Antiferromagnetic noise correlations in optical lattices
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Bruun, Niels Bohr International Academy, University of Copenhagen, DK-2100 Copenhagen Ø, Denmark, Georg Morten; Syljuåsen, F. T.; Pedersen, K. G. L.;
2009-01-01
We analyze how noise correlations probed by time-of-flight experiments reveal antiferromagnetic (AF) correlations of fermionic atoms in two-dimensional and three-dimensional optical lattices. Combining analytical and quantum Monte Carlo calculations using experimentally realistic parameters, we...... show that AF correlations can be detected for temperatures above and below the critical temperature for AF ordering. It is demonstrated that spin-resolved noise correlations yield important information about the spin ordering. Finally, we show how to extract the spin correlation length and the related...
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Takashi Yanagisawa
2015-01-01
Full Text Available We investigate the ground state of two-dimensional Hubbard model on the basis of the variational Monte Carlo method. We use wave functions that include kinetic correlation and doublon-holon correlation beyond the Gutzwiller ansatz. It is still not clear whether the Hubbard model accounts for high-temperature superconductivity. The antiferromagnetic correlation plays a key role in the study of pairing mechanism because the superconductive phase exists usually close to the antiferromagnetic phase. We investigate the stability of the antiferromagnetic state when holes are doped as a function of the Coulomb repulsion U. We show that the antiferromagnetic correlation is suppressed as U is increased exceeding the bandwidth. High-temperature superconductivity is possible in this region with enhanced antiferromagnetic spin fluctuation and pairing interaction.
Spin torque antiferromagnetic nanooscillator in the presence of magnetic noise
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
H. Gomonay
2012-12-01
Full Text Available Spin-torque effects in antiferromagnetic (AFM materials are of great interest due to the possible applications as high-speed spintronic devices. In the present paper we analyze the statistical properties of the current-driven AFM nanooscillator that result from the white Gaussian noise of magnetic nature. According to the peculiarities of deterministic dynamics, we derive the Langevin and Fokker-Planck equations in the energy representation of two normal modes. We find the stationary distribution function in the subcritical and overcritical regimes and calculate the current dependence of the average energy, energy fluctuation and their ratio (quality factor. The noncritical mode shows the Boltzmann statistics with the current-dependent effective temperature in the whole range of the current values. The effective temperature of the other, i.e., soft, mode critically depends on the current in the subcritical region. Distribution function of the soft mode follows the Gaussian law above the generation threshold. In the overcritical regime, the total average energy and the quality factor grow with the current value. This raises the AFM nanooscillators to the promising candidates for active spintronic components.
Neutron Scattering Studies of Antiferromagnetic Correlations in Cuprates
Tranquada, John M.
2005-01-01
Neutron scattering studies have provided important information about the momentum and energy dependence of magnetic excitations in cuprate superconductors. Of particular interest are the recent indications of a universal magnetic excitation spectrum in hole-doped cuprates. That starting point provides motivation for reviewing the antiferromagnetic state of the parent insulators, and the destruction of the ordered state by hole doping. The nature of spin correlations in stripe-ordered phases i...
Antiferromagnetic phase transition and spin correlations in NiO
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Chatterji, Tapan; McIntyre, G.J.; Lindgård, Per-Anker
2009-01-01
We have investigated the antiferromagnetic (AF) phase transition and spin correlations in NiO by high-temperature neutron diffraction below and above TN. We show that AF phase transition is a continuous second-order transition within our experimental resolution. The spin correlations manifested...... by this process. We determined the critical exponents =0.328±0.002 and =0.64±0.03 and the Néel temperature TN=530±1 K. These critical exponents suggest that NiO should be regarded as a 3dXY system...
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Voropajeva, N., E-mail: niina.voropajeva@ut.ee [Institute of Physics, University of Tartu, Riia 142, 51014 Tartu (Estonia); Sherman, A., E-mail: alexei@fi.tartu.ee [Institute of Physics, University of Tartu, Riia 142, 51014 Tartu (Estonia)
2012-09-03
Magnetic excitations and spin correlations near the interface of two spin-1/2 Heisenberg antiferromagnets are considered using the spin-wave approximation. When the interaction between boundary spins differs essentially from exchange constants inside the antiferromagnets, quasi-two-dimensional spin waves appear in the near-boundary region. They eject bulk magnons from this region, thereby dividing the antiferromagnets into areas with different magnetic excitations. The decreased dimensionality of the near-boundary modes leads to amplified nearest-neighbor spin correlations in the interface area. -- Highlights: ► Excitations near the interface of two Heisenberg antiferromagnets are considered. ► Different quasi-two-dimensional spin waves may appear in the interface region. ► The interface modes eject bulk modes from the near-boundary region. ► The interface modes produce amplified spin correlations near the boundary.
Correlations between Kondo clouds in nearly antiferromagnetic Kondo lattices
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kiselev, M.N. E-mail: kiselev@physik.uni-wuerzburg.de; Kikoin, K.A
2004-05-01
We discuss a novel fluctuational mechanism explaining the physics of nearly antiferromagnetic Kondo lattices (KL). The effective action for KL model is expressed in terms of Bose operators responsible for paramagnetic excitations and semi-bosonic fields describing the dynamic Kondo clouds created by conduction electrons around local spin. The gauge invariant resonance valence bond theory of interacting Kondo clouds describes the spin liquid with strong critical fluctuations imitating itinerant fluctuation magnetism of Moriya type.
Noise radar with broadband microwave ring correlator
Susek, Waldemar; Stec, Bronislaw
2011-06-01
A principle of quadrature correlation detection of noise signals using an analog broadband microwave correlator is presented in the paper. Measurement results for the correlation function of noise signals are shown and application of such solution in the noise radar for precise determination of distance changes and velocity of these changes is also presented. Results for short range noise radar operation are presented both for static and moving objects. Experimental results using 2,6 - 3,6 GHz noise like waveform for the signal from a breathing human is presented. Conclusions and future plans for applications of presented detection technique in broadband noise radars bring the paper to an end.
The Berezinskii-Kosterlitz-Thouless transition and correlations in the XY kagome antiferromagnet
Cherepanov, V B; Podivilov, E V
2001-01-01
The problem of the Berezinskii-Kosterlitz-Thouless transition in the highly frustrated XY antiferromagnetic is solved. The transition temperature is found. It is shown that the spin correlation function exponentially decays with distance even in the low-temperature phase, in contrast to the order parameter correlation function, which decays algebraically with distance
Modulated Entanglement Evolution Via Correlated Noises
Corn, Brittany
2009-01-01
We study entanglement dynamics in the presence of correlated environmental noises. Specifically, we investigate the quantum entanglement dynamics of two spins in the presence of correlated classical white noises, deriving Markov master equation and obtaining explicit solutions for several interesting classes of initial states including Bell states and X form density matrices. We show how entanglement can be enhanced or reduced by the correlation between the two participating noises.
Bao, Wei; Broholm, C.; Aeppli, G.; Carter, S. A.; Dai, P.; Rosenbaum, T. F.; Honig, J. M.; Metcalf, P.; Trevino, S. F.
1998-11-01
Magnetic correlations in all four phases of pure and doped vanadium sesquioxide (V2O3) have been examined by magnetic thermal-neutron scattering. Specifically, we have studied the antiferromagnetic and paramagnetic phases of metallic V2-yO3, the antiferromagnetic insulating and paramagnetic metallic phases of stoichiometric V2O3, and the antiferromagnetic and paramagnetic phases of insulating V1.944Cr0.056O3. While the antiferromagnetic insulator can be accounted for by a localized Heisenberg spin model, the long-range order in the antiferromagnetic metal is an incommensurate spin-density wave, resulting from a Fermi surface nesting instability. Spin dynamics in the strongly correlated metal are dominated by spin fluctuations with a ``single lobe'' spectrum in the Stoner electron-hole continuum. Furthermore, our results in metallic V2O3 represent an unprecedentedly complete characterization of the spin fluctuations near a metallic quantum critical point, and provide quantitative support for the self-consistent renormalization theory for itinerant antiferromagnets in the small moment limit. Dynamic magnetic correlations for ħω
Correlation functions of the antiferromagnetic Heisenberg model using a modified Lanczos method
Gagliano, Eduardo R.; Dagotto, Elbio; Moreo, Adriana; Alcaraz, Francisco C.
1986-08-01
Using a modified Lanczos algorithm, we study the correlation functions in the ground state of the one-dimensional antiferromagnetic Heisenberg model. We obtain numerical results for rings up to 24 sites. There are no indications of the anomalous behavior of these correlation functions recently observed in chains with 16 sites. We also present a pedagogical description of the hashing technique which is an efficient algorithm for searching and storage purposes.
Correlated Noise Effects on Gene Expression
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
王先菊; 艾保全; 刘国涛; 刘良钢
2003-01-01
Based on the model describing the regulation of the PRM operator region of λ phage proposed by Hasty et al.[Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. 97(2000)2075], we study the steady-state probability distribution properties of the model in the presence of correlated Gaussian white noise. We find that the degree of correlation of the noises can affect the form of the steady-state probability distribution. When the degree of correlation of the noises increases, the form of the steady-state probability distribution changes from a bimodal into a unimodal structure.The steady-state probability distribution extrema have also been investigated. We find that noise correlation can change the positions of the extreme value of the steady-state probability distribution of the model greatly.
Quantum coherence, correlated noise and Parrondo games
Lee, C F; Rodríguez, F; Quiroga, L; Lee, Chiu Fan; Johnson, Neil F.; Rodriguez, Ferney; Quiroga, Luis
2002-01-01
We discuss the effect of correlated noise on the robustness of quantum coherent phenomena. First we consider a simple, toy model to illustrate the effect of such correlations on the decoherence process. Then we show how decoherence rates can be suppressed using a Parrondo-like effect. Finally, we report the results of many-body calculations in which an experimentally-measurable quantum coherence phenomenon is significantly enhanced by non-Markovian dynamics arising from the noise source.
Effect of noise correlations on randomized benchmarking
Ball, Harrison; Stace, Thomas M.; Flammia, Steven T.; Biercuk, Michael J.
2016-02-01
Among the most popular and well-studied quantum characterization, verification, and validation techniques is randomized benchmarking (RB), an important statistical tool used to characterize the performance of physical logic operations useful in quantum information processing. In this work we provide a detailed mathematical treatment of the effect of temporal noise correlations on the outcomes of RB protocols. We provide a fully analytic framework capturing the accumulation of error in RB expressed in terms of a three-dimensional random walk in "Pauli space." Using this framework we derive the probability density function describing RB outcomes (averaged over noise) for both Markovian and correlated errors, which we show is generally described by a Γ distribution with shape and scale parameters depending on the correlation structure. Long temporal correlations impart large nonvanishing variance and skew in the distribution towards high-fidelity outcomes—consistent with existing experimental data—highlighting potential finite-sampling pitfalls and the divergence of the mean RB outcome from worst-case errors in the presence of noise correlations. We use the filter-transfer function formalism to reveal the underlying reason for these differences in terms of effective coherent averaging of correlated errors in certain random sequences. We conclude by commenting on the impact of these calculations on the utility of single-metric approaches to quantum characterization, verification, and validation.
Filtering with perfectly correlated measurement noise.
Reasenberg, R.
1972-01-01
Examination of (radar) Doppler data which are formed by mi1ing the returning microwave signal with a replica of the transmitted signal, counting the cycles of the beat, and sampling the counter at evenly spaced intervals t sub i. It is shown that the amount of information which can be extracted from a set of data may be larger if the associated noise is perfectly correlated than if it is white, and that the use of the white noise assumption in the filter may result in the loss of some of this information.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
E Ghasemikhah
2012-03-01
Full Text Available This study investigated the electronic properties of antiferromagnetic UBi2 metal by using ab initio calculations based on the density functional theory (DFT, employing the augmented plane waves plus local orbital method. We used the exact exchange for correlated electrons (EECE method to calculate the exchange-correlation energy under a variety of hybrid functionals. Electric field gradients (EFGs at the uranium site in UBi2 compound were calculated and compared with the experiment. The EFGs were predicted experimentally at the U site to be very small in this compound. The EFG calculated by the EECE functional are in agreement with the experiment. The densities of states (DOSs show that 5f U orbital is hybrided with the other orbitals. The plotted Fermi surfaces show that there are two kinds of charges on Fermi surface of this compound.
Robust Filtering: Correlated Noise and Multidimensional Observation
Crisan, Dan; Friz, Peter; Oberhauser, Harald
2012-01-01
In the late seventies, Clark [The design of robust approximations to the stochastic differential equations of nonlinear filtering, Communication systems and random process theory, 1978] pointed out that it would be natural for $\\pi_t$, the solution of the stochastic filtering problem, to depend continuously on the observed data $Y=\\{Y_s,s\\in [0,t]\\}$. Indeed, if the signal and the observation noise are independent one can show that, for any suitably chosen test function $f$, there exists a continuous map $\\theta^f_t$, defined on the space of continuous paths $C([0,t],\\R^d)$ endowed with the uniform convergence topology such that $\\pi_t(f)=\\theta^f_{t}(Y)$, almost surely. As shown by Davis [Pathwise nonlinear filtering, Stochastic systems: the mathematics of filtering and identification and applications, 1981] this type of \\emph{robust} representation is also possible when the signal and the observation noise are correlated, provided the observation process is scalar. For a general correlated noise and multidi...
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
王会立; 陈希信
2004-01-01
The optimum state filter and fixed-interval smoother and the optimum deconvolution algorithm for system with multiplicative noise are derived upon the condition that the dynamic noise correlates itself in one-step and correlates with the measurement noise at the present step as well as one past step, and the multiplicative noise is white and statistically independent of the dynamic noise and the measurement noise. A simulation example demonstrates the effectiveness of the above-mentioned deconvolution algorithm.
Magnetic correlations in the 2D S=5/2 honeycomb antiferromagnet MnPS_{3}
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Rønnow, H.M.; Wildes, A.R.; Bramwell, S.T.
2000-01-01
MnPS3 is a quasi-2D S = 5/2 antiferromagnet on a honeycomb lattice. Using an energy integrating neutron scattering technique, we have measured the structure factor S(k) of the instantaneous magnetic fluctuations. The temperature dependence of the correlation length xi follows the Kosterlitz...
Spin dynamics and magnetic correlation length in two-dimensional quantum heisenberg antiferromagnets
Carretta; Ciabattoni; Cuccoli; Mognaschi; Rigamonti; Tognetti; Verrucchi
2000-01-10
The correlated spin dynamics and temperature dependence of the correlation length xi(T) in two-dimensional quantum (S = 1/2) Heisenberg antiferromagnets (2DQHAF) on a square lattice are discussed in light of experimental results of proton spin lattice relaxation in copper formiate tetradeuterate. In this compound the exchange constant is much smaller than the one in recently studied 2DQHAF, such as La2CuO4 and Sr2CuO2Cl2. Thus the spin dynamics can be probed in detail over a wider temperature range. The NMR relaxation rates turn out to be in excellent agreement with a theoretical mode-coupling calculation. The deduced temperature behavior of xi(T) is in agreement with high-temperature expansions, quantum Monte Carlo simulations, and the pure quantum self-consistent harmonic approximation. Contrary to the predictions of the theories based on the nonlinear sigma model, no evidence of crossover between different quantum regimes is observed.
On the precision of noise correlation interferometry
Weaver, Richard L; Larose, Eric; Campillo, Michel
2011-01-01
Long duration noisy-looking waveforms such as those obtained in randomly multiply scattering and reverberant media are complex; they resist direct interpretation. Nevertheless, such waveforms are sensitive to small changes in the source of the waves or in the medium in which they propagate. Monitoring such waveforms, whether obtained directly or obtained indirectly by noise correlation, is emerging as a technique for detecting changes in media. Interpretation of changes is in principle problematic; it is not always clear whether a change is due to sources or to the medium. Of particular interest is the detection of small changes in propagation speeds. An expression is derived here for the apparent, but illusory, waveform dilation due to a change of source. The expression permits changes in waveforms due to changes in wavespeed to be distinguished with high precision from changes due to other reasons. The theory is successfully compared with analysis of a laboratory ultrasonic data set and a seismic data set f...
Correlated L\\'evy noise in linear dynamical systems
Srokowski, Tomasz
2010-01-01
Linear dynamical systems, driven by a non-white noise which has the Levy distribution, are analysed. Noise is modelled by a specific stochastic process which is defined by the Langevin equation with a linear force and the Levy distributed symmetric white noise. Correlation properties of the process are discussed. The Fokker-Planck equation driven by that noise is solved. Distributions have the Levy shape and their width, for a given time, is smaller than for processes in the white noise limit...
Dugave, Maxime; Kozlowski, Karol K; Suzuki, Junji
2016-01-01
We use the form factors of the quantum transfer matrix in the zero-temperature limit in order to study the two-point ground-state correlation functions of the XXZ chain in the antiferromagnetic massive regime. We obtain novel form factor series representations of the correlation functions which differ from those derived either from the q-vertex-operator approach or from the algebraic Bethe Ansatz approach to the usual transfer matrix. We advocate that our novel representations are numerically more efficient and allow for a straightforward calculation of the large-distance asymptotic behaviour of the two-point functions. Keeping control over the temperature corrections to the two-point functions we see that these are of order $T^\\infty$ in the whole antiferromagnetic massive regime. The isotropic limit of our result yields a novel form factor series representation for the two-point correlation functions of the XXX chain at zero magnetic field.
Horizontal Correlation of Ambient Noise near a Sea Route
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
HE Li; LI Zheng-Lin; ZHANG Ren-He; PENG Zhao-Hui
2008-01-01
Ambient noise data measured in an experiment conducted near the sea route are analysed.It is found that at low frequency,the measured horizontal correlation coeffients at different separations oscillate much larger than that predicted by the classical ambient noise model.The theoretical analyses show that the observed phenomenon is mainly caused by windy noise together with the discrete shipping noise nearby.An ambient noise model is proposed to include the effects caused by both the noise sources and can be used to forecast the ambient noise field neara sea route.
Essler, F H L; Its, A R; Korepin, V E; Essler, Fabian H L; Frahm, Holger; Its, Alexander R; Korepin, Vladimir E
1996-01-01
We consider quantum correlation functions of the antiferromagnetic spin-\\frac{1}{2} Heisenberg XXZ spin chain in a magnetic field. We show that for a magnetic field close to the critical field h_c (for the critical magnetic field the ground state is ferromagnetic) certain correlation functions can be expressed in terms of the solution of the Painlev\\'e V transcendent. This establishes a relation between solutions of Painlev\\'e differential equations and quantum correlation functions in models of {\\sl interacting} fermions. Painlev\\'e transcendents were known to describe correlation functions in models with free fermionic spectra.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Bing Wang; Shaoping Yan
2009-01-01
Considering an optical bistable system with cross-correlated additive white noise and multiplicative colored noise,we study the effects of correlation between the noises on the correlation function C(s)using the unified colored noise approximation and the Stratonovich decoupling ansatz formalism.The effects of the self-correlation time T of the multiplicative colored noise and the correlation intensity A between the two noises are studied with numerical calculation.It is found that C(s)increases with the increase of the self-correlation time r,but decreases with the increase of the correlation intensity A.At large value of T,there is almost no change for C(s)when T changes.
System Driven by Correlated Gaussian Noises Related with Disorder
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
LI Jing-Hui
2007-01-01
A system driven by correlated Gaussian noises related with disorder is investigated. The Fokker-Planck equation (FPE) for the system is derived. Using the FPE derived, some systems driven by correlated Gaussian noises related with disorder can be investigated for Brownian motors, nonequilibrium transition, resonant activation,stochastic resonance, and so on. We only give one example: i.e., using the FPE derived, we study the resonant activation for a single motor protein model with correlated noises related to disorder. Since the correlated noise related to disorder usually exists with the friction, for the temperature, and so on, our results have generic physical meanings for physics, chemistry, biology and other sciences.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Zeng Chun-Hua; Wang Hua; Wang Hui-Tao
2011-01-01
For the activated dynamics of a Brownian particle moving in a confined system with the presence of entropic barriers, this paper investigates a periodic driving and correlations between two noises. Within the two-state approximation, the explicit expressions of the mean first passage time (MFPT) and the spectral power amplification (SPA)are obtained, respectively. Based on the numerical computations, it is found that: (i) The MFPT as a function of the noise intensity exhibits a maximum with the positive correlations between two noises (λ＞0), this maximum for MFPT shows the characteristic of the entropic noise induced stability (ENIS) effect. The intensity λ of correlations between two noises can enhance the ENIS effect, (ii) The SPA as a function of the noise intensity exhibits a double-peak by tuning the noise correlation intensity λ, i.e., the existence of a double-peak behaviour is the identifying characteristic of the double entropic stochastic resonance phenomenon.
Gauyacq, Jean-Pierre; Yaro, Simeón Moisés; Cartoixà, Xavier; Lorente, Nicolás
2013-02-01
The controlled switching between two quasistable Néel states in adsorbed antiferromagnetic Fe chains has recently been achieved by Loth et al. [Science 335, 196 (2012)SCIEAS0036-8075] using tunneling electrons from an STM tip. In order to rationalize their data, we evaluate the rate of tunneling electron-induced switching between the Néel states. Good agreement is found with the experiment, permitting us to identify three switching mechanisms: (i) low STM voltage direct electron-induced transitions, (ii) intermediate STM voltage switching via spin-wave-like excitation, and (iii) high STM voltage transitions mediated by domain-wall formation. Spin correlations in the antiferromagnetic chains are the switching driving force, leading to a marked chain-size dependence.
Fluctuating Potential Barrier System with Correlated Spatial Noises
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
LI Jing-Hui
2004-01-01
In this paper, we study a fluctuating potential barrier system with correlated spatial noises. Study shows that for this system, there is the resonant activation over the fluctuating potential barrier, and that the correlation between the different spatial noises can enhance (or weaken) the resonant activation.
Perception of speech in noise: neural correlates.
Song, Judy H; Skoe, Erika; Banai, Karen; Kraus, Nina
2011-09-01
The presence of irrelevant auditory information (other talkers, environmental noises) presents a major challenge to listening to speech. The fundamental frequency (F(0)) of the target speaker is thought to provide an important cue for the extraction of the speaker's voice from background noise, but little is known about the relationship between speech-in-noise (SIN) perceptual ability and neural encoding of the F(0). Motivated by recent findings that music and language experience enhance brainstem representation of sound, we examined the hypothesis that brainstem encoding of the F(0) is diminished to a greater degree by background noise in people with poorer perceptual abilities in noise. To this end, we measured speech-evoked auditory brainstem responses to /da/ in quiet and two multitalker babble conditions (two-talker and six-talker) in native English-speaking young adults who ranged in their ability to perceive and recall SIN. Listeners who were poorer performers on a standardized SIN measure demonstrated greater susceptibility to the degradative effects of noise on the neural encoding of the F(0). Particularly diminished was their phase-locked activity to the fundamental frequency in the portion of the syllable known to be most vulnerable to perceptual disruption (i.e., the formant transition period). Our findings suggest that the subcortical representation of the F(0) in noise contributes to the perception of speech in noisy conditions.
Xu, Zhijun; Schneeloch, J. A.; Wen, Jinsheng; Božin, E. S.; Granroth, G. E.; Winn, B. L.; Feygenson, M.; Birgeneau, R. J.; Gu, Genda; Zaliznyak, I. A.; Tranquada, J. M.; Xu, Guangyong
2016-03-01
It has recently been demonstrated that dynamical magnetic correlations measured by neutron scattering in iron chalcogenides can be described with models of short-range correlations characterized by particular choices of four-spin plaquettes, where the appropriate choice changes as the parent material is doped towards superconductivity. Here we apply such models to describe measured maps of magnetic scattering as a function of two-dimensional wave vectors obtained for optimally superconducting crystals of FeTe1 -xSex . We show that the characteristic antiferromagnetic wave vector evolves from that of the bicollinear structure found in underdoped chalcogenides (at high temperature) to that associated with the stripe structure of antiferromagnetic iron arsenides (at low temperature); these can both be described with the same local plaquette, but with different interplaquette correlations. While the magnitude of the low-energy magnetic spectral weight is substantial at all temperatures, it actually weakens somewhat at low temperature, where the charge carriers become more itinerant. The observed change in spin correlations is correlated with the dramatic drop in the electronic scattering rate and the growth of the bulk nematic response upon cooling. Finally, we also present powder neutron diffraction results for lattice parameters in FeTe1 -xSex indicating that the tetrahedral bond angle tends to increase towards the ideal value upon cooling, in agreement with the increased screening of the crystal field by more itinerant electrons and the correspondingly smaller splitting of the Fe 3 d orbitals.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
ZHU Ping; CHEN Shi-Bo; MEI Dong-Cheng
2006-01-01
We investigate the intensity correlation function C(s) and its associated relaxation time Tc for a saturation model of single-mode laser with correlated noises.The expressions of C(s) and Tc are derived by means of the projection operator method,and effects of correlations between an additive noise and a multiplicative noise are discussed by numerical calculation.Based on the calculated results,it is found that the correlation strength λ between the additive noise and the multiplicative noise can enhance the fluctuation decay of the laser intensity.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Hua-Ming Qian
2014-01-01
Full Text Available A robust filtering problem is formulated and investigated for a class of nonlinear systems with correlated noises, packet losses, and multiplicative noises. The packet losses are assumed to be independent Bernoulli random variables. The multiplicative noises are described as random variables with bounded variance. Different from the traditional robust filter based on the assumption that the process noises are uncorrelated with the measurement noises, the objective of the addressed robust filtering problem is to design a recursive filter such that, for packet losses and multiplicative noises, the state prediction and filtering covariance matrices have the optimized upper bounds in the case that there are correlated process and measurement noises. Two examples are used to illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed filter.
Extracting Coherent Information from Noise Based Correlation Processing
2015-09-30
LONG-TERM GOALS The goal of this research is to establish methodologies to utilize ambient noise in the ocean and to determine what scenarios...None PUBLICATIONS [1] “ Monitoring deep-ocean temperatures using acoustic ambinet noise,”K. W. Woolfe, S. Lani, K.G. Sabra, W. A. Kuperman...Geophys. Res. Lett., 42,2878–2884, doi:10.1002/2015GL063438 (2015). [2] “Optimized extraction of coherent arrivals from ambient noise correlations in
Compressed Sensing with Linear Correlation Between Signal and Measurement Noise
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Arildsen, Thomas; Larsen, Torben
2014-01-01
Existing convex relaxation-based approaches to reconstruction in compressed sensing assume that noise in the measurements is independent of the signal of interest. We consider the case of noise being linearly correlated with the signal and introduce a simple technique for improving compressed...... sensing reconstruction from such measurements. The technique is based on a linear model of the correlation of additive noise with the signal. The modification of the reconstruction algorithm based on this model is very simple and has negligible additional computational cost compared to standard......-rate quantization of compressed measurements, which is known to introduce correlated noise, and improvements in reconstruction error compared to ordinary Basis Pursuit De-Noising of up to approximately 7 dB are observed for 1 bit/sample quantization. Furthermore, the proposed method is compared to Binary Iterative...
Numerical simulation of generalized Langevin equation with arbitrary correlated noise.
Lü, Kun; Bao, Jing-Dong
2005-12-01
A generalized Langevin equation with arbitrary correlated noise and associated frequency-dependent friction is simulated, which can lead to anomalous diffusion. The algorithm is realized by using the Fourier transform technique to generate noise and the stochastic Runge-Kutta method to solve the whole equation. Application to an acoustic phonon model, initial preparation-dependent ballistic diffusion, is shown.
Dugave, Maxime; Göhmann, Frank; Kozlowski, Karol K.; Suzuki, Junji
2016-09-01
We use the form factors of the quantum transfer matrix in the zero-temperature limit in order to study the two-point ground-state correlation functions of the XXZ chain in the antiferromagnetic massive regime. We obtain novel form factor series representations of the correlation functions which differ from those derived either from the q-vertex-operator approach or from the algebraic Bethe Ansatz approach to the usual transfer matrix. We advocate that our novel representations are numerically more efficient and allow for a straightforward calculation of the large-distance asymptotic behaviour of the two-point functions. Keeping control over the temperature corrections to the two-point functions we see that these are of order {T}∞ in the whole antiferromagnetic massive regime. The isotropic limit of our result yields a novel form factor series representation for the two-point correlation functions of the XXX chain at zero magnetic field. Dedicated to the memory of Petr Petrovich Kulish.
Antiferromagnetic spintronics.
Jungwirth, T; Marti, X; Wadley, P; Wunderlich, J
2016-03-01
Antiferromagnetic materials are internally magnetic, but the direction of their ordered microscopic moments alternates between individual atomic sites. The resulting zero net magnetic moment makes magnetism in antiferromagnets externally invisible. This implies that information stored in antiferromagnetic moments would be invisible to common magnetic probes, insensitive to disturbing magnetic fields, and the antiferromagnetic element would not magnetically affect its neighbours, regardless of how densely the elements are arranged in the device. The intrinsic high frequencies of antiferromagnetic dynamics represent another property that makes antiferromagnets distinct from ferromagnets. Among the outstanding questions is how to manipulate and detect the magnetic state of an antiferromagnet efficiently. In this Review we focus on recent works that have addressed this question. The field of antiferromagnetic spintronics can also be viewed from the general perspectives of spin transport, magnetic textures and dynamics, and materials research. We briefly mention this broader context, together with an outlook of future research and applications of antiferromagnetic spintronics.
Quantum noise frequency correlations of multiply scattered light
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Lodahl, Peter
2006-01-01
Frequency correlations in multiply scattered light that are present in quantum fluctuations are investigated. The speckle correlations for quantum and classical noise are compared and are found to depend markedly differently on optical frequency, which was confirmed in a recent experiment....... Furthermore, novel mesoscopic correlations are predicted that depend on the photon statistics of the incoming light....
Calibration of Correlation Radiometers Using Pseudo-Random Noise Signals
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Sebastián Pantoja
2009-08-01
Full Text Available The calibration of correlation radiometers, and particularly aperture synthesis interferometric radiometers, is a critical issue to ensure their performance. Current calibration techniques are based on the measurement of the cross-correlation of receivers’ outputs when injecting noise from a common noise source requiring a very stable distribution network. For large interferometric radiometers this centralized noise injection approach is very complex from the point of view of mass, volume and phase/amplitude equalization. Distributed noise injection techniques have been proposed as a feasible alternative, but are unable to correct for the so-called “baseline errors” associated with the particular pair of receivers forming the baseline. In this work it is proposed the use of centralized Pseudo-Random Noise (PRN signals to calibrate correlation radiometers. PRNs are sequences of symbols with a long repetition period that have a flat spectrum over a bandwidth which is determined by the symbol rate. Since their spectrum resembles that of thermal noise, they can be used to calibrate correlation radiometers. At the same time, since these sequences are deterministic, new calibration schemes can be envisaged, such as the correlation of each receiver’s output with a baseband local replica of the PRN sequence, as well as new distribution schemes of calibration signals. This work analyzes the general requirements and performance of using PRN sequences for the calibration of microwave correlation radiometers, and particularizes the study to a potential implementation in a large aperture synthesis radiometer using an optical distribution network.
Noise reduction algorithm for glueball correlators
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Majumdar, Pushan, E-mail: tppm@iacs.res.in [Department of Theoretical Physics, Indian Association for the Cultivation of Science, Kolkata (India); Mathur, Nilmani, E-mail: nilmani@theory.tifr.res.in [Department of Theoretical Physics, Tata Institute of Fundamental Research, Mumbai (India); Mondal, Sourav, E-mail: tpsm5@iacs.res.in [Department of Theoretical Physics, Indian Association for the Cultivation of Science, Kolkata (India)
2014-09-07
We present an error reduction method for obtaining glueball correlators from Monte Carlo simulations of SU(3) lattice gauge theory. We explore the scalar and tensor channels at three different lattice spacings. Using this method we can follow glueball correlators to temporal separations even up to 1 fermi. We estimate the improvement over the naive method and compare our results with existing computations.
Influence of Noise on Time Evolution of Intensity Correlation Function
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
无
2005-01-01
Using the linear approximation method, we have studied how the correlation function C(t) of the laser intensity changes with time in the loss-noise model of the single-mode laser driven by the colored pump noise with signal modulation and the quantum noise with cross-correlation between the real and imaginary parts. We have found that when the pump noise self-correlation time τ changes, (I) in the case ofτ 1, the curve only exhibits periodically surging with descending envelope. When τ < 1 and τ does not change, with the increase of the pump noise intensity P, the curve experiences a repeated changing process, that is, from the monotonous descending to the appearance of a maximum, then to monotonous rise, and finally to the appearance of a maximum again. With the increase of the quantum noise intensity Q, the curve experiences a changing process from the monotonous rise to the appearance of a maximum, and finally to the monotonous descending. The increase of the quantum noise with cross-correlation between the real and imaginary parts will lead to the fall of the whole curve, but not affect the form of the time evolution of C(t).
Statistical fluctuations in a saturation laser model with correlated noises
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Chen Shi-Bo; Mei Dong-Cheng
2006-01-01
We study the effects of correlations between quantum and pump noises on fluctuations of the laser intensity in a saturation laser model. An approximative Fokker-Planck equation and analytic expressions of the steady-state probability distribution function (SPD) of the laser system are derived. Based on the SPD, the normalized mean, the normalized variance, and the normalized skewness of the steady-state laser intensity are calculated numerically. The results indicate that (i) the correlation strength λ of correlated noises always enhances the fluctuation of laser intensity;(ii) the correlation time τ of correlated noises strengthens the fluctuation of laser intensity for the below-threshold case but τ weakens it for the above-threshold case.
Correlated noise in the COBE DMR sky maps
Lineweaver, C. H.; Smoot, G. F.; Bennett, C. L.; Wright, E. L.; Tenorio, L.; Kogut, A.; Keegstra, P. B.; Hinshaw, G.; Banday, A. J.
1994-01-01
The Cosmic Background Explorer Satellite Differential Radiometer (COBE DMR) sky maps contain low-level correlated noise. We obtain estimates of the amplitude and pattern of the correlated noise from three techniques: angular averages of the covariance matrix, Monte Carlo simulations of two-point correlation functions and direct analysis of the DMR maps. The results from the three methods are mutually consistent. The noise covariance matrix of a DMR sky maps is diagonal to an accuracy of better than 1%. For a given sky pixel, the dominant noise covariance occure with the ring of pixels at an angular separation of 60 deg due to the 60 deg separation of the DMR horns. The mean covariance at 60 deg is 0.45%((sup +0.18)(sub -0.14)) of the mean variance. Additionally, the variance in a given pixel is 0.7% greater than would be expected from a single beam experiment with the same noise properties. Autocorrelation functions suffer from a approximately 1.5 sigma positive bias at 60 deg while cross-correlations have no bias. Published COBE DMR results are not significantly affected by correlated noise.
Noise reduction algorithm for glueball correlators
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Pushan Majumdar
2014-09-01
Full Text Available We present an error reduction method for obtaining glueball correlators from Monte Carlo simulations of SU(3 lattice gauge theory. We explore the scalar and tensor channels at three different lattice spacings. Using this method we can follow glueball correlators to temporal separations even up to 1 fermi. We estimate the improvement over the naive method and compare our results with existing computations.
Ambient noise correlation on the Amery Ice Shelf, East Antarctica
Zhan, Zhongwen; Tsai, Victor C.; Jackson, Jennifer M.; Helmberger, Don
2014-03-01
The structure of ice shelves is important for modelling the dynamics of ice flux from the continents to the oceans. While other, more traditional techniques provide many constraints, passive imaging with seismic noise is a complementary tool for studying and monitoring ice shelves. As a proof of concept, here we study noise cross-correlations and autocorrelations on the Amery Ice Shelf, East Antarctica. We find that the noise field on the ice shelf is dominated by energy trapped in a low-velocity waveguide caused by the water layer below the ice. Within this interpretation, we explain spectral ratios of the noise cross-correlations as P-wave resonances in the water layer, and obtain an independent estimate of the water-column thickness, consistent with other measurements. For stations with noise dominated by elastic waves, noise autocorrelations also provide similar results. High-frequency noise correlations also require a 50-m firn layer near the surface with P-wave velocity as low as 1 km s-1. Our study may also provide insight for future planetary missions that involve seismic exploration of icy satellites such as Titan and Europa.
Signal/noise enhancement strategies for stochastically estimated correlation functions
Detmold, William
2014-01-01
We develop strategies for enhancing the signal/noise ratio for stochastically sampled correlation functions. The techniques are general and offer a wide range of applicability. We demonstrate the potential of the approach with a generic two-state system, and then explore the practical applicability of the method for single hadron correlators in lattice QCD.
Core Noise Diagnostics of Turbofan Engine Noise Using Correlation and Coherence Functions
Miles, Jeffrey H.
2009-01-01
Cross-correlation and coherence functions are used to look for periodic acoustic components in turbofan engine combustor time histories, to investigate direct and indirect combustion noise source separation based on signal propagation time delays, and to provide information on combustor acoustics. Using the cross-correlation function, time delays were identified in all cases, clearly indicating the combustor is the source of the noise. In addition, unfiltered and low-pass filtered at 400 Hz signals had a cross-correlation time delay near 90 ms, while the low-pass filtered at less than 400 Hz signals had a cross-correlation time delay longer than 90 ms. Low-pass filtering at frequencies less than 400 Hz partially removes the direct combustion noise signals. The remainder includes the indirect combustion noise signal, which travels more slowly because of the dependence on the entropy convection velocity in the combustor. Source separation of direct and indirect combustion noise is demonstrated by proper use of low-pass filters with the cross-correlation function for a range of operating conditions. The results may lead to a better idea about the acoustics in the combustor and may help develop and validate improved reduced-order physics-based methods for predicting direct and indirect combustion noise.
On Correlated-noise Analyses Applied To Exoplanet Light Curves
Cubillos, Patricio; Loredo, Thomas J; Lust, Nate B; Blecic, Jasmina; Stemm, Madison
2016-01-01
Time-correlated noise is a significant source of uncertainty when modeling exoplanet light-curve data. A correct assessment of correlated noise is fundamental to determine the true statistical significance of our findings. Here we review three of the most widely used correlated-noise estimators in the exoplanet field, the time-averaging, residual-permutation, and wavelet-likelihood methods. We argue that the residual-permutation method is unsound in estimating the uncertainty of parameter estimates. We thus recommend to refrain from this method altogether. We characterize the behavior of the time averaging's rms-vs.-bin-size curves at bin sizes similar to the total observation duration, which may lead to underestimated uncertainties. For the wavelet-likelihood method, we note errors in the published equations and provide a list of corrections. We further assess the performance of these techniques by injecting and retrieving eclipse signals into synthetic and real Spitzer light curves, analyzing the results in...
Noise in laser speckle correlation and imaging techniques
Skipetrov, Sergey E; Cerbino, Roberto; Zakharov, Pavel; Weber, Bruno; Scheffold, Frank
2010-01-01
We study the noise of the intensity variance and of the intensity correlation and structure functions measured in light scattering from a random medium in the case when these quantities are obtained by averaging over a finite number N of pixels of a digital camera. We show that the noise scales as 1/N in all cases and that it is sensitive to correlations of signals corresponding to adjacent pixels as well as to the effective time averaging (due to the finite sampling time) and spatial averaging (due to the finite pixel size). Our results provide a guide to estimation of noise level in such applications as the multi-speckle dynamic light scattering, time-resolved correlation spectroscopy, speckle visibility spectroscopy, laser speckle imaging etc.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ando, Yoichi; Lavrov, A. N.; Komiya, Seiki; Segawa, Kouji; Sun, X. F.
2001-07-02
The emergence and the evolution of the metallic charge transport in the La{sub 2{minus}x}Sr {sub x}CuO{sub 4} system from lightly to optimally doped samples (x=0.01{endash}0.17 ) are studied. We demonstrate that in high-quality single crystals the in-plane resistivity shows a metallic behavior for all values of x at moderate temperatures and that the hole mobility at 300K changes only by a factor of 3 from x=0.01 to 0.17, where its x dependence is found to be intriguingly similar to that of the inverse antiferromagnetic correlation length. We discuss an incoherent-metal picture and a charged-stripe scenario as candidates to account for these peculiar features.
Magnetic noise measurements using cross-correlated Hall sensor arrays
Jung, G.; Ocio, M.; Paltiel, Y.; Shtrikman, H.; Zeldov, E.
2001-01-01
An experimental technique for measuring magnetic fluctuations by means of a double-layer Hall sensor array is described. The technique relies on cross-correlating Hall signals from two independent sensors positioned one above the other in two separate two-dimensional-electron-gas layers of a GaAs/AlGaAs heterostructure. The effectiveness of the technique is demonstrated by a reduction of the magnitude of the background noise floor of the correlated sensors with respect to the noise level of the best single sensor.
Chen, Ying-Nien; Gung, Yuancheng; Chiao, Ling-Yun; Rhie, Junkee
2017-01-01
SUMMARYWe present a quantitative procedure to evaluate the intrinsic noise level (INL) of the noise cross-correlation function (NCF). The method is applied to realistic NCFs derived from the continuous data recorded by the seismic arrays in Taiwan and Korea. The obtained temporal evolution of NCF noise level follows fairly the prediction of the theoretical formulation, confirming the feasibility of the method. We then apply the obtained INL to the assessment of data quality and the source characteristics of ambient noise. We show that the INL-based signal-to-noise ratio provides an exact measure for the true noise level within the NCF and better resolving power for the NCF quality, and such measurement can be implemented to any time windows of the NCFs to evaluate the quality of overtones or coda waves. Moreover, since NCF amplitudes are influenced by both the population and excitation strengths of noises, while INL is primarily sensitive to the overall source population, with information from both measurements, we may better constrain the source characteristics of seismic ambient noises.
Jet engine noise and infrared plume correlation field campaign
Cunio, Phillip M.; Weber, Reed A.; Knobel, Kimberly R.; Smith, Christine; Draudt, Andy
2015-09-01
Jet engine noise can be a health hazard and environmental pollutant, particularly affecting personnel working in close proximity to jet engines, such as airline mechanics. Mitigating noise could reduce the potential for hearing loss in runway workers; however, there exists a very complex relationship between jet engine design parameters, operating conditions, and resultant noise power levels, and understanding and characterizing this relationship is a key step in mitigating jet engine noise effects. We demonstrate initial results highlighting the utility of high-speed imaging (hypertemporal imaging) in correlating the infrared signatures of jet engines with acoustic noise. This paper builds on prior theoretical analysis of jet engine infrared signatures and their potential relationships to jet engine acoustic emissions. This previous work identified the region of the jet plume most likely to emit both in infrared and in acoustic domains, and it prompted the investigation of wave packets as a physical construct tying together acoustic and infrared energy emissions. As a means of verifying these assertions, a field campaign to collect relevant data was proposed, and data collection was carried out with a bank of infrared instruments imaging a T700 turboshaft engine undergoing routine operational testing. The detection of hypertemporal signatures in association with acoustic signatures of jet engines enables the use of a new domain in characterizing jet engine noise. This may in turn enable new methods of predicting or mitigating jet engine noise, which could lead to socioeconomic benefits for airlines and other operators of large numbers of jet engines.
Cross-correlations of ambient noise recorded by accelerometers.
Rábade García, S. E.; Ramirez-Guzman, L.
2014-12-01
We investigate the ambient noise cross-correlations obtained by using properly corrected accelerometric recordings, and determine velocity structure in central Mexico based on a dispersion analysis. The data used comprise ten months of continuous recordings - from April 2013 to January 2014 - of ambient seismic noise at stations operated by the National Seismological Service of Mexico and the Engineering Strong Ground Motion Network of the National Autonomous University of Mexico (UNAM). The vertical component of ambient noise was base-line corrected, filtered, and properly integrated before extracting Green's functions (GF), which were compared successfully against GF obtained using recordings from broadband velocity sensors. In order to obtain dispersion curves, we estimated group and phase velocities applying the FTAN analysis technique and obtained s-wave velocity profiles at selected regions. We conclude and highlight that the use of widely deployed accelerographs to conduct regional studies using ambient noise tomography is feasible
Direct measurement of antiferromagnetic domain fluctuations.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Shpyrko, O. G.; Isaacs, E. D.; Logan, J. M.; Feng, Y.; Aeppli, G.; Jaramillo, R.; Kim, H. C.; Rosenbaum, T. F.; Zschack, P.; Sprung, M.; Narayanan, S.; Sandy, A.; Univ. of Chicago; Univ. College London
2007-05-03
Measurements of magnetic noise emanating from ferromagnets owing to domain motion were first carried out nearly 100 years ago1, and have underpinned much science and technology2, 3. Antiferromagnets, which carry no net external magnetic dipole moment, yet have a periodic arrangement of the electron spins extending over macroscopic distances, should also display magnetic noise. However, this must be sampled at spatial wavelengths of the order of several interatomic spacings, rather than the macroscopic scales characteristic of ferromagnets. Here we present a direct measurement of the fluctuations in the nanometer-scale superstructure of spin- and charge-density waves associated with antiferromagnetism in elemental chromium. The technique used is X-ray photon correlation spectroscopy, where coherent X-ray diffraction produces a speckle pattern that serves as a 'fingerprint' of a particular magnetic domain configuration. The temporal evolution of the patterns corresponds to domain walls advancing and retreating over micrometer distances. This work demonstrates a useful measurement tool for antiferromagnetic domain wall engineering, but also reveals a fundamental finding about spin dynamics in the simplest antiferromagnet: although the domain wall motion is thermally activated at temperatures above 100 K, it is not so at lower temperatures, and indeed has a rate that saturates at a finite value--consistent with quantum fluctuations--on cooling below 40 K.
A velocity parameter for the correlation of axial fan noise
Wright, T.
1982-08-01
An aerodynamic parameter that relates subsonic axial fan noise to the fundamental flow behavior in the blade row of a fan is proposed. The parameter is the peak or maximum blade surface velocity in the rotating reference frame and includes, either explicitly or implicitly, the influence of tip speed, volume flow rate, pressure rise, shaft horsepower and efficiency. Correlation of the noise associated with a very broad range of axial fans yields good agreement and collapse of data when compared to currently used correlation methods. Use of this parameter, rather than those based on overall performance, allows trade-off studies to be made within a given performance requirement so that a minimum noise configuration may be designed or selected.
Power Mapping and Noise Reduction for Financial Correlations
Andersson, P.-J.; Oeberg, A.; Guhr, T.
2005-09-01
The spectral properties of financial correlation matrices can show features known from completely random matrices. A major reason is noise originating from the finite lengths of the financial time series used to compute the correlation matrix elements. In recent years, various methods have been proposed to reduce this noise, i.e. to clean the correlation matrices. This is of direct practical relevance for risk management in portfolio optimization. In this contribution, we discuss in detail the power mapping, a new shrinkage method. We show that the relevant parameter is, to a certain extent, self-determined. Due to the ``chirality'' and the normalization of the correlation matrix, the optimal shrinkage parameter is fixed. We apply the power mapping and the well-known filtering method to market data and compare them by optimizing stock portfolios. We address the rôle of constraints by excluding short selling in the optimization.
Callegaro, Luca; Ortolano, Massimo
2009-01-01
Johnson noise thermometers (JNT) measure the equilibrium electrical noise, proportional to thermodynamic temperature, of a sensing resistor. In the correlation method, the same resistor is connected to two amplifiers and a correlation of their outputs is performed, in order to reject amplifiers' noise. Such rejection is not perfect: the residual correlation gives a systematic error in the JNT reading. In order to put an upper limit, or to achieve a correction, for such error, a careful electrical modelling of the amplifiers and connections must be performed. Standard numerical simulation tools are inadequate for such modelling. In literature, evaluations have been performed by the painstaking solving of analytical modelling. We propose an evaluation procedure for the JNT error due to residual correlations which blends analytical and numerical approaches, with the benefits of both: a rigorous and accurate circuit noise modelling, and a fast and flexible evaluation with an user-friendly commercial tool. The met...
Correlated noise and prior models in electromagnetic flow tomography
Lehtikangas, Ossi; Vauhkonen, Marko
2017-04-01
Electromagnetic flow meters are a gold standard in measuring the mean flow velocity of conductive liquids and slurries in process industry. A drawback of this approach is that the velocity field cannot be determined. Information about velocity fields is important for characterizing multiphase flows in the process industry. Recently, electromagnetic flow tomography (EMFT) has been proposed for measuring velocity fields using several coils and a set of electrodes attached to the inner surface of the pipe. The velocity field reconstruction method utilizes a finite element based computational forward model and a Bayesian framework for inverse problem. In the approach, a priori probability and noise models are written describing the flow and measurement error characteristics, respectively. In this work, the effect of additive, possibly correlated, measurement noise and different prior models on the velocity field reconstructions in EMFT are tested using numerical simulations. The results show that the velocity field reconstruction method produces feasible estimates even with relatively high level of correlated measurement noise if the covariance structure of the noise is taken into account. In practice, the noise covariance can be estimated from measurements using sample based methods. Moreover, it is shown that a smoothness prior using a squared exponential covariance function is in general a good choice for the prior model and more advanced prior models for specific flow types such as stratified or turbulent flows can be used.
Tsui, Po-Hsiang; Yeh, Chih-Kuang; Huang, Chih-Chung
2012-05-01
Ultrasonic Nakagami images can complement conventional B-mode images for scatterer characterization. White noise in anechoic areas leads to artifacts that affect the Nakagami image to characterize tissues. Artifact removal requires rejection of the white noise without deforming the backscattered waveform. This study proposes a noise-assisted correlation algorithm (NCA) and carries out simulations, phantom experiments, and clinical measurements to validate its feasibility and practicality. The simulation results show that the NCA can reject white noise in an anechoic area without any deformation of the backscattered waveforms. The results obtained from phantoms and tissues further demonstrate that the proposed NCA can suppress a Nakagami image artifact without changing the texture of the Nakagami image of the scattering background. The NCA is an essential algorithm to construct artifact-free Nakagami image for correctly reflecting scatterer properties of biological tissues.
Effect of noise correlations on information transmission in sensory receptors
Nguyen, Hoai; Neiman, Alexander
2012-02-01
Peripheral receptors in many sensory systems are organized in a limited scale feed-forward networks passing information thru a series of network layers, then ultimately to the CNS. Often peripheral receptors are characterized by spontaneous noisy oscillatory activity which may introduce temporal and spatial correlations in neuronal spike trains. Examples include spontaneous stochastic oscillations in hair cells and primary sensory afferents in auditory, vestibular and electro sensory receptors. We study the influence of this correlated noise on spontaneous activity and information transmission in a model of limited-scale networks of electroreceptors. In this model a few (2 - 5) sensory neurons innervate several (10 - 30) clusters of epithelial receptor cells producing stochastic oscillations. We show how noise correlations are transferred by small networks of sensory neurons and how these correlations affect information transmission. While coherent epithelial oscillations may enhance information transmission for a single sensory neuron, the presence of spatially correlated noise introduces redundancy reducing stimulus coding efficiency and information rate on the network level.
State dependence of noise correlations in macaque primary visual cortex.
Ecker, Alexander S; Berens, Philipp; Cotton, R James; Subramaniyan, Manivannan; Denfield, George H; Cadwell, Cathryn R; Smirnakis, Stelios M; Bethge, Matthias; Tolias, Andreas S
2014-04-02
Shared, trial-to-trial variability in neuronal populations has a strong impact on the accuracy of information processing in the brain. Estimates of the level of such noise correlations are diverse, ranging from 0.01 to 0.4, with little consensus on which factors account for these differences. Here we addressed one important factor that varied across studies, asking how anesthesia affects the population activity structure in macaque primary visual cortex. We found that under opioid anesthesia, activity was dominated by strong coordinated fluctuations on a timescale of 1-2 Hz, which were mostly absent in awake, fixating monkeys. Accounting for these global fluctuations markedly reduced correlations under anesthesia, matching those observed during wakefulness and reconciling earlier studies conducted under anesthesia and in awake animals. Our results show that internal signals, such as brain state transitions under anesthesia, can induce noise correlations but can also be estimated and accounted for based on neuronal population activity.
On Correlated-noise Analyses Applied to Exoplanet Light Curves
Cubillos, Patricio; Harrington, Joseph; Loredo, Thomas J.; Lust, Nate B.; Blecic, Jasmina; Stemm, Madison
2017-01-01
Time-correlated noise is a significant source of uncertainty when modeling exoplanet light-curve data. A correct assessment of correlated noise is fundamental to determine the true statistical significance of our findings. Here, we review three of the most widely used correlated-noise estimators in the exoplanet field, the time-averaging, residual-permutation, and wavelet-likelihood methods. We argue that the residual-permutation method is unsound in estimating the uncertainty of parameter estimates. We thus recommend to refrain from this method altogether. We characterize the behavior of the time averaging’s rms-versus-bin-size curves at bin sizes similar to the total observation duration, which may lead to underestimated uncertainties. For the wavelet-likelihood method, we note errors in the published equations and provide a list of corrections. We further assess the performance of these techniques by injecting and retrieving eclipse signals into synthetic and real Spitzer light curves, analyzing the results in terms of the relative-accuracy and coverage-fraction statistics. Both the time-averaging and wavelet-likelihood methods significantly improve the estimate of the eclipse depth over a white-noise analysis (a Markov-chain Monte Carlo exploration assuming uncorrelated noise). However, the corrections are not perfect when retrieving the eclipse depth from Spitzer data sets, these methods covered the true (injected) depth within the 68% credible region in only ∼45%–65% of the trials. Lastly, we present our open-source model-fitting tool, Multi-Core Markov-Chain Monte Carlo (MC3). This package uses Bayesian statistics to estimate the best-fitting values and the credible regions for the parameters for a (user-provided) model. MC3 is a Python/C code, available at https://github.com/pcubillos/MCcubed.
The influence of noise sources on cross-correlation amplitudes
Hanasoge, Shravan M
2012-01-01
We use analytical examples and asymptotic forms to examine the mathematical structure and physical meaning of the seismic cross correlation measurement. We show that in general, cross correlations are not Green's functions of medium, and may be very different depending on the source distribution. The modeling of noise sources using spatial distributions as opposed to discrete collections of sources is emphasized. When stations are illuminated by spatially complex source distributions, cross correlations show arrivals at a variety of time lags, from zero to the maximum surface-wave arrival time. Here, we demonstrate the possibility of inverting for the source distribution using the energy of the full cross-correlation waveform. The interplay between the source distribution and wave attenuation in determining the functional dependence of cross correlation energies on station-pair distance is quantified. Without question, energies contain information about wave attenuation. However, the accurate interpretation o...
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Bing Wang; Xiuqing Wu
2008-01-01
@@ Considering a single-mode laser system with cross-correlated additive colored noise and multiplicative colored noise, we study the effects of correlation among noises on the normalized intensity correlation function C(s).C(s) is derived by means of the projection operator method.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
HANLi-Bo; CAOLi; WUDa-Jin; WANGJun
2004-01-01
By using the linear approximation method, the intensity correlation function and the intensity correlation time are calculated in a gain-noise model of a single-mode laser driven by colored cross-correlated pump noise and quantum noise, each of which is colored. We detect that, when the cross-correlation between both noises is negative, the behavior of the intensity correlation function C(t) versus time t, in addition to decreasing monotonously, also exhibits several other cases, such as one maximum, one minimum, and two extrema (one maximum and one minimum), i.e., some parameters of the noises can greatly change the dependence of the intensity correlation function upon time. Moreover, we find that there is a minimum Tmin in the curve of the intensity correlation time versus the pump noise intensity, and the depth and position of Train strongly depend on the quantum noise self-correlation time T2 and cross-correlation time T3.
The impact of correlated noise on galaxy shape estimation for weak lensing
Gurvich, Alex
2015-01-01
The robust estimation of the tiny distortions (shears) of galaxy shapes caused by weak gravitational lensing in the presence of much larger shape distortions due to the point-spread function (PSF) has been widely investigated. One major problem is that most galaxy shape measurement methods are subject to bias due to pixel noise in the images ("noise bias"). Noise bias is usually characterized using uncorrelated noise fields; however, real images typically have low-level noise correlations due to galaxies below the detection threshold, and some types of image processing can induce further noise correlations. We investigate the effective detection significance and its impact on noise bias in the presence of correlated noise for one method of galaxy shape estimation. For a fixed noise variance, the biases in galaxy shape estimates can differ substantially for uncorrelated versus correlated noise. However, use of an estimate of detection significance that accounts for the noise correlations can almost entirely re...
Antiferromagnetic correlations in icosahedral R-Mg-Zn quasicrystals (R rare earth)
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Charrier, B.; Schmitt, D. [Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (CNRS), 38 - Grenoble (France); Ouladdiaf, B. [Institut Max von Laue - Paul Langevin (ILL), 38 - Grenoble (France)
1997-04-01
Powder neutron-diffraction experiments performed on R-Mg-Zn quasicrystals have shown for the first time the existence of magnetic ordering of the rare earth in these systems at low temperature (T{sub c} {<=} 6.5 K depending on the rare earth). Both narrow and broad magnetic diffraction peaks have been observed showing the presence of two different scales of magnetic correlations. (author). 3 refs.
Antiferromagnetic spin ordering and interlayer magnetic correlations in MnTe/CdTe superlattices
Giebultowicz, T. M.; Faschinger, W.; Nunez, V.; Klosowski, P.; Bauer, G.; Sitter, H.; Furdyna, J. K.
