A Holographic Model for Paramagnetism/antiferromagnetism Phase Transition
Cai, Rong-Gen
2014-01-01
In this paper we build a holographic model of paramagnetism/antiferromagnetism phase transition, which is realized by introducing two real antisymmetric tensor fields coupling to the background gauge field strength and interacting with each other in a dyonic black brane background. In the case without external magnetic field and in low temperatures, the magnetic moments condense spontaneously in antiparallel manner with the same magnitude, which leads to an antiferromagnetic phase. In the case with weak external magnetic field, the magnetic susceptibility density has a peak at the critical temperature and satisfies the Curie-Weiss law in the paramagnetic phase of antiferromagnetism.
Antiferromagnetic phase transition and spin correlations in NiO
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Chatterji, Tapan; McIntyre, G.J.; Lindgård, Per-Anker
2009-01-01
We have investigated the antiferromagnetic (AF) phase transition and spin correlations in NiO by high-temperature neutron diffraction below and above TN. We show that AF phase transition is a continuous second-order transition within our experimental resolution. The spin correlations manifested...... by this process. We determined the critical exponents =0.328±0.002 and =0.64±0.03 and the Néel temperature TN=530±1 K. These critical exponents suggest that NiO should be regarded as a 3dXY system...
Quantum phase transition between cluster and antiferromagnetic states
Son, Wonmin; Fazio, Rosario; Hamma, Alioscia; Pascazio, Saverio; Vedral, Vlatko
2011-01-01
We study a Hamiltonian system describing a three spin-1/2 cluster-like interaction competing with an Ising-like exchange. We show that the ground state in the cluster phase possesses symmetry protected topological order. A continuous quantum phase transition occurs as result of the competition between the cluster and Ising terms. At the critical point the Hamiltonian is self-dual. The geometric entanglement is also studied. Our findings in one dimension corroborate the analysis of the two dimensional generalization of the system, indicating, at a mean field level, the presence of a direct transition between an antiferromagnetic and a valence bond solid ground state.
Phase transitions in antiferromagnets with a NaCl structure
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kassan-Ogly, F.A. [Institute of Metal Physics, Ural Division, Russian Academy of Sciences, ul. S.Kovalevskoi 18, Ekaterinburg 620219 (Russian Federation)]. E-mail: felix.kassan-ogly@imp.uran.ru; Filippov, B.N. [Institute of Metal Physics, Ural Division, Russian Academy of Sciences, ul. S.Kovalevskoi 18, Ekaterinburg 620219 (Russian Federation)
2006-05-15
A revised derivation scheme of possible magnetic structures in an FCC lattice with the nearest- and next-nearest-neighbor interactions taken into account is proposed. A model of simultaneous magnetic and structural phase transitions of the first order is developed for antiferromagnets with a NaCl structure and with a strong cubic magnetic anisotropy on the base of synthesis of magnetic modified 6-state Potts model and theoretical models of structural phase transitions in cubic crystals. It is shown that the high-temperature diffuse magnetic scattering of neutrons transforms into magnetic Bragg reflections below Neel point.
Phase transitions in antiferromagnets with a NaCl structure
Kassan-Ogly, F. A.; Filippov, B. N.
2006-05-01
A revised derivation scheme of possible magnetic structures in an FCC lattice with the nearest- and next-nearest-neighbor interactions taken into account is proposed. A model of simultaneous magnetic and structural phase transitions of the first order is developed for antiferromagnets with a NaCl structure and with a strong cubic magnetic anisotropy on the base of synthesis of magnetic modified 6-state Potts model and theoretical models of structural phase transitions in cubic crystals. It is shown that the high-temperature diffuse magnetic scattering of neutrons transforms into magnetic Bragg reflections below Néel point.
Quantum Phase Transitions in Anti-ferromagnetic Planar Cubic Lattices
Wellard, C J; Wellard, Cameron; Orus, Roman
2004-01-01
Motivated by its relation to an NP-hard problem we analyze the ground state properties of anti-ferromagnetic Ising-spin networks in planar cubic lattices under the action of homogeneous transverse and longitudinal magnetic fields. We consider different instances of the cubic geometry and find a set of quantum phase transitions for each one of the systems, which we characterize by means of entanglement behavior and majorization theory. Entanglement scaling at the critical region is in agreement with results arising from conformal symmetry, therefore even the simplest planar systems can display very large amounts of quantum correlation. No conclusion can be made as to the scaling behavior of the minimum energy gap, with the data allowing equally good fits to exponential and power law decays. Analysis of entanglement and especially of majorization instead of the energy spectrum proves to be a good way of detecting quantum phase transitions in highly frustrated configurations.
Antiferromagnet-long-period structure phase transition in RMn2O5 oxides
Men'shenin, V. V.; Nikolaev, V. V.; Dmitriev, A. V.
2011-07-01
An analysis of the magnetic phase transition from an antiferromagnetic into an incommensurate phase in oxides RMn2O5 has been performed. It has been shown that this is a second-order phase transition and that it can occur through one of complete irreducible representations of the space group Pbam, i.e., without a decrease in the symmetry of the crystal lattice. It has been established that the decrease in the electric polarization of the oxides in this transition is due to the development of long-period magnetic ordering.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
JI An-Chun; TIAN Guang-Shan
2007-01-01
In the present paper, we investigate the quantum phase transition in a spatially anisotropic antiferromagnetic Heisenberg model of S = 1 with single-ion energy anisotropy. By using the Schwinger boson representation, we calculate the Gaussian correction to the critical value Jc⊥ caused by quantum spin fluctuations. We find that, for the positive single-ion energy, a nonzero value of Jc⊥ is always needed to stabilize the antiferromagnetic long-range order in this model. It resolves a difference among literature and shows clearly that the effect of quantum fluctuations may qualitatively change a result obtained by the mean-field theories on lower-dimensional systems.
Quantum phase transition induced by Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya interactions in the kagome antiferromagnet
Cepas, Olivier; Fong, C. M.; Leung, P. W.; Lhuillier, C.
2008-01-01
We argue that the S=1/2 kagome antiferromagnet undergoes a quantum phase transition when the Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya coupling is increased. For $DD_c$ the system develops antiferromagnetic long-range order. The quantum critical point is found to be $D_c \\simeq 0.1J$ using exact diagonalizations and finite-size scaling. This suggests that the kagome compound ZnCu$_3(OH)$_6$Cl$_3$ may be in a quantum critical region controlled by this fixed point.
Li, Hai-Feng
2016-10-01
Understanding the nature of all possible ground states and especially magnetic-field-driven phase transitions of antiferromagnets represents a major step towards unravelling the real nature of interesting phenomena such as superconductivity, multiferroicity or magnetoresistance in condensed-matter science. Here a consistent mean-field calculation endowed with antiferromagnetic (AFM) exchange interaction (J), easy axis anisotropy (γ), uniaxial single-ion anisotropy (D) and Zeeman coupling to a magnetic field parallel to the AFM easy axis consistently unifies the AFM state, spin-flop (SFO) and spin-flip transitions. We reveal some mathematically allowed exotic spin states and fluctuations depending on the relative coupling strength of (J, γ and D). We build the three-dimensional (J, γ and D) and two-dimensional (γ and D) phase diagrams clearly displaying the equilibrium phase conditions and discuss the origins of various magnetic states as well as their transitions in different couplings. Besides the traditional first-order type one, we unambiguously confirm an existence of a second-order type SFO transition. This study provides an integrated theoretical model for the magnetic states of collinear antiferromagnets with two interpenetrating sublattices and offers a practical approach as an alternative to the estimation of magnetic exchange parameters (J, γ and D), and the results may shed light on nontrivial magnetism-related properties of bulks, thin films and nanostructures of correlated electron systems.
Phase transition in Heisenberg stacked triangular antiferromagnets: end of a controversy.
Ngo, V Thanh; Diep, H T
2008-09-01
By using the Wang-Landau flat-histogram Monte Carlo (MC) method for very large lattice sizes never simulated before, we show that the phase transition in the frustrated Heisenberg stacked triangular antiferromagnet is of first order, contrary to results of earlier MC simulations using old-fashioned methods. Our result lends support to the conclusion of a nonperturbative renormalization group performed on an effective Hamiltonian. It puts an end to a 20-year -long controversial issue.
Vinit, A.; Raman, C.
2017-01-01
We have experimentally investigated the quench dynamics of antiferromagnetic spinor Bose-Einstein condensates in the vicinity of a zero temperature quantum phase transition at zero quadratic Zeeman shift q . The rate of instability shows good agreement with predictions based upon solutions to the Bogoliubov-de Gennes equations. A key feature of this work was removal of magnetic field inhomogeneities, resulting in a steep change in behavior near the transition point. The quadratic Zeeman shift at the transition point was resolved to 250 mHz uncertainty, equivalent to an energy resolution of kB× (12 pK). A small (2-3 σ ) shift of the transition point was observed, from q =0 to q =+650 mHz, whose physical mechanism is currently unknown. In this work, we demonstrate a sub-Hz precision measurement of a phase transition in quantum gases. It paves the way toward observing shifts of the transition point due to finite particle number N that scale as 1 /N , and also to potential Heisenberg limited spectroscopy with antiferromagnetic spinor gases [L.-N. Wu and L. You, Phys. Rev. A 93, 033608 (2016), 10.1103/PhysRevA.93.033608].
Quantum phase transitions in the Heisenberg J1-J2 triangular antiferromagnet in a magnetic field
Ye, Mengxing; Chubukov, Andrey V.
2017-01-01
We present the zero-temperature phase diagram of a Heisenberg antiferromagnet on a frustrated triangular lattice with nearest-neighbor (J1) and next-nearest-neighbor (J2) interactions, in a magnetic field. We show that the classical model has an accidental degeneracy for all J2/J1 and all fields, but the degeneracy is lifted by quantum fluctuations. We show that at large spin S , for J2/J11 , the transition remains first order, with a finite hysteresis width, but for S =1 /2 and, possibly, S =1 , there appears a new intermediate phase without a quasiclassical long-range order.
Fermi surface reconstruction and multiple quantum phase transitions in the antiferromagnet CeRhIn5.
Jiao, Lin; Chen, Ye; Kohama, Yoshimitsu; Graf, David; Bauer, E D; Singleton, John; Zhu, Jian-Xin; Weng, Zongfa; Pang, Guiming; Shang, Tian; Zhang, Jinglei; Lee, Han-Oh; Park, Tuson; Jaime, Marcelo; Thompson, J D; Steglich, Frank; Si, Qimiao; Yuan, H Q
2015-01-20
Conventional, thermally driven continuous phase transitions are described by universal critical behavior that is independent of the specific microscopic details of a material. However, many current studies focus on materials that exhibit quantum-driven continuous phase transitions (quantum critical points, or QCPs) at absolute zero temperature. The classification of such QCPs and the question of whether they show universal behavior remain open issues. Here we report measurements of heat capacity and de Haas-van Alphen (dHvA) oscillations at low temperatures across a field-induced antiferromagnetic QCP (Bc0 ≈ 50 T) in the heavy-fermion metal CeRhIn5. A sharp, magnetic-field-induced change in Fermi surface is detected both in the dHvA effect and Hall resistivity at B0* ≈ 30 T, well inside the antiferromagnetic phase. Comparisons with band-structure calculations and properties of isostructural CeCoIn5 suggest that the Fermi-surface change at B0* is associated with a localized-to-itinerant transition of the Ce-4f electrons in CeRhIn5. Taken in conjunction with pressure experiments, our results demonstrate that at least two distinct classes of QCP are observable in CeRhIn5, a significant step toward the derivation of a universal phase diagram for QCPs.
Pezzini, S.; Cobaleda, C.; Piot, B. A.; Bellani, V.; Diez, E.
2014-09-01
We report on magnetotransport measurements up to 30 T performed on a bilayer graphene Hall bar, enclosed by two thin hexagonal boron nitride flakes. In the quantum Hall regime, our high-mobility sample exhibits an insulating state at the neutrality point which evolves into a metallic phase when a strong in-plane field is applied, as expected for a transition from a canted antiferromagnetic to a ferromagnetic spin-ordered phase. We individuate a temperature-independent crossing in the four-terminal resistance as a function of the total magnetic field, corresponding to the critical point of the transition. We show that the critical field scales linearly with the perpendicular component of the field, as expected from the underlying competition between the Zeeman energy and interaction-induced anisotropies. A clear scaling of the resistance is also found and a universal behavior is proposed in the vicinity of the transition.
Critical Space-Time Networks and Geometric Phase Transitions from Frustrated Edge Antiferromagnetism
Trugenberger, Carlo A
2015-01-01
Recently I proposed a simple dynamical network model for discrete space-time which self-organizes as a graph with Hausdorff dimension d_H=4. The model has a geometric quantum phase transition with disorder parameter (d_H-d_s) where d_s is the spectral dimension of the dynamical graph. Self-organization in this network model is based on a competition between a ferromagnetic Ising model for vertices and an antiferromagnetic Ising model for edges. In this paper I solve a toy version of this model defined on a bipartite graph in the mean field approximation. I show that the geometric phase transition corresponds exactly to the antiferromagnetic transition for edges, the dimensional disorder parameter of the former being mapped to the staggered magnetization order parameter of the latter. The model has a critical point with long-range correlations between edges, where a continuum random geometry can be defined, exactly as in Kazakov's famed 2D random lattice Ising model but now in any number of dimensions.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
VOJISLAV I. SRDANOV
2000-06-01
Full Text Available Temperature-dependent EPR data of potassium-electro-sodalite (PES, K8[Al6Si6O24](e-2, are consistent with the occurrence of an antiferromagnetic phase transition at 71±2 K. PES is a Mott insulator which contains an unpaired electron in every sodalite cage. The same transition in sodium-electro-sodalite occurs at a considerably lower temperature (42 K, indicating that the exchange interaction among localized electrons is stronger in PES. PES is obtained by the inclusion of one potassium atom in every cage of potassium sodalite. The 27Al MAS NMR resonance of PES is shifted downfield in respect to diamagnetic potassium-sodalite, K6[Al6Si6O24]. The NMR shift is due to unpaired electrons and is caused by hyperfine Fermi contact interaction.
Hida, Kazuo
2006-07-01
The multiple reentrant quantum phase transitions in the S=1/2 antiferromagnetic Heisenberg chains with random bond alternation in the magnetic field are investigated by the density matrix renormalization group method combined with interchain mean field approximation. It is assumed that odd numbered bonds are antiferromagnetic with strength J and even numbered bonds can take the values JS and JW (JS > J > JW > 0) randomly with the probabilities p and 1- p, respectively. The pure version ( p=0 and 1) of this model has a spin gap but exhibits a field-induced antiferromagnetism in the presence of interchain coupling if Zeeman energy due to the magnetic field exceeds the spin gap. For 0 < p < 1, antiferromagnetism is induced by randomness at the small field region where the ground state is disordered due to the spin gap in the pure version. At the same time, this model exhibits randomness-induced plateaus at several values of magnetization. The antiferromagnetism is destroyed on the plateaus. As a consequence, we find a series of reentrant quantum phase transitions between transverse antiferromagnetic phases and disordered plateau phases with the increase of magnetic field for a moderate strength of interchain coupling. Above the main plateaus, the magnetization curve consists of a series of small plateaus and jumps between them. It is also found that antiferromagnetism is induced by infinitesimal interchain coupling at the jumps between the small plateaus. We conclude that this antiferromagnetism is supported by the mixing of low-lying excited states by the staggered interchain mean field even though the spin correlation function is short ranged in the ground state of each chain.
Quantum phase transition of the randomly diluted heisenberg antiferromagnet on a square lattice
Kato; Todo; Harada; Kawashima; Miyashita; Takayama
2000-05-01
Ground-state magnetic properties of the diluted Heisenberg antiferromagnet on a square lattice are investigated by means of the quantum Monte Carlo method with the continuous-time loop algorithm. It is found that the critical concentration of magnetic sites is independent of the spin size S, and equal to the two-dimensional percolation threshold. However, the existence of quantum fluctuations makes the critical exponents deviate from those of the classical percolation transition. Furthermore, we found that the transition is not universal, i.e., the critical exponents significantly depend on S.
First Order Phase Transition of Plaquette Ordering in SU(4) Antiferromagnets
Mishra, Anup; Ma, Michael; Zhang, Fu-Chun
2002-03-01
Spin systems with orbital degeneracy may have an ideal limit with SU(4) degeneracy(Phys. Rev. Lett 81,3527 (1998)). Based on MFT and variational calculations, it was proposed that the ground state of the SU(4) system in 2D is a spin and orbital liquid. Finite-sized numerical calculations on square lattice further support this proposition(Eur. Phys. J. B17,367 (2000)). The numerical work also suggests the ground state to be 4-fold degenerate. We propose that the 4-fold degeneracy is due to spontaneous formation of plaquettes with alternating plaquettes of strong and weak correlations. Using fermion MFT on square and triangular lattice, we find at zero temperature that the ground state is a state of disconnected plaquettes. The discrete symmetry of plaquette ordering allows for a finite temperature phase transition from the disordered phase to the ordered phase even in 2D. Within MFT, the transition is found to be first order for both the square and triangular lattice. Nevertheless, there are important differences between the transitions on the two lattices.
Yamagata, Atsushi
1994-01-01
We perform the Monte Carlo simulations of the hard-sphere lattice gas on the simple cubic lattice with nearest neighbour exclusion. The critical activity is estimated, $z_{\\rm c} = 1.0588 \\pm 0.0003$. Using a relation between the hard-sphere lattice gas and the antiferromagnetic Ising model in an external magnetic field, we conclude that there is no re-entrant phase transition of the latter on the simple cubic lattice.
Shore, Joel D.; Thurston, George M.
2015-12-01
We report a charge-patterning phase transition on two-dimensional square lattices of titratable sites, here regarded as protonation sites, placed in a low-dielectric medium just below the planar interface between this medium and a salt solution. We calculate the work-of-charging matrix of the lattice with use of a linear Debye-Hückel model, as input to a grand-canonical partition function for the distribution of occupancy patterns. For a large range of parameter values, this model exhibits an approximate inverse cubic power-law decrease of the voltage produced by an individual charge, as a function of its in-lattice separation from neighboring titratable sites. Thus, the charge coupling voltage biases the local probabilities of proton binding as a function of the occupancy of sites for many neighbors beyond the nearest ones. We find that even in the presence of these longer-range interactions, the site couplings give rise to a phase transition in which the site occupancies exhibit an alternating, checkerboard pattern that is an analog of antiferromagnetic ordering. The overall strength W of this canonical charge coupling voltage, per unit charge, is a function of the Debye length, the charge depth, the Bjerrum length, and the dielectric coefficients of the medium and the solvent. The alternating occupancy transition occurs above a curve of thermodynamic critical points in the (p H-p K ,W ) plane, the curve representing a charge-regulation analog of variation of the Néel temperature of an Ising antiferromagnet as a function of an applied, uniform magnetic field. The analog of a uniform magnetic field in the antiferromagnet problem is a combination of p H-p K and W , and 1 /W is the analog of the temperature in the antiferromagnet problem. We use Monte Carlo simulations to study the occupancy patterns of the titratable sites, including interactions out to the 37th nearest-neighbor category (a distance of √{74 } lattice constants), first validating simulations
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Heidarian, A.; Bali, R.; Grenzer, J.; Wilhelm, R.A.; Heller, R.; Yildirim, O.; Lindner, J.; Potzger, K.
2015-09-01
Ion irradiation induced modifications of the thermomagnetic properties of equiatomic FeRh thin films have been investigated. The application of 20 keV Ne{sup +} ions at different fluencies leads to broadening of the antiferromagnetic to ferromagnetic phase transition as well as a shift of the transition temperature towards lower temperatures with increasing ion fluence. Moreover, the ferromagnetic background at low temperatures generated by the ion irradiation leads to pronounced saturation magnetisation at 5 K. Complete erasure of the transition, i.e. ferromagnetic ordering through the whole temperature regime was achieved at a Ne{sup +} fluence of 3 × 10{sup 14} ions/cm{sup 2}. It does not coincide with the complete randomization of the chemical ordering of the crystal lattice.
Huang, Yi-Zhen; Xi, Bin; Chen, Xi; Li, Wei; Wang, Zheng-Chuan; Su, Gang
2016-06-01
The quantum phase transition, scaling behaviors, and thermodynamics in the spin-1/2 quantum Heisenberg model with antiferromagnetic coupling J>0 in the armchair direction and ferromagnetic interaction J^{'}Heisenberg O(3) universality. A zero magnetization plateau is observed in the dimerized phase, whose width decreases with increasing α. A phase diagram in the coupling ratio α-magnetic field h plane is obtained, where four phases, including dimerized, stripe, canted stripe, and polarized, are identified. It is also unveiled that the temperature dependence of the specific heat C(T) for different α's intersects precisely at one point, similar to that of liquid ^{3}He under different pressures and several magnetic compounds under various magnetic fields. The scaling behaviors of Q_{2}, ρ, and C(T) are carefully analyzed. The susceptibility is compared with the experimental data to give the magnetic parameters of both compounds.
Huang, Yi-Zhen; Xi, Bin; Chen, Xi; Li, Wei; Wang, Zheng-Chuan; Su, Gang
2016-06-01
The quantum phase transition, scaling behaviors, and thermodynamics in the spin-1/2 quantum Heisenberg model with antiferromagnetic coupling J >0 in the armchair direction and ferromagnetic interaction J'Monte Carlo method. By calculating the Binder ratio Q2 and spin stiffness ρ in two directions for various coupling ratios α =J'/J under different lattice sizes, we found that a quantum phase transition from the dimerized phase to the stripe phase occurs at the quantum critical point αc=-0.93 . Through the finite-size scaling analysis on Q2, ρx, and ρy, we determined the critical exponent related to the correlation length ν to be 0.7212(8), implying that this transition falls into a classical Heisenberg O(3) universality. A zero magnetization plateau is observed in the dimerized phase, whose width decreases with increasing α . A phase diagram in the coupling ratio α -magnetic field h plane is obtained, where four phases, including dimerized, stripe, canted stripe, and polarized, are identified. It is also unveiled that the temperature dependence of the specific heat C (T ) for different α 's intersects precisely at one point, similar to that of liquid 3He under different pressures and several magnetic compounds under various magnetic fields. The scaling behaviors of Q2, ρ , and C (T ) are carefully analyzed. The susceptibility is compared with the experimental data to give the magnetic parameters of both compounds.
Rufo, Sabrina; Mendonça, Griffith; Plascak, J A; de Sousa, J Ricardo
2013-09-01
The ground-state properties of the quasi-one-dimensional spin-1/2 antiferromagnetic Heisenberg model is investigated by using a variational method. Spins on chains along the x direction are antiferromagnetically coupled with exchange J>0, while spins between chains in the y direction are coupled either ferromagnetically (J' 0). The staggered and the colinear antiferromagnetic magnetizations are computed and their dependence on the anisotropy parameter λ=|J'|/J is analyzed. It is found that an infinitesimal interchain coupling parameter is sufficient to stabilize a long-range order with either a staggered magnetization m_{s} (J' > 0) or a colinear antiferromagnetic magnetization m_{caf} (J' < 0), both behaving as ≃λ¹/² for λ → 0.
Magnetic phase diagrams of classical triangular and kagome antiferromagnets
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Gvozdikova, M V [Department of Physics, Kharkov National University, 61077 Kharkov (Ukraine); Melchy, P-E; Zhitomirsky, M E, E-mail: mike.zhitomirsky@cea.fr [Service de Physique Statistique, Magnetisme et Supraconductivite, UMR-E9001 CEA-INAC/UJF, 17 rue des Martyrs, 38054 Grenoble (France)
2011-04-27
We investigate the effect of geometrical frustration on the H-T phase diagrams of the classical Heisenberg antiferromagnets on triangular and kagome lattices. The phase diagrams for the two models are obtained from large-scale Monte Carlo simulations. For the kagome antiferromagnet, thermal fluctuations are unable to lift degeneracy completely and stabilize translationally disordered multipolar phases. We find a substantial difference in the temperature scales of the order by disorder effect related to different degeneracy of the low- and the high-field classical ground states in the kagome antiferromagnet. In the low-field regime, the Kosterlitz-Thouless transition into a spin-nematic phase is produced by unbinding of half-quantum vortices.
Magnetic phase diagrams of classical triangular and kagome antiferromagnets.
Gvozdikova, M V; Melchy, P-E; Zhitomirsky, M E
2011-04-27
We investigate the effect of geometrical frustration on the H-T phase diagrams of the classical Heisenberg antiferromagnets on triangular and kagome lattices. The phase diagrams for the two models are obtained from large-scale Monte Carlo simulations. For the kagome antiferromagnet, thermal fluctuations are unable to lift degeneracy completely and stabilize translationally disordered multipolar phases. We find a substantial difference in the temperature scales of the order by disorder effect related to different degeneracy of the low- and the high-field classical ground states in the kagome antiferromagnet. In the low-field regime, the Kosterlitz-Thouless transition into a spin-nematic phase is produced by unbinding of half-quantum vortices.
Antiferromagnetic phase diagram of the cuprate superconductors
Nunes, L. H. C. M.; Teixeira, A. W.; Marino, E. C.
2017-02-01
Taking the spin-fermion model as the starting point for describing the cuprate superconductors, we obtain an effective nonlinear sigma-field hamiltonian, which takes into account the effect of doping in the system. We obtain an expression for the spin-wave velocity as a function of the chemical potential. For appropriate values of the parameters we determine the antiferromagnetic phase diagram for the YBa2Cu3O6+x compound as a function of the dopant concentration in good agreement with the experimental data. Furthermore, our approach provides a unified description for the phase diagrams of the hole-doped and the electron doped compounds, which is consistent with the remarkable similarity between the phase diagrams of these compounds, since we have obtained the suppression of the antiferromagnetic phase as the modulus of the chemical potential increases. The aforementioned result then follows by considering positive values of the chemical potential related to the addition of holes to the system, while negative values correspond to the addition of electrons.
The Berezinskii-Kosterlitz-Thouless transition and correlations in the XY kagome antiferromagnet
Cherepanov, V B; Podivilov, E V
2001-01-01
The problem of the Berezinskii-Kosterlitz-Thouless transition in the highly frustrated XY antiferromagnetic is solved. The transition temperature is found. It is shown that the spin correlation function exponentially decays with distance even in the low-temperature phase, in contrast to the order parameter correlation function, which decays algebraically with distance
Shimizu, Akihiro; Aoki, Koji; Sakakibara, Kazuhiko; Ichinose, Ikuo; Matsui, Tetsuo
2011-02-01
We study a system of doped antiferromagnet in three dimensions at finite temperatures using the t-J model, a canonical model of strongly correlated electrons. We employ the slave-fermion representation of electrons, in which an electron is described as a composite of a charged spinless holon and a chargeless spinon. We introduce two kinds of U(1) gauge fields on links as auxiliary fields, one describing resonating valence bonds of antiferromagnetic nearest-neighbor spin pairs and the other for nearest-neighbor hopping amplitudes of holons and spinons in the ferromagnetic channel. To perform a numerical study of the system, we integrate out the fermionic holon field by using the hopping expansion in powers of the hopping amplitude, which is legitimate for the region in and near the insulating phase. The resultant effective model is described in terms of bosonic spinons, two U(1) gauge fields, and a collective field for hole pairs. We study this model by means of Monte Carlo simulations, calculating the specific heat, spin correlation functions, and instanton densities. We obtain a phase diagram in the hole concentration-temperature plane, which is in good agreement with that observed recently for clean and homogeneous underdoped samples.
Solé, Ricard V
2011-01-01
Phase transitions--changes between different states of organization in a complex system--have long helped to explain physics concepts, such as why water freezes into a solid or boils to become a gas. How might phase transitions shed light on important problems in biological and ecological complex systems? Exploring the origins and implications of sudden changes in nature and society, Phase Transitions examines different dynamical behaviors in a broad range of complex systems. Using a compelling set of examples, from gene networks and ant colonies to human language and the degradation o
Thomson, R I; Chatterji, T; Carpenter, M A
2014-04-01
Resonant ultrasound spectroscopy has been used to monitor variations in the elastic and anelastic behaviour of polycrystalline CoF2 through the temperature interval 10-290 K and in the frequency range ∼0.4-2 MHz. Marked softening, particularly of the shear modulus, and a peak in attenuation occur as the Néel point (TN=39 K) is approached from both high and low temperatures. Although the effective thermodynamic behaviour can be represented semiquantitatively with a Bragg-Williams model for a system with spin 1/2, the magnetoelastic coupling follows a pattern which is closely analogous to that of a Landau tricritical transition which is co-elastic in character. Analysis of lattice parameter data from the literature confirms that linear spontaneous strains scale with the square of the magnetic order parameter and combine to give effective shear and volume strains on the order of 1‰. Softening of the shear modulus at T>TN is attributed to coupling of acoustic modes with dynamical local ordering of spins and can be represented by a Vogel-Fulcher expression. At Tmechanism is attributed to spin-lattice relaxations under the influence of externally applied dynamic shear stress. CoF2 provides a reference or end-member behaviour against which the likely antiferromagnetic component of magnetoelastic behaviour in more complex multiferroic materials, with additional displacive instabilities, Jahn-Teller effects and ferroelastic microstructures, can be compared.
Field-driven transitions in the dipolar pyrochlore antiferromagnet Gd2Ti2O7
Cépas, Olivier; Shastry, B. Sriram
2004-05-01
We present a mean-field theory for magnetic-field-driven transitions in dipolar coupled gadolinium titanate Gd2Ti2O7 pyrochlore system. Low-temperature neutron scattering yields a phase that can be regarded as a eight sublattice antiferromagnet, in which long-ranged ordered moments and fluctuating moments coexist. Our theory gives parameter regions where such a phase is realized, and predicts several other phases, with transitions amongst them driven by magnetic field as well as temperature. We find several instances of local disorder parameters describing the transitions.
Bao, Wei; Broholm, C.; Aeppli, G.; Carter, S. A.; Dai, P.; Rosenbaum, T. F.; Honig, J. M.; Metcalf, P.; Trevino, S. F.
1998-11-01
Magnetic correlations in all four phases of pure and doped vanadium sesquioxide (V2O3) have been examined by magnetic thermal-neutron scattering. Specifically, we have studied the antiferromagnetic and paramagnetic phases of metallic V2-yO3, the antiferromagnetic insulating and paramagnetic metallic phases of stoichiometric V2O3, and the antiferromagnetic and paramagnetic phases of insulating V1.944Cr0.056O3. While the antiferromagnetic insulator can be accounted for by a localized Heisenberg spin model, the long-range order in the antiferromagnetic metal is an incommensurate spin-density wave, resulting from a Fermi surface nesting instability. Spin dynamics in the strongly correlated metal are dominated by spin fluctuations with a ``single lobe'' spectrum in the Stoner electron-hole continuum. Furthermore, our results in metallic V2O3 represent an unprecedentedly complete characterization of the spin fluctuations near a metallic quantum critical point, and provide quantitative support for the self-consistent renormalization theory for itinerant antiferromagnets in the small moment limit. Dynamic magnetic correlations for ħω
Watanabe, Tadataka; Hara, Shigeo; Ikeda, Shin-Ichi; Tomiyasu, Keisuke
2011-07-01
Ultrasound velocity measurements of the orbitally frustrated spinel GeCo2O4 reveal unique elastic anomalies within the antiferromagnetic phase. Temperature dependence of shear moduli exhibits a minimum within the antiferromagnetic phase, suggesting the coupling of shear acoustic phonons to molecular spin-orbit excitations. Magnetic-field dependence of elastic moduli exhibits diplike anomalies, being interpreted as magnetic-field-induced metamagnetic and structural transitions. These elastic anomalies suggest that the survival of geometrical frustration, and the interplay of spin, orbital, and lattice degrees of freedom evoke a set of phenomena in the antiferromagnetic phase.
Kondo Screening and Fermi Surface in the Antiferromagnetic Metal Phase
Yamamoto, Seiji; Si, Qimiao
2006-03-01
We address the Kondo effect deep inside the antiferromagnetic metal phase of a Kondo lattice Hamiltonian with SU(2) invariance. The local- moment component is described in terms of a non-linear sigma model. The Fermi surface of the conduction electron component is taken to be sufficiently small, so that it is not spanned by the antiferromagnetic wavevector. The effective low energy form of the Kondo coupling simplifies drastically, corresponding to the uniform component of the magnetization that forward-scatters the conduction electrons on their own Fermi surface. We use a combined bosonic and fermionic (Shankar) renormalization group procedure to analyze this effective theory and study the Kondo screening and Fermi surface in the antiferromagnetic phase. The implications for the global magnetic phase diagram, as well as quantum critical points, of heavy fermion metals are discussed.
Surface antiferromagnetism and incipient metal-insulator transition in strained manganite films
Cossu, Fabrizio
2013-06-21
Using first-principles calculations, we show that the (001) surface of the ferromagnet La0.7Sr0.3MnO3 under an epitaxial compressive strain favors antiferromagnetic (AF) order in the surface layers, coexisting with ferromagnetic (FM) bulk order. Surface antiferromagnetism is accompanied by a very marked surface-related spectral pseudogap, signaling an incomplete metal-insulator transition at the surface. The different relaxation and rumpling of the MnO2 and LaO surface planes in the two competing magnetic phases cause distinct work-function changes, which are of potential diagnostic use. The AF phase is recognized as an extreme surface-assisted case of the combination of in-plane AF super-exchange and vertical FM double-exchange couplings that rules magnetism in manganites under in-plane compression.
Gitterman, Moshe
2014-09-01
In discussing phase transitions, the first thing that we have to do is to define a phase. This is a concept from thermodynamics and statistical mechanics, where a phase is defined as a homogeneous system. As a simple example, let us consider instant coffee. This consists of coffee powder dissolved in water, and after stirring it we have a homogeneous mixture, i.e., a single phase. If we add to a cup of coffee a spoonful of sugar and stir it well, we still have a single phase -- sweet coffee. However, if we add ten spoonfuls of sugar, then the contents of the cup will no longer be homogeneous, but rather a mixture of two homogeneous systems or phases, sweet liquid coffee on top and coffee-flavored wet sugar at the bottom...
Duan, T. F.; Ren, W. J.; Liu, W.; Zhang, Z. D.
2016-08-01
The magnetic structure of MnSn2 and magnetic phase transitions in this compound have been investigated by magnetic measurements on single crystals. The results show that two antiferromagnetic (AFM) states exist below 325 K and that a transition between these two phases occurs at 74 K. Applying a magnetic field (H) has great influence on the transition temperature. An anomalous magnetization process at low fields occurs when the magnetic field applied along the [110] direction, which is ascribed to the contribution of the basal anisotropy. Based on the data for the magnetization processes and the phase transition of the present single crystal, the H-T phase diagram has been established.
Katayama, Kazuya; Kurita, Nobuyuki; Tanaka, Hidekazu
2015-06-01
We have systematically investigated the variation of the exchange parameters and the ground state in the S =1/2 kagome-lattice antiferromagnet (Rb1 -xCsx )2Cu3SnF12 via magnetic measurements using single crystals. One of the parent compounds, Rb2Cu3SnF12 , which has a distorted kagome lattice accompanied by four sorts of nearest-neighbor exchange interaction, has a disordered ground state described by a pinwheel valence-bond-solid state. The other parent compound, Cs2Cu3SnF12 , which has a uniform kagome lattice at room temperature, has an ordered ground state with the q =0 spin structure. The analysis of magnetic susceptibilities shows that with increasing cesium concentration x , the exchange parameters increase with the tendency to be uniform. It was found that the ground state is disordered for x 0.53 . The pseudogap observed for x 0.53 approach zero at xc≃0.53 . This is indicative of the occurrence of a quantum phase transition at xc.
Windsor, Y. W.; Tanaka, Yoshikazu; Scagnoli, V.; Garganourakis, M.; de Souza, R. A.; Medarde, M.; Cheong, S.-W.; Staub, U.
2016-12-01
We employ resonant soft x-ray diffraction (RSXD) to isolate the signal from the CE-type antiferromagnetic phase of (La,Pr)1- xC axMn O3 (with x ≈3 /8 ), and follow only this phase through the known phases of the material in the B -T phase diagram. This material is known to exhibit a range of electronic ordering phenomena, most notably a metal-insulator transition (associated with colossal magnetoresistance) and phase separation between the antiferromagnetic phase and a ferromagnetic phase. Bulk magnetization measurements under the same B -T conditions were also conducted, giving a full picture of both phases for direct side-by-side comparison. The comparison specifically focuses on the metal-insulator transition. Upon magnetic field ramping to this transition, we find that the CE-type order undergoes a sharp quench at high temperatures (above phase coexistence temperatures) but that at lower temperatures, where the CE order is metastable, the transition broadens significantly. At the lowest temperatures, where a spin glass-type phase is expected, a slow annihilation of remanent CE domains is observed. Finally, a refined phase diagram is presented.
Val'kov, V. V.; Zlotnikov, A. O.
2016-12-01
On the basis of the periodic Anderson model, the microscopic Ginzburg-Landau equations for heavy-fermion superconductors in the coexistence phase of superconductivity and antiferromagnetism have been derived. The obtained expressions are valid in the vicinity of quantum critical point of heavy-fermion superconductors when the onset temperatures of antiferromagnetism and superconductivity are sufficiently close to each other. It is shown that the formation of antiferromagnetic ordering causes a decrease of the critical temperature of superconducting transition and order parameter in the phase of coexisting superconductivity and antiferromagnetism.
Emergent Power-Law Phase in the 2D Heisenberg Windmill Antiferromagnet: A Computational Experiment.
Jeevanesan, Bhilahari; Chandra, Premala; Coleman, Piers; Orth, Peter P
2015-10-23
In an extensive computational experiment, we test Polyakov's conjecture that under certain circumstances an isotropic Heisenberg model can develop algebraic spin correlations. We demonstrate the emergence of a multispin U(1) order parameter in a Heisenberg antiferromagnet on interpenetrating honeycomb and triangular lattices. The correlations of this relative phase angle are observed to decay algebraically at intermediate temperatures in an extended critical phase. Using finite-size scaling we show that both phase transitions are of the Berezinskii-Kosterlitz-Thouless type, and at lower temperatures we find long-range Z(6) order.
Coupling-induced ferromagnetic transitions in ferroelectromagnets of weak antiferromagnetic order
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
LI Qichang; LIU Junming
2006-01-01
A Monte-Carlo simulation on phase transitions in ferroelectromagnets (FEMs) in which a weak antiferromagnetic ordering occurs at the Neel point TN far below the ferroelectric ordering point TE was performed. It is revealed that an intrinsic coupling between spins and electric-dipoles ( mp -coupling) does result in a weak ferromagnetic transition from the paramagnetic state at a temperature far above TN, as long as the coupling is strong enough. The magnetoelectric properties as a function of temperature, mp -coupling strength and external electric and magnetic fields were investigated. A mean-field calculation based on the Heisenberg model was performed and a rough consistency between the simulated and calculated ferromagnetic transitions was shown.
Revealing novel quantum phases in quantum antiferromagnets on random lattices
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
R. Yu
2009-01-01
Full Text Available Quantum magnets represent an ideal playground for the controlled realization of novel quantum phases and of quantum phase transitions. The Hamiltonian of the system can be indeed manipulated by applying a magnetic field or pressure on the sample. When doping the system with non-magnetic impurities, novel inhomogeneous phases emerge from the interplay between geometric randomness and quantum fluctuations. In this paper we review our recent work on quantum phase transitions and novel quantum phases realized in disordered quantum magnets. The system inhomogeneity is found to strongly affect phase transitions by changing their universality class, giving the transition a novel, quantum percolative nature. Such transitions connect conventionally ordered phases to unconventional, quantum disordered ones - quantum Griffiths phases, magnetic Bose glass phases - exhibiting gapless spectra associated with low-energy localized excitations.
Competing antiferromagnetic and spin-glass phases in a hollandite structure
Crespo, Y.; Andreanov, A.; Seriani, N.
2013-07-01
We introduce a simple lattice model with Ising spins as a zeroth-order approximation of the hollandite-type magnetic compounds. We argue that geometrical frustration of the lattice in combination with nearest-neighbor antiferromagnetic (AFM) interactions are responsible for the appearance of a spin-glass phase in presence of disorder. We investigate this system numerically using parallel tempering. The model reproduces magnetic transitions present in some oxides with hollandite structure and displays a rich phenomenology: in the absence of disorder we have identified five different ground states, depending on the relative strength and sign of the interactions: one ferromagnetically ordered, three antiferromagnetically ordered, and one disordered, macroscopically degenerate ground state. Remarkably, for the sets of AFM couplings having an AFM ground state in the clean system, there exists a critical value of the disorder above which the ground state becomes a spin glass while maintaining all the couplings antiferromagnetically. This model presents this kind of transition with nearest-neighbor frustrated AFM interactions. We argue that this model is useful for understanding the relation between AFM coupling, disorder, and appearance of spin-glass phases.
Phase Diagram of Antiferromagnetically Exchange-Coupled Bilayer
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
GUO Guang-Hua; ZHANG Guang-Fu; SUN Li-Yuan; Peter A. J. de Groot
2008-01-01
Magnetic hysteresis properties of antiferromagnetically exchange-coupled bilayer structures, in which the two magnetic layers have different magnetic parameters and thicknesses, are studied within the framework of the Stoner-Wohifarth model. Analytical expressions for the switching fields corresponding to the linear magnetic states are obtained. By adjusting the magnetic parameters or thicknesses of layers, nine different types of easyaxis hysteresis loops may exist. The phase diagram of easy-axis hysteresis loops is mapped in the k,1 and k,2 plane, where k,1 and k,2 are the ratios of magnetic anisotropy to the interlayer exchange coupling of the two magnetic layers, respectively.
Masuda, Hiroshi; Okubo, Tsuyoshi; Kawamura, Hikaru
2012-08-03
Motivated by the recent experiment on kagome-lattice antiferromagnets, we study the zero-field ordering behavior of the antiferromagnetic classical Heisenberg model on a uniaxially distorted kagome lattice by Monte Carlo simulations. A first-order transition, which has no counterpart in the corresponding undistorted model, takes place at a very low temperature. The origin of the transition is ascribed to a cooperative proliferation of topological excitations inherent to the model.
Sürgers, Christoph; Wolf, Thomas; Adelmann, Peter; Kittler, Wolfram; Fischer, Gerda; Löhneysen, Hilbert v.
2017-01-01
The anomalous Hall effect (AHE), which in long-range ordered ferromagnets appears as a voltage transverse to the current and usually is proportional to the magnetization, often is believed to be of negligible size in antiferromagnets due to their low uniform magnetization. However, recent experiments and theory have demonstrated that certain antiferromagnets with a non-collinear arrangement of magnetic moments exhibit a sizeable spontaneous AHE at zero field due to a non-vanishing Berry curvature arising from the quantum mechanical phase of the electron’s wave functions. Here we show that antiferromagnetic Mn5Si3 single crystals exibit a large AHE which is strongly anisotropic and shows multiple transitions with sign changes at different magnetic fields due to field-induced rearrangements of the magnetic structure despite only tiny variations of the total magnetization. The presence of multiple non-collinear magnetic phases offers the unique possiblity to explore the details of the AHE and the sensitivity of the Hall effect on the details of the magnetic texture. PMID:28218287
Sürgers, Christoph; Wolf, Thomas; Adelmann, Peter; Kittler, Wolfram; Fischer, Gerda; Löhneysen, Hilbert V
2017-02-20
The anomalous Hall effect (AHE), which in long-range ordered ferromagnets appears as a voltage transverse to the current and usually is proportional to the magnetization, often is believed to be of negligible size in antiferromagnets due to their low uniform magnetization. However, recent experiments and theory have demonstrated that certain antiferromagnets with a non-collinear arrangement of magnetic moments exhibit a sizeable spontaneous AHE at zero field due to a non-vanishing Berry curvature arising from the quantum mechanical phase of the electron's wave functions. Here we show that antiferromagnetic Mn5Si3 single crystals exibit a large AHE which is strongly anisotropic and shows multiple transitions with sign changes at different magnetic fields due to field-induced rearrangements of the magnetic structure despite only tiny variations of the total magnetization. The presence of multiple non-collinear magnetic phases offers the unique possiblity to explore the details of the AHE and the sensitivity of the Hall effect on the details of the magnetic texture.
de Queiroz, S. L. A.; Domany, Eytan
1995-01-01
We investigate an antiferromagnetic triangular Ising model with anisotropic ferromagnetic interactions between next-nearest neighbours, originally proposed by Kitatani and Oguchi (J. Phys. Soc. Japan {\\bf 57}, 1344 (1988)). The phase diagram as a function of temperature and the ratio between first- and second- neighbour interaction strengths is thoroughly examined. We search for a Kosterlitz-Thouless transition to a state with algebraic decay of correlations, calculating the correlation lengt...
Kawamura, Hikaru; Arimori, Takuya
2002-02-18
Ordering of the geometrically frustrated two-dimensional Heisenberg antiferromagnet on a pyrochlore slab is studied by Monte Carlo simulations. In contrast to the kagomé Heisenberg antiferromagnet, the model exhibits locally noncoplanar spin structures at low temperatures, bearing nontrivial chiral degrees of freedom. Under certain conditions, the model exhibits a novel Kosterlitz-Thouless-type transition at a finite temperature associated with these chiral degrees of freedom.
Dynamic aspect of the chiral phase transition in the mode coupling theory
Ohnishi, K; Ohta, K
2005-01-01
We analyze the dynamic aspect of the chiral phase transition. We apply the mode coupling theory to the linear sigma model and derive the kinetic equation for the chiral phase transition. We challenge Hohenberg and Halperin's classification scheme of dynamic critical phenomena in which the dynamic universality class of the chiral phase transition has been identified with that of the antiferromagnet. We point out a crucial difference between the chiral dynamics and the antiferromagnet system. We also calculate the dynamic critical exponent for the chiral phase transition. Our result is $z=1-\\eta/2\\cong 0.98$ which is contrasted with $z=d/2=1.5$ of the antiferromagnet.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Finazzi, M.; Brambilla, A.; Biagioni, P.; Graf, J.; Gweon, G.-H.; Scholl, A.; Lanzara, A.; Duo, L.
2006-09-07
We report experimental evidence for a transition in theinterface coupling between an antiferromagnetic film and a ferromagneticsubstrate. The transition is observed in a thin epitaxial NiO film grownon top of Fe(001) as the film thickness is increased. Photoemissionelectron microscopy excited with linearly polarized x rays shows that theNiO film is antiferromagnetic at room temperature with in-plane uniaxialmagnetic anisotropy. The anisotropy axis is perpendicular to the Fesubstrate magnetization when the NiO thickness is less than about 15A,but rapidly becomes parallel to the Fe magnetization for a NiO coveragehigher than 25 A.
Wang, Yi-Xu; Zhang, Hu; Wu, Mei-Ling; Tao, Kun; Li, Ya-Wei; Yan, Tim; Long, Ke-Wen; Long, Teng; Pang, Zheng; Long, Yi
2016-12-01
The magnetic properties and magnetocaloric effects (MCE) of HoNiGa compound are investigated systematically. The HoNiGa exhibits a weak antiferromagnetic (AFM) ground state below the Ńeel temperature TN of 10 K, and the AFM ordering could be converted into ferromagnetic (FM) ordering by external magnetic field. Moreover, the field-induced FM phase exhibits a high saturation magnetic moment and a large change of magnetization around the transition temperature, which then result in a large MCE. A large -ΔSM of 22.0 J/kg K and a high RC value of 279 J/kg without magnetic hysteresis are obtained for a magnetic field change of 5 T, which are comparable to or even larger than those of some other magnetic refrigerant materials in the same temperature range. Besides, the μ0H2/3 dependence of well follows the linear fitting according to the mean-field approximation, suggesting the nature of second-order FM-PM magnetic transition under high magnetic fields. The large reversible MCE induced by metamagnetic transition suggests that HoNiGa compound could be a promising material for magnetic refrigeration in low temperature range. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 51671022 and 51427806), the Beijing Natural Science Foundation, China (Grant No. 2162022), and the Fundamental Research Funds for the Central Universities, China (Grant No. FRF-TP-15-002A3).
Griffiths phase behaviour in a frustrated antiferromagnetic intermetallic compound
Ghosh, Krishanu; Mazumdar, Chandan; Ranganathan, R.; Mukherjee, S.
2015-10-01
The rare coexistence of a Griffiths phase (GP) and a geometrically frustrated antiferromagnetism in the non-stoichiometric intermetallic compound GdFe0.17Sn2 (the paramagnetic Weiss temperature θp ~ -59 K) is reported in this work. The compound forms in the Cmcm space group with large structural anisotropy (b/c ~ 4). Interestingly, all the atoms in the unit cell possess the same point group symmetry (Wycoff position 4c), which is rather rare. The frustration parameter, f = |θp|/TN has been established as 3.6, with the Néel temperature TN and Griffiths temperature TG being 16.5 and 32 K, respectively. The TG has been determined from the heat capacity measurement and also from the magnetocaloric effect (MCE). It is also shown that substantial difference in GP region may exist between zero field and field cooled measurements - a fact hitherto not emphasized so far.
Distinct spin liquids and their transitions in spin-1/2 XXZ kagome antiferromagnets.
He, Yin-Chen; Chen, Yan
2015-01-23
By using the density matrix renormalization group approach, we study spin-liquid phases of spin-1/2 XXZ kagome antiferromagnets. We find that the emergence of the spin-liquid phase is independent of the anisotropy of the XXZ interaction. In particular, the two extreme limits-the Ising (a strong S^{z} interaction) and the XY (zero S^{z} interaction)-host the same spin-liquid phases as the isotropic Heisenberg model. Both a time-reversal-invariant spin liquid and a chiral spin liquid with spontaneous time-reversal symmetry breaking are obtained. We show that they evolve continuously into each other by tuning the second- and the third-neighbor interactions. And last, we discuss possible implications of our results for the nature of spin liquid in nearest-neighbor XXZ kagome antiferromagnets, including the nearest-neighbor spin-1/2 kagome antiferromagnetic Heisenberg model.
Magnetic phase transitions in layered intermetallic compounds
Mushnikov, N. V.; Gerasimov, E. G.; Rosenfeld, E. V.; Terent'ev, P. B.; Gaviko, V. S.
2012-10-01
Magnetic, magnetoelastic, and magnetotransport properties have been studied for the RMn2Si2 and RMn6Sn6 (R is a rare earth metal) intermetallic compounds with natural layered structure. The compounds exhibit wide variety of magnetic structures and magnetic phase transitions. Substitution of different R atoms allows us to modify the interatomic distances and interlayer exchange interactions thus providing the transition from antiferromagnetic to ferromagnetic state. Near the boundary of this transition the magnetic structures are very sensitive to the external field, temperature and pressure. The field-induced transitions are accompanied by considerable change in the sample size and resistivity. It has been shown that various magnetic structures and magnetic phase transitions observed in the layered compounds arise as a result of competition of the Mn-Mn and Mn-R exchange interactions.
Supersymmetry protected topological phases of isostatic lattices and kagome antiferromagnets
Lawler, Michael J.
2016-10-01
I generalize the theory of phonon topological band structures of isostatic lattices to frustrated antiferromagnets. I achieve this with a discovery of a many-body supersymmetry (SUSY) in the phonon problem of balls and springs and its connection to local constraints satisfied by ground states. The Witten index of the SUSY model demands the Maxwell-Calladine index of mechanical structures. "Spontaneous supersymmetry breaking" is identified as the need to gap all modes in the bulk to create the topological isostatic lattice state. Since ground states of magnetic systems also satisfy local constraint conditions (such as the vanishing of the total spin on a triangle), I identify a similar SUSY structure for many common models of antiferromagnets including the square, triangluar, kagome, pyrochlore nearest-neighbor antiferromagnets, and the J2=J1/2 square-lattice antiferromagnet. Remarkably, the kagome family of antiferromagnets is the analog of topological isostatic lattices among this collection of models. Thus, a solid-state realization of the theory of phonon topological band structure may be found in frustrated magnetic materials.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Bhattacharjee, A. E-mail: ashis62@rediffmail.com; Miyazaki, Y.; Sorai, M
2004-09-01
Heat capacity studies of the layered molecule-based magnetic material {l_brace}N(n-C{sub 5}H{sub 11}){sub 4}[Mn{sup II}Fe{sup III}(ox){sub 3}]{r_brace}{sub {infinity}} (ox=oxalato) have been made in the 2-280 K range. Two distinct heat capacity anomalies were detected at 27.1 K (T{sub N}) and 226 K corresponding to magnetic and structural phase transitions, respectively, along with a hump around 23 K. The magnetic heat capacities above T{sub N} can be well represented by S=5/2 two-dimensional antiferromagnetic Heisenberg model of a honeycomb lattice with intralayer exchange interaction J/k{sub B}=-3.3 K. Application of spin-wave theory indicated the existence of a very weak interlayer magnetic interaction below T{sub N}. The anomaly at 27.1 K is due to the antiferromagnetic transition, in conformity with the magnetic results reported earlier. The hump around 23 K might be associated with the existing uncompensated magnetic moments. The estimated magnetic entropy (33.22 J K{sup -1} mol{sup -1}) is close to the expected magnetic entropy (R ln (6x6)=29.80 J K{sup -1} mol{sup -1}) for the spin multiplicity of high spin Mn{sup II} and Fe{sup III} ions. The heat capacity anomaly at 226 K may be assigned to a structural phase transition of order-disorder type due to increasing conformational change of the n-C{sub 5}H{sub 11} chains in the organic cation.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Fernández-Pacheco, A., E-mail: af457@cam.ac.uk; Mansell, R.; Petit, D.; Lee, J. H.; Cowburn, R. P. [Cavendish Laboratory, University of Cambridge, J. J. Thomson Avenue, Cambridge CB3 0HE (United Kingdom); Ummelen, F. C.; Swagten, H. J. M. [Department of Applied Physics, Center for NanoMaterials, Eindhoven University of Technology, P.O. Box 513, 5600 MB Eindhoven (Netherlands)
2014-09-01
We have designed a bilayer synthetic antiferromagnet where the order of layer reversal can be selected by varying the sweep rate of the applied magnetic field. The system is formed by two ultra-thin ferromagnetic layers with different proximities to the spin reorientation transition, coupled antiferromagnetically using Ruderman-Kittel-Kasuya-Yosida interactions. The different dynamic magnetic reversal behavior of both layers produces a crossover in their switching fields for field rates in the kOe/s range. This effect is due to the different effective anisotropy of both layers, added to an appropriate asymmetric antiferromagnetic coupling between them. Field-rate controlled selective switching of perpendicular magnetic anisotropy layers as shown here can be exploited in sensing and memory applications.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Petry, W.; Neuhaus, J. [Techn. Universitaet Muenchen, Physik Department E13, Munich (Germany)
1996-11-01
Many elements transform from a high temperature bcc phase to a more dense packed temperature phase. The great majority of these transitions are of 1st order, displacive and reconstructive. The lattice potentials which govern these martensitic transitions can be probed by inelastic neutron scattering, thereby answering fundamental questions like : Will the transition be announced by dynamical or static fluctuations? What are the trajectories for the displacements needed for the transformation? Does the vibrational entropy stabilize the high temperature phase? Are the unusual transport properties in these materials related to their ability to transform? (author) 17 figs., 1 tab., 46 refs.
