WorldWideScience

Sample records for antidotes

  1. Graphene antidot lattice waveguides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Jesper Goor; Gunst, Tue; Markussen, Troels;

    2012-01-01

    We introduce graphene antidot lattice waveguides: nanostructured graphene where a region of pristine graphene is sandwiched between regions of graphene antidot lattices. The band gaps in the surrounding antidot lattices enable localized states to emerge in the central waveguide region. We model...... the waveguides via a position-dependent mass term in the Dirac approximation of graphene and arrive at analytical results for the dispersion relation and spinor eigenstates of the localized waveguide modes. To include atomistic details we also use a tight-binding model, which is in excellent agreement...... with the analytical results. The waveguides resemble graphene nanoribbons, but without the particular properties of ribbons that emerge due to the details of the edge. We show that electrons can be guided through kinks without additional resistance and that transport through the waveguides is robust against...

  2. Spin qubits in antidot lattices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Jesper Goor; Flindt, Christian; Mortensen, Niels Asger;

    2008-01-01

    and density of states for a periodic potential modulation, referred to as an antidot lattice, and find that localized states appear, when designed defects are introduced in the lattice. Such defect states may form the building blocks for quantum computing in a large antidot lattice, allowing for coherent...

  3. Antidotes all the way down?

    OpenAIRE

    Bird, Alexander

    2010-01-01

    This paper explores the question: can fundamental dispositions (which have no distinct causal basis) suffer from finks and antidotes? I use my response to shed light on the question: can the fundamental laws of physics be ceteris paribus laws?

  4. Graphene on graphene antidot lattices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gregersen, Søren Schou; Pedersen, Jesper Goor; Power, Stephen;

    2015-01-01

    Graphene bilayer systems are known to exhibit a band gap when the layer symmetry is broken by applying a perpendicular electric field. The resulting band structure resembles that of a conventional semiconductor with a parabolic dispersion. Here, we introduce a bilayer graphene heterostructure......, where single-layer graphene is placed on top of another layer of graphene with a regular lattice of antidots. We dub this class of graphene systems GOAL: graphene on graphene antidot lattice. By varying the structure geometry, band-structure engineering can be performed to obtain linearly dispersing...

  5. Antidotes all the way down?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander BIRD

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper explores the question: can fundamental dispositions (which have no distinct causal basis suffer from finks and antidotes? I use my response to shed light on the question: can the fundamental laws of physics be ceteris paribus laws?

  6. The dilemma of approving antidotes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steffen, Christian

    2007-04-20

    Clinical trials with antidotes are difficult to perform for a variety of practical, ethical, and financial reasons. As acute poisoning is a rare event, the commercial interest in basic and clinical research is low. Poisoned patients are usually not available for normal clinical trial procedures and, if they are, they cannot give informed consent. This situation results in a dilemma: antidotes are essential drugs. A resolution of the Council of Europe requests to guarantee the optimal availability of antidotes and the improvement of their use. As comprehensive data on the efficacy of antidotes are often missing, a marketing authorisation under exceptional circumstances according to Article 14(8) of Regulation (EC) No. 276/2004, will often be the only way to get an approval, as: (1) the indications for which the product in question is intended are encountered so rarely that the applicant cannot reasonably be expected to provide comprehensive evidence ("orphan drug"), (2) in the present state of scientific knowledge, comprehensive information cannot be provided, or (3) it would be contrary to generally accepted principles of medical ethics to collect such data. Typically, data on antidotes are obtained from a patchwork of studies with animals, human tissue and a few observations from human poisoning corroborated with data from clinical observations and biochemistry. Generalisations from chemical and mechanistic similarities between groups of poisons are usual, but often lack scientific evidence. Current standards of good clinical practice can rarely be observed. Therefore, public funding and other financial support are necessary incentives to initiate trials in this important area. PMID:17207900

  7. Screening in graphene antidot lattices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schultz, Marco Haller; Jauho, A. P.; Pedersen, T. G.

    2011-01-01

    ); this reflects the miniband structure and the associated van Hove singularities of the antidot lattice. The polarization functions depend on the azimuthal angle of the q vector. We develop approximations to ease the numerical work and critically evaluate the performance of the various schemes. We also compute...... the plasmon dispersion law and find an approximate square-root dependence with a suppressed plasmon frequency as compared to doped graphene. The plasmon dispersion is nearly isotropic and the developed approximation schemes agree well with the full calculation....

  8. Electronic properties of graphene antidot lattices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fürst, Joachim Alexander; Pedersen, Jesper Goor; Flindt, C.;

    2009-01-01

    Graphene antidot lattices constitute a novel class of nano-engineered graphene devices with controllable electronic and optical properties. An antidot lattice consists of a periodic array of holes that causes a band gap to open up around the Fermi level, turning graphene from a semimetal...... into a semiconductor. We calculate the electronic band structure of graphene antidot lattices using three numerical approaches with different levels of computational complexity, efficiency and accuracy. Fast finite-element solutions of the Dirac equation capture qualitative features of the band structure, while full...

  9. Optical properties of graphene antidot lattices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Thomas Garm; Flindt, Christian; Pedersen, Jesper Goor;

    2008-01-01

    Undoped graphene is semimetallic and thus not suitable for many electronic and optoelectronic applications requiring gapped semiconductor materials. However, a periodic array of holes (antidot lattice) renders graphene semiconducting with a controllable band gap. Using atomistic modeling, we...

  10. Ballistic Transport in Graphene Antidot Lattices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandner, Andreas; Preis, Tobias; Schell, Christian; Giudici, Paula; Watanabe, Kenji; Taniguchi, Takashi; Weiss, Dieter; Eroms, Jonathan

    2015-12-01

    The bulk carrier mobility in graphene was shown to be enhanced in graphene-boron nitride heterostructures. However, nanopatterning graphene can add extra damage and drastically degrade the intrinsic properties by edge disorder. Here we show that graphene embedded into a heterostructure with hexagonal boron nitride (hBN) on both sides is protected during a nanopatterning step. In this way, we can prepare graphene-based antidot lattices where the high mobility is preserved. We report magnetotransport experiments in those antidot lattices with lattice periods down to 50 nm. We observe pronounced commensurability features stemming from ballistic orbits around one or several antidots. Due to the short lattice period in our samples, we can also explore the boundary between the classical and the quantum transport regime, as the Fermi wavelength of the electrons approaches the smallest length scale of the artificial potential. PMID:26598218

  11. Magnetic switching of nanoscale antidot lattices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gräfe, Joachim; Lebecki, Kristof M; Skripnik, Maxim; Haering, Felix; Schütz, Gisela; Ziemann, Paul; Goering, Eberhard; Nowak, Ulrich

    2016-01-01

    Summary We investigate the rich magnetic switching properties of nanoscale antidot lattices in the 200 nm regime. In-plane magnetized Fe, Co, and Permalloy (Py) as well as out-of-plane magnetized GdFe antidot films are prepared by a modified nanosphere lithography allowing for non-close packed voids in a magnetic film. We present a magnetometry protocol based on magneto-optical Kerr microscopy elucidating the switching modes using first-order reversal curves. The combination of various magnetometry and magnetic microscopy techniques as well as micromagnetic simulations delivers a thorough understanding of the switching modes. While part of the investigations has been published before, we summarize these results and add significant new insights in the magnetism of exchange-coupled antidot lattices. PMID:27335762

  12. Electronic properties of disordered graphene antidot lattices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shengjun Yuan; Rolda´n, Rafael; Jauho, Antti-Pekka;

    2013-01-01

    Regular nanoscale perforations in graphene (graphene antidot lattices, GALs) are known to lead to a gap in the energy spectrum, thereby paving a possible way towards many applications. This theoretical prediction relies on a perfect placement of identical perforations, a situation not likely to o...

  13. Thermoelectric properties of finite graphene antidot lattices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gunst, Tue; Markussen, Troels; Jauho, Antti-Pekka;

    2011-01-01

    We present calculations of the electronic and thermal transport properties of graphene antidot lattices with a finite length along the transport direction. The calculations are based on the π-tight-binding model and the Brenner potential. We show that both electronic and thermal transport...

  14. Electronic properties of disordered graphene antidot lattices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shengjun Yuan; Rolda´n, Rafael; Jauho, Antti-Pekka;

    2013-01-01

    Regular nanoscale perforations in graphene (graphene antidot lattices, GALs) are known to lead to a gap in the energy spectrum, thereby paving a possible way towards many applications. This theoretical prediction relies on a perfect placement of identical perforations, a situation not likely...... for solving the time-dependent Schro¨dinger equation in a tight-binding representation of the graphene sheet [Yuan et al., Phys. Rev. B 82, 115448 (2010)], which allows us to consider GALs consisting of 6400 × 6400 carbon atoms. The central conclusion for all kinds of disorder is that the gaps found...

  15. Anisotropy engineering using exchange bias on antidot templates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. J. T. Goncalves

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available We explore an emerging device concept based on exchange bias used in conjunction with an antidot geometry to fine tune ferromagnetic resonances. Planar cavity ferromagnetic resonance is used to study the microwave response of NiO/NiFe bilayers with antidot structuring. A large frequency asymmetry with respect to an applied magnetic field is found across a broad field range whose underlying cause is linked to the distribution of magnetic poles at the antidot surfaces. This distribution is found to be particularly sensitive to the effects of exchange bias, and robust in regards to the quality of the antidot geometry. The template based antidot geometry we study offers advantages for practical device construction, and we show that it is suitable for broadband absorption and filtering applications, allowing tunable anisotropies via interface engineering.

  16. Electronic transport in disordered graphene antidot lattice devices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Power, Stephen; Jauho, Antti-Pekka

    2014-01-01

    Nanostructuring of graphene is in part motivated by the requirement to open a gap in the electronic band structure. In particular, a periodically perforated graphene sheet in the form of an antidot lattice may have such a gap. Such systems have been investigated with a view towards application...... in transistor or waveguiding devices. The desired properties have been predicted for atomically precise systems, but fabrication methods will introduce significant levels of disorder in the shape, position and edge configurations of individual antidots. We calculate the electronic transport properties of a wide...... range of finite graphene antidot devices to determine the effect of such disorders on their performance. Modest geometric disorder is seen to have a detrimental effect on devices containing small, tightly packed antidots, which have optimal performance in pristine lattices. Larger antidots display...

  17. Magnetic edge states and magnetotransport in graphene antidot barriers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomsen, M. R.; Power, S. R.; Jauho, A.-P.; Pedersen, T. G.

    2016-07-01

    Magnetic fields are often used for characterizing transport in nanoscale materials. Recent magnetotransport experiments have demonstrated that ballistic transport is possible in graphene antidot lattices (GALs). These experiments have inspired the present theoretical study of GALs in a perpendicular magnetic field. We calculate magnetotransport through graphene antidot barriers (GABs), which are finite rows of antidots arranged periodically in a pristine graphene sheet, using a tight-binding model and the Landauer-Büttiker formula. We show that GABs behave as ideal Dirac mass barriers for antidots smaller than the magnetic length and demonstrate the presence of magnetic edge states, which are localized states on the periphery of the antidots due to successive reflections on the antidot edge in the presence of a magnetic field. We show that these states are robust against variations in lattice configuration and antidot edge chirality. Moreover, we calculate the transmittance of disordered GABs and find that magnetic edge states survive a moderate degree of disorder. Due to the long phase-coherence length in graphene and the robustness of these states, we expect magnetic edge states to be observable in experiments as well.

  18. Low-Temperature Magnetic Properties of Co Antidot Array

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Qing-Fang; JIANG Chang-Jun; FAN Xiao-Long; WANG Jian-Bo; XUE De-Sheng

    2006-01-01

    Cobalt antidot arrays with different thicknesses are fabricated by rf magnetron sputtering onto porous alumina substrates. Scanning electron microscopy and grazing incidence x-ray diffraction are employed to characterize the morphology and crystal structure of the antidot array, respectively. The temperature dependence of magnetic properties shows that in the temperature range 5K-300K, coercivity and squareness increase firstly, reach their maximum values, then decrease. The anomalous temperature dependences of coercivity and squareness are discussed by considering the pinning effect of the antidot and the magnetocrystalline anisotropy.

  19. Most on Opioid Painkillers OK with Getting Overdose Antidote: Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_160933.html Most on Opioid Painkillers OK With Getting Overdose Antidote: Survey More ... A new, small survey of people taking powerful opioid painkillers like OxyContin and Vicodin found that most ...

  20. Magnetic edge states and magnetotransport in graphene antidot barriers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, M. R.; Power, Stephen; Jauho, Antti-Pekka;

    2016-01-01

    Magnetic fields are often used for characterizing transport in nanoscale materials. Recent magnetotransport experiments have demonstrated that ballistic transport is possible in graphene antidot lattices (GALs). These experiments have inspired the present theoretical study of GALs...... in a perpendicular magnetic field. We calculate magnetotransport through graphene antidot barriers (GABs), which are finite rows of antidots arranged periodically in a pristine graphene sheet, using a tight-binding model and the Landauer-Buttiker formula. We show that GABs behave as ideal Dirac mass barriers...... in lattice configuration and antidot edge chirality. Moreover, we calculate the transmittance of disordered GABs and find that magnetic edge states survive a moderate degree of disorder. Due to the long phase-coherence length in graphene and the robustness of these states, we expect magnetic edge states...

  1. Antidot effects on micromagnetic behavior of Py ferromagnetic samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yetis, Hakan; Denizli, Haluk

    2016-09-01

    The coercivity and magnetic hysteresis behavior of permalloy (Py) samples have been studied in the presence of square arrays of the circular antidots. The open source OOMMF micromagnetic software is used to numerically solve the Landau-Lifshitz-Gilbert (LLG) equation. In calculations, Py samples are designed in such a way that they include a different number of antidot in an array which possess the same total surface area. In this way, the total Py region stayed unchanged despite the growing number of antidots in a fixed sample size. We found significant increase in the coercive field for the sample with the smallest antidot spacing. The results are discussed within the framework of superdomain (SD) and superdomain wall (SDW) formation.

  2. Quantum Hall effect in bilayer system with array of antidots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pagnossin, I. R.; Gusev, G. M.; Sotomayor, N. M.; Seabra, A. C.; Quivy, A. A.; Lamas, T. E.; Portal, J. C.

    2007-04-01

    We have studied the Quantum Hall effect in a bilayer system modulated by gate-controlled antidot lattice potential. The Hall resistance shows plateaus which are quantized to anomalous multiplies of h/e2. We suggest that this complex behavior is due to the nature of the edge-states in double quantum well (DQW) structures coupled to an array of antidots: these plateaus may be originated from the coexistence of normal and counter-rotating edge-states in different layers.

  3. Transport in graphene antidot barriers and tunneling devices

    OpenAIRE

    Pedersen, Thomas Garm; Pedersen, Jesper Goor

    2012-01-01

    Periodic arrays of antidots, i.e. nanoscale perforations, in graphene enable tight confinement of carriers and efficient transport barriers. Such barriers evade the Klein tunneling mechanism by being of the mass rather than electrostatic type. While all graphene antidot lattices (GALs) may support directional barriers, we show, however, that a full transport gap exists only for certain orientations of the GAL. Moreover, we assess the applicability of gapped graphene and the Dirac continuum ap...

  4. A specific antidote for dabigatran: functional and structural characterization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schiele, Felix; van Ryn, Joanne; Canada, Keith; Newsome, Corey; Sepulveda, Eliud; Park, John; Nar, Herbert; Litzenburger, Tobias

    2013-05-01

    Dabigatran etexilate is a direct thrombin inhibitor and used widely as an anticoagulant for the prevention of stroke in patients with atrial fibrillation. However, anticoagulation therapy can be associated with an increased risk of bleeding. Here, we present data on the identification, humanization, and in vitro pharmacology of an antidote for dabigatran (aDabi-Fab). The X-ray crystal structure of dabigatran in complex with the antidote reveals many structural similarities of dabigatran recognition compared with thrombin. By a tighter network of interactions, the antidote achieves an affinity for dabigatran that is ~350 times stronger than its affinity for thrombin. Despite the structural similarities in the mode of dabigatran binding, the antidote does not bind known thrombin substrates and has no activity in coagulation tests or platelet aggregation. In addition we demonstrate that the antidote rapidly reversed the anticoagulant activity of dabigatran in vivo in a rat model of anticoagulation. This is the first report of a specific antidote for a next-generation anticoagulant that may become a valuable tool in patients who require emergency procedures. PMID:23476049

  5. Electron-phonon coupling in graphene antidot lattices: An indication of polaronic behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vukmirović, N.; Stojanović, V.M.; Vanević, M.

    2010-01-01

    We study graphene antidot lattices—superlattices of perforations (antidots) in a graphene sheet—using a model that accounts for the phonon modulation of the π-electron hopping integrals. We calculate the phonon spectra of selected antidot lattices using two different semiempirical methods. Based on

  6. Creativity: Performativity's Poison or Its Antidote?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munday, Ian

    2014-01-01

    A common move in the study of creativity and performativity is to present the former as an antidote to the latter. Might we, therefore, see work on creativity in education as heralding an era of post-performativity? In this paper I argue that the portrayal of performativity in the literature on creativity presents an overly simplistic (vulgar?)…

  7. Sodium dimercaptopropane sulfonate as antidote against non-metallic pesticides

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhi-kang CHEN; Zhong-qiu LU

    2004-01-01

    @@ INTRODUCTION With the advent of World War II, dimercaptol was first developed in England as an effective antidote against arsenical agents. In 1950' s, scientists from the Soviet Union developed a water-soluble compound, sodium dimercaptopropane sulfonate (Na-DMPS) named as Unithiol (or Unitiol), which was able to chelate heavy metals and metalloids.

  8. Screening and collective modes in disordered graphene antidot lattices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yuan, Shengjun; Jin, Fengping; Roldan, Rafael;

    2013-01-01

    The excitation spectrum and the collective modes of graphene antidot lattices (GALs) are studied in the context of a π-band tight-binding model. The dynamical polarizability and dielectric function are calculated within the random-phase approximation. The effect of different kinds of disorder, su...

  9. Electronic transport in disordered graphene antidot lattice devices

    OpenAIRE

    Power, Stephen; Jauho, Antti-Pekka

    2014-01-01

    Nanostructuring of graphene is in part motivated by the requirement to open a gap in the electronic band structure. In particular, a periodically perforated graphene sheet in the form of an antidot lattice may have such a gap. Such systems have been investigated with a view towards application in transistor or waveguiding devices. The desired properties have been predicted for atomically precise systems, but fabrication methods will introduce significant levels of disorder in the shape, posit...

  10. Selection of an aptamer antidote to the anticoagulant drug bivalirudin.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer A Martin

    Full Text Available Adverse drug reactions, including severe patient bleeding, may occur following the administration of anticoagulant drugs. Bivalirudin is a synthetic anticoagulant drug sometimes employed as a substitute for heparin, a commonly used anticoagulant that can cause a condition called heparin-induced thrombocytopenia (HIT. Although bivalrudin has the advantage of not causing HIT, a major concern is lack of an antidote for this drug. In contrast, medical professionals can quickly reverse the effects of heparin using protamine. This report details the selection of an aptamer to bivalirudin that functions as an antidote in buffer. This was accomplished by immobilizing the drug on a monolithic column to partition binding sequences from nonbinding sequences using a low-pressure chromatography system and salt gradient elution. The elution profile of binding sequences was compared to that of a blank column (no drug, and fractions with a chromatographic difference were analyzed via real-time PCR (polymerase chain reaction and used for further selection. Sequences were identified by 454 sequencing and demonstrated low micromolar dissociation constants through fluorescence anisotropy after only two rounds of selection. One aptamer, JPB5, displayed a dose-dependent reduction of the clotting time in buffer, with a 20 µM aptamer achieving a nearly complete antidote effect. This work is expected to result in a superior safety profile for bivalirudin, resulting in enhanced patient care.

  11. Photostability of antidotal oxime HI-6, impact on drug development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogan, Reinhard; Worek, Franz; Koller, Marianne; Klaubert, Bernd

    2012-01-01

    HI-6 exhibits superior efficacy in the therapy of intoxication by different highly toxic organophosphorus nerve agents. Therefore HI-6 is a promising candidate for the development of new antidotes against nerve agents. For ethical and safety reasons antidotes containing HI-6 should get marketing authorization. Active pharmaceutical ingredients of medicinal products have to fulfil regulatory conditions in terms of purity and stability. Photostability is an essential parameter in this testing strategy. HI-6 was tested under conditions of ICH Q1B 'Photostability testing of new drug substances and products'. The data showed a marked degradation of HI-6 after exposure to daylight. The mechanism of degradation could be detected as photoisomerism. The light burden dependent rate of photoisomerism was followed quantitatively. Based on these quantitative results on the amount of light induced isomeric product a pharmacological qualification was made. A standardized in vitro test showed a decreased ability of light exposed HI-6 to reactivate sarin- and paraoxon-inhibited human acetylcholinesterase. These results have an impact on the further development of antidotes containing HI-6, as light protection will probably be necessary during handling, packaging, storage and application.

  12. Nanometer Scale Hard/Soft Bilayer Magnetic Antidots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Béron, Fanny; Kaidatzis, Andreas; Velo, Murilo F; Arzuza, Luis C C; Palmero, Ester M; Del Real, Rafael P; Niarchos, Dimitrios; Pirota, Kleber R; García-Martín, José Miguel

    2016-12-01

    The effect of arrays of nanometer scale pores on the magnetic properties of thin films has been analyzed. Particularly, we investigated the influence of the out-of-plane magnetization component created by the nanopores on the in-plane magnetic behavior of patterned hard/soft magnetic thin films in antidot morphology. Its influence on the coupling in Co/Py bilayers of few tens of nanometer thick is compared for disordered and ordered antidots of 35-nm diameter. The combination of magneto-optical Kerr effect (MOKE) and first-order reversal curve (FORC) technique allows probing the effects of the induced perpendicular magnetization component on the bilayer magnetic behavior, while magnetic force microscopy (MFM) is used to image it. We found that ordered antidots yield a stronger out-of-plane component than disordered ones, influencing in a similar manner the hard layer global in-plane magnetic behavior if with a thin or without soft layer. However, its influence changes with a thicker soft layer, which may be an indication of a weaker coupling. PMID:26873261

  13. Effect of R-25788 antidote on the uptake, translocation and metabolism of acetochlor herbicide by corn

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The fate of acetochlor herbicide was investigated in corn (Zea mays L.) in nutrition solution culture experiments with and without R-25788 antidote. The antidote was found to slightly stimulate the absorption but to retard the translocation of acetochlor labelled with sup(14)C in the carbonyl group. The degradation of the herbicide and the formation of the acetochlor GSH conjugate were faster in the antidote treated plants than in the untreated controls. (author)

  14. Effects of antidot shape on the spin wave spectra of two-dimensional Ni{sub 80}Fe{sub 20} antidot lattices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mandal, Ruma; Laha, Pinaki; Das, Kaustuv; Saha, Susmita; Barman, Saswati; Raychaudhuri, A. K.; Barman, Anjan, E-mail: abarman@bose.res.in [Thematic Unit of Excellence on Nanodevice Technology, Department of Condensed Matter Physics and Material Sciences, S. N. Bose National Centre for Basic Sciences, Block JD, Sector III, Salt Lake, Kolkata 700 098 (India)

    2013-12-23

    We show that the optically induced spin wave spectra of nanoscale Ni{sub 80}Fe{sub 20} (permalloy) antidot lattices can be tuned by changing the antidot shape. The spin wave spectra also show an anisotropy with the variation of the in-plane bias field orientation. Analyses show this is due to various quantized and extended modes, whose nature changes with the antidot shape and bias field orientation as a result of the variation of the internal magnetic field profile. The observed variation and anisotropy in the spin waves with the internal and external parameters are important for their applications in magnonic devices.

  15. Designed defects in 2D antidot lattices for quantum information processing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Jesper Goor; Flindt, Christian; Mortensen, Niels Asger;

    2008-01-01

    We propose a new physical implementation of spin qubits for quantum information processing, namely defect states in antidot lattices defined in the two-dimensional electron gas (2DEG) at a semiconductor heterostructure. Calculations of the band structure of a periodic antidot lattice are presente...

  16. Boron and nitrogen doping in graphene antidot lattices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brun, Søren J.; Pereira, Vitor M.; Pedersen, Thomas G.

    2016-06-01

    Bottom-up fabrication of graphene antidot lattices (GALs) has previously yielded atomically precise structures with subnanometer periodicity. Focusing on this type of experimentally realized GAL, we perform density functional theory calculations on the pristine structure as well as GALs with edge carbon atoms substituted with boron or nitrogen. We show that p - and n -type doping levels emerge with activation energies that depend on the level of hydrogenation at the impurity. Furthermore, a tight-binding parametrization together with a Green's function method are used to describe more dilute doping. Finally, random configurations of impurities in moderately doped systems are considered to show that the doping properties are robust against disorder.

  17. Resonant tunneling diode based on band gap engineered graphene antidot structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palla, Penchalaiah; Ethiraj, Anita S.; Raina, J. P.

    2016-04-01

    The present work demonstrates the operation and performance of double barrier Graphene Antidot Resonant Tunnel Diode (DBGA-RTD). Non-Equilibrium Green's Function (NEGF) frame work with tight-binding Hamiltonian and 2-D Poisson equations were solved self-consistently for device study. The interesting feature in this device is that it is an all graphene RTD with band gap engineered graphene antidot tunnel barriers. Another interesting new finding is that it shows negative differential resistance (NDR), which involves the resonant tunneling in the graphene quantum well through both the electron and hole bound states. The Graphene Antidot Lattice (GAL) barriers in this device efficiently improved the Peak to Valley Ratio to approximately 20 even at room temperature. A new fitting model is developed for the number of antidots and their corresponding effective barrier width, which will help in determining effective barrier width of any size of actual antidot geometry.

  18. Enhanced Spin Hall Effect by Single Antidot Potential

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eto, Mikio; Yokoyama, Tomohiro

    2009-03-01

    We theoretically investigate an extrinsic spin Hall effect in semiconductor heterostructures due to the scattering by an artificial potential created by a single antidot, STM tip, etc. The strength of the potential is electrically tunable. First, we formulate the spin Hall effect in terms of phase shifts in the partial wave expansion for two-dimensional electron gas. For scattered electrons in θ direction, we obtain a spin polarization P(θ) perpendicular to the two-dimensional plane [P(-θ)=-P (θ)]. The spin polarization P(θ) is significantly enhanced by an attractive potential when the resonant condition of a partial wave is satisfied by tuning the potential strength. Second, we study the spin Hall effect in a three-terminal device with an antidot at the junction. The conductance and spin polarization are evaluated numerically.ootnotetextM. Yamamoto and B. Kramer, J. Appl. Phys. 103, 123703 (2008), for repulsive potential. We obtain a spin polarization of more than 50% due to the resonant scattering when the attractive potential is properly tuned.

  19. Geometric control of the magnetization reversal in antidot lattices with perpendicular magnetic anisotropy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gräfe, Joachim; Weigand, Markus; Träger, Nick; Schütz, Gisela; Goering, Eberhard J.; Skripnik, Maxim; Nowak, Ulrich; Haering, Felix; Ziemann, Paul; Wiedwald, Ulf

    2016-03-01

    While the magnetic properties of nanoscaled antidot lattices in in-plane magnetized materials have widely been investigated, much less is known about the microscopic effect of hexagonal antidot lattice patterning on materials with perpendicular magnetic anisotropy. By using a combination of first-order reversal curve measurements, magnetic x-ray microscopy, and micromagnetic simulations we elucidate the microscopic origins of the switching field distributions that arise from the introduction of antidot lattices into out-of-plane magnetized GdFe thin films. Depending on the geometric parameters of the antidot lattice we find two regimes with different magnetization reversal processes. For small antidots, the reversal process is dominated by the exchange interaction and domain wall pinning at the antidots drives up the coercivity of the system. On the other hand, for large antidots the dipolar interaction is dominating which leads to fragmentation of the system into very small domains that can be envisaged as a basis for a bit patterned media.

  20. Characterization and Magnetic Properties of Iron-Based Alloy Antidot Arrays

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Qing-Fang; JIANG Chang-Jun; WANG Jian-Bo; FAN Xiao-Long; XUE De-Sheng

    2007-01-01

    Fe29Co71 and Fe19Ni8 antidot arrays, with different dimensions, are prepared with the rf magnetron sputtering method onto the porous alumina substrate. The size and shape of antidot arrays are characterized by scanning electron microscopy. The glancing angle x-ray diffraction patterns of Fe29Co71 and Fe1gNis1 antidot arrays indicate the bcc and fcc structures, respectively. The coercivities of both the alloys show abnormal thickness dependence, which are discussed qualitatively by considering the pinning and the thickness effect to the films.

  1. A study of periodic and aperiodic ferromagnetic antidot lattices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhat, Vinayak S.

    This thesis reports our study of the effect of domain wall pinning by ferromagnetic (FM) metamaterials [1] in the form of periodic antidot lattices (ADL) on spin wave spectra in the reversible regime. This study was then extended to artificial quasicrystals in the form of Penrose P2 tilings (P2T). Our DC magnetization study of these metamaterials showed reproducible and temperature dependent knee anomalies in the hysteretic regime that are due to the isolated switching of the FM segments. Our dumbbell model analysis [2] of simulated magnetization maps indicates that FM switching in P2T is nonstochastic . We have also acquired the first direct, two-dimensional images of the magnetization of Permalloy films patterned into P2T using scanning electron microscopy with polarization analysis (SEMPA). Our SEMPA images demonstrate P2T behave as geometrically frustrated networks of narrow ferromagnetic film segments having near-uniform, bipolar (Ising-like) magnetization, similar to artificial spin ices (ASI). We find the unique aperiodic translational symmetry and diverse vertex coordination of multiply-connected P2T induce a more complex spin-ice behavior driven by exchange interactions in vertex domain walls, which differs markedly from the behavior of disconnected ASI governed only by dipolar interactions. Keywords: Ferromagnetic Antidot Lattices, Metamaterials, Ferromagnetic Resonance, Artificial Quasicrystal, Artificial Spin Ice. [1] VV Kruglyak et al. "Magnonic metamaterials". In: Metamaterial, edited by X.-Y. Jiang (InTech, 2012) (2012). [2] Claudio Castelnovo, Roderich Moessner, and Shivaji L Sondhi. "Magnetic monopoles in spin ice". In: Nature 451.7174 (2008), pp. 42--45.

  2. Vortices trapped in the damaged surroundings of antidots in Nb films - Depinning transition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nunes-Kapp, J.S. [Grupo de Supercondutividade e Magnetismo, Departamento de Fisica, Universidade Federal de Sao Carlos, Sao Carlos, SP (Brazil); Faculdade de Tecnologia SENAI ' Antonio Adolpho Lobbe' , Sao Carlos, SP (Brazil); Zadorosny, R.; Oliveira, A.A.M. [Grupo de Supercondutividade e Magnetismo, Departamento de Fisica, Universidade Federal de Sao Carlos, Sao Carlos, SP (Brazil); Vaz, A.R.; Moshkalev, S.A. [Centro de Componentes Semicondutores, UNICAMP, Campinas, SP (Brazil); Lepienski, M. [Departamento de Fisica, Universidade Federal do Parana, Curitiba, PR (Brazil); Ortiz, W.A., E-mail: wortiz@df.ufscar.b [Grupo de Supercondutividade e Magnetismo, Departamento de Fisica, Universidade Federal de Sao Carlos, Sao Carlos, SP (Brazil)

    2010-10-01

    The depinning transition of Vortex Matter in the presence of antidots in superconducting Nb films has been investigated. The antidots were fabricated using two different techniques, resulting in samples with arrays of diverse pinning efficiency. At low temperatures and fields, the spatial arrangement of Vortex Matter is governed by the presence of the antidots. Keeping the temperature fixed, an increase of the field induces a depinning transition. As the temperature approaches T{sub c}, the depinning frontier exhibits a characteristic kink at the temperature T{sub k}, above which the phase boundary exhibits a different regime. The lower-temperature regime is adequately described by a power-law expression, whose exponent n was observed to be inversely proportional to the pinning capability of the antidot, a feature that qualifies this parameter as a figure of merit to quantify the pinning strength of the defect.

  3. Reprint of : Thermodynamic properties of a quantum Hall anti-dot interferometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levy Schreier, Sarah; Stern, Ady; Rosenow, Bernd; Halperin, Bertrand I.

    2016-08-01

    We study quantum Hall interferometers in which the interference loop encircles a quantum anti-dot. We base our study on thermodynamic considerations, which we believe reflect the essential aspects of interference transport phenomena. We find that similar to the more conventional Fabry-Perot quantum Hall interferometers, in which the interference loop forms a quantum dot, the anti-dot interferometer is affected by the electro-static Coulomb interaction between the edge modes defining the loop. We show that in the Aharonov-Bohm regime, in which effects of fractional statistics should be visible, is easier to access in interferometers based on anti-dots than in those based on dots. We discuss the relevance of our results to recent measurements on anti-dots interferometers.

  4. A micromagnetic study of the hysteretic behavior of antidot Fe films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Torres Bruna, J.M. [Instituto de Ciencia de Materiales de Aragon (CSIC-Universidad de Zaragoza), Plaza de San Francisco s/n, 50009 Zaragoza (Spain); Bartolome, J. [Instituto de Ciencia de Materiales de Aragon (CSIC-Universidad de Zaragoza), Plaza de San Francisco s/n, 50009 Zaragoza (Spain); Garcia Vinuesa, L.M. [Instituto de Ciencia de Materiales de Aragon (CSIC-Universidad de Zaragoza), Plaza de San Francisco s/n, 50009 Zaragoza (Spain); Garcia Sanchez, F. [Instituto de Ciencia de Materiales de Madrid, CSIC Cantoblanco, 28049 Madrid (Spain); Gonzalez, J.M. [Unidad Asociada ICMM-IMA, Sor Juana Ines de la Cruz s/n, 28049 Madrid P.O. Box 155, 28230 Las Rozas, Madrid (Spain); Chubykalo-Fesenko, O.A. [Instituto de Ciencia de Materiales de Madrid, CSIC Cantoblanco, 28049 Madrid (Spain)]. E-mail: oksana@icmm.csic.es

    2005-04-15

    We report on the results of a micromagnetic study of the magnetization reversal process taking place in square arrays of antidots lithographed in Fe thin films. Our study focuses on the influence on the reversal process of the antidot diameter and the distance between adjacent antidots. It is shown that the minimization of the dipolar energy term of the total system energy originates inhomogeneous moment distributions at the antidot surfaces, and that these structures and their coupling rule the reversal process. We also show that the variation of the interantidot distance in the range of a few units of the exchange length allows varying the coercive force value by a factor of four approximately.

  5. Density functional study of graphene antidot lattices: Roles of geometrical relaxation and spin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fürst, Joachim Alexander; Pedersen, Thomas Garm; Brandbyge, Mads;

    2009-01-01

    Graphene sheets with regular perforations, dubbed as antidot lattices, have theoretically been predicted to have a number of interesting properties. Their recent experimental realization with lattice constants below 100 nanometers stresses the urgency of a thorough understanding of their electron...

  6. Exercise Not an 'Antidote' to Too Much Sitting, Heart Experts Say

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_160428.html Exercise Not an 'Antidote' to Too Much Sitting, Heart ... Aug. 15, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- Even if you exercise regularly, too much sitting can still be bad ...

  7. Magnetic characteristics of CoPd and FePd antidot arrays on nanoperforated Al2O3 templates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maximenko, A.; Fedotova, J.; Marszałek, M.; Zarzycki, A.; Zabila, Y.

    2016-02-01

    Hard magnetic antidot arrays show promising results in context of designing of percolated perpendicular media. In this work the technology of magnetic FePd and CoPd antidot arrays fabrication is presented and correlation between surface morphology, structure and magnetic properties is discussed. CoPd and FePd antidot arrays were fabricated by deposition of Co/Pd and Fe/Pd multilayers (MLs) on porous anodic aluminum oxide templates with bowl-shape cell structure with inclined intercellular regions. FePd ordered L10 structure was obtained by successive vacuum annealing at elevated temperatures (530 °C) and confirmed by XRD analysis. Systematic analysis of magnetization curves evidenced perpendicular magnetic anisotropy of CoPd antidot arrays, while FePd antidot arrays revealed isotropic magnetic anisotropy with increased out-of-plane magnetic contribution. MFM images of antidots showed more complicated contrast, with alternating magnetic dots oriented parallel and antiparallel to tip magnetization moment.

  8. Hydroxocobalamin as a Cyanide Antidote: Empirical use , Safety, Efficacy, and Considerations for Stockpiling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cyanide is a well-known toxic terrorism agent and is a major cause of mortality and morbidity in smoke inhalation victims. Terrorist attacks could start enclosed-space fires with cyanide-poisoned victims, even if cyanide itself was not utilized. Cyanide poisoning cannot be emergent confirmed by laboratory analysis and treatment with safe and efficacious antidotes must be administered empirically. Hydroxocobalamin has been recently approved by the US FDA and is a safe and efficacious antidote. Its efficacy is comparable to that of other, more toxic, cyanide antidotes. Its mechanism of action involves both direct cyanide chelation (forming non-toxic cyanocobalamin which is excreted in the urine) and nitric oxide scavenging. Adverse effects are usually limited to transient dark red-brown discoloration of urine, skin, sclera, and mucous membranes. Antidotal doses have not caused allergic reactions in cyanide-poisoned patients and only minor and easily-treated allergic reactions occurred in 2 of 136 normal volunteers. Transient, asymptomatic hypertension and reflex bradycardia have occurred in some normal volunteers, but not in seriously ill smoke inhalation victims not having significant cyanide poisoning. Hydroxocobalamin is a safe and efficacious antidote and can be empirically administered in pre-hospital or emergency department settings. It is therefore suitable for inclusion in national or multinational medication stockpiles and is already included in some national programs in the European Union.(author)

  9. An in vivo zebrafish screen identifies organophosphate antidotes with diverse mechanisms of action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Shan; Sarkar, Kumar S; Jin, Youngnam N; Liu, Yan; Kokel, David; Van Ham, Tjakko J; Roberts, Lee D; Gerszten, Robert E; Macrae, Calum A; Peterson, Randall T

    2013-01-01

    Organophosphates are a class of highly toxic chemicals that includes many pesticides and chemical weapons. Exposure to organophosphates, either through accidents or acts of terrorism, poses a significant risk to human health and safety. Existing antidotes, in use for over 50 years, have modest efficacy and undesirable toxicities. Therefore, discovering new organophosphate antidotes is a high priority. Early life stage zebrafish exposed to organophosphates exhibit several phenotypes that parallel the human response to organophosphates, including behavioral deficits, paralysis, and eventual death. Here, we have developed a high-throughput zebrafish screen in a 96-well plate format to find new antidotes that counteract organophosphate-induced lethality. In a pilot screen of 1200 known drugs, we identified 16 compounds that suppress organophosphate toxicity in zebrafish. Several in vitro assays coupled with liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry-based metabolite profiling enabled determination of mechanisms of action for several of the antidotes, including reversible acetylcholinesterase inhibition, cholinergic receptor antagonism, and inhibition of bioactivation. Therefore, the in vivo screen is capable of discovering organophosphate antidotes that intervene in distinct pathways. These findings suggest that zebrafish screens might be a broadly applicable approach for discovering compounds that counteract the toxic effects of accidental or malicious poisonous exposures. PMID:22960781

  10. Recent advances in the development of specific antidotes for target-specific oral anticoagulants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mo, Yoonsun; Yam, Felix K

    2015-02-01

    Warfarin, a vitamin K antagonist, has been the only orally available anticoagulant for > 60 years. During the past decade, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration has approved several target-specific oral anticoagulants (TSOACs) for the prophylaxis and treatment of arterial and venous thromboembolism and stroke prevention in patients with nonvalvular atrial fibrillation. These new agents have several advantages over warfarin including more predictable pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics, fewer food and drug interactions, and lack of need for routine coagulation monitoring. However, unlike warfarin, currently no antidotes are available to reverse the anticoagulant effect of TSOACs. Specific antidotes for TSOACs may not be needed in most situations due to their short half-life, yet the absence of antidotes for these agents is a concern, especially in emergent situations such as life-threatening major bleeding or nonelective major surgery. Several specific antidotes for TSOACs including idarucizumab, andexanet alfa, and aripazine have been developed and have shown promise in early clinical trials evaluating their efficacy and safety. In this narrative review, the progress made in developing specific antidotes for TSOACs is summarized based on the latest available preclinical and clinical data. PMID:25644580

  11. The Copernican Revolution as Story: an Antidote for Scientific Illiteracy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, P. M.

    2005-08-01

    ``When a white-robed scientist, momentarily looking away from his microscope or cyclotron [or telescope], makes some pronouncement for the general public, he may not be understood but at least he is certain to be believed.'' The truth of this opening sentence of Anthony Standen's 1950 book Science is a Sacred Cow, as clear today as it was then, is the motivation for a new astronomy course at Berry College near Atlanta, GA, USA. To non-scientists, science is known by its products, not by what it is: a human progress. For this illiteracy an antidote is offered: the history of astronomy. In this course the story of the Copernican Revolution is told, for within this story the true nature of science can be found in its fullness. For example, Aristotle's uniform circular motion is used to emphasize the role of assumptions, and the occasional value of wrong ideas is evident in Tycho's theory and in Kepler's universe of perfect solids. Tycho's observations of Mars and Kepler's analysis illustrate the interplay of observation, theory, and technology. As a final example, the indirectness and often-unintentional nature of scientific advance can be seen in the work of Copernicus. The roles of personality and the intersections of science and society are themes throughout the course, as are the merging of disparate fields and the power of strong theories. There are other themes (e.g., coherence, the role of mathematics), but the emphasis is on the science and much of the work is quantitative. There is a laboratory component that features observations and experiments, and in order to bring the narrative to life the class spends two weeks in Poland, the Czech Republic, and Italy, touring sites that are relevant to the story of the Copernican Revolution.

  12. N-acetylcysteine amide, a promising antidote for acetaminophen toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khayyat, Ahdab; Tobwala, Shakila; Hart, Marcia; Ercal, Nuran

    2016-01-22

    Acetaminophen (N-acetyl-p-aminophenol, APAP) is one of the most widely used over the counter antipyretic and analgesic medications. It is safe at therapeutic doses, but its overdose can result in severe hepatotoxicity, a leading cause of drug-induced acute liver failure in the USA. Depletion of glutathione (GSH) is one of the initiating steps in APAP-induced hepatotoxicity; therefore, one strategy for restricting organ damage is to restore GSH levels by using GSH prodrugs. N-acetylcysteine (NAC), a GSH precursor, is the only currently approved antidote for an acetaminophen overdose. Unfortunately, fairly high doses and longer treatment times are required due to its poor bioavailability. In addition, oral and I.V. administration of NAC in a hospital setting are laborious and costly. Therefore, we studied the protective effects of N-acetylcysteine amide (NACA), a novel antioxidant with higher bioavailability, and compared it with NAC in APAP-induced hepatotoxicity in C57BL/6 mice. Our results showed that NACA is better than NAC at a low dose (106mg/kg) in preventing oxidative stress and protecting against APAP-induced damage. NACA significantly increased GSH levels and the GSH/GSSG ratio in the liver to 66.5% and 60.5% of the control, respectively; and it reduced the level of ALT by 30%. However, at the dose used, NAC was not effective in combating the oxidative stress induced by APAP. Thus, NACA appears to be better than NAC in reducing the oxidative stress induced by APAP. It would be of great value in the health care field to develop drugs like NACA as more effective and safer options for the prevention and therapeutic intervention in APAP-induced toxicity.

  13. Homer's moly identified as Galanthus nivalis L.: physiologic antidote to stramonium poisoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plaitakis, A; Duvoisin, R C

    1983-03-01

    The antidotal properties of certain naturally occurring medicinal plants against central nervous system intoxication appear to have been empirically established in ancient times. Homer, in his epic poem, the Odyssey, described a plant, "moly," used by Odysseus as an antidote against Circe's poisonous drugs. Centrally acting anticholinergic agents are thought to have been used by Circe to induce amnesia and a delusional state in Odysseus' crew. We present evidence to support the hypothesis that "moly" might have been the snowdrop, Galanthus nivalis, which contains galanthamine, a centrally acting anticholinesterase. Thus the description of "moly" as an antidote in Homer's Odyssey may represent the oldest recorded use of an anticholinesterase to reverse central anticholinergic intoxication.

  14. Generation of propagating spin waves from regions of increased dynamic demagnetising field near magnetic antidots

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davies, C. S., E-mail: csd203@exeter.ac.uk; Kruglyak, V. V. [School of Physics, University of Exeter, Stocker Road, Exeter EX4 4QL (United Kingdom); Sadovnikov, A. V.; Nikitov, S. A. [Laboratory “Metamaterials,” Saratov State University, Saratov 410012 (Russian Federation); Kotel' nikov Institute of Radioengineering and Electronics, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow 125009 (Russian Federation); Grishin, S. V.; Sharaevskii, Yu. P. [Laboratory “Metamaterials,” Saratov State University, Saratov 410012 (Russian Federation)

    2015-10-19

    We have used Brillouin Light Scattering and micromagnetic simulations to demonstrate a point-like source of spin waves created by the inherently nonuniform internal magnetic field in the vicinity of an isolated antidot formed in a continuous film of yttrium-iron-garnet. The field nonuniformity ensures that only well-defined regions near the antidot respond in resonance to a continuous excitation of the entire sample with a harmonic microwave field. The resonantly excited parts of the sample then served as reconfigurable sources of spin waves propagating (across the considered sample) in the form of caustic beams. Our findings are relevant to further development of magnonic circuits, in which point-like spin wave stimuli could be required, and as a building block for interpretation of spin wave behavior in magnonic crystals formed by antidot arrays.

  15. Enhanced spin Hall effect by tuning antidot potential: Proposal for a spin filter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yokoyama, Tomohiro; Eto, Mikio

    2009-09-01

    We propose an efficient spin filter including an antidot fabricated on semiconductor heterostructures with strong spin-orbit interaction. The antidot creates a tunable potential on two-dimensional electron gas in the heterostructures, which may be attractive as well as repulsive. Our idea is based on the enhancement of extrinsic spin Hall effect by resonant scattering when the attractive potential is properly tuned. Numerical studies for three- and four-terminal devices indicate that the efficiency of the spin filter can be more than 50% by tuning the potential to the resonant condition.

  16. Ferromagnetic resonance investigation in permalloy magnetic antidot arrays on alumina nanoporous membranes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodríguez-Suárez, R.L., E-mail: rrodriguez@fis.puc.cl [Facultad de Física, Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile, Av. Vicuña Mackenna 4860 Casilla 306, Santiago (Chile); Palma, J.L.; Burgos, E.O. [Departamento de Física, Universidad de Santiago de Chile (USACH), Avda. Ecuador 3493, 917-0124 Santiago (Chile); Michea, S. [Facultad de Física, Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile, Av. Vicuña Mackenna 4860 Casilla 306, Santiago (Chile); Departamento de Física, Universidad de Santiago de Chile (USACH), Avda. Ecuador 3493, 917-0124 Santiago (Chile); Escrig, J.; Denardin, J.C. [Departamento de Física, Universidad de Santiago de Chile (USACH), Avda. Ecuador 3493, 917-0124 Santiago (Chile); Center for the Development of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology (CEDENNA), Avda. Ecuador 3493, 917-0124 Santiago (Chile); Aliaga, C. [Center for the Development of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology (CEDENNA), Avda. Ecuador 3493, 917-0124 Santiago (Chile); Facultad de Química y Biología, Universidad de Santiago de Chile, Casilla 40, Correo 33, Santiago (Chile)

    2014-01-15

    The magnetic properties of Ni{sub 80}Fe{sub 20} antidot arrays with hole diameters of 18 and 70 nm fabricated by a template-assisted method were investigated using the ferromagnetic resonance technique. Tuning the antidot arrays by changing the hole diameter enables control on the angular dependence of the ferromagnetic resonance field. The scanning electron microscope images reveal a quite regular hexagonal arrangement of the pores, however the angular dependence of the resonance field do not exhibit the six-fold symmetry expected for this symmetry. Micromagnetic simulations performed on a perfect hexagonal lattice, when compared with those made on our real system taken from the scanning microscope images, reveal that the presence of defects in the antidot lattice affects the ferromagnetic resonance field symmetry. - Highlights: • We use the FMR technique to investigate the magnetic properties of Py antidots. • We studied the effect of pore diameter on FMR angular measurement. • FMR field does not exhibit the six-fold symmetry. • For all angular positions there are two resonance modes always present. • Micromagnetic simulations agree with the experimental results with defects.

  17. Prehospital diagnosis of massive ethylene glycol poisoning and use of an early antidote.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amathieu, Roland; Merouani, Medhi; Borron, Stephen W; Lapostolle, Frédéric; Smail, Nadia; Adnet, Frédéric

    2006-08-01

    We report the case of a patient suspected of voluntary massive poisoning by ethylene glycol. Prehospital diagnosis was established by portable blood analyser and an early antidote with 4 MP treatment initiated in out-of-hospital setting. Use of portable blood analyser in prehospital care should be considered in case of suspected massive poisoning by ethylene glycol. PMID:16808995

  18. Quantum computing via defect states in two-dimensional antidot lattices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flindt, Christian; Mortensen, Niels Asger; Jauho, Antti-Pekka

    2005-12-01

    We propose a new structure suitable for quantum computing in a solid-state environment: designed defect states in antidot lattices superimposed on a two-dimensional electron gas at a semiconductor heterostructure. State manipulation can be obtained with gate control. Model calculations indicate that it is feasible to fabricate structures whose energy level structure is robust against thermal dephasing.

  19. Thermodynamic modeling using BINGO-ANTIDOTE: A new strategy to investigate metamorphic rocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanari, Pierre; Duesterhoeft, Erik

    2016-04-01

    BINGO-ANTIDOTE is a new program, combing the achievements of the two petrological software packages XMAPTOOLS[1] and THERIAK-DOMINO[2]. XMAPTOOLS affords information about compositional zoning in mineral and local bulk composition of domains at the thin sections scale. THERIAK-DOMINO calculates equilibrium phase assemblages from given bulk rock composition, temperature T and pressure P. Primarily BINGO-ANTIDOTE can be described as an inverse THERIAK-DOMINO, because it uses the information provided by XMAPTOOLS to calculate the probable P-T equilibrium conditions of metamorphic rocks. Consequently, the introduced program combines the strengths of forward Gibbs free energy minimization models with the intuitive output of inverse thermobarometry models. In order to get "best" P-T equilibrium conditions of a metamorphic rock sample and thus estimating the degree of agreement between the observed and calculated mineral assemblage, it is critical to define a reliable scoring strategy. BINGO uses the THERIAKD ADD-ON[3] (Duesterhoeft and de Capitani, 2013) and is a flexible model scorer with 3+1 evaluation criteria. These criteria are the statistical agreement between the observed and calculated mineral-assemblage, -proportions (vol%) and -composition (mol). Additionally, a total likelihood, consisting of the first three criteria, allows the user an evaluation of the most probable equilibrium P-T condition. ANTIDOTE is an interactive user interface, displaying the 3+1 evaluation criteria as probability P-T-maps. It can be used with and without XMAPTOOLS. As a stand-alone program, the user is able to give the program macroscopic observations (i.e., mineral names and proportions), which ANTIDOTE converts to a readable BINGO input. In this manner, the use of BINGO-ANTIDOTE opens up thermodynamics to students and people with only a basic knowledge of phase diagrams and thermodynamic modeling techniques. This presentation introduces BINGO-ANTIDOTE and includes typical examples

  20. Quaternary and tertiary aldoxime antidotes for organophosphate exposure in a zebrafish model system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmidt, Hayden R. [Department of Biology, Whittier College, Whittier, CA 90608 (United States); Radić, Zoran; Taylor, Palmer [Department of Pharmacology, Skaggs School of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of California at San Diego, La Jolla, CA 92093-0650 (United States); Fradinger, Erica A., E-mail: efrading@whittier.edu [Department of Biology, Whittier College, Whittier, CA 90608 (United States)

    2015-04-15

    The zebrafish is rapidly becoming an important model system for screening of new therapeutics. Here we evaluated the zebrafish as a potential pharmacological model for screening novel oxime antidotes to organophosphate (OP)-inhibited acetylcholinesterase (AChE). The k{sub i} values determined for chlorpyrifos oxon (CPO) and dichlorvos (DDVP) showed that CPO was a more potent inhibitor of both human and zebrafish AChE, but overall zebrafish AChE was less sensitive to OP inhibition. In contrast, aldoxime antidotes, the quaternary ammonium 2-PAM and tertiary amine RS-194B, showed generally similar overall reactivation kinetics, k{sub r}, in both zebrafish and human AChE. However, differences between the K{sub ox} and k{sub 2} constants suggest that zebrafish AChE associates more tightly with oximes, but has a slower maximal reactivation rate than human AChE. Homology modeling suggests that these kinetic differences result from divergences in the amino acids lining the entrance to the active site gorge. Although 2-PAM had the more favorable in vitro reactivation kinetics, RS-194B was more effective antidote in vivo. In intact zebrafish embryos, antidotal treatment with RS-194B rescued embryos from OP toxicity, whereas 2-PAM had no effect. Dechorionation of the embryos prior to antidotal treatment allowed both 2-PAM and RS-194B to rescue zebrafish embryos from OP toxicity. Interestingly, RS-194B and 2-PAM alone increased cholinergic motor activity in dechorionated embryos possibly due to the reversible inhibition kinetics, K{sub i} and αK{sub i}, of the oximes. Together these results demonstrate that the zebrafish at various developmental stages provides an excellent model for investigating membrane penetrant antidotes to OP exposure. - Highlights: • Zebrafish AChE shares significant structural similarities with human AChE. • OP-inhibited zebrafish and human AChE exhibit similar reactivation kinetics. • The zebrafish chorion is permeable to BBB penetrant and not

  1. New edge magnetoplasmon interference like photovoltage oscillations and their amplitude enhancement in the presence of an antidot lattice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bisotto, I., E-mail: isabelle.bisotto@lncmi.cnrs.fr [LNCMI, UPR 3228, CNRS–INSA–UJF–UPS, BP 166, 38042 Grenoble, Cedex 9 (France); Portal, J.-C. [LNCMI, UPR 3228, CNRS–INSA–UJF–UPS, BP 166, 38042 Grenoble, Cedex 9 (France); Institut National des Sciences Appliquées, 31077 Toulouse Cedex 4 (France); Institut Universitaire de France, 75005 Paris (France); Brown, D. [Microelectronics Research Center Georgia Institute of Technology, 791 Atlantic Drive NW, Atlanta, GA 30332 (United States); Wieck, A. D. [Lehrstuhl für Angewandte Festkörperphysik, Ruhr-Universität Bochum, D-44780 Bochum (Germany)

    2015-11-15

    We present new photovoltage oscillation in a pure two dimensional electron gas (2DEG) and in the presence of circular or semicircular antidot lattices. Results were interpreted as EMPs-like photovoltage oscillations. We observed and explained the photovoltage oscillation amplitude enhancement in the presence of an antidot lattice with regard to the pure 2DEG. The microwave frequency excitation range is 139 – 350 GHz. The cyclotron and magnetoplasmon resonances take place in the magnetic field range 0.4 – 0.8 T. This original experimental condition allows edge magnetoplasmons EMPs interference like observation at low magnetic field, typically B < B{sub c} where B{sub c} is the magnetic field at which the cyclotron resonance takes place. The different oscillation periods observed and their microwave frequency dependence were discussed. For 139 and 158 GHz microwave excitation frequencies, a unique EMPs-like interference period was found in the presence of antidots whereas two periods were extracted for 295 or 350 GHz. An explanation of this effect is given taking account of strong electron interaction with antidot at low magnetic field. Indeed, electrons involved in EMPs like phenomenon interact strongly with antidots when electron cyclotron orbits are larger than or comparable to the antidot diameter.

  2. New edge magnetoplasmon interference like photovoltage oscillations and their amplitude enhancement in the presence of an antidot lattice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Bisotto

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available We present new photovoltage oscillation in a pure two dimensional electron gas (2DEG and in the presence of circular or semicircular antidot lattices. Results were interpreted as EMPs-like photovoltage oscillations. We observed and explained the photovoltage oscillation amplitude enhancement in the presence of an antidot lattice with regard to the pure 2DEG. The microwave frequency excitation range is 139 – 350 GHz. The cyclotron and magnetoplasmon resonances take place in the magnetic field range 0.4 – 0.8 T. This original experimental condition allows edge magnetoplasmons EMPs interference like observation at low magnetic field, typically B < Bc where Bc is the magnetic field at which the cyclotron resonance takes place. The different oscillation periods observed and their microwave frequency dependence were discussed. For 139 and 158 GHz microwave excitation frequencies, a unique EMPs-like interference period was found in the presence of antidots whereas two periods were extracted for 295 or 350 GHz. An explanation of this effect is given taking account of strong electron interaction with antidot at low magnetic field. Indeed, electrons involved in EMPs like phenomenon interact strongly with antidots when electron cyclotron orbits are larger than or comparable to the antidot diameter.

  3. Magnetic properties of Fe{sub 20} Ni{sub 80} antidots: Pore size and array disorder

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palma, J.L., E-mail: juan.palma.s@usach.cl [Departamento de Física, Universidad de Santiago de Chile (USACH), Avda. Ecuador 3493, 917-0124 Santiago (Chile); Gallardo, C. [Departamento de Física, Universidad de Santiago de Chile (USACH), Avda. Ecuador 3493, 917-0124 Santiago (Chile); Spinu, L.; Vargas, J.M. [Advanced Material Research Institute (AMRI) and Department of Physics, University of New Orleans, New Orleans, LA 70148 (United States); Dorneles, L.S. [Departamento de Fisica, Universidade Federal de Santa Maria UFSM, Av. Roraima 1000, Camobi, Santa Maria, RS 97105-900 (Brazil); Denardin, J.C.; Escrig, J. [Departamento de Física, Universidad de Santiago de Chile (USACH), Avda. Ecuador 3493, 917-0124 Santiago (Chile); Center for the Development of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology (CEDENNA), Avda. Ecuador 3493, 917-0124 Santiago (Chile)

    2013-10-15

    Magnetic properties of nanoscale Fe{sub 20}Ni{sub 80} antidot arrays with different hole sizes prepared on top of nanoporous alumina membranes have been studied by means of magnetometry and micromagnetic simulations. The results show a significant increase of the coercivity as well as a reduction of the remanence of the antidot arrays, as compared with their parent continuous film, which depends on the hole size introduced in the Fe{sub 20}Ni{sub 80} thin film. When the external field is applied parallel to the antidots, the reversal of magnetization is achieved by free-core vortex propagation, whereas when the external field is applied perpendicular to the antidots, the reversal occurs through a process other than the coherent rotation (a maze-like pattern). Besides, in-plane hysteresis loops varying the angle show that the degree of disorder in the sample breaks the expected hexagonal symmetry. - Highlights: • Magnetic properties are strongly influenced by the pore diameter of the samples. • Coercive fields for antidots are higher than the values for the continuous film. • Disorder breaks the hexagonal symmetry of the sample. • Each hole acts as a vortex nucleation point. • Antidots have unique properties that allow them to be used in applications.