1994-04-01
Results of neutron scattering studies on MnTe/CdTe superlattices with ultrathin non-magnetic CdTe "barriers" are presented and compared with data from earlier studies on MnSe/ZnSe, MnTe/ZnTe, and MnSe/ZnTe multilayers with thick non-magnetic spacers. The experiments revealed two qualitatively new effects—namely, (i) the existence of pronounced interlayer magnetic correlations in the case of the CdTe thickness corresponding to two single monolayers and (ii) the coexistence of two magnetic phases that never occurred simultaneously in the previously studied systems.
Ion channel noise can explain firing correlation in auditory nerves.
Moezzi, Bahar; Iannella, Nicolangelo; McDonnell, Mark D
2016-10-01
Neural spike trains are commonly characterized as a Poisson point process. However, the Poisson assumption is a poor model for spiking in auditory nerve fibres because it is known that interspike intervals display positive correlation over long time scales and negative correlation over shorter time scales. We have therefore developed a biophysical model based on the well-known Meddis model of the peripheral auditory system, to produce simulated auditory nerve fibre spiking statistics that more closely match the firing correlations observed in empirical data. We achieve this by introducing biophysically realistic ion channel noise to an inner hair cell membrane potential model that includes fractal fast potassium channels and deterministic slow potassium channels. We succeed in producing simulated spike train statistics that match empirically observed firing correlations. Our model thus replicates macro-scale stochastic spiking statistics in the auditory nerve fibres due to modeling stochasticity at the micro-scale of potassium channels.
Spin-noise correlations and spin-noise exchange driven by low-field spin-exchange collisions
Dellis, A. T.; Loulakis, M.; Kominis, I. K.
2014-09-01
The physics of spin-exchange collisions have fueled several discoveries in fundamental physics and numerous applications in medical imaging and nuclear magnetic resonance. We report on the experimental observation and theoretical justification of spin-noise exchange, the transfer of spin noise from one atomic species to another. The signature of spin-noise exchange is an increase of the total spin-noise power at low magnetic fields, on the order of 1 mG, where the two-species spin-noise resonances overlap. The underlying physical mechanism is the two-species spin-noise correlation induced by spin-exchange collisions.
Laser-noise-induced correlations and anti-correlations in Electromagnetically Induced Transparency
Cruz, L S; Gómez, J G A; Lezama, A; Martinelliinst1, M; Nussenzveig, P; Valente, P
2006-01-01
High degrees of intensity correlation between two independent lasers were observed after propagation through a rubidium vapor cell in which they generate Electromagnetically Induced Transparency (EIT). As the optical field intensities are increased, the correlation changes sign (becoming anti-correlation). The experiment was performed in a room temperature rubidium cell, using two diode lasers tuned to the $^{85}$Rb $D_2$ line ($\\lambda = 780$nm). The cross-correlation spectral function for the pump and probe fields is numerically obtained by modeling the temporal dynamics of both field phases as diffusing processes. We explored the dependence of the atomic response on the atom-field Rabi frequencies, optical detuning and Doppler width. The results show that resonant phase-noise to amplitude-noise conversion is at the origin of the observed signal and the change in sign for the correlation coefficient can be explained as a consequence of the competition between EIT and Raman resonance processes.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Perez-Navarro, A.; Costa-Quintana, J.; Lopez-Aguilar, F. [Groupe d' Electromagnetisme, Departament de Fisica, Edifici Cn, Facultat de Ciencies, Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona, 08193 Bellaterra (Barcelona) (Spain)
2002-09-08
In this paper we present a method for obtaining the quasiband structure and the renormalized density of quasistates of strongly correlated systems with antiferromagnetic ordering. We calculate the electronic structure of La{sub 2}CuO{sub 4} in order to test this method. The first step required is to calculate the electronic structure from the local density approximation (LDA) in order to obtain the initial non-interacting ground state. The LDA density of states in strongly correlated systems usually presents serious discrepancies with experimental results. As is well known, these discrepancies, fundamentally concerning photoemission, are due to the fact that the dynamic correlation effects are not taken into account within the LDA. In order to include these effects, we obtain a self-energy potential which allows the initial LDA electronic structure to connect with that of the antiferromagnetic ground state arising from a Bogolyubov-like transformation. Within this new ground state, we determine an antiferromagnetic self-energy by means of a spin density wave procedure, and the interacting Green function yields a density of states which is in reasonable agreement with the experimental photoemission result. (Abstract Copyright [2002], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)
Capacities of lossy bosonic channel with correlated noise
Lupo, Cosmo; Pilyavets, Oleg V.; Mancini, Stefano
2009-06-01
We evaluate the information capacities of a lossy bosonic channel with correlated noise. The model generalizes the one recently discussed by Pilyavets et al (2008 Phys. Rev. A 77 052324), where memory effects come from the interaction with correlated environments. Environmental correlations are quantified by a multimode squeezing parameter, which vanishes in the memoryless limit. We show that a global encoding/decoding scheme, which involves input-entangled states among different channel uses, is always preferable with respect to a local one in the presence of memory. Moreover, in a certain range of the parameters, we provide an analytical expression for the classical capacity of the channel showing that a global encoding/decoding scheme allows it to be attained. All the results can be applied to a broad class of bosonic Gaussian channels.
Capacities of lossy bosonic channel with correlated noise
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Lupo, Cosmo; Pilyavets, Oleg V; Mancini, Stefano [Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita di Camerino, I-62032 Camerino (Italy)], E-mail: cosmo.lupo@unicam.it, E-mail: pilyavets@gmail.com, E-mail: stefano.mancini@unicam.it
2009-06-15
We evaluate the information capacities of a lossy bosonic channel with correlated noise. The model generalizes the one recently discussed by Pilyavets et al (2008 Phys. Rev. A 77 052324), where memory effects come from the interaction with correlated environments. Environmental correlations are quantified by a multimode squeezing parameter, which vanishes in the memoryless limit. We show that a global encoding/decoding scheme, which involves input-entangled states among different channel uses, is always preferable with respect to a local one in the presence of memory. Moreover, in a certain range of the parameters, we provide an analytical expression for the classical capacity of the channel showing that a global encoding/decoding scheme allows it to be attained. All the results can be applied to a broad class of bosonic Gaussian channels.
Quantum reading capacity under thermal and correlated noise
Lupo, Cosmo; Pirandola, Stefano; Giovannetti, Vittorio; Mancini, Stefano
2013-06-01
Quantum communication theory sets the maximum rates at which information can be encoded and decoded reliably given the physical properties of the information carriers. Here we consider the problem of readout of a digital optical memory, where information is stored by means of the optical properties of the memory cells that are in turn probed by shining a laser beam on them. Interesting features arise in the regime in which the probing light has to be treated quantum mechanically. The maximum rate of reliable readout defines the quantum reading capacity, which is proven to overcome the classical reading capacity—obtained by probing with classical light—in several relevant settings. We consider a model of optical memory in which information is encoded in the (complex-valued) attenuation factor and study the effects on the reading rates of thermal and correlated noise. The latter type of noise arises when the effects of wave diffraction on the probing light beam are taken into account. We discuss the advantages of quantum reading over the classical one and show that the former is substantially more robust than the latter under thermal noise in the regime of low power per pulse.
Quantum correlations of identical particles subject to classical environmental noise
Beggi, Andrea; Buscemi, Fabrizio; Bordone, Paolo
2016-09-01
In this work, we propose a measure for the quantum discord of indistinguishable particles, based on the definition of entanglement of particles given in Wiseman and Vaccaro (Phys Rev Lett 91:097902, 2003. doi: 10.1103/PhysRevLett.91.097902). This discord of particles is then used to evaluate the quantum correlations in a system of two identical bosons (fermions), where the particles perform a quantum random walk described by the Hubbard Hamiltonian in a 1D lattice. The dynamics of the particles is either unperturbed or subject to a classical environmental noise—such as random telegraph, pink or brown noise. The observed results are consistent with those for the entanglement of particles, and we observe that on-site interaction between particles have an important protective effect on correlations against the decoherence of the system.
Enhanced current noise correlations in a Coulomb-Majorana device
Lü, Hai-Feng; Lu, Hai-Zhou; Shen, Shun-Qing
2016-06-01
Majorana bound states (MBSs) nested in a topological nanowire are predicted to manifest nonlocal correlations in the presence of a finite energy splitting between the MBSs. However, the signal of the nonlocal correlations has not yet been detected in experiments. A possible reason is that the energy splitting is too weak and seriously affected by many system parameters. Here we investigate the charging energy induced nonlocal correlations in a hybrid device of MBSs and quantum dots. The nanowire that hosts the MBSs is assumed in proximity to a mesoscopic superconducting island with a finite charging energy. Each end of the nanowire is coupled to one lead via a quantum dot with resonant levels. With a floating superconducting island, the devices show a negative differential conductance and giant super-Poissonian shot noise, due to the interplay between the nonlocality of the MBSs and dynamical Coulomb blockade effect. When the island is strongly coupled to a bulk superconductor, the current cross correlations at small lead chemical potentials are negative by tuning the dot energy levels. In contrast, the cross correlation is always positive in a non-Majorana setup. This difference may provide a signature for the existence of the MBSs.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Luo Xiao-Qin; Zhu Shi-Qun
2004-01-01
The phenomenon of stochastic resonance (SR) in a bistable nonlinear system with coupling between additive and multiplicative noises is investigated when the correlation between two noise terms is coloured. It is found that the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) of the system is affected not only by the coupling strength λ between two noise terms, but also by the noise correlation time . The SNR is changed from a single peak, to two peaks with a dip, and then to a monotonically decreasing function with noise strength. The dependence of the SR on the initial conditions is entirely caused by the coupling strength λ between two noise terms.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Jiang, Jianzhong; Mørup, Steen
1997-01-01
The influence of the particle size distribution on the ratio of the peak temperature, T-peak, to the blocking temperature, T-Bm, in zero field cooled (ZFD) magnetization curves has studied for both ferromagnetic and antiferromagnetic particle systems. In both systems the ratio beta=T-peak/T-Bm does...
Comment on ``Correlated noise in a logistic growth model''
Behera, Anita; O'Rourke, S. Francesca C.
2008-01-01
We argue that the results published by Ai [Phys. Rev. E 67, 022903 (2003)] on “correlated noise in logistic growth” are not correct. Their conclusion that, for larger values of the correlation parameter λ , the cell population is peaked at x=0 , which denotes a high extinction rate, is also incorrect. We find the reverse behavior to their results, that increasing λ promotes the stable growth of tumor cells. In particular, their results for the steady-state probability, as a function of cell number, at different correlation strengths, presented in Figs. 1 and 2 of their paper show different behavior than one would expect from the simple mathematical expression for the steady-state probability. Additionally, their interpretation that at small values of cell number the steady-state probability increases as the correlation parameter is increased is also questionable. Another striking feature in their Figs. 1 and 3 is that, for the same values of the parameters λ and α , their simulation produces two different curves, both qualitatively and quantitatively.
Mutual Information of Pauli Channels with Correlated Noise
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
HOU Li-zhen; FANG Mao-Fa
2007-01-01
A general formula for the mutual information of the Pauli channels with memory modelled by correlated noise is derived.It is shown that the mutual information depends on the channel shrinking factor,the input state parameter and the channel memory coefficient.The analyses based on the general formula reveal that the entanglement is always a useful resource to enhance the mutual information of some.Pauli channels,such as the bit flip channel and the bit-phase flip channel.Our analyses also show that the entanglement is not advantageous to the reliable transmission of classical information for Borne Pauli channels at any time,such as the phase flip channel and the phase damping channel.
Correlated noise in networks of gravitational-wave detectors: subtraction and mitigation
Thrane, Eric; Schofield, Robert M S; Effler, Anamaria
2014-01-01
One of the key science goals of advanced gravitational-wave detectors is to observe a stochastic gravitational-wave background. However, recent work demonstrates that correlated magnetic fields from Schumann resonances can produce correlated strain noise over global distances, potentially limiting the sensitivity of stochastic background searches with advanced detectors. In this paper, we estimate the correlated noise budget for the worldwide Advanced LIGO network and conclude that correlated noise may affect upcoming measurements. We investigate the possibility of a Wiener filtering scheme to subtract correlated noise from Advanced LIGO searches, and estimate the required specifications. We also consider the possibility that residual correlated noise remains following subtraction, and we devise an optimal strategy for measuring astronomical parameters in the presence of correlated noise. Using this new formalism, we estimate the loss of sensitivity for a broadband, isotropic stochastic background search usin...
Effects of cross-correlated noises on the relaxation time of the bistable system
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
谢崇伟; 梅冬成
2003-01-01
The stationary correlation function and the associated relaxation time for a general system driven by crosscorrelated white noises are derived, by virtue of a Stratonovich-like ansatz. The effects of correlated noises on the relaxation time of a bistable kinetic model coupled to an additive and a multiplicative white noises are studied. It is proved that for small fluctuations the relaxation time Tc as a function of λ (the correlated intensity between noises)exhibits very different behaviours for α＜ D and for α＞ D (α and D, respectively, stand for the intensities of additive and multiplicative noises). When α＞ D, Tc increases with increasing λ. But when α＜ D, Tc increases with λ for the case of weak correlated noises and sharply decreases with λ for the case of strong correlated noises, and thus Tc-λ curve behaves with one extremum.
Sudayama, T; Wakisaka, Y; Takubo, K; Morinaga, R; Sato, T J; Arita, M; Namatame, H; Taniguchi, M; Mizokawa, T
2010-04-30
In the heavily-electron-doped regime of the Ba(Fe,Co)2As2 superconductor, three hole bands at the zone center are observed and two of them reach the Fermi level. The larger hole pocket at the zone center is apparently nested with the smaller electron pocket around the zone corner. However, the (pi,0) Fermi surface reconstruction reported for the hole-doped case is absent in the heavily-electron-doped case. This observation shows that the apparent Fermi surface nesting alone is not enough to enhance the antiferromagnetic correlation as well as the superconducting transition temperature.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Lefmann, K.; Rischel, C.
1996-01-01
We present a numerical diagonalization study of two one-dimensional S=1/2 antiferromagnetic Heisenberg chains, having nearest-neighbor and Haldane-Shastry (1/r(2)) interactions, respectively. We have obtained the T=0 dynamical correlation function, S-alpha alpha(q,omega), for chains of length N=8......-28. We have studied S-zz(q,omega) for the Heisenberg chain in zero field, and from finite-size scaling we have obtained a limiting behavior that for large omega deviates from the conjecture proposed earlier by Muller ct al. For both chains we describe the behavior of S-zz(q,omega) and S...
Tsui, Po-Hsiang
2012-04-01
The Nakagami image is a complementary imaging mode for pulse-echo ultrasound B-scan to characterize tissues. White noise in anechoic areas induces artifacts in the Nakagami image. Recently, we proposed a noise-assisted correlation algorithm (NCA) for suppressing the Nakagami artifact. In the NCA, artificial white noise is intentionally added twice to backscattered signals to produce two noisy data, which are used to establish a correlation profile for rejecting noise. This study explored the effects of artificial noise level on the NCA to suppress the artifact of the Nakagami image. Simulations were conducted to produce B-mode images of anechoic regions under signal-to-noise ratios (SNRs) of 20, 10 and 5 dB. Various artificial noise levels ranging from 0.1- to 1-fold of the intrinsic noise amplitude were used in the NCA for constructing the Nakagami images. Phantom experiments were conducted to validate the performance of using the optimal artificial noise level suggested by the simulation results to suppress the Nakagami artifacts by the NCA. The simulation results indicated that the artifacts of the Nakagami image in the anechoic regions can be gradually suppressed by increasing the artificial noise level used in the NCA to improve the image contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR). The CNR of the Nakagami image reached 20 dB when the artificial noise level was 0.7-fold of the intrinsic noise amplitude. This criterion was demonstrated by the phantom results to provide the NCA with an excellent ability to obtain artifact-free Nakagami images.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Wang Can-Jun; Chen Shi-Bo; Mei Dong-Cheng
2006-01-01
The steady-state properties of a bistable system are investigated when both the multiplicative noise and the coupling between additive and multiplicative noises are coloured with different values of noise correlation times τ1 and 72. After introducing a dimensionless parameter R(R = α/D, D is the intensity of the multiplicative noise and α is the intensity of the additive noise), and performing the numerical computations, we find the following points: (1) For the case ofR ＞ 1, λ (the intensity of correlation between additive and multiplicative noises), τ1 and τ2 can induce the stationary probability distribution (SPD) transition from bimodal to unimodal in structure, but for the cases of R ≤ 1,the bimodal structure is preserved; (2) α can also induce the SPD transition from bimodal to unimodal in structure;(3) the bimodal structure of the SPD exhibits a symmetrical structure as D increases.
Noise-plasticity correlations of gene expression in the multicellular organism Arabidopsis thaliana.
Hirao, Koudai; Nagano, Atsushi J; Awazu, Akinori
2015-12-21
Gene expression levels exhibit stochastic variations among genetically identical organisms under the same environmental conditions (called gene expression "noise" or phenotype "fluctuation"). In yeast and Escherichia coli, positive correlations have been found between such gene expression noise and "plasticity" with environmental variations. To determine the universality of such correlations in both unicellular and multicellular organisms, we focused on the relationships between gene expression "noise" and "plasticity" in Arabidopsis thaliana, a multicellular model organism. In recent studies on yeast and E. coli, only some gene groups with specific properties of promoter architecture, average expression levels, and functions exhibited strong noise-plasticity correlations. However, we found strong noise-plasticity correlations for most gene groups in Arabidopsis; additionally, promoter architecture, functional essentiality of genes, and circadian rhythm appeared to have only a weak influence on the correlation strength. The differences in the characteristics of noise-plasticity correlations may result from three-dimensional chromosomal structures and/or circadian rhythm.
Time-integrating acousto-optic correlator for wideband random noise radar
Kim, Sangtaek; Narayanan, Ram; Zhou, Wei; Wagner, Kelvin
2004-10-01
A time-integrating acousto-optic correlator (TIAOC) is a good candidate for imaging and target detection using a wideband random noise radar system. We have developed such a correlator for a random noise radar with a signal frequency range of 1-2 GHz. This system has demonstrated good wideband signal correlation performance with good dynamic range and fine tuning of delays.
Superconductivity, antiferromagnetism, and neutron scattering
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Tranquada, John M., E-mail: jtran@bnl.gov; Xu, Guangyong; Zaliznyak, Igor A.
2014-01-15
High-temperature superconductivity in both the copper-oxide and the iron–pnictide/chalcogenide systems occurs in close proximity to antiferromagnetically ordered states. Neutron scattering has been an essential technique for characterizing the spin correlations in the antiferromagnetic phases and for demonstrating how the spin fluctuations persist in the superconductors. While the nature of the spin correlations in the superconductors remains controversial, the neutron scattering measurements of magnetic excitations over broad ranges of energy and momentum transfers provide important constraints on the theoretical options. We present an overview of the neutron scattering work on high-temperature superconductors and discuss some of the outstanding issues. - Highlights: • High-temperature superconductivity is closely associated with antiferromagnetism. • Antiferromagnetic spin fluctuations coexist with the superconductivity. • Neutron scattering is essential for characterising the full spectrum of spin excitations.
Switching Correlation and Noise Level in Pr(3+):YSO Crystal via Dressing Nonlinear Phase.
Ahmed, Irfan; Zhang, Zhaoyang; Wen, Feng; Zhang, Da; Li, Changbiao; Wang, Ruimin; Zhang, Yanpeng
2016-09-21
We propose and experimentally demonstrate that the intensity noise correlation and the noise level of intensity-difference and intensity-sum in Stokes and anti-Stokes channel can be well controlled by the relative nonlinear phase in spontaneous parametric four-wave mixing process. By modulating the relative nonlinear phase, including self-phase modulation and cross-phase modulation, switching the correlation into anti-correlation and the relative intensity noise level between the intensity-difference and intensity-sum are realized. We also show that the variation tendencies of the relative intensity noise level and the corresponding intensity fluctuations correlation are in accordance with each other.
SPEECH ENHANCEMENT BASED ON DYNAMIC NOISE ESTIMATION WITHIN AUTO-CORRELATION DOMAIN
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
吴亚栋; 吴旭辉
2002-01-01
Most noise suppression algorithms of single channel use the mean of noisy segments to estimate the characteristics of noise spectrum, ignoring the estimation of noise in speech segments. Therefore, when the energy level of noise varies with the time, the performance of removing noise will be degraded. To solve this problem, a speech enhancement approach based on dynamic noise estimation within correlation domain was proposed. This method exploits the characteristics that noise energy mainly concentrates on 0 th-order correlation coefficients, signal is auto-correlated but signal and noise, noise and noise are uncorrelated, then estimates and decomposes the noise, thus helps to solve the above-mentioned problem. The results of recognition experiments on speech signals of 15 Chinese cities' names corrupted by noise of exhibition hall shows, this approach is better than SS (Spectral Subtraction) method, adapts better to the variances of energy levels of speech signal corrupted by noise, has some practicability to improve the robustness of recognition systems under noisy environment.
White noise theory of robust nonlinear filtering with correlated state and observation noises
Bagchi, Arunabha; Karandikar, Rajeeva
1994-01-01
In the existing `direct¿ white noise theory of nonlinear filtering, the state process is still modelled as a Markov process satisfying an Itô stochastic differential equation, while a `finitely additive¿ white noise is used to model the observation noise. We remove this asymmetry by modelling the st
White noise theory of robust nonlinear filtering with correlated state and observation noises
Bagchi, Arunabha; Karandikar, Rajeeva
1992-01-01
In the direct white noise theory of nonlinear filtering, the state process is still modeled as a Markov process satisfying an Ito stochastic differential equation, while a finitely additive white noise is used to model the observation noise. In the present work, this asymmetry is removed by modeling
Stochastic resonance in the growth of a tumor induced by correlated noises
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
ZHONG Weirong; SHAO Yuanzhi; HE Zhenhui
2005-01-01
Multiplicative noise is found to divide the growth law of tumors into two parts in a logistic model, which is driven by additive and multiplicative noises simultaneously. The Fokker-Planck equation was also derived to explain the fact that the influence of the intensity of multiplicative noise on the growth of tumor cells has a stochastic resonance-like characteristic. An appropriate intensity of multiplicative noise is benefit to the growth of the tumor cells. The correlation between two sorts of noises weakens the stochastic resonance-like characteristic. Homologous noises promote the growth of the tumor cells.
Dual correlated pumping scheme for phase noise preservation in all-optical wavelength conversion.
Anthur, Aravind P; Watts, Regan T; Shi, Kai; Carroll, John O'; Venkitesh, Deepa; Barry, Liam P
2013-07-01
We study the effect of transfer of phase noise in different four wave mixing schemes using a coherent phase noise measurement technique. The nature of phase noise transfer from the pump to the generated wavelengths is shown to be independent of the type of phase noise (1 / f or white noise frequency components). We then propose a novel scheme using dual correlated pumps to prevent the increase in phase noise in the conjugate wavelengths. The proposed scheme is experimentally verified by the all-optical wavelength conversion of a DQPSK signal at 10.7 GBaud.
Effects of Cross-Correlation Colour Noises on Tumour Growth Process
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
WANG Xian-Ju; ZENG Chang-Chun; DENG Xiao-Yuan; LIU Song-Hao; LIU Liang-Gang
2005-01-01
@@ We present a tumour cell growth process model including a multiplicative coloured noise and an additive coloured noise correlated. How the noise cross-correlation intensity λ and correlation time - can affect the steady state properties of tumour cell growth model are discussed by solving an approximative Fokker-Planck equation. It is found that the increase of noise correlation time т- can cause the tumour cell number increasing, but the increase of multiplicative noise intensity can cause the tumour cell number extinction. We also find that the increase of cross-correlation intensity λ in the case of 0 ＜λ＜ 1 can cause the tumour cell number extinction, whereas increase of cross-correlation intensity λ in the case of λ＜ 0 can cause the tumour cell number increasing.
Multiple cross-correlation noise induced transition in a stochastic bistable system
Wang, Can-Jun; Yang, Ke-Li; Du, Chun-Yan
2017-03-01
Based on the stochastic equivalent rules, the Fokker-Planck Equation for a general one-dimensional nonlinear system subjected to N-component noises and cross-correlation noises is derived, and the greatest advantage of the method lies in its simplicity. Applying this method, the effects of multiple sources of noise and the correlation forms of noises among them (i.e., two multiplicative noises, an additive noise and the correlation between the three noises) on the steady-state properties and the mean first passage time (MFPT) of a stochastic bistable system are discussed in details. The results show rich transition phenomena, such as the reentrance-like noise-induced phenomenon and the switch between the bimodal and the unimodal structure for different noise intensities. Moreover, the effects of the cross-correlation among the three noise sources on the MFPT are also discussed, and the noise-enhanced stability phenomenon and the resonant activation phenomenon are observed. The numerical results are in basic agreement with the theoretical predictions.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
TENG Pengxiao; MA Chizhou; YANG Yichun; LI Xiaodong
2007-01-01
A robust algorithm of direction of arrival (DOA) estimation for coherent wideband sources in unknown correlated noise fields was investigated. The noise is usually unknown and correlated among sensors in practical applications, especially for arrays with comparatively small apertures. The spatially correlated noise incurs an increase in focusing error and a severe degradation in the DOA estimation, and therefore a method of focusing transformation based on differentiating covariance matrix was proposed to eliminate noise, hence reduce the focusing error. The simulation and experimental results demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed method.
Removal of correlated noise by modeling the signal of interest in the wavelet domain.
Goossens, Bart; Pizurica, Aleksandra; Philips, Wilfried
2009-06-01
Images, captured with digital imaging devices, often contain noise. In literature, many algorithms exist for the removal of white uncorrelated noise, but they usually fail when applied to images with correlated noise. In this paper, we design a new denoising method for the removal of correlated noise, by modeling the significance of the noise-free wavelet coefficients in a local window using a new significance measure that defines the "signal of interest" and that is applicable to correlated noise. We combine the intrascale model with a hidden Markov tree model to capture the interscale dependencies between the wavelet coefficients. We propose a denoising method based on the combined model and a less redundant wavelet transform. We present results that show that the new method performs as well as the state-of-the-art wavelet-based methods, while having a lower computational complexity.
Investigation of the spatial correlations of flow noise in vector hydrophone towed linear array
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
YANG Xiuting; SUN Guiqing; LI Mini; LI Qihu
2008-01-01
Following the wall pressure spectrum of the turbulent boundary layer developed by Corcos, a method in the frequency-wavenumber space was presented to analyze the flow noise in the vector hydrophone towed linear array. The general forms of the acoustic pressure and particle velocity in the flow noise field were obtained, and the spatial correlations of the flow noise were calculated. The numerical analysis results based on wavenumber integration show that: (1) The spatial correlations of flow noise drops rapidly with increasing axial separation between the elements, so the flow noise received by different vector hydrophones usually sampled in a half-wavelength rate can be considered as independent; (2) The flow noise is highly correlated in the radial direction at low frequency, and only those of high frequency componet can be neglected.
Intensity and phase noise correlations in a dual-frequency VECSEL operating at telecom wavelength
De, Syamsundar; Bouchoule, Sophie; Alouini, Mehdi; Bretenaker, Fabien
2015-01-01
The amplitude and phase noises of a dual-frequency vertical-external-cavity surface-emitting laser (DF-VECSEL) operating at telecom wavelength are theoretically and experimentally investigated in detail. In particular, the spectral behavior of the correlation between the intensity noises of the two modes of the DF-VECSEL is measured. Moreover, the correlation between the phase noise of the radio-frequency (RF) beatnote generated by optical mixing of the two laser modes with the intensity noises of the two modes is investigated. All these spectral behaviors of noise correlations are analyzed for two different values of the nonlinear coupling between the laser modes. We find that to describe the spectral behavior of noise correlations between the laser modes, it is of utmost importance to have a precise knowledge about the spectral behavior of the pump noise, which is the dominant source of noise in the frequency range of our interest (10 kHz to 35 MHz). Moreover, it is found that the noise correlation also dep...
The power spectrum and correlation of flow noise for an axisymmetric body in water
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Li Xue-Gang; Yang Kun-De; Wang Yong
2011-01-01
Understanding the physical features of the flow noise for an axisymmetric body is important for improving the performance of a sonar mounted on an underwater platform. Analytical calculation and numerical analysis of the physical features of the flow noise for an axisymmetric body are presented and a simulation scheme for the noise correlation on the hydrophones is given. It is shown that the numerical values of the flow noise coincide well with the analytical values. The main physical features of flow noise are obtained. The flow noises of two different models are compared and a model with a rather optimal fore-body shape is given. The flow noise in horizontal symmetry profile of the axisymmetric body is non-uniform, but it is omni-directional and has little difference in the cross section of the body. The loss of noise diffraction has a great effect on the flow noise from boundary layer transition. Meanwhile, based on the simulation, the noise power level increases with velocity to approximately the fifth power at high frequencies,which is consistent with the experiment data reported in the literature. Furthermore, the flow noise received by the acoustic array has lower correlation at a designed central frequency, which is important for sonar system design.
Superconductivity, antiferromagnetism, and neutron scattering
Tranquada, John M.; Xu, Guangyong; Zaliznyak, Igor A.
2014-01-01
High-temperature superconductivity in both the copper-oxide and the iron-pnictide/chalcogenide systems occurs in close proximity to antiferromagnetically ordered states. Neutron scattering has been an essential technique for characterizing the spin correlations in the antiferromagnetic phases and for demonstrating how the spin fluctuations persist in the superconductors. While the nature of the spin correlations in the superconductors remains controversial, the neutron scattering measurements of magnetic excitations over broad ranges of energy and momentum transfers provide important constraints on the theoretical options. We present an overview of the neutron scattering work on high-temperature superconductors and discuss some of the outstanding issues.
Noise characterization of an Optical Frequency Comb using Offline Cross-Correlation
Khayatzadeh, Ramin; Guyomarc'h, Didier; Ferrand, Didier; Hagel, Gaëtan; Houssin, Marie; Morizot, Olivier; Champenois, Caroline; Knoop, Martina
2016-01-01
Using an offline cross-correlation technique, we have analyzed the noise behavior of a new type of optical frequency comb (OFC), which is carrier envelope offset (CEO) free by configuration, due to difference frequency generation. In order to evaluate the instrument's ultimate noise floor, the phase and amplitude noise of a stabilized OFC are measured simultaneously using two analog-to-digital converters. Carrier recovery and phase detection are done by post-processing, eliminating the need for external phase-locked loops and complex calibration techniques. In order to adapt the measurement noise floor and the number of averages used in cross correlation, an adaptive frequency resolution for noise measurement is applied. Phase noise results are in excellent agreement with measurements of the fluctuations of the repetition frequency of the OFC obtained from optical signal.
Photo-thermal Shot Noise in End Mirrors of LIGO due to Correlation of Power Fluctuation
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
WU Shi-Chen; WAN Zhen-Zhu; LI Huan; LIU Zhong-Zhu
2006-01-01
The effect of input power fluctuation on photo-thermal shot noise in the end mirrors of a laser interferometer gravitational-wave observatory (LIGO) is analysed according to the statistical optics, which is a supplement of Braginsky's research. The laser light folding in LIGO increases a correlation of input power fluctuation in the photo-thermal shot noise. This part of noise has spectral density proportional to ω-2 in low frequency bands, and ω-4 in high frequency bands. It is not a white noise and may affect the processing about data of interferometers. To obtain an advanced LIGO, photo-thermal shot noise in end mirrors due to correlation of input power fluctuation is up to Braginsky's photo-thermal noise in the frequency range 1-100Hz.
Measurement of noise and its correlation to performance and geometry of small aircraft propellers
Štorch Vít; Nožička Jiří; Brada Martin; Gemperle Jiří; Suchý Jakub
2016-01-01
A set of small model and UAV propellers is measured both in terms of aerodynamic performance and acoustic noise under static conditions. Apart from obvious correlation of noise to tip speed and propeller diameter the influence of blade pitch, blade pitch distribution, efficiency and shape of the blade is sought. Using the measured performance data a computational model for calculation of aerodynamic noise of propellers will be validated. The range of selected propellers include both propeller...
Madurski, Christine; LeBel, Etienne P
2015-08-01
Correll (Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 94, 48-59, 2008; Study 2) found that instructions to use or avoid race information decreased the emission of 1/f noise in a weapon identification task (WIT). These results suggested that 1/f noise in racial bias tasks reflected an effortful deliberative process, providing new insights regarding the mechanisms underlying implicit racial biases. Given the potential theoretical and applied importance of understanding the psychological processes underlying implicit racial biases - and in light of the growing demand for independent direct replications of findings to ensure the cumulative nature of our science - we attempted to replicate Correll's finding in two high-powered studies. Despite considerable effort to closely duplicate all procedural and methodological details of the original study (i.e., same cover story, experimental manipulation, implicit measure task, original stimuli, task instructions, sampling frame, population, and statistical analyses), both replication attempts were unsuccessful in replicating the original finding challenging the theoretical account that 1/f noise in racial bias tasks reflects a deliberative process. However, the emission of 1/f noise did consistently emerge across samples in each of our conditions. Hence, future research is needed to clarify the psychological significance of 1/f noise in racial bias tasks.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Yu Hu
2014-02-01
Full Text Available Over repeat presentations of the same stimulus, sensory neurons show variable responses. This "noise" is typically correlated between pairs of cells, and a question with rich history in neuroscience is how these noise correlations impact the population's ability to encode the stimulus. Here, we consider a very general setting for population coding, investigating how information varies as a function of noise correlations, with all other aspects of the problem - neural tuning curves, etc. - held fixed. This work yields unifying insights into the role of noise correlations. These are summarized in the form of theorems, and illustrated with numerical examples involving neurons with diverse tuning curves. Our main contributions are as follows. (1 We generalize previous results to prove a sign rule (SR - if noise correlations between pairs of neurons have opposite signs vs. their signal correlations, then coding performance will improve compared to the independent case. This holds for three different metrics of coding performance, and for arbitrary tuning curves and levels of heterogeneity. This generality is true for our other results as well. (2 As also pointed out in the literature, the SR does not provide a necessary condition for good coding. We show that a diverse set of correlation structures can improve coding. Many of these violate the SR, as do experimentally observed correlations. There is structure to this diversity: we prove that the optimal correlation structures must lie on boundaries of the possible set of noise correlations. (3 We provide a novel set of necessary and sufficient conditions, under which the coding performance (in the presence of noise will be as good as it would be if there were no noise present at all.
Lin, Tingting; Zhang, Siyuan; Zhang, Yang; Wan, Ling; Lin, Jun
2017-01-01
Compared with the other geophysical approaches, magnetic resonance sounding (MRS) technique is direct and nondestructive in subsurface water exploration. It provides water content distribution and estimates hydrogeological properties. The biggest challenge is that MRS measurement always suffers bad signal-to-noise ratio, and it can be carried out only far from sources of noise. To solve this problem, a series of de-noising methods are developed. However, most of them are post-processing, leading the data quality uncontrolled for in situ measurements. In the present study, a new approach that removal of correlated noise online is found to overcome the restriction. Based on LabVIEW, a method is provided to enable online data quality control by the way of realizing signal acquisition and noise filtering simultaneously. Using one or more reference coils, adaptive noise cancellation based on LabVIEW to eliminate the correlated noise is available for in situ measurements. The approach was examined through numerical simulation and field measurements. The correlated noise is mitigated effectively and the application of MRS measurements is feasible in high-level noise environment. The method shortens the measurement time and improves the measurement efficiency.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Bing Wang; Xiuqing Wu
2007-01-01
A single-mode laser system with colored cross-correlated additive and multiplicative noise terms is considered. By the means of projection operator method, we study the effects of the cross-correlation time τ and the cross-correlation intensity λ between noises on the normalized intensity correlation function C(s). It is found that if λ＞ 0 (λ＜ 0), the normalized intensity correlation function C(s) increases (decreases) with increasing the cross-correlation time τ, and at large value of τ, the variation of the normalized intensity correlation function C(s) becomes small. With the increase of the net gain a0, C(s) exhibits a maximum when λ is larger. However, a minimum and a maximum appear on C(s) curves with the increase of a0 when λ becomes smaller and smaller.
National Aeronautics and Space Administration — A new type of calibration standard is proposed which produces a pair of microwave noise signals to aid in the characterization and calibration of correlating...
Correlation between Screening estimation and noise measurement in Small Plants in Varamin city
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
S. A. R. Negahban
2013-08-01
Conclusion: No correlation was shown between the results of the two methods used. Thus, it is recommended to change the parameters used in the noise screening form for small plants, with less than 5 workers.
Measurement of noise and its correlation to performance and geometry of small aircraft propellers
Štorch, Vít; Nožička, Jiří; Brada, Martin; Gemperle, Jiří; Suchý, Jakub
2016-03-01
A set of small model and UAV propellers is measured both in terms of aerodynamic performance and acoustic noise under static conditions. Apart from obvious correlation of noise to tip speed and propeller diameter the influence of blade pitch, blade pitch distribution, efficiency and shape of the blade is sought. Using the measured performance data a computational model for calculation of aerodynamic noise of propellers will be validated. The range of selected propellers include both propellers designed for nearly static conditions and propellers that are running at highly offdesign conditions, which allows to investigate i.e. the effect of blade stall on both noise level and performance results.
Measurement of noise and its correlation to performance and geometry of small aircraft propellers
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Štorch Vít
2016-01-01
Full Text Available A set of small model and UAV propellers is measured both in terms of aerodynamic performance and acoustic noise under static conditions. Apart from obvious correlation of noise to tip speed and propeller diameter the influence of blade pitch, blade pitch distribution, efficiency and shape of the blade is sought. Using the measured performance data a computational model for calculation of aerodynamic noise of propellers will be validated. The range of selected propellers include both propellers designed for nearly static conditions and propellers that are running at highly offdesign conditions, which allows to investigate i.e. the effect of blade stall on both noise level and performance results.
Correlation of Electrical Noise with Non-radiative Current for High Power QWLs
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
无
2001-01-01
The characteristics of low-frequency electrical noise, voltage-current (V-I) and electrical derivation for 980nm InGaAsP/InGaAs/GaAs high power double quantum well lasers(DQWLs) are measured under different conditions. The correlation of the low-frequency electrical noise with surface non-radiative current of devices is discussed. The results indicate the low-frequency electrical noise of 980nm DQWLs with high power is mainly 1/f noise and has good relation with the device surface current at low injection.
Impact of neuronal heterogeneity on correlated colored noise-induced synchronization.
Zhou, Pengcheng; Burton, Shawn D; Urban, Nathaniel N; Ermentrout, G Bard
2013-01-01
Synchronization plays an important role in neural signal processing and transmission. Many hypotheses have been proposed to explain the origin of neural synchronization. In recent years, correlated noise-induced synchronization has received support from many theoretical and experimental studies. However, many of these prior studies have assumed that neurons have identical biophysical properties and that their inputs are well modeled by white noise. In this context, we use colored noise to induce synchronization between oscillators with heterogeneity in both phase-response curves and frequencies. In the low noise limit, we derive novel analytical theory showing that the time constant of colored noise influences correlated noise-induced synchronization and that oscillator heterogeneity can limit synchronization. Surprisingly, however, heterogeneous oscillators may synchronize better than homogeneous oscillators given low input correlations. We also find resonance of oscillator synchronization to colored noise inputs when firing frequencies diverge. Collectively, these results prove robust for both relatively high noise regimes and when applied to biophysically realistic spiking neuron models, and further match experimental recordings from acute brain slices.
Phase noise characterization of sub-hertz linewidth lasers via digital cross correlation
Xie, Xiaopeng; Bouchand, Romain; Nicolodi, Daniele; Lours, Michel; Alexandre, Christophe; Le Coq, Yann
2017-04-01
Phase noise or frequency noise is a key metrics to evaluate the short term stability of a laser. This property is of a great interest for the applications but delicate to characterize, especially for narrow line-width lasers. In this letter, we demonstrate a digital cross correlation scheme to characterize the absolute phase noise of sub-hertz line-width lasers. Three 1,542 nm ultra-stable lasers are used in this approach. For each measurement two lasers act as references to characterize a third one. Phase noise power spectral density from 0.5 Hz to 0.8 MHz Fourier frequencies can be derived for each laser by a mere change in the configuration of the lasers. This is the first time showing the phase noise of sub-hertz line-width lasers with no reference limitation. We also present an analysis of the laser phase noise performance.
Probability distributions for directed polymers in random media with correlated noise
Chu, Sherry; Kardar, Mehran
2016-07-01
The probability distribution for the free energy of directed polymers in random media (DPRM) with uncorrelated noise in d =1 +1 dimensions satisfies the Tracy-Widom distribution. We inquire if and how this universal distribution is modified in the presence of spatially correlated noise. The width of the distribution scales as the DPRM length to an exponent β , in good (but not full) agreement with previous renormalization group and numerical results. The scaled probability is well described by the Tracy-Widom form for uncorrelated noise, but becomes symmetric with increasing correlation exponent. We thus find a class of distributions that continuously interpolates between Tracy-Widom and Gaussian forms.
Nieminen, Teemu; Lähteenmäki, Pasi; Tan, Zhenbing; Cox, Daniel; Hakonen, Pertti J.
2016-11-01
We present a microwave correlation measurement system based on two low-cost USB-connected software defined radio dongles modified to operate as coherent receivers by using a common local oscillator. Existing software is used to obtain I/Q samples from both dongles simultaneously at a software tunable frequency. To achieve low noise, we introduce an easy low-noise solution for cryogenic amplification at 600-900 MHz based on single discrete HEMT with 21 dB gain and 7 K noise temperature. In addition, we discuss the quantization effects in a digital correlation measurement and determination of optimal integration time by applying Allan deviation analysis.
New insights into electron spin dynamics in the presence of correlated noise.
Spezia, S; Adorno, D Persano; Pizzolato, N; Spagnolo, B
2012-02-08
The changes in the spin depolarization length in zinc-blende semiconductors when an external component of correlated noise is added to a static driving electric field are analyzed for different values of field strength, noise amplitude and correlation time. Electron dynamics is simulated by a Monte Carlo procedure which takes into account all the possible scattering phenomena of the hot electrons in the medium and includes the evolution of spin polarization. Spin depolarization is studied by examining the decay of the initial spin polarization of the conduction electrons through the D'yakonov-Perel process, the only relevant relaxation mechanism in III-V crystals. Our results show that, for electric field amplitudes lower than the Gunn field, the dephasing length shortens with increasing noise intensity. Moreover, a nonmonotonic behavior of spin depolarization length with the noise correlation time is found, characterized by a maximum variation for values of noise correlation time comparable with the dephasing time. Instead, in high field conditions, we find that, critically depending on the noise correlation time, external fluctuations can positively affect the relaxation length. The influence of the inclusion of the electron-electron scattering mechanism is also shown and discussed.
Xue, Zhenyu; Vlachos, Pavlos P
2014-01-01
In particle image velocimetry (PIV) the measurement signal is contained in the recorded intensity of the particle image pattern superimposed on a variety of noise sources. The signal-to-noise-ratio (SNR) strength governs the resulting PIV cross correlation and ultimately the accuracy and uncertainty of the resulting PIV measurement. Hence we posit that correlation SNR metrics calculated from the correlation plane can be used to quantify the quality of the correlation and the resulting uncertainty of an individual measurement. In this paper we present a framework for evaluating the correlation SNR using a set of different metrics, which in turn are used to develop models for uncertainty estimation. The SNR metrics and corresponding models presented herein are expanded to be applicable to both standard and filtered correlations. In addition, the notion of a valid measurement is redefined with respect to the correlation peak width in order to be consistent with uncertainty quantification principles and distinct ...
A WYNER-ZIV VIDEO CODING METHOD UTILIZING MIXTURE CORRELATION NOISE MODEL
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Hu Xiaofei; Zhu Xiuchang
2012-01-01
In Wyner-Ziv (WZ) Distributed Video Coding (DVC),correlation noise model is often used to describe the error distribution between WZ frame and the side information.The accuracy of the model can influence the performance of the video coder directly.A mixture correlation noise model in Discrete Cosine Transform (DCT) domain for WZ video coding is established in this paper.Different correlation noise estimation method is used for direct current and alternating current coefficients.Parameter estimation method based on expectation maximization algorithm is used to estimate the Laplace distribution center of direct current frequency band and Mixture Laplace-Uniform Distribution Model (MLUDM) is established for alternating current coefficients.Experimental results suggest that the proposed mixture correlation noise model can describe the heavy tail and sudden change of the noise accurately at high rate and make significant improvement on the coding efficiency compared with the noise model presented by DIStributed COding for Video sERvices (DISCOVER).
Performance of residual carrier array-feed combining in correlated noise
Tan, H. H.
1995-01-01
An array feed combining system for the recovery of signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) loss due to antenna reflector deformation has been implemented and is currently being evaluated on the Jet Propulsion Laboratory's 34-meter DSS-13 antenna. In this system, the defocused signal field captured by a focal plane array feed is recovered using real-time signal-processing and signal-combining techniques. The current signal-processing and signal-combining algorithms are optimum under the assumption that the white Gaussian noise processes in the received signals from different array elements are mutually uncorrelated. Experimental data at DSS 13 indicate that these noise processes are indeed mutually correlated. The main result of this article is an analytical derivation of the actual SNR performance of the current suboptimal signal-combining algorithm in this correlated-noise environment. The analysis here shows that the combined signal SNR can either be improved or degraded depending on the relation between the array signal and noise correlation coefficient phases. Further performance improvement will require the development of signal-combining methods that take into account the correlated noises.
Frequency domain analysis of errors in cross-correlations of ambient seismic noise
Liu, Xin; Ben-Zion, Yehuda; Zigone, Dimitri
2016-12-01
We analyse random errors (variances) in cross-correlations of ambient seismic noise in the frequency domain, which differ from previous time domain methods. Extending previous theoretical results on ensemble averaged cross-spectrum, we estimate confidence interval of stacked cross-spectrum of finite amount of data at each frequency using non-overlapping windows with fixed length. The extended theory also connects amplitude and phase variances with the variance of each complex spectrum value. Analysis of synthetic stationary ambient noise is used to estimate the confidence interval of stacked cross-spectrum obtained with different length of noise data corresponding to different number of evenly spaced windows of the same duration. This method allows estimating Signal/Noise Ratio (SNR) of noise cross-correlation in the frequency domain, without specifying filter bandwidth or signal/noise windows that are needed for time domain SNR estimations. Based on synthetic ambient noise data, we also compare the probability distributions, causal part amplitude and SNR of stacked cross-spectrum function using one-bit normalization or pre-whitening with those obtained without these pre-processing steps. Natural continuous noise records contain both ambient noise and small earthquakes that are inseparable from the noise with the existing pre-processing steps. Using probability distributions of random cross-spectrum values based on the theoretical results provides an effective way to exclude such small earthquakes, and additional data segments (outliers) contaminated by signals of different statistics (e.g. rain, cultural noise), from continuous noise waveforms. This technique is applied to constrain values and uncertainties of amplitude and phase velocity of stacked noise cross-spectrum at different frequencies, using data from southern California at both regional scale (˜35 km) and dense linear array (˜20 m) across the plate-boundary faults. A block bootstrap resampling method
Solodkin, M; Jiménez, I; Collins, W F; Mendell, L M; Rudomin, P
1991-04-01
1. In the anesthetized cat, simultaneous intracellular recordings from pairs of spinal motoneurons were undertaken to see whether the amplitude of single-fiber excitatory postsynaptic potentials (EPSPs) in both cells fluctuated in a coordinated manner that would indicate correlative mechanisms at either pre- or post-synaptic level. Although these recordings revealed correlated fluctuations in the baseline, the single-fiber Ia/EPSPs recorded with the spike-triggered averaging technique exhibited no correlated fluctuations and, unexpectedly, virtually no increase in baseline variance associated with the EPSP. However, the fact that these experiments were carried out under conditions of high baseline synaptic noise (i.e., with muscle stretch) may have influenced the outcome because of interaction between EPSP and synaptic noise, and this possibility was evaluated explicitly. 2. A given connection was studied under low noise by electrically stimulating a single Ia fiber in the absence of muscle stretch. The same connection was analyzed under conditions of high noise by activating the fiber and all other stretch receptor afferents with muscle stretch and by using spike-triggered averaging to extract the EPSP. The differences in mean EPSP amplitude at a given connection under conditions of low noise and high noise were minimal. 3. Fluctuations in EPSP amplitude were then determined to see whether these were influenced by presence of baseline synaptic noise and whether the interaction was nonlinear. Two methods were used to measure EPSP fluctuations: measurement of the variance associated with the EPSP, and determination by the use of deconvolution methods of the discrete amplitude components associated with the EPSP. 4. An increase in baseline variance was observed during the EPSP evoked under low noise conditions at all six connections studied in this way. This increase disappeared at two of these connections when examined under high noise. This may help to explain the
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Shuo Zhang,Yan Zhao,Min Li,; Jianhui Zhao
2015-01-01
The global y optimal recursive filtering problem is stu-died for a class of systems with random parameter matrices, stochastic nonlinearities, correlated noises and missing measure-ments. The stochastic nonlinearities are presented in the system model to reflect multiplicative random disturbances, and the addi-tive noises, process noise and measurement noise, are assumed to be one-step autocorrelated as wel as two-step cross-correlated. A series of random variables is introduced as the missing rates governing the intermittent measurement losses caused by un-favorable network conditions. The aim of the addressed filtering problem is to design an optimal recursive filter for the uncertain systems based on an innovation approach such that the filtering error is global y minimized at each sampling time. A numerical simulation example is provided to il ustrate the effectiveness and applicability of the proposed algorithm.
Stochastic quantum Zeno-based detection of noise correlations
Müller, Matthias M.; Gherardini, Stefano; Caruso, Filippo
2016-12-01
A system under constant observation is practically freezed to the measurement subspace. If the system driving is a random classical field, the survival probability of the system in the subspace becomes a random variable described by the Stochastic Quantum Zeno Dynamics (SQZD) formalism. Here, we study the time and ensemble average of this random survival probability and demonstrate how time correlations in the noisy environment determine whether the two averages do coincide or not. These environment time correlations can potentially generate non-Markovian dynamics of the quantum system depending on the structure and energy scale of the system Hamiltonian. We thus propose a way to detect time correlations of the environment by coupling a quantum probe system to it and observing the survival probability of the quantum probe in a measurement subspace. This will further contribute to the development of new schemes for quantum sensing technologies, where nanodevices may be exploited to image external structures or biological molecules via the surface field they generate.
The correlation between serum leptin and blood pressure after exposure to noise at work
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Muayad S Rahma
2013-01-01
Full Text Available Several epidemiologic studies have reported that exposure to noise is associated with cardiovascular disease. The increased body weight is often associated with metabolic as well as increased blood pressure. The aim of this study is to investigate the correlation between the elevation of blood pressure and serum leptin hormones due to the effects of noise in the work place. A total of 80 volunteer males where included in this study with an age range between of 20 and 45 years, they were divided in two groups equally, the 1 st group were exposed to noise in the workplace while the 2 nd group were not. The individual noise exposure was determined by using a sound level meter. The range of noise was 80-100 dBA. Body Mass Index was also taken for each individual by a standard measure, blood pressure was measured by OMRON sphygmomanometer and serum leptin was measured through venous blood sample analysis enzyme linked immunosorbent assay. Spearman rank order correlation was used to examine the correlations between Blood pressure value (Systolic, Diastolic and Leptin. All the relationships between parameters showed a positive correlation. Systolic and diastolic blood pressure values had a significant correlation to leptin hormone level in comparison to the control. There was a significant relation between leptin and blood pressure. leptin effects on the sympathetic nervous system may provide a partial explanation. Therefore, Leptin might have diverse cardiovascular actions.
Chang, Catie; Glover, Gary H
2009-10-01
Previous studies have reported that the spontaneous, resting-state time course of the default-mode network is negatively correlated with that of the "task-positive network", a collection of regions commonly recruited in demanding cognitive tasks. However, all studies of negative correlations between the default-mode and task-positive networks have employed some form of normalization or regression of the whole-brain average signal ("global signal"); these processing steps alter the time series of voxels in an uninterpretable manner as well as introduce spurious negative correlations. Thus, the extent of negative correlations with the default mode network without global signal removal has not been well characterized, and it is has recently been hypothesized that the apparent negative correlations in many of the task-positive regions could be artifactually induced by global signal pre-processing. The present study aimed to examine negative and positive correlations with the default-mode network when model-based corrections for respiratory and cardiac noise are applied in lieu of global signal removal. Physiological noise correction consisted of (1) removal of time-locked cardiac and respiratory artifacts using RETROICOR (Glover, G.H., Li, T.Q., Ress, D., 2000. Image-based method for retrospective correction of physiological motion effects in fMRI: RETROICOR. Magn. Reson. Med. 44, 162-167), and (2) removal of low-frequency respiratory and heart rate variations by convolving these waveforms with pre-determined transfer functions (Birn et al., 2008; Chang et al., 2009) and projecting the resulting two signals out of the data. It is demonstrated that negative correlations between the default-mode network and regions of the task-positive network are present in the majority of individual subjects both with and without physiological noise correction. Physiological noise correction increased the spatial extent and magnitude of negative correlations, yielding negative
Noise-correlation-time-mediated localization in random nonlinear dynamical systems
Cabrera, J L; De la Rubia, F J; Cabrera, Juan L.
1999-01-01
We investigate the behavior of the residence times density function for different nonlinear dynamical systems with limit cycle behavior and perturbed parametrically with a colored noise. We present evidence that underlying the stochastic resonancelike behavior with the noise correlation time, there is an effect of optimal localization of the system trajectories in the phase space. This phenomenon is observed in systems with different nonlinearities, suggesting a degree of universality.
On the loss-of-correlation due to PIV image noise
Scharnowski, Sven; Kähler, Christian J.
2016-07-01
The effect of image noise on the uncertainty of velocity fields measured with particle image velocimetry (PIV) is still an unsolved problem. Image noise reduces the correlation signal and thus affects the estimation of the particle image displacement. However, a systematic quantification of the effect of the noise level on the loss-of-correlation is missing. In this work, a new method is proposed to estimate the loss-of-correlation due to image noise F_{σ } from the autocorrelation function of PIV images. Furthermore, a new definition of the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) for PIV images is suggested, which results in a bijective relation between F_{σ } and SNR. Based on the newly defined SNR, it becomes possible to estimate the signal level and the noise level itself. The presented method is very general because the estimation of F_{σ } and SNR works independently of various parameters, including the particle image intensity, the particle image density, the particle image size, the image noise distributions and the laser light-sheet profile. The findings lead to an extension of the fundamental PIV equation N=NI FI FO F_{Δ } and enable PIV users to optimize their measurement setup with respect to the image noise and not only based on the loss-of-correlation due to in-plane motion, out-of-plane motion and displacement gradients. Furthermore, the new definition of SNR allows for a characterization and comparison of PIV images. The new approaches are validated by using synthetic images, and the predictions are confirmed by using experimental data.
Cunio, Phillip M.; Weber, Reed; Knobel, Kimberly; Wager, Jason; Lopez, Gerardo
2014-09-01
Jet engine noise can be a hazard and environmental pollutant, affecting personnel working in close proximity to jet engines. Mitigating the effects of jet engine noise could reduce the potential for hearing loss in runway workers, but engine noise is not yet sufficiently well-characterized that it can easily be mitigated for new engine designs. That is, there exists a very complex relationship between jet engine design parameters, operating conditions, and resultant noise power levels. In this paper, we propose to evaluate the utility of high-speed imaging (also called hypertemporal imaging) in correlating the infrared signatures of jet aircraft engines with acoustic noise from the jet engines. This paper will focus on a theoretical analysis of jet engine infrared signatures, and will define potentially-detectable characteristics of such signatures in the hypertemporal domain. A systematic test campaign to determine whether such signatures actually exist and can be correlated with acoustic jet engine characteristics will be proposed. The detection of any hypertemporal signatures in association with acoustic signatures of jet engines will enable the use of a new domain in characterizing jet engine noise. This may in turn enable new methods of predicting or mitigating jet engine noise, which could lead to benefits for operators of large numbers of jet engines.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Raquel Caballero-Águila
2015-01-01
Full Text Available The distributed fusion state estimation problem is addressed for sensor network systems with random state transition matrix and random measurement matrices, which provide a unified framework to consider some network-induced random phenomena. The process noise and all the sensor measurement noises are assumed to be one-step autocorrelated and different sensor noises are one-step cross-correlated; also, the process noise and each sensor measurement noise are two-step cross-correlated. These correlation assumptions cover many practical situations, where the classical independence hypothesis is not realistic. Using an innovation methodology, local least-squares linear filtering estimators are recursively obtained at each sensor. The distributed fusion method is then used to form the optimal matrix-weighted sum of these local filters according to the mean squared error criterion. A numerical simulation example shows the accuracy of the proposed distributed fusion filtering algorithm and illustrates some of the network-induced stochastic uncertainties that can be dealt with in the current system model, such as sensor gain degradation, missing measurements, and multiplicative noise.
Caballero-Águila, R.; Hermoso-Carazo, A.; Linares-Pérez, J.
