragments (Fab’) in biosensors. One Fab’ linker compound S-(11-trichlorosilyl-undecanyl)-benzothiosulfonate (TUBTS) and three spacers were used to create the silane-based adlayers. The ultra-high frequency electromagnetic piezoelectric acoustic sensor (EMPAS) was used to gauge the fouling properties of the various surfaces using bovine serum albumin (BSA), goat IgG, and mouse serum. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), contact angle, and atomic force microscopy (AFM) were employed to characterize the surfaces. It was discovered that immobilized oriented Fab’ fragments reduced the fouling levels of surfaces up to 80% compared to the surfaces without fragments. An explanation for this phenomenon is that the antibody fragments increase the hydration of the surfaces and aid in the formation of an anti-fouling water barrier. The anti-fouling effect of the Fab’ fragments is at its maximum when there is an even distribution of fragments across the surfaces. Finally, using Fab’-covered surfaces, a cancer biomarker was detected from serum, showing the applicability of this work to the field of biodetection. - Abstract: Biosensors require surfaces that are highly specific towards the target analyte and that are minimally fouling. However, surface tuning to minimize fouling is a

  4. Anti-fouling properties of Fab’ fragments immobilized on silane-based adlayers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crivianu-Gaita, Victor [Department of Chemistry, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON M5S 3H6 (Canada); Romaschin, Alexander [Clinical Biochemistry, St. Michael' s Hospital, Toronto, ON M5B 1W8 (Canada); Thompson, Michael, E-mail: mikethom@chem.utoronto.ca [Department of Chemistry, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON M5S 3H6 (Canada)

    2015-12-30

    Highlights: • Simple and mixed adlayers formed with Fab’ linker and/or spacers. • Binding of Fab’ fragments through TUBTS linker resulted in oriented immobilization. • Immobilized Fab’ fragments have inherent anti-fouling character. • Up to 80% fouling reduction when Fab’ fragments introduced to surfaces. • Used the minimally fouling surfaces to detect a cancer biomarker (PTHrP) in serum. - Graphical abstract: Biosensors require surfaces that are highly specific towards the target analyte and that are minimally fouling. However, surface tuning to minimize fouling is a difficult task. The last decade has seen an increase in the use of immobilized antigen-binding antibody fragments (Fab’) in biosensors. One Fab’ linker compound S-(11-trichlorosilyl-undecanyl)-benzothiosulfonate (TUBTS) and three spacers were used to create the silane-based adlayers. The ultra-high frequency electromagnetic piezoelectric acoustic sensor (EMPAS) was used to gauge the fouling properties of the various surfaces using bovine serum albumin (BSA), goat IgG, and mouse serum. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), contact angle, and atomic force microscopy (AFM) were employed to characterize the surfaces. It was discovered that immobilized oriented Fab’ fragments reduced the fouling levels of surfaces up to 80% compared to the surfaces without fragments. An explanation for this phenomenon is that the antibody fragments increase the hydration of the surfaces and aid in the formation of an anti-fouling water barrier. The anti-fouling effect of the Fab’ fragments is at its maximum when there is an even distribution of fragments across the surfaces. Finally, using Fab’-covered surfaces, a cancer biomarker was detected from serum, showing the applicability of this work to the field of biodetection. - Abstract: Biosensors require surfaces that are highly specific towards the target analyte and that are minimally fouling. However, surface tuning to minimize fouling is a

  5. Clickable antifouling polymer brushes for polymer pen lithography

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bog, U.; de los Santos Pereira, Andres; Mueller, S. L.; Havenridge, S.; Parrillo, Viviana; Bruns, M.; Holmes, A. E.; Rodriguez-Emmenegger, C.; Fuchs, H.; Hirtz, M.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 9, č. 13 (2017), s. 12109-12117 ISSN 1944-8244 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GJ15-09368Y Institutional support: RVO:61389013 Keywords : antifouling * biofunctional interfaces * polymer brushes Subject RIV: CD - Macromolecular Chemistry OBOR OECD: Polymer science Impact factor: 7.504, year: 2016

  6. Facile modification of electrospun fibrous structures with antifouling zwitterionic hydrogels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Tong; Yang, Jing; Zhang, Jiamin; Zhu, Yingnan; Li, Qingsi; Pan, Chao; Zhang, Lei

    2017-12-28

    Electrospinning technology can easily produce different shaped fibrous structures, making them highly valuable to various biomedical applications. However, surface contamination of biomolecules, cells, or blood has emerged as a significant challenge to the success of electrospun devices, especially artificial blood vessels, catheters and wound dressings etc. Many efforts have been made to resist the surface non-specific biomolecules or cells adsorption, but most of them require complex pre-treatment processes, hard-to-remove metal catalysts or rigorous reaction conditions. In addition, the stability of antifouling coatings, especially in complex conditions, is still a major concern. In this work, inspired by the interpenetrating polymer network and reinforced concrete structure, an efficient and facile strategy for modifying hydrophobic electrospun meshes and tubes with antifouling zwitterionic hydrogels has been introduced. The resulting products could efficiently resist the adhesion of proteins, cells, or even fresh whole blood. Meanwhile, they could maintain the shapes and mechanical strength of the original electrospun structures. Furthermore, the hydrogel structures could retain stable in a physiological condition for at least 3 months. This paper provided a general antifouling and hydrophilicity surface modification strategy for various fibrous structures, and could be of great value for many biomedical applications where antifouling properties are critical.

  7. Antiparasitic, Nematicidal and Antifouling Constituents from Juniperus Berries

    Science.gov (United States)

    A bioassay-guided fractionation of Juniperus procera berries yielded antiparasitic, nematicidal and antifouling constituents, including a wide range of known abietane, pimarane and labdane diterpenes. Among these, abieta-7,13-diene (1) demonstrated in vitro antimalarial activity against Plasmodium f...

  8. Chloroquine is a zinc ionophore.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Xue

    Full Text Available Chloroquine is an established antimalarial agent that has been recently tested in clinical trials for its anticancer activity. The favorable effect of chloroquine appears to be due to its ability to sensitize cancerous cells to chemotherapy, radiation therapy, and induce apoptosis. The present study investigated the interaction of zinc ions with chloroquine in a human ovarian cancer cell line (A2780. Chloroquine enhanced zinc uptake by A2780 cells in a concentration-dependent manner, as assayed using a fluorescent zinc probe. This enhancement was attenuated by TPEN, a high affinity metal-binding compound, indicating the specificity of the zinc uptake. Furthermore, addition of copper or iron ions had no effect on chloroquine-induced zinc uptake. Fluorescent microscopic examination of intracellular zinc distribution demonstrated that free zinc ions are more concentrated in the lysosomes after addition of chloroquine, which is consistent with previous reports showing that chloroquine inhibits lysosome function. The combination of chloroquine with zinc enhanced chloroquine's cytotoxicity and induced apoptosis in A2780 cells. Thus chloroquine is a zinc ionophore, a property that may contribute to chloroquine's anticancer activity.

  9. The feasibility and application of PPy in cathodic polarization antifouling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Meng-Yang; Zhang, Zhi-Ming; Yu, Liang-Min; Wang, Jia; Zheng, Tong-Tong

    2018-04-01

    Cathodic polarization antifouling deserves attention because of its environmentally friendly nature and good sustainability. It has been proven that cathodic voltages applied on metal substrates exhibit outstanding antifouling effects. However, most metals immersed in marine environment are protected by insulated anticorrosive coatings, restricting the cathodic polarization applied on metals. This study developed a conducting polypyrrole (PPy)/acrylic resin coating (σ = 0.18 Scm -1 ), which can be applied in cathodic polarization antifouling. The good stability and electro-activity of PPy in the negative polarity zone in alkalescent NaCl solution were verified by linear sweep voltammetry (LSV), chronoamperometry (CA), cyclic voltammetry (CV) and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), demonstrating the feasibility of PPy as cathodic polarization material. Furthermore, the antifouling effects of PPy/acrylicresin coating on 24-h old Escherichia coli bacteria (E. coli) which formed on PPy/acrylic resin-coated plastic plate were measured under different cathodic potentials and treatment time, characterized by fluorescent microscope. The results suggest that at cathodic potential around -0.5 V (vs. saturated calomel electrode (SCE)), there was little trace of attached bacteria on the substrate after 20 min of treatment. PPy/acrylicresin-coated substrates were also subjected to repeated cycles of biofilm formation and electrochemical removal, where high removal efficiencies were maintained throughout the total polarization process. Under these conditions, the generation of hydrogen peroxide is believed to be responsible for the antifouling effects because of causing oxidative damage to cells, suggesting the potential of the proposed technology for application on insulated surfaces in various industrial settings. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Transformation of zinc hydroxide chloride monohydrate to crystalline zinc oxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moezzi, Amir; Cortie, Michael; McDonagh, Andrew

    2016-04-25

    Thermal decomposition of layered zinc hydroxide double salts provides an interesting alternative synthesis for particles of zinc oxide. Here, we examine the sequence of changes occurring as zinc hydroxide chloride monohydrate (Zn5(OH)8Cl2·H2O) is converted to crystalline ZnO by thermal decomposition. The specific surface area of the resultant ZnO measured by BET was 1.3 m(2) g(-1). A complicating and important factor in this process is that the thermal decomposition of zinc hydroxide chloride is also accompanied by the formation of volatile zinc-containing species under certain conditions. We show that this volatile compound is anhydrous ZnCl2 and its formation is moisture dependent. Therefore, control of atmospheric moisture is an important consideration that affects the overall efficiency of ZnO production by this process.

  11. Impact of brewing process operations on phytate, phenolic compounds and in vitro solubility of iron and zinc in opaque sorghum beer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kayodé, A.P.P.; Hounhouigan, J.D.; Nout, M.J.R.

    2007-01-01

    Opaque sorghum beer is a significant component of the diet of millions of poor people in rural Africa. This study reports the effect of traditional brewing operations on its level of micronutrients, especially iron and zinc. The example of a West African sorghum beer, tchoukoutou, in Northern Benin

  12. Marine Bacteria from Danish Coastal Waters Show Antifouling Activity against the Marine Fouling Bacterium Pseudoalteromonas sp. Strain S91 and Zoospores of the Green Alga Ulva australis Independent of Bacteriocidal Activity▿†

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernbom, Nete; Ng, Yoke Yin; Kjelleberg, Staffan; Harder, Tilmann; Gram, Lone

    2011-01-01

    The aims of this study were to determine if marine bacteria from Danish coastal waters produce antifouling compounds and if antifouling bacteria could be ascribed to specific niches or seasons. We further assess if antibacterial effect is a good proxy for antifouling activity. We isolated 110 bacteria with anti-Vibrio activity from different sample types and locations during a 1-year sampling from Danish coastal waters. The strains were identified as Pseudoalteromonas, Phaeobacter, and Vibrionaceae based on phenotypic tests and partial 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity. The numbers of bioactive bacteria were significantly higher in warmer than in colder months. While some species were isolated at all sampling locations, others were niche specific. We repeatedly isolated Phaeobacter gallaeciensis at surfaces from one site and Pseudoalteromonas tunicata at two others. Twenty-two strains, representing the major taxonomic groups, different seasons, and isolation strategies, were tested for antiadhesive effect against the marine biofilm-forming bacterium Pseudoalteromonas sp. strain S91 and zoospores of the green alga Ulva australis. The antiadhesive effects were assessed by quantifying the number of strain S91 or Ulva spores attaching to a preformed biofilm of each of the 22 strains. The strongest antifouling activity was found in Pseudoalteromonas strains. Biofilms of Pseudoalteromonas piscicida, Pseudoalteromonas tunicata, and Pseudoalteromonas ulvae prevented Pseudoalteromonas S91 from attaching to steel surfaces. P. piscicida killed S91 bacteria in the suspension cultures, whereas P. tunicata and P. ulvae did not; however, they did prevent adhesion by nonbactericidal mechanism(s). Seven Pseudoalteromonas species, including P. piscicida and P. tunicata, reduced the number of settling Ulva zoospores to less than 10% of the number settling on control surfaces. The antifouling alpP gene was detected only in P. tunicata strains (with purple and yellow pigmentation), so

  13. Determination of Five Alternative Antifouling Agents Found Along the Korean Coasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Seongeon; Lee, Dongsup; Lee, Yong-Woo

    2017-07-01

      Since the ban of tri-butyl tin, other various alternative antifouling agents have been used. In this study, the contamination levels from these antifouling agents were examined in the main harbors in Korea. The sampled harbors were classified into four types and the levels of contamination from the antifouling agents were analyzed. The highest degree of contamination was found in the big harbors, followed by the fishing harbors, harbors near agricultural areas, and military and coast guard harbors. In addition, an increase in the number of ships that entered the ports significantly influenced the contamination by the antifouling agents. Correlation analysis was conducted to characterize the alternative antifouling agents. The results revealed strong correlations between the dichlofluanid and chlorothalonil, and between the chlorothalonil and TCMTB, because unlike Irgarol 1051 and SEA-NINE 211, which are used only as antifouling agents, chlorothalonil, dichlofluanid, and TCMTB are also used in agriculture.

  14. Regulating antifouling paints for leisure boats - a patchwork of rules across three Baltic Sea countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kymenvaara, Sara; Anker, Helle Tegner; Baaner, Lasse

    2017-01-01

    This article analyses how the use of antifouling paints for leisure boats is regulated in Denmark, Finland and Sweden. All three countries appear to apply a somewhat fragmented approach to the different matters related to antifouling paints, including environmental quality (e.g. water quality...... sufficient measures and conduct. Environmental protection regulation, including waste legislation, generally excludes smaller leisure boat marinas and boat clubs from permitting and waste management requirements. In product regulation, the authorisation and/or restriction rules of antifouling paints...

  15. Drag resistance measurements for newly applied antifouling coatings and welding seams on ship hull surface

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Xueting; Olsen, S. M.; Andres, E.

    Drag resistances of newly applied antifouling coatings and welding seams on ship hull surface have been investigated using a pilot-scale rotary setup. Both conventional biocide-based antifouling (AF) coatings and silicone-based fouling release (FR) coatings have been studied and compared in their......Drag resistances of newly applied antifouling coatings and welding seams on ship hull surface have been investigated using a pilot-scale rotary setup. Both conventional biocide-based antifouling (AF) coatings and silicone-based fouling release (FR) coatings have been studied and compared...

  16. Advanced Marine Coatings for Naval Vessels - Phase 1. Antifouling and Fouling Release Coatings

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    McCarthy, Gregory

    2003-01-01

    ... in combinatorial materials chemistry high-throughput discovery and evaluation methodology. The protective coatings application being addressed is environmentally compliant antifouling and fouling release coating for Navy ships...

  17. A study on antifouling technique through seawater electrolyzing reaction on ship hull surface 【Article】

    OpenAIRE

    Huang, Yi; Saito, Kimio; Usami, Masahiro

    2003-01-01

    The antifouling technique through seawater electrolysis for ship hulls may be realized by an antifoul-ing system consisting of a power unit and the electro-conductive film. In the electric field formed bysuch an antifouling system, besides that both the electro-conductive film layer sub-region and the sea-water sub-region are included, polarization occurs on the interface between electro-conductive film layerand seawater. Therefore, based on the Interface Electro-Double Layer theory, a numeri...

  18. Effect of Consuming Zinc-fortified Bread on Serum Zinc and Iron Status of Zinc-deficient Women: A Double Blind, Randomized Clinical Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badii, Akbar; Nekouei, Niloufar; Fazilati, Mohammad; Shahedi, Mohammad; Badiei, Sajad

    2012-03-01

    After iron deficiency, zinc deficiency is the major micronutrient deficiency in developing countries, and staple food fortification is an effective strategy to prevent and improve it among at-risk-populations. No action has been taken to reduce zinc deficiency via flour fortification so far in Iran, and little is known about the influence of zinc fortification of flour on serum zinc and the iron status, and also about the optimum and effective amount of zinc compound that is used in food fortification. The objective of this study is to evaluate the influence of consuming zinc-fortified breads on the zinc and iron status in the blood serum. In this study, three types of bread were prepared from non-fortified and fortified flours, with 50 and 100 ppm elemental zinc in the form of sulfate. Eighty zinc-deficient women aged 19 to 49 years were randomly assigned to three groups; The volunteers received, daily, (1) a non-fortified bread, (2) a high-zinc bread, and (3) a low-zinc bread for one month. Serum zinc and iron were measured by Atomic Absorption before and after the study. Results showed a significant increase in serum zinc and iron levels in all groups (p 0.05). Absorption of zinc and iron in the group that consumed high-zinc bread was significantly greater than that in the group that received low-zinc bread (p bread improved iron absorption.

  19. Microfouling on biocidal and non-biocidal antifouling coatings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thirumahal Muthukrishnan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Although antifouling marine paints have been used to prevent biofouling, not much is known about their effectiveness in preventing attachment of microorganisms. The current study aims at estimating the abundance of bacteria within biofilms developed on various commercial antifouling coatings in Marina Bandar Rowdha and Marina Shangri La, Oman. Coatings tested included Pettit #1863 and #1792, West Marine #11046620, #5566252 and #10175206, Hempel Hard Racing #76484, Hempel Olympic #86950, Hempasil X3 and International YBA920. All coatings were applied on clean plastic slides. Slides without any coating were used as controls. Microbial biofilms were harvested after 2, 7 and 14 days of biofouling. Bacterial density was estimated using epifluorescence microscopy. There was a significant difference between the various treatments (coatings and control after 2, 7 and 14 days of biofouling. Although there were significant differences between both locations after 2 and 14 days of biofouling, no significant difference was observed after 7 days of biofouling at both locations. At Shangri La, the lowest bacterial density was found on International YBA920, Pettit #1792 and Hempasil X3 after 2 days, 7 days and 14 days respectively in comparison to the control treatments. However at Bandar Rowdha, International YBA920 showed the lowest bacterial density after 2 days while West Marine #10175206 showed the lowest bacterial density after both 7 days and 14 days of biofouling in comparison to the control treatment. The differential performance of tested antifouling coatings may be attributed to several factors including varying environmental conditions, difference in microfouling communities, time of exposure and physical and chemical properties of antifouling coating.

  20. Antifouling Cellulose Hybrid Biomembrane for Effective Oil/Water Separation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kollarigowda, Ravichandran H; Abraham, Sinoj; Montemagno, Carlo D

    2017-09-06

    Oil/water separation has been of great interest worldwide because of the increasingly serious environmental pollution caused by the abundant discharge of industrial wastewater, oil spill accidents, and odors. Here, we describe simple and economical superhydrophobic hybrid membranes for effective oil/water separation. Eco-friendly, antifouling membranes were fabricated for oil/water separation, waste particle filtration, the blocking of thiol-based odor materials, etc., by using a cellulose membrane (CM) filter. The CM was modified from its original superhydrophilic nature into a superhydrophobic surface via a reversible addition-fragmentation chain transfer technique. The block copolymer poly{[3-(trimethoxysilyl)propyl acrylate]-block-myrcene} was synthesized using a "grafting-from" approach on the CM. The surface contact angle that we obtained was >160°, and absorption tests of several organic contaminants (oils and solvents) exhibited superior levels of extractive activity and excellent reusability. These properties rendered this membrane a promising surface for oil/water separation. Interestingly, myrcene blocks thiol (through "-ene-" chemistry) contaminants, thereby bestowing a pleasant odor to polluted water by acting as an antifouling material. We exploited the structural properties of cellulose networks and simple chemical manipulations to fabricate an original material that proved to be effective in separating water from organic and nano/microparticulate contaminants. These characteristics allowed our material to effectively separate water from oily/particulate phases as well as embed antifouling materials for water purification, thus making it an appropriate absorber for chemical processes and environmental protection.

  1. Contribution of Charges in Polyvinyl Alcohol Networks to Marine Antifouling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Wufang; Lin, Peng; Cheng, Daocang; Zhang, Longzhou; Wu, Yang; Liu, Yupeng; Pei, Xiaowei; Zhou, Feng

    2017-05-31

    Semi-interpenetrated polyvinyl alcohol polymer networks (SIPNs) were prepared by integrating various charged components into polyvinyl alcohol polymer. Contact angle measurement, attenuated total reflection Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, field emission scanning electron microscopy, and tensile tests were used to characterize the physicochemical properties of the prepared SIPNs. To investigate the contribution of charges to marine antifouling, the adhesion behaviors of green algae Dunaliella tertiolecta and diatoms Navicula sp. in the laboratory and of the actual marine animals in field test were studied for biofouling assays. The results suggest that less algae accumulation densities are observed for neutral-, anionic-, and zwitterionic-component-integrated SIPNs. However, for the cationic SIPNs, despite the hydration shell induced by the ion-dipole interaction, the resistance to biofouling largely depends on the amount of cationic component because of the possible favorable electrostatic attraction between the cationic groups in SIPNs and the negatively charged algae. Considering that the preparation of novel nontoxic antifouling coating is a long-standing and cosmopolitan industrial challenge, the SIPNs may provide a useful reference for marine antifouling and some other relevant fields.

  2. Mimetic marine antifouling films based on fluorine-containing polymethacrylates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sun, Qianhui [College of Chemistry, Chemical Engineering & Biotechnology, Donghua University, 2999 North Renmin Road, Shanghai 201620 (China); Li, Hongqi, E-mail: hongqili@dhu.edu.cn [College of Chemistry, Chemical Engineering & Biotechnology, Donghua University, 2999 North Renmin Road, Shanghai 201620 (China); Xian, Chunying; Yang, Yihang [College of Chemistry, Chemical Engineering & Biotechnology, Donghua University, 2999 North Renmin Road, Shanghai 201620 (China); Song, Yanxi [School of Environmental Science and Technology, Donghua University, 2999 North Renmin Road, Shanghai 201620 (China); State Key Laboratory of Molecular Engineering of Polymers, Fudan University, 220 Handan Road, Shanghai 200433 (China); Cong, Peihong [State Key Laboratory of Molecular Engineering of Polymers, Fudan University, 220 Handan Road, Shanghai 200433 (China)

    2015-07-30

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Copolymers containing catechol and trifluoromethyl groups were prepared. • The copolymers could adhere to surfaces of glass, plastics and metals. • The polymer films showed excellent resistance to water, salt, base and acid. • The polymer films displayed good antifouling property. - Abstract: Novel methacrylate copolymers containing catechol and trifluoromethyl pendant side groups were synthesized by free radical polymerization of N-(3,4-dihydroxyphenyl)ethyl methacrylamide (DMA) and 2,2,2-trifluoroethyl methacrylate (TFME) with α,α′-azobisisobutyronitrile (AIBN) as initiator. A series of copolymers with different content of TFME ranging from 3% to 95% were obtained by changing the molar ratio of DMA to TFME from 25:1 to 1:25. Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy, gel permeation chromatography (GPC), thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) were used to characterize the copolymers, which displayed a certain degree of hardness and outstanding thermostability reflected from their high glass transition temperatures. The copolymers could adhere to surfaces of glass, plastics and metals due to introduction of catechol groups as multivalent hydrogen bonding anchors. Water contact angle on the polymer films was up to 117.4°. Chemicals resistance test manifested that the polymer films possessed excellent resistance to water, salt, acid and alkali. Moreover, the polymer films displayed fair antifouling property and might be used as promising environmentally friendly marine antifouling coatings.

  3. Electrochemical Approach for Effective Antifouling and Antimicrobial Surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaw, Sheng Long; Sarkar, Sujoy; Nir, Sivan; Schnell, Yafit; Mandler, Daniel; Xu, Zhichuan J; Lee, Pooi See; Reches, Meital

    2017-08-09

    Biofouling, the adsorption of organisms to a surface, is a major problem today in many areas of our lives. This includes: (i) health, as biofouling on medical device leads to hospital-acquired infections, (ii) water, since the accumulation of organisms on membranes and pipes in desalination systems harms the function of the system, and (iii) energy, due to the heavy load of the organic layer that accumulates on marine vessels and causes a larger consumption of fuel. This paper presents an effective electrochemical approach for generating antifouling and antimicrobial surfaces. Distinct from previously reported antifouling or antimicrobial electrochemical studies, we demonstrate the formation of a hydrogen gas bubble layer through the application of a low-voltage square-waveform pulses to the conductive surface. This electrochemically generated gas bubble layer serves as a separation barrier between the surroundings and the target surface where the adhesion of bacteria can be deterred. Our results indicate that this barrier could effectively reduce the adsorption of bacteria to the surface by 99.5%. We propose that the antimicrobial mechanism correlates with the fundamental of hydrogen evolution reaction (HER). HER leads to an arid environment that does not allow the existence of live bacteria. In addition, we show that this drought condition kills the preadhered bacteria on the surface due to water stress. This work serves as the basis for the exploration of future self-sustainable antifouling techniques such as incorporating it with photocatalytic and photoelectrochemical reactions.

  4. Polymer Brush-Functionalized Chitosan Hydrogels as Antifouling Implant Coatings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buzzacchera, Irene; Vorobii, Mariia; Kostina, Nina Yu; de Los Santos Pereira, Andres; Riedel, Tomáš; Bruns, Michael; Ogieglo, Wojciech; Möller, Martin; Wilson, Christopher J; Rodriguez-Emmenegger, Cesar

    2017-06-12

    Implantable sensor devices require coatings that efficiently interface with the tissue environment to mediate biochemical analysis. In this regard, bioinspired polymer hydrogels offer an attractive and abundant source of coating materials. However, upon implantation these materials generally elicit inflammation and the foreign body reaction as a consequence of protein fouling on their surface and concomitant poor hemocompatibility. In this report we investigate a strategy to endow chitosan hydrogel coatings with antifouling properties by the grafting of polymer brushes in a "grafting-from" approach. Chitosan coatings were functionalized with polymer brushes of oligo(ethylene glycol) methyl ether methacrylate and 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate using photoinduced single electron transfer living radical polymerization and the surfaces were thoroughly characterized by XPS, AFM, water contact angle goniometry, and in situ ellipsometry. The antifouling properties of these new bioinspired hydrogel-brush coatings were investigated by surface plasmon resonance. The influence of the modifications to the chitosan on hemocompatibility was assessed by contacting the surfaces with platelets and leukocytes. The coatings were hydrophilic and reached a thickness of up to 180 nm within 30 min of polymerization. The functionalization of the surface with polymer brushes significantly reduced the protein fouling and eliminated platelet activation and leukocyte adhesion. This methodology offers a facile route to functionalizing implantable sensor systems with antifouling coatings that improve hemocompatibility and pave the way for enhanced device integration in tissue.

  5. Mimetic marine antifouling films based on fluorine-containing polymethacrylates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun, Qianhui; Li, Hongqi; Xian, Chunying; Yang, Yihang; Song, Yanxi; Cong, Peihong

    2015-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Copolymers containing catechol and trifluoromethyl groups were prepared. • The copolymers could adhere to surfaces of glass, plastics and metals. • The polymer films showed excellent resistance to water, salt, base and acid. • The polymer films displayed good antifouling property. - Abstract: Novel methacrylate copolymers containing catechol and trifluoromethyl pendant side groups were synthesized by free radical polymerization of N-(3,4-dihydroxyphenyl)ethyl methacrylamide (DMA) and 2,2,2-trifluoroethyl methacrylate (TFME) with α,α′-azobisisobutyronitrile (AIBN) as initiator. A series of copolymers with different content of TFME ranging from 3% to 95% were obtained by changing the molar ratio of DMA to TFME from 25:1 to 1:25. Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy, gel permeation chromatography (GPC), thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) were used to characterize the copolymers, which displayed a certain degree of hardness and outstanding thermostability reflected from their high glass transition temperatures. The copolymers could adhere to surfaces of glass, plastics and metals due to introduction of catechol groups as multivalent hydrogen bonding anchors. Water contact angle on the polymer films was up to 117.4°. Chemicals resistance test manifested that the polymer films possessed excellent resistance to water, salt, acid and alkali. Moreover, the polymer films displayed fair antifouling property and might be used as promising environmentally friendly marine antifouling coatings

  6. Acetylcholinesterase in Biofouling Species: Characterization and Mode of Action of Cyanobacteria-Derived Antifouling Agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almeida, Joana R; Freitas, Micaela; Cruz, Susana; Leão, Pedro N; Vasconcelos, Vitor; Cunha, Isabel

    2015-07-24

    Effective and ecofriendly antifouling (AF) compounds have been arising from naturally produced chemicals. The objective of this study is to use cyanobacteria-derived agents to investigate the role of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity as an effect and/or mode of action of promising AF compounds, since AChE inhibitors were found to inhibit invertebrate larval settlement. To pursue this objective, in vitro quantification of AChE activity under the effect of several cyanobacterial strain extracts as potential AF agents was performed along with in vivo AF (anti-settlement) screening tests. Pre-characterization of different cholinesterases (ChEs) forms present in selected tissues of important biofouling species was performed to confirm the predominance of AChE, and an in vitro AF test using pure AChE activity was developed. Eighteen cyanobacteria strains were tested as source of potential AF and AChE inhibitor agents. Results showed effectiveness in selecting promising eco-friendly AF agents, allowing the understanding of the AF biochemical mode of action induced by different compounds. This study also highlights the potential of cyanobacteria as source of AF agents towards invertebrate macrofouling species.

  7. Acetylcholinesterase in Biofouling Species: Characterization and Mode of Action of Cyanobacteria-Derived Antifouling Agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joana R. Almeida

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Effective and ecofriendly antifouling (AF compounds have been arising from naturally produced chemicals. The objective of this study is to use cyanobacteria-derived agents to investigate the role of acetylcholinesterase (AChE activity as an effect and/or mode of action of promising AF compounds, since AChE inhibitors were found to inhibit invertebrate larval settlement. To pursue this objective, in vitro quantification of AChE activity under the effect of several cyanobacterial strain extracts as potential AF agents was performed along with in vivo AF (anti-settlement screening tests. Pre-characterization of different cholinesterases (ChEs forms present in selected tissues of important biofouling species was performed to confirm the predominance of AChE, and an in vitro AF test using pure AChE activity was developed. Eighteen cyanobacteria strains were tested as source of potential AF and AChE inhibitor agents. Results showed effectiveness in selecting promising eco-friendly AF agents, allowing the understanding of the AF biochemical mode of action induced by different compounds. This study also highlights the potential of cyanobacteria as source of AF agents towards invertebrate macrofouling species.

  8. Zinc and glycerol enhance the production of nematicidal compounds in vitro and improve the biocontrol of Meloidogyne javanica in tomato by fluorescent pseudomonads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siddiqui, I A; Shaukat, S S

    2002-01-01

    To assess the effects of various carbon and mineral sources on the nematicidal potential of biocontrol inoculants of Pseudomonas aeruginosa IE-6S+ and Ps. fluorescens CHA0 under laboratory and glasshouse conditions. Culture filtrates of strains IE-6S+ and CHA0, cultured in nutrient yeast extract broth, caused substantial mortality of the juveniles of Meloidogyne javanica. The nematicidal activities of the culture filtrates were altered after amendment with various carbon and mineral sources. Soil amendment with zinc alone or in combination with glycerol improved the biocontrol efficacy against root-knot nematode, promoted tomato plant growth and enhanced bacterial rhizosphere and endophytic colonization. Appropriate quantities of glycerol and zinc alone or in combination enhance the nematicidal activity of Ps. aeruginosa and Ps. fluorescens. Glucose reduces the activity of these bacteria against nematodes. Minerals and carbon sources are appealing because they are easy and economical to provide during liquid fermentation of inoculants or as fertilizer amendments to improve the biocontrol activity of indigenous and introduced bacteria.

  9. A brief review of environmentally benign antifouling and foul-release coatings for marine applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buskens, P.J.P.; Wouters, M.E.L.; Rentrop, C.H.A.; Vroon, Z.A.E.P.

    2013-01-01

    Antifouling coatings for ship hulls are a very important topic in coating research. They are essential with respect to fuel consumption of ships: without antifouling coating, biological species start to adhere to the ship's exterior, leading to a gradual increase in fuel consumption. To date, the

  10. Mathematical Modeling of Tin-Free Chemically-Active Antifouling Paint Behavior

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yebra, Diego Meseguer; Kiil, Søren; Dam-Johansen, Kim

    2006-01-01

    Mathematical modeling has been used to characterize and validate the working mechanisms of tin-free, chemically-active antifouling (AF) paints. The model-based analysis of performance data from lab-scale rotary experiments has shown significant differences between antifouling technologies...... of Chemical Engineers....

  11. Bioassays and selected chemical analysis of biocide-free antifouling coatings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Watermann, B.T.; Daehne, B.; Sievers, S.; Dannenberg, R.; Overbeke, J.C.; Klijnstra, J.W.; Heemken, O.

    2005-01-01

    Over the years several types of biocide-free antifouling paints have entered the market. The prohibition of biocidal antifouling paints in special areas of some European countries such as Sweden, Denmark and Germany has favoured the introduction of these paints to the market. Several types of

  12. Effect of consuming zinc-fortified bread on serum zinc and iron status of zinc-deficient women: A double blind, randomized clinical trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akbar Badii

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available After iron deficiency, zinc deficiency is the major micronutrient deficiency in developing countries, and staple food fortification is an effective strategy to prevent and improve it among at-risk-populations. No action has been taken to reduce zinc deficiency via flour fortification so far in Iran, and little is known about the influence of zinc fortification of flour on serum zinc and the iron status, and also about the optimum and effective amount of zinc compound that is used in food fortification. The objective of this study is to evaluate the influence of consuming zinc-fortified breads on the zinc and iron status in the blood serum. In this study, three types of bread were prepared from non-fortified and fortified flours, with 50 and 100 ppm elemental zinc in the form of sulfate. Eighty zinc-deficient women aged 19 to 49 years were randomly assigned to three groups; The volunteers received, daily, (1 a non-fortified bread, (2 a high-zinc bread, and (3 a low-zinc bread for one month. Serum zinc and iron were measured by Atomic Absorption before and after the study. Results showed a significant increase in serum zinc and iron levels in all groups (p 0.05. Absorption of zinc and iron in the group that consumed high-zinc bread was significantly greater than that in the group that received low-zinc bread (p < 0.01. It was concluded that fortification of flour with 50-100 ppm zinc was an effective way to achieve adequate zinc intake and absorption in zinc-deficient people. It also appeared that consuming zinc-fortified bread improved iron absorption.

  13. Poly-ethers from Winogradskyella poriferorum: Antifouling potential, time-course study of production and natural abundance

    KAUST Repository

    Dash, Swagatika

    2011-08-01

    A sponge-associated bacterium, Winogradskyella poriferorum strain UST030701-295T was cultured up to 100l for extraction of antifouling bioactive compounds. Five poly-ethers were isolated and partially characterized based on nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy and mass spectrometry (MS); two of them showed inhibitory effects on biofilm formation of marine bacteria and larval settlement of macro-foulers but did not produce any adverse effects on the phenotypes of zebra fish embryos at a concentration of 5μgml -1. The effect of culture duration on the production of the poly-ethers and the bioactivity of the relevant extracts was monitored over a period of 12days. The total crude poly-ether production increased from day 2 to day 5 and the highest bioactivity was observed on day 3. The poly-ethers were found to be localized in the cellular fraction of the extracts, implying their natural occurrence. The potent bioactivity of these poly-ethers together with their high natural abundance in bacteria makes them promising candidates as ingredients in antifouling applications. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd.

  14. Zinc and cadmium monosalicylates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kharitonov, Yu.Ya.; Tujebakhova, Z.K.

    1984-01-01

    Zinc and cadmium monosalicylates of the composition MSal, where M-Zn or Cd, Sal - twice deprotonated residue of salicylic acid O-HOC 6 H 4 COOH (H 2 Sal), are singled out and characterized. When studying thermograms, thermogravigrams, IR absorption spectra, roentgenograms of cadmium salicylate compounds (Cd(OC 6 H 4 COO) and products of their thepmal transformations, the processes of thermal decomposition of the compounds have been characterized. The process of cadmium monosalicylate decomposition takes place in one stage. Complete loss of salicylate acido group occurs in the range of 320-460 deg. At this decomposition stage cadmium oxide is formed. A supposition is made that cadmium complex has tetrahedral configuration, at that, each salicylate group plays the role of tetradentate-bridge ligand. The compound evidently has a polymer structure

  15. Zinc removal from wastewater by complexation-microfiltration process

    OpenAIRE

    Trivunac Katarina; Sekulić Zoran; Stevanović Slavica

    2012-01-01

    As a result of its wide industrial applications, zinc has become an important contaminant in aquatic environment since it is a toxic heavy metal and some of its compounds such as zinc arsenate and zinc cyanide, may be extremely hazardous. Therefore, there is a growing need for developing simple methods capable of separating and recovering trace zinc from environmental waters. Nowadays, the ultra and microfiltration method for trace metals removal from waters by the addition of water-sol...

  16. Various mortars for anti-fouling purposes in marine environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kanematsu, Hideyuki; Masuda, Tomoka; Miura, Yoko; Kuroda, Daisuke; Hirai, Nobumitsu; Yokoyama, Seiji

    2014-01-01

    The antifouling properties for some mortars with steel making slags were investigated by real marine immersion tests and a unique laboratory acceleration tests with a specially devised biofilm acceleration reactors. Mortars mixed with steel making slags containing abundant iron elements tended to form biofilm and also bifouling. The two kinds of biofilm formation tests were used in this study. Real immersion in marine environments and laboratory test with a specially devised biofilm acceleration reactor. The former evaluated the biofouling characteristics more properly, while the latter did the biofilm formation characteristics more effectively

  17. Various mortars for anti-fouling purposes in marine environments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kanematsu, Hideyuki; Masuda, Tomoka [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Suzuka National College of Technology, Shiroko-cho, Suzuka, Mie 510-0294 (Japan); Miura, Yoko; Kuroda, Daisuke [Department of General Education, The Company, Suzuka National College of Technology, Shiroko-cho, Suzuka, Mie 510-0294 (Japan); Hirai, Nobumitsu [Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Suzuka National College of Technology, Shiroko-cho, Suzuka, Mie 510-0294 (Japan); Yokoyama, Seiji [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Toyohashi University of Technology, 1-1, Hibarigaoka, Tenpaku, Toyohashi, Aichi, 441-8580 (Japan)

    2014-02-20

    The antifouling properties for some mortars with steel making slags were investigated by real marine immersion tests and a unique laboratory acceleration tests with a specially devised biofilm acceleration reactors. Mortars mixed with steel making slags containing abundant iron elements tended to form biofilm and also bifouling. The two kinds of biofilm formation tests were used in this study. Real immersion in marine environments and laboratory test with a specially devised biofilm acceleration reactor. The former evaluated the biofouling characteristics more properly, while the latter did the biofilm formation characteristics more effectively.

  18. Natural product antifoulants from the octocorals of Indian waters

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Raveendran, T.V.; LimnaMol, V.P.; Parameswaran, P.S.

    stream_size 22497 stream_content_type text/plain stream_name Int_Biodeterior_Biodegrad_65_265a.pdf.txt stream_source_info Int_Biodeterior_Biodegrad_65_265a.pdf.txt Content-Encoding UTF-8 Content-Type text/plain; charset=UTF-8... 1 Author version: International Biodeterioration & Biodegradation, vol.65(1); 2011; 265-268 Natural Product Antifoulants from the Octocorals of Indian waters T.V. Raveendran * , V.P. Limna Mol, P.S. Parameswaran National Institute...

  19. Symptomatic zinc deficiency in experimental zinc deprivation.

    OpenAIRE

    Taylor, C M; Goode, H F; Aggett, P J; Bremner, I; Walker, B E; Kelleher, J

    1992-01-01

    An evaluation of indices of poor zinc status was undertaken in five male subjects in whom dietary zinc intake was reduced from 85 mumol d-1 in an initial phase of the study to 14 mumol d-1. One of the subjects developed features consistent with zinc deficiency after receiving the low zinc diet for 12 days. These features included retroauricular acneform macullo-papular lesions on the face, neck, and shoulders and reductions in plasma zinc, red blood cell zinc, neutrophil zinc and plasma alkal...

  20. FP-APW plus lo calculations of the elastic properties in zinc-blende III-P compounds under pressure effects

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bouhemadou, A.; Khenata, R.; Kharoubi, M.; Seddik, R.; Al-Douri, Y.; Reshak, Ali H

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 45, č. 2 (2009), s. 474-479 ISSN 0927-0256 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60870520 Keywords : III-P compounds * Elastic moduli * Pressure effect Subject RIV: BO - Biophysics Impact factor: 1.522, year: 2009

  1. Phylogenetic analysis and antifouling potentials of culturable fungi in mangrove sediments from Techeng Isle, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiao-Yong; Fu, Wen; Chen, Xiao; Yan, Mu-Ting; Huang, Xian-De; Bao, Jie

    2018-06-09

    To search for more microbial resources for screening environment-friendly antifoulants, we investigated the phylogenetic diversity and antifouling potentials of culturable fungi in mangrove sediments from Techeng Isle, China. A total of 176 isolates belonging to 57 fungal taxa were recovered and identified. The high levels of diversity and abundance of mangrove fungi from Techeng Isle were in accordance with previous studies on fungi from other mangrove ecosystems. Fifteen of the 176 isolates demonstrated high divergence (87-93%) from the known fungal taxa in GenBank. Moreover, 26 isolates recorded in mangrove ecosystems for the first time. These results suggested that mangrove sediments from Techeng Isle harbored some new fungal communities compared with other mangrove ecosystems. The antifouling activity of 57 representative isolates (belonging to 57 different fungal taxa) was tested against three marine bacteria (Loktanella hongkongensis, Micrococcus luteus and Pseudoalteromonas piscida) and two marine macrofoulers (bryozoan Bugula neritina and barnacle Balanus amphitrite). Approximately 40% of the tested isolates displayed distinct antifouling activity. Furthermore, 17 fungal isolates were found to display strong or a wide spectrum of antifouling activity in this study, suggesting that these isolates deserve further study as potential sources of novel antifouling metabolites. To our knowledge, this is the first report on the investigation of the phylogenetic diversity and antifouling potential of culturable fungi in mangrove sediments from Techeng Isle, China. These results contribute to our knowledge of mangrove fungi and further increases the pool of fungi available for natural bioactive product screening.

  2. Synthesis and characterization of antifouling poly(N-acryloylaminoethoxyethanol) with ultralow protein adsorption and cell attachment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hong; Zhang, Mingzhen; Yang, Jintao; Zhao, Chao; Hu, Rundong; Chen, Qiang; Chang, Yung; Zheng, Jie

    2014-09-02

    Rational design of effective antifouling polymers is challenging but important for many fundamental and applied applications. Herein we synthesize and characterize an N-acryloylaminoethoxyethanol (AAEE) monomer, which integrates three hydrophilic groups of hydroxyl, amide, and ethylene glycol in the same material. AAEE monomers were further grafted and polymerized on gold substrates to form polyAAEE brushes with well-controlled thickness via surface-initiated atomic transfer radical polymerization (SI-ATRP), with particular attention to a better understanding of the molecular structure-antifouling property relationship of hydroxyl-acrylic-based polymers. The surface hydrophilicity and antifouling properties of polyAAEE brushes as a function of film thickness are studied by combined experimental and computational methods including surface plasmon resonance (SPR) sensors, atomic force microscopy (AFM), cell adhesion assay, and molecular dynamics (MD) simulations. With the optimal polymer film thicknesses (∼10-40 nm), polyAAEE-grafted surfaces can effectively resist protein adsorption from single-protein solutions and undiluted human blood plasma and serum to a nonfouling level (i.e., antifouling properties. The molecular structure-antifouling properties relationship of a series of hydroxyl-acrylic-based polymers is also discussed. This work hopefully provides a promising structural motif for the design of new effective antifouling materials beyond traditional ethylene glycol-based antifouling materials.