  4. The toxin and antidote puzzle: new ways to control insect pest populations through manipulating inheritance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, John M

    2011-01-01

    Insects carry out essential ecological functions, such as pollination, but also cause extensive damage to agricultural crops, and transmit human diseases such as malaria and dengue fever. Advances in insect transgenesis are making it increasingly feasible to engineer genes conferring desirable phenotypes, and gene drive systems are required to spread these genes into wild populations. Medea provides one solution, being able to spread into a population from very low initial frequencies through the action of a maternally-expressed toxin linked to a zygotically-expressed antidote. Several other toxin-antidote combinations are imaginable that distort the offspring ratio in favor of a desired transgene, or drive the population towards an all-male crash. We explore two such systems--Semele, which is capable of spreading a desired transgene into an isolated population in a confined manner; and Merea, which is capable of inducing a local population crash when located on the Z chromosome of a Lepidopteron pest. PMID:21876382

  5. Antidote treatment for cyanide poisoning with hydroxocobalamin causes bright pink discolouration and chemical-analytical interferences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunel, C; Widmer, C; Augsburger, M; Dussy, F; Fracasso, T

    2012-11-30

    Here we report the case of a 70-year-old woman who committed suicide by cyanide poisoning. During resuscitation cares, she underwent an antidote treatment by hydroxocobalamin. Postmortem investigations showed marked bright pink discolouration of organs and fluids, and a lethal cyanide blood concentration of 43 mg/L was detected by toxicological investigation. Discolouration of hypostasis and organs has widely been studied in forensic literature. In our case, we interpreted the unusual pink coloration as the result of the presence of hydroxocobalamin. This substance is a known antidote against cyanide poisoning, indicated because of its efficiency and poor adverse effects. However, its main drawback is to interfere with measurements of many routine biochemical parameters. We have tested the potential influence of this molecule in some routine postmortem investigations. The results are discussed.

  6. Angle-resolved spin wave band diagrams of square antidot lattices studied by Brillouin light scattering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gubbiotti, G.; Tacchi, S. [Istituto Officina dei Materiali del Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche (IOM-CNR), Sede di Perugia, c/o Dipartimento di Fisica e Geologia, Via A. Pascoli, I-06123 Perugia (Italy); Montoncello, F.; Giovannini, L. [Dipartimento di Fisica e Scienze della Terra, Università di Ferrara, Via G. Saragat 1, I-44122 Ferrara (Italy); Madami, M.; Carlotti, G. [Dipartimento di Fisica e Geologia, Università di Perugia, Via A. Pascoli, I-06123 Perugia (Italy); Ding, J.; Adeyeye, A. O. [Information Storage Materials Laboratory, Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, National University of Singapore, Singapore 117576 (Singapore)

    2015-06-29

    The Brillouin light scattering technique has been exploited to study the angle-resolved spin wave band diagrams of squared Permalloy antidot lattice. Frequency dispersion of spin waves has been measured for a set of fixed wave vector magnitudes, while varying the wave vector in-plane orientation with respect to the applied magnetic field. The magnonic band gap between the two most dispersive modes exhibits a minimum value at an angular position, which exclusively depends on the product between the selected wave vector magnitude and the lattice constant of the array. The experimental data are in very good agreement with predictions obtained by dynamical matrix method calculations. The presented results are relevant for magnonic devices where the antidot lattice, acting as a diffraction grating, is exploited to achieve multidirectional spin wave emission.

  7. Low frequency noise and complex AC magnetoresistance in superconducting Pb/Ge with square antidot lattice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The low frequency voltage noise and complex AC voltage response to weakly modulated magnetic fields have been studied in a superconducting Pb film with a square lattice of antidots. The temperature was close to Tc and the DC magnetic field was changed between ±1.5 H1 with H1=9.2 Oe corresponding to one vortex per antidot. A narrow band noise near f∼0.55 Hz has been observed which shows different dependences on the magnetic field in 4- and 5-point probe configurations. In the latter configuration one probes the correlation between the noise voltages in the two parts of the sample. We also measured the resistance when, in addition to the DC field, a small AC field with frequency f<177 Hz was applied. The data showed that the complex magnetoresistance response becomes nonlinear below 1/3 of the first matching field

  8. Aluminum phosphide poisoning: Possible role of supportive measures in the absence of specific antidote

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vijay Kumar Agrawal

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Aluminum phosphide (ALP poisoning is one of the major causes of suicidal deaths. Toxicity by ALP is caused by the liberation of phosphine gas, which rapidly causes cell hypoxia due to inhibition of oxidative phosphorylation, leading to circulatory failure. Treatment of ALP toxicity is mainly supportive as there is no specific antidote. We recently managed 7 cases of ALP poisoning with severe hemodynamic effects. Patients were treated with supportive measures including gastric lavage with diluted potassium permanganate, coconut oil and sodium-bicarbonate first person account should be avoided in a scientific paper. Intravenous magnesium sulfate, proper hemodynamic monitoring and vasopressors. Four out of 7 survived thus suggesting a role of such supportive measures in the absence of specific antidote for ALP poisoning.

  9. Spin Waves in a Ferromagnetic Film with a Periodic System of Antidots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.V. Kulish

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available In the paper, spin waves in a thin film (composed of a uniaxial ferromagnet with a two-dimensional periodical system of antidots are studied. The film ferromagnet is considered to have the “easy axis” type. To describe such waves, the magnetostatic approximation with account for the magnetic dipole-dipole interaction, the exchange interaction and the anisotropy effects is used. For such waves, an equation for the magnetic potential is derived; for the case of remote antidots, the dispersion relation and the transverse wavenumber spectrum are found. For the case of a film thin compared to the exchange length and for the case of a film bounded by a high-conductivity metal, the longitudinal wavenumber spectrum and the frequency spectrum of such spin waves are also obtained.

  10. Signatures of fractional Hall quasiparticles in moments of current through an antidot

    OpenAIRE

    Braggio, A.; Magnoli, N; M. Merlo; Sassetti, M.

    2006-01-01

    The statistics of tunneling current in a fractional quantum Hall sample with an antidot is studied in the chiral Luttinger liquid picture of edge states. A comparison between Fano factor and skewness is proposed in order to clearly distinguish the charge of the carriers in both the thermal and the shot limit. In addition, we address effects on current moments of non-universal exponents in single-quasiparticle propagators. Positive correlations, result of propagators behaviour, are obtained in...

  11. A cost effectiveness analysis of the preferred antidotes for acute paracetamol poisoning patients in Sri Lanka

    OpenAIRE

    Senarathna, S M D K Ganga; Ranganathan, Shalini Sri; Buckley, Nick; Fernandopulle, Rohini

    2012-01-01

    Background Acute paracetamol poisoning is a rapidly increasing problem in Sri Lanka. The antidotes are expensive and yet no health economic evaluation has been done on the therapy for acute paracetamol poisoning in the developing world. The aim of this study is to determine the cost effectiveness of using N-acetylcysteine over methionine in the management of acute paracetamol poisoning in Sri Lanka. Methods Economic analysis was applied using public healthcare system payer perspective. Costs ...

  12. Resonance Patterns of an Antidot Cluster: From Classical to Quantum Ballistics

    OpenAIRE

    Kirczenow, George; Johnson, Brad L.; Kelly, P. J.; Gould, C.; Sachrajda, A. S.; Feng, Y.; Delage, A.

    1997-01-01

    We explain the experimentally observed Aharonov-Bohm (AB) resonance patterns of an antidot cluster by means of quantum and classical simulations and Feynman path integral theory. We demonstrate that the observed behavior of the AB period signals the crossover from a low B regime which can be understood in terms of electrons following classical orbits to an inherently quantum high B regime where this classical picture and semiclassical theories based on it do not apply.

  13. Exchange bias and magnetization reversal in ferromagnet/antiferromagnet antidot arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, An; Ma, Fenghua; Hu, Yong

    2016-09-01

    Exchange bias and coercivity in ferromagnet/antiferromagnet antidot arrays magnetized perpendicularly are simulated to demonstrate the mechanism of their variations in specific nanostructures, using a modified Monte Carlo Metropolis algorithm. Three kinds of antidot array models characterized by different morphologies in the vicinity of pore are established and their magnetization behaviors are compared with that in the continuous film. An increase in the exchange bias field with a suppressed coercivity is obtained if the antiferromagnet covers the wall of pore entirely. By means of the results of the spin configurations, it is found that only the heterostructure component, e.g., the antiferromagnet can cut off the domain in the ferromagnet layer into small sizes effectively, and thus increases the pinning effect to the ferromagnet and changes the nucleation field. Moreover, the thermal stability of exchange bias in the antidot arrays is not enhanced and the coercivity is nonmonotonic with increasing temperature probably due to the magnetic field applied perpendicular to the film plane. We suggest that our numerical findings are also suitable for other nanostructures.

  14. MFM observations of domain wall creep and pinning effects in amorphous Co{sub x}Si{sub 1-x} films with diluted arrays of antidots

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodriguez-Rodriguez, G [Departamento Fisica, Facultad Ciencias, Universidad de Oviedo, Av. Calvo Sotelo s/n, 33007 Oviedo (Spain); Perez-Junquera, A [Departamento Fisica, Facultad Ciencias, Universidad de Oviedo, Av. Calvo Sotelo s/n, 33007 Oviedo (Spain); Velez, M [Departamento Fisica, Facultad Ciencias, Universidad de Oviedo, Av. Calvo Sotelo s/n, 33007 Oviedo (Spain); Anguita, J V [Instituto de Microelectronica de Madrid, CNM-CSIC, Isaac Newton 8, PTM, Tres Cantos, 28760 Madrid (Spain); Martin, J I [Departamento Fisica, Facultad Ciencias, Universidad de Oviedo, Av. Calvo Sotelo s/n, 33007 Oviedo (Spain); Rubio, H [Departamento Fisica, Facultad Ciencias, Universidad de Oviedo, Av. Calvo Sotelo s/n, 33007 Oviedo (Spain); Alameda, J M [Departamento Fisica, Facultad Ciencias, Universidad de Oviedo, Av. Calvo Sotelo s/n, 33007 Oviedo (Spain)

    2007-05-21

    Magnetic force microscopy (MFM) has been used to analyse the behaviour of domain walls in uniaxial amorphous Co{sub x}Si{sub 1-x} films patterned with diluted arrays of antidots by electron beam lithography. The walls are found to be pinned by the antidot array when the antidot density is high enough along the easy axis. The expansion of reversed nuclei under the influence of the tip stray field has been observed in several consecutive MFM images of the same area, showing how the competition between line tension effects and pinning by the patterned holes governs the creep motion of the 180{sup 0} walls across the array of antidots.

  15. Large negative magnetoresistance induced by interplay between smooth disorder and antidots in AlGaN/GaN HEMT structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, M. K.; Sharma, R. K.; Tyagi, R.; Manchanda, R.; Pandey, A. K.; Thakur, O. P.; Muralidharan, R.

    2016-04-01

    Large low temperature negative magnetoresistance (NMR) experimentally observed in AlGaN/GaN high electron mobility transistors (HEMT) structures grown by metalorganic chemical vapour deposition on sapphire substrate has been reported. A linear B -1 ln B dependence of magnetoresistance observed in our samples indicates the presence of random antidot array together with smooth disorder. It is proposed that the antidots are linked with high bandgap AlN rich regions formed due to possible Al-Ga segregation at the interface during growth and the smooth random disorder is due to interface roughness. The antidot density is estimated to be of ˜7 to 8 × 1010 cm-2 in our samples. The magnitude of NMR is also correlated with the extent of interface roughness indicated by x-ray reflectivity. It is also proposed that the formation of antidots is related with the lattice mismatch between substrate and epitaxial heterostructures. The NMR in AlGaN/GaN HEMT structures grown on SiC substrates having relatively lower lattice mismatch has been shown to have a usual B 2 and ln T dependences indicating only electron-electron interaction and absence of antidot-like scatterers.

  16. Antidotal Efficacy of a New Combination in Treatment of Subacute T-2 Toxin Poisoning in Rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trichothecene mycotoxin, T-2 toxin is a natural metabolite of Fusarium fungi. T-2 toxin possesses several properties (significant persistence in the environment, cheap manufacture, difficult detection and absence of a specific antidote) that make it a very dangerous potential chemical warfare agent. In our previous experiments, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) nimesulide (NIM), as a selective COX-2 inhibitor, and zeolite absorbent (Min-a-zel Plus, MINplus) administered separately showed a good protective effects against general toxicity induced by T-2 toxin (T2). The aim of this study was to evaluate the antidotal potential of the combination of these two antidotes. T2 was given in a dose of 0.15 mg/kg sc (0.1 LD50), 5 times per week, 4 weeks to adult Wistar rats. Protected animals were given NIM (20 mg/kg im) or/and MINplus (40 mg/kg po) each time immediately after T2. Mortality, general condition, body weight gain, food and water consumption and gut alterations of the animals were registered on a daily basis during 4 weeks. Treatment with NIM or/and MINplus significantly reduced mortality of the rats treated only with T2. Body weight gain, food and water consumption were significantly decreased in T2-treated animals compared to control ones (p < 0.001), what was not the case in the protected rats. In the groups treated with NIM and MINplus gut alterations were significantly less severe than those observed in animals receiving T2 alone (p less than 0.001). These results imply that combined treatment with nimesulide and zeolite absorbent affords a significant protection against subacute T-2 toxin poisoning in rats.(author)

  17. Specific antidotes against direct oral anticoagulants: A comprehensive review of clinical trials data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tummala, Ramyashree; Kavtaradze, Ana; Gupta, Anjan; Ghosh, Raktim Kumar

    2016-07-01

    The Vitamin K antagonist warfarin was the only oral anticoagulant available for decades for the treatment of thrombosis and prevention of thromboembolism until Direct Oral Anticoagulants (DOACs); a group of new oral anticoagulants got approved in the last few years. Direct thrombin inhibitor: dabigatran and factor Xa inhibitors: apixaban, rivaroxaban, and edoxaban directly inhibit the coagulation cascade. DOACs have many advantages over warfarin. However, the biggest drawback of DOACs has been the lack of specific antidotes to reverse the anticoagulant effect in emergency situations. Activated charcoal, hemodialysis, and activated Prothrombin Complex Concentrate (PCC) were amongst the nonspecific agents used in a DOAC associated bleeding but with limited success. Idarucizumab, the first novel antidote against direct thrombin inhibitor dabigatran was approved by US FDA in October 2015. It comprehensively reversed dabigatran-induced anticoagulation in a phase I study. A phase III trial on Idarucizumab also complete reversal of anticoagulant effect of dabigatran. Andexanet alfa (PRT064445), a specific reversal agent against factor Xa inhibitors, showed a complete reversal of anticoagulant activity of apixaban and rivaroxaban within minutes after administration without adverse effects in two recently completed parallel phase III trials ANNEXA-A and ANNEXA-R respectively. It is currently being studied in ANNEXA-4, a phase IV study. Aripazine (PER-977), the third reversal agent, has shown promising activity against dabigatran, apixaban, rivaroxaban, as well as subcutaneous fondaparinux and LMWH. This review article summarizes pharmacological characteristics of these novel antidotes, coagulation's tests affected, available clinical and preclinical data, and the need for phase III and IV studies. PMID:27082776

  18. Efficiency of the pTF-FC2 pas Poison-Antidote Stability System in Escherichia coli Is Affected by the Host Strain, and Antidote Degradation Requires the Lon Protease

    OpenAIRE

    Smith, Anthony S. G.; Rawlings, Douglas E

    1998-01-01

    The stabilization of a test plasmid by the proteic, poison-antidote plasmid addiction system (pas) of plasmid pTF-FC2 was host strain dependent, with a 100-fold increase in stability in Escherichia coli CSH50, a 2.5-fold increase in E. coli JM105, and no detectable stabilization in E. coli strains JM107 and JM109. The lethality of the PasB toxin was far higher in the E. coli strains in which the pas was most effective. Models for the way in which poison-antidote systems stabilize plasmids req...

  19. Cyclotron resonance in two-dimensional electron system with self-organized antidots

    CERN Document Server

    Suchalkin, S D; Zundel, M; Nachtwei, G; Klitzing, K V; Eberl, K

    2001-01-01

    The data on the experimental study on the cyclotron resonance in the two-dimensional electron system with the random scattering potential, conditioned by the massif of the AlInAs self-organized quantum islands, formed in the AlGaAs/GaAs heterotransition plane, are presented. The sharp narrowing of the cyclotron resonance with increase in the magnetic field, explained by the charge scattering peculiarities in the given potential is established. The obtained results suggest the strongly correlated electron state in the strong magnetic fields by the carriers concentrations lesser than the antidots concentrations

  20. SNAKE BITE, SNAKE VENOM, ANTI-VENOM AND HERBAL ANTIDOTE – A REVIEW

    OpenAIRE

    Paul Rita; Datta K. Animesh; Mandal Aninda; Ghosh K Benoy; Halder Sandip

    2011-01-01

    The mortality associated with snake bites is a serious public health problem as the estimated death incidence per year is about 1,25,000 globally. In India about 35,000 to 50,000 people reportedly die of snake bite; although, unreported cases may be even more in rural areas. Considering the socio-medical problem due to snake bite, a review is being conducted on snake bite (management aspects), snake venom (nature and its utility), anti-venom and herbal antidote to provide adequate information...

  1. STABILITY ANALYSIS OF A COMPUTER VIRUS PROPAGATION MODEL WITH ANTIDOTE IN VULNERABLE SYSTEM

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Nguyen Huu KHANH; Nguyen Bich HUY

    2016-01-01

    We study a proposed model describing the propagation of computer virus in the network with antidote in vulnerable system. Mathematical analysis shows that dynamics of the spread of computer viruses is determined by the threshold R0. If R0 ≤ 1, the virus-free equilibrium is globally asymptotically stable, and if R0 >1, the endemic equilibrium is globally asymptotically stable. Lyapunov functional method as well as geometric approach are used for proving the global stability of equilibria. A numerical investigation is carried out to confirm the analytical results. Through parameter analysis, some effective strategies for eliminating viruses are suggested.

  2. Hofstadter butterflies and magnetically induced band-gap quenching in graphene antidot lattices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Jesper Goor; Pedersen, Thomas Garm

    2013-01-01

    We study graphene antidot lattices (GALs) in magnetic fields. Using a tight-binding model and a recursive Green's function technique that we extend to deal with periodic structures, we calculate Hofstadter butterflies of GALs. We compare the results to those obtained in a simpler gapped graphene...... model. A crucial difference emerges in the behavior of the lowest Landau level, which in a gapped graphene model is independent of magnetic field. In stark contrast to this picture, we find that in GALs the band gap can be completely closed by applying a magnetic field. While our numerical simulations...

  3. 8102 and 7601 as antidotes for acute uranyl nitrate intoxication in rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effect of phenolic chelating agents, 8102 and 7601, as antidotes for acute uranyl nitrate (100-500 mg/kg) intoxication was examined. The results show that after intraperitoneal injection of 50 mg of uranyl nitrate per kg, all the control rats died at 3rd and 4th days and exhibited acute renal tubular necrosis and protein casts. 8102 and 7601 could promote the animals survival and reduce the histologic lesion of kidneys in rats intoxicated with uranyl nitrate (100-350 mg/kg). 8102 is more effective than 7601

  4. Molecular Mechanism Underlying Pathogenesis of Lewisite-Induced Cutaneous Blistering and Inflammation: Chemical Chaperones as Potential Novel Antidotes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Changzhao; Srivastava, Ritesh K; Weng, Zhiping; Croutch, Claire R; Agarwal, Anupam; Elmets, Craig A; Afaq, Farrukh; Athar, Mohammad

    2016-10-01

    Lewisite is a potent arsenic-based chemical warfare agent known to induce painful cutaneous inflammation and blistering. Only a few modestly effective antidotes have so far been described in the literature. However, the discovery of effective antidotes for lewisite was hampered by the paucity of the exact molecular mechanism underlying its cutaneous pathogenesis. We investigated the molecular mechanism underlying lewisite-induced cutaneous blistering and inflammation and describe its novel antidotes. On the basis of our initial screening, we used a highly sensitive murine model that recapitulates the known human pathogenesis of arsenicals-induced cutaneous inflammation and blistering. Topically administered lewisite induced potent acute inflammation and microvesication in the skin of Ptch1(+/-)/SKH-1 mice. Even at a very low dose, lewisite up-regulates unfolded protein response signaling, inflammatory response, and apoptosis. These cutaneous lesions were associated with production of reactive oxygen species and extensive apoptosis of the epidermal keratinocytes. We confirmed that activation of reactive oxygen species-dependent unfolded protein response signaling is the underlying molecular mechanism of skin damage. Similar alterations were noticed in lewisite-treated cultured human skin keratinocytes. We discovered that chemical chaperone 4-phenyl butyric acid and antioxidant N-acetylcysteine, which significantly attenuate lewisite-mediated skin injury, can serve as potent antidotes. These data reveal a novel molecular mechanism underlying the cutaneous pathogenesis of lewisite-induced lesions. We also identified novel potential therapeutic targets for lewisite-mediated cutaneous injury. PMID:27528504

  5. Two new species of Curcuma (Zingiberaceae) used as cobra-bite antidotes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Arunrat CHAVEERACH; Runglawan SUDMOON; Tawatchai TANEE; Piya MOKKAMUL; Nison SATTAYASAI; Jintana SATTAYASAI

    2008-01-01

    Two new species of Curcuma, C. sattayasaii A. Chaveerach & R. Sudmoon and C. zedoaroides A. Chaveerach & T. Tanee with rhizomes traditionally used for many decades as cobra-bite antidotes are described and illustrated. Curcuma sattayasaii is similar to C. longa L., but differs in rhizome horizontally branching on ground;coma bracts pinkish-white or pinkish-pale green;corolla pale yellow with orange tip;labellum pale orange with an orange central band;anther crest very short, broadly ovate, wider than long. Curcuma zedoaroides is similar to C. zedoaria (Christm.) Roscoe, but differs in rhizome branching pattern;the protruding secondary rhizomes curved down;blades oblong to oblong-lanceolate;peduncle glabrous;fertile and coma bracts glabrous;corolla lobes pale yellow to white, lateral lobe ovate, dorsal lobe broadly ovate. The new taxa have been found in a village of Khon Kaen Province, Northeastern Thailand.

  6. Hofstadter butterflies and magnetically induced band-gap quenching in graphene antidot lattices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Jesper Goor; Pedersen, Thomas Garm

    2013-01-01

    We study graphene antidot lattices (GALs) in magnetic fields. Using a tight-binding model and a recursive Green's function technique that we extend to deal with periodic structures, we calculate Hofstadter butterflies of GALs. We compare the results to those obtained in a simpler gapped graphene...... model. A crucial difference emerges in the behavior of the lowest Landau level, which in a gapped graphene model is independent of magnetic field. In stark contrast to this picture, we find that in GALs the band gap can be completely closed by applying a magnetic field. While our numerical simulations...... can only be performed on structures much smaller than can be experimentally realized, we find that the critical magnetic field for which the gap closes can be directly related to the ratio between the cyclotron radius and the neck width of the GAL. In this way, we obtain a simple scaling law for...

  7. Magnetic response of aperiodic wire networks based on Fibonacci distortions of square antidot lattices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farmer, B.; Bhat, V. S.; Sklenar, J.; Teipel, E.; Woods, J.; Ketterson, J. B.; Hastings, J. T.; De Long, L. E.

    2015-05-01

    The static and dynamic magnetic responses of patterned ferromagnetic thin films are uniquely altered in the case of aperiodic patterns that retain long-range order (e.g., quasicrystals). We have fabricated permalloy wire networks based on periodic square antidot lattices (ADLs) distorted according to an aperiodic Fibonacci sequence applied to two lattice translations, d1 = 1618 nm and d2 = 1000 nm. The wire segment thickness is fixed at t = 25 nm, and the width W varies from 80 to 510 nm. We measured the DC magnetization between room temperature and 5 K. Room-temperature, narrow-band (9.7 GHz) ferromagnetic resonance (FMR) spectra were acquired for various directions of applied magnetic field. The DC magnetization curves exhibited pronounced step anomalies and plateaus that signal flux closure states. Although the Fibonacci distortion breaks the fourfold symmetry of a finite periodic square ADL, the FMR data exhibit fourfold rotational symmetry with respect to the applied DC magnetic field direction.

  8. A breakthrough on Amanita phalloides poisoning: an effective antidotal effect by polymyxin B.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Juliana; Costa, Vera Marisa; Carvalho, Alexandra T P; Silvestre, Ricardo; Duarte, José Alberto; Dourado, Daniel F A R; Arbo, Marcelo D; Baltazar, Teresa; Dinis-Oliveira, Ricardo Jorge; Baptista, Paula; de Lourdes Bastos, Maria; Carvalho, Félix

    2015-12-01

    Amanita phalloides is responsible for more than 90 % of mushroom-related fatalities, and no effective antidote is available. α-Amanitin, the main toxin of A. phalloides, inhibits RNA polymerase II (RNAP II), causing hepatic and kidney failure. In silico studies included docking and molecular dynamics simulation coupled to molecular mechanics with generalized Born and surface area method energy decomposition on RNAP II. They were performed with a clinical drug that shares chemical similarities to α-amanitin, polymyxin B. The results show that polymyxin B potentially binds to RNAP II in the same interface of α-amanitin, preventing the toxin from binding to RNAP II. In vivo, the inhibition of the mRNA transcripts elicited by α-amanitin was efficiently reverted by polymyxin B in the kidneys. Moreover, polymyxin B significantly decreased the hepatic and renal α-amanitin-induced injury as seen by the histology and hepatic aminotransferases plasma data. In the survival assay, all animals exposed to α-amanitin died within 5 days, whereas 50 % survived up to 30 days when polymyxin B was administered 4, 8, and 12 h post-α-amanitin. Moreover, a single dose of polymyxin B administered concomitantly with α-amanitin was able to guarantee 100 % survival. Polymyxin B protects RNAP II from inactivation leading to an effective prevention of organ damage and increasing survival in α-amanitin-treated animals. The present use of clinically relevant concentrations of an already human-use-approved drug prompts the use of polymyxin B as an antidote for A. phalloides poisoning in humans.

  9. Availability of antidotes and key emergency drugs in tertiary care hospitals of Punjab and assessment of the knowledge of health care professionals in the management of poisoning cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arslan, Naheed; Khiljee, Sonia; Bakhsh, Allah; Ashraf, Muhammad; Maqsood, Iram

    2016-03-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the availability of antidotes/key emergency drugs in tertiary care hospitals of the Punjab province, and to assess the knowledge of health care professionals in the stocking and administration of antidotes in the proper management of poisoning cases. Seventeen (n=17) tertiary care hospitals of Punjab Pakistan were selected. Two performas (A and B) were designed for 26 antidotes/key emergency drugs and given to the hospital pharmacists and physicians respectively. It was observed that Activated Charcoal, being the universal antidote was found only in 6 hospitals (41%). Digoxin Immune Fab, Edentate Calcium disodium and Glucagon were not available in emergency department of any hospital and even not included in the formulary of any hospital. About 80% pharmacists were aware of the method of preparation of Activated Charcoal and 85% physicians were familiar with its route of administration. Data showed that tertiary care hospitals of Punjab do not stock antidotes according to national drug policy. Moreover the study strongly suggests the development of health care centers and professional by organizing antidote awareness programs, continuous education and record keeping of poisonous cases and availability of emergency drugs around the clock. PMID:27087082

  10. All-electrical detection of spin dynamics in magnetic antidot lattices by the inverse spin Hall effect

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jungfleisch, Matthias B. [Materials Science Division, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, Illinois 60439, USA; Zhang, Wei [Materials Science Division, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, Illinois 60439, USA; Ding, Junjia [Materials Science Division, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, Illinois 60439, USA; Jiang, Wanjun [Materials Science Division, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, Illinois 60439, USA; Sklenar, Joseph [Materials Science Division, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, Illinois 60439, USA; Department of Physics and Astronomy, Northwestern University, Evanston, Illinois 60208, USA; Pearson, John E. [Materials Science Division, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, Illinois 60439, USA; Ketterson, John B. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Northwestern University, Evanston, Illinois 60208, USA; Hoffmann, Axel [Materials Science Division, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, Illinois 60439, USA

    2016-02-01

    The understanding of spin dynamics in laterally confined structures on sub-micron length scales has become a significant aspect of the development of novel magnetic storage technologies. Numerous ferromagnetic resonance measurements, optical characterization by Kerr microscopy and Brillouin light scattering spectroscopy and x-ray studies were carried out to detect the dynamics in patterned magnetic antidot lattices. Here, we investigate Oersted-field driven spin dynamics in rectangular Ni80Fe20/Pt antidot lattices with different lattice parameters by electrical means. When the system is driven to resonance, a dc voltage across the length of the sample is detected that changes its sign upon field reversal, which is in agreement with a rectification mechanism based on the inverse spin Hall effect. Furthermore, we show that the voltage output scales linearly with the applied microwave drive in the investigated range of powers. Our findings have direct implications on the development of engineered magnonics applications and devices.

  11. Electronic Structures and Magnetic Properties of MoS2 Nanostructures: Atomic Defects, Nanoholes, Nanodots and Antidots

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, Yungang; Yang, Ping; Zu, Haoyue; Gao, Fei; Zu, Xiaotao

    2013-04-24

    MoS2-based nanostructures, including atomic defect, nanohole, nanodot and antidot, are characterized with spin-polarized density functional theory. The S-vacancy defect is more likely to form than the Mo-vacancy defect due to the formation of Mo-Mo metallic bonds. Among different shaped nanoholes and nanodots, triangle ones associated with ferromagnetic characteristic are the most energetically favorable, and exhibit unexpected large spin moment that is scaled linearly with edged length.

  12. Evaluation of the benefit of the bispyridinium compound MB327 for the antidotal treatment of nerve agent-poisoned mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kassa, Jiri; Pohanka, Miroslav; Timperley, Christopher M; Bird, Mike; Green, A Christopher; Tattersall, John E H

    2016-06-01

    The potency of the bispyridinium non-oxime compound MB327 [1,1'-(propane-1,3-diyl)bis(4-tert-butylpyridinium) diiodide] to increase the therapeutic efficacy of the standard antidotal treatment (atropine in combination with an oxime) of acute poisoning with organophosphorus nerve agents was studied in vivo. The therapeutic efficacy of atropine alone - or atropine in combination with an oxime, MB327, or both an oxime and MB237 - was evaluated by the determination of LD50 values of several nerve agents (tabun, sarin and soman) in mice with and without treatment. The addition of MB327 increased the therapeutic efficacy of atropine alone, and atropine in combination with an oxime, against all three nerve agents, although differences in the LD50 values only reached statistical significance for sarin. In conclusion, the addition of the compound MB327 to the standard antidotal treatment of acute poisonings with nerve agents was beneficial regardless of the chemical structure of the nerve agent, although at the dose employed, MB327 in combination with atropine, or atropine and an oxime, provided only a modest increase in protection ratio. These results from mice, and previous ones from guinea-pigs, provide consistent evidence for additional, albeit modest, efficacy resulting from the inclusion of the antinicotinic compound MB327 in standard antidotal therapy. Given the typically steep probit slope for the dose-lethality relationship for nerve agents, such modest increases in protection ratio could provide significant survival benefit.

  13. Memory load as a cognitive antidote to performance decrements in data entry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapman, Mary J; Healy, Alice F; Kole, James A

    2016-10-01

    In two experiments, subjects trained in data entry, typing one 4-digit number at a time. At training, subjects either typed the numbers immediately after they appeared (immediate) or typed the previous number from memory while viewing the next number (delayed). In Experiment 2 stimulus presentation time was limited and either nothing or a space (gap) was inserted between the second and third digits. In both experiments after training, all subjects completed a test with no gap and typed numbers immediately. Training with a memory load improved speed across training blocks (Experiment 1) and eliminated the decline in accuracy across training blocks (Experiment 2), thus serving as a cognitive antidote to performance decrements. An analysis of each keystroke revealed different underlying processes and strategies for the two training conditions, including when encoding took place. Chunking (in which the first and last two digits are treated separately) was more evident in the immediate than in the delayed condition and was exaggerated with a gap, even at test when there was no gap. These results suggest that such two-digit chunking is due to stimulus encoding and motor planning processes as well as memory, and those processes transferred from training to testing. PMID:26390366

  14. Proposing an Antidote for Poisonous Phosphine in View of Mitochondrial Eectrochemistry Facts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Abdollahi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Metal phosphides in general are potent pesticides that are a common cause of human poisoning. Various salts of phosphides produce highly toxic phosphine in exposure to gastric acid that results in multi-organ damage and death. There is no antidote for phosphine poisoning and most of human poisoned cases do not survive. All we know so far is that phosphine is a mitochondrial toxin that inhibits cellular respiration and induces oxidative stress. Mechanistically, phosphine as a reducing agent interacts with metal ion cofactors at the active site of enzymes and inhibits key enzymes such as cytochrome C oxidase that lead to inhibition of mitochondrial respiration. Phosphine (E0 = −1.18 V as a reducing agent gives electrons to cytochrome C oxidase (E0 = +0.29 V. Metal phosphides with lower reduction potential are stronger electron donors and thus stronger poisons. Our hypothesis is that if an electron receiver stronger than cytochrome C oxidase is used then it would compete with cytochrome C oxidase in interaction with phosphine. This competition might prevent or reduce the inhibition of cellular respiration. This idea can be tested in an animal model of phosphine toxicity by monitoring cardiovascular state and measuring the cardiac mitochondrial function.

  15. Magnetoresistance anisotropy in a hexagonal lattice of Co antidots obtained by thermal evaporation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chiolerio, Alessandro, E-mail: alessandro.chiolerio@polito.i [Physics Department, Politecnico di Torino, Corso Duca degli Abruzzi 24, IT-10129 Torino (Italy); Allia, Paolo; Celasco, Edvige [Materials Science and Chemical Engineering Department, Politecnico di Torino, Corso Duca degli Abruzzi 24, IT-10129 Torino (Italy); Martino, Paola [Physics Department, Politecnico di Torino, Corso Duca degli Abruzzi 24, IT-10129 Torino (Italy); Spizzo, Federico [Physics Department and CNISM, Universita di Ferrara, Building C, Via Saragat 1, IT-44100 Ferrara (Italy); Celegato, Federica [Electromagnetism Division, INRIM, Strada delle Caccie 91, IT-10135 Torino (Italy)

    2010-05-15

    Patterned soft magnetic materials are eligible for use in magnetic random access memories. A hexagonal-lattice pattern of circular antidots was produced by optical lithography in a Co film. In order to test the effect of geometry on the local magnetisation configuration of such a structure, we performed room-temperature angle-resolved magnetisation measurements aimed to check the pinning of domain walls by the pattern's lattice. Magnetoresistance (MR) room-temperature measurements were performed at various angles between the magnetic field direction and the macroscopic electrical current vector, to clarify whether and how the local current density configuration affects the MR response. We found that the magnetoresistance is of anisotropic type (AMR) and has a local origin. Furthermore, the largely unsaturating behaviour of MR at high fields may be explained only by considering that tiny portions of the pattern constitute highly frustrated regions and align their magnetisation at rather high fields. A simplified model based on a local anisotropy term is shown to account for the experimental results for both M and MR.

  16. Observation of Novel Low-Field FMR modes in Permalloy Antidot Arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Long, Lance; Bhat, Vinayak; Farmer, Barry; Woods, Justin; Hastings, Todd; Sklenar, Joseph; Ketterson, John

    2013-03-01

    Permalloy films of thickness 23 nm were patterned with square arrays of square antidots (AD) with feature size D = 120 nm, and lattice constants d = 200, 300, 500 and 700 nm (total sample area = 2 mm x 2mm), using electron beam lithography. Our broad-band (frequencies f = 10 MHz-15 GHz) and narrow-band (9.7 GHz) FMR measurements of even dilute (D/d <<1) AD lattices (ADL) reveal remarkably reproducible absorption spectra in the low-frequency, hysteretic regime in which disordered domain wall (DW) patterns and unsaturated magnetization textures are expected for unpatterned films, but in the present case are strongly affected by the periodic ADL. Other modes in the saturated regime exhibit strong dependence on the angle between the applied DC field H and the ADL axes, as confirmed by our micromagnetic simulations. Novel modes are observed at DC fields above that of the uniform mode, which simulations indicate are localized at AD edges. Other novel modes are observed for DC fields below that of the uniform mode, which simulated power and phase maps indicate are confined to ADL interstices oriented parallel to H. These results show even dilute AD concentrations can effect strong control of DW evolution. Research at Kentucky is supported by U.S. DoE Grant DE-FG02-97ER45653 and NSF Grant EPS-0814194.

  17. Good manufacturing practice: manufacturing of a nerve agent antidote nanoparticle suspension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Andrew P-Z; Dixon, Hong; Cantu, Norma L; Cabell, Larry A; McDonough, Joe A

    2013-01-01

    We have established a current good manufacturing practice (GMP) manufacturing process to produce a nanoparticle suspension of 1,1'-methylenebis-4-[(hydroxyimino)methyl]pyridinium dimethanesulfonate (MMB4 DMS) in cottonseed oil (CSO) as a nerve agent antidote for a Phase 1 clinical trial. Bis-pyridinium oximes such as MMB4 were previously developed for emergency treatment of organophosphate nerve agent intoxication. Many of these compounds offer efficacy superior to monopyridinium oximes, but they have poor thermal stability due to hydrolytic cleavage in aqueous solution. We previously developed a nonaqueous nanoparticle suspension to improve the hydrothermal stability, termed Enhanced Formulation (EF). An example of this formulation technology is a suspension of MMB4 DMS nanoparticles in CSO. Due to the profound effect of particle size distribution on product quality and performance, particle size must be controlled during the manufacturing process. Therefore, a particle size analysis method for MMB4 DMS in CSO was developed and validated to use in support of good laboratory practice/GMP development and production activities. Manufacturing of EF was accomplished by milling MMB4 DMS with CSO and zirconia beads in an agitator bead mill. The resulting bulk material was filled into 5-mL glass vials at a sterile fill facility and terminally sterilized by gamma irradiation. The clinical lot was tested and released, a Certificate of Analysis was issued, and a 3-year International Conference on Harmonisation of Technical Requirements for Registration of Pharmaceuticals for Human Use (ICH) stability study started. The drug product was placed in storage for Phase 1 clinical trial distribution. A dose delivery uniformity study was undertaken to ensure that the correct doses were delivered to the patients in the clinic. PMID:23929446

  18. Good manufacturing practice: manufacturing of a nerve agent antidote nanoparticle suspension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Andrew P-Z; Dixon, Hong; Cantu, Norma L; Cabell, Larry A; McDonough, Joe A

    2013-01-01

    We have established a current good manufacturing practice (GMP) manufacturing process to produce a nanoparticle suspension of 1,1'-methylenebis-4-[(hydroxyimino)methyl]pyridinium dimethanesulfonate (MMB4 DMS) in cottonseed oil (CSO) as a nerve agent antidote for a Phase 1 clinical trial. Bis-pyridinium oximes such as MMB4 were previously developed for emergency treatment of organophosphate nerve agent intoxication. Many of these compounds offer efficacy superior to monopyridinium oximes, but they have poor thermal stability due to hydrolytic cleavage in aqueous solution. We previously developed a nonaqueous nanoparticle suspension to improve the hydrothermal stability, termed Enhanced Formulation (EF). An example of this formulation technology is a suspension of MMB4 DMS nanoparticles in CSO. Due to the profound effect of particle size distribution on product quality and performance, particle size must be controlled during the manufacturing process. Therefore, a particle size analysis method for MMB4 DMS in CSO was developed and validated to use in support of good laboratory practice/GMP development and production activities. Manufacturing of EF was accomplished by milling MMB4 DMS with CSO and zirconia beads in an agitator bead mill. The resulting bulk material was filled into 5-mL glass vials at a sterile fill facility and terminally sterilized by gamma irradiation. The clinical lot was tested and released, a Certificate of Analysis was issued, and a 3-year International Conference on Harmonisation of Technical Requirements for Registration of Pharmaceuticals for Human Use (ICH) stability study started. The drug product was placed in storage for Phase 1 clinical trial distribution. A dose delivery uniformity study was undertaken to ensure that the correct doses were delivered to the patients in the clinic.

  19. Plasmon–Phonon Coupling in Large-Area Graphene Dot and Antidot Arrays Fabricated by Nanosphere Lithography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhu, Xiaolong; Wang, Weihua; Yan, Wei;

    2014-01-01

    Nanostructured graphene on SiO2 substrates paves the way for enhanced light–matter interactions and explorations of strong plasmon–phonon hybridization in the mid-infrared regime. Unprecedented large-area graphene nanodot and antidot optical arrays are fabricated by nanosphere lithography......, with structural control down to the sub-100 nm regime. The interaction between graphene plasmon modes and the substrate phonons is experimentally demonstrated, and structural control is used to map out the hybridization of plasmons and phonons, showing coupling energies of the order 20 meV. Our findings...

  20. dc and ac magnetic properties of thin-walled Nb cylinders with and without a row of antidots

    OpenAIRE

    Tsindlekht, M. I.; Genkin, V. M.; Felner, I.; Zeides, F.; Katz, N.; Gazi, S.; Chromik, S.; Dobrovolskiy, O. V.; Sachser, R.; Huth, M.

    2015-01-01

    dc and ac magnetic properties of two thin-walled superconducting Nb cylinders with a rectangular cross-section are reported. Magnetization curves and the ac response were studied on as-prepared and patterned samples in magnetic fields parallel to the cylinder axis. A row of micron-sized antidots (holes) was made in the film along the cylinder axis. Avalanche-like jumps of the magnetization are observed for both samples at low temperatures for magnetic fields not only above $H_{c1}$, but in fi...

  1. All-electrical detection of spin dynamics in magnetic antidot lattices by the inverse spin Hall effect

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jungfleisch, Matthias B., E-mail: jungfleisch@anl.gov; Zhang, Wei; Ding, Junjia; Jiang, Wanjun; Pearson, John E.; Hoffmann, Axel [Materials Science Division, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, Illinois 60439 (United States); Sklenar, Joseph [Materials Science Division, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, Illinois 60439 (United States); Department of Physics and Astronomy, Northwestern University, Evanston, Illinois 60208 (United States); Ketterson, John B. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Northwestern University, Evanston, Illinois 60208 (United States)

    2016-02-01

    The understanding of spin dynamics in laterally confined structures on sub-micron length scales has become a significant aspect of the development of novel magnetic storage technologies. Numerous ferromagnetic resonance measurements, optical characterization by Kerr microscopy and Brillouin light scattering spectroscopy, and x-ray studies were carried out to detect the dynamics in patterned magnetic antidot lattices. Here, we investigate Oersted-field driven spin dynamics in rectangular Ni{sub 80}Fe{sub 20}/Pt antidot lattices with different lattice parameters by electrical means and compare them to micromagnetic simulations. When the system is driven to resonance, a dc voltage across the length of the sample is detected that changes its sign upon field reversal, which is in agreement with a rectification mechanism based on the inverse spin Hall effect. Furthermore, we show that the voltage output scales linearly with the applied microwave drive in the investigated range of powers. Our findings have direct implications on the development of engineered magnonics applications and devices.

  2. Chemical Reaction between Boric Acid and Phosphine Indicates Boric Acid as an Antidote for Aluminium Phosphide Poisoning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Motahareh Soltani

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Aluminium phosphide (AlP is a fumigant pesticide which protects stored grains from insects and rodents. When it comes into contact with moisture, AlP releases phosphine (PH3, a highly toxic gas. No efficient antidote has been found for AlP poisoning so far and most people who are poisoned do not survive. Boric acid is a Lewis acid with an empty p orbital which accepts electrons. This study aimed to investigate the neutralisation of PH3 gas with boric acid. Methods: This study was carried out at the Baharlou Hospital, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran, between December 2013 and February 2014. The volume of released gas, rate of gas evolution and changes in pH were measured during reactions of AlP tablets with water, acidified water, saturated boric acid solution, acidified saturated boric acid solution, activated charcoal and acidified activated charcoal. Infrared spectroscopy was used to study the resulting probable adduct between PH3 and boric acid. Results: Activated charcoal significantly reduced the volume of released gas (P <0.01. Although boric acid did not significantly reduce the volume of released gas, it significantly reduced the rate of gas evolution (P <0.01. A gaseous adduct was formed in the reaction between pure AlP and boric acid. Conclusion: These findings indicate that boric acid may be an efficient and non-toxic antidote for PH3 poisoning.

  3. Chemical Reaction between Boric Acid and Phosphine Indicates Boric Acid as an Antidote for Aluminium Phosphide Poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soltani, Motahareh; Shetab-Boushehri, Seyed F.; Shetab-Boushehri, Seyed V.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: Aluminium phosphide (AlP) is a fumigant pesticide which protects stored grains from insects and rodents. When it comes into contact with moisture, AlP releases phosphine (PH3), a highly toxic gas. No efficient antidote has been found for AlP poisoning so far and most people who are poisoned do not survive. Boric acid is a Lewis acid with an empty p orbital which accepts electrons. This study aimed to investigate the neutralisation of PH3 gas with boric acid. Methods: This study was carried out at the Baharlou Hospital, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran, between December 2013 and February 2014. The volume of released gas, rate of gas evolution and changes in pH were measured during reactions of AlP tablets with water, acidified water, saturated boric acid solution, acidified saturated boric acid solution, activated charcoal and acidified activated charcoal. Infrared spectroscopy was used to study the resulting probable adduct between PH3 and boric acid. Results: Activated charcoal significantly reduced the volume of released gas (P <0.01). Although boric acid did not significantly reduce the volume of released gas, it significantly reduced the rate of gas evolution (P <0.01). A gaseous adduct was formed in the reaction between pure AlP and boric acid. Conclusion: These findings indicate that boric acid may be an efficient and non-toxic antidote for PH3 poisoning. PMID:27606109

  4. All-electrical detection of spin dynamics in magnetic antidot lattices by the inverse spin Hall effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jungfleisch, Matthias B.; Zhang, Wei; Ding, Junjia; Jiang, Wanjun; Sklenar, Joseph; Pearson, John E.; Ketterson, John B.; Hoffmann, Axel

    2016-02-01

    The understanding of spin dynamics in laterally confined structures on sub-micron length scales has become a significant aspect of the development of novel magnetic storage technologies. Numerous ferromagnetic resonance measurements, optical characterization by Kerr microscopy and Brillouin light scattering spectroscopy, and x-ray studies were carried out to detect the dynamics in patterned magnetic antidot lattices. Here, we investigate Oersted-field driven spin dynamics in rectangular Ni80Fe20/Pt antidot lattices with different lattice parameters by electrical means and compare them to micromagnetic simulations. When the system is driven to resonance, a dc voltage across the length of the sample is detected that changes its sign upon field reversal, which is in agreement with a rectification mechanism based on the inverse spin Hall effect. Furthermore, we show that the voltage output scales linearly with the applied microwave drive in the investigated range of powers. Our findings have direct implications on the development of engineered magnonics applications and devices.

  5. Structure Elucidation of A New Coumarin Type Compound, Alternamin, Isolated from the Plant (Murraya Alternans (Kurz) Swingle) Having The Antidote Activity on Snake Venoms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The structure of a new coumarin type compound isolated from the entitled species was elucidated by the full spectral analysis consisting of FTIR, 1H NMR, DQF COSY, 13C NMR, DEPT, EIMS (HR-EIMS), HMQC and HMBC. The antidote activities of the fresh juice and the ethanolic extract of the plant, and the isolated compound alternamin were also determined

  6. Glasgow coma scale in acute poisonings before and after use of antidote in patients with history of use of psychotropic agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Poplas-Sušić Tonka

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Data on emergency interventions in poisonings are scarce. Objective. To determine the effectiveness of antidote therapy in acute poisoning-related emergency medical services (EMS interventions. Methods. A prospective observational study included all poisoning-related intervention cases over 3 years (1999-2001 in the Celje region, Slovenia, covering 125,000 inhabitants. Data were recorded on an EMS form. Results. Psychoactive agents were present in 56.5% out of 244 poisoning-related EMS interventions. Prescription drugs were a cause of intoxication in 93 (39.2% cases alone or in combination with alcohol or illegal drugs. More than one fifth of poisonings were due to the use of illegal drugs in 52 (21.9% cases, 43 (18.1% out of them heroin related. At the time of EMS arrival, more patients who ingested illegal drugs were in coma or comatose than the rest. 24 (45.3% vs. 32 (17.3% of poisoned patients were in coma (p<0.001. Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS at the first contact was lower in patients who ingested illegal drugs than in the remaining patients (9.0 vs. 11.6, p=0.001. In 23.2% of the cases, an antidote was administered. In 29 (12.2% naloxone and in 16 (6.7% flumazenil was administered. Mean GCS after intervention was higher in all cases but significantly higher in illegal drug cases, 13.4 vs. 12.2 (p=0.001, with a mean positive change in GCS of 4.5 vs. 0.6 (p<0.001. In illegal drug users, mean change after antidote administration was 8.2 vs. 0.5 without antidote administration (p<0.001. Conclusion. High rate of successful antidote use during the intervention indicated the importance of good EMS protocols and the presence of a skilled doctor in the EMS team.

  7. Observation of a hole-size-dependent energy shift of the surface-plasmon resonance in Ni antidot thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fang, H.; Akinoglu, E. M.; Fumagalli, P., E-mail: paul.fumagalli@fu-berlin.de [Institut für Experimentalphysik, Freie Universität Berlin, 14195 Berlin (Germany); Caballero, B.; García-Martín, A. [IMM-Instituto de Microelectrónica de Madrid (CNM-CSIC), Isaac Newton 8, PTM, Tres Cantos, E-28760 Madrid (Spain); Papaioannou, E. Th. [Fachbereich Physik and Landesforschungszentrum OPTIMAS, Technische Universität Kaiserslautern, 67663 Kaiserslautern (Germany); Cuevas, J. C. [Departamento de Física Teórica de la Materia Condensada and Condensed Matter Physics Center (IFIMAC), Universidad Autónoma de Madrid, E-28049 Madrid (Spain); Giersig, M. [Institut für Experimentalphysik, Freie Universität Berlin, 14195 Berlin (Germany); Helmholtz Zentrum Berlin, Institute of Nanoarchitectures for Energy Conversion, 14195 Berlin (Germany)

    2015-04-13

    A combined experimental and theoretical study of the magneto-optic properties of a series of nickel antidot thin films is presented. The hole diameter varies from 869 down to 636 nm, while the lattice periodicity is fixed at 920 nm. This results in an overall increase of the polar Kerr rotation with decreasing hole diameter due to the increasing surface coverage with nickel. In addition, at photon energies of 2.7 and 3.3 eV, where surface-plasmon excitations are expected, we observe distinct features in the polar Kerr rotation not present in continuous nickel films. The spectral position of the peaks exhibits a red shift with decreasing hole size. This is explained within the context of an effective medium theory by a change in the effective dielectric function of the Ni thin films.

  8. Melatonin as a possible antidote to UV radiation induced cutaneous damages and immune-suppression: An overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goswami, Soumik; Haldar, Chandana

    2015-12-01

    The sun rays brings along the ultraviolet radiations (UVRs) which prove deleterious for living organisms. The UVR is a known mutagen and is the prime cause of skin carcinomas. UVR causes acute oxidative stress and this in turn deteriorates other physiological functions. Inflammatory conditions and elevation of pro-inflammatory molecules are also associated with UVR mediated cellular damages. The inflammatory conditions can secondarily trigger the generation of free radicals and this act cumulatively in further deterioration of tissue homeostasis. Photoimmunologists have also related UVR to the suppression of not only cutaneous but also systemic immunity by different mechanisms. Some researchers have proposed the use of various plant products as antioxidants against UVR induced oxidative imbalances but Melatonin is gaining rapid interest as a product that can be utilized to delineate the pathological effects of UVR since it is an established antioxidant. Besides the antioxidative nature, the capacity of melatonin to attenuate apoptosis and more importantly the efficacy of its metabolites to further aid in the detoxification of free radicals have made it a key player to be utilized against UVR mediated aggravated conditions. However, there is need for further extensive investigation to speculate melatonin as an antidote to UVR. Although too early to prescribe melatonin as a clinical remedy, the hormone can be integrated into dermal formulations or oral supplements to prevent the ever increasing incidences of skin cancers due to the prevalence of the UVR on the surface of the earth. The present review focuses and substantiates the work by different photo-biologists demonstrating the protective effects of melatonin and its metabolites against solar UVR - Melatonin as a possible antidote to UV radiation induced cutaneous damages and immune-suppression: an overview. J Photochem Photobiol B.

  9. Melatonin as a possible antidote to UV radiation induced cutaneous damages and immune-suppression: An overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goswami, Soumik; Haldar, Chandana

    2015-12-01

    The sun rays brings along the ultraviolet radiations (UVRs) which prove deleterious for living organisms. The UVR is a known mutagen and is the prime cause of skin carcinomas. UVR causes acute oxidative stress and this in turn deteriorates other physiological functions. Inflammatory conditions and elevation of pro-inflammatory molecules are also associated with UVR mediated cellular damages. The inflammatory conditions can secondarily trigger the generation of free radicals and this act cumulatively in further deterioration of tissue homeostasis. Photoimmunologists have also related UVR to the suppression of not only cutaneous but also systemic immunity by different mechanisms. Some researchers have proposed the use of various plant products as antioxidants against UVR induced oxidative imbalances but Melatonin is gaining rapid interest as a product that can be utilized to delineate the pathological effects of UVR since it is an established antioxidant. Besides the antioxidative nature, the capacity of melatonin to attenuate apoptosis and more importantly the efficacy of its metabolites to further aid in the detoxification of free radicals have made it a key player to be utilized against UVR mediated aggravated conditions. However, there is need for further extensive investigation to speculate melatonin as an antidote to UVR. Although too early to prescribe melatonin as a clinical remedy, the hormone can be integrated into dermal formulations or oral supplements to prevent the ever increasing incidences of skin cancers due to the prevalence of the UVR on the surface of the earth. The present review focuses and substantiates the work by different photo-biologists demonstrating the protective effects of melatonin and its metabolites against solar UVR - Melatonin as a possible antidote to UV radiation induced cutaneous damages and immune-suppression: an overview. J Photochem Photobiol B. PMID:26496791

  10. Molecular targets of organophosphorus compounds and antidotal agents on nicotinic, glutamatergic and gabaergic synapses. Appendix 1. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Albuquerque, E.X.

    1994-03-16

    There are several major motivators behind this work. We need to understand OP intoxication sufficiently to provide insight and direction for development of improved antidotal therapy. The persistent environmental use of chemical insecticides, which some feel is necessary for optimal agricultural production but others challenge vehemently, requires that we understand the toxicological consequences of such use. Also, OPs have such a powerful effect or, vital functions, it could be immensely beneficial to understand in great detail the physiological mechanisms that are targeted by OPs. Such information could benefit medical treatments of diseases and pathologies other than those directly caused by OPs. Finally, we hope to present the material in a manner that will be instructive to a broad spectrum of professionals in pharmacology and toxicology. Where it is appropriate, we may draw heavily from other topical reviews. In all cases, we will provide citations to original work and/or well-referenced RA I, Lab Animals, Rats, Frogs, Compounds, Nerve Agents, Organophosphorous, BD, CD Agents, XCSM, Neurotransmitters, Receptors, Ion Channel, Oximes.

  11. dc and ac magnetic properties of thin-walled Nb cylinders with and without a row of antidots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsindlekht, M I; Genkin, V M; Felner, I; Zeides, F; Katz, N; Gazi, Š; Chromik, Š; Dobrovolskiy, O V; Sachser, R; Huth, M

    2016-06-01

    dc and ac magnetic properties of two thin-walled superconducting Nb cylinders with a rectangular cross-section are reported. Magnetization curves and the ac response were studied on as-prepared and patterned samples in magnetic fields parallel to the cylinder axis. A row of micron-sized antidots (holes) was made in the film along the cylinder axis. Avalanche-like jumps of the magnetization are observed for both samples at low temperatures for magnetic fields not only above H c1, but in fields lower than H c1 in the vortex-free region. The positions of the jumps are not reproducible and they change from one experiment to another, resembling vortex lattice instabilities usually observed for magnetic fields larger than H c1. At temperatures above [Formula: see text] and [Formula: see text] the magnetization curves become smooth for the patterned and the as-prepared samples, respectively. The magnetization curve of a reference planar Nb film in the parallel field geometry does not exhibit jumps in the entire range of accessible temperatures. The ac response was measured in constant and swept dc magnetic field modes. Experiment shows that ac losses at low magnetic fields in a swept field mode are smaller for the patterned sample. For both samples the shapes of the field dependences of losses and the amplitude of the third harmonic are the same in constant and swept field near H c3. This similarity does not exist at low fields in a swept mode.

  12. Relationship-centred care: antidote, guidepost or blind alley? The epistemology of 21st century health care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wyer, Peter C; Alves Silva, Suzana; Post, Stephen G; Quinlan, Patricia

    2014-12-01

    Contemporary health care is increasing in complexity and lacks a unifying understanding of epistemology, methodology and goals. Lack of conceptual consistency in concepts such as 'patient-centred care' (PCC) typifies system-wide discordance. We contrast the fragmented descriptions of PCC and related tools to its own origins in the writings of Balint and to a subsequent construct, relationship-centred care (RCC). We identify the explicit and elaborated connection between RCC and a defined epistemological foundation as a distinguishing feature of the construct and we demonstrate that this makes possible the recognition of alignments between RCC and independently developed constructs. Among these, we emphasize Schon's reflective practice, Nonaka's theory of organizational knowledge creation and the research methodology of realist synthesis. We highlight the relational principles common to these domains and to their common epistemologies and illustrate unsatisfying consequences of adherence to less adequate epistemological frameworks such as positivism. We offer RCC not as an 'antidote' to the dilemmas identified at the outset but as an example that illuminates the value and importance of explicit identification of the premises and assumptions underlying approaches to improvement of the health care system. We stress the potential value of identifying epistemological affinities across otherwise disparate fields and disciplines.