2015-02-01
In this paper, the optimal least-squares state estimation problem is addressed for a class of discrete-time multisensor linear stochastic systems with state transition and measurement random parameter matrices and correlated noises. It is assumed that at any sampling time, as a consequence of possible failures during the transmission process, one-step delays with different delay characteristics may occur randomly in the received measurements. The random delay phenomenon is modelled by using a different sequence of Bernoulli random variables in each sensor. The process noise and all the sensor measurement noises are one-step autocorrelated and different sensor noises are one-step cross-correlated. Also, the process noise and each sensor measurement noise are two-step cross-correlated. Based on the proposed model and using an innovation approach, the optimal linear filter is designed by a recursive algorithm which is very simple computationally and suitable for online applications. A numerical simulation is exploited to illustrate the feasibility of the proposed filtering algorithm.
Menon, Ravishankar; Gerstoft, Peter; Hodgkiss, William S
2012-11-01
Cross-correlations of diffuse noise fields can be used to extract environmental information. The influence of directional sources (usually ships) often results in a bias of the travel time estimates obtained from the cross-correlations. Using an array of sensors, insights from random matrix theory on the behavior of the eigenvalues of the sample covariance matrix (SCM) in an isotropic noise field are used to isolate the diffuse noise component from the directional sources. A sequential hypothesis testing of the eigenvalues of the SCM reveals eigenvalues dominated by loud sources that are statistical outliers for the assumed diffuse noise model. Travel times obtained from cross-correlations using only the diffuse noise component (i.e., by discarding or attenuating the outliers) converge to the predicted travel times based on the known array sensor spacing and measured sound speed at the site and are stable temporally (i.e., unbiased estimates). Data from the Shallow Water 2006 experiment demonstrates the effectiveness of this approach and that the signal-to-noise ratio builds up as the square root of time, as predicted by theory.
Noise is all around you, from televisions and radios to lawn mowers and washing machines. Normally, you ... sensitive structures of the inner ear and cause noise-induced hearing loss. More than 30 million Americans ...
Simakov, David S A; Pérez-Mercader, Juan
2013-12-27
We report on the experimental study of noise-induced oscillations in the photosensitive Ru(bpy)3(2+)-catalyzed Belousov-Zhabotinsky reaction in a continuous stirred tank reactor (CSTR). In the absence of deterministic oscillations and any external periodic forcing, oscillations appear when the system is perturbed by stochastic fluctuations in light irradiation with sufficiently high amplitude in the vicinity of the bifurcation point. The frequency distribution of the noise-induced oscillations is strongly affected by noise correlation. There is a shift of the noise-induced oscillation frequency toward higher frequencies for an intermediate range of the noise correlation exponent, indicating the occurrence of coherence resonance. Our findings indicate that, in principle, noise correlation can be used to direct chemical reactions toward certain behavior.
KPZ equation with correlated noise: emergent symmetries and non-universal observables
Mathey, Steven; Kloss, Thomas; Lecomte, Vivien; Canet, Léonie
2016-01-01
We investigate the steady-state fluctuations of a growing one-dimensional interface described by the KPZ dynamics with a noise featuring smooth spatial correlations of characteristic range $\\xi$. We employ Non-perturbative Functional Renormalization Group methods in order to resolve the properties of the system at all scales. We show that the physics of the standard (uncorrelated) KPZ equation emerges on large scales independently of $\\xi$. Moreover, the Renormalization Group flow is followed from the initial condition to the fixed point, that is from the microscopic dynamics to the large-distance properties. This provides access the small-scale features (and their dependence on the details of the noise correlations) as well as to the universal large-scale physics. In particular, we compute the kinetic energy spectrum of the steady state as well as its non-universal amplitude. The latter is experimentally accessible by measurements at large scales and retains a signature of the microscopic noise correlations....
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Chen Li-Mei; Cao Li; Wu Da-Jin
2007-01-01
Stochastic resonance (SR) is studied in a gain-noise model of a single-mode laser driven by a coloured pump noise and a quantum noise with cross-correlation between real and imaginary parts under a direct signal modulation. By using a linear approximation method, we find that the SR appears during the variation of signal-to-noise ratio (SNR)separately with the pump noise self-correlation time τ, the noise correlation coefficient between the real part and the imaginary part of the quantum noise λq, the attenuation coefficient γ and the deterministic steady-state intensity I0.In addition, it is found that the SR can be characterized not only by the dependence of SNR on the noise variables of τand λq, but also by the dependence of SNR on the laser system variables of γ and I0. Thus our investigation extends the characteristic quantity of SR proposed before.
Pulsar timing analysis in the presence of correlated noise
Coles, W; Champion, D J; Manchester, R N; Verbiest, J P W
2011-01-01
Pulsar timing observations are usually analysed with least-square-fitting procedures under the assumption that the timing residuals are uncorrelated (statistically "white"). Pulsar observers are well aware that this assumption often breaks down and causes severe errors in estimating the parameters of the timing model and their uncertainties. Ad hoc methods for minimizing these errors have been developed, but we show that they are far from optimal. Compensation for temporal correlation can be done optimally if the covariance matrix of the residuals is known using a linear transformation that whitens both the residuals and the timing model. We adopt a transformation based on the Cholesky decomposition of the covariance matrix, but the transformation is not unique. We show how to estimate the covariance matrix with sufficient accuracy to optimize the pulsar timing analysis. We also show how to apply this procedure to estimate the spectrum of any time series with a steep red power-law spectrum, including those wi...
Theory of oscillatory firing induced by spatially correlated noise and delayed inhibitory feedback
Lindner, Benjamin; Doiron, Brent; Longtin, André
2005-12-01
A network of leaky integrate-and-fire neurons with global inhibitory feedback and under the influence of spatially correlated noise is studied. We calculate the spectral statistics of the network (power spectrum of the population activity, cross spectrum between spike trains of different neurons) as well as of a single neuron (power spectrum of spike train, cross spectrum between external noise and spike train) within the network. As shown by comparison with numerical simulations, our theory works well for arbitrary network size if the feedback is weak and the amount of external noise does not exceed that of the internal noise. By means of our analytical results we discuss the quality of the correlation-induced oscillation in a large network as a function of the transmission delay and the internal noise intensity. It is shown that the strongest oscillation is obtained in a system with zero internal noise and adiabatically long delay (i.e., the delay period is longer than any other time scale in the system). For a neuron with a strong intrinsic frequency, the oscillation becomes strongly anharmonic in the case of a long delay time. We also discuss briefly the kind of synchrony introduced by the feedback-induced oscillation.
Montijn, Jorrit S; Vinck, Martin; Pennartz, Cyriel M A
2014-01-01
The primary visual cortex is an excellent model system for investigating how neuronal populations encode information, because of well-documented relationships between stimulus characteristics and neuronal activation patterns. We used two-photon calcium imaging data to relate the performance of different methods for studying population coding (population vectors, template matching, and Bayesian decoding algorithms) to their underlying assumptions. We show that the variability of neuronal responses may hamper the decoding of population activity, and that a normalization to correct for this variability may be of critical importance for correct decoding of population activity. Second, by comparing noise correlations and stimulus tuning we find that these properties have dissociated anatomical correlates, even though noise correlations have been previously hypothesized to reflect common synaptic input. We hypothesize that noise correlations arise from large non-specific increases in spiking activity acting on many weak synapses simultaneously, while neuronal stimulus response properties are dependent on more reliable connections. Finally, this paper provides practical guidelines for further research on population coding and shows that population coding cannot be approximated by a simple summation of inputs, but is heavily influenced by factors such as input reliability and noise correlation structure.
Kim, Sangtaek; Wagner, Kelvin H.; Narayanan, Ram M.; Zhou, Wei
2005-10-01
We describe a time-integrating acousto-optic correlator (TIAOC) developed for imaging and target detection using a wideband random-noise radar system. This novel polarization interferometric in-line TIAOC uses an intensity-modulated laser diode for the random noise reference and a polarization-switching, self-collimating acoustic shear-mode gallium phosphide (GaP) acousto-optic device for traveling-wave modulation of the radar returns. The time-integrated correlation output is detected on a 1-D charge-coupled device (CCD) detector array and calibrated and demodulated in real time to produce the complex radar range profile. The complex radar reflectivity is measured in more than 150 radar range bins in parallel on the 3000 pixels of the CCD, improving target acquisition speeds and sensitivities by 150 over previous serial analog correlator approaches. The polarization interferometric detection of the correlation using the undiffracted light as the reference allows us to use the full acousto-optic device (AOD) bandwidth as the system bandwidth. Also, the experimental result shows the fully complex random-noise signal correlation and coherent demodulation without an explicit carrier, demonstrating that optically processed random-noise radars do not need a stable local oscillator.
Cross-correlation analysis of noise radar signals propagating through lossy dispersive media
Smith, Sonny; Narayanan, Ram M.
2011-06-01
Correlation detection is an essential ingredient in noise radar. Such detection is achieved via coherent signal processing, which, conceivably, gives the best enhancement in the signal-to-noise ratio. Over the years, much research and progress has been made on the use of noise radar systems as means for effective through-wall detection. Information about a particular target's range and/or velocity are often acquired by comparing and analyzing both transmit and received waveforms. One of the widely used techniques employed to measure the degree of similarity between the two signals is correlation. The aforementioned methodology determines to what extent two waveforms match by multiplying and shifting one signal with respect to a time-lagged version of the second signal. This feature of correlation is very applicable to radar signals since a received signal from a target is delayed on the path of return to the receiving antenna. Transmission and reflection impairments will distort the propagating signals and degrade the correlation. Thus, it is essential that we try to study the effects that such degradations can have on the signals that will be used in the correlation process. This paper presents some concepts of a noise radar system, simulation studies, and an analysis of the results ascertained.
Body Waves Revealed by Spatial Stacking on Long-Term Cross-Correlation of Ambient Noise
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Kai Wang; Yinhe Luo; Kaifeng Zhao; Limeng Zhang
2014-01-01
ABSTRCT: Theoretical and experimental studies indicate that complete Green’s Function can be retrieved from cross-correlation in a diffuse field. High SNR (signal-to-noise ratio) surface waves have been extracted from cross-correlations of long-duration ambient noise across the globe. Body waves, not extracted in most of ambient noise studies, are thought to be more difficult to retrieve from regular ambient noise data processing. By stacking cross-correlations of ambient noise in 50 km inter-station distance bins in China, western United States and Europe, we observed coherent 20–100 s core phases (ScS, PKIKPPKIKP, PcPPKPPKP) and crustal-mantle phases (Pn, P, PL, Sn, S, SPL, SnSn, SS, SSPL) at distances ranging from 0 to 4 000 km. Our results show that these crustal-mantle phases show diverse characteristics due to different substructure and sources of body waves beneath different regions while the core phases are relatively robust and can be retrieved as long as stations are available. Further analysis indicates that the SNR of these body-wave phases depends on a compromise between stacking fold in spatial domain and the coherence of pre-stacked cross-correlations.Spatially stacked cross-correlations of seismic noise can provide new virtual seismograms for paths that complement earthquake data and that contain valuable information on the structure of the Earth. The extracted crustal-mantle phases can be used to study lithospheric heterogeneities and the robust core phases are significantly useful to study the deep structure of the Earth, such as detecting fine heterogeneities of the core-mantle boundary and constraining differential rotation of the inner core.
Effects of a periodic drive and correlated noise on birhythmic van der Pol systems
Yonkeu, R. Mbakob; Yamapi, R.; Filatrella, G.; Tchawoua, C.
2017-01-01
This paper considers the dynamics of a van der Pol birhythmic oscillator submitted both to colored noise and harmonic excitation. Applying the quasi-harmonic assumption to the corresponding Langevin equation we derive an approximated Fokker-Planck equation, that is compared with the results of computer simulations. We thus derive both the effects of the correlation time and the harmonic excitation on the parameter space where birhythmicity appears. In this region, we find that the multi-limit-cycle van der Pol oscillator reduces to an asymmetric bistable system where the sinusoidal drive intensity plays the role of asymmetric parameter, and noise can lead to stochastic bifurcations, consisting in a qualitative change of the stationary amplitude distribution. Under both influence of noise and harmonic excitation, the dynamics can be well characterized through the concepts of pseudo-potential, that regulates the low noise Arrhenius-like behavior.
Shimokawa, Tokuro; Watanabe, Ken; Kawamura, Hikaru
2015-10-01
Inspired by the recent theoretical suggestion that the random-bond S =1 /2 antiferromagnetic Heisenberg model on the triangular and the kagome lattices might exhibit a randomness-induced quantum spin liquid (QSL) behavior when the strength of the randomness exceeds a critical value, and that this "random-singlet state" might be relevant to the QSL behaviors experimentally observed in triangular organic salts κ -(ET) 2Cu2(CN) 3 and EtMe3Sb [Pd(dmit)2] 2 and in kagome herbertsmithite ZnCu3(OH) 6Cl2 , we further investigate the nature of the static and the dynamical spin correlations of these models. We compute the static and the dynamical spin structure factors, S (q ) and S (q ,ω ) , by means of an exact diagonalization method. In both triangular and kagome models, the computed S (q ,ω ) in the random-singlet state depends on the wave vector q only weakly, robustly exhibiting gapless behaviors accompanied by the broad distribution extending to higher energy ω . Especially in the strongly random kagome model, S (q ,ω ) hardly depends on q , and exhibits an almost flat distribution for a wide range of ω , together with a ω =0 peak. These features agree semiquantitatively with the recent neutron-scattering data on a single-crystal herbertsmithite. Furthermore, the computed magnetization curve agrees almost quantitatively with the experimental one recently measured on a single-crystal herbertsmithite. These results suggest that the QSL state observed in herbertsmithite might indeed be the randomness-induced QSL state, i.e., the random-singlet state.
Optimal cosmic microwave background map-making in the presence of cross-correlated noise
de Gasperis, G.; Buzzelli, A.; Cabella, P.; de Bernardis, P.; Vittorio, N.
2016-08-01
Aims: We present an extension of the ROMA map-making algorithm for the generation of optimal cosmic microwave background polarization maps. The new code allows for a possible cross-correlated noise component among the detectors of a CMB experiment. A promising application is the forthcoming LSPE balloon-borne experiment, which is devoted to the accurate observation of CMB polarization at large angular scales. Methods: We generalized the noise covariance matrix in time domain to account for all the off-diagonal terms due to the detector cross-talk. Hence, we performed preliminary forecasts of the LSPE-SWIPE instrument. Results: We found that considering the noise cross-correlation among the detectors results in a more realistic estimate of the angular power spectra. In particular, the extended ROMA algorithm has provided a considerable reduction of the spectra error bars. We expect that this improvement could be crucial in constraining the B-mode polarization at the largest scales.
Urdapilleta, Eugenio
2016-09-01
Spike generation in neurons produces a temporal point process, whose statistics is governed by intrinsic phenomena and the external incoming inputs to be coded. In particular, spike-evoked adaptation currents support a slow temporal process that conditions spiking probability at the present time according to past activity. In this work, we study the statistics of interspike interval correlations arising in such non-renewal spike trains, for a neuron model that reproduces different spike modes in a small adaptation scenario. We found that correlations are stronger as the neuron fires at a particular firing rate, which is defined by the adaptation process. When set in a subthreshold regime, the neuron may sustain this particular firing rate, and thus induce correlations, by noise. Given that, in this regime, interspike intervals are negatively correlated at any lag, this effect surprisingly implies a reduction in the variability of the spike count statistics at a finite noise intensity.
Urdapilleta, Eugenio
2016-01-01
Spike generation in neurons produces a temporal point process, whose statistics is governed by intrinsic phenomena and the external incoming inputs to be coded. In particular, spike-evoked adaptation currents support a slow temporal process that conditions spiking probability at the present time according to past activity. In this work, we study the statistics of interspike interval correlations arising in such non-renewal spike trains, for a neuron model that reproduces different spike modes in a small adaptation scenario. We found that correlations are stronger as the neuron fires at a particular firing rate, which is defined by the adaptation process. When set in a subthreshold regime, the neuron may sustain this particular firing rate, and thus induce correlations, by noise. Given that, in this regime, interspike intervals are negatively correlated at any lag, this effect surprisingly implies a reduction in the variability of the spike count statistics at a finite noise intensity.
Interpreting Cross-correlations of One-bit Filtered Seismic Noise
Hanasoge, Shravan
2013-01-01
Seismic noise, generated by oceanic microseisms and other sources, illuminates the crust in a manner different from tectonic sources, and therefore provides independent information. The primary measurable is the two-point cross-correlation, evaluated using traces recorded at a pair of seismometers over a finite-time interval. However, raw seismic traces contain intermittent large-amplitude perturbations arising from tectonic activity and instrumental errors, which may corrupt the estimated cross-correlations of microseismic fluctuations. In order to diminish the impact of these perturbations, the recorded traces are filtered using the nonlinear one-bit digitizer, which replaces the measurement by its sign. Previous theory shows that for stationary Gaussian-distributed seismic noise fluctuations one-bit and raw correlation functions are related by a simple invertible transformation. Here we extend this to show that the simple correspondence between these two correlation techniques remains valid for {\\it non-st...
Three-field noise correlation via third-order nonlinear optical processes.
Zheng, Huaibin; Khadka, Utsab; Song, Jianping; Zhang, Yanpeng; Xiao, Min
2011-07-01
We report experimental observation of three-field noise correlation between two coexisting four-wave mixing (FWM) signals and the probe signal in a coherently-prepared rubidium vapor system. The two FWM signals in a double-Λ type quasi-four-level atomic system are obtained in different directions via their respective phase-matching conditions and can be detected individually. These signals and the probe beam are found to be strongly correlated or anticorrelated with each other.
Carrier Noise Reduction in Speckle Correlation Interferometry by a Unique Averaging Technique
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Pechersky, M.J.
1999-01-20
We present experimental result of carrier speckle noise averaging by a novel approach to generate numerous identical correlation fringes with randomly different speckles. The surface under study is sprayed with a new dry paint or a layer each time for the repetitive experiments to generate randomly different surfaces of the carrier speckle patterns.
Filtering for linear systems with noise correlation and its application to singular systems
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Wu Jian-Rong; Song Shi-Ji
2004-01-01
In this paper, an optimal filter for a stochastic linear system with previous stage noise correlation is designed.Based on this result, together with the decomposition techniques of the stochastic singular linear system, the design of an optimal filter for a stochastic singular linear system is given.
Theodorsen, Audun; Rypdal, Martin
2016-01-01
The filtered Poisson process is often used as a reference model for intermittent fluctuations in physical systems. Here, this process is extended by adding a noise term, either as a purely additive term to the process or as a dynamical term in a stochastic differential equation. The moments, probability density function, auto- correlation function and power spectral density are derived and used to compare the effects of the different noise terms. Monte-Carlo studies of synthetic time series are used to investigate the accuracy of parameter estimation and to identify methods for separating the noise types. It is shown that the probability density function and the three lowest moments provide accurate estimations of the parameters, but are unable to separate the noise types. The auto-correlation function and the power spectral density also provide methods for estimating the model parameters, as well as being capable of determining the noise type. The number of times the signal passes a prescribed threshold in t...
Alejos, Ana Vazques; Dawood, Muhammad
2012-06-01
In this contribution we examine the propagation of an ultrawideband (UWB) random noise signal through dispersive media such as soil, vegetation, and water, using Fourier-based analysis. For such media, the propagated signal undergoes medium-specific impairments which degrade the received signal in a different way than the non-dispersive propagation media. Theoretically, larger penetration depths into a dispersive medium can be achieved by identifying and detecting the precursors, thereby offering significantly better signal-to-noise ratio and enhanced imaging. For a random noise signal, well defined precursors in term of peak-amplitude don't occur. The phenomenon must therefore be studied in terms of energy evolution. Additionally, the distortion undergone by the UWB random noise signal through a dispersive medium can introduce frequency-dependent uncertainty or noise in the received signal. This leads to larger degradation of the cross-correlation function (CCF), mainly in terms of sidelobe levels and main peak deformation, and consequently making the information retrieval difficult. We would further analyze one method to restore the shape and carrier frequency of the input UWB random noise signal, thereby, improving the CCF estimation.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Cheng Qing-Hua; Cao Li; Xu Da-Hai; Wu Da-Jin
2005-01-01
Using the linear approximation, we have studied the time evolution of intensity correlation function C(t) in a single-mode laser driven by both the coloured pump noise with signal modulation and the quantum noise with crosscorrelation between its real and imaginary parts. In the case of the pump noise with self-correlation time τ 1, the time evolution of C(t) only exhibits a form of damping oscillation.
Tobey, R. I.; Wall, S.; Foerst, M.; Bromberger, H.; Khanna, V.; Turner, J. J.; Schlotter, W.; Trigo, M.; Krupin, O.; Lee, W. S.; Chuang, Y. -D.; Moore, R.; Cavalieri, A. L.; Wilkins, S. B.; Zheng, H.; Mitchell, J. F.; Dhesi, S. S.; Cavalleri, A.; Hill, J.P.
2012-01-01
Using time-resolved resonant soft x-ray diffraction, we measure the evolution of the full three-dimensional scattering volume of the antiferromagnetic superlattice reflection in the single-layer manganite La0.5Sr1.5MnO4 on femtosecond time scales following photoexcitation. We find that the in-plane
Kachan, Devin; Levine, Alex; Bruinsma, Robijn
2014-03-01
Biology is rife with examples of active materials - soft matter systems driven into nonequilibrium steady states by energy input at the micro scale. For example, solutions of active micron scale swimmers produce active fluids showing phenomena reminiscent of turbulent convection at low Reynolds number; cytoskeletal networks driven by endogenous molecular motors produce active solids whose mechanics and low frequency strain fluctuations depend sensitively on motor activity. One hallmark of these systems is that they are driven at the micro scale by temporally correlated forces. In this talk, we study how correlated noise at the micro scale leads to novel long wavelength and long time scale dynamics at the macro scale in a simple model system. Specifically, we study the fluctuations of a ϕ4 scalar field obeying model A dynamics and driven by noise with a finite correlation time τ. We show that the effective dynamical system at long length and time scales is driven by white noise with a renormalized amplitude and renormalized transport coefficients. We discuss the implications of this result for a broad class of active matter systems driven at the micro scale by colored noise.
An Optimal Energy Estimator to Reduce Correlated Noise for the EXO-200 Light Readout
:,; Hall, C; Albert, J B; Barbeau, P S; Beck, D; Belov, V; Breidenbach, M; Brunner, T; Burenkov, A; Cao, G F; Cen, W R; Chambers, C; Cleveland, B; Coon, M; Craycraft, A; Daniels, T; Danilov, M; Daugherty, S J; Davis, J; Delaquis, S; Der Mesrobian-Kabakian, A; DeVoe, R; Didberidze, T; Dilling, J; Dolgolenko, A; Dolinski, M J; Dunford, M; Fairbank, W; Farine, J; Feldmeier, W; Feyzbakhsh, S; Fierlinger, P; Fudenberg, D; Gornea, R; Graham, K; Gratta, G; Hughes, M; Jewell, M J; Johnson, A; Johnson, T N; Johnston, S; Karelin, A; Kaufman, L J; Killick, R; Koffas, T; Kravitz, S; Krücken, R; Kuchenkov, A; Kumar, K S; Leonard, D S; Licciardi, C; Lin, Y H; Ling, J; MacLellan, R; Marino, M G; Mong, B; Moore, D; Njoya, O; Nelson, R; Odian, A; Ostrovskiy, I; Piepke, A; Pocar, A; Prescott, C Y; Retière, F; Rowson, P C; Russell, J J; Schubert, A; Sinclair, D; Smith, E; Stekhanov, V; Tarka, M; Tolba, T; Tsang, R; Twelker, K; Vuilleumier, J -L; Waite, A; Walton, J; Walton, T; Weber, M; Wen, L J; Wichoski, U; Wood, J; Yang, L; Yen, Y -R; Zeldovich, O Ya
2016-01-01
The energy resolution of the EXO-200 detector is limited by electronics noise in the measurement of the scintillation response. Here we present a new technique to extract optimal scintillation energy measurements for signals split across multiple channels in the presence of correlated noise. The implementation of these techniques improves the energy resolution of the detector at the neutrinoless double beta decay Q-value from $\\left[1.9641\\pm 0.0039\\right]\\%$ to $\\left[1.5820\\pm 0.0044\\right]\\%$.
Stochastic Bifurcations induced by correlated Noise in a Birhythmic van der Pol System
Yonkeu, R Mbakob; Filatrella, G; Tchawoua, C
2015-01-01
We investigate the effects of exponentially correlated noise on birhythmic van der Pol type oscillators. The analytical results are obtained applying the quasi-harmonic assumption to the Langevin equation to derive an approximated Fokker-Planck equation. This approach allows to analytically derive the probability distributions as well as the activation energies associated to switching between coexisting attractors. The stationary probability density function of the van der Pol oscillator reveals the influence of the correlation time on the dynamics. Stochastic bifurcations are discussed through a qualitative change of the stationary probability distribution, which indicates that noise intensity and correlation time can be treated as bifurcation parameters. Comparing the analytical and numerical results, we find good agreement both when the frequencies of the attractors are about equal or when they are markedly different.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Xiaoming Chen
2012-01-01
Full Text Available Most of previous studies on diversity gains and capacities of multiantenna systems assumed independent and identically distributed (i.i.d. Gaussian noises. There are a few studies about the noise correlation effects on diversity gains or MIMO capacities, however, by simulations only. In this paper, the maximum ratio combining (MRC diversity gain and multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO capacity including correlated noises are presented. Based on the derived formulas, measurements in a reverberation chamber are performed for the first time to observe the effect of noise correlations on diversity gains and MIMO capacities.
Observation of Noise Correlated by the Hawking Effect in a Water Tank
Euvé, L.-P.; Michel, F.; Parentani, R.; Philbin, T. G.; Rousseaux, G.
2016-09-01
We measured the power spectrum and two-point correlation function for the randomly fluctuating free surface on the downstream side of a stationary flow with a maximum Froude number Fmax≈0.85 reached above a localized obstacle. On such a flow the scattering of incident long wavelength modes is analogous to that responsible for black hole radiation (the Hawking effect). Our measurements of the noise show a clear correlation between pairs of modes of opposite energies. We also measure the scattering coefficients by applying the same analysis of correlations to waves produced by a wave maker.
Correlation of noise storm and H-alpha activity for the CONS period Sept. 1 - 4, 1980.
Vršnak, B.; Ruždjak, V.
The Ca plage index was found to be highly correlated with the 260 MHz radio flux. The noise storm enhancement followed the increase in the number of major flares with the delay of one day. The noise storm behaviour was correlated with the three hour flare index, but not with the one hour flare index.
Correlation of Noise Signature to Pulsed Power Events at the HERMES III Accelerator.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Lewis, Barbara [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Joseph, Nathan Ryan [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Salazar, Juan Diego [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)
2016-11-01
The HERMES III accelerator, which is located at Sandia National Laboratories' Tech Area IV, is the largest pulsed gamma X-ray source in the world. The accelerator is made up of 20 inductive cavities that are charged to 1 MV each by complex pulsed power circuitry. The firing time of the machine components ranges between the microsecond and nanosecond timescales. This results in a variety of electromagnetic frequencies when the accelerator fires. Testing was done to identify the HERMES electromagnetic noise signal and to map it to the various accelerator trigger events. This report will show the measurement methods used to capture the noise spectrum produced from the machine and correlate this noise signature with machine events.
Effects of Tropospheric Spatio-Temporal Correlated Noise on the Analysis of Space Geodetic Data
Romero-Wolf, A.; Jacobs, C. S.; Ratcliff, J. T.
2012-01-01
The standard VLBI analysis models the distribution of measurement noise as Gaussian. Because the price of recording bits is steadily decreasing, thermal errors will soon no longer dominate. As a result, it is expected that troposphere and instrumentation/clock errors will increasingly become more dominant. Given that both of these errors have correlated spectra, properly modeling the error distributions will become increasingly relevant for optimal analysis. We discuss the advantages of modeling the correlations between tropospheric delays using a Kolmogorov spectrum and the frozen flow assumption pioneered by Treuhaft and Lanyi. We then apply these correlated noise spectra to the weighting of VLBI data analysis for two case studies: X/Ka-band global astrometry and Earth orientation. In both cases we see improved results when the analyses are weighted with correlated noise models vs. the standard uncorrelated models. The X/Ka astrometric scatter improved by approx.10% and the systematic Delta delta vs. delta slope decreased by approx. 50%. The TEMPO Earth orientation results improved by 17% in baseline transverse and 27% in baseline vertical.
Coarse-Grained Theory of Biological Charge Transfer with Spatially and Temporally Correlated Noise.
Liu, Chaoren; Beratan, David N; Zhang, Peng
2016-04-21
System-environment interactions are essential in determining charge-transfer (CT) rates and mechanisms. We developed a computationally accessible method, suitable to simulate CT in flexible molecules (i.e., DNA) with hundreds of sites, where the system-environment interactions are explicitly treated with numerical noise modeling of time-dependent site energies and couplings. The properties of the noise are tunable, providing us a flexible tool to investigate the detailed effects of correlated thermal fluctuations on CT mechanisms. The noise is parametrizable by molecular simulation and quantum calculation results of specific molecular systems, giving us better molecular resolution in simulating the system-environment interactions than sampling fluctuations from generic spectral density functions. The spatially correlated thermal fluctuations among different sites are naturally built-in in our method but are not readily incorporated using approximate spectral densities. Our method has quantitative accuracy in systems with small redox potential differences (
Effects of cross-correlated noises on the intensity fluctuation of the single-mode laser system
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Bing Wang; Shuwen Dai; Shuping Ge
2006-01-01
@@ A single-mode laser model with cross-correlated additive and multiplicative noise terms is considered, and the effects of correlation between noises on the relaxation time and the intensity correlation function are studied. Using the projection operator method and taking into account the effects of the memory kernels of the intensity correlation function, the analytic expressions for the relaxation time and the correlation function are derived. Based on numerical computations, it is found that the self-correlation time and the cross-correlation time have the same effects on the single-mode laser system.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
CAOLi; WANGJun; WuDa-Jin; LIANGGui-Yun
2003-01-01
Applying the approximate Fokker-Planck equation we derived, we obtain the analytic expression of the stationary laser intensity distribution Pst(l) by studying the single-mode laser cubic model subject to colored cross-correlation additive and multiplicative noise, each of which is colored. Based on it, we discuss the effects on the stationary laser intensity distribution Pot(I) by cross-correlation between noises and "color" of noises (non-Markovian effect) when the laser system is above the threshold. In detail, we analyze two cases: One is that the three correlation-times (i.e.the self-correlation and cross-correlation times of the additive and multiplicative noise) are chosen to be the same value(Tl=T2=T3=T). For this case, the effect of noise cross-correlation is investigated emphatically, and we detect that only when λ≠ 0 can the noise-induced transition occur in the Pst (I) curve, and only when T≠ 0 and λ≠0, can the "reentrant noise-induced transition" occur. The other case is that the three correlation times are not the same value,T1≠T2≠T3. For this case, we find that the noise-induced transition occurring in the Pst(I) curve is entirely different when the values of T1,T2, and T3 are changed respectively. In particular, when T2 (serf-correlation time of additive noise) is cha~g~g, the ratio of the two maximums of the Pst( I) curve R exhibits an interesting phenomenon,"reentrant noise-induced transition", which demonstrates the effect of noise "color" (non-Markovian effect).
Measurements of Correlated Conductances and Noise Fluctuations from 3-Lead Quantum Dots
Toonen, R. C.; Prada, M.; Qin, H.; Huettel, A. K.; Goswami, S.; Eriksson, M. A.; van der Weide, D. W.; Eberl, K.; Blick, R. H.
2005-08-01
We have investigated the conductance properties of a few-electron quantum dot with three terminals. In the regime of strong coupling between the quantum dot and the leads, we have observed the both the integer- and half-integer-spin Kondo effect at zero magnetic field. Within the integer-spin conductance diamond, we find cotunneling spectral lines which correspond to singlet-triplet transitions. We extract the exchange energy from this information and find that the value (J = 320 μeV) agrees remarkably well with the theoretical prediction. We believe that spin dependent transport in a three-terminal quantum dot could yield positive cross-correlations between shot noise events on two output channels. To investigate such phenomena, we have designed an analog continuum cross-correlator to analyze the shot noise spectra of our device in the X- and Ku-bands (8 to 18 GHz).
Subtraction of correlated noise in global networks of gravitational-wave interferometers
Coughlin, Michael W; De Rosa, Rosario; Fiori, Irene; Gołkowski, Mark; Guidry, Melissa; Harms, Jan; Kubisz, Jerzy; Kulak, Andrzej; Mlynarczyk, Janusz; Paoletti, Federico; Thrane, Eric
2016-01-01
The recent discovery of merging black holes suggests that a stochastic gravitational-wave background is within reach of the advanced detector network operating at design sensitivity. However, correlated magnetic noise from Schumann resonances threatens to contaminate observation of a stochastic background. In this paper, we report on the first effort to eliminate intercontinental correlated noise from Schumann resonances using Wiener filtering. Using magnetometers as proxies for gravitational-wave detectors, we demonstrate as much as a factor of two reduction in the coherence between magnetometers on different continents. While much work remains to be done, our results constitute a proof-of-principle and motivate follow-up studies with a dedicated array of magnetometers.
Subtraction of correlated noise in global networks of gravitational-wave interferometers
Coughlin, Michael W.; Christensen, Nelson L.; De Rosa, Rosario; Fiori, Irene; Gołkowski, Mark; Guidry, Melissa; Harms, Jan; Kubisz, Jerzy; Kulak, Andrzej; Mlynarczyk, Janusz; Paoletti, Federico; Thrane, Eric
2016-11-01
The recent discovery of merging black holes suggests that a stochastic gravitational-wave background is within reach of the advanced detector network operating at design sensitivity. However, correlated magnetic noise from Schumann resonances threatens to contaminate observation of a stochastic background. In this paper, we report on the first effort to eliminate intercontinental correlated noise from Schumann resonances using Wiener filtering. Using magnetometers as proxies for gravitational-wave detectors, we demonstrate as much as a factor of two reduction in the coherence between magnetometers on different continents. While much work remains to be done, our results constitute a proof-of-principle and motivate follow-up studies with a dedicated array of magnetometers.
Magnetostructural correlations in the antiferromagnetic Co 2- x Cu x(OH)AsO 4 ( x=0 and 0.3) phases
de Pedro, I.; Rojo, J. M.; Pizarro, J. L.; Rodríguez Fernández, J.; Arriortua, M. I.; Rojo, T.
2011-08-01
The Co 2- xCu x(OH)AsO 4 ( x=0 and 0.3) compounds have been synthesized under mild hydrothermal conditions and characterized by X-ray single-crystal diffraction and spectroscopic data. The hydroxi-arsenate phases crystallize in the Pnnm orthorhombic space group with Z=4 and the unit-cell parameters are a=8.277(2) Å, b=8.559(2) Å, c=6.039(1) Å and a=8.316(1) Å, b=8.523(2) Å, c=6.047(1) Å for x=0 and 0.3, respectively. The crystal structure consists of a three-dimensional framework in which M(1)O 5-trigonal bipyramid dimers and M(2)O 6-octahedral chains ( M=Co and Cu) are present. Co 2(OH)AsO 4 shows an anomalous three-dimensional antiferromagnetic ordering influenced by the magnetic field below 21 K within the presence of a ferromagnetic component below the ordering temperature. When Co 2+ is partially substituted by Cu 2+ions, Co 1.7Cu 0.3(OH)AsO 4, the ferromagnetic component observed in Co 2(OH)AsO 4 disappears and the antiferromagnetic order is maintained in the entire temperature range. Heat capacity measurements show an unusual magnetic field dependence of the antiferromagnetic transitions. This λ-type anomaly associated to the three-dimensional antiferromagnetic ordering grows with the magnetic field and becomes better defined as observed in the non-substituted phase. These results are attributed to the presence of the unpaired electron in the d x2- y2 orbital and the absence of overlap between neighbour ions.
The Dynamics of Nonequilibrium Transitions Induced By the Cross-Correlated Noises: Numerical Results
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
A.N. Vitrenko
2010-01-01
Full Text Available The dynamic system described by the Langevin equation with two cross-correlated Gaussian white noises is considered. The non-equilibrium probability distribution function of the system is calculated by the numerical methods. The time of change of the initially unimodal distribution to the bimodal one is determined for different values of the control parameter. A critical slowing down in the transition dynamics is demonstrated.
Mathey, Steven; Agoritsas, Elisabeth; Kloss, Thomas; Lecomte, Vivien; Canet, Léonie
2017-03-01
We investigate the stationary-state fluctuations of a growing one-dimensional interface described by the Kardar-Parisi-Zhang (KPZ) dynamics with a noise featuring smooth spatial correlations of characteristic range ξ . We employ nonperturbative functional renormalization group methods to resolve the properties of the system at all scales. We show that the physics of the standard (uncorrelated) KPZ equation emerges on large scales independently of ξ . Moreover, the renormalization group flow is followed from the initial condition to the fixed point, that is, from the microscopic dynamics to the large-distance properties. This provides access to the small-scale features (and their dependence on the details of the noise correlations) as well as to the universal large-scale physics. In particular, we compute the kinetic energy spectrum of the stationary state as well as its nonuniversal amplitude. The latter is experimentally accessible by measurements at large scales and retains a signature of the microscopic noise correlations. Our results are compared to previous analytical and numerical results from independent approaches. They are in agreement with direct numerical simulations for the kinetic energy spectrum as well as with the prediction, obtained with the replica trick by Gaussian variational method, of a crossover in ξ of the nonuniversal amplitude of this spectrum.
Spin-noise correlations and spin-noise exchange driven by low-field spin-exchange collisions
Dellis, A. T.; Loulakis, M.; Kominis, I. K.
2013-01-01
The physics of spin exchange collisions have fueled several discoveries in fundamental physics and numerous applications in medical imaging and nuclear magnetic resonance. We here report on the experimental observation and theoretical justification of spin-noise exchange, the transfer of spin-noise from one atomic species to another. The signature of spin-noise exchange is an increase of the total spin-noise power at low magnetic fields, on the order of 1 mG, where the two-species spin-noise ...
Experimental analysis of image noise and interpolation bias in digital image correlation
Gao, Zeren; Xu, Xiaohai; Su, Yong; Zhang, Qingchuan
2016-06-01
The popularization of the digital image correlation (DIC) method has raised urgent needs to evaluate the accuracy of this method. However, there are still some problems to be solved. Among the problems, the effects of various factors, such as the image noise caused by the camera sensors, the employed interpolation algorithm, and the structure of the speckle patterns, have become a major concern. To experimentally measure the position-dependent systematic error (i.e. interpolation bias) caused by non-ideal interpolation algorithm is an important way to evaluate the quality of the speckle patterns in the correlation method, and remains unsolved. In this work, a novel, simple and convenient method is proposed to measure the interpolation bias. In the new method which can avoid the out-of-plane displacements and the mechanical errors of translation stages, integral-pixel shifts are applied to the image shown on the screen so that sub-pixel displacements can be realized in the images captured by the camera via proper experimental settings. Besides, the fluctuations of the image noise and the sub-pixel displacement errors caused by the image noise are experimentally analyzed by employing three types of cameras commonly used in the DIC measurements. Experimental results indicate that the fluctuations of the image noise are not only proportional to the image gray value, but also dependent on the type of the employed camera. On the basis of eliminating the image noise via the image averaging technique, high-precision interpolation bias curves more than one period are experimentally obtained by the proposed method.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Jia Zhenglin; Mei Dongcheng, E-mail: charlie@yxnu.ne [Department of Physics, Yunnan University, Kunming 650091, Yunnan (China)
2010-05-01
We investigate the effects of the noise parameters and immunization strength {beta} on the dynamical properties of a tumor growth system with both immunization and colored cross-correlated noises. The analytical expressions for the associated relaxation time T{sub C} and the normalized correlation function C(s) are derived by means of the projection operator method. The results indicate that: (i) T{sub C} as a function of the multiplicative noise intensity {alpha} shows resonance-like behavior, i.e. the curves of T{sub C} versus {alpha} exhibit a single-peak structure and its peak position changes with increasing correlation strength between noises {lambda}, the autocorrelation time of multiplicative noise {tau}{sub 1}, the autocorrelation time of additive noise {tau}{sub 2} and the cross-correlation time {tau}{sub 3}. This behavior can be understood in terms of the noise-enhanced stability effect and the influence of the memory effects on it. (ii) The increasing {lambda}, {tau}{sub 1}, {tau}{sub 2} and the additive noise intensity D slow down the fluctuation decay of the tumor population, whereas the increasing {tau}{sub 3} and {beta} speed it up. (iii) C(s) increases as {lambda}, {tau}{sub 1}, {tau}{sub 2} and {beta} increase, while it decreases with {tau}{sub 3} increasing. Our study shows that the effects of some noise parameters on tumor growth can be modified due to the presence of the immunization effect.
Reddy, V R; Reddy, T G; Reddy, P Y; Reddy, K R
2003-01-01
An AC modulation technique is described to convert stochastic signal variations into an amplitude variation and its retrieval through Fourier analysis. It is shown that this AC detection of signals of stochastic processes when processed through auto- and cross-correlation techniques improve the signal-to-noise ratio; the correlation techniques serve a similar purpose of frequency and phase filtering as that of phase-sensitive detection. A few model calculations applied to nuclear spectroscopy measurements such as Angular Correlations, Mossbauer spectroscopy and Pulse Height Analysis reveal considerable improvement in the sensitivity of signal detection. Experimental implementation of the technique is presented in terms of amplitude variations of harmonics representing the derivatives of normal spectra. Improved detection sensitivity to spectral variations is shown to be significant. These correlation techniques are general and can be made applicable to all the fields of particle counting where measurements ar...
Guo, Xueshi; Li, Xiaoying; Liu, Nannan; Ou, Z Y
2016-07-26
One of the important functions in a communication network is the distribution of information. It is not a problem to accomplish this in a classical system since classical information can be copied at will. However, challenges arise in quantum system because extra quantum noise is often added when the information content of a quantum state is distributed to various users. Here, we experimentally demonstrate a quantum information tap by using a fiber optical parametric amplifier (FOPA) with correlated inputs, whose noise is reduced by the destructive quantum interference through quantum entanglement between the signal and the idler input fields. By measuring the noise figure of the FOPA and comparing with a regular FOPA, we observe an improvement of 0.7 ± 0.1 dB and 0.84 ± 0.09 dB from the signal and idler outputs, respectively. When the low noise FOPA functions as an information splitter, the device has a total information transfer coefficient of Ts+Ti = 1.5 ± 0.2, which is greater than the classical limit of 1. Moreover, this fiber based device works at the 1550 nm telecom band, so it is compatible with the current fiber-optical network for quantum information distribution.
Guo, Xueshi; Li, Xiaoying; Liu, Nannan; Ou, Z. Y.
2016-07-01
One of the important functions in a communication network is the distribution of information. It is not a problem to accomplish this in a classical system since classical information can be copied at will. However, challenges arise in quantum system because extra quantum noise is often added when the information content of a quantum state is distributed to various users. Here, we experimentally demonstrate a quantum information tap by using a fiber optical parametric amplifier (FOPA) with correlated inputs, whose noise is reduced by the destructive quantum interference through quantum entanglement between the signal and the idler input fields. By measuring the noise figure of the FOPA and comparing with a regular FOPA, we observe an improvement of 0.7 ± 0.1 dB and 0.84 ± 0.09 dB from the signal and idler outputs, respectively. When the low noise FOPA functions as an information splitter, the device has a total information transfer coefficient of Ts+Ti = 1.5 ± 0.2, which is greater than the classical limit of 1. Moreover, this fiber based device works at the 1550 nm telecom band, so it is compatible with the current fiber-optical network for quantum information distribution.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
SHAO Yuanzhi; ZHONG Weirong; HE Zhenhui
2005-01-01
We report the nonequilibrium dynamical phase transition (NDPT) appearing in a kinetic Ising spin system (ISS) subject to the joint application of a deterministic external field and the stochastic mutually correlated noises simultaneously. A time-dependent Ginzburg-Landau stochastic differential equation, including an oscillating modulation and the correlated multiplicative and additive white noises, was addressed and the numerical solution to the relevant Fokker-Planck equation was presented on the basis of an average-period approach of driven field. The correlated white noises and the deterministic modulation induce a kind of dynamic symmetry-breaking order, analogous to the stochastic resonance in trend, in the kinetic ISS, and the reentrant transition has been observed between the dynamic disorder and order phases when the intensities of multiplicative and additive noises were changing. The dependencies of a dynamic order parameter Q upon the intensities of additive noise A and multiplicative noise M, the correlation λ between two noises, and the amplitude of applied external field h were investigated quantitatively and visualized vividly. Here a brief discussion is given to outline the underlying mechanism of the NDPT in a kinetic ISS driven by an external force and correlated noises.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
ZHANGLi; CAOLi; WUDa-Jin
2003-01-01
Applying the method of the unified colored noise approximation and phase lock, we study in this paper the stationary intensity distribution of the single-mode laser driven by colored pump noise with cross-correlation between the real and imaginary parts of the quantum noise. We present a thorough discussion of how the cross-correlation λq between the real and imaginary parts of the quantum noise and the self-correlation time τ of the pump noise determine the behaviors of the stationary distribution Qst(I), the mean (I）, and the variance λ2(0) of the laser intensity. It is shown that cross-correlation intensity λq of the complex quantum noise can induce a first-order-like transition. When the pump noise is colored noise (τ≠0), improving the pump parameters monotonously will make the curves of Qst(I) exhibit reentrant phase transition. The fluctuations of laser intensity are strongly influenced by λq and τ when the laser is operated near or below threshold. Especially when τ≠0, the heights of the peaks of the curves of λ2(0)-α0 and α3(0)-α0, (here a0 is the net gain coefficient) go up as λq increases. However the entire curves λ2(0)-α0 and λ3(0)-α0 are abruptly suppressed when λq = 1, in similarity to phase transition of stationary intensity distribution.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
ZHANG Li; CAO Li; WU Da-Jin
2003-01-01
Applying the method of the unified colored noise approximation and phase lock, we study in this paper the stationary intensity distribution of the single-mode laser driven by colored pump noise with cross-correlation between the real and imaginary parts of the quantum noise. We present a thorough discussion of how the cross-correlation λq between the realand imaginary parts of the quantum noise and the self-correlation time τ of the pump noise determine the behaviors of the stationary distribution Qst(I), the mean (I), and the variance λ2(0) of the laser intensity. It is shown that cross-correlation intensity λq of the complex quantum noise can induce a first-order-like transition. When the pump noise is colored noise (τ≠ 0), improving the pump parameters monotonously will make the curves of Qst(I)exhibit reentrant phase transition. The fluctuations of laser intensity are strongly influenced by λq and τ when the laser is operated near or below threshold. Especially when τ≠ 0, the heights of the peaks of the curves of λ2(0)-a0 and λ3(0)-a0, (here a0 is the net gain coefficient) go up as λq increases. However the entire curves of λ2(0)-a0 and λ3(0)-a0are abruptly suppressed when λq = 1, in similarity to phase transition of stationary intensity distribution.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Han Li-Bo; Cao Li; Wu Da-Jin
2004-01-01
By using the linear approximation method, the output power spectrum is calculated for a single-mode laser driven by coloured pump and quantum noises with coloured correlation. We have observed that the configuration of the output power spectrum is complicated: that is, it can be of single peak, two peaks or three peaks. The configurations of the power spectrum can be transformed from one into another by changing the cross-correlation time, the cross-correlation coefficient between the two noises, and pump noise intensity.
Method of Removing the Cross-correlation Noise for Dual-input and Dual-output SAR
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Huang Ping-ping
2012-03-01
Full Text Available According to analysis of separating the mixed echo by suppressing the cross-correlation noise in dual-input and dual-output SAR system, a new method based on threshold filter and inverse filter was proposed. The method can eliminate the most energy of cross-correlation noise by threshold filter, which can suppress the cross-correlation noise well. The principle and implementation steps are presented in detail. The computer simulation and account for the integrated sidelobe ratio showed the effectiveness of the proposed method.
Glattli, D. C.; Roulleau, P.
2016-02-01
We study the Hanbury Brown and Twiss correlation of electronic quasi-particles injected in a quantum conductor using current noise correlations and we experimentally address the effect of finite temperature. By controlling the relative time of injection of two streams of electrons it is possible to probe the fermionic antibunching, performing the electron analog of the optical Hong Ou Mandel (HOM) experiment. The electrons are injected using voltage pulses with either sine-wave or Lorentzian shape. In the latter case, we propose a set of orthogonal wavefunctions, describing periodic trains of multiply charged electron pulses, which give a simple interpretation to the HOM shot noise. The effect of temperature is then discussed and experimentally investigated. We observe a perfect electron anti-bunching for a large range of temperature, showing that, as recently predicted, thermal mixing of the states does not affect anti-bunching properties, a feature qualitatively different from dephasing. For single charge Lorentzian pulses, we provide experimental evidence of the prediction that the HOM shot noise variation versus the emission time delay is remarkably independent of the temperature.
Studying propagation of seismic waves across the Valley of Mexico from correlations of seismic noise
Rivet, D. N.; Campillo, M.; Shapiro, N. M.; Singh, S.; Cruz Atienza, V. M.; Quintanar, L.; Valdés, C.
2009-12-01
We reconstruct Rayleigh and Love waves from cross-correlations of ambient seismic noise recorded at 22 broad-band stations of the MesoAmerica Seismic Experiment (MASE) and Valley of Mexico Experiment (VMEX). The cross-correlations are computed over 2 years of noise data for the 9 MASE stations and over 1 year for the 13 VMEX stations. Surface waves with sufficient signal-to-noise ratio are then used in the group velocity dispersion analysis. We use the reconstructed waveforms to measure group velocity dispersion curves at period of 0.5 to 5 seconds. For traveling path inside the lake-bed zone, the maximum energy is observed at velocity higher than expected for the fundamental mode. This indicates that the propagation within the Mexico basin is dominated by higher modes of surface waves that propagate deeper in the basin. We identify the propagation modes by comparing observations with theoretical dispersion curves and eigenfunctions calculated for Rayleigh and Loves waves associated with a given model of the upper crust. The fundamental mode shows a very low group velocity, Valley of Mexico may be a determining factor in the long duration of the seismic signal. A better velocity constraint on the deeper structure of the basin is thus needed to fully understand this phenomenon.
Méndez, Vicenç; Denisov, S I; Campos, Daniel; Horsthemke, Werner
2014-07-01
We derive the Fokker-Planck equation for multivariable Langevin equations with cross-correlated Gaussian white noises for an arbitrary interpretation of the stochastic differential equation. We formulate the conditions when the solution of the Fokker-Planck equation does not depend on which stochastic calculus is adopted. Further, we derive an equivalent multivariable Ito stochastic differential equation for each possible interpretation of the multivariable Langevin equation. To demonstrate the usefulness and significance of these general results, we consider the motion of Brownian particles. We study in detail the stability conditions for harmonic oscillators with two white noises, one of which is additive, random forcing, and the other, which accounts for fluctuations of either the damping or the spring coefficient, is multiplicative. We analyze the role of cross correlation in terms of the different noise interpretations and confirm the theoretical predictions via numerical simulations. We stress the interest of our results for numerical simulations of stochastic differential equations with an arbitrary interpretation of the stochastic integrals.
Effects of Time Delay on Stability of an Unstable State in a Bistable System with Correlated Noises
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
LI Chun; MEI Dong-Cheng
2011-01-01
@@ Effects of time delay on stability of an unstable state in a time-delayed bistable system are investigated.The analytic expression of the transition rate W(xu,τ)from unstable state xu to stable state x+ is derived.The numerical calculation results of W(xu,τ)indicate that W(xu,τ)decreases with the increasing multiplicative noise intensity, the additive noise intensi by and the strength of correlations between the multiplicative and the additive noise increase, but W(xu,τ)increases with increasing delay time.Namely, the multiplicative noise, the additive noise and the correlations between the multiplicative and the additive noises enhance the stability of the unstable state in the time-delayed bistable system but the stability is weakened by time delay.%Effects of time delay on stability of an unstable state in a time-delayed bistable system are investigated. The analytic expression of the transition rate W(xu, T) from unstable state xu to stable state x+ is derived. The numerical calculation results of W(xu, T) indicate that W(xu, T) decreases with the increasing multiplicative noise intensity, the additive noise intensity and the strength of correlations between the multiplicative and the additive noise increase, but W(xu, T) increases with increasing delay time. Namely, the multiplicative noise, the additive noise and the correlations between the multiplicative and the additive noises enhance the stability of the unstable state in the time-delayed bistable system but the stability is weakened by time delay.
Kim, Jeong Phill; Jeong, Chi Hyun; Kim, Cheol Hoo
2011-06-01
A correlation processing algorithm in the spectral domain is proposed for detecting moving targets with random noise radar. AD converted reference and Rx signals are passed through FFT block, and they are multiplied after the reference signal is complex conjugated. Now inverse FFT yields the sub-correlation results, and range and velocity information can be accurately extracted by an additional FFT processing. In this design procedure, specific considerations have to be made for correlation length, averaging number, and number of sub-correlation data for Doppler processing. The proposed algorithm was verified by Simulink (Mathworks) simulation, and its logic was implemented with Xilinx FPGA device (Vertex5 series) by System Generator block sets (Xilinx) in the Simulink environment. A CW X-band random-FM noise radar prototype with an instantaneous bandwidth of 100 MHz was designed and implemented, and laboratory and field tests were conducted to detect moving targets, and the observed results showed the validity of the proposed algorithm and the operation of implemented FPGA logics.
The correlation study of parallel feature extractor and noise reduction approaches
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Dewi, Deshinta Arrova; Sundararajan, Elankovan; Prabuwono, Anton Satria [Industrial Computing Research Group, Centre for Artificial Intelligence Technology, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, 43600 Bangi (Malaysia)
2015-05-15
This paper presents literature reviews that show variety of techniques to develop parallel feature extractor and finding its correlation with noise reduction approaches for low light intensity images. Low light intensity images are normally displayed as darker images and low contrast. Without proper handling techniques, those images regularly become evidences of misperception of objects and textures, the incapability to section them. The visual illusions regularly clues to disorientation, user fatigue, poor detection and classification performance of humans and computer algorithms. Noise reduction approaches (NR) therefore is an essential step for other image processing steps such as edge detection, image segmentation, image compression, etc. Parallel Feature Extractor (PFE) meant to capture visual contents of images involves partitioning images into segments, detecting image overlaps if any, and controlling distributed and redistributed segments to extract the features. Working on low light intensity images make the PFE face challenges and closely depend on the quality of its pre-processing steps. Some papers have suggested many well established NR as well as PFE strategies however only few resources have suggested or mentioned the correlation between them. This paper reviews best approaches of the NR and the PFE with detailed explanation on the suggested correlation. This finding may suggest relevant strategies of the PFE development. With the help of knowledge based reasoning, computational approaches and algorithms, we present the correlation study between the NR and the PFE that can be useful for the development and enhancement of other existing PFE.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
LIANG Gui-Yun; CAO Li; WANG Jun; Wu Da-Jin
2003-01-01
Applying the approximate Fokker-Planck equation we derived, we obtain the analytic expression of thestationary laser intensity distribution Pst(Ⅰ) by studying the single-mode laser cubic model subject to colored cross-correlation additive and multiplicative noise, each of which is colored. Based on it, we discuss the effects on the stationarylaser intensity distribution Pst(Ⅰ) by cross-correlation between noises and "color" of noises (non-Markovian effect) whenthe laser system is above the threshold. In detail, we analyze two cases: One is that the three correlation-times (i.e.the self-correlation and cross-correlation times of the additive and multiplicative noise) are chosen to be the same value(τ1 = τ2 = τ3 = τ). For this case, the effect of noise cross-correlation is investigated emphatically, and we detect thatonly when λ≠ 0 can the noise-induced transition occur in the Pst(Ⅰ) curve, and only when τ≠ 0 and λ≠ 0, can the"reentrant noise-induced transition" occur. The other case is that the three correlation times are not the same value,τ1 ≠τ2 ≠τ3. For this case, we find that the noise-induced transition occurring in the Pst (Ⅰ) curve is entirely differentwhen the values of τ1, τ2, and τ3 are changed respectively. In particular, when τ2 (self-correlation time of additivenoise) is changing, the ratio of the two maximums of the Pst(Ⅰ) curve R exhibits an interesting phenomenon, "reentrantnoise-induced transition", which demonstrates the effect of noise "color" (non-Markovian effect).
Zang, Xiaoqin; Brown, Michael G; Godin, Oleg A
2015-09-01
Theoretical studies have shown that cross-correlation functions (CFs) of time series of ambient noise measured at two locations yield approximations to the Green's functions (GFs) that describe propagation between those locations. Specifically, CFs are estimates of weighted GFs. In this paper, it is demonstrated that measured CFs in the 20-70 Hz band can be accurately modeled as weighted GFs using ambient noise data collected in the Florida Straits at ∼100 m depth with horizontal separations of 5 and 10 km. Two weighting functions are employed. These account for (1) the dipole radiation pattern produced by a near-surface source, and (2) coherence loss of surface-reflecting energy in time-averaged CFs resulting from tidal fluctuations. After describing the relationship between CFs and GFs, the inverse problem is considered and is shown to result in an environmental model for which agreement between computed and simulated CFs is good.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
R. Caballero-Águila
2014-01-01
Full Text Available The optimal least-squares linear estimation problem is addressed for a class of discrete-time multisensor linear stochastic systems subject to randomly delayed measurements with different delay rates. For each sensor, a different binary sequence is used to model the delay process. The measured outputs are perturbed by both random parameter matrices and one-step autocorrelated and cross correlated noises. Using an innovation approach, computationally simple recursive algorithms are obtained for the prediction, filtering, and smoothing problems, without requiring full knowledge of the state-space model generating the signal process, but only the information provided by the delay probabilities and the mean and covariance functions of the processes (signal, random parameter matrices, and noises involved in the observation model. The accuracy of the estimators is measured by their error covariance matrices, which allow us to analyze the estimator performance in a numerical simulation example that illustrates the feasibility of the proposed algorithms.