Mott glass phase in a diluted bilayer Heisenberg quantum antiferromagnet
Ma, Nv-Sen; Sandvik, Anders W.; Yao, Dao-Xin
2015-09-01
We use quantum Monte Carlo simulations to study a dimer-diluted S = 1/2 Heisenberg model on a bilayer square lattice with intralayer interaction J1 and interlayer interaction J2. Below the classical percolation threshold pc, the system has three phases reachable by tuning the interaction ratio g = J2/J1: a Néel ordered phase, a gapless quantum glass phase, and a gapped quantum paramagnetic phase. We present the ground-state phase diagram in the plane of dilution p and interaction ratio g. The quantum glass phase is certified to be of the gapless Mott glass type, having a uniform susceptibility vanishing at zero temperature T and following a stretched exponential form at T > 0; χu exp(-b/Tα) with α < 1. At the phase transition point from Neel ordered to Mott glass, we find that the critical exponents are different from those of the clean system described by the standard O(3) universality class in 2+1 dimensions.
Henriques, M. S.; Gorbunov, D. I.; Kriegner, D.; Vališka, M.; Andreev, A. V.; Matěj, Z.
2016-02-01
Structural changes through the first-order paramagnetic-antiferromagnetic phase transition of Dy3Ru4Al12 at 7 K have been studied by means of X-ray diffraction and thermal expansion measurements. The compound crystallizes in a hexagonal crystal structure of Gd3Ru4Al12 type (P63/mmc space group), and no structural phase transition has been found in the temperature interval between 2.5 and 300 K. Nevertheless, due to the spin-lattice coupling the crystal volume undergoes a small orthorhombic distortion of the order of 2×10-5 as the compound enters the antiferromagnetic state. We propose that the first-order phase transition is not driven by the structural changes but rather by the exchange interactions present in the system.
Phase transitions modern applications
Gitterman, Moshe
2014-01-01
This book provides a comprehensive review of the theory of phase transitions and its modern applications, based on the five pillars of the modern theory of phase transitions i.e. the Ising model, mean field, scaling, renormalization group and universality. This expanded second edition includes, along with a description of vortices and high temperature superconductivity, a discussion of phase transitions in chemical reaction and moving systems. The book covers a close connection between phase transitions and small world phenomena as well as scale-free systems such as the stock market and the Internet. Readership: Scientists working in different fields of physics, chemistry, biology and economics as well as teaching material for undergraduate and graduate courses.
Numerical study of the spin-flop transition in anisotropic spin-1/2 antiferromagnets
Yunoki, S
2002-01-01
Magnetization processes of the spin-1/2 antiferromagnetic XXZ model in two and three spatial dimensions are studied using a quantum Monte Carlo method based on stochastic series expansions. A recently developed operator-loop algorithm enables us to show clear evidence of a first-order phase transiti
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
许可; 李未
1999-01-01
Phase transition is an important feature of SAT problem. For random k-SAT model, it is proved that as r（ratio of clauses to variables） increases, the structure of solutions will undergo a sudden change like satisfiability phase transition when r reaches a threshold point (r=rcr). This phenomenon shows that the satisfying truth assignments suddenly shift from being relatively different from each other to being very similar to each other.##属性不符
Multiple charge density wave transitions in the antiferromagnets R NiC2 (R =Gd ,Tb)
Shimomura, S.; Hayashi, C.; Hanasaki, N.; Ohnuma, K.; Kobayashi, Y.; Nakao, H.; Mizumaki, M.; Onodera, H.
2016-04-01
X-ray scattering and electrical resistivity measurements were performed on GdNiC2 and TbNiC2. We found a set of satellite peaks characterized by q1=(0.5 ,η ,0 ) below T1, at which the resistivity shows a sharp inflection, suggesting the charge density wave (CDW) formation. The value of η decreases with decreasing temperature below T1, and then a transition to a commensurate phase with q1 C=(0.5 ,0.5 ,0 ) takes place. The diffuse scattering observed above T1 indicates the presence of soft phonon modes associated with CDW instabilities at q1 and q2=(0.5 ,0.5 ,0.5 ) . The long-range order given by q2 is developed in addition to that given by q1 C in TbNiC2, while the short-range correlation with q2 persists even at 6 K in GdNiC2. The amplitude of the q1 C lattice modulation is anomalously reduced below an antiferromagnetic transition temperature TN in GdNiC2. In contrast, the q2 order vanishes below TN in TbNiC2. We demonstrate that R NiC2 (R = rare earth) compounds exhibit similarities with respect to their CDW phenomena, and discuss the effects of magnetic transitions on CDWs. We offer a possible displacement pattern of the modulated structure characterized by q1 C and q2 in terms of frustration.
Lifshitz Transitions in Magnetic Phases of the Periodic Anderson Model
Kubo, Katsunori
2015-09-01
We investigate the reconstruction of a Fermi surface, which is called a Lifshitz transition, in magnetically ordered phases of the periodic Anderson model on a square lattice with a finite Coulomb interaction between f electrons. We apply the variational Monte Carlo method to the model by using the Gutzwiller wavefunctions for the paramagnetic, antiferromagnetic, ferromagnetic, and charge-density-wave states. We find that an antiferromagnetic phase is realized around half-filling and a ferromagnetic phase is realized when the system is far away from half-filling. In both magnetic phases, Lifshitz transitions take place. By analyzing the electronic states, we conclude that the Lifshitz transitions to large ordered-moment states can be regarded as itinerant-localized transitions of the f electrons.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Loeffler, J.; Wagner, W.; Svygenhoven, H. van [Paul Scherrer Inst. (PSI), Villigen (Switzerland); Meier, J.; Doudin, B.; Ansermet, J.P. [Ecole Polytechnique Federale, Lausanne (Switzerland)
1997-09-01
The magnetic properties of nanostructured materials on the basis of Fe and Ni have been investigated with a SQUID magnetometer, complementary to the small-angle neutron scattering study reported in the same volume. Measurements of the coercive field in a temperature range from 5 to 300 K confirm the validity of the random anisotropy model for our nanostructured systems. Furthermore, we obtain information about the presence and distribution of the antiferromagnetic oxides, joining the ferromagnetic grains. (author) 2 figs., 3 refs.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
B. Zhang; X. Lu; Z.X. Qin; H.B. Chang; X.Y. Ruan
2002-01-01
The aims of the work were to study the effect of Ge (0-6wt. %) on the paramagnetic-antiferromagnetic transition and martensitic transformation of Fe-Mn alloy using the susceptibility, microstructure examination, X-ray diffraction (XRD) and lattice parameter measurement. Ge lowers the Neel temperature, TN, and enhances the mag-netic susceptibility X, changing the Pauli paramagnetism above TN to paramagnetism state obeying the Curie Weiss law, which is essentially similar to that of γ-Fe-Mn alloys containing Al or Si; Ge depresses γ → ε martensitic transformation, which attribute to Ge increasing the stacking fault energy; Moreover, Ge increases the lat-tice parameter of 7 phase, and low content Ge increases the lattice parameter of γphase more than that of high Ge content. Comparing Ge(4s2 4p2 ) with Si(3s2 3p2 ) and Al(3s2 3p1), which have the same outer-shell of electron structures, we found that their effects on the martensitic transformation of Fe-Mn alloy are completely different. The result suggests the outer-shell of electron is not the main factor of governing the Ms temperature of Fe-Mn alloy although it is essential in the alloy's antiferromagnetic transition. The relation among the Ms temperature, stacking fault energy and lattice parameter of austenite, has been discussed in brief.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
L. Wang
2013-08-01
Full Text Available Magnetic thermal hysteresis (MTH associated with a paramagnetic (PM-antiferromagnetic (AFM phase transition was found in an Fe-24.4Mn-5.9Si-5.1Cr shape-memory alloy. Aside from the magnetic field (H, the driving rate (v can also tune the critical temperature of the magnetic transition and cause an increase in MTH. The magnetic phase diagram obtained is discussed. The equation for MTH was deduced based on the Landau model for a PM-AFM transition that includes H and v dependence, which gives a reasonable account of the experimental results.
Dynamics of Electrically Driven Martensitic Phase Transitions in Fe Nanoislands
Gerhard, L.; Wesselink, R.J.H.; Ostanin, S.; Ernst, A.; Wulfhekel, W.
2013-01-01
Magnetoelectric coupling has attracted interest due to its potential to write magnetic information with electric fields. In the model system of Fe islands on Cu(111), electric fields can induce martensitic phase transitions between ferromagnetic body-centered cubic and antiferromagnetic face-centere
Kopaev, YuV
1992-01-01
Electronic Phase Transitions deals with topics, which are presently at the forefront of scientific research in modern solid-state theory. Anderson localization, which has fundamental implications in many areas of solid-state physics as well as spin glasses, with its influence on quite different research activities such as neural networks, are two examples that are reviewed in this book. The ab initio statistical mechanics of structural phase transitions is another prime example, where the interplay and connection of two unrelated disciplines of solid-state theory - first principle ele
Antiferromagnetism and its relation to the superconducting phases of UPt_{3}
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Isaacs, E.D.; Zschack, P.; Broholm, C.L.
1995-01-01
as the magnetic correlation lengths are not affected by the presence or absence of a visible splitting in the superconducting transition. The simplest models wherein antiferromagnetic order provides the symmetry-breaking field for the splitting do not provide a compete explanation of our results....
Photoinduced phase transitions
Nasu, K
2004-01-01
A new class of insulating solids was recently discovered. Whenirradiated by a few visible photons, these solids give rise to amacroscopic excited domain that has new structural and electronicorders quite different from the starting ground state. This occurrenceis called "photoinduced phase transition", and this multi-authoredbook reviews recent theoretical and experimental studies of this newphenomenon.
Multiferroic phase transitions in manganites RMnO3:A two-orbital double exchange simulation
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Tao Yong-Mei; Lin Lin; Dong Shuai; Liu Jun-Ming
2012-01-01
The semi-quantum two-orbital exchange model is used to investigate the effect of smal1 rare-earth ion substitution on orthorhombic RMnO3 with A-type antiferromagnetic order,using the Monte Carlo algorithm,exact diagonalization,and zero-temperature optimization approaches.It is revealed that the substitution results in a rich multiferroic phase diagram where the coexisting A-type antiferromagnetic phase and spiral spin phase,pure spiral spin phase,coexisting spiral spin phase,the E-type antiferromagnetic phase,and the pure E-type antiferromagnetic phase emerge in sequence.The multiferroic phase transitions modulate substantially the electric polarization,which is consistent qualitatively with recent experiments.
Resistive properties and phase diagram of the organic antiferromagnetic metal κ -(BETS) 2FeCl4
Kunz, Michael; Biberacher, Werner; Kushch, Natalia D.; Miyazaki, Akira; Kartsovnik, Mark V.
2016-11-01
The low-temperature electronic state of the layered organic charge-transfer salt κ -(BETS) 2FeCl4 was probed by interlayer electrical resistance measurements under magnetic field. Both above and below TN=0.47 K, the temperature of antiferromagnetic ordering of 3 d -electron spins of Fe3 + localized in the insulating anion layers, a nonsaturating linear R (T ) dependence has been observed. A weak superconducting signal has been detected in the antiferromagnetic state, at temperatures ≤0.2 K. Despite the very high crystal quality, only a tiny fraction of the sample appears to be superconducting. Aside from a small kink feature in the resistivity, the impact of the antiferromagnetic ordering of localized Fe3 + spins on the conduction π -electron system is clearly manifested in the Fermi surface reconstruction, as evidenced by Shubnikov-de Haas oscillations. The "magnetic-field-temperature" phase diagrams for the field directions parallel to each of the three principal crystal axes have been determined. For magnetic field along the easy axis, a spin-flop transition has been found. Similarities and differences between the present material and the sister compound κ -(BETS) 2FeBr4 are discussed.
Superfluid and antiferromagnetic phases in ultracold fermionic quantum gases
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Gottwald, Tobias
2010-08-27
In this thesis several models are treated, which are relevant for ultracold fermionic quantum gases loaded onto optical lattices. In particular, imbalanced superfluid Fermi mixtures, which are considered as the best way to realize Fulde-Ferrell-Larkin-Ovchinnikov (FFLO) states experimentally, and antiferromagnetic states, whose experimental realization is one of the next major goals, are examined analytically and numerically with the use of appropriate versions of the Hubbard model. The usual Bardeen-Cooper-Schrieffer (BCS) superconductor is known to break down in a magnetic field with a strength exceeding the size of the superfluid gap. A spatially inhomogeneous spin-imbalanced superconductor with a complex order parameter known as FFLO-state is predicted to occur in translationally invariant systems. Since in ultracold quantum gases the experimental setups have a limited size and a trapping potential, we analyze the realistic situation of a non-translationally invariant finite sized Hubbard model for this purpose. We first argue analytically, why the order parameter should be real in a system with continuous coordinates, and map our statements onto the Hubbard model with discrete coordinates defined on a lattice. The relevant Hubbard model is then treated numerically within mean field theory. We show that the numerical results agree with our analytically derived statements and we simulate various experimentally relevant systems in this thesis. Analogous calculations are presented for the situation at repulsive interaction strength where the N'eel state is expected to be realized experimentally in the near future. We map our analytical results obtained for the attractive model onto corresponding results for the repulsive model. We obtain a spatially invariant unit vector defining the direction of the order parameter as a consequence of the trapping potential, which is affirmed by our mean field numerical results for the repulsive case. Furthermore, we observe
Understanding quantum phase transitions
Carr, Lincoln
2010-01-01
Quantum phase transitions (QPTs) offer wonderful examples of the radical macroscopic effects inherent in quantum physics: phase changes between different forms of matter driven by quantum rather than thermal fluctuations, typically at very low temperatures. QPTs provide new insight into outstanding problems such as high-temperature superconductivity and display fundamental aspects of quantum theory, such as strong correlations and entanglement. Over the last two decades, our understanding of QPTs has increased tremendously due to a plethora of experimental examples, powerful new numerical meth
Fodor, Z
2000-01-01
Recent developments on the four dimensional (4d) lattice studies of the finite temperature electroweak phase transition (EWPT) are summarized. The phase diagram is given in the continuum limit. The finite temperature SU(2)-Higgs phase transition is of first order for Higgs-boson masses m/sub H/<66.5+or-1.4 GeV. Above this endpoint only a rapid cross-over can be seen. The full 4d result agrees completely with that of the dimensional reduction approximation. The Higgs-boson endpoint mass in the standard model (SM) would be 72.1+or-1. 4 GeV. Taking into account the LEP Higgs-boson mass lower bound excludes any EWPT in the SM. A one-loop calculation of the static potential in the SU(2)-Higgs model enables a precise comparison between lattice simulations and perturbative results. The most popular extension of the SM, the minimal supersymmetric SM (MSSM) is also studied on 4d lattices. (17 refs).
Sugiura, Shiori; Shimada, Kazuo; Tajima, Naoya; Nishio, Yutaka; Terashima, Taichi; Isono, Takayuki; Kobayashi, Akiko; Zhou, Biao; Kato, Reizo; Uji, Shinya
2016-06-01
Resistance and dielectric constants have been measured in the antiferromagnetic insulating phase of the quasi-two-dimensional organic conductor λ-(BETS)2FeCl4 to understand charge transport. Nonlinear current-voltage characteristics are observed at low temperatures, which are explained by a charge transport model based on the electric-field dependent Coulomb potential between the thermally excited electron and hole. A small dip in the magnetic field dependence of the resistance is found at 1.2 T, which is ascribed to a spin-flop transition. The large difference between the in-plane and out-of-plane dielectric constants shows the two-dimensionality of the Coulomb potential, which is consistent with the charge transport model. The angular dependence of the metal-insulator transition field is determined, which suggests that the Zeeman effect of the 3d spins of the Fe ions plays an essential role.
Large topological Hall effect in the non-collinear phase of an antiferromagnet.
Sürgers, Christoph; Fischer, Gerda; Winkel, Patrick; Löhneysen, Hilbert V
2014-03-05
Non-trivial spin arrangements in magnetic materials give rise to the topological Hall effect observed in compounds with a non-centrosymmetric cubic structure hosting a skyrmion lattice, in double-exchange ferromagnets and magnetically frustrated systems. The topological Hall effect has been proposed to appear also in presence of non-coplanar spin configurations and thus might occur in an antiferromagnetic material with a highly non-collinear and non-coplanar spin structure. Particularly interesting is a material where the non-collinearity develops not immediately at the onset of antiferromagnetic order but deep in the antiferromagnetic phase. This unusual situation arises in non-cubic antiferromagnetic Mn5Si3. Here we show that a large topological Hall effect develops well below the Néel temperature as soon as the spin arrangement changes from collinear to non-collinear with decreasing temperature. We further demonstrate that the effect is not observed when the material is turned ferromagnetic by carbon doping without changing its crystal structure.
Dynamic zero modes of Dirac fermions and competing singlet phases of antiferromagnetic order
Goswami, Pallab
2016-01-01
In quantum spin systems, singlet phases often develop in the vicinity of an antiferromagnetic order. Typical settings for such problems arise when itinerant fermions are also present. In this work, we develop a theoretical framework for addressing such competing orders in an itinerant system, described by Dirac fermions strongly coupled to an O(3) nonlinear sigma model. We focus on two spatial dimensions, where upon disordering the antiferromagnetic order by quantum fluctuations the singular tunneling events also known as (anti)hedgehogs can nucleate competing singlet orders in the paramagnetic phase. In the presence of an isolated hedgehog configuration of the nonlinear sigma model field, we show that the fermion determinant vanishes as the dynamic Euclidean Dirac operator supports fermion zero modes of definite chirality. This provides a topological mechanism for suppressing the tunneling events. Using the methodology of quantum chromodynamics, we evaluate the fermion determinant in the close proximity of m...
Mixed phases during the phase transitions
Tatsumi, Toshitaka; Maruyama, Toshiki
2011-01-01
Quest for a new form of matter inside compact stars compels us to examine the thermodynamical properties of the phase transitions. We closely consider the first-order phase transitions and the phase equilibrium on the basis of the Gibbs conditions, taking the liquid-gas phase transition in asymmetric nuclear matter as an example. Characteristic features of the mixed phase are figured out by solving the coupled equations for mean-fields and densities of constituent particles self-consistently within the Thomas-Fermi approximation. The mixed phase is inhomogeneous matter composed of two phases in equilibrium; it takes a crystalline structure with a unit of various geometrical shapes, inside of which one phase with a characteristic shape, called "pasta", is embedded in another phase by some volume fraction. This framework enables us to properly take into account the Coulomb interaction and the interface energy, and thereby sometimes we see the mechanical instability of the geometric structures of the mixed phase...
Learning phase transitions by confusion
van Nieuwenburg, Evert P L; Huber, Sebastian D
2016-01-01
Classifying phases of matter is a central problem in physics. For quantum mechanical systems, this task can be daunting owing to the exponentially large Hilbert space. Thanks to the available computing power and access to ever larger data sets, classification problems are now routinely solved using machine learning techniques. Here, we propose to use a neural network based approach to find phase transitions depending on the performance of the neural network after training it with deliberately incorrectly labelled data. We demonstrate the success of this method on the topological phase transition in the Kitaev chain, the thermal phase transition in the classical Ising model, and the many-body-localization transition in a disordered quantum spin chain. Our method does not depend on order parameters, knowledge of the topological content of the phases, or any other specifics of the transition at hand. It therefore paves the way to a generic tool to identify unexplored phase transitions.
Phase Transitions of Simple Systems
Berry, Stephen
2008-01-01
This monograph develops a unified microscopic basis for phases and phase changes of bulk matter and small systems in terms of classical physics. The origins of such phase changes are derived from simple but physically relevant models of how transitions between rigid crystalline, glassy and fluid states occur, how phase equilibria arise, and how bulk properties evolve from those of small systems.
Phase Diagram in a Random Mixture of Two Antiferromagnets with Competing Spin Anisotropies. I
Someya, Yoshiko
1981-12-01
The phase diagram of a random mixture of two antiferromagnets with competing spin anisotropies (A1-xBx) has been analyzed by extending the theory of Matsubara and Inawashiro, and Oguchi and Ishikawa. In the model assumed, the anisotropy energies are expressed by the anisotropic exchange interactions. According to this formulation, it has been shown that the concentration dependence of TN becomes a function of \\includegraphics{dummy.eps}, where P, Q=A, B; SP is a magnitude of P-spin, and JPQη is a η component of exchange integral between P- and Q-spin). Further, the phase boundary between an AF phase and an OAF (oblique antiferromagnetic) phase at T{=}0 K has been shown to be determined by α({\\equiv}SB/SA), if \\includegraphics{dummy.eps} are given. The obtained phase diagrams for Fe1-xCoxCl2, K2Mn1-xFexF4 and Fe1-xCoxCl2\\cdot2H2O are compared with the experimental ones.
Spin-current probe for phase transition in an insulator
Qiu, Zhiyong; Li, Jia; Hou, Dazhi; Arenholz, Elke; N'diaye, Alpha T.; Tan, Ali; Uchida, Ken-Ichi; Sato, Koji; Okamoto, Satoshi; Tserkovnyak, Yaroslav; Qiu, Z. Q.; Saitoh, Eiji
2016-08-01
Spin fluctuation and transition have always been one of the central topics of magnetism and condensed matter science. Experimentally, the spin fluctuation is found transcribed onto scattering intensity in the neutron-scattering process, which is represented by dynamical magnetic susceptibility and maximized at phase transitions. Importantly, a neutron carries spin without electric charge, and therefore it can bring spin into a sample without being disturbed by electric energy. However, large facilities such as a nuclear reactor are necessary. Here we show that spin pumping, frequently used in nanoscale spintronic devices, provides a desktop microprobe for spin transition; spin current is a flux of spin without an electric charge and its transport reflects spin excitation. We demonstrate detection of antiferromagnetic transition in ultra-thin CoO films via frequency-dependent spin-current transmission measurements, which provides a versatile probe for phase transition in an electric manner in minute devices.
Electroweak phase transition in technicolor
Jarvinen, Matti
2010-01-01
Several phenomenologically viable walking technicolor models have been proposed recently. I demonstrate that these models can have first order electroweak phase transitions, which are sufficiently strong for electroweak baryogenesis. Strong dynamics can also lead to several separate transitions at the electroweak scale, with the possibility of a temporary restoration and an extra breaking of the electroweak symmetry. First order phase transitions will produce gravitational waves, which may be detectable at future experiments.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Thomas, Sarah [University of Alabama, Birmingham; Uhoya, Walter [University of Alabama, Birmingham; Tsoi, Georgiy [University of Alabama, Birmingham; Wenger, Lowell E [University of Alabama, Birmingham; Vohra, Yogesh [University of Alabama, Birmingham; Chesnut, Gary Neal [University of Alabama, Birmingham; Weir, S. T. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL); Tulk, Christopher A [ORNL; Moreira Dos Santos, Antonio F [ORNL
2012-01-01
Neutron diffraction and electrical transport measurements have been made on the heavy rare earth metal holmium at high pressures and low temperatures in order to elucidate its transition from a paramagnetic (PM) to a helical antiferromagnetic (AFM) ordered phase as a function of pressure. The electrical resistance measurements show a change in the resistance slope as the temperature is lowered through the antiferromagnetic Neel temperature. The temperature of this antiferromagnetic transition decreases from approximately 122 K at ambient pressure at a rate of -4.9 K GPa(-1) up to a pressure of 9 GPa, whereupon the PM-to-AFM transition vanishes for higher pressures. Neutron diffraction measurements as a function of pressure at 89 and 110 K confirm the incommensurate nature of the phase transition associated with the antiferromagnetic ordering of the magnetic moments in a helical arrangement and that the ordering occurs at similar pressures as determined from the resistance results for these temperatures.
Magnetic resonance of phase transitions
Owens, Frank J; Farach, Horacio A
1979-01-01
Magnetic Resonance of Phase Transitions shows how the effects of phase transitions are manifested in the magnetic resonance data. The book discusses the basic concepts of structural phase and magnetic resonance; various types of magnetic resonances and their underlying principles; and the radiofrequency methods of nuclear magnetic resonance. The text also describes quadrupole methods; the microwave technique of electron spin resonance; and the Mössbauer effect. Phase transitions in various systems such as fluids, liquid crystals, and crystals, including paramagnets and ferroelectrics, are also
Magnetic phases of the quasi-two-dimensional antiferromagnet CuCrO2 on a triangular lattice
Sakhratov, Yu. A.; Svistov, L. E.; Kuhns, P. L.; Zhou, H. D.; Reyes, A. P.
2016-09-01
We have carried out Cu,6563 NMR spectra measurements in a magnetic field up to about 45 T on a single crystal of a multiferroic triangular antiferromagnet CuCrO2. The measurements were performed for magnetic fields aligned along the crystal c axis. Field and temperature evolution of the spectral shape demonstrates a number of phase transitions. It was found that the 3D magnetic ordering takes place in the low field range (H ≲15 T). At higher fields magnetic structures form within individual triangular planes whereas the spin directions of the magnetic ions from neighboring planes are not correlated. It is established that the 2D-3D transition is hysteretic in field and temperature. Line-shape analysis reveals several possible magnetic structures existing within individual planes for different phases of CuCrO2. Within certain regions on the magnetic H -T phase diagram of CuCrO2 a 3D magnetic ordering with tensor order parameter is expected.
Magnetic Phase Transitions of CeSb. II: Effects of Applied Magnetic Fields
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Meier, G.; Fischer, P.; Hälg, W.;
1978-01-01
For pt.I see ibid., vol.11, p.345 (1978). The metamagnetic phase transition and the associated phase diagram of the anomalous antiferromagnet CeSb were determined in a neutron diffraction study of the magnetic ordering of CeSb single crystals in applied magnetic fields parallel to the (001...
Multiobjective Optimization and Phase Transitions
Seoane, Luís F
2015-01-01
Many complex systems obey to optimality conditions that are usually not simple. Conflicting traits often interact making a Multi Objective Optimization (MOO) approach necessary. Recent MOO research on complex systems report about the Pareto front (optimal designs implementing the best trade-off) in a qualitative manner. Meanwhile, research on traditional Simple Objective Optimization (SOO) often finds phase transitions and critical points. We summarize a robust framework that accounts for phase transitions located through SOO techniques and indicates what MOO features resolutely lead to phase transitions. These appear determined by the shape of the Pareto front, which at the same time is deeply related to the thermodynamic Gibbs surface. Indeed, thermodynamics can be written as an MOO from where its phase transitions can be parsimoniously derived; suggesting that the similarities between transitions in MOO-SOO and Statistical Mechanics go beyond mere coincidence.
Non-equilibrium phase transitions
Henkel, Malte; Lübeck, Sven
2009-01-01
This book describes two main classes of non-equilibrium phase-transitions: (a) static and dynamics of transitions into an absorbing state, and (b) dynamical scaling in far-from-equilibrium relaxation behaviour and ageing. The first volume begins with an introductory chapter which recalls the main concepts of phase-transitions, set for the convenience of the reader in an equilibrium context. The extension to non-equilibrium systems is made by using directed percolation as the main paradigm of absorbing phase transitions and in view of the richness of the known results an entire chapter is devoted to it, including a discussion of recent experimental results. Scaling theories and a large set of both numerical and analytical methods for the study of non-equilibrium phase transitions are thoroughly discussed. The techniques used for directed percolation are then extended to other universality classes and many important results on model parameters are provided for easy reference.
von Rohr, Fabian; Krzton-Maziopa, Anna; Pomjakushin, Vladimir; Grundmann, Henrik; Guguchia, Zurab; Schnick, Wolfgang; Schilling, Andreas
2016-07-01
We report on the magnetic properties of CsCo2Se2 with ThCr2Si2 structure, which we have characterized through a series of magnetization and neutron diffraction measurements. We find that CsCo2Se2 undergoes a phase transition to an antiferromagnetically ordered state with a Néel temperature of {{T}\\text{N}}≈ 66 K. The nearest neighbour interactions are ferromagnetic as observed by the positive Curie-Weiss temperature of \\Theta≈ 51.0 K. We find that the magnetic structure of CsCo2Se2 consists of ferromagnetic sheets, which are stacked antiferromagnetically along the tetragonal c-axis, generally referred to as A-type antiferromagnetic order. The observed magnitude of the ordered magnetic moment at T = 1.5 K is found to be only 0.20(1){μ\\text{Bohr}} / Co. Already in comparably small magnetic fields of {μ0}H{{}\\text{MM}}(5~K)≈ 0.3 T, we observe a metamagnetic transition that can be attributed to spin-rearrangements of CsCo2Se2, with the moments fully ferromagnetically saturated in a magnetic field of {μ0}{{H}\\text{FM}}(5~K)≈ 6.4 T. We discuss the entire experimentally deduced magnetic phase diagram for CsCo2Se2 with respect to its unconventionally weak magnetic coupling. Our study characterizes CsCo2Se2, which is chemically and electronically posed closely to the A x Fe2-y Se2 superconductors, as a host of versatile magnetic interactions.
Structural and magnetic phase transitions in NdCoAsO under high pressures
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Uhoya, Walter; Tsoi, Georgiy M.; Vohra, Yogesh K.; McGuire, Michael A.; Sefat, Athena S.; Sales, Brian C.; Mandrus, David; Weir, Samuel T. (UAB); (ORNL); (LLNL)
2010-05-04
We have investigated structural and magnetic phase transitions under high pressures in a quaternary rare-earth transition-metal arsenide oxide NdCoAsO compound that is isostructural to the high temperature superconductor parent phase NdFeAsO. The four-probe electrical resistance measurements carried out in a designer diamond anvil cell show that the ferromagnetic Curie temperature and antiferromagnetic Neel temperature increase with an increase in pressure. High pressure x-ray diffraction studies using a synchrotron source show a structural phase transition from a tetragonal phase to a new crystallographic phase at a pressure of 23 GPa at 300 K. The NdCoAsO sample remained antiferromagnetic and non-superconducting down to 10 K and up to the highest pressure achieved in this experiment, 53 GPa. A P-T phase diagram for NdCoAsO is presented from ambient conditions to P = 53 GPa and T = 10 K.
Structural and magnetic phase transitions in NdCoAsO under high pressures
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Uhoya, Walter [University of Alabama, Birmingham; Tsoi, Georgiy [University of Alabama, Birmingham; Vohra, Y. K. [University of Alabama, Birmingham; McGuire, Michael A [ORNL; Sefat, A. S. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL); Sales, Brian C [ORNL; Mandrus, David [ORNL; Weir, S. T. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL)
2010-01-01
We have investigated structural and magnetic phase transitions under high pressures in a quaternary rare-earth transition-metal arsenide oxide NdCoAsO compound that is isostructural to the high temperature superconductor parent phase NdFeAsO. The four-probe electrical resistance measurements carried out in a designer diamond anvil cell show that the ferromagnetic Curie temperature and antiferromagnetic Neel temperature increase with an increase in pressure. High pressure x-ray diffraction studies using a synchrotron source show a structural phase transition from a tetragonal phase to a new crystallographic phase at a pressure of 23 GPa at 300 K. The NdCoAsO sample remained antiferromagnetic and non-superconducting down to 10 K and up to the highest pressure achieved in this experiment, 53 GPa. A P-T phase diagram for NdCoAsO is presented from ambient conditions to P = 53 GPa and T = 10 K.
An Investigation of Magnetically Induced Structural Phase Transitions Near a Magnetic Phase Boundary
Brown, D. E.; Hoffmann, C. A.; Hua, J.; Totapally, S.; Mais, J.; Chmaissem, O.; Dabrowski, B.; Ren, Yang
2004-03-01
The structural properties of the perovskite La_1-xSr_xMnO_3, x = 0.55, have been studied using synchrotron powder x-ray diffraction under high magnetic fields (up to 6 Tesla) for zero field cooled and field cooled conditions. This compound has an interesting phase transition point where both structural and magnetic properties change. As temperature decreases, it undergoes a tetragonal (I4/mcm) to orthorhombic (Fmmm) first-order structural phase transition while simultaneously undergoing a ferromagnetic to an A-type antiferromagnetic magnetic phase transition. Under the application of a strong magnetic field, the structure can be forced from the ferromagnetic tetragonal structure to the antiferromagnetic orthorhombic structure, which is nearly a reversible process. Thus the strong competition between the magnetic phases can be significantly affected by applying an external magnetic field. The magnetic perovskites, such as the colossal magnetoresistive materials, appear to be susceptible to such large and surprising magnetically induced phase transitions. Work at NIU is supported by the State of Illinois under HECA. Work at APS/ANL is supported by the US DOE-BES No. W-31-109-ENG-38.
Magnetic excitations in the antiferromagnetic phase of NdCu{sub 2}
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Rotter, M.; Kramp, S.; Loewenhaupt, M. [Institut fuer Angewandte Physik, Technische Universitaet Dresden, 01062 Dresden (Germany); Gratz, E. [Institut fuer Experimentalphysik, Technische Universitaet Wien, Wiedner Hauptstrasse 8-10, 1040 Wien (Austria); Schmidt, W. [Institut Laue Langevin, 38042 Grenoble (France); Pyka, N.M. [Technische Universitaet Muenchen, Forschungs-Neutronenquelle FRM-II, 85747 Garching (Germany); Hennion, B. [CEA-Saclay, 91191 Gif-sur-Yvette Cedex (France); Kamp, R. v. d. [Hahn Meitner Institut, 14109 Berlin (Germany)
2002-07-01
Detailed investigations of the magnetic interactions can be performed by comparing measurements with calculations of dynamical magnetic properties. In this study neutron spectroscopy on single crystals was used to measure the magnetic excitations in the antiferromagnetic phase of NdCu{sub 2}. This phase is characterized by a stacking of ten ferromagnetically ordered bc-planes with a propagation vector of (0.6 0 0).The magnetic excitations have been calculated in the different magnetic phases, which can be stabilized by a magnetic field along the crystallographic b direction (=easy axis). The model is based on a mean field (MF) theory and fluctuations are treated in the random phase approximation (RPA). The dispersion of the magnetic excitations has been calculated using exchange parameters, which have been determined by neutron spectroscopy in the ferromagnetically aligned phase in a magnetic field of 3 T parallel to b. For the calculation the program package McPhase was used. The results are compared to data of neutron spectroscopy on single crystals. (orig.)
Incommensurate phase transitions
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Currat, R. [Institut Max von Laue - Paul Langevin (ILL), 38 - Grenoble (France)
1996-11-01
We review the characteristic aspects of modulated crystals from the point of view of inelastic neutron scattering. We discuss the phenomenological Landau theory of the normal-to-incommensurate displacive instability and its predictions concerning the fluctuation spectrum of the modulated phase. General results on the form of the normal-mode eigenvectors and on the inelastic scattering channels through which they couple to the probe are established using the superspace approach. We illustrate these results on a simple discrete model symmetry and we review available inelastic neutron scattering data on several displacively modulated compounds. (author) 21 figs., 73 refs.
Field-Dependent Magnetic Phase Transitions in Mixed-Valent TmSe
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Bjerrum Møller, Hans; Shapiro, S. M.; Birgenau, R. J.
1977-01-01
A neutron diffraction study of the field-dependent magnetic ordering in TmSe is reported. The magnetic strucutre in zero field is antiferromagnetic fcc type I with TN=3.2 K. The magnetic phase diagram may be understood as a successive domain reorientation and metamagnetic transitions for T...
Magnetostructural correlations in the antiferromagnetic Co 2- x Cu x(OH)AsO 4 ( x=0 and 0.3) phases
de Pedro, I.; Rojo, J. M.; Pizarro, J. L.; Rodríguez Fernández, J.; Arriortua, M. I.; Rojo, T.
2011-08-01
The Co 2- xCu x(OH)AsO 4 ( x=0 and 0.3) compounds have been synthesized under mild hydrothermal conditions and characterized by X-ray single-crystal diffraction and spectroscopic data. The hydroxi-arsenate phases crystallize in the Pnnm orthorhombic space group with Z=4 and the unit-cell parameters are a=8.277(2) Å, b=8.559(2) Å, c=6.039(1) Å and a=8.316(1) Å, b=8.523(2) Å, c=6.047(1) Å for x=0 and 0.3, respectively. The crystal structure consists of a three-dimensional framework in which M(1)O 5-trigonal bipyramid dimers and M(2)O 6-octahedral chains ( M=Co and Cu) are present. Co 2(OH)AsO 4 shows an anomalous three-dimensional antiferromagnetic ordering influenced by the magnetic field below 21 K within the presence of a ferromagnetic component below the ordering temperature. When Co 2+ is partially substituted by Cu 2+ions, Co 1.7Cu 0.3(OH)AsO 4, the ferromagnetic component observed in Co 2(OH)AsO 4 disappears and the antiferromagnetic order is maintained in the entire temperature range. Heat capacity measurements show an unusual magnetic field dependence of the antiferromagnetic transitions. This λ-type anomaly associated to the three-dimensional antiferromagnetic ordering grows with the magnetic field and becomes better defined as observed in the non-substituted phase. These results are attributed to the presence of the unpaired electron in the d x2- y2 orbital and the absence of overlap between neighbour ions.
Magnetic phase diagram of the antiferromagnetic pyrochlore Gd2 Ti2 O7
Petrenko, O. A.; Lees, M. R.; Balakrishnan, G.; Paul, D. Mck
2004-07-01
Gd2Ti2O7 is a highly frustrated antiferromagnet on a pyrochlore lattice, where apart from the Heisenberg exchange the spins also interact via dipole-dipole forces. We report on low-temperature specific heat measurements performed on single crystals of Gd2Ti2O7 for three different directions of an applied magnetic field. The measurements reveal the strongly anisotropic behavior of Gd2Ti2O7 in a magnetic field despite the apparent absence of a significant single-ion anisotropy for Gd3+ . The H-T phase diagrams are constructed for H∥[111] , H∥[110] , and H∥[112] . The results indicate that further theoretical work beyond a simple mean-field model is required.
Phase transitions in operational risk.
Anand, Kartik; Kühn, Reimer
2007-01-01
In this paper we explore the functional correlation approach to operational risk. We consider networks with heterogeneous a priori conditional and unconditional failure probability. In the limit of sparse connectivity, self-consistent expressions for the dynamical evolution of order parameters are obtained. Under equilibrium conditions, expressions for the stationary states are also obtained. Consequences of the analytical theory developed are analyzed using phase diagrams. We find coexistence of operational and nonoperational phases, much as in liquid-gas systems. Such systems are susceptible to discontinuous phase transitions from the operational to nonoperational phase via catastrophic breakdown. We find this feature to be robust against variation of the microscopic modeling assumptions.
Men'shenin, V. V.
2007-05-01
Interaction of polar optical phonons with magnons in manganates RMn2O5 (where R is a rare-earth ion) has been studied in the approximation of collinear antiferromagnetic ordering of manganese sublattices. It is shown that such interaction takes place only in multisublattice antiferromagnets in which exchange magnetic structures exist that are both even and odd with respect to space inversion. Effect of a magnetic field on the structural phase transitions in these oxides is analyzed.
Phase transitions in finite systems
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Chomaz, Ph. [Grand Accelerateur National d' Ions Lourds (GANIL), DSM-CEA / IN2P3-CNRS, 14 - Caen (France); Gulminelli, F. [Caen Univ., 14 (France). Lab. de Physique Corpusculaire
2002-07-01
In this series of lectures we will first review the general theory of phase transition in the framework of information theory and briefly address some of the well known mean field solutions of three dimensional problems. The theory of phase transitions in finite systems will then be discussed, with a special emphasis to the conceptual problems linked to a thermodynamical description for small, short-lived, open systems as metal clusters and data samples coming from nuclear collisions. The concept of negative heat capacity developed in the early seventies in the context of self-gravitating systems will be reinterpreted in the general framework of convexity anomalies of thermo-statistical potentials. The connection with the distribution of the order parameter will lead us to a definition of first order phase transitions in finite systems based on topology anomalies of the event distribution in the space of observations. Finally a careful study of the thermodynamical limit will provide a bridge with the standard theory of phase transitions and show that in a wide class of physical situations the different statistical ensembles are irreducibly inequivalent. (authors)
Symmetry structure and phase transitions
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Ashok Goyal; Meenu Dahiya; Deepak Chandra
2003-05-01
We study chiral symmetry structure at ﬁnite density and temperature in the presence of external magnetic ﬁeld and gravity, a situation relevant in the early Universe and in the core of compact stars. We then investigate the dynamical evolution of phase transition in the expanding early Universe and possible formation of quark nuggets and their survival.
Magnetic phase transitions and magnetocaloric effect in the Fe-doped MnNiGe alloys
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Zhang Cheng-Liang; Wang Dun-Hui; Chen Jian; Wang Ting-Zhi; Xie Guang-Xi; Zhu Chun
2011-01-01
The magnetic phase transition and magnetocaloric effects in Fe-doped MnNiGe alloys are investigated. The substitution of Fe for Ni decreases the structural transition temperature remarkably,resulting in the magnetostructural transition occurring between antiferromagnetic and ferromagnetic states in MnNil-xFex Ge alloy. Owing to the enhanced ferromagnetic coupling induced by the substitution of Fe,metamagnetic behaviour is also observed in TiNiSi-type phase of MnNil_yFe.Ge alloys at temperature below the structural transition temperature.
Belevtsev, B. I.; Dalakova, N. V.; Savitsky, V. N.; Panfilov, A. S.; Braude, I. S.; Bondarenko, A. V.
2004-05-01
Resistive measurements were made to study the magnetic field-induced antiferromagnetic (AF)—weak ferromagnetic (WF) transition in the La2CuO4 single crystal. The magnetic field (dc or pulsed) was applied normally to the CuO2 layers. The transition manifested itself in a drastic decrease of the resistance in critical fields of 5-7 T. The study is the first to display the effect of the AF-WF transition on the conductivity of the La2CuO4 single crystal in the direction parallel to the CuO2 layers. The results provide support for the three-dimensional nature of the hopping conduction of this layered oxide.
Shinaoka, Hiroshi; Tomita, Yusuke; Motome, Yukitoshi
2011-07-22
Motivated by puzzling characteristics of spin-glass transitions widely observed in pyrochlore-based frustrated materials, we investigate the effects of coupling to local lattice distortions in a bond-disordered antiferromagnet on the pyrochlore lattice by extensive Monte Carlo simulations. We show that the spin-glass transition temperature T(f) is largely enhanced by the spin-lattice coupling and, furthermore, becomes almost independent of Δ in a wide range of the disorder strength Δ. The critical property of the spin-glass transition is indistinguishable from that of the canonical Heisenberg spin glass in the entire range of Δ. These peculiar behaviors are ascribed to a modification of the degenerate manifold from a continuous to semidiscrete one by spin-lattice coupling.
Phase transitions and critical phenomena
Domb, Cyril
2001-01-01
The field of phase transitions and critical phenomena continues to be active in research, producing a steady stream of interesting and fruitful results. It has moved into a central place in condensed matter studies.Statistical physics, and more specifically, the theory of transitions between states of matter, more or less defines what we know about 'everyday' matter and its transformations.The major aim of this serial is to provide review articles that can serve as standard references for research workers in the field, and for graduate students and others wishing to obtain reliable in
Hida, Kazuo; Chen, Wei
2005-07-01
The effect of spatial modulation of the single-site anisotropy D on the ground state of the S=1 Heisenberg chains is investigated. In the case of period 2 modulation, it is found that the phase diagram contains the Haldane phase, large-D phase, Néel phase of udud-type and u0d0-type. It is shown that the hidden antiferromagnetic order in the Haldane phase compatible with the spatial modulation of D-term get frozen resulting in the emergence of various types of Néel orders. The investigation of the model with longer period D-modulation also confirms this picture.
Samatham, S. Shanmukharao; Suresh, K. G.
2017-01-01
The detailed magnetic study of complex 3d-electron based Fe3Ga4 is reported. It undergoes paramagnetic to antiferromagnetic (TN) and antiferromagnetic to ferromagnetic (TC) transitions respectively around 380 and 70 K. The thermal hysteresis of field-cooled cooling (FCC) and field-cooled warming (FCW) hints at first order phase transition below Curie temperature. A weak phase coexistence of ferro and antiferromagnetic phases is suggested by exploring the arrest-like first-order phenomenon. In the intermediate temperature range, field-driven metamagnetic transition from antiferro to ferromagnetic phase is confirmed. Further bringing the system very near to TN, field-induced transitions disappear and above TN predominant paramagnetic contribution is evident. The magnetic H-T phase diagram distinguishing different magnetic phases of Fe3Ga4 is obtained.
Sliding Over a Phase Transition
Tosatti, Erio; Benassi, Andrea; Vanossi, Andrea; Santoro, Giuseppe E.
2011-03-01
The frictional response experienced by a stick-slip slider when a phase transition occurs in the underlying solid substrate is a potentially exciting, poorly explored problem. We show, based on 2-dimensional simulations modeling the sliding of a nanotip, that indeed friction may be heavily affected by a continuous structural transition. First, friction turns nonmonotonic as temperature crosses the transition, peaking at the critical temperature Tc where fluctuations are strongest. Second, below Tc friction depends upon order parameter directions, and is much larger for those where the frictional slip can cause a local flip. This may open a route towards control of atomic scale friction by switching the order parameter direction by an external field or strain, with possible application to e.g., displacive ferroelectrics such as BaTi O3 , as well as ferro- and antiferro-distortive materials. Supported by project ESF FANAS/AFRI sponsored by the Italian Research Council (CNR).
Electroweak phase transition recent results
Csikor, Ferenc
2000-01-01
Recent results of four-dimensional (4d) lattice simulations on the finite temperature electroweak phase transition (EWPT) are discussed. The phase transition is of first order in the SU(2)-Higgs model below the end point Higgs mass 66.5$\\pm$1.4 GeV. For larger masses a rapid cross-over appears. This result completely agrees with the results of the dimensional reduction approach. Including the full Standard Model (SM) perturbatively the end point is at 72.1$\\pm$1.4 GeV. Combined with recent LEP Higgs mass lower bounds, this excludes any EWPT in the SM. A one-loop calculation of the static potential makes possible a precise comparison of the lattice and perturbative results. Recent 4d lattice studies of the Minimal Supersymmetric SM (MSSM) are also mentioned.
Hida, Kazuo
2016-02-01
The topological classification of a series of frustration-induced spin-gap phases in the spin-1/2 ferromagnetic-antiferromagnetic alternating Heisenberg chain with next-nearest-neighbour interaction reported in J. Phys. Soc. Jpn. 82, 064703 (2013) is confirmed using two kinds of entanglement spectra defined by different divisions of the whole chain. For the numerical calculation, the iDMRG method is used. The results are consistent with the valence bond solid picture proposed in the previous paper.
Antiferromagnetic spintronics.
Jungwirth, T; Marti, X; Wadley, P; Wunderlich, J
2016-03-01
Antiferromagnetic materials are internally magnetic, but the direction of their ordered microscopic moments alternates between individual atomic sites. The resulting zero net magnetic moment makes magnetism in antiferromagnets externally invisible. This implies that information stored in antiferromagnetic moments would be invisible to common magnetic probes, insensitive to disturbing magnetic fields, and the antiferromagnetic element would not magnetically affect its neighbours, regardless of how densely the elements are arranged in the device. The intrinsic high frequencies of antiferromagnetic dynamics represent another property that makes antiferromagnets distinct from ferromagnets. Among the outstanding questions is how to manipulate and detect the magnetic state of an antiferromagnet efficiently. In this Review we focus on recent works that have addressed this question. The field of antiferromagnetic spintronics can also be viewed from the general perspectives of spin transport, magnetic textures and dynamics, and materials research. We briefly mention this broader context, together with an outlook of future research and applications of antiferromagnetic spintronics.
Gibbs measures and phase transitions
Georgii, Hans-Otto
2011-01-01
From a review of the first edition: ""This book […] covers in depth a broad range of topics in the mathematical theory of phase transition in statistical mechanics. […] It is in fact one of the author's stated aims that this comprehensive monograph should serve both as an introductory text and as a reference for the expert."" (F. Papangelou, Zentralblatt MATH) The second edition has been extended by a new section on large deviations and some comments on the more recent developments in the area.
Phase Transition in Tensor Models
Delepouve, Thibault
2015-01-01
Generalizing matrix models, tensor models generate dynamical triangulations in any dimension and support a $1/N$ expansion. Using the intermediate field representation we explicitly rewrite a quartic tensor model as a field theory for a fluctuation field around a vacuum state corresponding to the resummation of the entire leading order in $1/N$ (a resummation of the melonic family). We then prove that the critical regime in which the continuum limit in the sense of dynamical triangulations is reached is precisely a phase transition in the field theory sense for the fluctuation field.
Phase transitions and critical phenomena
Domb, Cyril
2000-01-01
The field of phase transitions and critical phenomena continues to be active in research, producing a steady stream of interesting and fruitful results. No longer an area of specialist interest, it has acquired a central focus in condensed matter studies. The major aim of this serial is to provide review articles that can serve as standard references for research workers in the field, and for graduate students and others wishing to obtain reliable information on important recent developments.The two review articles in this volume complement each other in a remarkable way. Both deal with what m
Light scattering near phase transitions
Cummins, HZ
1983-01-01
Since the development of the laser in the early 1960's, light scattering has played an increasingly crucial role in the investigation of many types of phase transitions and the published work in this field is now widely dispersed in a large number of books and journals.A comprehensive overview of contemporary theoretical and experimental research in this field is presented here. The reviews are written by authors who have actively contributed to the developments that have taken place in both Eastern and Western countries.
Raman scattering study on the hidden order and antiferromagnetic phases in URu2-xFexSi2
Kung, Hsiang-Hsi; Ran, Sheng; Kanchanavatee, Noravee; Lee, Alexander; Krapivin, Viktor; Haule, Kristjan; Maple, M. Brian; Blumberg, Girsh
The heavy fermion compound URu2Si2 possesses an unusual ground state known as the ``hidden order'' (HO) phase below T = 17 . 5 K, which evolves into an large moment antiferromagnetic (LMAFM) phase under pressure. A recent Raman scattering study shows that an A2 g symmetry (D4 h) in-gap mode emerges in the HO phase, characterizing the excitation from a chirality density wave. Here, we report Raman scattering results for single crystal URu2-xFexSi2 with x MBM, SR and NK acknowledge DOE BES Award DE-FG02-04ER46105 and NSF Award DMR 1206553.
Huang, Ran; Gujrati, Purushottam D.
2017-01-01
An inhomogeneous 2-dimensional recursive lattice formed by planar elements has been designed to investigate the thermodynamics of Ising spin system on the surface/thin film. The lattice is constructed as a hybrid of partial Husimi square lattice representing the bulk and 1D single bonds representing the surface. Exact calculations can be achieved with the recursive property of the lattice. The model has an anti-ferromagnetic interaction to give rise to an ordered phase identified as crystal, and a solution with higher energy to represent the amorphous/metastable phase. Free energy and entropy of the ideal crystal and supercooled liquid state of the model on the surface are calculated by the partial partition function. By analyzing the free energies and entropies of the crystal and supercooled liquid state, we are able to identify the melting and ideal glass transition on the surface. The results show that due to the variation of coordination number, the transition temperatures on the surface decrease significantly compared to the bulk system. Our calculation qualitatively agrees with both experimental and simulation works on the thermodynamics of surfaces and thin films conducted by others. Interactions between particles farther than the nearest neighbor distance are taken into consideration, and their effects are investigated. Supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China under Grant No. 11505110, the Shanghai Pujiang Talent Program under Grant No. 16PJ1431900, and the China Postdoctoral Science Foundation under Grant No. 2016M591666
He, Yuan-Yao; Wu, Han-Qing; You, Yi-Zhuang; Xu, Cenke; Meng, Zi Yang; Lu, Zhong-Yi
2016-03-01
It is expected that the interplay between nontrivial band topology and strong electron correlation will lead to very rich physics. Thus a controlled study of the competition between topology and correlation is of great interest. Here, employing large-scale quantum Monte Carlo simulations, we provide a concrete example of the Kane-Mele-Hubbard model on an AA-stacking bilayer honeycomb lattice with interlayer antiferromagnetic interaction. Our simulation identified several different phases: a quantum spin Hall insulator (QSH), an x y -plane antiferromagnetic Mott insulator, and an interlayer dimer-singlet insulator. Most importantly, a bona fide topological phase transition between the QSH and the dimer-singlet insulators, purely driven by the interlayer antiferromagnetic interaction, is found. At the transition, the spin and charge gap of the system close while the single-particle excitations remain gapped, which means that this transition has no mean-field analog and it can be viewed as a transition between bosonic symmetry-protected topological (SPT) states. At one special point, this transition is described by a (2 +1 )d O (4 ) nonlinear sigma model with exact S O (4 ) symmetry and a topological term at exactly Θ =π . The relevance of this work towards more general interacting SPT states is discussed.