  13. dc and ac magnetic properties of thin-walled Nb cylinders with and without a row of antidots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsindlekht, M I; Genkin, V M; Felner, I; Zeides, F; Katz, N; Gazi, Š; Chromik, Š; Dobrovolskiy, O V; Sachser, R; Huth, M

    2016-06-01

    dc and ac magnetic properties of two thin-walled superconducting Nb cylinders with a rectangular cross-section are reported. Magnetization curves and the ac response were studied on as-prepared and patterned samples in magnetic fields parallel to the cylinder axis. A row of micron-sized antidots (holes) was made in the film along the cylinder axis. Avalanche-like jumps of the magnetization are observed for both samples at low temperatures for magnetic fields not only above H c1, but in fields lower than H c1 in the vortex-free region. The positions of the jumps are not reproducible and they change from one experiment to another, resembling vortex lattice instabilities usually observed for magnetic fields larger than H c1. At temperatures above [Formula: see text] and [Formula: see text] the magnetization curves become smooth for the patterned and the as-prepared samples, respectively. The magnetization curve of a reference planar Nb film in the parallel field geometry does not exhibit jumps in the entire range of accessible temperatures. The ac response was measured in constant and swept dc magnetic field modes. Experiment shows that ac losses at low magnetic fields in a swept field mode are smaller for the patterned sample. For both samples the shapes of the field dependences of losses and the amplitude of the third harmonic are the same in constant and swept field near H c3. This similarity does not exist at low fields in a swept mode. PMID:27143621

  14. The tetraethylammonium salt of monensic acid-An antidote for subacute cadmium intoxication: a study using an ICR mouse model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanova, Juliana; Gluhcheva, Yordanka G; Kamenova, Kalina; Arpadjan, Sonja; Mitewa, Mariana

    2012-10-01

    In this study, the ability of the chelating agent monensic acid (administered as the tetraethylammonium salt) to reduce the cadmium (Cd) concentration in the kidneys, liver, heart, lungs, spleen and testes of Cd-intoxicated mice was investigated. Chelation therapy with the tetraethylammonium salt of monensic acid led to a significant decrease of the Cd concentration in all of the organs of the Cd-treated mice. This effect varied from 50% in the kidneys to 90% in the hearts of the sacrificed animals (compared to the Cd-treated controls). No redistribution of the toxic metal ions to the brain of the animals as a result of the detoxification with the chelating agent was observed. The detoxification of the animals with the antibiotic salt did not perturb the endogenous levels of copper (Cu) or zinc (Zn). The tetraethylammonium salt of monensic acid significantly ameliorated the Cd-induced total iron (Fe) depletion in the liver and spleen of Cd-treated mice. It also restored to control levels the values of transferrin-bound Fe and the total iron binding capacity (TIBC) of the plasma. These results imply that the tetraethylammonium salt of monensic acid could be an efficient antidote in cases of Cd-intoxication. PMID:22677540

  15. Antidotal effects of varthemia persica DC extract in organophosphate poisoning or warfare agents by measuring whole blood acetylcholinesterase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The organophosphates (ORPs) or war fare agents toxicity results from inhibition of acetylcholinesterase (AchE). phosphylation of the active serin of AchE leads to accumulation of acetylcholine in synaptic clefts leading to generalized cholinergic over-stimulation. Standard treatment of ORP poisoning includes a muscarinic antagonist such as Atropine, and acetylcholinesterase reactivator (oxime). Presently, oximes like abidoxime and pralidoxime are approved as antidotes against ORP poisoning but are considered to be rather ineffective against certain ORP. Like Soman. In this study, the protective effect of Varthemia persica DC extract on acetylcholinesterase was examined in rats. Animals in weight range of 200-225 g were divided in 8 groups. The negative control group received only 0.4 ml normal saline, reference group, received ethylparaoxone in dose of 50 percent of LD50, positive control group, received ethylparaoxone (50% LD50) and one minute later 50 mol of pralidoxime. Test group 1: received ethylparaoxone and one minute later single dose of methanolic extract of Varthemia persica (250 mg/kg), Test Group 2: daily received methanolic extract of V.persica (250 mg/kg) in six days and one minute after last dose of extract, ethylparaoxone (50% LD50) were injected, Test Group 3: received ethylparaoxone (50% LD50) and then six doses of methanolic extract of V.persica (250 mg/kg) in six continuous days. Test Group 4: received ethylparaoxone and then single dose of dichloromethane extract of V.persica (250 mg/kg). Test Group 5: received ethylparaoxone and one minute later single high dose of methanolic extract of V.persica (1000 mg/kg). Then blood withdrawn and acetylcholinesterase activity was measured according to modified Ellman's method. Only in groups which received extract of V. persica before and after injection of ethylparaoxone, the mean of acetylcholinesterase activity was significantly different with reference group (p 0.05) but no significant difference with

  16. dc and ac magnetic properties of thin-walled Nb cylinders with and without a row of antidots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsindlekht, M. I.; Genkin, V. M.; Felner, I.; Zeides, F.; Katz, N.; Gazi, Š.; Chromik, Š.; Dobrovolskiy, O. V.; Sachser, R.; Huth, M.

    2016-06-01

    dc and ac magnetic properties of two thin-walled superconducting Nb cylinders with a rectangular cross-section are reported. Magnetization curves and the ac response were studied on as-prepared and patterned samples in magnetic fields parallel to the cylinder axis. A row of micron-sized antidots (holes) was made in the film along the cylinder axis. Avalanche-like jumps of the magnetization are observed for both samples at low temperatures for magnetic fields not only above H c1, but in fields lower than H c1 in the vortex-free region. The positions of the jumps are not reproducible and they change from one experiment to another, resembling vortex lattice instabilities usually observed for magnetic fields larger than H c1. At temperatures above 0.66{{T}\\text{c}} and 0.78{{T}\\text{c}} the magnetization curves become smooth for the patterned and the as-prepared samples, respectively. The magnetization curve of a reference planar Nb film in the parallel field geometry does not exhibit jumps in the entire range of accessible temperatures. The ac response was measured in constant and swept dc magnetic field modes. Experiment shows that ac losses at low magnetic fields in a swept field mode are smaller for the patterned sample. For both samples the shapes of the field dependences of losses and the amplitude of the third harmonic are the same in constant and swept field near H c3. This similarity does not exist at low fields in a swept mode.

  17. The role of multifunctional drug therapy as an antidote to combat experimental subacute neurotoxicity induced by organophosphate pesticides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Satinderpal; Prakash, Atish; Kaur, Shamsherjit; Ming, Long Chiau; Mani, Vasudevan; Majeed, Abu Bakar Abdul

    2016-08-01

    Organophosphate pesticides are used in agriculture where they are associated with numerous cases of intentional and accidental misuse. These toxicants are potent inhibitors of cholinesterases leading to a massive build-up of acetylcholine which induces an array of deleterious effects, including convulsions, oxidative damage and neurobehavioral deficits. Antidotal therapies with atropine and oxime yield a remarkable survival rate, but fail to prevent neuronal damage and behavioral problems. It has been indicated that multifunction drug therapy with potassium channel openers, calcium channel antagonists and antioxidants (either single-agent therapy or combination therapy) may have the potential to prevent cell death and/or slow down the processes of secondary neuronal damage. The aim of the present study, therefore, was to make a relative assessment of the potential effects of nicorandil (2 mg/kg), clinidipine (10 mg/kg), and grape seed proanthocyanidin (GSPE) extract (200 mg/kg) individually against subacute chlorpyrifos induced toxicity. The test drugs were administered to Wistar rats 2 h after exposure to Chlorpyrifos (CPF). Different behavioral studies and biochemical estimation has been carried in the study. The results showed that chronic administration of CPF significantly impaired learning and memory, along with motor coordination, and produced a marked increase in oxidative stress along with significantly reduced acetylcholine esterase (AChE) activity. Treatment with nicorandil, clinidipine and GSPE was shown to significantly improve memory performance, attenuate oxidative damage and enhance AChE activity in rats. The present study also suggests that a combination of nicorandil, clinidipine, and GSPE has a better neuroprotective effect against subacute CPF induced neurotoxicity than if applied individually. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Environ Toxicol 31: 1017-1026, 2016. PMID:25864908

  18. IN-VITRO KINETICS, ADSORPTION ISOTHERM, AND EFFECT OF PH ON ANTIDOTAL EFFECT OF ACTIVATED CHARCOAL IN TRAMADOL HYDROCHLORIDE INTOXICATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pandeya S

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Tramadol overdose has been one of the most frequent causes of drug poisoning in the recent years, especially in young adult males. In the current work, the in-vitro study on adsorption kinetics and the effect of pH on antidotal effect of activated charcoal (AC in tramadol hydrochloride intoxication were carried out. For adsorption study tramadol hydrochloride solutions of various concentrations were prepared in both simulated gastric fluid (SGF and simulated intestinal fluid (SIF and analyzed by UV spectrophotometer. For kinetics study tramadol hydrochloride and charcoal in ratio 1:5 was kept in 6 different flasks and sonicated for 5, 10, 15, 20, 25 and 30 minutes and analyzed spectrophotometrically. The data were plotted among two most commonly used adsorption isotherm, Langmuir isotherm and Freundlich isotherm and their coefficient of determination (R2 was compared to get the best adsorption isotherm equation. The kinetics study was done in both SGF and SIF. The result showed that AC 50 gm can adsorb 4802.692 mg tramadol hydrochloride at gastric environment and 8064.516 mg tramadol hydrochloride at intestinal environment. The R2 value in the current study is found to be more in SIF (0.986 than in SGF (0.985. In accordance to the value of R2, the pseudo second order kinetics model fit best for this study with R2 value of 0.9997 in SGF and 0.9994 in SIF. From the current study it can be concluded that 50g AC has the capacity to adsorb sufficient amount of tramadol hydrochloride and the kinetics followed during the adsorption was pseudo-second order.

  19. Effects of Pauli, Rashba and Dresselhaus spin-orbit interactions on electronic states in 2D circular hydrogenic anti-dot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abuali, Z.; Golshan, M. M.; Davatolhagh, S.

    2016-09-01

    The present work is concerned with a report on the effects of Pauli, Rashba and Dresselhaus spin-orbit interactions (SOI) on the energy levels of a 2D circular hydrogenic quantum anti-dot(QAD). To pursue this aim, we first present a brief review on the analytical solutions to the Schrödinger equation of electronic states in a quantum anti-dot when a hydrogenic donor is placed at the center, revealing the degeneracies involved in the ground, first and second excited states. We then proceed by adding the aforementioned spin-orbit interactions to the Hamiltonian and treat them as perturbation, thereby, calculating the energy shifts to the first three states. As we show, the Rashba spin-orbit interaction gives rise to a shift in the energies of the ground and second excited states, while it partially lifts the degeneracy of the first excited state. Our calculations also indicate that the Dresselhaus effect, while keeping the degeneracy of the ground and second excited states intact, removes the degeneracy of the first excited state in the opposite sense. The Pauli spin-orbit interaction, on the other hand, is diagonal in the appropriate bases, and thus its effect is readily calculated. The results show that degeneracy of ℓ = 0 (prevailing in the ground and second excited state) remains but the degeneracy of ℓ = 1 (prevailing in the first excited state) is again partially lifted. Moreover, we present the energy corrections due to the three spin-orbit interactions as functions of anti-dot's radius, Rashba and Dresselhaus strengths discussing how they affect the corresponding states. The material presented in the article conceives the possibility of generating spin currents in the hydrogenic circular anti-dots.

  20. Tunable spin wave spectra in two-dimensional Ni{sub 80}Fe{sub 20} antidot lattices with varying lattice symmetry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mandal, R.; Barman, S.; Saha, S.; Barman, A., E-mail: abarman@bose.res.in [Department of Condensed Matter Physics and Material Sciences, S. N. Bose National Centre for Basic Sciences, Block JD, Sector III, Salt Lake, Kolkata 700 098 (India); Otani, Y. [CEMS-RIKEN, 2-1 Hirosawa, Wako, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan); Institute for Solid State Physics, University of Tokyo, 5-1-5 Kashiwanoha, Kashiwa, Chiba 277-8581 (Japan)

    2015-08-07

    Ferromagnetic antidot lattices are important systems for magnetic data storage and magnonic devices, and understanding their magnetization dynamics by varying their structural parameters is an important problems in magnetism. Here, we investigate the variation in spin wave spectrum in two-dimensional nanoscale Ni{sub 80}Fe{sub 20} antidot lattices with lattice symmetry. By varying the bias magnetic field values in a broadband ferromagnetic resonance spectrometer, we observed a stark variation in the spin wave spectrum with the variation of lattice symmetry. The simulated mode profiles showed further difference in the spatial nature of the modes between different lattices. While for square and rectangular lattices extended modes are observed in addition to standing spin wave modes, all modes in the hexagonal, honeycomb, and octagonal lattices are either localized or standing waves. In addition, the honeycomb and octagonal lattices showed two different types of modes confined within the honeycomb (octagonal) units and between two such consecutive units. Simulated internal magnetic fields confirm the origin of such a wide variation in the frequency and spatial nature of the spin wave modes. The tunability of spin waves with the variation of lattice symmetry is important for the design of future magnetic data storage and magnonic devices.

  1. Proposing Boric Acid as an Antidote for Aluminium Phosphide Poisoning by Investigation of the Chemical Reaction Between Boric Acid and Phosphine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Motahareh Soltani

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Aluminium phosphide (AlP is a storage fumigant pesticide, which is used to protect stored grains especially from insects and rodents. It releases phosphine (PH3 gas, a highly toxic mitochondrial poison, in contact with moisture, particularly if acidic. Although the exact mechanism of action is unknown so far, the major mechanism of PH3 toxicity seems to be the inhibition of cytochrome-c oxidase and oxidative phosphorylation which eventually results in adenosine triphosphate (ATP depletion and cell death. Death due to AlP poisoning seems to be as a result of myocardial damage. No efficient antidote has been found for AlP poisoning so far, and unfortunately, most of the poisoned human cases die. PH3, like ammonia (NH3, is a Lewis base with a lone-pair electron. However, boric acid (B(OH3 is a Lewis acid with an empty p orbital. It is predicted that lone-pair electron from PH3 is shared with the empty p orbital from B(OH3 and a compound forms in which boron attains its octet. In other words, PH3 is trapped and neutralised by B(OH3. The resulting polar reaction product seems to be excretable by the body due to hydrogen bonding with water molecules. The present article proposes boric acid as a non-toxic and efficient trapping agent and an antidote for PH3 poisoning by investigating the chemical reaction between them.

  2. The Antidotal Effects of High-dosage γ-Aminobutyric Acid on Acute Tetramine Poisoning as Compared with Sodium Dimercaptopropane Sulfonate

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SUN Peng; HAN Jiyuan; WENG Yuying

    2007-01-01

    To investigate the therapeutic effect of high-dosage γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) on acute tetramine (TET) poisoning, 50 Kunming mice were divided into 5 groups at random and the antidotal effects of GABA or sodium dimercaptopropane sulfonate (Na-DMPS) on poisoned mice in different groups were observed in order to compare the therapeutic effects of high-dosage GABA with those of Na-DMPS. Slices of brain tissue of the poisoned mice were made to examine pathological changes of cells. The survival analysis was employed. Our results showed that both high-dosage GABA and Na-DMPS could obviously prolong the survival time, delay onset of convulsion and muscular twitch, and ameliorate the symptoms after acute tetramine poisoning in the mice.Better effects could be achieved with earlier use of high dosage GABA or Na-DMPS. There was no significant difference in prolonging the survival time between high-dose GABA and Na-DMPS used immediately after poisioning. It is concluded that high-dosage GABA can effectively antagonize acute toxicity of teramine in mice. And it is suggested that high-dosage GABA may be used as an excellent antidote for acute TET poisoning in clinical practice. The indications and correct dosage for clinical use awaits to be further studied.

  3. Utilisation de l'assistant grammatical Antidote dans le cadre d'activités de révision - Analyse exploratoire de protocoles d'observation Using Antidote in Revision Tasks: An Exploratory Study of Grammar Checker Usage Through Verbal Protocol Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick Durel

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Cette étude examine les opérations mentales d'apprenants utilisant l'assistant grammatical Antidote en phase de révision de leurs productions écrites. Analysant des données obtenues à partir de la méthode des protocoles verbaux, ce travail montre comment ce type d'activité de révision assistée par ordinateur conduit l'apprenant à manipuler, construire, renforcer ou élargir le champ d'application de ses connaissances, qu'elles soient déclaratives ou procédurales. Les éléments dégagés indiquent que l'utilisation d'Antidote peut être vecteur d'apprentissage et offrent quelques pistes permettant de concevoir des activités de révision assistée par ordinateur qui s'inscrivent dans le cadre d'une didactique de la production scripturale.This study explores learners' cognitive processes when using the grammar assistant software Antidote during the revision phase of their composition. Analysing data obtained using a hybrid form of verbal protocols, it shows how computer-assisted revision activity can lead learners to manipulate, build or reinforce declarative and procedural knowledge. We argue that using grammar assistant software can be conducive to learning. The results of the analysis provide an insight into how such a tool can be integrated into classroom activities, contributing to writing quality and the acquisition of revision strategies.

  4. Effect of various antidotes on biliary excretion of arsenic in isolated perfused livers of guinea pigs after acute experimental poisoning with As2O3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reichl, F X; Mückter, H; Kreppel, H; Forth, W

    1992-05-01

    The effect of the dithiols British Anti-Kewisite (BAL), dimercaptopropanesulfonic acid (DMPS), dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA) and a new metal binding agent 2,3-bis-(acetylthio)- propanesulfonamide (BAPSA) on the biliary excretion of arsenic in perfused livers of guinea pigs after acute experimental poisoning with As2O3 was investigated. Guinea pigs received As2O3, 10.0 mg/kg subcutaneously at 9 a.m. as a single injection. One hour after the injection the livers were perfused (2.5 ml x min.-1 x g-1 liver) with Krebs-Henseleit buffer and glucose for 80 min. After 40 min. of saline perfusion (control) 0.1 or 0.7 mmol/l BAL, DMSA, DMPS, or BAPSA were added to the perfusate and arsenic elimination in the bile and effluent perfusate was measured. The biliary excretion of arsenic in control livers between 40 and 80 min. was 0.7% of the total arsenic liver content before perfusion (= arsenic liver content after perfusion + portion excreted in the bile+perfusate). After antidote addition (0.1 mmol/l) the excretion was 0.2% for livers perfused with BAL, 6.8% for DMSA, 10.6% for DMPS, and 11.1% for BAPSA, respectively. After 0.7 mmol/l antidote the excretion of arsenic was 0.1% in livers perfused with BAL, 9.6% for DMSA, 12.3% for DMPS, and 13.3% for BAPSA, respectively. Except BAL, all compounds and most effectively BAPSA increased biliary excretion of arsenic. This indicates that excretion of arsenic which normally is mainly renal is shifted towards faecal excretion by the dithiols.

  5. Fructose-1, 6-diphosphate (FDP as a novel antidote for yellow oleander-induced cardiac toxicity: A randomized controlled double blind study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dawson Andrew H

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cardiac toxicity due to ingestion of oleander plant seeds in Sri Lanka and some other South Asian countries is very common. At present symptomatic oleander seed poisoning carries a mortality of 10% in Sri Lanka and treatment of yellow oleander poisoning is limited to gastric decontamination and atropine administration. The only proven effective antidote is digoxin antibodies but these are not available for routine use because of the high cost. The main objective of this study is to investigate the effectiveness of a new and inexpensive antidote for patients with life threatening arrhythmias due oleander poisoning. Method/design We set up a randomised double blind clinical trial to assess the effectiveness of Fructose 1, 6 diphosphate (FDP in acute yellow oleander poisoning patients admitted to the adult medical wards of a tertiary hospital in Sri Lanka. Patients will be initially resuscitated following the national guidelines and eligible patients will be randomised to receive either FDP or an equal amount of normal saline. The primary outcome measure for this study is the sustained reversion to sinus rhythm with a heart rate greater than 50/min within 2 hours of completion of FDP/placebo bolus. Secondary outcomes include death, reversal of hyperkalaemia on the 6, 12, 18 and 24 hour samples and maintenance of sinus rhythm on the holter monitor. Analysis will be on intention-to-treat. Discussion This trial will provide information on the effectiveness of FDP in yellow oleander poisoning. If FDP is effective in cardiac glycoside toxicity, it would provide substantial benefit to the patients in rural Asia. The drug is inexpensive and thus could be made available at primary care hospitals if proven to be effective. Trial Registration Current Controlled trial ISRCTN71018309

  6. Action of cholinergic poisons on the central nervous system and effectiveness of potential antidotes. Annual report 1 Jul 81-30 Jun 82

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Samson, F.; Nelson, S.

    1982-11-01

    The research aim was to determine the effects of soman, related organophosphate toxins and potential antidotes on brain regional functions in rats: The (/sup 14/C)-2-deoxyglucose procedure (2-DG) was used for mapping brain regional glucose use. Quantitative autoradiography was used for muscarinic and nicotinic cholinergic receptors. The 2-DG procedure gives a quantitative measure of glucose utilization in brain regions and is in index of the 'functional activity' in brain regions and systems. Values were determined in controls, rats with soman induced seizures, seizures induced by convulsants (DFP, strychnine, picrotoxin, pentylenetetrazol, penicillin) and soman pretreated with TAB. Brain regional cholinergic receptor maps were prepared and some regional muscarinic and nicotinic receptor densities have been quantified. Soman (112 micrograms/kg i.m.) causes strong, continuous seizures and a dramatic (2-6 fold) increase in the rate of glucose use in 10 major brain regions. Most intense increases were in septum, substants nigra reticularis and outer layer of hippcampal dendata gyrus. The overt seizures of rats induced by convulsants DFP, strychnine, picrotoxin, pentylenetetrazol and penicillin (in hippocampus) were strikingly different from that of rats with soman seizures. High doses (2X LD50) of soman in rats protected with TAB caused a 50% depression of glucose use in most brain regions. The effects of repeated soman exposure on muscarinic and nicotinic receptors are under study.

  7. Catalytic-site conformational equilibrium in nerve-agent adducts of acetylcholinesterase: possible implications for the HI-6 antidote substrate specificity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Artursson, Elisabet; Andersson, Per Ola; Akfur, Christine; Linusson, Anna; Börjegren, Susanne; Ekström, Fredrik

    2013-05-01

    Nerve agents such as tabun, cyclosarin and Russian VX inhibit the essential enzyme acetylcholinesterase (AChE) by organophosphorylating the catalytic serine residue. Nucleophiles, such as oximes, are used as antidotes as they can reactivate and restore the function of the inhibited enzyme. The oxime HI-6 shows a notably low activity on tabun adducts but can effectively reactivate adducts of cyclosarin and Russian VX. To examine the structural basis for the pronounced substrate specificity of HI-6, we determined the binary crystal structures of Mus musculus AChE (mAChE) conjugated by cyclosarin and Russian VX and found a conformational mobility of the side chains of Phe338 and His447. The interaction between HI-6 and tabun-adducts of AChE were subsequently investigated using a combination of time resolved fluorescence spectroscopy and X-ray crystallography. Our findings show that HI-6 binds to tabun inhibited Homo sapiens AChE (hAChE) with an IC50 value of 300μM and suggest that the reactive nucleophilic moiety of HI-6 is excluded from the phosphorus atom of tabun. We propose that a conformational mobility of the side-chains of Phe338 and His447 is a common feature in nerve-agent adducts of AChE. We also suggest that the conformational mobility allow HI-6 to reactivate conjugates of cyclosarin and Russian VX while a reduced mobility in tabun conjugated AChE results in steric hindrance that prevents efficient reactivation.

  8. Neutralizing activities of ethanolic extracts of six plants traditionally used in Guatemala as antidotes for the envenomation caused by the snake Bothrops asper

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia Saravia-Otten

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Many plants are reported to be used in Guatemalan traditional medicine as antidotes against various effects of the snakebite; however, very few attempts have been made to evaluate their neutralizing capacity in controlled experiments. Six plants (Acacia hindsii, Cissampelos pareira; Hamelia patens, Piper peltatum, Sansevieria hyacinthoides and Aristolochia maxima were evaluated in vitro for their ability to neutralize phospholipase A2(PLA2 and proteolytic effects of the venom of Bothrops asper, the snake responsible for approximately half of the snakebite envenomations in Central America. These effects are indicatives of the ability of B. asper venom to produce myotoxicity, hemorrhage and inflammation. Plants were collected, dried and extracted by maceration with ethanol. After pre-incubation of several amounts of each extract with a challenge dose of venom, S. hyacinthoides demonstrated a low neutralizing capacity (< DE 50 of the PLA2 effect (13.90 ± 6.41%; C. pareira (32.98 ± 5.51% and P. peltatum (24.52 ± 7.45% neutralized less than 50% of the proteolytic effect. The results suggest that neither of the tested plants should be used individually to treat the main effects of B. asper envenomation. However, the three low-active extracts might be potentiated when used in mixtures composed of several plants, as prepared by traditional healers. Given the complexity of the venom components and the multiple pathologic effects produced by B. asper envenomation, more tests are required to fully investigate the ability of this plants to neutralize the coagulant, fibrin(ogenolytic, edematizing and myotoxic effects of the venom.

  9. The Antidotes to the Double Standard: Protecting the Healthcare Rights of Mentally Ill Inmates by Blurring the Line Between Estelle and Youngberg.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldberg, Rose Carmen

    2016-01-01

    This Note is an examination of mentally ill inmates' constitutional right to treatment. It has significant doctrinal and practical implications. In terms of doctrine, the Supreme Court has created distinct standards for the minimum levels of care for inmates (Estelle) and the civilly committed mentally ill (Youngberg). Under this framework mentally ill inmates are constitutionally equivalent to inmates generally, but are entitled to less care than the civilly committed even if they suffer the same illness. This Note explores this gap through the lens of equal protection and argues that mentally ill inmates are similarly situated to the civilly committed. It further contends that inmates constitute a "discrete and insular minority" and thus the standard establishing their right to care should be subject to strict scrutiny. This Note finds that Estelle fails this test. Practically, this Note brings visibility to a consequential area of the law neglected by scholarship. Over half of inmates are mentally ill and yet treatment in prisons is inadequate. The literature at the intersection of health, criminal justice, and constitutional rights has not constructively considered how doctrine should be changed to protect the wellbeing of this vulnerable population. Scholars have also provided little oversight of the judicial administration of justice in this field; there are few reviews of how judges actually apply treatment rights standards. This Note lessens this blind spot by exposing how courts fail to properly distinguish between different standards. This Note proposes that the most promising antidote to the Estelle-Youngberg double standard, counterintuitively, is not the creation of a uniform standard. A standard that puts mentally ill inmates on equal footing with the civilly committed would solve the doctrinal puzzle, but would be subject to Youngberg's inherent flaws and the judicial malpractice in this area. Recognizing the deficiencies of a purely judicial remedy

  10. Preventing deaths from rising opioid overdose in the US – the promise of naloxone antidote in community-based naloxone take-home programs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Straus MM

    2013-09-01

    , it is important for federal government research agencies to initiate and support independent and rigorous evaluation of these programs to inform policymakers how effective these programs can be to save lives and curb the opioid overdose public health crisis. Keywords: prescription drug abuse, fatal opioid overdose, naloxone antidote, Good Samaritan laws, naloxone take-home program

  11. The Antidotes to the Double Standard: Protecting the Healthcare Rights of Mentally Ill Inmates by Blurring the Line Between Estelle and Youngberg.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldberg, Rose Carmen

    2016-01-01

    This Note is an examination of mentally ill inmates' constitutional right to treatment. It has significant doctrinal and practical implications. In terms of doctrine, the Supreme Court has created distinct standards for the minimum levels of care for inmates (Estelle) and the civilly committed mentally ill (Youngberg). Under this framework mentally ill inmates are constitutionally equivalent to inmates generally, but are entitled to less care than the civilly committed even if they suffer the same illness. This Note explores this gap through the lens of equal protection and argues that mentally ill inmates are similarly situated to the civilly committed. It further contends that inmates constitute a "discrete and insular minority" and thus the standard establishing their right to care should be subject to strict scrutiny. This Note finds that Estelle fails this test. Practically, this Note brings visibility to a consequential area of the law neglected by scholarship. Over half of inmates are mentally ill and yet treatment in prisons is inadequate. The literature at the intersection of health, criminal justice, and constitutional rights has not constructively considered how doctrine should be changed to protect the wellbeing of this vulnerable population. Scholars have also provided little oversight of the judicial administration of justice in this field; there are few reviews of how judges actually apply treatment rights standards. This Note lessens this blind spot by exposing how courts fail to properly distinguish between different standards. This Note proposes that the most promising antidote to the Estelle-Youngberg double standard, counterintuitively, is not the creation of a uniform standard. A standard that puts mentally ill inmates on equal footing with the civilly committed would solve the doctrinal puzzle, but would be subject to Youngberg's inherent flaws and the judicial malpractice in this area. Recognizing the deficiencies of a purely judicial remedy

  12. Validation method in microbial limit test for antipyretic and antidotal Chinese patent medicines%清热解毒类中成药微生物限度检查方法验证

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许威; 吴虹

    2012-01-01

    目的 研究清热解毒类中成药的抑菌作用,建立其微生物限度检查方法 .方法 按照<中国药典)2010年版一部的微生物限度检查法进行验证实验.结果 8种清热解毒类中成药均对金黄色葡萄球菌、枯草芽孢杆菌有一定的抑菌作用,可以分别通过培养基稀释法和薄膜过滤法得以消除.结论 分别建立了8种清热解毒类中成药的微生物限度检查方法 ,为该类药品的微生物检查提供参考.%Objective To study the antimicrobial effect of antipyretic and antidotal Chinese patent medicines and to establish microbial limit test method for them. Methods According to Chinese Pharmacopoeia 2010 Edition,validation method in microbial limit test for the medicines was validated. Results Eight kinds of antipyretic and antidotal Chinese patent medicines all showed inhibition effect on Staphylococcus aureus and Bacillus subtilis. The effect could be eliminated by culture medium dilution method and filtration membrane method. Conclusion Microbial limit test methods were established for the Chinese patent medicines respectivesly. The results could give experimental evidence for the kind of Chinese patent medicines.

  13. 新型解毒剂T对异噁草松造成玉米药害的缓解作用%Study on the Action of Antidote T to the Injury of Clomazone on Maize Plant by Fluorescence Spectrophotometric Analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李晓薇; 李重九; 万春侯; 赵亚波; 宋淑玲; 张伟国

    2001-01-01

    After treating with clomazone and antidote T, the physiological changes of maize plants were studied by examining the dynamic characteristics of chlorophyll and fluorescence spectrum. The concentration of chlorophyll came down and the ratio of fluorescence strength to concentration of chlorophyll raised up as the concentration of clomazone increased. The injury from clomazone could be alleviated by antidote T.%通过测定植株叶绿素含量与荧光光谱特征动态变化,分析除草剂异噁草松和解毒剂T对玉米植株的生理作用。随着除草剂浓度升高,叶绿素浓度下降,单位叶绿素荧光强度比不断上升,而解毒剂T可缓解上述伤害。

  14. Estabilidad de la hidroxocobalamina en agua para inyección como antídoto contra cianuros: Elaborado de Farmacia Militar Stability of hydroxocobalamin in water for injection as cyanide antidote

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.J. Sánchez Ramos

    2012-06-01

    = 92,87% ± 6,08%; p = 0,95; n = 4; t = 472 días. La solución envasada en bolsas de polipropileno sufrió un efecto de concentración por pérdida de agua a través del envase. En los dos tipos de viales estudiados el contenido en hidroxocobalamina de la solución se mantuvo en el rango de aceptación especificado en la farmacopea: 102,09% ± 0,47% a 4º C y 102,35% ± 0,60% a 37º C para los viales COC; 101,64% ± 2,16% a 4ºC y 101,19 ± 1,75% a 37º C, para los viales de polipropileno (p = 0,95. El autoclavado de la solución a 115ºC durante 30 minutos redujo el porcentaje de hidroxocobalamina a valores fuera del rango de conformidad (95-115%. Conclusiones: La solución inyectable de cloruro de hidroxocobalamina en agua para inyección a la concentración indicada como antídoto N.B.Q. contra cianuros, lista para administrar, es estable a temperaturas inferiores a 25º C, al menos durante un periodo de 15 meses. Por su inercia química y propiedades físicas, los viales de polipropileno constituyen el envase más adecuado para esta solución, que no puede ser autoclavada, y debe ser preparada por vía aséptica sin esterilización terminal.Background: Cyanide has been used as an agent for chemical warfare, and today it is also a credible terrorism threat agent. Cyanide poisoning is the first cause of death in victims of smoke inhalation from enclosed space fires. Successful treatment for acute cyanide poisoning depends upon rapid antidotes administration, and fixation of the cyanide ion by antidotes. Hydroxocobalamin seems to be a more appropriate antidote than sodium nitrite for empiric treatment of smoke inhalation and other suspected cyanide intoxication victims in the out-of-hospital setting. Stability of hydroxocobalamin in water for injection at cyanide antidote dose has been studied throughout the time and in four types of containers. Methods: The parenteral solution was prepared by aseptic procedures without terminal sterilization, and according to the

  15. Is There an Antidote to Perfectionism?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenspon, Thomas S.

    2014-01-01

    Within our competitive culture, some perfectionistic students do well, whereas others are overwhelmed. The personal characteristics of these perfectionistic students should not be construed as positive or adaptive perfectionism. A distinction is made between perfectionism and the pursuit of excellence. The intensity of the anxiety at the core of…

  16. Of Poisons and Antidotes in Polypropylene Catalysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Yue; Busico, Vincenzo; Budzelaar, Peter H M; Vittoria, Antonio; Cipullo, Roberta

    2016-07-18

    Quenched-flow studies of MgCl2 -supported Ziegler-Natta catalysts were combined for the first time with (13) C NMR fingerprinting of the nascent polymer and conclusively proved that, depending on the catalyst formulation, propene polymerization can be slowed down significantly by the occurrence of the few regiodefects (2,1 monomer insertions), changing active sites into dormant sites. Catalysts modified with ethylbenzoate show little dormancy. The more industrially relevant phthalate based catalysts, instead, are highly dormant and require the presence of H2 to counteract the deleterious effect of this self-poisoning on productivity and stereoselectivity. PMID:27243600

  17. Synthesis of Key Intermediate of Antidote HPPPD

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    <正>Nerve agents are organophosphorus compounds (OPs) which are misused as chemical warfare agents for military and terrorism. Exposure to even small amounts of nerve agents such as tabun, soman, sarin,

  18. Moral Relativism: A Philosopher's Antidote for Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jack, Henry

    1977-01-01

    The author identifies four main sources of moral relativism; defines cultural and ethical relativism, and social and personal moral relativism; and presents three arguments to refute moral relativism. (AV)

  19. Ballistic transport in graphene antidot lattices

    OpenAIRE

    Sandner, Andreas; Preis, Tobias; Schell, Christian; Giudici, Paula; Watanabe, Kenji; Taniguchi, Takashi; Weiss, Dieter; Eroms, Jonathan

    2015-01-01

    Graphene samples can have a very high carrier mobility if influences from the substrate and the environment are minimized. Embedding a graphene sheet into a heterostructure with hexagonal boron nitride (hBN) on both sides was shown to be a particularly efficient way of achieving a high bulk mobility. Nanopatterning graphene can add extra damage and drastically reduce sample mobility by edge disorder. Preparing etched graphene nanostructures on top of an hBN substrate instead of SiO2 is no rem...

  20. Coffee as an Antidote to Knowledge Stickiness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blackman, Deborah; Phillips, Diane

    2011-01-01

    This paper considers the concept of space and its role in both knowledge creation and overcoming knowledge stickiness. Aristotelian concepts of "freedom to" and "freedom from" are used to reconceptualise space. Informal and formal spaces, concepts and places are discussed as both specific locations and as gaps providing space for knowledge…

  1. The Liberal Arts, Antidote for Atheism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heck Joel D.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available C. S. Lewis once stated that the decline of classical learning was a contributory cause of atheism. This article explores why he made this very unusual statement, describing how Lewis saw the Classics as a literature full of gods and goddesses, providing hints of truth, giving us things to write about, and preparing for the Christian faith. Using some remarkable quotations from Virgil and Plato, Lewis demonstrated how those writers anticipated both the birth and the death of Christ. Lewis’s concept of myth, powerfully present in the Classics, shows how the Gospel story itself is a “true myth,” one with a pattern that is similar to many of the pagan myths. The personal story of Lewis himself demonstrates how the Classics, and, more broadly, the liberal arts were a testimony to the truth of God and how the Greek plays of Euripides, the philosophy of Samuel Alexander, the imagination of writer William Morris, the poetry of George Herbert, and the historical sensibility of G. K. Chesterton combined (with many other similar influences to convince Lewis that the death and resurrection of Jesus Christ were especially a “true myth,” one that happened in history, demonstrating him to be the Son of God.

  2. Clar sextets in square graphene antidot lattices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Rene; Pedersen, Thomas Garm; Jauho, Antti-Pekka

    2011-01-01

    A periodic array of holes transforms graphene from a semimetal into a semiconductor with a band gap tuneable by varying the parameters of the lattice. In earlier work only hexagonal lattices have been treated. Using atomistic models we here investigate the size of the band gap of a square lattice...

  3. Regular Exercise: Antidote for Deadly Diseases?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... aging, and an increasing number of cardiovascular and diabetes deaths since 1990, greater attention and investments in interventions to promote physical activity in the general public is required," lead author ...

  4. The "Poison" and "Antidote" of Historical Heritage be-hind the Reality:Comment on "Statement of Confession"by Qiao Ye%现实背后历史传承的“毒”与“解”--评乔叶的《认罪书》

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高雅

    2015-01-01

    《认罪书》无论从故事背景还是“因果报应”的逻辑而言,都是一个典型的中国传统故事,但乔叶思想的核心却围绕着“原罪”和“忏悔”“赎罪”这几个来自基督文化的词汇。“原罪”是毒,“忏悔”和“赎罪”是解,这不仅是乔叶对主人公金金及梁家人经历的提炼,也是她对于“文革”的历史和病相丛生的当下所作的见解。乔叶的观点中“忏悔”需要“认知、认证、认定、认领、认罚这些罪”,较之当代女性作家的同类主题作品,乔叶对“忏悔”和“赎罪”有更为深刻广阔的认识,但也存在着“忏悔”意识能否本土化的问题。%Viewing from not only the background of its story, but also the logic of"punitive justice","Statement of Confession"is a typical traditional Chinese story, but the core of Qiao Ye's thought revolves around such Christian words as "original sin", "repen-tance" and "atonement". "Original sin" is a poison, while "re-pentance" and "atonement" are the antidote, which is not only Qiao Ye's abstraction of the experiences of the hero Jin Jin and the Liang family, but also her view on"The Cultural Revolution"and the pathological situation at that time. In Qiao Ye's opinion,"repentance"needs"knowing, attesting, affirming, claiming these sins and taking punishment". Compared with contemporary fe-male writers' works of the same topic, Qiao Ye has a more pro-found recognition of"repentance"and"atonement", but whether the consciousness of"repentance"can be localized is a problem.

  5. Global Financial Regulations:An Antidote to Economic Predicament

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    BIN; ZHANG

    2014-01-01

    Due to the lack of public order in the international financial arena, asset bubbles and resource misallocations persisted over a long period of time and resulted in global financial crisis in 2008. Global financial rules, which can take on a role like that of WTO in the international trade, are urgently needed for global economic recovery. They will balance the pressure of economic restructuring between large and small countries, and push forward some countries’ domestic reforms which may hardly be implemented due to domestic politics.

  6. Co-Operation: The Antidote to Isolated Misery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Sarah

    2013-01-01

    This is a case study demonstrating the impact the co-operative movement has had on one co-operative school in south-west England. Lipson Co-operative Academy in Plymouth was one of the first schools to convert to become a co-operative school in 2009. The article has been co-written by members of the Academy and focuses on three transformational…

  7. Resilience, Flexibility and Adaptive Management - - Antidotes for Spurious Certitude?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lance Gunderson

    1999-06-01

    Full Text Available In many cases, a predicate of adaptive environmental assessment and management (AEAM has been a search for flexibility in management institutions, or for resilience in the ecological system prior to structuring actions that are designed for learning. Many of the observed impediments to AEAM occur when there is little or no resilience in the ecological components (e.g., when there is fear of an ecosystem shift to an unwanted stability domain, or when there is a lack of flexibility in the extant power relationships among stakeholders. In these cases, a pragmatic solution is to seek to restore resilience or flexibility rather than to pursue a course of broad-scale, active adaptive management. Restoration of resilience and flexibility may occur through novel assessments or small-scale experiments, or it may occur when an unforeseen policy crisis allows for reformation or restructuring of power relationships among stakeholders.

  8. Women’s Internalization of Sexism: Predictors and Antidotes

    OpenAIRE

    Becker, Julia Christina

    2008-01-01

    Not only men, but also many women take an active part in maintaining the current gender system by “doing gender” and by endorsing sexist beliefs. Recent research has identified several psychological factors as predictors of women’s acceptance of sexist attitudes, but a coherent parsimonious theoretical model was still missing. Accordingly, the first purpose of the present research (Manuscript #1) was to shed light on the seemingly...

  9. Recent Developments in Anti-dotes Against Anthrax.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhasmana, Neha; Singh, Lalit K; Bhaduri, Asani; Misra, Richa; Singh, Yogendra

    2014-01-01

    The etiologic agent of disease anthrax, Bacillus anthracis, causes recurrent outbreaks among the livestock and intermittent infections in humans across the world. Controlling animal infections by vaccination can minimize the incidence of disease in humans. Prevention of anthrax in occupationally exposed personnel is achieved through vaccination with either live spores or precipitates of culture supernatants from attenuated strains of B. anthracis. However, anthrax vaccination of the large human population is impractical as well as inappropriate. Broad-range antibiotics like amoxicillin, ciprofloxacin, clindamycin, streptomycin, and penicillin G are recommended for the treatment of human anthrax infections, but the threat of antibiotic resistant strains always remains. Moreover, in the absence of any specific symptom (s) during early infection, the diagnosis of anthrax is delayed causing elevated levels of anthrax toxin component which could be fatal. For these reasons, there is a need to develop new antimicrobial agents against virulent B. anthracis to effectively combat this fatal pathogen. Over the last two decades, extensive studies have been carried out to develop specific inhibitors against virulence factors of B. anthracis such as capsule, protective antigen, lethal factor and edema factor. Research has also been focused in developing inhibitors of anthrax toxin receptors (including the use of receptor decoys) and host furin endoproteases which are required for activation of toxin. This review highlights the recent progress made in developing the diverse countermeasures for anthrax infections targeting B. anthracis virulence factors and their counterparts in host. PMID:25174439

  10. George Herbert Mead on consciousness: antidote to Cartesian absurdities?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Willert, Søren

    The article explicates George Herbert Mead's theory of consciousness as presented in Mind, Self and Society. According to Mead, the term consciousness may refer to three different sets of phenomena: (1) the environment as implied by our goal-directed action; Mead names this consciousness aspect...

  11. DMSA, DMPS, and DMPA--as arsenic antidotes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aposhian, H V; Carter, D E; Hoover, T D; Hsu, C A; Maiorino, R M; Stine, E

    1984-04-01

    meso-Dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA), 2,3-dimercapto-1-propanesulfonic acid, Na salt (DMPS), and N-(2,3- dimercaptopropyl )- phthalamidic acid (DMPA) are water soluble analogs of 2,3-dimercapto-1-propanol (BAL). The relative effectiveness or therapeutic index of these dimercapto compounds in protecting mice from the lethal effects of an LD99 of sodium arsenite is DMSA greater than DMPS greater than DMPA greater than BAL in the magnitude of 42:14:4:1, respectively. DMPS, DMPA, or DMSA will mobilize tissue arsenic. BAL, however, increases the arsenic content of the brain of rabbits injected with sodium arsenite. These results raise the question as to the appropriateness of BAL as the treatment for systemic arsenic poisoning. Either DMSA or DMPS, when given sc or po, will protect rabbits against the lethal systemic effects of subcutaneously administered Lewisite . DMPS and DMSA have promise as prophylactics for the prevention of the vesicant action of Lewisite . The sodium arsenite inhibition of the pyruvate dehydrogenase (PDH) complex can be prevented and reversed in vitro or in vivo by DMPS, DMSA, DMPA, or BAL. Of them all, DMPS is most potent and BAL appears to be the least potent. The usefulness of all these dimercapto compounds would be enhanced by a careful study of their metabolism and biotransformation. These dimercapto compounds are in a great many respects orphan drugs. At this stage of their development, it is very difficult for the clinician to obtain funds to study them clinically even though they appear to be useful for treatment of poisoning by any one of the heavy metals.

  12. Heavy metal poisoning: management of intoxication and antidotes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rusyniak, Daniel E; Arroyo, Anna; Acciani, Jennifer; Froberg, Blake; Kao, Louise; Furbee, Brent

    2010-01-01

    Of the known elements, nearly 80% are either metals or metalloids. The highly reactive nature of most metals result in their forming complexes with other compounds such oxygen, sulfide and chloride. Although this reactivity is the primary means by which they are toxic, many metals, in trace amounts, are vital to normal physiological processes; examples include iron in oxygen transport, manganese and selenium in antioxidant defense and zinc in metabolism. With these essential metals toxicity occurs when concentrations are either too low or too high. For some metals there are no physiological concentrations that are beneficial; as such these metals only have the potential to cause toxicity. This chapter focuses on four of these: arsenic, mercury, lead and thallium. PMID:20358690

  13. Effects of Glucose Oxidase on Growth Performance, Serum Parameters and Slaughter Performance of Meat Ducks and Its Antidotal Effect on Aflatoxin B1%葡萄糖氧化酶对肉鸭生长性能、血清指标和屠宰性能的影响及其解除黄曲霉毒素 B1效果

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    汤海鸥; 高秀华; 姚斌; 张广民; 王振兴; 李晓存

    2015-01-01

    This experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of diets supplemented with glucose oxidase ( GOD) on growth performance, serum parameters and slaughter performance of meat ducks and its antidotal effect on aflatoxin B1. A total of 100 Cherry Valley ducks (1-day-old) were randomly assigned to five groups with four replicates of fifty ducks in each replicate. The control group ( groupⅠ) was fed on a basic diet. The two test groups ( groupsⅡandⅢ) were fed on basic diet supplelemted with 100 and 200 g/t GOD. Aflatoxin B1 control group ( groupⅣ) was fed on basic diet with moldy corn. The groupⅤwas fed on the contaminated diet with 200 g/t GOD. The experiment lasted for 46 days. The results showed as follows:1) the average dai-ly gain and ratio of feed to gain of ducks in groupsⅡ andⅢ were significantly better than those in the control group ( P0.05) . The experiment indicated that the growth performance of ducks fed on basic diet can be significantly im-proved by supplementing GOD. The growth performance, serum parameters, slaughter performance and mor-tality rate of ducks fed diet with aflatoxin B1 can be improved by supplementing GOD.%本试验旨在研究饲粮中添加葡萄糖氧化酶( GOD)对肉鸭生长性能、血清指标和屠宰性能的影响及其解除黄曲霉毒素B1(AFB1)的效果。选用1000只健康的1日龄樱桃谷鸭,随机分为5个组,每组4个重复,每个重复50只鸭。Ⅰ组为对照组,饲喂基础饲粮;Ⅱ、Ⅲ组分别在基础饲粮中添加100和200 g/t GOD;Ⅳ组为混有AFB1超标玉米的攻毒组;Ⅴ组在Ⅳ组饲粮中添加200 g/t GOD。试验期46 d。结果表明:1)与对照组相比,Ⅱ、Ⅲ组显著提高了平均日增重( P0.05),显著低于其他各组(P<0.05)。由此可见,常规饲粮中添加GOD能显著改善肉鸭生长性能,添加GOD可改善AFB1攻毒肉鸭的生长性能、屠宰性能和血清指标,降低死亡率。

  14. The toxin and antidote puzzle: New ways to control insect pest populations through manipulating inheritance

    OpenAIRE

    Marshall, John M.

    2011-01-01

    Insects carry out essential ecological functions, such as pollination, but also cause extensive damage to agricultural crops and transmit human diseases such as malaria and dengue fever. Advances in insect transgenesis are making it increasingly feasible to engineer genes conferring desirable phenotypes, and gene drive systems are required to spread these genes into wild populations. Medea provides one solution, being able to spread into a population from very low initial frequencies through ...

  15. Can N-acetyl-L-cysteine affect zinc metabolism when used as a paracetamol antidote?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brumas, V; Hacht, B; Filella, M; Berthon, G

    1992-07-01

    N-Acetyl-L-cysteine (NAC) has long been used in the treatment of chronic lung diseases. Inhalation and oral administration of the drug are both effective in reducing mucus viscosity. In addition, NAC oral therapy allows to restore normal mucoprotein secretion in the long term. Although displaying heavy metal-complexing potential, NAC exerts no detectable influence on the metabolism of essential trace metals when used in the above context (i.e. at doses near 600 mg day-1). However, this may no longer be the case when NAC is used as an oxygen radical scavenger, like in the treatment of paracetamol poisoning. In the latter case, intravenous doses as high as 20 g day-1 are administered, which may induce excessive zinc urinary excretion. In order to allow a better appreciation of the risk of zinc depletion during NAC therapy, the present work addresses the role of this drug towards zinc metabolism at the molecular level. First, formation constants for zinc-NAC complexes have been determined under physiological conditions. Then, computer simulations for blood plasma and gastrointestinal fluid have been run to assess the influence of NAC and its metabolites (e.g. cysteine and glutathione) on zinc excretion and absorption. Blood plasma simulations reveal that NAC can effectively mobilise an important fraction of zinc into urinary excretable complexes as from concentrations of 10(-3) mol dm-3 (which corresponds to a dose of about 800 mg). This effect can still be enhanced by the action of NAC metabolites, among which cysteine is the most powerful zinc sequestering agent. In contrast, simulations relative to gastrointestinal conditions suggest that NAC should tend to increase zinc absorption, regardless of its dose.

  16. Managing Workplace Incivility: The Role of Conflict Management Styles--Antecedent or Antidote?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trudel, Jeannie; Reio, Thomas G., Jr.

    2011-01-01

    The workforce of the 21st century is dealing with rapid changes and increased competition across industries. Such changes place stress on management and workers alike, increasing the potential for workplace conflict and deviant workplace behaviors, including incivility. The importance of effective conflict management in the workplace has been…

  17. Antidotal efficacy of newly synthesized dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA) monoesters in experimental arsenic poisoning in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kreppel, H; Reichl, F X; Kleine, A; Szinicz, L; Singh, P K; Jones, M M

    1995-07-01

    The efficacy of four newly synthesized monoesters of meso-2,3-dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA), mono-i-amyl- (Mi-ADMS), mono-n-amyl- (Mn-ADMS), mono-i-butyl- (Mi-BDMS), and mono-n-butyl-meso-2,3-dimercaptosuccinate (Mn-BDMS) in increasing survival and arsenic elimination in experimental arsenic poisoning was investigated. Male mice (strain NMRI) received arsenite sc (survival study: 130 mumol/kg, 7 mice/group; elimination study: 85 mumol/kg (LD5) together with a tracer dose of 73As(III), 6 mice/group). After 30 min mice were treated with 0.7 mmol/kg of DMSA or a monoester ip or via gastric tube (ig). Control animals received saline ip. In the survival study mice were observed for 30 days. In the elimination study, the 73-arsenic content of several organs (blood, liver, heart, lung, kidneys, spleen, testes, brain, small intestine, large intestine, muscle, and skin) was measured 0.5, 2, 4, 6, and 8 hr after the arsenic injection using a gamma counter. Survival increased correspondingly well with the increase of arsenic elimination. DMSA, Mi-ADMS, Mn-ADMS, Mi-BDMS, and Mn-BDMS markedly decreased arsenic content in most organs as soon as 1.5 hr after treatment. Only in small and large intestine were higher arsenic amounts found, indicating a shift in arsenic elimination from the renal to the fecal route, and thereby suggesting a protective effect for the kidneys. Given ip, the monoesters turned out to be similarly as effective as the parent drug DMSA. Following ig treatment, the DMSA monoesters Mi-ADMS and Mn-ADMS seemed to be superior to DMSA with regard to survival.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  18. Real GPA and Real SET: Two Antidotes to Greed, Sloth and Cowardice in the College Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koper, Peter T.; Felton, James; Sanney, Kenneth J.; Mitchell, John B.

    2015-01-01

    Recently published evidence of limited learning among American college students confirms the damage done when students, faculty and institutions pursue interests that conflict with the educational process. The "disengagement compact" in which faculty tacitly trade lenient workloads and grading for higher student evaluation of teaching…

  19. Commentary on Polychlorinated Biphenyls (PCBs), Toxins, and Neuropsychological Deficits: Good Science is the Antidote

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hebben, Nancy

    2004-01-01

    The seven cohort studies of the relation between prenatal and postnatal exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) to cognitive, neuropsychological and behavioral development have suggested that exposure to PCBs can cause persistent changes in cognitive functioning. D.V. Cicchetti, A.S. Kaufman, and S.S. Sparrow (this issue) apply six scientific…

  20. Monitoring the Effects and Antidotes of the Non-vitamin K Oral Anticoagulants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rahmat, Nur A; Lip, Gregory Y H

    2015-01-01

    In the last decade, we have witnessed the emergence of the oral non-vitamin K oral anticoagulants (NOACs), which have numerous advantages compared with the vitamin K antagonists, particularly their lack of need for monitoring; as a result their use is increasing. Nonetheless, the NOACs face two...

  1. Clar Sextet Analysis of Triangular, Rectangular, and Honeycomb Graphene Antidot Lattices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Rene; Pedersen, Thomas Garm; Jauho, Antti-Pekka

    2011-01-01

    triangular, and the honeycomb lattice. It is found that the lattice geometry plays a crucial role for size of the band gap the triangular arrangement displays always a shable gap, while for the other types only particular hole separations lead to a large gap. This observation is explained using, Clear sextet...

  2. Arsenic and Old Language: A Habermasian Antidote for the Lethal Tobacco Ideology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lagergren, Paul

    The recent success of the United States antismoking movement has produced a marked decline in the U.S. smoking population. A study employed Jurgen Habermas' communicative competency theory to examine United States smoking controversy discourse and identify the most successful appeals of the antismoking movement. Analysis revealed that primary…

  3. Giving OD Antidote to Those Using Powerful Painkillers Might Save Lives

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Medicine Fellowship Program, Addiction Consult Service and Fellow Immersion Training Program, Clinical Addiction Research and Education Unit, Section of General Internal Medicine, Boston University ...

  4. Stability Characterization of a Polysorbate 80-Dimethyl Trisulfide Formulation, a Cyanide Antidote Candidate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartling, Craig M; Andre, Jon C; Howland, Carrie A; Hester, Mark E; Cafmeyer, Jeffrey T; Kerr, Andrew; Petrel, Trevor; Petrikovics, Ilona; Rockwood, Gary A

    2016-03-01

    Novel cyanide countermeasures are needed for cases of a mass-exposure cyanide emergency. A lead candidate compound is dimethyl trisulfide (DMTS), which acts as a sulfur donor for rhodanese, thereby assisting the conversion of cyanide into thiocyanate. DMTS is a safe compound for consumption and, in a 15% polysorbate 80 (DMTS-PS80) formulation, has demonstrated good efficacy against cyanide poisoning in several animal models. We performed a stability study that investigated the effect of temperature, location of formulation preparation, and pH under buffered conditions. We found that while the stability of the DMTS component was fairly independent of which laboratory prepared the formulation, the concentration of DMTS in the formulation was reduced 36-58% over the course of 29 weeks when stored at room temperature. This loss typically increased with increasing temperatures, although we did not find statistical differences between the stability at different storage temperatures in all formulations. Further, we found that addition of a light buffer negatively impacted the stability, whereas the pH of that buffer did not impact stability. We investigated the factors behind the reduction of DMTS over time using various techniques, and we suggest that the instability of the formulation is governed at least partially by precipitation and evaporation, although a combination of factors is likely involved. PMID:26861644

  5. Saffron as an antidote or a protective agent against natural or chemical toxicities

    OpenAIRE

    Razavi, Bibi Marjan; Hosseinzadeh, Hossein

    2015-01-01

    Saffron (Crocus sativus) is an extensively used food additive for its color and taste. Since ancient times this plant has been introduced as a marvelous medicine throughout the world. The wide spectrum of saffron pharmacological activities is related to its major constituents including crocin, crocetin and safranal. Based on several studies, saffron and its active ingredients have been used as an antioxidant, antiinflammatory and antinociceptive, antidepressant, antitussive, anticonvulsant, m...

  6. Magneto-optic enhancement and magnetic properties in Fe antidot films with hexagonal symmetry

    OpenAIRE

    Papaioannou, E. Th.; Kapaklis, Vassilios; Patoka, Piotr; Giersig, Michael; Fumagalli, Paul; García-Martín, Antonio; Ferreiro-Vila, Elías; Ctistis, Georgios

    2010-01-01

    The magneto-optic and magnetic properties of hexagonal arrays of holes in optically thin iron films are presented. We analyze their dependence on the hole radius and compare the results to a continuous iron film of the same thickness. We observe a large enhancement of the magneto-optic Kerr rotation with respect to that of the continuous film, at frequencies where surface-plasmon excitations are expected. The spectral position of the Kerr maxima can be tuned by the size and the distance betwe...

  7. Plasmon induced modification of the transverse magneto-optical response in Fe antidot arrays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Torrado, J.F.; Armelles, G.; Garcia-Martin, A. [IMM - Instituto de Microelectronica de Madrid (CNM-CSIC), Isaac Newton 8, PTM, 28760 Tres Cantos, Madrid (Spain); Papaioannou, E.T. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Uppsala University, 75121 Uppsala (Sweden); Ctistis, G. [Complex Photonic Systems (COPS), MESA+ Institute for Nanotechnology, University of Twente (Netherlands); Patoka, P.; Giersig, M. [Helmholtz-Zentrum Berlin fuer Materialien und Energie GmbH, 14109 Berlin (Germany)

    2010-10-15

    In this Letter we present the effects that the excitation of plasmon-like modes in periodically perforated Fe films have over the Transverse Magneto-Optical Kerr Effect (TMOKE). The excitation of the modes gives rise to clear signatures in the TMOKE spectra. We analyze the spectral position of the structures as a function of both the polar and azimuth angle. Schematic representation of the system, and TMOKE signal for a Fe membrane along {phi}=0 . (copyright 2010 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  8. Surface plasmons and magneto-optic activity in hexagonal Ni anti-dot arrays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papaioannou, Evangelos Th; Kapaklis, Vassilios; Melander, Emil; Hjörvarsson, Björgvin; Pappas, Spiridon D; Patoka, Piotr; Giersig, Michael; Fumagalli, Paul; Garcia-Martin, Antonio; Ctistis, Georgios

    2011-11-21

    The influence of surface plasmons on the magneto-optic activity in a two-dimensional hexagonal array is addressed. The experiments were performed using hexagonal array of circular holes in a ferromagnetic Ni film. Well pronounced troughs are observed in the optical reflectivity, resulting from the presence of surface plasmons. The surface plasmons are found to strongly enhance the magneto-optic response (Kerr rotation), as compared to a continuous film of the same composition. The influence of the hexagonal symmetry of the pattern on the coupling between the plasmonic excitations is demonstrated, using optical diffraction measurements and theoretical calculations of the magneto-optic and of the angular dependence of the optical activity. PMID:22109411

  9. Surface plasmons and magneto-optic activity in hexagonal Ni anti-dot arrays

    OpenAIRE

    Papaioannou, E. Th.; Kapaklis, Vassilios; Melander, Emil; Hjörvarsson, Björgvin; Pappas, Spiridon D.; Patoka, Piotr; Giersig, Michael; Fumagalli, Paul; García-Martín, Antonio; Ctistis, Georgios

    2011-01-01

    The influence of surface plasmons on the magneto-optic activity in a two-dimensional hexagonal array is addressed. The experiments were performed using hexagonal array of circular holes in a ferromagnetic Ni film. Well pronounced troughs are observed in the optical reflectivity, resulting from the presence of surface plasmons. The surface plasmons are found to strongly enhance the magneto-optic response (Kerr rotation), as compared to a continuous film of the same composition. The influence o...