Honschoten, van J.W.; Druyvesteyn, W.F.; Kuipers, H.; Raangs, R.; Krijnen, G.J.M.
2004-01-01
In this paper a method is presented to reduce the noise level of a particle velocity sensor, a thermal two-wire sensor sensitive to acoustic particle velocities, which yields a reduction of the noise of 30 dB. The method is based on utilisation of cross- instead of auto-correlation spectra of two of
Quantum Entanglement in Heisenberg Antiferromagnets
Subramanian, V
2004-01-01
Entanglement sharing among pairs of spins in Heisenberg antiferromagnets is investigated using the concurrence measure. For a nondegenerate S=0 ground state, a simple formula relates the concurrence to the diagonal correlation function. The concurrence length is seen to be extremely short. A few finite clusters are studied numerically, to see the trend in higher dimensions. It is argued that nearest-neighbour concurrence is zero for triangular and Kagome lattices. The concurrences in the maximal-spin states are explicitly calculated, where the concurrence averaged over all pairs is larger than the S=0 states.
Background noise levels and correlation with ship traffic in the Gulf of Catania
Viola, Salvatore; Buscaino, Giuseppa; Caruso, Francesco; Chierici, Francesco; Embriaco, Davide; Favali, Paolo; Giovanetti, Gabriele; Grammauta, Roasario; Larosa, Giuseppina; Pavan, Gianni; Pellegrino, Carmelo; Pulvirenti, Sara; Riccobene, Giorgio; Sciacca, Virginia; Simeone, Francesco; Beranzoli, Laura; Marinaro, Giuditta
2015-04-01
In the last decades the growing interest in the evaluation of the underwater acoustic noise for studies in the fields of geology, biology and high-energy physics is driving the scientific community to collaborate towards a multidisciplinary approach to the topic. In June 2012 in the framework of the European project EMSO, a multidisciplinary underwater observatory, named NEMO-SN1, was installed 25 km off-shore the port of Catania, at a depth of 2100 m and operated until May 2013 by INFN (Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare) and INGV (Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia). NEMO-SN1 hosted aboard geophysical, oceanographic and acoustic sensors: among these a seismic hydrophone model SMID DT-405D(V). In this work, conducted within the activity of the SMO project, the results on the evaluation of the underwater acoustic pollution in the Gulf of Catania through SMID DT-405D(V) recordings are presented. The seismic hydrophone provided a data set of about 11 months of continuous (24/7) recordings. Underwater sounds have been continuously digitized at a sampling frequency of 2 kHz and the acquired data have been stored in 10min long files for off-line analysis. To describe one-year background noise levels, the mean integrated acoustic noise was measured every second (sampling frequency 2000, NFFT 2048) in the 1/3 octave bands with centre frequency 63 Hz and for each 10 minutes-long file the 5th, the 50th and the 98th percentiles were calculated. Measured noise was correlated with the shipping traffic in the area, thanks to the data provided by an AIS receiver installed at the INFN-Laboratori Nazionali del Sud. An acoustic noise increment was measured in coincidence with the passing of crafts in the area and it was possible to identify the characteristic spectrum of each ship. A simple model for the estimation of the acoustic noise induced by the ships passing through the area was developed. The model was applied by using AIS data acquired during the operation
Spica, Z. J.; Perton, M.; Calo, M.; Cordoba-Montiel, F.; Legrand, D.; Iglesias, A.
2015-12-01
Standard application of the seismic ambient noise tomography considers the existence of synchronous records at stations for green's functions retrieval. More recent theoretical and experimental observations showed the possibility to apply correlation of coda of noise correlation (C3) to obtain green's functions between stations of asynchronous seismic networks making possible to dramatically increase databases for imagining the Earth's interior. However, this possibility has not been fully exploited yet, and right now the data C3 are not included into tomographic inversions to refine seismic structures. Here we show for the first time how to incorporate the data of C1 and C3 to calculate dispersion maps of Rayleigh waves in the range period of 10-120s, and how the merging of these datasets improves the resolution of the structures imaged. Tomographic images are obtained for an area covering Mexico, the Gulf of Mexico and the southern U.S. We show dispersion maps calculated using both data of C1 and the complete dataset (C1+C3). The latter provide new details of the seismic structure of the region allowing a better understanding of their role on the geodynamics of the study area. The resolving power obtained in our study is several times higher than in previous studies based on ambient noise. This demonstrates the new possibilities for imaging the Earth's crust and upper mantle using this enlarged database.
A geometric Model for the Spatial Correlation of an Acoustic Vector Field in Surface-generated Noise
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Yiwang Huang; Qunyan Ren; Ting Li
2012-01-01
Spatial correlation of sound pressure and particle velocity of the surface noise in horizontally stratified media was demonstrated,with directional noise sources uniformly distributed on the ocean surface.In the evaluation of particle velocity,plane wave approximation was applied to each incident ray.Due to the equivalence of the sound source correlation property and its directivity,solutions for the spatial correlation of the field were transformed into the integration of the coherent function generated by a single directional source.As a typical horizontally stratified media,surface noise in a perfect waveguide was investigated.Correlation coefficients given by normal mode and geometric models show satisfactory agreement.Also,the normalized covariance between sound pressure and the vertical component of particle velocity is proportional to acoustic absorption coefficient,while that of the surface noise in semi-infinitely homogeneous space is zero.
Noise and current correlations in tunnel junctions of quantum spin Hall edge states
Dolcini, Fabrizio
2015-10-01
The edge channels of two-dimensional topological systems are protected from elastic reflection and are noiseless at low temperature. Yet, noise and cross correlations can be induced when electron waves partly transmit to the opposite edge via tunneling through a constriction. In particular, in a quantum spin Hall (QSH) system tunneling occurs via both spin-preserving (p ) and spin-flipping (f ) processes, each fulfilling time-reversal symmetry. We investigate the current correlations of a four-terminal QSH setup in the presence of a tunneling region, both at equilibrium and out of equilibrium. We find that, although p and f processes do not commute and the generic current correlation depends on both, under appropriate conditions a direct detection of two types of partition noise is possible. In particular, while the spin-preserving partitioning can be probed for any arbitrary tunnel junction with a specific configuration of terminal biases, the spin-flipping partitioning can be directly detected only under suitably designed setups and conditions. We describe two setups where these conditions can be fulfilled, and both types of partitioning can be detected and controlled.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
R. Caballero-Águila
2013-01-01
and each sensor noise are two-step cross-correlated. Under these assumptions and by an innovation approach, recursive algorithms for the optimal linear filter are derived by using the two basic estimation fusion structures; more specifically, both centralized and distributed fusion estimation algorithms are proposed. The accuracy of these estimators is measured by their error covariance matrices, which allow us to compare their performance in a numerical simulation example that illustrates the feasibility of the proposed filtering algorithms and shows a comparison with other existing filters.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Liu Li; Zhang Liang-Ying; Cao Li
2009-01-01
The diffusion in a harmonic oscillator driven by coloured noises ζ(t) and η(t) with coloured cross-correlation in which one of the noises is modulated by a biased periodic signal is investigated. The exact expression of diffusion coefficient d as a function of noise parameter, signal parameter, and oscillator frequency is derived. The findings in this paper are as follows. 1) The curves of d versus noise intensity D and d versus noises cross-correlation time τ_3 exist as two different phases. The transition between the two phases arises from the change of the cross-correlation coefficient λ of the two Orustein-Uhlenbeck (O-U) noises. 2) Changing the value of τ3, the curves of d versus Q, the intensity of colored noise that is modulated by the signal, can transform from a phase having a minimum to a monotonic phase. 3)Changing the value of signal amplitude A, d versus Q curves can transform from a phase having a minimum to a monotonic phase. The above-mentioned results demonstrate that a like noise-induced transition appears in the model.
Accurate Magnetometer/Gyroscope Attitudes Using a Filter with Correlated Sensor Noise
Sedlak, J.; Hashmall, J.
1997-01-01
Magnetometers and gyroscopes have been shown to provide very accurate attitudes for a variety of spacecraft. These results have been obtained, however, using a batch-least-squares algorithm and long periods of data. For use in onboard applications, attitudes are best determined using sequential estimators such as the Kalman filter. When a filter is used to determine attitudes using magnetometer and gyroscope data for input, the resulting accuracy is limited by both the sensor accuracies and errors inherent in the Earth magnetic field model. The Kalman filter accounts for the random component by modeling the magnetometer and gyroscope errors as white noise processes. However, even when these tuning parameters are physically realistic, the rate biases (included in the state vector) have been found to show systematic oscillations. These are attributed to the field model errors. If the gyroscope noise is sufficiently small, the tuned filter 'memory' will be long compared to the orbital period. In this case, the variations in the rate bias induced by field model errors are substantially reduced. Mistuning the filter to have a short memory time leads to strongly oscillating rate biases and increased attitude errors. To reduce the effect of the magnetic field model errors, these errors are estimated within the filter and used to correct the reference model. An exponentially-correlated noise model is used to represent the filter estimate of the systematic error. Results from several test cases using in-flight data from the Compton Gamma Ray Observatory are presented. These tests emphasize magnetometer errors, but the method is generally applicable to any sensor subject to a combination of random and systematic noise.
Telenkov, Sergey A; Alwi, Rudolf; Mandelis, Andreas
2013-10-01
Photoacoustic (PA) imaging of biological tissues using laser diodes instead of conventional Q-switched pulsed systems provides an attractive alternative for biomedical applications. However, the relatively low energy of laser diodes operating in the pulsed regime, results in generation of very weak acoustic waves, and low signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) of the detected signals. This problem can be addressed if optical excitation is modulated using custom waveforms and correlation processing is employed to increase SNR through signal compression. This work investigates the effect of the parameters of the modulation waveform on the resulting correlation signal and offers a practical means for optimizing PA signal detection. The advantage of coherent signal averaging is demonstrated using theoretical analysis and a numerical model of PA generation. It was shown that an additional 5-10 dB of SNR can be gained through waveform engineering by adjusting the parameters and profile of optical modulation waveforms.
Banaszek, K; Wasilewski, W; Radzewicz, C
2004-01-01
We present an experiment demonstrating entanglement-enhanced classical communication capacity of a quantum channel with correlated noise. The channel is modelled by a fiber optic link exhibiting random birefringence that fluctuates on a time scale much longer than the temporal separation between consecutive uses of the channel. In this setting, introducing entanglement between two photons travelling down the fiber allows one to encode reliably up to one bit of information into their joint polarization degree of freedom. When no quantum correlations between two separate uses of the channel are allowed, this capacity is reduced by a factor of more than three. We demonstrated this effect using a fiber-coupled source of entagled photon pairs based on spontaneous parametric down-conversion, and a linear-optics Bell state measurement.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Freeland, J. W. [Argonne National Laboratory (ANL); Chakhalian, J. [University of Arkansas; Boris, A. V. [Max-Planck-Institut fur Feskorperforschung, Stuttgart, Germany; Tonnerre, J.-M. [CNRS, France; Kavich, J. J. [University of Illinois, Chicago; Yordanov, P. [Max-Planck-Institut fur Feskorperforschung, Stuttgart, Germany; Grenier, S. [CNRS, Grenoble, France; Lee, Ho Nyung [ORNL; Keimer, Bernhard [Max-Planck-Institut fur Feskorperforschung, Stuttgart, Germany
2010-01-01
A combination of spectroscopic probes was used to develop a detailed experimental description of the transport and magnetic properties of superlattices composed of the paramagnetic metal CaRuO3 and the antiferromagnetic insulator CaMnO3. The charge carrier density and Ru valence state in the superlattices are not significantly different from those of bulk CaRuO3. The small charge transfer across the interface implied by these observations confirms predictions derived from density functional calculations. However, a ferromagnetic polarization due to canted Mn spins penetrates 3-4 unit cells into CaMnO3, far exceeding the corresponding predictions. The discrepancy may indicate the formation of magnetic polarons at the interface.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
И. В. Чекед
1999-09-01
Full Text Available On the basis of earlier developed approaches to optimization of space-time processing with complicated motion of aviation hydroacoustic station antenna in space the series of space-time signal processing algorithms on a background of Gaussian correlated noise were synthesized. The signal consisted of discrete components and a continuous part of a spectrum was considered
Effect of phase noise on quantum correlations in Bose-Josephson junctions
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ferrini, G.; Minguzzi, A.; Hekking, F. W. J. [Universite Grenoble 1 and CNRS, Laboratoire de Physique et Modelisation des Milieux Condenses UMR5493, B.P. 166, F-38042 Grenoble (France); Spehner, D. [Universite Grenoble 1 and CNRS, Laboratoire de Physique et Modelisation des Milieux Condenses UMR5493, B.P. 166, F-38042 Grenoble (France); Universite Grenoble 1 and CNRS, Institut Fourier UMR5582, B.P. 74, F-38402 Saint Martin d' Heres (France)
2011-10-15
In a two-mode Bose-Josephson junction the dynamics induced by a sudden quench of the tunnel amplitude leads to the periodic formation of entangled states. For instance, squeezed states are formed at short times and macroscopic superpositions of phase states at later times. In atom interferometry, the two modes of the junction play the role of the two arms of a Mach-Zehnder interferometer; use of multiparticle entangled states allows the enhancement of phase sensitivity with respect to that obtained from uncorrelated atoms. Decoherence due to the presence of noise degrades quantum correlations between atoms, thus reducing phase sensitivity. We consider decoherence due to stochastic fluctuations of the energies of the two modes of the junction. We analyze its effect on squeezed states and macroscopic superpositions and calculate the squeezing parameter and the quantum Fisher information during the quenched dynamics. The latter quantity measures the amount of quantum correlations useful in interferometry. For moderate noise intensities, we show that it increases on time scales beyond the squeezing regime. This suggests multicomponent superpositions of phase states as interesting candidates for high-precision atom interferometry.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
HAN Li-Bo; GONG Xiao-Long; CAO Li; WU Da-Jin
2007-01-01
An approximate Fokker-P1anck equation for the logistic growth model which is driven by coloured correlated noises is derived by applying the Novikov theorem and the Fox approximation. The steady-state probability distribution (SPD) and the mean of the tumour cell number are analysed. It is found that the SPD is the single extremum configuration when the degree of correlation between the multiplicative and additive noises, λ, is in -1＜λ ≤ 0 and can be the double extrema in 0＜λ＜1. A configuration transition occurs because of the variation of noise parameters. A minimum appears in the curve of the mean of the steady-state tumour cell number, 〈x〉, versus λ. The position and the value of the minimum are controlled by the noise-correlated times.
Chicharro, Daniel
2014-06-01
The role of correlations between neuronal responses is crucial to understanding the neural code. A framework used to study this role comprises a breakdown of the mutual information between stimuli and responses into terms that aim to account for different coding modalities and the distinction between different notions of independence. Here we complete the list of types of independence and distinguish activity independence (related to total correlations), conditional independence (related to noise correlations), signal independence (related to signal correlations), coding independence (related to information transmission), and information independence (related to redundancy). For each type, we identify the probabilistic criterion that defines it, indicate the information-theoretic measure used as statistic to test for it, and provide a graphical criterion to recognize the causal configurations of stimuli and responses that lead to its existence. Using this causal analysis, we first provide sufficiency conditions relating these types. Second, we differentiate the use of the measures as statistics to test for the existence of independence from their use for quantification. We indicate that signal and noise correlation cannot be quantified separately. Third, we explicitly define alternative system configurations used to construct the measures, in which noise correlations or noise and signal correlations are eliminated. Accordingly, we examine which measures are meaningful only as a comparison across configurations and which ones provide a characterization of the actually observed responses without resorting to other configurations. Fourth, we compare the commonly used nonparametric approach to eliminate noise correlations with a functional (model-based) approach, showing that the former approach does not remove those effects of noise correlations captured by the tuning properties of the individual neurons, and implies nonlocal causal structure manipulations. These
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
梁贵云; 曹力; 张莉; 吴大进
2003-01-01
We study a system for a single-mode laser driven by additive and multiplicative coloured noises with a coloured cross-correlation. The analytical expression of the stationary intensity distribution (SID) for the laser is derived in the case of three different correlation times. The influences of each stochastic parameter on the SID are discussed, the the skewness, λ3(O) of the single-mode laser are investigated. We find that there are colourful phase transitions for the SID above a threshold, and re-entrant transitions induced by the "colour" of the additive noises. Further research of the not only increases with the additive noise correlation time τ2 and the cross-correlation time τs, but also the quality of the output of laser beams is optimized.
Optimization of Ambient Noise Cross-Correlation Imaging Across Large Dense Array
Sufri, O.; Xie, Y.; Lin, F. C.; Song, W.
2015-12-01
Ambient Noise Tomography is currently one of the most studied topics of seismology. It gives possibility of studying physical properties of rocks from the depths of subsurface to the upper mantle depths using recorded noise sources. A network of new seismic sensors, which are capable of recording continuous seismic noise and doing the processing at the same time on-site, could help to assess possible risk of volcanic activity on a volcano and help to understand the changes in physical properties of a fault before and after an earthquake occurs. This new seismic sensor technology could also be used in oil and gas industry to figure out depletion rate of a reservoir and help to improve velocity models for obtaining better seismic reflection cross-sections. Our recent NSF funded project is bringing seismologists, signal processors, and computer scientists together to develop a new ambient noise seismic imaging system which could record continuous seismic noise and process it on-site and send Green's functions and/or tomography images to the network. Such an imaging system requires optimum amount of sensors, sensor communication, and processing of the recorded data. In order to solve these problems, we first started working on the problem of optimum amount of sensors and the communication between these sensors by using small aperture dense network called Sweetwater Array, deployed by Nodal Seismic in 2014. We downloaded ~17 day of continuous data from 2268 one-component stations between March 30-April 16 2015 from IRIS DMC and performed cross-correlation to determine the lag times between station pairs. The lag times were then entered in matrix form. Our goal is to selecting random lag time values in the matrix and assuming all other elements of the matrix either missing or unknown and performing matrix completion technique to find out how close the results from matrix completion technique would be close to the real calculated values. This would give us better idea
Nanoparticles of antiferromagnetic materials
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Madsen, Daniel Esmarch
2008-01-01
I denne Ph.D. afhandling studeres forskellige egenskaber ved antiferromagnetiske nanopartikler. I en ideel antiferromagnet er spinnene orienteret således at der ikke er et resulterende magnetisk moment. I nanopartikler af antiferromagnetiske materialer er denne kompensation på grund af forskellig...
Antiferromagnetic spin-orbitronics
Manchon, Aurelien
2015-05-01
Antiferromagnets have long remained an intriguing and exotic state of matter, whose application has been restricted to enabling interfacial exchange bias in metallic and tunneling spin-valves [1]. Their role in the expanding field of applied spintronics has been mostly passive and the in-depth investigation of their basic properties mostly considered from a fundamental perspective.
Majka, M.; Góra, P. F.
2016-10-01
While the origins of temporal correlations in Langevin dynamics have been thoroughly researched, the understanding of spatially correlated noise (SCN) is rather incomplete. In particular, very little is known about the relation between friction and SCN. In this article, starting from the microscopic, deterministic model, we derive the analytical formula for the spatial correlation function in the particle-bath interactions. This expression shows that SCN is the inherent component of binary mixtures, originating from the effective (entropic) interactions. Further, employing this spatial correlation function, we postulate the thermodynamically consistent Langevin equation driven by the Gaussian SCN and calculate the adequate fluctuation-dissipation relation. The thermodynamical consistency is achieved by introducing the spatially variant friction coefficient, which can be also derived analytically. This coefficient exhibits a number of intriguing properties, e.g., the singular behavior for certain types of interactions. Eventually, we apply this new theory to the system of two charged particles in the presence of counter-ions. Such particles interact via the screened-charge Yukawa potential and the inclusion of SCN leads to the emergence of the anomalous frictionless regime. In this regime the particles can experience active propulsion leading to the transient attraction effect. This effect suggests a nonequilibrium mechanism facilitating the molecular binding of the like-charged particles.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
CHENG Qing-Hua; CAO Li; WANG Jun; WU Da-Jin
2004-01-01
We present an analytic investigation of the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) by studying a signal modulated model of a single-mode laser system driven by pump noise and quantum noise with correlated real and imaginary parts,and find there is a maximum in the curve of the dependence of SNR upon the cross-correlation coefficient λq between the real part and the imaginary part, i.e., stochastic resonance appears in the SNR vs. λq curve. Moreover, when the SNR is at the maximum, the cross-correlation coefficient λq = 0, which is coincidentally at the minimum of the mean normalized intensity fluctuation. The influences on stochastic resonance by the intensities of the pump and the quantum noise, the amplitude of the modulation signal, and the net gain of the laser are also studied. Furthermore, in order to ensure that the results obtained in this paper is reliable, the valid range for the linear approximation method is discussed.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
CHENGQing-Hua; CAOLi; WANGJun; WUDa-Jin
2004-01-01
We present an analytic investigation of the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) by studying a signal modulated model of a single-mode laser system driven by pump noise and quantum noise with correlated real and imaginary parts,and find there is a maximum in the curve of the dependence of SNR upon the cross-correlation coefficient λq between the real part and the imaginary part, i.e., stochastic resonance appears in the SNR vs. λq curve. Moreover, when the SNR is at the maximum, the cross-correlation coefficient λq = O, which is coincidentally at the minimum of the mean normalized intensity fluctuation. The influences on stochastic resonance by the intensities of the pump and the quantum noise, the amplitude of the modulation signal, and the net gain of the laser are also studied. Furthermore, in order to ensure that the results obtained in this paper is reliable, the valid range for the linear approximation method is discussed.
Bhattacharjee, Suraka; Chaudhury, Ranjan
2016-11-01
The generalized spin stiffness constant for a doped quantum antiferromagnet has been investigated both analytically and numerically as a function of doping concentration at zero temperature, based on the strongly correlated t-J model on two-dimensional square lattice. The nature of the theoretical dependence of the stiffness constant on doping shows a striking similarity with that of the effective exchange constant, obtained from the combination of other theoretical and experimental techniques in the low doping region. This correspondence once again establishes that spin stiffness can very well play the role of an effective exchange constant even in the strongly correlated semi-itinerant systems. Our theoretical plot of the stiffness constant against doping concentration in the whole doping region exhibits the various characteristic features like a possible crossover in the higher doping regions and persistence of short range ordering even for very high doping with the complete vanishing of spin stiffness occurring only close to 100% doping. Our results receive very good support from various other theoretical approaches and also brings out a few limitations of some of them. Our detailed analysis highlights the crucial importance of the study of spin stiffness for the proper understanding of magnetic correlations in a semi-itinerant magnetic system described by the strongly correlated t-J model. Moreover, our basic formalism can also be utilized for determination of the effective exchange constant and magnetic correlations for itinerant magnetic systems, in general in a novel way.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Li Yue-Hong; Mei Dong-Cheng
2008-01-01
This paper studies the effects of cross-correlations between the real and imaginary parts of quantum noise on the laser intensity in a saturation laser model.It derives the analytic expressions of the intensity correlation function C(Υ)and the associated relaxation time T(C) in the case of a stable locked phase resulting from the cross-correlation λq between the real and imaginary parts of quantum noise.Based on numerical computations it finds that the presence of cross correlations between the real and imaginary parts of quantum noise slow down the decay of intensity fluctuation,i.e.,it causes the increase of intensity fluctuation.
De-noising of digital image correlation based on stationary wavelet transform
Guo, Xiang; Li, Yulong; Suo, Tao; Liang, Jin
2017-03-01
In this paper, a stationary wavelet transform (SWT) based method is proposed to de-noise the digital image with the light noise, and the SWT de-noise algorithm is presented after the analyzing of the light noise. By using the de-noise algorithm, the method was demonstrated to be capable of providing accurate DIC measurements in the light noise environment. The verification, comparative and realistic experiments were conducted using this method. The result indicate that the de-noise method can be applied to the full-field strain measurement under the light interference with a high accuracy and stability.
Rubel, Aleksey S.; Lukin, Vladimir V.; Egiazarian, Karen O.
2015-03-01
Results of denoising based on discrete cosine transform for a wide class of images corrupted by additive noise are obtained. Three types of noise are analyzed: additive white Gaussian noise and additive spatially correlated Gaussian noise with middle and high correlation levels. TID2013 image database and some additional images are taken as test images. Conventional DCT filter and BM3D are used as denoising techniques. Denoising efficiency is described by PSNR and PSNR-HVS-M metrics. Within hard-thresholding denoising mechanism, DCT-spectrum coefficient statistics are used to characterize images and, subsequently, denoising efficiency for them. Results of denoising efficiency are fitted for such statistics and efficient approximations are obtained. It is shown that the obtained approximations provide high accuracy of prediction of denoising efficiency.
Noise-Driven Phenotypic Heterogeneity with Finite Correlation Time in Clonal Populations.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
UnJin Lee
Full Text Available There has been increasing awareness in the wider biological community of the role of clonal phenotypic heterogeneity in playing key roles in phenomena such as cellular bet-hedging and decision making, as in the case of the phage-λ lysis/lysogeny and B. Subtilis competence/vegetative pathways. Here, we report on the effect of stochasticity in growth rate, cellular memory/intermittency, and its relation to phenotypic heterogeneity. We first present a linear stochastic differential model with finite auto-correlation time, where a randomly fluctuating growth rate with a negative average is shown to result in exponential growth for sufficiently large fluctuations in growth rate. We then present a non-linear stochastic self-regulation model where the loss of coherent self-regulation and an increase in noise can induce a shift from bounded to unbounded growth. An important consequence of these models is that while the average change in phenotype may not differ for various parameter sets, the variance of the resulting distributions may considerably change. This demonstrates the necessity of understanding the influence of variance and heterogeneity within seemingly identical clonal populations, while providing a mechanism for varying functional consequences of such heterogeneity. Our results highlight the importance of a paradigm shift from a deterministic to a probabilistic view of clonality in understanding selection as an optimization problem on noise-driven processes, resulting in a wide range of biological implications, from robustness to environmental stress to the development of drug resistance.
Charafeddine, Mohamad; Paulraj, Arogyaswami; Cioffi, John
2010-01-01
Treating the interference as noise in the n-user interference channel, the paper describes a novel approach to the rates region, composed by the time-sharing convex hull of 2^n-1 corner points achieved through On/Off binary power control. The resulting rates region is denoted crystallized rates region. By treating the interference as noise, the n-user rates region frontiers has been found in the literature to be the convex hull of n hyper-surfaces. The rates region bounded by these hyper-surfaces is not necessarily convex, and thereby a convex hull operation is imposed through the strategy of time-sharing. This paper simplifies this rates region in the n-dimensional space by having only an On/Off binary power control. This consequently leads to 2^n-1 corner points situated within the rates region. A time-sharing convex hull is imposed onto those corner points, forming the crystallized rates region. The paper focuses on game theoretic concepts to achieve that crystallized convex hull via correlated equilibrium...
Effects of Time Delay on the Bistable System Subjected to Correlated Noises
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
NIE Lin-Ru; Mei Dong-Cheng
2007-01-01
The time-delayed bistable system subjected to the multiplicative and additive noises is investigated. In the condition of small delay time, the stationary probability distribution function (SPDF) is derived, and under the condition of large delay time, the SPDF is stochastically simulated. The analytical and simulative results indicate that: (i) For the case of λ= 0λ denotes the strength of correlations between the multiplicative and additive noises), the time delay affects weakly the SPDF peak structure, and the symmetrical property of the SPDF two-peak structure does not change with the increasing delay time, (ii) For the case of λ≠0, the two-peak structure changes with the increasing delay time, i.e. one peak goes up and the other go down simultaneously as the delay time increases and along with further increase of the delay time, the lower peak disappears gradually while the higher one goes up, i.e. the structure of the SPDF changes from a bimodal to a unimodal and the system becomes monostable.
Kloss, Thomas; Canet, Léonie; Delamotte, Bertrand; Wschebor, Nicolás
2014-02-01
We investigate the scaling regimes of the Kardar-Parisi-Zhang (KPZ) equation in the presence of spatially correlated noise with power-law decay D(p) ∼ p(-2ρ) in Fourier space, using a nonperturbative renormalization group approach. We determine the full phase diagram of the system as a function of ρ and the dimension d. In addition to the weak-coupling part of the diagram, which agrees with the results from Europhys. Lett. 47, 14 (1999) and Eur. Phys. J. B 9, 491 (1999), we find the two fixed points describing the short-range- (SR) and long-range- (LR) dominated strong-coupling phases. In contrast with a suggestion in the references cited above, we show that, for all values of ρ, there exists a unique strong-coupling SR fixed point that can be continuously followed as a function of d. We show in particular that the existence and the behavior of the LR fixed point do not provide any hint for 4 being the upper critical dimension of the KPZ equation with SR noise.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Yange Shao
2014-01-01
Full Text Available The phenomenon of stochastic synchronization in globally coupled FitzHugh-Nagumo (FHN neuron system subjected to spatially correlated Gaussian noise is investigated based on dynamical mean-field approximation (DMA and direct simulation (DS. Results from DMA are in good quantitative or qualitative agreement with those from DS for weak noise intensity and larger system size. Whether the consisting single FHN neuron is staying at the resting state, subthreshold oscillatory regime, or the spiking state, our investigation shows that the synchronization ratio of the globally coupled system becomes higher as the noise correlation coefficient increases, and thus we conclude that spatial correlation has an active effect on stochastic synchronization, and the neurons can achieve complete synchronization in the sense of statistics when the noise correlation coefficient tends to one. Our investigation also discloses that the noise spatial correlation plays the same beneficial role as the global coupling strength in enhancing stochastic synchronization in the ensemble. The result might be useful in understanding the information coding mechanism in neural systems.
Lim, James; Ing, David J.; Rosskopf, Joachim; Jeske, Jan; Cole, Jared H.; Huelga, Susana F.; Plenio, Martin B.
2017-01-01
We investigate how correlated fluctuations affect oscillatory features in rephasing and non-rephasing two-dimensional (2D) electronic spectra of a model dimer system. Based on a beating map analysis, we show that non-secular environmental couplings induced by uncorrelated fluctuations lead to oscillations centered at both cross- and diagonal-peaks in rephasing spectra as well as in non-rephasing spectra. Using an analytical approach, we provide a quantitative description of the non-secular effects in terms of the Feynman diagrams and show that the environment-induced mixing of different inter-excitonic coherences leads to oscillations in the rephasing diagonal-peaks and non-rephasing cross-peaks. We demonstrate that as correlations in the noise increase, the lifetime of oscillatory 2D signals is enhanced at rephasing cross-peaks and non-rephasing diagonal-peaks, while the other non-secular oscillatory signals are suppressed. We discuss that the asymmetry of 2D lineshapes in the beating map provides information on the degree of correlations in environmental fluctuations. Finally we investigate how the oscillatory features in 2D spectra are affected by inhomogeneous broadening.
Lim, James; Ing, David J; Rosskopf, Joachim; Jeske, Jan; Cole, Jared H; Huelga, Susana F; Plenio, Martin B
2017-01-14
We investigate how correlated fluctuations affect oscillatory features in rephasing and non-rephasing two-dimensional (2D) electronic spectra of a model dimer system. Based on a beating map analysis, we show that non-secular environmental couplings induced by uncorrelated fluctuations lead to oscillations centered at both cross- and diagonal-peaks in rephasing spectra as well as in non-rephasing spectra. Using an analytical approach, we provide a quantitative description of the non-secular effects in terms of the Feynman diagrams and show that the environment-induced mixing of different inter-excitonic coherences leads to oscillations in the rephasing diagonal-peaks and non-rephasing cross-peaks. We demonstrate that as correlations in the noise increase, the lifetime of oscillatory 2D signals is enhanced at rephasing cross-peaks and non-rephasing diagonal-peaks, while the other non-secular oscillatory signals are suppressed. We discuss that the asymmetry of 2D lineshapes in the beating map provides information on the degree of correlations in environmental fluctuations. Finally we investigate how the oscillatory features in 2D spectra are affected by inhomogeneous broadening.
Di Lorenzo, Antonio
2013-03-22
Heisenberg formulated a noise-disturbance principle stating that there is a tradeoff between noise and disturbance when a measurement of position and a measurement of momentum are performed sequentially, and another principle imposing a limitation on the product of the uncertainties in a joint measurement of position and momentum. We prove that the former, the Heisenberg sequential noise-disturbance principle, holds when the detectors are assumed to be initially uncorrelated from each other, but that it can be violated for some properly correlated initial preparations of the detectors.
Holes in Heisenberg antiferromagnets
Chen, Yang
1990-05-01
In this Brief Report we show that a recent model proposed by Shankar [Phys. Rev. Lett. 63, 203 (1989)], describing the motion of holes in quantum antiferromagnets is equivalent to the Schwinger model [Phys. Rev. 128, 2425 (1962)] in 1+1 dimensions. Some exact results are deduced. In addition to the superconducting long-range order found by Shankar, it is shown that there is a 2pF hole density wave existing with the superconducting pairing instability.
Roessl, Ewald; Ziegler, Andy; Proksa, Roland
2007-03-01
In conventional dual-energy systems, two transmission measurements with distinct spectral characteristics are performed. These measurements are used to obtain the line integrals of two basis material densities. Usually, the measurement process is such that the two measured signals can be treated as independent and therefore uncorrelated. Recently, however, a readout system for x-ray detectors has been introduced for which this is no longer the case. The readout electronics is designed to obtain simultaneous measurements of the total number of photons N and the total energy E they deposit in the sensor material. Practically, this is realized by a signal replication and separate counting and integrating processing units. Since the quantities N and E are (electronically) derived from one and the same physical sensor signal, they are statistically correlated. Nevertheless, the pair N and E can be used to perform a dual-energy processing following the well-known approach by Alvarez and Macovski. Formally, this means that N is to be identified with the first dual-energy measurement M1 and E with the second measurement M2. In the presence of input correlations between M1 = N and M2 = E, however, the corresponding analytic expressions for the basis image noise have to be modified. The main observation made in this paper is that for positively correlated data, as is the case for the simultaneous counting and integrating device mentioned above, the basis image noise is suppressed through the influence of the covariance between the two signals. We extend the previously published relations for the basis image noise to the case where the original measurements are not independent and illustrate the importance of the input correlations by comparing dual-energy basis image noise resulting from the device mentioned above and a device measuring the photon numbers and the deposited energies consecutively.
Oren, C.; Nowack, R. L.
2015-12-01
It is known that the positive lags of the auto-correlation for the seismic transmission response of a layered medium correspond to the reflection seismogram (Claerbout, 1968). In this study, we investigate the use of ambient seismic noise recorded at selected broadband USArray EarthScope Transportable Array (TA) stations to obtain effective reflection seismograms for frequencies up to 1 Hz. The goal is to determine the most suitable parameters used for the processing of ambient seismic noise for the identification of crustal and upper mantle reflections and to minimize unwanted artifacts in the noise correlations. In order to best retrieve the body-wave components of the Green's function beneath a station, a number of processing steps are required. We first remove the instrument response and apply a temporal normalization to remove the effects of the most energetic sources. Next we implement spectral whitening. We test several operators for the spectral whitening where the undulations of the power spectrum are related to the strengths of later arrivals in the auto-correlation. Different filters are then applied to the auto-correlation functions, including Gaussian and zero phase Butterworth filters, in order to reduce the effect of side lobes. Hourly auto-correlations are then stacked for up to one year. On the final stack, Automatic Gain Control (AGC) is applied to equalize the correlation amplitudes in the time domain. The robustness of the resulting ambient noise auto-correlation is first tested on selected TA stations in Nevada, where we are able to identify PmP and SmS arrivals similar to those found by Tibuleac and von Seggern (2012). We then investigate noise auto-correlations applied to selected USArray TA stations in the central US.
Tsai, V.C.
2010-01-01
Recent derivations have shown that when noise in a physical system has its energy equipartitioned into the modes of the system, there is a convenient relationship between the cross correlation of time-series recorded at two points and the Green's function of the system. Here, we show that even when energy is not fully equipartitioned and modes are allowed to be degenerate, a similar (though less general) property holds for equations with wave equation structure. This property can be used to understand why certain seismic noise correlation measurements are successful despite known degeneracy and lack of equipartition on the Earth. No claim to original US government works Journal compilation ?? 2010 RAS.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Pawel, SJ
2003-06-18
Electrochemical noise (ECN) probes were deployed in a carbon steel continuous kraft digester at four locations and at one location in the bottom cone of the associated flash tank. The probes consisted of carbon steel electrodes, representing the vessel construction material, and 309LSi stainless steel overlay electrodes, representing the weld overlay repair in a portion of the vessel. Current and potential noise, the temperature at each probe location, and the value of about 32 process parameters (flow rates, liquor chemistry, etc.) were monitored continuously for a period of almost one year. Historical vessel inspection data and post-test evaluation of the probe components were used to assess/compare ECN corrosion activity with physical changes in wall thickness and corrosion patterns on the digester shell. In addition, attempts were made to correlate ECN activity from each electrode type with process parameters. The results indicate the high general corrosion rates of steel observed just below the extraction screens--on the order of 35 mils/y for the past few years--accelerated further during the period of probe deployment. The maximum wastage of steel (normalized to one full year exposure) was about 85 mils/y at the ring 6N probe just below the extraction screens. Consistent with recent historical observations, the steel corrosion rate at the ring 6S probe--at the same elevation but directly across the digester from ring 6N--was significantly lower at about 50 mils/y. Just prior to probe deployment, the digester shell below the extraction screens was overlaid with 309LSi stainless steel, which was observed to be essentially immune to corrosion at this location. While the ECN probes detected differences in electrochemical behavior between steel probes and between 309LSi probes at rings 6N and 6S, there was only poor quantitative correlation of current sums with actual corrosion rates at these locations. A significant contribution of redox reactions on both steel
Spatial correlation analysis of seismic noise for STAR X-ray infrastructure design
D'Alessandro, Antonino; Agostino, Raffaele; Festa, Lorenzo; Gervasi, Anna; Guerra, Ignazio; Palmer, Dennis T.; Serafini, Luca
2014-05-01
. For this reason, we performed some measurements of seismic noise in order to characterize the environmental noise in the site in which the X-ray accelerator arise. For the characterization of the site, we carried out several passive seismic monitoring experiments at different times of the day and in different weather conditions. We recorded microtremor using an array of broadband 3C seismic sensors arranged along the linear accelerator. For each measurement point, we determined the displacement, velocity and acceleration spectrogram and power spectral density of both horizontal and vertical components. We determined also the microtremor horizontal to vertical spectral ratio as function of azimuth to individuate the main ground vibration direction and detect the existence of site or building resonance frequencies. We applied a rotation matrix to transform the North-South and East-West signal components in transversal and radial components, respect to the direction of the linear accelerator. Subsequently, for each couple of seismic stations we determined the coherence function to analyze the seismic noise spatial correlation. These analyses have allowed us to exhaustively characterize the seismic noise of the study area, from the point of view of the power and space-time variability, both in frequency and wavelength.
Functional correlates of the speech-in-noise perception impairment in dyslexia: an MRI study.
Dole, Marjorie; Meunier, Fanny; Hoen, Michel
2014-07-01
Dyslexia is a language-based neurodevelopmental disorder. It is characterized as a persistent deficit in reading and spelling. These difficulties have been shown to result from an underlying impairment of the phonological component of language, possibly also affecting speech perception. Although there is little evidence for such a deficit under optimal, quiet listening conditions, speech perception difficulties in adults with dyslexia are often reported under more challenging conditions, such as when speech is masked by noise. Previous studies have shown that these difficulties are more pronounced when the background noise is speech and when little spatial information is available to facilitate differentiation between target and background sound sources. In this study, we investigated the neuroimaging correlates of speech-in-speech perception in typical readers and participants with dyslexia, focusing on the effects of different listening configurations. Fourteen adults with dyslexia and 14 matched typical readers performed a subjective intelligibility rating test with single words presented against concurrent speech during functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) scanning. Target words were always presented with a four-talker background in one of three listening configurations: Dichotic, Binaural or Monaural. The results showed that in the Monaural configuration, in which no spatial information was available and energetic masking was maximal, intelligibility was severely decreased in all participants, and this effect was particularly strong in participants with dyslexia. Functional imaging revealed that in this configuration, participants partially compensate for their poorer listening abilities by recruiting several areas in the cerebral networks engaged in speech perception. In the Binaural configuration, participants with dyslexia achieved the same performance level as typical readers, suggesting that they were able to use spatial information when available
Lai, Yi Ming
2013-07-09
We study ensembles of globally coupled, nonidentical phase oscillators subject to correlated noise, and we identify several important factors that cause noise and coupling to synchronize or desynchronize a system. By introducing noise in various ways, we find an estimate for the onset of synchrony of a system in terms of the coupling strength, noise strength, and width of the frequency distribution of its natural oscillations. We also demonstrate that noise alone can be sufficient to synchronize nonidentical oscillators. However, this synchrony depends on the first Fourier mode of a phase-sensitivity function, through which we introduce common noise into the system. We show that higher Fourier modes can cause desynchronization due to clustering effects, and that this can reinforce clustering caused by different forms of coupling. Finally, we discuss the effects of noise on an ensemble in which antiferromagnetic coupling causes oscillators to form two clusters in the absence of noise. © 2013 American Physical Society.
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Ray, R.L., E-mail: ray@physics.utexas.edu; Bhattarai, P.
2016-06-11
The error propagation and statistical-noise reduction method of Reid and Trainor for two-point correlation applications in high-energy collisions is extended to include particle-pair references constructed by mixing two particles from all event-pair combinations within event subsets of arbitrary size. The Reid–Trainor method is also applied to other particle-pair mixing algorithms commonly used in correlation analysis of particle production from high-energy nuclear collisions. The statistical-noise reduction, inherent in the Reid–Trainor event-mixing procedure, is shown to occur for these other event-mixing algorithms as well. Monte Carlo simulation results are presented which verify the predicted degree of noise reduction. In each case the final errors are determined by the bin-wise particle-pair number, rather than by the bin-wise single-particle count.
Ray, R L
2016-01-01
The error propagation and statistical-noise reduction method of Reid and Trainor for two-point correlation applications in high-energy collisions is extended to include particle-pair references constructed by mixing two particles from all event-pair combinations within event subsets of arbitrary size. The Reid-Trainor method is also applied to other particle-pair mixing algorithms commonly used in correlation analysis of particle production from high-energy nuclear collisions. The statistical-noise reduction, inherent in the Reid-Trainor event-mixing procedure, is shown to occur for these other event-mixing algorithms as well. Monte Carlo simulation results are presented which verify the predicted degree of noise reduction. In each case the final errors are determined by the bin-wise particle-pair number, rather than by the bin-wise single-particle count.
Antiferromagnetic hedgehogs with superconducting cores
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Goldbart, P.M.; Sheehy, D.E. [Department of Physics and Materials Research Laboratory, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, Illinois 61801 (United States)
1998-09-01
Excitations of the antiferromagnetic state that resemble antiferromagnetic hedgehogs at large distances but are predominantly superconducting inside a core region are discussed within the context of Zhang{close_quote}s SO(5)-symmetry-based approach to the physics of high-temperature superconducting materials. Nonsingular, in contrast with their hedgehog cousins in pure antiferromagnetism, these texture excitations are what hedgehogs become when the antiferromagnetic order parameter is permitted to {open_quotes}escape{close_quotes} into superconducting directions. The structure of such excitations is determined in a simple setting, and a number of their experimental implications are examined. {copyright} {ital 1998} {ital The American Physical Society}
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Alaa Abousetta
2014-11-01
Full Text Available This study was conducted to determine the injurious effects of noise on the hippocampus, and to show whether Ginkgo biloba (Gb has any modulatory effect on hippocampal injury. Fifteen adult male albino rats were divided into three groups; control group, noise group and protected group. The noise group was exposed to 100 dB Sound pressure level (SPL white noise, six hours/day for four consecutive weeks. The protected group was exposed to the same noise level with the administration of Gb extract to the animals (50 mg/kg daily for 4 weeks. In the noise exposed group, both pyramidal cell layer and dentate gyrus (DG granular cell layer showed a decrease in thickness with loss and degeneration of many cells. The protected group showed preservation of many parameters as compared to the noise group i.e. increase in thickness of Cornu Ammonis area3 (CA3 & DG; increase in surface area of cells and increased vascularity. In conclusion, noise had detrimental effects on cells of Cornu Ammonis area1 (CA1, CA3 & DG of the hippocampus. In view of this finding, the clinical auditory hazardous effects in people exposed to harmful noise such as tinnitus, as well as memory disturbances and learning disabilities might have a new dimension. The administration of Gb protected the hippocampus against the injurious effect of noise. The probable mechanism and usefulness of Gb in reducing the previously mentioned effects are discussed.
Chen, Y.; Theuwissen, A.J.P.; Chae, Y.
2011-01-01
This paper presents a low noise CMOS image sensor (CIS) using 10/12 bit configurable column-parallel single slope ADCs (SS-ADCs) and digital correlated multiple sampling (CMS). The sensor used is a conventional 4T active pixel with a pinned-photodiode as photon detector. The test sensor was fabricat
Magnetic field sensing subject to correlated noise with a ring spin chain
Guo, Li-Sha; Xu, Bao-Ming; Zou, Jian; Shao, Bin
2016-09-01
In this paper, we focus on the magnetic field sensing subject to a correlated noise. We use a ring spin chain with only the nearest neighbor interactions as our probe to estimate both the intensity B and the direction θ of the magnetic field when the probe reaches its steady state. We numerically calculate the quantum Fisher information (QFI) to characterize the estimation precision. On the one hand, for estimating B, we find that the coupling between spins in the probe plays an important role in the precision, and the largest value of the QFI can be achieved when θ = π/2 together with an optimal coupling. Moreover, for any direction, the precision scaling can be better than the Heisenberg-limit (HL) with a proper coupling. On the other hand, for estimating θ, we find that our probe can perform a high precision detection for θ ~ π/2, with the QFI much larger than that for any other directions, especially when the coupling is tuned to the optimal value. And we find that the precision scaling for θ ~ π/2 can be better than the HL, but for other directions, the precision scaling is only limited to the standard quantum limit (SQL). Due to the computational complexity we restrict the number of spins in the probe to 60.
Tomographic Imaging of Jakarta Area from Cross-correlation of Seismic Ambient Noise
Pranata, B.; Saygin, E.; Cummins, P. R.; Widiyantoro, S.; Nugraha, A. D.; Harjadi, P.; Suhardjono, S.
2012-12-01
Seismic imaging of sediment thickness of Jakarta is crucial where Jakarta city is currently being rapidly developed with major installations and high-rise structures being constructed at a fast pace. Therefore, information of surface geology and surface sediment thickness for Jakarta city is urgently required in order to mitigate the effects of earthquake hazards in the future. Because of this need, we deployed 36 broadband and shortperiod stations across Jakarta to record seismic ambient noise. We apply cross-correlation method to the simultaneously recorded data to retrieve interstation Green's functions. We measure group velocity dispersion of the retrieved Green's functions by applying narrowband filters. Dispersion measurements are then inverted with a nonlinear tomographic technique to image the shallow structure of Jakarta and its surrounding regions. Preliminary results from tomographic maps show low velocities dominantly located in central, west and north Jakarta. While the highest rate obtained is between stations in South Jakarta. This conforms with the known geological conditions in which the structure of sedimentary cover in northern Jakarta is thicker than the southern part.
Magnetic field sensing subject to correlated noise with a ring spin chain
Guo, Li-Sha; Xu, Bao-Ming; Zou, Jian; Shao, Bin
2016-01-01
In this paper, we focus on the magnetic field sensing subject to a correlated noise. We use a ring spin chain with only the nearest neighbor interactions as our probe to estimate both the intensity B and the direction θ of the magnetic field when the probe reaches its steady state. We numerically calculate the quantum Fisher information (QFI) to characterize the estimation precision. On the one hand, for estimating B, we find that the coupling between spins in the probe plays an important role in the precision, and the largest value of the QFI can be achieved when θ = π/2 together with an optimal coupling. Moreover, for any direction, the precision scaling can be better than the Heisenberg-limit (HL) with a proper coupling. On the other hand, for estimating θ, we find that our probe can perform a high precision detection for θ ~ π/2, with the QFI much larger than that for any other directions, especially when the coupling is tuned to the optimal value. And we find that the precision scaling for θ ~ π/2 can be better than the HL, but for other directions, the precision scaling is only limited to the standard quantum limit (SQL). Due to the computational complexity we restrict the number of spins in the probe to 60. PMID:27623048
Offshore Southern California lithospheric velocity structure from noise cross-correlation functions
Bowden, D. C.; Kohler, M. D.; Tsai, V. C.; Weeraratne, D. S.
2016-05-01
A new shear wave velocity model offshore Southern California is presented that images plate boundary deformation including both thickening and thinning of the crustal and mantle lithosphere at the westernmost edge of the North American continent. The Asthenospheric and Lithospheric Broadband Architecture from the California Offshore Region Experiment (ALBACORE) ocean bottom seismometer array, together with 65 stations of the onshore Southern California Seismic Network, is used to measure ambient noise correlation functions and Rayleigh wave dispersion curves which are inverted for 3-D shear wave velocities. The resulting velocity model defines the transition from continental lithosphere to oceanic, illuminating the complex history and deformation in the region. A transition to the present-day strike-slip regime between the Pacific and North American Plates resulted in broad deformation and capture of the now >200 km wide continental shelf. Our velocity model suggests the persistence of the uppermost mantle volcanic processes associated with East Pacific Rise spreading adjacent to the Patton Escarpment, which marks the former subduction of Farallon Plate underneath North America. The most prominent of these seismic structures is a low-velocity anomaly underlying the San Juan Seamount, suggesting ponding of magma at the base of the crust, resulting in thickening and ongoing adjustment of the lithosphere due to the localized loading. The velocity model also provides a robust framework for future earthquake location determinations and ground-shaking simulations for risk estimates.
De, Syamsundar; Baili, Ghaya; Bouchoule, Sophie; Alouini, Mehdi; Bretenaker, Fabien
2015-05-01
The amplitude and phase noises of a dual-frequency vertical-external-cavity surface-emitting laser (DF-VECSEL) operating at telecom wavelength are theoretically and experimentally investigated in detail. In particular, the spectral behavior of the correlation between the intensity noises of the two modes of the DF-VECSEL is measured. Moreover, the correlation between the phase noise of the radio-frequency beat note generated by optical mixing of the two laser modes with the intensity noises of the two modes is investigated. All these spectral behaviors of noise correlations are analyzed for two different values of the nonlinear coupling between the laser modes. We find that to describe the spectral behavior of noise correlations between the laser modes, it is of utmost importance to have precise knowledge about the spectral behavior of the pump noise, which is the dominant source of noise in the frequency range of interest (10 kHz to 35 MHz). Moreover, it is found that the noise correlation also depends on how the spatially separated laser modes of the DF-VECSEL intercept the noise from a multimode fiber-coupled laser diode used for pumping both the laser modes. To this aim, a specific experiment is reported which aims at measuring the correlations between different spatial regions of the pump beam. The experimental results are in excellent agreement with a theoretical model based on modified rate equations.
Antiferromagnetic spin Seebeck effect.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Wu, Stephen M.; Zhang, Wei; KC, Amit; Borisov, Pavel; Pearson, John E.; Jiang, J. Samuel; Lederman, David; Hoffmann, Axel; Bhattacharya, Anand
2016-03-03
We report on the observation of the spin Seebeck effect in antiferromagnetic MnF2. A device scale on-chip heater is deposited on a bilayer of MnF2 (110) (30nm)/Pt (4 nm) grown by molecular beam epitaxy on a MgF2(110) substrate. Using Pt as a spin detector layer, it is possible to measure the thermally generated spin current from MnF2 through the inverse spin Hall effect. The low temperature (2–80 K) and high magnetic field (up to 140 kOe) regime is explored. A clear spin-flop transition corresponding to the sudden rotation of antiferromagnetic spins out of the easy axis is observed in the spin Seebeck signal when large magnetic fields (>9T) are applied parallel to the easy axis of the MnF2 thin film. When the magnetic field is applied perpendicular to the easy axis, the spin-flop transition is absent, as expected.
Antiferromagnetic Spin Seebeck Effect
Wu, Stephen M.; Zhang, Wei; KC, Amit; Borisov, Pavel; Pearson, John E.; Jiang, J. Samuel; Lederman, David; Hoffmann, Axel; Bhattacharya, Anand
2016-03-01
We report on the observation of the spin Seebeck effect in antiferromagnetic MnF2 . A device scale on-chip heater is deposited on a bilayer of MnF2 (110) (30 nm )/Pt (4 nm) grown by molecular beam epitaxy on a MgF2 (110) substrate. Using Pt as a spin detector layer, it is possible to measure the thermally generated spin current from MnF2 through the inverse spin Hall effect. The low temperature (2-80 K) and high magnetic field (up to 140 kOe) regime is explored. A clear spin-flop transition corresponding to the sudden rotation of antiferromagnetic spins out of the easy axis is observed in the spin Seebeck signal when large magnetic fields (>9 T ) are applied parallel to the easy axis of the MnF2 thin film. When the magnetic field is applied perpendicular to the easy axis, the spin-flop transition is absent, as expected.
Panigrahi, Swapnesh; Fade, Julien; Alouini, Mehdi
2015-10-01
We show the use of a simplified snapshot polarimetric camera along with an adaptive image processing for optimal detection of a polarized light beacon through fog. The adaptive representation is derived using theoretical noise analysis of the data at hand and is shown to be optimal in the Maximum likelihood sense. We report that the contrast enhancing optimal representation that depends on the background noise correlation differs in general from standard representations like polarimetric difference image or polarization filtered image. Lastly, we discuss a detection strategy to reduce the false positive counts.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Jin Xing; Li Jun; Lin Shu; Zhou Zhengrong; Kang Lanchi; Ou Yiping
2008-01-01
This paper uses the 8 broad-band stations' microseism data recorded by the Seismic Monitoring Network of Fujian Province to calculate the vertical correlation coefficient between two stationsat intervals of 5 minutes. According to the time intervals technique we obtain the different coefficients and then add the correlative coefficients. Depending on this, we extract the group velocity of Rayleigh waves from the cross correlation of the ambient seismic noise between two seismic stations and figure out the group velocity' spatial distribution. The results show that the signal noise ratio (SNR) increases proportionally to the superposition times, but the results from different days are similar to one another. Synchronously, the arrival-time is also stable and there is no obvious change when coming across typhoons. It is found the velocity of the surface wave is 2.9～3. 1km/s in Fujian Province, which is close to the observationally attained value.
Localization of Narrow-Band Sources in Unknown Spatially Correlated Noise
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Salah Bourennane
2010-01-01
Full Text Available In subspace-based method for direction-of-arrival (DOA estimation of signal wavefronts, the additive noise term is often assumed to be spatially white or known to within a multiplicative scalar. When the noise is nonwhite but has a known covariance matrix, we can still handle the problem through prewhitening. However, the problem turns to be complex when the noise field is completely unknown. In this paper, we study the localization of the sources, when the noise covariance matrix is one unknown band matrix. An iterative denoising algorithm based on the noise subspace spanned by the eigenvectors associated with the smallest eigenvalues is developed. The performance of the proposed algorithm is evaluated by computer simulations. We also test the proposed algorithm with some experimental data recorded during an underwater acoustic experiment.
Electrical switching of an antiferromagnet.
Wadley, P; Howells, B; Železný, J; Andrews, C; Hills, V; Campion, R P; Novák, V; Olejník, K; Maccherozzi, F; Dhesi, S S; Martin, S Y; Wagner, T; Wunderlich, J; Freimuth, F; Mokrousov, Y; Kuneš, J; Chauhan, J S; Grzybowski, M J; Rushforth, A W; Edmonds, K W; Gallagher, B L; Jungwirth, T
2016-02-05
Antiferromagnets are hard to control by external magnetic fields because of the alternating directions of magnetic moments on individual atoms and the resulting zero net magnetization. However, relativistic quantum mechanics allows for generating current-induced internal fields whose sign alternates with the periodicity of the antiferromagnetic lattice. Using these fields, which couple strongly to the antiferromagnetic order, we demonstrate room-temperature electrical switching between stable configurations in antiferromagnetic CuMnAs thin-film devices by applied current with magnitudes of order 10(6) ampere per square centimeter. Electrical writing is combined in our solid-state memory with electrical readout and the stored magnetic state is insensitive to and produces no external magnetic field perturbations, which illustrates the unique merits of antiferromagnets for spintronics.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Xie Wen-Xian; Xu Wei; Cai Li
2007-01-01
This paper shows the Fokker-Planck equation of a dynamical system driven by coloured cross-correlated white noises in the absence and presence of a small external force. Based on the Fokker-Planck equation and the definition of Shannon's information entropy, the time dependence of entropy flux and entropy production can be calculated. The present results can be used to explain the extremal behaviour of time dependence of entropy flux and entropy production in view of the dissipative parameter γ of the system, coloured cross-correlation time τ and coloured cross-correlation strength λ.
Majka, M.; Góra, P. F.