Bona fide interaction-driven topological phase transition in correlated SPT states
Meng, Zi Yang; He, Yuan-Yao; Wu, Han-Qing; You, Yi-Zhuang; Xu, Cenke; Lu, Zhong-Yi
It is expected the interplay between non-trivial band topology and strong electron correlation will lead to very rich physics. Thus a controlled study of the competition between topology and correlation is of great interest. Here, employing large-scale quantum Monte Carlo simulations, we provide a concrete example of the Kane-Mele-Hubbard model on an AA stacking bilayer honeycomb lattice with inter-layer antiferromagnetic interaction. Our simulation identified several different phases: a quantum spin-Hall insulator (QSH), a xy-plane antiferromagnetic Mott insulator (xy-AFM) and an inter-layer dimer-singlet insulator (dimer-singlet). Most importantly, a bona fide topological phase transition between the QSH and the dimer-singlet insulators, purely driven by the inter-layer antiferromagnetic interaction is found. At the transition, the spin and charge gap of the system close while the single-particle excitations remain gapped, which means that this transition has no mean field analogue and it can be viewed as a transition between bosonic SPT states. At one special point, this transition is described by a (2+1)d O(4) nonlinear sigma model with exact SO(4) symmetry, and a topological term at theta=p. Relevance of this work towards more general interacting SPT states is discussed.
Quark Deconfinement Phase Transition in Neutron Stars
Alaverdyan, G B
2009-01-01
The hadron-quark phase transition in the interior of compact stars is investigated, when the transition proceeds through a mixed phase. The hadronic phase is described in the framework of relativistic mean-field theory, when also the scalar-isovector delta-meson mean-field is taken into account. The changes of the parameters of phase transition caused by the presence of delta-meson field are explored. The results of calculation of structure of the mixed phase (Glendenning construction) are compared with the results of usual first-order phase transition (Maxwell construction).
Interacting Weyl fermions: Phases, phase transitions and global phase diagram
Roy, Bitan; Juricic, Vladimir
2016-01-01
We study the effects of short-range interactions on a generalized three-dimensional Weyl semimetal, where the band touching points act as the (anti)monopoles of Abelian Berry curvature of strength $n$. We show that any local interaction has a \\emph{negative} scaling dimension $-2/n$. Consequently all Weyl semimetals are stable against weak short-range interactions. For sufficiently strong interactions, we demonstrate that the Weyl semimetal either undergoes a first order transition into a band insulator or a continuous transition into a symmetry breaking phase. A translational symmetry breaking axion insulator and a rotational symmetry breaking semimetal are two prominent candidates for the broken symmetry phase. At one loop level, the correlation length exponent for continuous transitions is $\
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
LIU Yan-Hui; TIAN Fu-Bo; MA Yan-Ming; HE Zhi; CUI Tian; LIU Bing-Bing; ZOU Guang-Tian
2008-01-01
Crystal structures and optical properties of the δ-O,2 phase and the ε-O,8 phase have been investigated by using the ab initio pseudopotential plane-wave method. It is found that the phase transition is of the first order with a discontinuous volumetric change from the antiferromagnetic δ-O,2 phase to the nonmagnetic ε-O8 phase, consistent with the experimental findings. The energy band calculations show that the direct band gap changes into an indirect band gap after the phase transition. The apparent change in the optical properties can be used for identifying the phase transition from δ-O2 to ε-O,8.
QCD Phase Transitions, Volume 15
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Schaefer, T.; Shuryak, E.
1999-03-20
The title of the workshop, ''The QCD Phase Transitions'', in fact happened to be too narrow for its real contents. It would be more accurate to say that it was devoted to different phases of QCD and QCD-related gauge theories, with strong emphasis on discussion of the underlying non-perturbative mechanisms which manifest themselves as all those phases. Before we go to specifics, let us emphasize one important aspect of the present status of non-perturbative Quantum Field Theory in general. It remains true that its studies do not get attention proportional to the intellectual challenge they deserve, and that the theorists working on it remain very fragmented. The efforts to create Theory of Everything including Quantum Gravity have attracted the lion share of attention and young talent. Nevertheless, in the last few years there was also a tremendous progress and even some shift of attention toward emphasis on the unity of non-perturbative phenomena. For example, we have seen some efforts to connect the lessons from recent progress in Supersymmetric theories with that in QCD, as derived from phenomenology and lattice. Another example is Maldacena conjecture and related development, which connect three things together, string theory, super-gravity and the (N=4) supersymmetric gauge theory. Although the progress mentioned is remarkable by itself, if we would listen to each other more we may have chance to strengthen the field and reach better understanding of the spectacular non-perturbative physics.
Colossal magnetic phase transition asymmetry in mesoscale FeRh stripes
Uhlíř, V.; Arregi, J. A.; Fullerton, E. E.
2016-10-01
Coupled order parameters in phase-transition materials can be controlled using various driving forces such as temperature, magnetic and electric field, strain, spin-polarized currents and optical pulses. Tuning the material properties to achieve efficient transitions would enable fast and low-power electronic devices. Here we show that the first-order metamagnetic phase transition in FeRh films becomes strongly asymmetric in mesoscale structures. In patterned FeRh stripes we observed pronounced supercooling and an avalanche-like abrupt transition from the ferromagnetic to the antiferromagnetic phase, while the reverse transition remains nearly continuous over a broad temperature range. Although modest asymmetry signatures have been found in FeRh films, the effect is dramatically enhanced at the mesoscale. The activation volume of the antiferromagnetic phase is more than two orders of magnitude larger than typical magnetic heterogeneities observed in films. The collective behaviour upon cooling results from the role of long-range ferromagnetic exchange correlations that become important at the mesoscale and should be a general property of first-order metamagnetic phase transitions.
Colossal magnetic phase transition asymmetry in mesoscale FeRh stripes
Uhlíř, V.; Arregi, J. A.; Fullerton, E. E.
2016-01-01
Coupled order parameters in phase-transition materials can be controlled using various driving forces such as temperature, magnetic and electric field, strain, spin-polarized currents and optical pulses. Tuning the material properties to achieve efficient transitions would enable fast and low-power electronic devices. Here we show that the first-order metamagnetic phase transition in FeRh films becomes strongly asymmetric in mesoscale structures. In patterned FeRh stripes we observed pronounced supercooling and an avalanche-like abrupt transition from the ferromagnetic to the antiferromagnetic phase, while the reverse transition remains nearly continuous over a broad temperature range. Although modest asymmetry signatures have been found in FeRh films, the effect is dramatically enhanced at the mesoscale. The activation volume of the antiferromagnetic phase is more than two orders of magnitude larger than typical magnetic heterogeneities observed in films. The collective behaviour upon cooling results from the role of long-range ferromagnetic exchange correlations that become important at the mesoscale and should be a general property of first-order metamagnetic phase transitions. PMID:27725642
Hida, Kazuo
2016-12-01
A series of symmetry-protected topological (SPT) and trivial spin-gap phases in the spin-1/2 ferromagnetic-antiferromagnetic alternating Heisenberg chain with alternating next-nearest-neighbour interaction are investigated using two kinds of entanglement spectra defined by different divisions of the whole chain. In case one of the next-nearest-neighbor interactions vanishes, the model reduces to the Δ-chain in which a series of spin-gap phases are found, as shown in J. Phys. Soc. Jpn. 77, 044707 (2008). From the degeneracy of the entanglement spectra, these phases are identified as the SPT and trivial phases. It is found that the ground-state phase boundaries are insensitive to the strength of the alternation in the next-nearest-neighbor interaction. These results are consistent with the analysis based on the nonlinear σ model and exact solution on the ferromagnetic-nonmagnetic phase boundary.
The Structural Phase Transition in Solid DCN
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Dietrich, O. W.; Mackenzie, Gordon A.; Pawley, G. S.
1976-01-01
Neutron scattering measurements on deuterated hydrogen cyanide have shown that the structural phase transition from a tetragonal to an orthorhombic form at 160 K is a first order transition. A transverse acoustic phonon mode, which has the symmetry of the transition was observed at very low energ...... energies and showed “softening” as the transition was approached from above.......Neutron scattering measurements on deuterated hydrogen cyanide have shown that the structural phase transition from a tetragonal to an orthorhombic form at 160 K is a first order transition. A transverse acoustic phonon mode, which has the symmetry of the transition was observed at very low...
Hida, Kazuo; Takano, Ken'ichi; Suzuki, Hidenori
2013-06-01
The spin-1/2 ferromagnetic--antiferromagnetic alternating Heisenberg chain with ferromagnetic next-nearest-neighbour (NNN) interaction is investigated. The ground state is the Haldane phase for weak NNN interaction, and is the ferromagnetic phase for weak antiferromagnetic interaction. We find a series of topologically distinct spin-gap phases with various magnitudes of edge spins for strong NNN interaction. The phase boundaries between these phases are determined on the basis of the DMRG calculation with additional spins that compensate the edge spins. It is found that each of the exact solutions with short-range antiferromagnetic correlation on the ferromagnetic--nonmagnetic phase boundary is representative of each spin gap phase.
QGP phase transition and multiplicity fluctuations
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
杨纯斌; 王晓荣; 蔡勖
1997-01-01
The scaled factorial moments in QGP phase transitions are studied analytically by the extended Ginzburg-Landau model.The dependence of InFq on phase space interval is different for the first- and second-order QGP phase transitions.When lnFq are fitted to polynomials of X=δ1/3,the relative sign between the fitted coefficients of X and bq,l calculated theoretically can be used to judge the order of phase transitions.Two sets of experimental data are reanalysed and the phase transitions are the first order for one set of data but the second order for another.
The mean field study of phase transitions in two dimensional Kagome lattice under local anisotropy
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
S. Mortezapour
2007-06-01
Full Text Available In this work we investigated the critical properties of the anti-ferromagnetic XY model on a two dimensional Kagome lattice under single-ion easy-axes anisotropy. Employing the mean field theory, we found that this model shows a second order phase transition from disordered to all-in all-out state for any value of anisotropy.
Hida, Kazuo
2007-02-01
The ground state properties of the high spin Heisenberg chains with alternating single site anisotropy are investigated by means of the numerical exact daigonaization and DMRG method. It is found that the ferrimagnetic state appears between the Haldane phase and period doubled Néel phase for the integer spin chains. On the other hand, the transition from the Tomonaga-Luttinger liquid state into the ferrimagnetic state takes place for the half-odd-integer spin chains. In the ferrimagnetic phase, the spontaneous magnetization varies continuously with the modulation amplitude of the single site anisotropy. Eventually, the magnetization is locked to fractional values of the saturated magnetization. These fractional values satisfy the Oshikawa-Yamanaka-Affleck condition. The local spin profile is calculated to reveal the physical nature of each state. In contrast to the case of frustration induced ferrimagnetism, no incommensurate magnetic superstructure is found.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Li, W. C.; Song, X.; Feng, J. J.; Zeng, M.; Gao, X. S.; Qin, M. H., E-mail: qinmh@scnu.edu.cn [Institute for Advanced Materials and Guangdong Provincial Key Laboratory of Quantum Engineering and Quantum Materials, South China Normal University, Guangzhou 510006 (China); Jia, X. T. [School of Physics and Chemistry, Henan Polytechnic University, Jiaozuo 454000 (China)
2015-07-07
In this work, the effects of the random exchange interaction on the phase transitions and phase diagrams of classical frustrated Heisenberg model are investigated by Monte Carlo simulation in order to simulate the chemical doping effect in real materials. It is observed that the antiferromagnetic transitions shift toward low temperature with the increasing magnitude of the random exchange interaction, which can be qualitatively understood from the competitions among local spin states. This study is related to the magnetic properties in the doped iron-based superconductors.
Itinerant-Localized Transitions in Magnetic Phases of the Periodic Anderson Model
Kubo, Katsunori
To clarify the characteristics of Fermi-surface reconstruction, called Lifshitz transitions, in magnetic phases of f-electron materials, we investigate magnetically ordered states of the periodic Anderson model by applying the variational Monte Carlo method. As variational wavefunctions, we use the Gutzwiller wavefunctions for the paramagnetic, antiferromagnetic, and ferromagnetic states. Around half-filling, we find an antiferromagnetic phase, and far away from half-filling, we find a ferromagnetic phase as the ground state. Inside both magnetic phases, Lifshitz transitions take place. At the Lifshitz transitions, the sizes of the ordered moments change. In order to understand the Lifshitz transitions further, we also analyze the f -electron contribution to the Fermi surface by evaluating the jump in the momentum distribution function at the Fermi momentum. Then, we find that, in the large ordered-moment states, the f -electron contribution to the Fermi surface becomes small. This observation clearly shows that these Lifshitz transitions are itinerant-localized transitions of the f electrons.
Cosmological phase transitions from lattice field theory
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Jansen, Karl [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Zeuthen (Germany). John von Neumann-Inst. fuer Computing NIC
2011-11-22
In this proceedings contribution we discuss the fate of the electroweak and the quantum chromodynamics phase transitions relevant for the early stage of the universe at non-zero temperature. These phase transitions are related to the Higgs mechanism and the breaking of chiral symmetry, respectively. We will review that non-perturbative lattice field theory simulations show that these phase transitions actually do not occur in nature and that physical observables show a completely smooth behaviour as a function of the temperature.
Magnetic phase diagram of the antiferromagnetic cobalt tellurate Co3TeO6
Her, J. L.; Chou, C. C.; Matsuda, Y. H.; Kindo, K.; Berger, H.; Tseng, K. F.; Wang, C. W.; Li, W. H.; Yang, H. D.
2011-12-01
In this study, we measured the temperature-dependent magnetic susceptibility [χ(T)], ac magnetic susceptibility [χac(T)], specific heat [Cp(T)], and high-field magnetization [M(H)] of a newly synthesized single-crystalline material, Co3TeO6. Two transitions were observed in χ(T) and Cp(T) curves at values of TN1 and TN2 of approximately 26 and 18 K (H = 0), respectively. The high-field M(H) curves exhibited strong magnetic anisotropy and several field-induced transitions, suggesting that the magnetic ground state was complicated. Large spin-lattice coupling was evident by the large hysteresis in the M(H) curves and through analysis of the specific heat data. We propose herein an H-T phase diagram that is consistent with our experimental findings.
Phase transition and thermodynamic properties of BiFeO3 from first-principles calculations
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Li Qiang; Huang Duo-Hui; Cao Qi-Long; Wang Fan-Hou
2013-01-01
The first-principles projector-augmented wave method employing the quasi-harmonic Debye model,is applied to investigate the thermodynamic properties and the phase transition between the trigonal R3c structure and the orthorhombic Pnma structure.It is found that at ambient temperature,the phase transition from the trigonal R3c phase to the orthorhombic Pnma phase is a first-order antiferromagnetic-nonmagnetic and insulator-metal transition,and occurs at 10.56 GPa,which is in good agreement with experimental data.With increasing temperature,the transition pressure decreases almost linearly.Moreover,the thermodynamic properties including Grüineisen parameter,heat capacity,entropy,and the dependences of thermal expansion coefficient on temperature and pressure are also obtained.
Holographic Phase Transition Probed by Nonlocal Observables
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Xiao-Xiong Zeng
2016-01-01
Full Text Available From the viewpoint of holography, the phase structure of a 5-dimensional Reissner-Nordström-AdS black hole is probed by the two-point correlation function, Wilson loop, and entanglement entropy. As the case of thermal entropy, we find for all the probes that the black hole undergoes a Hawking-Page phase transition, a first-order phase transition, and a second-order phase transition successively before it reaches a stable phase. In addition, for these probes, we find that the equal area law for the first-order phase transition is valid always and the critical exponent of the heat capacity for the second-order phase transition coincides with that of the mean field theory regardless of the size of the boundary region.
Magnetism and phase transitions in LaCoO3
Durand, A. M.; Belanger, D. P.; Booth, C. H.; Ye, F.; Chi, S.; Fernandez-Baca, J. A.; Bhat, M.
2013-09-01
Neutron scattering and magnetometry measurements have been used to study phase transitions in LaCoO3 (LCO). For H ≤ 100 Oe, evidence for a ferromagnetic (FM) transition is observed at Tc ≈ 87 K. For 1 kOe ≤ H ≤ 60 kOe, no transition is apparent. For all H, Curie-Weiss analysis shows predominantly antiferromagnetic (AFM) interactions for T > Tc, but the lack of long-range AFM order indicates magnetic frustration. We argue that the weak ferromagnetism in bulk LCO is induced by lattice strain, as is the case with thin films and nanoparticles. The lattice strain is present at the bulk surfaces and at the interfaces between the LCO and a trace cobalt oxide phase. The ferromagnetic ordering in the LCO bulk is strongly affected by the Co-O-Co angle (γ), in agreement with recent band calculations which predict that ferromagnetic long-range order can only take place above a critical value, γC. Consistent with recent thin film estimations, we find γC = 162.8°. For γ > γC, we observe power-law behavior in the structural parameters. γ decreases with T until the critical temperature, To ≈ 37 K below To the rate of change becomes very small. For T < To, FM order appears to be confined to regions close to the surfaces, likely due to the lattice strain keeping the local Co-O-Co angle above γC.
Magnetism and phase transitions in LaCoO3
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Belanger, David P [University of California, Santa Cruz; Durand, Alice M [University of California, Santa Cruz; Booth, C [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL); Ye, Feng [ORNL; Chi, Songxue [ORNL; Fernandez-Baca, Jaime A [ORNL; Bhat, M [Castilleja School
2013-01-01
Neutron scattering and magnetometry measurements have been used to study phase transitions in LaCoO3 (LCO). For H 100 Oe, evidence for a ferromagnetic (FM) transition is observed at Tc 87 K. For 1 kOe H 60 kOe, no transition is apparent. For all H, Curie Weiss analysis shows predominantly antiferromagnetic (AFM) interactions for T > Tc, but the lack of long-range AFM order indicates magnetic frustration. We argue that the weak ferromagnetism in bulk LCO is induced by lattice strain, as is the case with thin films and nanoparticles. The lattice strain is present at the bulk surfaces and at the interfaces between the LCO and a trace cobalt oxide phase. The ferromagnetic ordering in the LCO bulk is strongly affected by the Co O Co angle ( ), in agreement with recent band calculations which predict that ferromagnetic long-range order can only take place above a critical value, C. Consistent with recent thin film estimations, we find C D 162:8. For > C, we observe power-law behavior in the structural parameters. decreases with T until the critical temperature, To 37 K; below To the rate of change becomes very small. For T < To, FM order appears to be confined to regions close to the surfaces, likely due to the lattice strain keeping the local Co O Co angle above C.
Li, Yangmu; Tabis, W.; Yu, G.; Barišić, N.; Greven, M.
2016-11-01
Systematic analysis of the planar resistivity, Hall effect, and cotangent of the Hall angle for the electron-doped cuprates reveals underlying Fermi-liquid behavior even deep in the antiferromagnetic part of the phase diagram. The transport scattering rate exhibits a quadratic temperature dependence, and is nearly independent of doping and compound and carrier type (electrons versus holes), and hence is universal. Our analysis moreover indicates that the material-specific resistivity upturn at low temperatures and low doping has the same origin in both electron- and hole-doped cuprates.
Quantum Phase Transitions in a Finite System
Leviatan, A
2006-01-01
A general procedure for studying finite-N effects in quantum phase transitions of finite systems is presented and applied to the critical-point dynamics of nuclei undergoing a shape-phase transition of second-order (continuous), and of first-order with an arbitrary barrier.
The Structural Phase Transition in Solid DCN
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Dietrich, O. W.; Mackenzie, Gordon A.; Pawley, G. S.
1975-01-01
Neutron scattering measurements on deuterated hydrogen cyanide have shown that the structural phase change from a tetragonal to an orthorhombic form at 160K is a first-order transition. A transverse acoustic phonon mode, which has the symmetry of the phase change, was observed at very low energies...... and showed 'softening' as the transition temperature was approached from above....
Phase transitions in the web of science
Phillips, J. C.
2015-06-01
The Internet age is changing the structure of science, and affecting interdisciplinary interactions. Publication profiles connecting mathematics with molecular biology and condensed matter physics over the last 40 years exhibit common phase transitions indicative of the critical role played by specific interdisciplinary interactions. The strengths of the phase transitions quantify the importance of interdisciplinary interactions.
Foley, Andrew; Corbett, Joseph; Richard, Andrea L.; Alam, Khan; Ingram, David C.; Smith, Arthur R.
2016-07-01
Single phase ε-Mn4N and ζ-Mn10N thin films are grown on MgO(001) using molecular beam epitaxy. The films are identified and characterized using reflection high-energy electron diffraction, x-ray diffraction, back scattered electron scanning electron microscopy, atomic/magnetic force microscopy and Rutherford backscattering spectrometry. These films are found to be highly smooth with root-mean-squared roughnesses 3.39 nm and below. The quality of ε-Mn4N grown is strongly dependent on substrate temperature during growth. Epitaxial growth of substantial grains composed of the antiferromagnetic η-phase Mn3N2 side by side with ferrimagnetic ε-phase grains is observed when growth temperature is below 480 °C. Ising domains isolated within areas roughly 0.5 μm across are observed in the ferrimagnetic ε-phase grains of samples consisting of a mix of η- and ε-phase grains. Magnetic domains following semi-continuous paths, which are 0.7-7.2 μm across, are observed in single phase ε-Mn4N. Measurements of the ζ-phase detail the structure and magnetism of the material as high Mn content γ-type ζ-phase with a regular surface corrugation along the [100]-direction and antiferromagnetic.
Sakai, H.; Tokunaga, Y.; Kambe, S.; Ronning, F.; Bauer, E. D.; Thompson, J. D.
2014-05-01
Single crystals of the heavy-fermion antiferromagnet CePt2In7 with a Néel temperature (TN) of 5.2 K at ambient pressure have been investigated by zero-field In115-nuclear magnetic and quadrupole resonance measurements as a function of applied pressure. Within the antiferromagnetic state, the character of Ce's 4f electron appears to change from localized to itinerantlike at P*˜2.4 GPa, approximately the pressure where superconductivity first emerges. With increased pressure, the superconducting transition Tc reaches a maximum just at or slightly before antiferromagnetic order disappears, and not at the pressure Pc˜3.4 GPa, where the steeply decreasing Néel boundary extrapolates to zero temperature. For P >Pc, the spin relaxation rate drops sharply by more than 2 orders of magnitude at Tc, suggestive of a first-order transition.
Magnetization dynamics across the first order phase transition in FeRh thin films
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Pressacco, Federico
2014-08-01
The metallic alloy FeRh undergoes a phase transition from an antiferromagnetic phase (AFP) to a ferromagnetic phase (FP) when heated above 400 K. The change in magnetic order results in a change in the net magnetization of the system from zero up to 1.2 kA/m after increasing the system temperature. This is an uncommon characteristic for a magnetic material since usually one observes a decrease of the magnetization upon heating. This discloses the possibility to apply FeRh to Heat-Assisted Magnetic Recording (HAMR) devices.
Supercooling transition in phase separated manganite thin films: An electrical transport study
Singh, Sandeep; Kumar, Pawan; Siwach, P. K.; Tyagi, Pawan Kumar; Singh, H. K.
2014-05-01
The impact of variation in the relative fractions of the ferromagnetic metallic and antiferromagnetic/charge ordered insulator phases on the supercooling/superheating transition in strongly phase separated system, La5/8-yPryCa3/8MnO3 (y ≈ 0.4), has been studied employing magnetotransport measurements. Our study clearly shows that the supercooling transition temperature is non-unique and strongly depends on the magneto-thermodynamic path through which the low temperature state is accessed. In contrast, the superheating transition temperature remains constant. The thermo-magnetic hysteresis, the separation of the two transitions and the associated resistivity, all are functions of the relative fraction of the coexisting phases.
SUSY and the Electroweak Phase Transition
Farrar, Glennys R S; Farrar, Glennys R.; Losada, Marta
1996-01-01
We analyze the effective 3 dimensional theory previously constructed for the MSSM and multi-Higgs models to determine the regions of parameter space in which the electroweak phase transition is sufficiently strong for a $B+L$ asymmetry to survive in the low temperature phase. We find that the inclusion of all supersymmetric scalars and all 1-loop corrections has the effect of enhancing the strength of the phase transition. Without a light stop or extension of the MSSM the phase transition is sufficiently first order only if the lightest Higgs mass $M_{h}\\lsi 70$ GeV and $tan\\beta\\lsi 1.75$.
Pressure induced magneto-structural phase transitions in layered RMn2X2 compounds (invited)
Kennedy, Shane; Wang, Jianli; Campbell, Stewart; Hofmann, Michael; Dou, Shixue
2014-05-01
We have studied a range of pseudo-ternaries derived from the parent compound PrMn2Ge2, substituting for each constituent element with a smaller one to contract the lattice. This enables us to observe the magneto-elastic transitions that occur as the Mn-Mn nearest neighbour distance is reduced and to assess the role of Pr on the magnetism. Here, we report on the PrMn2Ge2-xSix, Pr1-xYxMn2Ge2, and PrMn2-xFexGe2 systems. The pressure produced by chemical substitution in these pseudo-ternaries is inherently non-uniform, with local pressure variations dependent on the local atomic distribution. We find that concentrated chemical substitution on the R or X site (e.g., in Pr0.5Y0.5Mn2Ge2 and PrMn2Ge0.8Si1.2) can produce a separation into two distinct magnetic phases, canted ferromagnetic and canted antiferromagnetic, with a commensurate phase gap in the crystalline lattice. This phase gap is a consequence of the combination of phase separation and spontaneous magnetostriction, which is positive on transition to the canted ferromagnetic phase and negative on transition to the canted antiferromagnetic phase. Our results show that co-existence of canted ferromagnetic and antiferromagnetic phases depends on chemical pressure from the rare earth and metalloid sites, on local lattice strain distributions and on applied magnetic field. We demonstrate that the effects of chemical pressure bear close resemblance to those of mechanical pressure on the parent compound.
Enjalran, Matthew; Del Maestro, Adrian; Gingras, Michel J. P.
2008-03-01
The rare-earth pyrochlore gadolinium titanate, Gd2Ti2O7, represents an excellent experimental realization of a Heisenberg antiferromagnet (AFM) in a frustrated geometry with weak long-range dipole-dipole interactions (approximately 20% of nearest neighbor AFM exchange). Experiments on Gd2Ti2O7 in a magnetic field reveal a complex phase diagram associated with the breaking of spatial symmetries of the pyrochlore lattice as the field is applied along select symmetry directions. We study a model of classical Heisenberg spins (O(3) symmetry) on a pyrochlore lattice with exchange and dipolar interactions within mean-field theory. Using parameters relevant to the material system, we develop phase diagrams in finite magnetic fields. Our results our compared to experiments on Gd2Ti2O7 (and Gd2Sn2O7).
Konstantinidis, N P
2015-02-25
The antiferromagnetic Heisenberg model on the icosahedron presents unconventional properties at the classical and quantum level, which originate in the frustrated nature of the interactions between the spins. Here we examine the importance of the connectivity of the icosahedron for the appearance of a magnetization discontinuity as a function of an external field which separates two families of lowest energy configurations. We also investigate the transition from the classical to the quantum limit. The influence of connectivity on the magnetic properties is revealed by considering the cluster as being made up of a closed strip of a triangular lattice with two additional spins attached. The classical magnetization discontinuity is shown to evolve continuously from the discontinuity effected by these two spins when they are uncoupled to the cluster. In the second part the transition from the classical to the quantum limit is examined by focusing on the low energy spectrum, taking fully into account the spatial and the spin symmetry of the model in the characterization of the states. A symmetry analysis of the highly degenerate lowest energy classical manifold identifies as its direct fingerprint the low energy quantum states for spin magnitude as low as s = 1, with the latter following a tower of states behavior which relates to the icosahedron having a structure reminiscent of a depleted triangular lattice. The classical character of the AHM for small s is also detected on the ground state energy and correlation functions. On the other hand the classical magnetization discontinuity in a field eventually disappears for small s, after a weak reentrant behavior.
Chirality effects on 2D phase transitions
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Scalas, E.; Brezesinski, G.; Möhwald, H.
1996-01-01
-nearest neighbours (NNN) and an NNN-distorted lattice is observed. At 5 degrees C, the transition pressure is 15 mN m(-1), whereas at 20 degrees C it is 18 mN m(-1). Chirality destroys this transition: the pure enantiomer always exhibits an oblique lattice with tilted molecules, and the azimuths of tilt...... and distortion continuously vary from a direction close to NN to a direction close to NNN. The nature of the phase transition and the influence of chirality on it are discussed within the framework of Landau's theory of phase transitions....
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Alvarez, G., E-mail: memodin@yahoo.com [Escuela Superior de Física y Matemáticas del Instituto Politécnico Nacional, U.P.A.L.M, Edificio 9, Av. Instituto Politécnico Nacional S/N, San Pedro Zacatenco, México DF 07738 (Mexico); Contreras, J. [Facultad de Química de la Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Cd. Universitaria, México DF 04510 (Mexico); Conde-Gallardo, A. [Departamento de Física, CINVESTAV-IPN, A.P. 14-740, México DF 07360 (Mexico); Montiel, H., E-mail: herlinda_m@yahoo.com [Centro de Ciencias Aplicadas y Desarrollo Tecnológico de la Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Cd. Universitaria, A.P. 70-186, México DF 04510 (Mexico); Zamorano, R. [Escuela Superior de Física y Matemáticas del Instituto Politécnico Nacional, U.P.A.L.M, Edificio 9, Av. Instituto Politécnico Nacional S/N, San Pedro Zacatenco, México DF 07738 (Mexico)
2013-12-15
An electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) study of Bi{sub 2}Fe{sub 4}O{sub 9} powders is carried out in X-band (8.8–9.8 GHz) and the 200–350 K temperature range. For all the temperatures, the EPR spectra show a single broad line attributable to Fe{sup 3+} (S=5/2) ions. The onset of the para–antiferromagnetic transition has been determined from the temperature dependence of the parameters deduced from EPR spectra: the peak-to-peak linewidth (ΔH{sub pp}) and the resonant field (H{sub res}); a weak ferromagnetism is also observed at low temperature and it is attributed to canting of Fe{sup 3+} ion sublattices in the antiferromagnetic matrix. The magnetically modulated microwave absorption spectroscopy (MAMMAS) and the low-field microwave absorption (LFMA) are used to give further information on this material. These techniques give evidence of the magnetic transition, suggesting a weak ferromagnetism at low temperature. - Highlights: • The changes in lineshape of the EPR spectra in Bi{sub 2}Fe{sub 4}O{sub 9} powders are studied. • The onset of the para–antiferromagnetic transition is detected. • A weak ferromagnetism is also observed in this material. • MAMMAS and LFMA techniques are used to give a further knowledge on the bismuth ferrite.
Pressure-induced transition from localized electron toward band antiferromagnetism in LaMnO(3).
Zhou, J-S; Goodenough, J B
2002-08-19
The temperature dependence of the ac susceptibility under pressure has been used to track the Néel temperature T(N) of the Mott insulators LaMnO3, CaMnO3, and YCrO3. Bloch's rule relating T(N) to volume V, viz., alpha=dlog(T(N)/dlog(V=-3.3, is obeyed in YCrO3 and CaMnO3; it fails in LaMnO3. This breakdown is interpreted to be due to a sharp increase in the factor [U(-1)+(2Delta)(-1)] entering the superexchange perturbation formula. A first-order change at 7 kbar indicates that the transition from localized-electron to band magnetism is not smooth.
First-Order Transitions and the Magnetic Phase Diagram of CeSb
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Lebech, Bente; Clausen, Kurt Nørgaard; Vogt, O.
1980-01-01
The high-temperature (14-17K) low-magnetic field (0-0.8 T) region of the phase diagram of the anomalous antiferromagnet CeSb has been reinvestigated by neutron diffraction in an attempt to locate a possible tricritical point. Previous neutron diffraction studies indicated that a tricritical point...... might exist in the magnetic phase diagram of CeSb at 16K for a field of approximately 0.3 T. The present study concludes that the transitions from the paramagnetic to the magnetically ordered states are of first order for fields below 0.8 T. Within the experimental accuracy no change has been observed...
Elastic anomalies at the magnetic phase transitions of TbTe3
Saint-Paul, M.; Guttin, C.; Lejay, P.; Leynaud, O.; Monceau, P.
2016-08-01
We report sound velocity and ultrasonic attenuation measurements in the vicinity of the successive magnetic phase transitions Tmag1~6.5 K, Tmag2~5.8 K and Tmag3~5.3 K in the charge density wave TbTe3 compound. A detailed investigation of the critical contributions to the temperature dependences of the sound velocity and ultrasonic attenuation is presented. Anisotropic stress dependences ∂Tmag1 / ∂σ found at the antiferromagnetic phase transition Tmag1 is associated with the layered structure of this compound. An abrupt step-like increase in the velocity and a sharp peak in the attenuation are observed with the longitudinal and shear modes at the lock-in magnetic phase transition Tmag3=5.3 K. The critical velocity and attenuation behaviors in the high temperature paramagnetic above Tmag1 are described in terms of a phenomenological dynamic scaling expression.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Rudowicz, Czesław, E-mail: crudowicz@zut.edu.pl
2014-03-01
Heisenberg antiferromagnetic chains based on Ni{sup 2+} ions with integer spin S=1 exhibit intriguing behavior, e.g. the Haldane gap phase and the large-D phase. The predicted transitions between the two phases and the Neel phase has generated search for real candidate systems. Crucial to this search is the interplay between the ‘in-plane anisotropy’, i.e. the rhombic zero-field splitting (ZFS) E-term, and the ‘planar anisotropy’, i.e. the axial ZFS D-term. This paper clarifies intricate properties of orthorhombic ZFS Hamiltonians (H{sub ZFS}) and inconsistencies revealed by critical survey of pertinent studies. Reporting the non-standard (D, E) sets with λ=E/D out of the standard range (0, 1/3) alongside the standard sets with λ∝(0, 1/3) indicates that these properties are not recognized. We show that direct comparisons of the non-standard and standard sets are meaningless and lead to incorrect conclusions on the strength of the ‘in-plane anisotropy’ (E) as compared with the ‘planar anisotropy’ (D). To remedy such problems, the ZFSP sets reported for the large-D phase candidate systems are reanalyzed using orthorhombic standardization. The six physically equivalent ZFSP sets are determined in the conventional (D, E) and Stevens (b{sub 2}{sup 0}, b{sub 2}{sup 2}) notation. These considerations help understanding intricacies inherent in orthorhombic H{sub ZFS} and provide consistent data for future modeling of ZFS parameters in the large-D phase and Haldane gap systems.
Electrochemical control of the phase transition of ultrathin FeRh films
Jiang, M.; Chen, X. Z.; Zhou, X. J.; Cui, B.; Yan, Y. N.; Wu, H. Q.; Pan, F.; Song, C.
2016-05-01
We investigate the electrical manipulation of the phase transition in ultrathin FeRh films through a combination of ionic liquid and oxide gating. The 5 nm-thick FeRh films show an antiferromagnetic-ferromagnetic transition at around 275 K with in-plane magnetic field of 70 kOe. A negative gate voltage seriously suppresses the transition temperature to ˜248 K, while a positive gate voltage does the opposite but with a smaller tuning amplitude. The formation of electric double layer associated with a large electric field induces the migration of oxygen ions between the oxide gate and the FeRh layer, producing the variation of Fe moments in antiferromagnetic FeRh accompanied by the modulation of the transition temperature. Such a modulation only occurs within several nanometers thick scale in the vicinity of FeRh surface. The reversible control of FeRh phase transition by electric field might pave the way for non-volatile memories with low power consumption.
Conductor-insulator quantum phase transitions
Trivedi, Nandini; Valles, James M
2012-01-01
When many particles come together how do they organise themselves? And what destroys this organisation? Combining experiments and theory, this book describes intriguing quantum phases - metals, superconductors and insulators - and transitions between them.
Magnetic Fields from the Electroweak Phase Transition
Törnkvist, O
1998-01-01
I review some of the mechanisms through which primordial magnetic fields may be created in the electroweak phase transition. I show that no magnetic fields are produced initially from two-bubble collisions in a first-order transition. The initial field produced in a three-bubble collision is computed. The evolution of fields at later times is discussed.
Kagesawa, Koichi; Nishimura, Yuki; Yoshida, Hiroki; Breedlove, Brian K; Yamashita, Masahiro; Miyasaka, Hitoshi
2017-03-07
Two-dimensional layered compounds with different counteranions, [{Mn(salen)}4C6](BF4)2·2(CH3OH) (1) and [{Mn(salen)}4C6](PF6)2·2(CH3OH) (2) (salen(2-) = N,N'-bis(salicylideneiminato), C6(2-) = C6H12(COO)2(2-)), were synthesized by assembling [Mn(salen)(H2O)]X (X(-) = BF4(-) and PF6(-)) and C6H12(CO2(-))2 (C6(2-)) in a methanol/2-propanol medium. The compounds have similar structures, which are composed of Mn(salen) out-of-plane dimers bridged by μ(4)-type C6(2-) ions, forming a brick-wall-type network of [-{Mn2}-OCO-] chains alternately connected via C6H12 linkers of C6(2-) moieties. The counteranions for 1 and 2, i.e., BF4(-) and PF6(-), respectively, are located between layers. Since the size of BF4(-) is smaller than that of PF6(-), intra-layer inter-chain and inter-plane nearest-neighbor MnMn distances are shorter in 1 than in 2. The zigzag chain moiety of [-{Mn2}-OCO-] leads to a canted S = 2 spin arrangement with ferromagnetic coupling in the Mn(III) out-of-plane dimer moiety and antiferromagnetic coupling through -OCO- bridges. Due to strong uniaxial anisotropy of the Mn(III) ion, the [-{Mn2}-OCO-] chains could behave as a single-chain magnet (SCM), which exhibits slow relaxation of magnetization at low temperatures. Nevertheless, these compounds fall into an antiferromagnetic ground state at higher temperatures of TN = 4.6 and 3.8 K for 1 and 2, respectively, than active temperatures for SCM behavior. The spin flip field at 1.8 K is 2.7 and 1.8 kOe for 1 and 2, respectively, which is attributed to the inter-chain interactions tuned by the size of the counteranions. The relaxation times of magnetization become longer at the boundary between the antiferromagnetic phase and the paramagnetic phase.
Molecular markers of phase transition in locusts
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
ARNOLD DE LOOF; ILSE CLAEYS; GERT SIMONET; PETER VERLEYEN; TIM VANDERSMISSEN; FILIP SAS; JURGEN HUYBRECHTS
2006-01-01
The changes accompanying the transition from the gregarious to the solitary phase state in locusts are so drastic that for a long time these phases were considered as distinct species. It was Boris Uvarov who introduced the concept of polyphenism. Decades of research revealed that phase transition implies changes in morphometry, the color of the cuticle, behavior and several aspects of physiology. In particular, in the recent decade, quite a number of molecular studies have been undertaken to uncover phase-related differences.They resulted in novel insights into the role of corazonin, neuroparsins, some protease inhibitors, phenylacetonitrile and so on. The advent of EST-databases of locusts (e.g. Kang et al., 2004) is a most encouraging novel development in physiological and behavioral locust research. Yet, the answer to the most intriguing question, namely whether or not there is a primordial molecular inducer of phase transition, is probably not within reach in the very near future.
Polymorphic phase transition in Superhydrous Phase B
Koch-Müller, M.; Dera, P.; Fei, Y.; Hellwig, H.; Liu, Z.; Orman, J. Van; Wirth, R.
2005-09-01
We synthesized superhydrous phase B (shy-B) at 22 GPa and two different temperatures: 1200°C (LT) and 1400°C (HT) using a multi-anvil apparatus. The samples were investigated by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), single crystal X-ray diffraction, Raman and IR spectroscopy. The IR spectra were collected on polycrystalline thin-films and single crystals using synchrotron radiation, as well as a conventional IR source at ambient conditions and in situ at various pressures (up to 15 GPa) and temperatures (down to -180°C). Our studies show that shy-B exists in two polymorphic forms. As expected from crystal chemistry, the LT polymorph crystallizes in a lower symmetry space group ( Pnn2), whereas the HT polymorph assumes a higher symmetry space group ( Pnnm). TEM shows that both modifications consist of nearly perfect crystals with almost no lattice defects or inclusions of additional phases. IR spectra taken on polycrystalline thin films exhibit just one symmetric OH band and 29 lattice modes for the HT polymorph in contrast to two intense but asymmetric OH stretching bands and at least 48 lattice modes for the LT sample. The IR spectra differ not only in the number of bands, but also in the response of the bands to changes in pressure. The pressure derivatives for the IR bands are higher for the HT polymorph indicating that the high symmetry form is more compressible than the low symmetry form. Polarized, low-temperature single-crystal IR spectra indicate that in the LT-polymorph extensive ordering occurs not only at the Mg sites but also at the hydrogen sites.
Polymorphic Phase Transition in Superhydrous Phase B
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Koch-Muller,M.; Dera, P.; Fei, Y.; Hellwig, H.; Liu, Z.; Van Orman, J.; Wirth, R.
2005-01-01
We synthesized superhydrous phase B (shy-B) at 22 GPa and two different temperatures: 1200 C (LT) and 1400 C (HT) using a multi-anvil apparatus. The samples were investigated by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), single crystal X-ray diffraction, Raman and IR spectroscopy. The IR spectra were collected on polycrystalline thin-films and single crystals using synchrotron radiation, as well as a conventional IR source at ambient conditions and in situ at various pressures (up to 15 GPa) and temperatures (down to -180 C). Our studies show that shy-B exists in two polymorphic forms. As expected from crystal chemistry, the LT polymorph crystallizes in a lower symmetry space group (Pnn2), whereas the HT polymorph assumes a higher symmetry space group (Pnnm). TEM shows that both modifications consist of nearly perfect crystals with almost no lattice defects or inclusions of additional phases. IR spectra taken on polycrystalline thin films exhibit just one symmetric OH band and 29 lattice modes for the HT polymorph in contrast to two intense but asymmetric OH stretching bands and at least 48 lattice modes for the LT sample. The IR spectra differ not only in the number of bands, but also in the response of the bands to changes in pressure. The pressure derivatives for the IR bands are higher for the HT polymorph indicating that the high symmetry form is more compressible than the low symmetry form. Polarized, low-temperature single-crystal IR spectra indicate that in the LT-polymorph extensive ordering occurs not only at the Mg sites but also at the hydrogen sites.
Contemporary research of dynamically induced phase transitions
Hull, L. M.
2017-01-01
Dynamically induced phase transitions in metals, within the present discussion, are those that take place within a time scale characteristic of the shock waves and any reflections or rarefactions involved in the loading structure along with associated plastic flow. Contemporary topics of interest include the influence of loading wave shape, the effect of shear produced by directionality of the loading relative to the sample dimensions and initial velocity field, and the loading duration (kinetic effects, hysteresis) on the appearance and longevity of a transformed phase. These topics often arise while considering the loading of parts of various shapes with high explosives, are typically two or three-dimensional, and are often selected because of the potential of the transformed phase to significantly modify the motion. In this paper, we look at current work on phase transitions in metals influenced by shear reported in the literature, and relate recent work conducted at Los Alamos on iron's epsilon phase transition that indicates a significant response to shear produced by reflected elastic waves. A brief discussion of criteria for the occurrence of stress induced phase transitions is provided. Closing remarks regard certain physical processes, such as fragmentation and jet formation, which may be strongly influenced by phase transitions.
An absorbing phase transition from a structured active particle phase
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Lopez, Cristobal [Instituto Mediterraneo de Estudios Avanzados IMEDEA (CSIC-UIB), Campus de la Universidad de las Islas Baleares, E-07122 Palma de Mallorca (Spain); Ramos, Francisco [Departamento de Electromagnetismo y Fisica de la Materia and Instituto de Fisica Teorica y Computacional Carlos I, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Granada, 18071 Granada (Spain); Hernandez-GarcIa, Emilio [Instituto Mediterraneo de Estudios Avanzados IMEDEA (CSIC-UIB), Campus de la Universidad de las Islas Baleares, E-07122 Palma de Mallorca (Spain)
2007-02-14
In this work we study the absorbing state phase transition of a recently introduced model for interacting particles with neighbourhood-dependent reproduction rates. The novelty of the transition is that as soon as the active phase is reached by increasing a control parameter a periodically arranged structure of particle clusters appears. A numerical study in one and two dimensions shows that the system falls into the directed percolation universality class.
Numerical Study of Phase Transition in Thermoviscoelasticity
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
ShaoqingTANG
1997-01-01
We study the spatially periodic problem of thermoviscoelasticity with nonmonotone structure relations.By pseudo-spectral method.we demosnstrate numerically phase transitions for certain symmetric initial data.Without symmetry,the simulations show that a translation occurs for the phase boundary.
Phase Transition in the Simplest Plasma Model
Iosilevskiy, Igor
2009-01-01
We have investigated the phase transition of the gas-liquid type, with an upper critical point, in a variant of the One Component Plasma model (OCP) that has a uniform but compressible compensating background. We have calculated the parameters of the critical and triple points, spinodals, and two-phase coexistence curves (binodals). We have analyzed the connection of this simplest plasma phase transition with anomalies in the spatial charge profiles of equilibrium non-uniform plasma in the local-density approximations of Thomas-Fermi or Poisson-Boltzmann-type.
End point of the electroweak phase transition
Csikor, Ferenc; Heitger, J; Aoki, Y; Ukawa, A
1999-01-01
We study the hot electroweak phase transition (EWPT) by 4-dimensional lattice simulations on lattices with symmetric and asymmetric lattice spacings and give the phase diagram. A continuum extrapolation is done. We find first order phase transition for Higgs-boson masses $m_H<66.5 \\pm 1.4$ GeV. Above this end point a rapid cross-over occurs. Our result agrees with that of the dimensional reduction approach. It also indicates that the fermionic sector of the Standard Model (SM) may be included perturbatively. We get for the SM end point $72.4 the SM.
Phase Transition Induced Fission in Lipid Vesicles
Leirer, C; Myles, V M; Schneider, M F
2010-01-01
In this work we demonstrate how the first order phase transition in giant unilamellar vesicles (GUVs) can function as a trigger for membrane fission. When driven through their gel-fluid phase transition GUVs exhibit budding or pearl formation. These buds remain connected to the mother vesicle presumably by a small neck. Cooling these vesicles from the fluid phase (T>Tm) through the phase transition into the gel state (T
Classical and quantum anisotropic Heisenberg antiferromagnets
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
W. Selke
2009-01-01
Full Text Available We study classical and quantum Heisenberg antiferromagnets with exchange anisotropy of XXZ-type and crystal field single-ion terms of quadratic and quartic form in a field. The magnets display a variety of phases, including the spin-flop (or, in the quantum case, spin-liquid and biconical (corresponding, in the quantum lattice gas description, to supersolid phases. Applying ground-state considerations, Monte Carlo and density matrix renormalization group methods, the impact of quantum effects and lattice dimension is analysed. Interesting critical and multicritical behaviour may occur at quantum and thermal phase transitions.
Microgravity Two-Phase Flow Transition
Parang, M.; Chao, D.
1999-01-01
Two-phase flows under microgravity condition find a large number of important applications in fluid handling and storage, and spacecraft thermal management. Specifically, under microgravity condition heat transfer between heat exchanger surfaces and fluids depend critically on the distribution and interaction between different fluid phases which are often qualitatively different from the gravity-based systems. Heat transfer and flow analysis in two-phase flows under these conditions require a clear understanding of the flow pattern transition and development of appropriate dimensionless scales for its modeling and prediction. The physics of this flow is however very complex and remains poorly understood. This has led to various inadequacies in flow and heat transfer modeling and has made prediction of flow transition difficult in engineering design of efficient thermal and flow systems. In the present study the available published data for flow transition under microgravity condition are considered for mapping. The transition from slug to annular flow and from bubbly to slug flow are mapped using dimensionless variable combination developed in a previous study by the authors. The result indicate that the new maps describe the flow transitions reasonably well over the range of the data available. The transition maps are examined and the results are discussed in relation to the presumed balance of forces and flow dynamics. It is suggested that further evaluation of the proposed flow and transition mapping will require a wider range of microgravity data expected to be made available in future studies.
PT phase transition in multidimensional quantum systems
Bender, Carl M
2012-01-01
Non-Hermitian PT-symmetric quantum-mechanical Hamiltonians generally exhibit a phase transition that separates two parametric regions, (i) a region of unbroken PT symmetry in which the eigenvalues are all real, and (ii) a region of broken PT symmetry in which some of the eigenvalues are complex. This transition has recently been observed experimentally in a variety of physical systems. Until now, theoretical studies of the PT phase transition have generally been limited to one-dimensional models. Here, four nontrivial coupled PT-symmetric Hamiltonians, $H=p^2/2+x^2/2+q^2/2+y^2/2+igx^2y$, $H=p^2/2+x^2/2+q^2/2+y^2+igx^2y$, $H=p^2/2+x^2/2+q^2/2+y^2/2+r^2/2+z^2/2+igxyz$, and $H=p^2/2+x^2/2+q^2/2+y^2+r^2/2+3z^2/2+igxyz$ are examined. Based on extensive numerical studies, this paper conjectures that all four models exhibit a phase transition. The transitions are found to occur at $g\\approx 0.1$, $g\\approx 0.04$, $g\\approx 0.1$, and $g\\approx 0.05$. These results suggest that the PT phase transition is a robust phen...
Paramagnetic and Antiferromagnetic Spin Seebeck Effect
Wu, Stephen
We report on the observation of the longitudinal spin Seebeck effect in both antiferromagnetic and paramagnetic insulators. By using a microscale on-chip local heater, it is possible to generate a large thermal gradient confined to the chip surface without a large increase in the total sample temperature. This technique allows us to easily access low temperatures (200 mK) and high magnetic fields (14 T) through conventional dilution refrigeration and superconducting magnet setups. By exploring this regime, we detect the spin Seebeck effect through the spin-flop transition in antiferromagnetic MnF2 when a large magnetic field (>9 T) is applied along the easy axis direction. Using the same technique, we are also able to resolve a spin Seebeck effect from the paramagnetic phase of geometrically frustrated antiferromagnet Gd3Ga5O12 (gadolinium gallium garnet) and antiferromagnetic DyScO3 (DSO). Since these measurements occur above the ordering temperatures of these two materials, short-range magnetic order is implicated as the cause of the spin Seebeck effect in these systems. The discovery of the spin Seebeck effect in these two materials classes suggest that both antiferromagnetic spin waves and spin excitations from short range magnetic order may be used to generate spin current from insulators and that the spin wave spectra of individual materials are highly important to the specifics of the longitudinal spin Seebeck effect. Since insulating antiferromagnets and paramagnets are far more common than the typical insulating ferrimagnetic materials used in spin Seebeck experiments, this discovery opens up a large new class of materials for use in spin caloritronic devices. All authors acknowledge support of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Office of Science, Basic Energy Sciences (BES), Materials Sciences and Engineering Division. The use of facilities at the Center for Nanoscale Materials, was supported by the U.S. DOE, BES under Contract No. DE-AC02-06CH11357.
Simple explanation for the reentrant magnetic phase transition in Pr0.5Sr0.41Ca0.09MnO3 perovskite
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
B T Cong; P N A Huy; N H Long; D D Long
2003-01-01
The reentrant magnetic phase transition in Pr0.5Sr0.41Ca0.09MnO3 perovskite is explained using the Ising spin model on the square lattice with mixed ferromagnetic and antiferromagnetic exchange interactions. It is shown using numerical calculations that this effect is strongly affected by the external magnetic field and lattice disorder.
Odkhuu, Dorj
2016-02-01
Based on first-principles calculations, we demonstrate that substitutions of transition metals Ru and Ir, neighboring and same group elements in the periodic table, for the Rh site in the vicinity of surface can induce a substantially large perpendicular magnetic anisotropy (PMA), up to an order of magnitude of 20 erg /cm2 , in FeRh films on MgO. The main driving mechanism for this huge PMA is the interplay between the dx y and dx2-y2 orbital states of the substitutional 4 d and 5 d transition metal atoms with large spin-orbit coupling. Further investigations demonstrate that magnetization direction of PMA undergoes a transition into an in-plane magnetization at the antiferromagnet → ferromagnet phase transition, which provides a viable route for achieving large and switchable PMA associated with the magnetic-phase transition in antiferromagnet spintronics.
Quantum phase transitions with dynamical flavors
Bea, Yago; Ramallo, Alfonso V
2016-01-01
We study the properties of a D6-brane probe in the ABJM background with smeared massless dynamical quarks in the Veneziano limit. Working at zero temperature and non-vanishing charge density, we show that the system undergoes a quantum phase transition in which the topology of the brane embedding changes from a black hole to a Minkowski embedding. In the unflavored background the phase transition is of second order and takes place when the charge density vanishes. We determine the corresponding critical exponents and show that the scaling behavior near the quantum critical point has multiplicative logarithmic corrections. In the background with dynamical quarks the phase transition is of first order and occurs at non-zero charge density. In this case we compute the discontinuity of several physical quantities as functions of the number $N_f$ of unquenched quarks of the background.
The diamagnetic phase transition in Magnetars
Wang, Zhaojun; Zhu, Chunhua; Wu, Baoshan
2016-01-01
Neutron stars are ideal astrophysical laboratories for testing theories of the de Haas-van Alphen (dHvA) effect and diamagnetic phase transition which is associated with magnetic domain formation. The "magnetic interaction" between delocalized magnetic moments of electrons (the Shoenberg effect), can result in an effect of the diamagnetic phase transition into domains of alternating magnetization (Condon's domains). Associated with the domain formation are prominent magnetic field oscillation and anisotropic magnetic stress which may be large enough to fracture the crust of magnetar with a super-strong field. Even if the fracture is impossible as in "low-field" magnetar, the depinning phase transition of domain wall motion driven by low field rate (mainly due to the Hall effect) in the randomly perturbed crust can result in a catastrophically variation of magnetic field. This intermittent motion, similar to the avalanche process, makes the Hall effect be dissipative. These qualitative consequences about magne...
Thermogeometric phase transition in a unified framework
Banerjee, Rabin; Samanta, Saurav
2016-01-01
Using geomterothermodynamics (GTD), we investigate the phase transition of black hole in a metric independent way. We show that for any black hole, curvature scalar (of equilibrium state space geometry) is singular at the point where specific heat diverges. Previously such a result could only be shown by taking specific examples on a case by case basis. A different type of phase transition, where inverse specific heat diverges, is also studied within this framework. We show that in the latter case, metric (of equilibrium state space geometry) is singular instead of curvature scalar. Since a metric singularity may be a coordinate artifact, we propose that GTD indicates that it is the singularity of specific heat and not inverse specific heat which indicates a phase transition of black holes.
Quantum phase transitions with dynamical flavors
Bea, Yago; Jokela, Niko; Ramallo, Alfonso V.