  3. Antifouling potentials of eight deep-sea-derived fungi from the South China Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiao-Yong; Xu, Xin-Ya; Peng, Jiang; Ma, Chun-Feng; Nong, Xu-Hua; Bao, Jie; Zhang, Guang-Zhao; Qi, Shu-Hua

    2014-04-01

    Marine-derived microbial secondary metabolites are promising potential sources of nontoxic antifouling agents. The search for environmentally friendly and low-toxic antifouling components guided us to investigate the antifouling potentials of eight novel fungal isolates from deep-sea sediments of the South China Sea. Sixteen crude ethyl acetate extracts of the eight fungal isolates showed distinct antibacterial activity against three marine bacteria (Loktanella hongkongensis UST950701-009, Micrococcus luteus UST950701-006 and Pseudoalteromonas piscida UST010620-005), or significant antilarval activity against larval settlement of bryozoan Bugula neritina. Furthermore, the extract of Aspergillus westerdijkiae DFFSCS013 displayed strong antifouling activity in a field trial lasting 4 months. By further bioassay-guided isolation, five antifouling alkaloids including brevianamide F, circumdatin F and L, notoamide C, and 5-chlorosclerotiamide were isolated from the extract of A. westerdijkiae DFFSCS013. This is the first report about the antifouling potentials of metabolites of the deep-sea-derived fungi from the South China Sea, and the first stage towards the development of non- or low-toxic antifouling agents from deep-sea-derived fungi.

  4. Organically pillared layered zinc hydroxides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kongshaug, K.O.; Fjellvaag, Helmer

    2004-01-01

    The two organically pillared layered zinc hydroxides [Zn 2 (OH) 2 (ndc)], CPO-6, and [Zn 3 (OH) 4 (bpdc)], CPO-7, were obtained in hydrothermal reactions between 2,6-naphthalenedicarboxylic acid (ndc) and zinc nitrate (CPO-6) and 4,4'biphenyldicarboxylate (bpdc) and zinc nitrate (CPO-7), respectively. In CPO-6, the tetrahedral zinc atoms are connected by two μ 2 -OH groups and two carboxylate oxygen atoms, forming infinite layers extending parallel to the bc-plane. These layers are pillared by ndc to form a three-dimensional structure. In CPO-7, the zinc hydroxide layers are containing four-, five- and six coordinated zinc atoms, and the layers are built like stairways running along the [001] direction. Each step is composed of three infinite chains running in the [010] direction. Both crystal structures were solved from conventional single crystal data. Crystal data for CPO-6: Monoclinic space group P2 1 /c (No. 14), a=11.9703(7), b=7.8154(5), c=6.2428(4) A, β=90.816(2) deg., V=583.97(6) A 3 and Z=4. Crystal data for CPO-7: Monoclinic space group C2/c (No. 15), a=35.220(4), b=6.2658(8), c=14.8888(17) A, β=112.580(4) deg., V=3033.8(6) A 3 and Z=8. The compounds were further characterized by thermogravimetric- and chemical analysis

  5. REVIEW PAPER-MARINE MICROBIAL BIOACTIVE COMPOUNDS

    OpenAIRE

    Kalyani. P*, Hemalatha. K. P. J

    2016-01-01

    Oceans have borne most of the biological activities on our planet. A number of biologically active compounds with varying degrees of action, such as anti-tumor, anti-cancer, anti-microtubule, anti-proliferative, cytotoxic, photo protective, as well as antibiotic and antifouling properties, have been isolated to date from marine sources. The marine environment also represents a largely unexplored source for isolation of new microbes (bacteria, fungi, actinomycetes, microalgae-cyanobacteria and...

  6. Effects of counterions of colorful sandwich-type zinc(II) 4‧-phenyl-terpyridine compounds on photoluminescent and thermal properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yongqiang; Zhou, Peng; Liang, Baohuan; Huang, Ling; Zhou, Yanling; Ma, Zhen

    2017-10-01

    Reactions between 4‧-phenyl-terpyridine (L) and several Zn(II) salts (p-toluenesulfonate, nitrate, trifluoromethane sulfonate or hexafluoroantimonate) led to the formation of the complexes [ZnL2](p-OSO2PhCH3)2 (1), [ZnL2](NO3)2 (2), [ZnL2](SO3CF3)2 (3) and [ZnL2](SbF6)2 (4), which were characterized by IR, 1H NMR, elemental analysis, UV-vis spectroscopies and single crystal X-ray diffraction, along with their TG-DTA thermal and photoluminescent properties. The four compounds show mononuclear Zn(II) structures with hexacoordinated, irregular ZnN6 octahedron geometries. Their colours and photo-luminescent properties have changed regularly depending on the counterions of the compounds.

  7. Processing of antifouling paint particles by Mytilus edulis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turner, Andrew; Barrett, Mark; Brown, Murray T.

    2009-01-01

    Particles of spent antifouling paint collected from a marine boatyard were ground and subsequently administered to the filter-feeding bivalve, Mytilus edulis, maintained in static aquaria. Concentrations of Cu and Zn were measured in seawater throughout a 16 h feeding phase and a 24 h depuration phase, in rejected and egested particles collected during the respective phases, and in the organisms themselves at the end of the experiments. Concentrations and distributions of Cu and Zn in processed particles indicated that M. edulis was able to ingest paint particles, regardless of whether nutritionally viable silt was present, and no mechanism of particle discrimination was evident. Enrichment of Cu and Zn in the visceral mass of individuals and in the aqueous phase during depuration supported these assertions, although elevated concentrations in other compartments of the organism (e.g. shell, gill) suggested that biotic and abiotic uptake of aqueous metal was also important. - Particles of antifouling paint enriched in Cu and Zn are ingested and digested by the marine bivalve M. edulis

  8. Processing of antifouling paint particles by Mytilus edulis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Turner, Andrew [School of Earth, Ocean and Environmental Sciences, University of Plymouth, Drake Circus, Plymouth PL4 8AA (United Kingdom)], E-mail: aturner@plymouth.ac.uk; Barrett, Mark [School of Earth, Ocean and Environmental Sciences, University of Plymouth, Drake Circus, Plymouth PL4 8AA (United Kingdom); Brown, Murray T. [School of Biological Sciences, University of Plymouth, Drake Circus, Plymouth PL4 8AA (United Kingdom)

    2009-01-15

    Particles of spent antifouling paint collected from a marine boatyard were ground and subsequently administered to the filter-feeding bivalve, Mytilus edulis, maintained in static aquaria. Concentrations of Cu and Zn were measured in seawater throughout a 16 h feeding phase and a 24 h depuration phase, in rejected and egested particles collected during the respective phases, and in the organisms themselves at the end of the experiments. Concentrations and distributions of Cu and Zn in processed particles indicated that M. edulis was able to ingest paint particles, regardless of whether nutritionally viable silt was present, and no mechanism of particle discrimination was evident. Enrichment of Cu and Zn in the visceral mass of individuals and in the aqueous phase during depuration supported these assertions, although elevated concentrations in other compartments of the organism (e.g. shell, gill) suggested that biotic and abiotic uptake of aqueous metal was also important. - Particles of antifouling paint enriched in Cu and Zn are ingested and digested by the marine bivalve M. edulis.

  9. The Potential for Zinc Stable Isotope Techniques and Modelling to Determine Optimal Zinc Supplementation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cuong D. Tran

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available It is well recognised that zinc deficiency is a major global public health issue, particularly in young children in low-income countries with diarrhoea and environmental enteropathy. Zinc supplementation is regarded as a powerful tool to correct zinc deficiency as well as to treat a variety of physiologic and pathologic conditions. However, the dose and frequency of its use as well as the choice of zinc salt are not clearly defined regardless of whether it is used to treat a disease or correct a nutritional deficiency. We discuss the application of zinc stable isotope tracer techniques to assess zinc physiology, metabolism and homeostasis and how these can address knowledge gaps in zinc supplementation pharmacokinetics. This may help to resolve optimal dose, frequency, length of administration, timing of delivery to food intake and choice of zinc compound. It appears that long-term preventive supplementation can be administered much less frequently than daily but more research needs to be undertaken to better understand how best to intervene with zinc in children at risk of zinc deficiency. Stable isotope techniques, linked with saturation response and compartmental modelling, also have the potential to assist in the continued search for simple markers of zinc status in health, malnutrition and disease.

  10. The Potential for Zinc Stable Isotope Techniques and Modelling to Determine Optimal Zinc Supplementation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, Cuong D.; Gopalsamy, Geetha L.; Mortimer, Elissa K.; Young, Graeme P.

    2015-01-01

    It is well recognised that zinc deficiency is a major global public health issue, particularly in young children in low-income countries with diarrhoea and environmental enteropathy. Zinc supplementation is regarded as a powerful tool to correct zinc deficiency as well as to treat a variety of physiologic and pathologic conditions. However, the dose and frequency of its use as well as the choice of zinc salt are not clearly defined regardless of whether it is used to treat a disease or correct a nutritional deficiency. We discuss the application of zinc stable isotope tracer techniques to assess zinc physiology, metabolism and homeostasis and how these can address knowledge gaps in zinc supplementation pharmacokinetics. This may help to resolve optimal dose, frequency, length of administration, timing of delivery to food intake and choice of zinc compound. It appears that long-term preventive supplementation can be administered much less frequently than daily but more research needs to be undertaken to better understand how best to intervene with zinc in children at risk of zinc deficiency. Stable isotope techniques, linked with saturation response and compartmental modelling, also have the potential to assist in the continued search for simple markers of zinc status in health, malnutrition and disease. PMID:26035248

  11. Rechargeable Aqueous Zinc-Ion Battery Based on Porous Framework Zinc Pyrovanadate Intercalation Cathode

    KAUST Repository

    Xia, Chuan; Guo, Jing; Lei, Yongjiu; Liang, Hanfeng; Zhao, Chao; Alshareef, Husam N.

    2017-01-01

    metal pyrovanadate compounds. The zinc pyrovanadate nanowires show significantly improved electrochemical performance when used as intercalation cathode for aqueous zinc–ion battery. Specifically, the ZVO cathode delivers high capacities of 213 and 76 m

  12. Electrografted diazonium salt layers for antifouling on the surface of surface plasmon resonance biosensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Qiongjing; Kegel, Laurel L; Booksh, Karl S

    2015-02-17

    Electrografted diazonium salt layers on the surface of surface plasmon resonance (SPR) sensors present potential for a significant improvement in antifouling coatings. A pulsed potential deposition profile was used in order to circumvent mass-transport limitations for layer deposition rate. The influence of number of pulses with respect to antifouling efficacy was evaluated by nonspecific adsorption surface coverage of crude bovine serum proteins. Instead of using empirical and rough estimated values, the penetration depth and sensitivity of the SPR instrument were experimentally determined for the calculation of nonspecific adsorption surface coverage. This provides a method to better examine antifouling surface coatings and compare crossing different coatings and experimental systems. Direct comparison of antifouling performance of different diazonium salts was facilitated by a tripad SPR sensor design. The electrografted 4-phenylalanine diazonium chloride (4-APhe) layers with zwitterionic characteristic demonstrate ultralow fouling.

  13. Improved antifouling properties of polymer membranes using a ‘layer-by-layer’ mediated method

    KAUST Repository

    Chen, Lin; Thé rien-Aubin, Hé loï se; Wong, Mavis C. Y.; Hoek, Eric M. V.; Ober, Christopher K.

    2013-01-01

    Polymeric reverse osmosis membranes were modified with antifouling polymer brushes through a 'layer by layer' (LBL) mediated method. Based on pure physical electrostatic interaction, the attachment of LBL films did not alter separation performance

  14. Isocyanides Derived from α,α-Disubstituted Amino Acids: Synthesis and Antifouling Activity Assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inoue, Yuki; Takashima, Shuhei; Nogata, Yasuyuki; Yoshimura, Erina; Chiba, Kazuhiro; Kitano, Yoshikazu

    2018-03-01

    Herein, we contribute to the development of environmentally friendly antifoulants by synthesizing eighteen isocyanides derived from α,α-disubstituted amino acids and evaluating their antifouling activity/toxicity against the cypris larvae of the Balanus amphitrite barnacle. Almost all isocyanides showed good antifouling activity without significant toxicity and exhibited EC 50 values of 0.07 - 7.30 μg/mL after 120-h exposure. The lowest EC 50 values were observed for valine-, methionine-, and phenylalanine-derived isocyanides, which achieved > 95% cypris larvae settlement inhibition at concentrations of less than 30 μg/mL without exhibiting significant toxicity. Thus, the prepared isocyanides should be useful for further research focused on the development of environmentally friendly antifouling agents. © 2018 Wiley-VHCA AG, Zurich, Switzerland.

  15. Anti-fouling properties of microstructured surfaces bio-inspired by rice leaves and butterfly wings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bixler, Gregory D; Theiss, Andrew; Bhushan, Bharat; Lee, Stephen C

    2014-04-01

    Material scientists often look to biology for new engineering solutions to materials science problems. For example, unique surface characteristics of rice leaves and butterfly wings combine the shark skin (antifouling) and lotus leaf (self-cleaning) effects, producing the so-called rice and butterfly wing effect. In this paper, we study antifouling properties of four microstructured surfaces inspired by rice leaves and fabricated with photolithography and hot embossing techniques. Anti-biofouling effectiveness is determined with bioassays using Escherichia coli whilst inorganic fouling with simulated dirt particles. Antifouling data are presented to understand the role of surface geometrical features resistance to fouling. Conceptual modeling provides design guidance when developing novel antifouling surfaces for applications in the medical, marine, and industrial fields. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Studies on the antifouling properties of some natural products from Goa

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Sawant, S.S.; Wagh, A.B.

    Methanol extracts of the fruits of the terrestrial plants @iRandia brandisii@@ and @iSapindus trifoliatus@@ were screened for their antifouling activities on the marine fouling diatoms @iNavicula subinflata@@ and @iN. crucicula@@. Both extracts...

  17. Antifouling property of the fruits of Randia brandisii (Rubiaceae) and Sapindus trifoliatus (Sapindaceae)

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Sawant, S.S.; Wagh, A.B.

    Methanol extracts of fruits of Randia brandisii (Gamble) and Sapindus trifoliatus (Vah) were assessed for marine antifouling properties. The coatings of these crude extracts on aluminium coupons were found to inhibit settlement of macrofoulers...

  18. Impact of the antifouling agent Irgarol 1051 on marine phytoplankton species

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buma, Anita G. J.; Sjollema, Sascha B.; van de Poll, Willem H.; Klamer, Hans J. C.; Bakker, Joop F.

    In the present study we tested the hypothesis that environmental concentrations of the antifouling agent Irgarol 1051, as measured in coastal Western European waters, affect marine phytoplankton performance. The impact of Irgarol was investigated in the phytoplankton species Thalassiosira

  19. Maximum permissible concentrations and negligible concentrations for antifouling substances. Irgarol 1051, dichlofluanid, ziram, chlorothalonil and TCMTB

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wezel AP van; Vlaardingen P van; CSR

    2001-01-01

    This report presents maximum permissible concentrations and negligible concentrations that have been derived for various antifouling substances used as substitutes for TBT. Included here are Irgarol 1051, dichlofluanide, ziram, chlorothalonil and TCMTB.

  20. Preparation and Characterization of Amphiphilic Triblock Terpolymer-Based Nanofibers as Antifouling Biomaterials

    KAUST Repository

    Cho, Youngjin; Cho, Daehwan; Park, Jay Hoon; Frey, Margaret W.; Ober, Christopher K.; Joo, Yong Lak

    2012-01-01

    as KB) and fabricated amphiphilic nanofibers by electrospinning of solutions prepared by mixing the KB with poly(lactic acid) (PLA) polymer. The resulting fibers with amphiphilic polymer groups exhibited superior antifouling performance to the fibers

  1. Antifouling activity in some benthic Antarctic invertebrates by "in situ" experiments at Deception Island, Antarctica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angulo-Preckler, Carlos; Cid, Cristina; Oliva, Francesc; Avila, Conxita

    2015-04-01

    Competition for space is a remarkable ecological force, comparable to predation, producing a strong selective pressure on benthic invertebrates. Some invertebrates, thus, possess antimicrobial compounds to reduce surface bacterial growth. Antimicrobial inhibition is the first step in avoiding being overgrown by other organisms, which may have a negative impact in feeding, respiration, reproduction … The in situ inhibition of bacterial biofilm was used here as an indicator of antifouling activity by testing hydrophilic extracts of twelve Antarctic invertebrates. Using two different approaches (genetics and confocal techniques) different levels of activity were found in the tested organisms. In fact, differences within body parts of the studied organisms were determined, in agreement with the Optimal Defense Theory. Eight out of 15 extracts tested had negative effects on fouling after 28 days submerged in Antarctic waters. Thus, although chemical defenses may be quite species-specific in their ecological roles, these results suggest that different chemical strategies exist to deal with space competition. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Potent Antifouling Resorcylic Acid Lactones from the Gorgonian-Derived Fungus Cochliobolus lunatus

    KAUST Repository

    Shao, Chang Lun; Wu, Hui Xian; Wang, Chang Yun; Liu, Qing Ai; Xu, Ying; Wei, Mei Yan; Qian, Pei Yuan; Gu, Yu Cheng; Zheng, Cai Juan; She, Zhi Gang; Lin, Yong Cheng

    2011-01-01

    Three new 14-membered resorcylic acid lactones, two with a rare natural acetonide group and one with a 5-chloro-substituted lactone, named cochliomycins A-C (1-3), together with four known analogues, zeaenol (4), LL-Z1640-1 (5), LL-Z1640-2 (6), and paecilomycin F (7), were isolated from the culture broth of Cochliobolus lunatus, a fungus obtained from the gorgonian Dichotella gemmacea collected in the South China Sea. Their structures and the relative configurations of 1-3 were elucidated using comprehensive spectroscopic methods including NOESY spectra and chemical conversions. A transetherification reaction was also observed in which cochliomycin B (2) in a solution of CDCl3 slowly rearranged to give cochliomycin A (1) at room temperature. These resorcylic acid lactones were evaluated against the larval settlement of barnacle Balanus amphitrite, and antifouling activity was detected for the first time for this class of metabolites. The antibacterial and cytotoxic activities of these compounds were also examined. © 2011 The American Chemical Society and American Society of Pharmacognosy.

  3. Potent Antifouling Resorcylic Acid Lactones from the Gorgonian-Derived Fungus Cochliobolus lunatus

    KAUST Repository

    Shao, Chang Lun

    2011-04-25

    Three new 14-membered resorcylic acid lactones, two with a rare natural acetonide group and one with a 5-chloro-substituted lactone, named cochliomycins A-C (1-3), together with four known analogues, zeaenol (4), LL-Z1640-1 (5), LL-Z1640-2 (6), and paecilomycin F (7), were isolated from the culture broth of Cochliobolus lunatus, a fungus obtained from the gorgonian Dichotella gemmacea collected in the South China Sea. Their structures and the relative configurations of 1-3 were elucidated using comprehensive spectroscopic methods including NOESY spectra and chemical conversions. A transetherification reaction was also observed in which cochliomycin B (2) in a solution of CDCl3 slowly rearranged to give cochliomycin A (1) at room temperature. These resorcylic acid lactones were evaluated against the larval settlement of barnacle Balanus amphitrite, and antifouling activity was detected for the first time for this class of metabolites. The antibacterial and cytotoxic activities of these compounds were also examined. © 2011 The American Chemical Society and American Society of Pharmacognosy.

  4. Influence of antifouling paint on freshwater invertebrates (Mytilidae, Chironomidae and Naididae): density, richness and composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujita, D S; Takeda, A M; Coutinho, R; Fernandes, F C

    2015-11-01

    We conducted a study about invertebrates on artificial substrates with different antifouling paints in order to answer the following questions 1) is there lower accumulation of organic matter on substrates with antifouling paints, 2) is invertebrate colonization influenced by the release of biocides from antifouling paints, 3) is the colonization of aquatic invertebrates positively influenced by the material accumulated upon the substrate surface and 4) is the assemblage composition of invertebrates similar among the different antifouling paints? To answer these questions, four structures were installed in the Baía River in February 1st, 2007. Each structure was composed of 7 wood boards: 5 boards painted with each type of antifouling paints (T1, T2, T3, T4 and T5), one painted only with the primer (Pr) and the other without any paint (Cn). After 365 days, we observed a greater accumulation of organic matter in the substrates with T2 and T3 paint coatings. Limnoperna fortunei was recorded in all tested paints, with higher densities in the control, primer, T2 and T3. The colonization of Chironomidae and Naididae on the substrate was positively influenced by L. fortunei density. The non-metric multidimensional scaling (NMDS) of the invertebrate community provided evidence of the clear distinction of invertebrate assemblages among the paints. Paints T2 and T3 were the most similar to the control and primer. Our results suggest that antifouling paints applied on substrates hinder invertebrate colonization by decreasing the density and richness of invertebrates.

  5. Image Cytometric Analysis of Algal Spores for Evaluation of Antifouling Activities of Biocidal Agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Il Koo, Bon; Lee, Yun-Soo; Seo, Mintae; Seok Choi, Hyung; Leng Seah, Geok; Nam, Taegu; Nam, Yoon Sung

    2017-07-31

    Chemical biocides have been widely used as marine antifouling agents, but their environmental toxicity impose regulatory restriction on their use. Although various surrogate antifouling biocides have been introduced, their comparative effectiveness has not been well investigated partly due to the difficulty of quantitative evaluation of their antifouling activity. Here we report an image cytometric method to quantitatively analyze the antifouling activities of seven commercial biocides using Ulva prolifera as a target organism, which is known to be a dominant marine species causing soft fouling. The number of spores settled on a substrate is determined through image analysis using the intrinsic fluorescence of chlorophylls in the spores. Pre-determined sets of size and shape of spores allow for the precise determination of the number of settled spores. The effects of biocide concentration and combination of different biocides on the spore settlement are examined. No significant morphological changes of Ulva spores are observed, but the amount of adhesive pad materials is appreciably decreased in the presence of biocides. It is revealed that the growth rate of Ulva is not directly correlated with the antifouling activities against the settlement of Ulva spores. This work suggests that image cytometric analysis is a very convenient, fast-processable method to directly analyze the antifouling effects of biocides and coating materials.

  6. Antifouling efficacy of a controlled depletion paint formulation with acetophenone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sangmok Jung

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Biofouling is an inevitable problem that occurs continually on marine fishing vessels and other small crafts. The nature of the antifouling (AF coatings used to prevent biofouling on these small vessels is of great environmental concern. Therefore, the efficacy of a non-toxic AF candidate, acetophenone, was evaluated in preliminary laboratory assays using marine bacteria, diatom and Ulva spores. At a low concentration of 100 μg cm–2 of acetophenone, spore attachment of a green fouling alga was significantly reduced (p < 0.01. Similarly, 40% acetophenone coatings significantly inhibited diatom attachment. This new non-toxic AF agent was incorporated into controlled depletion paint (CDP. Fouling coverage (%, biomass, and fouling resistance (% were estimated. On CDP coatings made with acetophenone (40%, a significant decrease in fouling biomass was estimated (p < 0.01.

  7. Zinc Signals and Immunity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maywald, Martina; Wessels, Inga; Rink, Lothar

    2017-10-24

    Zinc homeostasis is crucial for an adequate function of the immune system. Zinc deficiency as well as zinc excess result in severe disturbances in immune cell numbers and activities, which can result in increased susceptibility to infections and development of especially inflammatory diseases. This review focuses on the role of zinc in regulating intracellular signaling pathways in innate as well as adaptive immune cells. Main underlying molecular mechanisms and targets affected by altered zinc homeostasis, including kinases, caspases, phosphatases, and phosphodiesterases, will be highlighted in this article. In addition, the interplay of zinc homeostasis and the redox metabolism in affecting intracellular signaling will be emphasized. Key signaling pathways will be described in detail for the different cell types of the immune system. In this, effects of fast zinc flux, taking place within a few seconds to minutes will be distinguish from slower types of zinc signals, also designated as "zinc waves", and late homeostatic zinc signals regarding prolonged changes in intracellular zinc.

  8. Environmental management aspects for TBT antifouling wastes from the shipyards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotrikla, Anna

    2009-02-01

    Tributyltin (TBT)-based antifouling paints have been successfully used for over 40 years to protect a ship's hull from biofouling. However, due to its high toxicity to marine organisms, the International Maritime Organization (IMO), in 1990, adopted a resolution recommending governments to adopt measures to eliminate antifouling paints containing TBT. High concentrations of TBT are detected in the vicinity of ports and shipyards. TBT is also usually detected in the sediment, in which it accumulates. This study reviews recent literature for the best management practices (BMPs) in order to minimize the environmental effects of TBT. The paper focuses on the evaluation of the available techniques for the removal of TBT from shipyard wastes and from the sediment. The most effective treatment methods are highlighted. BMPs include recycling of abrasive materials, use of cleaner abrasive materials, reuse of spent abrasive materials, substitution of hydroblasting by vacuum blasting or containment or ultra-high-pressure water blasting and confinement of pollution by enclosure and containment systems. The treatment of the TBT wastes by conventional biological wastewater treatment processes is probably not suitable, because the concentrations of TBT found in shipyards' wastewaters are toxic to microorganisms. Advanced technologies such as activated carbon adsorption and dissolved air flotation, in combination with filtration and coagulation-clarification, photodegradation and electrochemical treatment, are required to remove TBT. However, advanced methods should be further optimized to meet the regulatory limit of 200 ng/L. To date, only one published work examines the efficiency of incineration for the treatment of solid sandblast wastes. Regarding the treatment of sediment, land deposition of the less polluted fraction of sediment is a feasible option. Such treatment must take into account the risk of contamination of groundwater and the surroundings, and it requires

  9. Antifouling paint particles: Sources, occurrence, composition and dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soroldoni, Sanye; Castro, Ítalo Braga; Abreu, Fiamma; Duarte, Fabio Andrei; Choueri, Rodrigo Brasil; Möller, Osmar Olinto; Fillmann, Gilberto; Pinho, Grasiela Lopes Leães

    2018-06-15

    Sources, occurrence, composition and dynamics of antifouling paint particles (APPs) were assessed in Patos Lagoon estuary (PLE), Southern Brazil. Ten areas including boatyards, a marina and artisanal fishing harbors were identified in the estuarine system as potential sources of APPs. The APPs generated in these areas were highly heterogeneous considering the size, shape and composition. Based on an estimate of antifouling paint usage and amount of boats in each studied area, artisanal fishing harbors could be the main source of particles to PLE. However, relatively high amounts of APPs, which ranged from 130 to 40,300 μg g -1 , were detected in sediments collected in front of boatyards and a marina. The uneven distribution of APPs levels among the sediment samples were probably due to the presence of diffuse sources (fishing harbors) associated to "hotspots" (boatyards and marina) along the study area. Additionally, data of settling experiment indicate that size, shape and density of APPs, combined to local hydrodynamics, appears to contribute to the mobility of these residues within the estuary. In the main channel of PLE, smaller particles tend to be transported to adjacent coastal zone while particles tend to be deposited in the sediment surface of sheltered areas. Since different trace metals, and booster biocides were detected in APPs that were not correctly disposed, these particles can be considered as an important source of contamination to aquatic environments. The present data suggest that APPs represent an environmental problem for aquatic systems in Brazil, since the country lacks legislation in addition to inefficient control mechanisms. An improvement in boat maintenance processes are urgently needed to avoid this continuous release of APPs into the aquatic systems. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Developmental toxicity of organotin compounds in animals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lijiao eWu

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Organotin compounds (OTs have been used as biocides in antifouling paints and agriculture. The IMO introduced a global ban on the use of OTs in antifouling systems in 2001 due to their high toxicity. However, OTs have still been detected in the environment and pose a threat to the ecosystem. Several research groups have summarized the analytical methods, environmental fate, biochemistry, reproductive toxicity and mechanisms of actions of OTs. Here, we reviewed the developmental toxicity of OTs in various organisms such as sea urchin, ascidian, mussel and fish. The differences in sensitivity to OT exposure exist not only in different species but also at different stages in the same species. Though some hypotheses have been proposed to explain the developmental toxicity of OTs, the solid evidences are greatly in need.

  11. ZINC MITIGATION INTERIM REPORT - THERMODYNAMIC STUDY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Korinko, P.

    2010-12-17

    An experimental program was initiated in order to develop and validate conditions that will effectively trap Zn vapors that are released during extraction. The proposed work is broken down into three tasks. The first task is to determine the effectiveness of various pore sizes of filter elements. The second task is to determine the effect of filter temperature on zinc vapor deposition. The final task is to determine whether the zinc vapors can be chemically bound. The approach for chemically binding the zinc vapors has two subtasks, the first is a review of literature and thermodynamic calculations and the second is an experimental approach using the best candidates. This report details the results of the thermodynamic calculations to determine feasibility of chemically binding the zinc vapors within the furnace module, specifically the lithium trap (1). A review of phase diagrams, literature, and thermodynamic calculations was conducted to determine if there are suitable materials to capture zinc vapor within the lithium trap of the extraction basket. While numerous elements exist that form compounds with zinc, many of these also form compounds with hydrogen or the water that is present in the TPBARs. This relatively comprehensive review of available data indicates that elemental cobalt and copper and molybdenum trioxide (MoO3) may have the requisite properties to capture zinc and yet not be adversely affected by the extraction gases and should be considered for testing.

  12. Production of zinc pellets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, J.F.

    1996-11-26

    Uniform zinc pellets are formed for use in batteries having a stationary or moving slurry zinc particle electrode. The process involves the cathodic deposition of zinc in a finely divided morphology from battery reaction product onto a non-adhering electrode substrate. The mossy zinc is removed from the electrode substrate by the action of gravity, entrainment in a flowing electrolyte, or by mechanical action. The finely divided zinc particles are collected and pressed into pellets by a mechanical device such as an extruder, a roller and chopper, or a punch and die. The pure zinc pellets are returned to the zinc battery in a pumped slurry and have uniform size, density and reactivity. Applications include zinc-air fuel batteries, zinc-ferricyanide storage batteries, and zinc-nickel-oxide secondary batteries. 6 figs.

  13. Dietary phytate, zinc and hidden zinc deficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandstead, Harold H; Freeland-Graves, Jeanne H

    2014-10-01

    Epidemiological data suggest at least one in five humans are at risk of zinc deficiency. This is in large part because the phytate in cereals and legumes has not been removed during food preparation. Phytate, a potent indigestible ligand for zinc prevents it's absorption. Without knowledge of the frequency of consumption of foods rich in phytate, and foods rich in bioavailable zinc, the recognition of zinc deficiency early in the illness may be difficult. Plasma zinc is insensitive to early zinc deficiency. Serum ferritin concentration≤20μg/L is a potential indirect biomarker. Early effects of zinc deficiency are chemical, functional and may be "hidden". The clinical problem is illustrated by 2 studies that involved US Mexican-American children, and US premenopausal women. The children were consuming home diets that included traditional foods high in phytate. The premenopausal women were not eating red meat on a regular basis, and their consumption of phytate was mainly from bran breakfast cereals. In both studies the presence of zinc deficiency was proven by functional responses to controlled zinc treatment. In the children lean-mass, reasoning, and immunity were significantly affected. In the women memory, reasoning, and eye-hand coordination were significantly affected. A screening self-administered food frequency questionnaire for office might help caregiver's identify patients at risk of zinc deficiency. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  14. Are metals of antifouling paints transferred to marine biota?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wladimir C. Paradas

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Because of its high toxicity, TBT (trybutiltin was banned since 2003, which resulted in a greater re-use of Cu as based-biocide in antifouling paints (AFP. The aim of this work is to determine if metals form of AFP are transferred to benthic organisms from Guanabara Bay (GB (Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Metal concentrations were measured in two main fouling algae species Ulva flexuosa and U. fasciata and one isopod species, Sphaeroma serratum, in two GB marinas areas from sites with artificial substrate covered by AFP and natural substrate.In addition, control samples were collected in an adjacent open ocean area. Concentrations of Cd, Cr, Cu, Pb and Zn were determined by Atomic Absortion Spectrophotometry. Higher concentrations of Cu, Pb and Zn were detected in both algal species from GB in relation to control areas. Among samples of algae and isopod species from GB, populations collected over artificial surfaces covered by AFP presented significantly higher metal concentration than population of rocky natural substrate. Our data showed that the leaching of metals by antifouling paints present on decks and boats are being taken up by algae and isopods. These results indicate that antifouling coatings are the main source of heavy metal to biota of GB marina area.Devido sua alta toxicidade, o TBT está banido desde 2003, o que resultou na re-utilização de tintas a base de cobre. O objetivo deste trabalho é determinar se os metais provenientes das tintas anti-incrustantes (AFP são transferidos para organismos bentônicos da Baía de Guanabara (BG (Rio de janeiro, Brasil. Concentrações de metais foram analisadas em duas espécies de algas Ulva flexuosa e U. fasciata e no isópoda, Sphaeroma serratum, em duas áreas de marinas em locais de substrato artificial coberto com tintas AFP e em locais de substrato natural. Também foram coletadas amostras em uma área oceânica (controle. Concentrações de Cd, Cr, Cu, Pb e Zn foram determinadas por

  15. Changes in the proteome and phosphoproteome expression in the bryozoan Bugula neritina larvae in response to the antifouling agent butenolide

    KAUST Repository

    Qian, Pei Yuan

    2010-09-08

    Larval attachment and metamorphosis, commonly referred to as larval settlement, of marine sessile invertebrates can be triggered or blocked by chemical cues and affected by changes in overall protein expression pattern and phosphorylation dynamics. This study focuses on the effects of butenolide, an effective larval settlement inhibitor, on larval settlement at the proteome level in the bryozoan Bugula neritina. Liquid-phase IEF sample prefractionation combined with 2-DE and MALDI-TOF MS was used to identify the differentially expressed proteins. Substantial changes occurred both in protein abundance and in phosphorylation status during larval settlement and when settling larvae were challenged with butenolide. The proteins that responded to treatment were identified as structural proteins, molecular chaperones, mitochondrial peptidases and calcium-binding proteins. Compared with our earlier results, both genistein and butenolide inhibited larval settlement of B. neritina primarily by changes in protein abundance and the phosphorylation status of proteins but have different protein targets in the same species. Clearly, to design potent antifouling compounds and to understand the mode of action of compounds, more studies on the effects of different compounds on proteome and phosphoproteome of different larval species are required. © 2010 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA.

  16. BWR zinc addition Sourcebook

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia, Susan E.; Giannelli, Joseph F.; Jarvis, Alfred J.

    2014-01-01

    Boiling Water Reactors (BWRs) have been injecting zinc into the primary coolant via the reactor feedwater system for over 25 years for the purpose of controlling primary system radiation fields. The BWR zinc injection process has evolved since the initial application at the Hope Creek Nuclear Station in 1986. Key transitions were from the original natural zinc oxide (NZO) to depleted zinc oxide (DZO), and from active zinc injection of a powdered zinc oxide slurry (pumped systems) to passive injection systems (zinc pellet beds). Zinc addition has continued through various chemistry regimes changes, from normal water chemistry (NWC) to hydrogen water chemistry (HWC) and HWC with noble metals (NobleChem™) for mitigation of intergranular stress corrosion cracking (IGSCC) of reactor internals and primary system piping. While past reports published by the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) document specific industry experience related to these topics, the Zinc Sourcebook was prepared to consolidate all of the experience gained over the past 25 years. The Zinc Sourcebook will benefit experienced BWR Chemistry, Operations, Radiation Protection and Engineering personnel as well as new people entering the nuclear power industry. While all North American BWRs implement feedwater zinc injection, a number of other BWRs do not inject zinc. This Sourcebook will also be a valuable resource to plants considering the benefits of zinc addition process implementation, and to gain insights on industry experience related to zinc process control and best practices. This paper presents some of the highlights from the Sourcebook. (author)

  17. Method of capturing or trapping zinc using zinc getter materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunyadi Murph, Simona E.; Korinko, Paul S.

    2017-07-11

    A method of trapping or capturing zinc is disclosed. In particular, the method comprises a step of contacting a zinc vapor with a zinc getter material. The zinc getter material comprises nanoparticles and a metal substrate.

  18. Protein and Bacterial Antifouling Behavior of Melt-Coextruded Nanofiber Mats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Si-Eun; Zhang, Cong; Advincula, Abigail A; Baer, Eric; Pokorski, Jonathan K

    2016-04-13

    Antifouling surfaces are important for biomedical devices to prevent secondary infections and mitigate the effects of the foreign body response. Herein, we describe melt-coextruded poly(ε-caprolactone) (PCL) nanofiber mats grafted with antifouling polymers. Nonwoven PCL fiber mats are produced using a multilayered melt coextrusion process followed by high-pressure hydroentanglement to yield porous patches. The resulting fiber mats show submicrometer cross-sectional fiber dimensions and yield pore sizes that were nearly uniform, with a mean pore size of 1.6 ± 0.9 μm. Several antifouling polymers, including hydrophilic, zwitterionic, and amphipathic molecules, are grafted to the surface of the mats using a two-step procedure that includes photochemistry followed by the copper-catalyzed azide-alkyne cycloaddition reaction. Fiber mats are evaluated using separate adsorption tests for serum proteins and E. coli. The results indicate that poly(oligo(ethylene glycol) methyl ether methacrylate)-co-(trifluoroethyl methacrylate) (poly(OEGMEMA-co-TFEMA)) grafted mats exhibit approximately 85% less protein adhesion and 97% less E. coli adsorption when compared to unmodified PCL fibermats. In dynamic antifouling testing, the amphiphilic fluorous polymer surface shows the highest flux and highest rejection value of foulants. The work presented within has implications on the high-throughput production of antifouling microporous patches for medical applications.

  19. Superior Antifouling Performance of a Zwitterionic Peptide Compared to an Amphiphilic, Non-Ionic Peptide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Huijun; Wang, Libing; Huang, Renliang; Su, Rongxin; Liu, Boshi; Qi, Wei; He, Zhimin

    2015-10-14

    The aim of this study was to explore the influence of amphiphilic and zwitterionic structures on the resistance of protein adsorption to peptide self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) and gain insight into the associated antifouling mechanism. Two kinds of cysteine-terminated heptapeptides were studied. One peptide had alternating hydrophobic and hydrophilic residues with an amphiphilic sequence of CYSYSYS. The other peptide (CRERERE) was zwitterionic. Both peptides were covalently attached onto gold substrates via gold-thiol bond formation. Surface plasmon resonance analysis results showed that both peptide SAMs had ultralow or low protein adsorption amounts of 1.97-11.78 ng/cm2 in the presence of single proteins. The zwitterionic peptide showed relatively higher antifouling ability with single proteins and natural complex protein media. We performed molecular dynamics simulations to understand their respective antifouling behaviors. The results indicated that strong surface hydration of peptide SAMs contributes to fouling resistance by impeding interactions with proteins. Compared to the CYSYSYS peptide, more water molecules were predicted to form hydrogen-bonding interactions with the zwitterionic CRERERE peptide, which is in agreement with the antifouling test results. These findings reveal a clear relation between peptide structures and resistance to protein adsorption, facilitating the development of novel peptide-containing antifouling materials.

  20. On the hydration of subnanometric antifouling organosilane adlayers: a molecular dynamics simulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheikh, Sonia; Blaszykowski, Christophe; Nolan, Robert; Thompson, Damien; Thompson, Michael

    2015-01-01

    The connection between antifouling and surface hydration is a fascinating but daunting question to answer. Herein, we use molecular dynamics (MD) computer simulations to gain further insight into the role of surface functionalities in the molecular-level structuration of water (surface kosmotropicity)--within and atop subnanometric organosilane adlayers that were shown in previous experimental work to display varied antifouling behavior. Our simulations support the hypothesized intimate link between surface hydration and antifouling, in particular the importance of both internal and interfacial hydrophilicity and kosmotropicity. The antifouling mechanism is also discussed in terms of surface dehydration energy and water dynamicity (lability and mobility), notably the crucial requirement for clustered water molecules to remain tightly bound for extensive periods of time--i.e. exhibit slow exchange dynamics. A substrate effect on surface hydration, which would also participate in endowing antifouling adlayers with hydrogel-like characteristics, is also proposed. In contrast, the role of adlayer flexibility, if any, is assigned a secondary role in these ultrathin structures made of short building blocks. The conclusions from this work are well in line with those previously drawn in the literature. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Molecular Design of Antifouling Polymer Brushes Using Sequence-Specific Peptoids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, King Hang Aaron; Sileika, Tadas S; Park, Sung Hyun; Sousa, Ana Maria Leal; Burch, Patrick; Szleifer, Igal; Messersmith, Phillip B

    2015-01-07

    Material systems that can be used to flexibly and precisely define the chemical nature and molecular arrangement of a surface would be invaluable for the control of complex biointerfacial interactions. For example, progress in antifouling polymer biointerfaces that prevent non-specific protein adsorption and cell attachment, which can significantly improve the performance of an array of biomedical and industrial applications, is hampered by a lack of chemical models to identify the molecular features conferring their properties. Poly(N-substituted glycine) "peptoids" are peptidomimetic polymers that can be conveniently synthesized with specific monomer sequences and chain lengths, and are presented as a versatile platform for investigating the molecular design of antifouling polymer brushes. Zwitterionic antifouling polymer brushes have captured significant recent attention, and a targeted library of zwitterionic peptoid brushes with a different charge densities, hydration, separations between charged groups, chain lengths, and grafted chain densities, is quantitatively evaluated for their antifouling properties through a range of protein adsorption and cell attachment assays. Specific zwitterionic brush designs were found to give rise to distinct but subtle differences in properties. The results also point to the dominant roles of the grafted chain density and chain length in determining the performance of antifouling polymer brushes.