2017-02-01
The collectivity in the simultaneous diffusion of many particles, i.e. the interdependence of stochastic forces affecting different particles in the same solution, is a largely overlooked phenomenon with no well-established theory. Recently, we have proposed a novel type of thermodynamically consistent Langevin dynamics driven by spatially correlated noise (SCN) that can contribute to the understanding of this problem. This model draws a link between the theory of effective interactions in binary colloidal mixtures and the properties of SCN. In the current article, we review this model from the perspective of collective diffusion and generalize it to the case of multiple (N > 2) particles. Since our theory of SCN-driven Langevin dynamics has certain issues that could not be resolved within this framework, in this article we also provide another approach to the problem of collectivity. We discuss the multi-particle Mori-Zwanzig model, which is fully microscopically consistent. Indeed, we show that this model supplies a lot of information, complementary to the SCN-based approach, e.g. it predicts the deterministic dynamics of the relative distance between the particles, it provides an approximation for non-equilibrium effective interactions and predicts the collective sub-diffusion of tracers in the group. These results provide the short-range, inertial limit of the earlier model and agree with its predictions under some general conditions. In this article we also review the origin of SCN and its consequences for a variety of physical systems, with emphasis on the colloids.
Antiferromagnetic exchange mechanism of superconductivity in cuprates
Plakida, N M
2001-01-01
One examines theory of superconducting coupling resulted from antiferromagnetic exchange in terms of which one explains strong dependence of T sub c superconducting transition temperature on alpha lattice constant. Calculations are based on the Hubbard p-d two-region model within strong correlation limit. DELTA pd excitation high energy at antiferromagnetic exchange of two particles from different Hubbard subregions results in suppression o delay effects and in coupling of all particles in conductivity subregion with Fermi energy E sub F >= DELTA pd : T sub c approx = E sub F exp(-1/lambda), where lambda propor to J. T sub c (alpha) and isotopic effect are explained by J exchange interaction dependence on alpha and on zero oscillations of oxygen ions
Antiferromagnetic spin Seebeck Effect
Wu, SM; W. Zhang; Kc, A; Borisov, P.; Pearson, JE; Jiang, JS; Lederman, D.; Hoffmann, A.; Bhattacharya, A
2015-01-01
We report on the observation of the spin Seebeck effect in antiferromagnetic MnF_{2}. A device scale on-chip heater is deposited on a bilayer of MnF_{2} (110) (30 nm)/Pt (4 nm) grown by molecular beam epitaxy on a MgF_{2} (110) substrate. Using Pt as a spin detector layer, it is possible to measure the thermally generated spin current from MnF_{2} through the inverse spin Hall effect. The low temperature (2-80 K) and high magnetic field (up to 140 kOe) regime is explored. A clear spin-flop t...
Matos, Catarina; Silveira, Graça; Custódio, Susana; Domingues, Ana; Dias, Nuno; Fonseca, João F. B.; Matias, Luís; Krueger, Frank; Carrilho, Fernando
2014-05-01
Noise cross-correlations are now widely used to extract Green functions between station pairs. But, do all the cross-correlations routinely computed produce successful Green Functions? What is the relationship between noise recorded in a couple of stations and the cross-correlation between them? During the last decade, we have been involved in the deployment of several temporary dense broadband (BB) networks within the scope of both national projects and international collaborations. From 2000 to 2002, a pool of 8 BB stations continuously operated in the Azores in the scope of the Memorandum of Understanding COSEA (COordinated Seismic Experiment in the Azores). Thanks to the Project WILAS (West Iberia Lithosphere and Astenosphere Structure, PTDC/CTE-GIX/097946/2008) we temporarily increased the number of BB deployed in mainland Portugal to more than 50 (permanent + temporary) during the period 2010 - 2012. In 2011/12 a temporary pool of 12 seismometers continuously recorded BB data in the Madeira archipelago, as part of the DOCTAR (Deep Ocean Test Array Experiment) project. Project CV-PLUME (Investigation on the geometry and deep signature of the Cape Verde mantle plume, PTDC/CTE-GIN/64330/2006) covered the archipelago of Cape Verde, North Atlantic, with 40 temporary BB stations in 2007/08. Project MOZART (Mozambique African Rift Tomography, PTDC/CTE-GIX/103249/2008), covered Mozambique, East Africa, with 30 temporary BB stations in the period 2011 - 2013. These networks, located in very distinct geographical and tectonic environments, offer an interesting opportunity to study seasonal and spatial variations of noise sources and their impact on Empirical Green functions computed from noise cross-correlation. Seismic noise recorded at different seismic stations is evaluated by computation of the probability density functions of power spectral density (PSD) of continuous data. To assess seasonal variations of ambient noise sources in frequency content, time-series of
Sub-Shot-Noise Magnetometry with a Correlated Spin-Relaxation Dominated Alkali-Metal Vapor
Kominis, I. K.
2007-01-01
Spin noise sets fundamental limits to the precision of measurements using spin-polarized atomic vapors, such as performed with sensitive atomic magnetometers. Spin squeezing offers the possibility to extend the measurement precision beyond the standard quantum limit of uncorrelated atoms. Contrary to the current understanding, we show that even in the presence of spin relaxation, spin squeezing can lead to a significant reduction of spin noise, and hence an increase in magnetometric sensitivi...
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Long Fei; Du Lu-Chun; Mei Dong-Cheng
2009-01-01
The nonequilibrium phase transition and the symmetry revival induced by time delay in a bistable system are investigated. The stationary probability distribution function (SPDF) of the bistable system with time delay and correlated noises are calculated by an analytical method and stochastic simulation respectively. The analytical and simulative results indicate that: (1) There is a certain value of λ(λ denotes the strength of correlations between the multiplicative and additive noises) to make the SPDF symmetric under some time delay; however, above or below the given value, the symmetry will be broken; (2) With the monotonic change of λ, the unimodal peak structure of SPDF becomes bimodal at the beginning, then it becomes unimodal again; this means that there is a reentrance phenomenon in the process; (3) There is a critical value of delay time, which makes the lower peak of SPDF equal to the higher one under the critical condition. This means that the symmetry revival phenomenon emerges.
Ahmadi, A M; Bahrampour, A R; Ravanbod, H
2013-01-01
In this work, the residual complexity (RC) similarity measure, is employed for time delay estimation (TDE) in gas pipe leak localization. The result of TDE by RC is compared with those of Cross Correlation(CC) and Mutual Information(MI) similarity measures based on our experimental data. The comparison confirms the advantages of RC relative to CC and MI, in robustness against both correlated noises and reduction of number of samples. These advantages originate from not only its mathematical nature of RC similarity measure which considers interdependency but also from broadband frequency of acoustic waves propagating during gas pipes.
Wrobel, Friederike; Kemei, Moureen C; Derakhshan, Shahab
2013-03-04
A novel quaternary compound in the Ba-Y-Fe-O phase diagram was synthesized by solid-state reaction and its crystal structure was characterized using powder X-ray diffraction. The crystal structure of BaYFeO4 consists of a unique arrangement of Fe(3+) magnetic ions, which is based on alternate corner-shared units of [FeO5](7-) square pyramids and [FeO6](9-) octahedra. This results in the formation of stairwise channels of FeO polyhedra along the b crystallographic axis. The structure is described in an orthorhombic crystal system in the space group Pnma with lattice parameters a = 13.14455(1) Å, b = 5.694960(5) Å, and c = 10.247630(9) Å. The temperature-dependent magnetic susceptibility data reveal two antiferromagnetic (AFM) transitions at 33 and 48 K. An upturn in the magnetic susceptibility data above these transitions is observed, which does not reach its maximum even at 390 K. The field-dependent magnetization data at both 2 and 300 K show a nearly linear dependence and do not exhibit significant hysteresis. Heat capacity measurements between 2 and 200 K reveal only a broad anomaly without any indication of long-range ordering. The latter data set is not in good agreement with the magnetic susceptibility data, which makes it difficult to exactly determine the magnetic ground state of BaYFeO4. Accordingly, a temperature-dependent neutron diffraction study is in order, which will enable resolving this issue. The theoretical study of the relative strengths of magnetic exchange interactions along various possible pathways, using extended Hückel spin dimer analysis, shows that only interactions between square pyramidal and octahedral centers are significant, and among them, the intrachannel correlations are stronger than interchannel interactions. This is the first physical property study in such a magnetic ion substructure.
Glattli, D. C.; Roulleau, P.
2016-08-01
We study the Hanbury Brown and Twiss correlation of electronic quasi-particles injected in a quantum conductor using current noise correlations and we experimentally address the effect of finite temperature. By controlling the relative time of injection of two streams of electrons it is possible to probe the fermionic antibunching, performing the electron analog of the optical Hong Ou Mandel (HOM) experiment. The electrons are injected using voltage pulses with either sine-wave or Lorentzian shape. In the latter case, we propose a set of orthogonal wavefunctions, describing periodic trains of multiply charged electron pulses, which give a simple interpretation to the HOM shot noise. The effect of temperature is then discussed and experimentally investigated. We observe a perfect electron anti-bunching for a large range of temperature, showing that, as recently predicted, thermal mixing of the states does not affect anti-bunching properties, a feature qualitatively different from dephasing. For single charge Lorentzian pulses, we provide experimental evidence of the prediction that the HOM shot noise variation versus the emission time delay is remarkably independent of the temperature.
Lindner, Benjamin; Chacron, Maurice J.; Longtin, André
2017-01-01
Many neurons exhibit interval correlations in the absence of input signals. We study the influence of these intrinsic interval correlations of model neurons on their signal transmission properties. For this purpose, we employ two simple firing models, one of which generates a renewal process, while the other leads to a nonrenewal process with negative interval correlations. Different methods to solve for spectral statistics in the presence of a weak stimulus (spike train power spectra, cross spectra, and coherence functions) are presented, and their range of validity is discussed. Using these analytical results, we explore a lower bound on the mutual information rate between output spike train and input stimulus as a function of the system’s parameters. We demonstrate that negative correlations in the baseline activity can lead to enhanced information transfer of a weak signal by means of noise shaping of the background noise spectrum. We also show that an enhancement is not compulsory—for a stimulus with power exclusively at high frequencies, the renewal model can transfer more information than the nonrenewal model does. We discuss the application of our analytical results to other problems in neuroscience. Our results are also relevant to the general problem of how a signal affects the power spectrum of a nonlinear stochastic system. PMID:16196608
EFFECTIVE EIGENVALUE FOR THE INTENSTTY CORRELATION OF A LASER WITH MULTIPLICATIVE WHITE NOISE
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
汪瑾; 朱士群
1995-01-01
Exact formulas of the effective eigenvalues in a single-mode laser with multiplicative white noise are derived through the full saturation laser model and the third order laser model.Compared with the numerical computations and the experimental measurements,excellent agreement is obtained for the full saturation theory,and hence the cavity decay rate for the experimental electric field can be concluded easily.Relatiely large errors occur in the third order theory and the measured data.
Qiu, Chenlu
2011-01-01
This work studies the recursive robust principal components' analysis (PCA) problem. Here, "robust" refers to robustness to both independent and correlated sparse outliers, although we focus on the latter. A key application where this problem occurs is in video surveillance where the goal is to separate a slowly changing background from moving foreground objects on-the-fly. The background sequence is well modeled as lying in a low dimensional subspace, that can gradually change over time, while the moving foreground objects constitute the correlated sparse outliers. In this and many other applications, the foreground is an outlier for PCA but is actually the "signal of interest" for the application; where as the background is the corruption or noise. Thus our problem can also be interpreted as one of recursively recovering a time sequence of sparse signals in the presence of large but spatially correlated noise. This work has two key contributions. First, we provide a new way of looking at this problem and sh...
Creation of an antiferromagnetic exchange spring
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Scholl, A.; Liberati, M.; Arenholz, E.; Ohldag, H.; Stohr, J.
2004-04-06
We present evidence for the creation of an exchange spring in an antiferromagnet due to exchange coupling to a ferromagnet. X-ray magnetic linear dichroism spectroscopy on single crystal Co/NiO(001) shows that a partial domain wall is wound up at the surface of the antiferromagnet when the adjacent ferromagnet is rotated by a magnetic field. We determine the interface exchange stiffness and the antiferromagnetic domain wall energy from the field dependence of the direction of the antiferromagnetic axis, the antiferromagnetic pendant to a ferromagnetic hysteresis loop. The existence of a planar antiferromagnetic domain wall, proven by our measurement, is a key assumption of most exchange bias models.
Tilley, Steven; Siewerdsen, Jeffrey H.; Zbijewski, Wojciech; Stayman, J. Webster
2016-03-01
Flat-panel cone-beam CT (FP-CBCT) is a promising imaging modality, partly due to its potential for high spatial resolution reconstructions in relatively compact scanners. Despite this potential, FP-CBCT can face difficulty resolving important fine scale structures (e.g, trabecular details in dedicated extremities scanners and microcalcifications in dedicated CBCT mammography). Model-based methods offer one opportunity to improve high-resolution performance without any hardware changes. Previous work, based on a linearized forward model, demonstrated improved performance when both system blur and spatial correlations characteristics of FP-CBCT systems are modeled. Unfortunately, the linearized model relies on a staged processing approach that complicates tuning parameter selection and can limit the finest achievable spatial resolution. In this work, we present an alternative scheme that leverages a full nonlinear forward model with both system blur and spatially correlated noise. A likelihood-based objective function is derived from this forward model and we derive an iterative optimization algorithm for its solution. The proposed approach is evaluated in simulation studies using a digital extremities phantom and resolution-noise trade-offs are quantitatively evaluated. The correlated nonlinear model outperformed both the uncorrelated nonlinear model and the staged linearized technique with up to a 86% reduction in variance at matched spatial resolution. Additionally, the nonlinear models could achieve finer spatial resolution (correlated: 0.10 mm, uncorrelated: 0.11 mm) than the linear correlated model (0.15 mm), and traditional FDK (0.40 mm). This suggests the proposed nonlinear approach may be an important tool in improving performance for high-resolution clinical applications.
Spatial Correlation of Surface-Generated Noise in a Stratified Ocean
1980-10-01
can express the I appropriately aistributed in space. Therefore, the cross- spectral density function of the noise field as source function is s(r’, t... spectral density function depends on frequency. (P.(r-Z)=f d r’S,(r)G(r,r’,z,z), (5) Since g and g* depend on the magnitude of 17, but not its...with the re-Ma lem, satisfies the Helmholtz equation suit that the cross- spectral density function takes the (V2.k 2 )G(r,r’z,z’)=-(l/r)8(r-r’)8(z-z
Stationary-phase integrals in the cross correlation of ambient noise
Boschi, L.; Weemstra, C.
2015-01-01
The cross correlation of ambient signal allows seismologists to collect data even in the absence of seismic events. “Seismic interferometry” shows that the cross correlation of simultaneous recordings of a random wavefield made at two locations is formally related to the impulse response between tho
A spin-1 kagome antiferromagnet
Tovar, Mayra; Shtengel, Kirill; Refael, Gil
2010-03-01
We study a spin-1 antiferromagnet on the kagom'e lattice. We start by constructing a Klein-type SU(2) symmetric Hamiltonian which contains Heisenberg interactions between nearest and next-nearest neighbors as well as three-body terms. Our model Hamiltonian has an extensive degenerate ground state whose manifold is spanned by the AKLT-like valence bond states. We also perturb the parent Hamiltonian by introducing an enhancement to the nearest neighbor antiferromagnetic Heisenberg interactions. By projecting this perturbation onto the basis spanned by the unperturbed ground states, we derive an effective Hamiltonian which is dual to that of the transverse field antiferromagnetic Ising model on the triangular lattice. Based on the parameters of our model, we find it to be in the order-by-disorder phase. The ground state is a valence bond crystal stabilized by quantum fluctuations. We also discuss excitations, both magnetic and non-magnetic, and address their possible relevance to experiment.
Thermophoresis of an antiferromagnetic soliton
Kim, Se Kwon; Tchernyshyov, Oleg; Tserkovnyak, Yaroslav
2015-07-01
We study the dynamics of an antiferromagnetic soliton under a temperature gradient. To this end, we start by phenomenologically constructing the stochastic Landau-Lifshitz-Gilbert equation for an antiferromagnet with the aid of the fluctuation-dissipation theorem. We then derive the Langevin equation for the soliton's center of mass by the collective coordinate approach. An antiferromagentic soliton behaves as a classical massive particle immersed in a viscous medium. By considering a thermodynamic ensemble of solitons, we obtain the Fokker-Planck equation, from which we extract the average drift velocity of a soliton. The diffusion coefficient is inversely proportional to a small damping constant α , which can yield a drift velocity of tens of m/s under a temperature gradient of 1 K/mm for a domain wall in an easy-axis antiferromagnetic wire with α ˜10-4 .
Correlation times in stochastic equations with delayed feedback and multiplicative noise.
Gaudreault, Mathieu; Berbert, Juliana Militão; Viñals, Jorge
2011-01-01
We obtain the characteristic correlation time associated with a model stochastic differential equation that includes the normal form of a pitchfork bifurcation and delayed feedback. In particular, the validity of the common assumption of statistical independence between the state at time t and that at t-τ, where τ is the delay time, is examined. We find that the correlation time diverges at the model's bifurcation line, thus signaling a sharp bifurcation threshold, and the failure of statistical independence near threshold. We determine the correlation time both by numerical integration of the governing equation, and analytically in the limit of small τ. The correlation time T diverges as T~a(-1), where a is the control parameter so that a=0 is the bifurcation threshold. The small-τ expansion correctly predicts the location of the bifurcation threshold, but there are systematic deviations in the magnitude of the correlation time.
The three-state antiferromagnetic Potts model: scaling laws
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Gottlob, A.P. [Kaiserslautern Univ. (Germany); Hasenbusch, M. [Cambridge Univ. (United Kingdom). Dept. of Applied Mathematics and Theoretical Physics (DAMTP)
1995-04-01
We present the results of a Monte Carlo study of the three-dimensional anti-ferromagnetic three-state Potts model. We computed the correlation length, the magnetic susceptibility and the specific heat for various coupling parameters in the high temperature phase of the model. From the scaling behaviour of these quantities we determine estimates for the critical temperature and critical exponents. ((orig.)).
Quantification of quantum discord in a antiferromagnetic Heisenberg compound
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Singh, H., E-mail: chiranjib@iiserkol.ac.in; Chakraborty, T., E-mail: chiranjib@iiserkol.ac.in; Mitra, C., E-mail: chiranjib@iiserkol.ac.in [Indian Institute of Science Education and Research (IISER) Kolkata, Mohanpur Campus, Mohanpur -741252, Nadia, West Bengal (India)
2014-04-24
An experimental quantification of concurrence and quantum discord from heat capacity (C{sub p}) measurement performed over a solid state system has been reported. In this work, thermodynamic measurements were performed on copper nitrate (CN, Cu(NO{sub 3}){sub 2}⋅2.5H{sub 2}O) single crystals which is an alternating antiferromagnet Heisenberg spin 1/2 system. CN being a weak dimerized antiferromagnet is an ideal system to investigate correlations between spins. The theoretical expressions were used to obtain concurrence and quantum discord curves as a function of temperature from heat capacity data of a real macroscopic system, CN.
Correlation of magnetostriction variation on magnetic loss and noise for power transformer
Cheng, Shan-Jen; Liu, Jui-Jung; Chang, Yeong-Hwa; Fu, Chao-Ming; Hsu, Chang-Hung; Lee, Chun-Yao; Chang, Chia-Wen
2015-05-01
Magnetostriction (MS)-caused strain in single-phase three-legged cores with different core cutting forms, which suffer from induced magnetic loss and noise, was studied. It is found that adopting each different core form types induces magnetostriction ɛ variation in a transformer core operating with a high-frequency AC signal. The results are compared with finite element analysis simulations. It is also indicated that magnetostriction ɛ variations are significant in the rolling direction and along limbs and yokes. In this paper, it is proposed that core corner sides and T-joint parts without cutting structure, the core exhibits lower core loss and lower heat dissipation due to the fact that the magnetic flux that passes through corner sides shows lower magnetostriction variation. The magnetic properties resulting from magnetostriction variation in core loss and heat dissipation phenomena are significantly different from other core forms because of stronger contributions from magnetostatic forces. The main contribution for reducing core loss and noise, making them much less in corner numbers and cutting-fabricated forms, can be expected to come from lower magnetic flux and magnetostriction variation.
Adrián-Martínez, S; Bou-Cabo, M; Felis, I; Llorens, C; Martínez-Mora, J A; Saldaña, M
2015-01-01
The study and application of signal detection techniques based on cross-correlation method for acoustic transient signals in noisy and reverberant environments are presented. These techniques are shown to provide high signal to noise ratio, good signal discernment from very close echoes and accurate detection of signal arrival time. The proposed methodology has been tested on real data collected in environments and conditions where its benefits can be shown. This work focuses on the acoustic detection applied to tasks of positioning in underwater structures and calibration such those as ANTARES and KM3NeT deep-sea neutrino telescopes, as well as, in particle detection through acoustic events for the COUPP/PICO detectors. Moreover, a method for obtaining the real amplitude of the signal in time (voltage) by using cross correlation has been developed and tested and is described in this work.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Kim Pansoo
2009-01-01
Full Text Available Recent standards for wireless transmission require reliable synchronization for channels with low signal-to-noise ratio (SNR as well as with a large amount of frequency offset, which necessitates a robust correlator structure for the initial frame synchronization process. In this paper, a new correlation strategy especially targeted for low SNR regions is proposed and its performance is analyzed. By utilizing a modified energy correction term, the proposed method effectively reduces the variance of the decision variable to enhance the detection performance. Most importantly, the method is demonstrated to outperform all previously reported schemes by a significant margin, for SNRs below 5 dB regardless of the existence of the frequency offsets. A variation of the proposed method is also presented for further enhancement over the channels with small frequency errors. The particular application considered for the performance verification is the second generation digital video broadcasting system for satellites (DVB-S2.
Meecham, W. C.; Hurdle, P. M.
1974-01-01
Cross-correlations are reported of the jet static pressure fluctuations (as measured with a B and K microphone fitted with a nose cone), with the far-field radiated sound pressure. These measurements were made for various probe positions and a large number of far-field positions (at various angles). In addition, the tests were run for a number of different jet exit velocities. The measured, normalized cross-correlation functions vary between 0.004 and 0.155. These values depend upon the angular position of the far-field microphone, the jet exit Mach number, and the position of the probe. In addition, the cross-correlation technique was employed to study the symmetry of the far-field radiated sound about the jet axis. Third-octave analyses of both the probe signal and the far-field radiated sound were made. This is the first time correlation measurements have been made on a jet engine. In addition, a report is given on an extensive noise survey of a model jet. The correlations are related to sound source functions and jet source regions are discussed.
Qorbani, Ehsan; Zigone, Dimitri; Kolinsky, Petr; Fuchs, Florian; Bokelmann, Götz; AlpArray-EASI Working Group
2016-04-01
The eastern part of the Alpine chain is considered as an area of complex tectonics and lithospheric structure. Having a relatively dense network of stations in this region provides an opportunity to study the crustal and lithospheric velocity structure using ambient-noise correlations methods. We used continuous data recorded during 2014 at 50 permanent stations located in Austria, Germany, northern Italy, and Slovenia, along with data from 8 temporary stations of the Eastern Alpine Seismic Investigation (EASI) profile. Cross correlation of ambient noise are performed in order to estimate the Green's functions of surface waves propagating between station pairs. Dispersion curves of Rayleigh and Love waves are constructed between 2 and 30 seconds and are then inverted to obtain group velocity maps at different frequency (depth) levels. We present here a new crustal-lithospheric velocity model for the Southern and Eastern Alps, which reveals clear spatial velocity variation and contrasts, associated with major faults, deformed and damaged zones. In this study, we also assess the azimuthal anisotropy from the group velocity measurements. The new finding together with the previous results from SKS splitting and receiver function provides 3D images of anisotropy at scales ranging from crust to upper mantle. This allows us to discuss the strain field and deformation pattern within both shallow and lithospheric-asthenospheric depth, in relation with the most prominent tectonic processes in the region, such as eastward extrusion of the ALCAPA block (Eastern Alps, Western Carpathian, and Pannonian Basin).
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
无
2007-01-01
We explore inelastic cotunneling through a strongly Coulomb-blockaded quantum dot attached to two ferromagnetic leads in the weak coupling limit using a generic quantum Langevin equation approach. We first develop a Bloch-type equation microscopically to describe the cotunneling-induced spin relaxation dynamics, and then develop explicit analytical expressions for the local magnetization, current, and its fluctuations. On this basis, we predict a novel zero-bias anomaly of the differential conductance in the absence of a magnetic field for the anti-parallel configuration,and asymmetric peak splitting in a magnetic field. Also, for the same system with large polarization, we find a negative zero-frequency differential shot noise in the low positive bias-voltage region. All these effects are ascribed to rapid spin-reversal due to underlying spin-flip cotunneling.
Max-Moerbeck, W; Hovatta, T; Pavlidou, V; Pearson, T J; Readhead, A C S
2014-01-01
We present a practical implementation of a Monte Carlo method to estimate the significance of cross-correlations in unevenly sampled time series of data, whose statistical properties are modeled with a simple power-law power spectral density. This implementation builds on published methods, we introduce a number of improvements in the normalization of the cross-correlation function estimate and a bootstrap method for estimating the significance of the cross-correlations. A closely related matter is the estimation of a model for the light curves, which is critical for the significance estimates. We present a graphical and quantitative demonstration that uses simulations to show how common it is to get high cross-correlations for unrelated light curves with steep power spectral densities. This demonstration highlights the dangers of interpreting them as signs of a physical connection. We show that by using interpolation and the Hanning sampling window function we are able to reduce the effects of red-noise leak...
Observation of noise correlated by the Hawking effect in a water tank
Euvé, L -P; Parentani, R; Philbin, T G; Rousseaux, G
2015-01-01
We measure the power spectrum and two-point correlation function for the fluctuating free surface on the downstream side of a stationary flow above an obstacle with high Froude number $F \\approx 0.85$. On such a flow the scattering of incident long wavelength modes is analogous to that responsible for black hole radiation (the Hawking effect). Our measurements of the correlations clearly indicate a steady conversion of incident modes into pairs of modes of opposite energies. We then use a wave maker to measure the scattering coefficients responsible for this effect.
Quantum phase noise and field correlation in single frequency semiconductor laser systems
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Gallion, P.; Debarge, G.
1984-04-01
The influence of quantum phase fluctuations which affect single frequency semiconductor lasers in various coherent detection systems is discussed in terms of photocurrent autocorrelation and spectral density functions. The general treatment given in this paper can be applied in diverse practical cases and points out the problems of phase correlation and phase matching between the two mixed optical beams. In the more general case the photocurrent spectrum is found to be composed of discrete and quasi-Lorentzian parts whose energies and spectral spreads are discussed as a function of the laser line width, the phase matching and the phase correlation between the two coherently combined fields.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Jungwon Ryu
2012-10-01
Full Text Available Responses of single sensory neurons to stimuli are ‘noisy’, varying substantially across repeated trials of identical stimulation. Intriguingly, these individual ‘noise responses’ (NR—deviations from their means—are not isolated; rather they are highly correlated, referred to as ‘noise correlation’ (NC. From a computational viewpoint, the presence and nature of NC exert great impacts on the information processing capacity of neurons as they encode sensory events as a population, decode those encoded neural responses, and contribute to perceptual choices for action. Regarding the origin of NR, on the other hand, there has been growing evidence pointing to its tight linkage with ‘spontaneous responses’ (SR—fluctuations of neural activity in the absence of external input or tasks. To investigate the functional structure of NC and its relationship with ‘correlations in SR’ (SC, we defined population receptive fields (pRFs of unit volumes of gray matter (UV in human early visual cortex and computed NRs and SRs using fMRI. NC increased with an increasing degree of similarity in pRF tuning properties such as orientation, spatial frequency, and visuotopic position, particularly between UV pairs close in cortical distance. This ‘like-to-like’ structure of NC remained unaltered across scan runs with different stimuli, even among between-area UV pairs. SC was higher than NC, and its functional and temporal structures were quite similar to those of NC. Furthermore, the partial correlation analysis revealed that NC between a given pair of UVs was best predicted by their SC than by any other factors examined in the current study.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
谢崇伟; 梅冬成
2003-01-01
We study the effects of correlations between the real and imaginary parts of quantum noise on the intensity fluctuation for a single-mode laser. The analytic expressions of the intensity correlation function C(τ) and the associated relaxation time Tc in the case of a stable locked phase resulting from the cross-correlation λq between the real and imaginary parts of quantum noise are derived by means of projection operator method. Based on numerical computations it is found that the presence of cross-correlations between the real and imaginary parts of quantum noise causes the intensity fluctuation to increase. A slowing-down phenomenon exists in the sense that Tc increases as a function of |λq|. Thus the decay of intensity fluctuation becomes slower.
On the Capacity of Densely Packed Arrays with Mutual Coupling and Correlated Noise
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Vahid Dehghanian
2015-01-01
Full Text Available Capacity of a wireless link can be enhanced by increasing the number of receive antennas. However, imposed receiver physical size constraints necessitate that the antenna elements be in close proximity, which typically reduces the overall link capacity of the wireless channel. Counterintuitively, under certain conditions the capacity of the overall link can be enhanced by decreasing antenna spacings. The focus of this paper is that of identifying the fundamental mechanisms and the conditions that give rise to this excess capacity. Closed-form expressions that directly quantify this capacity gain are derived based on a representative circuit theoretic model. Interesting insights are developed about the impact of different noise and interference sources and the limiting effect of heat losses in the antenna system. The capacity analysis is subsequently generalized to encompass the effect of antenna current deformation and load mismatch due to mutual coupling, based on the standard Method of Moments (MoM analysis, demonstrating similar capacity enhancement behavior as predicted by the closed-form expressions.
Kruscha, Alexandra; Lindner, Benjamin
2016-08-01
We consider a homogeneous population of stochastic neurons that are driven by weak common noise (stimulus). To capture and analyze the joint firing events within the population, we introduce the partial synchronous output of the population. This is a time series defined by the events that at least a fixed fraction γ ∈[0 ,1 ] of the population fires simultaneously within a small time interval. For this partial synchronous output we develop two analytical approaches to the correlation statistics. In the Gaussian approach we represent the synchronous output as a nonlinear transformation of the summed population activity and approximate the latter by a Gaussian process. In the combinatorial approach the synchronous output is represented by products of box-filtered spike trains of the single neurons. In both approaches we use linear-response theory to derive approximations for statistical measures that hold true for weak common noise. In particular, we calculate the mean value and power spectrum of the synchronous output and the cross-spectrum between synchronous output and common noise. We apply our results to the leaky integrate-and-fire neuron model and compare them to numerical simulations. The combinatorial approach is shown to provide a more accurate description of the statistics for small populations, whereas the Gaussian approximation yields compact formulas that work well for a sufficiently large population size. In particular, in the Gaussian approximation all statistical measures reveal a symmetry in the synchrony threshold γ around the mean value of the population activity. Our results may contribute to a better understanding of the role of coincidence detection in neural signal processing.
Sekine, Akihiko; Nomura, Kentaro
2016-03-04
We search for dynamical magnetoelectric phenomena in three-dimensional correlated systems with spin-orbit coupling. We focus on the antiferromagnetic insulator phases where the dynamical axion field is realized by the fluctuation of the antiferromagnetic order parameter. It is shown that the dynamical chiral magnetic effect, an alternating current generation by magnetic fields, emerges due to such time dependences of the order parameter as antiferromagnetic resonance. It is also shown that the anomalous Hall effect arises due to such spatial variations of the order parameter as antiferromagnetic domain walls. Our study indicates that spin excitations in antiferromagnetic insulators with spin-orbit coupling can result in nontrivial charge responses. Moreover, observing the chiral magnetic effect and anomalous Hall effect in our system is equivalent to detecting the dynamical axion field in condensed matter.
Large-scale numerical investigations of the antiferromagnetic Heisenberg icosidodecahedron
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ummethum, Joerg [Department of Physics, Bielefeld University, P.O. Box 100131, D-33501 Bielefeld (Germany); Schnack, Juergen, E-mail: jschnack@uni-bielefeld.de [Department of Physics, Bielefeld University, P.O. Box 100131, D-33501 Bielefeld (Germany); Laeuchli, Andreas M. [Inst. f. Theoretische Physik, Innsbruck University, Technikerstr. 25, 6020 Innsbruck (Austria)
2013-02-15
We present up to date investigations of the antiferromagnetic Heisenberg icosidodecahedron by means of the density matrix renormalization group method. We compare our results with modern correlator product state as well as Lanczos calculations. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Results of unprecedented accuracy for energies and correlation functions of a frustrated spin system. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Relevance for a large set of magnetic molecules. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Demonstration of accuracy of DDMRG.
Goncharov, V. V.; Shurup, A. S.; Godin, O. A.; Zabotin, N. A.; Vedenev, A. I.; Sergeev, S. N.; Brown, M. G.; Shatravin, A. V.
2016-07-01
Based on experimental data obtained in 2012 in the Florida Strait, we study the feasibility of employing ray tomography to retrieve sound speed and flow velocity profiles from measured noise cross-correlation functions. We describe the results of numerical experiments that characterize the inversion errors resulting from peculiarities of the ray structure in shallow water, difficulties in unambiguous identification of ray arrivals, and a decrease in accuracy of ray theory at low frequencies. We show that under conditions of low-mode sound propagation, the use of the classical ray tomography scheme can yield only a rough estimate of the sound speed profile, but it allows approximate reconstruction of the current velocity profile. Application of passive ray tomography to the experimental data yields the current velocity profile in the Straits of Florida, which agrees with independent measurements within the inversion error limit.
Foist, Rod B; Schulze, H Georg; Ivanov, Andre; Turner, Robin F B
2011-05-01
Two-dimensional correlation spectroscopy (2D-COS) is a powerful spectral analysis technique widely used in many fields of spectroscopy because it can reveal spectral information in complex systems that is not readily evident in the original spectral data alone. However, noise may severely distort the information and thus limit the technique's usefulness. Consequently, noise reduction is often performed before implementing 2D-COS. In general, this is implemented using one-dimensional (1D) methods applied to the individual input spectra, but, because 2D-COS is based on sets of successive spectra and produces 2D outputs, there is also scope for the utilization of 2D noise-reduction methods. Furthermore, 2D noise reduction can be applied either to the original set of spectra before performing 2D-COS ("pretreatment") or on the 2D-COS output ("post-treatment"). Very little work has been done on post-treatment; hence, the relative advantages of these two approaches are unclear. In this work we compare the noise-reduction performance on 2D-COS of pretreatment and post-treatment using 1D (wavelets) and 2D algorithms (wavelets, matrix maximum entropy). The 2D methods generally outperformed the 1D method in pretreatment noise reduction. 2D post-treatment in some cases was superior to pretreatment and, unexpectedly, also provided correlation coefficient maps that were similar to 2D correlation spectroscopy maps but with apparent better contrast.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Renard, F.
2003-01-01
The goal of seismic inversion is to recover an Earth model that best fits some observed data. To reach that goal, we have to minimize an objective function that measures the amplitude of the misfits according to a norm to be chosen in data space. In general, the used norm is the L2 norm. Unfortunately, such a norm is not adapted to data corrupted by correlated noise: the noise is in that case inverted as signal and the inversion results are unacceptable. The goal of this thesis is to obtain satisfactory results to the inverse problem in that situation. For this purpose, we study two inverse problems: reflection tomography and waveform inversion. In reflection tomography, we propose a new formulation of the continuum inverse problem which relies on a H1 norm in data space. This allows us to account for the correlated nature of the noise that corrupts the kinematic information. However, this norm does not give more satisfactory results than the ones obtained with the classical formalism. This is why, for sake of simplicity, we recommend to use this classical formalism. Then we try to understand how to properly sample the kinematic information so as to obtain an accurate approximation of the continuum inverse problem. In waveform inversion, we propose to directly invert data corrupted by some correlated noise. A first idea consists in rejecting the noise in the residues. In that goal, we can use a semi-norm to formulate the inverse problem. This technique gives very good results, except when the data are corrupted by random noise. Thus we propose a second method which consists in retrieving, by solving an inverse problem, the signal and the noise whose sum best fits the data. This technique gives very satisfactory results, even if some random noise pollutes the data, and is moreover solved, thanks to an original algorithm, in a very efficient way. (author)
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
ZHANG Li; CAO Li; WU Da-Jin
2006-01-01
A two-dimensional single-mode laser model with cross-correlation between the real and imaginary parts of the colored quadric pump noise is investigated. A novel laser amplitude Langevin equation is obtained, in which the cross-correlation λp between the real and imaginary parts of the pump noise appears. The mean, variance, and skewness of first-passage-time are calculated. It is shown that the mean, variance, and skewness of first-passage-time are strongly affected by λp.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
申雅君; 郭永峰; 袭蓓
2016-01-01
Recently, the dynamics problems of nonlinear systems driven by noises have attracted considerable attention. The researches indicate that the noise plays a determinative role in system evolution. This irregular random interference does not always play a negative role in the macro order. Sometimes it can play a positive role. The various effects of noise are found in physics, biology, chemistry and other fields, such as noise-induced non-equilibrium phase transition, noise-enhanced system stability, stochastic resonance, etc. Especially, in the field of biology, the effects of noise on life process are significant. At present, a large number of researchers have studied the kinetic properties of the neuron system subjected to noises. However, these studies focus on the Gaussian noise, while the researches about non-Gaussian noise are less. In fact, it is found that all the noise sources among neuronal systems, physical systems and biological systems tend to non-Gaussian distribution. So it is reasonable to consider the effects of the non-Gaussian noise on systems, and it is closer to the actual process. Therefore, it has some practical significance to study the FHN system driven by the non-Gaussian noise and analyze the kinetic properties of this system. In this work, we study the stationary probability distribution (SPD) in FitzHugh-Nagumo (FHN) neural system driven by correlated multiplicative non-Gaussian noise and additive Gaussian white noise. Using the path integral approach and the unified colored approximation, the analytical expression of the stationary probability distribution is first derived, and then the change regulations of the SPD with the strength and relevance between multiplicative noise and additive noise are analyzed. After that, the simulation results show that the intensity of multiplicative noise, the intensity of additive noise, the correlation time of the non-Gaussian noise and the cross-correlation strength between noises can induce non
Imaging Current-Induced Switching of Antiferromagnetic Domains in CuMnAs
Grzybowski, M. J.; Wadley, P.; Edmonds, K. W.; Beardsley, R.; Hills, V.; Campion, R. P.; Gallagher, B. L.; Chauhan, J. S.; Novak, V.; Jungwirth, T.; Maccherozzi, F.; Dhesi, S. S.
2017-02-01
The magnetic order in antiferromagnetic materials is hard to control with external magnetic fields. Using x-ray magnetic linear dichroism microscopy, we show that staggered effective fields generated by electrical current can induce modification of the antiferromagnetic domain structure in microdevices fabricated from a tetragonal CuMnAs thin film. A clear correlation between the average domain orientation and the anisotropy of the electrical resistance is demonstrated, with both showing reproducible switching in response to orthogonally applied current pulses. However, the behavior is inhomogeneous at the submicron level, highlighting the complex nature of the switching process in multidomain antiferromagnetic films.
Onset of antiferromagnetism in heavy-fermion metals
Schroder; Aeppli; Coldea; Adams; Stockert; v. Lohneysen H; Bucher; Ramazashvili; Coleman
2000-09-21
There are two main theoretical descriptions of antiferromagnets. The first arises from atomic physics, which predicts that atoms with unpaired electrons develop magnetic moments. In a solid, the coupling between moments on nearby ions then yields antiferromagnetic order at low temperatures. The second description, based on the physics of electron fluids or 'Fermi liquids' states that Coulomb interactions can drive the fluid to adopt a more stable configuration by developing a spin density wave. It is at present unknown which view is appropriate at a 'quantum critical point' where the antiferromagnetic transition temperature vanishes. Here we report neutron scattering and bulk magnetometry measurements of the metal CeCu(6-x)Au(x), which allow us to discriminate between the two models. We find evidence for an atomically local contribution to the magnetic correlations which develops at the critical gold concentration (x(c) = 0.1), corresponding to a magnetic ordering temperature of zero. This contribution implies that a Fermi-liquid-destroying spin-localizing transition, unanticipated from the spin density wave description, coincides with the antiferromagnetic quantum critical point.
RFID阅读器相位噪声的距离相关效应研究%Study of range correlation effect for RFID reader phase noise
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
杨海; 何怡刚; 余波; 郭凤鸣
2012-01-01
相位噪声是设计射频系统时的一个重要参数,它对系统性能有很大影响.对于射频识别(RFID)系统,距离相关效应对其相位噪声有重要影响.研究了无源超高频(UHF)RFID阅读器相位调制(PSK)信号的相位噪声表达式,导出距离相关效应时的相位噪声功率谱密度(PSD)和通信误符号率(SER)计算式.距离相关效应下相位噪声的测量和仿真表明,解析结果与测量、仿真结果一致.%Phase noise is an important parameter in designing Radio Frequency(RF) systems since it can have large influence on system performance. In RF Identification (RFID) systems, phase noise is significantly influenced by the range correlation effect. This paper studies the expressions of phase noise for PSK modulation in the passive UHF RFID reader. And the equations of Power Spectra Density(PSD) of phase noise with range correlation effect and Symbol Error Rate(SER) are derived. Measurements and simulation of phase noise with range correlation effect agree well with the computation results of the equations.
Thermoinduced magnetization in nanoparticles of antiferromagnetic materials
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Mørup, Steen; Frandsen, Cathrine
2004-01-01
We show that there is a thermoinduced contribution to the magnetic moment of nanoparticles of antiferromagnetic materials. It arises from thermal excitations of the uniform spin-precession mode, and it has the unusual property that its magnitude increases with increasing temperature. This has...... the consequence that antiferromagnetism is nonexistent in nanoparticles at finite temperatures and it explains magnetic anomalies, which recently have been reported in a number of studies of nanoparticles of antiferromagnetic materials....
Wang, A. S.; Stayman, J. W.; Otake, Y.; Khanna, A. J.; Gallia, G. L.; Siewerdsen, J. H.
2014-03-01
Purpose: A new method for accurately portraying the impact of low-dose imaging techniques in C-arm cone-beam CT (CBCT) is presented and validated, allowing identification of minimum-dose protocols suitable to a given imaging task on a patient-specific basis in scenarios that require repeat intraoperative scans. Method: To accurately simulate lower-dose techniques and account for object-dependent noise levels (x-ray quantum noise and detector electronics noise) and correlations (detector blur), noise of the proper magnitude and correlation was injected into the projections from an initial CBCT acquired at the beginning of a procedure. The resulting noisy projections were then reconstructed to yield low-dose preview (LDP) images that accurately depict the image quality at any level of reduced dose in both filtered backprojection and statistical image reconstruction. Validation studies were conducted on a mobile C-arm, with the noise injection method applied to images of an anthropomorphic head phantom and cadaveric torso across a range of lower-dose techniques. Results: Comparison of preview and real CBCT images across a full range of techniques demonstrated accurate noise magnitude (within ~5%) and correlation (matching noise-power spectrum, NPS). Other image quality characteristics (e.g., spatial resolution, contrast, and artifacts associated with beam hardening and scatter) were also realistically presented at all levels of dose and across reconstruction methods, including statistical reconstruction. Conclusion: Generating low-dose preview images for a broad range of protocols gives a useful method to select minimum-dose techniques that accounts for complex factors of imaging task, patient-specific anatomy, and observer preference. The ability to accurately simulate the influence of low-dose acquisition in statistical reconstruction provides an especially valuable means of identifying low-dose limits in a manner that does not rely on a model for the nonlinear
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Qiyang Xiao
2016-12-01
Full Text Available In this study, a small leak detection method based on variational mode decomposition (VMD and ambiguity correlation classification (ACC is proposed. The signals acquired from sensors were decomposed using the VMD, and numerous components were obtained. According to the probability density function (PDF, an adaptive de-noising algorithm based on VMD is proposed for noise component processing and de-noised components reconstruction. Furthermore, the ambiguity function image was employed for analysis of the reconstructed signals. Based on the correlation coefficient, ACC is proposed to detect the small leak of pipeline. The analysis of pipeline leakage signals, using 1 mm and 2 mm leaks, has shown that proposed detection method can detect a small leak accurately and effectively. Moreover, the experimental results have shown that the proposed method achieved better performances than support vector machine (SVM and back propagation neural network (BP methods.
Xiao, Qiyang; Li, Jian; Bai, Zhiliang; Sun, Jiedi; Zhou, Nan; Zeng, Zhoumo
2016-12-13
In this study, a small leak detection method based on variational mode decomposition (VMD) and ambiguity correlation classification (ACC) is proposed. The signals acquired from sensors were decomposed using the VMD, and numerous components were obtained. According to the probability density function (PDF), an adaptive de-noising algorithm based on VMD is proposed for noise component processing and de-noised components reconstruction. Furthermore, the ambiguity function image was employed for analysis of the reconstructed signals. Based on the correlation coefficient, ACC is proposed to detect the small leak of pipeline. The analysis of pipeline leakage signals, using 1 mm and 2 mm leaks, has shown that proposed detection method can detect a small leak accurately and effectively. Moreover, the experimental results have shown that the proposed method achieved better performances than support vector machine (SVM) and back propagation neural network (BP) methods.
Impurity-induced antiferromagnetic domains in the periodic Anderson model
Benali, A.; Bai, Z. J.; Curro, N. J.; Scalettar, R. T.
2016-08-01
A central feature of the periodic Anderson model is the competition between antiferromagnetism, mediated by the Ruderman-Kittel-Kasuya-Yosida interaction at small conduction electron-local electron hybridization V , and singlet formation at large V . At zero temperature, and in dimension d >1 , these two phases are separated by a quantum critical point Vc. We use quantum Monte Carlo (QMC) simulations to explore the effect of impurities which have a local hybridization V*Vc . We measure the suppression of singlet correlations and the antiferromagnetic correlations which form around the impurity, as well as the size of the resulting domain. Exact diagonalization calculations for linear chains allow us to verify that the qualitative features obtained at intermediate coupling and finite T persist to strong coupling and T =0 , regimes which are difficult to access with QMC. Our calculations agree qualitatively with NMR measurements in CeCoIn5 -xCdx .
Lyamzin, Dmitry R; Macke, Jakob H; Lesica, Nicholas A
2010-01-01
As multi-electrode and imaging technology begin to provide us with simultaneous recordings of large neuronal populations, new methods for modeling such data must also be developed. Here, we present a model for the type of data commonly recorded in early sensory pathways: responses to repeated trials of a sensory stimulus in which each neuron has it own time-varying spike rate (as described by its PSTH) and the dependencies between cells are characterized by both signal and noise correlations. This model is an extension of previous attempts to model population spike trains designed to control only the total correlation between cells. In our model, the response of each cell is represented as a binary vector given by the dichotomized sum of a deterministic "signal" that is repeated on each trial and a Gaussian random "noise" that is different on each trial. This model allows the simulation of population spike trains with PSTHs, trial-to-trial variability, and pairwise correlations that match those measured experimentally. Furthermore, the model also allows the noise correlations in the spike trains to be manipulated independently of the signal correlations and single-cell properties. To demonstrate the utility of the model, we use it to simulate and manipulate experimental responses from the mammalian auditory and visual systems. We also present a general form of the model in which both the signal and noise are Gaussian random processes, allowing the mean spike rate, trial-to-trial variability, and pairwise signal and noise correlations to be specified independently. Together, these methods for modeling spike trains comprise a potentially powerful set of tools for both theorists and experimentalists studying population responses in sensory systems.
Quantum Monte Carlo Study of Random Antiferromagnetic Heisenberg Chain
Todo, Synge; Kato, Kiyoshi; Takayama, Hajime
1998-01-01
Effects of randomness on the spin-1/2 and 1 antiferromagnetic Heisenberg chains are studied using the quantum Monte Carlo method with the continuous-time loop algorithm. We precisely calculated the uniform susceptibility, string order parameter, spatial and temporal correlation length, and the dynamical exponent, and obtained a phase diagram. The generalization of the continuous-time loop algorithm for the systems with higher-S spins is also presented.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Pawel, SJ
2004-04-27
Electrochemical noise (EN) probes were deployed in the carbon steel continuous kraft digester at Spring Grove at four locations and at one location in the bottom cone of the associated flash tank for a second consecutive year of a corrosion study. The probes contained dual electrodes of 309LSi stainless steel overlay--representing a field repair material applied to a portion of the vessel--and dual electrodes of 312 stainless steel overlay. Current and potential noise, the temperature at each probe location, and the value of 23 process parameters (flow rates, liquor chemistry, etc.) were again monitored continuously for a period of almost one year. Historical vessel inspection data and post-test evaluation of the probe components were used to assess/compare EN corrosion activity with physical changes in wall thickness and corrosion patterns on the digester shell. In addition, attempts were made to correlate EN activity from each electrode type with process parameters. The results indicate the corrosion conditions aggressive to mild steel persist within the digester, as post-test inspection of the vessel revealed localized corrosion of mild steel in locations previously free of attack. Further, there was evidence that the depth of localized attack of exposed steel had increased in some locations. Nevertheless, the stainless steel overlay in the digester was essentially immune to corrosion, as evidenced by retained surface relief and heat tint associated with the original deposition process. The 309LSi electrodes also appeared visually pristine, and post-exposure metallographic examination of the 309LSi electrode materials revealed no attack. The 312 electrode materials were similar in appearance, but exhibited very minor interdendritic attack over the exposed surface. The silver electrodes in the probes were consumed (to Ag{sub 2}S) to variable degree over the course of the exposure indicating a useful life of not more than a year in digester service in this vessel
Quasiparticle excitations in frustrated antiferromagnets
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Trumper, Adolfo E. [Instituto de Fisica Rosario (CONICET) Universidad Nacional de Rosario, Boulevard 27 de Febrero 210 bis, 2000 Rosario (Argentina)]. E-mail: trumper@ifir.edu.ar; Gazza, Claudio J. [Instituto de Fisica Rosario (CONICET) Universidad Nacional de Rosario, Boulevard 27 de Febrero 210 bis, 2000 Rosario (Argentina); Manuel, Luis O. [Instituto de Fisica Rosario (CONICET) Universidad Nacional de Rosario, Boulevard 27 de Febrero 210 bis, 2000 Rosario (Argentina)]. E-mail: manuel@ifir.edu.ar
2004-12-31
We have computed the quasiparticle wave function corresponding to a hole injected in a triangular antiferromagnet. We have taken into account multi-magnon contributions within the self-consistent Born approximation. We have found qualitative differences, under sign reversal of the integral transfer t, regarding the multi-magnon components and the own existence of the quasiparticle excitations. Such differences are due to the subtle interplay between magnon-assisted and free hopping mechanisms. We conclude that the conventional quasiparticle picture can be broken by geometrical frustration without invoking spin liquid phases.
Fontaine, Bertrand; Köppl, Christine; Peña, Jose L
2015-02-01
While the barn owl has been extensively used as a model for sound localization and temporal coding, less is known about the mechanisms at its sensory organ, the basilar papilla (homologous to the mammalian cochlea). In this paper, we characterize, for the first time in the avian system, the auditory nerve fiber responses to broadband noise using reverse correlation. We use the derived impulse responses to study the processing of sounds in the cochlea of the barn owl. We characterize the frequency tuning, phase, instantaneous frequency, and relationship to input level of impulse responses. We show that, even features as complex as the phase dependence on input level, can still be consistent with simple linear filtering. Where possible, we compare our results with mammalian data. We identify salient differences between the barn owl and mammals, e.g., a much smaller frequency glide slope and a bimodal impulse response for the barn owl, and discuss what they might indicate about cochlear mechanics. While important for research on the avian auditory system, the results from this paper also allow us to examine hypotheses put forward for the mammalian cochlea.
Costanzo, M. R.; Nunziata, C.
2017-04-01
Lithospheric VS models are defined in the Campi Flegrei District (southern Italy) through the non-linear inversion of the group velocity dispersion curves of fundamental-mode Rayleigh waves extracted from ambient noise cross-correlations between two receivers, and the regional group and phase velocities of the Italian cellular lithospheric model (1° × 1° cells). Four paths are investigated, of which one (ISCHIA-MIS) across two adjoining cells. The distribution of VS shows a pyroclastic covering with VS increasing from 0.3-0.7 km/s to 2.1 km/s. It rests on a lava or carbonate basement, about 5-6 km thick, with VS increasing from 2.1 km/s to 3.1 km/s at about 2 km of depth and rising to ∼0.6 km towards the island of Procida. A metamorphic layer is detected at an average depth of 7.7 km with VS of 3.8-3.9 km/s, about 5 km thick, overlying a low velocity layer (VS of 3.5 km/s) at about 11-12 km of depth. The VS model along the ISCHIA-MIS path, as average of the models obtained by combining local and regional dispersion data of the two adjoining cells, is well consistent with the other paths. The Moho discontinuity is retrieved at about 23 km of depth with VS of 4.2 km/s.
Quasiparticle bandstructure of antiferromagnetic EuTe
Mathi Jaya, S.; Nolting, W.
1997-11-01
The temperature-dependent electronic quasiparticle spectrum of the antiferromagnetic semiconductor EuTe is derived by use of a combination of a many-body model procedure with a tight-binding - `linear muffin tin orbital' (TB - LMTO) band structure calculation. The central part is the d - f model for a single band electron (`test electron') being exchange coupled to the antiferromagnetically ordered localized moments of the Eu ions. The single-electron Bloch energies of the d - f model are taken from a TB - LMTO calculation for paramagnetic EuTe. The d - f model is evaluated by a recently proposed moment conserving Green function technique to get the temperature-dependent sublattice - quasiparticle bandstructure (S - QBS) and sublattice - quasiparticle density of states (S - QDOS) of the unoccupied 5d - 6s energy bands. Unconventional correlation effects and the appearance of characteristic quasiparticles (`magnetic polarons') are worked out in detail. The temperature dependence of the S - QDOS and S - QBS is mainly provoked by the spectral weights of the energy dispersions. Minority- and majority-spin spectra coincide for all temperatures but with different densities of states. Upon cooling from 0953-8984/9/47/012/img1 to T = 0 K the lower conduction band edge exhibits a small blue shift of -0.025 eV in accordance with the experiment. Quasiparticle damping manifesting itself in a temperature-dependent broadening of the spectral density peaks arises from spin exchange processes between (5d - 6s) conduction band electrons and localized 4f moments.
Tilley, Steven, II; Siewerdsen, Jeffrey H.; Webster Stayman, J.
2016-01-01
While model-based reconstruction methods have been successfully applied to flat-panel cone-beam CT (FP-CBCT) systems, typical implementations ignore both spatial correlations in the projection data as well as system blurs due to the detector and focal spot in the x-ray source. In this work, we develop a forward model for flat-panel-based systems that includes blur and noise correlation associated with finite focal spot size and an indirect detector (e.g. scintillator). This forward model is used to develop a staged reconstruction framework where projection data are deconvolved and log-transformed, followed by a generalized least-squares reconstruction that utilizes a non-diagonal statistical weighting to account for the correlation that arises from the acquisition and data processing chain. We investigate the performance of this novel reconstruction approach in both simulated data and in CBCT test-bench data. In comparison to traditional filtered backprojection and model-based methods that ignore noise correlation, the proposed approach yields a superior noise-resolution tradeoff. For example, for a system with 0.34 mm FWHM scintillator blur and 0.70 FWHM focal spot blur, using the correlated noise model instead of an uncorrelated noise model increased resolution by 42% (with variance matched at 6.9 × 10-8 mm-2). While this advantage holds across a wide range of systems with differing blur characteristics, the improvements are greatest for systems where source blur is larger than detector blur.
Tsui, Po-Hsiang; Tsai, Yu-Wei
2015-01-01
Several studies have investigated Nakagami imaging to complement the B-scan in tissue characterization. The noise-induced artifact and the parameter ambiguity effect can affect performance of Nakagami imaging in the detection of variations in scatterer concentration. This study combined multifocus image reconstruction and the noise-assisted correlation algorithm (NCA) into the algorithm of Nakagami imaging to suppress the artifacts. A single-element imaging system equipped with a 5 MHz transducer was used to perform the brightness/depth (B/D) scanning of agar phantoms with scatterer concentrations ranging from 2 to 32 scatterers/mm(3). Experiments were also carried out on a mass with some strong point reflectors in a breast phantom using a commercial scanner with a 7.5 MHz linear array transducer operated at multifocus mode. The multifocus radiofrequency (RF) signals after the NCA process were used for Nakagami imaging. In the experiments on agar phantoms, an increasing scatterer concentration from 2 to 32 scatterers/mm(3) led to backscattered statistics ranging from pre-Rayleigh to Rayleigh distributions, corresponding to the increase in the Nakagami parameter measured in the focal zone from 0.1 to 0.8. However, the artifacts in the far field resulted in the Nakagami parameters of various scatterer concentrations to be close to 1 (Rayleigh distribution), making Nakagami imaging difficult to characterize scatterers. In the same scatterer concentration range, multifocus Nakagami imaging with the NCA simultaneously suppressed two types of artifacts, making the Nakagami parameter increase from 0.1 to 0.8 in the focal zone and from 0.18 to 0.7 in the far field, respectively. In the breast phantom experiments, the backscattered statistics of the mass corresponded to a high degree of pre-Rayleigh distribution. The Nakagami parameter of the mass before and after artifact reduction was 0.7 and 0.37, respectively. The results demonstrated that the proposed method for
Lionel, Martellini
2015-01-01
Under standard assumptions including stationary and serially uncorrelated Gaussian gravitational wave stochastic background signal and noise distributions, as well as homogenous detector sensitivities, the standard cross-correlation detection statistic is known to be optimal in the sense of minimizing the probability of a false dismissal at a fixed value of the probability of a false alarm. The focus of this paper is to analyze the comparative efficiency of this statistic, versus a simple alternative statistic obtained by cross-correlating the \\textit{squared} measurements, in situations that deviate from such standard assumptions. We find that differences in detector sensitivities have a large impact on the comparative efficiency of the cross-correlation detection statistic, which is dominated by the alternative statistic when these differences reach one order of magnitude. This effect holds even when both the signal and noise distributions are Gaussian. While the presence of non-Gaussian signals has no mate...