  10. Magnetooptic enhancement and magnetic properties in Fe antidot films with hexagonal symmetry

    OpenAIRE

    Papaioannou, E. Th.; Kapaklis, V.; Patoka, P.; Giersig, M.; P. Fumagalli; Garcia-Martin, A.; Ferreiro-Vila, E.; Ctistis, G

    2009-01-01

    The magnetooptic and magnetic properties of hexagonal arrays of holes in optically thin iron films are presented. We analyze their dependence on the hole radius and compare the results to a continuous iron film of same thickness. We observe a large enhancement of the magnetooptic Kerr rotation with respect to that of the continuous film, at frequecies where surface plasmons excitations are expected. Additional simulations are in very good agreement with the experiment and thus confirm the eff...

  11. U.S. Productivity Growth: History as Antidote for Both Hysteria and Complacency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumol, William J.

    1985-01-01

    An historical analysis of U.S. productivity policy shows that there is no justification for panic. But history also tells us that the vanguard is a vulnerable place. It may take enormous investment and innovation efforts for the United States to maintain its standing as the first among productivity leaders. (RM)

  12. Building a Consonance Between Religion and Science: an Antidote for the Seeming Conflict

    OpenAIRE

    Omomia O. Austin

    2014-01-01

    It is commonly argued by a school of thought that there is no relationship between religion and science. This extreme position has led to a lasting conflict, which has pitched religion against science and science against religion. The attempt in this paper is to articulate the fact that there can be an enduring consonance between religion and science. No doubt, the conflict and debate on the subject of religion and science has taken the front burner in both religious and philosophical discuss...

  13. "Recent Rise in Federal Government and Federal Reserve Liabilities--Antidote to a Speculative Hangover"

    OpenAIRE

    Papadimitriou, Dimitri B.; Greg Hannsgen

    2009-01-01

    Federal government and Federal Reserve (Fed) liabilities rose sharply in 2008. Who holds these new liabilities, and what effects will they have on the economy? Some economists and politicians warn of impending inflation. In this new Strategic Analysis, the Levy Institute's Macro-Modeling Team focuses on one positive effect--a badly needed improvement of private sector balance sheets--and suggest some of the reasons why it is unlikely that the surge in Fed and federal government liabilities wi...

  14. Appropriate Measures to Use Money Laundering Prevention as an Antidote to Tax Evasion

    OpenAIRE

    Torres Serpel, Patricia; Shachmurove, Amir

    2005-01-01

    Money laundering, which is closely linked with tax evasion and informal trade, is facilitated by the poorly regulated financial institutions of mafia nations.” These nations make billions of dollars by laundering money and giving safe haven to drug dealers and corrupt politicians, allowing them to transfer money globally. Money laundering prevention policies require financial institutions to periodically update their customer's personal information. Furthermore, they attempt to match tax and ...

  15. AN ANTIDOTE TO THE RESOURCE CURSE: THE BLESSING OF RENEWABLE ENERGY

    OpenAIRE

    Angeliki N. Menegaki

    2013-01-01

    This paper empirically examines the validity of the resource curse in Europe and it is the first time renewable energy is inserted in this research context. The study uses panel data with a variety of explanatory variable proxies for investment, openness, rule of law, resource endowments and human capital. It employs a single equation fixed effects model with heteroskedasticity robust covariance and a simultaneous two equation model where renewable energy enters the structural equation as an ...

  16. AN ANTIDOTE TO THE RESOURCE CURSE: THE BLESSING OF RENEWABLE ENERGY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angeliki N. Menegaki

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper empirically examines the validity of the resource curse in Europe and it is the first time renewable energy is inserted in this research context. The study uses panel data with a variety of explanatory variable proxies for investment, openness, rule of law, resource endowments and human capital. It employs a single equation fixed effects model with heteroskedasticity robust covariance and a simultaneous two equation model where renewable energy enters the structural equation as an endogenous variable. The resource curse is confirmed only for crude oil and resource productivity in the single equation model while renewable energy has a positive relationship to growth. In the simultaneous two equation model, countries with high oil production and emissions also have a higher production of renewable energies.

  17. [Combination of a universal antidote and temporary skin substitute for chemical burns: Extended case report].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liodaki, E; Schopp, B E; Lindert, J; Krämer, R; Kisch, T; Mailänder, P; Stang, F

    2015-09-01

    In this article we describe our experiences in the treatment of chemical burns with Diphoterine(®) solution and Suprathel(®) as a temporary skin substitute material, a treatment which in the past was not commonly used for this pattern of injuries. In the study period from October 2012 to December 2013 we treated five patients (four male and one female including two children and three adults) with chemical burns by decontamination with Diphoterine(®) and wound covering with Suprathel(®). The control group included five patients with similar injury patterns who were treated with Diphoterine(®) and occlusive wound dressings. No wound infections occurred in any of the five cases and no interactions were observed between Suprathel(®) and the chemical substance involved. In four cases the skin areas with IIa-IIb degree damage showed good wound healing and only slight scarring in the follow-up after 3 months and one of the five patients had to be treated surgically. Suprathel(®) can be used as a temporary skin substitute for the treatment of skin burns and is also available for the treatment of chemical burns.

  18. Calcium channel antagonist and beta-blocker overdose: antidotes and adjunct therapies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graudins, Andis; Lee, Hwee Min; Druda, Dino

    2016-03-01

    Management of cardiovascular instability resulting from calcium channel antagonist (CCB) or beta-adrenergic receptor antagonist (BB) poisoning follows similar principles. Significant myocardial depression, bradycardia and hypotension result in both cases. CCBs can also produce vasodilatory shock. Additionally, CCBs, such as verapamil and diltiazem, are commonly ingested in sustained-release formulations. This can also be the case for some BBs. Peak toxicity can be delayed by several hours. Provision of early gastrointestinal decontamination with activated charcoal and whole-bowel irrigation might mitigate this. Treatment of shock requires a multimodal approach to inotropic therapy that can be guided by echocardiographic or invasive haemodynamic assessment of myocardial function. High-dose insulin euglycaemia is commonly recommended as a first-line treatment in these poisonings, to improve myocardial contractility, and should be instituted early when myocardial dysfunction is suspected. Catecholamine infusions are complementary to this therapy for both inotropic and chronotropic support. Catecholamine vasopressors and vasopressin are used in the treatment of vasodilatory shock. Optimizing serum calcium concentration can confer some benefit to improving myocardial function and vascular tone after CCB poisoning. High-dose glucagon infusions have provided moderate chronotropic and inotropic benefits in BB poisoning. Phosphodiesterase inhibitors and levosimendan have positive inotropic effects but also produce peripheral vasodilation, which can limit blood pressure improvement. In cases of severe cardiogenic shock and/or cardiac arrest post-poisoning, extracorporeal cardiac assist devices have resulted in successful recovery. Other treatments used in refractory hypotension include intravenous lipid emulsion for lipophilic CCB and BB poisoning and methylene blue for refractory vasodilatory shock. PMID:26344579

  19. Building a Consonance Between Religion and Science: an Antidote for the Seeming Conflict

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omomia O. Austin

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available It is commonly argued by a school of thought that there is no relationship between religion and science. This extreme position has led to a lasting conflict, which has pitched religion against science and science against religion. The attempt in this paper is to articulate the fact that there can be an enduring consonance between religion and science. No doubt, the conflict and debate on the subject of religion and science has taken the front burner in both religious and philosophical discusses. Some scholars have argued that science has no role in religious or theological domain, while others contest that all religious concerns and considerations must be exposed to empirical investigations, and, proven by the dynamics of our intellect or reason. This paper, therefore, attempts to examine how religion and science complement each other. The author applied philosophical, sociological and historical methodology in his research. It is recommended that there is the need for dialogue between religion and science.

  20. Prussian blue as an antidote for radioactive thallium and cesium poisoning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Altagracia-Martinez M

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Marina Altagracia-Martínez, Jaime Kravzov-Jinich, Juan Manuel Martínez-Núñez, Camilo Ríos-Castañeda, Francisco López-NaranjoDepartments of Biological Systems and Health Care, Biological and Health Sciences Division, Universidad Autónoma Metropolitana-Xochimilco, Mexico DF, MexicoBackground: Following the attacks on the US on September 11, 2001, potentially millions of people might experience contamination from radioactive metals. However, before the specter of such accidents arose, Prussian blue was known only as an investigational agent for accidental thallium and cesium poisoning. The purpose of this review is to update the state of the art concerning use of Prussian blue as an effective and safe drug against possible bioterrorism attacks and to disseminate medical information in order to contribute to the production of Prussian blue as a biodefense drug.Methods: We compiled articles from a systematic review conducted from January 1, 1960 to March 30, 2011. The electronic databases consulted were Medline, PubMed, the Cochrane Library, and Scopus.Results: Prussian blue is effective and safe for use against radioactive intoxications involving cesium-137 and thallium. The US Food and Drug Administration has approved Prussian blue as a drug, but there is only one manufacturer providing Prussian blue to the US. Based on the evidence, Prussian blue is effective for use against radioactive intoxications involving cesium-137 and thallium, but additional clinical research on and production of Prussian blue are needed.Keywords: Prussian blue, radioactive cesium, thallium, intoxication, biodefense drug

  1. Commitment as an Antidote to the Tension and Turnover Consequences of Organizational Politics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hochwarter, Wayne A.; Perrewe, Pamela L.; Ferris, Gerlad R.; Guercio, Rachel

    1999-01-01

    Surveys of 141 upper/middle managers and 418 university employees demonstrated that higher organizational commitment decreased the link between organizational politics and job tension. For managers, commitment decreased the effect of politics on intention to quit. (SK)

  2. The thrill of being violent as an antidote to posttraumatic stress disorder in Rwandese genocide perpetrators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roland Weierstall

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The cumulative exposure to life-threatening events increases the risk for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD. However, over the course of evolutionary adaptation, intra-species killing may have also evolved as an inborn strategy leading to greater reproductive success. Assuming that homicide has evolved as a profitable strategy in humans, a protective mechanism must prevent the perpetrator from getting traumatised by self-initiated violent acts. We thus postulate an inverse relation between a person's propensity toward violence and PTSD. We surveyed a sample of 269 Rwandan prisoners who were accused or convicted for crimes related to the 1994 genocide. In structured interviews we assessed traumatic event types, types of crimes committed, the person's appetitive violence experience with the Appetitive Aggression Scale (AAS and PTSD symptom severity with the PSS-I. Using path-analysis, we found a dose-response effect between the exposure to traumatic events and the PTSD symptom severity (PSS-I. Moreover, participants who had reported that they committed more types of crimes demonstrated a higher AAS score. In turn, higher AAS scores predicted lower PTSD symptom severity scores. This study provides first empirical support that the victim's struggling can be an essential rewarding cue for perpetrators. The results also suggest that an appetitive aggression can inhibit PTSD and trauma-related symptoms in perpetrators and prevent perpetrators from getting traumatised by their own atrocities.

  3. Can N-acetyl-L-cysteine affect zinc metabolism when used as a paracetamol antidote?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brumas, V; Hacht, B; Filella, M; Berthon, G

    1992-07-01

    N-Acetyl-L-cysteine (NAC) has long been used in the treatment of chronic lung diseases. Inhalation and oral administration of the drug are both effective in reducing mucus viscosity. In addition, NAC oral therapy allows to restore normal mucoprotein secretion in the long term. Although displaying heavy metal-complexing potential, NAC exerts no detectable influence on the metabolism of essential trace metals when used in the above context (i.e. at doses near 600 mg day-1). However, this may no longer be the case when NAC is used as an oxygen radical scavenger, like in the treatment of paracetamol poisoning. In the latter case, intravenous doses as high as 20 g day-1 are administered, which may induce excessive zinc urinary excretion. In order to allow a better appreciation of the risk of zinc depletion during NAC therapy, the present work addresses the role of this drug towards zinc metabolism at the molecular level. First, formation constants for zinc-NAC complexes have been determined under physiological conditions. Then, computer simulations for blood plasma and gastrointestinal fluid have been run to assess the influence of NAC and its metabolites (e.g. cysteine and glutathione) on zinc excretion and absorption. Blood plasma simulations reveal that NAC can effectively mobilise an important fraction of zinc into urinary excretable complexes as from concentrations of 10(-3) mol dm-3 (which corresponds to a dose of about 800 mg). This effect can still be enhanced by the action of NAC metabolites, among which cysteine is the most powerful zinc sequestering agent. In contrast, simulations relative to gastrointestinal conditions suggest that NAC should tend to increase zinc absorption, regardless of its dose. PMID:1529808

  4. [Expression Of DNA-Encoded Antidote to Organophosphorus Toxins in the Methylotrophic Yeast Pichia Pastoris].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terekhov, S S; Bobik, T V; Mokrushina, Yu A; Stepanova, A V; Aleksandrova, N M; Smirnov, I V; Belogurov, A A; Ponomarenko, N A; Gabibov, A G

    2016-01-01

    A platform for the cloning and expression of active human butyrylcholinesterase (BuChE) in the yeast Pichia pastoris is first presented. Genetic constructs for BuChE gene expression, separately and in conjunction with a proline-rich peptide called proline-rich attachment domain (PRAD), are based on the vector pPICZαA. It is shown that the highest level of production is achieved in the expression of a BuChE gene without PRAD pPICZαA. It is found that one can obtain up to 125 mg of active enzyme from 1 L of culture medium at an optimal pH environment (pH 7.6), an optical seed culture density of 3 o.u., and an optimum methanol addition mode of (0.5% methanol in the first day and 0.2% thereafter from the second day). PMID:27266247

  5. Hydrogen Sulfide—Mechanisms of Toxicity and Development of an Antidote

    OpenAIRE

    Jingjing Jiang; Adriano Chan; Sameh Ali; Arindam Saha; Haushalter, Kristofer J.; Wai-Ling Macrina Lam; Megan Glasheen; James Parker; Matthew Brenner; Mahon, Sari B.; Patel, Hemal H.; Rajesh Ambasudhan; Lipton, Stuart A.; Pilz, Renate B.; Boss, Gerry R.

    2016-01-01

    Hydrogen sulfide is a highly toxic gas—second only to carbon monoxide as a cause of inhalational deaths. Its mechanism of toxicity is only partially known, and no specific therapy exists for sulfide poisoning. We show in several cell types, including human inducible pluripotent stem cell (hiPSC)-derived neurons, that sulfide inhibited complex IV of the mitochondrial respiratory chain and induced apoptosis. Sulfide increased hydroxyl radical production in isolated mouse heart mitochondria and ...

  6. Inoculation against Wonder: Finding an Antidote in Camus, Pragmatism and the Community of Inquiry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burgh, Gilbert; Thornton, Simone

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we will explore how Albert Camus has much to offer philosophers of education. Although a number of educationalists have attempted to explicate the educational implications of Camus' literary works, these analyses have not attempted to extrapolate pedagogical guidelines towards developing an educational framework for children's…

  7. Risk Starvation Contributes to Dementias and Depressions: Whiffs of Danger Are the Antidote

    OpenAIRE

    Pope, Robin

    2009-01-01

    This paper’s objective is to use SKAT, the author’s Stages of Knowledge Ahead Theory of risk, to shed fresh light on the treatment and prevention of mental disorders. SKAT employs a broad definition of risk that allows for nice – not merely nasty – possibilities. SKAT is here shown to solve eight epidemiological puzzles left unexplained by our current theories and associated treatments for the demented and depressed. SKAT does so by enabling a decision model of mental health that puts centre ...

  8. Re-Engineering, concurrent engineering, lean production: What is the ideal antidote for the construction industry's ailments?

    OpenAIRE

    Koskela, Lauri

    1997-01-01

    It is widely agreed that the practice of construction is deficient and requires improvement. However, the construction research community has had little to contribute to a solution, except trialling new approaches from general management scene or advancing technological tools. It is argued that a new research frontier is needed, where integral understanding of operations, construction and computing is created. Through this understanding, real progress can be achieved.

  9. Ten Common Misunderstandings, Misconceptions, Persistent Myths and Urban Legends about Likert Scales and Likert Response Formats and their Antidotes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James Carifio

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available A recent article by Jamieson in Medical Education outlined some of the (alleged abuses of “Likert scales” with suggestions about how researchers can overcome some of the (alleged methodological pitfalls and limitations[1]. However, many of the ideas advanced in the Jamison article, as well as a great many of articles it cited, and similar recent articles in medical, health, psychology, and educational journals and books, are themselves common misunderstandings, misconceptions, conceptual errors, persistent myths and “urban legends” about “Likert scales” and their characteristics and qualities that have been propagated and perpetuated across six decades, for a variety of different reasons. This article identifies, analyses and traces many of these aforementioned problems and presents the arguments, counter arguments and empirical evidence that show these many persistent claims and myths about “Likert scales” to be factually incorrect and untrue. Many studies have shown that Likert Scales (as opposed to single Likert response format items produce interval data and that the F-test is very robust to violations of the interval data assumption and moderate skewing and may be used to analyze “Likert data” (even if it is ordinal, but not on an item-by-item “shotgun” basis, which is simply a current research and analysis practice that must stop. After sixty years, it is more than time to dispel these particular research myths and urban legends as well as the various damage and problems they cause, and put them to bed and out of their misery once and for

  10. Are Nontimber Forest Products the Antidote to Rainforest Degradation? Brazil Nut Extraction in Madre De Dios, Peru

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Escobal, J.A.; Aldana, U.

    2003-01-01

    This study explores the relationship between poverty and Amazonian forest management by Brazil nut harvesters in southeastern Peru. Although the poor rely more upon natural resource-based income than the rich, wealthier households use more forest wood and land than poorer ones. Contrary to the belie

  11. ANTI-LETHAL FACTOR FROM OPOSSUM SERUM IS A POTENT ANTIDOTE FOR ANIMAL, PLANT AND BACTERIAL TOXINS

    OpenAIRE

    Lipps, B V

    1999-01-01

    Currently, the use of antivenoms is the only available treatment for envenomation caused by venomous animals namely, snake, scorpion, spider, tick and jelly fish. Antivenoms are generally produced in large animals, mostly in horses. A large percentage of the population is allergic to horse proteins. Several animals are known to be resistant to snakebites and the antihemorrhagic and anti-lethal components have been isolated from sera of opossum, mongoose, meerkat and hedgehog, as well as from ...

  12. An antidote to the emerging two tier organ donation policy in Canada: the Public Cadaveric Organ Donation Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giles, S

    2005-04-01

    In Canada, as in many other countries, there exists an organ procurement/donation crisis. This paper reviews some of the most common kidney procurement and allocation programmes, analyses them in terms of public and private administration, and argues that privately administered living donor models are an inequitable stopgap measure, the good intentions of which are misplaced and opportunistic. Focusing on how to improve the publicly administered equitable cadaveric donation programme, and at the same time offering one possible explanation for its current failure, it is suggested that the simple moral principle of "give and you shall receive", already considered by some, be extended further. This would allow for those who are willing to sign up to be a public cadaveric donor be given a priority for receiving an organ donation should they ever require it. It is argued that this priority may provide the motivation to give that is so far lacking in Canada. This model is called the Public Cadaveric Organ Donation Program.

  13. Medical anthropology as an antidote for ethnocentrism in Jesus research? Putting the illness–disease distinction into perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pieter F. Craffert

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Medicine often has side-effects or unintended consequences that are more harmful than the original disease. Medical anthropology in general and the illness–disease distinction in particular has been introduced into historical Jesus research with the intent to protect it from medicocentrism and thus to offer ways of comprehending sickness and healing in the world of Jesus and his first followers without distorting these phenomena by imposing the biomedical framework onto the texts. In particular the illness–disease distinction is used for making sense of healing accounts whilst claiming to cross the cultural gap. Based on an analysis of the illness–disease distinction in medical anthropology and its use in historical Jesus research this article suggests that instead of protecting from ethnocentrism this distinction actually increases the risk of ethnocentrism and consequently distorts in many instances the healing accounts of the New Testament.

  14. ECOLOGY-ECONOMICAL ASSESSMENT OF THE APPROPRIATENESS OF USING GROWTH REGULATORS, IMMUNIZERS AND ANTIDOTE OF HERBICIDES DURING GROWTH OF THE WINTER WHEAT IN THE KRASNODAR REGION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yablonskaya Y. K.

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The article provides an overview of the phytosanitary condition of crops for 2011-2014 g in the Krasnodar region. In recent years, we can observe increasing of the crop losses from pests and diseases of plants. The using of different pesticides in intensive cultivation technologies of winter wheat can’t resist this. Pathogenic microorganisms acquire resistance to drugs used and become more aggressive. This creates a lot of environmental problems. Plants are almost always under environmental stress. However, it is impossible to refuse of pesticides. And they are not able to observe the immune system of the plant, and in some cases inhibit it. The present level of development of science has led to the emergence of new methods of plant protection, which is based on increasing of the capacity of the immune plants, rather than the destruction of pathogens, as in the case of the use of pesticides. We propose to apply so called "agrochemical cocktails"

  15. INNOVATION TECHNOLOGY OF THE INTEGRATED USING OF GROWTH REGULATORS, IMMUNIZERS AND ANTIDOTE HERBICIDES IN CULTIVATION OF WINTER WHEAT IN THE KRASNODAR REGION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yablonskaya Y. K.

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available At present, the cultivation of agricultural products is on a level where the growth of productivity and quality is only possible by using the latest achievements of science. Scientists have been developing elements of agro-technologies of complex applications of growth regulators, fungicides and fertilizers in growing winter wheat, providing a significant increase in productivity and quality of agricultural products, reduction of labor costs, energy and all kinds of resources, sustainable harvesting, even in the zone of risky agriculture. Plant growth regulators have multifunctional properties, which are expressed in the regulation of plant growth and development, and in increasing their resilience to adverse weather conditions and many diseases. However, despite the fact that there are many examples of extremely high economic efficiency of plant growth regulators, in terms of production and use of pesticides are much inferior. Retardants and defoliants are used more widely. However, low rates of regulators and elicitors, the ability to manage with their help the growth and development of plants; change the resistance of plants to various external factors determines their prospects. We propose to apply the "agrochemical cocktails." It will induce the systemic plant resistance to the whole growing season, which is not possible in the case of using only one of the fungicides and bactericides. It is necessary to take into account the features of the functioning of the immune system of plants and to develop technological methods of influence on the key stages of the immune response of plants

  16. Social Economy as Antidote to Criminal Economy: How Social Cooperation is Reclaiming Commons in the Context of Campania’s Environmental Conflicts

    OpenAIRE

    Monica Caggiano; Salvatore Paolo De Rosa

    2015-01-01

    This article contributes to ongoing debates on how bottom-up social cooperation can halt and reverse processes of environmental and human degradation, dispossession and impoverishment, by proposing a synchronization of resistance and of commoning practices. The article moves from the empirical case of social and ecological conflicts currently unfolding in the so-called Land of Fires, an area in Southern Italy infamous for the socio-environmental impacts of two decades of waste disposal, misma...

  17. [Treatment with inhibitors of new oral direct anticoagulants in patients with severe bleedings or urgent surgical procedures. The new dabigatran antidote: the place of idarucizumab in clinical practice].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boda, Zoltán

    2016-03-20

    Only vitamin K antagonists could be applied as oral anticoagulants over the past six decades. Coumarols have narrow therapeutic range, and unpredictable anticoagulant effects are resulted by multiple drug interactions. Therefore, regular routine monitoring of the international normalized ratio is necessary. There are two groups of factor-specific anticoagulants: molecules with anti-FIIa (dabigatran) and anti-FXa (rivaroxaban, apixaban and edoxaban) effect. Author summarizes the most important clinical features of the new oral anticoagulants, their indications and the possibilities of laboratory controls. Bleedings are the most important side effects of anticoagulants. This review summarizes the current published evidences for new oral anticoagulants reversal (non-specific and specific) agents, especially in cases with severe acute bleedings or urgent surgery procedures. It reports on how to use inhibitors, the recommended doses and the most important clinical results. The review focuses on idarucizumab - already approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration and the European Medicines Agency - which has a key role as the first specific inhibitor of dabigatran.

  18. Low molecular weight protamine as nontoxic heparin/low molecular weight heparin antidote (III): preliminary in vivo evaluation of efficacy and toxicity using a canine model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, L M; Chang, L C; Wrobleski, S; Wakefield, T W; Yang, V C

    2001-01-01

    Heparin employed in cardiovascular surgeries often leads to a high incidence of bleeding complications. Protamine employed in heparin reversal, however, can cause severe adverse reactions. In an attempt to address this clinical problem, we developed low molecular weight protamine (LMWP) as a potentially effective and less toxic heparin antagonist. A homogeneous 1880-d peptide fragment, termed LMWP-TDSP5 and containing the amino acid sequence of VSRRRRRRGGRRRR, was derived directly from protamine by enzymatic digestion of protamine with thermolysin. In vitro studies demonstrated that TDSP5 was capable of neutralizing various anticoagulant functions of both heparin and commercial low molecular weight heparin preparations. In addition, TDSP5 exhibited significantly reduced crossreactivity toward mouse sera containing antiprotamine antibodies. TDSP5 showed a decrease in its potential in activating the complement system. All of these findings suggested the possibility of markedly reduced protamine toxicity for TDSP5. In this article, we conducted preliminary in vivo studies to further demonstrate the feasibility and utility of using LMWP as a nontoxic clinical protamine substitute. Dogs were chosen as test animals because they were known to magnify the typical human response to protamine. By using a full spectra of biological and clinical assays for heparin, including the anti-IIa and anti-Xa chromogenic assays and the activated partial, thromboplastin time and TCT clotting assays, TDSP5 showed that it could completely neutralize all these different anticoagulant functions of heparin in dogs. Although administration of protamine in dogs produced a significant reduction in mean arterial blood pressure (-14.9 mm Hg) and elevation in pulmonary artery systolic pressure (+5.0 mm Hg), the use of TDSP5 in dogs did not elicit any statistically significant change in any of the variables measured. Furthermore, the use of LMWP also significantly reduced the protamine-induced transient thrombocytopenic and granulocytopenic responses. The white blood cell counts and platelet counts decreased to 82.1% and 60.0% of baseline, respectively, in dogs given intravenous protamine compared to 97.8% and 88.6% of baseline in dogs receiving TDSP5. These preliminary findings indicated that LMWP could potentially provide an effective and safe means to control both heparin- and protamine-induced complications. PMID:11741270

  19. Social Economy as Antidote to Criminal Economy: How Social Cooperation is Reclaiming Commons in the Context of Campania’s Environmental Conflicts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monica Caggiano

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available This article contributes to ongoing debates on how bottom-up social cooperation can halt and reverse processes of environmental and human degradation, dispossession and impoverishment, by proposing a synchronization of resistance and of commoning practices. The article moves from the empirical case of social and ecological conflicts currently unfolding in the so-called Land of Fires, an area in Southern Italy infamous for the socio-environmental impacts of two decades of waste disposal, mismanagement and contamination. Within this context, a coalition of grassroots movements is struggling to resist livelihoods degradation through an alliance with anti-Mafia social cooperatives. We provide an in-depth analysis of emerging social and economic networks that connect the strategies of grassroots movements for environmental justice with the work of social cooperatives that reclaim lands and assets confiscated to Mafia. The interests of environmental activists meet the interests of social cooperatives at the crossroad of territory reclamation with the spheres of social and economic production and reproduction. Framing the case as a cultural and physical re-appropriation of territory, we provide an analysis of strategies and limits for a symbolic and practical project of social re-appropriation of the commons (De Angelis 2012.

  20. Research of Antidotal Effect of Herbicide Safener on Butachlor%除草剂安全剂对丁草胺解毒效果研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张金艳

    2005-01-01

    采用室内生物测定的方法,通过对小麦生理指标-株高的测定,研究了除草剂安全剂3-二氯乙酰基-2-甲基-2-乙基-1,3-噁唑烷保护小麦免受除草剂丁草胺在不同浓度时的伤害.结果表明:当安全剂与丁草胺按一定浓度配比混合,对小麦有较好的保护效果,保护率可达60%~170%.

  1. Revolutionary Critical Pedagogy: The Antidote for Teacher Education Programs%革命的批判教育学:教师教育项目的解毒剂

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    彼得·麦克拉伦; 周霖

    2009-01-01

    笔者通过简要地回顾其批判教育学的发展,指出教育学是完全关乎政治的,而政治也包含着一个教育学的向度.当前,批判教育学作为教师教育主流的保守教育学一个重要的对立面,其最具政治性的特征已被磨掉和清除.笔者认为,对改革与变革的关系必须辩证地看待,而批判教育学可以担当其间人为的媒介因素.旨在改进21世纪社会主义原理和实践的革命的批判教育学是教师教育的重要方向.

  2. The principles of antipode therapy in the case of radionuclide incorporation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    General principles of antidote therapy to be applied for reducing internal exposure of the patients in the case of an accidental radionuclide incorporation are developed. Clinical and pharmacological properties of some antidotes counteracting radionuclide incorporation in the human body are evaluated accounting for medical and experimental experience. General principles of antidote therapy of the patients following an accidental incorporation of radionuclides in the human body are formulated. A pharmacological specification and classification of modern radionuclide antidotes licensed for clinical use are set up. Clinical examples of antidote treatment of patients are presented

  3. Estabilidad de la hidroxocobalamina en agua para inyección como antídoto contra cianuros: Elaborado de Farmacia Militar Stability of hydroxocobalamin in water for injection as cyanide antidote

    OpenAIRE

    J.J. Sánchez Ramos

    2012-01-01

    Introducción: Los cianuros han sido utilizados como agentes de guerra química, y hoy se consideran una amenaza terrorista real. Son también la principal causa de muerte en la intoxicación por inhalación de humo de incendios en espacios cerrados. El éxito en el tratamiento de la intoxicación depende de la rapidez con la que se administren los antídotos, y con la que estos fijen el ión cianuro. La hidroxocobalamina parece ser un antídoto más apropiado que el nitrito sódico para el tratamiento e...

  4. Experiments regarding the development of sulfur-containing chelating agents for excretion via the biliary duct as an antidote therapy of cadmium intoxication. Versuche zur Entwicklung schwefelhaltiger, biliaer eliminierbarer Chelatbildner zur Antidottherapie bei Cadmium-Intoxikationen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dierks, T.

    1988-01-01

    The study represents an effort to synthesize new cadmium complexing agents which would be free of the shortcomings of substances available so far. As the kidneys seem to be the 'critical organs' both in cadmium intoxication and in chelate therapy, the new compounds were to assure elimination of the cadmium chelate formed via the biliary tract. After introductory chapters, the work first of all describes the syntheses of the new potential complexing agents. The second part of the work attempts to transform known chelating agents into substances permitting biliary excretion by forming derivatives with a diazomethane containing cumarin as a substitute. However, no suitable chelate compound could be obtained. The last part studies the cadmium complexing capability of the synthesized 3,6-dioxaoctanedithioamides 4 and 8 and of the N-(1,3-benzothiazol-2-yl)-thioacetamide 6 using different methods. Only the compound N,N,N',N'-tetrabutyl-3,6-dioxaoctanedithioamide 4/sup 104-106/, previously described in literature, and the monothioamide 6 formed cadmium chelates. But these compounds, having a relatively low molecular weight, are unlikely to satisfy the requirements for elimination via the biliary duct.

  5. Submicrometric 2D ratchet effect in magnetic domain wall motion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castán-Guerrero, C., E-mail: ccastan@unizar.es [Instituto de Ciencia de Materiales de Aragón (ICMA), CSIC – Universidad de Zaragoza, E-50009 Zaragoza (Spain); Dpto. de Física de la Materia Condensada, Universidad de Zaragoza, E-50009 Zaragoza (Spain); Herrero-Albillos, J. [Fundación ARAID, E-50004 Zaragoza (Spain); Centro Universitario de la Defensa, E-50090 Zaragoza (Spain); Instituto de Ciencia de Materiales de Aragón (ICMA), CSIC – Universidad de Zaragoza, E-50009 Zaragoza (Spain); Sesé, J. [Instituto de Nanociencia de Aragón, Laboratorio de Microscopías Avanzadas, Universidad de Zaragoza, E-50018 Zaragoza (Spain); Dpto. de Física de la Materia Condensada, Universidad de Zaragoza, E-50009 Zaragoza (Spain); Bartolomé, J.; Bartolomé, F. [Instituto de Ciencia de Materiales de Aragón (ICMA), CSIC – Universidad de Zaragoza, E-50009 Zaragoza (Spain); Dpto. de Física de la Materia Condensada, Universidad de Zaragoza, E-50009 Zaragoza (Spain); Hierro-Rodriguez, A.; Valdés-Bango, F.; Martín, J.I.; Alameda, J.M. [Dpto. Física, Universidad de Oviedo, Asturias (Spain); CINN (CSIC – Universidad de Oviedo – Principado de Asturias), Asturias (Spain); García, L.M. [Instituto de Ciencia de Materiales de Aragón (ICMA), CSIC – Universidad de Zaragoza, E-50009 Zaragoza (Spain); Dpto. de Física de la Materia Condensada, Universidad de Zaragoza, E-50009 Zaragoza (Spain)

    2014-12-15

    Strips containing arrays of submicrometric triangular antidots with a 2D square periodicity have been fabricated by electron beam lithography. A clear ratchet effect of 180° domain wall motion under a varying applied field parallel to the walls has been observed. The direction is determined by the direction of the triangle vertices. In contrast, no ratchet effect is observed when the antidot array is constituted by symmetric rhomb-shaped antidots.

  6. Plaadid / Margit Tõnson

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Tõnson, Margit, 1978-

    2005-01-01

    Uutest heliplaatidest Saint Etienne "Tales From Turnpike House", "Team Sleep", Jamiroquai "Dynamite", Life Of Agony "Broken Valley", The Wallflowers "Rebel, Sweetheart", morcheeba "The Antidote", Amerie "Touch"

  7. Quantum information processing using designed defect states in

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Jesper; Flindt, Christian; Mortensen, Niels Asger;

    2007-01-01

    We propose a new physical implementation of spin qubits for quantum information processing, namely defect states in antidot lattices de¯ned in the two-dimensional electron gas at a semiconductor heterostructure. Calculations of the band structure of the periodic antidot lattice are presented. A p...

  8. Interventions for paracetamol (acetaminophen) overdose

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brok, J; Buckley, N; Gluud, C

    2006-01-01

    Poisoning with paracetamol (acetaminophen) is a common cause of hepatotoxicity in the Western World. Inhibition of absorption, removal from the vascular system, antidotes, and liver transplantation are interventions for paracetamol poisoning.......Poisoning with paracetamol (acetaminophen) is a common cause of hepatotoxicity in the Western World. Inhibition of absorption, removal from the vascular system, antidotes, and liver transplantation are interventions for paracetamol poisoning....

  9. Anti-histamine effect of Rubia tibetica, used to treat anaphylaxis caused by tick bites in the Pamir Mountains, Afghanistan

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jeppesen, Anne S.; Kristiansen, Uffe; Soelberg, Jens;

    2012-01-01

    The roots of Rubia tibetica are chewed as an antidote to anaphylaxis caused by bites of the tick Ornithodoros lahorensis by the Wakhi people in Afghanistan.......The roots of Rubia tibetica are chewed as an antidote to anaphylaxis caused by bites of the tick Ornithodoros lahorensis by the Wakhi people in Afghanistan....

  10. Hyperbaric oxygen therapy or hydroxycobalamin attenuates surges in brain interstitial lactate and glucose; and hyperbaric oxygen improves respiratory status in cyanide-intoxicated rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lawson-Smith, P; Olsen, Niels Vidiendal; Hyldegaard, Ole

    2011-01-01

    Cyanide (CN) intoxication inhibits cellular oxidative metabolism and may result in brain damage. Hydroxycobalamin (OHCob) is one among other antidotes that may be used following intoxication with CN. Hyperbaric oxygen (HBO2) is recommended when supportive measures or antidotes fail. However...

  11. Robust band gap and half-metallicity in graphene with triangular perforations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregersen, Søren Schou; Power, Stephen R.; Jauho, Antti-Pekka

    2016-06-01

    Ideal graphene antidot lattices are predicted to show promising band gap behavior (i.e., EG≃500 meV) under carefully specified conditions. However, for the structures studied so far this behavior is critically dependent on superlattice geometry and is not robust against experimentally realistic disorders. Here we study a rectangular array of triangular antidots with zigzag edge geometries and show that their band gap behavior qualitatively differs from the standard behavior which is exhibited, e.g., by rectangular arrays of armchair-edged triangles. In the spin unpolarized case, zigzag-edged antidots give rise to large band gaps compared to armchair-edged antidots, irrespective of the rules which govern the existence of gaps in armchair-edged antidot lattices. In addition the zigzag-edged antidots appear more robust than armchair-edged antidots in the presence of geometrical disorder. The inclusion of spin polarization within a mean-field Hubbard approach gives rise to a large overall magnetic moment at each antidot due to the sublattice imbalance imposed by the triangular geometry. Half-metallic behavior arises from the formation of spin-split dispersive states near the Fermi energy, reducing the band gaps compared to the unpolarized case. This behavior is also found to be robust in the presence of disorder. Our results highlight the possibilities of using triangular perforations in graphene to open electronic band gaps in systems with experimentally realistic levels of disorder, and furthermore, of exploiting the strong spin dependence of the system for spintronic applications.

  12. [Direct oral anticoagulant associated bleeding].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godier, A; Martin, A-C; Rosencher, N; Susen, S

    2016-07-01

    Direct oral anticoagulants (DOAC) are recommended for stroke prevention in atrial fibrillation and for the treatment of venous thromboembolism. However, they are associated with hemorrhagic complications. Management of DOAC-induced bleeding remains challenging. Activated or non-activated prothrombin concentrates are proposed, although their efficacy to reverse DOAC is uncertain. Therapeutic options also include antidotes: idarucizumab, antidote for dabigatran, has been approved for use whereas andexanet alpha, antidote for anti-Xa agents, and aripazine, antidote for all DOAC, are under development. Other options include hemodialysis for the treatment of dabigatran-associated bleeding and administration of oral charcoal if recent DOAC ingestion. DOAC plasma concentration measurement is necessary to guide DOAC reversal. We propose an update on DOAC-associated bleeding, integrating the availability of dabigatran antidote and the critical place of DOAC concentration measurements. PMID:27297642

  13. Drug: D05647 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available D05647 Drug Prussian blue insoluble (USAN); Ferric hexacyanoferrate (II); Radiogard...PRODUCTS V03AB Antidotes V03AB31 Prussian blue D05647 Prussian blue insoluble (USAN) CAS: 14038-43-8 PubChem

  14. Ethylene glycol poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... products, including: Antifreeze De-icing products Detergents Paints Cosmetics Note: This list may not be all-inclusive ... vein (IV) to reverse severe acidosis Antidotes that slow the formation of the poisonous by-products in ...

  15. Interventions for paracetamol (acetaminophen) overdoses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brok, J; Buckley, N; Gluud, C

    2002-01-01

    Self-poisoning with paracetamol (acetaminophen) is a common cause of hepatotoxicity in the Western World. Interventions for paracetamol poisoning encompass inhibition of absorption, removal from the vascular system, antidotes, and liver transplantation.......Self-poisoning with paracetamol (acetaminophen) is a common cause of hepatotoxicity in the Western World. Interventions for paracetamol poisoning encompass inhibition of absorption, removal from the vascular system, antidotes, and liver transplantation....

  16. Prophylactic Efficacy of Amifostine, DRDE-07, and their Analogues against Percutaneously Administered Nitrogen Mustards and Sulphur Mustard

    OpenAIRE

    Manoj Sharma; Vijayaraghavan, R.; Uma Pathak; K. Ganesan

    2009-01-01

    Nitrogen mustards (HN-1, HN-2 and HN-3) and sulphur mustard are alkylating and blister-inducing chemical warfare agents. This study was aimed at investigating the prophylactic efficacy of amifostine, DRDE-07, and their analogues and some recommended antidotes against dermally-applied nitrogen mustards and sulphur mustard in preventing their systemic toxicity in mice. The antidotes were administered as single oral dose, 30 min prior to the mustard agent application. For DRDE-07, 0.2 LD50 (249 ...

  17. The Research of Antidotal Effect of Herbicide Safener 3-dichloroacetyl-2,5-dimethyl-2-ethyl-1,3-oxazolidine on Butachlor%除草剂安全剂3-二氯乙酰基-2,5-二甲基-2-乙基-1,3-噁唑烷对丁草胺解毒效果研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张金艳

    2004-01-01

    本文主要采用室内生物测定的方法,通过对小麦生理指标--株高的测定,研究了除草剂安全剂3-二氯乙酰基-2,5-二甲基-2-乙基-1,3-噁唑烷保护小麦免受除草剂丁草胺在不同浓度时的伤害.结果表明:当安全剂与丁草胺按一定浓度配比混合,对小麦有较好的保护效果,保护率可达60%~170%.

  18. Dynamics of vortices in planar and tubular microstructured superconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Nucleation and denucleation of vortices as well as their guided motion between antidots are key issues to design methods for controlling the vortex manipulation in micro patterned thin films and self-assembled micro tubes. The vortex dynamics in micro structured superconductors is modelled using an adaptive numerical approach on the basis of the time dependent Ginzburg-Landau equations. Evolution of the order parameter and the current density is analyzed for superconducting YBCO films with different patterns of antidots. The resulting picture of the accumulated vortex trajectories clearly reveals a guided motion between the antidots. Dynamics of correlated vortices in superconductor tubes in a magnetic field, which is perpendicular to their axes, is governed by the curvature. I acknowledge fruitful collaboration with R. Woerdenweber and O. G. Schmidt. (author)

  19. Paracetamol poisoning: beyond the nomogram.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bateman, D Nicholas

    2015-07-01

    Paracetamol poisoning is the commonest overdose seen in the UK. The management of patients with paracetamol poisoning has been little changed for the past 40 years, with a weight related dose of antidote (acetylcysteine) and treatment based on nomograms relating paracetamol concentration to time from ingestion. In 2012 the UK Commission on Human Medicines recommended a revision of the nomogram, following the death of a young woman, lowering the treatment threshold for all patients. As a result many more patients were treated. This has resulted in a large increase in admissions and in the proportion suffering adverse reactions to the antidote acetylcysteine since, interestingly, higher paracetamol concentrations inhibit anaphylactoid reactions to the antidote. New approaches to assessing the toxicity of paracetamol are now emerging using new biomarkers in blood. This article discusses new approaches to risk assessment and treatment for paracetamol overdose based on recent research in this area. PMID:26099917

  20. Ethnobotanical survey of toxic plants and plant parts in Ogun State, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adediwura A Fred-Jaiyesimi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Several plants considered toxic are sometimes identified in traditional medicinal recipes. This study identified and inventoried the plants and plant parts identified as toxic in targeted local government areas of Ogun State, Nigeria. Materials and Methods: By administering tested questionnaires, information on the poisonous or toxic plants, poisonous parts, poisonous effects, modes of poisoning, and antidotes was obtained. Results and Conclusion: Ninety-two species belonging to 43 families were identified as toxic plants and these were mainly members of the Euphorbiaceae and Fabaceae families. The botanical names, poisonous parts, common names, vernacular names, modes of poisoning, antidotes, and poisonous effects are presented in a table.

  1. How we treat bleeding associated with direct oral anticoagulants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marano, Giuseppe; Vaglio, Stefania; Pupella, Simonetta; Liumbruno, Giancarlo M.; Franchini, Massimo

    2016-01-01

    Direct oral anticoagulants are at least as effective as vitamin K antagonists for the prevention and treatment of thromboembolism. Unfortunately, differently from vitamin K antagonists, they have the great drawback of lacking specific antidotes in the case of bleeding or emergency situations such as trauma, stroke requiring thrombolysis, and urgent surgery. The progressive development of antidotes for these new drugs, which, it is hoped, will become available in the near future, will allow better and safer management of the rapid reversal of their anticoagulant effect. PMID:27136433

  2. How we treat bleeding associated with direct oral anticoagulants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marano, Giuseppe; Vaglio, Stefania; Pupella, Simonetta; Liumbruno, Giancarlo M; Franchini, Massimo

    2016-09-01

    Direct oral anticoagulants are at least as effective as vitamin K antagonists for the prevention and treatment of thromboembolism. Unfortunately, differently from vitamin K antagonists, they have the great drawback of lacking specific antidotes in the case of bleeding or emergency situations such as trauma, stroke requiring thrombolysis, and urgent surgery. The progressive development of antidotes for these new drugs, which, it is hoped, will become available in the near future, will allow better and safer management of the rapid reversal of their anticoagulant effect. PMID:27136433

  3. [Ibn Rushd's treatise on theriac].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ricordel, J

    2000-01-01

    Averroes inherited a long tradition about theriac. He examined its nature, quality and utilization as an antidote of poisons or venoms and as a treatment of diseases. He stated that if the electuary, as antidote, was beneficial to the patient and to the physician, it might be dangerous as a regular and repeated medication of disease since it could transform the human nature and render it poison-like. Averroes's purpose was to analyze the advantages and drawback of theriac. He aimed at inducing physicians to more caution. He conducted a medico-philosophical and ethical reflexion on the validity of the medication and he advised against its prophylactic use.

  4. Characterization of pattern transfer in the fabrication of magnetic nanostructure arrays by block copolymer lithography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubo, T.; Parker, J. S.; Hillmyer, M. A.; Leighton, C.

    2007-06-01

    The authors report the fabrication of large-area antidot arrays using cylinder-forming polystyrene-polyisoprene-polylactide triblock terpolymer templates. 30nm antidots were generated after removal of the minority polymer component by aqueous degradation, oxygen reactive ion etching, and subsequent Ar ion beam milling to transfer the pattern to an underlying Ni80Fe20 film. Emphasis was placed on characterization of the pattern transfer, which was tracked using a combination of atomic force microscopy, magnetometry, and magnetotransport. It is demonstrated that variable temperature magnetometry and transport measurements are excellent probes of the progress of the ion milling into underlying magnetic layers.

  5. Hyperbaric oxygen therapy or hydroxycobalamin attenuates surges in brain interstitial lactate and glucose; and hyperbaric oxygen improves respiratory status in cyanide-intoxicated rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lawson-Smith, P; Olsen, Niels Vidiendal; Hyldegaard, O

    2011-01-01

    Cyanide (CN) intoxication inhibits cellular oxidative metabolism and may result in brain damage. Hydroxycobalamin (OHCob) is one among other antidotes that may be used following intoxication with CN. Hyperbaric oxygen (HBO2) is recommended when supportive measures or antidotes fail. However...... to four groups receiving potassium CN (KCN) 5.4 mg/kg or vehicle intra-arterially: 1) vehicle-treated control rats; 2) KCN-poisoned rats; 3) KCN-poisoned rats receiving hydroxycobalamin (25 mg); and 4) KCN-poisoned rats treated with HBO2 (284 kPa for 90 minutes). KCN alone caused a prompt increase...

  6. Noninvasive monitoring of treatment response in a rabbit cyanide toxicity model reveals differences in brain and muscle metabolism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jae G.; Lee, Jangwoen; Mahon, Sari B.; Mukai, David; Patterson, Steven E.; Boss, Gerry R.; Tromberg, Bruce J.; Brenner, Matthew

    2012-10-01

    Noninvasive near infrared spectroscopy measurements were performed to monitor cyanide (CN) poisoning and recovery in the brain region and in foreleg muscle simultaneously, and the effects of a novel CN antidote, sulfanegen sodium, on tissue hemoglobin oxygenation changes were compared using a sub-lethal rabbit model. The results demonstrated that the brain region is more susceptible to CN poisoning and slower in endogenous CN detoxification following exposure than peripheral muscles. However, sulfanegen sodium rapidly reversed CN toxicity, with brain region effects reversing more quickly than muscle. In vivo monitoring of multiple organs may provide important clinical information regarding the extent of CN toxicity and subsequent recovery, and facilitate antidote drug development.

  7. Sensing magnetic nanoparticles using nano-confined ferromagnetic resonances in a magnonic crystal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metaxas, P. J.; Sushruth, M.; Begley, R. A.; Ding, J.; Woodward, R. C.; Maksymov, I. S.; Albert, M.; Wang, W.; Fangohr, H.; Adeyeye, A. O.; Kostylev, M.

    2015-06-01

    We experimentally demonstrate the use of the magnetic-field-dependence of highly spatially confined, GHz-frequency ferromagnetic resonances for the detection of magnetic nanoparticles using an anti-dot-based magnonic crystal. The stray magnetic fields of nanoparticles within the anti-dots modify nano-confined ferromagnetic resonances in the surrounding periodically nanopatterned magnonic crystal, generating easily measurable resonance peak shifts. The shifts are comparable to the resonance linewidths for high anti-dot filling fractions with their signs and magnitudes dependent upon the mode localization, consistent with micromagnetic simulation results. This is an encouraging result for the development of frequency-based nanoparticle detectors for nano-scale biosensing.

  8. Enhanced Spin Hall Effect in Semiconductor Heterostructures with Artificial Potential

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eto, Mikio; Yokoyama, Tomohiro

    2009-07-01

    We theoretically investigate the extrinsic spin Hall effect (SHE) in semiconductor heterostructures, caused by scattering at an artificial potential created by an antidot, STM tip, etc. The potential is electrically tunable. First, we formulate the SHE in terms of phase shifts in the partial wave expansion for a two-dimensional electron gas. The effect is significantly enhanced by resonant scattering when the attractive potential is properly tuned. Second, we examine a three-terminal device including an antidot, which possibly produces a spin current with a polarization of more than 50%.

  9. Team Teaching in High School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandel, Kenneth; Eiserman, Terry

    2016-01-01

    Too often at the high school level, teachers work in isolation, without the ability to see other practitioners at work. Team teaching offers an effective antidote: It provides a comfortable environment in which to grow because it enables teachers to learn from another professional on a regular basis. "Teaming," notes the authors,…

  10. The School Uniform Movement and What It Tells Us about American Education: A Symbolic Crusade

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunsma, David L.

    2004-01-01

    This book represents the most thorough exposition on the present understanding of the impetuses, debates, legalities, and effectiveness of school uniform policies that have rapidly entered the discourse of school reform in the United States. In it, David Brunsma provides an antidote to the ungrounded, anecdotal components that define the…

  11. Reappraising the Disappearing Body and the Disembodied Eye Through Multisensory Art

    OpenAIRE

    Coleman, Maria

    2010-01-01

    This paper examines the mind/body dualism inherent in western culture, tracing some causes and consequences of the ‘disappearing body.’ It considers the complicity of the ‘disembodied eye’ in privileging the intellect over corporeality and proposes the more holistic approach of interactive and installation art as an antidote to this age-old mind/body split.

  12. Educating Lives for Christian Wisdom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Darin H.; Wadell, Paul J.

    2016-01-01

    This article explores how educating lives for Christian wisdom might serve as an antidote to the vice of "acedia," a prominent feature of the culture of contemporary higher education. After suggesting that the capital vice of "acedia" seems to capture well various facets of our present age and how the pursuit of wisdom serves…

  13. Community Service and Civic Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyte, Harry C.

    1991-01-01

    Community service, widely touted as the cure for youngsters' political apathy, teaches little about the art of participating in public life. The service language of "caring and community" provides no antidote for today's youthful cynicism about politics, because it fails to reveal the public world extending beyond personal lives and local…

  14. Camping Is Your Gift to the World.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thurber, Christopher A.

    2002-01-01

    Many camp professionals wonder how the events of September 11 will affect their camps. Advice is given on dealing with concerns of parents, campers, staff, and directors. Stability is comforting--change only what is absolutely necessary. Compassion and inclusion, the behaviors modeled at camp, are antidotes to misunderstanding and marginalization,…

  15. Claiming the Promise of Place-Based Education. Occasional Paper Series 33

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altman, Roberta, Ed.; Stires, Susan, Ed.; Weseen, Susan, Ed.

    2015-01-01

    Each of the papers in this collection offers a much-needed antidote to the forces that disconnect educators from the places in which they teach, learn, and live. Together, they provide an opportunity to reflect on the power of place in education. This issue offers an opportunity--an invitation--to embrace all that the places both in and outside…

  16. Drug: D00167 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available and gold and mercury poisoning] Same as: C02924 Therapeutic category: 3923 ATC code: ...D00167 Drug Dimercaprol (JP16/USP/INN); BAL (TN) C3H8OS2 124.0017 124.225 D00167.gif Antidote [to arsenic

  17. Drug: D08749 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available D08749 Mixture, Drug Hydroxocobalamin - isotonic sodium chloride solution mixt Hydr...oxocobalamin [DR:D01027], Isotonic sodium chloride solution [DR:D05352] Therapeutic category: 3929 Therapeutic category of dr...m 392 Antidotes 3929 Others D08749 Hydroxocobalamin - isotonic sodium chloride solution mixt PubChem: 96025432 ...

  18. Confronting the Pedagogical Challenge of Cyber Safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanewald, Ria

    2008-01-01

    Cyber violence and the antidote of cyber safety are fast becoming a global concern for governments, educational authorities, teachers, parents and children alike. Despite substantial funding for information dissemination on preventative strategies and the development of electronic responses to hinder perpetrators, the phenomenon of cyber violence…

  19. Effect of Temperature and Light on Phytochemical Profiling and Antimicrobial Activity of Andrographis paniculata

    OpenAIRE

    B. Jaikumar; R. Sharmila

    2015-01-01

    Andrographis paniculata (Acanthaceae) is an annual herb. It is found in Sri Lanka, and throughout the plains of India especially Tamilnadu, Maharashtra, Karnataka, and Orissa. Various medicinal properties like cholevetic, antidiarrheal, immunostimulant and anti-inflammatory have been attributed to this plant in the traditional system of Indian medicine. Further reported activities are hepatoprotective, antimalarial, anticancer, antihypertensive, antipyretic, antithrombotic and antidote for sn...

  20. WORKSHOPS-W4: Clinical Toxicology, Poisoning and Treatment%专题演讲-W4临床毒理学,中毒与治疗

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Andrew DAWSON; Jiri BAJAR; HE Yue-Zhong

    2006-01-01

    @@ Self-poisoning with pesticides is a major problem across the Asia Pacific region. Despite this there is little coordinated effort being applied to improve the medical response to this problem. Good clinical and supportive care is the cornerstone of management of the poisoned patient and in some situations will suffice even in the absence of a specific antidote.

  1. To Restore American Democracy: Political Education and the Modern University

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calvert, Robert E.

    2006-01-01

    At a time when democracy in America suffers from a profound sense of cynicism, lack of trust, and disengagement, especially among young adults, this book is a much needed antidote. Here are original essays by some of the most distinguished and insightful political thinkers of our time. No armchair observers, they have advised presidents, been…

  2. Relativistic gravitation theory and new ideas about space-time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Logunov, A. A.

    1986-12-01

    It is argued that relativistic gravitation theory (RGT) overcomes difficulties connected with general relativity (GR). The claim is made that RGT can explain the totality of gravitational observations and relevant experimental data, leading to new ideas about the evolution of the universe and gravitational collapse. It is maintained that RGT provides an antidote to the dogmatism of GR.

  3. Should social psychologists create a disciplinary affirmative action program for political conservatives?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shweder, Richard A

    2015-01-01

    Freely staying on the move between alternative points of view is the best antidote to dogmatism. Robert Merton's ideals for an epistemic community are sufficient to correct pseudo-empirical studies designed to confirm beliefs that liberals (or conservatives) think deserve to be true. Institutionalizing the self-proclaimed political identities of social psychologists may make things worse. PMID:26787422

  4. Limited Evidence That Competitive Food and Beverage Practices Affect Adolescent Consumption Behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vericker, Tracy C.

    2013-01-01

    Childhood obesity is emerging as a considerable public health problem with no clear antidote. The school food environment is a potential intervention point for policy makers, with competitive food and beverage regulation as a possible policy lever. This research examines the link between competitive food and beverage availability in school and…

  5. Electronic transport of graphene subjected to periodic structure modulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A review is given about graphene subjected to periodic structure modulation referring to the results of conventional two-dimensional electron systems. We cover methods of fabricating modulated structures in graphene, their electronic structures, the quantum transport of antidot lattices, and the characteristic magnetoresistance due to geometrical resonance in one-dimensional modulation. (author)

  6. An Essay Is Being Written: Between Aggression and "Just Words"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farley, Lisa

    2012-01-01

    If education tends to be viewed as an antidote to social violence, this paper turns to Freud's study of the "beating fantasy" to consider the fictional representation of psychical aggression in scenes of schooling and being schooled. It is argued that such representations both express and fend off libidinal passions at the heart of…

  7. Recommendations for the role of extracorporeal treatments in the management of acute methanol poisoning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roberts, Darren M; Yates, Christopher; Megarbane, Bruno;

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Methanol poisoning can induce death and disability. Treatment includes the administration of antidotes (ethanol or fomepizole and folic/folinic acid) and consideration of extracorporeal treatment for correction of acidemia and/or enhanced elimination. The Extracorporeal Treatments in P...

  8. [A patient who refused treatment after self-poisoning with paracetamol

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kramers, C.; Jansman, F.G.A.; Droogleever Fortuyn, H.A.

    2006-01-01

    Two patients, a 20-year-old man and a 33-year-old woman, were admitted with paracetamol poisoning. Both patients refused treatment initially but eventually complied. The man had a paracetamol concentration of 47.5 mg/l 2.5-5.0 h after ingestion, so antidote treatment was not considered necessary. Th

  9. Brainwashing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. B. Lall

    1963-07-01

    Full Text Available In this article an attempt has been made to present a brief analysis of the process brainwashing. The mechanism, the techniques employed and a brief history of brainwashing has been traced. It has been suggested that in order to resist this powerful weapon, we must understand the poison and find its antidote.

  10. Catching Up: Gender Values at a Canadian Independent School for Girls, 1978-93.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heyward, Candace B.

    1995-01-01

    Examines the 15-year transformation in gender values at a Canadian independent school for girls and their effect on the students and the school structures. Gender-stereotyped, outside-world realities are still influencing the school environment and students' thinking. The author believes single-sex schools for girls are an important antidote to…

  11. Competing anisotropies in exchange-biased nanostructured thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goncalves, F. J. T.; Paterson, G. W.; Stamps, R. L.; O'Reilly, S.; Bowman, R.; Gubbiotti, G.; Schmool, D. S.

    2016-08-01

    The magnetic anisotropies of a patterned, exchange biased Fe50Mn50/Ni80Fe20 system are studied using ferromagnetic resonance, supplemented by Brillouin light scattering experiments and Kerr magnetometry. The exchange biased bilayer is partially etched into an antidot geometry so that the system approximates a Ni80Fe20 layer in contact with antidot structured Fe50Mn50 . Brillouin light scattering measurements of the spin wave frequency dependence on the wave vector reveal a magnonic band gap as expected for a periodic modulation of the magnetic properties. Analysis of the ferromagnetic resonance spectra reveals eightfold and fourfold contributions to the magnetic anisotropy. Additionally, the antidot patterning decreases the magnitude of the exchange bias and modifies strongly its angular dependence. Softening of all resonance modes is most pronounced for the applied magnetic field aligned within 10∘ of the antidot axis, in the direction of the bias. Given the degree to which one can tailor the ground state, the resulting asymmetry at low frequencies could make this an interesting candidate for applications such as selective/directional microwave filtering and multistate magnetic logic.