  2. Pore channel surface modification for enhancing anti-fouling membrane distillation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Haoran; Peng, Yuelian; Ge, Lei; Villacorta Hernandez, Byron; Zhu, Zhonghua

    2018-06-01

    Membrane surface modification by forming a functional layer is an effective way to improve the anti-fouling properties of membranes; however, the additional layer and the potential blockage of bulk pores may increase the mass transfer resistance and reduce the permeability. In this study, we applied a novel method of preparing anti-fouling membranes for membrane distillation by dispersing graphene oxide (GO) on the channel surface of polyvinylidene fluoride membranes. The surface morphology and properties were characterized by scanning electron microscopy, atomic force microscope, and Fourier transform infrared spectrometry. Compared to the membrane surface modification by nanoparticles (e.g. SiO2), GO was mainly located on the pore surface of the membrane bulk, rather than being formed as an individual layer onto the membrane surface. The performance was evaluated via a direct-contact membrane distillation process with anionic and cationic surfactants as the foulants, separately. Compared to the pristine PVDF membrane, the anti-fouling behavior and distillate flux of the GO-modified membranes were improved, especially when using the anionic surfactant as the foulant. The enhanced anti-fouling performance can be attributed to the oxygen containing functional groups in GO and the healing of the membrane pore defects. This method may provide an effective route to manipulate membrane pore surface properties for anti-fouling separation without increasing mass transfer resistance.

  3. Preparation and Characterization of Amphiphilic Triblock Terpolymer-Based Nanofibers as Antifouling Biomaterials

    KAUST Repository

    Cho, Youngjin

    2012-05-14

    Antifouling surfaces are critical for the good performance of functional materials in various applications including water filtration, medical implants, and biosensors. In this study, we synthesized amphiphilic triblock terpolymers (tri-BCPs, coded as KB) and fabricated amphiphilic nanofibers by electrospinning of solutions prepared by mixing the KB with poly(lactic acid) (PLA) polymer. The resulting fibers with amphiphilic polymer groups exhibited superior antifouling performance to the fibers without such groups. The adsorption of bovine serum albumin (BSA) on the amphiphilic fibers was about 10-fold less than that on the control surfaces from PLA and PET fibers. With the increase of the KB content in the amphiphilic fibers, the resistance to adsorption of BSA was increased. BSA was released more easily from the surface of the amphiphilic fibers than from the surface of hydrophobic PLA or PET fibers. We have also investigated the structural conformation of KB in fibers before and after annealing by contact angle measurements, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX), and coarse-grained molecular dynamics (CGMD) simulation to probe the effect of amphiphilic chain conformation on antifouling. The results reveal that the amphiphilic KB was evenly distributed within as-spun hybrid fibers, while migrated toward the core from the fiber surface during thermal treatment, leading to the reduction in antifouling. This suggests that the antifouling effect of the amphiphilic fibers is greatly influenced by the arrangement of amphiphilic groups in the fibers. © 2012 American Chemical Society.

  4. Trend analysis of copper and zinc in animal feed

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Adamse, P.; Egmond, van H.J.; Polanen, van A.; Bikker, P.; Jong, de J.

    2011-01-01

    The EC has introduced maximum inclusion levels of copper and zinc salts in animal diets from 1970 onwards and reduced these levels in recent years. In this report historical values are used to give insight into trends in levels of copper and zinc in compound feeds for animals in the Netherlands. The

  5. Ultrasonic Mastering of Filter Flow and Antifouling of Renewable Resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radziuk, Darya; Möhwald, Helmuth

    2016-04-04

    Inadequate access to pure water and sanitation requires new cost-effective, ergonomic methods with less consumption of energy and chemicals, leaving the environment cleaner and sustainable. Among such methods, ultrasound is a unique means to control the physics and chemistry of complex fluids (wastewater) with excellent performance regarding mass transfer, cleaning, and disinfection. In membrane filtration processes, it overcomes diffusion limits and can accelerate the fluid flow towards the filter preventing antifouling. Here, we outline the current state of knowledge and technological design, with a focus on physicochemical strategies of ultrasound for water cleaning. We highlight important parameters of ultrasound for the delivery of a fluid flow from a technical perspective employing principles of physics and chemistry. By introducing various ultrasonic methods, involving bubbles or cavitation in combination with external fields, we show advancements in flow acceleration and mass transportation to the filter. In most cases we emphasize the main role of streaming and the impact of cavitation with a perspective to prevent and remove fouling deposits during the flow. We also elaborate on the deficiencies of present technologies and on problems to be solved to achieve a wide-spread application. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  6. Copper and copper-nickel alloys as zebra mussel antifoulants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dormon, J.M.; Cottrell, C.M.; Allen, D.G.; Ackerman, J.D.; Spelt, J.K. [Univ. of Toronto, Ontario (Canada)

    1996-04-01

    Copper has been used in the marine environment for decades as cladding on ships and pipes to prevent biofouling by marine mussels (Mytilus edulis L.). This motivated the present investigation into the possibility of using copper to prevent biofouling in freshwater by both zebra mussels and quagga mussels (Dreissena polymorpha and D. bugensis collectively referred to as zebra mussels). Copper and copper alloy sheet proved to be highly effective in preventing biofouling by zebra mussels over a three-year period. Further studies were conducted with copper and copper-nickel mesh (lattice of expanded metal) and screen (woven wire with a smaller hole size), which reduced the amount of copper used. Copper screen was also found to be strongly biofouling-resistant with respect to zebra mussels, while copper mesh reduced zebra mussel biofouling in comparison to controls, but did not prevent it entirely. Preliminary investigations into the mechanism of copper antifouling, using galvanic couples, indicated that the release of copper ions from the surface of the exposed metal into the surrounding water is directly or indirectly responsible for the biofouling resistance of copper.

  7. Sulfidation of zinc plating sludge with Na2S for zinc resource recovery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuchar, D.; Fukuta, T.; Onyango, M.S.; Matsuda, H.

    2006-01-01

    A high amount of zinc disposed in the landfill sites as a mixed-metal plating sludge represents a valuable zinc source. To recover zinc from the plating sludge, a sulfidation treatment is proposed in this study, while it is assumed that ZnS formed could be separated by flotation. The sulfidation treatment was conducted by contacting simulated zinc plating sludge with Na 2 S solution at S 2- to Zn 2+ molar ratio of 1.5 for a period of 1-48 h, while changing the solid to liquid (S:L) ratio from 0.25:50 to 1.00:50. The conversion of zinc compounds to ZnS was determined based on the consumption of sulfide ions. The reaction products formed by the sulfidation of zinc were identified by X-ray diffraction (XRD). As a result, it was found that the conversion of zinc compounds to ZnS increased with an increase in S:L ratio. A maximum conversion of 0.809 was obtained at an S:L ratio of 1.00:50 after 48 h. However, when the zinc sludge treated at S:L ratio of 1.00:50 for 48 h was subjected to XRD analyses, only ZnS was identified in the treated zinc sludge. The result suggested that the rest of zinc sludge remained unreacted inside the agglomerates of ZnS. The formation behavior of ZnS was predicted by Elovich equation, which was found to describe the system satisfactorily indicating the heterogeneous nature of the sludge

  8. Sinularones A–I, New Cyclopentenone and Butenolide Derivatives from a Marine Soft Coral Sinularia sp. and Their Antifouling Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leen van Ofwegen

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Nine new compounds, namely sinularones A–I (19, characterized as cyclopentenone and butenolide-type analogues, were isolated from a soft coral Sinularia sp., together with a known butenolide (10. Their structures were elucidated by means of spectroscopic (IR, MS, 1D and 2D NMR, CD analysis. The absolute configurations were determined on the basis of CD and specific rotation data in association with the computed electronic circular dichroism (ECD by time dependent density functional theory (TD DFT at 6-31+G(d,p//DFT B3LYP/6-31+G(d,p level. Compounds 12 and 710 showed potent antifouling activities against the barnacle Balanus amphitrite.

  9. Zinc at glutamatergic synapses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paoletti, P; Vergnano, A M; Barbour, B; Casado, M

    2009-01-12

    It has long been known that the mammalian forebrain contains a subset of glutamatergic neurons that sequester zinc in their synaptic vesicles. This zinc may be released into the synaptic cleft upon neuronal activity. Extracellular zinc has the potential to interact with and modulate many different synaptic targets, including glutamate receptors and transporters. Among these targets, NMDA receptors appear particularly interesting because certain NMDA receptor subtypes (those containing the NR2A subunit) contain allosteric sites exquisitely sensitive to extracellular zinc. The existence of these high-affinity zinc binding sites raises the possibility that zinc may act both in a phasic and tonic mode. Changes in zinc concentration and subcellular zinc distribution have also been described in several pathological conditions linked to glutamatergic transmission dysfunctions. However, despite intense investigation, the functional significance of vesicular zinc remains largely a mystery. In this review, we present the anatomy and the physiology of the glutamatergic zinc-containing synapse. Particular emphasis is put on the molecular and cellular mechanisms underlying the putative roles of zinc as a messenger involved in excitatory synaptic transmission and plasticity. We also highlight the many controversial issues and unanswered questions. Finally, we present and compare two widely used zinc chelators, CaEDTA and tricine, and show why tricine should be preferred to CaEDTA when studying fast transient zinc elevations as may occur during synaptic activity.

  10. Associations between Dietary Iron and Zinc Intakes, and between Biochemical Iron and Zinc Status in Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen Lim

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Iron and zinc are found in similar foods and absorption of both may be affected by food compounds, thus biochemical iron and zinc status may be related. This cross-sectional study aimed to: (1 describe dietary intakes and biochemical status of iron and zinc; (2 investigate associations between dietary iron and zinc intakes; and (3 investigate associations between biochemical iron and zinc status in a sample of premenopausal women aged 18–50 years who were recruited in Melbourne and Sydney, Australia. Usual dietary intakes were assessed using a 154-item food frequency questionnaire (n = 379. Iron status was assessed using serum ferritin and hemoglobin, zinc status using serum zinc (standardized to 08:00 collection, and presence of infection/inflammation using C-reactive protein (n = 326. Associations were explored using multiple regression and logistic regression. Mean (SD iron and zinc intakes were 10.5 (3.5 mg/day and 9.3 (3.8 mg/day, respectively. Median (interquartile range serum ferritin was 22 (12–38 μg/L and mean serum zinc concentrations (SD were 12.6 (1.7 μmol/L in fasting samples and 11.8 (2.0 μmol/L in nonfasting samples. For each 1 mg/day increase in dietary iron intake, zinc intake increased by 0.4 mg/day. Each 1 μmol/L increase in serum zinc corresponded to a 6% increase in serum ferritin, however women with low serum zinc concentration (AM fasting < 10.7 μmol/L; AM nonfasting < 10.1 μmol/L were not at increased risk of depleted iron stores (serum ferritin <15 μg/L; p = 0.340. Positive associations were observed between dietary iron and zinc intakes, and between iron and zinc status, however interpreting serum ferritin concentrations was not a useful proxy for estimating the likelihood of low serum zinc concentrations and women with depleted iron stores were not at increased risk of impaired zinc status in this cohort.

  11. Accumulation of Cu and Zn from antifouling paint particles by the marine macroalga, Ulva lactuca

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turner, Andrew; Pollock, Heather; Brown, Murray T.

    2009-01-01

    The marine macroalga, Ulva lactuca, has been exposed to different concentrations of antifouling paint particles (4-200 mg L -1 ) in the presence of a fixed quantity of clean estuarine sediment and its photosynthetic response and accumulation of Cu and Zn monitored over a period of 2 days. An immediate (<2 h) toxic effect was elicited under all experimental conditions that was quantitatively related to the concentration of contaminated particles present. Likewise, the rate of leaching of both Cu and Zn was correlated with the concentration of paint particles added. Copper accumulation by the alga increased linearly with aqueous Cu concentration, largely through adsorption to the cell surface, but significant accumulation of Zn was not observed. Thus, in coastal environments where boat maintenance is practiced, discarded antifouling paint particles are an important source of Cu, but not Zn, to U. lactuca. - The marine macroalga, Ulva lactuca, is able to accumulate Cu but not Zn from discarded antifouling paint particles.

  12. Replacement of traditional seawater-soluble pigments by starch and hydrolytic enzymes in polishing antifouling coatings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Søren Martin; Pedersen, L. T.; Dam-Johansen, Kim

    2010-01-01

    The use of starch and hydrolytic enzymes as replacement for traditional polishing pigments (e.g., Cu2O and ZnO) in antifouling coatings has been investigated. The enzymes facilitate a slow conversion of water-insoluble starch into water-soluble glucose, and dissolution of glucose causes the devel......The use of starch and hydrolytic enzymes as replacement for traditional polishing pigments (e.g., Cu2O and ZnO) in antifouling coatings has been investigated. The enzymes facilitate a slow conversion of water-insoluble starch into water-soluble glucose, and dissolution of glucose causes...... the development of a leached (porous) layer in the wetted, outermost part of the coating. Subsequent water-binder interaction at the pore walls gives rise to polishing, in a manner similar to that of conventional antifouling coatings. Different starch types have been evaluated and classified as potential coating...

  13. Suspension Flame Spray Construction of Polyimide-Copper Layers for Marine Antifouling Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yi; Xu, Xiaomin; Suo, Xinkun; Gong, Yongfeng; Li, Hua

    2018-01-01

    Individual capsule-like polyimide splats have been fabricated by suspension flame spray, and the polyimide splat exhibits hollow structure with an inner pore and a tiny hole on its top surface. Enwrapping of 200-1000-nm copper particles inside the splats is accomplished during the deposition for constrained release of copper for antifouling performances. Antifouling testing of the coatings by 24-h exposure to Escherichia coli-containing artificial seawater shows that the Cu-doped splat already prohibits effectively attachment of the bacteria. The prohibited adhesion of bacteria obviously impedes formation and further development of bacterial biofilm. This capsulated splat with releasing and loading of copper biocides results in dual-functional structures bearing both release-killing and contact-killing mechanisms. The suspension flame spray route and the encapsulated structure of the polyimide-Cu coatings would open a new window for designing and constructing marine antifouling layers for long-term applications.

  14. Accumulation of Cu and Zn from antifouling paint particles by the marine macroalga, Ulva lactuca

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Turner, Andrew, E-mail: aturner@plymouth.ac.u [School of Earth, Ocean and Environmental Sciences, University of Plymouth, Drake Circus, Plymouth PL4 8AA (United Kingdom); Pollock, Heather [School of Earth, Ocean and Environmental Sciences, University of Plymouth, Drake Circus, Plymouth PL4 8AA (United Kingdom); Brown, Murray T. [School of Biological Sciences, University of Plymouth, Drake Circus, Plymouth PL4 8AA (United Kingdom)

    2009-08-15

    The marine macroalga, Ulva lactuca, has been exposed to different concentrations of antifouling paint particles (4-200 mg L{sup -1}) in the presence of a fixed quantity of clean estuarine sediment and its photosynthetic response and accumulation of Cu and Zn monitored over a period of 2 days. An immediate (<2 h) toxic effect was elicited under all experimental conditions that was quantitatively related to the concentration of contaminated particles present. Likewise, the rate of leaching of both Cu and Zn was correlated with the concentration of paint particles added. Copper accumulation by the alga increased linearly with aqueous Cu concentration, largely through adsorption to the cell surface, but significant accumulation of Zn was not observed. Thus, in coastal environments where boat maintenance is practiced, discarded antifouling paint particles are an important source of Cu, but not Zn, to U. lactuca. - The marine macroalga, Ulva lactuca, is able to accumulate Cu but not Zn from discarded antifouling paint particles.

  15. Field experimental evaluation of secondary metabolites from marine invertebrates as antifoulants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PEREIRA R. C

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The crude organic extracts of the endemic gorgonian Phyllogorgia dilatata and two sponge species Aplysina fulva and Mycale microsigmatosa were evaluated for anti-fouling properties through field experiments. To investigate this property in ecologically meaningful conditions, crude extracts from these invertebrates were incorporated at concentrations naturally found in these marine organisms into a stable gel used as a substratum for fouling settlement. Crude extract from A. fulva showed no significant anti-fouling property at the natural concentrations used in the field experiments. In fact, fouling organisms settled significantly more on gels treated with A. fulva extract than on the control gel. On the other hand, both M. microsigmatosa and P. dilatata yielded crude extracts that exhibited a selective action inhibiting only the settlement of barnacles. The evidences obtained here by means of field experiments can provide a basis for future development of one kind of natural antifoulant technology to prevent marine biofouling.

  16. Zinc oxide overdose

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zinc oxide is an ingredient in many products. Some of these are certain creams and ointments used ... prevent or treat minor skin burns and irritation. Zinc oxide overdose occurs when someone eats one of ...

  17. Zinc and gastrointestinal disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sonja; Skrovanek; Katherine; DiGuilio; Robert; Bailey; William; Huntington; Ryan; Urbas; Barani; Mayilvaganan; Giancarlo; Mercogliano; James; M; Mullin

    2014-01-01

    This review is a current summary of the role that both zinc deficiency and zinc supplementation can play in the etiology and therapy of a wide range of gastrointestinal diseases. The recent literature describing zinc action on gastrointestinal epithelial tight junctions and epithelial barrier function is described. Zinc enhancement of gastrointestinal epithelial barrier function may figure prominently in its potential therapeutic action in several gastrointestinal diseases.

  18. Corrosion protection and antifouling properties of varnish-coated steel containing natural additive

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abd-El-Nabey Besheir Ahmed A.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The corrosion protection and antifouling properties of varnish-coated steel panels containing different amounts of cannabis extracts were investigated using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS, salt spray and immersion tests in 0.5 M NaCl solution and subjected to a field test in seawater. Analysis of the experimental data showed that the presence of cannabis extract resisted the deterioration (peeling off tendency of the varnish-coated steel panels exposed to aggressive environments. Visual inspection showed that the cannabis extract also provided good antifouling properties.

  19. Preparation of Silicone Oil Microcapsules with Bionic Antifouling Performance%硅油微胶囊的制备及其仿生防污性能的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李玉; 汪国庆; 万逸; 丁春华; 王爱民

    2018-01-01

    以甲基硅油为芯材、脲醛树脂为壁材,通过细乳液聚合法制备脲醛树脂(PUF)/硅油微胶囊,探究了微胶囊的形成机理及乳化剂、搅拌速度对微胶囊的影响.通过光学显微镜(OM)、扫描电子显微镜(SEM)、热重分析(TGA)、红外光谱(FT-IR)等手段表征了微胶囊的形貌、热力学及价键结构等性能.结果表明:用细乳液聚合法成功制备了表面光滑、粒径分布均匀的微胶囊;微胶囊包覆率达到91%,且具有良好的缓释效果.将制得的微胶囊掺杂到丙烯酸锌树脂中制备防污涂层,研究了防污涂层的防污性能.采用SEM分析了防污涂层的形貌,并通过接触角测试及防污试验考察了防污涂层的疏水性及抑菌抑藻效果.结果表明:防污涂层表面形成类似荷叶表面的微纳米结构,涂层的疏水性增加,接触角由98.2°增加到123.9°;在抗藻抗菌类试验中显示出良好的防污性能.%Poly(urea-formaldehyde) (PUF) microcapsules loaded with silicone oil as core material were prepared by mini-emulsion method.The formation mechanism of microcapsules,the effects of the emulsifier and agitation speed on the characters of microcapsules were explored.The morphology,thermodynamic performance and valence bond structure of microcapsules were investigated by means of optical microscopy (OM),scanning electron microscopy (SEM),thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR),etc.The results showed that the microcapsules with smooth surface and uniform particle size distribution were successfully obtained by mini-emulsion method.The oil content reached 91% by measuring the TG-DTG curve,and the microcapsules showed a good slow-releasing performance.The prepared microcapsules as anti-fouling agents were embedded into the zinc acrylate resin and the anti-biofouling performance of the coating was studied.The morphology of antifouling coating was analyzed by SEM.The hydrophobicity and antifouling effect of

  20. Immense Essence of Excellence: Marine Microbial Bioactive Compounds

    OpenAIRE

    Ira Bhatnagar; Se-Kwon Kim

    2010-01-01

    Oceans have borne most of the biological activities on our planet. A number of biologically active compounds with varying degrees of action, such as anti-tumor, anti-cancer, anti-microtubule, anti-proliferative, cytotoxic, photo protective, as well as antibiotic and antifouling properties, have been isolated to date from marine sources. The marine environment also represents a largely unexplored source for isolation of new microbes (bacteria, fungi, actinomycetes, microalgae-cyanobacteria and...

  1. Soil pH effects on the interactions between dissolved zinc, non-nano- and nano-ZnO with soil bacterial communities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Read, Daniel S.; Matzke, Marianne; Gweon, Hyun S.

    2016-01-01

    nanoparticles due to the practice of applying sewage sludge as a fertiliser or as an organic soil improver. However, understanding on the interactions between soil properties, nanoparticles and the organisms that live within soil is lacking, especially with regards to soil bacterial communities. We studied......Zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO NPs) are used in an array of products and processes, ranging from personal care products to antifouling paints, textiles, food additives, antibacterial agents and environmental remediation processes. Soils are an environment likely to be exposed to manmade...... the effects of nanoparticulate, non-nanoparticulate and ionic zinc (in the form of zinc chloride) on the composition of bacterial communities in soil with a modified pH range (from pH 4.5 to pH 7.2). We observed strong pH-dependent effects on the interaction between bacterial communities and all forms of zinc...

  2. Are anti-fouling effects in coralline algae species specific?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre Bigio Villas Bôas

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available The crustose coralline algae are susceptible to be covered by other algae, which in turn can be affected by anti-fouling effects. In this study the hypothesis tested was that these algae can inhibit the growth of epiphytes in a species specific way. In the laboratory, propagules of Sargassum furcatum and Ulva fasciata were liberated and cultivated on pieces of coralline algae and slide covers (controls and their survival and growth were compared. Spongites and Hydrolithon significantly inhibited the growth of U. fasciata but not Sargassum. In the field, pieces of three species of live and dead coralline algae and their copies in epoxy putty discs were fixed on the rock. After one month epiphytic algae were identified and their dry mass quantified. Lithophyllum did not affect the epiphyte growth. In contrast Spongites and an unidentified coralline significantly inhibited the growth of Enteromorpha spp., Ulva fasciata and Hincksia mitchelliae. Colpomenia sinuosa was absent on all living crusts, but present on controls. Results show that the epiphyte-host relation depends on the species that are interacting. The sloughing of superficial cells of coralline crusts points to the possible action of physical anti-fouling effect, though a chemical one is not rejected.As algas calcárias crostosas são susceptíveis ao recobrimento por outras algas, entretanto, estas podem ser afetadas por efeitos anti-incrustantes. Neste estudo foi testada a hipótese de que estas algas possam inibir o crescimento somente de algumas espécies de epífitas. No laboratório, propágulos de Sargassum furcatum e Ulva fasciata foram liberados e cultivados sobre pedaços de algas calcárias e lamínulas de microscopia (controle e as suas sobrevivência e crescimento comparadas. Spongites e Hydrolithon inibiram significativamente o crescimento de U. fasciata, mas não de Sargassum. No campo, pedaços de três espécies de algas calcárias vivas, mortas e cópias destas em

  3. Antifouling herbicides in the coastal waters of western Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okamura, H; Aoyama, I; Ono, Y; Nishida, T

    2003-01-01

    Residue analyses of some antifouling herbicides (Diuron, Irgarol 1051 and the latter's degradation product M1, which is also known as GS26575), were conducted in waters collected along the coast of western Japan. In total, 142 water samples were collected from fishery harbours (99 sites), marinas (27 sites), and small ports (16 sites) around the Seto Inland Sea, the Kii Peninsula, and Lake Biwa, in August 1999. A urea-based herbicide, Diuron, was positively identified for the first time in Japanese aquatic environments. Diuron was detected in 121 samples (86%) up to a highest concentration of 3.05 microg/l, and was found in 86% of samples from fishery harbours, 89% from marinas, and 75% from ports. Four freshwater samples out of 11 collected at Lake Biwa contained Diuron. Neither Irgarol 1051 nor M1 was found in the lake waters, but both were found in many coastal waters. Irgarol 1051 was found in 84 samples (60%) at a highest concentration of 0.262 microg/l. The concentrations detected were of similar magnitude to those in our previous surveys, taken in 1997 and 1998. M1 was found in 40 samples (28%) up to a highest concentration of 0.080 microg/l. The concentrations detected were generally lower than those found in our previous surveys. The detection frequency among fishery harbours, marinas, and ports was 57-70% for Irgarol 1051 and 25-30% for M1. Ninety-five per cent of the coastal waters in which M1 was detected also contained Irgarol 1051, and 93% of the samples in which Irgarol 1051 was detected also contained Diuron. These results clearly suggest that commercial ship-bottom paints containing both Diuron and Irgarol 1051 are used extensively in the survey area.

  4. Inputs of antifouling paint-derived dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethanes (DDTs) to a typical mariculture zone (South China): Potential impact on aquafarming environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu Huanyun; Shen Rulang; Liang Yan; Cheng, Hefa; Zeng, Eddy Y.

    2011-01-01

    Existing evidence indicated that dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT)-containing antifouling paints were an important source of DDT residues to mariculture zones. However, the magnitude of the impact on aquafarming environment has remained largely unknown. In the present study, the concentrations of DDT and its metabolites (designated as DDXs) were determined in harbor sediment and antifouling paint samples collected from a typical mariculture zone in South China. Compositional and concentration correlation analyses implicated the DDT-containing antifouling paints for fishing boat maintenance as an important source of DDT in the mariculture zone. The annual emission of DDXs to the study region was estimated at 0.58 tons/yr. Furthermore, a comparison of the expected DDT loadings in pelagic fish and field measurements indicated that fish feed especially trash fish was a major source of DDTs in the fish body. Nevertheless, the use of DDT-containing antifouling paints should be limited to prevent further deterioration in aquafarming environment. - Highlights: → Use of antifouling paints in boat maintenance was deemed a main source of DDTs. → The majority of antifouling paint-derived DDTs was sequestered in sediment. → Fish feed has remained the main input source of DDTs in fish body. - The potential impact from the use of DDT-containing antifouling paints on aquafarming environment is examined.

  5. Zinc in human serum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kiilerich, S.

    1987-01-01

    The zinc ion is essential for the living organism. Many pathological conditions have been described as a consequence of zinc deficiency. As zinc constitutes less than 0.01 per cent of the body weight, it conventionally belongs to the group of trace elements. The method of atomic absorption spectrophotometry is used to measure the concentration of zinc in serum and urine from healthy persons. The assumptions of the method is discussed. The importance of proteinbinding, diet and the diurnal variation of serum zinc concentration is presented. Serum versus plasma zinc concentration is discussed. Reference serum zinc values from 104 normal subjects are given. Zinc in serum is almost entirely bound to proteins. A preliminary model for the estimation of the distribution of zinc between serum albumin and α 2 -macroglobulin is set up. This estimate has been examined by an ultracentrufugation method. The binding of zinc to a α 2 -macroglobulin in normal persons is appoximately 7 per cent, in patients with cirrhosis of the liver of alcoholic origin approximately 6 per cent, in patients with insulin dependent diabetes mellitus approximately 5 per cent, and in patients with chronic renal failure approximately 2 per cent. It is concluded, therefore, that for clinical purposes it is sufficient to use the concentration of total serum zinc corrected for the concentration of serum albumin. (author)

  6. Effects of zinc pyrithione and copper pyrithione on microbial community function and structure in sediments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, DG; Dahllof, I.; Nielsen, LP

    2004-01-01

    The effects of the new antifouling biocides, zinc pyrithione (ZPT) and copper pyrithione (CPT), on microbial communities in estuarine sediments were studied in microcosms. As functional endpoints, fluxes of nutrients (NO3-, NH4+, HPO42-, Si(OH)(4)) and protein synthesis ([C-14] leucine incorporat......The effects of the new antifouling biocides, zinc pyrithione (ZPT) and copper pyrithione (CPT), on microbial communities in estuarine sediments were studied in microcosms. As functional endpoints, fluxes of nutrients (NO3-, NH4+, HPO42-, Si(OH)(4)) and protein synthesis ([C-14] leucine...... DNA content, whereas the LOEC for CPT was 0.1 nmol/g dry sediment for the nitrate flux and total DNA content. Nitrate fluxes increased significantly following additions of both ZPT and CPT, whereas ammonium fluxes decreased significantly after ZPT addition, suggesting changes in the nitrification...... and denitrification processes. The total DNA content decreased significantly following addition of both ZPT and CPT, but at the highest addition of ZPT (10 nmol ZPT/g dry sediment), an increase in total DNA content was found. Increased protein synthesis and bacterial diversity were also observed at this concentration...

  7. Acute Toxicity of the Antifouling Compound Butenolide in Non-Target Organisms

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, Yi-Fan; Xiao, Kang; Chandramouli, Kondethimmanahalli; Xu, Ying; Pan, Ke; Wang, Wen-Xiong; Qian, Pei-Yuan

    2011-01-01

    in representative new biocides. Mechanistically, the phenotype of butenolide-treated Danio rerio (zebrafish) embryos was similar to the phenotype of the pro-caspase-3 over-expression mutant with pericardial edema, small eyes, small brains, and increased numbers

  8. Reaction rate estimation of controlled-release antifouling paint binders: Rosin-based systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meseguer Yebra, Diego; Kiil, Søren; Dam-Johansen, Kim

    2005-01-01

    Biofouling on ship hulls is prevented by the use of antifouling (A/F) paints. Typically, sea water soluble rosin or rosin-derivatives are used as the primary means of adjusting the polishing rate of the current chemically active self-polishing paint systems to a suitable value. Previous studies h...

  9. Dissolution rate measurements of sea water soluble pigments for antifouling paints

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yebra, Diego Meseguer; Kiil, Søren; Erik Weinell, Claus

    2006-01-01

    The dissolution of soluble pigments from both tin-based and tin-free chemically active antifouling (AF) paints is a key process influencing their polishing and biocide leaching rates. In this context, a low time- and resources-consuming method capable of screening the pigment behaviour in the sea...

  10. Characterization of pigment-leached antifouling coatings using BET surface area measurements and mercury porosimetry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kiil, Søren; Dam-Johansen, Kim

    2007-01-01

    of antifouling coating behaviour because the active binder surface area and porosity of the leached layer are substantially increased. A similar effect was not observed for a coating with a mixture of ZnO and TiO2 pigments. The two experimental methods are expected to be useful for practical analysis of leaching...

  11. Mathematical modelling of a self-polishing antifouling paint exposed to seawater: A parameter study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kiil, Søren; Pedersen, M. S.; Dam-Johansen, Kim

    2002-01-01

    , and to suggest ways of controlling biocide release rates. A case study with an antifouling paint based on the well-known tributyltin self-polishing copolymer system showed that the rate of paint polishing was influenced, to various degrees, by the following parameters: seawater pH and concentration of Na...

  12. Bioaccessibility of metals in soils and dusts contaminated by marine antifouling paint particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turner, Andrew; Singh, Nimisha; Richards, Jonathan P.

    2009-01-01

    Fragments of antifouling paint and environmental geosolids have been sampled from the island of Malta and analysed for total and bioaccessible metals. Total concentrations of Ba, Cd, Cu, Pb, Sn and Zn were two to three orders of magnitude higher in spent antifouling composites relative to respective values in background soils and road dusts. Paint fragments were visible in geosolids taken from the immediate vicinity of boat maintenance facilities and mass balance calculations, based on Ba as a paint tracer, suggested that the most contaminated soils, road dusts and boatyard dusts contained about 1%, 7% and 9%, respectively, of antifouling particles. Human bioaccessibilities of metals were evaluated in selected samples using a physiologically based extraction technique. Accessibilities of Cd, Cu, Pb and Zn in the most contaminated solids were sufficient to be cause for concern for individuals working in the boat repair industry and to the wider, local community. - Geosolids near boat maintenance facilities are contaminated by antifouling paint particles containing high concentrations of bioaccessible metals.

  13. Effect of Surface Hydration on Antifouling Properties of Mixed Charged Polymers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leng, Chuan; Huang, Hao; Zhang, Kexin; Hung, Hsiang-Chieh; Xu, Yao; Li, Yaoxin; Jiang, Shaoyi; Chen, Zhan

    2018-05-07

    Interfacial water structure on a polymer surface in water (or surface hydration) is related to the antifouling activity of the polymer. Zwitterionic polymer materials exhibit excellent antifouling activity due to their strong surface hydration. It was proposed to replace zwitterionic polymers using mixed charged polymers because it is much easier to prepare mixed charged polymer samples with much lower costs. In this study, using sum frequency generation (SFG) vibrational spectroscopy, we investigated interfacial water structures on mixed charged polymer surfaces in water, and how such structures change while exposing to salt solutions and protein solutions. The 1:1 mixed charged polymer exhibits excellent antifouling property while other mixed charged polymers with different ratios of the positive/negative charges do not. It was found that on the 1:1 mixed charged polymer surface, SFG water signal is dominated by the contribution of the strongly hydrogen bonded water molecules, indicating strong hydration of the polymer surface. The responses of the 1:1 mixed charged polymer surface to salt solutions are similar to those of zwitterionic polymers. Interestingly, exposure to high concentrations of salt solutions leads to stronger hydration of the 1:1 mixed charged polymer surface after replacing the salt solution with water. Protein molecules do not substantially perturb the interfacial water structure on the 1:1 mixed charged polymer surface and do not adsorb to the surface, showing that this mixed charged polymer is an excellent antifouling material.

  14. Antimicrobial and Antifouling Polymeric Agents for Surface Functionalization of Medical Implants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Qiang; Zhu, Yiwen; Yu, Bingran; Sun, Yujie; Ding, Xiaokang; Xu, Chen; Wu, Yu-Wei; Tang, Zhihui; Xu, Fu-Jian

    2018-05-09

    Combating implant-associated infections is an urgent demand due to the increasing numbers in surgical operations such as joint replacements and dental implantations. Surface functionalization of implantable medical devices with polymeric antimicrobial and antifouling agents is an efficient strategy to prevent bacterial fouling and associated infections. In this work, antimicrobial and antifouling branched polymeric agents (GPEG and GEG) were synthesized via ring-opening reaction involving gentamicin and ethylene glycol species. Due to their rich primary amine groups, they can be readily coated on the polydopamine-modified implant (such as titanium) surfaces. The resultant surface coatings of Ti-GPEG and Ti-GEG produce excellent in vitro antibacterial efficacy toward both Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli, while Ti-GPEG exhibit better antifouling ability. Moreover, the infection model with S. aureus shows that implanted Ti-GPEG possessed excellent antibacterial and antifouling ability in vivo. This study would provide a promising strategy for the surface functionalization of implantable medical devices to prevent implant-associated infections.

  15. Assessing Bioinspired Topographies for their Antifouling Potential Control Using Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ling Jacky

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Biofouling is the accumulation of unwanted material on surfaces submerged or semi submerged over an extended period. This study investigates the antifouling performance of a new bioinspired topography design. A shark riblets inspired topography was designed with Solidworks and CFD simulations were antifouling performance. The study focuses on the fluid flow velocity, the wall shear stress and the appearance of vortices are to be noted to determine the possible locations biofouling would most probably occur. The inlet mass flow rate is 0.01 kgs-1 and a no-slip boundary condition was applied to the walls of the fluid domain. Simulations indicate that Velocity around the topography averaged at 7.213 x 10-3 ms-1. However, vortices were observed between the gaps. High wall shear stress is observed at the peak of each topography. In contrast, wall shear stress is significantly low at the bed of the topography. This suggests the potential location for the accumulation of biofouling. Results show that bioinspired antifouling topography can be improved by reducing the frequency of gaps between features. Linear surfaces on the topography should also be minimized. This increases the avenues of flow for the fluid, thus potentially increasing shear stresses with surrounding fluid leading to better antifouling performance.

  16. Efficient Preparation of Super Antifouling PVDF Ultrafiltration Membrane with One Step Fabricated Zwitterionic Surface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Xinzhen; He, Chunju

    2015-08-19

    On the basis of the excellent fouling resistance of zwitterionic materials, the super antifouling polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) membrane was efficiently prepared though one-step sulfonation of PVDF and polyaniline blend membrane in situ. The self-doped sulfonated polyaniline (SPANI) was generated as a novel zwitterionic polymer to improve the antifouling property of PVDF ultrafiltration membrane used in sewage treatment. Surface attenuated total reflection Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, surface zeta potential, and water contact angle demonstrated the successful fabrication of zwitterionic interface by convenient sulfonation modification. The static adsorption fouling test showed the quantified adsorption mass of bovine serum albumin (BSA) pollutant on the PVDF/SPANI membrane surface decreases to 3(±2) μg/cm(2), and the water flux recovery ratio (FRR) values were no less than 95% for the three model pollutants of BSA, sodium alginate (SA), and humic acid (HA), which were corresponding hydrophobic, hydrophilic, and natural pollutants in sewage, respectively. This Research Article demonstrated the antifouling advantages of zwitterionic SPANI and aimed to provide a simple method for the large scale preparation of zwitterionic antifouling ultrafiltration membranes.

  17. Highly Specific Binding on Antifouling Zwitterionic Polymer-Coated Microbeads as Measured by Flow Cytometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Andel, Esther; de Bus, Ian; Tijhaar, Edwin J; Smulders, Maarten M J; Savelkoul, Huub F J; Zuilhof, Han

    2017-11-08

    Micron- and nano-sized particles are extensively used in various biomedical applications. However, their performance is often drastically hampered by the nonspecific adsorption of biomolecules, a process called biofouling, which can cause false-positive and false-negative outcomes in diagnostic tests. Although antifouling coatings have been extensively studied on flat surfaces, their use on micro- and nanoparticles remains largely unexplored, despite the widespread experimental (specifically, clinical) uncertainties that arise because of biofouling. Here, we describe the preparation of magnetic micron-sized beads coated with zwitterionic sulfobetaine polymer brushes that display strong antifouling characteristics. These coated beads can then be equipped with recognition elements of choice, to enable the specific binding of target molecules. First, we present a proof of principle with biotin-functionalized beads that are able to specifically bind fluorescently labeled streptavidin from a complex mixture of serum proteins. Moreover, we show the versatility of the method by demonstrating that it is also possible to functionalize the beads with mannose moieties to specifically bind the carbohydrate-binding protein concanavalin A. Flow cytometry was used to show that thus-modified beads only bind specifically targeted proteins, with minimal/near-zero nonspecific protein adsorption from other proteins that are present. These antifouling zwitterionic polymer-coated beads, therefore, provide a significant advancement for the many bead-based diagnostic and other biosensing applications that require stringent antifouling conditions.

  18. Long-term stability of PEG-based antifouling surfaces in seawater

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Noguer, Albert Camós; Olsen, Stefan Møller; Hvilsted, Søren

    2016-01-01

    Poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) is a hydrophilic polymer that has been extensively used in the biomedical and marine environment due to its antifouling properties. In the biomedical field, PEG has been successfully used to functionalize surfaces due to its resistance to cell and nonspecific protein...

  19. Exploration of permeability and antifouling performance on modified cellulose acetate ultrafiltration membrane with cellulose nanocrystals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lv, Jinling; Zhang, Guoquan; Zhang, Hanmin; Yang, Fenglin

    2017-10-15

    Cellulose nanocrystals (CNCs) were introduced into cellulose diacetate (CDA) matrix via immerged phase-inversion process, aiming to improve the filtration and antifouling performance of CNCs/CDA blending membrane. The effects of CNCs on membrane morphologies, hydrophilicity, permeability and antifouling property were investigated. Results showed that the incorporation of CNCs into CDA membrane could effectively enhance the permeability and antifouling property of CNCs/CDA blending membrane by optimizing membrane microstructure and improving membrane hydrophilicity. A high pure water flux of 173.8L/m 2 h was achieved for the CNCs/CDA blending membrane at 200KPa, which is 24 times that of the CDA membrane (7.2L/m 2 h). The bovine serum albumin (BSA) adsorption amount of the CNCs/CDA blending membrane decreased about 48% compared to that of the CDA membrane. Additionally, the CNCs/CDA blending membrane exhibited better antifouling performance with the flux recovery ratio (FRR) of 89.5% after three fouling cycles, compared to 59.7% for the CDA membrane. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Integrated antifouling and bactericidal polymer membranes through bioinspired polydopamine/poly(N-vinyl pyrrolidone) coating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Xianghong; Yuan, Shuaishuai; Shi, Dean; Yang, Yingkui; Jiang, Tao; Yan, Shunjie; Shi, Hengchong; Luan, Shifang; Yin, Jinghua

    2016-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Antifouling and bactericidal capabilities were facilely integrated into a surface via bioinspired coating. • The modification technique was very facile and universal to different types of substrate materials. • The integrated antifouling and bactericidal surfaces have great potential in wound dressing applications. - Abstract: Polypropylene (PP) non-woven has been widely used as wound dressing; however, the hydrophobic nature of PP can initiate bacterial attachment and subsequent biofilm formation. Herein, we propose a facile approach to functionalize PP non-woven with poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) and poly(N-vinyl pyrrolidone)-iodine complex (PVP-I). PVP and PEG were successively tethered onto PP non-woven surface via versatile bioinspired dopamine (DA) chemistry, followed by complexing iodine with PVP moieties. It was demonstrated through the field emission scanning electron microscope (SEM) and spread plate method that the as-modified PP non-woven integrated both antifouling property of PEG for suppressing bacterial adhesion, and bactericidal property of PVP-I for killing the few adherent bacteria. Meanwhile, it could greatly resist platelet and red blood cell adhesion. The integrated antifouling and bactericidal PP non-woven surfaces might have great potential in various wound dressing applications.

  1. Investigation of leaching of an antifouling agent from marine paint formulations using radiotracer technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pant, H.J.; Sharma, V.K.; Gursharan Singh; Kalgutkar, D.B.; Patil, S.P.; Jayachandran, N.; Unni, V.K.P.

    2012-01-01

    A radiotracer technique was used to investigate the leaching of an antifouling agent from different marine paint formulations with an objective to select the best paint formulation for bulk production. The antifouling agent (Diuron) itself was labeled with carbon-14 (half-life: 5,730 years, β-energy: 156 keV) and used as a radiotracer. The different paint formulations added with radiolabeled Diuron were applied onto suitably selected substrates and measured for initial intensity of β-radiation using a Geiger-Muller detector connected to a ratemeter. The painted substrates were subjected to shower tests for a pre-decided time and subsequently measured for β-radiations. The comparison of intensity of β-radiations in substrates prior and post shower tests provides information about leaching of antifouling agent Diuron from the paint formulation. The high leaching percentage of antifouling agent Diuron post shower tests indicates non-suitability of paint formulation for marine and civil structures. However, low leaching rate of Diuron will make a paint formulation more efficient and suitable. Based on the results of investigation, a paint formulation with minimum leaching rate was identified and selected for bulk production by a paint company. (author)

  2. Imprinting of metal receptors into multilayer polyelectrolyte films: fabrication and applications in marine antifouling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Puniredd, S.R.; Janczewski, D.; Go, D.P.; Zhu, X.; Guo, S.; Teo, S.L-M.; Lee, S.S.C.; Vancso, Gyula J.

    2015-01-01

    Polymeric films constructed using the layer-by-layer (LbL) fabrication process were employed as a platform for metal ion immobilization and applied as a marine antifouling coating. The novel Cu2+ ion imprinting process described is based on the use of metal ion templates and LbL multilayer covalent

  3. Grafting poly ethylene glycol chains for antifouling purposes using supercritical CO2

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lokanathan, Arcot R.