2016-07-01
We study the properties of a D6-brane probe in the Aharony-Bergman-Jafferis-Maldacena (ABJM) background with smeared massless dynamical quarks in the Veneziano limit. Working at zero temperature and nonvanishing charge density, we show that the system undergoes a quantum phase transition in which the topology of the brane embedding changes from a black hole to a Minkowski embedding. In the unflavored background the phase transition is of second order and takes place when the charge density vanishes. We determine the corresponding critical exponents and show that the scaling behavior near the quantum critical point has multiplicative logarithmic corrections. In the background with dynamical quarks the phase transition is of first order and occurs at nonzero charge density. In this case we compute the discontinuity of several physical quantities as functions of the number Nf of unquenched quarks of the background.
Late-time cosmological phase transitions
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Schramm, D.N. (Chicago Univ., IL (USA) Fermi National Accelerator Lab., Batavia, IL (USA))
1990-11-01
It is shown that the potential galaxy formation and large-scale structure problems of objects existing at high redshifts (Z {approx gt} 5), structures existing on scales of 100M pc as well as velocity flows on such scales, and minimal microwave anisotropies ({Delta}T/T) {approx lt} 10{sup {minus}5} can be solved if the seeds needed to generate structure form in a vacuum phase transition after decoupling. It is argued that the basic physics of such a phase transition is no more exotic than that utilized in the more traditional GUT scale phase transitions, and that, just as in the GUT case, significant random gaussian fluctuations and/or topological defects can form. Scale lengths of {approximately}100M pc for large-scale structure as well as {approximately}1 M pc for galaxy formation occur naturally. Possible support for new physics that might be associated with such a late-time transition comes from the preliminary results of the SAGE solar neutrino experiment, implying neutrino flavor mixing with values similar to those required for a late-time transition. It is also noted that a see-saw model for the neutrino masses might also imply a tau neutrino mass that is an ideal hot dark matter candidate. However, in general either hot or cold dark matter can be consistent with a late-time transition. 47 refs., 2 figs.
Exceptional Points and Dynamical Phase Transitions
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
I. Rotter
2010-01-01
Full Text Available In the framework of non-Hermitian quantum physics, the relation between exceptional points,dynamical phase transitions and the counter intuitive behavior of quantum systems at high level density is considered. The theoretical results obtained for open quantum systems and proven experimentally some years ago on a microwave cavity, may explain environmentally induce deffects (including dynamical phase transitions, which have been observed in various experimental studies. They also agree(qualitatively with the experimental results reported recently in PT symmetric optical lattices.
Scaling Concepts in Describing Continuous Phase Transitions
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
2016-10-01
Phase transitions, like the boiling of water upon increasingtemperature, are a part of everyday experience and are yet,upon closer inspection, unusual phenomena, and reveal a hostof fascinating features. Comprehending key aspects of phasetransitions has lead to the uncovering of new ways of describingmatter composed of large numbers of interacting elements,which form a dominant way of analysis in contemporarystatistical mechanics and much else. An introductorydiscussion is presented here of the concepts of scaling, universalityand renormalization, which forms the foundation ofthe study of continuous phase transitions, such as the spontaneousmagnetization of ferromagnetic substances.
Phase Transition in Loop Quantum Gravity
Mäkelä, Jarmo
2016-01-01
We point out that with a specific counting of states loop quantum gravity implies that black holes perform a phase transition at a certain characteristic temperature $T_C$. In this phase transition the punctures of the spin network on the stretched horizon of the black hole jump, in effect, from the vacuum to the excited states. The characteristic temperature $T_C$ may be regarded as the lowest possible temperature of the hole. From the point of view of a distant observer at rest with respect to the hole the characteristic temperature $T_C$ corresponds to the Hawking temperature of the hole.
Queueing phase transition: theory of translation.
Romano, M Carmen; Thiel, Marco; Stansfield, Ian; Grebogi, Celso
2009-05-15
We study the current of particles on a lattice, where to each site a different hopping probability has been associated and the particles can move only in one direction. We show that the queueing of the particles behind a slow site can lead to a first-order phase transition, and derive analytical expressions for the configuration of slow sites for this to happen. We apply this stochastic model to describe the translation of mRNAs. We show that the first-order phase transition, uncovered in this work, is the process responsible for the classification of the proteins having different biological functions.
Fluctuations near the deconfinement phase transition boundary
Mishustin, I N
2005-01-01
In this talk I discuss how a first order phase transition may proceed in rapidly expanding partonic matter produced in a relativistic heavy-ion collision. The resulting picture is that a strong collective flow of matter will lead to the fragmentation of a metastable phase into droplets. If the transition from quark-gluon plasma to hadron gas is of the first order, it will manifest itself by strong nonstatistical fluctuations in observable hadron distributions. I discuss shortly existing experimental data on the multiplicity fluctuations.
Endpoint of the hot electroweak phase transition
Csikor, Ferenc; Heitger, J
1999-01-01
We give the nonperturbative phase diagram of the four-dimensional hot electroweak phase transition. The Monte-Carlo analysis is done on lattices with different lattice spacings ($a$). A systematic extrapolation $a \\to 0$ is done. Our results show that the finite temperature SU(2)-Higgs phase transition is of first order for Higgs-boson masses $m_H<66.5 \\pm 1.4$ GeV. At this endpoint the phase transition is of second order, whereas above it only a rapid cross-over can be seen. The full four-dimensional result agrees completely with that of the dimensional reduction approximation. This fact is of particular importance, because it indicates that the fermionic sector of the Standard Model can be included perturbatively. We obtain that the Higgs-boson endpoint mass in the Standard Model is $72.4 \\pm 1.7$ GeV. Taking into account the LEP Higgs-boson mass lower bound excludes any electroweak phase transition in the Standard Model.
Transition to turbulence in pipe flow as a phase transition
Vasudevan, Mukund; Hof, Björn
2015-11-01
In pipe flow, turbulence first arises in the form of localized turbulent patches called puffs. The flow undergoes a transition to sustained turbulence via spatio-temporal intermittency, with puffs splitting, decaying and merging in the background laminar flow. However, the due to mean advection of the puffs and the long timescales involved (~107 advective time units), it is not possible to study the transition in typical laboratory set-ups. So far, it has only been possible to indirectly estimate the critical point for the transition. Here, we exploit the stochastic memoryless nature of the puff decay and splitting processes to construct a pipe flow set-up, that is periodic in a statistical sense. It then becomes possible to study the flow for sufficiently long times and characterize the transition in detail. We present measurements of the turbulent fraction as a function of Reynolds number which in turn allows a direct estimate of the critical point. We present evidence that the transition has features of a phase transition of second order.
Deconfinement phase transition in neutron star matter
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
LI Ang; PENG Guang-Xiong; Lombardo U
2009-01-01
The transition from hadron phase to strange quark phase in dense matter is investigated. Instead of using the conventional bag model in quark sect, we achieve the confinement by a density-dependent quark mass derived from in-medium chiral condensates, with a thermodynamic problem improved. In nuclear slot,we adopt the equation of state from Brueckner-Bethe-Goldstone approach with three-body force. It is found that the mixed phase can occur, for reasonable confinement parameter, near the normal saturation density,and transit to pure quark matter at 4-5 times the saturation, which is quite different from the previous results from other quark models that pure quark phase can not appear at neutron-star densities.
Liquid gas phase transition in hypernuclei
Mallik, S
2016-01-01
The fragmentation of excited hypernuclear system formed in heavy ion collisions has been described by the canonical thermodynamical model extended to three component systems. The multiplicity distribution of the fragments has been analyzed in detail and it has been observed that the hyperons have the tendency to get attached to the heavier fragments. Another important observation is the phase coexistence of the hyperons, a phenomenon which is linked to liquid gas phase transition in strange matter.
Exploring the Fragile Antiferromagnetic Superconducting Phase in CeCoIn5
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Blackburn, E.; Das, P.; Eskildsen, M.R.;
2010-01-01
CeCoIn5 is a heavy fermion type-II superconductor showing clear signs of Pauli-limited superconductivity. A variety of measurements give evidence for a transition at high magnetic fields inside the superconducting state, when the field is applied either parallel to or perpendicular to the c axis...
Coupled magnetic, structural, and electronic phase transitions in FeRh
Lewis, L. H.; Marrows, C. H.; Langridge, S.
2016-08-01
The B2-ordered intermetallic magnetic compound FeRh exhibits a thermodynamically first-order phase transition in the vicinity of room temperature that makes it a highly intriguing subject for both fundamental and applied study. On heating through the transition the magnetic character changes from antiferromagnetic to ferromagnetic order with an accompanying large increase in the electrical conductivity and an abrupt expansion in the lattice structure. Accompanying these effects is a very large entropy change comprising both magnetic and lattice contributions. As well as being driven by temperature, these coupled phase transitions may be driven by the application or removal of a magnetic field, or, because of the extremely strong lattice-spin interactions present in this compound, by an applied strain (pressure), and combinations thereof. In addition to these driving factors, the transition temperature can also be tuned by both compositional and finite size effects. Building from historical work on bulk forms of FeRh, the effects of extrinsic and intrinsic parameter variation on the coupled magnetic, structural, and electronic phase transitions are reviewed here, with special attention directed to phenomena that manifest themselves in thin films. Overall, the rich manner in which the physical properties of FeRh change at the phase transition has potential for a wide range of technological applications in areas such as thermally-assisted magnetic recording media, CFC-free magnetic cooling, sensors for energy management, and novel spintronic devices.
Chaos: Butterflies also Generate Phase Transitions
Leplaideur, Renaud
2015-10-01
We exhibit examples of mixing subshifts of finite type and of continuous potentials such that there are phase transitions but the pressure is always strictly convex. More surprisingly, we show that the pressure can be analytic on some interval although there exist several equilibrium states.
The Structural Phase Transition in Octaflournaphtalene
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Mackenzie, Gordon A.; Arthur, J. W.; Pawley, G. S.
1977-01-01
The phase transition in octafluoronaphthalene has been investigated by Raman scattering and neutron powder diffraction. The weight of the experimental evidence points to a unit cell doubling in the a direction, but with no change in space group symmetry. Lattice dynamics calculations support...
Problem of phase transitions in nuclear structure
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Scharff-Goldhaber, G
1980-01-01
Phase transitions between rotational and vibrational nuclei are discussed from the point of view of the variable moment of inertia model. A three-dimensional plot of the ground-state moments of inertia of even-even nuclei vs N and Z is shown. 3 figures. (RWR)
Caloric materials near ferroic phase transitions
Moya, X.; Kar-Narayan, S.; Mathur, N. D.
2014-05-01
A magnetically, electrically or mechanically responsive material can undergo significant thermal changes near a ferroic phase transition when its order parameter is modified by the conjugate applied field. The resulting magnetocaloric, electrocaloric and mechanocaloric (elastocaloric or barocaloric) effects are compared here in terms of history, experimental method, performance and prospective cooling applications.
Neutrino Oscillation Induced by Chiral Phase Transition
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
MU Cheng-Fu; SUN Gao-Feng; ZHUANG Peng-Fei
2009-01-01
Electric charge neutrality provides a relationship between chiral dynamics and neutrino propagation in compact stars.Due to the sudden drop of the electron density at the first-order chiral phase transition,the oscillation for low energy neutrinos is significant and can be regarded as a signature of chiral symmetry restoration in the core of compact stars.
Higgs Couplings and Electroweak Phase Transition
Katz, Andrey
2014-01-01
We argue that extensions of the Standard Model (SM) with a strongly first-order electroweak phase transition generically predict significant deviations of the Higgs couplings to gluons, photons, and Z bosons from their SM values. Precise experimental measurements of the Higgs couplings at the LHC and at the proposed next-generation facilities will allow for a robust test of the phase transition dynamics. To illustrate this point, in this paper we focus on the scenario in which loops of a new scalar field are responsible for the first-order phase transition, and study a selection of benchmark models with various SM gauge quantum numbers of the new scalar. We find that the current LHC measurement of the Higgs coupling to gluons already excludes the possibility of a first-order phase transition induced by a scalar in a sextet, or larger, representation of the SU(3)_c. Future LHC experiments (including HL-LHC) will be able to definitively probe the case when the new scalar is a color triplet. If the new scalar is...
Passive Supporters of Terrorism and Phase Transitions
August, Friedrich; Delitzscher, Sascha; Hiller, Gerald; Krueger, Tyll
2010-01-01
We discuss some social contagion processes to describe the formation and spread of radical opinions. The dynamics of opinion spread involves local threshold processes as well as mean field effects. We calculate and observe phase transitions in the dynamical variables resulting in a rapidly increasing number of passive supporters. This strongly indicates that military solutions are inappropriate.
Hysteresis in the phase transition of chocolate
Ren, Ruilong; Lu, Qunfeng; Lin, Sihua; Dong, Xiaoyan; Fu, Hao; Wu, Shaoyi; Wu, Minghe; Teng, Baohua
2016-01-01
We designed an experiment to reproduce the hysteresis phenomenon of chocolate appearing in the heating and cooling process, and then established a model to relate the solidification degree to the order parameter. Based on the Landau-Devonshire theory, our model gave a description of the hysteresis phenomenon in chocolate, which lays the foundations for the study of the phase transition behavior of chocolate.
The transition to chaotic phase synchronization
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Mosekilde, E.; Laugesen, J. L.; Zhusubaliyev, Zh. T.
2012-01-01
The transition to chaotic phase synchronization for a periodically driven spiral-type chaotic oscillator is known to involve a dense set of saddle-node bifurcations. By following the synchronization transition through the cascade of period-doubling bifurcations in a forced Ro¨ssler system......, this paper describes how these saddle-node bifurcations arise and how their characteristic cyclic organisation develops. We identify the cycles that are involved in the various saddle-node bifurcations and describe how the formation of multi-layered resonance cycles in the synchronization domain is related...... varying arterial blood pressure. The paper finally discusses how an alternative transition to chaotic phase synchronization may occur in the mutual synchronization of two chaotically oscillating period-doubling systems....
Dimensional phase transitions in small Yukawa clusters
Sheridan, T E
2009-01-01
We investigate the one- to two-dimensional zigzag transition in clusters consisting of a small number of particles interacting through a Yukawa (Debye) potential and confined in a two-dimensional biharmonic potential well. Dusty (complex) plasma clusters with $n \\le 19$ monodisperse particles are characterized experimentally for two different confining wells. The well anisotropy is accurately measured, and the Debye shielding parameter is determined from the longitudinal breathing frequency. Debye shielding is shown to be important. A model for this system is used to predict equilibrium particle configurations. The experiment and model exhibit excellent agreement. The critical value of $n$ for the zigzag transition is found to be less than that predicted for an unshielded Coulomb interaction. The zigzag transition is shown to behave as a continuous phase transition from a one-dimensional to a two-dimensional state, where the state variables are the number of particles, the well anisotropy and the Debye shield...
Phase transition to QGP matter : confined vs deconfined matter
Maire, Antonin
2015-01-01
Simplified phase diagram of the nuclear phase transition, from the regular hadronic matter to the QGP phase. The sketch is meant to describe the transition foreseen along the temperature axis, at low baryochemical potential, µB.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Shan Chuan-Jia; Cheng Wei-Wen; Liu Tang-Kun; Huang Yan-Xia; Li nong
2008-01-01
By using the method of density-matrix renormalization-group to solve the different spin-spin correlation functions,the nearest-neighbouring entanglement (NNE) and the next-nearest-neighbouring entanglement (NNNE) of one-dimensional alternating Heisenberg XY spin chain are investigated in the presence of alternating the-nearestneighbouring interaction of exchange couplings,external magnetic fields and the next-nearest neighbouring interaction.For a dimerised ferromagnetic spin chain,the NNNE appears only above a critical dimerized interaction,meanwhile,the dimerized interaction a effects a quantum phase transition point and improves the NNNE to a large extent.We also study the effect of ferromagnetic or antiferromagnetic next-nearest neighbouring (NNN) interaction on the dynamics of NNE and NNNE.The ferromagnetic NNN interaction increases and shrinks the NNE below and above a critical frustrated interaction respectively,while the antiferromagnetic NNN interaction always reduces the NNE.The antiferromagnetic NNN interaction results in a large value of NNNE compared with the case where the NNN interaction is ferromagnetic.
Phase transitions in Pareto optimal complex networks
Seoane, Luís F
2015-01-01
The organization of interactions in complex systems can be described by networks connecting different units. These graphs are useful representations of the local and global complexity of the underlying systems. The origin of their topological structure can be diverse, resulting from different mechanisms including multiplicative processes and optimization. In spatial networks or in graphs where cost constraints are at work, as it occurs in a plethora of situations from power grids to the wiring of neurons in the brain, optimization plays an important part in shaping their organization. In this paper we study network designs resulting from a Pareto optimization process, where different simultaneous constraints are the targets of selection. We analyze three variations on a problem finding phase transitions of different kinds. Distinct phases are associated to different arrangements of the connections; but the need of drastic topological changes does not determine the presence, nor the nature of the phase transit...
Phase transition – Break down the walls
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Wandahl, Søren
2012-01-01
-phase issues of the construction process. This research first identifies the problems theoretically, and looks into which framework to be used in understanding of the phase transition problem. This combined with data from interviews reveal 8 major issues in phase transition, which decrease the value....... In a popular term this problem is often called “over the wall syndrome”. The manufacturing industry has worked with this for many years, in e.g. integrated product development, concurrent engineering, supply chain management, etc. Now the construction industry needs to focus more on these crucial inter...... tender often is limited due to regulations. Therefore, contractors miss a large amount of non-operational information, and the client and his consulting engineers never mange to share their tacit knowledge of project preconditions....
Magnetic phase transitions of spin-1 ultracold bosons in a cubic optical lattice
Li, Yongqiang; He, Liang; Hofstetter, Walter
2016-03-01
We investigate strongly correlated spin-1 ultracold bosons with antiferromagnetic interactions in a cubic optical lattice, based on bosonic dynamical mean-field theory. Rich phase diagrams of the system are mapped out at both zero and finite temperature, and in particular the existence of a spin-singlet condensate is established. Interestingly, at finite temperature, we find that the superfluid can be heated into a Mott insulator with even (odd) filling via a first- (second-) order phase transition, analogous to the Pomeranchuk effect in 3He. Moreover, for typical experimental setups, we estimate the critical temperature (entropy) for different ordered phases and our results suggest that direct experimental observation of these phases is promising.
Phase diagrams and kinetics of phase transitions in protein solutions.
Vekilov, Peter G
2012-05-16
The phase behavior of proteins is of interest for fundamental and practical reasons. The nucleation of new phases is one of the last major unresolved problems of nature. The formation of protein condensed phases (crystals, polymers, and other solid aggregates, as well as dense liquids and gels) underlies pathological conditions, plays a crucial role in the biological function of the respective protein, or is an essential part of laboratory and industrial processes. In this review, we focus on phase transitions of proteins in their properly folded state. We first summarize the recently acquired understanding of physical processes underlying the phase diagrams of the protein solutions and the thermodynamics of protein phase transitions. Then we review recent findings on the kinetics of nucleation of dense liquid droplets and crystals. We explore the transition from nucleation to spinodal decomposition for liquid-liquid separation and introduce the new concept of solution-to-crystal spinodal. We review the two-step mechanism of protein crystal nucleation, in which mesoscopic metastable protein clusters serve as precursors to the ordered crystal nuclei. The concepts and mechanisms reviewed here provide powerful tools for control of the nucleation process by varying the solution thermodynamic parameters.
Effect of quantum phase transition on spin transport in the spatially frustrated Heisenberg model
Lima, L. S.
2017-03-01
We have used the Schwinger's boson theory to study the spin transport in the anisotropic two-dimensional spatially frustrated Heisenberg antiferromagnetic model in the square lattice. Our results show a sudden change in the AC spin conductivity σreg (ω) in the quantum phase transition point, where we have the gap of the system going to zero at critical point Dc=0. We have found a sudden change for a superconductor state in the DC limit ω → 0 independent of the value of the Drude's weight found in the quantum phase transition point. Away from it, we have obtained that the behavior of the spin conductivity changes for single peak at ω =ωp and in this case, σreg (ω) goes to zero in small ω and large ω limits.
Liao, Haijun; Li, Tao
2011-11-30
We study the ground state phase diagram of the bilayer Heisenberg model on a square lattice with a bosonic resonating valence bond (RVB) wavefunction. The wavefunction has the form of a Gutzwiller projected Schwinger boson mean-field ground state and involves two variational parameters. We find the wavefunction provides an accurate description of the system on both sides of the quantum phase transition. In particular, through the analysis of the spin structure factor, ground state fidelity susceptibility and the Binder moment ratio Q(2), a continuous transition from the antiferromagnetic ordered state to the quantum disordered state is found at the critical coupling of α(c) = J(⊥)/J(∥) ≈ 2.62, in good agreement with the result of quantum Monte Carlo simulation. The critical exponent estimated from the finite size scaling analysis (1/ν ≈ 1.4) is consistent with that of the classical 3D Heisenberg universality class.
Universal space-time scaling symmetry in the dynamics of bosons across a quantum phase transition
Clark, Logan W; Chin, Cheng
2016-01-01
The dynamics of many-body systems spanning condensed matter, cosmology, and beyond is hypothesized to be universal when the systems cross continuous phase transitions. The universal dynamics is expected to satisfy a scaling symmetry of space and time with the crossing rate, inspired by the Kibble-Zurek mechanism. We test this symmetry based on Bose condensates in a shaken optical lattice. Shaking the lattice drives condensates across an effectively ferromagnetic quantum phase transition. After crossing the critical point, the condensates manifest delayed growth of spin fluctuations and develop anti-ferromagnetic spatial correlations resulting from sub-Poisson generation of topological defects. The characteristic times and lengths scale as power-laws of the crossing rate, yielding the temporal exponent 0.50(2) and the spatial exponent 0.26(2), consistent with theory. Furthermore, the fluctuations and correlations are invariant in scaled space-time coordinates, in support of the scaling symmetry of quantum crit...
The comfortable driving model revisited: Traffic phases and phase transitions
Knorr, Florian
2013-01-01
We study the spatiotemporal patterns resulting from different boundary conditions for a microscopic traffic model and contrast it with empirical results. By evaluating the time series of local measurements, the local traffic states are assigned to the different traffic phases of Kerner's three-phase traffic theory. For this classification we use the rule-based FOTO-method, which provides `hard' rules for this assignment. Using this approach, our analysis shows that the model is indeed able to reproduce three qualitatively different traffic phases: free flow (F), synchronized traffic (S), and wide moving jams (J). In addition, we investigate the likelihood of transitions between the three traffic phases. We show that a transition from free flow (F) to a wide moving jam (J) often involves an intermediate transition; first from free flow F to synchronized flow S and then from synchronized flow to a wide moving jam. This is supported by the fact that the so called F->S transition (from free flow to synchronized t...
Dynamics of the chiral phase transition
van Hees, H; Meistrenko, A; Greiner, C
2013-01-01
The intention of this study is the search for signatures of the chiral phase transition in heavy-ion collisions. To investigate the impact of fluctuations, e.g., of the baryon number, at the transition or at a critical point, the linear sigma model is treated in a dynamical (3+1)-dimensional numerical simulation. Chiral fields are approximated as classical mean fields, and quarks are described as quasi particles in a Vlasov equation. Additional dynamics is implemented by quark-quark and quark-sigma-field interactions. For a consistent description of field-particle interactions, a new Monte-Carlo-Langevin-like formalism has been developed and is discussed.
Long-range antiferromagnetic order in the S=1 chain compound LiVGe{sub 2}O{sub 6}
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Lumsden, M. D.; Granroth, G. E.; Mandrus, D.; Nagler, S. E.; Thompson, J. R.; Castellan, J. P.; Gaulin, B. D.
2000-10-01
The phase transition in the compound LiVGe{sub 2}O{sub 6} has been proposed as a unique example of a spin-Peierls transition in an S=1 antiferromagnetic chain. We report neutron- and x-ray-diffraction measurements of LiVGe{sub 2}O{sub 6} above and below the phase transition at T=24 K. No evidence is seen for any structural distortion associated with the transition. The neutron results indicate that the low-temperature state is antiferromagnetic, driven by ferromagnetic interchain couplings.
Takaishi, Shinya; Tobu, Yasuhiro; Kitagawa, Hiroshi; Goto, Atsushi; Shimizu, Tadashi; Okubo, Takashi; Mitani, Tadaoki; Ikeda, Ryuichi
2004-02-18
81Br Nuclear quadrupole resonance (NQR) measurement was performed in an S = 1/2 one-dimensional Heisenberg antiferromagnetic metal complex [NiBr(chxn)2]Br2 (chxn: 1R,2R-diaminocyclohexane), having a halogen-bridged MX chain structure -Br-Ni3+-Br-Ni3+-Br-. Two 81Br NQR signals were observed below 40 K, while a single signal was observed above 130 K, showing the presence of two nonequivalent bridging Br sites below 40 K. This NQR result together with previously reported magnetic susceptibility and X-ray results indicate the occurrence of a transition into a spin-Peierls state between 40 and 130 K. This communication reports the first spin-Peierls transition in metal complexes in which pure d electrons contribute to the magnetism. In addition, we demonstrated a new experimental method for studying a spin-Peierls system.
Long range anti-ferromagnetic spin model for prebiotic evolution
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Nokura, Kazuo [Shonan Institute of Technology, Fujisawa 251-8511 (Japan)
2003-11-28
I propose and discuss a fitness function for one-dimensional binary monomer sequences of macromolecules for prebiotic evolution. The fitness function is defined by the free energy of polymers in the high temperature random coil phase. With repulsive interactions among the same kind of monomers, the free energy in the high temperature limit becomes the energy function of the one-dimensional long range anti-ferromagnetic spin model, which is shown to have a dynamical phase transition and glassy states.
Phase transitions in Pareto optimal complex networks.
Seoane, Luís F; Solé, Ricard
2015-09-01
The organization of interactions in complex systems can be described by networks connecting different units. These graphs are useful representations of the local and global complexity of the underlying systems. The origin of their topological structure can be diverse, resulting from different mechanisms including multiplicative processes and optimization. In spatial networks or in graphs where cost constraints are at work, as it occurs in a plethora of situations from power grids to the wiring of neurons in the brain, optimization plays an important part in shaping their organization. In this paper we study network designs resulting from a Pareto optimization process, where different simultaneous constraints are the targets of selection. We analyze three variations on a problem, finding phase transitions of different kinds. Distinct phases are associated with different arrangements of the connections, but the need of drastic topological changes does not determine the presence or the nature of the phase transitions encountered. Instead, the functions under optimization do play a determinant role. This reinforces the view that phase transitions do not arise from intrinsic properties of a system alone, but from the interplay of that system with its external constraints.
Paramagnetism and antiferromagnetic interactions in single-phase Fe-implanted ZnO
Pereira, Lino Miguel da Costa; Correia, João Guilherme; Van Bael, M J; Temst, Kristiaan; Vantomme, André; Araújo, João Pedro
2013-01-01
As the intrinsic origin of the high temperature ferromagnetism often observed in wide-gap dilute magnetic semiconductors becomes increasingly debated, there is a growing need for comprehensive studies on the single-phase region of the phase diagram of these materials. Here we report on the magnetic and structural properties of Fe-doped ZnO prepared by ion implantation of ZnO single crystals. A detailed structural characterization shows that the Fe impurities substitute for Zn in ZnO in a wurtzite Zn$_{1−x}$Fe$_{x}$O phase which is coherent with the ZnO host. In addition, the density of beam-induced defects is progressively decreased by thermal annealing up to 900$^{\\circ}$C, from highly disordered after implantation to highly crystalline upon subsequent annealing. Based on a detailed analysis of the magnetometry data, we demonstrate that isolated Fe impurities occupying Zn substitutional sites behave as localized paramagnetic moments down to 2$^{\\circ}$K, irrespective of the Fe concentration and the density...
Qu, Yuanju; Pan, Hui; Kwok, Chi Tat
2016-09-01
Two-dimensional (2D) transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDs) have been widely used from nanodevices to energy harvesting/storage because of their tunable physical and chemical properties. In this work, we systematically investigate the effects of hydrogenation on the structural, electronic, magnetic, and catalytic properties of 33 TMDs based on first-principles calculations. We find that the stable phases of TMD monolayers can transit from 1T to 2H phase or vice versa upon the hydrogenation. We show that the hydrogenation can switch their magnetic and electronic states accompanying with the phase transition. The hydrogenation can tune the magnetic states of TMDs among non-, ferro, para-, and antiferro-magnetism and their electronic states among semiconductor, metal, and half-metal. We further show that, out of 33 TMD monolayers, 2H-TiS2 has impressive catalytic ability comparable to Pt in hydrogen evolution reaction in a wide range of hydrogen coverages. Our findings would shed the light on the multi-functional applications of TMDs.
Effects of gauge boson mass on chiral and deconfinement phase transitions in QED$_{3}$
Yin, Pei-Lin; Feng, Hong-Tao; Zong, Hong-Shi
2016-01-01
Based on the experimental observation that there is a coexisting region between the antiferromagnetic (AF) and $\\textit{d}$-wave superconducting ($\\textit{d}$SC) phases, the influences of gauge boson mass $m_{a}$ on chiral symmetry restoration and deconfinement phase transitions in QED$_{3}$ are investigated simultaneously within a unified framework, i.e., Dyson-Schwinger equations. The results show that the chiral symmetry restoration phase transition in the presence of the gauge boson mass $m_{a}$ is a typical second-order phase transition; the chiral symmetry restoration and deconfinement phase transitions are coincident; the critical number of fermion flavors $N^{c}_{f}$ decreases as the gauge boson mass $m_{a}$ increases and there exists a boundary that separates the $N^{c}_{f}$-$m_{a}$ plane into chiral symmetry breaking/confinement region for ($N_{f}^{c}$, $m_{a}$) below the boundary and chiral symmetry restoration/deconfinement region for ($N_{f}^{c}$, $m_{a}$) above it.
Magnetic structure and successive phase transition in NpRhGa{sub 5}
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Jonen, Shintaro [Advanced Science Research Center, Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute, Tokai, Naka, Ibaraki 319-1195 (Japan)]. E-mail: jonen.shintaro@jaea.go.jp; Metoki, Naoto [Advanced Science Research Center, Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute, Tokai, Naka, Ibaraki 319-1195 (Japan); Department of Physics, Tohoku University, Sendai 980-8578 (Japan); Honda, Fuminori [Advanced Science Research Center, Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute, Tokai, Naka, Ibaraki 319-1195 (Japan); Kaneko, Koji [Advanced Science Research Center, Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute, Tokai, Naka, Ibaraki 319-1195 (Japan); Aoki, Dai [Institute for Materials Research, Tohoku University, Oarai, Ibaraki 311-1313 (Japan); Homma, Yoshiya [Institute for Materials Research, Tohoku University, Oarai, Ibaraki 311-1313 (Japan); Yamamoto, Etsuji [Advanced Science Research Center, Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute, Tokai, Naka, Ibaraki 319-1195 (Japan); Haga, Yoshinori [Advanced Science Research Center, Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute, Tokai, Naka, Ibaraki 319-1195 (Japan); Shiokawa, Yoshinobu [Advanced Science Research Center, Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute, Tokai, Naka, Ibaraki 319-1195 (Japan); Institute for Materials Research, Tohoku University, Oarai, Ibaraki 311-1313 (Japan); Onuki, Yoshichika [Advanced Science Research Center, Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute, Tokai, Naka, Ibaraki 319-1195 (Japan); Graduate School of Science, Osaka University, Toyonaka, Osaka 560-0043 (Japan)
2006-05-01
The magnetic structure of NpRhGa{sub 5} has been investigated by neutron scattering. NpRhGa{sub 5} exhibits two antiferromagnetic phases with transition temperatures at T{sub N1}=36K and T{sub N2}=33K. Neutron diffraction experiments revealed an antiferromagnetic structure with a propagation vector q=(0012) for both of the phases, where the Np magnetic moments are oriented along the tetragonal c-axis for T{sub N2}
Sznajd-Weron, Katarzyna
2010-09-01
In the past decade low-temperature Glauber dynamics for the one-dimensional Ising system has been several times observed experimentally and occurred to be one of the most important theoretical approaches in a field of molecular nanomagnets. On the other hand, it has been shown recently that Glauber dynamics with the Metropolis flipping probability for the zero-temperature Ising ferromagnet under synchronous updating can lead surprisingly to the antiferromagnetic steady state. In this paper the generalized class of Glauber dynamics at zero temperature will be considered and the relaxation into the ground state, after a quench from high temperature, will be investigated. Using Monte Carlo simulations and a mean field approach, discontinuous phase transition between ferromagnetic and antiferromagnetic phases for a one-dimensional ferromagnet will be shown.
Low-temperature specific heat of YMn{sub 2} in the paramagnetic and antiferromagnetic phases
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Fisher, R.A.; Emerson, J.P.; Phillips, N.E. [Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States); Ballou, R.; Lelievre-Berna, E. [Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (CNRS), 38 - Grenoble (France). Lab. Louis Neel
1992-07-01
The low-temperature specific heat of YMn{sub 2} has been measured at applied pressures of 0 to 7.7 kbar. A paramagnetic state is stabilized for moderate values of the applied pressure (of the order of 1.6 kbar). A large linear term in the specific heat, which decreases regularly with increasing pressure, is observed in this phase. It is ascribed to giant spin fluctuations associated with a magnetic-non magnetic instability and a strong geometrical spin frustration.
Low-temperature specific heat of YMn sub 2 in the paramagnetic and antiferromagnetic phases
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Fisher, R.A.; Emerson, J.P.; Phillips, N.E. (Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States)); Ballou, R.; Lelievre-Berna, E. (Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (CNRS), 38 - Grenoble (France). Lab. Louis Neel)
1992-07-01
The low-temperature specific heat of YMn{sub 2} has been measured at applied pressures of 0 to 7.7 kbar. A paramagnetic state is stabilized for moderate values of the applied pressure (of the order of 1.6 kbar). A large linear term in the specific heat, which decreases regularly with increasing pressure, is observed in this phase. It is ascribed to giant spin fluctuations associated with a magnetic-non magnetic instability and a strong geometrical spin frustration.
The Next Generation Transit Survey - Prototyping Phase
McCormac, James; Wheatley, Peter; West, Richard; Walker, Simon; Bento, Joao; Skillen, Ian; Faedi, Francesca; Burleigh, Matt; Casewell, Sarah; Chazelas, Bruno; Genolet, Ludovic; Gibson, Neale; Goad, Mike; Lawrie, Katherine; Ryans, Robert; Todd, Ian; Udry, Stephan; Watson, Christopher
2016-01-01
We present the prototype telescope for the Next Generation Transit Survey, which was built in the UK in 2008/09 and tested on La Palma in the Canary Islands in 2010. The goals for the prototype system were severalfold: to determine the level of systematic noise in an NGTS-like system; demonstrate that we can perform photometry at the (sub) millimagnitude level on transit timescales across a wide field; show that it is possible to detect transiting super-Earth and Neptune-sized exoplanets and prove the technical feasibility of the proposed planet survey. We tested the system for around 100 nights and met each of the goals above. Several key areas for improvement were highlighted during the prototyping phase. They have been subsequently addressed in the final NGTS facility which was recently commissioned at ESO Cerro Paranal, Chile.
Lapinskas, Saulius; Rosengren, Anders
1994-06-01
Using the cluster-variation method we study the phase diagram of the Blume-Emergy-Griffiths (BEG) model on simple cubic and face-centered cubic lattices. For the simple cubic lattice the main attention is paid to reentrant phenomena and ferrimagnetic phases occurring in a certain range of coupling constants. The results are in close agreement with Monte-Carlo data, available for parts of the phase diagram. Several ferrimagnetic phases are obtained in the vicinity of the line in parameter space, at which the model reduces to the antiferromagnetic three-state Potts model. Our results imply the existence of three phase transitions in the antiferromagnetic Potts model on the simple-cubic lattice. The phase diagrams for the BEG model on the face-centered cubic lattice are obtained in the region of antiquadrupolar ordering. Also the several ordered phases of the antiferromagnetic Potts model on this lattice are discussed.
A nonequilibrium phase transition in immune response
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Zhang Wei; Qi An-Shen
2004-01-01
The dynamics of immune response correlated to signal transduction in immune thymic cells (T cells) is studied.In particular, the problem of the phosphorylation of the immune-receptor tyrosine-based activation motifs (ITAM) is explored. A nonlinear model is established on the basis of experimental observations. The behaviours of the model can be well analysed using the concepts of nonequilibrium phase transitions. In addition, the Riemann-Hugoniot cusp catastrophe is demonstrated by the model. Due to the application of the theory of nonequilibrium phase transitions,the biological phenomena can be clarified more precisely. The results can also be used to further explain the signal transduction and signal discrimination of an important type of immune T cell.
Phase transition in the countdown problem
Lacasa, Lucas; Luque, Bartolo
2012-07-01
We present a combinatorial decision problem, inspired by the celebrated quiz show called Countdown, that involves the computation of a given target number T from a set of k randomly chosen integers along with a set of arithmetic operations. We find that the probability of winning the game evidences a threshold phenomenon that can be understood in the terms of an algorithmic phase transition as a function of the set size k. Numerical simulations show that such probability sharply transitions from zero to one at some critical value of the control parameter, hence separating the algorithm's parameter space in different phases. We also find that the system is maximally efficient close to the critical point. We derive analytical expressions that match the numerical results for finite size and permit us to extrapolate the behavior in the thermodynamic limit.
Holographic phase transitions at finite chemical potential
Mateos, David; Matsuura, Shunji; Myers, Robert C.; Thomson, Rowan M.
2007-11-01
Recently, holographic techniques have been used to study the thermal properties of Script N = 2 super-Yang-Mills theory, with gauge group SU(Nc) and coupled to Nf coupling. Here we consider the phase diagram as a function of temperature and baryon chemical potential μb. For fixed μb transitions separating a region with vanishing baryon density and one with nonzero density. For fixed μb>Nc Mq there is no phase transition as a function of the temperature and the baryon density is always nonzero. We also compare the present results for the grand canonical ensemble with those for canonical ensemble in which the baryon density is held fixed [1].
Nonequilibrium phase transitions in biomolecular signal transduction
Smith, Eric; Krishnamurthy, Supriya; Fontana, Walter; Krakauer, David
2011-11-01
We study a mechanism for reliable switching in biomolecular signal-transduction cascades. Steady bistable states are created by system-size cooperative effects in populations of proteins, in spite of the fact that the phosphorylation-state transitions of any molecule, by means of which the switch is implemented, are highly stochastic. The emergence of switching is a nonequilibrium phase transition in an energetically driven, dissipative system described by a master equation. We use operator and functional integral methods from reaction-diffusion theory to solve for the phase structure, noise spectrum, and escape trajectories and first-passage times of a class of minimal models of switches, showing how all critical properties for switch behavior can be computed within a unified framework.
Extracellular ice phase transitions in insects.
Hawes, T C
2014-01-01
At temperatures below their temperature of crystallization (Tc), the extracellular body fluids of insects undergo a phase transition from liquid to solid. Insects that survive the transition to equilibrium (complete freezing of the body fluids) are designated as freeze tolerant. Although this phenomenon has been reported and described in many Insecta, current nomenclature and theory does not clearly delineate between the process of transition (freezing) and the final solid phase itself (the frozen state). Thus freeze tolerant insects are currently, by convention, described in terms of the temperature at which the crystallization of their body fluids is initiated, Tc. In fact, the correct descriptor for insects that tolerate freezing is the temperature of equilibrium freezing, Tef. The process of freezing is itself a separate physical event with unique physiological stresses that are associated with ice growth. Correspondingly there are a number of insects whose physiological cryo-limits are very specifically delineated by this transitional envelope. The distinction also has considerable significance for our understanding of insect cryobiology: firstly, because the ability to manage endogenous ice growth is a fundamental segregator of cryotype; and secondly, because our understanding of internal ice management is still largely nascent.
Holographic phase transitions at finite chemical potential
Mateos, David; Myers, Robert C; Thomson, Rowan M
2007-01-01
Recently holographic techniques have been used to study the thermal properties of N=2 SYM theory, with gauge group SU(Nc) and coupled to Nf Nc Mq there is no phase transition as a function of the temperature and the baryon density is always nonzero. We also compare the present results for the grand canonical ensemble with those for canonical ensemble in which the baryon density is held fixed [1].
Quantum phase transitions in constrained Bose systems
Bonnes, Lars
2011-01-01
This doctoral thesis studies low dimensional quantum systems that can be realized in recent cold atom experiments. From the viewpoint of quantum statistical mechanics, the main emphasis is on the detailed study of the different quantum and thermal phases and their transitions using numerical methods, such as quantum Monte Carlo and the Tensor Network Renormalization Group. The first part of this work deals with a lattice Boson model subject to strong three-body losses. In a quantum-Zeno li...
Recent theoretical advances on superradiant phase transitions
Baksic, Alexandre; Nataf, Pierre; Ciuti, Cristiano
2013-03-01
The Dicke model describing a single-mode boson field coupled to two-level systems is an important paradigm in quantum optics. In particular, the physics of ``superradiant phase transitions'' in the ultrastrong coupling regime is the subject of a vigorous research activity in both cavity and circuit QED. Recently, we explored the rich physics of two interesting generalizations of the Dicke model: (i) A model describing the coupling of a boson mode to two independent chains A and B of two-level systems, where chain A is coupled to one quadrature of the boson field and chain B to the orthogonal quadrature. This original model leads to a quantum phase transition with a double symmetry breaking and a fourfold ground state degeneracy. (ii) A generalized Dicke model with three-level systems including the diamagnetic term. In contrast to the case of two-level atoms for which no-go theorems exist, in the case of three-level system we prove that the Thomas-Reich-Kuhn sum rule does not always prevent a superradiant phase transition.
Superconducting phase transition in STM tips
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Eltschka, Matthias; Jaeck, Berthold; Assig, Maximilian; Etzkorn, Markus; Ast, Christian R. [Max Planck Institute for Solid State Research, Stuttgart (Germany); Kern, Klaus [Max Planck Institute for Solid State Research, Stuttgart (Germany); Ecole Polytechnique Federale de Lausanne (Switzerland)
2015-07-01
The superconducting properties of systems with dimensions comparable to the London penetration depth considerably differ from macroscopic systems. We have studied the superconducting phase transition of vanadium STM tips in external magnetic fields. Employing Maki's theory we extract the superconducting parameters such as the gap or the Zeeman splitting from differential conductance spectra. While the Zeeman splitting follows the theoretical description of a system with s=1/2 and g=2, the superconducting gaps as well as the critical fields depend on the specific tip. For a better understanding of the experimental results, we solve a one dimensional Usadel equation modeling the superconducting tip as a cone with the opening angle α in an external magnetic field. We find that only a small region at the apex of the tip is superconducting in high magnetic fields and that the order of the phase transition is directly determined by α. Further, the spectral broadening increases with α indicating an intrinsic broadening mechanism due to the conical shape of the tip. Comparing these calculations to our experimental results reveals the order of the superconducting phase transition of the STM tips.
Dynamical quantum phase transitions (Review Article)
Zvyagin, A. A.
2016-11-01
During recent years the interest to dynamics of quantum systems has grown considerably. Quantum many body systems out of equilibrium often manifest behavior, different from the one predicted by standard statistical mechanics and thermodynamics in equilibrium. Since the dynamics of a many-body quantum system typically involve many excited eigenstates, with a non-thermal distribution, the time evolution of such a system provides an unique way for investigation of non-equilibrium quantum statistical mechanics. Last decade such new subjects like quantum quenches, thermalization, pre-thermalization, equilibration, generalized Gibbs ensemble, etc. are among the most attractive topics of investigation in modern quantum physics. One of the most interesting themes in the study of dynamics of quantum many-body systems out of equilibrium is connected with the recently proposed important concept of dynamical quantum phase transitions. During the last few years a great progress has been achieved in studying of those singularities in the time dependence of characteristics of quantum mechanical systems, in particular, in understanding how the quantum critical points of equilibrium thermodynamics affect their dynamical properties. Dynamical quantum phase transitions reveal universality, scaling, connection to the topology, and many other interesting features. Here we review the recent achievements of this quickly developing part of low-temperature quantum physics. The study of dynamical quantum phase transitions is especially important in context of their connection to the problem of the modern theory of quantum information, where namely non-equilibrium dynamics of many-body quantum system plays the major role.
On Dynamical Systems and Phase Transitions for q + 1-state p-adic Potts Model on the Cayley Tree
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Mukhamedov, Farrukh, E-mail: far75m@yandex.ru [International Islamic University Malaysia, Department of Computational and Theoretical Sciences, Faculty of Science (Malaysia)
2013-03-15
In the present paper, we study a new kind of p-adic measures for q + 1-state Potts model, called p-adic quasi Gibbs measure. For such a model, we derive a recursive relations with respect to boundary conditions. Note that we consider two mode of interactions: ferromagnetic and antiferromagnetic. In both cases, we investigate a phase transition phenomena from the associated dynamical system point of view. Namely, using the derived recursive relations we define a fractional p-adic dynamical system. In ferromagnetic case, we establish that if q is divisible by p, then such a dynamical system has two repelling and one attractive fixed points. We find basin of attraction of the fixed point. This allows us to describe all solutions of the nonlinear recursive equations. Moreover, in that case there exists the strong phase transition. If q is not divisible by p, then the fixed points are neutral, and this yields that the existence of the quasi phase transition. In antiferromagnetic case, there are two attractive fixed points, and we find basins of attraction of both fixed points, and describe solutions of the nonlinear recursive equation. In this case, we prove the existence of a quasi phase transition.
Neutron scattering studies of a frustrated spinel antiferromagnet in zero and high magnetic field
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Matsuda, M [Quantum Beam Science Directorate, Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA), Tokai, Ibaraki 319-1195 (Japan)
2006-11-15
A review is given of the neutron scattering studies on a frustrated spinel antiferromagnet CdCr{sub 2}O{sub 4}. As observed in ZnCr{sub 2}O{sub 4}, which has been most extensively studied in the Cr-based spinel oxides, CdCr{sub 2}O{sub 4} also shows an antiferromagnetic phase transition and a structural phase transition simultaneously, indicating a strong spin-lattice coupling. The magnetic structure of CdCr{sub 2}O{sub 4}was determined by neutron scattering studies. The neutron scattering study in magnetic field up to 10 T indicates an orientation of magnetic domains.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
无
2000-01-01
The effect of C content (0.014～0.39 wt pct) on the paramagnetic-antiferromagnetic transition and γ -→ ε martensitic transformation of Fe-24Mn alloys has been investigated by the resistivity,dilation, tensile properties measurement and microstructure examination. The results have shown that C decreases TN; increases the thermal expansion coefficients both above and below the TN; increases the resistivity above the TN and antiferromagnetic scattering resistivity below TN. It strongly depresses the γ→ε martensitic transformation and reduces the Ms of Fe-24Mn alloys.Moreover, it increases the lattice parameter of austenite, enhances the tensile ductility, but almost does not affect the tensile strength. With increasing C content from 0.014 to 0.19 wt pct, theyield strength of Fe-24Mn alloy decreases obviously arising from the decreasing of preexisting εmartensite, but it increases from 0.19 to 0.39 wt pct C due to the solution hardening of C.
Magnetic and structural properties of antiferromagnetic VF{sub 3}
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Reuvekamp, Patrick; Kremer, Reinhard; Eger, Roland [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Festkoerperforschung, Heisenbergstrasse 1, D-70569 Stuttgart (Germany); Nenert, Gwilherm; Hansen, Thomas [Institut Laue-Langevin, 38042 Grenoble (France)
2013-07-01
We report on a magnetic and structural investigation of layered antiferromagnetic system vanadium (III) fluoride. VF{sub 3} crystallizes in a distorted ReO{sub 3} structure (R anti 3c) with rotated undistorted VF{sub 6} octahedra. The V{sup +3} cations are arranged in a triangular lattice with the possibility of exhibiting magnetic frustration. Polycrystalline samples of VF{sub 3} were investigated using heat capacity, dielectric, magnetic susceptibility and neutron powder diffraction methods. Combining our results, we confirmed that VF{sub 3} undergoes long-range antiferromagnetic order at ∝19 K in accordance with literature. The antiferromagnetic order results in a magnetic structure with the magnetic moments alternating between a parallel and b parallel alignments in the ab plane. A second phase transition can be seen at ∝120 K in the heat capacity and dielectric measurements possibly associated to a minute structural distortion.
Pressure-Induced Phase Transitions In Gadolinium Iron Borate
Kharlamova, S. A.; Struzhkin, V. V.; Sinogeikin, S. V.; Gavriliuk, A. G.; Brown, D.; Toellner, T.; Zhao, J.; Lerche, M.; Lyubutin, I. S.; Ovchinnikov, S. G.; Alp, E. E.; Sturhahn, W.
2007-12-01
An understanding of spin crossover (SC) dynamics is relevant to understanding of a role or participation of SC in natural systems including lower Mantle minerals, heme proteins as well as from fundamental science of view. For example, pressure-induced electronic spin transitions of Fe2+ and Fe3+ iron occur in magnesiowustite, silicate perovskite and post-perovskite which are abundant minerals in the Earth's lower mantle [1-3]. Such a SC phenomenon has recently been observed in a number of magnetic minerals FeBO3 [4, 5], BiFeO3 [6], Fe2O3 [7], and Y3Fe5O12 [8], (La, Pr)FeO3 [9, 10]. In those cases, iron ions are in the trivalent state Fe3+ and the high-spin-low-spin (HS-LS) crossover is manifested as the collapse of the local magnetic moment and as the transition of the antiferromagnet to a paramagnetic state. For example, in FeBO3 at low temperatures a spin-crossover and some magnetic transitions with two triple points were found [4, 5]. Gadolinium iron borate, GdFe3(BO3)4 is also a system with SEC and recently, we have reported on phase transitions induced by high pressures in this material [11, 12]. We studied the structural and magnetic behavior of GdFe573(BO3)4 at high pressures and temperatures using a diamond anvil cell and a Synchrotron Mossbauer Spectroscopy technique. The hyperfine parameters and results obtained from the experiments are discussed. Based on our experimental data and theoretical calculation a tentative magnetic P-T phase diagram and an equation of states of GdFe573(BO3)4 are proposed. Important features of the phase diagram are a spin crossover, insulator-semiconductor transition and possible presence of two triple points where magnetic and paramagnetic phases of the high-spin and low-spin states coexist. 1. J. Badro, J.-P. Rueff, G. Vankó, et al., Science 305, 383 (2004). 2. J. M. Jackson, W. Sturhahn, G. Shen, et al., American Mineralogist 90, 199 (2005). 3. J.Li, V.V. Struzhkin, H.-K. Mao, et al., PNAS 101, 14027 (2004). 4. I.A. Troyan
Ramírez-Solís, A; Zicovich-Wilson, C M; Hernández-Lamoneda, R; Ochoa-Calle, A J
2017-01-25
The question of the non-magnetic (NM) vs. antiferromagnetic (AF) nature of the ε phase of solid oxygen is a matter of great interest and continuing debate. In particular, it has been proposed that the ε phase is actually composed of two phases, a low-pressure AF ε1 phase and a higher pressure NM ε0 phase [Crespo et al., Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U. S. A., 2014, 111, 10427]. We address this problem through periodic spin-restricted and spin-polarized Kohn-Sham density functional theory calculations at pressures from 10 to 50 GPa using calibrated GGA and hybrid exchange-correlation functionals with Gaussian atomic basis sets. The two possible configurations for the antiferromagnetic (AF1 and AF2) coupling of the 0 ≤ S ≤ 1 O2 molecules in the (O2)4 unit cell were studied. Full enthalpy-driven geometry optimizations of the (O2)4 unit cells were done to study the pressure evolution of the enthalpy difference between the non-magnetic and both antiferromagnetic structures. We also address the evolution of structural parameters and the spin-per-molecule vs. pressure. We find that the spin-less solution becomes more stable than both AF structures above 50 GPa and, crucially, the spin-less solution yields lattice parameters in much better agreement with experimental data at all pressures than the AF structures. The optimized AF2 broken-symmetry structures lead to large errors of the a and b lattice parameters when compared with experiments. The results for the NM model are in much better agreement with the experimental data than those found for both AF models and are consistent with a completely non-magnetic (O2)4 unit cell for the low-pressure regime of the ε phase.
Stability and Existence of Multidimensional Subsonic Phase Transitions
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Ya-Guang Wang; Zhouping Xin
2003-01-01
The purpose of this paper is to prove the uniform stability of multidimensional subsonic phase transitions satisfying the viscosity-capillarity criterion in a van der Waals fluid, and further to establish the local existence of phase transition solutions.
Phase transitions of ε-HNIW in compound systems
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Jing-yuan Zhang
2016-05-01
Full Text Available The heat-induced phase transitions of ε-HNIW, both neat and coated with various additives used in plastic bonded explosives, were investigated using powder X-ray diffraction and differential scanning calorimetry. It was found that ε-HNIW, after being held at 70°C for 60h, remained in the ε-phase. Applying other conditions, various phase transition parameters were determined, including Tc (the critical phase transition temperature, T50 (the temperature at which 50% of the phase transition is complete and T180 (the percentage of γ-HNIW present in samples heated to 180°C. According to the above three parameters, additives were divided into three categories: those that delay phase transition, those that raise the critical temperature and the transition rate, and those that promote the phase transition. Based on the above data, a phase transition mechanism is proposed.
Holography and the Electroweak Phase Transition
Creminelli, P; Rattazzi, Riccardo; Creminelli, Paolo; Nicolis, Alberto; Rattazzi, Riccardo
2002-01-01
We study through holography the compact Randall-Sundrum (RS) model at finite temperature. In the presence of radius stabilization, the system is described at low enough temperature by the RS solution. At high temperature it is described by the AdS-Schwarzshild solution with an event horizon replacing the TeV brane. We calculate the transition temperature T_c between the two phases and we find it to be somewhat smaller than the TeV scale. Assuming that the Universe starts out at T >> T_c and cools down by expansion, we study the rate of the transition to the RS phase. We find that the transition is too slow and the Universe ends up in an old inflation scenario unless tight bounds are satisfied by the model parameters. In particular we find that the AdS curvature must be comparable to the 5D Planck mass and that the radius stabilization mechanism must lead to a sizeable distortion of the basic RS metric.
Second-order phase transitions of pure substances
Schaftenaar, H.P.C.