Purely antiferromagnetic magnetoelectric random access memory
Kosub, Tobias; Kopte, Martin; Hühne, Ruben; Appel, Patrick; Shields, Brendan; Maletinsky, Patrick; Hübner, René; Liedke, Maciej Oskar; Fassbender, Jürgen; Schmidt, Oliver G.; Makarov, Denys
2017-01-01
Magnetic random access memory schemes employing magnetoelectric coupling to write binary information promise outstanding energy efficiency. We propose and demonstrate a purely antiferromagnetic magnetoelectric random access memory (AF-MERAM) that offers a remarkable 50-fold reduction of the writing threshold compared with ferromagnet-based counterparts, is robust against magnetic disturbances and exhibits no ferromagnetic hysteresis losses. Using the magnetoelectric antiferromagnet Cr2O3, we demonstrate reliable isothermal switching via gate voltage pulses and all-electric readout at room temperature. As no ferromagnetic component is present in the system, the writing magnetic field does not need to be pulsed for readout, allowing permanent magnets to be used. Based on our prototypes, we construct a comprehensive model of the magnetoelectric selection mechanisms in thin films of magnetoelectric antiferromagnets, revealing misfit induced ferrimagnetism as an important factor. Beyond memory applications, the AF-MERAM concept introduces a general all-electric interface for antiferromagnets and should find wide applicability in antiferromagnetic spintronics.
Soldati, Gaia; Zaccarelli, Lucia; Faenza, Licia; Michelini, Alberto
2015-07-01
The relative seismic velocity variations possibly associated to large earthquakes can be readily monitored via cross-correlation of seismic noise. In a recently published study, more than 2 yr of continuous seismic records have been analysed from three stations surrounding the epicentre of the 2009 April 6, Mw 6.1 L'Aquila earthquake, observing a clear decrease of seismic velocities likely corresponding to the co-seismic shaking. Here, we extend the analysis in space, including seismic stations within a radius of 60 km from the main shock epicentre, and in time, collecting 5 yr of data for the six stations within 40 km of it. Our aim is to investigate how far the crustal damage is visible through this technique, and to detect a potential post-seismic recovery of velocity variations. We find that the co-seismic drop in velocity variations extends up to 40 km from the epicentre, with spatial distribution (maximum around the fault and in the north-east direction from it) in agreement with the horizontal co-seismic displacement detected by global positioning system (GPS). In the first few months after L'Aquila earthquake, the crust's perturbation in terms of velocity variations displays a very unstable behaviour, followed by a slow linear recovery towards pre-earthquake conditions; by almost 4 yr after the event, the co-seismic drop of seismic velocity is not yet fully recovered. The strong oscillations of the velocity changes in the first months after the earthquake prevent to detect the fast exponential recovery seen by GPS data. A test of differently parametrized fitting curves demonstrate that the post-seismic recovery is best explained by a sum of a logarithmic and a linear term, suggesting that processes like viscoelastic relaxation, frictional afterlip and poroelastic rebound may be acting concurrently.
Spica, Zack; Perton, Mathieu; Calò, Marco; Legrand, Denis; Córdoba-Montiel, Francisco; Iglesias, Arturo
2016-09-01
This work presents an innovative strategy to enhance the resolution of surface wave tomography obtained from ambient noise cross-correlation (C1) by bridging asynchronous seismic networks through the correlation of coda of correlations (C3). Rayleigh wave group dispersion curves show consistent results between synchronous and asynchronous stations. Rayleigh wave group traveltimes are inverted to construct velocity-period maps with unprecedented resolution for a region covering Mexico and the southern United States. The resulting period maps are then used to regionalize dispersion curves in order to obtain local 1-D shear velocity models (VS) of the crust and uppermost mantle in every cell of a grid of 0.4°. The 1-D structures are obtained by iteratively adding layers until reaching a given misfit, and a global tomography model is considered as an input for depths below 150 km. Finally, a high-resolution 3-D VS model is obtained from these inversions. The major structures observed in the 3-D model are in agreement with the tectonic-geodynamic features and with previous regional and local studies. It also offers new insights to understand the present and past tectonic evolution of the region.
Femtosecond optomagnetism in dielectric antiferromagnets
Bossini, D.; Rasing, Th
2017-02-01
Optical femtosecond manipulation of magnetic order is attractive for the development of new concepts for ultrafast magnetic recording. Theoretical and experimental investigations in this research area aim at establishing a physical understanding of magnetic media in light-induced non-equilibrium states. Such a quest requires one to adjust the theory of magnetism, since the thermodynamical concepts of elementary excitations and spin alignment determined by the exchange interaction are not applicable on the femtosecond time-scale after the photo-excitation. Here we report some key milestones concerning the femtosecond optical control of spins in dielectric antiferromagnets, whose spin dynamics is by nature faster than that of ferromagnets and can be triggered even without any laser heating. The recent progress of the opto-magnetic effect in the sub-wavelength regime makes this exciting research area even more promising, in terms of both fundamental breakthroughs and technological perspectives.
Spatially anisotropic Heisenberg kagome antiferromagnet
Apel, W.; Yavors'kii, T.; Everts, H.-U.
2007-04-01
In the search for spin-1/2 kagome antiferromagnets, the mineral volborthite has recently been the subject of experimental studies (Hiroi et al 2001 J. Phys. Soc. Japan 70 3377; Fukaya et al 2003 Phys. Rev. Lett. 91 207603; Bert et al 2004 J. Phys.: Condens. Matter 16 S829; Bert et al 2005 Phys. Rev. Lett. 95 087203). It has been suggested that the magnetic properties of this material are described by a spin-1/2 Heisenberg model on the kagome lattice with spatially anisotropic exchange couplings. We report on investigations of the {\\mathrm {Sp}}(\\mathcal {N}) symmetric generalization of this model in the large \\mathcal {N} limit. We obtain a detailed description of the dependence of possible ground states on the anisotropy and on the spin length S. A fairly rich phase diagram with a ferrimagnetic phase, incommensurate phases with and without long-range order and a decoupled chain phase emerges.
Spin-phonon interaction in antiferromagnetics
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Grigorashchuk, I.M.; Nitsovich, V.M.; Tovstyuk, K.D.
1975-01-01
The vibrational spectrum and the sound velocity in antiferromagnetics are obtained in the general form in pseudoharmonic approximation with allowance for the anharmonisms of all orders. Starting from experimentally defined dependence of the Debye-Waller factor on the temperature a corollary is put forward that in some antiferromagnetics under the temperature lower than T/subN/ the appearance of the narrow band of paramagnetic states is possible. In antiferromagnetics where the transition metal-dielectric described by the Habbard model is possible this results in the appearance of the additional transition dielectric-metal-dielectric. (auth)
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Hu Jing-Guo; Stamps R L
2006-01-01
The rotational anisotropies in the exchange bias structures of ferromagnetism/antiferromagnetism 1/antiferromagnetism 2 are studied in this paper. Based on the model, in which the antiferromagnetism is treated with an Ising mean field theory and the rotational anisotropy is assumed to be related to the field created by the moment induced on the antiferromagnetic layer next to the ferromagnetic layer, we can explain why in experiments for ferromagnetism (FM)/antiferromagntism 1 (AFM1)/antiferromagnetism 2 (AFM2) systems the thickness-dependent rotational anisotropy value is non-monotonic, i.e. it reaches a minimum for this system at a specific thickness of the first antiferromagnetic layer and exhibits oscillatory behaviour. In addition, we find that the temperature-dependent rotational anisotropy value is in good agreement with the experimental result.
Electrical manipulation of a ferromagnet by an antiferromagnet
Tshitoyan, V.; Ciccarelli, C.; Mihai, A. P.; Ali, M.; Irvine, A. C.; Moore, T. A.; Jungwirth, T.; Ferguson, A. J.
Several recent studies of antiferromagnetic (AFM) spintronics have focused on transmission and detection of spin-currents in AFMs. Efficient spin transmission through AFMs was inferred from experiments in FM/AFM/NM (normal metal) structures. Measurements in FM/AFM bilayers have demonstrated that a metallic AFM can also act as an efficient ISHE detector of the spin-current, with spin-Hall angles comparable to heavy NMs. Here we demonstrate that an antiferromagnet can be employed for a highly efficient electrical manipulation of a ferromagnet. We use an all-electrical excitation and detection technique of ferromagnetic resonance in a NiFe/IrMn bilayer. We observe antidamping-like spin torque acting on the NiFe generated by the in-plane current driven through the IrMn antiferromagnet. A large enhancement of the torque, characterized by an effective spin-Hall angle exceeding most heavy transition metals, correlates with the presence of the exchange-bias field at the NiFe/IrMn interface. It highlights that, in addition to strong spin-orbit coupling, the AFM order in IrMn governs the observed phenomenon.
Neutron scattering studies of three one-dimensional antiferromagnets
Kenzelmann, M
2001-01-01
observed in the disordered phase of spin-1/2 chains. The magnetic order of the one-dimensional spin-1/2 XY antiferromagnet Cs sub 2 CoCl sub 4 was investigated using neutron diffraction. The magnetic structure has an ordering wave-vector (0, 0.5, 0.5) for T < 217 mK and the magnetic structure is a non-linear structure with the magnetic moments at a small angle to the b axis. Above a field of H = 2.1 T the magnetic order collapses in an apparent first order phase transition, suggesting a transition to a spin-liquid phase. Low-dimensional magnets with low-spin quantum numbers are ideal model systems for investigating strongly interacting macroscopic quantum ground states and their non-linear spin excitations. This thesis describes neutron scattering experiments of three one-dimensional low-spin antiferromagnets where strong quantum fluctuations lead to highly-correlated ground states and unconventional cooperative spin excitations. The excitation spectrum of the antiferromagnetic spin-1 Heisenberg chain CsNi...
Vilar, J. M. G.; Rubí Capaceti, José Miguel
2001-01-01
We have analyzed the interplay between an externally added noise and the intrinsic noise of systems that relax fast towards a stationary state, and found that increasing the intensity of the external noise can reduce the total noise of the system. We have established a general criterion for the appearance of this phenomenon and discussed two examples in detail.
Haendel, A.; Ohrnberger, M.; Krüger, F.
2016-11-01
Knowledge of the quality factor of near-surface materials is of fundamental interest in various applications. Attenuation can be very strong close to the surface and thus needs to be properly assessed. In recent years, several researchers have studied the retrieval of attenuation coefficients from the cross correlation of ambient seismic noise. Yet, the determination of exact amplitude information from noise-correlation functions is, in contrast to the extraction of traveltimes, not trivial. Most of the studies estimated attenuation coefficients on the regional scale and within the microseism band. In this paper, we investigate the possibility to derive attenuation coefficients from seismic noise at much shallower depths and higher frequencies (>1 Hz). The Euroseistest area in northern Greece offers ideal conditions to study quality factor retrieval from ambient noise for different rock types. Correlations are computed between the stations of a small scale array experiment (station spacings Love wave arrivals on the transverse component and on Love wave quality factors QL. The analysis is performed for selected stations being either situated on soft soil or on weathered rock. Phase slowness is extracted using a slant-stack method. Attenuation parameters are inferred by inspecting the relative amplitude decay of Love waves with increasing interstation distance. We observe that the attenuation coefficient γ and QL can be reliably extracted for stations situated on soft soil whereas the derivation of attenuation parameters is more problematic for stations that are located on weathered rock. The results are in acceptable conformance with theoretical Love wave attenuation curves that were computed using 1-D shear wave velocity and quality factor profiles from the Euroseistest area.
Thermally stable magnetic media based on antiferromagnetically coupled layers
Fullerton, Eric E.
2001-03-01
The combination of signal-to-noise requirements, write field limitations, and thermal activation of small particles is thought to limit the potential areal density of longitudinal media and is commonly referred to as the "superparamagnetic limit". Recording media composed of antiferromagnetically coupled (AFC) magnetic recording layers is a promising approach to extend areal densities of longitudinal media beyond these perceived limits [1,2]. The recording medium is made up of two ferromagnetic recording layer separated by a nonmagnetic layer whose thickness is tuned to couple the layers antiferromagnetically. For such a structure, the effective areal moment density (Mrt) of the composite structure is given by the difference between the ferromagnetic layers allowing the effective magnetic thickness to scale independently of the physical thickness of the media. The resulting media appears magnetically thin while being physically thick and, thus, allows AFC media to maintain thermal stability even for low Mrt values. Experimental realization of this concept using CoPtCrB alloy layers that demonstrates thermally stable low-Mrt media suitable for high-density recording will be discussed. This work is done in collaboration with D. T. Margulies, M. E. Schabes,M. Doerner, M. Carey, B. Gurney, A. Moser, M. Best, G. Zeltzer, K. Rubin, and H. Rosen. [1]. Fullerton et al., Appl. Phys. Lett. 77, 3806 (2000). [2]. Abarra et al., Appl. Phys. Lett. 77, 2581 (2000).
Dynamical Structure Factors of quasi-one-dimensional antiferromagnets
Hagemans, Rob; Caux, Jean-Sébastien; Maillet, Jean Michel
2007-03-01
For a long time it has been impossible to accurately calculate the dynamical structure factors (spin-spin correlators as a function of momentum and energy) of quasi-one-dimensional antiferromagnets. For integrable Heisenberg chains, the recently developed ABACUS method (a first-principles computational approach based on the Bethe Ansatz) now yields highly accurate (over 99% of the sum rule) results for the DSF for finite chains, allowing for a very precise description of neutron-scattering data over the full momentum and energy range. We show remarkable agreement between results obtained with ABACUS and experiment.
Density matrix renormalization group numerical study of the kagome antiferromagnet.
Jiang, H C; Weng, Z Y; Sheng, D N
2008-09-12
We numerically study the spin-1/2 antiferromagnetic Heisenberg model on the kagome lattice using the density-matrix renormalization group method. We find that the ground state is a magnetically disordered spin liquid, characterized by an exponential decay of spin-spin correlation function in real space and a magnetic structure factor showing system-size independent peaks at commensurate magnetic wave vectors. We obtain a spin triplet excitation gap DeltaE(S=1)=0.055+/-0.005 by extrapolation based on the large size results, and confirm the presence of gapless singlet excitations. The physical nature of such an exotic spin liquid is also discussed.
Critical Behaviour of a Two-Dimensional Random Antiferromagnet
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Als-Nielsen, Jens Aage; Birgeneau, R. J.; Guggenheim, H. J.
1976-01-01
A neutron scattering study of the order parameter, correlation length and staggered susceptibility of the two-dimensional random antiferromagnet Rb2Mn0.5Ni0.5F4 is reported. The system is found to exhibit a well-defined phase transition with critical exponents identical to those of the isomorphou...... pure materials K2NiF4 and K2MnF4. Thus, in these systems, which have the asymptotic critical behaviour of the two-dimensional Ising model, randomness has no measurable effect on the phase-transition behaviour....
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Rafaela Fernanda Guidini
2012-12-01
Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Identificar se existe correlação entre ruído ambiental no interior da sala de aula, intensidade da voz e presença de alteração vocal em professores. MÉTODOS: Foi realizada medição do ruído ambiental em dez salas de escolas municipais de ensino fundamental. A intensidade das vozes das professoras foi medida durante atividade de ensino. Amostras de vogal prolongada [é] e contagem de 1 a 20 emitidas pelas professoras foram analisadas utilizando escala GRBASI. Os resultados obtidos foram correlacionados. RESULTADOS: A média de ruído ambiental sem a presença das crianças em sala de aula variou de 40 a 51 dB(A e com a presença das crianças de 45 a 65 dB(A. Entre as professoras, houve 70% de ocorrência de vozes alteradas no grau geral (G e 90% com tensão na voz (S, variando entre graus discreto e moderado. Constatou-se variação entre 52 dB(A e 68 dB(A na intensidade da voz das professoras, atingindo 7,48 dB(A acima do nível do ruído ambiental. Houve correlação entre a intensidade vocal das professoras e ruído ambiental na presença das crianças durante a aula. CONCLUSÃO: Os níveis de ruído ambiental em sala de aula são altos e se correlacionam com o aumento da intensidade das vozes das professoras. Embora com alta ocorrência de vozes alteradas, não é possível correlacioná-las com o nível de ruído ambiental.PURPOSE: To explore the existence of correlations between environmental noise in classrooms, voice intensity and teacher's vocal problems. METHODS: Environmental noise was measured in 10 classrooms of municipal elementary schools; the intensity of teachers' voice was measured during teaching practice; teachers' speech samples containing emissions of sustained vowel [é] and counting from 1 to 20 were analyzed using the GRBASI protocol; and the results were tested for correlation. RESULTS: The average of environmental noise varied from 40 to 51 dB(A without the presence of children in the classroom, and
Votsi, Nefta-Eleftheria P; Kallimanis, Athanasios S; Pantis, Ioannis D
2017-02-01
Quietness exists in places without human induced noise sources and could offer multiple benefits to citizens. Unlit areas are sites free of human intense interference at night time. The aim of this research is to develop an integrated environmental index of noise and light pollution. In order to achieve this goal the spatial pattern of quietness and darkness of Europe was identified, as well as their overlap. The environmental index revealed that the spatial patterns of Quiet and Unlit Areas differ to a great extent highlighting the importance of preserving quietness as well as darkness in EU. The spatial overlap of these two environmental characteristics covers 32.06% of EU surface area, which could be considered a feasible threshold for protection. This diurnal and nocturnal metric of environmental quality accompanied with all direct and indirect benefits to human well-being could indicate a target for environmental protection in the EU policy and practices.
Cai, J. C.; Mei, D. C.
2009-12-01
The effects of time delay on the decline and propagation processes of population in the Malthus-Verhulst model with cross-correlated noises are investigated separately. Through numerically computing and stochastically simulating, we find that: (i) inclusion of time delay in the decline process, increasing the delay time τ weakens the stability of population with short delay and strengthens it with long delay. The stability of population reduces monotonically as the cross-correlated intensity λ increasing. The population of a species goes to extinction with increasing τ and increasing λ; (ii) inclusion of time delay in the propagation process, the increasing τ strengthens the stability of population and the increasing λ weakens it. The increasing τ slows down the growth process of a species while the increasing λ speeds it up. That is, the increasing delay time does not affect roughly the stability of population with short delay but strengthens it with long delay, and the population of species is restricted in the lower level by the larger delay time. The stability of population is weakened and the replacement of old individuals with young ones is accelerated by the increasing cross-correlation intensity between two noises.
A New Design of Digital Correlator for Johnson Noise Thermometry%噪声温度计中新型数字相关器设计
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
付云丰; 屈继峰; 张建强; 周琨荔
2014-01-01
分析了噪声温度计中相关器的基本原理和特点，设计了一种基于商用数据采集卡和 LabVIEW 软件的新型数字相关器，用于极小幅度的热噪声谱的测量。通过调节外部参考时钟的相位，控制相关器两个通道的精确同步采样，能够实现淹没在测量电路噪声背景下的微弱信号的测量。实验结果表明，该数字相关器设计切实可行，性能可靠，为噪声温度计测量热力学温度奠定了基础。%The basic principles and characteristics of cross-correlators used in Johnson noise thermometry are described . A new digital correlator is presented based on commercial analog-to-digital converters and LabVIEW software for the measurement of the thermal noise. High-precision synchronous dual-channel-sampling has been achieved by adjusting the phases of the external reference clocks. Experiments are carried out to validate the proposed approach and the results show that the new correlator is able to detect extremely small signals buried in the noise of the measurement circuits.
Purely antiferromagnetic magnetoelectric random access memory
Kosub, Tobias; Kopte, Martin; Hühne, Ruben; Appel, Patrick; Shields, Brendan; Maletinsky, Patrick; Hübner, René; Liedke, Maciej Oskar; Fassbender, Jürgen; Schmidt, Oliver G.; Makarov, Denys
2017-01-01
Magnetic random access memory schemes employing magnetoelectric coupling to write binary information promise outstanding energy efficiency. We propose and demonstrate a purely antiferromagnetic magnetoelectric random access memory (AF-MERAM) that offers a remarkable 50-fold reduction of the writing threshold compared with ferromagnet-based counterparts, is robust against magnetic disturbances and exhibits no ferromagnetic hysteresis losses. Using the magnetoelectric antiferromagnet Cr2O3, we demonstrate reliable isothermal switching via gate voltage pulses and all-electric readout at room temperature. As no ferromagnetic component is present in the system, the writing magnetic field does not need to be pulsed for readout, allowing permanent magnets to be used. Based on our prototypes, we construct a comprehensive model of the magnetoelectric selection mechanisms in thin films of magnetoelectric antiferromagnets, revealing misfit induced ferrimagnetism as an important factor. Beyond memory applications, the AF-MERAM concept introduces a general all-electric interface for antiferromagnets and should find wide applicability in antiferromagnetic spintronics. PMID:28045029
Antiferromagnetic domain wall motion driven by spin-orbit torques
Shiino, Takayuki; Oh, Se-Hyeok; Haney, Paul M.; Lee, Seo-Won; Go, Gyungchoon; Park, Byong-Guk; Lee, Kyung-Jin
2016-01-01
We theoretically investigate dynamics of antiferromagnetic domain walls driven by spin-orbit torques in antiferromagnet/heavy metal bilayers. We show that spin-orbit torques drive antiferromagnetic domain walls much faster than ferromagnetic domain walls. As the domain wall velocity approaches the maximum spin-wave group velocity, the domain wall undergoes Lorentz contraction and emits spin-waves in the terahertz frequency range. The interplay between spin-orbit torques and the relativistic dynamics of antiferromagnetic domain walls leads to the efficient manipulation of antiferromagnetic spin textures and paves the way for the generation of high frequency signals from antiferromagnets. PMID:27588878
Makita, Shuichi; Kurokawa, Kazuhiro; Hong, Young-Joo; Li, En; Miura, Masahiro; Yasuno, Yoshiaki
2016-03-01
A new optical coherence angiography (OCA) method, called correlation mapping OCA (cmOCA), is presented by using the SNR-corrected complex correlation. An SNR-correction theory for the complex correlation calculation is presented. The method also integrates a motion-artifact-removal method for the sample motion induced decorrelation artifact. The theory is further extended to compute more reliable correlation by using multi- channel OCT systems, such as Jones-matrix OCT. The high contrast vasculature imaging of in vivo human posterior eye has been obtained. Composite imaging of cmOCA and degree of polarization uniformity indicates abnormalities of vasculature and pigmented tissues simultaneously.
Quasiparticle band structure of antiferromagnetic Eu Te
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Mathi Jaya, S.; Nolting, W. [Humboldt-Universitaet zu Berlin, Institut fuer Physik, Lehrstuhl Festkoerpertheorie, Invalidenstrasse 110, D-10115 Berlin (Germany)
1997-11-24
The temperature-dependent electronic quasiparticle spectrum of the antiferromagnetic semiconductor Eu Te is derived by use of a combination of a many-body model procedure with a tight-binding-'linear muffin tin orbital' (TB - LMTO) band structure calculation. The central part is the d-f model for a single band electron ('test electron') being exchange coupled to the anti ferromagnetically ordered localized moments of the Eu ions. The single-electron Bloch energies of the d-f model are taken from a TB-LMTO calculation for paramagnetic Eu Te. The d-f model is evaluated by a recently proposed moment conserving Green function technique to get the temperature-dependent sublattice-quasiparticle band structure (S-QBS) and sublattice-quasiparticle density of states (S-QDOS) of the unoccupied 5 d-6 s energy bands. Unconventional correlation effects and the appearance of characteristic quasiparticles ('magnetic polarons') are worked out in detail. The temperature dependence of the S-QDOS and S-QBS is mainly provoked by the spectral weights of the energy dispersions. Minority- and majority-spin spectra coincide for all temperatures but with different densities of states. Upon cooling from T{sub N} to T = 0 K the lower conduction band edge exhibits a small blue shift of -0.025 eV in accordance with the experiment. Quasiparticle damping manifesting itself in a temperature-dependent broadening of the spectral density peaks arises from spin exchange processes between (5 d-6 s) conduction band electrons and localized 4 f moments. (author)
Research on Correlation between Noise Induced Hearing Loss and TCM Constitution%噪声性耳聋与中医体质相关性研究
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
吴延涛; 封彦蕾; 刘锦凤; 梁月俏
2016-01-01
目的：分析56例可疑噪声性耳聋患者体质类型分布特征及成因。方法采用中华中医药学会发布实施的中医体质分类与判定标准对56例可疑噪声性耳聋患者实施中医体质判定。结果9类体质中，特禀质37例（占66．07％），平和质14例（25％），其它体质5例（占8．9％）。结论在可疑噪声性耳聋患者中，特禀质体质占到了大多数，说明噪声性耳聋与特禀体质有密切相关性。%Objective To investigate the distribution characteristics and causes of physical distribution of 56 suspected patients with noise induced hearing loss .Methods 56 cases of patients with suspected noise induced hearing loss were treated with TCM constitution classification and decision criteria .Results In the 9 types of physique , 37 cases (66.07%) were the intrinsic quality , 14 cases (25%) were gentleness constitution, and 5 cases were other constitution (8.9%).Conclusion In patients with suspicious noise induced hearing loss, special intrinsic constitution accounted for the majority , which indicated that noise deafness and special intrinsic constitution have close correlation.
Lorenzana, J.; Eder, R.
1996-01-01
Published in: Phys. Rev. B 55 (1997) 3358-3361 Citing articles (CrossRef) citations recorded in [Science Citation Index] Abstract: We use numerical and analytical results to construct a simple ansatz for the energy dynamical correlation function of the 1D antiferromagnetic Heisenberg model. This is
Antiferromagnetism and its relation to the superconducting phases of UPt_{3}
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Isaacs, E.D.; Zschack, P.; Broholm, C.L.
1995-01-01
as the magnetic correlation lengths are not affected by the presence or absence of a visible splitting in the superconducting transition. The simplest models wherein antiferromagnetic order provides the symmetry-breaking field for the splitting do not provide a compete explanation of our results....
Paramagnetic and Antiferromagnetic Spin Seebeck Effect
Wu, Stephen
We report on the observation of the longitudinal spin Seebeck effect in both antiferromagnetic and paramagnetic insulators. By using a microscale on-chip local heater, it is possible to generate a large thermal gradient confined to the chip surface without a large increase in the total sample temperature. This technique allows us to easily access low temperatures (200 mK) and high magnetic fields (14 T) through conventional dilution refrigeration and superconducting magnet setups. By exploring this regime, we detect the spin Seebeck effect through the spin-flop transition in antiferromagnetic MnF2 when a large magnetic field (>9 T) is applied along the easy axis direction. Using the same technique, we are also able to resolve a spin Seebeck effect from the paramagnetic phase of geometrically frustrated antiferromagnet Gd3Ga5O12 (gadolinium gallium garnet) and antiferromagnetic DyScO3 (DSO). Since these measurements occur above the ordering temperatures of these two materials, short-range magnetic order is implicated as the cause of the spin Seebeck effect in these systems. The discovery of the spin Seebeck effect in these two materials classes suggest that both antiferromagnetic spin waves and spin excitations from short range magnetic order may be used to generate spin current from insulators and that the spin wave spectra of individual materials are highly important to the specifics of the longitudinal spin Seebeck effect. Since insulating antiferromagnets and paramagnets are far more common than the typical insulating ferrimagnetic materials used in spin Seebeck experiments, this discovery opens up a large new class of materials for use in spin caloritronic devices. All authors acknowledge support of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Office of Science, Basic Energy Sciences (BES), Materials Sciences and Engineering Division. The use of facilities at the Center for Nanoscale Materials, was supported by the U.S. DOE, BES under Contract No. DE-AC02-06CH11357.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Deng, Xiao-Yan [Graduate School, Tianjin Polytechnic University, Tianjin 300387 (China); Dou, Jun-Ya [Department of Physics, Tianjin Polytechnic University, Tianjin 300387 (China); Liu, Guang-Hua, E-mail: liuguanghua@tjpu.edu.cn [Department of Physics, Tianjin Polytechnic University, Tianjin 300387 (China)
2015-10-15
The magnetization process of a spin-1/2 J{sub 1}–J{sub 1}–J{sub 2}–J{sub 2} tetrameric Heisenberg chain is investigated by the infinite time-evolving block decimation (iTEBD) method. A magnetization phase diagram including three different phases, i.e., a fully polarized (FP) phase, a 1/2 plateau phase, and a spin-fluid (SF) phase, is obtained. All the quantum phase transitions (QPTs) are determined to belong to the second-order category, and the central charge in the critical SF phase equals 1. In addition, a 1/2 plateau phase also exists in the classical J{sub 1}–J{sub 1}–J{sub 2}–J{sub 2} tetrameric Ising chain. The F–F–AF–AF (or AF–AF–F–F) type longitudinal correlation is found to be important and necessary for the appearance of the 1/2 plateau state in both quantum and classical cases. - Highlights: • 1/2 magnetization plateau can be realized in both quantum and classical cases. • 1/2 plateau is characterized by constant magnetization, entanglement and correlation. • Central charge of the spin-fluid phase is determined to be 1. • F–F–AF–AF correlation is important for the appearance of the 1/2 plateau.
Spin superconductivity in the frustrated two-dimensional antiferromagnet in the square lattice
Lima, L. S.
2017-02-01
We use the SU(2) Schwinger boson formalism to study the spin transport in the two-dimensional S = 1 / 2 frustrated Heisenberg antiferromagnet in a square lattice, considering the second-neighbors interactions in the diagonal. We have obtained a spin superfluid behavior for the spin transport to this system similar to obtained recently to the triangular lattice. We consider an antiferromagnetic inter-chain coupling on the diagonal, J2 > 0 , and the nearest-neighbor coupling antiferromagnetic J1 > 0 . We also have in the critical temperature T0, where the correlation length ξ → 0 , that the system suffers a transition from an ordered ground state to a disordered ground state.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Drichko, Natalia; Hackl, Rudi; Schlueter, John A.
2015-10-15
Using Raman scattering, the quasi-two-dimensional organic superconductor kappa-(BEDT-TTF)(2)Cu[N(CN)(2)]Br (T-c = 11.8 K) and the related antiferromagnet kappa-(BEDT-TTF)(2)Cu[N(CN)(2)]Cl are studied. Raman scattering provides unique spectroscopic information about magnetic degrees of freedom that has been otherwise unavailable on such organic conductors. Below T = 200 K a broad band at about 500 cm(-1) develops in both compounds. We identify this band with two-magnon excitation. The position and the temperature dependence of the spectral weight are similar in the antiferromagnet and in the metallic Fermi liquid. We conclude that antiferromagnetic correlations are similarly present in the magnetic insulator and the Fermi-liquid state of the superconductor.
Electrical manipulation of ferromagnetic NiFe by antiferromagnetic IrMn
Tshitoyan, V.; Ciccarelli, C.; Mihai, A. P.; Ali, M.; Irvine, A. C.; Moore, T. A.; Jungwirth, T.; Ferguson, A. J.
2015-12-01
We demonstrate that an antiferromagnet can be employed for a highly efficient electrical manipulation of a ferromagnet. In our study, we use an electrical detection technique of the ferromagnetic resonance driven by an in-plane ac current in a NiFe/IrMn bilayer. At room temperature, we observe antidampinglike spin torque acting on the NiFe ferromagnet, generated by an in-plane current driven through the IrMn antiferromagnet. A large enhancement of the torque, characterized by an effective spin-Hall angle exceeding most heavy transition metals, correlates with the presence of the exchange-bias field at the NiFe/IrMn interface. It highlights that, in addition to the strong spin-orbit coupling, the antiferromagnetic order in IrMn governs the observed phenomenon.
Hida, Kazuo
1992-03-01
The quantum disordered state (QDOS) of the spin 1/2 double layer square lattice Heisenberg antiferromagnet is studied. Using the dimer expansion from the limit of the large interlayer coupling J', the staggered susceptibility χ, the antiferromagnetic structure factor Sπ and the antiferromagnetic correlation length ξ are calculated up to the 6-th order in the intralayer coupling J. The ratio analysis shows that the QDOS becomes unstable against the Néel ordering at J'/J≃2.56. The critical exponents are not inconsistent with the universality class of the 3-dimensional classical Heisenberg model, suggesting that our QDOS corresponds to that expected in the 2-dimensional square lattice Heisenberg antiferromagnet with unphysically small spin (<0.276). The results of the projector Monte Carlo simulation also confirms the dimer expansion results.
Antiferromagnetism in chromium alloy single crystals
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Bjerrum Møller, Hans; Trego, A.L.; Mackintosh, A.R.
1965-01-01
The antiferromagnetism of single crystals of dilute alloys of V, Mn and Re in Cr has been studied at 95°K and 300°K by neutron diffraction. The addition of V causes the diffraction peaks to decrease in intensity and move away from (100), while Mn and Re cause them to increase and approach (100) so...
The electronic structure of antiferromagnetic chromium
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Skriver, Hans Lomholt
1981-01-01
The author has used the local spin density formalism to perform self-consistent calculations of the electronic structure of chromium in the non-magnetic and commensurate antiferromagnetic phases, as a function of the lattice parameter. A change of a few per cent in the atomic radius brings...
Magnetic remanent states in antiferromagnetically coupled multilayers
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kiselev, N.S., E-mail: m.kyselov@ifw-dresden.d [IFW Dresden, Postfach 270116, D-01171 Dresden (Germany); Donetsk Institute for Physics and Technology, 83114 Donetsk (Ukraine); Roessler, U.K.; Bogdanov, A.N. [IFW Dresden, Postfach 270116, D-01171 Dresden (Germany); Hellwig, O. [San Jose Research Center, Hitachi Global Storage Technologies, San Jose, CA 95135 (United States)
2010-05-15
In antiferromagnetically coupled multilayers with perpendicular anisotropy unusual multidomain textures can be stabilized due to a close competition between long-range demagnetization fields and short-range interlayer exchange coupling. In particular, the formation and evolution of specific topologically stable planar defects within the antiferromagnetic ground state, i.e. wall-like structures with a ferromagnetic configuration extended over a finite width, explain configurational hysteresis phenomena recently observed in [Co/Pt(Pd)]/Ru and [Co/Pt]/NiO multilayers. Within a phenomenological theory, we have analytically derived the equilibrium sizes of these 'ferroband' defects as functions of the antiferromagnetic exchange, a bias magnetic field, and geometrical parameters of the multilayers. In the magnetic phase diagram, the existence region of the ferrobands mediates between the regions of patterns with sharp antiferromagnetic domain walls and regular arrays of ferromagnetic stripes. The theoretical results are supported by magnetic force microscopy images of the remanent states observed in [Co/Pt]/Ru.
Antiferromagnetic Ising model on the swedenborgite lattice
Buhrandt, Stefan; Fritz, Lars
2014-01-01
Geometrical frustration in spin systems often results in a large number of degenerate ground states. In this work, we study the antiferromagnetic Ising model on the three-dimensional swedenborgite lattice, which is a specific stacking of kagome and triangular layers. The model contains two exchange
McConnochie, T. H.; Smith, M. D.
2011-12-01
Mars Global Surveyor Thermal Emission Spectrometer (MGS-TES) nadir-soundings have been used to derive atmospheric temperatures up to roughly 40 km [Conrath et al., JGR 105 2000, Smith et al., JGR 106, 2001], and MGS-TES limb soundings have been used to extend the atmospheric temperature data set to > 60 km in altitude [Smith et al., JGR 106, 2001]. The ~40 - ~65 km altitude range probed by the MGS-TES limb sounding is particularly important for capturing key dynamical features such as the warm winter polar mesosphere [e.g., Smith et al., JGR 106, 2001; McCleese et al., Nature Geoscience 1, 2008], and the response of thermal tides to dust opacity [e.g. Wilson and Hamilton, J. Atmos. Sci. 53, 1996]. Thus accurate and precise temperature profiles at these altitudes are particularly important for constraining global circulation models. They are also critical for interpreting observations of mesospheric condensate aerosols [e.g., Määttänen et al., Icarus 209, 2010; McConnochie et al., Icarus 210, 2010)]. We have indentified correlated noise components in the MGS-TES limb sounding radiances that propagate into very large uncertainties in the retrieved temperatures. We have also identified a slowly varying radiance bias in the limb sounding radiances. Note that the nadir-sounding-based MGS-TES atmospheric temperatures currently available from the Planetary Data System are not affected by either of these issues. These two issues affect the existing MGS-TES limb sounding temperature data set are as follows: Considering, for example, the 1.5 Pascal pressure level (which typically falls between 50 and 60 km altitude), correlated-noise induced standard errors for individual limb-sounding temperature retrievals were 3 - 5 K in Mars Year 24, rising to 5 - 15 K in Mars Year 25 and 10 - 15 K in Mars Year 26 and 27. The radiance bias, although consistent on ~10-sol time scales, is highly variable over the course of the MGS-TES mission. It results in temperatures (at the 1
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Zwingelstein, G. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires
1968-07-01
The power limit of swimming-pool type reactors depends on the phenomenon of the appearance of burn-out. In order to determine this limit we have attempted to detect the local boiling which usually occurs before the burn out. Local boiling has been simulated by an electrically heated plate placed in the core of the reactor Siloette. The study of local boiling, which is based on the properties of the correlation functions for the neutron noise of detectors placed in the core, shows that a privileged frequency occurs in the power spectrum of the noise. It is intended in the future to determine the influence of various parameters on this characteristic frequency. (author) [French] La limitation de la puissance des reacteurs nucleaires de type piscine est due au phenomene d'apparition de 'burn out'. Pour determiner cette limitation, nous nous sommes proposes dans ce rapport de detecter l'ebullition locale qui apparait generalement avant le 'burn out'. L'ebullition locale a ete simulee par une plaque chauffee electriquement et placee dans le coeur du reacteur SILOETTE. L'etude de l'ebullition locale, qui est basee sur les proprietes des fonctions de correlation du bruit neutronique de detecteurs places clans le coeur, fait apparaitre une frequence privilegiee dans le spectre de puissance du bruit. On envisage dans l'avenir, de determiner l'influence des divers parametres sur cette frequence caracteristique. (auteur)
Evidence for Intertwining of Superconductivity and Antiferromagnetism in a Cuprate
Tranquada, John; Xu, Zhijun; Stock, C.; Chi, S. X.; Kolesnikov, A. I.; Xu, G. Y.; Gu, G. D.
2014-03-01
We have used inelastic neutron scattering to measure the low-energy, incommensurate antiferromagnetic spin excitations both above and below the superconducting transition temperature (Tc = 32 K) of La1.905Ba0.095CuO4. While the magnetic excitations in optimally-doped cuprates typically show the development of a spin gap and magnetic resonance below Tc, our sample shows no such effect. Instead strong, gapless spin excitations coexist with bulk superconductivity. To understand this, we note that previous transport measurements have shown that the superconducting layers are decoupled by a magnetic field applied along the c-axis, resulting in a state with frustrated interlayer Josephson coupling, similar to LBCO with x = 1 / 8 , where it has been proposed that pair-density-wave superconductivity occurs. This suggests that, in a similar fashion, the spatially modulated antiferromagnetic correlations (which we see directly in the x = 0 . 095 sample) are intertwined with a spatially modulated superconducting pair wave function. Work at BNL supported by Office of Basic Energy Sciences, US DOE, under Contract No. DE-AC02-98CH10886.
Computational Electronic Structure of Antiferromagnetic Centers in Metalloproteins.
Rodriguez, Jorge H.
2003-03-01
Nature uses the properties of transition metal ions to carry out a variety of functions associated with vital life processes such as respiration and the transport of oxygen. Oxo-bridged diiron centers are intriguing structural motifs which are present in dioxygen transporting proteins and display antiferromagnetic ordering. We have performed a comprehensive study of the electronic structure and magnetic properties of structurally characterized models for diiron-oxo proteins. Results from Kohn-Sham density functional theory show that the models are antiferromagnetically coupled in agreement with experiment. The physical origin of the spin coupling has been elucidated as the main superexchange pathways responsible for magnetic ordering have been identified. In addition, the exchange constants that parameterize the Heisenberg Hamiltonian, H=JS_1.S_2, have been predicted in excellent agreement with experiment. Our results are important for establishing correlations between electronic structure and biomolecular function and show that computational electronic structure can be used as a powerful tool for the investigation of biomolecular magnetism.
Spin Seebeck effect through antiferromagnetic NiO
Prakash, Arati; Brangham, Jack; Yang, Fengyuan; Heremans, Joseph P.
2016-07-01
We report temperature-dependent spin Seebeck measurements on Pt/YIG bilayers and Pt/NiO/YIG trilayers, where YIG (yttrium iron garnet, Y3F e5O12 ) is an insulating ferrimagnet and NiO is an antiferromagnet at low temperatures. The thickness of the NiO layer is varied from 0 to 10 nm. In the Pt/YIG bilayers, the temperature gradient applied to the YIG stimulates dynamic spin injection into the Pt, which generates an inverse spin Hall voltage in the Pt. The presence of a NiO layer dampens the spin injection exponentially with a decay length of 2 ± 0.6 nm at 180 K. The decay length increases with temperature and shows a maximum of 5.5 ± 0.8 nm at 360 K. The temperature dependence of the amplitude of the spin Seebeck signal without NiO shows a broad maximum of 6.5 ± 0.5 μV/K at 20 K. In the presence of NiO, the maximum shifts sharply to higher temperatures, likely correlated to the increase in decay length. This implies that NiO is most transparent to magnon propagation near the paramagnet-antiferromagnet transition. We do not see the enhancement in spin current driven into Pt reported in other papers when 1-2 nm NiO layers are sandwiched between Pt and YIG.
Kallman, Robert R.
1986-12-01
Phase-only (PO) and binary phase only (BPO) versions of recently developed Synthetic Discriminant Filters, SDFs, (Kallman, 1986) are discussed which are potentially useful for threshold optical correlation detectors. A formulation of the performance or SNR of a filter against a training set is first presented which takes into account the POF or BPOF, unlike the SDF, being unable to control the actual size of the recognition spike of the output correlation plane when a valid target is centered in the filter input plane. Numerical tests of the present recipes for POFs and BPOFs have been carried out on four SDFs made from tank imagery, and the SNR for 12 POFs and 24 BPOFs were computed.
Kanmani, B.; Vasu, R. M.
2007-03-01
An iterative reconstruction procedure is used to invert intensity data from both single- and phase-correlated dual-source illuminations for absorption inhomogeneities. The Jacobian for the dual source is constructed by an algebraic addition of the Jacobians estimated for the two sources separately. By numerical simulations, it is shown that the dual-source scheme performs superior to the single-source system in regard to (i) noise tolerance in data and (ii) ability to reconstruct smaller and lower contrast objects. The quality of reconstructions from single-source data, as indicated by mean-square error at convergence, is markedly poorer compared to their dual-source counterpart, when noise in data was in excess of 2%. With fixed contrast and decreasing inhomogeneity diameter, our simulations showed that, for diameters below 7 mm, the dual-source scheme has a higher percentage contrast recovery compared to the single-source scheme. Similarly, the dual-source scheme reconstructs to a higher percentage contrast recovery from lower contrast inhomogeneity, in comparison to the single-source scheme.
Budi-Santoso, Agus; Lesage, Philippe
2016-07-01
We present a study of the seismic velocity variations that occurred in the structure before the large 2010 eruption of Merapi volcano. For the first time to our knowledge, the technique of coda wave interferometry is applied to both families of similar events (multiplets) and to correlation functions of seismic noise. About half of the seismic events recorded at the summit stations belong to one of the ten multiplets identified, including 120 similar events that occurred in the last 20 hr preceding the eruption onset. Daily noise cross-correlation functions (NCF) were calculated for the six pairs of short-period stations available. Using the stretching method, we estimate time-series of apparent velocity variation (AVV) for each multiplet and each pair of stations. No significant velocity change is detected until September 2010. From 10 October to the beginning of the eruption on 26 October, a complex pattern of AVV is observed with amplitude of up to ±1.5 per cent. Velocity decrease is first observed from families of deep events and then from shallow earthquakes. In the same period, AVV with different signs and chronologies are estimated from NCF calculated for various station pairs. The location in the horizontal plane of the velocity perturbations related with the AVV obtained from NCF is estimated by using an approach based on the radiative transfer approximation. Although their spatial resolution is limited, the resulting maps display velocity decrease in the upper part of the edifice in the period 12-25 October. After the eruption onset, the pattern of velocity perturbations is significantly modified with respect to the previous one. We interpret these velocity variations in the framework of a scenario of magmatic intrusion that integrates most observations. The perturbation of the stress field associated with the magma migration can induce both decrease and increase of the seismic velocity of rocks. Thus the detected AVVs can be considered as precursors of
Antiferromagnetic character of workplace stress
Watanabe, Jun-Ichiro; Akitomi, Tomoaki; Ara, Koji; Yano, Kazuo
2011-07-01
We study the nature of workplace stress from the aspect of human-human interactions. We investigated the distribution of Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale scores, a measure of the degree of stress, in workplaces. We found that the degree of stress people experience when around other highly stressed people tends to be low, and vice versa. A simulation based on a model describing microlevel human-human interaction reproduced this observed phenomena and revealed that the energy state of a face-to-face communication network correlates with workplace stress macroscopically.
Hida, Kazuo
2006-07-01
The multiple reentrant quantum phase transitions in the S=1/2 antiferromagnetic Heisenberg chains with random bond alternation in the magnetic field are investigated by the density matrix renormalization group method combined with interchain mean field approximation. It is assumed that odd numbered bonds are antiferromagnetic with strength J and even numbered bonds can take the values JS and JW (JS > J > JW > 0) randomly with the probabilities p and 1- p, respectively. The pure version ( p=0 and 1) of this model has a spin gap but exhibits a field-induced antiferromagnetism in the presence of interchain coupling if Zeeman energy due to the magnetic field exceeds the spin gap. For 0 < p < 1, antiferromagnetism is induced by randomness at the small field region where the ground state is disordered due to the spin gap in the pure version. At the same time, this model exhibits randomness-induced plateaus at several values of magnetization. The antiferromagnetism is destroyed on the plateaus. As a consequence, we find a series of reentrant quantum phase transitions between transverse antiferromagnetic phases and disordered plateau phases with the increase of magnetic field for a moderate strength of interchain coupling. Above the main plateaus, the magnetization curve consists of a series of small plateaus and jumps between them. It is also found that antiferromagnetism is induced by infinitesimal interchain coupling at the jumps between the small plateaus. We conclude that this antiferromagnetism is supported by the mixing of low-lying excited states by the staggered interchain mean field even though the spin correlation function is short ranged in the ground state of each chain.
Macroscopic Quantum Coherence in Antiferromagnetic Molecular Magnets
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
HU Hui; LO Rong; ZHU Jia-Lin; XIONG Jia-Jiong
2001-01-01
The macroscopic quantum coherence in a biaxial antiferromagnetic molecular magnet in the presence of magnetic field acting parallel to its hard anisotropy axis is studied within the two-sublattice model. On the basis of instanton technique in the spin-coherent-state path-integral representation, both the rigorous Wentzel-Kramers-Brillouin exponent and pre-exponential factor for the ground-state tunnel splitting are obtained. We find that the quantum fluctuations around the classical paths can not only induce a new quantum phase previously reported by Chiolero and Loss (Phys. Rev. Lett. 80 (1998) 169), but also have great influence on the intensity of the ground-state tunnel splitting. Those features clearly have no analogue in the ferromagnetic molecular magnets. We suggest that they may be the universal behaviors in all antiferromagnetic molecular magnets. The analytical results are complemented by exact diagonalization calculation.
Macroscopic Quantum Coherence in Antiferromagnetic Molecular Magnets
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
HUHui; LURong; 等
2001-01-01
The macroscopic quantum coherence in a biaxial antiferromagnetic molecular magnet in the presence of magnetic field acting parallel to its hard anisotropy axis is studied within the two-sublattice model.On the basis of instanton technique in the spin-coherent-state path-integral representation,both the rigorous Wentzel-Kramers-Brillouin exponent and pre-exponential factor for the ground-state tunnel splitting are obtained.We find that the quantum fluctuations around the classical paths can not only induce a new quantum phase previously reported by Chiolero and Loss (Phys.Rev.Lett.80(1998)169),but also have great influence on the intensity of the ground-state tunnel splitting.Those features clearly have no analogue in the ferromagnetic molecular magnets.We suggest that they may be the universal behaviors in all antiferromagnetic molecular magnets.The analytical results are complemented by exact diagonalization calculation.
Shape-induced anisotropy in antiferromagnetic nanoparticles
H. Gomonay; Kondovych, S.; Loktev, V.
2013-01-01
High fraction of the surface atoms considerably enhances the influence of size and shape on the magnetic and electronic properties of nanoparticles. Shape effects in ferromagnetic nanoparticles are well understood and allow to set and control the parameters of a sample that affect its magnetic anisotropy during production. In the present paper we study the shape effects in the other widely used magnetic materials -- antiferromagnets, -- which possess vanishingly small or zero macroscopic magn...
Spin Transport in Ferromagnetic and Antiferromagnetic Textures
Akosa, Collins A.
2016-12-07
In this dissertation, we provide an accurate description of spin transport in magnetic textures and in particular, we investigate in detail, the nature of spin torque and magnetic damping in such systems. Indeed, as will be further discussed in this thesis, the current-driven velocity of magnetic textures is related to the ratio between the so-called non-adiabatic torque and magnetic damping. Uncovering the physics underlying these phenomena can lead to the optimal design of magnetic systems with improved efficiency. We identified three interesting classes of systems which have attracted enormous research interest (i) Magnetic textures in systems with broken inversion symmetry: We investigate the nature of magnetic damping in non-centrosymmetric ferromagnets. Based on phenomenological and microscopic derivations, we show that the magnetic damping becomes chiral, i.e. depends on the chirality of the magnetic texture. (ii) Ferromagnetic domain walls, skyrmions and vortices: We address the physics of spin transport in sharp disordered magnetic domain walls and vortex cores. We demonstrate that upon spin-independent scattering, the non-adiabatic torque can be significantly enhanced. Such an enhancement is large for vortex cores compared to transverse domain walls. We also show that the topological spin currents owing in these structures dramatically enhances the non-adiabaticity, an effect unique to non-trivial topological textures (iii) Antiferromagnetic skyrmions: We extend this study to antiferromagnetic skyrmions and show that such an enhanced topological torque also exist in these systems. Even more interestingly, while such a non-adiabatic torque inuences the undesirable transverse velocity of ferromagnetic skyrmions, in antiferromagnetic skyrmions, the topological non-adiabatic torque directly determines the longitudinal velocity. As a consequence, scaling down the antiferromagnetic skyrmion results in a much more efficient spin torque.
Spin-Mechanical Inertia in Antiferromagnet
2016-01-01
The conservation of angular momentum has served as a guiding principle in the coupled dynamics of quantum spins and mechanical rotations. However, in an antiferromagnet with vanishing magnetization, new fundamental rules are required to properly describe spin-mechanical phenomena. Here we demonstrate that the Neel order dynamics affects the mechanical motion of a rigid body by modifying its inertia tensor in the presence of strong magnetocrystalline anisotropy. This effect depends on temperat...
Spin transfer in antiferromagnets (Conference Presentation)
Moriyama, Takahiro
2016-10-01
Since antiferromagnets (AFMs) have no spontaneous magnetization unlike ferromagnetic materials, it is not easy to manipulate the magnetic moments in AFMs by external magnetic field. However, recent theoretical studies suggest that it is possible to manipulate the magnetization in AFMs by spin-transfer-torque in a similar manner to ferromagnetic materials. In this study, we perform spin-toque ferromagnetic resonance (ST-FMR) measurements on FeNi/NiO/Pt multilayers to experimentally investigate the interaction between the spin current and the magnetic moments of antiferromagnetic NiO. The spin current is injected to the NiO by the spin Hall effect in Pt. The monotonous change in the FMR linewidth of this system with respect to the spin current can be interpreted in a way that the spin current is transferred through the NiO and interacts with the FeNi. This intriguing spin current transport can be explained by the angular momentum transfer mediated by the antiferromagnetic magnons. The results assure that the spin current exerts a torque on the NiO magnetic moments and excites their dynamics. In the talk, recent results will be also discussed.
Model calculation of thermal conductivity in antiferromagnets
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Mikhail, I.F.I., E-mail: ifi_mikhail@hotmail.com; Ismail, I.M.M.; Ameen, M.
2015-11-01
A theoretical study is given of thermal conductivity in antiferromagnetic materials. The study has the advantage that the three-phonon interactions as well as the magnon phonon interactions have been represented by model operators that preserve the important properties of the exact collision operators. A new expression for thermal conductivity has been derived that involves the same terms obtained in our previous work in addition to two new terms. These two terms represent the conservation and quasi-conservation of wavevector that occur in the three-phonon Normal and Umklapp processes respectively. They gave appreciable contributions to the thermal conductivity and have led to an excellent quantitative agreement with the experimental measurements of the antiferromagnet FeCl{sub 2}. - Highlights: • The Boltzmann equations of phonons and magnons in antiferromagnets have been studied. • Model operators have been used to represent the magnon–phonon and three-phonon interactions. • The models possess the same important properties as the exact operators. • A new expression for the thermal conductivity has been derived. • The results showed a good quantitative agreement with the experimental data of FeCl{sub 2}.
Spin Seebeck Effect Signals from Antiferromagnets
Prakash, Arati; Brangham, Jack; Yang, Fengyuan; Heremans, Joseph
The Longitudinal Spin Seebeck Effect (LSSE), in which a heat current stimulates spin propagation across an interface between a magnetic material and a normal metal, is well established and observed in ferromagnetic systems. Data have been presented indicating that antiferromagnetic systems could also give rise to LSSE signals. We report here on LSSE signal measured on the Pt/NiO/YIG structure, where NiO is an antiferromagnet. This system is reported to exhibit antiferromagnonic transport. We explore the dependence of the signal on the thickness of the NiO and YIG layers. We also report its temperature dependence, which was not explored before. The results are interpreted in terms of the temperature dependence of the magnon density of states. It appears that magnon modes with energies below about 40 K are most involved in the process, as was the case to the LSSE on YIG itself. Preliminary results using other antiferromagnets and other inverse spin-Hall layers look promising and will also be reported Work supported by ARO- MURI W911NF-14-1-0016.
Impurities near an antiferromagnetic-singlet quantum critical point
Mendes-Santos, T.; Costa, N. C.; Batrouni, G.; Curro, N.; dos Santos, R. R.; Paiva, T.; Scalettar, R. T.
2017-02-01
Heavy-fermion systems and other strongly correlated electron materials often exhibit a competition between antiferromagnetic (AF) and singlet ground states. Using exact quantum Monte Carlo simulations, we examine the effect of impurities in the vicinity of such an AF-singlet quantum critical point (QCP), through an appropriately defined "impurity susceptibility" χimp. Our key finding is a connection within a single calculational framework between AF domains induced on the singlet side of the transition and the behavior of the nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) relaxation rate 1 /T1 . We show that local NMR measurements provide a diagnostic for the location of the QCP, which agrees remarkably well with the vanishing of the AF order parameter and large values of χimp.
Quantum Phase Transitions in Anti-ferromagnetic Planar Cubic Lattices
Wellard, C J; Wellard, Cameron; Orus, Roman
2004-01-01
Motivated by its relation to an NP-hard problem we analyze the ground state properties of anti-ferromagnetic Ising-spin networks in planar cubic lattices under the action of homogeneous transverse and longitudinal magnetic fields. We consider different instances of the cubic geometry and find a set of quantum phase transitions for each one of the systems, which we characterize by means of entanglement behavior and majorization theory. Entanglement scaling at the critical region is in agreement with results arising from conformal symmetry, therefore even the simplest planar systems can display very large amounts of quantum correlation. No conclusion can be made as to the scaling behavior of the minimum energy gap, with the data allowing equally good fits to exponential and power law decays. Analysis of entanglement and especially of majorization instead of the energy spectrum proves to be a good way of detecting quantum phase transitions in highly frustrated configurations.
Mohamed Salleh, Faridah Hani; Arif, Shereena Mohd; Zainudin, Suhaila; Firdaus-Raih, Mohd
2015-12-01
A gene regulatory network (GRN) is a large and complex network consisting of interacting elements that, over time, affect each other's state. The dynamics of complex gene regulatory processes are difficult to understand using intuitive approaches alone. To overcome this problem, we propose an algorithm for inferring the regulatory interactions from knock-out data using a Gaussian model combines with Pearson Correlation Coefficient (PCC). There are several problems relating to GRN construction that have been outlined in this paper. We demonstrated the ability of our proposed method to (1) predict the presence of regulatory interactions between genes, (2) their directionality and (3) their states (activation or suppression). The algorithm was applied to network sizes of 10 and 50 genes from DREAM3 datasets and network sizes of 10 from DREAM4 datasets. The predicted networks were evaluated based on AUROC and AUPR. We discovered that high false positive values were generated by our GRN prediction methods because the indirect regulations have been wrongly predicted as true relationships. We achieved satisfactory results as the majority of sub-networks achieved AUROC values above 0.5.