    2011-01-01

    solvent in processes involving PEG grafting for antifouling purposes. Significant chemical efficiency and extremely low surface tension makes scCO2 an apt solvent for Grafting PEG brushes into three dimensional micro or nano porous scaffolds related to tissue engineering. References: 1. Peter Kingshott...

  4. Bioaccessibility of metals in soils and dusts contaminated by marine antifouling paint particles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Turner, Andrew, E-mail: aturner@plymouth.ac.u [School of Earth, Ocean and Environmental Sciences, University of Plymouth, Drake Circus, Plymouth PL4 8AA (United Kingdom); Singh, Nimisha; Richards, Jonathan P. [School of Earth, Ocean and Environmental Sciences, University of Plymouth, Drake Circus, Plymouth PL4 8AA (United Kingdom)

    2009-05-15

    Fragments of antifouling paint and environmental geosolids have been sampled from the island of Malta and analysed for total and bioaccessible metals. Total concentrations of Ba, Cd, Cu, Pb, Sn and Zn were two to three orders of magnitude higher in spent antifouling composites relative to respective values in background soils and road dusts. Paint fragments were visible in geosolids taken from the immediate vicinity of boat maintenance facilities and mass balance calculations, based on Ba as a paint tracer, suggested that the most contaminated soils, road dusts and boatyard dusts contained about 1%, 7% and 9%, respectively, of antifouling particles. Human bioaccessibilities of metals were evaluated in selected samples using a physiologically based extraction technique. Accessibilities of Cd, Cu, Pb and Zn in the most contaminated solids were sufficient to be cause for concern for individuals working in the boat repair industry and to the wider, local community. - Geosolids near boat maintenance facilities are contaminated by antifouling paint particles containing high concentrations of bioaccessible metals.

  5. Poly(ethylene glycol)-containing hydrogel surfaces for antifouling applications in marine and freshwater environments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ekblad, T.; Bergström, G.; Ederth, T.; Conlan, S.L.; Mutton, R.; Clare, A.S.; Wang, S.; Liu, Y.; Zhao, Q.; D'Souza, F.; Donnelly, G.T.; Willemsen, P.R.; Pettitt, M.E.; Callow, M.E.; Callow, J.A.; Liedberg, B.

    2008-01-01

    This work describes the fabrication, characterization, and biological evaluation of a thin protein-resistant poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG)-based hydrogel coating for antifouling applications. The coating was fabricated by free-radical polymerization on silanized glass and silicon and on

  6. Integrated antifouling and bactericidal polymer membranes through bioinspired polydopamine/poly(N-vinyl pyrrolidone) coating

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Xianghong [State Key Laboratory of Polymer Physics and Chemistry, Changchun Institute of Applied Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Changchun 130022 (China); Ministry of Education Key Laboratory for the Green Preparation and Application of Functional Materials, Hubei Collaborative Innovation Center for Advanced Organic Chemical Materials, Faculty of Materials Science and Engineering, Hubei University, Wuhan 430062 (China); Yuan, Shuaishuai [State Key Laboratory of Polymer Physics and Chemistry, Changchun Institute of Applied Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Changchun 130022 (China); Shi, Dean, E-mail: deanshi2012@yahoo.com [Ministry of Education Key Laboratory for the Green Preparation and Application of Functional Materials, Hubei Collaborative Innovation Center for Advanced Organic Chemical Materials, Faculty of Materials Science and Engineering, Hubei University, Wuhan 430062 (China); Yang, Yingkui; Jiang, Tao [Ministry of Education Key Laboratory for the Green Preparation and Application of Functional Materials, Hubei Collaborative Innovation Center for Advanced Organic Chemical Materials, Faculty of Materials Science and Engineering, Hubei University, Wuhan 430062 (China); Yan, Shunjie; Shi, Hengchong [State Key Laboratory of Polymer Physics and Chemistry, Changchun Institute of Applied Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Changchun 130022 (China); Luan, Shifang, E-mail: sfluan@ciac.ac.cn [State Key Laboratory of Polymer Physics and Chemistry, Changchun Institute of Applied Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Changchun 130022 (China); Yin, Jinghua [State Key Laboratory of Polymer Physics and Chemistry, Changchun Institute of Applied Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Changchun 130022 (China)

    2016-07-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Antifouling and bactericidal capabilities were facilely integrated into a surface via bioinspired coating. • The modification technique was very facile and universal to different types of substrate materials. • The integrated antifouling and bactericidal surfaces have great potential in wound dressing applications. - Abstract: Polypropylene (PP) non-woven has been widely used as wound dressing; however, the hydrophobic nature of PP can initiate bacterial attachment and subsequent biofilm formation. Herein, we propose a facile approach to functionalize PP non-woven with poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) and poly(N-vinyl pyrrolidone)-iodine complex (PVP-I). PVP and PEG were successively tethered onto PP non-woven surface via versatile bioinspired dopamine (DA) chemistry, followed by complexing iodine with PVP moieties. It was demonstrated through the field emission scanning electron microscope (SEM) and spread plate method that the as-modified PP non-woven integrated both antifouling property of PEG for suppressing bacterial adhesion, and bactericidal property of PVP-I for killing the few adherent bacteria. Meanwhile, it could greatly resist platelet and red blood cell adhesion. The integrated antifouling and bactericidal PP non-woven surfaces might have great potential in various wound dressing applications.

  7. Contribution to the study of zinc and cadmium diffusions in InP and In0,97 Ga0,03 As0,08 P0,92 quaternary compound

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tesser Junior, N.L.

    1986-01-01

    The zinc and cadmium diffusions in In 0,97 Ga 0,03 As 0,08 P 0,92 and InP, using sealed blister method, are studied. The consequences of fick law in diffusion processes are analysed. The diffusion measuring methods and carried out adjustments are described. (M.C.K.) [pt

  8. Antifoulant (butyltin and copper) concentrations in sediments from the Great Barrier Reef World Heritage Area, Australia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haynes, David; Loong, Dominica

    2002-01-01

    Antifoulant concentrations are generally low in the Great Barrier Reef, although ship grounding sites present a previously unidentified significant source of antifoulant pollutants in the Great Barrier Reef. - Antifoulant concentrations were determined in marine sediments collected from commercial harbours, marinas, mooring locations on mid-shelf continental islands, and outer reef sites in four regions within the Great Barrier Reef World Heritage Area in 1999. Highest copper concentrations were present in sediments collected from commercial harbour sampling sites (28-233 μg Cu g -1 dry wt.). In contrast, copper concentrations in sediments collected from boat mooring sites on mid-shelf continental islands and outer reef sites were at background concentrations (i.e. -1 dry wt.). Butyltin was only detectable in four of the 42 sediments sampled for analysis, and was only present in sediments collected from commercial harbours (18-1275 ng Sn g -1 dry wt.) and from marinas (4-5 ng Sn g -1 dry wt.). The detection of tributyltin at marina sites implies that this antifoulant may continue to be used illegally on the hulls of smaller recreational vessels. Sediment samples were also collected opportunistically from the site of a 22,000 t cargo ship grounding in May 1999 at Heath Reef, in the far northern Great Barrier Reef. Butyltin concentrations were grossly elevated (660-340,000 ng Sn g -1 dry wt.) at the grounding site. The impact of residual antifoulants at large ship grounding sites should be recognised as a significant, long-term environmental problem unless antfoulant clean-up strategies are undertaken

  9. SeaNine 211 as antifouling biocide: A coastal pollutant of emerging concern.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Lianguo; Lam, James C W

    2017-11-01

    SeaNine 211, with 4,5-dichloro-2-n-octyl-4-isothiazolin-3-one (DCOIT) being the biocidal ingredient, is a widely-used antifouling agent to deter the undesirable biofouling phenomenon. It is commercially promoted as an environmentally acceptable antifoulant mainly due to its claimed rapid degradation in marine environment. However, increasing researches document varying degradative kinetics in different environments, proving that SeaNine 211 is actually not degraded equally fast around the world (half-life between antifouling coatings has also caused global contamination of marine environment in various compartments. For example, accumulation of SeaNine 211 is detected as high as 3700ng/L in Spanish seawater and 281ng/g dry weight in Korean sediment. Considering that SeaNine 211 is highly toxic against non-target marine organisms, environmental risk assessment finds that most marine organisms are endangered by SeaNine 211 in worst-case scenario. Its endocrine disrupting and reproductive impairing effects at environmentally worst-case concentrations further constitute a long-term threat to the maintenance of population stability. Therefore, in the light of the varying degradability, environmental pollution and high toxicity, especially the endocrine disruption, SeaNine 211 as an antifouling agent is likely to cause non-negligible damages to the marine ecosystem. There is an urgency to perform a systematic ecological risk assessment of SeaNine 211 to prevent the potential impacts on the health of marine environment. A regular monitoring also becomes necessary to place the usage of antifouling biocides under control. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  10. ­A practical application of reduced-copper antifouling paint in marine biological research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea S. Jerabek

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Biofouling of experimental cages and other field apparatuses can be problematic for scientists and has traditionally been addressed using frequent manual removal (e.g., scraping, scrubbing. Recent environmental restrictions and legislative changes have driven the development of less hazardous antifouling products, making antifouling paint a potential alternative option to manual removal. Consequently, the viability of using these newly developed products as a replacement for the manual cleaning of exclusion cages was experimentally investigated. There were six treatments tested, comprising three with settlement tiles in experimental cages coated with antifouling paint, two with settlement tiles in unpainted experimental cages, and one cage-free suspended tile. The three antifouling treatments comprised two reduced-copper paints (21% Cu2O and 40% Cu2O and one copper-free, Econea™-based paint (labeled “ecofriendly”. Antifouling paints were assessed for performance of preventing fouling of the cages and whether they elicited local effects on settlement tiles contained within them. All three paints performed well to reduce fouling of the cages during the initial six weeks of the experiment, but the efficacy of “ecofriendly” paint began to decrease during an extended deployment that lasted 14 weeks. The macro-community composition, biomass, and percent cover of settled organism on tiles within cages treated with copper-based paints (21% and 40% concentrations were indistinguishable from tiles within the manually scrubbed cages. In contrast, settlement to tiles from the “ecofriendly” treatment was different in composition of macro-community and lower in biomass, suggesting the presence of local effects and therefore rendering it unsuitable for use in settlement experiments. The results of this study suggest that reduced-copper paints have the potential to serve as an alternative to manual maintenance, which may be useful for deployments

  11. Entrapment of subtilisin in ceramic sol-gel coating for antifouling applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regina, Viduthalai Rasheedkhan; Søhoel, Helmer; Lokanathan, Arcot Raghupathi; Bischoff, Claus; Kingshott, Peter; Revsbech, Niels Peter; Meyer, Rikke Louise

    2012-11-01

    Enzymes with antifouling properties are of great interest in developing nontoxic antifouling coatings. A bottleneck in developing enzyme-based antifouling coatings is to immobilize the enzyme in a suitable coating matrix without compromising its activity and stability. Entrapment of enzymes in ceramics using the sol-gel method is known to have several advantages over other immobilization methods. The sol-gel method can be used to make robust coatings, and the aim of this study was to explore if sol-gel technology can be used to develop robust coatings harboring active enzymes for antifouling applications. We successfully entrapped a protease, subtilisin (Savinase, Novozymes), in a ceramic coating using a sol-gel method. The sol-gel formulation, when coated on a stainless steel surface, adhered strongly and cured at room temperature in less than 8 h. The resultant coating was smoother and less hydrophobic than stainless steel. Changes in the coating's surface structure, thickness and chemistry indicate that the coating undergoes gradual erosion in aqueous medium, which results in release of subtilisin. Subtilisin activity in the coating increased initially, and then gradually decreased. After 9 months, 13% of the initial enzyme activity remained. Compared to stainless steel, the sol-gel-coated surfaces with active subtilisin were able to reduce bacterial attachment of both Gram positive and Gram negative bacteria by 2 orders of magnitude. Together, our results demonstrate that the sol-gel method is a promising coating technology for entrapping active enzymes, presenting an interesting avenue for enzyme-based antifouling solutions.

  12. Antifouling effect of two saturated copper coatings applied on carbon steel structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guiamet, P. S.

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Biofouling is the colonization of man-made substrata by sessile organisms. The aim of this paper is to evaluate the performance of two antifouling saturated copper coating. Bioassays were carried out at a harbor in Argentine (38°02’S- 57°32’W. During six months, one series of pipes and panels were removed monthly to estimate the recruitment of macro and microfouling species and immediately replaced by clean ones. Another series was removed from the beginning of exposure to monitor the development of the established community (accumulative pipes and panels along six months. Data obtained from control (without a saturated copper coating and saturated-copper coated pipes and panels were compared in order to estimate performance of the coating. One of two saturated copper coating demonstrated a good effect antifouling.

    El biofouling es la colonización por organismos sésiles en sistemas de sustratos hechos por el hombre. El objetivo fue evaluar el efecto antifouling de dos cubiertas saturadas de cobre. Los estudios se llevaron a cabo en un puerto de la Argentina (38°02’S-57°32’W. Durante seis meses, una serie de caños y paneles fueron removidos mensualmente para estimar el reclutamiento de las especies del macro y microfouling, y fueron sustituidos inmediatamente por caños y paneles limpios. La otra serie de caños y paneles fueron removidas desde el inicio de la exposición en forma acumulativa durante los seis meses, para seguir el desarrollo de la comunidad. Los datos obtenidos de los controles sin cubierta y de los caños y paneles con las cubiertas saturadas de cobre fueron comparados para estimar el comportamiento antifouling de las mismas. Una de las dos cubiertas saturadas de cobre demostró un buen efecto antifouling.

  13. EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies (NDA); Scientific Opinion on the substantiation of a health claim related to zinc and “the prevention of bad breath by neutralising of volatile sulphur compounds in the mouth and oral cavity” pursuant to Article 13(5) of Regulation (EC

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tetens, Inge

    claim related to zinc and “the prevention of bad breath by neutralising of volatile sulphur compounds in the mouth and oral cavity”. The scope of the application was proposed to fall under a health claim based on newly developed scientific evidence. The claimed effect is “prevents bad breath......Following an application from EJP Pharmaceutical ApS, submitted pursuant to Article 13(5) of Regulation (EC) No 1924/2006 via the Competent Authority of Denmark, the Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies was asked to deliver an opinion on the scientific substantiation of a health...... by neutralising of volatile sulphur compounds in the mouth and oral cavity”. The target population, as proposed by the applicant, is adults over the age of 18 who wish to improve their bad breath. The Panel considers that the proposed claim is related to breath odour rather than to a function of the body...

  14. Assessment of the risk posed by the antifouling booster biocides Irgarol 1051 and diuron to freshwater macrophytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambert, S J; Thomas, K V; Davy, A J

    2006-05-01

    Antifouling paints are used to reduce the attachment of living organisms to the submerged surfaces of ships, boats and aquatic structures, usually by the release of a biocide. Two 'booster' biocides in common use are the triazine herbicide Irgarol 1051 (N-2-methylthio-4-tert-butylamino-6-cyclopropylamino-s-triazine), and diuron (1-(3,4-dichlorophenyl)-3,3-dimethylurea), which are designed to inhibit algal photosynthesis. Previous research has been directed at the effects of these compounds in marine and estuarine environments. In 2001 we sampled the main rivers and shallow freshwater lakes (Broads) of East Anglia UK for Irgarol 1051, its metabolite GS26575 (2-methylamino-4-tert-butylamino-6-amino-s-triazine) and diuron in order to establish the baseline environmental concentrations of these compounds in freshwater systems of eastern UK and to investigate their possible effects on aquatic plants. Irgarol 1051, GS26575 and diuron were found in water samples collected from 21 locations. The highest concentrations were found in the Norfolk and Suffolk Broads in May. The rivers Great Ouse, Wissey, Bure and Yare also contained all three compounds, as did the Great Ouse Cut-off Channel. The toxicity of these biocides to three macrophyte species (Apium nodiflorum, Chara vulgaris, and Myriophyllum spicatum) was investigated. Deleterious effects on relative growth rate, the maximum quantum efficiency (Fv/Fm) of photosystem II and, for Apium, root mass production were found. C. vulgaris was generally most sensitive; growth, especially of roots, was strongly affected in A. nodiflorum; growth rate of M. spicatum was sensitive to diuron. No observed effect concentrations (NOEC) were interpolated using standard toxicological analysis. These were compared with measured environmental concentrations (MEC) to determine the ranges of risk quotients (MEC/NOEC). Both Irgarol 1051 and diuron represented significant risks to A. nodiflorum and C. vulgaris in this area.

  15. Antifouling Properties of Fluoropolymer Brushes toward Organic Polymers: The Influence of Composition, Thickness, Brush Architecture, and Annealing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhanhua; Zuilhof, Han

    2016-07-05

    Fluoropolymer brushes are widely used to prevent nonspecific adsorption of commercial polymeric or biological materials due to their strongly hydrophobic character. Herein, a series of fluoropolymer brushes with different compositions, thicknesses and molecular architectures was prepared via surface-initiated atom transfer radical polymerization (ATRP). Subsequently, the antifouling properties of these fluoropolymer brushes against organic polymers were studied in detail using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and atomic force microscopy (AFM) measurements and polystyrene as a representative fouling polymer. Among all of the molecular architectures studied, homopolymerized methacrylate-based fluoropolymer brushes (PMAF17) show the best antifouling properties. Annealing the fluoropolymer brushes improves the antifouling property dramatically due to the reregulated surface composition. These fluoropolymer brushes can be combined with, e.g., micro- and nanostructuring and other advanced materials properties to yield even better long-term antifouling behavior under harsh environments.

  16. Les peintures marines antisalissures à base de polymères organostanniques Antifouling Marine Paints Containing Organo-Tin Polymers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dawans F.

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Le dépôt des salissures marines sur les ouvrages immergés est influencé par plusieurs facteurs et il entraîne des conséquences néfastes, en particulier pour la maintenance des supports de plates-formes de production du pétrole en mer et pour la consommation d'énergie requise pour la propulsion des navires. Divers moyens de lutte antisalissure ont été envisagés parmi lesquels les peintures marines antisalissures occupent une place de choix. Ces peintures contiennent, en général, un composé métallique toxique envers les organismes marins d'origine animale ou végétale et différents mécanismes d'action ont été proposés. Les dérivés organostanniques sont des agents biocides très efficaces et lorsqu'ils sont liés chimiquement sur un polymère, en particulier sous forme de greffons, on obtient un contrôle amélioré de leur lixiviation dans la phase aqueuse et par conséquent la durée de vie du revêtement antisalissure est prolongée. La synthèse de polymères comportant un cation organostannique toxique peut être effectuée, soit par la polymérisation ou la copolymérisation de monomères insaturés organostanniques, soit par la réaction chimique de composés organostanniques avec un substrat polymère comportant des groupes fonctionnels appropriés. Les avantages et les inconvénients de diverses formulations de peintures à base de dérivés organostanniques sont discutés. Marine fouling deposits on submerged structures are influenced by several factors and bring about harmful consequences, especially with regard to offshore oil-production platform structures and for the energy consumption required for ship propulsion. Various antifouling methods have been considered, including antifouling marine coatings in particular. Such paints generally contain a metallic compound which is toxic with regard to marine organisms of animal or vegetable origin, and various action mechanisms have been proposed. Organo

  17. Hydrogel brushes grafted from stainless steel via surface-initiated atom transfer radical polymerization for marine antifouling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Jingjing; Wei, Jun

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Crosslinked hydrogel brushes were grafted from SS surfaces for marine antifouling. • All brush-coated SS surfaces could effectively reduce the adhesion of biofouling. • The antifouling efficacy increased with the crosslinking density of hydrogels. - Abstract: Crosslinked hydrogel brushes were grafted from stainless steel (SS) surfaces for marine antifouling. The brushes were prepared by surface-initiated atom transfer radical polymerization (SI-ATRP) of 2-methacryloyloxyethyl phosphorylcholine (MPC) and poly(ethylene glycol) methyl ether methacrylate (PEGMA) respectively with different fractions of crosslinker in the feed. The grafted layers prepared with different thickness were characterized by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), atomic force microscopy (AFM), ellipsometry and water contact angle measurements. With the increase in the fraction of crosslinker in the feed, the thickness of the grafted layer increased and the surface became smooth. All the brush-coated SS surfaces could effectively reduce the adhesion of bacteria and microalgae and settlement of barnacle cyprids, as compared to the pristine SS surface. The antifouling efficacy of the PEGMA polymer (PPEGMA)-grafted surface was higher than that of the MPC polymer (PMPC)-grafted surfaces. Furthermore, the crosslinked hydrogel brush-grafted surfaces exhibited better fouling resistance than the non-crosslinked polymer brush-grafted surfaces, and the antifouling efficacy increased with the crosslinking density. These hydrogel coatings of low toxicity and excellent anti-adhesive characteristics suggested their useful applications as environmentally friendly antifouling coatings.

  18. Hydrogel brushes grafted from stainless steel via surface-initiated atom transfer radical polymerization for marine antifouling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Jingjing, E-mail: jjwang1@hotmail.com; Wei, Jun

    2016-09-30

    Highlights: • Crosslinked hydrogel brushes were grafted from SS surfaces for marine antifouling. • All brush-coated SS surfaces could effectively reduce the adhesion of biofouling. • The antifouling efficacy increased with the crosslinking density of hydrogels. - Abstract: Crosslinked hydrogel brushes were grafted from stainless steel (SS) surfaces for marine antifouling. The brushes were prepared by surface-initiated atom transfer radical polymerization (SI-ATRP) of 2-methacryloyloxyethyl phosphorylcholine (MPC) and poly(ethylene glycol) methyl ether methacrylate (PEGMA) respectively with different fractions of crosslinker in the feed. The grafted layers prepared with different thickness were characterized by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), atomic force microscopy (AFM), ellipsometry and water contact angle measurements. With the increase in the fraction of crosslinker in the feed, the thickness of the grafted layer increased and the surface became smooth. All the brush-coated SS surfaces could effectively reduce the adhesion of bacteria and microalgae and settlement of barnacle cyprids, as compared to the pristine SS surface. The antifouling efficacy of the PEGMA polymer (PPEGMA)-grafted surface was higher than that of the MPC polymer (PMPC)-grafted surfaces. Furthermore, the crosslinked hydrogel brush-grafted surfaces exhibited better fouling resistance than the non-crosslinked polymer brush-grafted surfaces, and the antifouling efficacy increased with the crosslinking density. These hydrogel coatings of low toxicity and excellent anti-adhesive characteristics suggested their useful applications as environmentally friendly antifouling coatings.

  19. Chelators for investigating zinc metalloneurochemistry

    OpenAIRE

    Radford, Robert John; Lippard, Stephen J.

    2013-01-01

    The physiology and pathology of mobile zinc signaling has become an important topic in metalloneurochemistry. To study the action of mobile zinc effectively, specialized tools are required that probe the temporal and positional changes of zinc ions within live tissue and cells. In the present article we describe the design and implementation of selective zinc chelators as antagonists to interrogate the function of mobile zinc, with an emphasis on the pools of vesicular zinc in the terminals o...

  20. Zinc triggers microglial activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kauppinen, Tiina M; Higashi, Youichirou; Suh, Sang Won; Escartin, Carole; Nagasawa, Kazuki; Swanson, Raymond A

    2008-05-28

    Microglia are resident immune cells of the CNS. When stimulated by infection, tissue injury, or other signals, microglia assume an activated, "ameboid" morphology and release matrix metalloproteinases, reactive oxygen species, and other proinflammatory factors. This innate immune response augments host defenses, but it can also contribute to neuronal death. Zinc is released by neurons under several conditions in which microglial activation occurs, and zinc chelators can reduce neuronal death in animal models of cerebral ischemia and neurodegenerative disorders. Here, we show that zinc directly triggers microglial activation. Microglia transfected with a nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-kappaB) reporter gene showed a severalfold increase in NF-kappaB activity in response to 30 microm zinc. Cultured mouse microglia exposed to 15-30 microm zinc increased nitric oxide production, increased F4/80 expression, altered cytokine expression, and assumed the activated morphology. Zinc-induced microglial activation was blocked by inhibiting NADPH oxidase, poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase-1 (PARP-1), or NF-kappaB activation. Zinc injected directly into mouse brain induced microglial activation in wild-type mice, but not in mice genetically lacking PARP-1 or NADPH oxidase activity. Endogenous zinc release, induced by cerebral ischemia-reperfusion, likewise induced a robust microglial reaction, and this reaction was suppressed by the zinc chelator CaEDTA. Together, these results suggest that extracellular zinc triggers microglial activation through the sequential activation of NADPH oxidase, PARP-1, and NF-kappaB. These findings identify a novel trigger for microglial activation and a previously unrecognized mechanism by which zinc may contribute to neurological disorders.

  1. Quantitative fabrication, performance optimization and comparison of PEG and zwitterionic polymer antifouling coatings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xing, Cheng-Mei; Meng, Fan-Ning; Quan, Miao; Ding, Kai; Dang, Yuan; Gong, Yong-Kuan

    2017-09-01

    A versatile fabrication and performance optimization strategy of PEG and zwitterionic polymer coatings is developed on the sensor chip of surface plasma resonance (SPR) instrument. A random copolymer bearing phosphorylcholine zwitterion and active ester side chains (PMEN) and carboxylic PEG coatings with comparable thicknesses were deposited on SPR sensor chips via amidation coupling on the precoated polydopamine (PDA) intermediate layer. The PMEN coating showed much stronger resistance to bovine serum albumin (BSA) adsorption than PEG coating at very thin thickness (∼1nm). However, the BSA resistant efficacy of PEG coating could exceed that of PMEN due to stronger steric repelling effect when the thickness increased to 1.5∼3.3nm. Interestingly, both the PEG and PMEN thick coatings (≈3.6nm) showed ultralow fouling by BSA and bovine plasma fibrinogen (Fg). Moreover, changes in the PEG end group from -OH to -COOH, protein adsorption amount could increase by 10-fold. Importantly, the optimized PMEN and PEG-OH coatings were easily duplicated on other substrates due to universal adhesion of the PDA layer, showed excellent resistance to platelet, bacteria and proteins, and no significant difference in the antifouling performances was observed. These detailed results can explain the reported discrepancy in performances between PEG and zwitterionic polymer coatings by thickness. This facile and substrate-independent coating strategy may benefit the design and manufacture of advanced antifouling biomedical devices and long circulating nanocarriers. Prevention of biofouling is one of the biggest challenges for all biomedical applications. However, it is very difficult to fabricate a highly hydrophilic antifouling coating on inert materials or large devices. In this study, PEG and zwitterion polymers, the most widely investigated polymers with best antifouling performance, are conveniently immobilized on different kinds of substrates from their aqueous solutions by

  2. Probing the structural dependence of carbon space lengths of poly(N-hydroxyalkyl acrylamide)-based brushes on antifouling performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jintao; Zhang, Mingzhen; Chen, Hong; Chang, Yung; Chen, Zhan; Zheng, Jie

    2014-08-11

    Numerous biocompatible antifouling polymers have been developed for a wide variety of fundamental and practical applications in drug delivery, biosensors, marine coatings, and many other areas. Several antifouling mechanisms have been proposed, but the exact relationship among molecular structure, surface hydration property, and antifouling performance of antifouling polymers still remains elusive. Here this work strives to provide a better understanding of the structure-property relationship of poly(N-hydroxyalkyl acrylamide)-based materials. We have designed, synthesized, and characterized a series of polyHAAA brushes of various carbon spacer lengths (CSLs), that is, poly(N-hydroxymethyl acrylamide) (polyHMAA), poly(N-(2-hydroxyethyl)acrylamide) (polyHEAA), poly(N-(3-hydroxypropyl)acrylamide) (polyHPAA), and poly(N-(5-hydroxypentyl)acrylamide) (polyHPenAA), to study the structural dependence of CSLs on their antifouling performance. HMAA, HEAA, HPAA, and HPenAA monomers contained one, two, three, and five methylene groups between hydroxyl and amide groups, while the other groups in polymer backbones were the same as each other. The relation of such small structural differences of polymer brushes to their surface hydration and antifouling performance was studied by combined experimental and computational methods including surface plasmon resonance sensors, sum frequency generation (SFG) vibrational spectroscopy, cell adhesion assay, and molecular simulations. Antifouling results showed that all polyHAAA-based brushes were highly surface resistant to protein adsorption from single protein solutions, undiluted blood serum and plasma, as well as cell adhesion up to 7 days. In particular, polyHMAA and polyHEAA with the shorter CSLs exhibited higher surface hydration and better antifouling ability than polyHPMA and polyHPenAA. SFG and molecular simulations further revealed that the variation of CSLs changed the ratio of hydrophobicity/hydrophilicity of polymers

  3. A new bioassay for the inspection and identification of TBT-containing antifouling paint.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gueuné, Hervé; Thouand, Gérald; Durand, Marie-José

    2009-11-01

    Since the 1960s tributyl (TBT)-based antifouling paints are widely applied to protect ship's hulls from biofouling. Due to its high toxicity to aquatic ecosystem most of the countries (28 nations in 2008) signed the AFS convention to control the use of harmful antifouling systems on ships. Nevertheless there is currently no simple method to control the presence of organotin in paint. In this study, we propose a bioassay based on the use of a recombinant bioluminescent bacteria to detect directly in paint the presence of TBT. We also propose a simple device as an inspection system to control the absence of organotin in the ship's hull paint. The presence of organotin could be revealed in less than three hours.

  4. Role of Monomer Sequence, Hydrogen Bonding and Mesoscale Architecture in Marine Antifouling Coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segalman, Rachel

    Polypeptoids are non-natural, sequence specific polymers that offer the opportunity to probe the effect of monomer sequence, chirality, and chain shape on self-assembly and surface properties. Additionally, polypeptoid synthesis is more scaleable than traditional polypeptides suggesting their utility in large area applications. We have designed efficient marine anti-fouling coatings by using triblock copolymer scaffolds to which polypeptoids are tethered in order to tune both the modulus and surface energies with great precision. Surprisingly, when short sequences are tethered to a polymer backbone, polypeptoids consistently outperform analogous polypeptides in antifouling properties. We hypothesize that the hydrogen bonding inherent to the polypeptide backbone drives the observed differences in performance. We also find that the polymer scaffold housing the polypeptoids also plays a crucial role in directing surface presentation and therefore the overall coating properties.

  5. Trace metals in antifouling paint particles and their heterogeneous contamination of coastal sediments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, Nimisha; Turner, Andrew

    2009-01-01

    Antifouling paint residues collected from the hard-standings of a marine leisure boat facility have been chemically characterised. Scanning electron microscopy revealed distinct layers, many containing oxidic particles of Cu and Zn. Quantitative analysis indicated concentrations of Cu and Zn averaging about 300 and 100 mg g -1 , respectively, and small proportions of these metals ( -1 , respectively. Estuarine sediment collected near a boatyard contained concentrations of Cu and Zn an order of magnitude greater than respective concentrations in 'background' sediment, and mass balance calculations suggested that the former sample was contaminated by about 1% by weight of paint particles. Clearly, antifouling residues represent a highly significant, heterogeneous source of metallic contamination in the marine environment where boating activities occur.

  6. Estimation of Polishing and Leaching Behaviour of Antifouling Paints Using Mathematical Modelling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kiil, Søren; Dam-Johansen, Kim; Erik Weinell, Claus

    2003-01-01

    The development of chemically active antifouling paints has traditionally been based on an empirical approach. Optimisation and evaluation of novel and existing products are frequently conducted by means of, for example, systematic paint rotary tests in the laboratory or at sea sites. In this rev......The development of chemically active antifouling paints has traditionally been based on an empirical approach. Optimisation and evaluation of novel and existing products are frequently conducted by means of, for example, systematic paint rotary tests in the laboratory or at sea sites....... In this review, the usefulness of combining rotary experiments with the development of detailed mathematical models of paint behaviour will be discussed with reference to the relevant literature. Mathematical models can generally be used in the design of suitable release systems for various active components...

  7. Enhancing performance and surface antifouling properties of polysulfone ultrafiltration membranes with salicylate-alumoxane nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mokhtari, Samaneh; Rahimpour, Ahmad; Shamsabadi, Ahmad Arabi; Habibzadeh, Setareh; Soroush, Masoud

    2017-01-01

    To improve the hydrophilicity and antifouling properties of polysulfone (PS) ultrafiltration membranes, we studied the use of salicylate-alumoxane (SA) nanoparticles as a novel hydrophilic additive. The effects of SA nanoparticles on the membrane characteristics and performance were investigated in terms of membrane structure, permeation flux, solute rejection, hydrophilicity, and antifouling ability. The new mixed-matrix membranes (MMMs) possess asymmetric structures. They have smaller finger-like pores and smoother surfaces than the neat PS membranes. The embedment of SA nanoparticles in the polymer matrix and the improvement of surface hydrophilicity were investigated. Ultrafiltration experiments indicated that the pure-water flux of the new MMMs initially increases with SA nanoparticles loading followed by a decrease at high loadings. Higher BSA solution flux was achieved for the MMMs compared to the neat PS membranes. Membranes with 1 wt.% SA nanoparticles exhibit the highest flux recovery ratio of 87% and the lowest irreversible fouling of 13%.

  8. Zwitterionic sulfobetaine polymer-immobilized surface by simple tyrosinase-mediated grafting for enhanced antifouling property.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Ho Joon; Lee, Yunki; Phuong, Le Thi; Seon, Gyeung Mi; Kim, Eunsuk; Park, Jong Chul; Yoon, Hyunjin; Park, Ki Dong

    2017-10-01

    Introducing antifouling property to biomaterial surfaces has been considered an effective method for preventing the failure of implanted devices. In order to achieve this, the immobilization of zwitterions on biomaterial surfaces has been proven to be an excellent way of improving anti-adhesive potency. In this study, poly(sulfobetaine-co-tyramine), a tyramine-conjugated sulfobetaine polymer, was synthesized and simply grafted onto the surface of polyurethane via a tyrosinase-mediated reaction. Surface characterization by water contact angle measurements, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and atomic force microscopy demonstrated that the zwitterionic polymer was successfully introduced onto the surface of polyurethane and remained stable for 7days. In vitro studies revealed that poly(sulfobetaine-co-tyramine)-coated surfaces dramatically reduced the adhesion of fibrinogen, platelets, fibroblasts, and S. aureus by over 90% in comparison with bare surfaces. These results proved that polyurethane surfaces grafted with poly(sulfobetaine-co-tyramine) via a tyrosinase-catalyzed reaction could be promising candidates for an implantable medical device with excellent bioinert abilities. Antifouling surface modification is one of the key strategy to prevent the thrombus formation or infection which occurs on the surface of biomaterial after transplantation. Although there are many methods to modify the surface have been reported, necessity of simple modification technique still exists to apply for practical applications. The purpose of this study is to modify the biomaterial's surface by simply immobilizing antifouling zwitterion polymer via enzyme tyrosinase-mediated reaction which could modify versatile substrates in mild aqueous condition within fast time period. After modification, pSBTA grafted surface becomes resistant to various biological factors including proteins, cells, and bacterias. This approach appears to be a promising method to impart antifouling property on

  9. Antifouling activity of Indian marine invertebrate against the green mussel Perna viridis L.

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    PrabhaDevi; Jayasree, V.; Naik, C.G.; Parameswaran, P.S.; Raveendran, T.V.; Kamat, S.Y.

    antifouling activ- ity, which was evident from the few observations made in the present study, for example, C. kremfi collected from Kalpeni showed moderate activity, while that from Kada- math showed no activity. Similarly, C. pachyclados from Kalpeni showed... moderate activity, while that from Kada- math showed strong activity. This was also the case with Suberogorgia suberosa from Mandapam and Beyt Dwarka, which showed no and positive activity, respectively. Intra- specific variability in the chemically...

  10. pH and redox responsive polymer for antifouling surface coating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Kang Seok; In, Insik; Park, Sung Young

    2014-01-01

    Graphical abstract: Dual responsive surface with highly fouling resistance with the formation of a pH-dependent benzoic imine and redox-sensitive disulfide bond has been developed using a catechol/benzoic acid conjugated polymer and disulfide containing amine end-capped Pluronic. - Highlights: • Stimuli-responsive antifouling surface was prepared by layer-by-layer method. • The surface contact angle showed responsive behavior via pH and redox environments. • Simply coated polymer completely prevented cell adhesion onto surfaces. - Abstract: A dual environmentally responsive polymer with a highly fouling-resistant surface has been developed using poly[(hydroxyethyl methacrylate-g-benzoic acid)-co-(dimethylaminoethyl methacrylate-g-2-chloro-3′, 4′-dihydroxyacetophenone)] [poly[(HEMA-BA)-co-(DMAEMA-CCDP)], P1] as a coating material. The redox-sensitive disulfide containing amine end-capped Pluronic [(Plu-S-S-NH 2 ), P2] was then introduced over the P1 surface via the formation of a pH-dependent benzoic imine bond, where the polyethylene glycol (PEG) acts as an antifouling agent. The successful adhesion of P1 and the deposition of P2 onto the P1-coated substrate were ascertained with X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). In vitro cell adhesion followed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) indicated an excellent antifouling nature of the P2 layer. Consequently, the reattachment of Hela cells was strongly observed when P2 layered on P1-coated substrates (P1–P2) was pretreated at lower pH and high redox conditions. The P1–P2 bilayer-coated substrate has exhibited a great advantage in its effective antifouling behaviors with well-tuned cell attachment and detachment

  11. Quantifying bacterial adhesion on antifouling polymer brushes via single-cell force spectroscopy

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Rodriguez-Emmenegger, Cesar; Janel, S.; de los Santos Pereira, Andres; Bruns, M.; Lafont, F.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 6, č. 31 (2015), s. 5740-5751 ISSN 1759-9954 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GJ15-09368Y; GA MŠk(CZ) ED1.1.00/02.0109 Grant - others:OPPK(XE) CZ.2.16/3.1.00/21545 Program:OPPK Institutional support: RVO:61389013 Keywords : antifouling polymer brushes * single-cell force spectroscopy * bacterial adhesion Subject RIV: BO - Biophysics Impact factor: 5.687, year: 2015

  12. pH and redox responsive polymer for antifouling surface coating

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Kang Seok [Department of Chemical and Biological Engineering, Korea National University of Transportation, Chungju, 380-702 (Korea, Republic of); In, Insik, E-mail: in1@ut.ac.kr [Department of Polymer Science and Engineering, Korea National University of Transportation, Chungju, 380-702 (Korea, Republic of); Department of IT Convergence, Korea National University of Transportation, Chungju, 380-702 (Korea, Republic of); Park, Sung Young, E-mail: parkchem@ut.ac.kr [Department of Chemical and Biological Engineering, Korea National University of Transportation, Chungju, 380-702 (Korea, Republic of); Department of IT Convergence, Korea National University of Transportation, Chungju, 380-702 (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-09-15

    Graphical abstract: Dual responsive surface with highly fouling resistance with the formation of a pH-dependent benzoic imine and redox-sensitive disulfide bond has been developed using a catechol/benzoic acid conjugated polymer and disulfide containing amine end-capped Pluronic. - Highlights: • Stimuli-responsive antifouling surface was prepared by layer-by-layer method. • The surface contact angle showed responsive behavior via pH and redox environments. • Simply coated polymer completely prevented cell adhesion onto surfaces. - Abstract: A dual environmentally responsive polymer with a highly fouling-resistant surface has been developed using poly[(hydroxyethyl methacrylate-g-benzoic acid)-co-(dimethylaminoethyl methacrylate-g-2-chloro-3′, 4′-dihydroxyacetophenone)] [poly[(HEMA-BA)-co-(DMAEMA-CCDP)], P1] as a coating material. The redox-sensitive disulfide containing amine end-capped Pluronic [(Plu-S-S-NH{sub 2}), P2] was then introduced over the P1 surface via the formation of a pH-dependent benzoic imine bond, where the polyethylene glycol (PEG) acts as an antifouling agent. The successful adhesion of P1 and the deposition of P2 onto the P1-coated substrate were ascertained with X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). In vitro cell adhesion followed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) indicated an excellent antifouling nature of the P2 layer. Consequently, the reattachment of Hela cells was strongly observed when P2 layered on P1-coated substrates (P1–P2) was pretreated at lower pH and high redox conditions. The P1–P2 bilayer-coated substrate has exhibited a great advantage in its effective antifouling behaviors with well-tuned cell attachment and detachment.

  13. Imprinting of metal receptors into multilayer polyelectrolyte films: fabrication and applications in marine antifouling

    OpenAIRE

    Puniredd, S.R.; Janczewski, D.; Go, D.P.; Zhu, X.; Guo, S.; Teo, S.L-M.; Lee, S.S.C.; Vancso, Gyula J.

    2015-01-01

    Polymeric films constructed using the layer-by-layer (LbL) fabrication process were employed as a platform for metal ion immobilization and applied as a marine antifouling coating. The novel Cu2+ ion imprinting process described is based on the use of metal ion templates and LbL multilayer covalent cross-linking. Custom synthesized, peptide mimicking polycations composed of histidine grafted poly(allylamine) (PAH) to bind metal ions, and methyl ester containing polyanions for convenient cross...

  14. Oral zinc for treating diarrhoea in children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazzerini, Marzia; Wanzira, Humphrey

    2016-01-01

    from dehydration. Giving fluids by mouth (using an oral rehydration solution (ORS)) has been shown to save children's lives, but it has no effect on the length of time the children suffer with diarrhoea. Zinc supplementation could help reduce the duration and the severity of diarrhoea, and therefore have an additional benefit over ORS in reducing children mortality. What is oral zinc and how may it shorten the duration and severity of diarrhoea Zinc is usually given as zinc sulphate, zinc acetate, or zinc gluconate, which are all water-soluble compounds. The World Health Organization (WHO) and the United Nations Children's Fund (UNICEF) recommend 10 mg to 20 mg of zinc per day for children with diarrhoea. There are several mechanism of action of zinc on acute diarrhoea, some of which are specific to the gastrointestinal system: zinc restores mucosal barrier integrity and enterocyte brush-border enzyme activity, it promotes the production of antibodies and circulating lymphocytes against intestinal pathogens, and has a direct effect on ion channels, acting as a potassium channel blocker of adenosine 3-5-cyclic monophosphate-mediated chlorine secretion. Cochrane researchers examined the evidence available up to 30 September 2016. What the evidence in the review suggests Thirty-three trials that included 10,841 children met the inclusion criteria of this review. Among children with acute diarrhoea, we don't know if treating children with zinc has an effect on death or number of children hospitalized (very low certainty evidence). In children older than six months, zinc supplementation may shorten the average duration of diarrhoea by around half a day (low certainty evidence), and probably reduces the number of children whose diarrhoea persists until day seven (moderate certainty evidence). In children with signs of malnutrition the effect appears greater, reducing the duration of diarrhoea by around a day (high certainty evidence). Conversely, in children younger than six

  15. Improvement of antifouling performances for modified PVDF ultrafiltration membrane with hydrophilic cellulose nanocrystal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lv, Jinling; Zhang, Guoquan; Zhang, Hanmin; Zhao, Chuanqi; Yang, Fenglin

    2018-05-01

    Hydrophilic cellulose nanocrystal (CNC) was incorporated into hydrophobic poly(vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF) membrane via phase inversion process to improve membrane antifouling property. The effects of CNC on membrane morphology, hydrophilicity, permeability and antifouling property were investigated in-detail. Results indicated that the introduction of CNC into PVDF membrane enhanced the permeability by optimizing membrane microstructure and improving membrane hydrophilicity. A higher pure water flux of 206.9 L m-2 h-1 was achieved for CNC/PVDF membrane at 100 kPa, which was 20 times that of PVDF membrane (9.8 L m-2 h-1). In bovine serum albumin filtration measurements, the permeation flux and flux recovery ratio of CNC/PVDF membrane were increased remarkably, while the irreversible fouling-resistance of CNC/PVDF membrane decreased by 48.8%. These results indicated that the CNC/PVDF membrane possessed superior antifouling property due to the hydrophilicity of CNC that formed a hydration layer on the membrane surface to effectively reduce contaminants adsorption/deposition.