2009-01-01
In this report we are dealing with the thermodynamic theory of second-order phase transitions or continuous transitions of unary systems. The first classification of these phase transitions is due to Ehrenfest (1933), based on chemical potentials. First-order transitions are changes in which the der
Field induced magnetic phase transition as a magnon Bose Einstein condensation
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Teodora Radu et al
2007-01-01
Full Text Available We report specific heat, magnetocaloric effect and magnetization measurements on single crystals of the frustrated quasi-2D spin -½ antiferromagnet Cs2CuCl4 in the external magnetic field 0≤B≤12 T along a-axis and in the temperature range 0.03 K≤T≤6 K. Decreasing the applied magnetic field B from high fields leads to the closure of the field induced gap in the magnon spectrum at a critical field Bcsimeq8.44 T and a long-range incommensurate state below Bc. In the vicinity of Bc, the phase transition boundary is well described by the power law TN~(Bc-B1/phi with the measured critical exponent phisimeq1.5. These findings provide experimental evidence that the scaling law of the transition temperature TN can be described by the universality class of 3D Bose–Einstein condensation (BEC of magnons.
Phase Transitions in Frustrated Vector Spin Systems: Numerical Studies
Loison, Damien
The following sections are included: * Introduction * Breakdown of symmetry * Symmetry in the high-temperature region * Breakdown of symmetry for ferromagnetic systems * Breakdown of symmetry for frustrated systems * Stacked triangular antiferromagnetic lattices * bct helimagnets * Stacked J1-J2 square lattices * The simple cubic J1-J2 lattice * J1-J2-J3 lattice * Villain lattice and fully frustrated simple cubic lattice * Face-centered cubic lattice (fcc) * Hexagonal-close-packed lattice (hcp) * Pyrochlores * Other lattices * STAR lattices * Dihedral lattices VN,2 * Right-handed trihedral lattices V3,3 * P-hedral lattices VN,P * Ising and Potts-VN,1 model * Ising and Potts-N,2 model * Landau-Ginzburg model * Cubic term in Hamiltonian * Summary * Phase transitions between two and four dimensions: 2 Potts model * O(N)/O(N - P) breakdown of symmetry for d = 3 * Z2 ⊗ SO(N)/SO(N - 1) breakdown of symmetry for d = 3 * Z3 ⊗ SO(N)/SO(N - 1) breakdown of symmetry for d = 3 * Zq ⊗ O(N)/O(N - 2) and other breakdown of symmetry in d = 3 * Conclusion * O(N) frustrated vector spins in d = 2 * Introduction * Non frustrated XY spin systems * Frustrated XY spin systems: Z2 ⊗ SO(2) * Frustrated XY spin systems: Z3 ⊗ SO(2) * Frustrated XY spin systems: Z2 ⊗ Z2 ⊗ SO(2) and Z3 ⊗ Z2 ⊗ SO(2) * Frustrated Heisenberg spin systems: SO(3) * Frustrated Heisenberg spin systems: Z2 ⊗ SO(3), Z3 ⊗ SO(3) … * Topological defects for N ≥ 4 * General conclusions * Acknowledgments * Appendix A: Monte Carlo simulation * Appendix B: Renormalization group: Landau-Ginzburg theory, expansions in fixed dimension d = 3 and for d = 4 - ɛ and its implications for experiments * References
Yin, Wei-Guo; Liu, X; Tsvelik, A M; Dean, M P M; Upton, M H; Kim, Jungho; Casa, D; Said, A; Gog, T; Qi, T F; Cao, G; Hill, J P
2013-08-02
We report a combined experimental and theoretical study of the unusual ferromagnetism in the one-dimensional copper-iridium oxide Sr(3)CuIrO(6). Utilizing Ir L(3) edge resonant inelastic x-ray scattering, we reveal a large gap magnetic excitation spectrum. We find that it is caused by an unusual exchange anisotropy generating mechanism, namely, strong ferromagnetic anisotropy arising from antiferromagnetic superexchange, driven by the alternating strong and weak spin-orbit coupling on the 5d Ir and 3d Cu magnetic ions, respectively. From symmetry consideration, this novel mechanism is generally present in systems with edge-sharing Cu(2+)O(4) plaquettes and Ir(4+)O(6) octahedra. Our results point to unusual magnetic behavior to be expected in mixed 3d-5d transition-metal compounds via exchange pathways that are absent in pure 3d or 5d compounds.
Landau Theory in the Region of First Order Phase Transitions
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
O.G. Medvedovskaya
2014-04-01
Full Text Available For the case when the line of the first order phase transitions does not transform into the line of the second order phase transitions, i.e. not as ends with the tricritical point but not with a critical one: critical lines, limiting the region of metastable states, by using the Landau theory of phase transitions were determined.
Locating phase transitions in computationally hard problems
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
B Ashok; T K Patra
2010-09-01
We discuss how phase-transitions may be detected in computationally hard problems in the context of anytime algorithms. Treating the computational time, value and utility functions involved in the search results in analogy with quantities in statistical physics, we indicate how the onset of a computationally hard regime can be detected and the transit to higher quality solutions be quantified by an appropriate response function. The existence of a dynamical critical exponent is shown, enabling one to predict the onset of critical slowing down, rather than finding it after the event, in the specific case of a travelling salesman problem (TSP). This can be used as a means of improving efficiency and speed in searches, and avoiding needless computations.
Scale invariance from phase transitions to turbulence
Lesne, Annick
2012-01-01
During a century, from the Van der Waals mean field description (1874) of gases to the introduction of renormalization group (RG techniques 1970), thermodynamics and statistical physics were just unable to account for the incredible universality which was observed in numerous critical phenomena. The great success of RG techniques is not only to solve perfectly this challenge of critical behaviour in thermal transitions but to introduce extremely useful tools in a wide field of daily situations where a system exhibits scale invariance. The introduction of scaling, scale invariance and universality concepts has been a significant turn in modern physics and more generally in natural sciences. Since then, a new "physics of scaling laws and critical exponents", rooted in scaling approaches, allows quantitative descriptions of numerous phenomena, ranging from phase transitions to earthquakes, polymer conformations, heartbeat rhythm, diffusion, interface growth and roughening, DNA sequence, dynamical systems, chaos ...
Phase transition in SONFIS&SORST
Owladeghaffari, Hamed
2008-01-01
In this study, we introduce general frame of MAny Connected Intelligent Particles Systems (MACIPS). Connections and interconnections between particles get a complex behavior of such merely simple system (system in system).Contribution of natural computing, under information granulation theory, are the main topics of this spacious skeleton. Upon this clue, we organize two algorithms involved a few prominent intelligent computing and approximate reasoning methods: self organizing feature map (SOM), Neuro- Fuzzy Inference System and Rough Set Theory (RST). Over this, we show how our algorithms can be taken as a linkage of government-society interaction, where government catches various fashions of behavior: solid (absolute) or flexible. So, transition of such society, by changing of connectivity parameters (noise) from order to disorder is inferred. Add to this, one may find an indirect mapping among finical systems and eventual market fluctuations with MACIPS. Keywords: phase transition, SONFIS, SORST, many con...
Dynamical phase transitions in quantum mechanics
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Rotter Ingrid
2012-02-01
Full Text Available The nucleus is described as an open many-body quantum system with a non-Hermitian Hamilton operator the eigenvalues of which are complex, in general. The eigenvalues may cross in the complex plane (exceptional points, the phases of the eigenfunctions are not rigid in approaching the crossing points and the widths bifurcate. By varying only one parameter, the eigenvalue trajectories usually avoid crossing and width bifurcation occurs at the critical value of avoided crossing. An analog spectroscopic redistribution takes place for discrete states below the particle decay threshold. By this means, a dynamical phase transition occurs in the many-level system starting at a critical value of the level density. Hence the properties of the low-lying nuclear states (described well by the shell model and those of highly excited nuclear states (described by random ensembles differ fundamentally from one another. The statement of Niels Bohr on the collective features of compound nucleus states at high level density is therefore not in contradiction to the shell-model description of nuclear (and atomic states at low level density. Dynamical phase transitions are observed experimentally in different quantum mechanical systems by varying one or two parameters.
Low-temperature structure anomalies in CuNCN. Manifestations of RVB phase transitions?
Tchougréeff, A L; Dronskowski, R
2013-10-30
We propose a new frustrated Heisenberg antiferromagnetic model with spatially anisotropic exchange parameters Jc, Ja, and Jac, extending along the c, a, and a ± c (c-a-ca model) lattice directions, and apply it to describe the fascinating physics of copper carbodiimide, CuNCN, assuming the resonating valence bond (RVB) type of its phases. This explains within a unified picture the intriguing absence of magnetic order in CuNCN. We further present a parameters-temperature phase diagram of the c-a-ca-RVB model in the high-temperature approximation. Eight different phases including Curie and Pauli paramagnets (respectively, in disordered and 1D- or Q1D-RVB phases) and (pseudo)gapped (quasi-Arrhenius) paramagnets (2D-RVB phases) are possible. By adding magnetostriction and elastic terms to the model, we derive possible structural manifestations of RVB phase transitions. Assuming a sequence of RVB phase transitions to occur in CuNCN with decreasing temperature, several anomalies observed in the temperature course of the lattice constants are explained.
Phases and phase transitions in the algebraic microscopic shell model
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Georgieva A. I.
2016-01-01
Full Text Available We explore the dynamical symmetries of the shell model number conserving algebra, which define three types of pairing and quadrupole phases, with the aim to obtain the prevailing phase or phase transition for the real nuclear systems in a single shell. This is achieved by establishing a correspondence between each of the pairing bases with the Elliott’s SU(3 basis that describes collective rotation of nuclear systems. This allows for a complete classification of the basis states of different number of particles in all the limiting cases. The probability distribution of the SU(3 basis states within theirs corresponding pairing states is also obtained. The relative strengths of dynamically symmetric quadrupole-quadrupole interaction in respect to the isoscalar, isovector and total pairing interactions define a control parameter, which estimates the importance of each term of the Hamiltonian in the correct reproduction of the experimental data for the considered nuclei.
Early Work on Defect Driven Phase Transitions
Kosterlitz, J. Michael; Thouless, David J.
2016-12-01
This article summarizes the early history of the theory of phase transitions driven by topological defects, such as vortices in superfluid helium films or dislocations and disclinations in two-dimensional solids. We start with a review of our two earliest papers, pointing out their errors and omissions as well as their insights. We then describe the work, partly done by Kosterlitz but mostly done by other people, which corrected these oversights, and applied these ideas to experimental systems, and to numerical and experimental simulations.
Melonic phase transition in group field theory
Baratin, Aristide; Oriti, Daniele; Ryan, James P; Smerlak, Matteo
2013-01-01
Group field theories have recently been shown to admit a 1/N expansion dominated by so-called `melonic graphs', dual to triangulated spheres. In this note, we deepen the analysis of this melonic sector. We obtain a combinatorial formula for the melonic amplitudes in terms of a graph polynomial related to a higher dimensional generalization of the Kirchhoff tree-matrix theorem. Simple bounds on these amplitudes show the existence of a phase transition driven by melonic interaction processes. We restrict our study to the Boulatov-Ooguri models, which describe topological BF theories and are the basis for the construction of four dimensional models of quantum gravity.
Detonations and deflagrations in cosmological phase transitions
Megevand, Ariel
2009-01-01
We study the steady state motion of bubble walls in cosmological phase transitions. Taking into account the boundary and continuity conditions for the fluid variables, we calculate numerically the wall velocity as a function of the nucleation temperature, the latent heat, and a friction parameter. We determine regions in the space of these parameters in which detonations and/or deflagrations are allowed. In order to apply the results to a physical case, we calculate these quantities in a specific model, which consists of an extension of the Standard Model with singlet scalar fields. We also obtain analytic approximations for deflagrations and detonations.
Observables of non-equilibrium phase transition
Tomasik, Boris; Melo, Ivan; Kopecna, Renata
2015-01-01
Rapidly expanding fireball which undergoes first-order phase transition will supercool and proceed via spinodal decomposition. Hadrons are produced from the individual fragments as well as leftover matter filling the space between them. Emission from fragments should be visible in rapidity correlations, particularly of protons. Also, even within narrow centrality classes, rapidity distributions will be fluctuating from one event to another in case of fragmentation. This can be identified with the help of Kolmogorov-Smirnov test. Finally, a method is presented which allows to sort events with varying rapidity distributions in such a way, that events with similar rapidity histograms are grouped together.
Chiral phase transition from string theory.
Parnachev, Andrei; Sahakyan, David A
2006-09-15
The low energy dynamics of a certain D-brane configuration in string theory is described at weak t'Hooft coupling by a nonlocal version of the Nambu-Jona-Lasinio model. We study this system at finite temperature and strong t'Hooft coupling, using the string theory dual. We show that for sufficiently low temperatures chiral symmetry is broken, while for temperatures larger then the critical value, it gets restored. We compute the latent heat and observe that the phase transition is of the first order.
Berry phase transition in twisted bilayer graphene
Rode, Johannes C.; Smirnov, Dmitri; Schmidt, Hennrik; Haug, Rolf J.
2016-09-01
The electronic dispersion of a graphene bilayer is highly dependent on rotational mismatch between layers and can be further manipulated by electrical gating. This allows for an unprecedented control over electronic properties and opens up the possibility of flexible band structure engineering. Here we present novel magnetotransport data in a twisted bilayer, crossing the energetic border between decoupled monolayers and coupled bilayer. In addition a transition in Berry phase between π and 2π is observed at intermediate magnetic fields. Analysis of Fermi velocities and gate induced charge carrier densities suggests an important role of strong layer asymmetry for the observed phenomena.
Adiabatic quantum computation and quantum phase transitions
Latorre, J I; Latorre, Jose Ignacio; Orus, Roman
2003-01-01
We analyze the ground state entanglement in a quantum adiabatic evolution algorithm designed to solve the NP-complete Exact Cover problem. The entropy of entanglement seems to obey linear and universal scaling at the point where the mass gap becomes small, suggesting that the system passes near a quantum phase transition. Such a large scaling of entanglement suggests that the effective connectivity of the system diverges as the number of qubits goes to infinity and that this algorithm cannot be efficiently simulated by classical means. On the other hand, entanglement in Grover's algorithm is bounded by a constant.
Magnetostructural phase transitions in NiO and MnO: Neutron diffraction data
Balagurov, A. M.; Bobrikov, I. A.; Sumnikov, S. V.; Yushankhai, V. Yu.; Mironova-Ulmane, N.
2016-07-01
Structural and magnetic phase transitions in NiO and MnO antiferromagnets have been studied by high-precision neutron diffraction. The experiments have been performed on a high-resolution Fourier diffractometer (pulsed reactor IBR-2), which has the record resolution for the interplanar distance and a high intensity in the region of large interplanar distances; as a result, the characteristics of both transitions have been determined simultaneously. It has been shown that the structural and magnetic transitions in MnO occur synchronously and their temperatures coincide within the experimental errors: T str ≈ T mag ≈ (119 ± 1) K. The measurements for NiO have been performed with powders with different average sizes of crystallites (~1500 nm and ~138 nm). It has been found that the transition temperatures differ by ~50 K: T str = (471 ± 3) K, T mag = (523 ± 2) K. It has been argued that a unified mechanism of the "unsplit" magnetic and structural phase transition at a temperature of T mag is implemented in MnO and NiO. Deviation from this scenario in the behavior of NiO is explained by the quantitative difference—a weak coupling between the magnetic and secondary structural order parameters.
Phase transition equilibrium of terthiophene isomers
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Costa, Jose C.S.; Lima, Carlos F.R.A.C.; Rocha, Marisa A.A. [Centro de Investigacao em Quimica, Departamento de Quimica e Bioquimica, Faculdade de Ciencias da Universidade do Porto, Rua do Campo Alegre, 687, P-4169-007 Porto (Portugal); Gomes, Ligia R. [CIAGEB, Faculdade de Ciencias de Saude Escola Superior de Saude da UFP, Universidade Fernando Pessoa, Rua Carlos da Maia, 296, P-4200-150 Porto (Portugal); REQUIMTE, Departamento de Quimica e Bioquimica, Faculdade de Ciencias, Universidade do Porto, Rua do Campo Alegre, 687, P-4169-007 Porto (Portugal); Santos, Luis M.N.B.F., E-mail: lbsantos@fc.up.p [Centro de Investigacao em Quimica, Departamento de Quimica e Bioquimica, Faculdade de Ciencias da Universidade do Porto, Rua do Campo Alegre, 687, P-4169-007 Porto (Portugal)
2011-02-15
The thermodynamic study of the phase transition (fusion and sublimation) of 2,2':5',2''-terthiophene and 3,2':5',3''-terthiophene is presented. The obtained data is used to evaluate the (solid + liquid) and (solid + gas) phase equilibrium, and draw the phase diagrams of the pure compounds near the triple point coordinates. For each compound the vapour pressures at different temperatures were measured by a combined Knudsen effusion method with a vacuum quartz crystal microbalance. Based on the previous results, the standard molar enthalpies, entropies and Gibbs energies of sublimation were derived at T = 298.15 K. For the two terthiophenes and for 3,3'-bithiophene, the temperature, and the molar enthalpies of fusion were measured in a power compensated differential scanning calorimetry. The relationship between structure and energetics is discussed based on the experimental results, ab initio calculations and previous literature data for 2,2'-bithiophene and 3,3'-bithiophene. The 3,2':5',3''-terthiophene shows a higher solid phase stability than the 2,2':5',2''-terthiophene isomer arising from the higher cohesive energy due to positioning of the sulphur atom in the thiophene ring. The higher phase stability of 3,3'-bithiophene relative to 2,2'-bithiophene isomer is also related to its higher absolute entropy in the solid phase associated with the ring positional degeneracy observed in the crystal structure of this isomer. A significant differentiation in the crystal phase stability between isomers was found.
Transitional Phenomena on Phase Change Materials
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Wójcik Tadeusz M.
2014-03-01
Full Text Available One of the most significant problem with technology development is transferring of large heat fluxes, which requires constant heat transfer temperature (in the specified temperature range. This problem concern mainly the nuclear energetics, space technologies, military technologies and most of all electronics containing integrated circuits with very large scale of integrations. Intensive heat transfer and thermal energy storage are possible by the use of phase change materials (PCMs. In the paper there are presented preliminary results of research on the use of liquid-gas (L-G PCMs and solid-solid phase change materials (S-S PCMs. For L-G PCMs the boiling characteristics were determined by increasing and decreasing the heat flux, which for certain sets of structural parameters of the heating surface and the physical properties of the liquid induce a variety of forms of transitional phenomena. Thermal energy storage is much more effective when using PCMs than sensible heat.
Topological phase transitions in superradiance lattices
Wang, Da-Wei; Yuan, Luqi; Liu, Ren-Bao; Zhu, Shi-Yao
2015-01-01
The discovery of the quantum Hall effect (QHE) reveals a new class of matter phases, topological insulators (TI's), which have been extensively studied in solid-state materials and recently in photonic structures, time-periodic systems and optical lattices of cold atoms. All these topological systems are lattices in real space. Our recent study shows that Scully's timed Dicke states (TDS) can form a superradiance lattice (SL) in momentum space. Here we report the discovery of topological phase transitions in a two-dimensional SL in electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT). By periodically modulating the three EIT coupling fields, we can create a Haldane model with in-situ tunable topological properties. The Chern numbers of the energy bands and hence the topological properties of the SL manifest themselves in the contrast between diffraction signals emitted by superradiant TDS. The topological superradiance lattices (TSL) provide a controllable platform for simulating exotic phenomena in condensed matte...
Phase transitions in fluids and biological systems
Sipos, Maksim
metric to 16S rRNA metagenomic studies of 6 vertebrate gastrointestinal microbiomes and find that they assembled through a highly non-neutral process. I then consider a phase transition that may occur in nutrient-poor environments such as ocean surface waters. In these systems, I find that the experimentally observed genome streamlining, specialization and opportunism may well be generic statistical phenomena.
Precessing Ball Solitons in Kinetics of a Spin-Flop Phase Transition
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
V. V. Nietz
2011-01-01
Full Text Available The fundamentals of precessing ball solitons (PBS, arising as a result of the energy fluctuations during spin-flop phase transition induced by a magnetic field in antiferromagnets with uniaxial anisotropy, are presented. The PBS conditions exist within a wide range of amplitudes and energies, including negative energies relative to an initial condition. For each value of the magnetic field, there exists a precession frequency for which a curve of PBS energy passes through a zero value (in bifurcation point, and hence, in the vicinity of this point the PBS originate with the highest probability. The characteristics of PBS, including the time dependences of configuration, energy, and precession frequency, are considered. As a result of dissipation, the PBS transform into the macroscopic domains of a new phase.
Lima, L. S.
2017-01-01
We use the SU(3) Schwinger boson formalism to study the spin transport in the three-dimensional S=1 Heisenberg ferromagnet in the cubic lattice with an easy plane crystal field, considering first-, second- and third-neighbor interactions. We have got one single peak for the spin conductivity for this system at ω =ωk and a variation of the height of the peak with the parameters Dc and η, and hence an influence of the quantum phase transition, between the disordered paramagnetic phase and the ordered ones, on the spin conductivity of this system. We have considered the exchange interaction J1 as ferromagnetic and the interactions J2 and J3 as antiferromagnetic.
Superconductivity, antiferromagnetism, and neutron scattering
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Tranquada, John M., E-mail: jtran@bnl.gov; Xu, Guangyong; Zaliznyak, Igor A.
2014-01-15
High-temperature superconductivity in both the copper-oxide and the iron–pnictide/chalcogenide systems occurs in close proximity to antiferromagnetically ordered states. Neutron scattering has been an essential technique for characterizing the spin correlations in the antiferromagnetic phases and for demonstrating how the spin fluctuations persist in the superconductors. While the nature of the spin correlations in the superconductors remains controversial, the neutron scattering measurements of magnetic excitations over broad ranges of energy and momentum transfers provide important constraints on the theoretical options. We present an overview of the neutron scattering work on high-temperature superconductors and discuss some of the outstanding issues. - Highlights: • High-temperature superconductivity is closely associated with antiferromagnetism. • Antiferromagnetic spin fluctuations coexist with the superconductivity. • Neutron scattering is essential for characterising the full spectrum of spin excitations.
On Phase Transition of Compressed Sensing in the Complex Domain
Yang, Zai; Xie, Lihua
2011-01-01
The phase transition is a performance measure of the sparsity-undersampling tradeoff in compressed sensing (CS). This letter reports, for the first time, the existence of an exact phase transition for the $\\ell_1$ minimization approach to the complex valued CS problem. This discovery is not only a complementary result to the known phase transition of the real valued CS but also shows considerable superiority of the phase transition of complex valued CS over that of the real valued CS. The results are obtained by extending the recently developed ONE-L1 algorithms to complex valued CS and applying their optimal and iterative solutions to empirically evaluate the phase transition.
Nuclear binding near a quantum phase transition
Elhatisari, Serdar; Rokash, Alexander; Alarcón, Jose Manuel; Du, Dechuan; Klein, Nico; Lu, Bing-nan; Meißner, Ulf-G; Epelbaum, Evgeny; Krebs, Hermann; Lähde, Timo A; Lee, Dean; Rupak, Gautam
2016-01-01
How do protons and neutrons bind to form nuclei? This is the central question of ab initio nuclear structure theory. While the answer may seem as simple as the fact that nuclear forces are attractive, the full story is more complex and interesting. In this work we present numerical evidence from ab initio lattice simulations showing that nature is near a quantum phase transition, a zero-temperature transition driven by quantum fluctuations. Using lattice effective field theory, we perform Monte Carlo simulations for systems with up to twenty nucleons. For even and equal numbers of protons and neutrons, we discover a first-order transition at zero temperature from a Bose-condensed gas of alpha particles (4He nuclei) to a nuclear liquid. Whether one has an alpha-particle gas or nuclear liquid is determined by the strength of the alpha-alpha interactions, and we show that the alpha-alpha interactions depend on the strength and locality of the nucleon-nucleon interactions. The existence of the nearby first-order ...
Nuclear Binding Near a Quantum Phase Transition
Elhatisari, Serdar; Li, Ning; Rokash, Alexander; Alarcón, Jose Manuel; Du, Dechuan; Klein, Nico; Lu, Bing-nan; Meißner, Ulf-G.; Epelbaum, Evgeny; Krebs, Hermann; Lähde, Timo A.; Lee, Dean; Rupak, Gautam
2016-09-01
How do protons and neutrons bind to form nuclei? This is the central question of ab initio nuclear structure theory. While the answer may seem as simple as the fact that nuclear forces are attractive, the full story is more complex and interesting. In this work we present numerical evidence from ab initio lattice simulations showing that nature is near a quantum phase transition, a zero-temperature transition driven by quantum fluctuations. Using lattice effective field theory, we perform Monte Carlo simulations for systems with up to twenty nucleons. For even and equal numbers of protons and neutrons, we discover a first-order transition at zero temperature from a Bose-condensed gas of alpha particles (4He nuclei) to a nuclear liquid. Whether one has an alpha-particle gas or nuclear liquid is determined by the strength of the alpha-alpha interactions, and we show that the alpha-alpha interactions depend on the strength and locality of the nucleon-nucleon interactions. This insight should be useful in improving calculations of nuclear structure and important astrophysical reactions involving alpha capture on nuclei. Our findings also provide a tool to probe the structure of alpha cluster states such as the Hoyle state responsible for the production of carbon in red giant stars and point to a connection between nuclear states and the universal physics of bosons at large scattering length.
Phase transitions in Thirring’s model
Campa, Alessandro; Casetti, Lapo; Latella, Ivan; Pérez-Madrid, Agustín; Ruffo, Stefano
2016-07-01
In his pioneering work on negative specific heat, Walter Thirring introduced a model that is solvable in the microcanonical ensemble. Here, we give a complete description of the phase-diagram of this model in both the microcanonical and the canonical ensemble, highlighting the main features of ensemble inequivalence. In both ensembles, we find a line of first-order phase transitions which ends in a critical point. However, neither the line nor the point have the same location in the phase-diagram of the two ensembles. We also show that the microcanonical and canonical critical points can be analytically related to each other using a Landau expansion of entropy and free energy, respectively, in analogy with what has been done in (Cohen and Mukamel 2012 J. Stat. Mech. P12017). Examples of systems with certain symmetries restricting the Landau expansion have been considered in this reference, while no such restrictions are present in Thirring’s model. This leads to a phase diagram that can be seen as a prototype for what happens in systems of particles with kinematic degrees of freedom dominated by long-range interactions.
Multifractality and Network Analysis of Phase Transition
Li, Wei; Yang, Chunbin; Han, Jihui; Su, Zhu; Zou, Yijiang
2017-01-01
Many models and real complex systems possess critical thresholds at which the systems shift dramatically from one sate to another. The discovery of early-warnings in the vicinity of critical points are of great importance to estimate how far the systems are away from the critical states. Multifractal Detrended Fluctuation analysis (MF-DFA) and visibility graph method have been employed to investigate the multifractal and geometrical properties of the magnetization time series of the two-dimensional Ising model. Multifractality of the time series near the critical point has been uncovered from the generalized Hurst exponents and singularity spectrum. Both long-term correlation and broad probability density function are identified to be the sources of multifractality. Heterogeneous nature of the networks constructed from magnetization time series have validated the fractal properties. Evolution of the topological quantities of the visibility graph, along with the variation of multifractality, serve as new early-warnings of phase transition. Those methods and results may provide new insights about the analysis of phase transition problems and can be used as early-warnings for a variety of complex systems. PMID:28107414
Preon model and cosmological quantum-hyperchromodynamic phase transition
Nishimura, H.; Hayashi, Y.
1987-05-01
From the cosmological viewpoint, we investigate whether or not recent preon models are compatible with the picture of the first-order phase transition from the preon phase to the composite quark-lepton phase. It is shown that the current models accepting the 't Hooft anomaly-matching condition together with quantum hyperchromodynamics are consistent with the cosmological first-order phase transition.
Stress induced phase transitions in silicon
Budnitzki, M.; Kuna, M.
2016-10-01
Silicon has a tremendous importance as an electronic, structural and optical material. Modeling the interaction of a silicon surface with a pointed asperity at room temperature is a major step towards the understanding of various phenomena related to brittle as well as ductile regime machining of this semiconductor. If subjected to pressure or contact loading, silicon undergoes a series of stress-driven phase transitions accompanied by large volume changes. In order to understand the material's response for complex non-hydrostatic loading situations, dedicated constitutive models are required. While a significant body of literature exists for the dislocation dominated high-temperature deformation regime, the constitutive laws used for the technologically relevant rapid low-temperature loading have severe limitations, as they do not account for the relevant phase transitions. We developed a novel finite deformation constitutive model set within the framework of thermodynamics with internal variables that captures the stress induced semiconductor-to-metal (cd-Si → β-Si), metal-to-amorphous (β-Si → a-Si) as well as amorphous-to-amorphous (a-Si → hda-Si, hda-Si → a-Si) transitions. The model parameters were identified in part directly from diamond anvil cell data and in part from instrumented indentation by the solution of an inverse problem. The constitutive model was verified by successfully predicting the transformation stress under uniaxial compression and load-displacement curves for different indenters for single loading-unloading cycles as well as repeated indentation. To the authors' knowledge this is the first constitutive model that is able to adequately describe cyclic indentation in silicon.
Gossamer superconductivity near antiferromagnetic Mott insulator in layered organic conductors.
Gan, J Y; Chen, Yan; Su, Z B; Zhang, F C
2005-02-18
Layered organic superconductors are on the verge of the Mott insulator. We use the Gutzwiller variational method to study a two-dimensional Hubbard model including a spin exchange coupling term as a minimal model for the compounds. The ground state is found to be a Gossamer superconductor at small on-site Coulomb repulsion U and an antiferromagnetic Mott insulator at large U, separated by a first order phase transition. Our theory is qualitatively consistent with major experiments reported in organic superconductors.
Quark-hadron phase transition in massive gravity
Atazadeh, K.
2016-11-01
We study the quark-hadron phase transition in the framework of massive gravity. We show that the modification of the FRW cosmological equations leads to the quark-hadron phase transition in the early massive Universe. Using numerical analysis, we consider that a phase transition based on the chiral symmetry breaking after the electroweak transition, occurred at approximately 10 μs after the Big Bang to convert a plasma of free quarks and gluons into hadrons.
Abrahams, Elihu; Wölfle, Peter
2012-02-28
We use the recently developed critical quasiparticle theory to derive the scaling behavior associated with a quantum critical point in a correlated metal. This is applied to the magnetic-field induced quantum critical point observed in YbRh(2)Si(2), for which we also derive the critical behavior of the specific heat, resistivity, thermopower, magnetization and susceptibility, the Grüneisen coefficient, and the thermal expansion coefficient. The theory accounts very well for the available experimental results.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Pires, A.S.T. [Departamento de Fisica, Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, Belo Horizonte, MG, CP 702, 30123-970 (Brazil); Lapa, R.S., E-mail: rodrigophc@gmail.com [Departamento de Fisica, Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, Belo Horizonte, MG, CP 702, 30123-970 (Brazil)
2013-08-15
We study the disordered phase of the J{sub 1}–J{sub 2} frustrated Heisenberg antiferromagnet with spin S=1 on a square lattice using a SU(3) Schwinger boson representation. In the approximation of Bose condensation and in a mean-field treatment of the four-operator terms, we calculate the gap as a function of J{sub 1}/J{sub 2}, and the quadrupole static structure factor at zero temperature. Our results indicate the existence of a nematic state in the paramagnetic phase. - Highlights: ► The disordered phase is studied. ► The energy gap in the paramagnetic phase is calculated. ► The static spin structure factor is calculated. ► The static quadrupole structure factor is calculated. ► The ground state energy is calculated.
Critical Behaviour of a Two-Dimensional Random Antiferromagnet
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Als-Nielsen, Jens Aage; Birgeneau, R. J.; Guggenheim, H. J.
1976-01-01
A neutron scattering study of the order parameter, correlation length and staggered susceptibility of the two-dimensional random antiferromagnet Rb2Mn0.5Ni0.5F4 is reported. The system is found to exhibit a well-defined phase transition with critical exponents identical to those of the isomorphou...... pure materials K2NiF4 and K2MnF4. Thus, in these systems, which have the asymptotic critical behaviour of the two-dimensional Ising model, randomness has no measurable effect on the phase-transition behaviour....
Motome, Yukitoshi; Penc, Karlo; Shannon, Nic
2005-01-01
The antiferromagnetic Heisenberg model on a pyrochlore lattice under external magnetic field is studied by classical Monte Carlo simulation. The model includes bilinear and biquadratic interactions; the latter effectively describes the coupling to lattice distortions. The magnetization process shows a half-magnetization plateau at low temperatures, accompanied with strong suppression of the magnetic susceptibility. Temperature dependence of the plateau behavior is clarified. Finite-temperatur...
Exotic quantum phase transitions of strongly interacting topological insulators
Slagle, Kevin; You, Yi-Zhuang; Xu, Cenke
2015-03-01
Using determinant quantum Monte Carlo simulations, we demonstrate that an extended Hubbard model on a bilayer honeycomb lattice has two novel quantum phase transitions. The first is a quantum phase transition between the weakly interacting gapless Dirac fermion phase and a strongly interacting fully gapped and symmetric trivial phase, which cannot be described by the standard Gross-Neveu model. The second is a quantum critical point between a quantum spin Hall insulator with spin Sz conservation and the previously mentioned strongly interacting fully gapped phase. At the latter quantum critical point the single-particle excitations remain gapped, while spin and charge gaps both close. We argue that the first quantum phase transition is related to the Z16 classification of the topological superconductor 3He-B phase with interactions, while the second quantum phase transition is a topological phase transition described by a bosonic O (4 ) nonlinear sigma model field theory with a Θ term.
Studies on magnetic-field-induced first-order transitions
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
P Chaddah
2006-07-01
We shall discuss magnetization and transport measurements in materials exhibiting a broad first-order transition. The phase transitions would be caused by varying magnetic field as well as temperature, and we concentrate on ferro- to antiferromagnetic transitions in magnetic materials. We distinguish between metastable supercooled phases and metastable glassy phase.
Information Dynamics at a Phase Transition
Sowinski, Damian; Gleiser, Marcelo
2017-03-01
We propose a new way of investigating phase transitions in the context of information theory. We use an information-entropic measure of spatial complexity known as configurational entropy (CE) to quantify both the storage and exchange of information in a lattice simulation of a Ginzburg-Landau model with a scalar order parameter coupled to a heat bath. The CE is built from the Fourier spectrum of fluctuations around the mean-field and reaches a minimum at criticality. In particular, we investigate the behavior of CE near and at criticality, exploring the relation between information and the emergence of ordered domains. We show that as the temperature is increased from below, the CE displays three essential scaling regimes at different spatial scales: scale free, turbulent, and critical. Together, they offer an information-entropic characterization of critical behavior where the storage and fidelity of information processing is maximized at criticality.
The phase transition of Axelrod's model revisited
Reia, Sandro M
2016-01-01
Axelrod's model with $F=2$ cultural features, where each feature can assume $k$ states drawn from a Poisson distribution of parameter $q$, exhibits a continuous nonequilibrium phase transition in the square lattice. Here we use extensive Monte Carlo simulations and finite size scaling to study the critical behavior of the order parameter $\\rho$, which is the fraction of sites that belong to the largest domain of an absorbing configuration averaged over many runs. We find that it vanishes as $\\rho \\sim \\left (q_c^0 - q \\right)^\\beta$ with $\\beta \\approx 0.25$ at the critical point $q_c^0 \\approx 3.10$ and that the exponent that measures the width of the critical region is $\
Magnetocaloric materials and first order phase transitions
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Neves Bez, Henrique
of the properties of such materials.The experimental characterization of these materials is done through various different methods, such as X-ray diffraction, magnetometry, calorimetry, direct measurements of entropy change, capacitance dilatometry, scanning electron microscopy,energy-dispersive X-ray spectrometry......This thesis studies the first order phase transitions of the magnetocaloric materials La0.67Ca0.33MnO3 and La(Fe,Mn,Si)13Hz trying to overcome challenges that these materials face when applied in active magnetic regenerators. The study is done through experimental characterization and modelling...... and magnetocaloric regenerative tests. The magnetic, thermal and structural properties obtained from such measurements are then evaluated through different models, i.e. the Curie-Weiss law, the Bean-Rodbell model, the free electron model and the Debye model.The measured magnetocaloric properties of La0.67Ca0.33MnO3...
Phase transitions in open quantum systems
Jung, C; Rotter, I
1999-01-01
We consider the behaviour of open quantum systems in dependence on the coupling to one decay channel by introducing the coupling parameter $\\alpha$ being proportional to the average degree of overlapping. Under critical conditions, a reorganization of the spectrum takes place which creates a bifurcation of the time scales with respect to the lifetimes of the resonance states. We derive analytically the conditions under which the reorganization process can be understood as a second-order phase transition and illustrate our results by numerical investigations. The conditions are fulfilled e.g. for a picket fence with equal coupling of the states to the continuum. Energy dependencies within the system are included. We consider also the generic case of an unfolded Gaussian Orthogonal Ensemble. In all these cases, the reorganization of the spectrum occurs at the critical value $\\alpha_{crit}$ of the control parameter globally over the whole energy range of the spectrum. All states act cooperatively.
Scaling theory of topological phase transitions
Chen, Wei
2016-02-01
Topologically ordered systems are characterized by topological invariants that are often calculated from the momentum space integration of a certain function that represents the curvature of the many-body state. The curvature function may be Berry curvature, Berry connection, or other quantities depending on the system. Akin to stretching a messy string to reveal the number of knots it contains, a scaling procedure is proposed for the curvature function in inversion symmetric systems, from which the topological phase transition can be identified from the flow of the driving energy parameters that control the topology (hopping, chemical potential, etc) under scaling. At an infinitesimal operation, one obtains the renormalization group (RG) equations for the driving energy parameters. A length scale defined from the curvature function near the gap-closing momentum is suggested to characterize the scale invariance at critical points and fixed points, and displays a universal critical behavior in a variety of systems examined.
Observables of non-equilibrium phase transition
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Tomasik, Boris [Univerzita Mateja Bela, FPV, Banska Bystrica (Slovakia); Ceske vysoke uceni technicke v Praze, FJFI, Prague (Czech Republic); Schulc, Martin; Kopecna, Renata [Ceske vysoke uceni technicke v Praze, FJFI, Prague (Czech Republic); Melo, Ivan [Univerzita Mateja Bela, FPV, Banska Bystrica (Slovakia); Zilinska univerzita, Elektrotechnicka fakulta, Zilina (Slovakia)
2016-08-15
A rapidly expanding fireball which undergoes first-order phase transition will supercool and proceed via spinodal decomposition. Hadrons are produced from the individual fragments as well as the left-over matter filling the space between them. Emission from fragments should be visible in rapidity correlations, particularly of protons. In addition to that, even within narrow centrality classes, rapidity distributions will be fluctuating from one event to another in case of fragmentation. This can be identified with the help of the Kolmogorov-Smirnov test. Finally, we present a method which allows to sort events with varying rapidity distributions, in such a way that events with similar rapidity histograms are grouped together. (orig.)
Information Dynamics at a Phase Transition
Sowinski, Damian
2016-01-01
We propose a new way of investigating phase transitions in the context of information theory. We use an information-entropic measure of spatial complexity known as configurational entropy (CE) to quantify both the storage and exchange of information in a lattice simulation of a Ginzburg-Landau model with a scalar order parameter coupled to a heat bath. The CE is built from the Fourier spectrum of fluctuations around the mean-field and reaches a minimum at criticality. In particular, we investigate the behavior of CE near and at criticality, exploring the relation between information and the emergence of ordered domains. We show that as the temperature is increased from below, the CE displays three essential scaling regimes at different spatial scales: scale free, turbulent, and critical. Together, they offer an information-entropic characterization of critical behavior where the storage and processing of information is maximized at criticality.
Valleytronics and phase transition in silicene
Aftab, Tayyaba
2017-03-01
Magnetic and transport properties of silicene in the presence of perpendicular electromagnetic fields and a ferromagnetic material are studied. It is shown that for small exchange field, the magnetic moment associated with each valley is opposite for the other and it gives a shift in band energy, by a Zeeman-like coupling term. Thus opening a new horizon for valley-orbit coupling. Magnetic proximity effect is seen to adjust the spintronics of each valley. Valley polarization is calculated using the semi classical formulation of electron dynamics. It can be modified and measured due to its contribution in Hall conductivity. Quantum phase transitions are observed in silicene, providing a tool to control the topological state experimentally. The strong dependence of the physical properties on valley degree of freedom is an important step towards valleytronics.
Mott insulating states and quantum phase transitions of correlated SU(2 N ) Dirac fermions
Zhou, Zhichao; Wang, Da; Meng, Zi Yang; Wang, Yu; Wu, Congjun
2016-06-01
The interplay between charge and spin degrees of freedom in strongly correlated fermionic systems, in particular of Dirac fermions, is a long-standing problem in condensed matter physics. We investigate the competing orders in the half-filled SU (2 N ) Hubbard model on a honeycomb lattice, which can be accurately realized in optical lattices with ultracold large-spin alkaline-earth fermions. Employing large-scale projector determinant quantum Monte Carlo simulations, we have explored quantum phase transitions from the gapless Dirac semimetals to the gapped Mott insulating phases in the SU(4) and SU(6) cases. Both of these Mott insulating states are found to be columnar valence bond solid (cVBS) and to be absent of the antiferromagnetic Néel ordering and the loop current ordering. Inside the cVBS phases, the dimer ordering is enhanced by increasing fermion components and behaves nonmonotonically as the interaction strength increases. Although the transitions generally should be of first order due to a cubic invariance possessed by the cVBS order, the coupling to gapless Dirac fermions can soften the transitions to second order through a nonanalytic term in the free energy. Our simulations provide important guidance for the experimental explorations of novel states of matter with ultracold alkaline-earth fermions.
Modeling the competing phase transition pathways in nanoscale olivine electrodes
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Tang Ming, E-mail: tang25@llnl.go [Condensed Matter and Materials Division, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, CA 94550 (United States); Carter, W. Craig [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States); Belak, James F. [Condensed Matter and Materials Division, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, CA 94550 (United States); Chiang, Yet-Ming [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States)
2010-12-30
Recent experimental developments reveal that nanoscale lithium iron phosphate (LiFePO{sub 4}) olivine particles exhibit very different phase transition behavior from the bulk olivine phase. A crystalline-to-amorphous phase transition has been observed in nanosized particles in competition with the equilibrium phase transition between the lithium-rich and lithium-poor olivine phases. Here we apply a diffuse-interface (phase-field) model to study the kinetics of the different phase transition pathways in nanosized LiFePO{sub 4} particles upon delithiation. We find that the nucleation and growth kinetics of the crystalline-to-crystalline and crystalline-to-amorphous phase transformations are sensitive to the applied electrical overpotential and particle size, which collectively determine the preferred phase transition pathway. While the crystalline-to-crystalline phase transition is favored by either faster nucleation or growth kinetics at low or high overpotentials, particle amorphization dominates at intermediate overpotentials. Decreasing particle size expands the overpotential region in which amorphization is preferred. The asymmetry in the nucleation energy barriers for amorphization and recrystallization results in a phase transition hysteresis that should promote the accumulation of the amorphous phase in electrodes after repeated electrochemical cycling. The predicted overpotential- and size-dependent phase transition behavior of nanoscale LiFePO{sub 4} particles is consistent with experimental observations.
Phase Transitions in Living Neural Networks
Williams-Garcia, Rashid Vladimir
Our nervous systems are composed of intricate webs of interconnected neurons interacting in complex ways. These complex interactions result in a wide range of collective behaviors with implications for features of brain function, e.g., information processing. Under certain conditions, such interactions can drive neural network dynamics towards critical phase transitions, where power-law scaling is conjectured to allow optimal behavior. Recent experimental evidence is consistent with this idea and it seems plausible that healthy neural networks would tend towards optimality. This hypothesis, however, is based on two problematic assumptions, which I describe and for which I present alternatives in this thesis. First, critical transitions may vanish due to the influence of an environment, e.g., a sensory stimulus, and so living neural networks may be incapable of achieving "critical" optimality. I develop a framework known as quasicriticality, in which a relative optimality can be achieved depending on the strength of the environmental influence. Second, the power-law scaling supporting this hypothesis is based on statistical analysis of cascades of activity known as neuronal avalanches, which conflate causal and non-causal activity, thus confounding important dynamical information. In this thesis, I present a new method to unveil causal links, known as causal webs, between neuronal activations, thus allowing for experimental tests of the quasicriticality hypothesis and other practical applications.
Phase Transitions in Networks of Memristive Elements
Sheldon, Forrest; di Ventra, Massimiliano
The memory features of memristive elements (resistors with memory), analogous to those found in biological synapses, have spurred the development of neuromorphic systems based on them (see, e.g.,). In turn, this requires a fundamental understanding of the collective dynamics of networks of memristive systems. Here, we study an experimentally-inspired model of disordered memristive networks in the limit of a slowly ramped voltage and show through simulations that these networks undergo a first-order phase transition in the conductivity for sufficiently high values of memory, as quantified by the memristive ON/OFF ratio. We provide also a mean-field theory that reproduces many features of the transition and particularly examine the role of boundary conditions and current- vs. voltage-controlled networks. The dynamics of the mean-field theory suggest a distribution of conductance jumps which may be accessible experimentally. We finally discuss the ability of these networks to support massively-parallel computation. Work supported in part by the Center for Memory and Recording Research at UCSD.
Topological and geometrical aspects of phase transitions
Santos, F. A. N.; Rehn, J. A.; Coutinho-Filho, M. D.
2014-03-01
In the first part of this review, we use a topological approach to describe the frustration- and field-induced phase transitions exhibited by the infinite-range XY model on the AB2 chain, including noncollinear spin structures. For this purpose, we have computed the Euler characteristic, χ, as well as other topological invariants, which are found to behave similarly as a function of the energy level in the context of Morse theory. Our findings and those available in the literature suggest that the cusp-like singularity exhibited by χ at the critical energy, Ec, put together with the divergence of the density of Jacobian's critical points emerge as necessary and sufficient conditions for the occurrence of finite-temperature topology-induced phase transitions. In the second part, we present an alternative solution of the Ising chain in a field under free and periodic boundary conditions, in the microcanonical, canonical, and grand canonical ensembles, from a unified combinatorial and topological perspective. In particular, the computation of the per-site entropy as a function of the energy unveils a residual value for critical values of the magnetic field, a phenomenon for which we provide a topological interpretation and a connection with the Fibonacci sequence. We also show that, in the thermodynamic limit, the per-site microcanonical entropy is equal to the logarithm of the per-site Euler characteristic. Finally, we emphasize that our combinatorial approach to the canonical ensemble allows exact computation of the thermally averaged value (T) of the Euler characteristic; our results show that the conjecture (Tc)= 0, where Tc is the critical temperature, is valid for the Ising chain.
The Deconfinement Phase Transition in the Interior of Neutron Stars
Zhou, Xia
2010-01-01
The decon?nement phase transition which happens in the interior of neutron stars are investigated. Coupled with the spin evolution of the stars, the effect of entropy production and deconfinement heat generation during the deconfinement phase transition in the mixed phase of the neutron stars are discussed. The entropy production of deconfinement phase transition can be act as a signature of phase transition, but less important and does not significantly change the thermal evolution of neutron stars. The deconfinement heat can change the thermal evolution of neutron star distinctly.
STUDIES OF FCC HEISENBERG ANTIFERROMAGNETS BY MONTE CARLO SIMULATION ON LARGE SPIN ARRAYS
Minor, W.; Giebultowicz, T.
1988-01-01
We report Monte Carlo studies of fcc Heisenberg antiferromagnets carried out on arrays with 108,000 spins. A lattice with only JNN ≠ 0 was found to exhibit a Type I AF order despite the disordered nature of its ground state. Contrary to previous reports, our data indicate in this case a first order phase transition.
Non-equilibrium phase transitions in complex plasma
Sutterlin, K. R.; Wysocki, A.; Rath, C.; Ivlev, A. V.; Thomas, H. M.; Khrapak, S.; Zhdanov, S.; Rubin-Zuzic, M.; W. J. Goedheer,; Fortov, V. E.; Lipaev, A. M.; Molotkov, V. I.; Petrov, O. F.; Morfill, G. E.; Lowen, H.
2010-01-01
Complex plasma being the 'plasma state of soft matter' is especially suitable for investigations of non-equilibrium phase transitions. Non-equilibrium phase transitions can manifest in dissipative structures or self-organization. Two specific examples are lane formation and phase separatio
Phase transitions in a gas of anyons
MacKenzie, R; Paranjape, M B; Richer, J
2010-01-01
We continue our numerical Monte Carlo simulation of a gas of closed loops on a 3 dimensional lattice, however now in the presence of a topological term added to the action corresponding to the total linking number between the loops. We compute the linking number using certain notions from knot theory. Adding the topological term converts the particles into anyons. Using the correspondence that the model is an effective theory that describes the 2+1-dimensional Abelian Higgs model in the asymptotic strong coupling regime, the topological linking number simply corresponds to the addition to the action of the Chern-Simons term. We find the following new results. The system continues to exhibit a phase transition as a function of the anyon mass as it becomes small \\cite{mnp}, although the phases do not change the manifestation of the symmetry. The Chern-Simons term has no effect on the Wilson loop, but it does affect the {\\rm '}t Hooft loop. For a given configuration it adds the linking number of the 't Hooft loo...
Magnetic phase transitions in Er{sub 7}Rh{sub 3} studied on single crystals
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Tsutaoka, Takanori, E-mail: tsutaok@hiroshima-u.ac.jp [Graduate School of Education, Hiroshima University, Higashi-Hiroshima, Hiroshima 739-8524 (Japan); Obata, Keisuke; Cheyvuth, Seng [Graduate School of Education, Hiroshima University, Higashi-Hiroshima, Hiroshima 739-8524 (Japan); Koyama, Keiichi [Graduate School of Science and Engineering, Kagoshima University, Korimoto, Kagoshima 980-0065 (Japan)
2014-09-01
Highlights: • Magnetic and electrical properties of Er{sub 7}Rh{sub 3} were studied on single crystals. • The magnetic phase diagram along the c-axis was constructed. • The field-induced magnetic transitions in Er{sub 7}Rh{sub 3} can be explained by the magnetic structure with two magnetic propagation vectors. • The anomalies of electrical resistivity can also be described by the magnetic structure in Er{sub 7}Rh{sub 3}. - Abstract: Magnetic phase transitions in Er{sub 7}Rh{sub 3} with the Th{sub 7}Fe{sub 3} type hexagonal structure have been studied on single crystals by measuring magnetization, magnetic susceptibility and electrical resistivity. Er{sub 7}Rh{sub 3} possesses antiferromagnetic state below T{sub N} = 13 K. In the ordered state, the two successive magnetic transitions at T{sub t1} = 6.2 K and T{sub t2} = 4.5 K were observed. Several field-induced magnetic transitions were also observed along the a- and c-axes below T{sub N}; magnetic field H – temperature T phase diagram along the c-axis was constructed. The field-induced magnetic transitions in Er{sub 7}Rh{sub 3} can be explained by the magnetic structure with two magnetic propagation vectors which were derived by the previous neutron diffraction studies. Electrical resistivity shows humps just below the magnetic transition temperatures, T{sub N} and T{sub t1} due to the super-zone gap formation at the Fermi level; these anomalies can also be described by the magnetic structure changes in Er{sub 7}Rh{sub 3}.
Antiferromagnetic spin Seebeck effect.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Wu, Stephen M.; Zhang, Wei; KC, Amit; Borisov, Pavel; Pearson, John E.; Jiang, J. Samuel; Lederman, David; Hoffmann, Axel; Bhattacharya, Anand
2016-03-03
We report on the observation of the spin Seebeck effect in antiferromagnetic MnF2. A device scale on-chip heater is deposited on a bilayer of MnF2 (110) (30nm)/Pt (4 nm) grown by molecular beam epitaxy on a MgF2(110) substrate. Using Pt as a spin detector layer, it is possible to measure the thermally generated spin current from MnF2 through the inverse spin Hall effect. The low temperature (2–80 K) and high magnetic field (up to 140 kOe) regime is explored. A clear spin-flop transition corresponding to the sudden rotation of antiferromagnetic spins out of the easy axis is observed in the spin Seebeck signal when large magnetic fields (>9T) are applied parallel to the easy axis of the MnF2 thin film. When the magnetic field is applied perpendicular to the easy axis, the spin-flop transition is absent, as expected.
Antiferromagnetic Spin Seebeck Effect
Wu, Stephen M.; Zhang, Wei; KC, Amit; Borisov, Pavel; Pearson, John E.; Jiang, J. Samuel; Lederman, David; Hoffmann, Axel; Bhattacharya, Anand
2016-03-01
We report on the observation of the spin Seebeck effect in antiferromagnetic MnF2 . A device scale on-chip heater is deposited on a bilayer of MnF2 (110) (30 nm )/Pt (4 nm) grown by molecular beam epitaxy on a MgF2 (110) substrate. Using Pt as a spin detector layer, it is possible to measure the thermally generated spin current from MnF2 through the inverse spin Hall effect. The low temperature (2-80 K) and high magnetic field (up to 140 kOe) regime is explored. A clear spin-flop transition corresponding to the sudden rotation of antiferromagnetic spins out of the easy axis is observed in the spin Seebeck signal when large magnetic fields (>9 T ) are applied parallel to the easy axis of the MnF2 thin film. When the magnetic field is applied perpendicular to the easy axis, the spin-flop transition is absent, as expected.
Bubble nucleation and growth in very strong cosmological phase transitions
Megevand, Ariel
2016-01-01
Strongly first-order phase transitions, i.e., those with a large order parameter, are characterized by a considerable supercooling and high velocities of phase transition fronts. A very strong phase transition may have important cosmological consequences due to the departures from equilibrium caused in the plasma. In general, there is a limit to the strength, since the metastability of the old phase may prevent the transition to complete. Near this limit, the bubble nucleation rate achieves a maximum and thus departs from the widely assumed behavior in which it grows exponentially with time. We study the dynamics of this kind of phase transitions. We show that in some cases a gaussian approximation for the nucleation rate is more suitable, and in such a case we solve analytically the evolution of the phase transition. We compare the gaussian and exponential approximations with realistic cases and we determine their ranges of validity. We also discuss the implications for cosmic remnants such as gravitational ...