Universality in antiferromagnetic strange metals
Maier, Stefan A.; Strack, Philipp
2016-04-01
We propose a theory of metals at the spin-density-wave quantum-critical point in spatial dimension d =2 . We provide a first estimate of the full set of critical exponents (dynamical exponent z =2.13 , correlation length ν =1.02 , spin susceptibility γ =0.96 , electronic non-Fermi liquid ητf=0.53 , spin-wave Landau damping ητb=1.06 ), which determine the universal power laws in thermodynamics and response functions in the quantum-critical regime relevant for experiments in heavy-fermion systems and iron pnictides. We present approximate numerical and analytical solutions of Polchinski-Wetterich-type flow equations with soft frequency regulators for an effective action of electrons coupled to spin-wave bosons. Performing the renormalization group in frequency instead of momentum space allows to track changes of the Fermi-surface shape and to capture Landau damping during the flow. The technique is easily generalizable from models retaining only patches of the Fermi surface to full, compact Fermi surfaces.
Bekaert, David; Walters, Richard; Hooper, Andrew; Wright, Tim; Parker, Doug
2014-05-01
For Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (InSAR) the atmosphere forms one of the biggest challenges when it comes to the extraction of small-magnitude long-wavelength tectonic signals. Spatio-temporal variation of water vapour, pressure and temperature in the troposphere is the main cause of these signals, introducing apparent differential path delays in interferograms of up to 15 cm. Several correction techniques have been applied in the past that rely on external data from weather models, GPS or spectrometer data, but these are typically limited by the lower spatial resolution of the auxiliary data. Alternatively, time-series InSAR techniques and filtering of the interferometric phase in space and time can be applied, but separating atmospheric delays from non-linear deformation is challenging. Another method, which can be applied to individual interferograms, is to estimate the correlation between interferometric phase and topography, either in a non-deforming area or using a frequency band insensitive to deformation. While this method can be successful for small areas, it does not account for spatial variation of atmospheric properties, which can be significant across regions larger than 100 km. While the slope relating phase and topography can be reliably estimated for subregions, the intercept cannot, as it is biased by the presence of unrelated signals. The intercept cannot however be neglected, as the mean height of each subregion typically varies, leading to a different intercept for each window. Here we present a new power-law representation of the topographically-correlated phase delay that can be applied locally and which is able to account for these spatial variations in atmospheric properties. We estimate the power-law from sounding data to fit altitudes of up to 4 km, as this includes the topography range in most regions of interest. We also constrain the power-law by specifying the height above which the relative tropospheric delays are
Anggono, T.; Nishimura, T.; Sato, H.; Ueda, H.; Ukawa, M.
2008-12-01
Miyakejima Island, which is located about 170 km to the south of Tokyo, Japan, is an active volcano of basaltic magma. In 2000 volcanic activity started with magma ascent and migration northwestwardly on June 26 - 27. Then, the volcano formed a caldera on the summit in July, and large amount of volcanic gas emission continued from late August until now. We analyze the ambient seismic noise recorded at three NIED seismic stations (MKK, MKT, and MKS) in the island in order to study the volcano structure behavior associated with such significant volcanic activities. We apply cross correlation analyses to the continuous records of vertical component of short period seismometers (1 s). The data are sampled at a frequency of 100 Hz with an A/D resolution of 16-bit. We calculate cross correlation functions (CCFs) for time window of 60 s for each station pair. We stack the CCFs for each month and bandpass filter the stacked data at frequency band 0.4 - 0.8 Hz. The stacked CCFs, which may represent the Green function between two stations, at station pairs MKK - MKS (the distance is 1.8 km) and MKT - MKS (the distance is 3.9 km) show wave packets with large amplitudes at both sides (positive and negative time delays). The wave packets propagate at group velocities of about 0.8 - 1.0 km/s. The stacked CCFs for MKK - MKT (the distance is 3.1 km) is one sided (negative time delay). Such asymmetric might be due to the inhomogeneous distribution of propagation direction of ambient seismic noise, so we do not use the data for the following analyses. Comparing the CCFs obtained for periods from July 1999 to June 2000 with that of October 2002, we observe small phase difference of the main wave packet. Our results show that for station pair MKK - MKS, whose path crosses the northern part of the island, velocity increased about 1.6 % after the 2000 volcanic activity. For MKT - MKS, whose path closely crosses the newly formed caldera, we estimate the velocity decrease of about 1
Itinerant antiferromagnetism in the Mott compound V1.973O3
Bao, Wei; Broholm, C.; Honig, J. M.; Metcalf, P.; Trevino, S. F.
1996-08-01
The doping-induced metallic state of the Mott system V2-yO3 has spin-density-wave order for T
Fragile antiferromagnetism in the heavy-fermion compound YbBiPt
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ueland, Benjamin G. [Ames Laboratory; Kreyssig, Andreas [Ames Laboratory; Prokes, K. [Helmholtz-Zentrum Berlin fur Materialien und Energie; Lynn, J. W. [NIST Center for Neutron Research; Harriger, L. W. [NIST Center for Neutron Research; Pratt, D. K. [NIST Center for Neutron Research; Singh, D. K. [NIST Center for Neutron Research; Heitmann, T. W. [University of Missouri; Sauerbrei, Samantha [Ames Laboratory; Saunders, Scott M. [Ames Laboratory; Mun, E. D. [Ames Laboratory; Budko, Serguei L. [Ames Laboratory; McQueeney, Robert J. [Ames Laboratory; Canfield, Paul C. [Ames Laboratory; Goldman, Alan I. [Ames Laboratory
2014-05-08
We report results from neutron scattering experiments on single crystals of YbBiPt that demonstrate antiferromagnetic order characterized by a propagation vector, τAFM = (121212), and ordered moments that align along the [1 1 1] direction of the cubic unit cell. We describe the scattering in terms of a two-Gaussian peak fit, which consists of a narrower component that appears below TN≈0.4 K and corresponds to a magnetic correlation length of ξn≈ 80 Å, and a broad component that persists up to T*≈ 0.7 K and corresponds to antiferromagnetic correlations extending over ξb≈ 20 Å. Our results illustrate the fragile magnetic order present in YbBiPt and provide a path forward for microscopic investigations of the ground states and fluctuations associated with the purported quantum critical point in this heavy-fermion compound.
Dynamic magnetic hysteresis and nonlinear susceptibility of antiferromagnetic nanoparticles
Kalmykov, Yuri P.; Ouari, Bachir; Titov, Serguey V.
2016-08-01
The nonlinear ac stationary response of antiferromagnetic nanoparticles subjected to both external ac and dc fields of arbitrary strength and orientation is investigated using Brown's continuous diffusion model. The nonlinear complex susceptibility and dynamic magnetic hysteresis (DMH) loops of an individual antiferromagnetic nanoparticle are evaluated and compared with the linear regime for extensive ranges of the anisotropy, the ac and dc magnetic fields, damping, and the specific antiferromagnetic parameter. It is shown that the shape and area of the DMH loops of antiferromagnetic particles are substantially altered by applying a dc field that permits tuning of the specific magnetic power loss in the nanoparticles.
Dynamics of antiferromagnetic skyrmion driven by the spin Hall effect
Jin, Chendong; Song, Chengkun; Wang, Jianbo; Liu, Qingfang
2016-10-01
Magnetic skyrmion moved by the spin-Hall effect is promising for the application of the generation racetrack memories. However, the Magnus force causes a deflected motion of skyrmion, which limits its application. Here, we create an antiferromagnetic skyrmion by injecting a spin-polarized pulse in the nanostripe and investigate the spin Hall effect-induced motion of antiferromagnetic skyrmion by micromagnetic simulations. In contrast to ferromagnetic skyrmion, we find that the antiferromagnetic skyrmion has three evident advantages: (i) the minimum driving current density of antiferromagnetic skyrmion is about two orders smaller than the ferromagnetic skyrmion; (ii) the velocity of the antiferromagnetic skyrmion is about 57 times larger than the ferromagnetic skyrmion driven by the same value of current density; (iii) antiferromagnetic skyrmion can be driven by the spin Hall effect without the influence of Magnus force. In addition, antiferromagnetic skyrmion can move around the pinning sites due to its property of topological protection. Our results present the understanding of antiferromagnetic skyrmion motion driven by the spin Hall effect and may also contribute to the development of antiferromagnetic skyrmion-based racetrack memories.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
V.V. Kulish
2015-06-01
Full Text Available The paper investigates the antiferromagnetic vector distribution in an antiferromagnetic film with a system of antidots. A static distribution of the antiferromagnetic vector is written and a method – based on the minimization of the antiferromagnet energy – that allows reducing the number of boundary conditions required for finding the constants of this distribution is proposed. Equations for the distribution constants are obtained for the both cases of minimizing the antiferromagnet energy by one and by two distribution constants that enter the expression for the antiferromagnet energy. The method is illustrated on a system of one isolated antidot. For such system, one additional condition – for the case when two boundary conditions on the surface of the antidot are given – and two additional conditions – for the case when one boundary condition on the surface of the antidot is given – on the distribution constants are written.
Charge dynamics of the antiferromagnetically ordered Mott insulator
Han, Xing-Jie; Liu, Yu; Liu, Zhi-Yuan; Li, Xin; Chen, Jing; Liao, Hai-Jun; Xie, Zhi-Yuan; Normand, B.; Xiang, Tao
2016-10-01
We introduce a slave-fermion formulation in which to study the charge dynamics of the half-filled Hubbard model on the square lattice. In this description, the charge degrees of freedom are represented by fermionic holons and doublons and the Mott-insulating characteristics of the ground state are the consequence of holon-doublon bound-state formation. The bosonic spin degrees of freedom are described by the antiferromagnetic Heisenberg model, yielding long-ranged (Néel) magnetic order at zero temperature. Within this framework and in the self-consistent Born approximation, we perform systematic calculations of the average double occupancy, the electronic density of states, the spectral function and the optical conductivity. Qualitatively, our method reproduces the lower and upper Hubbard bands, the spectral-weight transfer into a coherent quasiparticle band at their lower edges and the renormalisation of the Mott gap, which is associated with holon-doublon binding, due to the interactions of both quasiparticle species with the magnons. The zeros of the Green function at the chemical potential give the Luttinger volume, the poles of the self-energy reflect the underlying quasiparticle dispersion with a spin-renormalised hopping parameter and the optical gap is directly related to the Mott gap. Quantitatively, the square-lattice Hubbard model is one of the best-characterised problems in correlated condensed matter and many numerical calculations, all with different strengths and weaknesses, exist with which to benchmark our approach. From the semi-quantitative accuracy of our results for all but the weakest interaction strengths, we conclude that a self-consistent treatment of the spin-fluctuation effects on the charge degrees of freedom captures all the essential physics of the antiferromagnetic Mott-Hubbard insulator. We remark in addition that an analytical approximation with these properties serves a vital function in developing a full understanding of the
工业噪声与慢性胃病的相关性研究%Study on correlation between industrial noise exposure and chronic gastric disorders
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
张维森; 廖阳; 周浩; 何国权; 罗晓丽
2011-01-01
Objective To study the association of industrial noise exposure with chronic gastric disorders in workers in Guangzhou city. Methods Firstly, a cross sectional survey was performed, 693 workers from 6 manufacturers in Guangzhou were examined, among them 38 cases of chronic gastric disorders were found as case group. All the objects were sorted according to gender and age, 1: 4 match principle was used in the study that was 4 controls/1 case in each sub-group, therefore, 152 controls were selected. Additionally, Chi-square test and multivariable conditional logistic regression model were used for the a-nalysis and assessment of the association. Results (1) There was a similar prevalence of chronic gastric disorders in men and women, the prevalences increased with age (Pfor trend =0.001). (2) The noise exposure prevalence was significantly higher in case group, the major proportion of exposure duration were≤5 years. (3) After adjusting the confounding factors such as education, smoking, drinking and other occupational exposure etc. The risk of chronic gastric disorders was obviously correlated to noise exposure, especially the exposure less than 5 years. Conclusion The results suggested that noise exposure may increase the risk of suffering from chronic gastric disorders.%目的 探讨噪声与作业工人慢性胃病的相关性.方法 对广州6家制造业工厂693名作业工人的职业健康危害进行现况调查,将发现的38例慢性胃病现患者设为病例组,所有对象经性别、年龄排序后,按性别一致、年龄±1岁分组,在每个病例对应的组中,统一依次按隔位选1原则选取4名无现患者(1:4配对),共152名工人为对照组,开展病例对照研究.相关性分析与评价采用卡方检验和条件Logistic回归分析.结果 (1)慢性胃病现患率男女基本一致,但随年龄的增加而增加(卡方趋势性检验P值=0.001)；(2)病例组噪声接触率显著高于对照组,以接噪工龄≤5
High-Tc spin superfluidity in antiferromagnets.
Bunkov, Yu M; Alakshin, E M; Gazizulin, R R; Klochkov, A V; Kuzmin, V V; L'vov, V S; Tagirov, M S
2012-04-27
We report the observation of the unusual behavior of induction decay signals in antiferromagnetic monocrystals with Suhl-Nakamura interactions. The signals show the formation of the Bose-Einstein condensation (BEC) of magnons and the existence of spin supercurrent, in complete analogy with the spin superfluidity in the superfluid (3)He and the atomic BEC of quantum gases. In the experiments described here, the temperature of the magnon BEC is a thousand times larger than in the superfluid (3)He. It opens a possibility to apply the spin supercurrent for various magnetic spintronics applications.
Classical and quantum anisotropic Heisenberg antiferromagnets
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
W. Selke
2009-01-01
Full Text Available We study classical and quantum Heisenberg antiferromagnets with exchange anisotropy of XXZ-type and crystal field single-ion terms of quadratic and quartic form in a field. The magnets display a variety of phases, including the spin-flop (or, in the quantum case, spin-liquid and biconical (corresponding, in the quantum lattice gas description, to supersolid phases. Applying ground-state considerations, Monte Carlo and density matrix renormalization group methods, the impact of quantum effects and lattice dimension is analysed. Interesting critical and multicritical behaviour may occur at quantum and thermal phase transitions.
Frustrated 3×3 Heisenberg antiferromagnets
Moustanis, P. N.
2016-08-01
The full energy spectrum and the exact thermodynamic results of the antiferromagnetic Heisenberg Hamiltonian of the 3×3 triangular and the frustrated square lattice with periodic boundary conditions and s=1/2 are obtained. To this end the method of hierarchy of algebras is employed. It was found that the ground state of the 3×3 frustrated square lattice is a Resonating Valence Bond (RVB) state. Thermodynamic properties, like the specific heat, magnetic susceptibility, the thermal average of the square of the total Sz and entropy, for these two lattices are presented.
Lattice distortion in disordered antiferromagnetic XY models
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Li Peng-Fei; Cao Hai-Jing
2012-01-01
The behavior of lattice distortion in spin 1/2 antiferromagnetic XY models with random magnetic modulation is investigated with the consideration of spin-phonon coupling in the adiabatic limit.It is found that lattice distortion relies on the strength of the random modulation.For strong or weak enough spin-phonon couplings,the average lattice distortion may decrease or increase as the random modulation is strengthened.This may be the result of competition between the random magnetic modulation and the spin-phonon coupling.
Switching of antiferromagnetic chains with magnetic pulses
Tao, Kun; Polyakov, Oleg P.; Stepanyuk, Valeri S.
2016-04-01
Recent experimental studies have demonstrated the possibility of information storage in short antiferromagnetic chains on an insulator substrate [S. Loth et al., Science 335, 196 (2012), 10.1126/science.1214131]. Here, using the density functional theory and atomistic spin dynamics simulations, we show that a local magnetic control of such chains with a magnetic tip and magnetic pulses can be used for fast switching of their magnetization. Furthermore, by changing the position of the tip one can engineer the magnetization dynamics of the chains.
Akram, N
1999-01-01
In this report we describe the concept of adaptive noise canceling, an alternative method of estimating signals corrupted by additive noise of interference. The method uses 'primary' input containing the corrupted signal and a 'reference' input containing noise correlated in some unknown way with the primary noise, the reference input is adaptively filtered and subtracted from the primary input to obtain the signal estimate. Adaptive filtering before subtraction allows the treatment of inputs that are deterministic or stochastic, stationary or time variable. When the reference input is free of signal and certain other conditions are met then noise in the primary input can be essentially eliminated without signal distortion. It is further shown that the adaptive filter also acts as notch filter. Simulated results illustrate the usefulness of the adaptive noise canceling technique.
Cárdenas-Soto, M.; Valdes, J. E.; Escobedo-Zenil, D.
2013-05-01
In June 2006, the base of the artificial lake in Chapultepec Park collapsed. 20 thousand liters of water were filtered to the ground through a crack increasing the dimensions of initial gap. Studies indicated that the collapse was due to saturated material associated with a sudden and massive water filtration process. Geological studies indicates that all the area of this section the subsoil is composed of vulcano-sedimentary materials that were economically exploited in the mid-20th century, leaving a series of underground mines that were rehabilitated for the construction of the Park. Currently, the Lake is rehabilitated and running for recreational activities. In this study we have applied two methods of seismic noise correlation; seismic interferometry (SI) in time domain and the Spatial Power Auto Correlation (SPAC) in frequency domain, in order to explore the 3D subsoil velocity structure. The aim is to highlight major variations in velocity that can be associated with irregularities in the subsoil that may pose a risk to the stability of the Lake. For this purpose we use 96 vertical geophones of 4.5 Hz with 5-m spacing that conform a semi-circular array that provide a length of 480 m around the lake zone. For both correlation methods, we extract the phase velocity associated with the dispersion characteristics between each pair of stations in the frequency range from 4 to 12 Hz. In the SPAC method the process was through the dispersion curve, and in SI method we use the time delay of the maximum amplitude in the correlation pulse, which was previously filtered in multiple frequency bands. The results of both processes were captured in 3D velocity volumes (in the case SI a process of traveltime tomography was applied). We observed that in the frequency range from 6 to 8 Hz, appear irregular structures, with high velocity contrast in relation with the shear wave velocity of surface layer (ten thick m of saturated sediments). One of these anomalies is related
He, Lian; Lin, Yu; Shang, Yu; Shelton, Brent J.; Yu, Guoqiang
2013-03-01
The dual-wavelength diffuse correlation spectroscopy (DCS) flow-oximeter is an emerging technique enabling simultaneous measurements of blood flow and blood oxygenation changes in deep tissues. High signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) is crucial when applying DCS technologies in the study of human tissues where the detected signals are usually very weak. In this study, single-mode, few-mode, and multimode fibers are compared to explore the possibility of improving the SNR of DCS flow-oximeter measurements. Experiments on liquid phantom solutions and in vivo muscle tissues show only slight improvements in flow measurements when using the few-mode fiber compared with using the single-mode fiber. However, light intensities detected by the few-mode and multimode fibers are increased, leading to significant SNR improvements in detections of phantom optical property and tissue blood oxygenation. The outcomes from this study provide useful guidance for the selection of optical fibers to improve DCS flow-oximeter measurements.
Spin-wave multiple excitations in nanoscale classical Heisenberg antiferromagnets
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Hou, Zhuofei [University of Georgia, Athens; Landau, David P [University of Georgia, Athens; Stocks, George Malcolm [ORNL; Brown, G. [Florida State University, Tallahassee
2015-02-17
Monte Carlo and spin dynamics techniques have been used to perform large-scale simulations of the dynamic behavior of a nanoscale, classical, Heisenberg antiferromagnet on a simple-cubic lattice with linear sizes L≤ 40 at a temperature below the Neel temperature. In this study, nanoparticles are modeled with completely free boundary conditions, i.e., six free surfaces, and nanofilms are modeled with two free surfaces in the spatial z direction and periodic boundaries parallel to the surfaces in the xy direction, which are compared to the infinite system with periodic boundary conditions. The temporal evolutions of spin configurations were determined numerically from coupled equations of motion for individual spins using a fast spin dynamics algorithm with the fourth-order Suzuki-Trotter decomposition of exponential operators, with initial spin configurations generated by Monte Carlo simulations. The local dynamic structure factor S(q,ω) was calculated from the local space- and time-displaced spin-spin correlation function. Multiple excitation peaks for wave vectors within the first Brillouin zone appear in the spin-wave spectra of the transverse component of dynamic structure factor S^{T} (q,ω) in the nanoscale classical Heisenberg antiferromagnet, which are lacking if periodic boundary conditions are used. With the assumption of q-space spin-wave reflections with broken momentum conservation due to free-surface confinements, we successfully explained those spectra quantitatively in the linear dispersion region. Meanwhile, we also observed two unexpected quantized spin-wave excitation modes in the spatial z direction in nanofilms for S^{T} (q,ω) not expected in bulk systems. In conclusion, the results of this study indicate the presence of unexpected forms of spin-wave excitation behavior that have yet to be observed experimentally but could be directly tested through neutron scattering experiments on nanoscale RbMnF_{3} particles or
Spin dynamics in charge doped antiferromagnets : a Li-7 NMR study in Ni1-xLixO
Tedoldi, F; Marini, S; Corti, M
1997-01-01
The effects of heterovalent substitutions causing itinerant holes in strongly correlated 3d electron systems are studied by means of Li-7 NMR in lithium-doped antiferromagnetic NiO. The spin-lattice relaxation rates, driven by the fluctuation of Ni2+ (S = 1) ions, in the temperature range 10 K
Lorenzana, J.; Eder, R
1997-01-01
We use numerical and analytical results to construct a simple ansatz for the energy dynamical correlation function of the one-dimensional antiferromagnetic Heisenberg model. This is applied to compute the phonon-assisted absorption spectra of magnetic excitations (spinons) in quasi-one-dimensional s
Antiferromagnetic phase diagram of the cuprate superconductors
Nunes, L. H. C. M.; Teixeira, A. W.; Marino, E. C.
2017-02-01
Taking the spin-fermion model as the starting point for describing the cuprate superconductors, we obtain an effective nonlinear sigma-field hamiltonian, which takes into account the effect of doping in the system. We obtain an expression for the spin-wave velocity as a function of the chemical potential. For appropriate values of the parameters we determine the antiferromagnetic phase diagram for the YBa2Cu3O6+x compound as a function of the dopant concentration in good agreement with the experimental data. Furthermore, our approach provides a unified description for the phase diagrams of the hole-doped and the electron doped compounds, which is consistent with the remarkable similarity between the phase diagrams of these compounds, since we have obtained the suppression of the antiferromagnetic phase as the modulus of the chemical potential increases. The aforementioned result then follows by considering positive values of the chemical potential related to the addition of holes to the system, while negative values correspond to the addition of electrons.
Charge Stripes and Antiferromagnetism in Copper-Oxide Superconductors
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Tranquada, J.M.
1997-12-31
Superconducting cuprate compounds are obtained by doping holes into antiferromagnetic insulators. Neutron scattering studies have provided evidence that the doped holes tend to segregate into charge stripes, which act like domain walls between antiferromagnetic regions. The interaction between the spatially segregated holes and the magnetic domains may be responsible for the strong pairing interaction found in the cuprates.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
周玉荣; 何正友
2011-01-01
The phenomenon of stochastic resonance ( SR) of a linear system subjected to bias signal-modulated noise and additive noise was investigated. By use of linear system theory, the exact expression of the output signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) was provided. It is shown that the SNR is a non-monotonous function including the influencial variables of system attenuation parameter, signal bias, as well as intensities of the signal-modulated noise and the additive noise. In addition, the SNR behaves non-monotonically with the increase of correlated strength between the two noises.%研究了偏置信号调制噪声和加性噪声驱动线性系统的随机共振现象.根据线性系统理论,得到了系统输出信噪比的精确表达式.研究结果表明:系统输出信噪比是系统衰减常数、调制信号偏置参数、信号调制噪声强度和加性噪声强度的非单调函数.同时,系统输出信噪比随两种噪声的相关强度成非单调关系.
Tailoring exchange couplings in magnetic topological-insulator/antiferromagnet heterostructures
He, Qing Lin; Kou, Xufeng; Grutter, Alexander J.; Yin, Gen; Pan, Lei; Che, Xiaoyu; Liu, Yuxiang; Nie, Tianxiao; Zhang, Bin; Disseler, Steven M.; Kirby, Brian J.; Ratcliff, William, II; Shao, Qiming; Murata, Koichi; Zhu, Xiaodan; Yu, Guoqiang; Fan, Yabin; Montazeri, Mohammad; Han, Xiaodong; Borchers, Julie A.; Wang, Kang L.
2017-01-01
Magnetic topological insulators such as Cr-doped (Bi,Sb)2Te3 provide a platform for the realization of versatile time-reversal symmetry-breaking physics. By constructing heterostructures exhibiting Néel order in an antiferromagnetic CrSb and ferromagnetic order in Cr-doped (Bi,Sb)2Te3, we realize emergent interfacial magnetic phenomena which can be tailored through artificial structural engineering. Through deliberate geometrical design of heterostructures and superlattices, we demonstrate the use of antiferromagnetic exchange coupling in manipulating the magnetic properties of magnetic topological insulators. Proximity effects are shown to induce an interfacial spin texture modulation and establish an effective long-range exchange coupling mediated by antiferromagnetism, which significantly enhances the magnetic ordering temperature in the superlattice. This work provides a new framework on integrating topological insulators with antiferromagnetic materials and unveils new avenues towards dissipationless topological antiferromagnetic spintronics.
Spin dynamics in geometrically frustrated antiferromagnetic pyrochlores
Gardner, J. S.; Ehlers, G.; Bramwell, S. T.; Gaulin, B. D.
2004-03-01
We have studied the spin dynamics of several antiferromagnetic pyrochlore oxides. These magnets are geometrically frustrated and only reach their ground states at temperatures much lower than that expected from mean field theory. Here we present data on the magnetic nature, especially the spin dynamics of Tb2Ti2O7, Gd2Ti2O7 and Y2Mo2O7. In these systems the ground states are found to be very different. Y2Mo2O7 freezes completely into a spin glass-like state, Tb2Ti2O7 is a cooperative paramagnetic and remains dynamic down to 15 mK and Gd2Ti2O7 enters a unique partially ordered state at {\\sim }1 K.
Landau model for the multiferroic delafossite antiferromagnets
Ribeiro, J. L.; Perez-Mato, J. M.; Vieira, L. G.
2016-10-01
A symmetry based framework is used to describe the complex phase diagrams observed in the multiferroic delafossite compounds. A free energy Landau functional is derived from the analysis of the transformation properties of the most general incommensurate magnetic spin order parameter. A principle of maximal symmetry is invoked and the stability of each of the different higher symmetry phases considered. The competition between different potential ground states is analysed within the scope of a simplified model, which emphasizes the role of the symmetry allowed phase dependent biquadratic couplings. The cross-over between the different competing states is also discussed. The results show that the diverse set of phase diagrams that are experimentally observed in this class of triangular lattice antiferromagnets and, in particular, the stabilization of magnetically induced ferroelectric states, can be well interpreted and described within this integrated phenomenological approximation.
Magnetic Properties of Nanoparticles of Antiferromagnetic Materials
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Mørup, Steen; Frandsen, Cathrine; Bødker, Franz
2003-01-01
The magnetic properties of antiferromagnetic nanoparticles have been studied by Mossbauer spectroscopy and neutron scattering. Temperature series of Mossbauer spectra of non-interacting, superparamagnetic hematite nanoparticles were fitted by use of the Blume-Tjon relaxation model. It has been...... found that the magnetic anisotropy energy constant increases significantly with decreasing particle size. Neutron scattering experiments on similar samples give new information on both superparamagnetic relaxation and collective magnetic excitations. There is good agreement between the values...... of the parameters obtained from Mossbauer spectroscopy and neutron scattering. In samples of interacting hematite nanoparticles, the relaxation was significantly suppressed. The Mossbauer data for these samples are in accordance with a mean field model for an ordered state of strongly interacting particles. Mixing...
Probing the evolution of antiferromagnetism in multiferroics
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Holcomb, M.; Martin, L.; Scholl, A.; He, Q.; Yu, P.; Yang, C.-H.; Yang, S.; Glans, P.-A.; Valvidares, M.; Huijben, M.; Kortright, J.; Guo,, J.; Chu, Y.-H.; Ramesh, R.
2010-06-09
This study delineates the evolution of magnetic order in epitaxial films of the room-temperature multiferroic BiFeO3 system. Using angle- and temperature-dependent dichroic measurements and spectromicroscopy, we have observed that the antiferromagnetic order in the model multiferroic BiFeO3 evolves systematically as a function of thickness and strain. Lattice-mismatch-induced strain is found to break the easy-plane magnetic symmetry of the bulk and leads to an easy axis of magnetization which can be controlled through strain. Understanding the evolution of magnetic structure and how to manipulate the magnetism in this model multiferroic has significant implications for utilization of such magnetoelectric materials in future applications.
Dynamic rotor mode in antiferromagnetic nanoparticles
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Lefmann, Kim; Jacobsen, H.; Garde, J.;
2015-01-01
. The frequency of the rotor mode behaves in fair agreement with a simple analytical model, based on a high-temperature approximation of the generally accepted Hamiltonian of the system. The extracted model parameters, such as the magnetic interaction and the axial anisotropy, are in excellent agreement......We present experimental, numerical, and theoretical evidence for an unusual mode of antiferromagnetic dynamics in nanoparticles. Elastic neutron scattering experiments on 8-nm particles of hematite display a loss of diffraction intensity with temperature, the intensity vanishing around 150 K...... measured neutron data and reveal that thermally activated spin canting gives rise to an unusual type of coherent magnetic precession mode. This "rotor" mode can be seen as a high-temperature version of superparamagnetism and is driven by exchange interactions between the two magnetic sublattices...
Transformation of spin current by antiferromagnetic insulators
Khymyn, Roman; Lisenkov, Ivan; Tiberkevich, Vasil S.; Slavin, Andrei N.; Ivanov, Boris A.
2016-06-01
It is demonstrated theoretically that a thin layer of an anisotropic antiferromagnetic (AFM) insulator can effectively conduct spin current through the excitation of a pair of evanescent AFM spin wave modes. The spin current flowing through the AFM is not conserved due to the interaction between the excited AFM modes and the AFM lattice and, depending on the excitation conditions, can be either attenuated or enhanced. When the phase difference between the excited evanescent modes is close to π /2 , there is an optimum AFM thickness for which the output spin current reaches a maximum, which can significantly exceed the magnitude of the input spin current. The spin current transfer through the AFM depends on the ambient temperature and increases substantially when temperature approaches the Néel temperature of the AFM layer.
Antiferromagnetic spin wave and the superconductivity
Koh, Shun-ichiro
2000-07-01
The neutron scattering of UPd 2Al 3 showed that a sharp peak, which is absent in the normal phase, appears in the superconducting phase (Metoki et al., J. Phys. Soc. Japan 66 (1997) 2560; Bernhoeft et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 81 (1998) 4244). Assuming this excitation to be an antiferromagnetic (AFM) spin-wave, this paper deals with its enhancement by the superconductivity. Applying the slave-boson formalism, we consider the AFM ordering as a spin-density-wave (Koh, Phys. Lett. A 253 (1999) 98). Above Tc, the spin-wave suffers an energy dissipation due to the conduction electron. Below Tc, the superconductivity suppresses the dissipation, resulting in the growth of the AFM spin-wave.
Fractal dimension in percolating Heisenberg antiferromagnets
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Itoh, S. [Neutron Science Laboratory, High Energy Accelerator Research Organization, Tsukuba 305-0810 (Japan)]. E-mail: shinichi.itoh@kek.jp; Kajimoto, R. [Quantum Beam Science Directorate, Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Tokai 319-1195 (Japan); Adams, M.A. [ISIS Facility, Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, Didcot, Oxon OX11 0QX (United Kingdom); Bull, M.J. [ISIS Facility, Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, Didcot, Oxon OX11 0QX (United Kingdom); Iwasa, K. [Department of Physics, Tohoku University, Sendai 980-8578 (Japan); Aso, N. [Neutron Science Laboratory, Institute for Solid State Physics, University of Tokyo, Tokai 319-1106 (Japan); Yoshizawa, H. [Neutron Science Laboratory, Institute for Solid State Physics, University of Tokyo, Tokai 319-1106 (Japan); Takeuchi, T. [Low Temperature Center, Osaka University, Toyonaka 560-0043 (Japan)
2007-03-15
We investigated static and dynamical properties in the three-dimensional percolating Heisenberg antiferromagnets, RbMn{sub c}Mg{sub 1-c}F{sub 3}, with the magnetic concentration close to the percolation threshold, c{sub P}=0.312, around the superlattice point well below T{sub N}. In neutron diffraction experiment, the wave number dependence of the elastic scattering component was well fitted to q{sup -x}. Magnetic fractons were also studied using inelastic neutron scattering, and the observed fractons showed the dispersion relation of q{sup z}. The determined exponents, x=2.43+/-0.05 and z=2.5+/-0.1, were in good agreement with the fractal dimension (D{sub f}=2.48)
Emergent Power-Law Phase in the 2D Heisenberg Windmill Antiferromagnet: A Computational Experiment.
Jeevanesan, Bhilahari; Chandra, Premala; Coleman, Piers; Orth, Peter P
2015-10-23
In an extensive computational experiment, we test Polyakov's conjecture that under certain circumstances an isotropic Heisenberg model can develop algebraic spin correlations. We demonstrate the emergence of a multispin U(1) order parameter in a Heisenberg antiferromagnet on interpenetrating honeycomb and triangular lattices. The correlations of this relative phase angle are observed to decay algebraically at intermediate temperatures in an extended critical phase. Using finite-size scaling we show that both phase transitions are of the Berezinskii-Kosterlitz-Thouless type, and at lower temperatures we find long-range Z(6) order.
Hanafy, Sherif M.
2015-08-19
We use controlled noise seismology (CNS) to generate surface waves, where we continuously record seismic data while generating artificial noise along the profile line. To generate the CNS data we drove a vehicle around the geophone line and continuously recorded the generated noise. The recorded data set is then correlated over different time windows and the correlograms are stacked together to generate the surface waves. The virtual shot gathers reveal surface waves with moveout velocities that closely approximate those from active source shot gathers.
de Queiroz, S. L. A.; Domany, Eytan
1995-01-01
We investigate an antiferromagnetic triangular Ising model with anisotropic ferromagnetic interactions between next-nearest neighbours, originally proposed by Kitatani and Oguchi (J. Phys. Soc. Japan {\\bf 57}, 1344 (1988)). The phase diagram as a function of temperature and the ratio between first- and second- neighbour interaction strengths is thoroughly examined. We search for a Kosterlitz-Thouless transition to a state with algebraic decay of correlations, calculating the correlation lengt...
A Holographic Model for Paramagnetism/antiferromagnetism Phase Transition
Cai, Rong-Gen
2014-01-01
In this paper we build a holographic model of paramagnetism/antiferromagnetism phase transition, which is realized by introducing two real antisymmetric tensor fields coupling to the background gauge field strength and interacting with each other in a dyonic black brane background. In the case without external magnetic field and in low temperatures, the magnetic moments condense spontaneously in antiparallel manner with the same magnitude, which leads to an antiferromagnetic phase. In the case with weak external magnetic field, the magnetic susceptibility density has a peak at the critical temperature and satisfies the Curie-Weiss law in the paramagnetic phase of antiferromagnetism.
Horio, M; Adachi, T; Mori, Y; Takahashi, A; Yoshida, T; Suzuki, H; Ambolode, L C C; Okazaki, K; Ono, K; Kumigashira, H; Anzai, H; Arita, M; Namatame, H; Taniguchi, M; Ootsuki, D; Sawada, K; Takahashi, M; Mizokawa, T; Koike, Y; Fujimori, A
2016-01-01
In the hole-doped cuprates, a small number of carriers suppresses antiferromagnetism and induces superconductivity. In the electron-doped cuprates, on the other hand, superconductivity appears only in a narrow window of high-doped Ce concentration after reduction annealing, and strong antiferromagnetic correlation persists in the superconducting phase. Recently, Pr(1.3-x)La0.7Ce(x)CuO4 (PLCCO) bulk single crystals annealed by a protect annealing method showed a high critical temperature of around 27 K for small Ce content down to 0.05. Here, by angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy measurements of PLCCO crystals, we observed a sharp quasi-particle peak on the entire Fermi surface without signature of an antiferromagnetic pseudogap unlike all the previous work, indicating a dramatic reduction of antiferromagnetic correlation length and/or of magnetic moments. The superconducting state was found to extend over a wide electron concentration range. The present results fundamentally challenge the long-standing picture on the electronic structure in the electron-doped regime.
An hour-glass magnetic spectrum in an insulating, hole-doped antiferromagnet.
Boothroyd, A T; Babkevich, P; Prabhakaran, D; Freeman, P G
2011-03-17
Superconductivity in layered copper oxide compounds emerges when charge carriers are added to antiferromagnetically ordered CuO(2) layers. The carriers destroy the antiferromagnetic order, but strong spin fluctuations persist throughout the superconducting phase and are intimately linked to superconductivity. Neutron scattering measurements of spin fluctuations in hole-doped copper oxides have revealed an unusual 'hour-glass' feature in the momentum-resolved magnetic spectrum that is present in a wide range of superconducting and non-superconducting materials. There is no widely accepted explanation for this feature. One possibility is that it derives from a pattern of alternating spin and charge stripes, and this idea is supported by measurements on stripe-ordered La(1.875)Ba(0.125)CuO(4) (ref. 15). Many copper oxides without stripe order, however, also exhibit an hour-glass spectrum. Here we report the observation of an hour-glass magnetic spectrum in a hole-doped antiferromagnet from outside the family of superconducting copper oxides. Our system has stripe correlations and is an insulator, which means that its magnetic dynamics can conclusively be ascribed to stripes. The results provide compelling evidence that the hour-glass spectrum in the copper oxide superconductors arises from fluctuating stripes.
Li, Hai-Feng
2016-10-01
Understanding the nature of all possible ground states and especially magnetic-field-driven phase transitions of antiferromagnets represents a major step towards unravelling the real nature of interesting phenomena such as superconductivity, multiferroicity or magnetoresistance in condensed-matter science. Here a consistent mean-field calculation endowed with antiferromagnetic (AFM) exchange interaction (J), easy axis anisotropy (γ), uniaxial single-ion anisotropy (D) and Zeeman coupling to a magnetic field parallel to the AFM easy axis consistently unifies the AFM state, spin-flop (SFO) and spin-flip transitions. We reveal some mathematically allowed exotic spin states and fluctuations depending on the relative coupling strength of (J, γ and D). We build the three-dimensional (J, γ and D) and two-dimensional (γ and D) phase diagrams clearly displaying the equilibrium phase conditions and discuss the origins of various magnetic states as well as their transitions in different couplings. Besides the traditional first-order type one, we unambiguously confirm an existence of a second-order type SFO transition. This study provides an integrated theoretical model for the magnetic states of collinear antiferromagnets with two interpenetrating sublattices and offers a practical approach as an alternative to the estimation of magnetic exchange parameters (J, γ and D), and the results may shed light on nontrivial magnetism-related properties of bulks, thin films and nanostructures of correlated electron systems.
Quantum critical response function in quasi-two-dimensional itinerant antiferromagnets
Varma, C. M.; Zhu, Lijun; Schröder, Almut
2015-10-01
We reexamine the experimental results for the magnetic response function χ''(q ,E ,T ) for q around the antiferromagnetic vectors Q , in the quantum-critical region, obtained by inelastic neutron scattering, on an Fe-based superconductor and on a heavy-fermion compound. The motivation is to compare the results with a recent theory, which shows that the fluctuations in a generic antiferromagnetic model for itinerant fermions map to those in the universality class of the dissipative quantum-XY model. The quantum-critical fluctuations in this model, in a range of parameters, are given by the correlations of spatial and temporal topological defects. The theory predicts a χ''(q ,E ,T ) (i) which is a separable function of (q -Q ) and of (E ,T ) , (ii) at criticality, the energy-dependent part is ∝tanh(E /2 T ) below a cutoff energy, (iii) the correlation time departs from its infinite value at criticality on the disordered side by an essential singularity, and (iv) the correlation length depends logarithmically on the correlation time, so that the dynamical critical exponent z is ∞ . The limited existing experimental results are found to be consistent with the first two unusual predictions from which the linear dependence of the resistivity on T and the T lnT dependence of the entropy also follow. More experiments are suggested, especially to test the theory of variations on the correlation time and length on the departure from criticality.
Ultrafast Band Engineering and Transient Spin Currents in Antiferromagnetic Oxides.
Gu, Mingqiang; Rondinelli, James M
2016-04-29
We report a dynamic structure and band engineering strategy with experimental protocols to induce indirect-to-direct band gap transitions and coherently oscillating pure spin-currents in three-dimensional antiferromagnets (AFM) using selective phononic excitations. In the Mott insulator LaTiO3, we show that a photo-induced nonequilibrium phonon mode amplitude destroys the spin and orbitally degenerate ground state, reduces the band gap by 160 meV and renormalizes the carrier masses. The time scale of this process is a few hundreds of femtoseconds. Then in the hole-doped correlated metallic titanate, we show how pure spin-currents can be achieved to yield spin-polarizations exceeding those observed in classic semiconductors. Last, we demonstrate the generality of the approach by applying it to the non-orbitally degenerate AFM CaMnO3. These results advance our understanding of electron-lattice interactions in structures out-of-equilibrium and establish a rational framework for designing dynamic phases that may be exploited in ultrafast optoelectronic and optospintronic devices.
Spin-dynamics simulations of the antiferromagnetic triangular XY model*
Nho, Kwangsik; Landau, D. P.
2002-03-01
Using Monte Carlo and spin-dynamics methods, we have simulated the dynamic behavior of the classical, antiferromagnetic XY model on a triangular lattice. The temporal evolutions of spin configurations were obtained by solving numerically the coupled equations of motion for each spin using fourth-order Suzuki-Trotter decompositions of exponential operators. From space-and time-displaced spin-spin correlation functions and their space-time Fourier transforms we obtained the dynamic structure factor S(q,w) for momentum q and frequency w. Below T_c, where long-range order appears in the staggered chirality[1], S(q,w) exhibits very strong and sharp spin-wave peaks in the in-plane-component S^xx. We also observe two-spin-wave peaks at low w and an almost dispersionless domain-wall peak at high w. Above T_c, a weak spin-wave peak persists but the domain-wall peak disappears for all q. We have calculated the dispersion relation and the linewidth of the spin-wave peak in S^xx by fitting the line shape to simple Lorentzians. *Supported by NSF [1] D.H. Lee, J.D. Joannopoulos, J.W. Negele, and D.P. Landau, Phys. Rev. Lett. 52, 433 (1984)
Experimental and theoretical studies of nanoparticles of antiferromagnetic materials
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Mørup, Steen; Madsen, Daniel Esmarch; Frandsen, Cathrine;
2007-01-01
The magnetic properties of nanoparticles of antiferromagnetic materials are reviewed. The magnetic structure is often similar to the bulk structure, but there are several examples of size-dependent magnetic structures. Owing to the small magnetic moments of antiferromagnetic nanoparticles...... measurements, Mössbauer spectroscopy and neutron scattering. Below the blocking temperature, the magnetic dynamics in nanoparticles is dominated by thermal excitations of the uniform mode. In antiferromagnetic nanoparticles, the frequency of this mode is much higher than in ferromagnetic and ferrimagnetic...... nanoparticles, but it depends crucially on the size of the uncompensated moment. Excitation of the uniform mode results in a so-called thermoinduced moment, because the two sublattices are not strictly antiparallel when this mode is excited. The magnetic dipole interaction between antiferromagnetic...
Characterization of the Dilute Ising Antiferromagnet
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Wiener, T.
2000-09-12
A spin glass is a magnetic ground state in which ferromagnetic and antiferromagnetic exchange interactions compete, thereby creating frustration and a multidegenerate state with no long range order. An Ising system is a system where the spins are constrained to lie parallel or antiparallel to a primary axis. There has been much theoretical interest in the past ten years in the effects of applying a magnetic field transverse to the primary axis in an Ising spin glass at low temperatures and thus study phase transitions at the T=0 limit. The focus of this study is to search for and characterize a new Ising spin glass system. This is accomplished by site diluting yttrium for terbium in the crystalline material TbNi{sub 2}Ge{sub 2}. The first part of this work gives a brief overview of the physics of rare earth magnetism and an overview of experimental characteristics of spin glasses. This is followed by the methodology used to manufacture the large single crystals used in this study, as well as the measurement techniques used. Next, a summary of the results of magnetic measurements on across the dilution series from pure terbium to pure yttrium is presented. This is followed by detailed measurements on particular dilutions which demonstrate spin glass behavior. Pure TbNi{sub 2}Ge{sub 2} is an Ising antiferromagnet with a several distinct metamagnetic states below 17 K. As the terbium is alloyed with yttrium, these magnetic states are weakened in a consistent manner, as is seen in measurements of the transition temperatures and analysis of Curie-Weiss behavior at high temperature. At low concentrations of terbium, below 35%, long range order is no longer present and a spin-glass-like state emerges. This state is studied through various measurements, dc and ac susceptibility, resistivity, and specific heat. This magnetic behavior was then compared to that of other well characterized spin glasses. It is concluded that there is a region of concentration s for which a spin
Characterization of the Dilute Ising Antiferromagnet
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Wiener, Timothy [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)
2000-09-12
A spin glass is a magnetic ground state in which ferromagnetic and antiferromagnetic exchange interactions compete, thereby creating frustration and a multidegenerate state with no long range order. An Ising system is a system where the spins are constrained to lie parallel or antiparallel to a primary axis. There has been much theoretical interest in the past ten years in the effects of applying a magnetic field transverse to the primary axis in an Ising spin glass at low temperatures and thus study phase transitions at the T=0 limit. The focus of this study is to search for and characterize a new Ising spin glass system. This is accomplished by site diluting yttrium for terbium in the crystalline material TbNi_{2}Ge_{2}. The first part of this work gives a brief overview of the physics of rare earth magnetism and an overview of experimental characteristics of spin glasses. This is followed by the methodology used to manufacture the large single crystals used in this study, as well as the measurement techniques used. Next, a summary of the results of magnetic measurements on across the dilution series from pure terbium to pure yttrium is presented. This is followed by detailed measurements on particular dilutions which demonstrate spin glass behavior. Pure TbNi_{2}Ge_{2} is an Ising antiferromagnet with a several distinct metamagnetic states below 17 K. As the terbium is alloyed with yttrium, these magnetic states are weakened in a consistent manner, as is seen in measurements of the transition temperatures and analysis of Curie-Weiss behavior at high temperature. At low concentrations of terbium, below 35%, long range order is no longer present and a spin-glass-like state emerges. This state is studied through various measurements, dc and ac susceptibility, resistivity, and specific heat. This magnetic behavior was then compared to that of other well characterized spin glasses. It is concluded that there is a region of
Reversal of exchange bias in nanocrystalline antiferromagnetic-ferromagnetic bilayers
Prados, C; Hernando, A; Montone, A
2002-01-01
The sign of the exchange bias in field cooled nanocrystalline antiferromagnetic-ferromagnetic bilayers (Co-O and Ni-O/permalloy) is reversed at temperatures approaching the antiferromagnetic (AFM) blocking temperature. A similar phenomenon is observed after magnetic training processes at similar temperatures. These effects can be explained assuming that the boundaries of nanocrystalline grains in AFM layers exhibit lower transition temperatures than grain cores.
Thermally activated repolarization of antiferromagnetic particles: Monte Carlo dynamics
Soloviev, S. V.; Popkov, A. F.; Knizhnik, A. A.; Iskandarova, I. M.
2017-02-01
Based on the equation of motion of an antiferromagnetic moment, taking into account a random field of thermal fluctuations, we propose a Monte Carlo (MC) scheme for the numerical simulation of the evolutionary dynamics of an antiferromagnetic particle, corresponding to the Langevin dynamics in the Kramers theory for the two-well potential. Conditions for the selection of the sphere of fluctuations of random deviations of the antiferromagnetic vector at an MC time step are found. A good agreement with the theory of Kramers thermal relaxation is demonstrated for varying temperatures and heights of energy barrier over a wide range of integration time steps in an overdamped regime. Based on the developed scheme, we performed illustrative calculations of the temperature drift of the exchange bias under the fast annealing of a ferromagnet-antiferromagnet structure, taking into account the random variation of anisotropy directions in antiferromagnetic grains and their sizes. The proposed approach offers promise for modeling magnetic sensors and spintronic memory devices containing heterostructures with antiferromagnetic layers.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Alain Destexhe
2010-03-01
Full Text Available Cortical neurons in vivo may operate in high-conductance states, in which the major part of the neuron's input conductance is due to synaptic activity, sometimes several-fold larger than the resting conductance. We examine here the contribution of inhibition in such high-conductance states. At the level of the absolute conductance values, several studies have shown that cortical neurons in vivo are characterized by strong inhibitory conductances. However, conductances are balanced and spiking activity is mostly determined by fluctuations, but not much is known about excitatory and inhibitory contributions to these fluctuations. Models and dynamic-clamp experiments show that, during high-conductance states, spikes are mainly determined by fluctuations of inhibition, or by inhibitory noise. This stands in contrast to low-conductance states, in which excitatory conductances determine spiking activity. To determine these contributions from experimental data, maximum likelihood methods can be designed and applied to intracellular recordings in vivo. Such methods indicate that action potentials are indeed mostly correlated with inhibitory fluctuations in awake animals. These results argue for a determinant role for inhibitory fluctuations in evoking spikes, and do not support feed-forward modes of processing, for which opposite patterns are predicted.
Antiferromagnetic Skyrmion: Stability, Creation and Manipulation
Zhang, Xichao; Zhou, Yan; Ezawa, Motohiko
2016-04-01
Magnetic skyrmions are particle-like topological excitations in ferromagnets, which have the topo-logical number Q = ± 1, and hence show the skyrmion Hall effect (SkHE) due to the Magnus force effect originating from the topology. Here, we propose the counterpart of the magnetic skyrmion in the antiferromagnetic (AFM) system, that is, the AFM skyrmion, which is topologically protected but without showing the SkHE. Two approaches for creating the AFM skyrmion have been described based on micromagnetic lattice simulations: (i) by injecting a vertical spin-polarized current to a nanodisk with the AFM ground state; (ii) by converting an AFM domain-wall pair in a nanowire junction. It is demonstrated that the AFM skyrmion, driven by the spin-polarized current, can move straightly over long distance, benefiting from the absence of the SkHE. Our results will open a new strategy on designing the novel spintronic devices based on AFM materials.
Landau model for the multiferroic delafossite antiferromagnets
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ribeiro, J.L, E-mail: jlr@fisica.uminho.pt [Centro de Física da Universidade do Minho, 4710-057 Braga (Portugal); Perez-Mato, J.M [Dpto. de Física de la Materia Condensada, Facultad de Ciencia y Tecnología, Universidad del País Vasco, Apartado 644, 48080 Bilbao (Spain); Vieira, L.G [Centro de Física da Universidade do Minho, 4710-057 Braga (Portugal)
2016-10-15
A symmetry based framework is used to describe the complex phase diagrams observed in the multiferroic delafossite compounds. A free energy Landau functional is derived from the analysis of the transformation properties of the most general incommensurate magnetic spin order parameter. A principle of maximal symmetry is invoked and the stability of each of the different higher symmetry phases considered. The competition between different potential ground states is analysed within the scope of a simplified model, which emphasizes the role of the symmetry allowed phase dependent biquadratic couplings. The cross-over between the different competing states is also discussed. The results show that the diverse set of phase diagrams that are experimentally observed in this class of triangular lattice antiferromagnets and, in particular, the stabilization of magnetically induced ferroelectric states, can be well interpreted and described within this integrated phenomenological approximation. - Highlights: • Symmetry considerations are used to analyze the phase diagrams of the compounds. • The competition between possible ground states is discussed. • The field induced transitions between competing states are described.
Nonequilibrium antiferromagnetic mixed-spin Ising model.
Godoy, Mauricio; Figueiredo, Wagner
2002-09-01
We studied an antiferromagnetic mixed-spin Ising model on the square lattice subject to two competing stochastic processes. The model system consists of two interpenetrating sublattices of spins sigma=1/2 and S=1, and we take only nearest neighbor interactions between pairs of spins. The system is in contact with a heat bath at temperature T, and the exchange of energy with the heat bath occurs via one-spin flip (Glauber dynamics). Besides, the system interacts with an external agency of energy, which supplies energy to it whenever two nearest neighboring spins are simultaneously flipped. By employing Monte Carlo simulations and a dynamical pair approximation, we found the phase diagram for the stationary states of the model in the plane temperature T versus the competition parameter between one- and two-spin flips p. We observed the appearance of three distinct phases, that are separated by continuous transition lines. We also determined the static critical exponents along these lines and we showed that this nonequilibrium model belongs to the universality class of the two-dimensional equilibrium Ising model.
Robust ferromagnetism carried by antiferromagnetic domain walls
Hirose, Hishiro T.; Yamaura, Jun-Ichi; Hiroi, Zenji
2017-02-01
Ferroic materials, such as ferromagnetic or ferroelectric materials, have been utilized as recording media for memory devices. A recent trend for downsizing, however, requires an alternative, because ferroic orders tend to become unstable for miniaturization. The domain wall nanoelectronics is a new developing direction for next-generation devices, in which atomic domain walls, rather than conventional, large domains themselves, are the active elements. Here we show that atomically thin magnetic domain walls generated in the antiferromagnetic insulator Cd2Os2O7 carry unusual ferromagnetic moments perpendicular to the wall as well as electron conductivity: the ferromagnetic moments are easily polarized even by a tiny field of 1 mT at high temperature, while, once cooled down, they are surprisingly robust even in an inverse magnetic field of 7 T. Thus, the magnetic domain walls could serve as a new-type of microscopic, switchable and electrically readable magnetic medium which is potentially important for future applications in the domain wall nanoelectronics.
Ambiguity functions and noise floor suppression in random noise radar
Axelsson, Sune R. J.
2006-09-01
Noise radar can be used in a great number of applications including SAR. The non-periodic waveform suppresses the range ambiguity and reduces the probability of intercept and interference. Due to the randomness of the waveform, a noise floor limiting the possible side lobe suppression accompanies the correlation integral involved. In strong clutter scenes with dominant reflectors, the induced noise floor can be too high and further suppression is needed. In this paper, the ambiguity function of random noise waveforms is first analyzed, and an improved formulation is introduced to include the noise floor effect. The use of mismatched filtering for improved sidelobe suppression is then discussed. Finally, an iterative subtraction algorithm is analyzed for noise floor cancellation in the presence of dominating reflectors. This method is successfully tested on random step frequency radar data and noise sodar data.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Cui, J.; Wiecki, P.; Ran, S.; Bud' ko, S. L.; Canfield, P. C.; Furukawa, Y.
2016-11-22
Recent nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) measurements revealed the coexistence of stripe-type antiferromagnetic (AFM) and ferromagnetic (FM) spin correlations in both the hole- and electron-doped BaFe _{2} As _{2} families of iron-pnictide superconductors by a Korringa ratio analysis. Motivated by the NMR work, we investigate the possible existence of FM fluctuations in another iron-pnictide superconducting family, Ca ( Fe _{1 - x }Co _{x} ) _{2} As _{2} . We reanalyzed our previously reported data in terms of the Korringa ratio and found clear evidence for the coexistence of stripe-type AFM and FM spin correlations in the electron-doped CaFe _{2} As _{2} system. These NMR data indicate that FM fluctuations exist in general in iron-pnictide superconducting families and thus must be included to capture the phenomenology of the iron pnictides.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Jensen, Karl Kristoffer
2005-01-01
Sinusoids are used for making harmonic and other sounds. In order to having life in the sounds and adding a wide variety of noises, irregularities are inserted in the frequency and amplitudes. A simple and intuitive noise model is presented, consisting of a low-pass filtered noise, and having...... control for strength and bandwidth. The noise is added on the frequency and amplitudes of the sinusoids, and the resulting irregularity’s (jitter and shimmer) bandwidth is derived. This, together with an overview of investigation methods of the jitter and shimmer results in an analysis of the necessary...... samplerate of the shimmer and jitter. A harmonic model introduces individual and common irregularity, and adds a correlation control. The model has been implemented in max/msp and used in contemporary music compositions....
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Jensen, Karl Kristoffer
2005-01-01
Sinusoids are used for making harmonic and other Sounds. In order to having life in the sounds and adding a wide variety of noises, irregularities are inserted in the frequency and amplitudes. A simple and intuitive noise model is presented, consisting of a low-pass filtered noise, and having...... control for strength and bandwidth. The noise is added on the frequency and amplitudes of the sinusoids, and the resulting irregularity's (jitter and shimmer) bandwidth is derived. This, together with an overview of investigation methods of the jitter and shimmer results in an analysis of the necessary...... samplerate of the shimmer and jitter. A harmonic model introduces individual and common irregularity, and adds a correlation control. The model has been implemented in max/msp and used in contemporary Music compositions....