  16. Improved antifouling potential of polyether sulfone polymeric membrane containing silver nanoparticles: self-cleaning membranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rana, Sidra; Nazar, Umair; Ali, Jafar; Ali, Qurat Ul Ain; Ahmad, Nasir M; Sarwar, Fiza; Waseem, Hassan; Jamil, Syed Umair Ullah

    2018-06-01

    A new strategy to enhance the antifouling potential of polyether sulfone (PES) membrane is presented. Chemically synthesized silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) were used to prepare a mixed-matrix PES membrane by the phase inversion technique. Primarily, AgNPs synthesis was confirmed by surface plasmon resonance at 410-430 nm using UV-Visible spectroscopy. X-ray diffraction analysis revealed that AgNPs were crystalline with a diameter of 21 ± 2 nm. Furthermore, PES membranes were characterized by energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy to confirm the incorporation of AgNPs in membranes. Hydrophilicity of the membranes was enhanced, whereas roughness, mechanical strength and biofouling were relatively reduced after embedding the AgNPs. Antibacterial potential of AgNPs was evaluated for E. coli in the disc diffusion and colony-forming unit (CFU) count method. All of the membranes were assessed for antifouling activity by filtering a control dilution (10 6  CFU/ml) of E. coli and by counting CFU. Anti-biofouling activity of the membrane was observed with different concentrations of AgNPs. Maximum reduction (66%) was observed in membrane containing 1.5% of AgNPs. The addition of antibiotic ceftriaxone enhanced the antibacterial effect of AgNPs in PES membranes. Our practicable antifouling strategy may be applied to other polymeric membranes which may pave the new way to achieve sustainable and self-cleaning membrane reactors on large scale.

  17. Improved antifouling properties of polymer membranes using a ‘layer-by-layer’ mediated method

    KAUST Repository

    Chen, Lin

    2013-01-01

    Polymeric reverse osmosis membranes were modified with antifouling polymer brushes through a \\'layer by layer\\' (LBL) mediated method. Based on pure physical electrostatic interaction, the attachment of LBL films did not alter separation performance of the membranes. In addition, the incorporation of an LBL film also helped to amplify the number of potential reaction sites on the membrane surfaces for attachment of antifouling polymer brushes, which were then attached to the surface. Attachment of the brushes included two different approaches, grafting to and grafting from. Attenuated total reflectance-Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and water contact angle measurements showed successful growth of the LBL films and subsequently the polymer brushes. Using this method to modify reverse osmosis membranes, preliminary performance testing showed the antifouling properties of the as-modified membranes were much better than the virgin membrane with no significant loss in water flux and salt rejection. © 2013 The Royal Society of Chemistry.

  18. Preparation of antifouling poly(vinylidene fluoride) membranes via different coating methods using a zwitterionic copolymer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma, Wenzhong; Rajabzadeh, Saeid; Matsuyama, Hideto

    2015-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • We successfully coated the poly(MPC-co-BMA) copolymer on the ultrafiltration membrane. • The hydrophilicity and antifouling were improved by coating poly(MPC-co-BMA). • The flow-through method showed better anti-fouling properties compared with immersion method. • P(MPC-co-BMA) was quite stable on the coated membranes. - Abstract: To reduce the fouling resistance of poly(vinylidene fluoride) membranes, a copolymer of 2-methacryloyloxyethyl phosphorylcholine (MPC) and n-butyl methacrylate (BMA) [poly(MPC-co-BMA)] was coated on a membrane and into its pores from an aqueous solution using two different methods, the immersion and flow-through methods. The effects of poly(MPC-co-BMA) coating on the water flux, surface morphology, and fouling propensity of three types of commercial ultrafiltration membranes with molecular-weight cutoffs ranging from 50 to 250 kDa were investigated. The fouling resistances of modified membranes to bovine serum albumin were compared to those of the unmodified membranes. The evaluation of X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy of the modified membranes confirmed that poly(MPC-co-BMA) was coated on the membrane surfaces. Although both modification methods effectively prevented protein fouling, the flow-through coating method demonstrated a better antifouling propensity. The coated copolymer stability results indicated that the coated copolymer layer on the membrane surface using both coating methods was quite stable even after ultrasonic treatment.

  19. Silica Nanoparticles Functionalized with Zwitterionic Sulfobetaine Siloxane for Application as a Versatile Antifouling Coating System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knowles, Brianna R; Wagner, Pawel; Maclaughlin, Shane; Higgins, Michael J; Molino, Paul J

    2017-06-07

    The growing need to develop surfaces able to effectively resist biological fouling has resulted in the widespread investigation of nanomaterials with potential antifouling properties. However, the preparation of effective antifouling coatings is limited by the availability of reactive surface functional groups and our ability to carefully control and organize chemistries at a materials' interface. Here, we present two methods of preparing hydrophilic low-fouling surface coatings through reaction of silica-nanoparticle suspensions and predeposited silica-nanoparticle films with zwitterionic sulfobetaine (SB). Silica-nanoparticle suspensions were functionalized with SB across three pH conditions and deposited as thin films via a simple spin-coating process to generate hydrophilic antifouling coatings. In addition, coatings of predeposited silica nanoparticles were surface functionalized via exposure to zwitterionic solutions. Quartz crystal microgravimetry with dissipation monitoring was employed as a high throughput technique for monitoring and optimizing reaction to the silica-nanoparticle surfaces. Functionalization of nanoparticle films was rapid and could be achieved over a wide pH range and at low zwitterion concentrations. All functionalized particle surfaces presented a high degree of wettability and resulted in large reductions in adsorption of bovine serum albumin protein. Particle coatings also showed a reduction in adhesion of fungal spores (Epicoccum nigrum) and bacteria (Escherichia coli) by up to 87 and 96%, respectively. These results indicate the potential for functionalized nanosilicas to be further developed as versatile fouling-resistant coatings for widespread coating applications.

  20. Preparation of antifouling poly(vinylidene fluoride) membranes via different coating methods using a zwitterionic copolymer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ma, Wenzhong; Rajabzadeh, Saeid; Matsuyama, Hideto, E-mail: matuyama@kobe-u.ac.jp

    2015-12-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • We successfully coated the poly(MPC-co-BMA) copolymer on the ultrafiltration membrane. • The hydrophilicity and antifouling were improved by coating poly(MPC-co-BMA). • The flow-through method showed better anti-fouling properties compared with immersion method. • P(MPC-co-BMA) was quite stable on the coated membranes. - Abstract: To reduce the fouling resistance of poly(vinylidene fluoride) membranes, a copolymer of 2-methacryloyloxyethyl phosphorylcholine (MPC) and n-butyl methacrylate (BMA) [poly(MPC-co-BMA)] was coated on a membrane and into its pores from an aqueous solution using two different methods, the immersion and flow-through methods. The effects of poly(MPC-co-BMA) coating on the water flux, surface morphology, and fouling propensity of three types of commercial ultrafiltration membranes with molecular-weight cutoffs ranging from 50 to 250 kDa were investigated. The fouling resistances of modified membranes to bovine serum albumin were compared to those of the unmodified membranes. The evaluation of X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy of the modified membranes confirmed that poly(MPC-co-BMA) was coated on the membrane surfaces. Although both modification methods effectively prevented protein fouling, the flow-through coating method demonstrated a better antifouling propensity. The coated copolymer stability results indicated that the coated copolymer layer on the membrane surface using both coating methods was quite stable even after ultrasonic treatment.

  1. Preparation and antifouling property of polyurethane film modified by chondroitin sulfate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Huihui; Xue, Jing; Qian, Bin; Chen, Huaying; Zhu, Yonggang; Lan, Minbo

    2017-02-01

    An antifouling polyurethane film modified by chondroitin sulfate (PU-CS) was prepared by chemical grafting with N-Boc-1,3-propanediamine as a spacer. The different mass fraction of N-Boc-1,3-propanediamine was investigated to obtain PU-CS films with different CS grafting density. The surface properties of PU-CS films were comprehensively characterized. Proteins adsorption and glycosaminoglycans adhesion on films were evaluated. Moreover, inorganic salt deposition on film with highest CS grafting density (3.70 μg/cm2) was briefly investigated. The results showed that the increase of CS grafting density improved not only the hydrophilicity but the antifouling performance of films. The best antifouling film reduced the adsorption of fibrinogen (BFG), human serum albumin (HSA) and lysozyme (LYS) by 81.4%, 95.0% and 76.5%, respectively, and the adhesion of chondroitin (CS), heparin (HP) and hyaluronic acid (HA) by 70.6%, 87.4% and 81.3%, respectively. In addition, the co-adsorption of proteins and glycosaminoglycans reduced up to 86.9% and 75.5%, respectively. Changes in inorganic salt deposition after co-adsorption of proteins and glycosaminoglycans on PU-CS(3) suggested that the proteins promoted the inorganic salt deposition, while glycosaminoglycans inhibited the crystal growth. The negatively charged polysaccharides might promote the generation of smaller crystals which could be conducive to provide theoretical and practical guide to develop novel urinary stents with significant anti-encrustation properties.

  2. The role of chemical antifouling defence in the invasion success of Sargassum muticum: A comparison of native and invasive brown algae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicole Schwartz

    Full Text Available Competition and fouling defence are important traits that may facilitate invasions by non-indigenous species. The 'novel weapons hypothesis' (NWH predicts that the invasive success of exotic species is closely linked to the possession of chemical defence compounds that the recipient community in the new range is not adapted to. In order to assess whether chemical defence traits contribute to invasion success, anti-bacterial, anti-quorum sensing, anti-diatom, anti-larval and anti-algal properties were investigated for the following algae: a the invasive brown alga Sargassum muticum from both, its native (Japan and invasive (Germany range, b the two non- or weak invasive species Sargassum fusiforme and Sargassum horneri from Japan, and c Fucus vesiculosus, a native brown alga from Germany. Crude and surface extracts and lipid fractions of active extracts were tested against common fouling organisms and zygotes of a dominant competing brown alga. Extracts of the native brown alga F. vesiculosus inhibited more bacterial strains (75% than any of the Sargassum spp. (17 to 29%. However, Sargassum spp. from Japan exhibited the strongest settlement inhibition against the diatom Cylindrotheca closterium, larvae of the bryozoan Bugula neritina and zygotes of the brown alga F. vesiculosus. Overall, extracts of S. muticum from the invasive range were less active compared to those of the native range suggesting an adaptation to lower fouling pressure and competition in the new range resulting in a shift of resource allocation from costly chemical defence to reproduction and growth. Non-invasive Sargassum spp. from Japan was equally defended against fouling and competitors like S. muticum from Japan indicating a necessity to include these species in European monitoring programs. The variable antifouling activity of surface and crude extracts highlights the importance to use both for an initial screening for antifouling activity.

  3. Obtention of zinc polymethacrylate via free radicals induced by gamma radiation; Obtencion del polimetacrilato de zinc via radicales libres inducidos por radiacion gamma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Urena N, F.; Flores E, J. [Departamento de Fisica, Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares, C.P. 52045 Estado de Mexico (Mexico)

    2000-07-01

    The objective of this work was to synthesise the monomer of zinc methacrylate and subsequently to carry out the polymerization reaction with the purpose to obtain the compound desired, the zinc polymethacrylate. For this it was used a gamma radiation source, {sup 60} Co, as initiator of the polymerization reaction. (Author)

  4. Zinc fingers, zinc clusters, and zinc twists in DNA-binding protein domains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vallee, B.L.; Auld, D.S.; Coleman, J.E.

    1991-01-01

    The authors recognize three distinct motifs of DNA-binding zinc proteins: (i) zinc fingers, (ii) zinc clusters, and (iii) zinc twists. Until very recently, x-ray crystallographic or NMR three-dimensional structure analyses of DNA-binding zinc proteins have not been available to serve as standards of reference for the zinc binding sites of these families of proteins. Those of the DNA-binding domains of the fungal transcription factor GAL4 and the rat glucocorticoid receptor are the first to have been determined. Both proteins contain two zinc binding sites, and in both, cysteine residues are the sole zinc ligands. In GAL4, two zinc atoms are bound to six cysteine residues which form a zinc cluster akin to that of metallothionein; the distance between the two zinc atoms of GAL4 is ∼3.5 angstrom. In the glucocorticoid receptor, each zinc atom is bound to four cysteine residues; the interatomic zinc-zinc distance is ∼13 angstrom, and in this instance, a zinc twist is represented by a helical DNA recognition site located between the two zinc atoms. Zinc clusters and zinc twists are here recognized as two distinctive motifs in DNA-binding proteins containing multiple zinc atoms. For native zinc fingers, structural data do not exist as yet; consequently, the interatomic distances between zinc atoms are not known. As further structural data become available, the structural and functional significance of these different motifs in their binding to DNA and other proteins participating in the transmission of the genetic message will become apparent

  5. Zinc in diet

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Effects Symptoms of zinc deficiency include: Frequent infections Hypogonadism in males Loss of hair Poor appetite Problems with the ... any medical emergency or for the diagnosis or treatment of any medical condition. A licensed physician should ...

  6. Mussel-inspired chitosan-polyurethane coatings for improving the antifouling and antibacterial properties of polyethersulfone membranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Rui; Song, Xin; Xiang, Tao; Liu, Qiang; Su, Baihai; Zhao, Weifeng; Zhao, Changsheng

    2017-07-15

    A straightforward mussel-inspired approach was proposed to construct chitosan-polyurethane coatings and load Ag nanoparticles (AgNPs) to endow polyethersulfone (PES) membranes with dual-antibacterial and antifouling properties. The macromolecule O-carboxymethyl chitosan (CMC) was directly reacted with catechol in the absence of carbodiimide chemistry to form the coating and load AgNPs via in situ reduction; while lysine (Lys) was used as a representative small molecule for comparison. Then, PEG-based polyurethane (PU) was used for constructing Lys-Ag-PU and CMC-Ag-PU composite coatings, which substantially improved the protein antifouling property of the membranes. Furthermore, the CMC-Ag-PU coating exhibited superior broad-spectrum antibacterial property towards E. coli and S. aureus than Lys-Ag-PU coating. Meanwhile, the CMC-Ag-PU coating showed sustained antifouling property against bacteria and could reload AgNPs to be regenerated as antibacterial and antifouling coating. This approach is believed to have potential to fabricate reusable antifouling and antibacterial coatings on materials surfaces for aquatic industries. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Hydrogen permeation inhibition by zinc-nickel alloy plating on steel XC68

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El Hajjami, A.; Gigandet, M.P.; De Petris-Wery, M.; Catonne, J.C.; Duprat, J.J.; Thiery, L.; Raulin, F.; Starck, B.; Remy, P.

    2008-01-01

    The inhibition of hydrogen permeation and barrier effect by zinc-nickel plating was investigated using the Devanathan-Stachurski permeation technique. The hydrogen permeation and hydrogen diffusion for the zinc-nickel (12-15%) plating on steel XC68 is compared with zinc and nickel. Hydrogen permeation and hydrogen diffusion were followed as functions of time at current density applied (cathodic side) and potential permanent (anodic side). The hydrogen permeation inhibition for zinc-nickel is intermediate to that of nickel and zinc. This inhibition was due to nickel-rich layer effects at the Zn-Ni alloy/substrate interface, is shown by GDOES. Zinc-nickel plating inhibited the hydrogen diffusion greater as compared to zinc. This diffusion resistance was due to the barrier effect caused by the nickel which is present at the interface and transformed the hydrogen atomic to Ni 2 H compound, as shown by GIXRD.

  8. Hydrogen permeation inhibition by zinc-nickel alloy plating on steel XC68

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    El Hajjami, A. [Institut UTINAM, UMR CNRS 6213, Sonochimie et Reactivite des Surfaces, Universite de Franche-Comte, 16 route de Gray, 25030 Besancon Cedex (France); Coventya S.A.S., 51 rue Pierre, 92588 Clichy Cedex (France); Gigandet, M.P. [Institut UTINAM, UMR CNRS 6213, Sonochimie et Reactivite des Surfaces, Universite de Franche-Comte, 16 route de Gray, 25030 Besancon Cedex (France)], E-mail: marie-pierre.gigandet@univ-fcomte.fr; De Petris-Wery, M. [Institut Universitaire de Technologie d' Orsay, Universite Paris XI, Plateau de Moulon, 91400 Orsay (France); Catonne, J.C. [Professeur Honoraire du Conservatoire national des arts et metiers (CNAM), Paris (France); Duprat, J.J.; Thiery, L.; Raulin, F. [Coventya S.A.S., 51 rue Pierre, 92588 Clichy Cedex (France); Starck, B.; Remy, P. [Lisi Automotive, 28 faubourg de Belfort, BP 19, 90101 Delle Cedex (France)

    2008-12-30

    The inhibition of hydrogen permeation and barrier effect by zinc-nickel plating was investigated using the Devanathan-Stachurski permeation technique. The hydrogen permeation and hydrogen diffusion for the zinc-nickel (12-15%) plating on steel XC68 is compared with zinc and nickel. Hydrogen permeation and hydrogen diffusion were followed as functions of time at current density applied (cathodic side) and potential permanent (anodic side). The hydrogen permeation inhibition for zinc-nickel is intermediate to that of nickel and zinc. This inhibition was due to nickel-rich layer effects at the Zn-Ni alloy/substrate interface, is shown by GDOES. Zinc-nickel plating inhibited the hydrogen diffusion greater as compared to zinc. This diffusion resistance was due to the barrier effect caused by the nickel which is present at the interface and transformed the hydrogen atomic to Ni{sub 2}H compound, as shown by GIXRD.

  9. Excretion of Different Forms of Zinc by the prawn Palaemon serratus (Pennant)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Small, L.F.; Keckes, S.; Fowler, S.W.

    1976-01-01

    Freshly collected speciments of Palaemon serratus from the upper Adriatic Sea were used to determine excretion rates of zinc in ''zinc-free'' water by anodic stripping polarographic techniques. Weight-specific excretion of total zinc varied reciprocally with body weight apparently in a log-log relationship. Weight-specific excretion of ionic-particulate zinc appeared greatest in short term (1-3 hr) experiments, while weight specific excretion of complexed zinc appeared greatest in longer term (4-5 hr) experiments; however, we cannot exclude the possibility that ionic-particulate zinc and dissolved organic compounds were excreted separately and subsequently combined in the water to yield zinc complex. (author)

  10. Excretion of different forms of zinc by the prawn Palaemon serratus (Pennant)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Small, L.F.; Keckes, S.; Fowler, S.W.

    1974-01-01

    Freshly collected specimens of Palaemon serratus from the upper Adriatic Sea were used to determine excretion rates of zinc in zinc-free water by anodic stripping polarographic techniques. Weight-specific excretion of total zinc varied reciprocally with body weight, apparently in a log--log relationship. Weight-specific excretion of ionic-particulate zinc appeared greatest in short term (1 to 3 hr) experiments, while weight-specific excretion of complexed zinc appeared greatest in longer term (4 to 5 hr) experiments; however, we cannot exclude the possibility that ionic-particulate zinc and dissolved organic compounds were excreted separately and subsequently combined in the water to yield zinc complex. (auth)

  11. Impact of residual elements on zinc quality in the production of zinc oxide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Luptáková

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The paper is focused on zinc oxide manufacturing process. The present work deals with the character and morphology of the input material for the production of ZnO by the indirect pyrometallurgical process. Undesirable phases in the feedstock can be identified through profound recognition of the source material and the nature of its microstructure. If these compounds diffuse into the lining during thermal processes, they become the cause of stress in metallurgical ceramics. The emergence of these chemical reactions may subsequently affect the entire metallurgical zinc smelting process. The results obtained by analysis are used to minimize waste - zinc slag and to eliminate the conditions which enable the formation of the undesired product, thereby increasing the productivity of the ZnO production.

  12. The flotation as separation method of trace amounts of cadmium, copper, zinc, and manganese by means of bromopyrogallol red and o-phemanthroline. Examination of compounds obtained in the floatation process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skorko-Trybula, Z.; Kozinska, E.

    1981-01-01

    The high degree of concentration obtained during flotation and application of atomic absorption as a method of final determination, being characterized by low determination limits (Cd 0.2 ng/ml; Zn 0.5 ng/ml; Mn 1 ng/ml; Cu 1 ng/ml) have enabled analysis of real containing 10 -4 -10 -6 % of trace metals. Various tests were carried out to investigate the composition and structure of the metal-bromopyrogallol red (BPGR)-phenanthroline (fen) systems formed in the aqueous phase. It may be also assumed that cadmium and zinc cations, coordinated by phenanthroline form ion-pairs with the anions of Bromopyrogallol Red whereas copper and manganese form ternary complexes which have two kinds of ligands in the coordination sphere of the cation. (author)

  13. Regulating the electrodeposition of zinc and cadmium coatings with mixtures of o-oxyazomethyne derivatives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grigor'ev, V.P.; Shpan'ko, S.P.; Dymnikova, O.V.; Popov, L.D.

    2000-01-01

    The results of electrodeposition of zinc and cadmium metals from the sulfate electrolyte in presence of the organic compounds of the oxyazomethine reaction series are described. It is shown that the current dependences retardation coefficient and cathode polarization of electrodeposited zinc and cadmium are described by equations, following from the principle of the reaction and activation free energy linearity. The character of these dependence for the negatively charged zinc and positively charged cadmium cathodes is similar [ru

  14. Aqueous-Based Fabrication of Low-VOC Nanostructured Block Copolymer Films as Potential Marine Antifouling Coatings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Kris S; Gunari, Nikhil; MacNeil, Drew; Finlay, John; Callow, Maureen; Callow, James; Walker, Gilbert C

    2016-08-10

    The ability to fabricate nanostructured films by exploiting the phenomenon of microphase separation has made block copolymers an invaluable tool for a wide array of coating applications. Standard approaches to engineering nanodomains commonly involve the application of organic solvents, either through dissolution or annealing protocols, resulting in the release of volatile organic compounds (VOCs). In this paper, an aqueous-based method of fabricating low-VOC nanostructured block copolymer films is presented. The reported procedure allows for the phase transfer of water insoluble triblock copolymer, poly(styrene-block-2 vinylpyridine-block-ethylene oxide) (PS-b-P2VP-b-PEO), from a water immiscible phase to an aqueous environment with the assistance of a diblock copolymeric phase transfer agent, poly(styrene-block-ethylene oxide) (PS-b-PEO). Phase transfer into the aqueous phase results in self-assembly of PS-b-P2VP-b-PEO into core-shell-corona micelles, which are characterized by dynamic light scattering techniques. The films that result from coating the micellar solution onto Si/SiO2 surfaces exhibit nanoscale features that disrupt the ability of a model foulant, a zoospore of Ulva linza, to settle. The multilayered architecture consists of a pH-responsive P2VP-"shell" which can be stimulated to control the size of these features. The ability of these nanostructured thin films to resist protein adsorption and serve as potential marine antifouling coatings is supported through atomic force microscopy (AFM) and analysis of the settlement of Ulva linza zoospore. Field trials of the surfaces in a natural environment show the inhibition of macrofoulants for 1 month.

  15. The bioavailability of four zinc oxide sources and zinc sulphate in broiler chickens

    OpenAIRE

    Veldkamp, T.; Diepen, van, J.T.M.; Bikker, P.

    2014-01-01

    Zinc is an essential trace element for all farm animal species. It is commonly included in animal diets as zinc oxide, zinc sulphate or organically bound zinc. Umicore Zinc Chemicals developed zinc oxide products with different mean particle sizes. Umicore Zinc Chemicals requested Wageningen UR Livestock Research to determine the bioavailability of four zinc oxide sources and zinc sulphate in broiler chickens. A precise estimate of the bioavailability of zinc sources is required both for fulf...

  16. From zinc selenate to zinc selenide nano structures synthesized by reduction process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hutagalung, S.D.; Eng, S.T.; Ahmad, Z.A.; Ishak Mat; Yussof Wahab

    2009-01-01

    One-dimensional nano structure materials are very attractive because of their electronic and optical properties depending on their size. It is well known that properties of material can be tuned by reducing size to nano scale because at the small sizes, that they behave differently with its bulk materials and the band gap will control by the size. The tunability of the band gap makes nano structured materials useful for many applications. As one of the wide band gaps semiconductor compounds, zinc selenide (ZnSe) nano structures (nanoparticles, nano wires, nano rods) have received much attention for the application in optoelectronic devices, such as blue laser diode, light emitting diodes, solar cells and IR optical windows. In this study, ZnSe nano structures have been synthesized by reduction process of zinc selenate using hydrazine hydrate (N 2 H 4 .2H 2 O). The reductive agent of hydrazine hydrate was added to the starting materials of zinc selenate were heat treated at 500 degree Celsius for 1 hour under argon flow to form one-dimensional nano structures. The SEM and TEM images show the formation of nano composite-like structure, which some small nano bar and nano pellets stick to the rod. The x-ray diffraction and elemental composition analysis confirm the formation of mixture zinc oxide and zinc selenide phases. (author)

  17. Obtention of zinc polymethacrylate via free radicals induced by gamma radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Urena N, F.; Flores E, J.

    2000-01-01

    The objective of this work was to synthesise the monomer of zinc methacrylate and subsequently to carry out the polymerization reaction with the purpose to obtain the compound desired, the zinc polymethacrylate. For this it was used a gamma radiation source, 60 Co, as initiator of the polymerization reaction. (Author)

  18. Bioavailability of iron and zinc from human diets: Nutrient delivery technology salt fortification in human nutrition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raghuramulu, N.

    1992-01-01

    Iodine deficiency disorders (IDD), iron deficiency anaemia(IDA) and zinc deficiency are common problems in India. The discussions in this paper centers on the selection of the vehicles which could be used to successfully deliver essential nutrients into the daily diet of the general population of india and the identification of compounds which inhibit the intestinal absorption of zinc. 40 refs, 11 tabs

  19. Environmentally benign sol-gel antifouling and foul-releasing coatings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Detty, Michael R; Ciriminna, Rosaria; Bright, Frank V; Pagliaro, Mario

    2014-02-18

    Biofouling on ships and boats, characterized by aquatic bacteria and small organisms attaching to the hull, is an important global issue, since over 80000 tons of antifouling paint is used annually. This biofilm, which can form in as little as 48 hours depending on water temperature, increases drag on watercraft, which greatly reduces their fuel efficiency. In addition, biofouling can lead to microbially induced corrosion (MIC) due to H2S formed by the bacteria, especially sulfate-reducing bacteria. When the International Maritime Organization (IMO) international convention banned the use of effective but environmentally damaging coatings containing tributyl tin in 2008, the development of clean and effective antifouling systems became more important than ever. New nonbiocidal coatings are now in high demand. Scientists have developed new polymers, materials, and biocides, including new elastomeric coatings that they have obtained by improving the original silicone (polydimethylsiloxane) formulation patented in 1975. However, the high cost of silicones, especially of fluoropolymer-modified silicones, has generally prevented their large-scale diffusion. In 2009, traditional antifouling coatings using cuprous oxide formulated in copolymer paints still represented 95% of the global market volume of anti-fouling paints. The sol-gel nanochemistry approach to functional materials has emerged as an attractive candidate for creating low fouling surfaces due to the unique structure and properties of silica-based coatings and of hybrid inorganic-organic silicas in particular. Sol-gel formulations easily bind to all types of surfaces, such as steel, fiberglass, aluminum, and wood. In addition, they can cure at room temperature and form thin glassy coatings that are markedly different from thick silicone elastomeric foul-releasing coatings. Good to excellent performance against biofouling, low cure temperatures, enhanced and prolonged chemical and physical stability, ease of

  20. Effects of marine microbial biofilms on the biocide release rate from antifouling paints – A model-based analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yebra, Diego Meseguer; Kiil, Søren; Erik Weinell, Claus

    2006-01-01

    The antifouling (AF) paint model of Kiil et al. [S. Kiil, C.E. Weinell, M.S. Pedersen, K. Dam-Johansen, Analysis of self-polishing antifouling paints using rotary experiments and mathematical modelling, Ind. Eng. Chem. Res. 40 (2001) 3906-3920] and the simplified biofilm. growth model of Gujer...... and Warmer [W. Gujer, O. Warmer, Modeling mixed population biofilms, in: W.G. Characklis, K.C. Marshall (Eds.), Biofilms, Wiley-Interscience, New York, 1990] are used to provide a reaction engineering-based insight to the effects of marine microbial slimes on biocide leaching and, to a minor extent...

  1. Alkaline Leaching of Low Zinc Content Iron-Bearing Sludges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gargul K.

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Various types of waste materials containing zinc (e.g. dusts and sludges from gas dedusting process are obtained in steel industry. The contents of Zn in these materials may vary considerably. Even a low concentration of zinc in recirculated products precludes their recycling in ferrous metallurgy aggregates. Long storage of this type of material can lead to contamination of soil and water by zinc compounds which can be leached out by acid rain, for example. This paper focuses on research involving alkaline leaching tests of low zinc content iron-bearing materials. These tests were preceded by the analysis of the elemental, phase and grain size composition, and analysis of the thermodynamic conditions of the leaching process. The main aim of research was to decrease the content of the zinc in the sludge to the level where it is suitable as an iron-bearing material for iron production (~1% Zn. Leaching at elevated temperatures (368 K, 60 min has led to a decrease in the zinc content in the sludge of about 66%. The research revealed that long hour leaching (298 K, 100 hours carried out at ambient temperatures caused a reduction in zinc content by 60% to the value of 1.15-1.2% Zn.

  2. From TBT to booster biocides: Levels and impacts of antifouling along coastal areas of Panama.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batista-Andrade, Jahir Antonio; Caldas, Sergiane Souza; Batista, Rodrigo Moço; Castro, Italo Braga; Fillmann, Gilberto; Primel, Ednei Gilberto

    2018-03-01

    Antifouling biocides in surface sediments and gastropod tissues were assessed for the first time along coastal areas of Panama under the influence of maritime activities, including one of the world's busiest shipping zones: the Panama Canal. Imposex incidence was also evaluated in five muricid species distributed along six coastal areas of Panama. This TBT-related biological alteration was detected in three species, including the first report in Purpura panama. Levels of organotins (TBT, DBT, and MBT) in gastropod tissues and surficial sediments ranged from TBT inputs were observed in areas considered as moderate to highly contaminated mainly by inputs from fishing and leisure boats. Regarding booster biocides, TCMTB and dichlofluanid were not detected in any sample, while irgarol 1051, diuron and DCOIT levels ranged from TBT (149 ng Sn g -1 ) and irgarol 1051 (2.8 ng g -1 ), as well as relevant level of DCOIT (5.7 ng g -1 ), were detected in a marina used by recreational boats. Additionally, relatively high diuron values (14.1 ng g -1 ) were also detected in the Panama Canal associate to a commercial port. DCOIT concentrations were associated with the presence of antifouling paint particles in sediments obtained nearby shipyard or boat maintenance sites. The highest levels of TBT, irgarol 1051, and diuron exceeded international sediment quality guidelines indicating that toxic effects could be expected in coastal areas of Panama. Thus, the simultaneous impacts produced by new and old generations of antifouling paints highlight a serious environmental issue in Panamanian coastal areas. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Preparation of hydrophilic and antifouling polysulfone ultrafiltration membrane derived from phenolphthalin by copolymerization method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Zhixiao; Mi, Zhiming; Chen, Chunhai; Zhou, Hongwei; Zhao, Xiaogang; Wang, Daming

    2017-01-01

    Graphical abstract: The mechanisms fouling and cleaning process of PSF-COOH membranes (A) the content of carboxyl less than 80%. (B) the content of carboxyl at 80%, 100%. - Highlights: • Phenolphthalin (PPL) containing carboxyl was successfully introduced into the molecule backbone of polysulfone (PSF). • A series of PSF-COOH copolymers with different carboxylation degree was synthesized and prepared as ultrafiltration membranes. • The introduction of PPL significantly improved the hydrophilicity, permeation flux and antifouling property of membranes. • This method is valuable for large-scale industrial production of hydrophilic membrane material. - Abstract: In this task, carboxylated polysulfone (PSF-COOH) was achieved by introducing the monomer of phenolphthalin (PPL) containing carboxyl to the molecule backbone of polysulfone (PSF). And a series of PSF-COOH copolymers with different carboxylation degree was synthesized by adjusting the molar (%) of bisphenol A (BPA) and PPL in direct copolymerization method and was prepared as PSF-COOH ultrafiltration membranes via phase separation method. The effect of PPL molar (%) in copolymers on the morphology, hydrophilicity, permeation flux, antifouling and mechanical properties of membranes was investigated by scanning electron microscope (SEM), atomic force microscope (AFM), water contact angle, ultrafiltration experiments and universal testing machine, respectively. The results showed that with the increased carboxyl content in membranes, the hydrophilicity, permeation fluxes and antifouling properties of membranes gradually increased. When the molar (%) of PPL to BPA was 100:0, the membrane exhibited the highest pure water flux (329.6 L/m"2 h) and the maximum flux recovery rate (92.5%). When the content of carboxyl in the membrane was 80% or more, after three cycles of BSA solution (1 g/L) filtration, the flux recovery rate was basically constant or showed a slightly increase. Thus, it can achieve the goal of

  4. Library of Antifouling Surfaces Derived From Natural Amino Acids by Click Reaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Chen; Hu, Xin; Wang, Jie; Zhang, Ye-Min; Liu, Xiao-Jiu; Xie, Bin-Bin; Yao, Chen; Li, Yi; Li, Xin-Song

    2015-08-12

    Biofouling is of great concern in numerous applications ranging from ophthalmological implants to catheters, and from bioseparation to biosensors. In this report, a general and facile strategy to combat surface fouling is developed by grafting of amino acids onto polymer substrates to form zwitterionic structure through amino groups induced epoxy ring opening click reaction. First of all, a library of poly(2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate-co-glycidyl methacrylate) hydrogels with zwitterionic surfaces were prepared, resulting in the formation of pairs of carboxyl anions and protonated secondary amino cations. The analysis of attenuated total reflectance Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy confirmed the successful immobilization of amino acids on the hydrogel surfaces. After that, the contact angle and equilibrium water content of the modified hydrogels showed that the hydrogels exhibited improved hydrophilicity compared with the parent hydrogel. Furthermore, the protein deposition was evaluated by bicinchoninic acid assay using bovine serum albumin (BSA) and lysozyme as models. The results indicated that the performance of the hydrogels was determined by the nature of incorporated amino acid: the hydrogels incorporated with neutral amino acids had nonspecific antiadsorption capability to both BSA and lysozyme; the hydrogels incorporated with charged amino acids showed antiadsorption behaviors against protein with same charge and enhanced adsorption to the protein with opposite charge; the optimal antiadsorption performance was observed on the hydrogels incorporated with polar amino acids with a hydroxyl residual. The improvement of antiprotein fouling of the neutral amino acids grafted hydrogels can be ascribed to the formation of zwitterionic surfaces. Finally, a couple of soft contact lenses grafted with amino acids were fabricated having improved antifouling property and hydrophilicity. The result demonstrated the success of

  5. Preparation of hydrophilic and antifouling polysulfone ultrafiltration membrane derived from phenolphthalin by copolymerization method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Zhixiao; Mi, Zhiming; Chen, Chunhai; Zhou, Hongwei; Zhao, Xiaogang; Wang, Daming, E-mail: wangdaming@jlu.edu.cn

    2017-04-15

    Graphical abstract: The mechanisms fouling and cleaning process of PSF-COOH membranes (A) the content of carboxyl less than 80%. (B) the content of carboxyl at 80%, 100%. - Highlights: • Phenolphthalin (PPL) containing carboxyl was successfully introduced into the molecule backbone of polysulfone (PSF). • A series of PSF-COOH copolymers with different carboxylation degree was synthesized and prepared as ultrafiltration membranes. • The introduction of PPL significantly improved the hydrophilicity, permeation flux and antifouling property of membranes. • This method is valuable for large-scale industrial production of hydrophilic membrane material. - Abstract: In this task, carboxylated polysulfone (PSF-COOH) was achieved by introducing the monomer of phenolphthalin (PPL) containing carboxyl to the molecule backbone of polysulfone (PSF). And a series of PSF-COOH copolymers with different carboxylation degree was synthesized by adjusting the molar (%) of bisphenol A (BPA) and PPL in direct copolymerization method and was prepared as PSF-COOH ultrafiltration membranes via phase separation method. The effect of PPL molar (%) in copolymers on the morphology, hydrophilicity, permeation flux, antifouling and mechanical properties of membranes was investigated by scanning electron microscope (SEM), atomic force microscope (AFM), water contact angle, ultrafiltration experiments and universal testing machine, respectively. The results showed that with the increased carboxyl content in membranes, the hydrophilicity, permeation fluxes and antifouling properties of membranes gradually increased. When the molar (%) of PPL to BPA was 100:0, the membrane exhibited the highest pure water flux (329.6 L/m{sup 2} h) and the maximum flux recovery rate (92.5%). When the content of carboxyl in the membrane was 80% or more, after three cycles of BSA solution (1 g/L) filtration, the flux recovery rate was basically constant or showed a slightly increase. Thus, it can achieve the

  6. Hemocompatible polyethersulfone/polyurethane composite membrane for high-performance antifouling and antithrombotic dialyzer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Zehua; Cheng, Chong; Qin, Hui; Nie, Chuanxiong; He, Chao; Zhao, Changsheng

    2015-01-01

    Researches on blood purification membranes are fuelled by diverse clinical needs, such as hemodialysis, hemodiafiltration, hemofiltration, plasmapheresis, and plasma collection. To approach high-performance dialyzer, the integrated antifouling and antithrombotic properties are highly necessary for the design/modification of advanced artificial membranes. In this study, we propose and demonstrate that the physical blend of triblock polyurethane (PU) and polyethersulfone (PES) may advance the performance of hemodialysis membranes with greatly enhanced blood compatibility. It was found that the triblock PU could be blended with PES at high ratio owing to their excellent miscibility. The surfaces of the PES/PU composite membranes were characterized using attenuated total reflectance-Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, water contact angle measurement, and surface ζ-potentials. The results indicated that the membrane surfaces were assembled with hydrophilic segregation layer owing to the migration of amphiphilic PU segments during membrane preparation, which might confer the composite membranes with superior hemocompatibility. The cross-section scanning electron microscopy images of the composite membranes exhibited structure transformation from finger-like structure to sponge-like structure, which indicated that the composite membrane had tunable porosity and permeability. The further ultrafiltration experiments indicated that the composite membranes showed increased permeability and excellent antifouling ability. The blood compatibility observation indicated that PES/PU composite membranes owned decreased protein adsorption, suppressed platelet adhesion, and prolonged plasma recalcification time. These results indicated that the PES/PU composite membranes exhibited enhanced antifouling and antithrombotic properties than the pristine PES membrane. The strategy may forward the fabrication of blood compatible composite membranes for

  7. Optimisation and Characterisation of Anti-Fouling Ternary SAM Layers for Impedance-Based Aptasensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Miodek

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available An aptasensor with enhanced anti-fouling properties has been developed. As a case study, the aptasensor was designed with specificity for human thrombin. The sensing platform was developed on screen printed electrodes and is composed of a self-assembled monolayer made from a ternary mixture of 15-base thiolated DNA aptamers specific for human thrombin co-immobilised with 1,6-hexanedithiol (HDT and further passivated with 1-mercapto-6-hexanol (MCH. HDT binds to the surface by two of its thiol groups forming alkyl chain bridges and this architecture protects from non-specific attachment of molecules to the electrode surface. Using Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy (EIS, the aptasensor is able to detect human thrombin as variations in charge transfer resistance (Rct upon protein binding. After exposure to a high concentration of non-specific Bovine Serum Albumin (BSA solution, no changes in the Rct value were observed, highlighting the bio-fouling resistance of the surface generated. In this paper, we present the optimisation and characterisation of the aptasensor based on the ternary self-assembled monolayer (SAM layer. We show that anti-fouling properties depend on the type of gold surface used for biosensor construction, which was also confirmed by contact angle measurements. We further studied the ratio between aptamers and HDT, which can determine the specificity and selectivity of the sensing layer. We also report the influence of buffer pH and temperature used for incubation of electrodes with proteins on detection and anti-fouling properties. Finally, the stability of the aptasensor was studied by storage of modified electrodes for up to 28 days in different buffers and atmospheric conditions. Aptasensors based on ternary SAM layers are highly promising for clinical applications for detection of a range of proteins in real biological samples.

  8. Structural information on the coordination compounds formed by manganese(II), cobalt(II), nickel(II), zinc(II), cadmium(II) and mercury(II) thiocyanates with 4-cyanopyridine N-oxide from their magnetic moments, electronic and infrared spectra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahuja, I. S.; Yadava, C. L.; Singh, Raghuvir

    1982-05-01

    Coordination compounds formed by the interaction of 4-cyanopyridine. N-oxide (4-CPO), a potentially bidentate ligand, with manganese(II), cobalt(II), nickel(II), zinc(II), cadmium(II) and rnercury(II) thiocyanates have been prepared and characterized from their elemental analyses, magnetic susceptibilities, electronic and infrared spectral studies down to 200 cm -1 in the solid state. The compounds isolated are: Mn(4-CPO) 2(NCS) 2, Co(4-CPO) 2(NCS) 2,Ni(4-CPO) 2(NCS) 2,Zn(4-CPO) 2(NCS) 2, Cd(4-CPO)(NCS) 2 and Hg(4-CPO) 2(SCN) 2. It is shown that 4-CPO acts as a terminal N-oxide oxygen bonded monodentate ligand in all the metal(II) thiocyanate complexes studied. Tentative stereochemistries of the complexes in the solid state are discussed. The ligand field parameters 10 Dq, B, β and λ calculated for the manganese(II), cobalt(II) and nickel(II) complexes are consistent with their proposed stereochemistries.

  9. Relationship between maternal serum zinc, cord blood zinc and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Adequate in utero supply of zinc is essential for optimal fetal growth because of the role of zinc in cellular division, growth and differentiation. Low maternal serum zinc has been reported to be associated with low birth weight and the later is associated with increased morbidity and mortality in newborns.