Pressure-induced phase transition in CrO2.
Alptekin, Sebahaddin
2015-12-01
The ab initio constant pressure molecular dynamics technique and density functional theory with generalized gradient approximation (GGA) was used to study the pressure-induced phase transition of CrO2. The phase transition of the rutile (P42/mnm) to the orthorhombic CaCl2 (Pnnm) structure at 30 GPa was determined successfully in a constant pressure simulation. This phase transition was analyzed from total energy calculations and, from the enthalpy calculation, occurred at around 17 GPa. Structural properties such as bulk modules, lattice parameters and phase transition were compared with experimental results. The phase transition at 12 ± 3 GPa was in good agreement with experimental results, as was the phase transition from the orthorhombic CaCl2 (Pnnm) to the monoclinic (P21/c) structure also found at 35 GPa.
Spin-phonon interaction in antiferromagnetics
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Grigorashchuk, I.M.; Nitsovich, V.M.; Tovstyuk, K.D.
1975-01-01
The vibrational spectrum and the sound velocity in antiferromagnetics are obtained in the general form in pseudoharmonic approximation with allowance for the anharmonisms of all orders. Starting from experimentally defined dependence of the Debye-Waller factor on the temperature a corollary is put forward that in some antiferromagnetics under the temperature lower than T/subN/ the appearance of the narrow band of paramagnetic states is possible. In antiferromagnetics where the transition metal-dielectric described by the Habbard model is possible this results in the appearance of the additional transition dielectric-metal-dielectric. (auth)
Magnetic phase transitions in Ta/CoFeB/MgO multilayers
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Barsukov, I.; Safranski, C.; Chen, Y.-J.; Youngblood, B.; Krivorotov, I. N. [Physics and Astronomy, University of California, Irvine, California 92697 (United States); Fu, Yu [INAC/CEA, Grenoble, 17 Avenue des Martyrs, 38054 Grenoble (France); Gonçalves, A. M. [Physics and Astronomy, University of California, Irvine, California 92697 (United States); Centro Brasileiro de Pesquisas Físicas, Rua Dr. Xavier Sigaud, 150, Rio de Janeiro 22.290-180, RJ (Brazil); Spasova, M.; Farle, M. [Fakultät für Physik and Center for Nanointegration (CeNIDE), Universität Duisburg-Essen, 47048 Duisburg (Germany); Katine, J. A. [HGST Research Center, San Jose, California 95135 (United States); Kuo, C. C. [Components Research, Intel, Hillsboro, Oregon 97124 (United States)
2015-05-11
We study thin films and magnetic tunnel junction nanopillars based on Ta/Co{sub 20}Fe{sub 60}B{sub 20}/MgO multilayers by electrical transport and magnetometry measurements. These measurements suggest that an ultrathin magnetic oxide layer forms at the Co{sub 20}Fe{sub 60}B{sub 20}/MgO interface. At approximately 160 K, the oxide undergoes a phase transition from an insulating antiferromagnet at low temperatures to a conductive weak ferromagnet at high temperatures. This interfacial magnetic oxide is expected to have significant impact on the magnetic properties of CoFeB-based multilayers used in spin torque memories.
Quantum phase transition and entanglement in Li atom system
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
2008-01-01
By use of the exact diagonalization method, the quantum phase transition and en- tanglement in a 6-Li atom system are studied. It is found that entanglement appears before the quantum phase transition and disappears after it in this exactly solvable quantum system. The present results show that the von Neumann entropy, as a measure of entanglement, may reveal the quantum phase transition in this model.
Discord under the influence of a quantum phase transition
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Wang Lin-cheng; Shen Jian; Yi Xue-Xi
2011-01-01
This paper studies the discord of a bipartite two-level system coupling to an XY spin-chain environment in a transverse field and investigates the relationship between the discord property and the environment's quantum phase transition. The results show that the quantum discord is also able to characterize the quantum phase transitions. We also discuss the difference between discord and entanglement, and show that quantum discord may reveal more general information than quantum entanglement for characterizing the environment's quantum phase transition.
Gravitational waves from global second order phase transitions
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Jr, John T. Giblin [Department of Physics, Kenyon College, 201 North College Rd, Gambier, OH 43022 (United States); Price, Larry R.; Siemens, Xavier; Vlcek, Brian, E-mail: giblinj@kenyon.edu, E-mail: larryp@caltech.edu, E-mail: siemens@gravity.phys.uwm.edu, E-mail: bvlcek@uwm.edu [Center for Gravitation and Cosmology, Department of Physics, University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee, P.O. Box 413, Milwaukee, WI 53201 (United States)
2012-11-01
Global second-order phase transitions are expected to produce scale-invariant gravitational wave spectra. In this manuscript we explore the dynamics of a symmetry-breaking phase transition using lattice simulations. We explicitly calculate the stochastic gravitational wave background produced during the transition and subsequent self-ordering phase. We comment on this signal as it compares to the scale-invariant spectrum produced during inflation.
Holographic phase transition probed by non-local observables
Zeng, Xiao-Xiong
2016-01-01
From the viewpoint of holography, the phase structure of a 5-dimensional Reissner-Nordstr\\"{o}m-AdS black hole is probed by the two point correlation function, Wilson loop, and entanglement entropy. As the case of thermal entropy, we find for all the probes, the black hole undergos a Hawking-Page phase transition, a first order phase transition and a second order phase transition successively before it reaches to a stable phase. In addition, for these probes, we find the equal area law for the first order phase transition is valid always and the critical exponent of the heat capacity for the second order phase transition coincides with that of the mean field theory regardless of the size of the boundary region.
Neutron scattering studies of three one-dimensional antiferromagnets
Kenzelmann, M
2001-01-01
observed in the disordered phase of spin-1/2 chains. The magnetic order of the one-dimensional spin-1/2 XY antiferromagnet Cs sub 2 CoCl sub 4 was investigated using neutron diffraction. The magnetic structure has an ordering wave-vector (0, 0.5, 0.5) for T < 217 mK and the magnetic structure is a non-linear structure with the magnetic moments at a small angle to the b axis. Above a field of H = 2.1 T the magnetic order collapses in an apparent first order phase transition, suggesting a transition to a spin-liquid phase. Low-dimensional magnets with low-spin quantum numbers are ideal model systems for investigating strongly interacting macroscopic quantum ground states and their non-linear spin excitations. This thesis describes neutron scattering experiments of three one-dimensional low-spin antiferromagnets where strong quantum fluctuations lead to highly-correlated ground states and unconventional cooperative spin excitations. The excitation spectrum of the antiferromagnetic spin-1 Heisenberg chain CsNi...
Kinetics of shock-induced polymorphic phase transitions
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Hayes, D.B.
1976-01-01
Shock-loading induces polymorphic phase transitions in some solids if the pressure exceeds that at which phase transition occurs under quasi-static compression. Volume changes in shock-induced transitions must occur very rapidly to produce the structured shock waves observed, so transition rates are large under these dynamic conditions. By contrast, the same transition might require minutes or hours under quasi-static loading. If shock-induced transition is so rapid that kinetic effects can be ignored, a steady two-wave structure is propagated. The first wave, of amplitude equal to the transition pressure, shocks the material to the phase boundary but produces no transition; the second, slower wave produces the transformed phase. When kinetic effects are important, this two-wave structure does not form immediately but by an evolutionary process which produces transients in the amplitudes and rise times of the stress waves. By measuring these transient effects, some facts about the kinetics of phase transitions have been inferred. Comprehensive studies on phase-transition kinetics in antimony, iron, and potassium chloride are described, with emphasis on a thermodynamic description of the intermediate states during transition. Complicating effects such as shear strength and wave perturbations due to free surfaces are discussed.
Elastic phase transitions in metals at high pressures.
Krasilnikov, O M; Vekilov, Yu Kh; Mosyagin, I Yu; Isaev, E I; Bondarenko, N G
2012-04-19
The elastic phase transitions of cubic metals at high pressures are investigated within the framework of Landau theory. It is shown that at pressures comparable with the magnitude of the bulk modulus the phase transition is connected with the loss of stability relative to uniform deformation of the crystalline lattice. Discontinuity of the order parameter at the transition point and its equilibrium value are expressed through the second- to fourth-order elastic constants. The second-,third- and fourth-order elastic constants and phonon dispersion curves of vanadium under hydrostatic pressure are obtained by first-principles calculations. Structural transformation in vanadium under pressure is studied using the obtained results. It is shown that the experimentally observed at P ≈ 69 GPa phase transition in vanadium is the first-order phase transition close to a second-order phase transition.
Pressure induced phase transitions in ceramic compounds containing tetragonal zirconia
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Sparks, R.G.; Pfeiffer, G.; Paesler, M.A.
1988-12-01
Stabilized tetragonal zirconia compounds exhibit a transformation toughening process in which stress applied to the material induces a crystallographic phase transition. The phase transition is accompanied by a volume expansion in the stressed region thereby dissipating stress and increasing the fracture strength of the material. The hydrostatic component of the stress required to induce the phase transition can be investigated by the use of a high pressure technique in combination with Micro-Raman spectroscopy. The intensity of Raman lines characteristic for the crystallographic phases can be used to calculate the amount of material that has undergone the transition as a function of pressure. It was found that pressures on the order of 2-5 kBar were sufficient to produce an almost complete transition from the original tetragonal to the less dense monoclinic phase; while a further increase in pressure caused a gradual reversal of the transition back to the original tetragonal structure.
Van der Waals phase transition in the framework of holography
Zeng, Xiao-Xiong
2015-01-01
Phase structure of the quintessence Reissner-Nordstr\\"{o}m-AdS black hole is probed with the nonlocal observables such as holographic entanglement entropy and two point correlation function. Our result shows that, as the case of the thermal entropy, both the observables exhibit the similar Van der Waals-like phase transition. To reinforce the conclusion, we further check the equal area law for the first order phase transition and critical exponent of the heat capacity for the second order phase transition. We also discuss the effect of the state parameter on the phase structure of the nonlocal observables.
ATLAS Transition Region Upgrade at Phase-1
Song, H; The ATLAS collaboration
2014-01-01
This report presents the L1 Muon trigger transition region (1.0<|ƞ|<1.3) upgrade of ATLAS Detector at phase-1. The high fake trigger rate in the Endcap region 1.0<|ƞ|<2.4 would become a serious problem for the ATLAS L1 Muon trigger system at high luminosity. For the region 1.3<|ƞ|<2.4, covered by the Small Wheel, ATLAS is enhancing the present muon trigger by adding local fake rejection and track angle measurement capabilities. To reduce the rate in the remaining ƞ interval it has been proposed a similar enhancement by adding at the edge of the inner barrel a structure of 3-layers RPCs of a new generation. These RPCs will be based on a thinner gas gap and electrodes with respect to the ATLAS standards, a new high performance Front End, integrating fast TDC capabilities, and a new low profile and light mechanical structure allowing the installation in the tiny space available.This design effectively suppresses fake triggers by making the coincidence with both end-cap and interaction point...
Phase transitions in models of human cooperation
Perc, Matjaž
2016-08-01
If only the fittest survive, why should one cooperate? Why should one sacrifice personal benefits for the common good? Recent research indicates that a comprehensive answer to such questions requires that we look beyond the individual and focus on the collective behavior that emerges as a result of the interactions among individuals, groups, and societies. Although undoubtedly driven also by culture and cognition, human cooperation is just as well an emergent, collective phenomenon in a complex system. Nonequilibrium statistical physics, in particular the collective behavior of interacting particles near phase transitions, has already been recognized as very valuable for understanding counterintuitive evolutionary outcomes. However, unlike pairwise interactions among particles that typically govern solid-state physics systems, interactions among humans often involve group interactions, and they also involve a larger number of possible states even for the most simplified description of reality. Here we briefly review research done in the realm of the public goods game, and we outline future research directions with an emphasis on merging the most recent advances in the social sciences with methods of nonequilibrium statistical physics. By having a firm theoretical grip on human cooperation, we can hope to engineer better social systems and develop more efficient policies for a sustainable and better future.
Swarms, Phase Transitions, and Collective Intelligence
Millonas, M M
1993-01-01
A spacially extended model of the collective behavior of a large number of locally acting organisms is proposed in which organisms move probabilistically between local cells in space, but with weights dependent on local morphogenetic substances, or morphogens. The morphogens are in turn are effected by the passage of an organism. The evolution of the morphogens, and the corresponding flow of the organisms constitutes the collective behavior of the group. Such models have various types of phase transitions and self-organizing properties controlled both by the level of the noise, and other parameters. The model is then applied to the specific case of ants moving on a lattice. The local behavior of the ants is inspired by the actual behavior observed in the laboratory, and analytic results for the collective behavior are compared to the corresponding laboratory results. It is hoped that the present model might serve as a paradigmatic example of a complex cooperative system in nature. In particular swarm models c...
Entanglement, quantum phase transitions and quantum algorithms
Orus, R
2006-01-01
The work that we present in this thesis tries to be at the crossover of quantum information science, quantum many-body physics, and quantum field theory. We use tools from these three fields to analyze problems that arise in the interdisciplinary intersection. More concretely, in Chapter 1 we consider the irreversibility of renormalization group flows from a quantum information perspective by using majorization theory and conformal field theory. In Chapter 2 we compute the entanglement of a single copy of a bipartite quantum system for a variety of models by using techniques from conformal field theory and Toeplitz matrices. The entanglement entropy of the so-called Lipkin-Meshkov-Glick model is computed in Chapter 3, showing analogies with that of (1+1)-dimensional quantum systems. In Chapter 4 we apply the ideas of scaling of quantum correlations in quantum phase transitions to the study of quantum algorithms, focusing on Shor's factorization algorithm and quantum algorithms by adiabatic evolution solving a...
Phase Transitions in Two-Dimensional Traffic Flow Models
Cuesta, J A; Molera, J M; Cuesta, José A; Martinez, Froilán C; Molera, Juan M
1993-01-01
Abstract: We introduce two simple two-dimensional lattice models to study traffic flow in cities. We have found that a few basic elements give rise to the characteristic phase diagram of a first-order phase transition from a freely moving phase to a jammed state, with a critical point. The jammed phase presents new transitions corresponding to structural transformations of the jam. We discuss their relevance in the infinite size limit.
Phase Transitions in Two-Dimensional Traffic Flow Models
Cuesta, José A; Molera, Juan M; Escuela, Angel Sánchez; 10.1103/PhysRevE.48.R4175
2009-01-01
We introduce two simple two-dimensional lattice models to study traffic flow in cities. We have found that a few basic elements give rise to the characteristic phase diagram of a first-order phase transition from a freely moving phase to a jammed state, with a critical point. The jammed phase presents new transitions corresponding to structural transformations of the jam. We discuss their relevance in the infinite size limit.
Cosmological Consequences of QCD Phase Transition(s) in Early Universe
Tawfik, A
2008-01-01
We discuss the cosmological consequences of QCD phase transition(s) on the early universe. We argue that our recent knowledge about the transport properties of quark-gluon plasma (QGP) should throw additional lights on the actual time evolution of our universe. Understanding the nature of QCD phase transition(s), which can be studied in lattice gauge theory and verified in heavy ion experiments, provides an explanation for cosmological phenomenon stem from early universe.
Ultrafast cooling and heating scenarios for the laser-induced phase transition in CuO
Hellsvik, Johan; Mentink, Johan H.; Lorenzana, José
2016-10-01
The multiferroic compound CuO exhibits low-temperature magnetic properties similar to antiferromagnetic iron oxides, while the electronic properties have much more in common with the high-Tc cuprate superconductors. This suggests novel possibilities for the ultrafast optical excitation of magnetism. On the basis of atomistic spin dynamics simulations, we study the effect of phonon-assisted multimagnon absorption and photodoping on the spin dynamics in the vicinity of the first-order phase transition from collinear to spin-spiral magnetic order. Similar as in recent experiments, we find that for both excitations the phase transition can proceed on the picosecond timescale. Interestingly, however, these excitation mechanisms display very distinct dynamics. Following photodoping, the spin system first cools down on subpicosecond time scales, which we explain as an ultrafast magnetocaloric effect. Opposed to this, following phonon-assisted multimagnon excitation, the spin systems rapidly heats up and subsequently evolves to the noncollinear phase even under the influence of isotropic exchange interactions alone.
Fast phase transitions induced by picosecond electrical pulses on phase change memory cells
Wang, W. J.; Shi, L. P.; Zhao, R.; Lim, K. G.; Lee, H. K.; Chong, T. C.; Wu, Y. H.
2008-07-01
The reversible and fast phase transitions induced by picosecond electrical pulses are observed in the nanostructured GeSbTe materials, which provide opportunities in the application of high speed nonvolatile random access memory devices. The mechanisms for fast phase transition are discussed based on the investigation of the correlation between phase transition speed and material size. With the shrinkage of material dimensions, the size effects play increasingly important roles in enabling the ultrafast phase transition under electrical activation. The understanding of how the size effects contribute to the phase transition speed is of great importance for ultrafast phenomena and applications.
LETTER TO THE EDITOR: Phase transitions, partial disorder and multi-k structures in Gd2Ti2O7
Stewart, J. R.; Ehlers, G.; Wills, A. S.; Bramwell, S. T.; Gardner, J. S.
2004-07-01
The geometrically frustrated antiferromagnet Gd2Ti2O7 exhibits magnetic behaviour of such complexity that it poses a challenge to both experiment and theory. Magnetic ordering commences at TN = 1.1 K and there is a further magnetic phase transition at T^{\\prime }=0.7 K. Here we use neutron diffraction to definitively establish the nature of the phase transition at T^{\\prime } and the magnetic structure adopted below this temperature. Between T^{\\prime } and TN the structure is partly ordered, as previously reported. Below T^{\\prime } the remaining spins order, but only weakly. The magnetic structure in this temperature range is shown to be a 4-k structure, closely related to the 1-k structure previously suggested. The 4-k and 1-k variants of the structure are distinguished by analysis of the diffuse scattering, which we believe represents a new method of solving the 'multi-k' problem of magnetic structure determination.
Superconductivity, antiferromagnetism, and neutron scattering
Tranquada, John M.; Xu, Guangyong; Zaliznyak, Igor A.
2014-01-01
High-temperature superconductivity in both the copper-oxide and the iron-pnictide/chalcogenide systems occurs in close proximity to antiferromagnetically ordered states. Neutron scattering has been an essential technique for characterizing the spin correlations in the antiferromagnetic phases and for demonstrating how the spin fluctuations persist in the superconductors. While the nature of the spin correlations in the superconductors remains controversial, the neutron scattering measurements of magnetic excitations over broad ranges of energy and momentum transfers provide important constraints on the theoretical options. We present an overview of the neutron scattering work on high-temperature superconductors and discuss some of the outstanding issues.
Antiferromagnetic order and spin glass behavior in Dy{sub 2}CuIn{sub 3}
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Siouris, I.M., E-mail: jsiou@pme.duth.gr [Democritus University of Thrace (DUTH), Production and Management Engineering Department, Materials Laboratory, 67100 Xanthi (Greece); Kremer, R.K. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Festkoerperforschung, Heisenbergstrasse 1, D-70569 Stuttgart (Germany); Hoelzel, M. [Technische Universitaet Muenchen, Forschungsneutronenquelle Heinz Maier-Leibnitz (FRM II), 85748 Garching (Germany)
2011-11-15
The magnetic properties of the intermetallic compound Dy{sub 2}CuIn{sub 3} have been investigated. Ac and dc-susceptibility measurements indicate an onset of antiferromagnetic ordering at T{sub N}=19.5 K and an additional frequency dependent transition at T{sub ds}{approx}9 K. Neutron diffraction studies confirm the ordered transition at 19.5{+-}1 K. The magnetic unit cell can be described by the propagation vector k=(0.25,0.25,0) with the magnetic moment {mu}=2.63(4){mu}{sub B}/Dy{sup 3+} parallel to the c-axis. Nevertheless, neutron diffraction reveals no additional magnetic phase transition around or below 9 K, which suggests that, at lower temperatures, a spin glass state may be formed in coexistence with the antiferromagnetic mode as a result of frustration and the antagonism between ferromagnetic and antiferromagnetic exchange interactions. - Highlights: > Dy{sub 2}CuIn{sub 3} is characterized by the dominance of antiferromagnetic (AF) interactions. > Geometric frustration and crystal field effects prevent the formation of the full magnetic moment on the Dy ions. > Two magnetic regimes are recognized: an AF state and a mixed AF-glassy state. > The antiferromagnetic structure of the compound has been determined.
Liquid-liquid phase transition in Stillinger-Weber silicon
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Beaucage, Philippe; Mousseau, Normand [Departement de Physique and Regroupement Quebecois sur les Materiaux de Pointe, Universite de Montreal, CP 6128, Succursale Centre-ville, Montreal, QC, H3C 3J7 (Canada)
2005-04-20
It was recently demonstrated that Stillinger-Weber silicon undergoes a liquid-liquid first-order phase transition deep into the supercooled region (Sastry and Angell 2003 Nat. Mater. 2 739). Here we study the effects of perturbations on this phase transition. We show that the order of the liquid-liquid transition changes with negative pressure. We also find that the liquid-liquid transition disappears when the three-body term of the potential is strengthened by as little as 5%. This implies that the details of the potential could affect strongly the nature and even the existence of the liquid-liquid phase.
Quantum phase transitions in Bose-Fermi systems
Petrellis, D; Iachello, F
2011-01-01
Quantum phase transitions in a system of N bosons with angular momentum L=0,2 (s,d) and a single fermion with angular momentum j are investigated both classically and quantum mechanically. It is shown that the presence of the odd fermion strongly influences the location and nature of the phase transition, especially the critical value of the control parameter at which the phase transition occurs. Experimental evidence for the U(5)-SU(3) (spherical to axially-deformed) transition in odd-even nuclei is presented.
Liquid-Gas Phase Transition in Nuclear Equation of State
Lee, S J
1997-01-01
A canonical ensemble model is used to describe a caloric curve of nuclear liquid-gas phase transition. Allowing a discontinuity in the freeze out density from one spinodal density to another for a given initial temperature, the nuclear liquid-gas phase transition can be described as first order. Averaging over various freeze out densities of all the possible initial temperatures for a given total reaction energy, the first order characteristics of liquid-gas phase transition is smeared out to a smooth transition. Two experiments, one at low beam energy and one at high beam energy show different caloric behaviors and are discussed.
Diamagnetic phase transitions in two-dimensional conductors
Bakaleinikov, L. A.; Gordon, A.
2014-11-01
A theory describing the susceptibility amplitude and the magnetic induction bifurcation near the dHvA driven diamagnetic phase transitions in quasi two-dimensional (2D) organic conductors of the (ET)2X with X=Cu(NCS)2, KHg(SCN)4, I3, AuBr2, IBr2, etc. is presented. We show that there is a drastic increase in the temperature and magnetic field dependence of the susceptibility amplitude on approaching the diamagnetic phase transition point. Near the phase transition point the temperature and magnetic field dependences are fitted by the ones typical of the mean-field phase transition theory. These dependences confirm the long-range character of the magnetic interactions among the conduction electrons leading to diamagnetic phase transitions. We demonstrate that the magnetic induction splitting of nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and muon spin-rotation spectroscopy (μSR) lines due to two Condon domains decreases tending to zero on approaching the diamagnetic phase transition. This decrease is fitted by the temperature and magnetic field dependence of the susceptibility characteristic of the mean-field theory of phase transitions. Performing new susceptibility, NMR and μSR experiments will enable to detect diamagnetic phase transitions and Condon domains in quasi 2D metals.
Quantum Monte Carlo simulation of topological phase transitions
Yamamoto, Arata; Kimura, Taro
2016-12-01
We study the electron-electron interaction effects on topological phase transitions by the ab initio quantum Monte Carlo simulation. We analyze two-dimensional class A topological insulators and three-dimensional Weyl semimetals with the long-range Coulomb interaction. The direct computation of the Chern number shows the electron-electron interaction modifies or extinguishes topological phase transitions.
Experimental and theoretical investigations on shock wave induced phase transitions
Gupta, Satish C.; Sikka, S. K.
2001-06-01
Shock wave loading of a material can cause variety of phase transitions, like polymorphism, amorphization, metallization and molecular dissociations. As the shocked state lasts only for a very short duration (about a few microseconds or less), in-situ microscopic measurements are very difficult. Although such studies are beginning to be possible, most of the shock-induced phase transitions are detected using macroscopic measurements. The microscopic nature of the transition is then inferred from comparison with static pressure data or interpreted by theoretical methods. For irreversible phase transitions, microscopic measurements on recovered samples, together with orientation relations determined from selected area electron diffraction and examination of the morphology of growth of the new phase can provide insight into mechanism of phase transitions. On theoretical side, the current ab initio band structure techniques based on density functional formalism provide capability for accurate computation of the small energy differences (a few mRy or smaller) between different plausible structures. Total energy calculation along the path of a phase transition can furnish estimates of activation barrier, which has implications for understanding kinetics of phase transitions. Molecular dynamics calculations, where the new structure evolves naturally, are becoming increasingly popular especially for understanding crystal to amorphous phase transitions. Illustrations from work at our laboratory will be presented.
Quantum Monte Carlo simulation of topological phase transitions
Yamamoto, Arata
2016-01-01
We study the electron-electron interaction effects on topological phase transitions by the ab-initio quantum Monte Carlo simulation. We analyze two-dimensional class A topological insulators and three-dimensional Weyl semimetals with the long-range Coulomb interaction. The direct computation of the Chern number shows the electron-electron interaction modifies or extinguishes topological phase transitions.
Nuclear Liquid-Gas Phase Transition: Experimental Signals
D'Agostino, M.; Bruno, M.; Gulminelli, F.; Cannata, F.; Chomaz, Ph.; Casini, G.; Geraci, E.; Gramegna, F.; Moroni, A.; Vannini, G.
2005-03-01
The connection between the thermodynamics of charged finite nuclear systems and the asymptotically measured partitions in heavy ion collisions is discussed. Different independent signals compatible with a liquid-to-gas-like phase transition are reported. In particular abnormally large fluctuations in the measured observables are presented as a strong evidence of a first order phase transition with negative heat capacity.
Nuclear liquid-gas phase transition: Experimental signals
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
D' Agostino, M. [Dipartimento di Fisica and INFN, Bologna (Italy); Bruno, M. [Dipartimento di Fisica and INFN, Bologna (Italy); Gulminelli, F. [LPC Caen (IN2P3-CNRS/ISMRA et Universite), F-14050 Caen Cedex (France); Cannata, F. [Dipartimento di Fisica and INFN, Bologna (Italy); Chomaz, Ph. [GANIL, DSM-CEA/IN2P3-CNRS (France); Casini, G. [INFN Sezione di Firenze (Italy); Geraci, E. [Dipartimento di Fisica and INFN, Bologna (Italy); Gramegna, F. [INFN Laboratorio Nazionale di Legnaro (Italy); Moroni, A. [Dipartimento di Fisica and INFN, Milano (Italy); Vannini, G. [Dipartimento di Fisica and INFN, Bologna (Italy)
2005-03-07
The connection between the thermodynamics of charged finite nuclear systems and the asymptotically measured partitions in heavy ion collisions is discussed. Different independent signals compatible with a liquid-to-gas-like phase transition are reported. In particular abnormally large fluctuations in the measured observables are presented as a strong evidence of a first order phase transition with negative heat capacity.
Two kinds of Phase transitions in a Voting model
Hisakado, Masato
2012-01-01
In this paper, we discuss a voting model with two candidates, C_1 and C_2. We consider two types of voters--herders and independents. The voting of independents is based on their fundamental values; on the other hand, the voting of herders is based on the number of previous votes. We can identify two kinds of phase transitions. One is information cascade transition similar to a phase transition seen in Ising model. The other is a transition of super and normal diffusions. These phase transitions coexist together. We compared our results to the conclusions of experiments and identified the phase transitions in the upper t limit using analysis of human behavior obtained from experiments.
A spin-1 kagome antiferromagnet
Tovar, Mayra; Shtengel, Kirill; Refael, Gil
2010-03-01
We study a spin-1 antiferromagnet on the kagom'e lattice. We start by constructing a Klein-type SU(2) symmetric Hamiltonian which contains Heisenberg interactions between nearest and next-nearest neighbors as well as three-body terms. Our model Hamiltonian has an extensive degenerate ground state whose manifold is spanned by the AKLT-like valence bond states. We also perturb the parent Hamiltonian by introducing an enhancement to the nearest neighbor antiferromagnetic Heisenberg interactions. By projecting this perturbation onto the basis spanned by the unperturbed ground states, we derive an effective Hamiltonian which is dual to that of the transverse field antiferromagnetic Ising model on the triangular lattice. Based on the parameters of our model, we find it to be in the order-by-disorder phase. The ground state is a valence bond crystal stabilized by quantum fluctuations. We also discuss excitations, both magnetic and non-magnetic, and address their possible relevance to experiment.
Quantum Phase Transitions in Odd-Mass Nuclei
Leviatan, A; Iachello, F
2011-01-01
Quantum shape-phase transitions in odd-even nuclei are investigated in the framework of the interacting boson-fermion model. Classical and quantum analysis show that the presence of the odd fermion strongly influences the location and nature of the phase transition, especially near the critical point. Experimental evidence for the occurrence of spherical to axially-deformed transitions in odd-proton nuclei Pm, Eu and Tb (Z=61, 63, 65) is presented.
Deconfinement Phase Transition Heating and Thermal Evolution of Neutron Stars
Kang, Miao; Wang, Xiaodong
2007-01-01
The deconfinement phase transition will lead to the release of latent heat during spins down of neutron stars if the transition is the first-order one.We have investigated the thermal evolution of neutron stars undergoing such deconfinement phase transition. The results show that neutron stars may be heated to higher temperature.This feature could be particularly interesting for high temperature of low-magnetic field millisecond pulsar at late stage.
High pressure phase transitions for CdSe
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Bo Kong; Ti-Xian Zeng; Zhu-Wen Zhou; De-Liang Chen; Xiao-Wei Sun
2014-05-01
The structure and pressure-induced phase transitions for CdSe are investigated using first-principles calculations. The pressure-induced phase transition sequence WZ/ZB $\\to$ Rs $\\to$ $\\to$ CsCl for CdSe is drawn reasonably for the fist time, the corresponding transition pressures are 3.8, 29 and 107 GPa, respectively and the intermediate states between the structure and the CsCl structure should exist.
Chiral phase transition in QED3 at finite temperature
Yin, Pei-Lin; Xiao, Hai-Xiao; Wei, Wei; Feng, Hong-Tao; Zong, Hong-Shi
2016-12-01
In the framework of Dyson-Schwinger equations, we employ two kinds of criteria (one kind is the chiral condensate, the other kind is thermodynamic quantities, such as the pressure, the entropy, and the specific heat) to investigate the nature of chiral phase transitions in QED3 for different fermion flavors. It is found that the chiral phase transitions in QED3 for different fermion flavors are all typical second-order phase transitions; the critical temperature and order of the chiral phase transition obtained from the chiral condensate and susceptibility are the same with that obtained by the thermodynamic quantities, which means that they are equivalent in describing the chiral phase transition; the critical temperature decreases as the number of fermion flavors increases and there is a boundary that separates the Tc-Nf plane into chiral symmetry breaking and restoration regions.
Diamagnetic phase transitions in two-dimensional conductors
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Bakaleinikov, L.A., E-mail: bakal.ammp@mail.ioffe.ru [A.F. Ioffe Physico-Technical Institute, Russian Academy of Sciences, St. Petersburg 194021 (Russian Federation); Department of Mathematics and Physics, Faculty of Natural Sciences, University of Haifa, Campus Oranim, Tivon 36006 (Israel); Gordon, A. [Department of Mathematics and Physics, Faculty of Natural Sciences, University of Haifa, Campus Oranim, Tivon 36006 (Israel)
2014-11-15
A theory describing the susceptibility amplitude and the magnetic induction bifurcation near the dHvA driven diamagnetic phase transitions in quasi two-dimensional (2D) organic conductors of the (ET){sub 2}X with X=Cu(NCS){sub 2},KHg(SCN){sub 4},I{sub 3},AuBr{sub 2},IBr{sub 2}, etc. is presented. We show that there is a drastic increase in the temperature and magnetic field dependence of the susceptibility amplitude on approaching the diamagnetic phase transition point. Near the phase transition point the temperature and magnetic field dependences are fitted by the ones typical of the mean-field phase transition theory. These dependences confirm the long-range character of the magnetic interactions among the conduction electrons leading to diamagnetic phase transitions. We demonstrate that the magnetic induction splitting of nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and muon spin-rotation spectroscopy (μSR) lines due to two Condon domains decreases tending to zero on approaching the diamagnetic phase transition. This decrease is fitted by the temperature and magnetic field dependence of the susceptibility characteristic of the mean-field theory of phase transitions. Performing new susceptibility, NMR and μSR experiments will enable to detect diamagnetic phase transitions and Condon domains in quasi 2D metals. - Highlights: • A theory of diamagnetic phase transitions (DPTs) is presented in 2D organic conductors. • The behaviour of the susceptibility amplitude and the induction splitting is shown near the DPT. • The calculated quantities are described by the mean-field theory of phase transitions.
Phase transition and PTCR effect in erbium doped BT ceramics
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Leyet, Y. [Departamento de Fisica, Facultad de Ciencias Naturales, Universidad de Oriente, C.P. 90500 Santiago de Cuba (Cuba); Instituto Federal de Educacao Ciencia e Tecnologia (IFAM), Av. 7 de Setembro 1975, Centro, Manaus 69020-120, AM (Brazil); Pena, R.; Zulueta, Y. [Departamento de Fisica, Facultad de Ciencias Naturales, Universidad de Oriente, C.P. 90500 Santiago de Cuba (Cuba); Guerrero, F. [Departamento de Fisica, Facultad de Ciencias Naturales, Universidad de Oriente, C.P. 90500 Santiago de Cuba (Cuba); CESI, Universidade do Estado do Amazonas, Ave Mario Andreaza, Amazonas (Brazil); Anglada-Rivera, J. [CESI, Universidade do Estado do Amazonas, Ave Mario Andreaza, Amazonas (Brazil); Romaguera, Y. [INESC TEC, Rua do Campo Alegre, 687, 4169-007 Porto (Portugal); Perez de la Cruz, J., E-mail: jcruz@inescporto.pt [INESC TEC, Rua do Campo Alegre, 687, 4169-007 Porto (Portugal)
2012-06-25
Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Erbium influence the dielectric response BaTiO{sub 3} ceramics. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Features of the phase transition are not explained by phenomenological models. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Relaxation parameters do not show influence on ferroelectric-paraelectric phase transition. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Dielectric anomaly on BET phase transition is associated with the PTCR effect. - Abstract: In this work the dielectric behaviour and main features of the phase transition of BaTiO{sub 3} and Ba{sub 0.99}Er{sub 0.01}TiO{sub 3} ceramics were carefully investigated. The temperature and frequency dependences of the dielectric properties of erbium doped BaTiO{sub 3} ceramics were measured in the 25-225 Degree-Sign C and 100 Hz to 10 MHz ranges, respectively. From this study, a dielectric anomaly in the ferroelectric-paraelectric phase transition of the Ba{sub 0.99}Er{sub 0.01}TiO{sub 3} ceramic was observed. The features of the samples phase transition were analysed by using Curie-Weiss, Santos-Eiras' and order parameter local phenomenological models. In the BaTiO{sub 3} system, all models showed a normal phase transition, while was not possible to establish the character of the phase transition in the Ba{sub 0.99}Er{sub 0.01}TiO{sub 3} system. The relaxation parameters of conductive processes for the study ferroelectric materials, analysed in the time domain, did not show any influence on the ferroelectric-paraelectric phase transition. Finally, it was demonstrated that the anomaly observed on the phase transition of the erbium doped BaTiO{sub 3} ceramics is associated with the processes that results in the PTCR effect.
Reentrant Phase Transitions in Rotating AdS Black Holes
Altamirano, Natacha; Mann, Robert B
2013-01-01
We study the thermodynamics of higher-dimensional singly spinning asymptotically AdS black holes in the canonical (fixed J) ensemble of extended phase space, where the cosmological constant is treated as pressure and the corresponding conjugate quantity is interpreted as thermodynamic volume. Along with the usual small/large black hole phase transition, we find a new phenomenon of reentrant phase transitions for all d>5 dimensions, in which a monotonic variation of the temperature yields two phase transitions from large to small and back to large black holes. This situation is similar to that seen in multicomponent liquids.
Thermodynamics of Phase Transitions of a Kerr Nonlinear Blackbody
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
CHENG Ze
2008-01-01
We study the thermodynamics of phase transitions of a blackbody whose interior is filled by a Kerr nonlinear crystal. There is a transition temperature To, above which the Kerr nonlinear blackbody is in the normal thermal radiation state, and below which it is in the squeezed thermal radiation state. At To, the Gibbs free energy of the two phases is continuous but the entropy density of the two phases is discontinuous. Hence, there is a jump in the entropy density and this leads to a latent heat density. The photon system undergoes a first-order phase transition from the normal to the squeezed thermal radiation state.
Large N Phase Transitions, Finite Volume, and Entanglement Entropy
Johnson, Clifford V
2014-01-01
Holographic studies of the entanglement entropy of field theories dual to charged and neutral black holes in asymptotically global AdS4 spacetimes are presented. The goal is to elucidate various properties of the quantity that are peculiar to working in finite volume, and to gain access to the behaviour of the entanglement entropy in the rich thermodynamic phase structure that is present at finite volume and large N. The entropy is followed through various first order phase transitions, and also a novel second order phase transition. Behaviour is found that contrasts interestingly with an earlier holographic study of a second order phase transition dual to an holographic superconductor.
CO2 Capture from Flue Gas by Phase Transitional Absorption
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Liang Hu
2009-06-30
A novel absorption process called Phase Transitional Absorption was invented. What is the Phase Transitional Absorption? Phase Transitional Absorption is a two or multi phase absorption system, CO{sub 2} rich phase and CO{sub 2} lean phase. During Absorption, CO{sub 2} is accumulated in CO{sub 2} rich phase. After separating the two phases, CO{sub 2} rich phase is forward to regeneration. After regeneration, the regenerated CO{sub 2} rich phase combines CO{sub 2} lean phase to form absorbent again to complete the cycle. The advantage for Phase Transitional Absorption is obvious, significantly saving on regeneration energy. Because CO{sub 2} lean phase was separated before regeneration, only CO{sub 2} rich phase was forward to regeneration. The absorption system we developed has the features of high absorption rate, high loading and working capacity, low corrosion, low regeneration heat, no toxic to environment, etc. The process evaluation shows that our process is able to save 80% energy cost by comparing with MEA process.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Bhattacharjee, A. [Department of Physics, Visva-Bharati, Santiniketan 731235 (India)]. E-mail: ashis@vbphysics.net.in; Saha, S. [Department of Chemistry, Jadavpur University, Kolkata 700032 (India); Koner, S. [Department of Chemistry, Jadavpur University, Kolkata 700032 (India); Miyazaki, Y. [Research Center for Molecular Thermodynamics, Graduate School of Science, Osaka University, Toyonaka, Osaka 560-0043 (Japan)]. E-mail: miyazaki@chem.sci.osaka-u.ac.jp
2007-05-15
Phase transitions in K{sub 0.2}Mn{sub 0.66}{sup II}Mn{sub 1.44}{sup III}[Fe{sub 0.2}{sup II}Fe{sub 0.8}{sup III}(CN){sub 6}]O{sub 0.6}= {sub 6}(CH{sub 3}COO){sub 1.32}].7.6H{sub 2}O-a mixed valence PB analogue have been investigated with the help of heat capacity calorimetry under 0-90kOe magnetic fields in the 1.8-300K temperature range. Two heat capacity anomalies at 2.1 and 7.5K have been detected, which correspond to ferromagnetic and ferrimagnetic transitions, respectively. The magnitudes as well as the position of these thermal anomalies have varied with changing magnetic field. The estimated zero-field magnetic entropy amounted to 29.2JK{sup -1}mol{sup -1}, which is close to the expected value (33.7JK{sup -1}mol{sup -1}). The uniaxial zero-field splitting parameter is estimated to be D/k{sub B}=14.7K. A comparatively stronger antiferromagnetic interaction seems to lead to the magnetic transition around 7.3K, whereas a weaker ferromagnetic interaction gives rise to the thermal anomaly at 2.1K. The present results on magnetic phase transitions are in complete agreement with the earlier observations made through magnetic studies. Additionally, a glass transition at 194K has been observed in the heat capacity study presumably due to freezing of the orientational motion of the H{sub 2}O molecules present in the material. This phenomenon is reflected into the temperature dependence of the estimated Fe{sup III} and Fe{sup II} concentrations in the present material obtained earlier through Mossbauer spectroscopy.
Electronic and vibrational Raman spectroscopy of Nd0.5Sr0.5MnO3 through the phase transitions
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Md Motin Seikh; A K Sood; Chandrabhas Narayana
2005-01-01
Raman scattering experiments have been carried out on single crystals of Nd0.5Sr0.5MnO3 as a function of temperature in the range of 320–50 K, covering the paramagnetic insulator–ferromagnetic metal transition at 250 K and the charge-ordering antiferromagnetic transition at 150 K. The diffusive electronic Raman scattering response is seen in the paramagnetic phase which continue to exist even in the ferromagnetic phase, eventually disappearing below 150 K. We understand the existence of diffusive response in the ferromagnetic phase to the coexistence of the different electronic phases. The frequency and linewidth of the phonons across the transitions show significant changes, which cannot be accounted for only by anharmonic interactions.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
C. Le Graët
2015-04-01
Full Text Available Chemically ordered B2 FeRh exhibits a remarkable antiferromagnetic-ferromagnetic phase transition that is first order. It thus shows phase coexistence, usually by proceeding though nucleation at random defect sites followed by propagation of phase boundary domain walls. The transition occurs at a temperature that can be varied by doping other metals onto the Rh site. We have taken advantage of this to yield control over the transition process by preparing an epilayer with oppositely directed doping gradients of Pd and Ir throughout its height, yielding a gradual transition that occurs between 350 K and 500 K. As the sample is heated, a horizontal antiferromagnetic-ferromagnetic phase boundary domain wall moves gradually up through the layer, its position controlled by the temperature. This mobile magnetic domain wall affects the magnetisation and resistivity of the layer in a way that can be controlled, and hence exploited, for novel device applications.
Magnetic phase transitions and structures of Co 3V 2O 8
Qureshi, N.; Fuess, H.; Ehrenberg, H.; Hansen, T. C.; Schwabe, D.
2007-04-01
Co 3V 2O 8 is a spin- 3/2 system on a Kagomé staircase and is known to undergo two magnetic phase transitions between 6 and 11 K. The H-T phase diagram of Co 3V 2O 8 derived by magnetization measurements on a single crystal is presented. Additionally both ordered magnetic structures were investigated by neutron powder diffraction experiments and solved using Bertaut's macroscopic theory. For the ferromagnetic phase the magnetic moments of the Co 2+ ions were found to be 1.5(3)μB and 2.7(1)μB at 3.5 K along the crystallographic a axis for the (4a) and (8e) sites, respectively. The antiferromagnetic phase exhibits a magnetic cell with a doubled b axis with respect to the nuclear one. The magnetic moments point along the a axis being 1.8(2)μB (4a) and 1.8(1)μB (8e) at 8 K.
Structural and magnetic phase transitions in CeCu6 -xTx (T =Ag ,Pd )
Poudel, L.; de la Cruz, C.; Payzant, E. A.; May, A. F.; Koehler, M.; Garlea, V. O.; Taylor, A. E.; Parker, D. S.; Cao, H. B.; McGuire, M. A.; Tian, W.; Matsuda, M.; Jeen, H.; Lee, H. N.; Hong, T.; Calder, S.; Zhou, H. D.; Lumsden, M. D.; Keppens, V.; Mandrus, D.; Christianson, A. D.
2015-12-01
The structural and the magnetic properties of CeCu6 -xAgx (0 ≤x ≤0.85 ) and CeCu6 -xPdx (0 ≤x ≤0.4 ) have been studied using neutron diffraction, resonant ultrasound spectroscopy (RUS), x-ray diffraction measurements, and first principles calculations. The structural and magnetic phase diagrams of CeCu6 -xAgx and CeCu6 -xPdx as a function of Ag/Pd composition are reported. The end member, CeCu6, undergoes a structural phase transition from an orthorhombic (P n m a ) to a monoclinic (P 21/c ) phase at 240 K. In CeCu6 -xAgx , the structural phase transition temperature (Ts) decreases linearly with Ag concentration and extrapolates to zero at xS ≈0.1 . The structural transition in CeCu6 -xPdx remains unperturbed with Pd substitution within the range of our study. The lattice constant b slightly decreases with Ag/Pd doping, whereas a and c increase with an overall increase in the unit cell volume. Both systems, CeCu6 -xAgx and CeCu6 -xPdx , exhibit a magnetic quantum critical point (QCP), at x ≈0.2 and x ≈0.05 , respectively. Near the QCP, long range antiferromagnetic ordering takes place at an incommensurate wave vector (δ10 δ2), where δ1˜0.62 ,δ2˜0.25 ,x =0.125 for CeCu6 -xPdx and δ1˜0.64 ,δ2˜0.3 ,x =0.3 for CeCu6 -xAgx . The magnetic structure consists of an amplitude modulation of the Ce moments which are aligned along the c axis of the orthorhombic unit cell.
Phase Transition Induced by Small Molecules in Confined Copolymer Films
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
ZHOU Ling
2007-01-01
We investigate the phase transition induced by small molecules in confined copolymer films by using density functional theory.It is found that the addition of small molecules can effectively promote the phase separation of copolymers.In a symmetric diblock copolymer film,the affinity and concentration of small molecules play an important role in the structure transjtions.The disordered-lamellar transitions lamellar-lamellar transitions and the re-entrant transitions of the same structures are observed.Our results have potential applications in the fabrication of new functional materials.
Phase-separation transitions in asymmetric lipid bilayers
Shimobayashi, Shunsuke F; Taniguchi, Takashi
2015-01-01
Morphological transitions of phase separation associated with the asymmetry of lipid composition were investigated using micrometer-sized vesicles of lipid bilayers made from a lipid mixture. The complete macro-phase-separated morphology undergoes a transition to a micro-phase-separation-like morphology via a lorate morphology as a metastable state. The transition leads to the emergence of monodisperse nanosized domains through repeated domain scission events. Moreover, we have numerically confirmed the transitions using the time-dependent Ginzburg-Landau model describing phase separation and the bending elastic membrane, which is quantitatively consistent with experimental results by fixing one free parameter. Our findings suggest that the local spontaneous curvature due to the asymmetric composition plays an essential role in the thermodynamic stabilization of micro-phase separation in lipid bilayers.
Resonating Valence Bond states for low dimensional S=1 antiferromagnets
Liu, Zheng-Xin; Zhou, Yi; Ng, Tai-Kai
2014-03-01
We study S = 1 spin liquid states in low dimensions. We show that the resonating-valence-bond (RVB) picture of S = 1 / 2 spin liquid state can be generalized to S = 1 case. For S = 1 system, a many-body singlet (with even site number) can be decomposed into superposition of products of two-body singlets. In other words, the product states of two-body singlets, called the singlet pair states (SPSs), are over complete to span the Hilbert space of many-body singlets. Furthermore, we generalized fermionic representation and the corresponding mean field theory and Gutzwiller projected stats to S = 1 models. We applied our theory to study 1D anti-ferromagnetic bilinear-biquadratic model and show that both the ground states (including the phase transition point) and the excited states can be understood excellently well within the framework. Our method can be applied to 2D S = 1 antiferromagnets.
Superradiant phase transitions with three-level systems
Baksic, Alexandre; Nataf, Pierre; Ciuti, Cristiano
2013-02-01
We determine the phase diagram of N identical three-level systems interacting with a single photonic mode in the thermodynamical limit (N→∞) by accounting for the so-called diamagnetic term and the inequalities imposed by the Thomas-Reich-Kuhn (TRK) oscillator strength sum rule. The key role of transitions between excited levels and the occurrence of first-order phase transitions is discussed. We show that, in contrast to two-level systems, in the three-level case the TRK inequalities do not always prevent a superradiant phase transition in the presence of a diamagnetic term.
Phase transitions in pure and dilute thin ferromagnetic films
Korneta, W.; Pytel, Z.
1983-10-01
The mean-field model of a thin ferromagnetic film where the nearest-neighbor exchange coupling in surface layers can be different from that inside the film is considered. The phase diagram, equations for the second-order phase-transition lines, and the spontaneous magnetization profiles near the phase transitions are given. It is shown that there is no extra-ordinary transition in a thin film. If the thickness of the film tends to infinity the well-known results for the mean-field model of a semi-infinite ferromagnet are obtained. The generalization for disordered dilute thin ferromagnetic films and semi-infinite ferromagnets is also given.
Superradiant phase transitions with three-level systems
Baksic, Alexandre; Ciuti, Cristiano
2013-01-01
We determine the phase diagram of $N$ identical three-level systems interacting with a single photonic mode in the thermodynamical limit ($N \\to \\infty$) by accounting for the so-called diamagnetic term and the inequalities imposed by the Thomas-Reich-Kuhn (TRK) oscillator strength sum rule. The key role of transitions between excited levels and the occurrence of first-order phase transitions is discussed. We show that, in contrast to two-level systems, in the three-level case the TRK inequalities do not always prevent a superradiant phase transition in presence of a diamagnetic term.
On the Chiral Phase Transition in the Linear Sigma Model
Phat, T H; Hoa, L V; Phat, Tran Huu; Anh, Nguyen Tuan; Hoa, Le Viet
2004-01-01
The Cornwall-Jackiw-Tomboulis (CJT) effective action for composite operators at finite temperature is used to investigate the chiral phase transition within the framework of the linear sigma model as the low-energy effective model of quantum chromodynamics (QCD). A new renormalization prescription for the CJT effective action in the Hartree-Fock (HF) approximation is proposed. A numerical study, which incorporates both thermal and quantum effect, shows that in this approximation the phase transition is of first order. However, taking into account the higher-loop diagrams contribution the order of phase transition is unchanged.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Bendjedid, A.; Seddik, T. [Laboratoire de Physique Quantique et de Modélisation Mathématique, Université de Mascara, 29000 (Algeria); Khenata, R., E-mail: khenata_rabah@yahoo.fr [Laboratoire de Physique Quantique et de Modélisation Mathématique, Université de Mascara, 29000 (Algeria); Baltache, H. [Laboratoire de Physique Quantique et de Modélisation Mathématique, Université de Mascara, 29000 (Algeria); Murtaza, G., E-mail: murtaza@icp.edu.pk [Materials Modeling Laboratory, Department of Physics, Islamia College University, Peshawar (Pakistan); Bouhemadou, A. [Laboratory for Developing New Materials and their Characterization, Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, University of Setif, 19000 Setif (Algeria); Bin Omran, S. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, College of Science, King Saud University, P.O. Box 2455, Riyadh 11451 (Saudi Arabia); Azam, Sikander; Khan, Saleem Ayaz [New Technologies-Research Center, University of West Bohemia, Univerzitni 8, 306 14 Pilsen (Czech Republic)
2015-12-15
In this work, we have investigated the structural, phase transition, optoelectronic and magnetic properties of AmO{sub 2} using the full potential linearized augmented plane wave plus local orbital (FP-LAPW+lo) method. The exchange-correlation potential was treated with the generalized gradient approximation (GGA). Moreover, the GGA+U approximation (where U denotes the Hubbard Coulomb energy U term) is employed to treat the f electrons properly. The structurally stable AmO{sub 2} compound is the Fm3m phase and at a pressure between 40 and 60 GPa underwent a phase transition to the Pnma phase. Our present calculations have considered ferromagnetic and simple antiferromagnetic ground states and the AF state is favored. However, the experimental situation suggests a complex magnetic structure, perhaps involving multipolar ordering. Our band structure calculation with GGA and GGA+U predicted the metallic behavior of AmO{sub 2}; however, with the spin–orbit coupling (SOC) added to the Coulomb energy U term, semiconducting ground states with antiferromagnetism is correctly predicted. The projected density of states from the energy-band structure indicates that the band gap opening is governed by the partially filled Am “5f” state, and the calculated gap is approximately 1.29 eV. Moreover, the optical properties reveal strong response of AmO{sub 2} in the UV region. - Highlights: • AmO{sub 2} is antiferromagnetic and stable in the Fm3m phase under ambient conditions. • It makes structural transition from the Fm3m to the Pnma phase at 55.91 GPa. • Columbic repulsion parameter U correctly predicted the electronic state of AmO{sub 2}. • This compound absorbs strongly in the UV region.
Phase sensitive quantum interference on forbidden transition in ladder scheme
Koganov, Gennady A
2014-01-01
A three level ladder system is analyzed and the coherence of initially electric-dipole forbidden transition is calculated. Due to the presence of two laser fields the initially dipole forbidden transition becomes dynamically permitted due to ac Stark effect. It is shown that such transitions exhibit quantum-interference-related phenomena, such as electromagnetically induced transparency, gain without inversion and enhanced refractive index. Gain and dispersion characteristics of such transitions strongly depend upon the relative phase between the driving and the probe fields. Unlike allowed transitions, gain/absorption behavior of ac-Stark allowed transitions exhibit antisymmetric feature on the Rabi sidebands. It is found that absorption/gain spectra possess extremely narrow sub-natural resonances on these ac Stark allowed forbidden transitions. An interesting finding is simultaneous existence of gain and negative dispersion at Autler-Townes transition which may lead to both reduction of the group velocity a...
Safety performance of traffic phases and phase transitions in three phase traffic theory.
Xu, Chengcheng; Liu, Pan; Wang, Wei; Li, Zhibin
2015-12-01
Crash risk prediction models were developed to link safety to various phases and phase transitions defined by the three phase traffic theory. Results of the Bayesian conditional logit analysis showed that different traffic states differed distinctly with respect to safety performance. The random-parameter logit approach was utilized to account for the heterogeneity caused by unobserved factors. The Bayesian inference approach based on the Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) method was used for the estimation of the random-parameter logit model. The proposed approach increased the prediction performance of the crash risk models as compared with the conventional logit model. The three phase traffic theory can help us better understand the mechanism of crash occurrences in various traffic states. The contributing factors to crash likelihood can be well explained by the mechanism of phase transitions. We further discovered that the free flow state can be divided into two sub-phases on the basis of safety performance, including a true free flow state in which the interactions between vehicles are minor, and a platooned traffic state in which bunched vehicles travel in successions. The results of this study suggest that a safety perspective can be added to the three phase traffic theory. The results also suggest that the heterogeneity between different traffic states should be considered when estimating the risks of crash occurrences on freeways.