  12. Fail forward

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brix, Jacob

    2015-01-01

    Almost three quarters of all innovation projects disappoint or fail. Instead of ‘wasting’ human and financial resources on energy projects that end up being terminated or ineffectual, this study offers a potential antidote coined the ‘Origins of Failure in Energy Innovation’ (OFEI) model. Based o...

  13. AN ADDRESS DELIVERED BEFORE SCOPE'S CONFERENCE FOR EDUCATORS ON NARCOTICS AND SMOKING. (TITLE SUPPLIED).

    Science.gov (United States)

    RICE, JULIUS T.

    A SHORT HISTORY OF NARCOTICS USAGE IS PRESENTED. THE TERM DRUG DEPENDENCE IS BEING SUBSTITUTED FOR DRUG ADDICTION AND DRUG HABITUATION. THE ADVANTAGES AND DISADVANTAGES OF VARIOUS ANTIDOTES FOR OPIATES ARE DESCRIBED. THE EFFECTS OF LSD AND MARIJUANA ON PHYSICAL AND MENTAL PROCESSES ARE DESCRIBED. THE USE OF LSD FOR MEDICAL PURPOSES IS DISCUSSED.…

  14. Trypanocidal efficacy of two indigeneous ethanolic plant extracts (Mimosa pigra and Ipomoea asarifolia against Trypanosoma evansi phospholipase A2 activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yusuf Alkali

    2015-03-01

    Conclusions: The low Ki values obtained for these extracts towards this enzyme are an indication of high affinity of the extract or the active components (present in the plants are for these enzyme and therefore, could be explored to serve as a cheap source of T. evansi PLA2 antidote and as well help in designing a novel drug with high efficiency.

  15. Drug: D02224 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available D02224 Drug Protamine sulfate (JP16/USP/INN); Protamine sulfate (TN) Antidote [to heparin] Therapeutic... category: 3329 ATC code: V03AB14 Therapeutic category of drugs in Japan [BR:br08301] 3 A...te (JP16/USP/INN) Anatomical Therapeutic Chemical (ATC) classification [BR:br0830

  16. "Peer Pressure" and the Group Process: Building Cultures of Concern

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tate, Thomas F.; Copas, Randall L.

    2010-01-01

    Peer group treatment has been subject to two main lines of criticism. Some suggest any program which aggregates antisocial youth inevitably fosters negative peer influence. Others are concerned that certain peer programs are based on coercive peer confrontation. Positive Peer Culture [PPC] is an antidote to both of these varieties of toxic group…

  17. Optimization of Liposomal Lipid Composition for a New, Reactive Sulfur Donor, and In Vivo Efficacy Studies on Mice to Antagonize Cyanide Intoxication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilona Petrikovics

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Present studies have focused on a novel cyanide antidotal system, on the coencapsulation of a new sulfur donor DTO with rhodanese within sterically stabilized liposomes. The optimal lipid composition for coencapsulation of DTO with rhodanese is the combination of 1-palmitoyl-2-oleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine, cholesterol, cationic lipid (DOTAP, and 1,2-dipalmitoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphoethanolamine-N-[methoxy(polyethylene glycol-2000] ammonium salt (with molar ratios of 82.7 : 9.2 : 3.0 : 5.1. With the optimized compositions, prophylactic and therapeutic in vivo efficacy studies were carried out in a mice model. When DTO was coencapsulated with rhodanese and thiosulfate the prophylactic antidotal protection was 4.9×LD50. Maximum antidotal protection against cyanide intoxication (15×LD50 was achieved with coencapsulated rhodanese and DTO/thiosulfate in combination with sodium nitrite. When applied therapeutically, 100% survival rate (6/6 was achieved at 20 mg/kg cyanide doses with the encapsulated DTO-rhodanese-thiosulfate antidotal systems with and without sodium nitrite. These data are indicating that the appropriately formulated DTO is a promising sulfur donor for cyanide antagonism.

  18. Plasmon-mediated Coulomb drag between graphene waveguides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shylau, Artsem A.; Jauho, Antti-Pekka

    2014-01-01

    We analyze theoretically charge transport in Coulomb coupled graphene waveguides (GWGs). The GWGs are defined using antidot lattices, and the lateral geometry bypasses many technological challenges of earlier designs. The drag resistivity ρD, which is a measure of the many-particle interactions...

  19. Acute cyanide Intoxication: A rare case of survival

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Durga Jethava

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A 30-year-old male jewellery factory worker accidentally ingested silver potassium cyanide and was brought to the emergency department in a state of shock and profound metabolic acidosis. This patient was managed hypothetically with use of injection thiopentone sodium intravenously until the antidote was received. Cyanide is a highly cytotoxic poison and it rapidly reacts with the trivalent iron of cytochrome oxidase thus paralysing the aerobic respiration. The result is severe lactic acidosis, profound shock, and its fatal outcome. The patient dies of cardio-respiratory arrest secondary to dysfunction of the medullary centres. It is rapidly absorbed, symptoms begin few seconds after exposure and death usually occurs in <30 min. The average lethal dose for potassium cyanide is about 250 mg. We used repeated doses of thiopentone sodium till the antidote kit was finally in our hands, hypothesising that it contains thiol group similar to the antidote thiosulphate. Moreover, it is an anticonvulsant. We were successful in our attempts and the patient survived though the specific antidotes could be administered after about an hour.

  20. Acute cyanide Intoxication: A rare case of survival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jethava, Durga; Gupta, Priyamvada; Kothari, Sandeep; Rijhwani, Puneet; Kumar, Ankit

    2014-05-01

    A 30-year-old male jewellery factory worker accidentally ingested silver potassium cyanide and was brought to the emergency department in a state of shock and profound metabolic acidosis. This patient was managed hypothetically with use of injection thiopentone sodium intravenously until the antidote was received. Cyanide is a highly cytotoxic poison and it rapidly reacts with the trivalent iron of cytochrome oxidase thus paralysing the aerobic respiration. The result is severe lactic acidosis, profound shock, and its fatal outcome. The patient dies of cardio-respiratory arrest secondary to dysfunction of the medullary centres. It is rapidly absorbed, symptoms begin few seconds after exposure and death usually occurs in <30 min. The average lethal dose for potassium cyanide is about 250 mg. We used repeated doses of thiopentone sodium till the antidote kit was finally in our hands, hypothesising that it contains thiol group similar to the antidote thiosulphate. Moreover, it is an anticonvulsant. We were successful in our attempts and the patient survived though the specific antidotes could be administered after about an hour. PMID:25024476

  1. Selective light-triggered release of DNA from gold nanorods switches blood clotting on and off.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helena de Puig

    Full Text Available Blood clotting is a precise cascade engineered to form a clot with temporal and spatial control. Current control of blood clotting is achieved predominantly by anticoagulants and thus inherently one-sided. Here we use a pair of nanorods (NRs to provide a two-way switch for the blood clotting cascade by utilizing their ability to selectively release species on their surface under two different laser excitations. We selectively trigger release of a thrombin binding aptamer from one nanorod, inhibiting blood clotting and resulting in increased clotting time. We then release the complementary DNA as an antidote from the other NR, reversing the effect of the aptamer and restoring blood clotting. Thus, the nanorod pair acts as an on/off switch. One challenge for nanobiotechnology is the bio-nano interface, where coronas of weakly adsorbed proteins can obscure biomolecular function. We exploit these adsorbed proteins to increase aptamer and antidote loading on the nanorods.

  2. Selective light-triggered release of DNA from gold nanorods switches blood clotting on and off.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Puig, Helena; Cifuentes Rius, Anna; Flemister, Dorma; Baxamusa, Salmaan H; Hamad-Schifferli, Kimberly

    2013-01-01

    Blood clotting is a precise cascade engineered to form a clot with temporal and spatial control. Current control of blood clotting is achieved predominantly by anticoagulants and thus inherently one-sided. Here we use a pair of nanorods (NRs) to provide a two-way switch for the blood clotting cascade by utilizing their ability to selectively release species on their surface under two different laser excitations. We selectively trigger release of a thrombin binding aptamer from one nanorod, inhibiting blood clotting and resulting in increased clotting time. We then release the complementary DNA as an antidote from the other NR, reversing the effect of the aptamer and restoring blood clotting. Thus, the nanorod pair acts as an on/off switch. One challenge for nanobiotechnology is the bio-nano interface, where coronas of weakly adsorbed proteins can obscure biomolecular function. We exploit these adsorbed proteins to increase aptamer and antidote loading on the nanorods. PMID:23894311

  3. Toxic Bradycardias in the Critically Ill Poisoned Patient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melissa L. Givens

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Cardiovascular drugs are a common cause of poisoning, and toxic bradycardias can be refractory to standard ACLS protocols. It is important to consider appropriate antidotes and adjunctive therapies in the care of the poisoned patient in order to maximize outcomes. While rigorous studies are lacking in regards to treatment of toxic bradycardias, there are small studies and case reports to help guide clinicians’ choices in caring for the poisoned patient. Antidotes, pressor support, and extracorporeal therapy are some of the treatment options for the care of these patients. It is important to make informed therapeutic decisions with an understanding of the available evidence, and consultation with a toxicologist and/or regional Poison Control Center should be considered early in the course of treatment.

  4. Common questions in veterinary toxicology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bates, N; Rawson-Harris, P; Edwards, N

    2015-05-01

    Toxicology is a vast subject. Animals are exposed to numerous drugs, household products, plants, chemicals, pesticides and venomous animals. In addition to the individual toxicity of the various potential poisons, there is also the question of individual response and, more importantly, of species differences in toxicity. This review serves to address some of the common questions asked when dealing with animals with possible poisoning, providing evidence where available. The role of emetics, activated charcoal and lipid infusion in the management of poisoning in animals, the toxic dose of chocolate, grapes and dried fruit in dogs, the use of antidotes in paracetamol poisoning, timing of antidotal therapy in ethylene glycol toxicosis and whether lilies are toxic to dogs are discussed. PMID:25728477

  5. Robust band gap and half-metallicity in graphene with triangular perforations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gregersen, Søren Schou; Power, Stephen; Jauho, Antti-Pekka

    2016-01-01

    Ideal graphene antidot lattices are predicted to show promising band gap behavior (i.e., EG ≅ 500 meV) under carefully specified conditions. However, for the structures studied so far this behavior is critically dependent on superlattice geometry and is not robust against experimentally realistic...... disorders. Here we study a rectangular array of triangular antidots with zigzag edge geometries and show that their band gap behavior qualitatively differs from the standard behavior which is exhibited, e.g., by rectangular arrays of armchair-edged triangles. In the spin unpolarized case, zigzag......, reducing the band gaps compared to the unpolarized case. This behavior is also found to be robust in the presence of disorder. Our results highlight the possibilities of using triangular perforations in graphene to open electronic band gaps in systems with experimentally realistic levels of disorder...

  6. Traditional Use of Plants against Snakebite in Sugali tribes of Yerramalais of Kurnool district, Andhra Pradesh, India

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SKhaleel Basha; Gsudarsanam

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To conduct ethnobotanical survey in Yerramalais forest among Sugali tribes and collect information on medicinal plants to used to in the treatment of snake bite. Snakebite has been a major cause of mortality of tribals and their livestock. Methods: The study was conducted during 2009-2011 visiting regularly Sugali Thandas and Lobais. Following the method of Jain and Goel. First hand information on their traditional medicine was recorded, repeated enquiries were made to understand their knowledge, methods of diagnosis and treatment. Data were collected on the specific part of the plants used collection, method of usage of the drug and dosage of the drug ,dosage of administration. Results: The paper provides information about Ehanobatanical and Scientific evidences of 23 medicinal plants which are used by sugalis as antidote for snake bite. Conclusion: Traditional medicine remains an integral part of the health system in this area Antidote medicinal plants play an important role in health and livelihood of Sugali Tribal people.

  7. Development of new Czech autoinjector with oxime HI-6 DMS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oxime HI-6 (1-(2-(hydroxyiminomethyl)pyridinium) -3-(4-carbamoylpyridinium)-2-oxapropane) is considered to be currently the most universal oxime for the potential use as antidote against nerve agents (sarin, cyclosarin, VX, etc.). None of other commercially available oximes (pralidoxime, obidoxime, trimedoxime, MMB4) has broader antidotal effect. Due to this, development of the appropriate salt of this oxime together with its application form (eg. autoinjector) was the main aim of our departments and several private Czech companies (VAKOS XT as., Decomkov Praha sro., ChemProtect as.). In our contribution, we would like to summarize all the steps which were already done. We would like to thank to the Ministry of Industry and Trade of the Czech Republic for the Project No. FIIM2/104.(author)

  8. Vortex–antivortex annihilation in mesoscopic superconductors with a central pinning center

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zadorosny, R., E-mail: rafazad@yahoo.com.br [Grupo de Desenvolvimento e Aplicações de Materiais, Faculdade de Engenharia, Univ Estadual Paulista – Unesp, Departamento de Física e Química, Caixa Postal 31, 15385-000 Ilha Solteira, SP (Brazil); Duarte, E.C.S. [Grupo de Desenvolvimento e Aplicações de Materiais, Faculdade de Engenharia, Univ Estadual Paulista – Unesp, Departamento de Física e Química, Caixa Postal 31, 15385-000 Ilha Solteira, SP (Brazil); Sardella, E. [Faculdade de Ciências, Univ Estadual Paulista – Unesp, Departamento de Física, Caixa Postal 473, 17033-360 Bauru, SP (Brazil); Univ Estadual Paulista – Unesp, Instituto de Pesquisas Metereológicas – IPMet, CEP 17048-699 Bauru, SP (Brazil); Ortiz, W.A. [Departamento de Física, Universidade Federal de São Carlos – UFSCar, Caixa Postal 676, 13565-905 São Carlos, SP (Brazil)

    2014-08-15

    Highlights: • The time-dependent Ginzburg–Landau equations was solved for mesoscopic superconductors with k = 5. • The systems were squares with an antidot in the center. • The dynamics of the annihilation of a vortex–antivortex pair was studied. - Abstract: In this work we solved the time-dependent Ginzburg–Landau equations, TDGL, to simulate two superconducting systems with different lateral sizes and with an antidot inserted in the center. Then, by cycling the external magnetic field, the creation and annihilation dynamics of a vortex–antivortex pair was studied as well as the range of temperatures for which such processes could occur. We verified that in the annihilation process both vortex and antivortex acquire an elongated format while an accelerated motion takes place.

  9. Being, space and time in the Web

    CERN Document Server

    Vafopoulos, Michalis

    2011-01-01

    The Web emerged as the antidote to rapidly increasing quantity of accumulated knowledge because it successfully enables massive representation and communication with minimum costs. Despite the fact that its gigantic scale and impact make difficult to anticipate the effects in humans, we claim from it to be fast, secure, reliable, all-inclusive and trustworthy. It is time for science to compensate and provide an epistemological "antidote" to these issues. On this campaign, Philosophy should be in the front line by forming the relevant questions. We initiate the dialogue for a theory about being in the Web that will serve as a bridge between philosophical thinking and engineering. We analyze existence and spatiotemporality in the Web, as a closed techno-social system, and how it transforms the traditional conceptions about actuality. Location in the Web space is specified by the Web being's URI and the URI's of incoming and outgoing links. The primer role of visiting durations is best approximated by Bergsonian...

  10. Concerns Regarding the Use of Dabigatran for Stroke Prevention in Atrial Fibrillation

    OpenAIRE

    Josef Finsterer; Claudia Stöllberger

    2012-01-01

    Dabigatran is an oral thrombin inhibitor which has been approved in several countries as an alternative to vitamin-K-antagonists for the prevention of stroke or embolism in atrial fibrillation patients. Dabigatran is introduced into clinical practice, although many issues regarding this drug are still unclear, like laboratory monitoring, use in elderly patients, drug- and food-interactions and use in patients with renal insufficiency. Additionally, there is no antidote for dabigatran. Thus, a...

  11. 经济变革的文化叙述 (Narratives of Change)

    OpenAIRE

    David Goodman

    2007-01-01

    There are essentially three difficulties attending any search for cultural explanations of change in China: culture can be a broad and often a somewhat imprecise concept; the scale of China makes for difficulties in the unit of analysis; and the assumption of historical continuity may be somewhat attenuated. The antidote to essentialisation about Chinese culture is to approach explanation at a more local level. A recognition that there are local accounts of social and economic change that bot...

  12. A pilot study exploring compassion in narratives of individuals with psychosis:implications for an attachment-based understanding of recovery

    OpenAIRE

    Gumley, Andrew; MacBeth, Angus

    2014-01-01

    There is increasing recognition that cultivating compassion for oneself and others can act as an antidote to feelings of threat, shame, humiliation and paranoia. This study aimed to explore the further development of a narrative-based measure of compassion. We hypothesised that greater compassion would be associated with lower levels of positive symptoms, negative symptoms, cognitive disorganisation, excitement and emotional distress. Participants were 29 individuals with psychosis. Greater n...

  13. Paraphenylene diamine poisoning

    OpenAIRE

    A C Jesudoss Prabhakaran

    2012-01-01

    The commonest constituent of all hair dyes is paraphenylene diamine (PPD). Hair dye poisoning is emerging as one of the emerging causes of intentional self-poisoning to commit suicide. In this article, we report a case of PPD poisoning and the importance of clinical of hair dye poisoning. The lack of specific diagnostic tests, a specific antidote for paraphenylene diamine poisoning and the importance of early supportive treatment modalities are also discussed.

  14. Paraphenylene diamine poisoning

    OpenAIRE

    Prabhakaran, A.C. Jesudoss

    2012-01-01

    The commonest constituent of all hair dyes is paraphenylene diamine (PPD) being used by the people to color their hair all over the world. Hair dye poisoning is emerging as one of the emerging causes of intentional self-poisoning to commit suicide. In this article, the importance of clinical manifestations and of hair dye poisoning is discussed due to the lack of specific diagnostic tests. Since there is no specific antidote for PPD poisoning, the early supportive treatment modalities are dis...

  15. Addressing multigenerational conflict: mutual respect and carefronting as strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kupperschmidt, Betty R

    2006-05-01

    This article addresses the challenges faced by nurses as they work side-by-side with nurses from a variety of generational cohorts. First a brief overview of the generational characteristics of the four generational cohorts in today's workplace is presented. Next the importance of each nurse using respect and carefronting as antidotes to generational conflict is discussed. Finally the role of nursing leadership in facilitating respect and carefronting is noted. PMID:17201578

  16. The Role of Chelation in the Treatment of Arsenic and Mercury Poisoning

    OpenAIRE

    Kosnett, Michael J

    2013-01-01

    Chelation for heavy metal intoxication began more than 70 years ago with the development of British anti-lewisite (BAL; dimercaprol) in wartime Britain as a potential antidote the arsenical warfare agent lewisite (dichloro[2-chlorovinyl]arsine). DMPS (unithiol) and DMSA (succimer), dithiol water-soluble analogs of BAL, were developed in the Soviet Union and China in the late 1950s. These three agents have remained the mainstay of chelation treatment of arsenic and mercury intoxication for mor...

  17. Protection from cyanide-induced brain injury by the Nrf2 transcriptional activator carnosic acid

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Dongxian; Lee, Brian; Nutter, Anthony; Song, Paul; Dolatabadi, Nima; Parker, James; Sanz-Blasco, Sara; Newmeyer, Traci; Ambasudhan, Rajesh; McKercher, Scott R.; Masliah, Eliezer; Lipton, Stuart A.

    2015-01-01

    Cyanide is a life threatening, bioterrorist agent, preventing cellular respiration by inhibiting cytochrome c oxidase, resulting in cardiopulmonary failure, hypoxic brain injury, and death within minutes. However, even after treatment with various antidotes to protect cytochrome oxidase, cyanide intoxication in humans can induce a delayed-onset neurological syndrome that includes symptoms of Parkinsonism. Additional mechanisms are thought to underlie cyanide-induced neuronal damage, including...

  18. Anaphylatic reaction after Crotalus envenomation treatment in a dog: case report

    OpenAIRE

    L.G. Conceição; N. M. Argôlo Neto; Castro, A. P.; L. B. A. Faria; C.O. Fonterrada

    2007-01-01

    Crotalus envenomation is the second most frequent condition caused by venomous snakes attacking dogs and cats in Brazil. Affected animals show severe neurological and muscular involvement, lower motor neuron signs and myalgia due to extensive rabdomiolysis. The present case report is about Crotalus envenomation in a dog which showed severe clinical and laboratory abnormalities. After treatment with antivenom (specific antidote) and clinical support, the dog totally recovered from that condition.

  19. Dabigatran – an exemplar case history demonstrating the need for comprehensive models to optimise the use of new drugs

    OpenAIRE

    Brian Godman; Rickard Malmstrom; Eduardo Diogene; Sisira Jayathissa; Stuart McTaggart; Thomas Cars; Christoph Baumgärtel; Anna Brzezinska; Anna Bucsics; Stephen Campbell; Alexander Finlayson; Jurij Furst; Kristina Garuoliene; Iñaki Gutiérrez-Ibarluzea; Krystyna Hviding

    2014-01-01

    Background: There are potential conflicts between authorities and companies to fund new premium priced drugs especially where there are effectiveness, safety and/ or budget concerns. Dabigatran, a new oral anticoagulant for the prevention of stroke in patients with non-valvular atrial fibrillation (AF), exemplifies this issue. Whilst new effective treatments are needed, there are issues in the elderly with dabigatran due to variable drug concentrations, no known antidote and dependence on ren...

  20. La ségrégation par omission ?. Incapacités politiques métropolitaines et spécialisation sociale des territoires

    OpenAIRE

    Fabien Desage

    2012-01-01

    The study of socio-spatial segregation and its factors is at the heart of urban sociology for nearly a century. While most researches point out either micro-motives or macro-economic explanations of this process, the role of local authorities in these dynamics has been taken into account only more recently. In this article, we firstly explore the difficult development of metropolitan housing policies in France, although they are presented as an antidote to inter-municipal segregation. Secondl...

  1. Removal of internally deposited gold by 2,3-dimercaptopropane sodium sulphonate (Dimaval).

    OpenAIRE

    Gabard, B.

    1980-01-01

    1 Orally administered 2,3-dimercaptopropane sodium sulphonate (DMPS, Dimaval) reduced the concentration of gold in rats treated with Auro-Detoxin and increased the urinary excretion of the metal. 2 In a long-term experiment, DMPS decreased significantly the concentration of gold in the kidneys and in the skin and increased it in plasma. 3 DMPS appears to be of interest as a possible antidote to gold, which could replace the more toxic 2,3-dimercaptopropanol (BAL).

  2. Bioactivity of Rumex obtusifolius (Polygonaceae)

    OpenAIRE

    Harshaw Diane; Nahar Lutfun; Vadla Brahmachari; Saif-E-Naser Gadria M.; Sarker Satyajit D.

    2010-01-01

    Rumex obtusifolius L. (Polygonaceae), commonly known as 'broad-leaf dock', is one of the most common Irish wayside weeds, and it also occurs in silage fields, on river banks, in ditches and on waste grounds. The ethnobotanical uses of this species include its use as an antidote to nettle, depurative, astringent, laxative, and tonic, and in the treatment of sores, blisters, burns, cancer and tumors. The bioactivities of n-hexane, dichloromethane (DCM) and methanol (MeOH) extracts of the leaves...

  3. Paraphenylene diamine poisoning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A C Jesudoss Prabhakaran

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The commonest constituent of all hair dyes is paraphenylene diamine (PPD. Hair dye poisoning is emerging as one of the emerging causes of intentional self-poisoning to commit suicide. In this article, we report a case of PPD poisoning and the importance of clinical of hair dye poisoning. The lack of specific diagnostic tests, a specific antidote for paraphenylene diamine poisoning and the importance of early supportive treatment modalities are also discussed.

  4. Clinical Practice Guidelines for Exogenous Poisoning.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexis Díaz Mesa

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Clinical Practice Guidelines for Exogenous Poisoning. Medical emergencies determined by the exposure to different substances (drugs, medicines, physical or chemical corrosive agents, etc. It includes the classification of toxic substances, clinical diagnosis (main syndromes, and description of therapeutic variations (vital support, antidotes, absorption measurements and increase of elimination and depuration of the toxic substance. It includes assessment guidelines focused on the most important aspects to be accomplished.

  5. Abundance of interplays delivered by scattered patterns of occupation. San Joaquin in Cuenca, a case of study in the southern highlands of Ecuador

    OpenAIRE

    Rivera Munoz, Monica Alexandra

    2015-01-01

    The problematizing of generic dispersion as a general evil of growing cities, has led to a too-easy diagnosis with the same ‘illness’ to rural territories surrounding and under the influence of middle size cities in the central and southern Ecuadorian Andes. As a consequence of such diagnosis, development plans for these proto-urban territories show a widespread tendency to propose densification as an antidote to battle dispersion. Very commonly, these plans neglect strategies that consider t...

  6. Notes on flying and dying.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, B C

    1983-07-01

    Focused on selected details in the lives and creative works of Samuel Johnson, Edgar Allan Poe, and Houdini, this paper explores a seeming antinomy between claustrophobic annihilation and aviation. At first glance the latter appears as an antidote to the threat of entrapment and death. On a deeper level the distinction fades as the impression arises that in the examples cited, flying may represent an unconscious expression of a wish for death and ultimate reunion.

  7. Gustatory Detection of Tetrodotoxin and Saxitoxin, and Its Competitive Inhibition by Quinine and Strychnine in Freshwater Fishes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toshiaki J. Hara

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Fish detect extremely low levels of marine toxins tetrodotoxin (TTX and saxitoxin (STX via the specialized gustatory receptor(s. Physiological and pharmacological studies show that receptor(s for TTX and STX are distinct from those which detect feeding stimulant amino acids and bile acids, and that TTX and STX do not share the same receptor populations, while interacting with quinine and strychnine in a competitive fashion suggestive of an antidotal relationship.

  8. Effectiveness of Donepezil, Rivastigmine, and (±)Huperzine A in Counteracting the Acute Toxicity of Organophosphorus Nerve Agents: Comparison with Galantamine

    OpenAIRE

    Aracava, Yasco; Pereira, Edna F. R.; Akkerman, Miriam; Adler, Michael; Albuquerque, Edson X.

    2009-01-01

    Galantamine, a centrally acting cholinesterase (ChE) inhibitor and a nicotinic allosteric potentiating ligand used to treat Alzheimer's disease, is an effective and safe antidote against poisoning with nerve agents, including soman. Here, the effectiveness of galantamine was compared with that of the centrally active ChE inhibitors donepezil, rivastigmine, and (±)huperzine A as a pre- and/or post-treatment to counteract the acute toxicity of soman. In the first set of experiments, male prepub...

  9. Adverse reactions to acetylcysteine and effects of overdose.

    OpenAIRE

    Mant, T. G.; Tempowski, J H; Volans, G N; Talbot, J. C.

    1984-01-01

    Since the introduction in 1979 of intravenous acetylcysteine (Parvolex) as an antidote for overdosage of paracetamol the National Poisons Information Service and the manufacturer have been notified of 38 adverse reactions that were anaphylactoid in nature and 19 accidental overdoses. The most common feature of the anaphylactoid reaction to normal dosage was rash; other features reported included angioedema, hypotension, and bronchospasm; all the patients recovered. The features associated wit...

  10. Paracetamol poisoning: beyond the nomogram

    OpenAIRE

    Bateman, D Nicholas

    2015-01-01

    Paracetamol poisoning is the commonest overdose seen in the UK. The management of patients with paracetamol poisoning has been little changed for the past 40 years, with a weight related dose of antidote (acetylcysteine) and treatment based on nomograms relating paracetamol concentration to time from ingestion. In 2012 the UK Commission on Human Medicines recommended a revision of the nomogram, following the death of a young woman, lowering the treatment threshold for all patients. As a resul...

  11. Nietzsche’s Science of Love

    OpenAIRE

    Chouraqui, Frank

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, I examine the possibility of constructing an ontological phenomenology of love by tracing Nietzsche’s questioning about science. I examine how the evolution of Nietzsche’s thinking about science and his increasing suspicion towards it coincide with his interest for the question of love. Although the texts from the early and middle period praise science as an antidote to asceticism, the later texts seem to associate the scientific spirit with asceticism. I argue that this ...

  12. A Role for Mitochondrial Oxidative Stress in Sulfur Mustard Analog 2-Chloroethyl Ethyl Sulfide-Induced Lung Cell Injury and Antioxidant Protection

    OpenAIRE

    Gould, Neal S; White, Carl W; Day, Brian J.

    2008-01-01

    Sulfur mustards (SMs) have been used as warfare agents since World War I and still pose a significant threat against civilian and military personnel. SM exposure can cause significant blistering of the skin, respiratory injury, and fibrosis. No antidote currently exists for SM exposure, but recent studies, using the SM analog 2-chloroethyl ethyl sulfide (CEES), have focused on the ability of antioxidants to prevent toxicity. Although antioxidants can prevent CEES-induc...

  13. N-acetylcysteine overdose after acetaminophen poisoning

    OpenAIRE

    Mahmoudi GA; Astaraki P; Mohtashami AZ; Ahadi M

    2015-01-01

    Ghafar Ali Mahmoudi,1 Peyman Astaraki,1 Azita Zafar Mohtashami,1 Maryam Ahadi2 1Faculty of Medicine, Department of Internal Medicine, Lorestan University of Medical Sciences, 2Legal Medicine Research Center of Lorestan, Khorramabad, Iran Abstract: N-acetylcysteine (NAC) is used widely and effectively in oral and intravenous forms as a specific antidote for acetaminophen poisoning. Here we report a rare case of iatrogenic NAC overdose following an error in preparation of the solution, and des...

  14. The efficacy of negative pressure wound therapy on chemotherapeutic extravasation ulcers: An experimental study

    OpenAIRE

    Evren Isci; Canter, Halil I.; Mehmet Dadaci; Pergin Atilla; Ayse N Cakar; Abdullah Kecik

    2014-01-01

    Context: The extravasation of the chemotherapeutic agents is not an unusual phenomenon. Necrosis of the skin and underlying structures has been reported, depending on the cytotoxicity of the extravasating drug. Despite the presence of some antidotes, such wounds tend to enlarge with time and are likely to resist the treatment. Aims: The objective of this study was to investigate the efficacy of negative pressure wound therapy (NPWT) on extravasation ulcers. Settings and Design: Animals were s...

  15. Julia Kristeva’s Maternal Passions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelly Oliver

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This article critically engages Julia Kristeva’s latest work on maternal passion as an antidote to what she calls “feminine fatigue.”  Oliver elaborates, criticizes, and expands Kristeva’s view that maternity can be a model for thinking about passion and its relation to creativity and even to ethics.  She relates Kristeva’s thinking about feminine fatigue to contemporary feminism in the United States. 

  16. Why is psychiatry prone to fads?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paris, Joel

    2013-10-01

    Psychiatry has long been prone to fads. The main reason is that mental illness is poorly understood and can be difficult to treat. Most diagnostic fads have involved the extension of well-known categories into broader spectra. The most prominent treatment fads have involved the overuse of pharmacological interventions and a proliferation of methods for psychotherapy. The best antidote to fads is a commitment to evidence-based psychiatry.

  17. Global Risk Sharing: Toward a stronger Financial System

    OpenAIRE

    Takao Kobayashi; Jeffrey Bohn; Risa Sai

    2007-01-01

    Recent surge of large real estate lending in Japan suggests the creation of a new series of lumpy credit risk exposures entering Japanese bank portfolios. It is necessary to transform these types of large, concentrated exposures into more manageable pieces of risk. The development of syndication and securitization markets provide an antidote to this creeping risk of crisis as concentrations deepen. Without the mechanisms for distributing and managing risk, Japan will forever lag the rest of t...

  18. "Global Risk Sharing: Toward a stronger Financial System"(in Japanese)

    OpenAIRE

    Takao Kobayashi; Jeffrey Bohn; Risa Sai

    2007-01-01

    Recent surge of large real estate lending in Japan suggests the creation of a new series of lumpy credit risk exposures entering Japanese bank portfolios. It is necessary to transform these types of large, concentrated exposures into more manageable pieces of risk. The development of syndication and securitization markets provide an antidote to this creeping risk of crisis as concentrations deepen. Without the mechanisms for distributing and managing risk, Japan will forever lag the rest of t...

  19. Potassium Permanganate Poisoning: A Nonfatal Outcome

    OpenAIRE

    Eteiwi, Suzan M.; Al-Eyadah, Abdallah A.; Al-Sarihin, Khaldon K.; Ahmad A. Al-Omari; Rania A. Al-Asaad; Haddad, Fares H.

    2015-01-01

    Acute poisoning by potassium permanganate is a rare condition with high morbidity and mortality. Diagnosis of the condition relies on a history of exposure or ingestion and a high degree of clinical suspicion. Oxygen desaturation and the presence of methemoglobin are also helpful indicators. Since no specific antidote is available, treatment is mainly supportive. Few cases have been reported in the literature following potassium permanganate ingestion, whether intentional or accidental, and m...

  20. Fighting misinformation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-07-01

    As an astronomer, educator and science advocate at Columbia University in the US, David Helfand has spent his career knocking down faulty arguments and misleading “facts” that cling on despite the huge amount of information available to modern audiences. In his book A Survival Guide to the Misinformation Age, Helfand explains how the same “habits of mind” that make someone a good scientist can also give non-scientists “an antidote to the misinformation glut”.

  1. Characterisation of bovine testicular hyaluronidase and a hyaluronate lyase from Streptococcus agalactiae. Investigations on the effect of pH on hyaluronan degradation and preclinical studies on the adjuvant administration of the enzymes in cancer chemotherapy

    OpenAIRE

    Hoechstetter, Julia

    2005-01-01

    Pharmaceutical preparations of bovine testicular hyaluronidase (BTH) have been therapeutically applied in several medical fields for many years. In the context with the risk of BSE, companies stopped the production of BTH preparations resulting in a shortage of this drug, which is the only highly effective antidote in the treatment of extravasations of vinca alkaloids. To find a substitute for the poorly characterised BTH preparations, two BTH preparations (Neopermease®; Hylase® �Dessau�)...

  2. A Model of the Safe Asset Mechanism (SAM): Safety Traps and Economic Policy

    OpenAIRE

    Caballero, Ricardo J; Emmanuel Farhi

    2013-01-01

    The global economy has a chronic shortage of safe assets which lies behind many recent macroeconomic imbalances. This paper provides a simple model of the Safe Asset Mechanism (SAM), its recessionary safety traps, and its policy antidotes. Safety traps share many common features with conventional liquidity traps, but also exhibit important differences, in particular with respect to their reaction to policy packages. In general, policy-puts (such as QE1, LTRO, fiscal policy, etc.) that support...

  3. PHARMACOGNOSTICAL AND PHYTOCHEMICAL INVESTIGATION OF IPOMOEA SEPIARIA KOENIG EX. ROXB. LEAF

    OpenAIRE

    Sayani Majumder; Nishteshwar K

    2013-01-01

    Ipomoea sepiaria Koenig ex. Roxb. of the family Convolvulaceae is a perennial climber growing on the bank of streams, rivers, specially over hedges. Traditionally the whole herb is to possess number of therapeutic properties like, aphrodisiac, a good antidote to arsenic, rejuvenating, diuretic, aphrodisiac, laxative and also used in sterility in women and in diabetes. As the plant is not explored scientifically as yet, it was thought worth to evaluate each and every part of the plant thorough...

  4. REACH, animal testing, and the precautionary principle

    OpenAIRE

    Menache, Andre

    2012-01-01

    Andre Menache,1 Candida Nastrucci21Antidote Europe, Perpignan, France; 2University of Rome, "Tor Vergata", Rome, ItalyAbstract: Relatively little is known about the toxicity of the many chemicals in existence today. This has prompted European Union regulatory authorities to launch a major chemicals testing program, known as Registration, Evaluation, Authorisation and Restriction of Chemicals (REACH). Although the driving force behind REACH is ostensibly based on the precauti...

  5. Acute cyanide Intoxication: A rare case of survival

    OpenAIRE

    Durga Jethava; Priyamvada Gupta; Sandeep Kothari; Puneet Rijhwani; Ankit Kumar

    2014-01-01

    A 30-year-old male jewellery factory worker accidentally ingested silver potassium cyanide and was brought to the emergency department in a state of shock and profound metabolic acidosis. This patient was managed hypothetically with use of injection thiopentone sodium intravenously until the antidote was received. Cyanide is a highly cytotoxic poison and it rapidly reacts with the trivalent iron of cytochrome oxidase thus paralysing the aerobic respiration. The result is severe lactic acidosi...

  6. Book review: Just work? Migrant workers’ struggles today edited by Aziz Choudry and Mondli Hlatshwayo

    OpenAIRE

    Clewett, Paul

    2016-01-01

    New volume Just Work? Migrant Workers’ Struggles Today , edited by Aziz Choudry and Mondli Hlatshwayo, gives a platform to the struggles of migrant workers propping up economies in the Global North and South through grounded, optimistic analysis built on first-hand experience. Paul Clewett finds this collection both a fascinating read and a welcome antidote to migration scholarship that has hitherto disproportionately focused on the West.

  7. ["Lingue di seripi", "serpents' tongues" and "glossopetrae". Highlights from the history of popular "cult" medicine in early modern times].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freller, T

    1997-01-01

    In the 16th, 17th and 18th century "Glossopetrae", popularly known as "Lingue di Serpi", found on the Mediterranean island of Malta, were extensively used for medical purposes as antidotes. These fossil teeth, including specimens of the "Carcharodon Megalodon" (an extinct variant of the great white shark), were ground to powder or used as amulet pendants and "credence" and exported to pharmacies and shops in various cities of Europe. In antiquity, authors like Plinius or Solinus, excluding any religious connotations, had regarded "Glossopetrae" as objects "fallen from heaven on dark moonless nights". However, from the beginning of the 16th century the miraculous antidotic power of the specimens found at Malta was very strongly connected with the Pauline cult there. This cult owed ist origin to the excerpt of the shipwreck of the Apostle of the Gentiles on this island, as recorded in the New Testament. As in so many cases found in medieval and early modern medicine and pharmacy, the renown, collection, distribution and use of the antidote "Glossopetrae" or "Lingue di Serpi" was never limited to its real chemical and pharmaceutical properties. In the period of enlightenment and secular thinking mythic medicine as "Glossopetrae" had lost ist "magical" power. Consequently, with beginning of the late 18th century also the Maltese "Glossopetrae" featured in literature merely as exotic objects of curiosity or symbols of an age bound to medical superstition. PMID:9333999

  8. Determination of dimethyl trisulfide in rabbit blood using stir bar sorptive extraction gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manandhar, Erica; Maslamani, Nujud; Petrikovics, Ilona; Rockwood, Gary A; Logue, Brian A

    2016-08-26

    Cyanide poisoning by accidental or intentional exposure poses a severe health risk. The current Food and Drug Administration approved antidotes for cyanide poisoning can be effective, but each suffers from specific major limitations concerning large effective dosage, delayed onset of action, or dependence on enzymes generally confined to specific organs. Dimethyl trisulfide (DMTS), a sulfur donor that detoxifies cyanide by converting it into thiocyanate (a relatively nontoxic cyanide metabolite), is a promising next generation cyanide antidote. Although a validated analytical method to analyze DMTS from any matrix is not currently available, one will be vital for the approval of DMTS as a therapeutic agent against cyanide poisoning. Hence, a stir bar sorptive extraction (SBSE) gas chromatography - mass spectrometry (GC-MS) method was developed and validated for the analysis of DMTS from rabbit whole blood. Following acid denaturation of blood, DMTS was extracted into a polydimethylsiloxane-coated stir bar. The DMTS was then thermally desorbed from the stir bar and analyzed by GC-MS. The limit of detection of DMTS using this method was 0.06μM with dynamic range from 0.5-100μM. For quality control standards, the precision, as measured by percent relative standard deviation, was below 10%, and the accuracy was within 15% of the nominal concentration. The method described here will allow further investigations of DMTS as a promising antidote for cyanide poisoning. PMID:27477518

  9. ["Lingue di seripi", "serpents' tongues" and "glossopetrae". Highlights from the history of popular "cult" medicine in early modern times].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freller, T

    1997-01-01

    In the 16th, 17th and 18th century "Glossopetrae", popularly known as "Lingue di Serpi", found on the Mediterranean island of Malta, were extensively used for medical purposes as antidotes. These fossil teeth, including specimens of the "Carcharodon Megalodon" (an extinct variant of the great white shark), were ground to powder or used as amulet pendants and "credence" and exported to pharmacies and shops in various cities of Europe. In antiquity, authors like Plinius or Solinus, excluding any religious connotations, had regarded "Glossopetrae" as objects "fallen from heaven on dark moonless nights". However, from the beginning of the 16th century the miraculous antidotic power of the specimens found at Malta was very strongly connected with the Pauline cult there. This cult owed ist origin to the excerpt of the shipwreck of the Apostle of the Gentiles on this island, as recorded in the New Testament. As in so many cases found in medieval and early modern medicine and pharmacy, the renown, collection, distribution and use of the antidote "Glossopetrae" or "Lingue di Serpi" was never limited to its real chemical and pharmaceutical properties. In the period of enlightenment and secular thinking mythic medicine as "Glossopetrae" had lost ist "magical" power. Consequently, with beginning of the late 18th century also the Maltese "Glossopetrae" featured in literature merely as exotic objects of curiosity or symbols of an age bound to medical superstition.

  10. Reversing the Effect of Oral Anticoagulant Drugs: Established and Newer Options.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ansell, Jack E

    2016-06-01

    The vitamin K antagonists (VKAs) have been the standard (and only) oral anticoagulants used for the long-term treatment or prevention of venous thromboembolism or stroke in patients with atrial fibrillation. The coagulopathy induced by VKAs can be reversed with vitamin K, and in urgent situations, the vitamin K-dependent coagulation factors can be replaced by transfusion. In the last decade, a new class of oral anticoagulants has been developed, direct oral anticoagulants that bind to a specific coagulation factor and neutralize it. These compounds were shown to be effective and safe compared with the VKAs and were licensed for specific indications, but without a specific reversal agent. The absence of a reversal agent is a barrier to more widespread use of these agents. Currently, for the management of major life-threatening bleeding with the direct oral anticoagulants, most authorities recommend the use of four factor prothrombin complex concentrates. There are now three reversal agents in development and poised to enter the market. Idarucizumab is a specific antidote targeted to reverse the direct thrombin inhibitor, dabigatran, which was recently approved for use in the USA. Andexanet alfa is an antidote targeted to reverse the oral direct factor Xa inhibitors as well as the indirect inhibitor enoxaparin. Ciraparantag is an antidote targeted to reverse the direct thrombin and factor Xa inhibitors as well as the indirect inhibitor enoxaparin. PMID:26872887

  11. Screening of plants acting against Heterometrus laoticus scorpion venom activity on fibroblast cell lysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uawonggul, Nunthawun; Chaveerach, Arunrat; Thammasirirak, Sompong; Arkaravichien, Tarinee; Chuachan, Chattong; Daduang, Sakda

    2006-01-16

    The aqueous extracts of 64 plant species, listed as animal- or insect-bite antidotes in old Thai drug recipes were screened for their activity against fibroblast cell lysis after Heterometrus laoticus scorpion venom treatment. The venom was preincubated with plant extract for 30 min and furthered treated to confluent fibroblast cells for 30 min. More than 40% efficiency (test/control) was obtained from cell treatment with venom preincubated with extracts of Andrographis paniculata Nees (Acanthaceae), Barringtonia acutangula (L.) Gaertn. (Lecythidaceae), Calamus sp. (Palmae), Clinacanthus nutans Lindau (Acanthaceae), Euphorbia neriifolia L. (Euphorbiaceae), Ipomoea aquatica Forssk (Convolvulaceae), Mesua ferrea L. (Guttiferae), Passiflora laurifolia L. (Passifloraceae), Plectranthus amboinicus (Lour.) Spreng. (Labiatae), Ricinus communis L. (Euphorbiaceae), Rumex sp. (Polygonaceae) and Sapindus rarak DC. (Sapindaceae), indicating that they had a tendency to be scorpion venom antidotes. However, only Andrographis paniculata and Barringtonia acutangula extracts provided around 50% viable cells from extract treatments without venom preincubation. These two plant extracts are expected to be scorpion venom antidotes with low cytotoxicity. PMID:16169172

  12. Magnonic band structure, complete bandgap, and collective spin wave excitation in nanoscale two-dimensional magnonic crystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumar, D.; Barman, A., E-mail: abarman@bose.res.in [Thematic Unit of Excellence on Nanodevice Technology, Department of Condensed Matter Physics and Material Sciences, S. N. Bose National Centre for Basic Sciences, Block JD, Sector III, Salt Lake, Kolkata 700 098 (India); Kłos, J. W.; Krawczyk, M. [Faculty of Physics, Adam Mickiewicz University in Poznan, Umultowska 85, Poznań 61-614 (Poland)

    2014-01-28

    We present the observation of a complete bandgap and collective spin wave excitation in two-dimensional magnonic crystals comprised of arrays of nanoscale antidots and nanodots, respectively. Considering that the frequencies dealt with here fall in the microwave band, these findings can be used for the development of suitable magnonic metamaterials and spin wave based signal processing. We also present the application of a numerical procedure, to compute the dispersion relations of spin waves for any high symmetry direction in the first Brillouin zone. The results obtained from this procedure have been reproduced and verified by the well established plane wave method for an antidot lattice, when magnetization dynamics at antidot boundaries are pinned. The micromagnetic simulation based method can also be used to obtain iso–frequency contours of spin waves. Iso–frequency contours are analogous of the Fermi surfaces and hence, they have the potential to radicalize our understanding of spin wave dynamics. The physical origin of bands, partial and full magnonic bandgaps have been explained by plotting the spatial distribution of spin wave energy spectral density. Although, unfettered by rigid assumptions and approximations, which afflict most analytical methods used in the study of spin wave dynamics, micromagnetic simulations tend to be computationally demanding. Thus, the observation of collective spin wave excitation in the case of nanodot arrays, which can obviate the need to perform simulations, may also prove to be valuable.

  13. Conformation-dependent high-affinity potent ricin-neutralizing monoclonal antibodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Wei-Gang; Yin, Junfei; Chau, Damon; Hu, Charles Chen; Lillico, Dustin; Yu, Justin; Negrych, Laurel M; Cherwonogrodzky, John W

    2013-01-01

    Ricin is a potential biothreat agent with no approved antidote available for ricin poisoning. The aim of this study was to develop potent antibody-based antiricin antidotes. Four strong ricin resistant hybridoma clones secreting antiricin monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) were developed. All four mAbs are bound to conformational epitopes of ricin toxin B (RTB) with high affinity (KD values from 2.55 to 36.27 nM). RTB not only triggers cellular uptake of ricin, but also facilitates transport of the ricin toxin A (RTA) from the endoplasmic reticulum to the cytosol, where RTA exerts its toxic activity. The four mAbs were found to have potent ricin-neutralizing capacities and synergistic effects among them as determined by an in vitro neutralization assay. In vivo protection assay demonstrated that all four mAbs had strong efficacy against ricin challenges. D9 was found to be exceptionally effective. Intraperitoneal (i.p.) administration of D9, at a dose of 5 μ g, 6 weeks before or 6 hours after an i.p. challenge with 5 × LD50 of ricin was able to protect or rescue 100% of the mice, indicating that mAb D9 is an excellent candidate to be developed as a potent antidote against ricin poisoning for both prophylactic and therapeutic purposes. PMID:23484120

  14. Development of Novel Rifampicin-Derived P-Glycoprotein Activators/Inducers. Synthesis, In Silico Analysis and Application in the RBE4 Cell Model, Using Paraquat as Substrate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vilas-Boas, Vânia; Silva, Renata; Palmeira, Andreia; Sousa, Emília; Ferreira, Luísa Maria; Branco, Paula Sério; Carvalho, Félix; Bastos, Maria de Lourdes; Remião, Fernando

    2013-01-01

    P-glycoprotein (P-gp) is a 170 kDa transmembrane protein involved in the outward transport of many structurally unrelated substrates. P-gp activation/induction may function as an antidotal pathway to prevent the cytotoxicity of these substrates. In the present study we aimed at testing rifampicin (Rif) and three newly synthesized Rif derivatives (a mono-methoxylated derivative, MeORif, a peracetylated derivative, PerAcRif, and a reduced derivative, RedRif) to establish their ability to modulate P-gp expression and activity in a cellular model of the rat’s blood–brain barrier, the RBE4 cell line P-gp expression was assessed by western blot using C219 anti-P-gp antibody. P-gp function was evaluated by flow cytometry measuring the accumulation of rhodamine123. Whenever P-gp activation/induction ability was detected in a tested compound, its antidotal effect was further tested using paraquat as cytotoxicity model. Interactions between Rif or its derivatives and P-gp were also investigated by computational analysis. Rif led to a significant increase in P-gp expression at 72 h and RedRif significantly increased both P-gp expression and activity. No significant differences were observed for the other derivatives. Pre- or simultaneous treatment with RedRif protected cells against paraquat-induced cytotoxicity, an effect reverted by GF120918, a P-gp inhibitor, corroborating the observed P-gp activation ability. Interaction of RedRif with P-gp drug-binding pocket was consistent with an activation mechanism of action, which was confirmed with docking studies. Therefore, RedRif protection against paraquat-induced cytotoxicity in RBE4 cells, through P-gp activation/induction, suggests that it may be useful as an antidote for cytotoxic substrates of P-gp. PMID:23991219

  15. Nanopatterning of Co/Pt-multilayers via self-assembled block-copolymer micelles; Magnetische Nanostrukturen basierend auf Co/Pt-Multilagen, hergestellt mittels selbstorganisierter Masken aus Blockcopolymer-Micellen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stillrich, H.

    2007-07-01

    The production and characterization of magnetic nanostructures based on Co/Ptmultilayers are described in this thesis. Nanostructure arrays of Co/Pt multilayer films are generated utilizing the self-assembly of block copolymer micelles with a few 10nm diameter. For an understanding of the magnetic properties of nanostructures the properties of Co/Pt-multilayer films are examined first. The films are grown via different sputter techniques. The structural and magnetic properties are investigated depending on the deposition technique. The sources of magnetic anisotropy are discussed based on these investigations. One major topic concerning Co/Pt-multilayers is the reorientation of the easy axis of magnetization from perpendicular to in-plane as a function of the cobalt and platinum layer thicknesses. Combining averaging magnetization measurements and high resolution magnetic imaging, the canting of magnetization within the reorientation transition and a canted domain structure were found. The basis for magnetic nanostructures are Co/Pt-multilayers that were optimized for strong magnetic anisotropy. Magnetic antidot and dot arrays are generated from Co/Pt-multilayers via novel methods utilizing block copolymer micelle masks and ion milling. The generation of nanostructure arrays is proven by the morphologic and topographic properties, combined with the evolution of magneto-optic signals. Two different approaches for the generation of antidot arrays are shown. The magnetic properties of antidot arrays with perpendicular and in-plane easy magnetization are investigated. Magnetic dot arrays are produced utilizing the cores of SiO{sub 2} filled block copolymer micelles. The dot arrays consist of single domain particles. The switching field distribution of the dot arrays is analysed and described using the size distribution of the magnetic particles. Magnetic nanostructures in the region of the superparamagnetic limit are investigated. (orig.)

  16. Possible Role of Mg2+ ion in the Reaction of Organophosphate (dichlorvos with Serine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed Vahid Shetab-Boushehri

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Organophosphate pesticides (OPs inhibit both true and pseudo-cholinesterases by reaction with the hydroxyl group of serine in their active sites. Poisoning with OPs is commonly seen in clinics. A common antidote for OP poisoning is atropine but, after ageing and OP dealkylation, even oximes could not be effective. It has been shown that oximes are not always useful in management of OP poisoning. On the other hand, magnesium has been found effective in both clinical and experimental studies. Studies to find more effective antidotes for OP poisoning are in progress. Presently, the possible role of magnesium ion in catalysis of reaction of dichlorvos (2,2-dichlorovinyl dimethyl phosphate, DDVP, a water-soluble OP, with serine is proposed. The hydroxyl group of serine could be a target to which DDVP can react. Nucleophilic attack of pralidoxime to DDVP was previously investigated. To confirm the idea, data were derived from recent and previous research on the role of magnesium in phosphoryl group transfer reactions. Possible reactions of serine and pralidoxime with DDVP in the absence and the presence of magnesium ion were separately investigated theoretically.We propose that the chemical reaction of serine with DDVP exclusively occurs in the presence of a magnesium divalent cation, whereas the reaction of pralidoxime with DDVP occurs independent of the presence of the magnesium ion. The role of the dissociation constant (pKa of functional groups in these reactions seems important.It is suggested that application of serine in combination with the magnesium cation can become a more efficient antidote for treatment of OP poisoning.

  17. Collective narrative: the narrative on Croatian language from academic to far-right discourses in Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marija Ilić

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents a case of under-represented narrative data which I call “collective narratives”. Drawing upon the concept of group-defining stories, it is argued that these narratives embody an antidote to the ’canonical’ Labovian paradigm as they construct collective subjectivity and causality. The paper explores how “collective narrative” is utilized in the discursive production of national identity by using a case study on Croatian language narrative which is perpetuated in some academic and far-right discourses in Serbia.

  18. PRACTICAL ASPECTS OF APIXABAN USE IN CLINICAL PRACTICE: VIEW POINT OF CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGIST

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. A. Sychev

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Apixaban is a "new" oral anticoagulant, direct Xa factor inhibitor with a good evidence base of the efficacy in the prevention of ischemic stroke in patients with atrial fibrillation. The article is devoted to apixaban use in clinical practice: examination before apixaban administration, clinical situation when laboratory control and monitoring are needed, drugs interactions (at the level of CYP3A4, P-gp, management of patients with bleeding because of apixaban therapy (including antidotes application, perioperative management of patients receiving apixaban.

  19. Nice Teams Finish Last The Secret to Unleashing Your Team's Maximum Potential

    CERN Document Server

    Miller, Brian Cole

    2010-01-01

    Don't rock the boat. Don't make waves. Don't offend anyone. There's a palpable feeling that clouds many team meetings and keeps them from being productive: over-politeness. And while the conflict that naturally exists in most organizations hasn't gone away, it manifests itself in passive-aggression, mediocrity, and a molasses-like inability to get anything done. Nice Teams Finish Last provides the antidote to this all-too-common tendency, giving managers, team leaders and members, and facilitators the practical support they need to battle "the nice trap" and start getting results! The book hel

  20. The New Methodology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    In the past few years there's been a rapidly growing interest in“lightweight” methodologies. Alternatively characterized as an antidote to bureaucracy or a license to hack they've stirred up interest all over the software landscape. In this essay I explore the reasons for lightweight methods, focusing not so much on their weight but on their adaptive nature and their people-first orientation . I also give a summary and references to the processes in this school and consider the factors that should influence your choice of whether to go down this newly trodden path.

  1. Chemical and biological warfare: Biochemistry, therapy, and treatment. (Latest citations from the NTIS bibliographic database). Published Search

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-12-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning biochemistry, therapy, and treatment of the effects of military chemical and biological warfare agents. References include surveys and studies of immunizing agents and drugs, the efficacy of these drugs, and the effect of the drugs on the patient. Also included are biochemical studies, assay techniques, and antidote development, some of which is supported by animal studies. Citations concerning detection and warning, defoliants, protection, biology and toxicology, and general studies are covered in separate bibliographies.(Contains 50-250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.) (Copyright NERAC, Inc. 1995)

  2. Chemical and biological warfare: Biochemistry, therapy, and treatment. (Latest citations from the NTIS bibliographic database). Published Search

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-11-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning biochemistry, therapy, and treatment of the effects of military chemical and biological warfare agents. References include surveys and studies of immunizing agents and drugs, the efficacy of these drugs, and the effect of the drugs on the patient. Also included are biochemical studies, assay techniques, and antidote development, some of which is supported by animal studies. Citations concerning detection and warning, defoliants, protection, biology and toxicology, and general studies are covered in separate bibliographies.(Contains 50-250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.) (Copyright NERAC, Inc. 1995)

  3. Analysis of Nine Cases of Acute Thallium Poisoning

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Qiwei; HUANG Xiaojiang; LIU Liang

    2007-01-01

    In this study nine cases of thallium poisoning in a series of homicidal poisoning were analyzed in order to provide more information concerning thallium poisoning. It was found that the most common clinical feature of thallium poisoning was peripheral neuropathy and paraesthesia was more common than amyasthenia. Understanding of these clinical characteristics of thallium poisoning was helpful to early identification and differential diagnosis. Since the early administration of Prussian Blue, as a specific antidote for thallium poisoning, can substantially improve the prognosis, it is of great importance to establish a correct and early diagnosis.

  4. Re-reading Mary Wigman's Hexentanz II (1926): the influence of the non-Western 'Other' on movement practice in early modern 'German' dance

    OpenAIRE

    Tsitsou, Lito; Weir, Lucy

    2013-01-01

    This paper provides a re-reading of Mary Wigman’s Hexentanz II (‘Witch Dance’, 1926), emphasising the social and aesthetic conditions in which she created dance works. A renewed interest in the idea of a return to nature characterised the artistic mood of this period, and scholars conceive of this return as an antidote to the capitalist modernisation of Germany and the effects of the First World War. This paper views Wigman’s work as a prominent example of the reversion to ‘primitive’ forms a...

  5. 急性百草枯中毒的治疗进展%Advances in the treatment of acute paraquat poisoning

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴应强; 肖雪

    2013-01-01

    Paraquat is one of the most widely used herbicide. Its toxicity is medium to animal but highly to human. The estimated lethal dose for adult is about 40 mg/kg. The mechanism of paraquat poisoning is complicated and unclear. And there is no specific antidote. Current treatment is mainly focused on the comprehensive treatment, and the mortality rate is high. There is no breakthrough research progress on the paraquat poisoning. Recent studies on the therapy of paraquat poisoning are reviewed in this paper.

  6. Anticoagulation reversal in the era of the non-vitamin K oral anticoagulants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Enriquez, Andres; Lip, Gregory Y H; Baranchuk, Adrian

    2016-01-01

    In recent years, non-vitamin K oral anticoagulants (NOACs) have emerged as an alternative to warfarin for the prevention and treatment of thrombo-embolic disease. Large randomized trials have demonstrated that these agents, which act by directly targeting thrombin (dabigatran) and factor Xa....... New specific antidotes (e.g. idarucizumab, andexanet alfa, and ciraparantag) show promising data, and may soon become available for clinical use. In this article, we review the pharmacology of these agents, the incidence and outcomes of haemorrhagic complications, the available strategies for...