A New Phase Noise Detection Method
Yan, Gangfeng
2015-01-01
Phase noise is one of the most important parameters in many oscillators. Detecting accurately phase noise for oscillators has importance significance. In this paper, based on correlation operation detection phase noise for oscillators was proposed. This method not only can save a high precision reference oscillator, but also can detect accurately the phase noise of measured oscillator in theory. Detected phase noise of oscillators using this method has very strong utility value.
Wang, Bo-Yao; Lin, Po-Han; Tsai, Ming-Shian; Shih, Chun-Wei; Lee, Meng-Ju; Huang, Chun-Wei; Jih, Nae-Yeou; Wei, Der-Hsin
2016-08-01
This study demonstrates the effect of antiferromagnet-induced perpendicular magnetic anisotropy (PMA) on ferromagnetic/antiferromagnetic/ferromagnetic (FM/AFM/FM) trilayers and reveals its interplay with a long-range interlayer coupling between separated FM layers. In epitaxially grown 12 monolayer (ML) Ni/Co/Mn/5 ML Co/Cu(001) films, magnetic hysteresis loops and element-resolved magnetic domain imaging showed that the magnetization direction of the top layers of 12 ML Ni/Co films could be changed from the in-plane direction to the perpendicular direction, when the thickness of the Mn films (tMn) was greater than a critical value close to the thickness threshold associated with the onset of AFM ordering (tMn=3.5 ML). The top FM layers exhibited a significantly enhanced PMA when tMn increased further, and this enhancement can be attributed to a strengthened AFM ordering of the volume moments of the Mn films, as evidenced by the presence of induced domain frustration. By contrast, the long-range interlayer coupling presented clear effects only when tMn was at a lower coverage.
Self-adaptive Filtering of Salt-pepper Noise in Images with Correlation Weights%基于相关权值的图像椒盐噪声自适应窗滤波
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
李天翼; 王明辉; 黄祖建; 朱斌
2012-01-01
A self-adaptive weighted mean algorithm is proposed for filtering the salt-pepper noise in images. The algorithm detects the noise pixel with minimum-maximum inspection, and then replaces the noise pixel with weighted mean value, where the weight of each pixel in neighborhood is set based on its correlation with the center pixel. The algorithm adapts itself to different noise densities by rec- tifying the filtering window according to the number of non-extremum pixels in neighborhood. Simulation results showed that, compared with other methods, the proposed algorithm achieves more satisfactory images while it gives better Signal-to-Noise Ratio （SNR） and Mean Squared Error（ MSE）, and exhibits more excellent in scenarios where the image is highly corrupted.%为有效滤除图像中椒盐噪声,提出一种基于相关权值的自适应窗滤波算法。算法基于极值检测判断噪声点并仅对噪声点滤波。引入灰度差刻画邻域像素与中心像素的相关性,以此为基础设置像素权值,对中心像素执行加权均值滤波。通过邻域窗口的自适应扩展适应噪声密度变化,并对邻域像素分区域设置权值,从而适应高椒盐噪声的滤除。仿真结果表明,本文算法能够有效滤除图像中的椒盐噪声,尤其在高椒盐噪声下性能表现更佳。
Macroscopic anisotropy and symmetry breaking in the pyrochlore antiferromagnet Gd2Ti2O7
Hassan, A. K.; Lévy, L. P.; Darie, C.; Strobel, P.
2003-06-01
In the Heisenberg antiferromagnet Gd2Ti2O7, the exchange interactions are geometrically frustrated by the pyrochlore lattice structure. This ESR study reveals a strong temperature dependent anisotropy with respect to a [111] body diagonal below a temperature TA=80 K, despite the spin only nature of the Gd3+ ion. Anisotropy and symmetry breaking can nevertheless appear through the superexchange interaction. In the presence of anisotropic exchanges, short range planar correlations restricted to specific Kagomé planes are sufficient to explain the two ESR modes studied in this work.
Quantum entanglement in trimer spin-1/2 Heisenberg chains with antiferromagnetic coupling
Del Cima, O M; da Silva, S L L
2015-01-01
The quantum entanglement measure is determined, for the first time, for antiferromagnetic trimer spin-1/2 Heisenberg chains. The physical quantity proposed to measure the entanglement is the distance between states by adopting the Hilbert-Schmidt norm. The method is applied to the new magnetic Cu(II) trimer system, 2b.3CuCl_2.2H_2O, and to the trinuclear Cu(II) halide salt, (3MAP)_2Cu_2Cl_8. The decoherence temperature, above which the entanglement is suppressed, is determined for the both systems. A correlation among their decoherence temperatures and their respective exchange coupling constants is established.
Large off-diagonal magnetoelectric coupling in the quantum paraelectric antiferromagnet EuTiO3
Shvartsman, V. V.; Borisov, P.; Kleemann, W.; Kamba, S.; Katsufuji, T.
2010-02-01
The third-order E2H2 -type magnetoelectric (ME) response of polycrystalline EuTiO3 changes sign under magnetic bias and shows a large anomaly at the antiferromagnetic (AF)-paramagnetic phase boundary below TN≈5.3K . It is attributed to critical fluctuations of the AF order parameter reinforced by quantum paraelectric polar correlations. The underlying biquadratic spin-lattice coupling involves electric field induced Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya interaction as described within mean-field approximation. Single domaining by ME annealing (or cooling) significantly enhances the response by additional EH and EH2 effects.
Yasuda, Shinya; Todo, Synge
2013-12-01
We present a method that optimizes the aspect ratio of a spatially anisotropic quantum lattice model during the quantum Monte Carlo simulation, and realizes the virtually isotropic lattice automatically. The anisotropy is removed by using the Robbins-Monro algorithm based on the correlation length in each direction. The method allows for comparing directly the value of the critical amplitude among different anisotropic models, and identifying the universality more precisely. We apply our method to the staggered dimer antiferromagnetic Heisenberg model and demonstrate that the apparent nonuniversal behavior is attributed mainly to the strong size correction of the effective aspect ratio due to the existence of the cubic interaction.
Spin freezing in the geometrically frustrated pyrochlore antiferromagnet Tb2Mo2O7
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Gaulin, B.D.; Reimers, J.N.; Mason, T.E.
1992-01-01
The magnetic metal ions in the cubic pyrochlore Tb2Mo2O7 form an infinite three-dimensional network of corner-sharing tetrahedra with a very high potential for frustration in the presence of antiferromagnetism. We have performed neutron scattering measurements which show short-range spatial...... correlations that develop continuously with decreasing temperature, while the characteristic time scale for the fluctuating moments decreases dramatically below T(f) is similar to 25 K. Therefore, this pure material, which possesses frustration that is purely geometrical in origin, displays a spin-glass state...
Pucel, R. A.
1981-03-01
The GaAs FET oscillator is an alternative device for voltage-controlled oscillator (VCO) applications because of its inherent wide-band electronic tunability, the variety of operating modes possible such as common source, common gate, etc., and the ease of circuit design. However, it has one major drawback, namely, its high near-carrier 1/f noise which makes it unsuitable for many applications, such as radar systems. This report describes the progress made during the report period in understanding the physical mechanisms responsible for this noise. During this period, an extensive experimental study was made of the 1/f noise properties of a variety of oscillators constructed of FET chips fabricated under controlled conditions. Using in-house grown epitaxial wafers, FET's were fabricated from both buffered and unbuffered active layers, with and without epitaxially grown contact layers, and with and without surface passivation. The experimental results show a good correlation between the trap-generated 1/f baseband noise and the near-carrier 1/f FM noise. The primary sources of the noise are presumed to be either deep traps within the depletion layer under the gate or surface states at the gate-semiconductor interface, probably the latter. An improvement of the order of 10 dB in the near carrier FM noise level is obtained when a buffer layer separates the active layer from the substrate. Optical experiments indicated an electron trap level approximately 0.41 eV below the conduction band. A noise model was devised to explain the modulation process for upconverting baseband 1/f noise to the carrier band by depletion layer modulation.
Ambient noise near the sea-route
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
无
2009-01-01
Ambient noise data measured in an experiment conducted in shallow water near a sea-route were analyzed. It was observed that, at low frequency, the horizontal correlation has an obvious difference from that predicted by the classical ambient noise model. The theoretical analyses show that this phenomenon is caused by wind noise together with the discrete shipping noise nearby. An ambient noise model was proposed to include the effects caused by both the noise sources. Data measured at different times verify that the proposed model can be used to forecast the ambient noise field in shallow water near the sea-route.
Ambient noise near the sea-route
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
HE Li; LI ZhengLin; PENG ZhaoHui
2009-01-01
Ambient noise data measured in an experiment conducted in shallow water near a sea-route were analyzed. It was observed that, at low frequency, the horizontal correlation has an obvious difference from that predicted by the classical ambient noise model. The theoretical analyses show that this phenomenon is caused by wind noise together with the discrete shipping noise nearby. An ambient noise model was proposed to include the effects caused by both the noise sources. Data measured at different times verify that the proposed model can be used to forecast the ambient noise field in shal-low water near the sea-route.
集成霍尔传感器灵敏度与1/f噪声的相关性研究%Correlation Study of Sensitivity and 1/f Noise of Integrated Hall Sensor
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
马玉嘉
2015-01-01
The paper derives a correlation model of 1/f noise, defects and sensitivity of integrated Hall sensor from the mechanism of 1/f noise generated from thermal magnetic fluctuations and carrier defects assisted tunnel-ing barrier in the electronic device. The experimental results show that when the applied magnetic field is constant, both 1/f electrical noise amplitude and the sensitivity of integrated Hall sensor will depend on the number of de-fects in the sensor, i.e. the less the number of defects in the sensor, the less the noise, and the higher the sensitivity of the said device; and when the electric field intensity is constant, both 1/f magnetic noise and the sensitivity of the same sensor will depend on the magnetic domain reversal, i.e. the more the magnetic domain reversal, the more the 1/f magnetic noise amplitude, and the less the sensitivity of the sensor. The experimental results are in good agree-ment with the theory, which provides an effective method of evaluation on the effect of 1/f noise on the sensitivity of integrated Hall sensors.%本文根据器件中热磁涨落和载流子缺陷辅助隧穿势垒的1/f噪声产生机理,推导了集成霍尔传感器的1/f噪声、缺陷和灵敏度的相关性模型.实验结果表明:当外加磁场是恒定的,集成霍尔传感器的电1/f噪声幅度和灵敏度都取决于传感器中缺陷数量,传感器中缺陷越少,该器件的噪声越小、灵敏度越高;当电场强度不变时,传感器磁1/f噪声与灵敏度都取决于传感器中的磁畴翻转,磁畴翻转越多,磁1/f噪声幅值越大,传感器灵敏度越小.实验结果与理论吻合良好.该结果为集成霍尔传感器中1 /f噪声对灵敏度的影响提供了一种有效的评估方法.
Afsar, M. Z.; Leib, S. J.; Bozak, R. F.
2017-01-01
In this paper we extend the Rapid-distortion theory (RDT)-based model derived by Goldstein, Afsar & Leib (J. Fluid Mech., vol. 736, pp. 532-569, 2013) for the sound generated by the interaction of a large-aspect-ratio rectangular jet with the trailing edge of a flat plate to include a more realistic upstream turbulence spectrum that possess a de-correlation (i.e. negative dip) in its space-time structure and use results from three-dimensional Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) solutions to determine the mean flow, turbulent kinetic energy and turbulence length & time scales. Since the interaction noise dominates the low-frequency portion of the spectrum, we use an appropriate asymptotic approximation for the Rayleigh equation Green's function, which enters the analysis, based on a two-dimensional mean flow representation for the jet. We use the model to predict jet-surface interaction noise for a range of subsonic acoustic Mach number jets, nozzle aspect ratios, streamwise and transverse trailing-edge locations and compare them with experimental data. The RANS meanflow computations are also compared with flow data for selected cases to assess their validity. We find that finite de-correlation in the turbulence spectrum increases the low-frequency algebraic decay (the low-frequency "roll-off") of the acoustic spectrum with angular frequency to give a model that has a pure dipole frequency scaling. This gives better agreement with noise data compared to Goldstein et al. (2013) for Strouhal numbers less than the peak jet-surface interaction noise. For example, through sensitivity analysis we find that there is a difference of 10 dB at the lowest frequency for which data exists (relative to a model without de-correlation effects included) for the highest acoustic Mach number case. Secondly, our results for the planar flow theory provide a first estimate of the low-frequency amplification due to the jet-surface interaction for moderate aspect ratio nozzles when RANS
Supersymmetry protected topological phases of isostatic lattices and kagome antiferromagnets
Lawler, Michael J.
2016-10-01
I generalize the theory of phonon topological band structures of isostatic lattices to frustrated antiferromagnets. I achieve this with a discovery of a many-body supersymmetry (SUSY) in the phonon problem of balls and springs and its connection to local constraints satisfied by ground states. The Witten index of the SUSY model demands the Maxwell-Calladine index of mechanical structures. "Spontaneous supersymmetry breaking" is identified as the need to gap all modes in the bulk to create the topological isostatic lattice state. Since ground states of magnetic systems also satisfy local constraint conditions (such as the vanishing of the total spin on a triangle), I identify a similar SUSY structure for many common models of antiferromagnets including the square, triangluar, kagome, pyrochlore nearest-neighbor antiferromagnets, and the J2=J1/2 square-lattice antiferromagnet. Remarkably, the kagome family of antiferromagnets is the analog of topological isostatic lattices among this collection of models. Thus, a solid-state realization of the theory of phonon topological band structure may be found in frustrated magnetic materials.
Nematic antiferromagnetic states in bulk FeSe
Liu, Kai; Lu, Zhong-Yi; Xiang, Tao
2016-05-01
The existence of nematic order, which breaks the lattice rotational symmetry with nonequivalent a and b axes in iron-based superconductors, is a well-established experimental fact. An antiferromagnetic (AFM) transition is accompanying this order, observed in nearly all parent compounds, except bulk FeSe. The absence of the AFM order in FeSe casts doubt on the magnetic mechanism of iron-based superconductivity, since the nematic order is believed to be driven by the same interaction that is responsible for the superconducting pairing in these materials. Here we show, through systematic first-principles electronic structure calculations, that the ground state of FeSe is in fact strongly AFM correlated but without developing a magnetic long-range order. Actually, there are a series of staggered n -mer AFM states with corresponding energies below that of the single stripe AFM state, which is the ground state for the parent compounds of most iron-based superconductors. Here, the staggered n -mer (n any integer >1 ) means a set of n adjacent parallel spins on a line along the b axis with antiparallel spins between n -mers along both a and b axes. Moreover, different n -mers can antiparallelly mix with each other to coexist. Among all the states, we find that the lowest energy states formed by the staggered dimer, staggered trimer, and their random antiparallel aligned spin states along the b axis are quasidegenerate. The thermal average of these states does not show any magnetic long-range order, but it does possess a hidden one-dimensional AFM order along the a axis, which can be detected by elastic neutron scattering measurements. Our finding gives a natural account for the absence of long-range magnetic order and suggests that the nematicity is driven predominantly by spin fluctuations even in bulk FeSe, providing a unified description on the phase diagram of iron-based superconductors.
... Search Clean Air Act Overview Share Facebook Twitter Google+ Pinterest Contact Us Clean Air Act Title IV - ... noises in the community (from your neighbor, boom cars, lawn equipment, etc.) and from commercial businesses (factory, ...
Jia, C. J.; Nowadnick, E. A.; Wohlfeld, K.; Kung, Y. F.; Chen, C.-C.; Johnston, S.; Tohyama, T.; Moritz, B.; Devereaux, T. P.
2014-02-01
How coherent quasiparticles emerge by doping quantum antiferromagnets is a key question in correlated electron systems, whose resolution is needed to elucidate the phase diagram of copper oxides. Recent resonant inelastic X-ray scattering (RIXS) experiments in hole-doped cuprates have purported to measure high-energy collective spin excitations that persist well into the overdoped regime and bear a striking resemblance to those found in the parent compound, challenging the perception that spin excitations should weaken with doping and have a diminishing effect on superconductivity. Here we show that RIXS at the Cu L3-edge indeed provides access to the spin dynamical structure factor once one considers the full influence of light polarization. Further we demonstrate that high-energy spin excitations do not correlate with the doping dependence of Tc, while low-energy excitations depend sensitively on doping and show ferromagnetic correlations. This suggests that high-energy spin excitations are marginal to pairing in cuprate superconductors.
Magnetic phase diagrams of classical triangular and kagome antiferromagnets
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Gvozdikova, M V [Department of Physics, Kharkov National University, 61077 Kharkov (Ukraine); Melchy, P-E; Zhitomirsky, M E, E-mail: mike.zhitomirsky@cea.fr [Service de Physique Statistique, Magnetisme et Supraconductivite, UMR-E9001 CEA-INAC/UJF, 17 rue des Martyrs, 38054 Grenoble (France)
2011-04-27
We investigate the effect of geometrical frustration on the H-T phase diagrams of the classical Heisenberg antiferromagnets on triangular and kagome lattices. The phase diagrams for the two models are obtained from large-scale Monte Carlo simulations. For the kagome antiferromagnet, thermal fluctuations are unable to lift degeneracy completely and stabilize translationally disordered multipolar phases. We find a substantial difference in the temperature scales of the order by disorder effect related to different degeneracy of the low- and the high-field classical ground states in the kagome antiferromagnet. In the low-field regime, the Kosterlitz-Thouless transition into a spin-nematic phase is produced by unbinding of half-quantum vortices.
Magnetic and structural properties of antiferromagnetic VF{sub 3}
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Reuvekamp, Patrick; Kremer, Reinhard; Eger, Roland [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Festkoerperforschung, Heisenbergstrasse 1, D-70569 Stuttgart (Germany); Nenert, Gwilherm; Hansen, Thomas [Institut Laue-Langevin, 38042 Grenoble (France)
2013-07-01
We report on a magnetic and structural investigation of layered antiferromagnetic system vanadium (III) fluoride. VF{sub 3} crystallizes in a distorted ReO{sub 3} structure (R anti 3c) with rotated undistorted VF{sub 6} octahedra. The V{sup +3} cations are arranged in a triangular lattice with the possibility of exhibiting magnetic frustration. Polycrystalline samples of VF{sub 3} were investigated using heat capacity, dielectric, magnetic susceptibility and neutron powder diffraction methods. Combining our results, we confirmed that VF{sub 3} undergoes long-range antiferromagnetic order at ∝19 K in accordance with literature. The antiferromagnetic order results in a magnetic structure with the magnetic moments alternating between a parallel and b parallel alignments in the ab plane. A second phase transition can be seen at ∝120 K in the heat capacity and dielectric measurements possibly associated to a minute structural distortion.
Kondo Screening and Fermi Surface in the Antiferromagnetic Metal Phase
Yamamoto, Seiji; Si, Qimiao
2006-03-01
We address the Kondo effect deep inside the antiferromagnetic metal phase of a Kondo lattice Hamiltonian with SU(2) invariance. The local- moment component is described in terms of a non-linear sigma model. The Fermi surface of the conduction electron component is taken to be sufficiently small, so that it is not spanned by the antiferromagnetic wavevector. The effective low energy form of the Kondo coupling simplifies drastically, corresponding to the uniform component of the magnetization that forward-scatters the conduction electrons on their own Fermi surface. We use a combined bosonic and fermionic (Shankar) renormalization group procedure to analyze this effective theory and study the Kondo screening and Fermi surface in the antiferromagnetic phase. The implications for the global magnetic phase diagram, as well as quantum critical points, of heavy fermion metals are discussed.
Magnetic phase diagrams of classical triangular and kagome antiferromagnets.
Gvozdikova, M V; Melchy, P-E; Zhitomirsky, M E
2011-04-27
We investigate the effect of geometrical frustration on the H-T phase diagrams of the classical Heisenberg antiferromagnets on triangular and kagome lattices. The phase diagrams for the two models are obtained from large-scale Monte Carlo simulations. For the kagome antiferromagnet, thermal fluctuations are unable to lift degeneracy completely and stabilize translationally disordered multipolar phases. We find a substantial difference in the temperature scales of the order by disorder effect related to different degeneracy of the low- and the high-field classical ground states in the kagome antiferromagnet. In the low-field regime, the Kosterlitz-Thouless transition into a spin-nematic phase is produced by unbinding of half-quantum vortices.
Revealing the properties of Mn2Au for antiferromagnetic spintronics.
Barthem, V M T S; Colin, C V; Mayaffre, H; Julien, M-H; Givord, D
2013-01-01
The continuous reduction in size of spintronic devices requires the development of structures, which are insensitive to parasitic external magnetic fields, while preserving the magnetoresistive signals of existing systems based on giant or tunnel magnetoresistance. This could be obtained in tunnel anisotropic magnetoresistance structures incorporating an antiferromagnetic, instead of a ferromagnetic, material. To turn this promising concept into real devices, new magnetic materials with large spin-orbit effects must be identified. Here we demonstrate that Mn2Au is not a Pauli paramagnet as hitherto believed but an antiferromagnet with Mn moments of ~4 μB. The particularly large strength of the exchange interactions leads to an extrapolated Néel temperature well above 1,000 K, so that ground-state magnetic properties are essentially preserved up to room temperature and above. Combined with the existence of a significant in-plane anisotropy, this makes Mn2Au the most promising material for antiferromagnetic spintronics identified so far.
Stochastic resonance of bias signal-modulated noise in a single-mode laser
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Wang Jun; Cao Li; Wu Da-Jin
2004-01-01
Stochastic resonance (SR) for bias signal modulation is studied in a single-mode laser system. By investigating a gain-noise model driven by correlated pump noise and quantum noir, we find that, whether the correlation coefficient between both the noises is positive or negative, SR always appears in the dependence of signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) upon the noise correlation time and the frequency of the modulation signal. However, only when the correlation coefficient between both noises is negative can SR occur in the dependence of SNR upon the quantum noise intensity and pump noise intensity, while when the correlation coefficient between both noises is positive, it shows monotonically.
Magnetization damping in noncollinear spin valves with antiferromagnetic interlayer couplings
Chiba, Takahiro; Bauer, Gerrit E. W.; Takahashi, Saburo
2015-08-01
We study the magnetic damping in the simplest of synthetic antiferromagnets, i.e., antiferromagnetically exchange-coupled spin valves, in the presence of applied magnetic fields that enforce noncolliear magnetic configurations. We formulate the dynamic exchange of spin currents in a noncollinear texture based on the spin-diffusion theory with quantum mechanical boundary conditions at the ferrromagnet/normal-metal interfaces and derive the Landau-Lifshitz-Gilbert equations coupled by the interlayer static and dynamic exchange interactions. We predict noncollinearity-induced additional damping that is modulated by an applied magnetic field. We compare theoretical results with published experiments.
On the interpretation of magnetization data for antiferromagnetic nanoparticles
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Madsen, Daniel Esmarch; Mørup, Steen; Hansen, Mikkel Fougt
2006-01-01
We have investigated the influence of anisotropy on the magnetization curves of antiferromagnetic nanoparticles. We show that if such curves are analyzed in a conventional way, i.e. using a Langevin function in combination with a linear term, this usually results in good quality fits......, but with an apparent temperature dependence of parameters such as the magnetic moment per particle and the antiferromagnetic susceptibility. In order to avoid the problems associated with anisotropy as well as volume/moment distributions we propose that the initial susceptibility is used when analyzing the temperature...... dependence of the magnetic moment....
Magnetic relaxation in a suspension of antiferromagnetic nanoparticles
Raikher, Yu. L.; Stepanov, V. I.
2008-09-01
A kinetic model is proposed to describe the low-frequency magnetodynamics of antiferromagnetic nanoparticles suspended in a fluid. Because of their small size, apart from an anisotropic magnetic susceptibility typical of antiferromagnets, these particles also have a constant magnetic moment caused by sublattice decompensation. An orientational crossover takes place in such a nanosuspension (colloid) when magnetized by a constant field: the axes of easy particle magnetization that were initially aligned along the field become oriented perpendicularly. This effect changes significantly the characteristics of the system’s magnetic response: the dynamic susceptibility spectrum and the relaxation time in a pulsed field.
Multicritical point in a diluted bilayer Heisenberg quantum antiferromagnet.
Sandvik, Anders W
2002-10-21
The S=1/2 Heisenberg bilayer antiferromagnet with randomly removed interlayer dimers is studied using quantum Monte Carlo simulations. A zero-temperature multicritical point (p(*),g(*)) at the classical percolation density p=p(*) and interlayer coupling g(*) approximately equal 0.16 is demonstrated. The quantum critical exponents of the percolating cluster are determined using finite-size scaling. It is argued that the associated finite-temperature quantum critical regime extends to zero interlayer coupling and could be relevant for antiferromagnetic cuprates doped with nonmagnetic impurities.
Spin Hall magnetoresistance in antiferromagnet/normal metal bilayers
Manchon, Aurelien
2017-01-01
We investigate the emergence of spin Hall magnetoresistance in a magnetic bilayer composed of a normal metal adjacent to an antiferromagnet. Based on a recently derived drift diffusion equation, we show that the resistance of the bilayer depends on the relative angle between the direction transverse to the current flow and the Néel order parameter. While this effect presents striking similarities with the spin Hall magnetoresistance recently reported in ferromagnetic bilayers, its physical origin is attributed to the anisotropic spin relaxation of itinerant spins in the antiferromagnet.
Spin transport through the metallic antiferromagnet FeMn
Saglam, H.; Zhang, W.; Jungfleisch, M. B.; Sklenar, J.; Pearson, J. E.; Ketterson, J. B.; Hoffmann, A.
2016-10-01
We investigate spin transport through metallic antiferromagnets using measurements based on spin pumping combined with inverse spin Hall effects in N i80F e20/FeMn /W trilayers. The relatively large magnitude and opposite sign of spin Hall effects in W compared to FeMn enable an unambiguous detection of spin currents transmitted through the entire FeMn layer thickness. Using this approach we can detect two distinctively different spin transport regimes, which we associate with electronic and magnonic spin currents, respectively. The latter can extend to relatively large distances (≈9 nm) and is enhanced when the antiferromagnetic ordering temperature is close to the measurement temperature.
Antiferromagnetic Potts model on the Erdos-Renyi random graph
Contucci, Pierluig; Giardina', Cristian; Starr, Shannon
2011-01-01
We study the antiferromagnetic Potts model on the Erdos-Renyi random graph. By identifying a suitable interpolation structure and proving an extended variational principle we show that the replica symmetric solution is an upper bound for the limiting pressure which can be recovered in the framework of Derrida-Ruelle probability cascades. A comparison theorem with a mixed model made of a mean field Potts-antiferromagnet plus a Potts-Sherrington-Kirkpatrick model allows to show that the replica symmetric solution is exact at high temperatures.
Hida, Kazuo; Takano, Ken'ichi; Suzuki, Hidenori
2013-06-01
The spin-1/2 ferromagnetic--antiferromagnetic alternating Heisenberg chain with ferromagnetic next-nearest-neighbour (NNN) interaction is investigated. The ground state is the Haldane phase for weak NNN interaction, and is the ferromagnetic phase for weak antiferromagnetic interaction. We find a series of topologically distinct spin-gap phases with various magnitudes of edge spins for strong NNN interaction. The phase boundaries between these phases are determined on the basis of the DMRG calculation with additional spins that compensate the edge spins. It is found that each of the exact solutions with short-range antiferromagnetic correlation on the ferromagnetic--nonmagnetic phase boundary is representative of each spin gap phase.
Development of a noise metric for assessment of exposure risk to complex noises.
Zhu, Xiangdong; Kim, Jay H; Song, Won Joon; Murphy, William J; Song, Seongho
2009-08-01
Many noise guidelines currently use A-weighted equivalent sound pressure level L(Aeq) as the noise metric and the equal energy hypothesis to assess the risk of occupational noises. Because of the time-averaging effect involved with the procedure, the current guidelines may significantly underestimate the risk associated with complex noises. This study develops and evaluates several new noise metrics for more accurate assessment of exposure risks to complex and impulsive noises. The analytic wavelet transform was used to obtain time-frequency characteristics of the noise. 6 basic, unique metric forms that reflect the time-frequency characteristics were developed, from which 14 noise metrics were derived. The noise metrics were evaluated utilizing existing animal test data that were obtained by exposing 23 groups of chinchillas to, respectively, different types of noise. Correlations of the metrics with the hearing losses observed in chinchillas were compared and the most promising noise metric was identified.
The subjective importance of noise spectral content
Baxter, Donald; Phillips, Jonathan; Denman, Hugh
2014-01-01
This paper presents secondary Standard Quality Scale (SQS2) rankings in overall quality JNDs for a subjective analysis of the 3 axes of noise, amplitude, spectral content, and noise type, based on the ISO 20462 softcopy ruler protocol. For the initial pilot study, a Python noise simulation model was created to generate the matrix of noise masks for the softcopy ruler base images with different levels of noise, different low pass filter noise bandwidths and different band pass filter center frequencies, and 3 different types of noise: luma only, chroma only, and luma and chroma combined. Based on the lessons learned, the full subjective experiment, involving 27 observers from Google, NVIDIA and STMicroelectronics was modified to incorporate a wider set of base image scenes, and the removal of band pass filtered noise masks to ease observer fatigue. Good correlation was observed with the Aptina subjective noise study. The absence of tone mapping in the noise simulation model visibly reduced the contrast at high levels of noise, due to the clipping of the high levels of noise near black and white. Under the 34-inch viewing distance, no significant difference was found between the luma only noise masks and the combined luma and chroma noise masks. This was not the intuitive expectation. Two of the base images with large uniform areas, `restaurant' and `no parking', were found to be consistently more sensitive to noise than the texture rich scenes. Two key conclusions are (1) there are fundamentally different sensitivities to noise on a flat patch versus noise in real images and (2) magnification of an image accentuates visual noise in a way that is non-representative of typical noise reduction algorithms generating the same output frequency. Analysis of our experimental noise masks applied to a synthetic Macbeth ColorChecker Chart confirmed the color-dependent nature of the visibility of luma and chroma noise.
Internal energy and specific heat in a ferromagnetic-antiferromagnetic double layers
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Jiang Wei; Guo An-Bang
2007-01-01
The internal energy and specific heat of a Heisenberg ferro- antiferromagnetic double-layer system are studied by using spin-wave theory and the retarded Green function method at low temperatures. Numerical results show that the antiferromagnetic intralayer coupling J2 has an important influence on internal energy and specific heat for a four-sublattice system with antiferromagnetic (or ferrimagnetic) interlayer couplings.
基于特征参数的随机噪声雷达相关输出研究%Correlation output of random noise radar based on characteristic parameters
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
武昕; 李澍; 刘畅; 王岩飞
2012-01-01
As the basis of random wave design,numeric characteristic parameter of random signal is an important factor for signal analysis.Correlation coefficient and variance are two crucial characteristic parameters of random signal with decisive influence.A specific mathematic model expressed by correlation coefficient and variance is established on the basis of general correlation output representation of random noise radar.According to this model,the influence,which is caused by correlation coefficient and variance of noise source signal,to the correlation output and bandwidth is further analyzed.Correlation coefficient decides the form of correlation output;meanwhile,variance highly influences the mainlobe power and the sidelobe level of correlation output.With increasing value of variance,the sidelobes are depressed effectively,and the power of the mainlobe is concentrated well,so that the resolution of output is improved.The conclusions are demonstrated by simulation results.Furthermore,with different correlation coefficient functions,the relation between variance and bandwidth is obtained.This relation shows that the bandwidth of modulated signal is broadened when the variance of noise source signal increasing.%随机信号的数字特征参数是信号分析的重要因素,是随机信号波形设计的依据。相关系数和方差是随机信号的两项具有决定作用的特征参数。以随机噪声雷达的一般性相关输出模型为基础,建立了基于相关系数和方差表达的相关输出数学模型。依据该模型深入分析了噪声源信号的相关系数和方差对相关输出和带宽的影响。相关系数决定了相关输出的整体形式;方差影响相关输出的主瓣和旁瓣水平,方差的增大能够有效地抑制旁瓣,使主瓣变窄,主峰变尖锐,分辨率显著提高。仿真实验验证了结论的有效性。此外,建立了在不同形式相关系数情况下噪声源信号方差与调制信号带宽的关系,方
Excitations in a Two-Dimensional Random Antiferromagnet
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Birgeneau, R. J.; Walker, L. R.; Guggenheim, H. J.;
1975-01-01
Inelastic neutron scattering studies of the magnetic excitations in the planar Heisenberg random antiferromagnet Rb2Mn0.5Ni0.5F4 at 7K are reported. Two well-defined bands of excitations are observed. A simple mean crystal model is found to predict accurately the measured dispersion relations using...
Thermoinduced magnetization and uncompensated spins in antiferromagnetic nanoparticles
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Madsen, Daniel Esmarch; Mørup, Steen
2006-01-01
We have investigated the combined effect of an uncompensated moment and the thermoinduced magnetization on the initial susceptibility of nanoparticles of antiferromagnetic materials. We find that for nanoparticles with small values of the anisotropy and exchange fields, the thermoinduced...... magnetization may be predominant at finite temperatures. In other cases the uncompensated moment may be predominant....
Spin waves in antiferromagnetic FeF2
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Hutchings, M T; Rainford, B.D.; Guggenheim, H J
1970-01-01
Spin-wave dispersion in antiferromagnetic FeF2 has been investigated by inelastic neutron scattering using a chopper time-of-flight spectrometer. The single mode observed has a relatively flat dispersion curve rising from 53 cm-1 at the zone centre to 79 cm-1 at the zone boundary. A spin...
Soliton dynamics in planar ferromagnets and anti-ferromagnets
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
LINFang-hua; SHATAHJalal
2003-01-01
The aim of this paper is to present a rigorous mathematical proof of the dynamical laws for the topological solitons( magnetic vortices) in ferromagnets and anti-ferromagnets. It is achieved through the conservation laws for the topological vorticity and the weak convergence methods.
Competitive forms of symmetry breaking in linear antiferromagnetic systems
Caspers, W.J.; Magnus, W.
1985-01-01
Two different forms of symmetry breaking are considered for linear antiferromagnetic systems (S = 1/2 ). Their relative stability is examined by considering small fluctuations in the harmonic oscillator approximation. Imaginary frequencies correspond with an unstable phase, and the ground state repr
Observation of Antiferromagnetic Resonance in an Organic Superconductor
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Torrance, J. B.; Pedersen, H. J.; Bechgaard, K.
1982-01-01
Anomalous microwave absorption has been observed in the organic superconductor TMTSF2AsF6 (TMTSF: tetramethyltetraselenafulvalene) below its metal-nonmetal transition near 12 K. This absorption is unambiguously identified as antiferromagnetic resonance by the excellent agreement between a spin...
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
于浛; 张秀杰; 陈建伟; 宋申民; 李鹏
2016-01-01
经典高斯滤波算法存在量测信息实时获取，以及过程噪声和量测噪声相互独立的假设条件。然而，在工程实际应用中该假设条件有时难以满足。本文针对一类具有随机量测时滞和同步相关噪声的高斯系统的状态估计问题，设计了一种高斯滤波框架形式的最优估计算法，并给出了所设计算法的三阶球径容积法则的次优实现形式-考虑随机量测时滞和同步相关噪声的容积卡尔曼滤波器(CKF–RDSCN)。其借助Bernoulli随机序列，来描述系统中可能存在的量测时滞现象，并利用高斯条件分布性质来解决噪声相关问题，在此基础上构建所提出的最优估计算法。仿真结果表明，相比于扩展卡尔曼滤波(EKF)，无迹卡尔曼滤波(UKF)以及容积卡尔曼滤波(CKF)，在含有随机量测时滞和噪声同步相关的状态估计问题中， CKF–RDSCN具有更高的精度和更好的数值稳定性。%The classical Gaussian filters are based on the assumption that measurements are acquired in time and nois-es of process and measurement are independent of each other. However, this assumption is sometimes hard to satisfy in practical applications. In this paper, an optimal estimation algorithm in the form of Gaussian filter framework is designed to solve the problem of states estimation of a Gaussian system with randomly delayed measurements and synchronously correlated noises, and the rule of third-degree spherical-radial cubature is employed to deduced the suboptimal estimation implementation of the proposed algorithms which is named cubature Kalman filter with randomly delayed measurements and synchronously correlated noises(CKF–RDSCN). It takes random sequence of Bernoulli to describe the possible situ-ation with respect to random delay in observation measurement and the property of Gaussian conditional distribution is utilized to solve the problem of noises correlation. Simulation results
Noise Effects on Synchronized Globally Coupled Oscillators
Moro, Esteban; Sánchez, Angel
1998-01-01
The synchronized phase of globally coupled identical nonlinear oscillators subject to noise fluctuations is studied by means of a new analytical approach able to tackle general couplings, nonlinearities, and noise temporal correlations. Our results show that the interplay between coupling and noise modi es the e ective frequency of the system in a nontrivial way. Whereas for linear couplings the e ect of noise is always to increase the e ective frequency, for nonlinear coupling...
Distributed fusion white noise deconvolution estimators
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Xiaojun SUN; Zili DENG
2009-01-01
The white noise deconvolution or input white noise estimation problem has important applications in oil seismic exploration, communication and signal processing.By combining the Kalman filtering method with the modern time series analysis method, based on the autoregressive moving average (ARMA) innovation model, new distributed fusion white noise deconvolution estimators are presented by weighting local input white noise estimators for general multisensor systems with different local dynamic models and correlated noises. The new estimators can handle input white noise fused filtering,prediction and smoothing problems, and are applicable to systems with colored measurement noise. Their accuracy is higher than that of local white noise deconvolution estimators. To compute the optimal weights, the new formula for local estimation error cross-covariances is given. A Monte Carlo simulation for the system with Bemoulli-Gaussian input white noise shows their effec-tiveness and performance.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
申少君; 黄开枝; 李印海
2013-01-01
现有基于人工噪声的物理层安全方法都假设信道是相互独立的,但是多天线通信系统中存在的信道空间相关性会降低系统安全容量.针对这一问题,设计了一种基于人工噪声的多入单出(MISO)相关信道物理层安全方法.通过合法用户信道参数的协方差矩阵得到发送端的信道相关矩阵,利用该矩阵与合法用户信道参数乘积的零空间作为人工噪声的生成空间,随机生成人工噪声对窃听方实现干扰.仿真结果表明,在存在信道空间相关性的情况下,本方法比现有方法的平均系统安全容量提高了约0.5 bit/s/Hz.%Prior work on artificial noise approach of physical layer security has assumed the independency of different channels. However, in a practical multiple antenna system, the spatial correlation among channel taps would decline the security capacity. This paper explored a robust alternative for secure transmission on correlated multiple-input single-output ( MISO) channel based on artificial noise. The channel state information between transmitter and the legitimate user could provide the correlated matrix of the spatial correlation. With the null space of the product of the correlated matrix and channel state information, the transmitter produced random artificial interference to prevent from eavesdropping. The simulation result indicates that the robust method improves the average secure capacity about 0. 5 bit/s/Hz with the proposed method when channel correlation exists.
Noise Pollution and Health Effects
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Geravandi
2015-01-01
Full Text Available Background Noise pollution is of particular importance due to the physical and psychological effects on humans. Noise is a stressor that affects the autonomic nervous system and the endocrine system. Noise is also a threat to marine and terrestrial ecosystems. Health risks from noise are correlated with road traffic. In other words, noise health effects are the health consequences of elevated sound levels. Objectives This study aims to determine the effect of noise pollution (near roadways on health issues in Ahvaz, Iran. Materials and Methods In this cross-sectional study, equivalent sound pressure level were measured by sound level meters TES-1353 in 75 locations around 4 roadways, which had a high load of traffic in Ahvaz City during day time. During the study, 820 measurements were recorded at measuring stations, for 7 days per week with 1-hour interval between each measurement. Statistical analysis was carried out by SPSS software. Results According to the research findings, the equivalent sound pressure levels in all stations were 76.28 ± 3.12 dB (Mean ± SD. According to sound measurements and the survey questionnaire, noise pollution is higher than EPA (US Environmental Protection Agency and Iran standard level. Based on result of this study the worst noise health effects were the nervousness and sleep quality during 2012. Conclusions According to the results of this study, with increasing load of traffic, there is an increasing need for proper consideration plans to control noise pollution and prevent its effects.
Critical Space-Time Networks and Geometric Phase Transitions from Frustrated Edge Antiferromagnetism
Trugenberger, Carlo A
2015-01-01
Recently I proposed a simple dynamical network model for discrete space-time which self-organizes as a graph with Hausdorff dimension d_H=4. The model has a geometric quantum phase transition with disorder parameter (d_H-d_s) where d_s is the spectral dimension of the dynamical graph. Self-organization in this network model is based on a competition between a ferromagnetic Ising model for vertices and an antiferromagnetic Ising model for edges. In this paper I solve a toy version of this model defined on a bipartite graph in the mean field approximation. I show that the geometric phase transition corresponds exactly to the antiferromagnetic transition for edges, the dimensional disorder parameter of the former being mapped to the staggered magnetization order parameter of the latter. The model has a critical point with long-range correlations between edges, where a continuum random geometry can be defined, exactly as in Kazakov's famed 2D random lattice Ising model but now in any number of dimensions.
Non-equilibrium physics of Rydberg lattices in the presence of noise and dissipative processes
Abdussalam, Wildan; Gil, Laura I. R.
2016-12-01
We study the non-equilibrium dynamics of driven spin lattices in the presence of decoherence caused by either laser phase noise or strong decay. In the first case, we discriminate between correlated and uncorrelated noise and explore their effect on the mean density of Rydberg states and the full counting statistics (FCS). We find that while the mean density is almost identical in both cases, the FCS differ considerably. The main method employed is the Langevin equation (LE) but for the sake of efficiency in certain regimes, we use a Markovian master equation and Monte Carlo rate equations, respectively. In the second case, we consider dissipative systems with more general power-law interactions. We determine the phase diagram in the steady state and analyse its generation dynamics using Monte Carlo rate equations. In contrast to nearest-neighbour models, there is no transition to long-range-ordered phases for realistic interactions and resonant driving. Yet, for finite laser detunings, we show that Rydberg lattices can undergo a dissipative phase transition to a long-range-ordered antiferromagnetic (AF) phase. We identify the advantages of Monte Carlo rate equations over mean field (MF) predictions.
Thermal noise in linear passive multiports
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Agouridis, D.C.
1987-01-01
The noise temperature of a linear passive multiport is related to the temperatures of the terminations of its input ports and the temperature of the multiport itself. In reciprocal multiports the noise contributions of these sources are not correlated, but may be correlated in non-reciprocal multiports.
Velocity of excitations in ordered, disordered, and critical antiferromagnets
Sen, Arnab; Suwa, Hidemaro; Sandvik, Anders W.
2015-11-01
We test three different approaches, based on quantum Monte Carlo simulations, for computing the velocity c of triplet excitations in antiferromagnets. We consider the standard S =1 /2 one- and two-dimensional Heisenberg models, as well as a bilayer Heisenberg model at its critical point. Computing correlation functions in imaginary time and using their long-time behavior, we extract the lowest excitation energy versus momentum using improved fitting procedures and a generalized moment method. The velocity is then obtained from the dispersion relation. We also exploit winding numbers to define a cubic space-time geometry, where the velocity is obtained as the ratio of the spatial and temporal lengths of the system when all winding number fluctuations are equal. The two methods give consistent results for both ordered and critical systems, but the winding number estimator is more precise. For the Heisenberg chain, we accurately reproduce the exactly known velocity. For the two-dimensional Heisenberg model, our results are consistent with other recent calculations, but with an improved statistical precision, c =1.65847 (4 ) . We also use the hydrodynamic relation c2=ρs/χ⊥(q →0 ) between c , the spin stiffness ρs, and the transversal susceptibility χ⊥, using the smallest non-zero momentum q =2 π /L . This method also is well controlled in two dimensions, but the cubic criterion for winding numbers delivers better numerical precision. In one dimension, the hydrodynamic relation is affected by logarithmic corrections which make accurate extrapolations difficult. As an application of the winding number method, for the quantum-critical bilayer model our high-precision determination of the velocity enables us to quantitatively test, at an unprecedented level, the field-theoretic low-temperature scaling forms χ =(a /c2)T and C =(b /c2) T2 . We find agreement to within 3 % with the leading 1 /N results for the factors a and b in the O (N ) model, but the agreement
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
李娜; 杨晓丽
2015-01-01
In this paper, by using the Terman-Wang small-world neuronal network with electrical synapse coupling, we inves-tigate the synchronous dynamics of neuronal network system subjected to spatially correlated white noise. First, the dynamical mean-field approximation theory is extended to the small-world network system under spatially correlated white noise, through which the original 2N-dimensional stochastic differential equations of the network system are trans-formed to 11-dimensional deterministic moment differential equations. Then, based on this set of moment differential equations, the key effects of spatially correlated noise and network structure on the synchronous firing property are dis-cussed in the Terman-Wang neuronal network system. The results show that the synchronization ratio of this considered neuronal network system becomes higher not only as the noise correlation coeﬃcient is increased but also as the coupling strength and the average vertex degree are added. Those results imply that the noise spatial correlation coeﬃcient, the coupling strength, and the average vertex degree can play a positive role in inducing synchronous neuronal behaviors. Furthermore, the synchronous dynamics of the original neuronal network system, obtained by direct numerical simula-tions, is compared with those obtained by the dynamical mean-field approximation theory, and good consistence between them is revealed.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
时培明; 李培; 韩东颖
2014-01-01
The steady-state problems of a tristable system are studied under the action of color correlated multiplicative and additive colored noise. Firstly, the expression of the steady-state probability density function is derived based on the uniform colored noise approximation, and then the change regulation of the steady-state probability density function is analyzed with the change of the strength and relevance of multiplicative noise and additive noise. Results show that the non-equilibrium phase transition of the system can be induced by the correlation strength and time of additive noise and multiplicative noise as well as the additive noise strength.%研究了色关联乘性和加性色噪声作用下的三稳态系统的稳态问题。首先利用一致有色噪声近似方法，推导出稳态概率密度函数的表达式，然后分析了乘性噪声和加性噪声的强度以及关联性对稳态概率密度函数的影响，研究结果表明：加性噪声强度、加性噪声和乘性噪声的关联强度和关联时间可以诱导系统的非平衡相变。
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
谢崇伟; 梅冬成
2003-01-01
We study the transient properties of a bistable kinetic system driven by correlated noises for the cases of multiplicative coloured noise and additive white noise. The mean first-passage time (MFPT) of the system is calculated.From numerical computations we find that: (i) The MFPT of the bistable system are affected by the correlation time of multiplicative coloured noise τ and the cross-correlation strength between noises λ and, τ and λ play the same roles in the MFPT. (ii) The MFPT corresponding to weakly correlated noises and strongly correlated noises exhibits the very different behaviour and there is a one-peak structure in the MFPT for strongly correlated noises. The peak grows highly as τ increases, which means that the noisy colour causes the suppression effect of the escape rate to become more pronounced.
Spin-transfer torque induced spin waves in antiferromagnetic insulators
Daniels, Matthew; Guo, Wei; Stocks, G. Malcolm; Xiao, Di; Xiao, Jiang
2015-03-01
We explore the possibility of exciting spin waves in insulating antiferromagnetic films by injecting spin current at the surface. We analyze both magnetically compensated and uncompensated interfaces. We find that the spin current induced spin-transfer torque can excite spin waves in insulating antiferromagnetic materials and that the chirality of the excited spin wave is determined by the polarization of the injected spin current. Furthermore, the presence of magnetic surface anisotropy can greatly increase the accessibility of these excitations. Supported by NSF EFRI-1433496 (M.W.D), U.S. DOE Office of Basic Energy Sciences, Materials Sciences and Engineering (D.X. & G.M.S.), Major State Basic Research Project of China and National Natural Science Foundation of China (W.G. and J.X.).
Currentless reversal of Néel vector in antiferromagnets
Semenov, Yuriy G.; Li, Xi-Lai; Kim, Ki Wook
2017-01-01
The possibility of magnetization reversal via a bias-mediated perpendicular magnetic anisotropy is examined theoretically in an antiferromagnet. The numerical analyses based on a Néel vector formulation as well as the micromagnetic Landau-Lifshitz-Gilbert simulation reveal that the desired switching can be achieved through dynamical responses that are significantly different from their ferromagnetic counterparts. Instead of the usual precessional trajectories around the applied effective magnetic field, their motions are rather pendulum-like due to the layered magnetic sublattices with a strong antiparallel exchange interaction, where the inertial behavior plays a crucial role. The absence of spiral damping can also lead to faster relaxation by orders of magnitude. With no reliance on the current driven processes, the investigated mechanism is predicted with a low energy requirement of only a few aJ per switching operation in the antiferromagnets.
Quantum Nucleation of Antiferromagnetic Bubbles with Tetragonal and Hexagonal Symmetries
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
PAN Hui; ZHU Jia-Lin; L(U) Rong
2004-01-01
We study the quantum nucleation in a nanometer-scale antiferromagnet placed in a magnetic field at an arbitrary angle. We consider the magnetocrystalline anisotropy with tetragonal symmetry and that with hexagonal symmetry, respectively. Different structures of the tunneling barriers can be generated by the magnitude and the orientation of the magnetic field. We use the instanton method in the spin-coherent-state path-integral representation to calculate the dependence of the rate of quantum nucleation and the crossover temperature on the orientation and strength of the field for bulk solids and two-dimensional films of antiferromagnets, respectively. We find that the rate of quantum nucleation and the crossover temperature from thermal-to-quantum transitions depend on the orientation and strength of the external magnetic field distinctly, which can be tested by use of existing experimental techniques.
Resonating Valence Bond states for low dimensional S=1 antiferromagnets
Liu, Zheng-Xin; Zhou, Yi; Ng, Tai-Kai
2014-03-01
We study S = 1 spin liquid states in low dimensions. We show that the resonating-valence-bond (RVB) picture of S = 1 / 2 spin liquid state can be generalized to S = 1 case. For S = 1 system, a many-body singlet (with even site number) can be decomposed into superposition of products of two-body singlets. In other words, the product states of two-body singlets, called the singlet pair states (SPSs), are over complete to span the Hilbert space of many-body singlets. Furthermore, we generalized fermionic representation and the corresponding mean field theory and Gutzwiller projected stats to S = 1 models. We applied our theory to study 1D anti-ferromagnetic bilinear-biquadratic model and show that both the ground states (including the phase transition point) and the excited states can be understood excellently well within the framework. Our method can be applied to 2D S = 1 antiferromagnets.
Polarized Neutron Reflectivity Simulation of Ferromagnet/ Antiferromagnet Thin Films
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kim, Ki Yeon; Lee, Jeong Soo
2008-02-15
This report investigates the current simulating and fitting programs capable of calculating the polarized neutron reflectivity of the exchange-biased ferromagnet/antiferromagnet magnetic thin films. The adequate programs are selected depending on whether nonspin flip and spin flip reflectivities of magnetic thin films and good user interface are available or not. The exchange-biased systems such as Fe/Cr, Co/CoO, CoFe/IrMn/Py thin films have been simulated successfully with selected programs.
Long range anti-ferromagnetic spin model for prebiotic evolution
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Nokura, Kazuo [Shonan Institute of Technology, Fujisawa 251-8511 (Japan)
2003-11-28
I propose and discuss a fitness function for one-dimensional binary monomer sequences of macromolecules for prebiotic evolution. The fitness function is defined by the free energy of polymers in the high temperature random coil phase. With repulsive interactions among the same kind of monomers, the free energy in the high temperature limit becomes the energy function of the one-dimensional long range anti-ferromagnetic spin model, which is shown to have a dynamical phase transition and glassy states.
Two-step flux penetration in classic antiferromagnetic superconductor
Krzyszton, T.; Rogacki, K.
2001-01-01
The influence of antiferromagnetic order on the mixed state of a superconductor may result in creation of spin-flop domains along vortices. This may happen when an external magnetic field is strong enough to flip over magnetic moments in the vortex core from their ground state configuration. The formation of domain structure causes modification of the surface energy barrier, and creation of the new state in which magnetic flux density is independent of the applied field. The modified surface ...
Fermion Bound States Around Skyrmions in Doped Antiferromagnets
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
寇谡鹏
2003-01-01
We show the skyrmion effects in doped antiferromagnets for the uniform flux phase. The low-energy effective theory of the t′-J model can be mapped onto the massive quantum electrodynamics. There exist Fermion bound states around skyrmions. For each sublattice, there exist induced fractional fermion numbers around the skyrmions. The total induced fermion number is zero due to the "cancelling effect" between two sublattices with opposite charges.
Spatially frustrated S = 1 Heisenberg antiferromagnet with single ion anisotropy
Pires, A. S. T.
2016-10-01
Using the SU(3) Schwinger boson formalism, I study the S = 1 square lattice Heisenberg antiferromagnet, at zero temperature, with spatially anisotropic nearest-neighbor couplings frustrated by a next-nearest neighbor interaction and single ion anisotropy. The phase diagram at zero temperature is presented. My calculations show two magnetically ordered phases separated by a quantum-disordered region for all values of the anisotropy.
Gossamer superconductivity near antiferromagnetic Mott insulator in layered organic conductors.
Gan, J Y; Chen, Yan; Su, Z B; Zhang, F C
2005-02-18
Layered organic superconductors are on the verge of the Mott insulator. We use the Gutzwiller variational method to study a two-dimensional Hubbard model including a spin exchange coupling term as a minimal model for the compounds. The ground state is found to be a Gossamer superconductor at small on-site Coulomb repulsion U and an antiferromagnetic Mott insulator at large U, separated by a first order phase transition. Our theory is qualitatively consistent with major experiments reported in organic superconductors.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Loeffler, J.; Wagner, W.; Svygenhoven, H. van [Paul Scherrer Inst. (PSI), Villigen (Switzerland); Meier, J.; Doudin, B.; Ansermet, J.P. [Ecole Polytechnique Federale, Lausanne (Switzerland)
1997-09-01
The magnetic properties of nanostructured materials on the basis of Fe and Ni have been investigated with a SQUID magnetometer, complementary to the small-angle neutron scattering study reported in the same volume. Measurements of the coercive field in a temperature range from 5 to 300 K confirm the validity of the random anisotropy model for our nanostructured systems. Furthermore, we obtain information about the presence and distribution of the antiferromagnetic oxides, joining the ferromagnetic grains. (author) 2 figs., 3 refs.
Large anomalous Hall effect in a half-Heusler antiferromagnet
Suzuki, T.; Chisnell, R.; Devarakonda, A.; Liu, Y.-T.; Feng, W.; Xiao, D.; Lynn, J. W.; Checkelsky, J. G.
2016-12-01
The quantum mechanical (Berry) phase of the electronic wavefunction plays a critical role in the anomalous and spin Hall effects, including their quantized limits. While progress has been made in understanding these effects in ferromagnets, less is known in antiferromagnetic systems. Here we present a study of antiferromagnet GdPtBi, whose electronic structure is similar to that of the topologically non-trivial HgTe (refs ,,), and where the Gd ions offer the possibility to tune the Berry phase via control of the spin texture. We show that this system supports an anomalous Hall angle ΘAH > 0.1, comparable to the largest observed in bulk ferromagnets and significantly larger than in other antiferromagnets. Neutron scattering measurements and electronic structure calculations suggest that this effect originates from avoided crossing or Weyl points that develop near the Fermi level due to a breaking of combined time-reversal and lattice symmetries. Berry phase effects associated with such symmetry breaking have recently been explored in kagome networks; our results extend this to half-Heusler systems with non-trivial band topology. The magnetic textures indicated here may also provide pathways towards realizing the topological insulating and semimetallic states predicted in this material class.
Fractional excitations in the square-lattice quantum antiferromagnet
Dalla Piazza, B.; Mourigal, M.; Christensen, N. B.; Nilsen, G. J.; Tregenna-Piggott, P.; Perring, T. G.; Enderle, M.; McMorrow, D. F.; Ivanov, D. A.; Rønnow, H. M.
2015-01-01
Quantum magnets have occupied the fertile ground between many-body theory and low-temperature experiments on real materials since the early days of quantum mechanics. However, our understanding of even deceptively simple systems of interacting spin-1/2 particles is far from complete. The quantum square-lattice Heisenberg antiferromagnet, for example, exhibits a striking anomaly of hitherto unknown origin in its magnetic excitation spectrum. This quantum effect manifests itself for excitations propagating with the specific wavevector (π, 0). We use polarized neutron spectroscopy to fully characterize the magnetic fluctuations in the metal-organic compound Cu(DCOO)2.4D2O, a known realization of the quantum square-lattice Heisenberg antiferromagnet model. Our experiments reveal an isotropic excitation continuum at the anomaly, which we analyse theoretically using Gutzwiller-projected trial wavefunctions. The excitation continuum is accounted for by the existence of spatially extended pairs of fractional S = 1/2 quasiparticles, 2D analogues of 1D spinons. Away from the anomalous wavevector, these fractional excitations are bound and form conventional magnons. Our results establish the existence of fractional quasiparticles in the high-energy spectrum of a quasi-two-dimensional antiferromagnet, even in the absence of frustration.
Bolčina, Matjaž
2014-01-01
Noise is everywhere. Noise is a sound that makes people stressful and irritate. It often couses sleep disorders and also health problems like different cardiovascular disorders, hearing loss…In most cases traffic noise is the most disturbing. There are different ways to prevent people from traffic noise like building noise barriers and insulation of facades. However noise barriers and insulation of facades do not prevent noise formation, but are lowering existing noise. Another disadvantage i...