Shabunina, E. V.; Spirin, D. V.; Popov, A. A.; Udodov, V. N.; Potekaev, A. I.
2013-05-01
Using a Monte Carlo simulation, the effect of external field, temperature, system's dimensions and interaction of non-nearest neighbors on the relaxation time and critical indices of an antiferromagnetic-to-ferromagnetic phase transition is investigated taking into account nonmagnetic impurities within a modified, onedimensional, nanosized Ising model. It is shown that the non-equilibrium processes taking place in the magnetic material could be classified as fast and slow, whose velocities differ by more than a thousand times. In the case of fast processes, metastable (including ferromagnetic) states (observed experimentally) are the first to form, while in the case of slow processes the system transits into a stable state. The behavior of the dynamic critical exponent ( z) and static correlation-length critical exponent ( ν) is revealed for the model of a 1D ferromagnetic for the case of arbitrary concentrations of nonmagnetic impurities.
Phase transitions in ferroelectric silicon doped hafnium oxide
Böscke, T. S.; Teichert, St.; Bräuhaus, D.; Müller, J.; Schröder, U.; Böttger, U.; Mikolajick, T.
2011-09-01
We investigated phase transitions in ferroelectric silicon doped hafnium oxide (FE-Si:HfO2) by temperature dependent polarization and x-ray diffraction measurements. If heated under mechanical confinement, the orthorhombic ferroelectric phase reversibly transforms into a phase with antiferroelectric behavior. Without confinement, a transformation into a monoclinic/tetragonal phase mixture is observed during cooling. These results suggest the existence of a common higher symmetry parent phase to the orthorhombic and monoclinic phases, while transformation between these phases appears to be inhibited by an energy barrier.
Phase transitions in simplified models with long-range interactions
Rocha Filho, T. M.; Amato, M. A.; Mello, B. A.; Figueiredo, A.
2011-10-01
We study the origin of phase transitions in several simplified models with long-range interactions. For the self-gravitating ring model, we are unable to observe a possible phase transition predicted by Nardini and Casetti [Phys. Rev. EPLEEE81539-375510.1103/PhysRevE.80.060103 80, 060103R (2009).] from an energy landscape analysis. Instead we observe a sharp, although without any nonanalyticity, change from a core-halo to a core-only configuration in the spatial distribution functions for low energies. By introducing a different class of solvable simplified models without any critical points in the potential energy we show that a behavior similar to the thermodynamics of the ring model is obtained, with a first-order phase transition from an almost homogeneous high-energy phase to a clustered phase and the same core-halo to core configuration transition at lower energies. We discuss the origin of these features for the simplified models and show that the first-order phase transition comes from the maximization of the entropy of the system as a function of energy and an order parameter, as previously discussed by Hahn and Kastner [Phys. Rev. EPLEEE81539-375510.1103/PhysRevE.72.056134 72, 056134 (2005); Eur. Phys. J. BEPJBFY1434-602810.1140/epjb/e2006-00100-7 50, 311 (2006)], which seems to be the main mechanism causing phase transitions in long-range interacting systems.
Heat capacity and magnetic phase diagram of the low-dimensional antiferromagnet Y{sub 2}BaCuO{sub 5}
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Knafo, W; Meingast, C; Wolf, Th; Loehneysen, H v [Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe, Institut fuer Festkoerperphysik, D-76021 Karlsruhe (Germany); Inaba, A [Research Center for Molecular Thermodynamics, Graduate School of Science, Osaka University, Toyonaka, Osaka 560-0043 (Japan)
2008-08-20
A study by specific heat of a polycrystalline sample of the low-dimensional magnetic system Y{sub 2}BaCuO{sub 5} is presented. Magnetic fields up to 14 T are applied and permit us to extract the (T,H) phase diagram. Below {mu}{sub 0}H* approx. = 2 T, the Neel temperature, associated with a three-dimensional antiferromagnetic long-range ordering, is constant and equals T{sub N} = 15.6 K. Above H*, T{sub N} increases linearly with H and a field-induced increase of the entropy at T{sub N} is related to the presence of an isosbestic point at T{sub X} approx. = 20 K, where all the specific-heat curves cross. A comparison is made between Y{sub 2}BaCuO{sub 5} and the quasi-two-dimensional magnetic systems BaNi{sub 2}V{sub 2}O{sub 8}, Sr{sub 2}CuO{sub 2}Cl{sub 2} and Pr{sub 2}CuO{sub 4}, for which very similar phase diagrams have been reported. An effective field-induced magnetic anisotropy is proposed to explain these phase diagrams.
Elastic and anelastic relaxations associated with phase transitions in EuTiO3
Spalek, Leszek J.; Saxena, Siddharth S.; Panagopoulos, Christos; Katsufuji, Takuro; Schiemer, Jason A.; Carpenter, Michael A.
2014-08-01
Elastic and anelastic properties of single crystal samples of EuTiO3 have been measured between 10 and 300 K by resonant ultrasound spectroscopy at frequencies in the vicinity of 1 MHz. Softening of the shear elastic constants C44 and 1/2(C11-C12) by ˜20-30% occurs with falling temperature in a narrow interval through the transition point, Tc=284 K, for the cubic-tetragonal transition. This is accounted for by classical coupling of macroscopic spontaneous strains with the tilt order parameter in the same manner as occurs in SrTiO3. A peak in the acoustic loss occurs a few degrees below Tc and is interpreted in terms of initially mobile ferroelastic twin walls, which rapidly become pinned with further lowering of temperature. This contrasts with the properties of twin walls in SrTiO3, which remain mobile down to at least 15 K. No further anomalies were observed that might be indicative of strain coupling to any additional phase transitions above 10 K. A slight anomaly in the shear elastic constants, independent of frequency and without any associated acoustic loss, was found at ˜140 K. It marks a change from elastic stiffening to softening with falling temperature and perhaps provides evidence for coupling between strain and local fluctuations of dipoles related to the incipient ferroelectric transition. An increase in acoustic loss below ˜80 K is attributed to the development of dynamical magnetic clustering ahead of the known antiferromagnetic ordering transition at ˜5.5 K. Detection of these elastic anomalies serves to emphasize that coupling of strain with tilting, ferroelectric, and magnetic order parameters is likely to be a permeating influence in determining the structure, stability, properties, and behavior of EuTiO3.
Integrability and Quantum Phase Transitions in Interacting Boson Models
Dukelsky, J; García-Ramos, J E; Pittel, S
2003-01-01
The exact solution of the boson pairing hamiltonian given by Richardson in the sixties is used to study the phenomena of level crossings and quantum phase transitions in the integrable regions of the sd and sdg interacting boson models.
Instabilities of uniform filtration flows with phase transition
Il'Ichev, A. T.; Tsypkin, G. G.
2008-10-01
New mechanisms of instability are described for vertical flows with phase transition through horizontally extended two-dimensional regions of a porous medium. A plane surface of phase transition becomes unstable at an infinitely large wavenumber and at zero wavenumber. In the latter case, the unstable flow undergoes reversible subcritical bifurcations leading to the development of secondary flows (which may not be horizontally uniform). The evolution of subcritical modes near the instability threshold is governed by the Kolmogorov-Petrovskii-Piskunov equation. Two examples of flow through a porous medium are considered. One is the unstable flow across a water-bearing layer above a layer that carries a vapor-air mixture under isothermal conditions in the presence of capillary forces at the phase transition interface. The other is the vertical flow with phase transition in a high-temperature geothermal reservoir consisting of two high-permeability regions separated by a low-permeability stratum.
Phase transitions in the coal-water-methane system
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Alexeev, A.D.; Ulyanova, E.V.; Kalugina, N.A.; Degtyar, S.E. [Institute of Physical & Mining Processes, Donetsk (Ukraine)
2006-07-01
Low temperature phase transitions in water and methane occurring in fossil coals were studied experimentally using Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) techniques. Contributions of constituent fluids into narrow line of {sup 1}H NMR wide line spectrum were analyzed.
Behavior of the Lyapunov Exponent and Phase Transition in Nuclei
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
WANG Nan; WU Xi-Zhen; LI Zhu-Xia; WANG Ning; ZHUO Yi-Zhong; SUN Xiu-Quan
2000-01-01
Based on the quantum molecular dynamics model, we investigate the dynamical behaviors of the excited nuclear system to simulate the latter stage of heavy ion reactions, which associate with a liquid-gas phase transition. We try to search a microscopic way to describe the phase transition in realnuclei. The Lyapunov exponent is employed and examined for our purpose. We find out that the Lyapunov exponent is one of good microscopic quantities to describe the phase transition in hot nuclei. Coulomb potential and the finite size effect may give a strong influence on the critical temperature. However, the collision term plays a minor role in the process of the liquid-gas phase transition in finite systems.
Dynamical symmetries and causality in non-equilibrium phase transitions
Henkel, Malte
2015-01-01
Dynamical symmetries are of considerable importance in elucidating the complex behaviour of strongly interacting systems with many degrees of freedom. Paradigmatic examples are cooperative phenomena as they arise in phase transitions, where conformal invariance has led to enormous progress in equilibrium phase transitions, especially in two dimensions. Non-equilibrium phase transitions can arise in much larger portions of the parameter space than equilibrium phase transitions. The state of the art of recent attempts to generalise conformal invariance to a new generic symmetry, taking into account the different scaling behaviour of space and time, will be reviewed. Particular attention will be given to the causality properties as they follow for co-variant $n$-point functions. These are important for the physical identification of n-point functions as responses or correlators.
Dynamical Symmetries and Causality in Non-Equilibrium Phase Transitions
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Malte Henkel
2015-11-01
Full Text Available Dynamical symmetries are of considerable importance in elucidating the complex behaviour of strongly interacting systems with many degrees of freedom. Paradigmatic examples are cooperative phenomena as they arise in phase transitions, where conformal invariance has led to enormous progress in equilibrium phase transitions, especially in two dimensions. Non-equilibrium phase transitions can arise in much larger portions of the parameter space than equilibrium phase transitions. The state of the art of recent attempts to generalise conformal invariance to a new generic symmetry, taking into account the different scaling behaviour of space and time, will be reviewed. Particular attention will be given to the causality properties as they follow for co-variant n-point functions. These are important for the physical identification of n-point functions as responses or correlators.
Entropy, Macroscopic Information, and Phase Transitions
Parrondo, Juan M. R.
1999-01-01
The relationship between entropy and information is reviewed, taking into account that information is stored in macroscopic degrees of freedom, such as the order parameter in a system exhibiting spontaneous symmetry breaking. It is shown that most problems of the relationship between entropy and information, embodied in a variety of Maxwell demons, are also present in any symmetry breaking transition.
Phase transition in L-alaninium oxalate by photoacoustics
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
M Sivabarathy; S Natarajan; S K Ramakrishnan; K Ramachandran
2004-10-01
Phase transition in L-alaninium oxalate is studied by using TG, DTA and photoacoustic spectroscopy. A sharp transition at 378 K by photoacoustics is observed whereas at the same temperature the endothermic energy change observed by TG and DTA is not very sharp. This is discussed in detail with reference to the other known data for the organic crystals.
Quantum Shape-Phase Transitions in Finite Nuclei
Leviatan, A
2007-01-01
Quantum shape-phase transitions in finite nuclei are considered in the framework of the interacting boson model. Critical-point Hamiltonians for first- and second-order transitions are identified by resolving them into intrinsic and collective parts. Suitable wave functions and finite-N estimates for observables at the critical-points are derived.
Quantum Shape-Phase Transitions in Finite Nuclei
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Leviatan, A. [Racah Institute of Physics, Hebrew University, Jerusalem 91904 (Israel)
2007-05-15
Quantum shape-phase transitions in finite nuclei are considered in the framework of the interacting boson model. Critical-point Hamiltonians for first- and second-order transitions are identified by resolving them into intrinsic and collective parts. Suitable wave functions and finite-N estimates for observables at the critical-points are derived.
Phase transition of bismuth telluride thin films grown by MBE
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Fülöp, Attila; Song, Yuxin; Charpentier, Sophie
2014-01-01
A previously unreported phase transition between Bi2Te3 and Bi4Te3 in bismuth telluride grown by molecular beam epitaxy is recorded via XRD, AFM, and SIMS observations. This transition is found to be related to the Te/Bi beam equivalent pressure (BEP) ratio. BEP ratios below 17 favor the formation...
The QCD phase transitions: From mechanism to observables
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Shuryak, E.V.
1997-09-22
This paper contains viewgraphs on quantum chromodynamic phase transformations during heavy ion collisions. Some topics briefly described are: finite T transitions of I molecule pairs; finite density transitions of diquarks polymers; and the softtest point of the equation of state as a source of discontinuous behavior as a function of collision energy or centrality.
Baryogenesis via leptonic CP-violating phase transition
Pascoli, Silvia; Zhou, Ye-Ling
2016-01-01
We propose a new mechanism to generate a lepton asymmetry based on the vacuum CP-violating phase transition (CPPT). This approach differs from classical thermal leptogenesis as a specific seesaw model, and its UV completion, need not be specified. The lepton asymmetry is generated via the dynamically realised coupling of the Weinberg operator during the phase transition. This mechanism provides strong connections with low-energy neutrino experiments.
Quark-gluon plasma phase transition using cluster expansion method
Syam Kumar, A. M.; Prasanth, J. P.; Bannur, Vishnu M.
2015-08-01
This study investigates the phase transitions in QCD using Mayer's cluster expansion method. The inter quark potential is modified Cornell potential. The equation of state (EoS) is evaluated for a homogeneous system. The behaviour is studied by varying the temperature as well as the number of Charm Quarks. The results clearly show signs of phase transition from Hadrons to Quark-Gluon Plasma (QGP).
Partial dynamical symmetry at critical points of quantum phase transitions.
Leviatan, A
2007-06-15
We show that partial dynamical symmetries can occur at critical points of quantum phase transitions, in which case underlying competing symmetries are conserved exactly by a subset of states, and mix strongly in other states. Several types of partial dynamical symmetries are demonstrated with the example of critical-point Hamiltonians for first- and second-order transitions in the framework of the interacting boson model, whose dynamical symmetries correspond to different shape phases in nuclei.
Effect of point defects and disorder on structural phase transitions
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Toulouse, J.
1997-06-01
Since the beginning in 1986, the object of this project has been Structural Phase Transitions (SPT) in real as opposed to ideal materials. The first stage of the study has been centered around the role of Point Defects in SPT`s. Our intent was to use the previous knowledge we had acquired in the study of point defects in non-transforming insulators and apply it to the study of point defects in insulators undergoing phase transitions. In non-transforming insulators, point defects, in low concentrations, marginally affect the bulk properties of the host. It is nevertheless possible by resonance or relaxation methods to study the point defects themselves via their local motion. In transforming solids, however, close to a phase transition, atomic motions become correlated over very large distances; there, even point defects far removed from one another can undergo correlated motions which may strongly affect the transition behavior of the host. Near a structural transition, the elastic properties win be most strongly affected so as to either raise or decrease the transition temperature, prevent the transition from taking place altogether, or simply modify its nature and the microstructure or domain structure of the resulting phase. One of the well known practical examples is calcium-stabilized zirconia in which the high temperature cubic phase is stabilized at room temperature with greatly improved mechanical properties.
Liu, Guang-Hua; You, Wen-Long; Li, Wei; Su, Gang
2015-04-29
Quantum phase transitions (QPTs) and the ground-state phase diagram of the spin-1/2 Heisenberg-Ising alternating chain (HIAC) with uniform Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya (DM) interaction are investigated by a matrix-product-state (MPS) method. By calculating the odd- and even-string order parameters, we recognize two kinds of Haldane phases, i.e. the odd- and even-Haldane phases. Furthermore, doubly degenerate entanglement spectra on odd and even bonds are observed in odd- and even-Haldane phases, respectively. A rich phase diagram including four different phases, i.e. an antiferromagnetic (AF), AF stripe, odd- and even-Haldane phases, is obtained. These phases are found to be separated by continuous QPTs: the topological QPT between the odd- and even-Haldane phases is verified to be continuous and corresponds to conformal field theory with central charge c = 1; while the rest of the phase transitions in the phase diagram are found to be c = 1/2. We also revisit, with our MPS method, the exactly solvable case of HIAC model with DM interactions only on odd bonds and find that the even-Haldane phase disappears, but the other three phases, i.e. the AF, AF stripe and odd-Haldane phases, still remain in the phase diagram. We exhibit the evolution of the even-Haldane phase by tuning the DM interactions on the even bonds gradually.
Quark-Hadron Phase Transitions in Viscous Early Universe
Tawfik, A
2011-01-01
Based on hot big bang theory, the cosmological matter is conjectured to undergo QCD phase transition(s) to hadrons, when the universe was about $1-10 \\mu$s old. In the present work, we study the quark-hadron phase transition, by taking into account the effect of the bulk viscosity. We analyze the evolution of the quantities relevant for the physical description of the early universe, namely, the energy density $\\rho$, temperature $T$, Hubble parameter $H$ and scale factor $a$ before, during and after the phase transition. To study the cosmological dynamics and the time evolution we use both analytical and numerical methods. By assuming that the phase transition may be described by an effective nucleation theory (prompt {\\it first-order} phase transition), we also consider the case where the universe evolved through a mixed phase with a small initial supercooling and monotonically growing hadronic bubbles. The numerical estimation of the cosmological parameters, $a$ and $H$ for instance, makes it clear that th...
Quantum Phase Transitions and Dimerized Phases in Frustrated Spin Ladder
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
WEN Rui; LIU Guang-Hua; TIAN Guang-Shan
2011-01-01
In this paper, we study the phase diagram of a frustrated spin ladder model by applying the bosonization technique and the density-matrix renormalization-group (DMRG) algorithm. Effect of the intra-chain next-nearestneighbor (NNN) super-exchange interaction is investigated in detail and the order parameters are calculated to detect the emergence of the dimerized phases. We find that the intra-chain NNN interaction plays a key role in inducing dimerized phases.
Phase transition in extended thermodynamic phase space and charged Horava-Lifshitz black holes
Poshteh, Mohammad Bagher Jahani
2016-01-01
For charged black holes in Horava-Lifshitz gravity, it is shown that a second order phase transition takes place in extended phase space. We study the behavior of specific heat and free energy at the point of transition in canonical and grand canonical ensembles and show that the black hole falls into a state which is locally and globally stable. We relate the second order nature of phase transition to the fact that the phase transition occurs at a sharp temperature and not over a temperature interval. By taking cosmological constant as thermodynamic pressure for charged black holes, we extend Ehrenfest's equations. We obtain nine equations and show that, all of them are satisfied at the point in which the specific heat diverges. We also apply geometrothermodynamics to extended phase space and show that the scalar curvature of Quevedo metric diverges at the point at which the second order phase transition takes place.
Problem-solving phase transitions during team collaboration
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Wiltshire, Travis; Butner, Jonathan E.; Fiore, Stephen M.
2017-01-01
) with dynamical systems theory suggesting that when a system is undergoing a phase transition it should exhibit a peak in entropy and that entropy levels should also relate to team performance. Communications from 40 teams that collaborated on a complex problem were coded for occurrence of problem......-solving processes. We applied a sliding window entropy technique to each team's communications and specified criteria for (a) identifying data points that qualify as peaks and (b) determining which peaks were robust. We used multilevel modeling, and provide a qualitative example, to evaluate whether phases exhibit...... phases. Peaks in entropy thus corresponded to qualitative shifts in teams’ CPS communications, providing empirical evidence that teams exhibit phase transitions during CPS. Also, lower average levels of entropy at the phase transition points predicted better CPS performance. We specify future directions...
A Quantum Phase Transition in the Cosmic Ray Energy Distribution
Widom, A; Srivastava, Y
2015-01-01
We here argue that the "knee" of the cosmic ray energy distribution at $E_c \\sim 1$ PeV represents a second order phase transition of cosmic proportions. The discontinuity of the heat capacity per cosmic ray particle is given by $\\Delta c=0.450196\\ k_B$. However the idea of a deeper critical point singularity cannot be ruled out by present accuracy in neither theory nor experiment. The quantum phase transition consists of cosmic rays dominated by bosons for the low temperature phase E E_c$. The low temperature phase arises from those nuclei described by the usual and conventional collective boson models of nuclear physics. The high temperature phase is dominated by protons. The transition energy $E_c$ may be estimated in terms of the photo-disintegration of nuclei.
Signals of the QCD Phase Transition in the Heavens
Schaffner-Bielich, J
2007-01-01
The modern phase diagram of strongly interacting matter reveals a rich structure at high-densities due to phase transitions related to the chiral symmetry of quantum chromodynamics (QCD) and the phenomenon of color superconductivity. These exotic phases have significant impacts on high-density astrophysics as the properties of neutron stars and the evolution of astrophysical systems as proto-neutron stars, core-collapse supernovae and neutron star mergers. Most recent pulsar mass measurements and constraints on neutron star radii are critically discussed. Astrophysical signals for exotic matter and phase transitions in high-density matter proposed recently in the literature are outlined. A strong first order phase transition leads to the emergence of a third family of compact stars besides white dwarfs and neutron stars. The different microphysics of quark matter results in an enhanced r-mode stability window for rotating compact stars compared to normal neutron stars. Future telescope and satellite data will...
Density Functional Theory for Phase-Ordering Transitions
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Wu, Jianzhong [Univ. of California, Riverside, CA (United States)
2016-03-30
Colloids display astonishing structural and dynamic properties that can be dramatically altered by modest changes in the solution condition or an external field. This complex behavior stems from a subtle balance of colloidal forces and intriguing mesoscopic and macroscopic phase transitions that are sensitive to the processing conditions and the dispersing environment. Whereas the knowledge on the microscopic structure and phase behavior of colloidal systems at equilibrium is now well-advanced, quantitative predictions of the dynamic properties and the kinetics of phase-ordering transitions in colloids are not always realized. Many important mesoscopic and off-equilibrium colloidal states remain poorly understood. The proposed research aims to develop a new, unifying approach to describe colloidal dynamics and the kinetics of phase-ordering transitions based on accomplishments from previous work for the equilibrium properties of both uniform and inhomogeneous systems and on novel concepts from the state-of-the-art dynamic density functional theory. In addition to theoretical developments, computational research is designed to address a number of fundamental questions on phase-ordering transitions in colloids, in particular those pertinent to a competition of the dynamic pathways leading to various mesoscopic structures, off-equilibrium states, and crystalline phases. By providing a generic theoretical framework to describe equilibrium, metastable as well as non-ergodic phase transitions concurrent with the colloidal self-assembly processes, accomplishments from this work will have major impacts on both fundamental research and technological applications.
Collectivity, Phase Transitions and Exceptional Points in Open Quantum Systems
Heiss, W D; Rotter, I
1998-01-01
Phase transitions in open quantum systems, which are associated with the formation of collective states of a large width and of trapped states with rather small widths, are related to exceptional points of the Hamiltonian. Exceptional points are the singularities of the spectrum and eigenfunctions, when they are considered as functions of a coupling parameter. In the present paper this parameter is the coupling strength to the continuum. It is shown that the positions of the exceptional points (their accumulation point in the thermodynamical limit) depend on the particular type and energy dependence of the coupling to the continuum in the same way as the transition point of the corresponding phase transition.
Gravitational waves from cosmological first order phase transitions
Hindmarsh, Mark; Rummukainen, Kari; Weir, David
2015-01-01
First order phase transitions in the early Universe generate gravitational waves, which may be observable in future space-based gravitational wave observatiories, e.g. the European eLISA satellite constellation. The gravitational waves provide an unprecedented direct view of the Universe at the time of their creation. We study the generation of the gravitational waves during a first order phase transition using large-scale simulations of a model consisting of relativistic fluid and an order parameter field. We observe that the dominant source of gravitational waves is the sound generated by the transition, resulting in considerably stronger radiation than earlier calculations have indicated.
Quantum oscillations in antiferromagnetic CaFe(2)As(2) on the brink of superconductivity.
Harrison, N; McDonald, R D; Mielke, C H; Bauer, E D; Ronning, F; Thompson, J D
2009-08-12
We report quantum oscillation measurements on CaFe(2)As(2) under strong magnetic fields-recently reported to become superconducting under pressures of as little as a kilobar. The largest observed carrier pocket occupies less than 0.05% of the paramagnetic Brillouin zone volume-consistent with Fermi surface reconstruction caused by antiferromagnetism. On comparing several alkaline earth AFe(2)As(2) antiferromagnets (with A = Ca, Sr and Ba), the dependences of the Fermi surface cross-sectional area F(α) and the effective mass m(α)(*) of the primary observed pocket on the antiferromagnetic/structural transition temperature T(s) are both found to be consistent with the case for quasiparticles in a conventional spin-density wave model. These findings suggest that the recently proposed strain-enhanced superconductivity in these materials occurs within a broadly conventional spin-density wave phase.
Room Temperature Antiferromagnetic Ordering of Nanocrystalline Tb1.90Ni0.10O3
Mandal, J.; Dalal, M.; Sarkar, B. J.; Chakrabarti, P. K.
2017-02-01
Nanocrystalline Ni-doped terbium oxide (Tb1.90Ni0.10O3) has been synthesized by the co-precipitation method followed by annealing at 700°C for 6 h in vacuum. The crystallographic phase and the substitution of Ni2+ ions in the lattice of Tb2O3 are confirmed by Rietveld analysis of the x-ray diffraction pattern using the software MAUD. High-resolution transmission electron microscopy is also carried out to study the morphology of the sample. Magnetic measurements are carried out at different temperatures from 5 K to 300 K using a superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID) magnetometer. The dependence of the magnetization of Tb1.90Ni0.10O3 as a function of temperature ( M- T) and magnetic field ( M- H) suggests the presence of both paramagnetic and antiferromagnetic phase at room temperature, but antiferromagnetic phase dominates below ˜120 K. The lack of saturation in the M- H curve and good fitting of the M- T curve by the Johnston formula also indicate the presence of both paramagnetic and antiferromagnetic phase at room temperature. Interestingly, an antiferromagnetic to ferromagnetic phase transition is observed below ˜40 K. The result also shows a high value of magnetization at 5 K.
Solid-solid phase transitions via melting in metals
Pogatscher, S.; Leutenegger, D.; Schawe, J. E. K.; Uggowitzer, P. J.; Löffler, J. F.
2016-04-01
Observing solid-solid phase transitions in-situ with sufficient temporal and spatial resolution is a great challenge, and is often only possible via computer simulations or in model systems. Recently, a study of polymeric colloidal particles, where the particles mimic atoms, revealed an intermediate liquid state in the transition from one solid to another. While not yet observed there, this finding suggests that such phenomena may also occur in metals and alloys. Here we present experimental evidence for a solid-solid transition via the formation of a metastable liquid in a `real' atomic system. We observe this transition in a bulk glass-forming metallic system in-situ using fast differential scanning calorimetry. We investigate the corresponding transformation kinetics and discuss the underlying thermodynamics. The mechanism is likely to be a feature of many metallic glasses and metals in general, and may provide further insight into phase transition theory.
Siruguri, V; Babu, P D; Kaushik, S D; Biswas, Aniruddha; Sarkar, S K; Krishnan, Madangopal; Chaddah, P
2013-12-11
Neutron diffraction measurements, performed in the presence of an external magnetic field, have been used to show structural evidence for the kinetic arrest of the first order phase transition from (i) the high temperature austenite phase to the low temperature martensite phase in the magnetic shape memory alloy Ni37Co11Mn42.5Sn9.5, (ii) the higher temperature ferromagnetic phase to the lower temperature antiferromagnetic phase in the half-doped charge ordered compound La0.5Ca0.5MnO3 and (iii) the formation of glass-like arrested states in both compounds. The cooling and heating under unequal fields protocol has been used to establish phase coexistence of metastable and equilibrium states, and also to demonstrate the devitrification of the arrested metastable states in the neutron diffraction patterns. We also explore the field–temperature dependent kinetic arrest line TK(H), through the transformation of the arrested phase to the equilibrium phase. This transformation has been observed isothermally in reducing H, as also on warming in constant H. TK is seen to increase as H increases in both cases, consistent with the low-T equilibrium phase having lower magnetization.
Structural phase transitions and topological defects in ion Coulomb crystals
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Partner, Heather L. [Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt, Bundesallee 100, 38116 Braunschweig (Germany); Nigmatullin, Ramil [Institute of Quantum Physics, Albert-Einstein Allee-11, Ulm University, 89069 Ulm (Germany); Burgermeister, Tobias; Keller, Jonas; Pyka, Karsten [Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt, Bundesallee 100, 38116 Braunschweig (Germany); Plenio, Martin B. [Center for Integrated Quantum Science and Technology, Albert-Einstein-Allee 11, Ulm University, 89069 Ulm (Germany); Institute for Theoretical Physics, Albert-Einstein-Allee 11, Ulm University, 89069 Ulm (Germany); Retzker, Alex [Racah Institute of Physics, The Hebrew University of Jerusalem, Jerusalem 91904, Givat Ram (Israel); Zurek, Wojciech H. [Theoretical Division, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM 87544 (United States); Campo, Adolfo del [Department of Physics, University of Massachusetts Boston, Boston, MA 02125 (United States); Mehlstäubler, Tanja E., E-mail: tanja.mehlstaeubler@ptb.de [Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt, Bundesallee 100, 38116 Braunschweig (Germany)
2015-03-01
We use laser-cooled ion Coulomb crystals in the well-controlled environment of a harmonic radiofrequency ion trap to investigate phase transitions and defect formation. Topological defects in ion Coulomb crystals (kinks) have been recently proposed for studies of nonlinear physics with solitons and as carriers of quantum information. Defects form when a symmetry breaking phase transition is crossed nonadiabatically. For a second order phase transition, the Kibble–Zurek mechanism predicts that the formation of these defects follows a power law scaling in the rate of the transition. We demonstrate a scaling of defect density and describe kink dynamics and stability. We further discuss the implementation of mass defects and electric fields as first steps toward controlled kink preparation and manipulation.
Structural phase transitions and topological defects in ion Coulomb crystals
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Partner, Heather L. [Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt, Braunschweig (Germany); Nigmatullin, Ramil [Institute of Quantum Physics, Ulm Univ., Ulm (Germany); Burgermeister, Tobias [Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt, Braunschweig (Germany); Keller, Jonas [Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt, Braunschweig (Germany); Pyka, Karsten [Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt, Braunschweig (Germany); Plenio, Martin B. [Center for Integrated Quantum Science and Technology, Ulm Univ., Ulm, (Germany):Institute for Theoretical Physics, Ulm Univ.,Ulm, (Germany); Retzker, Alex [Racah Institute of Physics, The Hebrew University of Jerusalem, Givat Ram (Israel); Zurek, Wojciech Hubert [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); del Campo, Adolfo [Univ. of Massachusetts, Amherst, MA (United States). Dept. of Physics; Mehlstaubler, Tanja E. [Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt, Braunschweig (Germany)
2014-11-19
We use laser-cooled ion Coulomb crystals in the well-controlled environment of a harmonic radiofrequency ion trap to investigate phase transitions and defect formation. Topological defects in ion Coulomb crystals (kinks) have been recently proposed for studies of nonlinear physics with solitons and as carriers of quantum information. Defects form when a symmetry breaking phase transition is crossed non-adiabatically. For a second order phase transition, the Kibble-Zurek mechanism predicts that the formation of these defects follows a power law scaling in the rate of the transition. We demonstrate a scaling of defect density and describe kink dynamics and stability. We further discuss the implementation of mass defects and electric fields as first steps toward controlled kink preparation and manipulation.
Folding of a single polymer chain and phase transition
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
DING YanWei; ZHANG GuangZhao
2009-01-01
Using an ultra-sensitive differential scanning calorimetry (US-DSC), we have investigated the folding and aggregation behaviors of poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) (PNIPAM) chains in dilute and semidilute solutions. In the heating process, the intrachain folding and interchain aggregation simultaneously occur in the dilute solutions, and the ratio of intrachain folding increases with decreasing concentra-tion. In the semidilute solutions, PNIPAM chains show limited interchain aggregation with elevated temperature, because most of the PNIPAM chains have been collapsed at lower temperature. In an ex-tremely dilute solution, PNIPAM chains undergo a single folding transition in the heating process. By extrapolating heating rate and concentration to zero, we have obtained the phase transition tempera-ture (Ts) and enthalpy change (AHs) of the single chain folding. AHs is higher than that for a phase transition involving intrachain collapse and interchain aggregation, indicating that a single chain fold-ing can not be taken to be a macroscopic phase transition.
Horava-Lifshitz early universe phase transition beyond detailed balance
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kheyri, F.; Khodadi, M.; Sepangi, H.R. [Shahid Beheshti University, Department of Physics, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)
2013-01-15
The early universe is believed to have undergone a QCD phase transition to hadrons at about 10 {mu}s after the big bang. We study such a transition in the context of the non-detailed balance Horava-Lifshitz theory by investigating the effects of the dynamical coupling constant {lambda} in a flat universe. The evolution of the relevant physical quantities, namely the energy density {rho}, temperature T, scale factor a and the Hubble parameter H is investigated before, during and after the phase transition, assumed to be of first order. Also, in view of the recent lattice QCD simulations data, we study a cross-over phase transition of the early universe whose results are based on two different sets of lattice data. (orig.)
Cascading dynamics on random networks: Crossover in phase transition
Liu, Run-Ran; Wang, Wen-Xu; Lai, Ying-Cheng; Wang, Bing-Hong
2012-02-01
In a complex network, random initial attacks or failures can trigger subsequent failures in a cascading manner, which is effectively a phase transition. Recent works have demonstrated that in networks with interdependent links so that the failure of one node causes the immediate failures of all nodes connected to it by such links, both first- and second-order phase transitions can arise. Moreover, there is a crossover between the two types of transitions at a critical system-parameter value. We demonstrate that these phenomena can occur in the more general setting where no interdependent links are present. A heuristic theory is derived to estimate the crossover and phase-transition points, and a remarkable agreement with numerics is obtained.
The Physics of Phase Transitions Concepts and Applications
Papon, Pierre; Meijer, Paul H.E
2006-01-01
The physics of phase transitions is an important area at the crossroads of several fields that play central roles in materials sciences. In this second edition, new developments had been included which came up in the states of matter physics, in particular in the domain of nanomaterials and atomic Bose-Einstein condensates where progress is accelerating. The presentation of several chapters had been improved by bringing better information on some phase transition mechanisms and by illustrating them with new application examples. This work deals with all classes of phase transitions in fluids and solids. It contains chapters on evaporation, melting, solidification, magnetic transitions, critical phenomena, superconductivity, etc., and is intended for graduate students in physics and engineering; for scientists it will serve both as an introduction and an overview. End-of-chapter problems and complete answers are included.
Phase Transitions and Backbones of the Asymmetric Traveling Salesman Problem
Zhang, W
2011-01-01
In recent years, there has been much interest in phase transitions of combinatorial problems. Phase transitions have been successfully used to analyze combinatorial optimization problems, characterize their typical-case features and locate the hardest problem instances. In this paper, we study phase transitions of the asymmetric Traveling Salesman Problem (ATSP), an NP-hard combinatorial optimization problem that has many real-world applications. Using random instances of up to 1,500 cities in which intercity distances are uniformly distributed, we empirically show that many properties of the problem, including the optimal tour cost and backbone size, experience sharp transitions as the precision of intercity distances increases across a critical value. Our experimental results on the costs of the ATSP tours and assignment problem agree with the theoretical result that the asymptotic cost of assignment problem is pi ^2 /6 the number of cities goes to infinity. In addition, we show that the average computation...
Dissipation-driven quantum phase transitions in collective spin systems
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Morrison, S [Institute for Theoretical Physics, University of Innsbruck, A-6020 Innsbruck (Austria); Parkins, A S [Department of Physics, University of Auckland, Private Bag 92019, Auckland (New Zealand)], E-mail: smor161@aucklanduni.ac.nz
2008-10-14
We consider two different collective spin systems subjected to strong dissipation-on the same scale as interaction strengths and external fields-and show that either continuous or discontinuous dissipative quantum phase transitions can occur as the dissipation strength is varied. First, we consider a well-known model of cooperative resonance fluorescence that can exhibit a second-order quantum phase transition, and analyse the entanglement properties near the critical point. Next, we examine a dissipative version of the Lipkin-Meshkov-Glick interacting collective spin model, where we find that either first- or second-order quantum phase transitions can occur, depending only on the ratio of the interaction and external field parameters. We give detailed results and interpretation for the steady-state entanglement in the vicinity of the critical point, where it reaches a maximum. For the first-order transition we find that the semiclassical steady states exhibit a region of bistability. (fast track communication)
Pairing Phase Transitions of Matter under Rotation
Jiang, Yin
2016-01-01
The phases and properties of matter under global rotation have attracted much interest recently. In this paper we investigate the pairing phenomena in a system of fermions under the presence of rotation. We find that there is a generic suppression effect on pairing states with zero angular momentum. We demonstrate this effect with the chiral condensation and the color superconductivity in hot dense QCD matter as explicit examples. In the case of chiral condensation, a new phase diagram in the temperature-rotation parameter space is found, with a nontrivial critical point.
Instabilities near the QCD phase transition in the holographic models
Gürsoy, U.; Lin, S.; Shuryak, E.
2013-01-01
This paper discusses phenomena close to the critical QCD temperature, using the holographic model. One issue studied is the overcooled high-T phase, in which we calculate quasinormal sound modes. We do not find instabilities associated with other first-order phase transitions, but nevertheless obser
Dynamics and phase transitions in A 1C 60 compounds
Schober, H.; Renker, B.; Heid, R.; Tölle, A.
1997-02-01
We present an overview of extensive inelastic neutron scattering experiments carried out on powders of A 1C 60. The various phases leave strong fingerprints in the microscopic dynamics confirming the solid-state chemical reactions. The strong kinetic phase transitions can be followed in real time and turn out to be highly complex.
Three-sublattice skyrmion crystal in the antiferromagnetic triangular lattice
Rosales, H. D.; Cabra, D. C.; Pujol, Pierre
2015-12-01
The frustrated classical antiferromagnetic Heisenberg model with Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya (DM) interactions on the triangular lattice is studied under a magnetic field by means of semiclassical calculations and large-scale Monte Carlo simulations. We show that even a small DM interaction induces the formation of an antiferromagnetic skyrmion crystal (AF-SkX) state. Unlike what is observed in ferromagnetic materials, we show that the AF-SkX state consists of three interpenetrating skyrmion crystals (one by sublattice), and most importantly, the AF-SkX state seems to survive in the limit of zero temperature. To characterize the phase diagram we compute the average of the topological order parameter which can be associated with the number of topological charges or skyrmions. As the magnetic field increases this parameter presents a clear jump, indicating a discontinuous transition from a spiral phase into the AF-SkX phase, where multiple Bragg peaks coexist in the spin structure factor. For higher fields, a second (probably continuous) transition occurs into a featureless paramagnetic phase.
Kinetics of silica-phase transitions
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Duffy, C.J.
1993-07-01
In addition to the stable silica polymorph quartz, several metastable silica phases are present in Yucca Mountain. The conversion of these phases to quartz is accompanied by volume reduction and a decrease in the aqueous silica activity, which may destabilize clinoptilolite and mordenite. The primary reaction sequence for the silica phases is from opal or glass to disordered opal-CT, followed by ordering of the opal-CT and finally by the crystallization of quartz. The ordering of opal-CT takes place in the solid state, whereas the conversion of opal-CT takes place through dissolution-reprecipitation involving the aqueous phase. It is proposed that the rate of conversion of opal-CT to quartz is controlled by diffusion of defects out of a disordered surface layer formed on the crystallizing quartz. The reaction rates are observed to be dependent on temperature, pressure, degree of supersaturation, and pH. Rate equations selected from the literature appear to be consistent with observations at Yucca Mountain.
The deconfining phase transition in and out of equilibrium
Bazavov, Oleksiy
Recent experiments carried out at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider at the Brookhaven National Laboratory provide strong evidence that a matter can be driven from a confined, low-temperature phase, observed in our every day world into a deconfined high-temperature phase of liberated quarks and gluons. The equilibrium and dynamical properties of the deconfining phase transition are thus of great theoretical interest, since they also provide an information about the first femtoseconds of the evolution of our Universe, when the hot primordial soup while cooling has undergone a chain of phase transitions. The aspects of the deconfining phase transition studied in this work include: the dynamics of the SU(3) gauge theory after the heating quench (which models rapid heating in the heavy-ion collisions), equilibrium properties of the phase transition in the SU(3) gauge theory with boundaries at low temperature (small volumes at RHIC suggest that boundary effects cannot be neglected and periodic boundary conditions normally used in lattice simulations do not correspond to the experimental situation), and a study of the order of the transition in U(1) gauge theory.
Non-equilibrium quantum phase transition via entanglement decoherence dynamics
Lin, Yu-Chen; Yang, Pei-Yun; Zhang, Wei-Min
2016-01-01
We investigate the decoherence dynamics of continuous variable entanglement as the system-environment coupling strength varies from the weak-coupling to the strong-coupling regimes. Due to the existence of localized modes in the strong-coupling regime, the system cannot approach equilibrium with its environment, which induces a nonequilibrium quantum phase transition. We analytically solve the entanglement decoherence dynamics for an arbitrary spectral density. The nonequilibrium quantum phase transition is demonstrated as the system-environment coupling strength varies for all the Ohmic-type spectral densities. The 3-D entanglement quantum phase diagram is obtained. PMID:27713556
High-field spin dynamics of antiferromagnetic quantum spin chains
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Enderle, M.; Regnault, L.P.; Broholm, C.;
2000-01-01
The characteristic internal order of macroscopic quantum ground states in one-dimensional spin systems is usually not directly accessible, but reflected in the spin dynamics and the field dependence of the magnetic excitations. In high magnetic fields quantum phase transitions are expected. We...... present recent work on the high-field spin dynamics of the S = I antiferromagnetic Heisenberg chains NENP (Haldane ground state) and CsNiCl3 (quasi-1D HAF close to the quantum critical point), the uniform S = 1/2 chain CTS, and the spin-Peierls system CuGeO3. (C) 2000 Elsevier Science B,V. All rights...
Ferrofluid nucleus phase transitions in an external uniform magnetic field
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
B. M. Tanygin; S. I. Shulyma; V. F. Kovalenko; M. V. Petrychuk
2015-01-01
The phase transition between a massive dense phase and a diluted superparamagnetic phase has been studied by means of a direct molecular dynamics simulation. The equilibrium structures of the ferrofluid aggregate nucleus are obtained for different values of a temperature and an external magnetic field magnitude. An approximate match of experiment and simulation has been shown for the ferrofluid phase diagram coordinates “field–temperature”. The provided phase coexistence curve has an opposite trend comparing to some of known theoretical results. This contradiction has been discussed. For given experimental parameters, it has been concluded that the present results describe more precisely the transition from linear chains to a dense globes phase. The theoretical concepts which provide the opposite binodal curve dependency trend match other experimental conditions:a diluted ferrofluid, a high particle coating rate, a high temperature, and/or a less particles coupling constant value.
A third-order phase transition in random tilings
Colomo, F
2013-01-01
We consider the domino tilings of an Aztec diamond with a cut-off corner of macroscopic square shape and given size, and address the bulk properties of tilings as the size is varied. We observe that the free energy exhibits a third-order phase transition when the cut-off square, increasing in size, reaches the arctic ellipse---the phase separation curve of the original (unmodified) Aztec diamond. We obtain this result by studying the thermodynamic limit of certain nonlocal correlation function of the underlying six-vertex model with domain wall boundary conditions, the so-called emptiness formation probability (EFP). We consider EFP in two different representations: as a tau-function for Toda chains and as a random matrix model integral. The latter has a discrete measure and a linear potential with hard walls; the observed phase transition shares properties with both Gross-Witten-Wadia and Douglas-Kazakov phase transitions.
Shear induced phase transitions induced in edible fats
Mazzanti, Gianfranco; Welch, Sarah E.; Marangoni, Alejandro G.; Sirota, Eric B.; Idziak, Stefan H. J.
2003-03-01
The food industry crystallizes fats under different conditions of temperature and shear to obtain products with desired crystalline phases. Milk fat, palm oil, cocoa butter and chocolate were crystallized from the melt in a temperature controlled Couette cell. Synchrotron x-ray diffraction studies were conducted to examine the role of shear on the phase transitions seen in edible fats. The shear forces on the crystals induced acceleration of the alpha to beta-prime phase transition with increasing shear rate in milk fat and palm oil. The increase was slow at low shear rates and became very strong above 360 s-1. In cocoa butter the acceleration between beta-prime-III and beta-V phase transition increased until a maximum of at 360 s-1, and then decreased, showing competition between enhanced heat transfer and viscous heat generation.
Quantum phase transitions in the noncommutative Dirac Oscillator
Panella, O
2014-01-01
We study the (2+1) dimensional Dirac oscillator in a homogeneous magnetic field in the non-commutative plane. It is shown that the effect of non-commutativity is twofold: $i$) momentum non commuting coordinates simply shift the critical value ($B_{\\text{cr}}$) of the magnetic field at which the well known left-right chiral quantum phase transition takes place (in the commuting phase); $ii$) non-commutativity in the space coordinates induces a new critical value of the magnetic field, $B_{\\text{cr}}^*$, where there is a second quantum phase transition (right-left), --this critical point disappears in the commutative limit--. The change in chirality associated with the magnitude of the magnetic field is examined in detail for both critical points. The phase transitions are described in terms of the magnetisation of the system. Possible applications to the physics of silicene and graphene are briefly discussed.
Where does the hot electroweak phase transition end?
Csikor, Ferenc; Heitger, J
1999-01-01
We give the nonperturbative phase diagram of the four-dimensional hot electroweak phase transition. A systematic extrapolation $a \\to 0$ is done. Our results show that the finite temperature SU(2)-Higgs phase transition is of first order for Higgs-boson masses $m_H<66.5 \\pm 1.4$ GeV. The full four-dimensional result agrees completely with that of the dimensional reduction approximation. This fact is of particular importance, because it indicates that the fermionic sector of the Standard Model (SM) can be included perturbatively. We obtain that the Higgs-boson endpoint mass in the SM is $72.4 any electroweak phase transition in the SM.
Landau model for the multiferroic delafossite antiferromagnets
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ribeiro, J.L, E-mail: jlr@fisica.uminho.pt [Centro de Física da Universidade do Minho, 4710-057 Braga (Portugal); Perez-Mato, J.M [Dpto. de Física de la Materia Condensada, Facultad de Ciencia y Tecnología, Universidad del País Vasco, Apartado 644, 48080 Bilbao (Spain); Vieira, L.G [Centro de Física da Universidade do Minho, 4710-057 Braga (Portugal)
2016-10-15
A symmetry based framework is used to describe the complex phase diagrams observed in the multiferroic delafossite compounds. A free energy Landau functional is derived from the analysis of the transformation properties of the most general incommensurate magnetic spin order parameter. A principle of maximal symmetry is invoked and the stability of each of the different higher symmetry phases considered. The competition between different potential ground states is analysed within the scope of a simplified model, which emphasizes the role of the symmetry allowed phase dependent biquadratic couplings. The cross-over between the different competing states is also discussed. The results show that the diverse set of phase diagrams that are experimentally observed in this class of triangular lattice antiferromagnets and, in particular, the stabilization of magnetically induced ferroelectric states, can be well interpreted and described within this integrated phenomenological approximation. - Highlights: • Symmetry considerations are used to analyze the phase diagrams of the compounds. • The competition between possible ground states is discussed. • The field induced transitions between competing states are described.
Phase transition properties of a cylindrical ferroelectric nanowire
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Wang Ying; Yang Xiong
2013-11-01
Based on the transverse Ising model (TIM) and using the mean-field theory, we investigate the phase transition properties of a cylindrical ferroelectric nanowire. Two different kinds of phase diagrams are constructed. We discuss systematically the effects of exchange interactions and the transverse field parameters on the phase diagrams. Moreover, the cross-over features of the parameters from the ferroelectric dominant phase diagram to the paraelectric dominant phase diagram are determined for the ferroelectric nanowire. In addition, the polarizations of the surface shell and the core are illustrated in detail by modifying the TIM parameters.
Quark-hadron phase transition and strangeness conservation constraints
Saeed-Uddin
1999-01-01
The implications of the strangeness conservation in a hadronic resonance gas (HRG) on the expected phase transition to the quark gluon plasma (QGP) are investigated. It is assumed that under favourable conditions a first order hadron-quark matter phase transition may occur in the hot hadronic matter such as those produced in the ultra-relativistic heavy-ion collisions at CERN and BNL. It is however shown that the criteria of strict strangeness conservation in the HRG may not permit the occurrence of a strict first order equilibrium quark-hadron phase transition unlike a previous study. This emerges as a consequence of the application of a realistic equation of state (EOS) for the HRG and QGP phases, which account for the finite-size effect arising from the short range hard-core hadronic repulsion in the HRG phase and the perturbative QCD interactions in the QGP phase. For a first order hadron-quark matter phase transition to occur one will therefore require large fluctuations in the critical thermal parameters, which might arise due to superheating, supercooling or other nonequlibrium effects. We also discuss a scenario proposed earlier, leading to a possible strangeness separation process during hadronization.
Ab initio theory of helix <-> coil phase transition
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Yakubovich, Alexander V.; Solov'yov, Ilia; Solov'yov, Andrey V.
2008-01-01
In this paper, we suggest a theoretical method based on the statistical mechanics for treating the alpha-helix <-> random coil transition in alanine polypeptides. We consider this process as a first-order phase transition and develop a theory which is free of model parameters and is based solely ...... twisting. The suggested theory is general and with some modification can be applied for the description of phase transitions in other complex molecular systems (e.g. proteins, DNA, nanotubes, atomic clusters, fullerenes).......In this paper, we suggest a theoretical method based on the statistical mechanics for treating the alpha-helix random coil transition in alanine polypeptides. We consider this process as a first-order phase transition and develop a theory which is free of model parameters and is based solely...... on fundamental physical principles. It describes essential thermodynamical properties of the system such as heat capacity, the phase transition temperature and others from the analysis of the polypeptide potential energy surface calculated as a function of two dihedral angles, responsible for the polypeptide...
Pressure-induced phase transitions of indium selenide
Rasmussen, Anya Marie
In2Se3 has potential as a phase-change material for memory applications. Understanding its phase diagram is important to achieve controlled switching between phases. Pressure-dependent phase transitions of In2Se3 bulk powders and nanowire samples were studied at room temperature and at elevated temperatures using synchrotron x-ray diffraction and diamond-anvil cells (DACs). alpha-In2Se3 transforms into the beta phase at 0.7 GPa, an order of magnitude lower than phase-transition critical pressures in typical semiconductors. The bulk moduli are reported and the c/a ratio for the beta phase is shown to have a highly nonlinear dependence on pressure. gamma-In2Se3, metastable under ambient conditions, transforms into to the high-pressure beta phase between 2.8 GPa and 3.2 GPa in bulk powder samples and at slightly higher pressures, between 3.2 GPa and 3.7 GPa in nanowire samples. While the gamma phase bulk modulus is similar to that of the beta phase, the decrease due to pressure in the unit cell parameter ratio, c/a, is less than half the decrease seen in the beta phase. Using high-temperature DACs, we investigated how elevated temperatures and pressures affect the crystal structure of In 2Se3. From these measurements, the high-pressure beta phase was found to be metastable. The high-pressure beta phase transitions into the high-temperature beta phase at temperatures above 380 °C.
Extended ensemble theory, spontaneous symmetry breaking, and phase transitions
Xiao, Ming-wen
2006-09-01
In this paper, as a personal review, we suppose a possible extension of Gibbs ensemble theory so that it can provide a reasonable description of phase transitions and spontaneous symmetry breaking. The extension is founded on three hypotheses, and can be regarded as a microscopic edition of the Landau phenomenological theory of phase transitions. Within its framework, the stable state of a system is determined by the evolution of order parameter with temperature according to such a principle that the entropy of the system will reach its minimum in this state. The evolution of order parameter can cause a change in representation of the system Hamiltonian; different phases will realize different representations, respectively; a phase transition amounts to a representation transformation. Physically, it turns out that phase transitions originate from the automatic interference among matter waves as the temperature is cooled down. Typical quantum many-body systems are studied with this extended ensemble theory. We regain the Bardeen Cooper Schrieffer solution for the weak-coupling superconductivity, and prove that it is stable. We find that negative-temperature and laser phases arise from the same mechanism as phase transitions, and that they are unstable. For the ideal Bose gas, we demonstrate that it will produce Bose Einstein condensation (BEC) in the thermodynamic limit, which confirms exactly Einstein's deep physical insight. In contrast, there is no BEC either within the phonon gas in a black body or within the ideal photon gas in a solid body. We prove that it is not admissible to quantize the Dirac field by using Bose Einstein statistics. We show that a structural phase transition belongs physically to the BEC happening in configuration space, and that a double-well anharmonic system will undergo a structural phase transition at a finite temperature. For the O(N)-symmetric vector model, we demonstrate that it will yield spontaneous symmetry breaking and produce
Inhomogeneous field configurations and the electroweak phase transition
Jungnickel, D U; Jungnickel, Dirk-Uwe; Walliser, Dirk
1994-01-01
We investigate the effects of inhomogeneous scalar field configurations on the electroweak phase transition. For this purpose we calculate the leading perturbative correction to the wave function correction term $Z(\\vph,T)$, i.e., the kinetic term in the effective action, for the electroweak Standard Model at finite temperature and the top quark self--mass. Our finding for the fermionic contribution to $Z(\\vph,T)$ is infra--red finite and disagrees with other recent results. In general, neither the order of the phase transition nor the temperature at which it occurs change, once $Z(\\vph,T)$ is included. But a non--vanishing, positive (negative) $Z(\\vph,T)$ enhances (decreases) the critical droplet surface tension and the strength of the phase transition. We find that in the range of parameter space, which allows for a first--order phase transition, the wave function correction term is negative --- indicating a weaker phase transition --- and especially for small field values so large that perturbation theory ...