  10. The study and microstructure analysis of zinc and zinc oxide

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Luptáková, Natália; Pešlová, F.; Kliber, J.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 54, č. 1 (2015), s. 43-46 ISSN 0543-5846 Grant - others:KEGA(SK) KEGA 007 TnUAD-4/2013 Institutional support: RVO:68081723 Keywords : zinc * production of zinc oxide * microstructure * chemical composition * zinc slag Subject RIV: JG - Metal lurgy Impact factor: 0.959, year: 2014

  11. Preparation of PES ultrafiltration membranes with natural amino acids based zwitterionic antifouling surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu, Chen; Liu, Xiaojiu; Xie, Binbin; Yao, Chen; Hu, Wenhan; Li, Yi; Li, Xinsong

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Amino acids have been successfully grafted onto the surface of PES membranes via amino groups induced epoxy ring opening. • Zwitterionic PES ultrafiltration membranes exhibit excellent antifouling performance and improved permeation properties. • A facile strategy to combat fouling of PES ultrafiltration membranes is developed by grafting natural amino acids. - Abstract: In this report, a simple and facile approach to enhance the antifouling property of poly(ether sulfone) (PES) ultrafiltration membrane was developed by grafting natural amino acids onto surface. First of all, poly(ether sulfone) composite membranes blended with poly(glycidyl methacrylate) were fabricated by phase inversion method followed by grafting of different types of natural amino acids onto the membrane surface through epoxy ring opening reaction. The analysis of attenuated total reflectance Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (ATR/FTIR) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) verified the substantial enrichment of amino acids onto the surface of PES membranes. The hydrophilicity of the PES membranes was improved after grafting amino acids. The mechanical property and morphologies of the PES membranes proved that their basic performances were not obviously affected by grafting reaction, and these parameters were all still in the typical range for ultrafiltration membranes. The antifouling property of the grafted PES membranes against bovine serum albumin (BSA) and lysozyme (Lyz) was investigated in detail. It was found that PES membranes incorporated with neutral amino acids exhibited higher fouling resistance to both BSA and Lyz than the parent PES membrane. It can be ascribed to the formation of zwitterionic structure on the surface consisting of protonated secondary amino cations and carboxyl anions. Meanwhile, PES membranes grafted with charged amino acids had better antifouling properties against protein with same electric charges and improved adsorption

  12. Preparation of antifouling ultrafiltration membranes via irradiation induced graft polymerization technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deng Bo; Liu Zhognying; Lu Xiaofeng; Li Jingye; Yang Xuanxuan; Yu Ming; Zhang Bowu

    2010-01-01

    PVDF powders were irradiated in air at dose of 15 kGy by using gamma-rays. Macromolecular peroxides transformed from free radicals in the irradiated PVDF powders in air can be preserved for long-term at appropriate temperature stably. By mixing acrylic monomers with irradiated PVDF powders then the graft polymerization can be initiated by heating. Then a series of hydrophilic ultrafiltration (UF) membranes were fabricated by dissolving the PVDF-g-PAAc powders in the NMP under phase inversion method. The antifouling performances of UF membranes cast from virgin and grafted PVDF powders were compared. (authors)

  13. Antifouling activity exhibited by secondary metabolites of the marine sponge, Haliclona exigua (Kirkpatrick)

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    LimnaMol, V.P.; Raveendran, T.V.; Parameswaran, P.S.

    stream_size 29406 stream_content_type text/plain stream_name Int_Biodeterior_Biodegrad_63_67.pdf.txt stream_source_info Int_Biodeterior_Biodegrad_63_67.pdf.txt Content-Encoding UTF-8 Content-Type text/plain; charset=UTF-8... 1    Author version: Int. Biodeterior. Biodegrad.: 63(1); 2009; 67-72 Antifouling activity exhibited by secondary metabolites of the marine sponge, Haliclona exigua (Kirkpatrick) VP LIMNA MOL a , TV RAVEENDRAN a, * & PS PARAMESWARAN b a...

  14. Preparation of PES ultrafiltration membranes with natural amino acids based zwitterionic antifouling surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Chen; Liu, Xiaojiu; Xie, Binbin; Yao, Chen [School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Southeast University, Nanjing, 211189 (China); Hu, Wenhan; Li, Yi [Suzhou Faith & Hope Membrane Technology Co., Ltd., Suzhou, 215000 (China); Li, Xinsong, E-mail: lixs@seu.edu.cn [School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Southeast University, Nanjing, 211189 (China)

    2016-11-01

    Highlights: • Amino acids have been successfully grafted onto the surface of PES membranes via amino groups induced epoxy ring opening. • Zwitterionic PES ultrafiltration membranes exhibit excellent antifouling performance and improved permeation properties. • A facile strategy to combat fouling of PES ultrafiltration membranes is developed by grafting natural amino acids. - Abstract: In this report, a simple and facile approach to enhance the antifouling property of poly(ether sulfone) (PES) ultrafiltration membrane was developed by grafting natural amino acids onto surface. First of all, poly(ether sulfone) composite membranes blended with poly(glycidyl methacrylate) were fabricated by phase inversion method followed by grafting of different types of natural amino acids onto the membrane surface through epoxy ring opening reaction. The analysis of attenuated total reflectance Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (ATR/FTIR) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) verified the substantial enrichment of amino acids onto the surface of PES membranes. The hydrophilicity of the PES membranes was improved after grafting amino acids. The mechanical property and morphologies of the PES membranes proved that their basic performances were not obviously affected by grafting reaction, and these parameters were all still in the typical range for ultrafiltration membranes. The antifouling property of the grafted PES membranes against bovine serum albumin (BSA) and lysozyme (Lyz) was investigated in detail. It was found that PES membranes incorporated with neutral amino acids exhibited higher fouling resistance to both BSA and Lyz than the parent PES membrane. It can be ascribed to the formation of zwitterionic structure on the surface consisting of protonated secondary amino cations and carboxyl anions. Meanwhile, PES membranes grafted with charged amino acids had better antifouling properties against protein with same electric charges and improved adsorption

  15. Fabrication of Robust and Antifouling Superhydrophobic Surfaces via Surface-Initiated Atom Transfer Radical Polymerization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Chao-Hua; Guo, Xiao-Jing; Ma, Jian-Zhong; Jia, Shun-Tian

    2015-04-22

    Superhydrophobic surfaces were fabricated via surface-initiated atom transfer radical polymerization of fluorinated methacrylates on poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET) fabrics. The hydrophobicity of the PET fabric was systematically tunable by controlling the polymerization time. The obtained superhydrophobic fabrics showed excellent chemical robustness even after exposure to different chemicals, such as acid, base, salt, acetone, and toluene. Importantly, the fabrics maintained superhydrophobicity after 2500 abrasion cycles, 100 laundering cycles, and long time exposure to UV irradiation. Also, the surface of the superhydrophobic fabrics showed excellent antifouling properties.

  16. Zinc biofortification of cereals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Palmgren, Michael; Clemens, Stephan; Williams, Lorraine E.

    2008-01-01

    The goal of biofortification is to develop plants that have an increased content of bioavailable nutrients in their edible parts. Cereals serve as the main staple food for a large proportion of the world population but have the shortcoming, from a nutrition perspective, of being low in zinc...... and other essential nutrients. Major bottlenecks in plant biofortification appear to be the root-shoot barrier and - in cereals - the process of grain filling. New findings demonstrate that the root-shoot distribution of zinc is controlled mainly by heavy metal transporting P1B-ATPases and the metal...... tolerance protein (MTP) family. A greater understanding of zinc transport is important to improve crop quality and also to help alleviate accumulation of any toxic metals....

  17. Photovoltaic cells employing zinc phosphide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnett, Allen M.; Catalano, Anthony W.; Dalal, Vikram L.; Masi, James V.; Meakin, John D.; Hall, Robert B.

    1984-01-01

    A photovoltaic cell having a zinc phosphide absorber. The zinc phosphide can be a single or multiple crystal slice or a thin polycrystalline film. The cell can be a Schottky barrier, heterojunction or homojunction device. Methods for synthesizing and crystallizing zinc phosphide are disclosed as well as a method for forming thin films.

  18. Environmental risk limits for zinc

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bodar CWM; SEC

    2007-01-01

    Environmental Riks Limits (ERLs) were derived for zinc. ERLs serve as advisory values to set environmental quality standards in the Netherlands. The ERLs for zinc closely follow the outcomes of earlier discussions on zinc within the Water Framework Directive and EC Regulation 793/93. The ERLs

  19. Environmental risk limits for zinc

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bodar CWM; SEC

    2007-01-01

    Environmental Riks Limits (ERLs) were derived for zinc. ERLs serve as advisory values to set environmental quality standards in the Netherlands. The ERLs for zinc closely follow the outcomes of earlier discussions on zinc within the Water Framework Directive and EC Regulation 793/93. The ERLs refer

  20. The bioavailability of four zinc oxide sources and zinc sulphate in broiler chickens

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veldkamp, T.; Diepen, van J.T.M.; Bikker, P.

    2014-01-01

    Zinc is an essential trace element for all farm animal species. It is commonly included in animal diets as zinc oxide, zinc sulphate or organically bound zinc. Umicore Zinc Chemicals developed zinc oxide products with different mean particle sizes. Umicore Zinc Chemicals requested Wageningen UR

  1. Surface and anti-fouling properties of a polyampholyte hydrogel grafted onto a polyethersulfone membrane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wei; Yang, Zhe; Kaufman, Yair; Bernstein, Roy

    2018-05-01

    Zwitterion polymers have anti-fouling properties; therefore, grafting new zwitterions to surfaces, particularly as hydrogels, is one of the leading research directions for preventing fouling. Specifically, polyampholytes, polymers of random mixed charged subunits with a net-electric charge, offer a synthetically easy alternative for studying new zwitterions with a broad spectrum of charged moieties. Here, a novel polyampholyte hydrogel was grafted onto the surface of polyethersulfone membrane by copolymerizing a mixture of vinylsulfonic acid (VSA) and [2-(methacryloyloxy)ethyl]trimethylammonium chloride (METMAC) as the negatively and positively charged monomers, respectively, using various monomer ratios in the polymerization solution, and with N,N'-methylenebisacrylamide as the crosslinker. The physicochemical, morphological and anti-fouling properties of the modified membranes were systematically investigated. Hydrophilic hydrogels were successfully grafted using monomers at different molar ratios. A thin-film zwitterion hydrogel (∼90 nm) was achieved at a 3:1 [VSA:METMAC] molar ratio in the polymerization solution. Among all examined membranes, the zwitterion polyampholyte-modified membrane demonstrated the lowest adsorption of proteins, humic acid, and sodium alginate. It also had low fouling and high flux recovery following filtration with a protein or with an extracellular polymeric substance solution. These findings suggest that this polyampholyte hydrogel is applicable as a low fouling surface coating. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Improved antifouling performance of ultrafiltration membrane via preparing novel zwitterionic polyimide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Haitao; Yu, Jiayu; Guo, Hanxiang; Shen, Yibo; Yang, Fan; Wang, Han; Liu, Rong; Liu, Yang

    2018-01-01

    On the basis of the outstanding fouling resistance of zwitterionic polymers, an antifouling ultrafiltration membrane was fabricated through phase inversion induced by immersion precipitation method, directly using the novel zwitterionic polyimide (Z-PI), which was synthesized via a two-step procedure including polycondensation and quaternary amination reaction, as membrane material. The chemical structure and composition of the obtained polymer were confirmed by using FTIR, 1H NMR and XPS analysis, and its thermal stability was thoroughly characterized by TGA measurement, respectively. The introduction of zwitterionic groups into polyimide could effectively increase membrane pore size, porosity and wettability, and convert the membrane surface from hydrophobic to highly hydrophilic. As a result, Z-PI membrane displayed significantly improved water permeability compared with that of the reference polyimide (R-PI) membrane without having an obvious compromise in protein rejection. According to the static adsorption and dynamic cycle ultrafiltration experiments of bovine serum albumin (BSA) solution, Z-PI membrane exhibited better fouling resistant ability, especially irreversible fouling resistant ability, suggesting superior antifouling property and long-term performance stability. Moreover, Z-PI membrane had a water flux recovery ratio of 93.7% after three cycle of BSA solution filtration, whereas only about 68.5% was obtained for the control R-PI membrane. These findings demonstrated the advantages of Z-PI membrane material and aimed to provide a facile and scalable method for the large-scale preparation of low fouling ultrafiltration membranes for potential applications.

  3. Surface modification of silicon wafer by grafting zwitterionic polymers to improve its antifouling property

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Yunlong; Chen, Changlin; Xu, Heng; Lei, Kun; Xu, Guanzhe; Zhao, Li; Lang, Meidong

    2017-10-01

    Silicon (111) wafer was modified by triethoxyvinylsilane containing double bond as an intermedium, and then P4VP (polymer 4-vinyl pyridine) brush was "grafted" onto the surface of silicon wafer containing reactive double bonds by adopting the "grafting from" way and Si-P4VP substrate (silicon wafer grafted by P4VP) was obtained. Finally, P4VP brush of Si-P4VP substrate was modified by 1,3-propanesulfonate fully to obtain P4VP-psl brush (zwitterionic polypyridinium salt) and the functional Si-P4VP-psl substrate (silicon wafer grafted by zwitterionic polypyridinium salt based on polymer 4-vinyl pyridine) was obtained successfully. The antifouling property of the silicon wafer, the Si-P4VP substrate and the Si-P4VP-psl substrate was investigated by using bovine serum albumin, mononuclear macrophages (RAW 264.7) and Escherichia coli (E. coli) ATTC25922 as model bacterium. The results showed that compared with the blank sample-silicon wafer, the Si-P4VP-psl substrate had excellent anti-adhesion ability against bovine serum albumin, cells and bacterium, due to zwitterionic P4VP-psl brush (polymer 4-vinyl pyridine salt) having special functionality like antifouling ability on biomaterial field.

  4. Exploration of zwitterionic cellulose acetate antifouling ultrafiltration membrane for bovine serum albumin (BSA) separation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yang; Huang, Haitao; Huo, Pengfei; Gu, Jiyou

    2017-06-01

    This study focused on the preparation of a new kind of membrane material, zwitterionic cellulose acetate (ZCA), via a three-step procedure consist of oxidization, Schiff base and quaternary amination reaction, and the fabrication of antifouling ZCA ultrafiltration membrane by the non-solvent-induced phase separation method (NIPS). The morphologies, surface chemical structures and compositions of the obtained CA and ZCA membranes were thoroughly characterized by field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM) with energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), respectively. Meanwhile, the thermal stability, porosity and average pore size of two investigated membranes were also studied. As a result, the ZCA membrane displayed significantly improved hydrophilicity and water permeability compared with those of the reference CA membrane, despite a slight decrease in the protein rejection ratio. According to the cycle ultrafiltration performance of bovine serum albumin (BSA) solution and protein adsorption experiment, ZCA membrane exhibited better flux recovery property and fouling resistant ability, especially irreversible fouling resistant ability, suggesting superior antifouling performance. This new approach gives polymer-based membrane a long time life and excellent ultrafiltration performance, and seems promising for potential applications in the protein separation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Role of monomer sequence and backbone chemistry in polypeptoid copolymers for marine antifouling coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patterson, Anastasia; Wenning, Brandon; Rizis, Georgios; Calabrese, David; Finlay, John; Franco, Sofia; Clare, Anthony; Kramer, Edward; Ober, Christopher; Segalman, Rachel

    The design rules elucidated in this work suggest that antifouling coatings bearing pendant peptoid side chains perform better overall in marine fouling tests than those with peptide side chains, with extremely low attachment of N. incerta and high removal of U. linza. This difference in performance is likely due to the lack of a hydrogen bond donor in the peptoid backbone. Furthermore, we show that the bulk polymer material of these hierarchical coatings (based on PEO or PDMS) plays a key role in determining both surface presentation and fouling release performance. We demonstrate these trends utilizing a modular coating based on a triblock copolymer consisting of polystyrene and a vinyl-containing midblock, to which sequence-defined pendant oligomers (peptides or peptoids with sequences of oligo-PEO and fluoroalkyl groups) are attached via thiol-ene ``click'' chemistry. Surface presentation was analyzed with X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and captive bubble water contact angle, and antifouling performance was evaluated with attachment and removal bioassays of the marine macroalga U. linza and diatom N. incerta. NSF GRFP and ONR PECASE.

  6. Synthesis of Polydimethylsiloxane-Modified Polyurethane and the Structure and Properties of Its Antifouling Coatings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhan-Ping Zhang

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS could be used to improve the antifouling properties of the fouling release coatings based on polyurethane (PU. A series of polydimethylsiloxane-modified polyurethane coatings were synthesized with various PDMS contents, using the solvent-free method. The effects of PDMS content and seawater immersion on the chain structure and surface morphology were investigated by confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM, atomic force microscopy (AFM, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR, differential scanning calorimetry (DSC, thermogravimetric analysis (TGA and X-ray diffraction (XRD. Based on the measurements of contact angles of deionized water and diiodomethane, surface free energies of the coatings were estimated according to the Owens two-liquid method. The PDMS-modified polyurethane exhibited lower surface free energy and a lower glass transition temperature than polyurethane. The presence of PDMS increased the degree of microphase separation, and enhanced the water resistance of the coatings. The optimum amount of PDMS reduced the elastic modulus and increased the ductility of the coating. The presence of PDMS benefited the removal of weakly attached organisms. Panel tests in the Yellow Sea demonstrated the antifouling activity of the PDMS-modified polyurethane.

  7. Control of biofouling on reverse osmosis polyamide membranes modified with biocidal nanoparticles and antifouling polymer brushes

    KAUST Repository

    Rahaman, Md. Saifur

    2014-01-01

    Thin-film composite (TFC) polyamide reverse osmosis (RO) membranes are prone to biofouling due to their inherent physicochemical surface properties. In order to address the biofouling problem, we have developed novel surface coatings functionalized with biocidal silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) and antifouling polymer brushes via polyelectrolyte layer-by-layer (LBL) self-assembly. The novel surface coating was prepared with polyelectrolyte LBL films containing poly(acrylic acid) (PAA) and poly(ethylene imine) (PEI), with the latter being either pure PEI or silver nanoparticles coated with PEI (Ag-PEI). The coatings were further functionalized by grafting of polymer brushes, using either hydrophilic poly(sulfobetaine) or low surface energy poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS). The presence of both LBL films and sulfobetaine polymer brushes at the interface significantly increased the hydrophilicity of the membrane surface, while PDMS brushes lowered the membrane surface energy. Overall, all surface modifications resulted in significant reduction of irreversible bacterial cell adhesion. In microbial adhesion tests with E. coli bacteria, a normalized cell adhesion in the range of only 4 to 16% on the modified membrane surfaces was observed. Modified surfaces containing silver nanoparticles also exhibited strong antimicrobial activity. Membranes coated with LBL films of PAA/Ag-PEI achieved over 95% inactivation of bacteria attached to the surface within 1 hour of contact time. Both the antifouling and antimicrobial results suggest the potential of using these novel surface coatings in controlling the fouling of RO membranes. © The Royal Society of Chemistry 2014.

  8. The GLOFOULING Partnerships project and the anti-fouling systems: challenges for Marine Environment Protection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabián Ramírez Cabrales

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Within the framework of the Agenda 2030 for Sustainable Development, the regulation of international maritime transport is a priority to face the challenges on the Protection of the Marine Environment. However, some states present difficulties in complying with international or normative agreements adopted by the International Maritime Organization (IMO. In particular, we revised the Guidelines for the control and management of ships’ biofouling to minimize the transfer of invasive aquatic species and their linkage with the Glofouling Associations project, including the adverse effects of the use of antifouling systems and the biocides that may contain. As preliminary results, we identified the challenges that this global project entails for States, shipbuilders, ship maintenance and cleaning companies, universities, port authorities, repair facilities, dry docks and ship recycling, manufacturers and suppliers of anti-fouling paints and other stakeholders. We concluded that the challenges for the international maritime community are linked to the ability of States and stakeholders to enhance scientific knowledge, develop research capacity and transfer marine technology to mitigate marine biological contamination of ships.

  9. Development of Nano TiO2–Geopolymer Functional Composite as Antifouling Bricks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kusuma Wardani Nurul

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of study is to examine the ability of nano TiO2 – geopolymer functional composite as antifouling bricks. The samples were synthesized through alkali-activation method at 70°C for 1 hour by mixing metaclay with TiO2 nanoparticles and activated with sodium silicate solution. There were two series of samples produced, namely, GT_A with addition of 2% nanoTiO2 and GT_B with addition of 4% nano TiO2 relative to the mass of metaclay. The samples were immersed in water and in 1M H2SO4 solution for 4 days to examine the resistance of composites in hars environment. The x-ray diffraction (XRD was performed to examine the chemical compositions of the samples before and after environmental test. The morphology of the samples surfaces was examined by using Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM coupled with energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS. Based on this study, sample GT_A shows its excellent properties as antifouling bricks. The addition of nano TiO2 was found to improve the quality of geopolymers as a high performance bricks.

  10. Zinc in multiple sclerosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bredholt, Mikkel; Fredriksen, Jette Lautrup

    2016-01-01

    In the last 35 years, zinc (Zn) has been examined for its potential role in the disease multiple sclerosis (MS). This review gives an overview of the possible role of Zn in the pathogenesis of MS as well as a meta-analysis of studies having measured Zn in serum or plasma in patients with MS...

  11. Hydrogel brushes grafted from stainless steel via surface-initiated atom transfer radical polymerization for marine antifouling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jingjing; Wei, Jun

    2016-09-01

    Crosslinked hydrogel brushes were grafted from stainless steel (SS) surfaces for marine antifouling. The brushes were prepared by surface-initiated atom transfer radical polymerization (SI-ATRP) of 2-methacryloyloxyethyl phosphorylcholine (MPC) and poly(ethylene glycol) methyl ether methacrylate (PEGMA) respectively with different fractions of crosslinker in the feed. The grafted layers prepared with different thickness were characterized by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), atomic force microscopy (AFM), ellipsometry and water contact angle measurements. With the increase in the fraction of crosslinker in the feed, the thickness of the grafted layer increased and the surface became smooth. All the brush-coated SS surfaces could effectively reduce the adhesion of bacteria and microalgae and settlement of barnacle cyprids, as compared to the pristine SS surface. The antifouling efficacy of the PEGMA polymer (PPEGMA)-grafted surface was higher than that of the MPC polymer (PMPC)-grafted surfaces. Furthermore, the crosslinked hydrogel brush-grafted surfaces exhibited better fouling resistance than the non-crosslinked polymer brush-grafted surfaces, and the antifouling efficacy increased with the crosslinking density. These hydrogel coatings of low toxicity and excellent anti-adhesive characteristics suggested their useful applications as environmentally friendly antifouling coatings.

  12. Fabrication of Copper Nanowire Films and their Incorporation into Polymer Matrices for Antibacterial and Marine Antifouling Applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jiang, S.; Sreethawong, T.; Siew Chen Lee, S.; Bee Jin Low, M.; Yin Win, BrzozowskaK.; Brzozowska, A.M.; Lay Ming Teo, S.; Vancso, Gyula J.; Janczewski, D.; Han, M-Y

    2015-01-01

    With the ban of tributyltin, copper-based biocides are now widely used in antifouling coatings as the major active ingredients. Given the past experience of heavy-metal accumulation in harbors with limited water exchange, there is a significant interest in developing copper materials that greatly

  13. Enhanced antifouling behaviours of polyvinylidene fluoride membrane modified through blending with nano-TiO2/polyethylene glycol mixture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Jie; Wang, Zhiwei; Zhang, Xingran; Zheng, Xiang; Wu, Zhichao

    2015-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Nano-TiO 2 /polyethylene glycol (PEG) mixture was used to modify PVDF membranes. • The steric hindrance effects of PEG enabled the dispersion of nanoparticles. • The energy barrier between SMP and modified membranes was increased. • The modification by nano-TiO 2 /PEG well improved the anti-fouling ability. - Abstract: Titanium dioxide (TiO 2 ) nanoparticles/polyethylene glycol (PEG) mixture was used to modify polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) membranes aiming to improve their antifouling ability. The use of PEG could improve the dispersion of nanoparticles thanks to steric hindrance effects. Test results showed that compared to the original PVDF membrane, the modified membranes had higher hydrophilicity and lower negative Zeta potential, facilitating membrane fouling control. The extended Derjaguin-Landau-Verwey-Overbeek (XDLVO) analysis indicated that the addition of TiO 2 nanoparticles improved their electron donor monopolarity, i.e., enhanced electron-donating ability. The interaction energy barrier between soluble microbial products (SMP) and membrane surfaces was also improved, indicating that anti-fouling ability of the modified membrane was elevated. The optimal dosage of nano-TiO 2 was found to be 0.15%, and further increase of dosage resulted in the aggregation of nanoparticles which consequently impaired the modification efficiency. Quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation (QCM-D) monitoring and SMP filtration tests confirmed the antifouling ability of the modified membrane

  14. Integrated antibacterial and antifouling surfaces via cross-linking chitosan-g-eugenol/zwitterionic copolymer on electrospun membranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhenguang; Hu, Wenhong; Zhao, Yunhui; Ren, Lixia; Yuan, Xiaoyan

    2018-04-27

    Integrated antibacterial and antifouling surfaces in favor of avoiding implant-related infections are necessarily required for biomaterials when they contact with the body fluid. In this work, an antibacterial and antifouling membrane was developed via cross-linking chitosan-g-eugenol and the zwitterionic copolymer poly(sulfobetaine methylacrylate-co-2-aminoethyl methacrylate) on the electrospun polycarbonate urethane substrate using genipin as a cross-linker. Antibacterial assays demonstrated that the prepared membranes had efficient antibacterial activity with 92.8 ± 2.5% and 95.2 ± 1.3% growth inhibition rates against Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus, respectively. The investigations on antifouling activity and hemocompatibility of the membranes showed significant resistances to bacterial attachment, non-specific protein adsorption and platelet adhesion, and presented lower hemolytic activity and good anticoagulant activity as well. Moreover, cell culture assays indicated that the prepared membranes exerted no obvious cytotoxicity with more than 80% of relative L929 fibroblast viability. Therefore, the membranes with integrated antibacterial and antifouling properties could be potentially applied in promising indwelling devices. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Novel antifouling self-healing poly(carboxybetaine methacrylamide-co-HEMA) nanocomposite hydrogels with superior mechanical properties

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kostina, Nina Yu.; Sharifi, Shahriar; Pereira, Andres de los Santos; Michalek, Jiri; Grijpma, Dirk W.; Rodriguez-Emmenegger, Cesar

    2013-01-01

    Novel antifouling highly wettable hydrogels with superior mechanical and self-healing properties are presented. Hydrogels were prepared by UV-initiated copolymerisation of non-fouling zwitterionic carboxybetaine methacrylamide (CBMAA-3) and 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate (HEMA) in the presence of

  16. Fabrication of high flux and antifouling mixed matrix fumarate-alumoxane/PAN membranes via electrospinning for application in membrane bioreactors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moradi, Golshan; Zinadini, Sirus; Rajabi, Laleh; Dadari, Soheil

    2018-01-01

    The nanofibrous Polyacrylonitrile (PAN) membranes embedded with fumarate-alumoxane (Fum-A) nanoparticles were prepared via electrospinning technique as high flux and antifouling membranes for membrane bioreactor (MBR) applications. The effect of Fum-A nanoparticles on membrane morphology, surface hydrophilicity, pure water flux, effluent turbidity and the antifouling property was investigated. Fum-A is a carboxylate-alumoxane nanoparticle covered by extra hydroxyl and carboxylate groups on its surface. By embedding Fum-A nanoparticles into the spinning solution, the surface hydrophilicity and pure water flux of the resulted membranes were improved. The smooth surface of fibers at the low amount of nanoparticles and the agglomeration of nanoparticles at their high concentration were shown in SEM images of the membranes surface. The energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) analysis of the prepared Fum-A/PAN membrane confirmed the presence of carboxylate and hydroxyl functional groups of Fum-A nanoparticles on the surface of the Fum-A nanoparticles containing membrane. The results obtained from the filtration of activated sludge suspension revealed that by addition of a low amount of Fum-A nanoparticles, the irreversible fouling was significantly decreased due to the higher hydrophilicity. The Fum-A/PAN membranes showed superior permeate flux and antifouling properties compared to bare electrospun PAN membrane. Finally, 2 wt.% Fum-A/PAN membrane exhibited the highest FRR of 96% and the lowest irreversible fouling of 4% with excellent durability of antifouling property during twenty repeated activated sludge filtrations.

  17. Poly(ethylene glycol)-based thiol-ene hydrogel coatings: curing chemistry, aqueous stability, and potential marine antifouling applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lundberg, P.; Bruin, A.; Klijnstra, J.W.; Nyström, A.M.; Johansson, M.; Malkoch, M.; Hult, A.

    2010-01-01

    Photocured thiol-ene hydrogel coatings based on poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) were investigated for marine antifouling purposes. By varying the PEG length, vinylic end-group, and thiol cross-linker, a library of hydrogel coatings with different structural composition was efficiently accomplished, with

  18. Negatively charged polysulfone membranes with hydrophilicity and antifouling properties based on in situ cross-linked polymerization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Lijing; Song, Haiming; Zhang, Dawei; Wang, Gang; Zeng, Zhixiang; Xue, Qunji

    2017-07-15

    Polysulfone (PSf) membrane has been widely used in water separation and purification, although, membrane fouling is still a serious problem limiting its potential. We aim to improve the antifouling of PSf membranes via a very simple and efficient method. In this work, antifouling PSf membranes were fabricated via in situ cross-linked polymerization coupled with non-solvent induced phase separation. In brief, acrylic acid (AA) and vinyltriethoxysilane (VTEOS) were copolymerized in PSf solution, then directly casted into membranes without purification. With the increase of monomers concentration, the morphology of the as-cast membranes changed from a finger-like morphology to a fully sponge-like structure due to the increased viscosity and decreased precipitation rate of the polymer solutions. Meanwhile, the hydrophilicity and electronegativity of modified membranes were highly improved leading to inhibited protein adsorption and improved antifouling property. Furthermore, in order to further find out the different roles player by AA and VTESO, the modified membrane without VTEOS was prepared and characterized. The results indicated that AA is more effective in the membrane hydrophilicity improvement, VTEOS is more crucial to improve membrane stability. This work provides valuable guidance for fabricating PSf membranes with hydrophilicity and antifouling property via in situ cross-linked polymerization. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Enhanced antifouling behaviours of polyvinylidene fluoride membrane modified through blending with nano-TiO{sub 2}/polyethylene glycol mixture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Jie [State Key Laboratory of Pollution Control and Resource Reuse, School of Environmental Science and Engineering, Tongji University, Shanghai, 200092 (China); Wang, Zhiwei, E-mail: zwwang@tongji.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Pollution Control and Resource Reuse, School of Environmental Science and Engineering, Tongji University, Shanghai, 200092 (China); Zhang, Xingran [State Key Laboratory of Pollution Control and Resource Reuse, School of Environmental Science and Engineering, Tongji University, Shanghai, 200092 (China); Zheng, Xiang, E-mail: zhengxiang7825@163.com [School of Environment and Natural Resources, Renmin University of China, Beijing, 100872 (China); Wu, Zhichao [State Key Laboratory of Pollution Control and Resource Reuse, School of Environmental Science and Engineering, Tongji University, Shanghai, 200092 (China)

    2015-08-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Nano-TiO{sub 2}/polyethylene glycol (PEG) mixture was used to modify PVDF membranes. • The steric hindrance effects of PEG enabled the dispersion of nanoparticles. • The energy barrier between SMP and modified membranes was increased. • The modification by nano-TiO{sub 2}/PEG well improved the anti-fouling ability. - Abstract: Titanium dioxide (TiO{sub 2}) nanoparticles/polyethylene glycol (PEG) mixture was used to modify polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) membranes aiming to improve their antifouling ability. The use of PEG could improve the dispersion of nanoparticles thanks to steric hindrance effects. Test results showed that compared to the original PVDF membrane, the modified membranes had higher hydrophilicity and lower negative Zeta potential, facilitating membrane fouling control. The extended Derjaguin-Landau-Verwey-Overbeek (XDLVO) analysis indicated that the addition of TiO{sub 2} nanoparticles improved their electron donor monopolarity, i.e., enhanced electron-donating ability. The interaction energy barrier between soluble microbial products (SMP) and membrane surfaces was also improved, indicating that anti-fouling ability of the modified membrane was elevated. The optimal dosage of nano-TiO{sub 2} was found to be 0.15%, and further increase of dosage resulted in the aggregation of nanoparticles which consequently impaired the modification efficiency. Quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation (QCM-D) monitoring and SMP filtration tests confirmed the antifouling ability of the modified membrane.

  20. Novel electrospun polyvinylidene fluoride-graphene oxide-silver nanocomposite membranes with protein and bacterial antifouling characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Liu

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available We developed and fabricated novel polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF-(0.5–2%Ag and PVDF-(0.5–2%Ag-1% graphene oxide (GO nanocomposite membranes with antifouling properties through electrospinning. Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs were in situ synthesized from silver nitrate precursor directly. The tensile properties, wetting, antifouling characteristics of pristine PVDF and its nanocomposite membranes were studied. Tensile tests showed that the addition of 0.5–2% AgNPs to PVDF improves its elastic modulus and tensile strength markedly. A further increase in both tensile modulus and strength of PVDF were obtained by hybridizing AgNPs with 1% GO. Water contact angle measurements revealed that the incorporation of AgNPs or AgNPs/GO nanofillers into PVDF decreases its degree of hydrophobicity. This led to the nanocomposite membranes having higher water flux permeation. In addition, AgNPs and AgNPs/GO fillers played a crucial role against protein and bacterial fouling of the resulting composite membranes. The antibacterial activities of electrospun nanocomposite membranes were assessed against Gram-negative Escherichia coli and Gram-positive Staphylococcus aureus. On the basis of water contact angle, water permeation flux and antifouling results, electrospun PVDF-2% Ag-GO composite membrane was found to exhibit excellent filtration performance, protein antifouling and bactericidal activities. Thus such a fibrous nanocomposite is considered as a high-potential membrane for water purification and disinfection applications.

  1. Zinc bioavailability in the chick

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hempe, J.M.

    1987-01-01

    Methods for assessing zinc bioavailability were evaluated in the chick. A low-zinc chick diet was developed using rehydrated, spray-dried egg white autoclaved at 121 C for 30 min as the primary protein source. The relative bioavailability of zinc from soy flour and beef was determined by whole-body retention of extrinsic 65 Zn, and in slope ratio assays for growth rate and tissue zinc. Compared to zinc carbonate added to an egg white-based diet, all methods gave similar estimates of approximately 100% zinc bioavailability for beef but estimates for soy flour varied widely. The slope ratio assay for growth rate gave the best estimate of zinc bioavailability for soy flour. True absorption, as measured by percent isotope retention from extrinsically labeled soy flour, was 47%

  2. Two mechanisms of oral malodor inhibition by zinc ions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Nao; Nakano, Yoshio; Watanabe, Takeshi; Yoneda, Masahiro; Hirofuji, Takao; Hanioka, Takashi

    2018-01-18

    The aim of this study was to reveal the mechanisms by which zinc ions inhibit oral malodor. The direct binding of zinc ions to gaseous hydrogen sulfide (H2S) was assessed in comparison with other metal ions. Nine metal chlorides and six metal acetates were examined. To understand the strength of H2S volatilization inhibition, the minimum concentration needed to inhibit H2S volatilization was determined using serial dilution methods. Subsequently, the inhibitory activities of zinc ions on the growth of six oral bacterial strains related to volatile sulfur compound (VSC) production and three strains not related to VSC production were evaluated. Aqueous solutions of ZnCl2, CdCl2, CuCl2, (CH3COO)2Zn, (CH3COO)2Cd, (CH3COO)2Cu, and CH3COOAg inhibited H2S volatilization almost entirely. The strengths of H2S volatilization inhibition were in the order Ag+ > Cd2+ > Cu2+ > Zn2+. The effect of zinc ions on the growth of oral bacteria was strain-dependent. Fusobacterium nucleatum ATCC 25586 was the most sensitive, as it was suppressed by medium containing 0.001% zinc ions. Zinc ions have an inhibitory effect on oral malodor involving the two mechanisms of direct binding with gaseous H2S and suppressing the growth of VSC-producing oral bacteria.

  3. Interaction Between Yeasts and Zinc

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicola, Raffaele De; Walker, Graeme

    Zinc is an essential trace element in biological systems. For example, it acts as a cellular membrane stabiliser, plays a critical role in gene expression and genome modification and activates nearly 300 enzymes, including alcohol dehydrogenase. The present chapter will be focused on the influence of zinc on cell physiology of industrial yeast strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, with special regard to the uptake and subsequent utilisation of this metal. Zinc uptake by yeast is metabolism-dependent, with most of the available zinc translocated very quickly into the vacuole. At cell division, zinc is distributed from mother to daughter cells and this effectively lowers the individual cellular zinc concentration, which may become zinc depleted at the onset of the fermentation. Zinc influences yeast fermentative performance and examples will be provided relating to brewing and wine fermentations. Industrial yeasts are subjected to several stresses that may impair fermentation performance. Such stresses may also impact on yeast cell zinc homeostasis. This chapter will discuss the practical implications for the correct management of zinc bioavailability for yeast-based biotechnologies aimed at improving yeast growth, viability, fermentation performance and resistance to environmental stresses

  4. Does the oral zinc tolerance test measure zinc absorption

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Valberg, L.S.; Flanagan, P.R.; Brennan, J.; Chamberlain, M.J.

    1985-01-01

    Increases in plasma zinc concentration were compared with radiozinc absorption after oral test doses. Ten healthy, fasting subjects were each given 385 mumol zinc chloride (25 mg Zn) labelled with 0.5 muCi /sup 65/ZnCl/sub 2/ and a non-absorbed marker, /sup 51/CrCl/sub 3/, dissolved in 100 ml of water; another 10 persons were given 354 mumol zinc chloride and 125 g of minced turkey containing 31 mumol zinc also labelled with /sup 65/Zn and /sup 51/Cr. Measurements were made of plasma zinc concentration at hourly intervals for 5 hours, radiozinc absorption by stool counting of unabsorbed radioactivity 12-36 hours later, and radiozinc retention by whole body counting at 7 days. The mean percentage of radiozinc absorbed and retained in the body from the two test meals was found to be identical (42%). In contrast the increased area under the plasma zinc curve up to 5 hours after the turkey meal, 28 +/- 9 mumol/L (mean +/- SD) was significantly less than that for zinc chloride alone, 47 +/- 15 mumol/L, p less than 0.005. Despite this difference, a good correlation was found between the area under the plasma zinc curve and /sup 65/Zn absorption in individual subjects after each meal. The discrepancy between the results of zinc absorption derived from the plasma zinc curve and /sup 65/Zn absorption for the liquid and solid test meals was most likely explained by binding of zinc to food and delayed gastric emptying of the solid meal. With a test meal of turkey meat at least this dampened the plasma appearance of zinc but did not affect its overall absorption.

  5. Does the oral zinc tolerance test measure zinc absorption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valberg, L.S.; Flanagan, P.R.; Brennan, J.; Chamberlain, M.J.

    1985-01-01

    Increases in plasma zinc concentration were compared with radiozinc absorption after oral test doses. Ten healthy, fasting subjects were each given 385 mumol zinc chloride (25 mg Zn) labelled with 0.5 muCi 65 ZnCl 2 and a non-absorbed marker, 51 CrCl 3 , dissolved in 100 ml of water; another 10 persons were given 354 mumol zinc chloride and 125 g of minced turkey containing 31 mumol zinc also labelled with 65 Zn and 51 Cr. Measurements were made of plasma zinc concentration at hourly intervals for 5 hours, radiozinc absorption by stool counting of unabsorbed radioactivity 12-36 hours later, and radiozinc retention by whole body counting at 7 days. The mean percentage of radiozinc absorbed and retained in the body from the two test meals was found to be identical (42%). In contrast the increased area under the plasma zinc curve up to 5 hours after the turkey meal, 28 +/- 9 mumol/L (mean +/- SD) was significantly less than that for zinc chloride alone, 47 +/- 15 mumol/L, p less than 0.005. Despite this difference, a good correlation was found between the area under the plasma zinc curve and 65 Zn absorption in individual subjects after each meal. The discrepancy between the results of zinc absorption derived from the plasma zinc curve and 65 Zn absorption for the liquid and solid test meals was most likely explained by binding of zinc to food and delayed gastric emptying of the solid meal. With a test meal of turkey meat at least this dampened the plasma appearance of zinc but did not affect its overall absorption

  6. The interactive effects of the antifouling herbicides Irgarol 1051 and Diuron on the seagrass Zostera marina (L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chesworth, J C; Donkin, M E; Brown, M T

    2004-02-25

    The herbicides Irgarol 1051 (2-(tert-butylamino)-4-cyclopropylamino)-6-(methylthio)-1,3,5-triazine) and Diuron (3-(3',4'-dichlorophenyl)-1,1-dimethylurea) are commonly incorporated into antifouling paints to boost the efficacy of the compound towards algae. Previous investigations have identified environmental concentrations of these herbicides as being a threat to non-target organisms, such as seagrasses. Their individual toxicity has been assessed, but they can co-occur and interact, potentially increasing their toxicity and the threat posed to seagrass meadows. Chlorophyll fluorescence (Fv:Fm) and leaf specific biomass ratio (representing plant growth) were examined in Zostera marina L. after a 10-day exposure to the individual herbicides. The EC20 for each herbicide was determined and these then used in herbicide mixtures to assess their interactive effects. Irgarol 1051 was found to be more toxic than Diuron with lowest observable effect concentrations for Fv:Fm reduction of 0.5 and 1.0 +/- microg/l and 10-day EC50 values of 1.1 and 3.2 microg/l, respectively. Plants exposed to Irgarol 1051 and Diuron showed a significant reduction in growth at concentrations of 1.0 and 5.0 microg/l, respectively. When Z. marina was exposed to mixtures, the herbicides commonly interacted additively or antagonistically, and no significant further reduction in photosynthetic efficiency was found at any concentration when compared to plants exposed to the individual herbicides. However, on addition of the Diuron EC20 to varying Irgarol 1051 concentrations and the Irgarol 1051 EC20 to varying Diuron concentrations, significant reductions in Fv:Fm were noted at an earlier stage. The growth of plants exposed to Diuron plus the Irgarol 1051 EC20 were significantly reduced when compared to plants exposed to Diuron alone, but only at the lower concentrations. Growth of plants exposed to Irgarol 1051 and the Diuron EC20 showed no significant reduction when compared to the growth of

  7. Investigation on synergism of composite additives for zinc corrosion inhibition in alkaline solution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou Hebing [School of Materials Science and Engineering, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou 510641 (China); Key Laboratory of Electrochemical Technology on Energy Storage and Power Generation of Guangdong Higher Education Institutes, South China Normal University, Guangzhou 510006 (China); Engineering Research Center of Materials and Technology for Electrochemical Energy Storage (Ministry of Education), South China Normal University, Guangzhou 510006 (China); Huang Qiming; Liang Man; Lv Dongsheng; Xu Mengqing; Li Hong [Key Laboratory of Electrochemical Technology on Energy Storage and Power Generation of Guangdong Higher Education Institutes, South China Normal University, Guangzhou 510006 (China); Engineering Research Center of Materials and Technology for Electrochemical Energy Storage (Ministry of Education), South China Normal University, Guangzhou 510006 (China); Li Weishan, E-mail: liwsh@scnu.edu.cn [School of Materials Science and Engineering, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou 510641 (China); Key Laboratory of Electrochemical Technology on Energy Storage and Power Generation of Guangdong Higher Education Institutes, South China Normal University, Guangzhou 510006 (China); Engineering Research Center of Materials and Technology for Electrochemical Energy Storage (Ministry of Education), South China Normal University, Guangzhou 510006 (China)

    2011-07-15

    Highlights: {yields} An kind of environmentally benign organic composite additives is used firstly. {yields} The corrosion of zinc is inhibited used the organic compound as additive. {yields} The rate performance of the battery used the organic compound as additive is improved. {yields} The synergism of composite additives for zinc corrosion inhibition is investigated. - Abstract: The synergism of imidazole (IMZ) and poly(ethylene glycol) 600 (PEG) for zinc corrosion inhibition in 3 mol L{sup -1} KOH solution was investigated using a combination of electrochemical and gravimetric methods, and the surface morphology of the zinc was observed by scanning electron microscopy. It is found that there is a synergistic effect between IMZ and PEG for the zinc corrosion inhibition. The difference in molecular structure, ring for IMZ and chain for PEG, and in binding atoms with zinc, nitrogen in IMZ and oxygen in PEG, contributes to this synergistic effect. IMZ inhibits zinc corrosion by mainly depressing the anodic reaction, whereas PEG by depressing the cathodic reaction. The storage performance of the zinc-manganese dioxide batteries using IMZ and/or PEG as inhibitors was determined by discharge test, with a comparison of the battery using mercury as the inhibitor. The battery containing 0.05% IMZ + 0.05% PEG exhibits better performance than the mercury-containing battery, especially when discharged at high rate.