  7. Alai’s The Mountain Stairway: A Grassroots Conception of Tibet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Duckler

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available It seems that the current literature regarding Tibet is quite impoverished as a true cultural indicator of the region and its people. The West writes of Tibet as an exotic solution to its own malaise, or as the last refuge of Hermetic wisdom. The Han Chinese have used Tibet as a muse and as an antidote to materialism. The current literary criticism brushes over cultural and stylistic concerns to cut right to politics. In every case, Tibet as a cultural concept is simply used to complement something external to it, to stand in contrast to something else. The Tibetan writer Alai specifically rejects these negative and meaningless definitions of Tibet.

  8. What Were the Causes of the Great Recession?

    OpenAIRE

    Tim Congdon

    2014-01-01

    Two ways of thinking about the causation of the Great Recession are contrasted: the ‘mainstream approach’ and the ‘monetary interpretation’. According to the mainstream approach, the Great Recession was due to the potential insolvency of the banking system and the correct antidote was tighter regulation. The paper proposes an alternative ‘monetary interpretation’, arguing that the macroeconomic trajectory of the major G7 economies in the Great Recession is readily understood by me...

  9. Can power point enable history learners to "do history?".

    OpenAIRE

    Maposa, Marshall Tamuka

    2008-01-01

    The use of technology in History teaching is not a new phenomenon, but its impact has been varied depending on the context, teachers and, more importantly, the nature of the innovation. For years, I have come across the "history is boring" comment ad nauseum. For some History teachers, the adoption of technology in the classroom might seem to be the antidote to this problem. One of the most common pieces of Information and Communications Technology (ICT) to be used in the classroom is Microso...

  10. Sexual Dysfunction Due to Psychotropic Medications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clayton, Anita H; Alkis, Andrew R; Parikh, Nishant B; Votta, Jennifer G

    2016-09-01

    Sexual functioning is important to assess in patients with psychiatric illness as both the condition and associated treatment may contribute to sexual dysfunction (SD). Antidepressant medications, mood stabilizers, antipsychotics, and antianxiety agents may be associated with SD related to drug mechanism of action. Sexual adverse effects may be related to genetic risk factors, impact on neurotransmitters and hormones, and psychological elements. Effective strategies to manage medication-induced sexual dysfunction are initial choice of a drug unlikely to cause SD, switching to a different medication, and adding an antidote to reverse SD. Appropriate interventions should be determined on a clinical case-by-case basis. PMID:27514298

  11. Gems of japanized English

    CERN Document Server

    Kenrick, Miranda

    2011-01-01

    If you've ever had the uneasy feeling that the Japanese do things better, this book may be the ideal antidote. Even the Japanese are quick to admit that despite their enthusiasm for learning it, they still have a certain amount of difficulty with the English language. This is no new phenomenon. Shortly after Japan opened her ports to foreign traders, one doctor advertised himself as ""a Specialist in the Decease of Children""; eggs were sold as ""extract of fowl""; and a notice advised that ""Tomorrow, from midnight to 12 noon, you will receive dirty water."" Fortunately, things are improving,

  12. Selling Yourself without Selling Out A Leader's Guide to Ethical Self-Promotion

    CERN Document Server

    (CCL), Center for Creative Leadership; McLaughlin, Cindy

    2011-01-01

    High-performing individuals and groups are often not adequately recognized for their contributions. The antidote to being overlooked or underestimated is self-promotion-the act of generating personal visibility in service of your work and career. In this guidebook, we discuss how you can benefit from self-promotion and maintain your integrity and authenticity. We help you reframe common beliefs that get in the way of effective self-promotion, and we provide numerous strategies and activities that can become part of your repertoire.

  13. [Re]Forming Public Space: A Critique of Hong Kong’s Park Governance through Architectural Intervention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jason Carlow

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper’s point of departure is a critique of the Hong Kong government’s somewhat rigid approach to regulating the public spaces of its parks. As an antidote to a rule-bound and somewhat restrictive set of policies, four groups of architecture students at the University of Hong Kong have designed various interventions for a public park in Hong Kong. The projects, entitled Pixel Wall, Fence Off, Border Mender, and Rocky present alternative ways of activating public space through architectural design.

  14. GC-MS ANALYSIS OF SOME BIOACTIVE CONSTITUENTS OF THE LEAVES OF DESMODIUM GYRANS DC.

    OpenAIRE

    Gopalakrishnan, S.; R. Rajameena

    2012-01-01

    Desmodium gyrans DC is one of the medicinally valuable plants belonging to the family Fabaceae, commonly known as “Thozhukanni” in Tamil and ‘ Namaskari’ in Sanskrit. Traditionally leaves are used as antidote, cardiac-tonic and for wound healing. In the present study the ethanolic extract of Desmodium gyrans has been subjected to GC-MS analysis. Eighteen chemical constituents have been identified, The major chemical constituents are: 4,5-Dihydro-2-amino-4-(2,4-dichlorophenyl)-7-methyl-5-oxo- ...

  15. Guest Editorial Governance and ethics: an indispensable relationship

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anona Armstrong

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available One of the fascinating questions of our time is why, when so much effort has gone into implementing corporate governance guidelines and raising the awareness of business ethics, stories of unethical conduct and poor governance continue to emerge on the front pages in our newspapers. Around the world financial scandals continue to occur and each time seekers of an antidote to the latest disaster call for more governance. This was evident after the 1987 securities market collapses when the Cadbury Committee and the OECD (Cadbury 1992; OECD 1999 were among many organisations which were to introduce governance regulations and guidelines over the next decade, and it is again prominent today.

  16. Hair dye poisoning and rhabdomyolysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bokutz, Munira; Nasir, Nosheen; Mahmood, Faisal; Sajid, Sara

    2015-04-01

    Hair dye ingestion is a rare cause of toxicity in Pakistan. We are presenting the case report of a 55 year old male who presented with accidental hair dye ingestion and developed laryngeal oedema requiring emergent tracheostomy. He had also developed aspiration pneumonitis and chemical oesophagitis. However, the most alarming manifestation was rhabdomyolysis. Hair dye toxicity can be fatal if not recognized early. There is no antidote available. Rhabdomyolysis is a complication and needs to be managed aggressively in order to prevent long term morbidity. PMID:25976581

  17. Confucianism vs. Modernity: Expired, Incompatible or Remedial?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geir SIGURÐSSON

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper is an exploration of the reappraisal that has been taking place since the 1980s of Confucianism’s suitability for a modernized society. The first section focuses in particular on the discussion that took place in Singapore on Confucianism as a stimulant for economic activity, arguing that it was first and foremost a politically motivated attempt to establish Confucianism as a convenient ideology. I then move to a discussion of recent attempts to rehabilitate Confucianism in the PRC. In the final section, I suggest how Confucianism can be a healthy antidote to some of the ills produced by contemporary capitalist practice.

  18. Serious bleeding as a consequence of accumulation of dabigatran caused by renal failure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skjødt-Jensen, Anne Mette; Hvas, Anne-Mette

    2014-01-01

    A 77-year-old male was hospitalized due to haematuria and developed septicaemia. He received dabigatran due to chronic atrial fibrillation. Doses were reduced because of renal failure according to guidelines. The patient showed extensive changes in his entire coagulation system. Due to renal...... failure forced diuresis was not possible, and continuous dialysis was performed. Patients with renal failure should be monitored closely - if there are any sign of bleeding it is important to consider change of anticoagulant therapy as long as an antidote does not exist....

  19. Novel role of antiplatelet agents (aspirin plus clopidogrel in an incoagulable blood of a victim of russell's viper snakebite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. S. Bawaskar

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Snake antivenom is a specific antidote to the venom action, neutralizing the circulating venom. However, it fails to neutralize the venom fixed to target organs such as platelets, renal tubules, etc. Russell's viper venom initiates rapid coagulation in a victim by activating blood platelets, factors V, X, and anticoagulant cofactors. Activation of thrombin, resulting in formation of micro-thrombi, fibrinolysis, and a vicious cascade, sets in. Inhibition of activated platelets by aspirin (cyclooxygenase inhibitor and clopidogrel (ADP receptor inhibitor helps to break this vicious circle induced by Russell's venom and may initiate the natural physiological clotting mechanism. They can be utilized as an adjuvant treatment.

  20. Preemptive public policy for genomics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlson, Rick J

    2008-02-01

    To many, genomics is merely exploitable technology for the leviathan of biotechnology. This is both shallow and short sighted. Genomics is applied knowledge based on profound and evolving science about how living things develop, how healthy or sick we are, and what our future will be like. In health care, genomics technologies are disruptive yet potentially cost-effective because they enable primary prevention, the antidote to runaway costs and declining productivity. The challenges to integration are great, however, and many bioethical and social-policy implications are alarming. Because it is poorly understood today, we must debate genomics vigorously if we are to act wisely. Public policy must lead.

  1. Spin filter due to spin Hall effect with axially asymmetric potential

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yokoyama, Tomohiro; Eto, Mikio

    2010-02-01

    We examine a three-terminal spin filter including an artificial potential created by antidot, scanning tunnel microscope (STM) tip, etc., fabricated on semiconductor heterostructures with strong spin-orbit interaction. When the potential is attractive and its strength is properly tuned, the resonant scattering takes place, which enhances the extrinsic spin Hall effect. As a result, the efficiency of the spin filter can be more than 50% when the potential is axially symmetric. The efficiency becomes smaller when the symmetry is broken, but we still expect an efficient spin filter unless the degree of asymmetry is too large.

  2. “Mai, inteso nominare”. La citazione in “Dio ne scampi dagli Orsenigo"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Carapezza

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In Dio ne scampi dagli Orsenigo Vittorio Imbriani grapples with the form of the novel. In a dialectical fashion, explicit quotations (frequently from French sources clarify his position towards generic paradigms. This article attempts to group these quotations on the basis of their literary genres in order to stress the complexities of an inclusive and versatile text. The intertextual network, ranging from feuilleton literature to academic preciosity, in the last instance reveals itself as an ironic antidote to Romantic identification. This trend is confirmed by the remarkable increase in the number of quotations from the first edition (1876 to the second publication in volume form in 1883.

  3. Holistic-medical foundations of American psychiatry: a bicentennial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipowski, Z J

    1981-07-01

    American psychiatry has reached its bicentennial. Holistic-medical foundations have been its hallmark, inspiration, and source of preeminence. Incorporated by psychobiology, the American school, they enabled the growth of psychiatry as a medical specialty and scientific discipline and stimulated unparalleled growth of general hospital psychiatry, psychiatric research and teaching, and psychosomatic medicine and liaison psychiatry. Holistic conceptions, a product of a democratic system and the liberal mind, continue to provide the best framework for psychiatry and an antidote to dogma and fanaticism. PMID:7020433

  4. Certain death: ten predictors of hospital information system failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freed, David H

    2006-01-01

    Management is surprised when big investments in hospital information technology fail to produce expected results. Although failure appears to be sudden, it is actually the cumulative result of many subtle acts of omission by multiple parties over an extended period. Unfortunately, many senior managers recognize, but few confront the early warning signals of impending disaster. This article outlines 10 common predictors of hospital information system failure plus effective antidotes in each case. A carefully defined project outcome, appropriate project governance structure, and rigorous adherence to a structured systems development methodology are particularly critical management tools for assuring return on investment. PMID:16501379

  5. Drug: D06542 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available D06542 Drug Ethanol (JP16); Ethanol (TN) Same as: C00469 Therapeutic category: 2615... ATC code: D08AX08 V03AB16 V03AZ01 Ethanol is included 95.1 - 96.9 volume percent Alcohol [DR:D00068]. Enzym...obial agents 2615 Alcohols D06542 Ethanol (JP16) Anatomical Therapeutic Chemical (ATC) classification [BR:br...tiseptics and disinfectants D08AX08 Ethanol D06542 Ethanol (JP16) V VARIOUS V03 A...LL OTHER THERAPEUTIC PRODUCTS V03A ALL OTHER THERAPEUTIC PRODUCTS V03AB Antidotes V03AB16 Ethanol D06542 Ethanol

  6. Nonlinear geometric scaling of coercivity in a three-dimensional nanoscale analog of spin ice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shishkin, I. S.; Mistonov, A. A.; Dubitskiy, I. S.; Grigoryeva, N. A.; Menzel, D.; Grigoriev, S. V.

    2016-08-01

    Magnetization hysteresis loops of a three-dimensional nanoscale analog of spin ice based on the nickel inverse opal-like structure (IOLS) have been studied at room temperature. The samples are produced by filling nickel into the voids of artificial opal-like films. The spin ice behavior is induced by tetrahedral elements within the IOLS, which have the same arrangement of magnetic moments as a spin ice. The thickness of the films vary from a two-dimensional, i.e., single-layered, antidot array to a three-dimensional, i.e., multilayered, structure. The coercive force, the saturation, and the irreversibility field have been measured in dependence of the thickness of the IOLS for in-plane and out-of-plane applied fields. The irreversibility and saturation fields change abruptly from the antidot array to the three-dimensional IOLS and remain constant upon further increase of the number of layers n . The coercive force Hc seems to increase logarithmically with increasing n as Hc=Hc 0+α ln(n +1 ) . The logarithmic law implies the avalanchelike remagnetization of anisotropic structural elements connecting tetrahedral and cubic nodes in the IOLS. We conclude that the "ice rule" is the base of mechanism regulating this process.

  7. Mutagenicity and antimutagenicity studies of DRDE-07 and its analogs against sulfur mustard in the in vitro Ames Salmonella/microsome assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vijayan, Vinod; Pathak, Uma; Meshram, Ghansham Pundilikji

    2014-10-01

    Sulfur mustard (bis(2-chloroethyl) sulfide, SM), a chemical warfare agent, is classified as a class I human carcinogen by IARC. No effective antidote against this agent is available. The synthetic aminothiol, amifostine, earlier known as WR-2721, has been extensively used as a chemical radioprotector for normal tissues in cancer radiotherapy and chemotherapy. SM is a radiomimetic agent; this prompted us to evaluate the protective efficacy of amifostine and three of its analogs, DRDE-07 [S-2(2-aminoethylamino) ethyl phenyl sulphide], DRDE-30 [S-2(2-aminoethyl amino) ethyl propyl sulphide] and DRDE-35 [S-2(2-aminoethyl amino) ethyl butyl sulphide], against sulfur mustard-induced mutagenicity in the Ames Salmonella/microsome assay. The antidotes were also evaluated for possible mutagenic activity. DRDE-07 was mutagenic in strain TA104 in the absence of S9; DRDE-30 was mutagenic in strain TA100; amifostine and DRDE-35 did not show mutagenic activity in any of the five tester strains used. SM is mutagenic in strains TA97a and TA102, with or without S9 activation. In the antimutagenicity studies, DRDE-07 and DRDE-35 showed promising antimutagenic activity against SM in the absence of S9, in comparison to amifostine. DRDE-07 and DRDE-35 are promising protective agents against SM-induced mutagenicity.

  8. Lipid rescue of massive verapamil overdose: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liang Conrad W

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Massive intentional verapamil overdose is a toxic ingestion which can cause multiorgan system failure and has no currently known antidote. Case Presentation The patient is a 41-year-old Caucasian woman who ingested 19.2 g of sustained release verapamil in a suicide attempt. Our patient became hypotensive requiring three high-dose vasopressors to maintain arterial pressure. She also developed acute respiratory failure, bradycardic ventricular rhythm necessitating continuous transvenous pacing, and anuric renal failure. Our patient was treated with intravenous calcium, bicarbonate, hyperinsulinemic euglycemic therapy and continuous venovenous hemodialysis without success. On the fourth day after hospital admission continuous intravenous lipid therapy was initiated. Within three hours of beginning lipid therapy, our patient's vasopressor requirement decreased by half. Within 24 hours, she was on minimal vasopressor support and regained an underlying junctional rhythm. After three days of lipid infusion, she no longer required inotropic agents to maintain blood pressure or pacing to maintain stable hemodynamics. Conclusions Intravenous fat emulsion therapy may be an effective antidote for massive verapamil toxicity.

  9. Insect-resistant mechanism of transgenic triploid of Chinese white poplar

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yuan Shengliang; Gao Baojia; Zhang Na

    2006-01-01

    The activities of antidotal enzymes and digestive enzymes of Clostera anachoreta (Fabricius) instar larvae,feeding on leaves of three kinds of insect-resistant clones of transgenic triploid of Chinese white poplar,after 4,12,24,48,72 and 96 h,were investigated.The results showed that,feeding on clone 7,the activity of esterase,carboxylesterase,and mixed-function oxidases in the midgut of the larvae was very much decreased.Feeding on clone 10,those results were less than those of clone 7 and there were few changes on the larvae,which fed on clone 26.The changes of the amylase in the midgut of larvae were the same as those described above.However,the activities of glutathione S-transferase and proteinase were complex,increased markedly after 24 h feeding on clone 7,and then declined rapidly.The same changes were taking place on the larvae feeding on clone 10.There were many slight changes in glutathione S-transferase of the larvae,feeding on clone 26;no changes occurred in the proteinases of the midgut.Thus,the antidotal enzymes and digestive enzymes in the midgut of the larvae were inhibited.This may be the main mechanism of the transgenic triploid of Chinese white poplar.

  10. The highly conserved TldD and TldE proteins of Escherichia coli are involved in microcin B17 processing and in CcdA degradation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allali, Noureddine; Afif, Hassan; Couturier, Martine; Van Melderen, Laurence

    2002-06-01

    Microcin B17 (MccB17) is a peptide antibiotic produced by Escherichia coli strains carrying the pMccB17 plasmid. MccB17 is synthesized as a precursor containing an amino-terminal leader peptide that is cleaved during maturation. Maturation requires the product of the chromosomal tldE (pmbA) gene. Mature microcin is exported across the cytoplasmic membrane by a dedicated ABC transporter. In sensitive cells, MccB17 targets the essential topoisomerase II DNA gyrase. Independently, tldE as well as tldD mutants were isolated as being resistant to CcdB, another natural poison of gyrase encoded by the ccd poison-antidote system of plasmid F. This led to the idea that TldD and TldE could regulate gyrase function. We present in vivo evidence supporting the hypothesis that TldD and TldE have proteolytic activity. We show that in bacterial mutants devoid of either TldD or TldE activity, the MccB17 precursor accumulates and is not exported. Similarly, in the ccd system, we found that TldD and TldE are involved in CcdA and CcdA41 antidote degradation rather than being involved in the CcdB resistance mechanism. Interestingly, sequence database comparisons revealed that these two proteins have homologues in eubacteria and archaebacteria, suggesting a broader physiological role.

  11. Antagonism of Acute Sulfide Poisoning in Mice by Nitrite Anion without Methemoglobinemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cronican, Andrea A; Frawley, Kristin L; Ahmed, Humza; Pearce, Linda L; Peterson, Jim

    2015-07-20

    There are currently no FDA-approved antidotes for H2S/sulfide intoxication. Sodium nitrite, if given prophylactically to Swiss Webster mice, was shown to be highly protective against the acute toxic effects of sodium hydrosulfide (∼LD40 dose) with both agents administered by intraperitoneal injections. However, sodium nitrite administered after the toxicant dose did not detectably ameliorate sulfide toxicity in this fast-delivery, single-shot experimental paradigm. Nitrite anion was shown to rapidly produce NO in the bloodstream, as judged by the appearance of EPR signals attributable to nitrosylhemoglobin and methemoglobin, together amounting to less than 5% of the total hemoglobin present. Sulfide-intoxicated mice were neither helped by the supplemental administration of 100% oxygen nor were there any detrimental effects. Compared to cyanide-intoxicated mice, animals surviving sulfide intoxication exhibited very short knockdown times (if any) and full recovery was extremely fast (∼15 min) irrespective of whether sodium nitrite was administered. Behavioral experiments testing the ability of mice to maintain balance on a rotating cylinder showed no motor impairment up to 24 h post sulfide exposure. It is argued that antagonism of sulfide inhibition of cytochrome c oxidase by NO is the crucial antidotal activity of nitrite rather than formation of methemoglobin.

  12. A retrospective study of paradigm and outcome of acute poisoning cases in a tertiary care teaching hospital in Southern India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arulmurugan C.

    2015-10-01

    Results: Incidence was high among males (60.36% compared to females (39.64%. Most of the cases of acute poisoning were in the age group 10 to 30 years (60.95% followed by 30 to 50 years age group (30.77%. A majority of poisoning cases (27.2% were due to organophosphorus (OPC insecticide. Total mortality was found to be 5.32%. Mortality rate due to Paraquat, Abrus Pretorius seeds was significantly high compared with OPC because there is no specific antidote. Time lapse had a very significant role in the mortality in cases of poisoning. Conclusions: Poisoning is common with young males. The mortality is high, in cases of self-poisoning with parquet and abrus seeds. Despite the highest consumption rate, no mortality was observed with organophosphorus because of early medical intervention and specific antidote. Early medical care in a tertiary care hospital will help to reduce significant mortality in India. [Int J Res Med Sci 2015; 3(10.000: 2654-2657

  13. Clinical and Pathological Findings Associated with Aerosol Exposure of Macaques to Ricin Toxin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pincus, Seth H.; Bhaskaran, Manoj; Brey, Robert N.; Didier, Peter J.; Doyle-Meyers, Lara A.; Roy, Chad J.

    2015-01-01

    Ricin is a potential bioweapon that could be used against civilian and military personnel. Aerosol exposure is the most likely route of contact to ricin toxin that will result in the most severe toxicity. Early recognition of ricin exposure is essential if specific antidotes are to be applied. Initial diagnosis will most likely be syndromic, i.e., fitting clinical and laboratory signs into a pattern which then will guide the choice of more specific diagnostic assays and therapeutic interventions. We have studied the pathology of ricin toxin in rhesus macaques exposed to lethal and sublethal ricin aerosols. Animals exposed to lethal ricin aerosols were followed clinically using telemetry, by clinical laboratory analyses and by post-mortem examination. Animals exposed to lethal aerosolized ricin developed fever associated with thermal instability, tachycardia, and dyspnea. In the peripheral blood a marked neutrophilia (without immature bands) developed at 24 h. This was accompanied by an increase in monocytes, but depletion of lymphocytes. Red cell indices indicated hemoconcentration, as did serum chemistries, with modest increases in sodium and blood urea nitrogen (BUN). Serum albumin was strikingly decreased. These observations are consistent with the pathological observations of fluid shifts to the lungs, in the form of hemorrhages, inflammatory exudates, and tissue edema. In macaques exposed to sublethal aerosols of ricin, late pathologic consequences included chronic pulmonary fibrosis, likely mediated by M2 macrophages. Early administration of supportive therapy, specific antidotes after exposure or vaccines prior to exposure have the potential to favorably alter this outcome. PMID:26067369

  14. Clinical and Pathological Findings Associated with Aerosol Exposure of Macaques to Ricin Toxin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seth H. Pincus

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Ricin is a potential bioweapon that could be used against civilian and military personnel. Aerosol exposure is the most likely route of contact to ricin toxin that will result in the most severe toxicity. Early recognition of ricin exposure is essential if specific antidotes are to be applied. Initial diagnosis will most likely be syndromic, i.e., fitting clinical and laboratory signs into a pattern which then will guide the choice of more specific diagnostic assays and therapeutic interventions. We have studied the pathology of ricin toxin in rhesus macaques exposed to lethal and sublethal ricin aerosols. Animals exposed to lethal ricin aerosols were followed clinically using telemetry, by clinical laboratory analyses and by post-mortem examination. Animals exposed to lethal aerosolized ricin developed fever associated with thermal instability, tachycardia, and dyspnea. In the peripheral blood a marked neutrophilia (without immature bands developed at 24 h. This was accompanied by an increase in monocytes, but depletion of lymphocytes. Red cell indices indicated hemoconcentration, as did serum chemistries, with modest increases in sodium and blood urea nitrogen (BUN. Serum albumin was strikingly decreased. These observations are consistent with the pathological observations of fluid shifts to the lungs, in the form of hemorrhages, inflammatory exudates, and tissue edema. In macaques exposed to sublethal aerosols of ricin, late pathologic consequences included chronic pulmonary fibrosis, likely mediated by M2 macrophages. Early administration of supportive therapy, specific antidotes after exposure or vaccines prior to exposure have the potential to favorably alter this outcome.

  15. Biochemical, oxidative and histological changes caused by sub-acute oral exposure of some synthetic cyanogens in rats: ameliorative effect of α-ketoglutarate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharya, Rahul; Rao, Pooja; Singh, Poonam; Yadav, Shiv Kumar; Upadhyay, Preeti; Malla, Sandhya; Gujar, Niranjan Laxman; Lomash, Vinay; Pant, Satish Chandra

    2014-05-01

    Time-dependent cyanide generation and acute toxicity of six different cyanogens were reported earlier, out of which malononitrile (MCN), propionitrile (PCN), and sodium nitroprusside (SNP) were found to be very toxic. We report here 14 d sub-acute toxicity of MCN, PCN, and SNP (oral; 1/10 LD50 daily) in female rats, and its amelioration by α-ketoglutarate (α-KG; oral; 5.26 mmol/kg; +5 min), a potential cyanide antidote. Significant decrease in white blood cells (PCN, SNP), platelets count (PCN), and blood glucose levels (MCN, PCN, SNP) was accompanied by elevated levels of alanine aminotransferase, lactate dehydrogenase (MCN, PCN, SNP), and aspartate aminotransferase (PCN, SNP). Oxidative damage was evidenced by diminished total antioxidant status in plasma and enhanced malondialdehyde levels in liver and kidney. This was accompanied by diminished levels of reduced glutathione, glutathione peroxidase, glutathione reductase, superoxide dismutase, and catalase in the brain, liver and kidney. We also observed increased levels of blood cyanide and thiocyanate, together with inhibition of cytochrome c oxidase and thiosulfate-sulfur transferase activities in total brain and liver homogenate, respectively. Cyanogens also produced several histological changes in all the organs studied. Post-treatment with α-KG significantly abrogated the toxicity of cyanogens, indicating its utility as an antidote for long-term cyanogen exposure.

  16. A Review of and Recommendations for the Management of Patients With Life-Threatening Dabigatran-Associated Hemorrhage: A Single-Center University Hospital Experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Rohit; Smith, Roy E; Henry, Brian L

    2015-12-01

    Dabigatran is an oral direct thrombin inhibitor that is approved for the prevention of stroke and systemic embolism in nonvalvular atrial fibrillation. Dabigatran has several advantages over warfarin including predictable pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics which eliminates the need for routine laboratory monitoring, superiority over warfarin in preventing stroke, or systemic embolism without having an increased risk of bleeding. However, as with any anticoagulant, there remains a real chance of bleeding, including major or life-threatening hemorrhage. Many physicians feel comfortable managing bleeding complications on older anticoagulants like warfarin and heparin, due to extensive experience with the medications along with antidotes to reverse their effects as well as established protocols for treating anticoagulant-associated hemorrhage. However, most physicians have limited clinical experience with dabigatran, there is no specific antidote for dabigatran reversal and there is a paucity of protocols, guidelines, and recommendations for how to manage dabigatran-associated hemorrhage. In this review, we present a case series of patients admitted to our institution for management of bleeding while receiving dabigatran. We retrospectively reviewed these cases to evaluate the efficacy and rationale of the various anticoagulation reversal strategies employed in the context of the existing evidence found in the literature. Specific focus is placed on the therapies utilized and the coagulation studies used to manage these patients. PMID:24668159

  17. A Review of and Recommendations for the Management of Patients With Life-Threatening Dabigatran-Associated Hemorrhage: A Single-Center University Hospital Experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Rohit; Smith, Roy E; Henry, Brian L

    2015-12-01

    Dabigatran is an oral direct thrombin inhibitor that is approved for the prevention of stroke and systemic embolism in nonvalvular atrial fibrillation. Dabigatran has several advantages over warfarin including predictable pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics which eliminates the need for routine laboratory monitoring, superiority over warfarin in preventing stroke, or systemic embolism without having an increased risk of bleeding. However, as with any anticoagulant, there remains a real chance of bleeding, including major or life-threatening hemorrhage. Many physicians feel comfortable managing bleeding complications on older anticoagulants like warfarin and heparin, due to extensive experience with the medications along with antidotes to reverse their effects as well as established protocols for treating anticoagulant-associated hemorrhage. However, most physicians have limited clinical experience with dabigatran, there is no specific antidote for dabigatran reversal and there is a paucity of protocols, guidelines, and recommendations for how to manage dabigatran-associated hemorrhage. In this review, we present a case series of patients admitted to our institution for management of bleeding while receiving dabigatran. We retrospectively reviewed these cases to evaluate the efficacy and rationale of the various anticoagulation reversal strategies employed in the context of the existing evidence found in the literature. Specific focus is placed on the therapies utilized and the coagulation studies used to manage these patients.

  18. Poisoning and suicide by cyanide jewelry cleaner in the US Hmong community: a case series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garlich, Fiona M; Alsop, Judith Ann; Anderson, Deborah L; Geller, Richard J; Kalugdan, Theresa Thao; Roberts, David J; Thomas, Lindsey C

    2012-02-01

    Over 200 000 persons of Hmong ethnicity live in the United States. The majority of this Southeast Asian ethnic group live in California, Minnesota and Wisconsin. Tradition plays a strong role in the Hmong population, and difficulty in assimilation into "Western ways" has been reported to result in depression and suicide attempts. Some products sold at Southeast Asian ethnic markets are well-known within the Hmong community to be lethal but are essentially unknown to the outside community. We describe eight cases in which cyanide-containing products were ingested by Hmong patients. Seven cases were suicide attempts involving the ingestion of a locally-purchased substance intended for cleaning metal, coins, or jewelry. One case involved the fatal ingestion of a cyanide-containing "herbal" cure. In the majority of the cases, cyanide was not initially suspected, and treatment was delayed due to lack of information regarding the product ingested. In the two patients who survived, the cyanide antidote kit (sodium nitrite, amyl nitrite, and sodium thiosulfate) was administered early. Clinicians should be aware that unusual and potentially lethal products are easily available at ethnic markets. Cyanide toxicity should be suspected, and empiric antidote therapy initiated early, in patients of Hmong or Southeast Asian descent who present with sudden and unexplained cardiovascular collapse and metabolic acidosis, especially in the setting of a suspected suicidal ingestion.

  19. Acute cyanide poisoning among jewelry and textile industry workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coentrão, Luís; Moura, Daniel

    2011-01-01

    Limited work has focused on occupational exposures that may increase the risk of cyanide poisoning by ingestion. A retrospective chart review of all admissions for acute cyanide poisoning by ingestion for the years 1988 to 2008 was conducted in a tertiary university hospital serving the largest population in the country working in jewelry and textile facilities. Of the 9 patients admitted to the hospital during the study period, 8 (7 males, 1 female; age 36 ± 11 years, mean ± SD) attempted suicide by ingestion of potassium cyanide used in their profession as goldsmiths or textile industry workers. Five patients had severe neurologic impairment and severe metabolic acidosis (pH 7.02 ± 0.08, mean ± SD) with high anion gap (23 ± 4 mmol/L, mean ± SD). Of the 5 severely intoxicated patients, 3 received antidote therapy (sodium thiosulfate or hydroxocobalamin) and resumed full consciousness in less than 8 hours. All patients survived without major sequelae. Cyanide intoxication by ingestion in our patients was mainly suicidal and occurred in specific jobs where potassium cyanide is used. Metabolic acidosis with high anion is a good surrogated marker of severe cyanide poisoning. Sodium thiosulfate and hydroxocobalamin are both safe and effective antidotes.

  20. Dirac cone move and bandgap on/off switching of graphene superlattice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Tian-Tian; Zheng, Meng-Meng; Fan, Xin-Yu; Su, Yan; Li, Shu-Juan; Liu, Hai-Ying; Chen, Gang; Kawazoe, Yoshiyuki

    2016-01-01

    Using the density functional theory with generalized gradient approximation, we have studied in detail the cooperative effects of degenerate perturbation and uniaxial strain on bandgap opening in graphene. The uniaxial strain could split π bands into πa and πz bands with an energy interval Es to move the Dirac cone. The inversion symmetry preserved antidot would then further split the πa (πz) bands into πa1 (πz1) and πa2 (πz2) bands with an energy interval Ed, which accounts for the bandgap opening in a kind of superlattices with Dirac cone being folded to Γ point. However, such antidot would not affect the semimetal nature of the other superlattices, showing a novel mechanism for bandstructure engineering as compared to the sublattice-equivalence breaking. For a superlattice with bandgap of ~Ed opened at Γ point, the Es could be increased by strengthening strain to close the bandgap, suggesting a reversible switch between the high velocity properties of massless Fermions attributed to the linear dispersion relation around Dirac cone and the high on/off ratio properties associated with the sizable bandgap. Moreover, the gap width actually could be continuously tuned by controlling the strain, showing attractive application potentials. PMID:26732904

  1. Toxicology and metabolism of nickel compounds. Progress report, December 1, 1975--November 30, 1976. [Tests made with rats and hamsters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sunderman, F.W. Jr.

    1976-08-15

    The toxicology and metabolism of nickel compounds (NiCl/sub 2/, Ni/sub 3/S/sub 2/, NiS, Ni powder, and Ni(CO)/sub 4/) were investigated in rats and hamsters. Triethylenetetramine (TETA) and d-penicillamine are more effective than other chelating agents (Na-diethyldithiocarbamate, CaNa/sub 2/-versenate, diglycylhistidine-N-methylamide and ..cap alpha..-lipoic acid) as antidotes for acute Ni(II)-toxicity in rats. The antidotal efficacy of triethylenetetramine (TETA) in acute Ni(II)-toxicity is mediated by rapid reduction of the plasma concentration of Ni(II), consistent with renal clearance of the TETA-Ni complex at a rate more than twenty times greater than the renal clearance of non-chelated Ni(II). Fischer rats are more susceptible than other rat strains (Wistar-Lewis, Long-Evans and NIH-Black) to induction of erythrocytosis after an intrarenal injection of Ni/sub 3/S/sub 2/, and elucidation of the serial pathologic changes that occur in rats after an intrarenal injection of Ni/sub 3/S/sub 2/. When amorphous nickel monosulfide (NiS) and nickel subsulfide (Ni/sub 3/S/sub 2/) were administered by im injection to randomly selected Fischer rats in equivalent amounts under identical conditions, NiS did not induce any tumors whereas Ni/sub 3/S/sub 2/ induced sarcomas in almost all of the rats.

  2. 清热解毒法治疗带状疱疹43例%Antipyretic and Antidotil Therapy to Treat 43 Cases of Herpes Zoster

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王瑾

    2001-01-01

    Objective: To observe the clinical effect of antipyretic and antidotal on herpes zoster disease. Methods: To adapt both oral and external antipyretic and antidotil herb to treating 43 cases of herps zoster patients. Results: Using antipyretic and antidotal herb can shorten the course of herps zoster. Conclusion: Both oral and external antipyretic and antidotil herb could inhibit either herpes' virus or caricella virus.%目的:观察和验证清热解毒类中药对带状疱疹的临床功效。方法:对43例带状疱疹患者均采用中药清热解毒内治外用。结果:清热解毒法治疗能缩短带状疱疹病程,控制临床症状。结论:清热解毒法内外综合治疗对水豆-带状疱疹病毒有杀灭,抑制作用。

  3. Ferrimagnetic DyCo5 Nanostructures for Bits in Heat-Assisted Magnetic Recording

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ünal, A. A.; Valencia, S.; Radu, F.; Marchenko, D.; Merazzo, K. J.; Vázquez, M.; Sánchez-Barriga, J.

    2016-06-01

    Increasing the magnetic data recording density requires reducing the size of the individual memory elements of a recording layer as well as employing magnetic materials with temperature-dependent functionalities. Therefore, we predict that the near future of magnetic data storage technology involves a combination of energy-assisted recording on nanometer-scale magnetic media. We present the potential of heat-assisted magnetic recording on a patterned sample; a ferrimagnetic alloy composed of a rare-earth and a transition metal DyCo5, which is grown on a hexagonal-ordered nanohole array membrane. The magnetization of the antidot array sample is out-of-plane oriented at room temperature and rotates towards in plane upon heating above its magnetic anisotropy reorientation temperature (TR) of 350 K, just above room temperature. Upon cooling back to room temperature (below TR), we observe a well-defined and unexpected in-plane magnetic domain configuration modulating with 45 nm. We discuss the underlying mechanisms giving rise to this behavior by comparing the magnetic properties of the patterned sample with the ones of its extended thin-film counterpart. Our results pave the way for future applications of ferrimagnetic antidot arrays of superior functionality in magnetic nanodevices near room temperature.

  4. Acetaminophen overdose associated with double serum concentration peaks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristian Papazoglu

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Acetaminophen is the most commonly used analgesic–antipyretic medication in the United States. Acetaminophen overdose, a frequent cause of drug toxicity, has been recognized as the leading cause of fatal and non-fatal hepatic necrosis. N-Acetylcysteine is the recommended antidote for acetaminophen poisoning. Despite evidence on the efficacy of N-acetylcysteine for prevention of hepatic injury, controversy persists about the optimal duration of the therapy. Here, we describe the case of a 65-year-old male with acetaminophen overdose and opioid co-ingestion who developed a second peak in acetaminophen serum levels after completing the recommended 21-hour intravenous N-acetylcysteine protocol and when the standard criteria for monitoring drug levels was achieved. Prolongation of N-acetylcysteine infusion beyond the standard protocol, despite a significant gap in treatment, was critical for successful avoidance of hepatotoxicity. Delay in acetaminophen absorption may be associated with a second peak in serum concentration following an initial declining trend, especially in cases of concomitant ingestion of opioids. In patients with acetaminophen toxicity who co-ingest other medications that may potentially delay gastric emptying or in those with risk factors for delayed absorption of acetaminophen, we recommend close monitoring of aminotransferase enzyme levels, as well as trending acetaminophen concentrations until undetectable before discontinuing the antidote therapy.

  5. Dirac cone move and bandgap on/off switching of graphene superlattice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Tian-Tian; Zheng, Meng-Meng; Fan, Xin-Yu; Su, Yan; Li, Shu-Juan; Liu, Hai-Ying; Chen, Gang; Kawazoe, Yoshiyuki

    2016-01-01

    Using the density functional theory with generalized gradient approximation, we have studied in detail the cooperative effects of degenerate perturbation and uniaxial strain on bandgap opening in graphene. The uniaxial strain could split π bands into πa and πz bands with an energy interval Es to move the Dirac cone. The inversion symmetry preserved antidot would then further split the πa (πz) bands into πa1 (πz1) and πa2 (πz2) bands with an energy interval Ed, which accounts for the bandgap opening in a kind of superlattices with Dirac cone being folded to Γ point. However, such antidot would not affect the semimetal nature of the other superlattices, showing a novel mechanism for bandstructure engineering as compared to the sublattice-equivalence breaking. For a superlattice with bandgap of ~Ed opened at Γ point, the Es could be increased by strengthening strain to close the bandgap, suggesting a reversible switch between the high velocity properties of massless Fermions attributed to the linear dispersion relation around Dirac cone and the high on/off ratio properties associated with the sizable bandgap. Moreover, the gap width actually could be continuously tuned by controlling the strain, showing attractive application potentials.

  6. Chelation in metal intoxication--Principles and paradigms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aaseth, Jan; Skaug, Marit Aralt; Cao, Yang; Andersen, Ole

    2015-01-01

    The present review provides an update of the general principles for the investigation and use of chelating agents in the treatment of intoxications by metals. The clinical use of the old chelators EDTA (ethylenediamine tetraacetate) and BAL (2,3-dimercaptopropanol) is now limited due to the inconvenience of parenteral administration, their own toxicity and tendency to increase the neurotoxicity of several metals. The hydrophilic dithiol chelators DMSA (meso-2,3-dimercaptosuccinic acid) and DMPS (2,3-dimercapto-propanesulphonate) are less toxic and more efficient than BAL in the clinical treatment of heavy metal poisoning, and available as capsules for oral use. In copper overload, DMSA appears to be a potent antidote, although d-penicillamine is still widely used. In the chelation of iron, the thiols are inefficient, since iron has higher affinity for ligands with nitrogen and oxygen, but the new oral iron antidotes deferiprone and desferasirox have entered into the clinical arena. Comparisons of these agents and deferoxamine infusions are in progress. General principles for research and development of new chelators are briefly outlined in this review. PMID:25457281

  7. Probing the low-frequency vortex dynamics in a nanostructured superconducting strip

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, C. C. de Souza; Raes, B.; Brisbois, J.; Cabral, L. R. E.; Silhanek, A. V.; Van de Vondel, J.; Moshchalkov, V. V.

    2016-07-01

    We investigate by scanning susceptibility microscopy the response of a thin Pb strip, with a square array of submicron antidots, to a low-frequency ac magnetic field applied perpendicularly to the film plane. By mapping the local permeability of the sample within the field range where vortices trapped by the antidots and interstitial vortices coexist, we observed two distinct dynamical regimes occurring at different temperatures. At a temperature just below the superconducting transition, T /Tc=0.96 , the sample response is essentially dominated by the motion of highly mobile interstitial vortices. However, at a slightly lower temperature, T /Tc=0.93 , the interstitial vortices freeze up leading to a strong reduction of the ac screening length. We propose a simple model for the vortex response in this system which fits well to the experimental data. Our analysis suggests that the observed switching to the high mobility regime stems from a resonant effect, where the period of the ac excitation is just large enough to allow interstitial vortices to thermally hop through the weak pinning landscape produced by random material defects. This argument is further supported by the observation of a pronounced enhancement of the out-of-phase response at the crossover between both dynamical regimes.

  8. Arsenic species excretion after dimercaptopropanesulfonic acid (DMPS) treatment of an acute arsenic trioxide poisoning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heinrich-Ramm, R. [Ordinariat fuer Arbeitsmedizin der Universitaet Hamburg und Zentralinstitut fuer Arbeitsmedizin, Hamburg (Germany); Schaller, K.H.; Angerer, J. [Institut und Poliklinik fuer Arbeits-, Sozial- und Umweltmedizin der Universitaet Erlangen-Nuernberg, Schillerstr. 25, 91054 Erlangen (Germany); Horn, J. [Medizinische Klinik II, Toxikologische-internistische Intensivstation, Klinikum Nuernberg, Nuernberg (Germany)

    2003-02-01

    We studied the urinary excretion of the different arsenic species in urine samples from a young man who tried to commit suicide by ingesting about 0.6 g arsenic trioxide. He received immediate therapy with dimercaptopropanesulfonic acid (DMPS) after his delivery into the hospital. We assessed urinary arsenite (inorganic trivalent arsenic), arsenate (inorganic pentavalent arsenic), pentavalent dimethylarsinic acid (DMA) and pentavalent monomethylarsonic acid (MMA) in urine with ion-exchange chromatography and on-line hydride-technique atomic absorption spectrometry. The predominant amount of the excreted arsenic was unchanged trivalent inorganic arsenic (37.4%), followed by pentavalent inorganic arsenic (2.6%), MMA (2.1%), DMA (0.2%) and one unidentified arsenic species (0.7%, if calculated as DMA). In the first urine voiding in the clinic, the total arsenic concentration was 215 mg/l, which fell 1000-fold after 8 days of DMPS therapy. A most striking finding was the almost complete inhibition of the second methylation step in arsenic metabolism. As mechanisms for the reduced methylation efficiency, the saturation of the enzymatic process of arsenic methylation, the high dosage of antidote DMPS, which might inhibit the activity of the methyl transferases, and analytical reasons are discussed. The high dosage of DMPS is the most likely explanation. The patient left the hospital after a 12-day treatment with antidote. (orig.)

  9. Single treatment of VX poisoned guinea pigs with the phosphotriesterase mutant C23AL: Intraosseous versus intravenous injection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wille, Timo; Neumaier, Katharina; Koller, Marianne; Ehinger, Christina; Aggarwal, Nidhi; Ashani, Yacov; Goldsmith, Moshe; Sussman, Joel L; Tawfik, Dan S; Thiermann, Horst; Worek, Franz

    2016-09-01

    The recent attacks with the nerve agent sarin in Syria reveal the necessity of effective countermeasures against highly toxic organophosphorus compounds. Multiple studies provide evidence that a rapid onset of antidotal therapy might be life-saving but current standard antidotal protocols comprising reactivators and competitive muscarinic antagonists show a limited efficacy for several nerve agents. We here set out to test the newly developed phosphotriesterase (PTE) mutant C23AL by intravenous (i.v.), intramuscular (i.m.; model for autoinjector) and intraosseous (i.o.; model for intraosseous insertion device) application in an in vivo guinea pig model after VX challenge (∼2LD50). C23AL showed a Cmax of 0.63μmolL(-1) after i.o. and i.v. administration of 2mgkg(-1) providing a stable plasma profile up to 180min experimental duration with 0.41 and 0.37μmolL(-1) respectively. The i.m. application of C23AL did not result in detectable plasma levels. All animals challenged with VX and subsequent i.o. or i.v. C23AL therapy survived although an in part substantial inhibition of erythrocyte, brain and diaphragm AChE was detected. Theoretical calculation of the time required to hydrolyze in vivo 96.75% of the toxic VX enantiomer is consistent with previous studies wherein similar activity of plasma containing catalytic scavengers of OPs resulted in non-lethal protection although accompanied with a variable severity of cholinergic symptoms. The relatively low C23AL plasma level observed immediately after its i.v. or i.o load, point at a possible volume of distribution greater than the guinea pig plasma content, and thus underlines the necessity of in vivo experiments in antidote research. In conclusion the i.o. application of PTE is efficient and resulted in comparable plasma levels to the i.v. application at a given time. Thus, i.o. vascular access systems could improve the post-exposure PTE therapy of nerve agent poisoning. PMID:27397758

  10. Intravenous application of an anticalin dramatically lowers plasma digoxin levels and reduces its toxic effects in rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eyer, Florian, E-mail: Florian.Eyer@mac.com [Department of Toxicology, Klinikum rechts der Isar, Munich (Germany); Steimer, Werner [Institute of Clinical Chemistry and Pathobiochemistry, Klinikum rechts der Isar, Munich (Germany); Nitzsche, Thomas [Munich Center for Integrated Protein Science (CIPS-M), Freising-Weihenstephan (Germany); Lehrstuhl für Biologische Chemie, Technische Universität München, Freising-Weihenstephan (Germany); Jung, Nicole; Neuberger, Heidi [Department of Toxicology, Klinikum rechts der Isar, Munich (Germany); Müller, Christine [Institute of Clinical Chemistry and Pathobiochemistry, Klinikum rechts der Isar, Munich (Germany); Schlapschy, Martin [Munich Center for Integrated Protein Science (CIPS-M), Freising-Weihenstephan (Germany); Lehrstuhl für Biologische Chemie, Technische Universität München, Freising-Weihenstephan (Germany); Zilker, Thomas [Department of Toxicology, Klinikum rechts der Isar, Munich (Germany); Skerra, Arne [Munich Center for Integrated Protein Science (CIPS-M), Freising-Weihenstephan (Germany); Lehrstuhl für Biologische Chemie, Technische Universität München, Freising-Weihenstephan (Germany)

    2012-09-15

    Lipocalins tailored with high affinity for prescribed ligands, so-called anticalins, constitute promising candidates as antidotes. Here, we present an animal study to investigate both pharmacokinetic and clinical effects of an anticalin specific for the digitalis compound digoxin. Intravenous digoxin (2.5–50 μg/kg/min) was administered to rats until first changes in the ECG occurred (dose finding study) or a priori for 30 min (kinetic study). The anticalin DigA16(H86N), dubbed DigiCal, was administered intravenously at absolute doses of 1, 5, 10 and 20 mg, while the control group received isotonic saline. Hemodynamic changes, several ECG parameters and digoxin concentration in plasma were monitored at given time intervals. After DigiCal administration free digoxin concentration in plasma ultrafiltrate declined dramatically within 1 min to the presumably non-toxic range. There was also a significant and DigiCal dose-dependent effect on longer survival, less ECG alterations, arrhythmia, and improved hemodynamics. Infusion of a lower digoxin dose (2.5 μg/kg/min) resulted in a more sustained reduction of free digoxin in plasma after DigiCal administration compared to a higher digoxin dose (25 μg/kg/min), whereas ECG and hemodynamic parameters did not markedly differ, reflecting the known relative insensitivity of rats towards digoxin toxicity. Notably, we observed a re-increase of free digoxin in plasma some time after bolus administration of DigiCal, which was presumably due to toxin redistribution from tissue in combination with the relatively fast renal clearance of the rather small protein antidote. We conclude that anticalins with appropriately engineered drug-binding activities and, possibly, prolonged plasma half-life offer prospects for next-generation antidotal therapy. -- Highlights: ► We provide an advanced model of digoxin toxicity in rats. ► We report on binding of digoxin to a novel designed anticalin. ► We report on pharmacokinetics of digoxin

  11. Patient values and preferences when choosing anticoagulants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Palacio AM

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Ana M Palacio,1–3 Irene Kirolos,2,3 Leonardo Tamariz1–3 1The Department of Medicine, Miller School of Medicine, University of Miami, 2The Veterans Affairs Medical Center, Miami, FL, USA; 3Division of Public Health Sciences, University of Miami, Miami, Florida, USA Background: New oral anticoagulants have similar efficacy and lower bleeding rates compared with warfarin. However, in case of bleeding there is no specific antidote to reverse their effects. We evaluated the preferences and values of anticoagulants of patients at risk of atrial fibrillation and those who have already made a decision regarding anticoagulation.Methods: We conducted a cross-sectional study of Veterans in the primary care clinics and the international normalized ratio (INR laboratory. We developed an instrument with patient and physician input to measure patient values and preferences. The survey contained a hypothetical scenario of the risk of atrial fibrillation and the attributes of each anticoagulant. After the scenario, we asked participants to choose the option that best fits their preferences. The options were: 1 has better efficacy at reducing risk of stroke; 2 has been in the market for a long period of time; 3 has an antidote to reverse the rare case of bleeding; 4 has better quality of life profile with no required frequent laboratory tests; or 5 I want to follow physician recommendations. We stratified our results by those patients who are currently exposed to anticoagulants and those who are not exposed but are at risk of atrial fibrillation.Results: We approached 173 Veterans and completed 137 surveys (79% response rate. Ninety subjects were not exposed to anticoagulants, 46 reported being on warfarin, and one reported being on dabigatran at the time of the survey. Ninety-eight percent of subjects stated they would like to participate in the decision-making process of selecting an anticoagulant. Thirty-six percent of those exposed and 37% of those

  12. A comprehensive evaluation of the efficacy of leading oxime therapies in guinea pigs exposed to organophosphorus chemical warfare agents or pesticides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilhelm, Christina M., E-mail: wilhelmc@battelle.org [Battelle, 505 King Avenue, JM-7, Columbus, OH 43201-2693 (United States); Snider, Thomas H., E-mail: snidert@battelle.org [Battelle, 505 King Avenue, JM-7, Columbus, OH 43201-2693 (United States); Babin, Michael C., E-mail: babinm@battelle.org [Battelle, 505 King Avenue, JM-7, Columbus, OH 43201-2693 (United States); Jett, David A., E-mail: jettd@ninds.nih.gov [National Institutes of Health/National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke, Bethesda, MD 20892 (United States); Platoff, Gennady E., E-mail: platoffg@niaid.nih.gov [National Institutes of Health/National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, Bethesda, MD 20892 (United States); Yeung, David T., E-mail: dy70v@nih.gov [National Institutes of Health/National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke, Bethesda, MD 20892 (United States)

    2014-12-15

    The currently fielded pre-hospital therapeutic regimen for the treatment of organophosphorus (OP) poisoning in the United States (U.S.) is the administration of atropine in combination with an oxime antidote (2-PAM Cl) to reactivate inhibited acetylcholinesterase (AChE). Depending on clinical symptoms, an anticonvulsant, e.g., diazepam, may also be administered. Unfortunately, 2-PAM Cl does not offer sufficient protection across the range of OP threat agents, and there is some question as to whether it is the most effective oxime compound available. The objective of the present study is to identify an oxime antidote, under standardized and comparable conditions, that offers protection at the FDA approved human equivalent dose (HED) of 2-PAM Cl against tabun (GA), sarin (GB), soman (GD), cyclosarin (GF), and VX, and the pesticides paraoxon, chlorpyrifos oxon, and phorate oxon. Male Hartley guinea pigs were subcutaneously challenged with a lethal level of OP and treated at approximately 1 min post challenge with atropine followed by equimolar oxime therapy (2-PAM Cl, HI-6 DMS, obidoxime Cl{sub 2}, TMB-4, MMB4-DMS, HLö-7 DMS, MINA, and RS194B) or therapeutic-index (TI) level therapy (HI-6 DMS, MMB4-DMS, MINA, and RS194B). Clinical signs of toxicity were observed for 24 h post challenge and blood cholinesterase [AChE and butyrylcholinesterase (BChE)] activity was analyzed utilizing a modified Ellman's method. When the oxime is standardized against the HED of 2-PAM Cl for guinea pigs, the evidence from clinical observations, lethality, quality of life (QOL) scores, and cholinesterase reactivation rates across all OPs indicated that MMB4 DMS and HLö-7 DMS were the two most consistently efficacious oximes. - Highlights: • First comprehensive evaluation of leading AChE oxime reactivators • All oximes are compared against current U.S. therapy 2-PAM Cl. • Relative therapeutic oxime efficacies against OP CWNA and pesticides • Contribution to more effective

  13. Intravenous application of an anticalin dramatically lowers plasma digoxin levels and reduces its toxic effects in rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lipocalins tailored with high affinity for prescribed ligands, so-called anticalins, constitute promising candidates as antidotes. Here, we present an animal study to investigate both pharmacokinetic and clinical effects of an anticalin specific for the digitalis compound digoxin. Intravenous digoxin (2.5–50 μg/kg/min) was administered to rats until first changes in the ECG occurred (dose finding study) or a priori for 30 min (kinetic study). The anticalin DigA16(H86N), dubbed DigiCal, was administered intravenously at absolute doses of 1, 5, 10 and 20 mg, while the control group received isotonic saline. Hemodynamic changes, several ECG parameters and digoxin concentration in plasma were monitored at given time intervals. After DigiCal administration free digoxin concentration in plasma ultrafiltrate declined dramatically within 1 min to the presumably non-toxic range. There was also a significant and DigiCal dose-dependent effect on longer survival, less ECG alterations, arrhythmia, and improved hemodynamics. Infusion of a lower digoxin dose (2.5 μg/kg/min) resulted in a more sustained reduction of free digoxin in plasma after DigiCal administration compared to a higher digoxin dose (25 μg/kg/min), whereas ECG and hemodynamic parameters did not markedly differ, reflecting the known relative insensitivity of rats towards digoxin toxicity. Notably, we observed a re-increase of free digoxin in plasma some time after bolus administration of DigiCal, which was presumably due to toxin redistribution from tissue in combination with the relatively fast renal clearance of the rather small protein antidote. We conclude that anticalins with appropriately engineered drug-binding activities and, possibly, prolonged plasma half-life offer prospects for next-generation antidotal therapy. -- Highlights: ► We provide an advanced model of digoxin toxicity in rats. ► We report on binding of digoxin to a novel designed anticalin. ► We report on pharmacokinetics of digoxin

  14. Rapid, Brushless Self-assembly of a PS-b-PDMS Block Copolymer for Nanolithography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasappa, Sozaraj; Schulte, Lars; Borah, Dipu;

    2014-01-01

    antidot patterns after short solvo-thermal annealing. Unlike previous reports on this system, low temperature and short annealing time provide self-assembly in homogeneous thin films covering large substrate areas. This on-chip mask was then used for pattern transfer to the underlying silicon substrate......Block copolymers (BCP) are highly promising self-assembling precursors for scalable nanolithography. Very regular BCP nanopatterns can be used as on-chip etch masks. The first step in the processing of BCP thin films is usually the chemical modification of the substrate surface, typically by...... grafting of a brush layer that renders the surface energy neutral relative to the constituent blocks. We provide here a first study on rapid, low temperature self-assembly of PS-b-PDMS (polystyrene-block-polydimethylsiloxane) on silicon substrates without a brush layer. We show that it forms line and...

  15. Cyanide poisoning after bitter almond ingestion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y Mouaffak

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Plants are responsible for 5% poisoning recorded by Poison Control Centers. Among all known toxic plants, some present a real danger if ingested. We report the case of a five years old child, who presented, after ten bitter almonds ingestion, consciousness disorders progressing to coma with generalized tonic-clonic seizures, miosis and metabolic acidosis. Bitter almonds and nuclei of stone fruits or other rosaceae (apricot, peach, plum contain cyanogenic glycosides, amygdalin, that yields hydrogen cyanide when metabolized in the body. Swallowing six to ten bitter almonds may cause serious poisoning, while the ingestion of fifty could kill a man. The binding of cyanide ions on cytochrome oxidase lead to a non hypoxemic hypoxia by blocking the cellular respiratory chain. Therapeutic measures include, oxygen support, correction of acidosis and cyanide antidote by hydroxocobalamin in case of serious poisoning.

  16. NOAC monitoring, reversal agents, and post-approval safety and effectiveness evaluation: A cardiac safety research consortium think tank.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reiffel, James A; Weitz, Jeffrey I; Reilly, Paul; Kaminskas, Edvardas; Sarich, Troy; Sager, Philip; Seltzer, Jonathan

    2016-07-01

    Four non-vitamin K antagonist oral anticoagulants (dabigatran, rivaroxaban, apixaban, and edoxaban) have been approved in the United States for treatment of atrial fibrillation (AF) and venous thromboembolic disease. They have been as or more effective than the prior standards of care, with less fatal or intracranial bleeding, fewer drug and dietary interactions, and greater patient convenience. Nonetheless, the absence of the ability for clinicians to assess compliance or washout with a simple laboratory test (or to adjust dosing with a similar assessment) and the absence of an antidote to rapidly stop major hemorrhage or to enhance safety in the setting of emergent or urgent surgery/procedures have been limitations to greater non-vitamin K antagonist oral anticoagulant usage and better thromboembolic prevention. Accordingly, a Cardiac Research Safety Consortium "think tank" meeting was held in February 2015 to address these concerns. This manuscript reports on the discussions held and the conclusions reached at that meeting. PMID:27297852

  17. Micromotors Powered by Enzyme Catalysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dey, Krishna K; Zhao, Xi; Tansi, Benjamin M; Méndez-Ortiz, Wilfredo J; Córdova-Figueroa, Ubaldo M; Golestanian, Ramin; Sen, Ayusman

    2015-12-01

    Active biocompatible systems are of great current interest for their possible applications in drug or antidote delivery at specific locations. Herein, we report the synthesis and study of self-propelled microparticles powered by enzymatic reactions and their directed movement in substrate concentration gradient. Polystyrene microparticles were functionalized with the enzymes urease and catalase using a biotin-streptavidin linkage procedure. The motion of the enzyme-coated particles was studied in the presence of the respective substrates, using optical microscopy and dynamic light scattering analysis. The diffusion of the particles was found to increase in a substrate concentration dependent manner. The directed chemotactic movement of these enzyme-powered motors up the substrate gradient was studied using three-inlet microfluidic channel architecture. PMID:26587897

  18. Fatal combination of moclobemide overdose and whisky.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bleumink, G S; van Vliet, A C M; van der Tholen, A; Stricker, B H Ch

    2003-03-01

    The antidepressant moclobemide (Aurorix) is a reversible inhibitor of monoamine oxidase-A. Pure moclobemide overdose is considered to be relatively safe. Mixed drug overdoses including moclobemide are potentially lethal, especially when serotonergical drugs are involved. So far, only one fatality due to moclobemide mono-overdose has been reported. We report here on a fatality following the ingestion of a moclobemide overdose in combination with half a bottle of whisky. Although dietary restrictions during moclobemide therapy are not considered necessary, the combination of large quantities of moclobemide and tyramine-containing products seems to be lethal, probably because monoamine oxidase-A selectivity is overwhelmed after massive overdoses. Since there is no specific antidote and treatment is only symptomatic, the severity of an overdose with moclobemide must not be underestimated.