New insight into the Berezinskii-Kosterlitz-Thouless phase transition
Gerber, Urs; Rejón-Barrera, Fernando G
2014-01-01
We investigate the 2d XY model by using the constraint angle action, which belongs to the class of topological lattice actions. These actions violate important features usually demanded for a lattice action, such as the correct classical continuum limit and the applicability of perturbation theory. Nevertheless, they still lead to the same universal quantum continuum limit and show excellent scaling behavior. By using the constraint angle action we gain new insight into the Berezinskii-Kosterlitz-Thouless phase transition of the 2d XY model. This phase transition is of special interest since it is one of the few examples of a phase transition beyond second order. It is of infinite order and therefore an essential phase transition. In particular, we observe an excellent scaling behavior of the helicity modulus, which characterizes this phase transition. We also observe that the mechanism of (un)binding vortex--anti-vortex pairs follows the usual pattern, although free vortices do not require any energy in the ...
A comparison of observables for solid-solid phase transitions
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Smilowitz, Laura B [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Henson, Bryan F [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Romero, Jerry J [Los Alamos National Laboratory
2009-01-01
The study of solid-solid phase transformations is hindered by the difficulty of finding a volumetric probe to use as a progress variable. Solids are typically optically opaque and heterogeneous. Over the past several years, second harmonic generation (SHG) has been used as a kinetic probe for a solid-solid phase transition in which the initial and final phases have different symmetries. Bulk generation of SHG is allowed by symmetry only in noncentrosymmetric crystallographic space groups. For the organic energetic nitramine octahydro-1,3 ,5,7 -tetranitro-1,3 ,5,7 -tatrazocine (HMX), the beta phase is centro symmetric (space group P2{sub 1}/c) and the delta phase iS noncentrosymmetric (space group P6{sub 1}22) making SHG an extremely sensitive, essentially zero background probe of the phase change progress. We have used SHG as a tool to follow the progress of the transformation from beta to delta phase during the solid-solid transformation. However, kinetic models of the transformation derived using different observables from several other groups have differed, showing later onset for the phase change and faster progression to completion. In this work, we have intercompared several techniques to understand these differences. The three techniques discussed are second harmonic generation, Raman spectroscopy, and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). The progress of the beta to delta phase transition in HMX observed with each of these different probes will be discussed and advantages and disadvantages of each technique described. This paper compares several different observables for use in measuring the kinetics of solid-solid phase transitions. Relative advantages and disadvantages for each technique are described and a direct comparison of results is made for the beta to delta polymorphic phase transition of the energetic nitramine, octahydro-1,3,5,7-tetranitro-1,3,5,7-tatrazocine.
Beam Combining by Phase Transition Nonlinear Media
1990-02-01
use the Redlich Kwong equation of state for the media we consider. This equation of state can be written RT a p - -b -FT(p.-’ + b)p ; 2-I M (2-1) where...as ac 3 dg-A7 C VA/\\CIIJT (6) The Redlich - Kwong equation of state; i.e., _ RT T-1/2 v-P v(v+P) (7) can be used to compute aP/lT, where the relevant...practical the application of nonlinear phase conjugate techniques to the beam combining of multiple lasers with a coherence characteristic of a
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Pedro, Imanol de; Rojo, Jose M; Rojo, Teofilo [Departamento de Quimica Inorganica Facultad de Ciencia y TecnologIa, Universidad del Pais Vasco, 48080 Bilbao (Spain); Rodriguez Fernandez, Jesus, E-mail: depedrovm@unican.e [CITIMAC, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Cantabria, 39005 Santander (Spain)
2010-01-01
The isostructural Co{sub 1.5}Cu{sub 0.5}(OH)(XO{sub 4}) (X = P, As) phases have been prepared from hydrothermal synthesis and characterized from powder X-ray diffraction. The structure consists of a three-dimensional framework in which M(1)O{sub 5}-trigonal bipyramid dimers and M(2)O{sub 6}-octahedral chains M = (Cu and Co) are simultaneously present. Magnetization measurements of Co{sub 1.5}Cu{sub 0.5}(OH)(PO{sub 4}) show the presence of one maxima at ca. 60 K attributed to a three-dimensional antiferromagnetic ordering. This behaviour was confirmed from the ac measurements. Below T{sub N}, a significant irreversibility appears in ZFC-FC measurements suggesting the presence of some ferromagnetic contributions. When PO{sub 4}{sup 3-} is substituted by AsO{sub 4}{sup 3-} anions, the irreversibility exhibited for the Co-Cu hydroxi-phosphate disappears showing a broad maximum around 44 K accompanied by a large decrease below this temperature.
THE NEXT GENERATION TRANSIT SURVEY PROTOTYPING PHASE
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
J. McCormac
2014-01-01
Full Text Available El Next Generation Transit Survey (NGTS es un nuevo sondeo d e exoplanetas transitantes de campo amplio que tiene como objetivo descubrir exoplanetas del tama ̃no d e Neptuno y super-Tierras entorno a estrellas brillantes ( V < 13 cercanas. NGTS consiste de un arreglo de 12 telescopios o perados rob ́oticamente observando en la banda de 600 − 900 nm. NGTS sondear ́a m ́as de cinco veces el n ́umero de estre llas, con V < 13, que Kepler y por lo tanto proveer ́a los objetivos m ́as brillantes para s er caracterizados con instrumentaci ́on existente y futura (VLT, E-ELT y JWST. En 2009/10 un prototipo del NGTS f ue probado en La Palma, comprobando que un sistema as ́ı puede alcanzar nuestros objetivos de fot ometr ́ıa estelar esencialmente limitada s ́olo por el ruido blanco. Los resultados son resumidos aqu ́ı. NGTS se al imenta de la experiencia del proyecto SuperWASP, que, por muchos a ̃nos, ha liderado la detecci ́on terrestre d e exoplanetas transitantes.
Non-equilibrium phase transitions in a liquid crystal
Dan, K.; Roy, M.; Datta, A.
2015-09-01
The present manuscript describes kinetic behaviour of the glass transition and non-equilibrium features of the "Nematic-Isotropic" (N-I) phase transition of a well known liquid crystalline material N-(4-methoxybenzylidene)-4-butylaniline from the effects of heating rate and initial temperature on the transitions, through differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), Fourier transform infrared and fluorescence spectroscopy. Around the vicinity of the glass transition temperature (Tg), while only a change in the baseline of the ΔCp vs T curve is observed for heating rate (β) > 5 K min-1, consistent with a glass transition, a clear peak for β ≤ 5 K min-1 and the rapid reduction in the ΔCp value from the former to the latter rate correspond to an order-disorder transition and a transition from ergodic to non-ergodic behaviour. The ln β vs 1000/T curve for the glass transition shows convex Arrhenius behaviour that can be explained very well by a purely entropic activation barrier [Dan et al., Eur. Phys. Lett. 108, 36007 (2014)]. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy indicates sudden freezing of the out-of-plane distortion vibrations of the benzene rings around the glass transition temperature and a considerable red shift indicating enhanced coplanarity of the benzene rings and, consequently, enhancement in the molecular ordering compared to room temperature. We further provide a direct experimental evidence of the non-equilibrium nature of the N-I transition through the dependence of this transition temperature (TNI) and associated enthalpy change (ΔH) on the initial temperature (at fixed β-values) for the DSC scans. A plausible qualitative explanation based on Mesquita's extension of Landau-deGennes theory [O. N. de Mesquita, Braz. J. Phys. 28, 257 (1998)] has been put forward. The change in the molecular ordering from nematic to isotropic phase has been investigated through fluorescence anisotropy measurements where the order parameter, quantified by the
the Characteristic Phase Transitions of Co-doped BaFe2 As2 Synthesized via Flux Growth
Shea, C. H.; Roncaioli, C.; Eckberg, C.; Drye, T.; Sulliavan, M. C.; Paglione, J.
2015-03-01
Since the discovery of a new family of type II superconductors in 2008, the iron pnictides, researches have had suspicions that they might bear similar electronic properties to the well-known (but not easily understood) oxide superconductors. For this reason studies on this family of compounds has been of great interest to the materials science community. Our efforts have been aimed at single crystal growth and measurement of a particular member of this family, BaFe2As2. While this material is not superconducting at standard pressure, the partial substitution of cobalt on the iron site has been shown to suppresses an anti-ferromagnetic phase transition occurring at lower temperatures allowing for the appearance of a superconducting phase. Transport and low field magnetization measurements taken on our samples show clean transitions, indicating Tc's of up to 24 K in optimally doped samples. We will discuss the growth methods and temperature dependent phase transitions of this material at different cobalt concentrations. This work was supported by NSF Grant DMR-1305637.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Liu Dang-Ting; Tian Ye; Chen Geng-Hua; Yang Qian-Sheng
2008-01-01
Based on the results of explicit forms of free energy density for each possible arrangement of magnetization fluxes in large-scale two-dimensional (2D) square Π-loop arrays given by Li et al [2007 Chin.Phys.16 1450],the field-cooled superconducting phase transition is further investigated by analysing the free energy of the arrays with a simplified symmetrical model.Our analytical result is exactly the same as that obtained in Li's paper by means of numerical calculations.It is shown that the phase transition splits into two branches with either ferromagnetic or anti-ferromagnetic flux ordering,which depends periodically on the strength of external magnetic flux φe through each loop and monotonically on the screen parameter β of the loops in the arrays.In principle,the diagram of the phase branches is similar to that of its one-dimensional counterpart.The influence of thermal fluctuation on the flux ordering during the transition from normal to superconducting states of the Π-loop arrays is also discussed.
Second- and First-Order Phase Transitions in CDT
Ambjorn, J; Jurkiewicz, J; Loll, R
2012-01-01
Causal Dynamical Triangulations (CDT) is a proposal for a theory of quantum gravity, which implements a path-integral quantization of gravity as the continuum limit of a sum over piecewise flat spacetime geometries. We use Monte Carlo simulations to analyse the phase transition lines bordering the physically interesting de Sitter phase of the four-dimensional CDT model. Using a range of numerical criteria, we present strong evidence that the so-called A-C transition is first order, while the B-C transition is second order. The presence of a second-order transition may be related to an ultraviolet fixed point of quantum gravity and thus provide the key to probing physics at and possibly beyond the Planck scale.
Characteristics of the chiral phase transition in nonlocal quark models
Dumm, D G
2004-01-01
The characteristics of the chiral phase transition are analyzed within the framework of chiral quark models with nonlocal interactions in the mean field approximation (MFA). In the chiral limit, we show that there is a region of low values of the chemical potential in which the transition is a second order one. In that region, it is possible to perform a Landau expansion and determine the critical exponents which, as expected, turn out to be the MFA ones. Our analysis also allows to obtain semi-analytical expressions for the transition curve and the location of the tricritical point. For the case of finite current quark masses, we study the behavior of various thermodynamical and chiral response functions across the phase transition.
Disorienting the Chiral Condensate at the QCD Phase Transition
Rajagopal, K
1997-01-01
I sketch how long wavelength modes of the pion field can be amplified during the QCD phase transition. If nature had been kinder, and had made the pion mass significantly less than the critical temperature for the transition, then this phenomenon would have characterized the transition in thermal equilibrium. Instead, these long wavelength oscillations of the orientation of the chiral condensate can only arise out of equilibrium. There is a simple non-equilibrium mechanism, plausibly operational during heavy ion collisions, which naturally amplifies these oscillations. The characteristic signature of this phenomenon is large fluctuations in the ratio of the number of neutral pions to the total number of pions in regions of momentum space, that is in phase space in a detector. Detection in a heavy ion collision would imply an out of equilbrium chiral transition.
Phase transitions in the distribution of inelastically colliding inertial particles
Belan, Sergey; Falkovich, Gregory
2015-01-01
It was recently suggested that the sign of particle drift in inhomogeneous temperature or turbulence depends on the particle inertia: weakly inertial particles localize near minima of temperature or turbulence intensity (effects known as thermophoresis and turbophoresis), while strongly inertial particles fly away from minima in an unbounded space. The problem of a particle near minima of turbulence intensity is related to that of two particles in a random flow, so that the localization-delocalization transition in the former corresponds to the path-coalescence transition in the latter. The transition is signaled by the sign change of the Lyapunov exponent that characterizes the mean rate of particle approach to the minimum (which could be wall or another particle). Here we solve analytically this problem for inelastic collisions and derive the phase diagram for the transition in the inertia-inelasticity plane. An important feature of the phase diagram is the region of inelastic collapse: if the restitution c...
How tetraquarks can generate a second chiral phase transition
Pisarski, Robert D
2016-01-01
We consider how tetraquarks can affect the chiral phase transition in theories like QCD, with light quarks coupled to three colors. For two flavors the tetraquark field is an isosinglet, and its effect is minimal. For three flavors, however, the tetraquark field transforms in the same representation of the chiral symmetry group as the usual chiral order parameter, and so for very light quarks there may be two chiral phase transitions, which are both of first order. In QCD, results from the lattice indicate that any transition from the tetraquark condensate is a smooth crossover. In the plane of temperature and quark chemical potential, though, a crossover line for the tetraquark condensate is naturally related to the transition line for color superconductivity. For four flavors we suggest that a triquark field, antisymmetric in both flavor and color, combine to form hexaquarks.
Crystallite size and phase transition demeanor of ceramic steel
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Gusain, Deepak; Srivastava, Varsha [Department of Chemistry, Indian Institute of Technology (Banaras Hindu University) Varanasi, Varanasi 221 005 (India); Singh, Vinay K. [Department of Ceramic Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology (Banaras Hindu University) Varanasi, Varanasi 221 005 (India); Chandra Sharma, Yogesh, E-mail: ysharma.apc@itbhu.ac.in [Department of Chemistry, Indian Institute of Technology (Banaras Hindu University) Varanasi, Varanasi 221 005 (India)
2014-06-01
Zirconia is an important oxide of zirconium used in variety of field ranging from dentistry, fuel cells, and thermal barrier coatings. Phase transition of zirconia is an important phenomenon controlling its fracture strength, low temperature degradability and ion conductivity. In the present study, effect of molar concentration of precursor and calcination temperature on phase transition and crystallite size of zirconia was investigated. All the samples were characterized by X-ray diffractometry (XRD), Differential Thermal Analysis/Thermogravimetric Analysis (DTA/TGA), Transmission electron microscopy (TEM), Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). In sample having lowest precursor concentration crystallite size of monoclinic zirconia was found to be lower than that of tetragonal zirconia, simultaneously with the higher proportion of tetragonal zirconia (67.62%) as compared to all other samples (42.75%–58.04%). In all cases, monoclinic to tetragonal phase transition occurs with raise of temperature but in the sample with lowest precursor concentration, tetragonal to monoclinic phase transition occurred on raising the temperature. - Graphical abstract: Display Omitted - Highlights: • Highest proportion of tetragonal phase at lowest precursor concentration. • Tetragonal phase's crystallite size decreased with rise of temperature. • Average particle size of all samples lies in the range of 13 nm–20 nm.
Phase transitions in traffic flow on multilane roads.
Kerner, Boris S; Klenov, Sergey L
2009-11-01
Based on empirical and numerical analyses of vehicular traffic, the physics of spatiotemporal phase transitions in traffic flow on multilane roads is revealed. The complex dynamics of moving jams observed in single vehicle data measured by video cameras on American highways is explained by the nucleation-interruption effect in synchronized flow, i.e., the spontaneous nucleation of a narrow moving jam with the subsequent jam dissolution. We find that (i) lane changing, vehicle merging from on-ramps, and vehicle leaving to off-ramps result in different traffic phases-free flow, synchronized flow, and wide moving jams-occurring and coexisting in different road lanes as well as in diverse phase transitions between the traffic phases; (ii) in synchronized flow, the phase transitions are responsible for a non-regular moving jam dynamics that explains measured single vehicle data: moving jams emerge and dissolve randomly at various road locations in different lanes; (iii) the phase transitions result also in diverse expanded general congested patterns occurring at closely located bottlenecks.
Universality of Holographic Phase Transitions and Holographic Quantum Liquids
Benincasa, Paolo
2009-01-01
We explore the phase structure for defect theories in full generality using the gauge/gravity correspondence. On the gravity side, the systems are constructed by introducing M (probe) D(p+4-2k)-branes in a background generated by N Dp-branes to obtain a codimension-k intersection. The dual gauge theory is a U(N) Supersymmetric Yang-Mills theory on a (1+p-k)-dimensional defect with both adjoint and fundamental degrees of freedom. We focus on the phase structure in the chemical potential versus temperature plane. We observe the existence of two universality classes for holographic gauge theories, which are identified by the order of the phase transition in the interior of the chemical potential/temperature plane. Specifically, all the sensible systems with no defect show a third order phase transition. Gauge theories on a defect with (p-1)-spatial directions are instead characterised by a second order phase transition. One can therefore state that the order of this phase transition is intimately related to the ...
Error-correcting codes and phase transitions
Manin, Yuri I
2009-01-01
The theory of error-correcting codes is concerned with constructing codes that optimize simultaneously transmission rate and relative minimum distance. These conflicting requirements determine an asymptotic bound, which is a continuous curve in the space of parameters. The main goal of this paper is to relate the asymptotic bound to phase diagrams of quantum statistical mechanical systems. We first identify the code parameters with Hausdorff and von Neumann dimensions, by considering fractals consisting of infinite sequences of code words. We then construct operator algebras associated to individual codes. These are Toeplitz algebras with a time evolution for which the KMS state at critical temperature gives the Hausdorff measure on the corresponding fractal. We extend this construction to algebras associated to limit points of codes, with non-uniform multi-fractal measures, and to tensor products over varying parameters.
Quantum decoherence of subcritical bubble in electroweak phase transition
Shiromizu, T
1995-01-01
In a weakly first order phase transition the typical scale of a subcritical bubble calculated in our previous papers turned out to be too small. At this scale quantum fluctuations may dominate and our previous classical result may be altered. So we examine the critical size of a subcritical bubble where quantum-to-classical transition occurs through quantum decoherence. We show that this critical size is almost equal to the typical scale which we previously obtained.
Thermodynamics and Phase Transition in Rotational Kiselev Black Hole
Xu, Zhaoyi
2016-01-01
We calculate the thermodynamical features of rotational Kiselev black holes, specifically we use one order approximate of horizon to calculate thermodynamical features for all $\\omega$. The thermodynamics features include areas, entropies, horizon radii, surface gravities, surface temperatures, Komar energies and irreducible masses at the Cauchy horizon and Event horizon. At the same time the products of these features have been discussed. We find that the products are independent with mass of black hole and determined by $\\omega$ and $\\alpha$. The features in the situations of $\\omega=-2/3,1/3$ and $0$ (quintessence matter, radiation and dust) have been discussed in detail. We also generalize the Smarr mass formula and Christodoulou-Ruffini mass formula to these black holes. Finally we study the phase transition for black holes with different $\\omega$ and obtain the state equation. We analyze the phase transition for $\\omega=1/3$, and find that $\\alpha$ shifts the critical point of phase transition.
Phase transition with an isospin dependent lattice gas model
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Gulminelli, F. [Caen Univ., 14 (France). Lab. de Physique Corpusculaire; Chomaz, Ph. [Grand Accelerateur National d`Ions Lourds (GANIL), 14 - Caen (France)
1998-10-01
The nuclear liquid-gas phase transition is studied within an isospin dependent Lattice Gas Model in the canonical ensemble. Finite size effects on thermodynamical variables are analyzed by a direct calculation of the partition function, and it is shown that phase coexistence and phase transition are relevant concepts even for systems of a few tens of particles. Critical exponents are extracted from the behaviour of the fragment production yield as a function of temperature by means of a finite size scaling. The result is that in a finite system well defined critical signals can be found at supercritical (Kertesz line) as well as subcritical densities. For isospin asymmetric systems it is shown that, besides the modification of the critical temperature, isotopic distributions can provide an extra observable to identify and characterize the transition. (author) 21 refs.
Phase transitions of black holes in massive gravity
Fernando, Sharmanthie
2016-01-01
In this paper we have studied thermodynamics of a black hole in massive gravity in the canonical ensemble. The massive gravity theory in consideration here has a massive graviton due to Lorentz symmetry breaking. The black hole studied here has a scalar charge due to the massive graviton and is asymptotically anti-de Sitter. We have computed various thermodynamical quantities such as temperature, specific heat and free energy. Both the local and global stability of the black hole are studied by observing the behavior of the specific heat and the free energy. We have observed that there is a first order phase transition between small and large black hole for a certain range of the scalar charge. This phase transition is similar to the liquid/gas phase transition at constant temperature for a Van der Waals fluid. The coexistence curves for the small and large black hole branches are also discussed in detail.
Gravitational radiation from first-order phase transitions
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Child, Hillary L.; Giblin, John T. Jr., E-mail: childh@kenyon.edu, E-mail: giblinj@kenyon.edu [Department of Physics, Kenyon College, 201 North College Road, Gambier, OH 43022 (United States)
2012-10-01
It is believed that first-order phase transitions at or around the GUT scale will produce high-frequency gravitational radiation. This radiation is a consequence of the collisions and coalescence of multiple bubbles during the transition. We employ high-resolution lattice simulations to numerically evolve a system of bubbles using only scalar fields, track the anisotropic stress during the process and evolve the metric perturbations associated with gravitational radiation. Although the radiation produced during the bubble collisions has previously been estimated, we find that the coalescence phase enhances this radiation even in the absence of a coupled fluid or turbulence. We comment on how these simulations scale and propose that the same enhancement should be found at the Electroweak scale; this modification should make direct detection of a first-order electroweak phase transition easier.
Lifshitz scaling effects on holographic paramagnetism/ferromagneism phase transition
Zhang, Cheng-Yuan; Jin, Yong-Yi; Chai, Yun-Tian; Hu, Mu-Hong; Zhang, Zhuo
2016-01-01
In the probe limit, we investigate holographic paramagnetism-ferromagnetism phase transition in the four-dimensional (4D) and five-dimensional(5D) Lifshitz black holes by means of numerical and semi-analytical methods, which is realized by introducing a massive 2-form field coupled to the Maxwell field. We find that the Lifshitz dynamical exponent $z$ contributes evidently to magnetic moment and hysteresis loop of single magnetic domain quantitatively not qualitatively. Concretely, in the case without external magnetic field, the spontaneous magnetization and ferromagnetic phase transition happen when the temperature gets low enough, and the critical exponent for the magnetic moment is always $1/2$, which is in agreement with the result from mean field theory. And the increasing $z$ enhances the phase transition and increases the DC resistivity which behaves as the colossal magnetic resistance effect in some materials. Furthermore, in the presence of the external magnetic field, the magnetic susceptibility sa...
Optical Sensor for Characterizing the Phase Transition in Salted Solutions
Claverie, Rémy; Fontana, Marc D.; Duričković, Ivana; Bourson, Patrice; Marchetti, Mario; Chassot, Jean-Marie
2010-01-01
We propose a new optical sensor to characterize the solid-liquid phase transition in salted solutions. The probe mainly consists of a Raman spectrometer that extracts the vibrational properties from the light scattered by the salty medium. The spectrum of the O – H stretching band was shown to be strongly affected by the introduction of NaCl and the temperature change as well. A parameter SD defined as the ratio of the integrated intensities of two parts of this band allows to study the temperature and concentration dependences of the phase transition. Then, an easy and efficient signal processing and the exploitation of a modified Boltzmann equation give information on the phase transition. Validations were done on solutions with varying concentration of NaCl. PMID:22319327
Canonical Entropy and Phase Transition of Rotating Black Hole
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
ZHAO Ren; WU Yue-Qin; ZHANG Li-Chun
2008-01-01
Recently, the Hawking radiation of a black hole has been studied using the tunnel effect method. The radiation spectrum of a black hole is derived. By discussing the correction to spectrum of the rotating black hole, we obtain the canonical entropy. The derived canonical entropy is equal to the sum of Bekenstein-Hawking entropy and correction term. The correction term near the critical point is different from the one near others. This difference plays an important role in studying the phase transition of the black hole. The black hole thermal capacity diverges at the critical point. However, the canonical entropy is not a complex number at this point. Thus we think that the phase transition created by this critical point is the second order phase transition. The discussed black hole is a five-dimensional Kerr-AdS black hole. We provide a basis for discussing thermodynamic properties of a higher-dimensional rotating black hole.
Gravitational Radiation from First-Order Phase Transitions
Child, Hillary L
2012-01-01
It is believed that first order phase transitions at or around the GUT scale will produce high-frequency gravitational radiation. This radiation is a consequence of the collisions and coalescence of multiple bubbles during the transition. We employ high-resolution lattice simulations to numerically evolve a system of bubbles, track the anisotropic stress during the process and evolve the metric perturbations associated with gravitational radiation. Although the radiation produced during the bubble collisions has previously been estimated, we find that the coalescence phase that greatly enhances this radiation even in the absence of turbulence. We comment on how these simulations scale and propose that the same enhancement should be found at the Electroweak scale; this modification should make direct detection of a first-order electroweak phase transition easier.
Phase transition in aluminous silica in the lowermost mantle
Tronnes, R. G.; Andrault, D.; Konopkova, Z.; Morgenroth, W.; Liermann, H.
2012-12-01
Lower mantle basaltic lithologies contain 35-40% Mg-perovskite, 20-30% Ca-perovskite, 15-25% Al-rich phases (NAL and Ca-ferrite phases) and 15-20% silica-dominated phases. The Fe-rich Mg-perovskite makes basaltic material denser than peridotite throughout the lower mantle below 720 km depth, with important implications for mantle dynamics. Partial separation of subducted basaltic crust from depleted lithosphere might occur within the strongly heterogeneous D" zone. Further details on phase transitions and equation of states for the various minerals, however, are needed for more complete insights. The silica-dominated phases have considerable solubility of alumina [1]. We investigated silica with 4 and 6 wt% alumina to 120 GPa, using LH-DAC at the Extreme Conditions Beamline (P02.2) at PETRA-III, DESY. Powdered glass mixed with 10-15 wt% Pt-powder was compressed and heated in NaCl pressure media in Re-gaskets. The transition from the CaCl2-structured phase to seifertite (alpha-PbO2-structure) occurs at about 116 GPa at 2500 K. This is intermediate between the transition pressures of about 122 GPa and 100-113 GPa reported for similar temperatures for pure SiO2 [2] and a basalt composition [1], respectively. The CaCl2-structured silica phase crystallized along with seifertite, consistent with a binary phase loop trending towards lower pressure with increasing Al-content. The presence of an Al-rich Ca-ferrite phase (near the MgAl2O4-NaAlSiO4-join) in basaltic material indicates that the Al-solubility limits for the silica-dominated phases in basaltic compositions may be similar to those in the binary system SiO2-AlO1.5. Based on the X-ray pattern refinement, our samples show no significant volume change across the transition. Even so, the transition could be associated with a significant density change if the Al substitution mechanisms are different in CaCl2-structured phase and seifertite. The most likely situation is that Al-substitution occurs via O-vacancies in the
Guan, Shu-Hui; Liu, Zhi-Pan
2016-02-14
Structural inhomogeneity is ubiquitous in solid crystals and plays critical roles in phase nucleation and propagation. Here, we develop a heterogeneous solid-solid phase transition theory for predicting the prevailing heterophase junctions, the metastable states governing microstructure evolution in solids. Using this theory and first-principles pathway sampling simulation, we determine two types of heterophase junctions pertaining to metal α-ω phase transition at different pressures and predict the reversibility of transformation only at low pressures, i.e. below 7 GPa. The low-pressure transformation is dominated by displacive Martensitic mechanism, while the high-pressure one is controlled by the reconstructive mechanism. The mechanism of α-ω phase transition is thus highly pressure-sensitive, for which the traditional homogeneous model fails to explain the experimental observations. The results provide the first atomic-level evidence on the coexistence of two different solid phase transition mechanisms in one system.
The quark-hadron phase transition and primordial nucleosynthesis
Hogan, Craig J.
After presenting the current view of the processes taking place during the cosmological transition from 'quark soup' to normal hadron matter, attention is given to what happens to cosmological nucleosynthesis in the presence of small-scale baryon inhomogeneities. The QCD phase transition is among the plausible sources of this inhomogeneity. It is concluded that the formation of primordial 'quark nuggets' and other cold exotica requires very low entropy regions at the outset, and that even the more modest nonlinearities perturbing nucleosynthesis probably require some ingredient in addition to a quiescent, mildly supercooled transition.
The quark-hadron phase transition and primordial nucleosynthesis
Hogan, Craig J.
1987-01-01
After presenting the current view of the processes taking place during the cosmological transition from 'quark soup' to normal hadron matter, attention is given to what happens to cosmological nucleosynthesis in the presence of small-scale baryon inhomogeneities. The QCD phase transition is among the plausible sources of this inhomogeneity. It is concluded that the formation of primordial 'quark nuggets' and other cold exotica requires very low entropy regions at the outset, and that even the more modest nonlinearities perturbing nucleosynthesis probably require some ingredient in addition to a quiescent, mildly supercooled transition.
Chern-Simons diffusion rate across different phase transitions
Rougemont, Romulo
2016-01-01
We investigate how the dimensionless ratio given by the Chern-Simons diffusion rate $\\Gamma_{\\textrm{CS}}$ divided by the product of the entropy density $s$ and temperature $T$ behaves across different kinds of phase transitions in the class of bottom-up non-conformal Einstein-dilaton holographic models originally proposed by Gubser and Nellore. By tuning the dilaton potential, one is able to holographically mimic a first order, a second order, or a crossover transition. In a first order phase transition, $\\Gamma_{\\textrm{CS}}/sT$ jumps at the critical temperature (as previously found in the holographic literature), while in a second order phase transition it develops an infinite slope. On the other hand, in a crossover, $\\Gamma_{\\textrm{CS}}/sT$ behaves smoothly, although displaying a fast variation around the pseudo-critical temperature. Furthermore, we also find that $\\Gamma_{\\textrm{CS}}/sT$ increases by orders of magnitude below the critical temperature in a second order phase transition and in a crossov...
Cosmological phase transitions and their properties in the NMSSM
Kozaczuk, Jonathan; Profumo, Stefano; Haskins, Laurel Stephenson; Wainwright, Carroll L.
2015-01-01
We study cosmological phase transitions in the Next-to-Minimal Supersymmetric Standard Model (NMSSM) in light of the Higgs discovery. We use an effective field theory approach to calculate the finite temperature effective potential, focusing on regions with significant tree-level contributions to the Higgs mass, a viable neutralino dark matter candidate, 1-2 TeV stops, and with the remaining particle spectrum compatible with current LHC searches and results. The phase transition structure in viable regions of parameter space exhibits a rich phenomenology, potentially giving rise to one- or two-step first-order phase transitions in the singlet and/or SU(2) directions. We compute several parameters pertaining to the bubble wall profile, including the bubble wall width and Δ β (the variation of the ratio in Higgs vacuum expectation values across the wall). These quantities can vary significantly across small regions of parameter space and can be promising for successful electroweak baryogenesis. We estimate the wall velocity microphysically, taking into account the various sources of friction acting on the expanding bubble wall. Ultra-relativistic solutions to the bubble wall equations of motion typically exist when the electroweak phase transition features substantial supercooling. For somewhat weaker transitions, the bubble wall instead tends to be sub-luminal and, in fact, likely sub-sonic, suggesting that successful electroweak baryogenesis may indeed occur in regions of the NMSSM compatible with the Higgs discovery.
Studies of phase transitions in the aripiprazole solid dosage form.
Łaszcz, Marta; Witkowska, Anna
2016-01-05
Studies of the phase transitions in an active substance contained in a solid dosage form are very complicated but essential, especially if an active substance is classified as a BCS Class IV drug. The purpose of this work was the development of sensitive methods for the detection of the phase transitions in the aripiprazole tablets containing initially its form III. Aripiprazole exhibits polymorphism and pseudopolymorphism. Powder diffraction, Raman spectroscopy and differential scanning calorimetry methods were developed for the detection of the polymorphic transition between forms III and I as well as the phase transition of form III into aripiprazole monohydrate in tablets. The study involved the initial 10 mg and 30 mg tablets, as well as those stored in Al/Al blisters, a triplex blister pack and HDPE bottles (with and without desiccant) under accelerated and long term conditions. The polymorphic transition was not observed in the initial and stored tablets but it was visible on the DSC curve of the Abilify(®) 10 mg reference tablets. The formation of the monohydrate was observed in the diffractograms and Raman spectra in the tablets stored under accelerated conditions. The monohydrate phase was not detected in the tablets stored in the Al/Al blisters under long term conditions. The results showed that the Al/Al blisters can be recommended as the packaging of the aripiprazole tablets containing form III.
Phase transition of lipid-like monolayer characterized by second harmonic generation
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
于安池; 常青; 赵新生; 周晴中; 李东; 黄岩谊; 程天蓉; 黄春辉
1999-01-01
Phase transition of a lipid-like hemicyanine compound characterized by second harmonic generation is studied carefully. The phase transition is assigned as the first order transition between solid state and liquid state. The transition temperature increases with an increase in the surface molecular concentration. A monolayer structure parameter a which is very sensitive to the phase transition is introduced.
Crystal-liquid-gas phase transitions and thermodynamic similarity
Skripov, Vladimir P; Schmelzer, Jurn W P
2006-01-01
Professor Skripov obtained worldwide recognition with his monograph ""Metastable liquids"", published in English by Wiley & Sons. Based upon this work and another monograph published only in Russia, this book investigates the behavior of melting line and the properties of the coexisting crystal and liquid phase of simple substances across a wide range of pressures, including metastable states of the coexisting phases. The authors derive new relations for the thermodynamic similarity for liquid-vapour phase transition, as well as describing solid-liquid, liquid-vapor and liquid-liquid phase tra
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Murtazaev, A. K.; Ramazanov, M. K., E-mail: sheikh77@mail.ru; Badiev, V. K. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Institute of Physics, Dagestan Scientific Center (Russian Federation)
2012-08-15
The critical behavior of the three-dimensional antiferromagnetic Heisenberg model with nearest-neighbor (J) and next-to-nearest-neighbor (J{sub 1}) interactions is studied by the replica Monte Carlo method. The first-order phase transition and pseudouniversal critical behavior of this model are established for a small lattice in the interval R = vertical bar J{sub 1}/J vertical bar = 0-0.115. A complete set of the main static magnetic and chiral critical indices is calculated in this interval using the finite-dimensional scaling theory.
Beyond nuclear "pasta" : Phase transitions and neutrino opacity of new "pasta" phases
Alcain, P. N.; Giménez Molinelli, P. A.; Dorso, C. O.
2014-12-01
In this work, we focus on different length scales within the dynamics of nucleons in conditions according to the neutron star crust, with a semiclassical molecular dynamics model, studying isospin symmetric matter at subsaturation densities. While varying the temperature, we find that a solid-liquid phase transition exists, which can be also characterized with a morphology transition. For higher temperatures, above this phase transition, we study the neutrino opacity, and find that in the liquid phase, the scattering of low momenta neutrinos remain high, even though the morphology of the structures differ significatively from those of the traditional nuclear pasta.
Hadron-quark phase transition in dense stars
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Grassi, F.
1987-10-01
An equation of state is computed for a plasma of one flavor quarks interacting through some phenomenological potential, at zero temperature. Assuming that the confining potential is scalar and color-independent, it is shown that the quarks undergo a first-order mass phase transition. In addition, due to the way screening is introduced, all the thermodynamic quantities computed are independent of the actual shape of the interquark potential. This equation of state is then generalized to a several quark flavor plasma and applied to the study of the hadron-quark phase transition inside a neutron star. 45 refs., 4 figs.
Detection of phase transition via convolutional neural network
Tanaka, Akinori
2016-01-01
We design a Convolutional Neural Network (CNN) which studies correlation between discretized inverse temperature and spin configuration of 2D Ising model and show that it can find a feature of the phase transition without teaching any a priori information for it. We also define a new order parameter via the CNN and show that it provides well approximated critical inverse temperature. In addition, we compare the activation functions for convolution layer and find that the Rectified Linear Unit (ReLU) is important to detect the phase transition of 2D Ising model.
Gravitational waves from first-order cosmological phase transitions
Kosowsky, Arthur; Turner, Michael S.; Watkins, Richard
1992-01-01
A first-order cosmological phase transition that proceeds through the nucleation and collision of true-vacuum bubbles is a potent source of gravitational radiation. Possibilities for such include first-order inflation, grand-unified-theory-symmetry breaking, and electroweak-symmetry breaking. We have calculated gravity-wave production from the collision of two scalar-field vacuum bubbles, and, using an approximation based upon these results, from the collision of 20 to 30 vacuum bubbles. We present estimates of the relic background of gravitational waves produced by a first-order phase transition.
Topological conditions for discrete symmetry breaking and phase transitions
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Baroni, Fabrizio; Casetti, Lapo [Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita di Firenze, via G. Sansone 1, I-50019 Sesto Fiorentino (Finland) (Italy)
2006-01-20
In the framework of a recently proposed topological approach to phase transitions, some sufficient conditions ensuring the presence of the spontaneous breaking of a Z{sub 2} symmetry and of a symmetry-breaking phase transition are introduced and discussed. A very simple model, which we refer to as the hypercubic model, is introduced and solved. The main purpose of this model is that of illustrating the content of the sufficient conditions, but it is interesting also in itself due to its simplicity. Then some mean-field models already known in the literature are discussed in the light of the sufficient conditions introduced here.
The liquid to vapor phase transition in excited nuclei
Elliott, J B; Phair, L; Wozniak, G J; Lefort, T; Beaulieu, L; Kwiatkowski, K K; Hsi, W C; Pienkowski, L; Breuer, H; Korteling, R G; Laforest, R; Martin, E; Ramakrishnan, E; Rowland, D; Ruangma, A; Viola, V E; Winchester, E M; Yennello, S J
2002-01-01
For many years it has been speculated that excited nuclei would undergo a liquid to vapor phase transition. For even longer, it has been known that clusterization in a vapor carries direct information on the liquid- vapor equilibrium according to Fisher's droplet model. Now the thermal component of the 8 GeV/c pion + 197Au multifragmentation data of the ISiS Collaboration is shown to follow the scaling predicted by Fisher's model, thus providing the strongest evidence yet of the liquid to vapor phase transition.
The liquid to vapor phase transition in excited nuclei
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Elliott, J.B.; Moretto, L.G.; Phair, L.; Wozniak, G.J.; Beaulieu, L.; Breuer, H.; Korteling, R.G.; Kwiatkowski, K.; Lefort, T.; Pienkowski, L.; Ruangma, A.; Viola, V.E.; Yennello, S.J.
2001-05-08
For many years it has been speculated that excited nuclei would undergo a liquid to vapor phase transition. For even longer, it has been known that clusterization in a vapor carries direct information on the liquid-vapor equilibrium according to Fisher's droplet model. Now the thermal component of the 8 GeV/c pion + 197 Au multifragmentation data of the ISiS Collaboration is shown to follow the scaling predicted by Fisher's model, thus providing the strongest evidence yet of the liquid to vapor phase transition.
Hadronic multiplicity distribution and dynamical fluctuations under QGP phase transitions
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
杨纯斌; 鄢文标; 蔡勖
1999-01-01
Hadronic multiplicity distributions in small bins are studied within the Ginzburg-Landau description for quark-hadron phase transitions. Direct comparison of the distributions with Poisson ones （with the same averages） is made in the light of dynamical factors dq for the distributions and ratios Dq≡dq/d1. Scaling behavior between Dq’ s is found, which can be used to detect the formation of quark-gluon plasma. The same method can be used in the analysis of other processes without phase transition.
Plasticity and beyond microstructures, crystal-plasticity and phase transitions
Hackl, Klaus
2014-01-01
The book presents the latest findings in experimental plasticity, crystal plasticity, phase transitions, advanced mathematical modeling of finite plasticity and multi-scale modeling. The associated algorithmic treatment is mainly based on finite element formulations for standard (local approach) as well as for non-standard (non-local approach) continua and for pure macroscopic as well as for directly coupled two-scale boundary value problems. Applications in the area of material design/processing are covered, ranging from grain boundary effects in polycrystals and phase transitions to deep-drawing of multiphase steels by directly taking into account random microstructures.
Antiferrodistortive phase transition in EuTiO3
Goian, V.; Kamba, S.; Pacherova, O.; Drahokoupil, J.; Palatinus, L; Dusek, M.; Rohlicek, J.; Savinov, M.; Laufek, F.; Schranz, W.; Fuith, A; Kachlik, M.; Maca, K.; Shkabko, A.; Sagarna, L.
2012-01-01
X-ray diffraction, dynamical mechanical analysis and infrared reflectivity studies revealed an antiferrodistortive phase transition in EuTiO3 ceramics. Near 300K the perovskite structure changes from cubic Pm-3m to tetragonal I4/mcm due to antiphase tilting of oxygen octahedra along the c axis (a0a0c- in Glazer notation). The phase transition is analogous to SrTiO3. However, some ceramics as well as single crystals of EuTiO3 show different infrared reflectivity spectra bringing evidence of a ...
Chiral phase transition in QED$_3$ at finite temperature
Wei, Wei; Zong, Hong-Shi
2016-01-01
Chiral phase transition in (2+1)-dimensional quantum electrodynamics (QED$_3$) at finite temperature is investigated in the framework of truncated Dyson-Schwinger equations (DSEs). We go beyond the widely used instantaneous approximation and adopt a method that retains the full frequency dependence of the fermion self-energy. We also take further step to include the effects of wave-function renormalizations and introduce a minimal dressing of the bare vertex. Finally, with the more complete solutions of the truncated DSEs, we revisit the study of chiral phase transition in finite-temperature QED$_3$.
Computational diagnostics for detecting phase transitions during nanoindentation
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Lee, S.M.; Hoover, C.G.; Kallman, J.S.; De Groot, A.J. (Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States)); Hoover, W.G. (Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States) California Univ., Livermore, CA (United States). Div. of Applied Science); Wooten, F. (California Univ., Livermore, CA (United States). Div. of Applied Science)
1992-12-01
We study nanoindenmtion of silicon using nonequilibrium molecular dynamics simulations. with up to a million particles. Both crystalline and amorphous silicon samples are considered. We use compumtional diffraction pattems as a diagnostic tool for detecting phase transitions resulting from structural changes. Simulations of crystalline samples show a transition to the amorphous phase in a region a few atomic layers thick surrounding the lateral faces of the indenter, as has been suggested by experimental results. Our simulation results provide estimates for the yield strength (nanohardness) of silicon for a range of temperatures.
Pressure Induced Phase Transition in TiB
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
李凤英; 陈良辰; 王莉君; 顾惠成; 王汝菊; 车荣钲; 沈中毅
2001-01-01
In situ high pressure x-ray diffraction and electrical resistance experiments on TiB have been carried out by using a diamond anvil cell device. The results revealed that the sample undergoes a first-order phase transition at pressures of 3.5 - 5.0 Gpa and 4.0 - 5.5 Gpa for the x-ray diffraction and electrical resistance experiments, respectively. The parameters of the state equation are calculated before and after the phase transition and compared with the values calculated by Mohn et al. [J. Phys. C: Solid State Phys. 21(1988)2829] using the augmented spherical wave method.
Monte Carlo Study of the Anisotropic Heisenberg Antiferromagnet on the Triangular Lattice
Stephan, W.; Southern, B. W.
1999-01-01
We report a Monte Carlo study of the classical antiferromagnetic Heisenberg model with easy axis anisotropy on the triangular lattice. Both the free energy cost for long wavelength spin waves as well as for the formation of free vortices are obtained from the spin stiffness and vorticity modulus respectively. Evidence for two distinct Kosterlitz-Thouless types of defect-mediated phase transitions at finite temperatures is presented.
Enhancement of antiferromagnetic spin wave in the heavy-fermion superconductors
Koh, Shun-ichiro
2000-06-01
Recently, the inelastic neutron scattering experiments of UPd 2Al 3 showed that a sharp peak indicating a magnetic excitation appears below the superconducting phase transition temperature (M. Metoki et al., J. Phys. Soc. Japan 66 (1997) 2560, N. Bernhoeft et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 81 (1998) 4244). Assuming this excitation to be an antiferromagnetic (AFM) spin wave, this paper deals with its enhancement by the superconductivity.
Self-aggregation of vapor-liquid phase transition
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
无
2003-01-01
The concept of the molecular free path is introduced to derive a criterion distinguishing active molecules from inactive molecules in liquid phase. Based on molecular self-aggregation theory a concept of the critical aggregation concentration (CAC) of active molecules is proposed to describe the physical configuration before the formation of the nuclei in the process of vapor-liquid phase transition. All active molecules exist in the form of the monomer when the concentration of active molecules is lower than CAC, while the active molecules will generate aggregation once the concentration of the active molecules reaches CAC. However, these aggregates with the aggregation number N smaller than 5 can steadily exist in bulk phase. The other excess active molecules can only produce infinite aggregation and form a critical nucleus of vapor-liquid phase transition. Without outer perturbation the state point of CAC corresponds to the critical superheated or supercooled state in the process of vapor-liquid phase transition. With the aggregate property, the interfacial tension between the bulk phase and the tiny new phase is predicted and a correction is made for the classical nucleation rate in a quite good agreement with experimental results.
Domain structure and phase transition in Sc-doped zirconia
Brunauer, G.; Boysen, H.; Frey, F.; Ehrenberg, H.
2002-01-01
The temperature dependence of the domain structure associated with the ferroelastic phase transition (Fm↔R bar 3 m) in ZrO2 doped with 11% Sc2O3 has been determined from a peak shape analysis of high-resolution synchrotron x-ray powder diffraction data. In the temperature region of coexisting phases the observed characteristic anisotropic broadening and asymmetry of the lines is modelled by three different phases: a main rhombohedral phase, a distorted rhombohedral phase with a smaller c/a ratio, and a cubic phase. The latter two are assigned to the internal structure of the domain walls between two adjacent twin domains. The size and amount of the cubic phase show an initially slow increase with temperature followed by a very steep increase and a slow one after that. The size of the (main) rhombohedral domains remains nearly constant, while (micro-) strain in the distorted regions gradually decreases.
Jahangiri, J; Mahdavifar, S; Shayesteh, S Farjami
2015-01-01
We consider the spin-1/2 two-leg ladders with ferromagnetic (FM) interactions along legs and rungs. Using the stochastic series expansion QMC method, we study the low-temperature magnetic behavior of the system. An isolated spin-1/2 FM two-leg ladder is in the gapped saturated FM phase at zero temperature. As soon as the spin-1/2 FM two-leg ladders are connected with antiferromagnetic (AFM) inter-ladder interaction, a first-order commensurate-incommensurate quantum phase transition occurs in the ground state magnetic phase diagram. In fact a jump in the magnetization curve is observed. We found that, coupled spin-1/2 FM two-leg ladders are in a nonmagnetic phase at zero temperature. Applying a magnetic field, the ground state of coupled spin-1/2 FM two-leg ladders remains in the nonmagnetic phase up to a quantum saturate critical field.
The electroweak phase transition in models with gauge singlets
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ahriche, A.
2007-04-18
A strong first order phase transition is needed for generating the baryon asymmetry; and also to save it during the electroweak phase transition (EWPT). However this condition is not fulfilled within the Standard Model (SM), but in its extensions. It is widely believed that the existence of singlet scalars in some Standard Model extensions can easily make the EWPT strongly first order. In this work, we will examine the strength of the EWPT in the simplest extension of the SM with a real gauge singlet using the sphaleron energy at the critical temperature. We find that the phase transition is stronger by adding a singlet; and also that the criterion for a strong phase transition {omega}(T{sub c})/T{sub c} >or similar 1, where {omega} = (v{sup 2} + (x - x{sub 0}){sup 2}){sup (}1)/(2) and x(x{sub 0}) is the singlet vacuum expectation value in the broken (symmetric) phase, is not valid for models containing singlets, even though often used in the literature. The usual condition v{sub c}/T{sub c} >or similar 1 is more meaningful, and it is satisfied for the major part of the parameter space for physically allowed Higgs masses. Then it is convenient to study the EWPT in models with singlets that couple only to the Higgs doublets, by replacing the singlets by their vevs. (orig.)
Effect of extrinsic curvature on quark--hadron phase transition
Heydari-Fard, Malihe
2009-01-01
The last phase transition predicted by the standard model of particle physics took place at the QCD scale $T\\sim200$ MeV when the universe was about $t\\sim10^{-5}$ seconds old and the Hubble radius was around 10 Km. In this paper, we consider the quark--hadron phase transition in the context of brane-world cosmology where our universe is a 3-brane embedded in a $m$-dimensional bulk and localization of matter on the brane is achieved by means of a confining potential. We study the behavior of the physical quantities relevant to the description of the early universe like the energy density, temperature and scale factor, before, during, and after the phase transition and investigate the effects of extrinsic curvature on the cosmological phase transition. We show that the brane-world effects reduce the effective temperature of the quark--gluon plasma and of the hadronic fluid. Finally, we discuss the case where the universe evolved through a mixed phase with a small initial supercooling and monotonically growing ...
Phase transition and surface sublimation of a mobile Potts model.
Bailly-Reyre, A; Diep, H T; Kaufman, M
2015-10-01
We study in this paper the phase transition in a mobile Potts model by the use of Monte Carlo simulation. The mobile Potts model is related to a diluted Potts model, which is also studied here by a mean-field approximation. We consider a lattice where each site is either vacant or occupied by a q-state Potts spin. The Potts spin can move from one site to a nearby vacant site. In order to study the surface sublimation, we consider a system of Potts spins contained in a recipient with a concentration c defined as the ratio of the number of Potts spins N(s) to the total number of lattice sites N(L)=N(x)×N(y)×N(z). Taking into account the attractive interaction between the nearest-neighboring Potts spins, we study the phase transitions as functions of various physical parameters such as the temperature, the shape of the recipient, and the spin concentration. We show that as the temperature increases, surface spins are detached from the solid phase to form a gas in the empty space. Surface order parameters indicate different behaviors depending on the distance to the surface. At high temperatures, if the concentration is high enough, the interior spins undergo a first-order phase transition to an orientationally disordered phase. The mean-field results are shown as functions of temperature, pressure, and chemical potential, which confirm in particular the first-order character of the transition.
Phase transitions in traffic flow on multilane roads
Kerner, Boris S.; Klenov, Sergey L.
2009-11-01
Based on empirical and numerical analyses of vehicular traffic, the physics of spatiotemporal phase transitions in traffic flow on multilane roads is revealed. The complex dynamics of moving jams observed in single vehicle data measured by video cameras on American highways is explained by the nucleation-interruption effect in synchronized flow, i.e., the spontaneous nucleation of a narrow moving jam with the subsequent jam dissolution. We find that (i) lane changing, vehicle merging from on-ramps, and vehicle leaving to off-ramps result in different traffic phases—free flow, synchronized flow, and wide moving jams—occurring and coexisting in different road lanes as well as in diverse phase transitions between the traffic phases; (ii) in synchronized flow, the phase transitions are responsible for a non-regular moving jam dynamics that explains measured single vehicle data: moving jams emerge and dissolve randomly at various road locations in different lanes; (iii) the phase transitions result also in diverse expanded general congested patterns occurring at closely located bottlenecks.
Zipf's law emerges asymptotically during phase transitions in communicative systems
Khomtchouk, Bohdan B
2016-01-01
Zipf's law predicts a power-law relationship between word rank and frequency in language communication systems, and is widely reported in texts yet remains enigmatic as to its origins. Computer simulations have shown that language communication systems emerge at an abrupt phase transition in the fidelity of mappings between symbols and objects. Since the phase transition approximates the Heaviside or step function, we show that Zipfian scaling emerges asymptotically at high rank based on the Laplace transform which yields $(1/r)(1-e^{-r})$, where $r$ denotes rank. We thereby demonstrate that Zipf's law gradually emerges from the moment of phase transition in communicative systems. We show that this power-law scaling behavior explains the emergence of natural languages at phase transitions. We find that the emergence of Zipf's law during language communication suggests that the use of rare words in a lexicon (i.e., high $r$) is critical for the construction of an effective communicative system at the phase tra...
Electric field driven mesoscale phase transition in polarized colloids
Khusid, Boris; Elele, Ezinwa; Lei, Qian
2016-11-01
A mesoscale phase transition in a polarized suspension was reported by Kumar, Khusid, Acrivos, PRL95, 2005 and Agarwal, Yethiraj, PRL102, 2009. Following the application of a strong AC field, particles aggregated head-to-tail into chains that bridged the interelectrode gap and then formed a cellular pattern, in which large particle-free domains were enclosed by particle-rich thin walls. Cellular structures were not observed in numerous simulations of field induced phase transitions in a polarized suspension. A requirement for matching the particle and fluid densities to avoid particle settling limits terrestrial experiments to negatively polarized particles. We present data on the phase diagram and kinetics of the phase transition in a neutrally buoyant, negatively polarized suspension subjected to a combination of AC and DC. Surprisingly, a weak DC component drastically speeds up the formation of a cellular pattern but does not affect its key characteristic. However, the application of a strong DC field destroys the cellular pattern, but it restores as the DC field strength is reduced. We also discuss the design of experiments to study phase transitions in a suspension of positively polarized, non-buoyancy-matched particles in the International Space Station. Supported by NASA's Physical Science Research Program, NNX13AQ53G.
Two Phase Flow Mapping and Transition Under Microgravity Conditions
Parang, Masood; Chao, David F.
1998-01-01
In this paper, recent microgravity two-phase flow data for air-water, air-water-glycerin, and air- water-Zonyl FSP mixtures are analyzed for transition from bubbly to slug and from slug to annular flow. It is found that Weber number-based maps are inadequate to predict flow-pattern transition, especially over a wide range of liquid flow rates. It is further shown that slug to annular flow transition is dependent on liquid phase Reynolds number at high liquid flow rate. This effect may be attributed to growing importance of liquid phase inertia in the dynamics of the phase flow and distribution. As a result a new form of scaling is introduced to present data using liquid Weber number based on vapor and liquid superficial velocities and Reynolds number based on liquid superficial velocity. This new combination of the dimensionless parameters seem to be more appropriate for the presentation of the microgravity data and provides a better flow pattern prediction and should be considered for evaluation with data obtained in the future. Similarly, the analysis of bubble to slug flow transition indicates a strong dependence on both liquid inertia and turbulence fluctuations which seem to play a significant role on this transition at high values of liquid velocity. A revised mapping of data using a new group of dimensionless parameters show a better and more consistent description of flow transition over a wide range of liquid flow rates. Further evaluation of the proposed flow transition mapping will have to be made after a wider range of microgravity data become available.