  8. Antifouling activities of β-cyclodextrin stabilized peg based silver nanocomposites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Punitha, N., E-mail: punithasan@gmail.com [Department of Physics, St. Joseph’s College of Engineering, Chennai 600119 (India); Saravanan, P. [Department of Chemistry, St. Joseph’s College of Engineering, Chennai 600119 (India); Mohan, R. [Department of Physics, Surya College of Engineering and Technology, Villupuram (India); Ramesh, P.S. [Department of Physics (DDE), Annamalai University, Annamalai Nagar 608002 (India)

    2017-01-15

    Highlights: • Simple, novel and cost effective. • Functionalized Ag nanocomposites exhibit enhanced biological activity. • The SNCs were crystalline nature and shows good stability. - Abstract: Self-polishing polymer composites which release metal biocide in a controlled rate have been widely used in the design of antimicrobial agents and antifouling coatings. The present work focuses on the environmental friendly green synthesis of PEG based SNCs and their application to biocidal activity including marine biofouling. Biocompatible polymer β-CD and adhesive resistance polymer PEG were used to functionalize the SNPs and the as synthesized SNCs exhibit excellent micro fouling activities. The structural and optical properties were confirmed by XRD and UV–visible techniques respectively. The particle surface and cross sectional characteristics were examined by SEM-EDS, HR-TEM, AFM and FTIR. The surface potential was evaluated using ZP analysis and assessment of antibiofouling property was investigated using static immersion method.

  9. Antifouling enhancement of polysulfone/TiO2 nanocomposite separation membrane by plasma etching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Z.; Yin, C.; Wang, S.; Ito, K.; Fu, Q. M.; Deng, Q. R.; Fu, P.; Lin, Z. D.; Zhang, Y.

    2017-01-01

    A polysulfone/TiO2 nanocomposite membrane was prepared via casting method, followed by the plasma etching of the membrane surface. Doppler broadened energy spectra vs. positron incident energy were employed to elucidate depth profiles of the nanostructure for the as-prepared and treated membranes. The results confirmed that the near-surface of the membrane was modified by the plasma treatment. The antifouling characteristics for the membranes, evaluated using the degradation of Rhodamin B, indicated that the plasma treatment enhances the photo catalytic ability of the membrane, suggesting that more TiO2 nanoparticles are exposed at the membrane surface after the plasma treatment as supported by the positron result.

  10. Antifouling activities of β-cyclodextrin stabilized peg based silver nanocomposites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Punitha, N.; Saravanan, P.; Mohan, R.; Ramesh, P. S.

    2017-01-01

    Self-polishing polymer composites which release metal biocide in a controlled rate have been widely used in the design of antimicrobial agents and antifouling coatings. The present work focuses on the environmental friendly green synthesis of PEG based SNCs and their application to biocidal activity including marine biofouling. Biocompatible polymer β-CD and adhesive resistance polymer PEG were used to functionalize the SNPs and the as synthesized SNCs exhibit excellent micro fouling activities. The structural and optical properties were confirmed by XRD and UV-visible techniques respectively. The particle surface and cross sectional characteristics were examined by SEM-EDS, HR-TEM, AFM and FTIR. The surface potential was evaluated using ZP analysis and assessment of antibiofouling property was investigated using static immersion method.

  11. Ecotoxicity and Preliminary Risk Assessment of Nonivamide as a Promising Marine Antifoulant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sujing Liu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The unclear environmental performance of nonivamide limits its application as a marine antifoulant. In this study, the natural degradation of nonivamide was studied in seawater and tap water. The half-life was 5.8 d, 8.8 d, 12.2 d, and 14.7 d in seawater and tap water in photolysis and biolysis, respectively. Furthermore, the ecotoxicity of nonivamide was assessed using marine microalgae, Chlorella vulgaris and Platymonas sp.; EC50,  6 d values on the growth of Chlorella vulgaris and Platymonas sp. were 16.9 mg L−1 and 19.21 mg L−1, respectively. The toxicity and environmental risk of nonivamide on microalgae were significantly decreased due to the natural degradation in seawater.

  12. Antifouling activities of β-cyclodextrin stabilized peg based silver nanocomposites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Punitha, N.; Saravanan, P.; Mohan, R.; Ramesh, P.S.

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Simple, novel and cost effective. • Functionalized Ag nanocomposites exhibit enhanced biological activity. • The SNCs were crystalline nature and shows good stability. - Abstract: Self-polishing polymer composites which release metal biocide in a controlled rate have been widely used in the design of antimicrobial agents and antifouling coatings. The present work focuses on the environmental friendly green synthesis of PEG based SNCs and their application to biocidal activity including marine biofouling. Biocompatible polymer β-CD and adhesive resistance polymer PEG were used to functionalize the SNPs and the as synthesized SNCs exhibit excellent micro fouling activities. The structural and optical properties were confirmed by XRD and UV–visible techniques respectively. The particle surface and cross sectional characteristics were examined by SEM-EDS, HR-TEM, AFM and FTIR. The surface potential was evaluated using ZP analysis and assessment of antibiofouling property was investigated using static immersion method.

  13. Change in interfacial properties of polymer antifouling coating by controlling ring architecture of functional nanocomposites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yin, Bing; Zhang, Li; Liu, Tao; Li, Jing

    2014-01-01

    Greener protocols, long duration and applications are the necessary conditions of antifouling coating. The stability of anti-bacterial function decides its duration. Core–shell structured nanoparticles with Ag NPs and Ag + were successfully in situ fabricated in polyelectrolyte matrix, to avoid antimicrobial nanomaterials leaching out in the form of Ag or Ag + from the matrix. The nanocomposite materials prepared were well characterized by XRD, XPS, TEM and UV–visible. Through monitoring the hybrid polymer films soaked in the solution, sparingly soluble AgI as the shell in the hybrid structure nanoparticles showed excellent barrier effect. Using the synergy of Ag NPs and Ag + toward the killing of microbes, the duration of antimicrobial activity was prolonged. (paper)

  14. Antifouling enhancement of polysulfone/TiO2 nanocomposite separation membrane by plasma etching

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Z; Yin, C; Wang, S; Fu, Q M; Deng, Q R; Fu, P; Lin, Z D; Zhang, Y; Ito, K

    2017-01-01

    A polysulfone/TiO 2 nanocomposite membrane was prepared via casting method, followed by the plasma etching of the membrane surface. Doppler broadened energy spectra vs. positron incident energy were employed to elucidate depth profiles of the nanostructure for the as-prepared and treated membranes. The results confirmed that the near-surface of the membrane was modified by the plasma treatment. The antifouling characteristics for the membranes, evaluated using the degradation of Rhodamin B, indicated that the plasma treatment enhances the photo catalytic ability of the membrane, suggesting that more TiO 2 nanoparticles are exposed at the membrane surface after the plasma treatment as supported by the positron result. (paper)

  15. Incorporating bioavailability into management limits for copper in sediments contaminated by antifouling paint used in aquaculture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simpson, Stuart L; Spadaro, David A; O'Brien, Dom

    2013-11-01

    Although now well embedded within many risk-based sediment quality guideline (SQG) frameworks, contaminant bioavailability is still often overlooked in assessment and management of contaminated sediments. To optimise management limits for metal contaminated sediments, we assess the appropriateness of a range methods for modifying SQGs based on bioavailability considerations. The impairment of reproduction of the amphipod, Melita plumulosa, and harpacticoid copepod, Nitocra spinipes, was assessed for sediments contaminated with copper from antifouling paint, located below aquaculture cages. The measurement of dilute acid-extractable copper (AE-Cu) was found to provide the most useful means for monitoring the risks posed by sediment copper and setting management limits. Acid-volatile sulfide was found to be ineffective as a SQG-modifying factor as these organisms live mostly at the more oxidised sediment water interface. SQGs normalised to %-silt/organic carbon were effective, but the benefits gained were too small to justify this approach. The effectiveness of SQGs based on AE-Cu was attributed to a small portion of the total copper being present in potentially bioavailable forms (typicallycopper was likely present as paint flakes in the form of copper (I) oxide, the active ingredient of the antifoulant formulation. While the concentrations of paint-associated copper are very high in some sediments, as the transformation of this form of copper to AE-Cu appears slow, monitoring and management limits should assess the more bioavailable AE-Cu forms, and further efforts be made to limit the release of paint particles into the environment. Crown Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Tethering of hyperbranched polyols using PEI as a building block to synthesize antifouling PVDF membranes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xushan; Wang, Zihong; Wang, Zhe; Cao, Yu; Meng, Jianqiang

    2017-10-01

    Antifouling PVDF membranes were prepared by grafting hyperbranched polyols on the membrane surface via a three-step modification method. The membrane was first prepared by alkaline treatment to introduce alkenyl groups, then chemically immobilizing hyperbranched poly(ethyleneimine) (HPEI) on membrane surface through Michael reaction followed by ring opening reaction of the glycidol with amine groups. Chemical compositions, surface morphology and physicochemical properties of the original and modified membranes were characterized via attenuated total refection-Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), water contact angle (WCA) and zeta potential measurements. The antifouling property of the modified membrane was assessed by the static bovine serum albumin (BSA) and lysozyme (LZM) adsorption as well as cross-flow filtration of BSA aqueous solution. The results explicate that surface modification using hyperbranched polymers can alter membrane chemistry and morphology significantly. In contrast to the original PVDF membrane, the modified membrane shows superhydrophilic property and relatively high capability to resist nonspecific protein adsorption. Three HPEIs were used for modification and the obtained PVDFA-g-PG60,000 membrane has a static BSA protein adsorption of 45 μg/cm2 and shows the highest protein resistance. However, the PVDF-g-PG membrane is positively charged due to the unreacted amine groups. As a result, the PVDF-g-PG membranes also show high flux decline during the filtration of BSA aqueous solution due to the electrostatic interaction. In spite of that, the PVDF-g-PG membranes still maintain high flux recovery ratio and good washing properties.

  17. Hair Zinc: an Index for Zinc Status in Under-Five Children from Low-Income Communities in Kanam Area of North-Central Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaryum, Kiri H; Okoye, Zebulon Sunday C; Stoecker, Barbara

    2018-06-01

    Nutritional deficiencies of trace elements are among the top ten causes of death in Sub Saharan Africa. In Kanam Local Government Area of Nigeria, the problem is compounded by high levels of poverty and illiteracy. Abnormally low hair zinc levels are important, sensitive diagnostic biochemical indices of Zinc deficiency. The purpose of this study is to assess the zinc status of children less than 5 years in Kanam local government area, north-central Nigeria, by measuring the zinc level in hair samples collected from 44 under-5 children across the area. A household survey was made to assess the pattern and frequency of consumption of zinc-rich foods which was done by means of questionnaire. Hair samples were analysed for zinc content by the inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrophotometry (ICP-MS). The data were analysed statistically using the Student's t test, z test, and Pearson correlation, while questionnaire-captured data were analysed by simple arithmetic. The results of the analyses showed that the average hair zinc level was 74.35 ± 48.05 μg/g. This was below the normal range of 130-140 μg/g, for children less than 5 years. Based on the results, 86.36% have hair zinc level below the lower limit of the normal range of 130 μg/g. Between the gender, boys have higher hair zinc content than girls. Data from the questionnaire showed that 53.45% of the population studied have poor/inadequate intake of zinc-rich foods of animal origin, a dietary behaviour reported to predispose to micronutrient deficiency, including zinc.

  18. Zinc chelates as new activators for sulphur vulcanization of acrylonitrile-butadiene elastomer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available The goal of this work was to apply several zinc chelates as activators for sulphur vulcanization of acrylonitrilebutadiene elastomer (NBR, in order to find alternatives for the conventionally used zinc oxide. In this article, we discuss the effects of different zinc complexes on the cure characteristics, crosslinks distribution in the elastomer network and mechanical properties of acrylonitrile-butadiene rubber. Zinc chelates seem to be good substitutes for zinc oxide as activators for sulphur vulcanization of NBR rubber, without detrimental effects on the crosslinking process and physical properties of the obtained vulcanizates. Moreover, application of zinc complexes allows to reduce the amount of zinc ions in rubber compounds by 40% compared to conventionally crosslinked vulcanizates with zinc oxide. It is a very important ecological goal since zinc oxide is classified as toxic to aquatic species and its amount in rubber products must be reduced below 2.5% at least. From a technological point of view it is a very important challenge.

  19. Uptake and partitioning of zinc in Lemnaceae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lahive, Elma; O'Callaghan, Michael J A; Jansen, Marcel A K; O'Halloran, John

    2011-11-01

    Macrophytes provide food and shelter for aquatic invertebrates and fish, while also acting as reservoirs for nutrients and trace elements. Zinc accumulation has been reported for various Lemnaceae species. However, comparative accumulation across species and the link between zinc accumulation and toxicity are poorly understood. Morphological distribution and cellular storage, in either bound or soluble form, are important for zinc tolerance. This study shows differences in the uptake and accumulation of zinc by three duckweed species. Landoltia punctata and Lemna minor generally accumulated more zinc than Lemna gibba. L. minor, but not L. gibba or L. punctata, accumulated greater concentrations of zinc in roots compared to fronds when exposed to high levels of zinc. The proportion of zinc stored in the bound form relative to the soluble-form was higher in L. minor. L. punctata accumulated greater concentrations of zinc in fronds compared to roots and increased the proportion of zinc it stored in the soluble form, when exposed to high zinc levels. L. gibba is the only species that significantly accumulated zinc at low concentrations, and was zinc-sensitive. Overall, internal zinc concentrations showed no consistent correlation with toxic effect. We conclude that relationships between zinc toxicity and uptake and accumulation are species specific reflecting, among others, zinc distribution and storage. Differences in zinc distribution and storage are also likely to have implications for zinc bioavailability and trophic mobility.

  20. Inhibitory zinc-enriched terminals in mouse spinal cord

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Danscher, G; Jo, S M; Varea, E

    2001-01-01

    The ultrastructural localization of zinc transporter-3, glutamate decarboxylase and zinc ions in zinc-enriched terminals in the mouse spinal cord was studied by zinc transporter-3 and glutamate decarboxylase immunohistochemistry and zinc selenium autometallography, respectively.The distribution...

  1. Zwitterionic peptide anchored to conducting polymer PEDOT for the development of antifouling and ultrasensitive electrochemical DNA sensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Guixiang; Han, Rui; Su, Xiaoli; Li, Yinan; Xu, Guiyun; Luo, Xiliang

    2017-06-15

    Zwitterionic peptides were anchored to a conducting polymer of citrate doped poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (PEDOT) via the nickel cation coordination, and the obtained peptide modified PEDOT, with excellent antifouling ability and good conductivity, was further used for the immobilization of a DNA probe to construct an electrochemical biosensor for the breast cancer marker BRCA1. The DNA biosensor was highly sensitive (with detection limit of 0.03fM) and selective, and it was able to detect BRCA1 in 5% (v/v) human plasma with satisfying accuracy and low fouling. The marriage of antifouling and biocompatible peptides with conducting polymers opened a new avenue to construct electrochemical biosensors capable of assaying targets in complex biological media with high sensitivity and without biofouling. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Enhanced permeability and antifouling performance of cellulose acetate ultrafiltration membrane assisted by l-DOPA functionalized halloysite nanotubes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mu, Keguang; Zhang, Dalun; Shao, Ziqiang; Qin, Dujian; Wang, Yalong; Wang, Shuo

    2017-10-15

    l-Dopa functionalized halloysite nanotubes (HNTs) were prepared by the self-polymerization of l-dopa in the weak alkaline condition. Then different contents of l-dopa coated HNTs (LPDHNTs) were blended into cellulose acetate to prepare enhanced performance ultrafiltration membranes via the phase inversion method. The HNTs and LPDHNTs were characterized by FTIR, XPS, and TEM anysis. And the membranes morphologies, separation performance, antifouling performance, mechanical properties and hydrophilicity were also investigated. It was found that the composite membranes exhibited excellent antifouling performance. The pure water flux of 3.0wt% LPDHNTs/CA membrane increased from 11.4Lm -2 h -1 to 92.9Lm -2 h -1 , while the EA rejection ratio of the membrane was about 91.2%. In addition, the mechanical properties of the resultant membranes were strengthened compared with the CA ultrafiltration membrane. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Zinc: an essential oligoelement

    OpenAIRE

    Rubio, C.; González Weller, D.; Martín-Izquierdo, R. E.; Revert, C.; Rodríguez, I.; Hardisson, A.

    2007-01-01

    En este artículo se hace una revisión exhaustiva del zinc, elemento metálico esencial para el funcionamiento del organismo. Repasamos y reflejamos aspectos relacionados con la farmacocinética, con las fuentes dietéticas más importantes, así como las IDR (Ingestas Dietéticas Recomendadas) del mismo. También se hace mención a los signos y síntomas relacionados tanto con una ingesta deficiente, como con posibles efectos tóxicos, derivados de ingestas excesivas.This article comprehensively review...

  4. Cadmium and zinc

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Safaya, N.M.; McLean, J.E.; Halverson, G.A.

    1987-01-01

    Cadmium and zinc are naturally occurring trace metals that are often considered together because of their close geochemical association and similarities in chemical reactivity. The loss of two electrons from an atom of Cd or Zn imparts to each an electron configuration with completely filled d orbitals; this results in a highly stable 2/sup +/ oxidation state. But Cd and Zn differ greatly in their significance to biological systems. Whereas Zn is an essential nutrient for plants, animals, and humans, Cd is best known for its toxicity to plants and as a causative agent of several disease syndromes in animals and humans

  5. A System-Wide Approach to Identify the Mechanisms of Barnacle Attachment: Toward the Discovery of New Antifouling Compounds

    KAUST Repository

    Al-Aqeel, Sarah

    2015-01-01

    , cuticle development, and eggshell formation, and down-regulation of genes in the nitric oxide pathway, which stimulates the swimming and feeding responses of marine invertebrates. This system-wide integrated approach elucidated the development

  6. Antifouling coatings: recent developments in the design of surfaces that prevent fouling by proteins, bacteria, and marine organisms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Banerjee, Indrani; Pangule, Ravindra C.; Kane, Ravi S. [Howard P. Isermann Department of Chemical and Biological Engineering, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, 110 8th Street, Ricketts Building, Troy, NY 12180 (United States)

    2011-02-08

    The major strategies for designing surfaces that prevent fouling due to proteins, bacteria, and marine organisms are reviewed. Biofouling is of great concern in numerous applications ranging from biosensors to biomedical implants and devices, and from food packaging to industrial and marine equipment. The two major approaches to combat surface fouling are based on either preventing biofoulants from attaching or degrading them. One of the key strategies for imparting adhesion resistance involves the functionalization of surfaces with poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) or oligo(ethylene glycol). Several alternatives to PEG-based coatings have also been designed over the past decade. While protein-resistant coatings may also resist bacterial attachment and subsequent biofilm formation, in order to overcome the fouling-mediated risk of bacterial infection it is highly desirable to design coatings that are bactericidal. Traditional techniques involve the design of coatings that release biocidal agents, including antibiotics, quaternary ammonium salts (QAS), and silver, into the surrounding aqueous environment. However, the emergence of antibiotic- and silver-resistant pathogenic strains has necessitated the development of alternative strategies. Therefore, other techniques based on the use of polycations, enzymes, nanomaterials, and photoactive agents are being investigated. With regard to marine antifouling coatings, restrictions on the use of biocide-releasing coatings have made the generation of nontoxic antifouling surfaces more important. While considerable progress has been made in the design of antifouling coatings, ongoing research in this area should result in the development of even better antifouling materials in the future. (Copyright copyright 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  7. Novel antifouling self-healing poly(carboxybetaine methacrylamide-co-HEMA) nanocomposite hydrogels with superior mechanical properties

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kostina, Nina Yu.; Sharifi, S.; de los Santos Pereira, Andres; Michálek, Jiří; Grijpma, D. W.; Rodriguez-Emmenegger, Cesar

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 1, č. 41 (2013), s. 5644-5650 ISSN 2050-750X R&D Projects: GA AV ČR KAN200520804; GA ČR GA13-00939S; GA ČR GAP205/12/1702; GA ČR GAP106/12/1451; GA ČR GBP205/12/G118 Institutional support: RVO:61389013 Keywords : hydrogels * self- healing * antifouling Subject RIV: CD - Macromolecular Chemistry

  8. Zinc in Infection and Inflammation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nour Zahi Gammoh

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Micronutrient homeostasis is a key factor in maintaining a healthy immune system. Zinc is an essential micronutrient that is involved in the regulation of the innate and adaptive immune responses. The main cause of zinc deficiency is malnutrition. Zinc deficiency leads to cell-mediated immune dysfunctions among other manifestations. Consequently, such dysfunctions lead to a worse outcome in the response towards bacterial infection and sepsis. For instance, zinc is an essential component of the pathogen-eliminating signal transduction pathways leading to neutrophil extracellular traps (NET formation, as well as inducing cell-mediated immunity over humoral immunity by regulating specific factors of differentiation. Additionally, zinc deficiency plays a role in inflammation, mainly elevating inflammatory response as well as damage to host tissue. Zinc is involved in the modulation of the proinflammatory response by targeting Nuclear Factor Kappa B (NF-κB, a transcription factor that is the master regulator of proinflammatory responses. It is also involved in controlling oxidative stress and regulating inflammatory cytokines. Zinc plays an intricate function during an immune response and its homeostasis is critical for sustaining proper immune function. This review will summarize the latest findings concerning the role of this micronutrient during the course of infections and inflammatory response and how the immune system modulates zinc depending on different stimuli.

  9. Zinc in Infection and Inflammation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gammoh, Nour Zahi; Rink, Lothar

    2017-06-17

    Micronutrient homeostasis is a key factor in maintaining a healthy immune system. Zinc is an essential micronutrient that is involved in the regulation of the innate and adaptive immune responses. The main cause of zinc deficiency is malnutrition. Zinc deficiency leads to cell-mediated immune dysfunctions among other manifestations. Consequently, such dysfunctions lead to a worse outcome in the response towards bacterial infection and sepsis. For instance, zinc is an essential component of the pathogen-eliminating signal transduction pathways leading to neutrophil extracellular traps (NET) formation, as well as inducing cell-mediated immunity over humoral immunity by regulating specific factors of differentiation. Additionally, zinc deficiency plays a role in inflammation, mainly elevating inflammatory response as well as damage to host tissue. Zinc is involved in the modulation of the proinflammatory response by targeting Nuclear Factor Kappa B (NF-κB), a transcription factor that is the master regulator of proinflammatory responses. It is also involved in controlling oxidative stress and regulating inflammatory cytokines. Zinc plays an intricate function during an immune response and its homeostasis is critical for sustaining proper immune function. This review will summarize the latest findings concerning the role of this micronutrient during the course of infections and inflammatory response and how the immune system modulates zinc depending on different stimuli.

  10. Iron and zinc bioaccessibility of fermented maize, sorghum and millets from five locations in Zimbabwe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabaza, Molly; Shumoy, Habtu; Muchuweti, Maud; Vandamme, Peter; Raes, Katleen

    2018-01-01

    The present study is an evaluation of iron and zinc bioaccessibility of fermented maize, sorghum, pearl millet and finger millet from five different locations in Zimbabwe. Iron and zinc contents ranged between 3.22 and 49.7 and 1.25-4.39mg/100gdm, respectively. Fermentation caused a reduction of between 20 and 88% of phytic acid (PA) while a general increase in soluble phenolic compounds (PC) and a decrease of the bound (PC) was observed. Bioaccessibility of iron and zinc ranged between 2.77 and 26.1% and 0.45-12.8%, respectively. The contribution of the fermented cereals towards iron and zinc absolute requirements ranged between 25 and 411% and 0.5-23% with higher contribution of iron coming from cereals that were contaminated with extrinsic iron. Populations subsisting on cereals could be more at risk of zinc rather than iron deficiency. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Grafting of Oligo(ethylene glycol) Functionalized Calix[4]arene-tetra-diazonium Salts for Antifouling Germanium and Gold Surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blond, Pascale; Mattiuzzi, Alice; Valkenier, Hennie; Troian-Gautier, Ludovic; Bergamini, Jean-François; Doneux, Thomas; Goormaghtigh, Erik; Raussens, Vincent; Jabin, Ivan

    2018-05-03

    Biosensors that can determine protein concentration and structure are highly desired for biomedical applications. For the development of such biosensors, the use of Fourier transformed infra-red (FTIR) spectroscopy with the attenuated internal total reflection (ATR) configuration is particularly attractive but it requires appropriate surface functionalization of the ATR optical element. Indeed, the surface has to specifically interact with a target protein in close contact with the optical element and must display antifouling properties to prevent nonspecific adsorption of other proteins. We here report robust monolayers of calix[4]arenes bearing oEGs chains, which were grafted on germanium and gold surfaces via their tetra-diazonium salts. The formation of monolayers of oEGylated calix[4]arenes was confirmed by AFM, IR and contact angle measurements. The antifouling properties of these modified surfaces were studied by ATR-FTIR spectroscopy and fluorescence microscopy and the non-specific absorption of BSA was found to be reduced by 85% compared to non-modified germanium. In other words, the organic coating by oEGylated calix[4]arenes provides remarkable antifouling properties, opening the way to the design of germanium- and gold-based biosensors.

  12. Versatile antifouling polyethersulfone filtration membranes modified via surface grafting of zwitterionic polymers from a reactive amphiphilic copolymer additive.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yi-Fan; Zhang, Pei-Bin; Sun, Jian; Liu, Cui-Jing; Yi, Zhuan; Zhu, Li-Ping; Xu, You-Yi

    2015-06-15

    Here we describe the development of versatile antifouling polyethersulfone (PES) filtration membranes modified via surface grafting of zwitterionic polymers from a reactive amphiphilic copolymer additive. Amphiphilic polyethersulfone-block-poly(2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate) (PES-b-PHEMA) was beforehand designed and used as the blending additive of PES membranes prepared by phase inversion technique. The surface enriched PHEMA blocks on membrane surface acted as an anchor to immobilize the initiating site. Poly(sulfobetaine methacrylate) (PSBMA) were subsequently grafted onto the PES blend membranes by surface-initiated atom transfer radical polymerization (SI-ATRP). The analysis of surface chemistry confirmed the successful grafting of zwitterionic PSBMA brushes on PES membrane surface. The resulted PES-g-PSBMA membranes were capable of separating proteins from protein solution and oil from oil/water emulsion efficiently. Furthermore, the modified membranes showed high hydrophilicity and strongly antifouling properties due to the incorporation of well-defined PSBMA layer. In addition, the PES-g-PSBMA membranes exhibited excellent blood compatibility and durability during the washing process. The developed antifouling PES membranes are versatile and can find their applications in protein filtration, blood purification and oil/water separation, etc. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Antifouling Coatings Influence both Abundance and Community Structure of Colonizing Biofilms: a Case Study in the Northwestern Mediterranean Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camps, Mercedes; Barani, Aude; Gregori, Gérald; Bouchez, Agnès; Le Berre, Brigitte; Bressy, Christine; Blache, Yves

    2014-01-01

    When immersed in seawater, substrates are rapidly colonized by both micro- and macroorganisms. This process is responsible for important economic and ecological prejudices, particularly when related to ship hulls or aquaculture nets. Commercial antifouling coatings are supposed to reduce biofouling, i.e., micro- and macrofoulers. In this study, biofilms that primarily settled on seven different coatings (polyvinyl chloride [PVC], a fouling release coating [FRC], and five self-polishing copolymer coatings [SPC], including four commercial ones) were quantitatively studied, after 1 month of immersion in summer in the Toulon Bay (Northwestern Mediterranean Sea, France), by using flow cytometry (FCM), microscopy, and denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis. FCM was used after a pretreatment to separate cells from the biofilm matrix, in order to determine densities of heterotrophic bacteria, picocyanobacteria, and pico- and nanoeukaryotes on these coatings. Among diatoms, the only microphytobenthic class identified by microscopy, Licmophora, Navicula, and Nitzschia were determined to be the dominant taxa. Overall, biocide-free coatings showed higher densities than all other coatings, except for one biocidal coating, whatever the group of microorganisms. Heterotrophic bacteria always showed the highest densities, and diatoms showed the lowest, but the relative abundances of these groups varied depending on the coating. In particular, the copper-free SPC failed to prevent diatom settlement, whereas the pyrithione-free SPC exhibited high picocyanobacterial density. These results highlight the interest in FCM for antifouling coating assessment as well as specific selection among microbial communities by antifouling coatings. PMID:24907329

  14. Bioinspired Surface for Low Drag, Self-Cleaning, and Antifouling: Shark Skin, Butterfly and Rice Leaf Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bixler, Gregroy D.

    In this thesis, first presented is an overview of inorganic-fouling and biofouling which is generally undesirable for many medical, marine, and industrial applications. A survey of nature's flora and fauna are studied in order to discover new antifouling methods that could be mimicked for engineering applications. New antifouling methods will presumably incorporate a combination of physical and chemical controls. Presented are mechanisms and experimental results focusing on laminar and turbulent drag reducing shark skin inspired riblet surfaces. This includes new laser etched and riblet film samples for closed channel drag using water, oil, and air as well as in wind tunnel. Also presented are mechanisms and experimental results focusing on the newly discovered rice and butterfly wing effect surfaces. Morphology, drag, self-cleaning, contact angle, and contact angle hysteresis data are presented to understand the role of sample geometrical dimensions, wettability, viscosity, and velocity. Hierarchical liquid repellent coatings combining nano- and micro-sized features and particles are utilized to recreate or combine various effects. Such surfaces have been fabricated with photolithography, soft lithography, hot embossing, and coating techniques. Discussion is provided along with new conceptual models describing the role of surface structures related to low drag, self-cleaning, and antifouling properties. Modeling provides design guidance when developing novel low drag and self-cleaning surfaces for medical, marine, and industrial applications.

  15. Zinc as a Gatekeeper of Immune Function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inga Wessels

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available After the discovery of zinc deficiency in the 1960s, it soon became clear that zinc is essential for the function of the immune system. Zinc ions are involved in regulating intracellular signaling pathways in innate and adaptive immune cells. Zinc homeostasis is largely controlled via the expression and action of zinc “importers” (ZIP 1–14, zinc “exporters” (ZnT 1–10, and zinc-binding proteins. Anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidant properties of zinc have long been documented, however, underlying mechanisms are still not entirely clear. Here, we report molecular mechanisms underlying the development of a pro-inflammatory phenotype during zinc deficiency. Furthermore, we describe links between altered zinc homeostasis and disease development. Consequently, the benefits of zinc supplementation for a malfunctioning immune system become clear. This article will focus on underlying mechanisms responsible for the regulation of cellular signaling by alterations in zinc homeostasis. Effects of fast zinc flux, intermediate “zinc waves”, and late homeostatic zinc signals will be discriminated. Description of zinc homeostasis-related effects on the activation of key signaling molecules, as well as on epigenetic modifications, are included to emphasize the role of zinc as a gatekeeper of immune function.

  16. Zinc oxide crystal whiskers as a novel sorbent for solid-phase extraction of flavonoids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Licheng; Shangguan, Yangnan; Hou, Xiudan; Jia, Yong; Liu, Shujuan; Sun, Yingxin; Guo, Yong

    2017-08-15

    As a novel solid-phase extraction material, zinc oxide crystal whiskers were used to extract flavonoid compounds and showed good extraction abilities. X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy with energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy and surface area/pore volume characterized the sorbent. The zinc oxide was packed into a solid-phase extraction micro-column and its extraction ability was evaluated by four model flavonoid compounds. The sample loading and elution parameters were optimized and the zinc oxide based analytical method for flavonoids was established. It showed that the method has wide linearities from 1 to 150μg/L and low limits of detection at 0.25μg/L. The relative standard deviations of a single column repeatability and column to column reproducibility were less than 6.8% and 10.6%. Several real samples were analyzed by the established method and satisfactory results were obtained. The interactions between flavonoids and zinc oxide were calculated and proved to be from the Van der Waals' forces between the 4p and 5d orbitals from zinc atom and the neighboring π orbitals from flavonoid phenyl groups. Moreover, the zinc oxide crystal whiskers showed good stability and could be reused more than 50 times under the operation conditions. This work proves that the zinc oxide crystal whiskers are a good candidate for flavonoids enrichment. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  17. The behavior of thiourea and flotation reagents in zinc electrowinning circuits

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacKinnon, D. J.; Dutrizac, J. E.; Brannen, J. M.; Hardy, D. J.

    1988-04-01

    The effect of thiourea and flotation reagents on the electrowinning of zinc from industrial electrolytes was studied, and all the compounds were found to reduce the zinc deposition current efficiency and to change the properties of the zinc deposits. The effectiveness of activated carbon, two-stage cementation, and hot acid leaching on the destruction/removal of the organic compounds also was addressed. Activated carbon pretreatment of thiourea-containing electrolytes restored the current efficiency for 1-hour zinc deposits to values comparable to those obtained for thiourea-free electrolytes. The activated carbon pretreatment, however, altered the deposit morphology and orientation, but produced a cyclic voltammogram similar to that of the thiourea-free solution. Two-stage cementation did not counteract the harmful effects of thiourea. Hot acid leaching destroyed the thiourea but generated large concentrations of ferrous ion that reduced the current efficiency. The ferrous concentrations, however, were readily controlled by KMnO4 or MnO2 oxidation. None of the treatment options (activated carbon, two-stage cementation, or hot acid leaching) was effective in controlling the flotation reagents, and their moderately harmful effect on zinc electrowinning persisted. Even low concentrations of these reagents polarized zinc deposition, and this resulted in a “glue-type” zinc deposit.

  18. Cathodic hydrogen charging of zinc

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Panagopoulos, C.N.; Georgiou, E.P.; Chaliampalias, D.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: •Incorporation of hydrogen into zinc and formation of zinc hydrides. •Investigation of surface residual stresses due to hydrogen diffusion. •Effect of hydrogen diffusion and hydride formation on mechanical properties of Zn. •Hydrogen embrittlement phenomena in zinc. -- Abstract: The effect of cathodic hydrogen charging on the structural and mechanical characteristics of zinc was investigated. Hardening of the surface layers of zinc, due to hydrogen incorporation and possible formation of ZnH 2 , was observed. In addition, the residual stresses brought about by the incorporation of hydrogen atoms into the metallic matrix, were calculated by analyzing the obtained X-ray diffraction patterns. Tensile testing of the as-received and hydrogen charged specimens revealed that the ductility of zinc decreased significantly with increasing hydrogen charging time, for a constant value of charging current density, and with increasing charging current density, for a constant value of charging time. However, the ultimate tensile strength of this material was slightly affected by the hydrogen charging procedure. The cathodically charged zinc exhibited brittle transgranular fracture at the surface layers and ductile intergranular fracture at the deeper layers of the material

  19. Electrodeposition of zinc--nickel alloys coatings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dini, J W; Johnson, H R

    1977-10-01

    One possible substitute for cadmium in some applications is a zinc--nickel alloy deposit. Previous work by others showed that electrodeposited zinc--nickel coatings containing about 85 percent zinc and 15 percent nickel provided noticeably better corrosion resistance than pure zinc. Present work which supports this finding also shows that the corrosion resistance of the alloy deposit compares favorably with cadmium.

  20. Taurine zinc solid dispersions attenuate doxorubicin-induced hepatotoxicity and cardiotoxicity in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yu; Mei, Xueting; Yuan, Jingquan; Lu, Wenping; Li, Binglong; Xu, Donghui

    2015-11-15

    The clinical efficacy of anthracycline anti-neoplastic agents is limited by cardiac and hepatic toxicities. The aim of this study was to assess the hepatoprotective and cardioprotective effects of taurine zinc solid dispersions, which is a newly-synthesized taurine zinc compound, against doxorubicin-induced toxicity in Sprague-Dawley rats intraperitoneally injected with doxorubicin hydrochloride (3mg/kg) three times a week (seven injections) over 28 days. Hemodynamic parameters, levels of liver toxicity markers and oxidative stress were assessed. Taurine zinc significantly attenuated the reductions in blood pressure, left ventricular pressure and ± dp/dtmax, increases in serum alanine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase activities, and reductions in serum Zn(2+) and albumin levels (Ptaurine zinc dose-dependently increased liver superoxide dismutase activity and glutathione concentration, and decreased malondialdehyde level (PTaurine zinc dose-dependently increased liver heme oxygenase-1 and UDP-glucuronyl transferase mRNA and protein expression (Ptaurine zinc inhibited c-Jun N-terminal kinase phosphorylation by upregulating dual-specificity phosphoprotein phosphatase-1. Additionally, taurine zinc inhibited cardiomyocyte apoptosis as there was decreased TUNEL/DAPI positivity and protein expression of caspase-3. These results indicate that taurine zinc solid dispersions prevent the side-effects of anthracycline-based anticancer therapy. The mechanisms might be associated with the enhancement of antioxidant defense system partly through activating transcription to synthesize endogenous phase II medicine enzymes and anti-apoptosis through inhibiting JNK phosphorylation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Polysulfone hemodiafiltration membranes with enhanced anti-fouling and hemocompatibility modified by poly(vinyl pyrrolidone) via in situ cross-linked polymerization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhu, Lijing, E-mail: zhulijing@nimte.ac.cn; Song, Haiming; Wang, Jiarong; Xue, Lixin, E-mail: xuelx@nimte.ac.cn

    2017-05-01

    Poly(vinyl pyrrolidone) (PVP) and its copolymers have been widely employed for the modification of hemodiafiltration membranes due to their excellent hydrophilicity, antifouling and hemocompatibility. However, challenges still remain to simplify the modification procedure and to improve the utilization efficiency. In this paper, antifouling and hemocompatibility polysulfone (PSf) hemodiafiltration membranes were fabricated via in situ cross-linked polymerization of vinyl pyrrolidone (VP) and vinyltriethoxysilane (VTEOS) in PSf solutions and non-solvent induced phase separation (NIPS) technique. The prepared membranes were characterized by attenuated total reflectance Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM), which suggested that VP and VTEOS have been cross-linked copolymerized in PSf membranes. The modified PSf membranes with high polymer content showed improved hydrophilicity, ultrafiltration and protein antifouling ability. In addition, the modified PSf membranes showed lower protein adsorption, inhibited platelet adhesion and deformation, prolonged the activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT), prothrombin time (PT), and decreased the content of fibrinogen (FIB) transferring to fibrin, indicating enhanced hemocompatibility. In a word, the present work provides a simple and effective one-step modification method to construct PSf membranes with improved hydrophilicity, antifouling and hemocompatibility. - Highlights: • PSf membranes were modified by in situ cross-linked polymerization. • The modified PSf membranes showed enhanced hydrophilicity. • The anti-fouling and hemocompatibility of PSf membranes were improved.

  2. Polysulfone hemodiafiltration membranes with enhanced anti-fouling and hemocompatibility modified by poly(vinyl pyrrolidone) via in situ cross-linked polymerization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu, Lijing; Song, Haiming; Wang, Jiarong; Xue, Lixin

    2017-01-01

    Poly(vinyl pyrrolidone) (PVP) and its copolymers have been widely employed for the modification of hemodiafiltration membranes due to their excellent hydrophilicity, antifouling and hemocompatibility. However, challenges still remain to simplify the modification procedure and to improve the utilization efficiency. In this paper, antifouling and hemocompatibility polysulfone (PSf) hemodiafiltration membranes were fabricated via in situ cross-linked polymerization of vinyl pyrrolidone (VP) and vinyltriethoxysilane (VTEOS) in PSf solutions and non-solvent induced phase separation (NIPS) technique. The prepared membranes were characterized by attenuated total reflectance Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM), which suggested that VP and VTEOS have been cross-linked copolymerized in PSf membranes. The modified PSf membranes with high polymer content showed improved hydrophilicity, ultrafiltration and protein antifouling ability. In addition, the modified PSf membranes showed lower protein adsorption, inhibited platelet adhesion and deformation, prolonged the activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT), prothrombin time (PT), and decreased the content of fibrinogen (FIB) transferring to fibrin, indicating enhanced hemocompatibility. In a word, the present work provides a simple and effective one-step modification method to construct PSf membranes with improved hydrophilicity, antifouling and hemocompatibility. - Highlights: • PSf membranes were modified by in situ cross-linked polymerization. • The modified PSf membranes showed enhanced hydrophilicity. • The anti-fouling and hemocompatibility of PSf membranes were improved.

  3. THE GAS SENSORS BASED ON ZINC OXIDE (THE REVIEW)

    OpenAIRE

    Bugayova, M. E.; Koval, V. M.; Lashkarev, G. V.; Lazorenko, V. I.; Karpina, V. A.; Khranovskyy, V. D.