  19. Severe childhood amitriptyline intoxication and plasmapheresis: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karacı, Mehmet; Özçetin, Mustafa; Dilsiz, Günter; Güçlü-Songür, Yaşar Gözde

    2013-01-01

    Tricyclic antidepressant intoxication is one of the most frequently encountered and life-threatening causes of intoxication among referrals to emergency departments due to drug intoxication. There is no known antidote against any of the tricyclic antidepressants. The American Society for Apheresis (ASFA) recommends plasmapheresis to support primary treatment in this type of drug poisoning, which does not respond to certain and traditional treatments. We present a 15-year-old girl who ingested amitriptyline with suicidal intent. On admission, she was in a comatose state (Glasgow Coma Scale score: 5), with no spontaneous respiration and presence of pathological reflexes. Due to the intake history of lethal doses and the severe clinical picture, plasmapheresis was performed. She was discharged on her fifth day of hospitalization.Due to the high plasma protein binding property of amitriptyline, plasma exchange therapy should be considered in cases of severe amitriptyline intoxication as a life-saving therapeutic modality.

  20. Arsenic poisoning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Low, D.G.

    1971-01-01

    The use of arsenic in ant poisons, herbicides, and insecticides affords the necessary contact with the poison by pets. Treatment was discussed in relation to two circumstances: very early poisoning in which the owner has observed ingestion of the arsenic, and when the signs of the poisoning are evident. Treatment for early ingestion involves emptying the stomach before the arsenic can pass in quantity into the intestine. This is followed with a 1% solution of sodium bicarbonate, with the administering of 3 to 6 mg of apomorphine. When signs of arsenic toxicity are already advanced, there is little advantage to be gained by either gastric lavage or administration of an emetic. The treatment then consists of the intramuscular administration of dimercaprol (BAL) at a dosage of 3 mg/lb of body weight three times a day until recovery. This is the specific antidote for arsenic. 1 reference.

  1. Medical missionaries to China: the antecedents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Louis

    2015-02-01

    Notwithstanding the traditional belief that disciples of Jesus Christ introduced Christianity into China, conclusive evidence showed that it was the Nestorian missionaries who entered China in AD 635. Alongside commercial contacts between the West and China during the prosperous T'ang dynasty (618-906), trepanation, bloodletting and the universal antidote theriac were introduced from the Byzantium Empire. Nestorian Christians built churches throughout China and offered some form of medical services. During the Yuan (Mongol) dynasty (1260-1368), foreign physicians were present in the Royal Court; the most famous was the astronomer, linguist and physician Ai-hsieh (Isaiah), Head of the Imperial Medical Bureau. With the fall of this dynasty, Christianity, being primarily the faith of a foreign community, naturally fell into oblivion. It was not until the sixteenth-century's Age of Discovery when a safe sea route to China was found that a new phase of Christian missionaries began. PMID:24585604

  2. Management of 3-aminopyridine-2-carboxaldehyde thiosemicarbazone-induced methemoglobinemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunos, Charles A; Radivoyevitch, Tomas; Ingalls, Stephen T; Hoppel, Charles L

    2012-01-01

    The anticancer agent 3-aminopyridine-2-carboxaldehyde thiosemicarbazone is a ribonucleotide reductase inhibitor. It inactivates ribonucleotide reductase by disrupting an iron-stabilized radical in ribonucleotide reductase's small subunits, M2 and M2b (p53R2). Unfortunately, 3-aminopyridine-2-carboxaldehyde thiosemicarbazone also alters iron II (Fe2+) in hemoglobin. This creates Fe3+ methemoglobin that does not deliver oxygen. Fe2+ in hemoglobin normally auto-oxidizes to inactive Fe3+ methemoglobin at a rate of nearly 3% per day and this is counterbalanced by a reductase system that normally limits methemoglobin concentrations to less than 1% of hemoglobin. This balance may be perturbed by symptomatic toxicity levels during 3-aminopyridine-2-carboxaldehyde thiosemicarbazone therapy. Indications of 3-aminopyridine-2-carboxaldehyde thiosemicarbazone sequelae attributable to methemoglobinemia include resting dyspnea, headaches and altered cognition. Management of methemoglobinemia includes supplemental oxygen, ascorbate and, most importantly, intravenously administered methylene blue as a therapeutic antidote. PMID:22335579

  3. Electron transport in InAs/AlGaSb ballistic rectifiers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nonlinear transport properties of a ballistic rectifier fabricated from InAs/AlGaSb heterostructures are reported. The operation of the ballistic rectifier is based on the guidance of carriers by a square anti-dot structure. The structure was defined by electron beam lithography and wet chemical etching. The DC characteristics and magneto-transport properties of the ballistic rectifier have been measured at 77 K and 4.2 K. Rectification effects relying on the ballistic transport were observed. From the four-terminal resistance measured at low magnetic fields, we also observed magneto-resistance fluctuations corresponding to the electron trajectories and symmetry-breaking electron scattering, which are influenced by the magnetic field strength

  4. RESPONSES OF SHEEP TO ZYGADENUS GRAMINEUS, "DEATH CAMAS".

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLaughlin, A R

    1931-01-30

    An extract of Zygadenus gramineus, "death camas," from which most of the resins had been removed was given intravenously to sheep prepared for recording blood-pressure and respiratory movements. Following the intravenous injection of this extract there occurred a respiratory inhibition which in the case of the injection of larger amounts of the extract was followed by asphyxia-like rises of blood-pressure. The graphic record of this asphyxial condition was practically duplicated by closing the tracheal cannula for a short time following the recovery of the animal from the effects of the plant extract. Although, from a field standpoint, no satisfactory antidote has been found, it has been demonstrated that caffein sodio-benzoate possesses marked powers of stimulation for the respiratory center affected by the depressive substances found in Zygadenus gramineus. PMID:17802372

  5. [The use of opium in Roman society and the dependence of Princeps Marcus Aurelius].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trancas, Bruno; Borja Santos, Nuno; Patrício, Luís D

    2008-01-01

    Opium was known and frequently used in Roman society. Medical practice recognized its usefulness as an analgesic, soporific, anti-tussic or anti-diarrheic agent, as well as other currently unsupported uses with quasi-magical properties. It was additionally used as an ingredient in antidotes, panaceas and poisons. The authors present a non-exhaustive compilation of opium use according to medical doctors, writers and encyclopaedists of the time. Mythological and literary representations of the opium poppy reflected its diverse roles, being associated with prosperity and fertility, sleep, death and the underworld and with the art of medicine. Despite its free and routine use, there is no solid evidence of addiction, except the putative case of emperor Marcus Aurelius, consistently reported as one of the most likely cases of addiction to opium.

  6. Phytochemistry and pharmacological activities of the genus Prunella.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Yubing; Xia, Bohou; Xie, Wenjian; Zhou, Yamin; Xie, Jiachi; Li, Hongquan; Liao, Duanfang; Lin, Limei; Li, Chun

    2016-08-01

    Prunella is a genus of perennial herbaceous plants in the Labiatae family. There are approximately 15 species worldwide, distributed widely in the temperate regions and tropical mountains of Europe and Asia. In the genus Prunella, P. vulgaris is the most studied, following a several thousand-year history as a traditional antipyretic and antidotal Chinese herb. Furthermore, since ancient times, P. vulgaris has been widely used as a cool tea ingredient and consumed as a vegetable. The genus Prunella contains triterpenoids and their saponins, phenolic acids, sterols and associated glycosides, flavonoids, organic acids, volatile oil and saccharides. Modern pharmacological studies have revealed that Prunella possess antiviral, antibacterial, anti-inflammatory, immunoregulatory, anti-oxidative, anti-tumor, antihypertensive and hypoglycemic functions. The active components related to these functions are mainly triterpenoids, phenolic acids, flavonoids and polysaccharides. This review mainly summarizes recent advances in traditional usage, chemical components and pharmacological functions. PMID:26988527

  7. Systematic review of the effect of intravenous lipid emulsion therapy for local anesthetic toxicity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høgberg, Lotte Christine Groth; Bania, Theodore C; Lavergne, Valéry;

    2016-01-01

     = 35, 42%). There were 81 (98%) survivors including 63 (76%) with no reported sequelae from the LA poisoning or ILE, although the presence or absence of sequelae was not reported in 15 (18%) cases. Animal studies included 29 randomized controlled studies, three observational studies, five case series......BACKGROUND: Following national and regional recommendations, intravenous lipid emulsion (ILE) has become established in clinical practice as a treatment for acute local anesthetic (LA) toxicity, although evidence of efficacy is limited to animal studies and human case reports. A collaborative lipid......-defined inclusion and exclusion criteria. Pre-treatment experiments, pharmacokinetic studies not involving toxicity and studies that did not address antidotal use of ILE were excluded. RESULTS: We included 113 studies and reports. Of these, 76 were human and 38 animal studies. One publication included both a human...

  8. Prediction of IV curves for a superconducting thin film using artificial neural networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamran, M.; Haider, S. A.; Akram, T.; Naqvi, S. R.; He, S. K.

    2016-07-01

    We propose a framework using artificial neural networks that predicts the IV characteristics of a superconducting thin film with square array of nano-engineered periodic antidots, called holes. We adopt the conventionally used commercial physical properties measurement system to obtain a dataset comprising transport measurements, and use this dataset to train our artificial neural network. Once trained, the model is capable of predicting the curve for varying temperature and magnetic flux values, which are cross validated by the physical properties measurement system. Consistent with the works in literature, our framework suggests Josephson Junctions like behavior near transition temperature and at stronger magnetic fields. Our study is important since repeated measurements using the conventional method are time consuming and costly; we demonstrate that the proposed method may be effectively used to classify the IV characteristics over a wide range of temperature and magnetic field values.

  9. Transparency and surveillance as sociotechnical accountability a house of mirrors

    CERN Document Server

    Johnson, Deborah G

    2014-01-01

    Surveillance and transparency are both significant and increasingly pervasive activities in neoliberal societies. Surveillance is taken up as a means to achieving security and efficiency; transparency is seen as a mechanism for ensuring compliance or promoting informed consumerism and informed citizenship. Indeed, transparency is often seen as the antidote to the threats and fears of surveillance. This book adopts a novel approach in examining surveillance practices and transparency practices together as parallel systems of accountability. It presents the house of mirrors as a new framework for understanding surveillance and transparency practices instrumented with information technology. The volume centers around five case studies: Campaign Finance Disclosure, Secure Flight, American Red Cross, Google, and Facebook. A series of themed chapters draw on the material and provide cross-case analysis. The volume ends with a chapter on policy implications.

  10. Drug: D04855 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available D04855 Drug Ethanol for disinfection (JP16); Ethanol for disinfection (TN) Same as:... C00469 Therapeutic category: 2615 ATC code: D08AX08 V03AB16 V03AZ01 Ethanol for disinfection is included 76...and disinfectants D08AX08 Ethanol D04855 Ethanol for disinfection (JP16) V VARIOU...ion (JP16) V03AZ Nerve depressants V03AZ01 Ethanol D04855 Ethanol for disinfection (JP16) PubChem: 47206632 DrugBank: DB00898 ... ...S V03 ALL OTHER THERAPEUTIC PRODUCTS V03A ALL OTHER THERAPEUTIC PRODUCTS V03AB Antidotes V03AB16 Ethanol D04855 Ethanol for disinfect

  11. “Orpheus’ Sermon”: Making a Case for an Antiquer Dickinson

    OpenAIRE

    Athenot, Eric

    2016-01-01

    Cet article se propose de relire l’utilisation par Dickinson des classiques et de la langue latine comme un correctif, voire un antidote, apporté à l’héritage calviniste qui a si lourdement pesé sur son milieu. Au fil d’allusions mythologiques ou historiques, sa poésie fait montre d’une conscience aiguë des enjeux de son époque, l’esclavage, la guerre, le rôle des femmes dans la sphère publique, qu’elle aborde par le biais d’une stratégie genrée qui culmine dans une posture orphique. The a...

  12. Enhanced elimination of theophylline, phenobarbital and strychnine from the bodies of rats and mice by squalane treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamimura, H; Koga, N; Oguri, K; Yoshimura, H

    1992-05-01

    Our previous study suggested that squalane would be a good candidate for an antidote to reduce the toxicity of drug ingested accidentally at a high dose by enhancing the drug elimination from the body. In the present study, we investigated whether squalane given orally could enhance the elimination of theophylline, phenobarbital and strychnine which were administered parenterally to rats or mice. Squalane increased the fecal excretion of theophylline and reduced the serum level of the drug in rats. Squalane accelerated the fecal excretion of strychnine in mice. These results suggest that squalane may stimulate more the elimination of neutral (theophylline) or basic (strychnine) drugs which should be present in unionized form in intestinal lumen, than that of acidic drugs.

  13. Chelation in metal intoxication

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aaseth, Jan; Skaug, Marit Aralt; Cao, yang;

    2015-01-01

    The present review provides an update of the general principles for the investigation and use of chelating agents in the treatment of intoxications by metals. The clinical use of the old chelators EDTA (ethylenediamine tetraacetate) and BAL (2,3-dimercaptopropanol) is now limited due...... to the inconvenience of parenteral administration, their own toxicity and tendency to increase the neurotoxicity of several metals. The hydrophilic dithiol chelators DMSA (meso-2,3-dimercaptosuccinic acid) and DMPS (2,3-dimercapto-propanesulphonate) are less toxic and more efficient than BAL in the clinical treatment...... of heavy metal poisoning, and available as capsules for oral use. In copper overload, DMSA appears to be a potent antidote, although d-penicillamine is still widely used. In the chelation of iron, the thiols are inefficient, since iron has higher affinity for ligands with nitrogen and oxygen, but the new...

  14. Thinking About Data, Research Methods, and Statistical Analyses: Commentary on Sijtsma's (2014) "Playing with Data".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waldman, Irwin D; Lilienfeld, Scott O

    2016-03-01

    We comment on Sijtsma's (2014) thought-provoking essay on how to minimize questionable research practices (QRPs) in psychology. We agree with Sijtsma that proactive measures to decrease the risk of QRPs will ultimately be more productive than efforts to target individual researchers and their work. In particular, we concur that encouraging researchers to make their data and research materials public is the best institutional antidote against QRPs, although we are concerned that Sijtsma's proposal to delegate more responsibility to statistical and methodological consultants could inadvertently reinforce the dichotomy between the substantive and statistical aspects of research. We also discuss sources of false-positive findings and replication failures in psychological research, and outline potential remedies for these problems. We conclude that replicability is the best metric of the minimization of QRPs and their adverse effects on psychological research.

  15. Selective antagonism of opioid-induced ventilatory depression by an ampakine molecule in humans without loss of opioid analgesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oertel, B G; Felden, L; Tran, P V; Bradshaw, M H; Angst, M S; Schmidt, H; Johnson, S; Greer, J J; Geisslinger, G; Varney, M A; Lötsch, J

    2010-02-01

    Ventilatory depression is a significant risk associated with the use of opioids. We assessed whether opioid-induced ventilatory depression can be selectively antagonized by an ampakine without reduction of analgesia. In 16 healthy men, after a single oral dose of 1,500 mg of the ampakine CX717, a target concentration of 100 ng/ml alfentanil decreased the respiratory frequency by only 2.9 +/- 33.4% as compared with 25.6 +/- 27.9% during placebo coadministration (P CX717 than with placebo. In contrast, CX717 did not affect alfentanil-induced analgesia in either electrical or heat-based experimental models of pain. Both ventilatory depression and analgesia were reversed with 1.6 mg of naloxone. These results support the use of ampakines as selective antidotes in humans to counter opioid-induced ventilatory depression without affecting opioid-mediated analgesia. PMID:19907420

  16. Kenyan medicinal plants used as antivenin: a comparison of plant usage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kisangau Daniel P

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The success of snake bite healers is vaguely understood in Kenya, partly due to their unknown materia medica and occult-mystical nature of their practice. A comparison is made of plants used in snake bite treatments by two culturally distinct African groups (the Kamba and Luo. Thirty two plants used for snakebite treatment are documented. The majority of the antidotes are prepared from freshly collected plant material – frequently leaves. Though knowledge of snake bite conditions etiological perceptions of the ethnic groups is similar, field ethnobotanical data suggests that plant species used by the two ethnic groups are independently derived. Antivenin medicinal plants effectively illustrate the cultural context of medicine. Randomness or the use of a variety of species in different families appears to be a feature of traditional snake bite treatments. A high degree of informant consensus for the species was observed. The study indicates rural Kenya inhabitants rely on medicinal plants for healthcare.

  17. Nation Binding: How Public Service Broadcasting Mitigates Political Selective Exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bos, Linda; Kruikemeier, Sanne; de Vreese, Claes

    2016-01-01

    Recent research suggests that more and more citizens select news and information that is congruent with their existing political preferences. This increase in political selective exposure (PSE) has allegedly led to an increase in polarization. The vast majority of studies stem from the US case with a particular media and political system. We contend that there are good reasons to believe PSE is less prevalent in other systems. We test this using latent profile analysis with national survey data from the Netherlands (n = 2,833). We identify four types of media use profiles and indeed only find partial evidence of PSE. In particular, we find that public broadcasting news cross-cuts all cleavages. This research note offers an important antidote in what is considered a universal phenomenon. We do find, however, a relatively large segment of citizens opting out of news consumption despite the readily available news in today's media landscape. PMID:27218659

  18. Prallethrin Poisoning Presenting as Status Epilepticus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D Vijayaraju

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Mosquito repellents contain pyrethroid derivatives, as the active ingredient. Data regarding human toxicity following oral intake is limited. This is a case report of an individual who presented with neurotoxicity following oral ingestion of prallethrin (2.4% w/w of a higher concentration present in formulations commercially available than previously. A 22 year old male presented to the emergency Room (ER in status epilepticus. He was managed in the Intensive Care Unit (ICU. No cause for his status could be determined after all laboratory investigations. A review of history with the patient revealed that he had ingested a bottle of liquid mosquito repellent (45 ml. The patient has had no further symptoms on follow up and has been off anti epileptics. Pyrethroid containing mosquito repellents act on neuronal sodium channels causing hyperexcitiability. With no known specific antidotes, symptomatic treatment is the main stay of management.

  19. The use and contemplation (1973

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Octavio Paz

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available In 1973, when Octavio Paz writes The use and contemplation, the Western world had long known and assimilated the effects of the culture of technology. Indeed, one could already note signals of contrast: the technique, which had fully accomplished its life's course, was creating its own antidotes . The transnational, serial, anonymous, aseptic nature of the industrial object destined for the dump was counterbalanced by the rehabilitation of those values of which the craft object has always been dispenser: the reference to the body and to a kind of "erotic" aesthetics , the socializing and sharing, the local specialty, a peculiar type of transmission of memory and knowledge. Paz rediscovers in the handmade article the ability to reactivate those dimensions  of existence  neutralized by industry (oriented to the use and transcended by the religion of the modern art (consecrated by the function of contemplation.

  20. Technical Program of The 4th World Congress on Chemical, Biological and Radiological Terrorism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Many countries worldwide were interested in the part that CBMTS industry played in the overall protection schemes required of all nations. It was idea to develop a baseline of information on antidotes and planned medical treatment for military and civilian medical casualties, in both peace and war. Based on actual incidents that affected their chemical, petrochemical and pharmaceutical industries during their recent war, countries highlighted a danger that every country could face in the event of military actions, sabotage and especially terrorist actions, as well as major incidents or accidents involving these industries. It is great importance of CBMTS approach at bringing together the world's very best professionals in science and medicine to explore at the outer edges of science and technology, the most important issue facing the international community. Participants put big efforts towards defining the issues, surfacing the problems across the NBC science and medical spectrum and applying the best efforts at developing solutions that would most benefit our world community

  1. Analysis of prescription database extracted from standard textbooks of traditional Dai medicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Chuang

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Traditional Dai Medicine (TDM is one of the four major ethnomedicine of China. In 2007 a group of experts produced a set of seven Dai medical textbooks on this subject. The first two were selected as the main data source to analyse well recognized prescriptions. Objective To quantify patterns of prescriptions, common ingredients, indications and usages of TDM. Methods A relational database linking the prescriptions, ingredients, herb names, indications, and usages was set up. Frequency of pattern of combination and common ingredients were tabulated. Results A total of 200 prescriptions and 402 herbs were compiled. Prescriptions based on "wind" disorders, a detoxification theory that most commonly deals with symptoms of digestive system diseases, accounted for over one third of all prescriptions. The major methods of preparations mostly used roots and whole herbs. Conclusion The information extracted from the relational database may be useful for understanding symptomatic treatments. Antidote and detoxification theory deserves further research.

  2. [Problems in the standardization of inpatient health care in clinical toxicology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostapenko, Iu N; Litvinov, N N; Rozhkov, P G; Il'iashenko, K K; Gol'dfarb, Iu S

    2008-01-01

    Standardization of inpatient toxicological care is an urgent task to reduce mortality from acute chemical poisonings. Since 2005, health care standards and patient management protocols in poisonings with psychotropic and hypnotic agents, ethanol and other alcohols, and ethylene glycol have been developed and work is in progress on standards for intoxication with corrosive substances, soaps, detergents, carbon dioxide, other gases, smokes, and vapors. Major difficulties have been revealed. These are the lack of coincidence of the "Nomenclature of work and services in public health service" at the federal level with the similar regional documents; improper presentation of toxicological diagnostic and medical technologies; orientation of the Ministry of Health and Social Development of Russia towards only simple services; the "List of Essential and Most Important Drugs" that does not contain the heading "antidote agents" at all is to be completed. PMID:19227285

  3. [Treatment safety of non-vitamin K oral anticoagulants in patients with atrial fibrillation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hohnloser, S H

    2016-02-01

    Non-vitamin K oral anticoagulants (NOAC) have now become established for stroke prevention in atrial fibrillation. The efficacy is at least as good if not better than that of vitamin K antagonists (VKA). The risk for major bleeding is less for NOAC than for VKA, with a particular superiority concerning the avoidance of intracerebral hemorrhage. The outcome after major bleeding is more favorable in patients receiving NOAC compared to those treated with VKA. Specific reversal agents for NOAC are currently being tested which neutralize the effects of NOAC within minutes and the clinical introduction of the first one for the thrombin inhibitor dabigatran is imminent. Such specific antidotes will further improve the safety profile of NAOC. PMID:26669316

  4. HPLC determination of brain biogenic amines following treatment with bispyridinium aldoxime K203.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashemi, F; Laufer, R; Szegi, P; Csomor, V; Kalász, H; Tekes, Kornélia

    2014-03-01

    Effect of a new acetylcholine-esterase reactivator, K203 as a new potential antidote in organophosphate intoxications was studied on dopamine (DA), homovanillic acid (HVA), serotonin (5-HT) and 5-hydroxyindolacetic acid (5-HIAA) levels in seven brain regions (cerebellum, spinal cord, hippocampus, hypothalamus, striatum, medulla oblongata and frontal cortex) of rats by an optimized and validated HPLC method. No significant change in brain level of these neurotransmitters was found either 15 or 60 min following treatment. However, when 5-HIAA/5-HT ratios were calculated as measure of turnover, significant decreases were found in the cerebellum, hippocampus, hypothalamus and the frontal cortex 15 min following K203 administration, but after 60 min only in the frontal cortex. PMID:24631794

  5. Prophylactic Efficacy of Amifostine, DRDE-07, and their Analogues against Percutaneously Administered Nitrogen Mustards and Sulphur Mustard

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manoj Sharma

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Nitrogen mustards (HN-1, HN-2 and HN-3 and sulphur mustard are alkylating and blister-inducing chemical warfare agents. This study was aimed at investigating the prophylactic efficacy of amifostine, DRDE-07, and their analogues and some recommended antidotes against dermally-applied nitrogen mustards and sulphur mustard in preventing their systemic toxicity in mice. The antidotes were administered as single oral dose, 30 min prior to the mustard agent application. For DRDE-07, 0.2 LD50 (249 mg/kg was used and for other analogues, equimolar dose of DRDE-07 was used. For amifostine, N-acetyl cysteine, melatonin and sodium thiosulphate, oral dose was 185 mg/kg, 250 mg/kg, 250 mg/kg, and 1000 mg/kg respectively. The animals were observed for mortality for 14 days. The protection index (PI was calculated as a ratio of LD50 with treatment to LD50 without treatment. The protection of the antidotes was also determined by intraperitoneal route and half of the oral dose of the antidotes was given. The estimated percutaneous LD50 of HN-1, HN-2, HN-3 and sulphur mustard was 11.9 mg/kg, 20.0 mg/kg, 7.1 mg/kg and 7.1 mg/kg, respectively. Compounds that showed marginal protection against HN-1 were DRDE-10 and melatonin with a PI of 1.4. Compounds that showed marginal protection against HN-2 were amifostine, DRDE-07, DRDE-09, DRDE-30, DRDE-35 and melatonin with a PI of 1.4. Compounds that showed marginal protection against HN-3 were amifostine, DRDE-30, DRDE-35, sodium thiosulphate and melatonin with a PI of 1.7. In the case of sulphur mustard, DRDE-07, DRDE-10, DRDE-21, DRDE-30, and DRDE-35 gave a good protection with a PI of more than 5.0. Amifostine and sodium thiosulphate gave a PI of 4.5 and 4.0, respectively, while DRDE-09, N-acetyl cysteine and melatonin gave less protection against sulphur mustard. Intraperitoneally administered amifostine, DRDE-30, sodium thiosulphate and melatonin gave marginal protection against HN-2 with a PI of 1.2, while

  6. Dabigatran and its reversal with recombinant factor VIIa and prothrombin complex concentrate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sølbeck, Sacha; Nilsson, Caroline U; Engström, Martin;

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Dabigatran is a new oral direct thrombin inhibitor. No specific antidote exists in the event of hemorrhage, but prothrombin complex concentrate (PCC) and recombinant activated factor VII (rFVIIa) are suggested therapies. Sonoclot is a bedside viscoelastic instrument for monitoring...... the coagulation process in whole blood. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of dabigatran and reversal with PCC and rFVIIa, as monitored by the Sonoclot. METHODS: Citrated whole blood was drawn and mixed in vitro with dabigatran, dabigatran + PCC or dabigatran + rFVIIa and analyzed with three...... different Sonoclot cuvettes: Glassbead, kaolin and tissue factor (diluted) activated. RESULTS: The Sonoclot detected in vitro-induced anticoagulation due to dabigatran with the glassbead- and kaolin-activated cuvettes. There was no reversing effect of PCC, probably due to the presence of heparin in the PCC...

  7. Farewell to reality how modern physics has betrayed the search for scientific truth

    CERN Document Server

    Baggott, Jim

    2013-01-01

    From acclaimed science author Jim Baggott, a pointed critique of modern theoretical physics. In this stunning new volume, Jim Baggott argues that there is no observational or experimental evidence for many of the ideas of modern theoretical physics: super-symmetric particles,super strings, the multiverse, the holographic principle,or the anthropic cosmological principle. These theories are not only untrue, it is not even science. It is fairy-tale physics: fantastical, bizarre and often outrageous, perhaps even confidence-trickery. This book provides a much-needed antidote. Informed,comprehensive, and balanced, it offers lay readers the latest ideas about the nature of physical reality while clearly distinguishing between fact and fantasy. With its engaging portraits of many central figures of modern physics, including Paul Davies, John Barrow, Brian Greene, Stephen Hawking, and Leonard Susskind, it promises to be essential reading for all readers interested in what we know and don’t know about the nature of...

  8. Antiradiation Antitoxin IgG : Immunological neutralization of Radiation Toxins at Acute Radiation Syndromes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popov, Dmitri; Maliev, Slava

    radiation toxins to induce hyperimmune serum: Group A -Toxoid form of CV ARS toxins ( SRD-1); Group B-Toxoid form of CR ARS (SRD-2)toxins ; Group C -Toxoid form of GI ARS (SRD-3); Group D -Toxoid form of HP ARS (SRD-4). After the hyperimmune serum was pooled from several animals, purified, and concentrated, the IgG fraction was separated. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays of the hyper-immune serum had revealed high titers of IgG with specific binding to radi-ation toxins. The antiradiation IgG preparation was injected into laboratory animals one hour before and three hours after irradiation, and was evaluated for its ability to protect inoculated animals against the development of acute radiation syndromes. Results: Animals that were inoculated with specific antiradiation antibodies before and after receiving lethal irradiation at LD 100/30 exhibited 60-75% survival rate within 30 days. Also, these animals inoculated with the Antiradiation Antitoxin had exhibited markedly reduced clinical symptoms of the ARS, even those ones that did not survive irradiation. Discussion: The results of our experiments have demonstrated that the rabbit hyperimmune IgG preparations directed against SRD toxins provide a significant protection against high doses of radiation. In comparison, the mortality rate of irradiated control animals was 100% in the same time period. The mortality rates of animals treated by the hyperimmune IgG antidote have varied in the different groups of ani-mals and different forms of the ARS. However, significant radioprotection was observed in each group treated with the IgGs. The specific antiradiation antidote IGg isolated from hyperim-mune serum of immunized horses is under study. The specific antiradiation antidote contains antibodies to neurotoxins -SAAN IgG includes 50% IgG to Cv ARS, 25% IgG to Cr ARS and 25 % IgG to Gi ARS. The other type of the Specific antiradiation antidote containes antibodies to hematotoxins -SAAH IgG -100%. A combined variant is under

  9. Emerging trends in gerontology and geriatrics: implications for the self-care of the elderly

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hickey, T; Dean, K; Holstein, B E

    1986-01-01

    people to describe a wide range of personal health behaviors encompassing lay care, self-help, enlightened consumerism, and various preventive measures as antidotes to the impairments of old age. This paper reports some of the outcomes of an international project which reviewed geriatric self-care...... health care; and, the salience of biomedical models in addressing the health problems of aging. The role of professionals, especially those trained in geriatrics, is examined with an acknowledgment of the importance of a self-care strategy that is independent of professional dominance.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED......Increases in the world's older population have posed a significant challenge to available health care resources. For many older people, informal initiatives represent a necessary, rather than an optional health care strategy in the absence of alternatives. Those individuals with the greatest health...

  10. A Novel Approach For Intranet Mailing For Providing User Authentication

    CERN Document Server

    Chakravarthy, ASN

    2011-01-01

    With the explosion of the public Internet and e-commerce, private computers, and computer networks, if not adequately secured, are increasingly vulnerable to damaging attacks. Hackers, viruses, vindictive employees and even human error all represent clear and present dangers to networks. Various antidotes that are in fact inextricable with security issues are - Cryptography, Authentication, Integrity and Non Repudiation, Key Distribution and certification, Access control by implementing Firewalls etc.The main idea of this paper is to overcome the PGP's(Pretty Good Privacy) main limitation of incomplete non-repudiation Service, which increases the degree of security and efficiency of an email message communication through NRR(Non-Repudiation of Receipt) and including PGPs original feature of NRO(Non-Repudiation of Origin), and there it assures new security service of Mutual Non-Repudiation (MNR) .

  11. [Methaemoglobinaemia induced by ingestion of alkyl nitrite, "poppers"].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kragsfeldt, Celina Thelberg; Nissen, Christoffer B; Brandt, Frans

    2016-08-22

    We present a case report of an 18-year-old male who was referred to the emergency department with evidence of methaemoglobinaemia. He presented with classic symptoms with peripheral cyanosis and hypoxia. Arterial blood gas showed a methaemoglobin level of 36%. This was caused by ingestion of alkyl nitrate, a widespread party drug called "poppers". When inhaled it causes euphoria, reduced pain and relaxation of the anal sphincter, but oral use may induce life-threatening methaemoglobinaemia. The treatment of choice is the antidote methylene blue. After treatment the patient regained full recovery and was discharged on the following day. We discuss classic symptoms, diagnosis and treatment of intoxication with methylene blue. PMID:27549005

  12. GC-MS ANALYSIS OF SOME BIOACTIVE CONSTITUENTS OF THE LEAVES OF DESMODIUM GYRANS DC.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.Gopalakrishnan

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Desmodium gyrans DC is one of the medicinally valuable plants belonging to the family Fabaceae, commonly known as “Thozhukanni” in Tamil and ‘ Namaskari’ in Sanskrit. Traditionally leaves are used as antidote, cardiac-tonic and for wound healing. In the present study the ethanolic extract of Desmodium gyrans has been subjected to GC-MS analysis. Eighteen chemical constituents have been identified, The major chemical constituents are: 4,5-Dihydro-2-amino-4-(2,4-dichlorophenyl-7-methyl-5-oxo- pyrano[3,2-c]pyran-3-carbonitrile (59.07%, Pentaborane (13.86%, Pentanedinitrile (6.63% and 3-Chloro-1-butyne, (4.82%.

  13. Methotrexate Toxicity in Growing Long Bones of Young Rats: A Model for Studying Cancer Chemotherapy-Induced Bone Growth Defects in Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiaming Fan

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The advancement and intensive use of chemotherapy in treating childhood cancers has led to a growing population of young cancer survivors who face increased bone health risks. However, the underlying mechanisms for chemotherapy-induced skeletal defects remain largely unclear. Methotrexate (MTX, the most commonly used antimetabolite in paediatric cancer treatment, is known to cause bone growth defects in children undergoing chemotherapy. Animal studies not only have confirmed the clinical observations but also have increased our understanding of the mechanisms underlying chemotherapy-induced skeletal damage. These models revealed that high-dose MTX can cause growth plate dysfunction, damage osteoprogenitor cells, suppress bone formation, and increase bone resorption and marrow adipogenesis, resulting in overall bone loss. While recent rat studies have shown that antidote folinic acid can reduce MTX damage in the growth plate and bone, future studies should investigate potential adjuvant treatments to reduce chemotherapy-induced skeletal toxicities.

  14. HAIR DYE POISONING: A CASE REPORT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shankar

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available S uper Vasmol is one of the commonly used, cheap, freely available hair dye poisoning is emerging a major cause of suicidal poisoning in India, and the hair dyes mainly contain paraphenylene diamine (PPD and resorcinol. Acute poisoning by PPD causes charact eristic sever angio - neurotic oedema of upper air way associated with a swollen, dry, hard and protruding tongue, systemic intoxication results in multisystem involvement and can cause rhabdomyolysis, acute renal failure (ARF. There is no specific antidote for PPD and treatment mainly supportive, emergency tracheostomy will help the patient to relieve the airway obstruction and reduce mortality. We report a case of suicidal ingestion of hair dye that was presented with cervico - fascial oedema later developed rhabdomyolysis and acute renal failure managed with emergency tracheostomy, systemic management and dialysis.

  15. Tetrodotoxin: Chemistry, Toxicity, Source, Distribution and Detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vaishali Bane

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Tetrodotoxin (TTX is a naturally occurring toxin that has been responsible for human intoxications and fatalities. Its usual route of toxicity is via the ingestion of contaminated puffer fish which are a culinary delicacy, especially in Japan. TTX was believed to be confined to regions of South East Asia, but recent studies have demonstrated that the toxin has spread to regions in the Pacific and the Mediterranean. There is no known antidote to TTX which is a powerful sodium channel inhibitor. This review aims to collect pertinent information available to date on TTX and its analogues with a special emphasis on the structure, aetiology, distribution, effects and the analytical methods employed for its detection.

  16. Pediatric Ingestions: Emergency Department Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarango Md, Stacy M; Liu Md, Deborah R

    2016-04-01

    Pediatric ingestions present a common challenge for emergency clinicians. Each year, more than 50,000 children aged less than 5 years present to emergency departments with concern for unintentional medication exposure, and nearly half of all calls to poison centers are for children aged less than 6 years. Ingestion of magnetic objects and button batteries has also become an increasing source of morbidity and mortality. Although fatal pediatric ingestions are rare, the prescription medications most responsible for injury and fatality in children include opioids, sedative/hypnotics, and cardiovascular drugs. Evidence regarding the evaluation and management of common pediatric ingestions is comprised largely of case reports and retrospective studies. This issue provides a review of these studies as well as consensus guidelines addressing the initial resuscitation, diagnosis, and treatment of common pediatric ingestions. Also discussed are current recommendations for decontamination, administration of antidotes for specific toxins, and management of ingested foreign bodies.

  17. A murine experimental anthracycline extravasation model: pathology and study of the involvement of topoisomerase II alpha and iron in the mechanism of tissue damage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2010-01-01

    The bisdioxopiperazine topoisomerase II catalytic inhibitor dexrazoxane has successfully been introduced into the clinic as an antidote to accidental anthracycline extravasation based on our preclinical mouse studies. The histology of this mouse extravasation model was investigated and found...... with dense dermal connective tissue. The extension of this fibrosis was quantified, and dexrazoxane intervention resulted in a statistically significant decrease in fibrosis extension, as also observed in the clinic. Several mechanisms have been proposed in anthracycline extravasation cytotoxicity, and we...... of topoisomerase II alpha and thereby prevents access of anthracycline to the enzyme and thus cytotoxicity, and also acts as a strong iron chelator following opening of its two bisdioxopiperazine rings. Using the model of extravasation in a dexrazoxane-resistant transgenic mouse with a heterozygous mutation...

  18. [Mode of action of terrazoleon Mucor mucedo].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyr, H; Casperson, G; Laussmann, B

    1977-01-01

    It is assumed that the fungistatic effect of terrazol in Mucor mucedo is induced by a liberation of phospholipases within within the mitochondria and perhaps at other membranes. In isolated mitochondria a rapid formation of lysolecithin can be demonstrated at low concentrations of terrazol. This would explain the lytic symptoms in mitochondria visible by electron microscopy. Lipid peroxidation could not be demonstrated. The only antidots at present known for the growth inhibiting effect of terrazol and on its ultrastructural effects are impure saccharose, which seems to contain an unknown factor, and procain hydrochloride or to a lesser extent lidocain, which are well-known inhibitors of phospholipases. The pathological thickening of the cell wall induced by terazol seems to be an unspecific side effect reflecting a diminished phosphorylating activity of the mitochondria.

  19. Case Report: Apixaban-Associated Gluteal Artery Extravasation Reversed With PCC3 Without FFP.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denetclaw, Tina Harrach; Tam, Jacqueline; Arias, Victor; Kim, Rachel; Martin, Christopher

    2016-08-01

    Apixaban, an oral factor Xa inhibitor, has no commercially available assay to measure its activity and no specific antidote. To date, recommendations for managing bleeding associated with apixaban are based on studies with animal models and healthy volunteers (who do not have identified thrombogenic risk factors) and expert opinion. No clinical experience has been published in the literature. Ideally, apixaban would be reversed sufficiently to stop a perilous bleed without producing more thrombogenic risk than the patients' underlying risk factors. Three-factor prothrombin complex concentrate (PCC3) is the least thrombogenic among the suggested reversal agents. Fresh frozen plasma (FFP) is sometimes recommended to add to PCC3, but it adds considerable volume. We describe successful management of an active left gluteal arterial extravasation due to trauma and associated apixaban, in a patient with aortic stenosis and atrial fibrillation, by administration of PCC3 alone, without the added volume of FFP. PMID:26519251

  20. Privatisation in Nigeria: A critical analysis of the virtues and vices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dare E. Arowolo

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The twin-problems of mismanagement and corruption encountered by the state-owned corporations constitute the impetus for the recent privatisation of those corporations in Nigeria. Private sector seems, however, inseparable from public sector as viable public sector serves as guide for the private sector. It goes on to reason that a decaying public sector would give rise to inefficient private sector. Also, private sector has its own inherent contradictions as privatization in itself is not an antidote to corruption and mismanagement of which the public sector is being accused. The controversy and the contradictions in this topical issue aroused the interest and concern of this paper. The focus of the paper, therefore, is to present the two sides of the arguments on the viability of privatisation. The paper adopted content analysis in driving home its points.

  1. Mario Bunge's Materialist Theory of Mind and Contemporary Cognitive Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slezak, Peter

    2012-10-01

    Bunge's writings on the mind-body problem provide a rigorous, analytical antidote to the persistent anti-materialist tendency that has characterized the history of philosophy and science. Bunge gives special attention to dualism and its shortcomings, and this attention is welcome in view of the resurgence of the doctrine today. However, I focus my comments selectively on Bunge's more controversial, provocative claims, not to dismiss them, but to engage with them seriously. For example, a difficulty arising from Bunge's rhetorical style and its undoubted virtues is that not all the targets of his selfconfessed "bashings" (2010, xi) are equally deserving. For example, Bunge suggests "most contemporary philosophers of mind are indifferent to psychology, or are remarkably uninformed about it". This charge cannot be sustained today in light of the work of foremost philosophers today.

  2. Optimal Resource Allocation for Network Protection: A Geometric Programming Approach

    CERN Document Server

    Preciado, Victor M; Enyioha, Chinwendu; Jadbabaie, Ali; Pappas, George

    2013-01-01

    We study the problem of containing spreading processes in arbitrary directed networks by distributing protection resources throughout the nodes of the network. We consider two types of protection resources are available: (i) Preventive resources able to defend nodes against the spreading (such as vaccines in a viral infection process), and (ii) corrective resources able to neutralize the spreading after it has reached a node (such as antidotes). We assume that both preventive and corrective resources have an associated cost and study the problem of finding the cost-optimal distribution of resources throughout the nodes of the network. We analyze these questions in the context of viral spreading processes in directed networks. We study the following two problems: (i) Given a fixed budget, find the optimal allocation of preventive and corrective resources in the network to achieve the highest level of containment, and (ii) when a budget is not specified, find the minimum budget required to control the spreading...

  3. Mass arsenic poisoning and the public health response in Maine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mills, Dora A; Tomassoni, Anthony J; Tallon, Lindsay A; Kade, Kristy A; Savoia, Elena S

    2013-06-01

    Created in the wake of the September 11, 2001 terrorist attacks, Maine's Office of Public Health Emergency Preparedness within the Maine Center for Disease Control and Prevention undertook a major reorganization of epidemiology and laboratory services and began developing relationships with key partners and stakeholders, and a knowledgeable and skilled public health emergency preparedness workforce. In 2003, these newly implemented initiatives were tested extensively during a mass arsenic poisoning at the Gustav Adolph Lutheran Church in the rural northern community of New Sweden, Maine. This episode serves as a prominent marker of how increased preparedness capabilities, as demonstrated by the rapid identification and administration of antidotes and effective collaborations between key partners, can contribute to the management of broader public health emergencies in rural areas.

  4. N-acetylcysteine overdose after acetaminophen poisoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmoudi, Ghafar Ali; Astaraki, Peyman; Mohtashami, Azita Zafar; Ahadi, Maryam

    2015-01-01

    N-acetylcysteine (NAC) is used widely and effectively in oral and intravenous forms as a specific antidote for acetaminophen poisoning. Here we report a rare case of iatrogenic NAC overdose following an error in preparation of the solution, and describe its clinical symptoms. Laboratory results and are presented and examined. A 23-year-old alert female patient weighing 65 kg presented to the emergency ward with weakness, lethargy, extreme fatigue, nausea, and dizziness. She had normal arterial blood gas and vital signs. An excessive dosage of NAC over a short period of time can lead to hemolysis, thrombocytopenia, and acute renal failure in patients with normal glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase, and finally to death. Considering the similarity between some of the clinical symptoms of acetaminophen overdose and NAC overdose, it is vitally important for the administration phases and checking of the patient's symptoms to be carried out attentively and cautiously. PMID:25767408

  5. Projection of male fantasies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bonde, Hans

    2013-01-01

    About 100 years ago, in 1909, the Danish medical doctor Johannes Lindhard (1870-1947) became associate professor, and in 1917 professor, of the theory of gymnastics at the University of Copenhagen. Lindhard's collaboration with the physiologist and 1920 Nobel Prize winner August Krogh (1874......-war period. Advocates of women's athletics interpreted competitive sports as perfect tools for women's conquest of male territory, whereas supporters of female gymnastics considered athletics to be an antidote to the health-promoting and graceful essence of femininity. Agnete Bertram was one of Lindhard......'s first students at the Laboratory for the Physiology of Gymnastics and in the 1920 she created a new graceful women's gymnastics system based on Lindhard's principles. Besides taking its inspiration from Lindhard's notions of psycho-aesthetics, Bertram's system was immersed in ancient Greek influences...

  6. Paracetamol overdose: the liver unit perspective.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Iqbal, M

    2012-09-01

    Liver failure resulting from deliberate or accidental paracetamol overdose continues to be an important reason for referral to liver transplant centres. Severe hepatic dysfunction often appears 72-96 h after overdose. Liver injury can be prevented by timely administration of the specific antidote, N-acetylcysteine. Unfortunately, administration of N-acetylcysteine is frequently delayed due to late presentation or late administration. While N-acetylcysteine works best if given within 8 h of overdose, it is beneficial at any time period and should always be given if there is concern about significant overdose, irrespective of interval from time of ingestion. Early discussion with liver transplant unit is suggested if there is any doubt or evidence of liver failure.

  7. A comparison of reactivating and therapeutic efficacy of bispyridinium acetylcholinesterase reactivator KR-22934 with the oxime K203 and commonly used oximes (obidoxime, trimedoxime, HI-6) in tabun-poisoned rats and mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kassa, Jiri; Karasova, Jana Zdarova; Pavlikova, Ruzena; Musilek, Kamil; Kuca, Kamil; Bajgar, Jiri; Jung, Young-Sik

    2011-03-01

    The potency of bispyridinium acetylcholinesterase reactivator KR-22934 in reactivating tabun-inhibited acetylcholinesterase and reducing tabun-induced lethal toxic effects was compared with the oxime K203 and commonly used oximes. Studies determining percentage of reactivation of tabun-inhibited blood and tissue acetylcholinesterase in rats showed that the reactivating efficacy of KR-22934 was slightly higher than the reactivating efficacy of K203 and roughly corresponded to the reactivating efficacy of obidoxime and trimedoxime in blood and diaphragm. On the other hand, the oxime KR-22934 was not able to reactivate tabun-inhibited acetylcholinesterase in the brain. The therapeutic efficacy of all oximes studied approximately corresponded to their reactivating efficacy. Based on the results, one can conclude that the oxime KR-22934 is not suitable for the replacement of commonly used oximes for the antidotal treatment of tabun poisoning in spite of its potency to reactivate tabun-inhibited acetylcholinesterase in the peripheral compartment (blood, diaphragm).

  8. Dual-probe spectroscopic fingerprints of defects in graphene

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Settnes, Mikkel; Power, Stephen; Petersen, Dirch Hjorth;

    2014-01-01

    (e.g., an extended graphene sheet). Applying this method, we study the transport anisotropies in pristine graphene sheets, and analyze the spectroscopic fingerprints arising from quantum interference around single-site defects, such as vacancies and adatoms. Furthermore, we demonstrate that the dual......Recent advances in experimental techniques emphasize the usefulness of multiple scanning probe techniques when analyzing nanoscale samples. Here, we analyze theoretically dual-probe setups with probe separations in the nanometer range, i.e., in a regime where quantum coherence effects can......-probe setup is a useful tool for characterizing the electronic transport properties of extended defects or designed nanostructures. In particular, we show that nanoscale perforations, or antidots, in a graphene sheet display Fano-type resonances with a strong dependence on the edge geometry of the perforation....

  9. Case Report: Apixaban-Associated Gluteal Artery Extravasation Reversed With PCC3 Without FFP.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denetclaw, Tina Harrach; Tam, Jacqueline; Arias, Victor; Kim, Rachel; Martin, Christopher

    2016-08-01

    Apixaban, an oral factor Xa inhibitor, has no commercially available assay to measure its activity and no specific antidote. To date, recommendations for managing bleeding associated with apixaban are based on studies with animal models and healthy volunteers (who do not have identified thrombogenic risk factors) and expert opinion. No clinical experience has been published in the literature. Ideally, apixaban would be reversed sufficiently to stop a perilous bleed without producing more thrombogenic risk than the patients' underlying risk factors. Three-factor prothrombin complex concentrate (PCC3) is the least thrombogenic among the suggested reversal agents. Fresh frozen plasma (FFP) is sometimes recommended to add to PCC3, but it adds considerable volume. We describe successful management of an active left gluteal arterial extravasation due to trauma and associated apixaban, in a patient with aortic stenosis and atrial fibrillation, by administration of PCC3 alone, without the added volume of FFP.

  10. Un rimedio esasperato dal male. Ovvero i due corpi di Valéry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ciro Felice Papparo

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available In his Cahiers, Valéry says that writing two of his major dialogues, Eupalinos and L’âme et la danse, was an antidote to his ravaging mood: literature and spirituality are the remedy generated by a necessary and not eliminable evil, particularly the one that shows itself as ‘rage’ in love. The essay investigates thoroughly this contradictory logic and focuses on the problem of sensitiveness in Valéry’s work, pointing out a twofold presence of the ‘body’. Preserving these two presences, the writing incessantly tries to make up “une fureur intelligente et expérimentale” and to give a new form, without deleting it, to sensitiveness’ acute pain.

  11. Genetic Characterization of Human Populations: From ABO to a Genetic Map of the British People

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodmer, Walter

    2015-01-01

    From 1900, when Landsteiner first described the ABO blood groups, to the present, the methods used to characterize the genetics of human populations have undergone a remarkable development. Concomitantly, our understanding of the history and spread of human populations across the earth has become much more detailed. As has often been said, a better understanding of the genetic relationships among the peoples of the world is one of the best antidotes to racial prejudices. Such an understanding provides us with a fascinating, improved insight into our origins as well as with valuable information about population differences that are of medical relevance. The study of genetic polymorphisms has been essential to the analysis of the relationships between human populations. The evolution of methods used to study human polymorphisms and the resulting contributions to our understanding of human health and history is the subject of this Perspectives. PMID:25657345

  12. The old book switcheroo: or anatomy of a delusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bittner, David

    2010-06-01

    In this paper, an aging baby boomer "tells all" about his personal experience with some of the "pitfalls of organized religion," as observed from his somewhat unusual perspective as a Jew by birth and a Roman Catholic by choice, and a lifelong Asperger's sufferer, the butt of practical jokes in a variety of juvenile and adult settings. His conclusion, echoing H.L. Mencken's famous statement that "the cure for the evils of democracy is more democracy," is that the best antidote to these "pitfalls" may be found simply in the responsible practice of religion, including both Judaism and Christianity. The author also believes his own survival in life despite some "ogres and tricksters" along the way validates the Jungian philosophy of synchronicity. He believes that the storms of life are best weathered by accepting them as parts of a Merciful Providence's "vast eternal plans" for all His children on Earth. PMID:20033781

  13. The absence of antagonism between extracts of Clinacanthus nutans Burm. and Naja naja siamensis venom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cherdchu, C; Poopyruchpong, N; Adchariyasucha, R; Ratanabanangkoon, K

    1977-06-01

    Clinacanthus nutans Burm, a herb reputed in Thailand and Malaysia to be "snakebite antidote" has been tested in vitro and in vivo for antivenin activity. The aqueous extract of C. nutans leaves has been found to have no effect on the inhibition of neuromuscular transmission produced by purified Naja naja siamensis neurotoxin in isolated rat phrenic-nerve diaphragm preparations. The extract of C. nutans, when given orally or intraperitoneally, are ineffective in prolonging the survival time of experimental mice receiving lethal doses of N.n. siamensis crude venom. Oral administrations of the herb extracts pretreated with alpha-amylase or beta-amylase also fail to protect the animal. It is concluded that the extract of C. nutans can not antagonize the action of cobra venom. PMID:199949

  14. Learning to Be Mobile

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McIlvenny, Paul

    As an antidote to the fixation with automobility, cycling and other such highly mobile ‘carbon neutral’ leisure activities are the focus of recent studies that use mobile ‘travelling with’ methods such as the ‘ride along’ or headcam POV video technology with post-ride debriefing. Much of this cre...... are presented and discussed: 1) riding/talk formations; 2) stretchy participation frameworks; 3) navigating static and moving obstacles; 4) situated noticings: 5) learning safe riding; and 6) negotiating the appropriate road conduct of other road users....... of this creative cyclomobility research focuses on adult cycling or more extreme sports, such as BMX trials or mountain biking. There is, however, little qualitative research to date on family bike rides, eg. how children learn to sit in or ride a bike and how parents or caregivers talk and interact with children...

  15. Radiation Protection Using Single-Wall Carbon Nanotube Derivatives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tour, James M.; Lu, Meng; Lucente-Schultz, Rebecca; Leonard, Ashley; Doyle, Condell Dewayne; Kosynkin, Dimitry V.; Price, Brandi Katherine

    2011-01-01

    This invention is a means of radiation protection, or cellular oxidative stress mitigation, via a sequence of quenching radical species using nano-engineered scaffolds, specifically single-wall carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) and their derivatives. The material can be used as a means of radiation protection by reducing the number of free radicals within, or nearby, organelles, cells, tissue, organs, or living organisms, thereby reducing the risk of damage to DNA and other cellular components (i.e., RNA, mitochondria, membranes, etc.) that can lead to chronic and/or acute pathologies, including but not limited to cancer, cardiovascular disease, immuno-suppression, and disorders of the central nervous system. In addition, this innovation could be used as a prophylactic or antidote for accidental radiation exposure, during high-altitude or space travel where exposure to radiation is anticipated, or to protect from exposure from deliberate terrorist or wartime use of radiation- containing weapons.

  16. Hepatoprotective effects of Pittosporum neelgherrense Wight&Arn., a popular Indian ethnomedicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shyamal, S; Latha, P G; Shine, V J; Suja, S R; Rajasekharan, S; Ganga Devi, T

    2006-08-11

    The stem bark of Pittosporum neelgherrense Wight&Arn. is used by the Kani and Malapandaram tribes of Kerala as an effective antidote to snake bite and for the treatment of various hepatic disorders. In the present study, the effect of the methanolic extract of the stem bark of Pittosporum neelgherrense was studied against carbon tetrachloride (CCl(4))-, d-galactosamine (D-GalN)- and acetaminophen (APAP)-induced acute hepatotoxicity in Wistar rats. Significant hepatoprotective effects were obtained against liver damage induced by all the three liver toxins, as evident from decreased levels of serum enzymes, glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase (SGOT), glutamate pyruvate transaminase (SGPT) and an almost normal architecture of the liver in the treated groups, compared to the toxin controls. Thus the present study provides a scientific rationale for the traditional use of this plant in the management of liver diseases. PMID:16621375

  17. Potassium Permanganate Poisoning: A Nonfatal Outcome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eteiwi, Suzan M; Al-Eyadah, Abdallah A; Al-Sarihin, Khaldon K; Al-Omari, Ahmad A; Al-Asaad, Rania A; Haddad, Fares H

    2015-07-01

    Acute poisoning by potassium permanganate is a rare condition with high morbidity and mortality. Diagnosis of the condition relies on a history of exposure or ingestion and a high degree of clinical suspicion. Oxygen desaturation and the presence of methemoglobin are also helpful indicators. Since no specific antidote is available, treatment is mainly supportive. Few cases have been reported in the literature following potassium permanganate ingestion, whether intentional or accidental, and most of the patients in these cases had unfavorable outcomes, which was not the case in our patient. Our patient, a 73-year-old male, purchased potassium permanganate over the counter mistaking it for magnesium salt, which he frequently used as a laxative. Several hours after he ingested it, he was admitted to the endocrine department at King Hussein Medical Center, Jordan, with acute rapidly evolving shortness of breath. During hospitalization, his liver function tests deteriorated. Since he was diagnosed early and managed promptly he had a favorable outcome. PMID:26366264

  18. SUPERVASMOL POISONING: AN EMERGING ENT EMERGENCY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mitta

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Poisoning is one of the commonest modes of suicide in India. Supervasmol poisoning is one of the commonest modes of suicidal attempt in our region. The common cause for consumption of hair dye is by suicidal intent or accidental oral ingestion. There is no specific antidote for Supervasmol poisoning. Management is only symptomatic and supportive with emergency tracheostomy in majority of cases. Hence, we conducted this study to emphasize the role of ENT surgeon in Supervasmol poisoning. STUDY DESIGN Prospective study. MATERIALS AND METHODS We present a total of 79 cases of Supervasmol poisoning who attended the Emergency Department of Narayana Medical College and General Hospital, Nellore. RESULTS All patients were between age group 15-35 yrs. Females are more than males. More patients were in second decade; 55 cases presented in acute phase, 51 patients underwent tracheostomy and four patients were brought dead. CONCLUSION Emergency tracheostomy is a life saving measure in severe stridor

  19. Invasive aspergillosis in association with criminal arsenic poisoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parent, Muriel; Hantson, Philippe; Haufroid, Vincent; Heilier, Jean-François; Mahieu, Paul; Bonbled, Frédéric

    2006-04-01

    A 26-year-old man suffered acute arsenic poisoning after a poisoning attempt. He developed multiple organ failure including encephalopathy, bleeding disorders, pancreatitis, renal and hepatocellular impairment. Generalized erythroderma also developed within one week after admission. The developed acute respiratory distress syndrome and Aspergillus fumigatus was isolated from the endotracheal aspirate. Despite intensive care support, antidote administration and various epuration techniques, the patient died on day 26 from subarachnoid bleeding. An autopsy was obtained and the concentration of arsenic was determined in different tissues. Multiple abscesses due to Aspergillus fumigatus were seen in the lungs, myocardium and kidneys. This uncommon complication in a previously immunocompetent patient could be related to impaired immunity directly caused by arsenic poisoning.

  20. Non-stochastic switching and emergence of magnetic vortices in artificial quasicrystal spin ice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhat, V. S.; Farmer, B.; Smith, N.; Teipel, E.; Woods, J.; Sklenar, J.; Ketterson, J. B.; Hastings, J. T.; De Long, L. E.

    2014-08-01

    Previous studies of artificial spin ice have been largely restricted to periodic dot lattices. Ferromagnetic switching of segments in an applied magnetic field is stochastic in periodic spin ice systems, which makes emergent phenomena, such as the formation of vortex loops, hard to control or predict. We fabricated finite, aperiodic Penrose P2 tilings as antidot lattices with fivefold rotational symmetry in permalloy thin films. Measurements of the field dependence of the static magnetization reveal reproducible knee anomalies whose number and form are temperature dependent, which suggests they mark cooperative rearrangements of the tiling magnetic texture. Our micromagnetic simulations of the P2 tiling are in good agreement with experimental magnetization data and exhibit non-stochastic magnetic switching of segments in applied field, and vortex loops that are stable over an extended field interval during magnetic reversal.