    2017-01-01

    The wide range of gas sensor application, in particular, in a mining industry for detection of outflow of gases, the control of gas emissions over an atmosphere at the industrial enterprises, in housing and communal services, in home appliances makes actual the review. As the systematized analysis of gas sensor based on ZnO has not being carried out — this work is of interest for development of chemical sensors based on zinc compound with high sensitivity, selectivity and stability. The resis...

  4. Low-energy electron energy losses and inelastic mean free paths in zinc, selenium, and zinc selenide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bourke, J.D.; Chantler, C.T., E-mail: chantler@unimelb.edu.au

    2014-10-15

    We compute low-energy optical energy loss spectra for the elemental solids zinc and selenium, and for the binary compound zinc selenide. The optical data are transformed via a constrained partial-pole algorithm to produce momentum-dependent electron energy loss spectra and electron inelastic mean free paths. This enables a comparison between the electron scattering behaviour in a compound solid and its constituent elements. Results cannot be explained by aggregation methods or commonly used universal curves, and prove that new approaches are required. Our work demonstrates new capabilities for the determination of fundamental material properties for a range of structures previously inaccessible to established theoretical models, and at energy levels inaccessible to most experimental techniques.

  5. Low-energy electron energy losses and inelastic mean free paths in zinc, selenium, and zinc selenide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bourke, J.D.; Chantler, C.T.

    2014-01-01

    We compute low-energy optical energy loss spectra for the elemental solids zinc and selenium, and for the binary compound zinc selenide. The optical data are transformed via a constrained partial-pole algorithm to produce momentum-dependent electron energy loss spectra and electron inelastic mean free paths. This enables a comparison between the electron scattering behaviour in a compound solid and its constituent elements. Results cannot be explained by aggregation methods or commonly used universal curves, and prove that new approaches are required. Our work demonstrates new capabilities for the determination of fundamental material properties for a range of structures previously inaccessible to established theoretical models, and at energy levels inaccessible to most experimental techniques

  6. Thermal behaviour of zinc(II) 5-chlorosalicylate complex compounds

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Györyová, K.; Chomič, J.; Kovářová, Jana

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 80, č. 2 (2005), s. 375-380 ISSN 1388-6150 Grant - others:Slovak Ministry of Education(SK) VEGA 1/2474/05 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40500505 Keywords : caffeine * chlorosalicylate complexes * nicotinamide Subject RIV: CD - Macromolecular Chemistry Impact factor: 1.425, year: 2005

  7. Maternal Zinc Intakes and Homeostatic Adjustments during Pregnancy and Lactation

    OpenAIRE

    Donangelo, Carmen Marino; King, Janet C.

    2012-01-01

    Zinc plays critical roles during embryogenesis, fetal growth, and milk secretion, which increase the zinc need for pregnancy and lactation. Increased needs can be met by increasing the dietary zinc intake, along with making homeostatic adjustments in zinc utilization. Potential homeostatic adjustments include changes in circulating zinc, increased zinc absorption, decreased zinc losses, and changes in whole body zinc kinetics. Although severe zinc deficiency during pregnancy has devastating e...

  8. In situ glass antifouling using Pt nanoparticle coating for periodic electrolysis of seawater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Yuxi; Zhao, Jin; Qiu, Ri; Zheng, Jiyong; Lin, Cunguo; Ma, Bojiang; Wang, Peng

    2015-12-01

    In situ electrochemical chlorination is a promising way to prohibit the biofouling on glass used for optical devices in seawater. To make this approach practical, a conductive glass should have low overpotential to generate Cl2, so that the electrical energy consumption, a critical issue for field application, will be low. Moreover, a long sustainability should also be taken into consideration from the application perspective. Following these criteria, we propose Pt/ITO surface to electrochemically generate Cl2, which immunizes biofouling for glass substrate. In this report, firstly, Pt nanoparticle/ITO is prepared via an electrodeposition approach. Secondly, electrocatalysis capability of Pt/ITO is elucidated, which shows the catalysis for Cl2 generation from NaCl solution and seawater has been sparked with Pt on the surface. Also, Pt/ITO is more sustainable and efficient than the bare ITO in natural seawater. Thirdly, the antifouling property is evaluated taking diatom as the target organism. Electrochemical chlorination on Pt/ITO can efficiently prevent the glass from fouling.

  9. Surface modification of polyamide reverse osmosis membrane with sulfonated polyvinyl alcohol for antifouling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yang; Wan, Ying; Pan, Guoyuan; Shi, Hongwei; Yan, Hao; Xu, Jian; Guo, Min; Wang, Zhe; Liu, Yiqun

    2017-10-01

    Sulfonated polyvinyl alcohol (SPVA) was synthesized by esterification reaction of PVA and sulfuric acid, and the structure was characterized by FTIR spectrum. Then a series of TFC membranes modified with cross-linked SPVA layer were fabricated by coating method, with glutaraldehyde as the cross-linker. The resulting TFC membranes were characterized by SEM, AFM, ATR-FTIR, XPS, streaming potential as well as static contact angle. The TFC membranes modified with SPVA exhibit decreased water flux and increased NaCl rejection with SPVA content increasing in the coating aqueous solution. The optimal PA-SPVA-0.5 sample exhibits a NaCl rejection of 99.18%, which is higher than the 98.32% of the virgin PA membrane. More importantly, the PA-SPVA-0.5 membrane shows much more improved fouling resistance to BSA and CTAB than virgin PA membrane and the TFC sample modified with PVA (PA-PVA-0.5). PA-SPVA-0.5 membrane loses about 8% of the initial flux after BSA fouling for 12 h, which is much lower than those of virgin PA and PA-PVA-0.5 membranes (28% and 15%, respectively). Furthermore, the flux recovery of the PA-SPVA-0.5 membrane reaches above 95% after cleaning. Thus, the PA-SPVA-0.5 membrane shows potential applications as antifouling RO membrane for desalination and purification.

  10. Tailoring Novel PTFE Surface Properties: Promoting Cell Adhesion and Antifouling Properties via a Wet Chemical Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabriel, Matthias; Niederer, Kerstin; Becker, Marc; Raynaud, Christophe Michel; Vahl, Christian-Friedrich; Frey, Holger

    2016-05-18

    Many biomaterials used for tissue engineering applications lack cell-adhesiveness and, in addition, are prone to nonspecific adsorption of proteins. This is especially important for blood-contacting devices such as vascular grafts and valves where appropriate surface properties should inhibit the initial attachment of platelets and promote endothelial cell colonization. As a consequence, the long-term outcome of the implants would be improved and the need for anticoagulation therapy could be reduced or even abolished. Polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE), a frequently used polymer for various medical applications, was wet-chemically activated and subsequently modified by grafting the endothelial cell (EC) specific peptide arginine-glutamic acid-aspartic acid-valine (REDV) using a bifunctional polyethylene glycol (PEG)-spacer (known to reduce platelet and nonspecific protein adhesion). Modified and control surfaces were both evaluated in terms of EC adhesion, colonization, and the attachment of platelets. In addition, samples underwent bacterial challenges. The results strongly suggested that PEG-mediated peptide immobilization renders PTFE an excellent substrate for cellular growth while simultaneously endowing the material with antifouling properties.

  11. Development of Antifouling and Bactericidal Coatings for Platelet Storage Bags Using Dopamine Chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadjesfandiari, Narges; Weinhart, Marie; Kizhakkedathu, Jayachandran N; Haag, Rainer; Brooks, Donald E

    2018-03-01

    Platelets have a limited shelf life, due to the risk of bacterial contamination and platelet quality loss. Most platelet storage bags are made of a mixture of polyvinyl chloride with a plasticizer, denoted as pPVC. To improve biocompatibility of pPVC with platelets and to inhibit bacterial biofilm formation, an antifouling polymer coating is developed using mussel-inspired chemistry. A copolymer of N,N-dimethylacrylamide and N-(3-aminopropyl)methacrylamide hydrochloride is synthesized and coupled with catechol groups, named DA51-cat. Under mild aqueous conditions, pPVC is first equilibrated with an anchoring polydopamine layer, followed by a DA51-cat layer. Measurements show this coating decreases fibrinogen adsorption to 5% of the control surfaces. One-step coating with DA51-cat does not coat pPVC efficiently although it is sufficient for coating silicon wafers and gold substrates. The dual layer coating on platelet bags resists bacterial biofilm formation and considerably decreases platelet adhesion. A cationic antimicrobial peptide, E6, is conjugated to DA51-cat then coated on silicon wafers and introduces bactericidal activity to these surfaces. Time-of-flight second ion-mass spectroscopy is successfully applied to characterize these surfaces. pPVC is widely used in medical devices; this method provides an approach to controlling biofouling and bacterial growth on it without elaborate surface modification procedures. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  12. Corals like it waxed: paraffin-based antifouling technology enhances coral spat survival.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Tebben

    Full Text Available The early post-settlement stage is the most sensitive during the life history of reef building corals. However, few studies have examined the factors that influence coral mortality during this period. Here, the impact of fouling on the survival of newly settled coral spat of Acropora millepora was investigated by manipulating the extent of fouling cover on settlement tiles using non-toxic, wax antifouling coatings. Survival of spat on coated tiles was double that on control tiles. Moreover, there was a significant negative correlation between percentage cover of fouling and spat survival across all tiles types, suggesting that fouling in direct proximity to settled corals has detrimental effects on early post-settlement survival. While previous studies have shown that increased fouling negatively affects coral larval settlement and health of juvenile and adult corals, to the best of our knowledge, this is the first study to show a direct relationship between fouling and early post-settlement survival for a broadcast spawning scleractinian coral. The negative effects of fouling on this sensitive life history stage may become more pronounced in the future as coastal eutrophication increases. Our results further suggest that targeted seeding of coral spat on artificial surfaces in combination with fouling control could prove useful to improve the efficiency of sexual reproduction-based coral propagation for reef rehabilitation.

  13. Mobile Interfaces: Liquids as a Perfect Structural Material for Multifunctional, Antifouling Surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grinthal, A; Aizenberg, J

    2014-01-14

    Life creates some of its most robust, extreme surface materials not from solids but from liquids: a purely liquid interface, stabilized by underlying nanotexture, makes carnivorous plant leaves ultraslippery, the eye optically perfect and dirt-resistant, our knees lubricated and pressure-tolerant, and insect feet reversibly adhesive and shape-adaptive. Novel liquid surfaces based on this idea have recently been shown to display unprecedented omniphobic, self-healing, anti-ice, antifouling, optical, and adaptive properties. In this Perspective, we present a framework and a path forward for developing and designing such liquid surfaces into sophisticated, versatile multifunctional materials. Drawing on concepts from solid materials design and fluid dynamics, we outline how the continuous dynamics, responsiveness, and multiscale patternability of a liquid surface layer can be harnessed to create a wide range of unique, active interfacial functions able to operate in harsh, changing environments not achievable with static solids. We discuss how, in partnership with the underlying substrate, the liquid surface can be programmed to adaptively and reversibly reconfigure from a defect-free, molecularly smooth, transparent interface through a range of finely tuned liquid topographies in response to environmental stimuli. With nearly unlimited design possibilities and unmatched interfacial properties, liquid materials as long-term stable interfaces yet in their fully liquid state may potentially transform surface design everywhere from medicine to architecture to energy infrastructure.

  14. Industrial Market Research Report: Feasibility of commercialization of the advanced antifouling coating of Copperlok, Inc.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gormley, G.J.

    1990-10-01

    The Copperlok antifouling process was designed to prevent marine growth on surfaces exposed to sea water. It is a method of bonding thermally sprayed Cu and Cu alloys onto an epoxy material containing microballoons (hollow spheres). After the epoxy cures, the surface is abraded so that the microballoons are fractured, exposing microscopic concave porosity. The sprayed material is directed to the surface, where it impregnates the pores, bridges and then welds across the surface, creating a very thin laminate of the metal materials security bonded to the bond coat and to the substrate. The Copperlok process laminates an approximate layer of Cu-Ni alloy 8 mils thick with an expected active life of 15--20 y. This report addresses the perceived acceptability of the process in several different marketplaces with the hope of directing the invention to the most receptive consumer group. The opinion surveys of the recreational marine industry were limited to the three coastal areas of the Atlantic, Gulf, and Pacific.

  15. Industrial Market Research Report: Feasibility of commercialization of the advanced antifouling coating of Copperlok, Inc

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gormley, G.J.

    1990-10-01

    The Copperlok antifouling process was designed to prevent marine growth on surfaces exposed to sea water. It is a method of bonding thermally sprayed Cu and Cu alloys onto an epoxy material containing microballoons (hollow spheres). After the epoxy cures, the surface is abraded so that the microballoons are fractured, exposing microscopic concave porosity. The sprayed material is directed to the surface, where it impregnates the pores, bridges and then welds across the surface, creating a very thin laminate of the metal materials security bonded to the bond coat and to the substrate. The Copperlok process laminates an approximate layer of Cu-Ni alloy 8 mils thick with an expected active life of 15--20 y. This report addresses the perceived acceptability of the process in several different marketplaces with the hope of directing the invention to the most receptive consumer group. The opinion surveys of the recreational marine industry were limited to the three coastal areas of the Atlantic, Gulf, and Pacific.

  16. Antifouling paint booster biocides (Irgarol 1051 and diuron) in marinas and ports of Bushehr, Persian Gulf.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saleh, Abolfazl; Molaei, Saeideh; Sheijooni Fumani, Neda; Abedi, Ehsan

    2016-04-15

    In the present study, antifouling paint booster biocides, Irgarol 1051 and diuron were measured in ports and marinas of Bushehr, Iran. Results showed that in seawater samples taken from ports and marinas, Irgarol was found at the range of less than LOD to 63.4ngL(-1) and diuron was found to be at the range of less than LOD to 29.1ngL(-1) (in Jalali marina). 3,4-dichloroaniline (3,4-DCA), as a degradation product of diuron, was also analyzed and its maximum concentration was 390ngL(-1). Results for analysis of Irgarol 1051 in sediments showed a maximum concentration of 35.4ngg(-1) dry weight in Bandargah marina. A comparison between the results of this study and those of other published works showed that Irgarol and diuron pollutions in ports and marinas of Bushehr located in the Persian Gulf were less than the average of reports from other parts of the world. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. PES Surface Modification Using Green Chemistry: New Generation of Antifouling Membranes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norhan Nady

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available A major limitation in using membrane-based separation processes is the loss of performance due to membrane fouling. This drawback can be addressed thanks to surface modification treatments. A new and promising surface modification using green chemistry has been recently investigated. This modification is carried out at room temperature and in aqueous medium using green catalyst (enzyme and nontoxic modifier, which can be safely labelled “green surface modification”. This modification can be considered as a nucleus of new generation of antifouling membranes and surfaces. In the current research, ferulic acid modifier and laccase bio-catalyst were used to make poly(ethersulfone (PES membrane less vulnerable to protein adsorption. The blank and modified PES membranes are evaluated based on e.g., their flux and protein repellence. Both the blank and the modified PES membranes (or laminated PES on silicon dioxide surface are characterized using many techniques e.g., SEM, EDX, XPS and SPM, etc. The pure water flux of the most modified membranes was reduced by 10% on average relative to the blank membrane, and around a 94% reduction in protein adsorption was determined. In the conclusions section, a comparison between three modifiers—ferulic acid, and two other previously used modifiers (4-hydroxybenzoic acid and gallic acid—is presented.

  18. PES Surface Modification Using Green Chemistry: New Generation of Antifouling Membranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nady, Norhan

    2016-04-18

    A major limitation in using membrane-based separation processes is the loss of performance due to membrane fouling. This drawback can be addressed thanks to surface modification treatments. A new and promising surface modification using green chemistry has been recently investigated. This modification is carried out at room temperature and in aqueous medium using green catalyst (enzyme) and nontoxic modifier, which can be safely labelled "green surface modification". This modification can be considered as a nucleus of new generation of antifouling membranes and surfaces. In the current research, ferulic acid modifier and laccase bio-catalyst were used to make poly(ethersulfone) (PES) membrane less vulnerable to protein adsorption. The blank and modified PES membranes are evaluated based on e.g., their flux and protein repellence. Both the blank and the modified PES membranes (or laminated PES on silicon dioxide surface) are characterized using many techniques e.g., SEM, EDX, XPS and SPM, etc. The pure water flux of the most modified membranes was reduced by 10% on average relative to the blank membrane, and around a 94% reduction in protein adsorption was determined. In the conclusions section, a comparison between three modifiers-ferulic acid, and two other previously used modifiers (4-hydroxybenzoic acid and gallic acid)-is presented.

  19. Effect of zinc from zinc sulfate on trace mineral concentrations of milk ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PRECIOUS

    2009-11-16

    Nov 16, 2009 ... It suggests that supplementation of ewes diet with zinc sulfate could be an effective way to increase zinc ... alkaline phosphates activity. Zinc supplements were .... Similar results have been reported previously when dairy cows.

  20. Studies on nanocrystalline zinc coating

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Wintec

    The particles size was also characterized by TEM analysis. Keywords. Electrochemical ... netic materials for magnetic recording, and electrocatalyst for hydrogen .... polarization behaviour was studied in the test electrolyte for zinc deposit of ...

  1. Organotins and new antifouling biocides in water and sediments from three Korean Special Management Sea Areas following ten years of tributyltin regulation: Contamination profiles and risk assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, Nguyen Hoang; Jeong, Hui-Ho; Kang, Su-Dong; Kim, Dae-Jin; Ju, Mi-Jo; Horiguchi, Toshihiro; Cho, Hyeon-Seo

    2017-08-15

    A simultaneous monitoring study on organotins (butyltins and phenyltins) and most frequently used alternative antifouling biocides (Irgarol 1051, Diuron, Sea-Nine 211 and M1) in water and sediments (n=44) collected from three Special Management Sea Areas operated by Korean government. The lower concentration of butyltins (BTs) than that of new antifouling biocides (NEW) was found in water but the significant greater concentration of BTs than that of NEW was still found in sediments. The tributyltin (TBT) levels in water exceeded the chronic criterion to protect seawater aquatic life at several sites. Even ten years after the ban of the use of TBT-based antifouling paint, the concentrations of TBT, Diuron and Irgarol 1051 in sediments from shipyards exceeded global sediment quality guidelines and potentially poses adverse risks on marine organisms and extremely high concentration of TBT up to 2304ng/g was found for a sediment collected at a shipyard. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. A Method for Evaluating the Efficacy of Antifouling Paints Using Mytilus galloprovincialis in the Laboratory in a Flow-Through System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satuito, Cyril Glenn Perez; Katsuyama, Ichiro; Ando, Hirotomo; Seki, Yasuyuki; Senda, Tetsuya

    2016-01-01

    A laboratory test with a flow-through system was designed and its applicability for testing antifouling paints of varying efficacies was investigated. Six different formulations of antifouling paints were prepared to have increasing contents (0 to 40 wt.%) of Cu2O, which is the most commonly used antifouling substance, and each formulation of paint was coated on just one surface of every test plate. The test plates were aged for 45 days by rotating them at a speed of 10 knots inside a cylinder drum. A behavioral test was then conducted using five mussels (Mytilus galloprovincialis) that were pasted onto the coated surface of each aged test plate. The number of the byssus threads produced by each mussel generally decreased with increasing Cu2O content of the paint. The newly designed method was considered valid owing to the high consistency of its results with observations from the field experiment. PMID:27959916

  3. Effect of zinc sources on yield and utilization of zinc in rice-wheat sequence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deb, D.L.

    1990-01-01

    A field experiment was conducted on an inceptisol of Delhi to evaluate three sources of zinc, namely, zinc sulphate, zincated urea and zinc oxide on yield and utilization of zinc in rice-wheat sequence. Results indicated that, amongst the three zinc sources, zinc sulphate and zincated urea gave the best performance in increasing the grain yield of rice whereas zinc oxide depressed the grain yield of wheat significantly when compared to other treatments. The highest Zn derived from fertilizer and its utilization was obtained with zinc sulphate for both rice and wheat crops. (author). 9 refs., 4 tabs

  4. Pseudoalteromonas spp. Serve as Initial Bacterial Attractants in Mesocosms of Coastal Waters but Have Subsequent Antifouling Capacity in Mesocosms and when Embedded in Paint

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bernbom, Nete; Ng, Yin; Møller, Stefan

    2013-01-01

    . Pseudoalteromonas piscicida survived on a steel surface and retained antifouling activity for at least 53 days in sterile seawater, whereas P. tunicata survived and had antifouling activity for only 1 week. However, during the first week, all Pseudoalteromonas strains facilitated rather than prevented bacterial...... attachment when used to coat stainless steel surfaces and submerged in mesocosms with natural seawater. The bacterial density on surfaces coated with sterile growth medium was 105 cells/cm2 after 7 days, whereas counts on surfaces precoated with Pseudoalteromonas were significantly higher, at 106 to 108...

  5. Quaternary oxide halides of group 15 with zinc and cadmium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rueck, Nadia

    2014-01-01

    The present thesis ''Quaternary oxide halides of group 15 with zinc and cadmium'' deals with the chemical class of oxide halides, which contain d-block element cations and pnicogens. Over the past few years compounds containing pnicogene cations are intensively investigated. The reason for this is the free electron pair of the Pn"3"+ cation, which is responsible for some interesting properties. Free electron pairs do not only impact the spatial structure of molecules but also the properties of materials. The object of this work was the synthesis and characterization of compounds containing Pn"3"+ cations with free electron pairs. Due to the structure-determining effect of these free electron pairs and in combination with halides it is possible to synthesize compounds with low-dimensional structures like chains and layers. In these compounds the structure is separated into halophilic and chalcophilic sub-structures, which are held together only by weak Van der Waals forces.

  6. Comparison of Proteome Response to Saline and Zinc Stress in Lettuce

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luigi eLucini

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Zinc salts occurring in soils can exert an osmotic stress toward plants. However, being zinc a heavy metal, some more specific effects on plant metabolisms can be forecast. In this work, lettuce has been used as a model to investigate salt and zinc stresses at proteome level through a shotgun tandem MS proteomic approach. The effect of zinc stress in lettuce, in comparison with NaCl stress, was evaluated to dissect between osmotic/oxidative stress-related effects, from those changes specifically related to zinc.The analysis of proteins exhibiting a fold change of 3 as minimum (on log 2 normalized abundances, revealed the involvement of photosynthesis (via stimulation of chlorophyll synthesis and enhanced role of photosystem I as well as stimulation of photophosphorylation. Increased glycolytic supply of energy substrates and ammonium assimilation (through formation of glutamine synthetase were also induced by zinc in soil. Similarly, protein metabolism (at both transcriptional and ribosomal level, heat shock proteins and proteolysis were affected. According to their biosynthetic enzymes, hormones appear to be altered by both the treatment and the time point considered: ethylene biosynthesis was enhanced, while production of abscisic acid was up-regulated at the earlier time point to decrease markedly and gibberellins were decreased at the later one.Besides aquaporin PIP2 synthesis, other osmotic/oxidative stress related compounds were enhanced under zinc stress, i.e. proline, hydroxycinnamic acids, ascorbate, sesquiterpene lactones and terpenoids biosynthesis.Although the proteins involved in the response to zinc stress and to salinity were substantially the same, their abundance changed between the two treatments. Lettuce response to zinc was more prominent at the first sampling point, yet showing a faster adaptation than under NaCl stress. Indeed, lettuce plants showed an adaptation after 30 days of stress, in a more pronounced way in the case

  7. In Situ Synthesis of Antimicrobial Silver Nanoparticles within Antifouling Zwitterionic Hydrogels by Catecholic Redox Chemistry for Wound Healing Application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    GhavamiNejad, Amin; Park, Chan Hee; Kim, Cheol Sang

    2016-03-14

    A multifunctional hydrogel that combines the dual functionality of both antifouling and antimicrobial capacities holds great potential for many bioapplications. Many approaches and different materials have been employed to synthesize such a material. However, a systematic study, including in vitro and in vivo evaluation, on such a material as wound dressings is highly scarce at present. Herein, we report on a new strategy that uses catecholic chemistry to synthesize antimicrobial silver nanoparticles impregnated into antifouling zwitterionic hydrogels. For this purpose, hydrophobic dopamine methacrylamide monomer (DMA) was mixed in an aqueous solution of sodium tetraborate decahydrate and DMA monomer became soluble after increasing pH to 9 due to the complexation between catechol groups and boron. Then, cross-linking polymerization of zwitterionic monomer was carried out with the solution of the protected dopamine monomer to produce a new hydrogel. When this new hydrogel comes in contact with a silver nitrate solution, silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) are formed in its structure as a result of the redox property of the catechol groups and in the absence of any other external reducing agent. The results obtained from TEM and XRD measurements indicate that AgNPs with diameters of around 20 nm had formed within the networks. FESEM images confirmed that the silver nanoparticles were homogeneously incorporated throughout the hydrogel network, and FTIR spectroscopy demonstrated that the catechol moiety in the polymeric backbone of the hydrogel is responsible for the reduction of silver ions into the AgNPs. Finally, the in vitro and in vivo experiments suggest that these mussel-inspired, antifouling, antibacterial hydrogels have great potential for use in wound healing applications.

  8. New hybrid materials based on poly(ethyleneoxide-grafted polysilazane by hydrosilylation and their anti-fouling activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thi Dieu Hang Nguyen

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to develop new coating materials based on poly(ethyleneoxide (PEO, which was grafted onto polysilazane (PSZ by hydrosilylation. Three types of PEO with different molecular weights (350, 750, 2000 g/mol were studied. The kinetics and yields of this reaction have been surveyed by 1H and 13C NMR spectroscopy. The PEO grafting-density onto PSZ by hydrosilylation increases with a reduction of the S–H/allyl ratio and a decrease of the PEO chain-length. The PEO-graft-PSZ (PSZ-PEO hybrid coatings, which can be used to prevent the adhesion of marine bacteria on surfaces, were applied by moisture curing at room temperature. The anti-adhesion performance, and thus the anti-fouling activity, of the coatings against three marine bacteria species, Clostridium sp. SR1, Neisseria sp. LC1 and Neisseria sp. SC1, was examined. The anti-fouling activity of the coatings depends on the grafting density and the chain length of PEO. The shortest PEO(350 g/mol-graft-PSZ with the highest graft density was found to have the best anti-fouling activity. As the density of grafted PEO(750 g/mol and PEO(2000 g/mol chains onto the PSZ surface is approximately equal, the relative effectiveness of these two types of PEO is controlled by the length of the PEO chain. The PEO(2000 g/mol-graft-PSZ coatings are more efficient than the PEO(750 g/mol-graft-PSZ coatings for the bacterial anti-adhesion.

  9. Zinc content of selected tissues and taste perception in rats fed zinc deficient and zinc adequate rations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boeckner, L.S.; Kies, C.

    1986-01-01

    The objective of the study was to determine the effects of feeding zinc sufficient and zinc deficient rations on taste sensitivity and zinc contents of selected organs in rats. The 36 Sprague-Dawley male weanling rats were divided into 2 groups and fed zinc deficient or zinc adequate rations. The animals were subjected to 4 trial periods in which a choice of deionized distilled water or a solution of quinine sulfate at 1.28 x 10 -6 was given. A randomized schedule for rat sacrifice was used. No differences were found between zinc deficient and zinc adequate rats in taste preference aversion scores for quinine sulfate in the first three trial periods; however, in the last trial period rats in the zinc sufficient group drank somewhat less water containing quinine sulfate as a percentage of total water consumption than did rats fed the zinc deficient ration. Significantly higher zinc contents of kidney, brain and parotid salivary glands were seen in zinc adequate rats compared to zinc deficient rats at the end of the study. However, liver and tongue zinc levels were lower for both groups at the close of the study than were those of rats sacrificed at the beginning of the study

  10. Zinc removal from wastewater by complexation-microfiltration process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trivunac Katarina

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available As a result of its wide industrial applications, zinc has become an important contaminant in aquatic environment since it is a toxic heavy metal and some of its compounds such as zinc arsenate and zinc cyanide, may be extremely hazardous. Therefore, there is a growing need for developing simple methods capable of separating and recovering trace zinc from environmental waters. Nowadays, the ultra and microfiltration method for trace metals removal from waters by the addition of water-soluble polymers into the aqueous solutions has become a significant research area. The choice of watersoluble macroligands remains important for developing this technology. Sodium carboxymethyl cellulose (Na-CMC was selected as complexing agent. The microfiltration experiments were carried out in stirred dead-end cell. To separate formed polymer-metal complex Versapor membranes were used. The concentration of heavy metal ions after microfiltration in aqueous solution was determined using atomic absorption spectroscopy (AAS. Effects of amount of complexing agent, pH value, type of anion, ionic strength and operating pressure on the flux (J and rejection coefficient (R were investigated. Experimental results indicate a considerable influence of the pH, ionic strength and type of anion on the rejection coefficient, while effect of amount of complexing agent is relatively insignificant. The Na-CMC used in the research proved to be very effective, which may be supported by the high rejection coefficients obtained (99%.

  11. Production of high purity granular metals: cadmium, zinc, lead

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shcherban A. P.

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Cadmium, zinc and lead are constituent components of many semiconductor compounds. The obtained high purity distillates and ingots are large-size elements, which is not always convenient to use, and thus require additional grinding, which does not always allow maintaining the purity of the original materials. For the growth of semiconductor and scintillation single crystals it is advisable to use "friable" granular high-purity distillates, which can be processed without the risk of contamination. For example, the European low-background experiment LUCIFER required more than 20 kg of high-purity granulated zinc, which was agreed to be supplied by NSC KIPT. This task was then extended to cadmium and lead. Motivated by these tasks, the authors of this paper propose complex processes of deep refining of cadmium, zinc and lead by vacuum distillation. A device producing granules has been developed. The process of granulation of high-purity metals is explored. The purity of produced granules for cadmium and zinc is >99,9999, and >99,9995% for lead granules. To prevent oxidation of metal granules during exposition to air, chemical methods of surface passivation were used. Organic solvent based on dimethylformamide used as a coolant improves the resistance of granules to atmospheric corrosion during the granulation of high purity Cd, Zn and Pb.

  12. Organolanthanoid compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schumann, H.

    1984-01-01

    Up to little more than a decade ago organolanthanoid compounds were still a curiosity. Apart from the description of an isolated number of cyclopentadienyl and indenyl derivatives, very few significant contributions had been made to this interesting sector of organometallic chemistry. However, subsequent systematic studies using modern preparative and analytical techniques, together with X-ray single crystal structure determinations, enabled the isolation and characterization of a large number of very interesting homoleptic and heteroleptic compounds in which the lanthanoid is bound to hydrogen, to substituted or unsubstituted cyclopentadienyl groups, to allyl or alkynyl groups, or even to phosphorus ylides, trimethylsilyl, and carbonylmetal groups. These compounds, which are all extremely sensitive to oxygen and water, open up new possibilities in the field of catalysis and have great potential in organic synthesis - as recent studies with pentamethylcyclopentadienyl derivatives, organolanthanoid(II) compounds, and hexamethyllanthanoid complexes have already shown. (orig.) [de

  13. Barium zinc diarsenate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamara Đordević

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available The title compound, BaZnAs2O7, belongs to the family of isotypic series of compounds adopting the general formula M12+M22+X2O7 (M12+ = Ca, Sr, Ba or Pb; M22+ = Mg, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn or Cd; X = P or As. Suitable single crystals were prepared under hydrothermal conditions. The framework structure is characterized by corner-sharing ZnO5 square pyramids and As2O7 groups where the Zn atoms occupy channels. X-ray diffraction analysis of single crystals twinned by non-merohedry [twin plane is (100] yielded formula BaZnAs2O7. Raman spectra confirmed the presence of a non-linear As—O—As linkage.

  14. The study and microstructure analysis of zinc and zinc oxide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Luptáková

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The given paper is closely connected with the process of the manufacturing of ZnO. The purity of the metal zinc has crucial influence on the quality of ZnO. ZnO can be produced by pyrometallurgical combustion of zinc and hard zinc. But this mentioned method of preparation leads to the creation of the enormous amount of waste including chemical complexes. On the basis of the occurrence of the residual content of other elements, it is possible to make prediction about the material behavior in the metallographic process. The input and finally materials were investigated and this investigation was done from the aspect of structural and chemical composition of the materials.

  15. Liquid-based gating mechanism with tunable multiphase selectivity and antifouling behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Xu; Hu, Yuhang; Grinthal, Alison; Khan, Mughees; Aizenberg, Joanna

    2015-03-05

    Living organisms make extensive use of micro- and nanometre-sized pores as gatekeepers for controlling the movement of fluids, vapours and solids between complex environments. The ability of such pores to coordinate multiphase transport, in a highly selective and subtly triggered fashion and without clogging, has inspired interest in synthetic gated pores for applications ranging from fluid processing to 3D printing and lab-on-chip systems. But although specific gating and transport behaviours have been realized by precisely tailoring pore surface chemistries and pore geometries, a single system capable of controlling complex, selective multiphase transport has remained a distant prospect, and fouling is nearly inevitable. Here we introduce a gating mechanism that uses a capillary-stabilized liquid as a reversible, reconfigurable gate that fills and seals pores in the closed state, and creates a non-fouling, liquid-lined pore in the open state. Theoretical modelling and experiments demonstrate that for each transport substance, the gating threshold-the pressure needed to open the pores-can be rationally tuned over a wide pressure range. This enables us to realize in one system differential response profiles for a variety of liquids and gases, even letting liquids flow through the pore while preventing gas from escaping. These capabilities allow us to dynamically modulate gas-liquid sorting in a microfluidic flow and to separate a three-phase air-water-oil mixture, with the liquid lining ensuring sustained antifouling behaviour. Because the liquid gating strategy enables efficient long-term operation and can be applied to a variety of pore structures and membrane materials, and to micro- as well as macroscale fluid systems, we expect it to prove useful in a wide range of applications.

  16. Surface modification of polyamide reverse osmosis membrane with organic-inorganic hybrid material for antifouling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yang; Wan, Ying; Pan, Guoyuan; Yan, Hao; Yao, Xuerong; Shi, Hongwei; Tang, Yujing; Wei, Xiangrong; Liu, Yiqun

    2018-03-01

    A series of thin-film composite reverse osmosis membranes based on polyamide have been modified by coating the polyvinyl alcohol and 3-mercaptopropyltriethoxysilane aqueous solution prepared by a sol-gel process on the membrane surface, followed by thermal crosslinking treatment. In order to improve the hydrophilicity of the modified TFC membranes, the membranes were then immersed into H2O2 aqueous solution to convert -SH into -SO3H. The resulting TFC membranes were characterized by SEM, AFM, ATR-FTIR, streaming potential, XPS as well as static contact angle. After surface modification with the organic-inorganic hybrid material, the TFC membranes show increased NaCl rejection and decreased water flux with increasing 3-mercaptopropyltrimethoxysilane content in coating solution. The optimal modification membrane (PA-SMPTES-0.8) exhibits a NaCl rejection of 99.29%, higher than that (97.20%) of the virgin PA membrane, and a comparable water flux to virgin PA membrane (41.7 L/m2 h vs 47.9 L/m2 h). More importantly, PA-SMPTES-0.8 membrane shows much more improved fouling resistance to BSA than virgin PA and PVA modified PA (PA-PVA-1.0) membranes. PA-SMPTES-0.8 membrane loses about 13% of the initial flux after BSA fouling for 12 h, which is lower than that of virgin PA and PA-PVA-1.0 membranes (42% and 18%). Furthermore, the flux recovery of PA-SMPTES-0.8 membrane reaches 94% after cleaning. Thus the TFC membranes modified by this organic-inorganic hybrid technology show potential applications as antifouling RO membrane for desalination and purification.

  17. Liquid-based gating mechanism with tunable multiphase selectivity and antifouling behaviour

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hou, X; Hu, YH; Grinthal, A; Khan, M; Aizenberg, J

    2015-03-04

    Living organisms make extensive use of micro- and nanometre-sized pores as gatekeepers for controlling the movement of fluids, vapours and solids between complex environments. The ability of such pores to coordinate multiphase transport, in a highly selective and subtly triggered fashion and without clogging, has inspired interest in synthetic gated pores for applications ranging from fluid processing to 3D printing and lab-on-chip systems(1-10). But although specific gating and transport behaviours have been realized by precisely tailoring pore surface chemistries and pore geometries(6,11-17), a single system capable of controlling complex, selective multiphase transport has remained a distant prospect, and fouling is nearly inevitable(11,12). Here we introduce a gating mechanism that uses a capillary-stabilized liquid as a reversible, reconfigurable gate that fills and seals pores in the closed state, and creates a non-fouling, liquid-lined pore in the open state. Theoretical modelling and experiments demonstrate that for each transport substance, the gating threshold-the pressure needed to open the pores-can be rationally tuned over a wide pressure range. This enables us to realize in one system differential response profiles for a variety of liquids and gases, even letting liquids flow through the pore while preventing gas from escaping. These capabilities allow us to dynamically modulate gas-liquid sorting in a microfluidic flow and to separate a three-phase air-water-oil mixture, with the liquid lining ensuring sustained antifouling behaviour. Because the liquid gating strategy enables efficient long-term operation and can be applied to a variety of pore structures and membrane materials, and to micro- as well as macroscale fluid systems, we expect it to prove useful in a wide range of applications.

  18. Water soluble {2-[3-(diethylamino)phenoxy]ethoxy} substituted zinc(II) phthalocyanine photosensitizers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Çakır, Dilek [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Sciences, Karadeniz Technical University, 61080 Trabzon (Turkey); Göl, Cem [Gebze Institute of Technology, Department of Chemistry, PO Box 141, Gebze, 41400, Kocaeli (Turkey); Çakır, Volkan [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Sciences, Karadeniz Technical University, 61080 Trabzon (Turkey); Durmuş, Mahmut [Gebze Institute of Technology, Department of Chemistry, PO Box 141, Gebze, 41400, Kocaeli (Turkey); Bıyıklıoğlu, Zekeriya, E-mail: zekeriya_61@yahoo.com [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Sciences, Karadeniz Technical University, 61080 Trabzon (Turkey); Kantekin, Halit [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Sciences, Karadeniz Technical University, 61080 Trabzon (Turkey)

    2015-03-15

    The new peripherally and non-peripherally tetra-{2-[3-(diethylamino)phenoxy] ethoxy} substituted zinc phthalocyanines (2a and 3a) were synthesized by cyclotetramerization of phthalonitrile derivatives (2 and 3). 2-[3-(diethylamino)phenoxy] ethoxy group was chosen as substituent because the quaternization of the diethylamino functionality on the structure of this group produced water soluble zinc phthalocyanines (2b and 3b). The water solubility is very important for many different applications such as photosensitizers in the photodynamic therapy of cancer because the water soluble photosensitizers can be injected directly to the body and they can transport to cancer cells through blood stream. The new compounds were characterized by using elemental analysis, UV–vis, IR, {sup 1}H NMR, {sup 13}C NMR and mass spectroscopies. The photophysical and photochemical properties of these novel photosensitizer compounds were examined in DMSO (both non-ionic and ionic complexes) and in PBS (for ionic complexes) solutions. The investigation of these properties is very important for the usage of the compounds as photosensitizers for PDT because determination of these properties is the first stage of potential of the compounds as photosensitizers. The bovine serum albumin (BSA) and DNA binding behaviour of the studied water soluble zinc (II) phthalocyanines were also investigated in PBS solutions for the determination of biological activity of these compounds. - Highlights: • Synthesis of water soluble zinc phthalocyanines. • Photophysical and photochemical properties for phthalocyanines. • Photodynamic therapy studies.

  19. Water soluble {2-[3-(diethylamino)phenoxy]ethoxy} substituted zinc(II) phthalocyanine photosensitizers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Çakır, Dilek; Göl, Cem; Çakır, Volkan; Durmuş, Mahmut; Bıyıklıoğlu, Zekeriya; Kantekin, Halit

    2015-01-01

    The new peripherally and non-peripherally tetra-{2-[3-(diethylamino)phenoxy] ethoxy} substituted zinc phthalocyanines (2a and 3a) were synthesized by cyclotetramerization of phthalonitrile derivatives (2 and 3). 2-[3-(diethylamino)phenoxy] ethoxy group was chosen as substituent because the quaternization of the diethylamino functionality on the structure of this group produced water soluble zinc phthalocyanines (2b and 3b). The water solubility is very important for many different applications such as photosensitizers in the photodynamic therapy of cancer because the water soluble photosensitizers can be injected directly to the body and they can transport to cancer cells through blood stream. The new compounds were characterized by using elemental analysis, UV–vis, IR, 1 H NMR, 13 C NMR and mass spectroscopies. The photophysical and photochemical properties of these novel photosensitizer compounds were examined in DMSO (both non-ionic and ionic complexes) and in PBS (for ionic complexes) solutions. The investigation of these properties is very important for the usage of the compounds as photosensitizers for PDT because determination of these properties is the first stage of potential of the compounds as photosensitizers. The bovine serum albumin (BSA) and DNA binding behaviour of the studied water soluble zinc (II) phthalocyanines were also investigated in PBS solutions for the determination of biological activity of these compounds. - Highlights: • Synthesis of water soluble zinc phthalocyanines. • Photophysical and photochemical properties for phthalocyanines. • Photodynamic therapy studies

  20. Influence of DNA-methylation on zinc homeostasis in myeloid cells: Regulation of zinc transporters and zinc binding proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kessels, Jana Elena; Wessels, Inga; Haase, Hajo; Rink, Lothar; Uciechowski, Peter

    2016-09-01

    The distribution of intracellular zinc, predominantly regulated through zinc transporters and zinc binding proteins, is required to support an efficient immune response. Epigenetic mechanisms such as DNA methylation are involved in the expression of these genes. In demethylation experiments using 5-Aza-2'-deoxycytidine (AZA) increased intracellular (after 24 and 48h) and total cellular zinc levels (after 48h) were observed in the myeloid cell line HL-60. To uncover the mechanisms that cause the disturbed zinc homeostasis after DNA demethylation, the expression of human zinc transporters and zinc binding proteins were investigated. Real time PCR analyses of 14 ZIP (solute-linked carrier (SLC) SLC39A; Zrt/IRT-like protein), and 9 ZnT (SLC30A) zinc transporters revealed significantly enhanced mRNA expression of the zinc importer ZIP1 after AZA treatment. Because ZIP1 protein was also enhanced after AZA treatment, ZIP1 up-regulation might be the mediator of enhanced intracellular zinc levels. The mRNA expression of ZIP14 was decreased, whereas zinc exporter ZnT3 mRNA was also significantly increased; which might be a cellular reaction to compensate elevated zinc levels. An enhanced but not significant chromatin accessibility of ZIP1 promoter region I was detected by chromatin accessibility by real-time PCR (CHART) assays after demethylation. Additionally, DNA demethylation resulted in increased mRNA accumulation of zinc binding proteins metallothionein (MT) and S100A8/S100A9 after 48h. MT mRNA was significantly enhanced after 24h of AZA treatment also suggesting a reaction of the cell to restore zinc homeostasis. These data indicate that DNA methylation is an important epigenetic mechanism affecting zinc binding proteins and transporters, and, therefore, regulating zinc homeostasis in myeloid cells. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.