  1. Physicists in times of war

    CERN Document Server

    Schrör, B

    2006-01-01

    Though the majority of physicists would probably not support preemptive wars, nuclear and other weapons of mass destruction would not exist without their contributions. Einstein's anti-militaristic position has been well-documented and the present essay recalls the role of some contemporary and past physicists on this issue. The idea that the rationality of scientific thought is a reliable antidote against supporting wars in order to achieve political or ideological aims was neither correct in the past nor is it presently valid. In the physics community there always existed a minority of supporters of wars of domination or regime change. The ``preemptive'' war for the US hegemony in the middle east has given the problem of ``physicists in times of war'' new actuality. One of the most perplexing appologists of the agressive war of Nazi-Germany against ``the Bolshevist peril'' has been Pascual Jordan whose interesting scientific and controversial political biography is the main isue of this essay.

  2. AN UPDATE OF PHARMACOLOGICAL ACTIVITY OF PSIDIUM GUAJAVA IN THE MANAGEMENT OF VARIOUS DISORDERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dev Rishika Saini et al

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available In the recent years, the use of herbal products has been increasing in developing countries. Psidium guajava Linn. (Guava family Myrtaceae is an important dietary plant used traditionally for medicinal purpose around the world. The fruit part of the guava is used because of its food and nutritional value but other part of the guava plant are used in the traditional system due to their medicinal properties. Since each part of the guava tree possess the economic value. The pharmacological and medicinal use have demonstrated the ability of this plant to exhibit antioxidant, hepatoprotective, antiallergic, antimicrobial, anticancer, cardioprotective, antidiabetic, ant cough, antidote properties. This review delineate with intervention of Psidium guajava in the management of various disorders.

  3. Management of antiplatelet and anticoagulant therapy for endoscopic procedures: introduction to novel oral anticoagulants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martha L. González-Bárcenas

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The development of novel antithrombotic therapy in the past few years and its prescription in patients with cardiovascular and circulatory disease has widened the spectrum of drugs that need to be considered when performing an endoscopic procedure. The balance between the thrombotic risk patients carry due to their medical history and the bleeding risk involved in endoscopic procedures should be thoroughly analyzed by Gastroenterologists. New oral anticoagulants (NOACs impose an additional task. These agents, that specifically target factor IIa or Xa, do not dispose of an anticoagulation monitoring method nor have an antidote to revert their effect, just as with antiplatelet agents. Understanding the fundamental aspects of these drugs provides the necessary knowledge to determine the ideal period the antithrombotic therapy should be interrupted in order to perform the endoscopic procedure, offering maximum safety for patients and optimal results.

  4. A radio-frequency coil for the microwave characterization of vortex dynamics in thin film superconductors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuadra-Solís, Pedro-de-Jesús; Fernández-Martínez, Antoni; Hernàndez, Joan Manel; García-Santiago, Antoni; Vanacken, Johan; Moshchalkov, Victor V

    2015-06-01

    A radio-frequency coil for the experimental investigation of the magnetic properties of thin superconducting films under microwave fields at different values of temperature and dc magnetic field has been developed. The system has been used for low-temperature microwave frequency-dependent magnetization measurements in a Pb thin film with an engineered periodical antidot array. The characteristic frequencies and the electric and magnetic fields of the resonant system formed by a multi-turn coil with a sample loaded in its core are estimated using the helical approach. A good agreement of the calculated values with those recorded in swept-frequency spectra is obtained. The relation between the characteristics of the resonant structure and the frequency-driven magnetic response of the sample at different nominal microwave powers documents the capability and sensitivity of the layout. PMID:26133852

  5. The heart of the matter: the effects of humor on well-being during recovery from cardiovascular disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lockwood, Nicholas L; Yoshimura, Stephen M

    2014-01-01

    This study examines the uses of humor among cardiovascular patients to test the associations between humor use, satisfaction with companion relationships, and health during recovery. Self-report data were collected from members of two national support groups for patients recovering from cardiovascular disease. As expected, general humorousness associated with social and psychological well-being. Several specific functions of humor in cardiovascular recovery were identified and linked with health perceptions. Antidote humor increased social and psychological health perceptions, whereas conversation regulation humor and distancing humor were negatively related to perceived social and psychological health. Relationship satisfaction mediated most effects. The findings offer new insight into the variability of humor effects, particularly following cardiovascular treatment. PMID:23829386

  6. Nation Binding: How Public Service Broadcasting Mitigates Political Selective Exposure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kruikemeier, Sanne; de Vreese, Claes

    2016-01-01

    Recent research suggests that more and more citizens select news and information that is congruent with their existing political preferences. This increase in political selective exposure (PSE) has allegedly led to an increase in polarization. The vast majority of studies stem from the US case with a particular media and political system. We contend that there are good reasons to believe PSE is less prevalent in other systems. We test this using latent profile analysis with national survey data from the Netherlands (n = 2,833). We identify four types of media use profiles and indeed only find partial evidence of PSE. In particular, we find that public broadcasting news cross-cuts all cleavages. This research note offers an important antidote in what is considered a universal phenomenon. We do find, however, a relatively large segment of citizens opting out of news consumption despite the readily available news in today’s media landscape. PMID:27218659

  7. The Web economy: goods, users, models and policies

    CERN Document Server

    Vafopoulos, Michalis

    2011-01-01

    Web emerged as an antidote to the rapidly increasing quantity of accumulated knowledge and become successful because it facilitates massive participation and communication with minimum costs. Today, its enormous impact, scale and dynamism in time and space make very difficult (and sometimes impossible) to measure and anticipate the effects in human society. In addition to that, we demand from the Web to be fast, secure, reliable, all-inclusive and trustworthy in any transaction. The scope of the present article is to review a part of the Web economy literature that will help us to identify its major participants and their functions. The goal is to understand how the Web economy differs from the traditional setting and what implications have these differences. Secondarily, we attempt to establish a minimal common understanding about the incentives and properties of the Web economy. In this direction the concept of Web Goods and a new classification of Web Users are introduced and analyzed This article, is not,...

  8. Psychoanalyse des Stinkens. Freuds Erzählung von Genese und Funktion des Ekels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Winfried Menninghaus

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The evolution of the upright walk is widely considered to be of decisive significance for the evolution of the human being. Freuds gives a highly original reading of this key feature. He emphasizes the distancing of the nose from the organs of sexual secretions and excrement and understands the defensive mechanism of disgust as the organon of turning the archaic pleasures related to the olfactory secretions into unpleasurable sensations. As an antidote to the evolution of morals – which subscribes to the elevation of the nose and pushes the human being in the direction of ‘higher’ values – Freud stresses the inescapability of the abject pleasures and ascribes to art a highly specific capacity to pleasurably address what is otherwise rejected as disgusting.

  9. The Threshold Learning Outcome on self-management for the Bachelor of Laws degree: A proposed focus for teaching strategies in the first year law curriculum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Huggins

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The Australian Learning and Teaching Council (ALTC Discipline Scholars for Law, Professors Sally Kift and Mark Israel, articulated six Threshold Learning Outcomes (TLOs for the Bachelor of Laws degree as part of the ALTC’s 2010 project on Learning and Teaching Academic Standards. One of these TLOs promotes the learning, teaching and assessment of self-management skills in Australian law schools. This paper explores the concept of self-management and how it can be relevantly applied in the first year of legal education. Recent literature from the United States (US and Australia provides insights into the types of issues facing law students, as well as potential antidotes to these problems. Based on these findings, I argue that designing a pedagogical framework for the first year law curriculum that promotes students’ connection with their intrinsic interests, values, motivations and purposes will facilitate student success in terms of their personal well-being, ethical dispositions and academic engagement.

  10. Rice tablet: An overview to common material in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hassan Amiri

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Rice tablets or Aluminum phosphide (ALP poisoning is one of the most lethal poisoning cases in the country, leading to high mortality, especially in youths every year. The management of aluminum phosphide poisoning remains purely supportive because no specific antidote exists. Although in various studies mortality rates has been reported ranged 40-80%. In many cases it marked too late, suspected to consume of Botanical rice tablets (garlic compound and caused delay in aggressive treatment. Aluminium phosphide, is an effective insecticide and rodenticide, which is used widely in the storage place and transportation of grain as a fumigant to control rodents and pests. For many years, Aluminum and zinc phosphide have been strong insecticides and rodenticides, which are cheap and effective, and their residues are not toxic

  11. Human and experimental toxicology of orellanine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinis-Oliveira, Ricardo Jorge; Soares, Mariana; Rocha-Pereira, Carolina; Carvalho, Félix

    2016-09-01

    Orellanine is a nephrotoxic toxin produced by some mushroom species of the Cortinarius genus, typically found in Europe and North America. The nephrotoxicity of Cortinarius orellanus is well known and was first recognized in the 1950s when this mushroom was identified as the cause of a mass poisoning in Poland. Typically, onset of symptoms is delayed for 1-2 weeks after ingestion. Some patients suffer mild gastrointestinal discomfort in the latency period before developing signs of renal impairment due to severe interstitial nephritis, acute focal tubular damage, and interstitial fibrosis. There is no specific antidote to orellanine poisoning. The mainstay of treatment is the prevention of secondary complications of kidney failure, adequate dialysis and, in the case of incomplete recovery, management of chronic renal insufficiency. : In this work, we aim to review about Cortinarius species, including epidemiological studies, chemical structure, toxicokinetics, toxic doses, mechanisms of toxicity, diagnosis, prognosis, and treatment options. PMID:26553321

  12. Management of a patient with thermal burns and para-chloronitrobenzene poisoning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuanhai Zhang

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Para-chloronitrobenzene (p-CNB, a hazardous and toxic substance, is widely used as an intermediary in chemical industries. p-CNB can cause methaemoglobinaemia due to electron-withdrawing properties of the nitro and chlorine groups. We present a case of a 23-year-old man suffering from thermal burns and p-CNB poisoning. In this case, severe methaemoglobinaemia was caused by the absorption of p-CNB through the burn wounds. Despite active treatment, such as the antidote of methylene blue, the patient’s methaemoglobinaemia progressed, with slowly increasing methaemoglobin (MetHb level. This case highlights the complexity and difficulty of managing this type of injury. To our knowledge, this case can be the first case report describing methaemoglobinaemia induced by p-CNB in a patient with thermal burns.

  13. A apropriação de uma fé filosófica como intenção formativa de Karl Jaspers

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    Ferdinand Röhr

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Karl Jaspers did not belong to any philosophical school when he took up his chair of Philosophy in Heidelberg. He was a doctor of medicine and the founder of psychopathology as a scientific field. He developed a kind of appropriation of the existential substance found in the great philosophers, out of which he constructed his own doctrine, periechontology, as an antidote to all and any forms of reductionism and dogmatism. Existential contemplation and communication became the foundations on which a philosophical lifestyle was to be built, the aim of which was to reach one’s own philosophical faith. This article is intended to demonstrate how the existential appropriation of philosophy can contribute to helping any individual to confidently acquire a philosophical faith, and thereby, helpimg to form human beings in an age in which insecurity is rife.

  14. Acute metheamoglobinemia due to nitrobenzene poisoning: Case series

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    Harish Kumar S, Ujjawal Kumar, Raghavendra Prasad B N, Kiran BJ, Anil Kumar M

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Nitrobenzene is a nitrite compound; its toxic effects are due to its ability to convert hemoglobin to methaemoglobin by oxidizing iron. The clinical features of nitrobenzene poisoning vary based on the concentration of methaemoglobin in blood. Immediate identification based on clinical features, odour of the compound with supporting evidence of increased methaemoglobin levels will help in a timely intervention thus preventing fatal outcome. Early haemodynamic and ventilator support along with administration of methylene blue as an antidote has been proved crucial in saving some lives. An acute nitrobenzene poisoning presenting with methaemoglobinemia is becoming quite common in this part of the country. Here authorsreport a series of cases of nitrobenzene poisoning where immediate clinical evaluation, with repeated intravenous methylene blue saved three patients, but two patients presenting late and with heavy exposure could not be saved

  15. Beetle and plant arrow poisons of the Ju|'hoan and Hai||om San peoples of Namibia (Insecta, Coleoptera, Chrysomelidae; Plantae, Anacardiaceae, Apocynaceae, Burseraceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaboo, Caroline S; Biesele, Megan; Hitchcock, Robert K; Weeks, Andrea

    2016-01-01

    The use of archery to hunt appears relatively late in human history. It is poorly understood but the application of poisons to arrows to increase lethality must have occurred shortly after developing bow hunting methods; these early multi-stage transitions represent cognitive shifts in human evolution. This paper is a synthesis of widely-scattered literature in anthropology, entomology, and chemistry, dealing with San ("Bushmen") arrow poisons. The term San (or Khoisan) covers many indigenous groups using so-called 'click languages' in southern Africa. Beetles are used for arrow poison by at least eight San groups and one non-San group. Fieldwork and interviews with Ju|'hoan and Hai||om hunters in Namibia revealed major differences in the nature and preparation of arrow poisons, bow and arrow construction, and poison antidote. Ju|'hoan hunters use leaf-beetle larvae of Diamphidia Gerstaecker and Polyclada Chevrolat (Chrysomelidae: Galerucinae: Alticini) collected from soil around the host plants Commiphora africana (A. Rich.) Engl. and Commiphora angolensis Engl. (Burseracaeae). In the Nyae Nyae area of Namibia, Ju|'hoan hunters use larvae of Diamphidia nigroornata Ståhl. Larvae and adults live above-ground on the plants and eat leaves, but the San collect the underground cocoons to extract the mature larvae. Larval hemolymph is mixed with saliva and applied to arrows. Hai||om hunters boil the milky plant sap of Adenium bohemianum Schinz (Apocynaceae) to reduce it to a thick paste that is applied to their arrows. The socio-cultural, historical, and ecological contexts of the various San groups may determine differences in the sources and preparation of poisons, bow and arrow technology, hunting behaviors, poison potency, and perhaps antidotes. PMID:27006594

  16. The Combination of Cobinamide and Sulfanegen Is Highly Effective in Mouse Models of Cyanide Poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Adriano; Crankshaw, Daune L.; Monteil, Alexandre; Patterson, Steven E.; Nagasawa, Herbert T.; Briggs, Jackie E.; Kozocas, Joseph A.; Mahon, Sari B.; Brenner, Matthew; Pilz, Renate B.; Bigby, Timothy D.; Boss, Gerry R.

    2013-01-01

    SUMMARY Context Cyanide poisoning is a major contributor to death in smoke inhalation victims and accidental exposure to cyanide occurs in a variety of industries. Moreover, cyanide has the potential to be used by terrorists, particularly in a closed space such as an airport or train station. Current therapies for cyanide poisoning must be given by intravenous administration, limiting their use in treating mass casualties. Objective We are developing two new cyanide antidotes—cobinamide, a vitamin B12 analog, and sulfanegen, a 3-mercaptopyruvate prodrug. Both drugs can be given by intramuscular administration, and therefore could be used to treat a large number of people quickly. We now asked if the two drugs would have an augmented effect when combined. Materials and Methods We used a non-lethal and two different lethal models of cyanide poisoning in mice. The non-lethal model assesses neurologic recovery by quantitatively evaluating the innate righting reflex time of a mouse. The two lethal models are a cyanide injection and a cyanide inhalation model. Results We found that the two drugs are at least additive when used together in both the non-lethal and lethal models: at doses where all animals died with either drug alone, the combination yielded 80 and 40% survival in the injection and inhalation models, respectively. Similarly, drug doses that yielded 40% survival with either drug alone yielded 80 and 100% survival in the injection and inhalatiion models, respectively. As part of the inhalation model, we developed a new paradigm in which animals are exposed to cyanide gas, injected intramuscularly with antidote, and then re-exposed to cyanide gas. This simulates cyanide exposure of a large number of people in a closed space, because people would remain exposed to cyanide, even after receiving an antidote. Conclusion The combination of cobinamide and sulfanegen shows great promise as a new approach to treating cyanide poisoning. PMID:21740135

  17. Accelerated neuronal cell recovery from Botulinum neurotoxin intoxication by targeted ubiquitination.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chueh-Ling Kuo

    Full Text Available Botulinum neurotoxin (BoNT, a Category A biodefense agent, delivers a protease to motor neuron cytosol that cleaves one or more soluble NSF attachment protein receptors (SNARE proteins involved in neurotransmission to cause a flaccid paralysis. No antidotes exist to reverse symptoms of BoNT intoxication so severely affected patients require artificial respiration with prolonged intensive care. Time to recovery depends on toxin serotype because the intraneuronal persistence of the seven known BoNT serotypes varies widely from days to many months. Our therapeutic antidote strategy is to develop 'targeted F-box' (TFB agents that target the different intraneuronal BoNT proteases for accelerated degradation by the ubiquitin proteasome system (UPS, thus promoting rapid recovery from all serotypes. These agents consist of a camelid heavy chain-only V(H (VHH domain specific for a BoNT protease fused to an F-box domain recognized by an intraneuronal E3-ligase. A fusion protein containing the 14 kDa anti-BoNT/A protease VHH, ALcB8, joined to a 15 kDa F-box domain region of TrCP (D5 was sufficient to cause increased ubiquitination and accelerate turnover of the targeted BoNT/A protease within neurons. Neuronal cells expressing this TFB, called D5-B8, were also substantially resistant to BoNT/A intoxication and recovered from intoxication at least 2.5 fold quicker than control neurons. Fusion of D5 to a VHH specific for BoNT/B protease (BLcB10 led to accelerated turnover of the targeted protease within neurons, thus demonstrating the modular nature of these therapeutic agents and suggesting that development of similar therapeutic agents specific to all botulinum serotypes should be readily achievable.

  18. Accelerated neuronal cell recovery from Botulinum neurotoxin intoxication by targeted ubiquitination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuo, Chueh-Ling; Oyler, George A; Shoemaker, Charles B

    2011-01-01

    Botulinum neurotoxin (BoNT), a Category A biodefense agent, delivers a protease to motor neuron cytosol that cleaves one or more soluble NSF attachment protein receptors (SNARE) proteins involved in neurotransmission to cause a flaccid paralysis. No antidotes exist to reverse symptoms of BoNT intoxication so severely affected patients require artificial respiration with prolonged intensive care. Time to recovery depends on toxin serotype because the intraneuronal persistence of the seven known BoNT serotypes varies widely from days to many months. Our therapeutic antidote strategy is to develop 'targeted F-box' (TFB) agents that target the different intraneuronal BoNT proteases for accelerated degradation by the ubiquitin proteasome system (UPS), thus promoting rapid recovery from all serotypes. These agents consist of a camelid heavy chain-only V(H) (VHH) domain specific for a BoNT protease fused to an F-box domain recognized by an intraneuronal E3-ligase. A fusion protein containing the 14 kDa anti-BoNT/A protease VHH, ALcB8, joined to a 15 kDa F-box domain region of TrCP (D5) was sufficient to cause increased ubiquitination and accelerate turnover of the targeted BoNT/A protease within neurons. Neuronal cells expressing this TFB, called D5-B8, were also substantially resistant to BoNT/A intoxication and recovered from intoxication at least 2.5 fold quicker than control neurons. Fusion of D5 to a VHH specific for BoNT/B protease (BLcB10) led to accelerated turnover of the targeted protease within neurons, thus demonstrating the modular nature of these therapeutic agents and suggesting that development of similar therapeutic agents specific to all botulinum serotypes should be readily achievable. PMID:21629663

  19. Retrospective study of cattle poisonings in California: recognition, diagnosis, and treatment

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    Puschner B

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Anita Varga,1 Birgit Puschner21William R Pritchard Veterinary Medical Teaching Hospital, Large Animal Clinic, School of Veterinary Medicine, University of California, Davis, CA, USA; 2Department of Molecular Biosciences and the California Animal Health and Food Safety Laboratory System, School of Veterinary Medicine, University of California, Davis, CA, USAAbstract: In this retrospective study all suspect bovine intoxications submitted to the California Animal Health and Food Safety Laboratory between January 1, 2000 and December 31, 2011 were reviewed. A total of 1199 cases were submitted, but a diagnosis of intoxication was only established in 13.5% of cases. In these cases, overexposures to minerals, metals, and poisonous plants were determined as the most commonly diagnosed poisonings in cattle in California. Nitrate/nitrite poisoning was the most commonly diagnosed plant-associated intoxication, followed by gossypol and oleander. This study details the diagnostic challenges and treatment options for the most commonly diagnosed intoxications. To ensure proper treatment and prevention of new cases, accurate diagnosis is necessary, and therefore this review provides an essential tool for the food animal practitioner. Available toxicological analyses are offered at select laboratories, which can be time consuming and expensive, yet the potential for residues in consumed animal products and implications for human health necessitate testing and consultation. Any potential exposure to a toxicant in cattle should be reviewed to determine whether a residue hazard exists. Therapy focuses on immediate removal of the toxicant from the environment and from the gastrointestinal tract. With few antidotes available, most are cost prohibitive to treat numerous affected cattle. In addition, most antidotes will require extra-label drug use and establishment of meat and milk withdrawal times.Keywords: toxins, toxicology, poisonous plants, bovine

  20. Mustards and Vesicants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Young, Robert A [ORNL; Bast, Cheryl B [ORNL

    2009-01-01

    Vesicants (sulfur mustards, lewisite, and nitrogen mustards) are chemicals that cause blistering of the skin. Developed as chemical warfare agents, their biological activity is complex and not fully understood. These vesicants in liquid or vapor form are capable of causing injury to most any tissue. Contact with the skin results in erythema and blistering. Exposure to vapors produces ocular and respiratory effects which occur at exposures below those causing dermal effects. Systemic and long-lasting effects may occur, especially following acute exposures that result in severe injury. Multi-organ involvement and fluid loss shock resulting in death may follow severe exposures. As alkylating agents, all of the mustards are known or potential carcinogens. The carcinogenic potential of lewisite in humans is equivocal. Toxicity data in animals are available for the vesicants although data on sulfur mustard and lewisite are more extensive than for the nitrogen mustards. Data from tests with human volunteers and occupational exposure information are also available. These data collectively have provided a basis for the development of exposure standards, guidelines, and criteria for use in emergency planning and emergency response, and remediation efforts. The mode of action of the vesicants is complex, not fully understood, and represents an ongoing area of investigation especially with respect to treatment of vesicant-induced injury. Prevention of exposure and decontamination are critical initial steps in eliminating or minimizing injury. With the exception of arsenic chelating antidotes (e.g., British anti-lewisite; BAL) for lewisite, no antidotes exist for the vesicant agents. Medical management currently focuses on palliative treatment of signs and symptoms.

  1. Self-assembly and the hemolysis effect of monodisperse N,N-diethylacrylamide/acrylic acid nanogels with high contents of acrylic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xueting; Zhao, Di; Shi, Xiaodi; Qiu, Gao; Lu, Xihua

    2016-09-21

    Monodisperse temperature/pH sensitive poly(N,N-diethylacrylamide/acrylic acid) (P(DEA/AAc)) nanogels with high contents of AAc up to 40 wt% have been prepared. In this study, it was unexpectedly found that the polydispersity of the nanogels with 40 wt% AAc strongly depended on the initiator concentration. Monodisperse P(DEA/AA) nanogels were synthesized only at a very low concentration of initiator. The phase transition behavior of the nanogels in water can be tuned by pH and temperature. Due to low polydispersity, the nanogels self-assembled into colloidal crystals at different temperatures below the volume phase transition temperature (VPTT). The sharp Bragg peaks of the crystals were significantly blue-shifted as the concentration of the nanogels was increased. In contrast, the condensed suspensions without crystals still exhibited clear colours resulting from a short-range order structure. The reflection spectra of the coloured suspensions showed that the peak wavelength became a bit longer and much broader. And the reflection intensity of the coloured suspensions was much weaker. Elastic and coloured crosslinked nanogel networks prepared by a one-pot and rapid light-initiated crosslinking method showed responses to pH and temperature. Furthermore, the interaction between the nanogels and peptide melittin was investigated. The results showed that an increasing AAc composition led to more efficient inhibition of the hemolytic activity of melittin. The nanogels with 40 wt% AAc composition completely inhibited hemolytic activity at a nanogel concentration of 400 µg ml(-1). Thus, monodisperse P(DEA/AAc) nanogels of high AAc composition may be developed as efficient substitutes for antibody-based antidotes. Owing to the combined influence of the periodic structure of the crystals of the nanogels and an efficient neutralization effect, the P(DEA/AAc) nanogels show promise to become an integral step for preparing valuable naked-eye biosensors as simple, cheap and

  2. Drug Treatment of Venous Thromboembolism in the Elderly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boey, Jir Ping; Gallus, Alexander

    2016-07-01

    Half of all patients with acute venous thromboembolism are aged over 70 years; they then face the added hazard of an age-related increase in the incidence of major bleeding. This makes it even more important to weigh the balance of benefit and risk when considering anticoagulant treatment and treatment duration. Traditional treatment with a heparin (usually low molecular weight) followed by a vitamin K antagonist such as warfarin is effective but is often complicated, especially in the elderly. The direct-acting oral anticoagulants (DOACs), i.e. the thrombin inhibitor dabigatran and the factor Xa inhibitors rivaroxaban, apixaban and edoxaban, are given in fixed doses, do not need laboratory monitoring, have fewer drug-drug interactions and are therefore much easier to take. Randomised trials, their meta-analyses and 'real-world' data indicate the DOACs are no less effective than warfarin (are non-inferior) and probably cause less major bleeding (especially intracranial). It seems the relative safety of DOACs extends to age above 65 or 70 years, although bleeding becomes more likely regardless of the chosen anticoagulant. Renal impairment, comorbidities (especially cancer) and interventions are special hazards. Ways to minimise bleeding include patient selection and follow-up, education about venous thromboembolism, anticoagulants, drug interactions, regular checks on adherence and avoiding needlessly prolonged treatment. The relatively short circulating half-lives of DOACs mean that time, local measures and supportive care are the main response to major bleeding. They also simplify the management of invasive interventions. An antidote for dabigatran, idarucizumab, was recently approved by regulators, and a general antidote for factor Xa inhibitors is in advanced development. PMID:27255713

  3. Effectiveness of donepezil, rivastigmine, and (+/-)huperzine A in counteracting the acute toxicity of organophosphorus nerve agents: comparison with galantamine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aracava, Yasco; Pereira, Edna F R; Akkerman, Miriam; Adler, Michael; Albuquerque, Edson X

    2009-12-01

    Galantamine, a centrally acting cholinesterase (ChE) inhibitor and a nicotinic allosteric potentiating ligand used to treat Alzheimer's disease, is an effective and safe antidote against poisoning with nerve agents, including soman. Here, the effectiveness of galantamine was compared with that of the centrally active ChE inhibitors donepezil, rivastigmine, and (+/-)huperzine A as a pre- and/or post-treatment to counteract the acute toxicity of soman. In the first set of experiments, male prepubertal guinea pigs were treated intramuscularly with one of the test drugs and 30 min later challenged with 1.5 x LD(50) soman (42 microg/kg s.c.). All animals that were pretreated with galantamine (6-8 mg/kg), 3 mg/kg donepezil, 6 mg/kg rivastigmine, or 0.3 mg/kg (+/-)huperzine A survived the soman challenge, provided that they were also post-treated with atropine (10 mg/kg i.m.). However, only galantamine was well tolerated. In subsequent experiments, the effectiveness of specific treatment regimens using 8 mg/kg galantamine, 3 mg/kg donepezil, 6 mg/kg rivastigmine, or 0.3 mg/kg (+/-)huperzine A was compared in guinea pigs challenged with soman. In the absence of atropine, only galantamine worked as an effective and safe pretreatment in animals challenged with 1.0 x LD(50) soman. Galantamine was also the only drug to afford significant protection when given to guinea pigs after 1.0 x LD(50) soman. Finally, all test drugs except galantamine reduced the survival of the animals when administered 1 or 3 h after the challenge with 0.6 or 0.7 x LD(50) soman. Thus, galantamine emerges as a superior antidotal therapy against the toxicity of soman. PMID:19741148

  4. In vivo hypotensive effect and in vitro inhibitory activity of some Cyperaceae species

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    Monica Lacerda Lopes Martins

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In 1820, French naturalist August Saint Hillaire, during a visit in Espírito Santo (ES, a state in southeastern Brazil, reported a popular use of Cyperaceae species as antidote to snake bites. The plant may even have a hypotensive effect, though it was never properly researched. The in vitro inhibitory of the angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE activity of eigth ethanolic extracts of Cyperaceae was evaluated by colorimetric assay. Total phenolic and flavonoids were determined using colorimetric assay. The hypotensive effect of the active specie (Rhychonospora exaltata, ERE and the in vivo ACE assay was measured in vivo using male Wistar Kyoto (ERE, 0.01-100mg/kg, with acetylcholine (ACh as positive control (5 µg/kg, i.v.. The evaluation of ACE in vivo inhibitory effect was performed comparing the mean arterial pressure before and after ERE (10 mg/kg in animals which received injection of angiotensin I (ANG I; 0,03, 03 and 300 µg/kg, i.v.. Captopril (30 mg/kg was used as positive control. Bulbostylis capillaris (86.89 ± 15.20% and ERE (74.89 ± 11.95%, ERE were considered active in the in vitro ACE inhibition assay, at 100 µg/mL concentration. ACh lead to a hypotensive effect before and after ERE's curve (-40±5% and -41±3%. ERE showed a dose-dependent hypotensive effect and a in vivo ACE inhibitory effect. Cyperaceae species showed an inhibitory activity of ACE, in vitro, as well as high content of total phenolic and flavonoids. ERE exhibited an inhibitory effect on both in vitro and in vivo ACE. The selection of species used in popular medicine as antidotes, along with the in vitro assay of ACE inhibition, might be a biomonitoring method for the screening of new medicinal plants with hypotensive properties.

  5. Controlled Magnetic Reversal and Frustration in Artificial Quasicrystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhat, Vinayak

    2014-03-01

    Recent studies of ferromagnetic (FM) antidot arrays have been restricted to simple periodic lattices (square, triangular, etc.). We have fabricated artificial FM quasicrystals (AFQ), which are aperiodic antidot lattices that are self-similar, retain definite rotational symmetry, and consist of a multiply-connected network of permalloy film segments. We focus on Penrose P2 tilings (P2T) constructed from film segments of two lengths (d1 = 810 nm -1618 nm, d2 = 500 nm - 1 μ m), width W ~ 100 nm, and thickness t = 25 nm. Static and dynamic magnetizations were studied using DC magnetometry, broadband (BB) FMR, and micromagnetic simulations (MS). Reproducible ``knee'' anomalies observed in the hysteretic, low-field DC magnetization M(H,T) signal a series of abrupt transitions between ordered magnetization textures, concluding in a smooth evolution into a saturated state. Numerous FMR mode signatures quantitatively reproduce in opposite DC field sweeps in the near-saturated regime, which suggests pinning of the magnetization parallel to the AD edges and confinement of domain walls at P2T vertices control segment polarization and reversal. Novel ``asymmetric'' modes, defined by their presence on only one side of the field origin in a given sweep, are observed only in the reversal regime, and accompany knee anomalies in M(H,T). MS agree with experimental DC hysteresis loops and FMR spectra, and indicate that systematic control of magnetic reversal and domain wall motion can be achieved via tiling design, offering a new paradigm of magnonic quasicrystals. AFQ also behave as novel artificial spin ice systems that exhibit non-stochastic switching due to their aperiodicity and inequivalent pattern vertices. MS indicate pinned Dirac monopoles and confined magnetic avalanches exist in AFQ. Research supported by U.S. DoE Grant DE-FG02-97ER45653 and NSF Grant EPS-0814194.

  6. Prevalence of Adverse Drug Reactions in CAD STEMI Patients Treated in the Cardiac Intensive Care Unit at the Public Hospital in Bandung, Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amalia, Lia; Anggadireja, Kusnandar; Aprami, Toni M; Septiani, Vina

    2016-01-01

    Adverse drug reactions (ADRs) are associated with morbidity, mortality, and can contribute to increased healthcare costs. This study was conducted to identify the occurence, types, and management of ADRs, as well as analyze the causal relationship, severity, and preventability of ADRs. The study was observational analysis with concurrent data collection from patients with Coronary Artery Disease-ST segment Elevation Myocardial Infarction (CAD-STEMI) treated in the Cardiac Intensive Care Unit (CICU) at a hospital in Bandung Indonesia, during the period of December 2013 to March 2014. The occurence of identified ADRs was assessed using the probability scale of Naranjo, while the severity by the scale of Hartwig and their preventability was evaluated using the scale of Schumock-Thornton. 49 ADRs were identified in 29 patients. Organ systems most affected by the ADRs were the cardiovascular and body electrolyte, each accounting for 20.41%. The hematology and gastrointestinal systems each contributed 18.37% to ADR occurrences. The causal relationship was mostly classified as "probable," accounting for 69.39%. With regard to severity, most ADRs were classified as "moderate" at level 3, contributing to 53.06% of the occurence. In terms of preventability, most of the ADRs fell into the "non-preventable" category (79.59%). The most widely applied ADRs management was administration of an antidote or other treatments (40.82%). Further analysis revealed that the average number of drug types and duration of hospitalization significantly affected the presence of ADRs. Taken together, most patients with CAD STEMI treated in the CICU of the studied hospital experienced non-preventable ADRs and were treated with antidote or other treatments. PMID:27110507

  7. INFLATION AND FINANCIAL DEVELOPMENT: EVIDENCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emmanuel Nii Abbey

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The study examined the impact of inflation on financial development in Ghana using quarterly time series data (1990-2008. It was in line with the empirical works that provided support for the proposition that inflation affects financial development negatively. While price stability has been emphasized in the literature to be the best antidote in addressing the problem, recent evidence of disagreements on its definition and the ways to achieving it, coupled with, threshold effects between the two variables have questioned the precise link between the two variables and their acclaimed antidote. The study therefore made use of the Cointegration Approach the Granger Causality testing procedure suggested and the Conditional Least Squares technique to address these issues for the case of Ghana. The study established several statistically significant and economically meaningful relationships between the two variables. Pair-wise correlation analysis established a negative association between the two variables. In contrast, conflicting results were produced with regression analysis: the relationship between the two variables in the short run was established to be positive, while no relationship at all was established in the long run. Furthermore, a unidirectional causal link was established to be running from inflation to financial development; when the ratio of private sector credit to GDP and the market capitalization ratio were used as indicators for financial development. Lastly, threshold effects were observed in the inflation-financial development relation for inflation rates between 11-16% per annum. The study thus recommended the definition of price stability for inflation rates between 11-16% in support of financial development in Ghana. Additionally, it was recommended that the country should promote financial sector policies in a more holistic approach, as financial development does not granger cause inflation or inflationary pressures.

  8. Management of major bleedings during anticoagulant treatment with the oral direct thrombin inhibitor ximelagatran or warfarin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernlöf, Gunilla; Sjöström, Britta M; Lindell, Klas M; Wall, Ulrika E

    2009-12-01

    Several new oral anticoagulants are currently investigated in phase III programmes, mainly with inhibition of factor Xa or thrombin as their pharmacological target. Advantages are expected with these new drugs compared with vitamin K antagonists, but one potential drawback is the lack of specific antidotes. During the clinical studies with ximelagatran, an oral direct thrombin inhibitor withdrawn due to hepatic side effects, investigators were instructed to manage bleedings with routine measures. We have retrospectively tried to assess whether this was sufficient or whether there was a need for reversal strategies. The study population consisted of patients with major bleedings in three long-term studies (104 ximelagatran, 155 warfarin). All individual patient narratives were reviewed with respect to management of the bleeding. Complementary data were retrieved from the data-based case report forms. Approximately, two of three of the patients in both groups were subject to some kind of treatment. One-third (1/3) in both groups had transfusions documented and/or received specific medication. Vitamin K was given more often to warfarin patients. Two ximelagatran patients received prothrombin complex (four-factor concentrate), but one was a patient with a severe hepatopathy suspected to be drug-induced. Overall, the case descriptions did not reveal any apparent differences in the course of events between groups. We found no indications that the lack of an antidote posed a clinical problem in patients treated with ximelagatran as compared with warfarin. The relatively short half-life of melagatran, the active metabolite of ximelagatran, may have contributed to these results.

  9. Cd(II and Pb(II complexes of the polyether ionophorous antibiotic salinomycin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanabe Makoto

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The natural polyether ionophorous antibiotics are used for the treatment of coccidiosis in poultry and ruminants. They are effective agents against infections caused by Gram-positive microorganisms. On the other hand, it was found that some of these compounds selectively bind lead(II ions in in vivo experiments, despite so far no Pb(II-containing compounds of defined composition have been isolated and characterized. To assess the potential of polyether ionophores as possible antidotes in the agriculture, a detailed study on their in vitro complexation with toxic metal ions is required. In the present paper we report for the first time the preparation and the structure elucidation of salinomycin complexes with ions of cadmium(II and lead(II. Results New metal(II complexes of the polyether ionophorous antibiotic salinomycin with Cd(II and Pb(II ions were prepared and structurally characterized by IR, FAB-MS and NMR techniques. The spectroscopic information and elemental analysis data reveal that sodium salinomycin (SalNa undergoes a reaction with heavy metal(II ions to form [Cd(Sal2(H2O2] (1 and [Pb(Sal(NO3] (2, respectively. Abstraction of sodium ions from the cavity of the antibiotic is occurring during the complexation reaction. Salinomycin coordinates with cadmium(II ions as a bidentate monoanionic ligand through the deprotonated carboxylic moiety and one of the hydroxyl groups to yield 1. Two salinomycin anions occupy the equatorial plane of the Cd(II center, while two water molecules take the axial positions of the inner coordination sphere of the metal(II cation. Complex 2 consists of monoanionic salinomycin acting in polydentate coordination mode in a molar ratio of 1: 1 to the metal ion with one nitrate ion for charge compensation. Conclusion The formation of the salinomycin heavy metal(II complexes indicates a possible antidote activity of the ligand in case of chronic/acute intoxications likely to occur in the stock

  10. Rapid-releasing of HI-6 via brain-targeted mesoporous silica nanoparticles for nerve agent detoxification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jun; Fan, Lixue; Wang, Feijian; Luo, Yuan; Sui, Xin; Li, Wanhua; Zhang, Xiaohong; Wang, Yongan

    2016-05-01

    The toxic nerve agent (NA) soman is the most toxic artificially synthesized compound that can rapidly penetrate into the brain and irreversibly inhibit acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity, leading to immediate death. However, there are currently few brain-targeted nanodrugs that can treat acute chemical brain poisoning owing to the limited drug-releasing speed. The present study investigated the effectiveness of a nanodrug against NA toxicity that has high blood-brain barrier penetration and is capable of rapid drug release. Transferrin-modified mesoporous silica nanoparticles (TF-MSNs) were conjugated with the known AChE reactivator HI-6. This nanodrug rapidly penetrated the blood-brain barrier in zebrafish and mice and restored cerebral AChE activity via the released HI-6, preventing the brain damage caused by soman poisoning and increasing the survival rate in mice. Furthermore, there was no toxicity associated with the MSNs in mice or rats. These results demonstrate that TF-MSNs loaded with HI-6 represent the most effective antidote against NA poisoning by soman reported to date, and suggest that MSNs are a safe alternative to conventional drugs and an optimal nanocarrier for treating brain poisoning, which requires acute pulse cerebral administration.The toxic nerve agent (NA) soman is the most toxic artificially synthesized compound that can rapidly penetrate into the brain and irreversibly inhibit acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity, leading to immediate death. However, there are currently few brain-targeted nanodrugs that can treat acute chemical brain poisoning owing to the limited drug-releasing speed. The present study investigated the effectiveness of a nanodrug against NA toxicity that has high blood-brain barrier penetration and is capable of rapid drug release. Transferrin-modified mesoporous silica nanoparticles (TF-MSNs) were conjugated with the known AChE reactivator HI-6. This nanodrug rapidly penetrated the blood-brain barrier in zebrafish and

  11. Presidential address: adjusting the art and the science of surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Traverso, L William

    2007-10-01

    Why are there so many opinions for surgical treatments? Why do surgeons not agree on the same definitions? To adjust the art and science of surgery, we should understand the reason behind this Tower of Babel and ourselves by grasping the three biological lessons of history. These lessons are instincts of man--our instincts have not changed for as long as there has been recorded history. The lessons were elucidated by Will and Ariel Durant and these are competition, selection, and reproduction. How might they be applied to improving our surgical science? First, competition has always forced individuals or small groups to strengthen themselves with cooperation. Cooperate or not survive. Cooperation increases with social development and technology. Next, we must realize that nature relishes diversity. We are all born unequal and diverse. The second biological lesson is selection; which individual among a diverse group of individuals will succeed (by improving)? Therefore, by nature, man's instincts provide diverse opinions and bias. This creates a myopic view when surgeons try to discern the truth. The results are the trendy bandwagons that divert us, like tonsillectomy. Too much diversity is bad, and a balance is required. Man's third lesson of history is reproduction. Better stated is that nature loves quantity. We naturally give priority to quantity over quality. To obtain quality rather than just quantity, we need the antidotes for competition and diversity--that would be cooperation using the Deming guidelines of leadership, profound knowledge, and technology. One example of this urge for quantity and diversity is our lack of standardized definitions. These three biological lessons can be summarized by viewing competition as an impediment for quality improvement in the complex challenges of modern healthcare. Cooperation (trust) is the antidote to the bandwagon effect of unproven treatments. Cooperation and technology can be joined to establish a successful team

  12. La correction et la révision de l’écrit en français langue seconde: médiation humaine, médiation informatique Correcting and editing texts written by FSL students: human mediation vs. computer-assisted mediation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chantal Dion

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available L’apprentissage de la correction / révision de l’écrit par les apprenants de français langue seconde peut-elle tirer profit des correcteurs orthographiques et grammaticaux des traitements de texte ou des correcticiels spécialisés ? La nature de la médiation informatique permet-elle aux apprenants de corriger de façon efficace leurs textes et comment se compare-t-elle avec la correction humaine ? Qu’est-ce qui différencie ces deux médiations ? Des textes rédigés par des anglophones ont été soumis aux deux types de corrections, humaine et informatique, soit deux enseignantes ayant vingt ans d’expérience et la correction informatique effectuée par le correcteur orthographique et grammatical de Word et les deux correcticiels canadiens, Le correcteur 101 et Antidote. Les résultats montrent que la nature de ces médiations n’est pas comparable et que la médiation informatique, pour être efficace, nécessite la participation active, intelligente et instruite de l’utilisateur et que les correcticiels ne peuvent pas corriger efficacement des textes d’étudiants de niveau intermédiaire.Can spellcheckers or grammar correctors, be they part of a word processor or stand-alone programs, help FSL students become more adept at correcting or editing the written texts they produce? Does computer-assisted mediation enable learners to correct their work efficiently and how does it compare with human mediation? What differentiates them? Texts written by anglophone students were corrected using both methods, i.e., on the one hand, by two teachers with 20 years experience and, on the other hand, using the specialized tools available with MSWord as well as two Canadian text correction programs, Le Correcteur 101 and Antidote. It turns out that the two methods are of very different natures ; computer-based correction can only give some positive results if the users have received appropriate training enabling them to actively and

  13. Prevention of nephrotoxicity of ochratoxin A, a food contaminant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Creppy, E E; Baudrimont, I; Betbeder, A M

    1995-12-01

    Ochratoxin A (OTA) is a mycotoxin produced by ubiquitous Aspergilli, mainly by Aspergillus ochraceus and also by Penicilium verrucosum. It was found all over the world in feed and human food and blood as well as in animal blood and tissues. The most threatening effects of OTA are its nephrotoxicity and carcinogenicity, since this mycotoxin is nephrotoxic to all animal species studied so far and is increasingly involved in the Balkan endemic nephropathy (BEN), a human chronic interstitial nephropathy which is most of the time associated to urinary tract tumours. Since it seems impossible to avoid contamination of foodstuffs by toxigenic fungi, detoxification and detoxication for OTA are needed. To reduce or abolish the OTA-induced toxic effects, several mechanisms were investigated. The results of these investigations showed that some of the potential antidotes were efficient in preventing the main OTA toxic effects whereas some others were not. Promising compounds are structural analogues of OTA, and/or compounds having a high binding affinity for plasma proteins such as piroxicam, a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID). Some enzymes such as superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase, radical scavengers, vitamins, prostaglandin (PG) synthesis inhibitors, (such as piroxicam), pH modificators, adsorbant resin such as cholestyramine etc. are efficient in vivo. Some of the results obtained in vivo were already confirmed in vitro and gave useful information on how to safely use these antidotes. The most generally acting compound seems to be A19 (Aspartame), a structural analogue of OTA and phenylalanine. When given to rats A19 (25 mg/kg/48 h) combined to OTA (289 micrograms/kg/48 h) for several weeks largely prevented OTA nephrotoxicity and genotoxicity. When given after intoxication of animals with OTA it washes out the toxin efficiently from the body. In vitro, A19 (10 micrograms/ml) prevents OTA (20-500 micrograms/ml) binding to plasma proteins. Its general

  14. Acute Cerebrovascular Radiation Syndrome: Radiation Neurotoxicity , mechanisms of CNS radiation injury, advanced countermeasures for Radiation Protection of Central Nervous System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popov, Dmitri; Jones, Jeffrey; Maliev, Slava

    Key words: Cerebrovascular Acute Radiation Syndrome (Cv ARS), Radiation Neurotoxins (RNT), Neurotransmitters, Radiation Countermeasures, Antiradiation Vaccine (ArV), Antiradiation Blocking Antibodies, Antiradiation Antidote. Psychoneuroimmunology, Neurotoxicity. ABSTRACT: To review the role of Radiation Neurotoxins in triggering, developing of radiation induced central nervous system injury. Radiation Neurotoxins - rapidly acting blood toxic lethal agent, which activated after irradiation and concentrated, circulated in interstitial fluid, lymph, blood with interactions with cell membranes, receptors and cell compartments. Radiation Neurotoxins - biological molecules with high enzymatic activity and/or specific lipids and activated or modified after irradiation. The Radiation Neurotoxins induce increased permeability of blood vessels, disruption of the blood-brain barrier, blood-cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) barrier and developing severe disorder of blood macro- and micro-circulation. Principles of Radiation Psychoneuro-immunology and Psychoneuro-allergology were applied for determination of pathological processes developed after irradiation or selective administration of Radiation Neurotoxins to radiation naïve mammals. Effects of radiation and exposure to radiation can develop severe irreversible abnormalities of Central Nervous System, brain structures and functions. Antiradiation Vaccine - most effective, advanced methods of protection, prevention, mitigation and treatment and was used for of Acute Radiation Syndromes and elaboration of new technology for immune-prophylaxis and immune-protection against ϒ, Heavy Ion, Neutron irradiation. Results of experiments suggested that blocking, antitoxic, antiradiation antibodies can significantly reduce toxicity of Radiation Toxins. New advanced technology include active immune-prophylaxis with Antiradiation Vaccine and Antiradiation therapy that included specific blocking antibodies to Radiation Neurotoxins

  15. [Acute intoxication in adults - what you should know].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zilker, Th

    2014-01-01

    Ingestion of household products and plants are the leading cause for calls to the poison control centres as far as children are involved. Severe intoxication in children has become infrequent due to childproofed package and blister packs for drugs. Chemical accidents in adults give rise to hospital admission in only 5 %. Suicidal selfpoisonings are still a challenge for paramedics, emergency and hospital doctors. Natural toxins as amatoxins, cholchicine and snakebites can lead to severe intoxication. Sedatives, antidepressants and analgesics are the drugs which are often used for suicidal intent due to their availability. Quetiapine and paracetamol are the drugs which are ingested for attempted suicide/ suicide mostly. The treatment of poisoning centers on the severity which can be judged by the poison severity score, the Reed classification or the GCS.Most intoxicated patients can be treated symptomatically or by intensive care measurements. Antidotal treatment however is needed for some specific poisonings.Exact sample drawing is essential for diagnostic and forensic purposes. There is no evidence based proof for the effectiveness of primary detoxification from the gastrointestinal tract like forced emesis, gastric lavage or the use of cathartics. Early after the ingestion of a harmful substance the administration of activated charcoal seems advisable. Hemodialysis can remove water soluble substances with a small volume of distribution. Multiple charcoal administration may exhibit some influence on secondary detoxification. Provision of evidence of the efficacy for newer antidotes like hydroxocobalamin in smoke inhalation, fomepizol for toxic alcohols and silibinin for amanita poisoning are emerging. Two recently recommended therapeutic principles have still to demonstrate their ability: Firstly the treatment of patients with calcium receptor antagonistic and beta-receptor antagonistic agents poisoning by high dose of insulin plus glucose, secondly the

  16. Medicinal use of earths and minerals from Hippocrates to Sir Hans Sloane and beyond.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Retsas, Spyros

    2012-12-01

    In 1931 two pharmaceutical drawers containing mineral specimens, belonging to Sir Hans Sloane, the 18th century collector, Royal Physician, President of the Royal Society and of the Royal College of Physicians of London, were found in the Department of Botany of the Natural History Museum (NHM) of London. The drawers, each divided into 49 compartments, contained a total of 107 mineral pharmaceutical specimens, some labelled as mercury or white arsenic. Their registration, identification with the Sloane Manuscript Catalogues and subsequent transfer to the Mineralogy department of the NHM where one of these drawers is now on public display, had been documented by 1935. In antiquity therapeutic empiricism attributed medicinal properties to animal products, plants and minerals, including the soil of specific geographic locations. This communication traces the medicinal use of certain earths and minerals, listed in Sir Hans Sloane's manuscript catalogues, to classical antiquity with a reference to Arsenic compounds, which in our time are finding application in the treatment of acute promyelocytic leukaemia and to Terra Lemnia, a celebrated antidote of repute spanning twenty centuries, also included in the Sloane collections. PMID:26255390

  17. Attitude, Forms and Methods ——Lu Xun's Cartoon Creation Thoughts%态度、形式与方法——鲁迅的漫画创作思想

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨向荣; 赵玉彩

    2015-01-01

    From the "real" and "true" forms of writing attitude to the creation of the"clear", and to the creation of the "exaggeration"and "expand" methods of comic, Lu Xun put forward a series of deep and highly theoretical comics thoughts. The cartoon creation thoughts of Lu Xun is the core of Lu Xun's aesthetic thoughts, and is a try and save strategies to social reality of China. Lu Xun's cartoon creation thoughts fill the gaps in early comic theory, and are an antidote for lack of the spirit of today's cartoon creation.%从漫画"真实"与"真情"的创作态度到"一目了然"的创作形式,再到"夸张"与"廓大"的创作方法,鲁迅提出了一系列深刻且极具理论性的漫画思想.鲁迅的漫画创作思想是鲁迅美学思想的核心,也是鲁迅面对中国的社会现实而采取的一种艺术尝试和拯救策略.鲁迅的漫画创作思想填补了我们早期漫画理论的空白,并为当下漫画创作的精神缺失留下了一剂良方.

  18. Trypanocidal efficacy of two indigeneous ethanolic plant extracts (Mimosa pigra and Ipomoea asarifolia) against Trypanosoma evansi phospholipase A2 activity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yusuf Alkali; A K Gana; Abdulkadir A; Nzelibe C Humphrey

    2015-01-01

    Objective:To study the inhibitory activity of ethanolic extract from Mimosa pigra and Ipomoea asarifolia against Trypanosoma evansi (T. evansi) calcium dependent phospholipase A2. Methods: The calcium dependent phospholipase A2 (E C 3.1.1.4) enzyme was isolated from T. evansi and purified to electrophoretic homogeneity under non denaturing conditions. It was solubilized from T. evansi cells recovered from white albino rats which were previously inoculated by intraperitoneal injection of infected camel blood. Two indigeneous ethanolic plant extracts used locally for treatment of trypanosomiasis were tested for the inhibition of phospholipases A2. Results: Double reciprocal plots of the initial velocity data of the inhibition by the indigenous plant extracts revealed a noncompetitive pattern of inhibition for the Ipomoea asarifolia and a competitive inhibition for Mimosa pigra in a dose dependent fashion. The extrapolated inhibition binding constant (Ki) of these extracts were found to be 2.0í102μg/mL and 1.12í102μg/mL respectively. Conclusions:The low Ki values obtained for these extracts towards this enzyme are an indication of high affinity of the extract or the active components (present in the plants) are for these enzyme and therefore, could be explored to serve as a cheap source of T. evansi PLA2 antidote and as well help in designing a novel drug with high efficiency.

  19. Molluscicidal Activity of Nerium indicum Mill, Pterocarya stenoptera DC, and Rumex japonicum Houtt on Oncomelania hupensis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HONG WANG; WEI-MIN CAI; WAN-XIAN WANG; JIAN-MIN YANG

    2006-01-01

    To evaluate the molluscicidal activities of three Chinese plants N. Indicum Mill, P. Stenoptera DC, and R.japonicum Houtt, and to clarify the molluscicidal mechanism. Methods N-butanol extracts and water extracts of the three plants were obtained. The reactions of EST isozyme, glycogen and total protein of snails to the plant extracts were studied.Results EST electrophoresis showed that EST was an important antidotal enzyme system and reacted strongly to environment.EST changed greatly during the whole exposure period so that it could be viewed as a pathological index of toxicity. Extracts decreased the glycogen content of the snails'soft tissues greatly, and also the protein content. Conclusion All extracts show strong molluscicidal activity. The LD50 value of the water extract of N. Indicum Mill is as low as 13.2 mg/L. EST can be viewed as a pathological index of toxicity. The energy metabolism abnormity is the key reason for the molluscicidal activities. The biochemical mechanism needs further research.

  20. [What is the current use of vitamin K antagonists in the elderly?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vidal, Jean-Sébastien; Hanon, Olivier

    2013-12-01

    With the recent marketing of the new oral anticoagulants (NOAC), the future of vitamin k antagonist (VKA) needs to be redefined. VKAs are drugs with a narrow therapeutic margin and a high iatrogenic risk that requires a close biological monitoring. Their efficacy has been proven for atrial fibrillation in numerous populations, especially in the elderly. Their side effects and interactions are well known. The measurement of the level of anticoagulation is possible and reliable using the INR (international normalized ratio) and an antidote is usable in case of emergency. The NOAC are at least as effective as VKA with slightly less side-effects especially cerebral hemorrhage, and they do not require biological monitoring. However, data on efficacy and side-effects of NOAC rely mainly on phase III clinical trials that did not particularly target polypathologic and frail populations. In these populations, we therefore have more "real life" information on VKA than NOAC. But studies on NOAC are currently conducted among these populations. A conservative approach would be to maintain VKA to older patients with stable INR. Lastly VKA are the only anticoagulant usable in case of severe renal failure and valvular fibrillation. PMID:24463060

  1. Profile of acute mixed organophosphorus poisoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thunga, Girish; Sam, Kishore Gnana; Khera, Kanav; Xavier, Vidya; Verma, Murlidhar

    2009-06-01

    Organophosphorus (OP) pesticide self-poisoning is a major clinical and public health problem across much of rural Asia and responsible for two thirds of suicidal deaths. However, clinical reports or evidence for the management of mixed poisoning are lacking. Patients are often treated based on the type of symptoms they exhibit, and there are no specific guidelines available to treat mixed poisoning. In this case series, we report 3 acute OP poisoning cases with mixed poisons such as organochlorine, fungicide, copper sulfate, and kerosene. All 3 patients were treated successfully, with a greater focus on OP poisoning with pralidoxime and atropine infusion along with standard decontamination procedures. Because patients developed complications due to the concomitant poisons ingested, they were later treated symptomatically, and in one case, D-penicillamine was administered as antidote for copper poisoning. Mixed poisoning especially with OP compounds makes the diagnosis difficult because the clinical symptoms of OP predominate, whereas damage produced by other pesticides is late to develop and often neglected. Common treatment procedures are focused mainly on the OP poisoning ignoring the complications of other concomitant pesticides ingested. Treating physicians should be prepared and consider the possibility of mixed poisoning prevalent in that region before initiating therapy. PMID:19497478

  2. A common origin for the bacterial toxin-antitoxin systems parD and ccd, suggested by analyses of toxin/target and toxin/antitoxin interactions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew B Smith

    Full Text Available Bacterial toxin-antitoxin (TA systems encode two proteins, a potent inhibitor of cell proliferation (toxin and its specific antidote (antitoxin. Structural data has revealed striking similarities between the two model TA toxins CcdB, a DNA gyrase inhibitor encoded by the ccd system of plasmid F, and Kid, a site-specific endoribonuclease encoded by the parD system of plasmid R1. While a common structural fold seemed at odds with the two clearly different modes of action of these toxins, the possibility of functional crosstalk between the parD and ccd systems, which would further point to their common evolutionary origin, has not been documented. Here, we show that the cleavage of RNA and the inhibition of protein synthesis by the Kid toxin, two activities that are specifically counteracted by its cognate Kis antitoxin, are altered, but not inhibited, by the CcdA antitoxin. In addition, Kis was able to inhibit the stimulation of DNA gyrase-mediated cleavage of DNA by CcdB, albeit less efficiently than CcdA. We further show that physical interactions between the toxins and antitoxins of the different systems do occur and define the stoichiometry of the complexes formed. We found that CcdB did not degrade RNA nor did Kid have any reproducible effect on the tested DNA gyrase activities, suggesting that these toxins evolved to reach different, rather than common, cellular targets.

  3. 31P nuclear magnetic resonance in vivo spectroscopy of the metabolic changes induced in the awake rat brain during KCN intoxication and its reversal by hydroxocobalamine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benabid, A L; Decorps, M; Remy, C; Le Bas, J F; Confort, S; Leviel, J L

    1987-03-01

    Radiofrequency surface coils were chronically implanted in rats, which were subsequently subjected to 31P nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) investigations at 4.7 T. The implanted coil allowed study of the animals without need for anesthesia, which is a prerequisite for studies of normal brain metabolism. The animals may be kept in the NMR probe for several hours. During subsequent experiments, they may be placed in the same position, therefore allowing follow-up studies for periods as long as 2 months. This method has been used in the study of sublethal KCN intoxication. KCN, a cytochrome c oxidase inhibitor, induces a blockade of cell respiratory processes, which is reflected, in a dose-dependent manner, by a decrease in phosphocreatine content and pH and an increase in inorganic phosphate content, whereas ATP levels remain constant until high doses of KCN (6 mg/kg i.p.) are reached. 31P NMR allows the time course of these metabolic changes to be followed. For high KCN doses, a new peak, termed X, is observed, which is interpreted as being due to a pool of inorganic phosphate at very low pH (5.65), corresponding to a subset of cells that did not survive KCN injury. Hydroxocobalamine, a specific antidote of KCN, suppresses the metabolic changes due to 6 mg/kg of KCN. PMID:3027259

  4. Arbitration as a Conflict Resolution Approach to Oil Spill Compensation Payment in Oil Producing Communities of Rivers State, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chima Jack-Osimiri

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available From time to time, the oil and gas prospecting firm seeks and obtains oil deposits in commercial quantity either offshore or onshore which belongs to the oil bearing community which she uses for exploration, exploitation and transportation of crude oil. But unfortunately; such crude oil and gas escape causing oil spill, consequent upon facility/equipment failure or any other cause(s, which subsequently destroys all economic assets used in fishing or cash crops and economic trees if it occurs on land. This unfortunate incident makes the oil bearing and host community to demand compensation, which in most times breeds in conflict such that the two parties engage in tirade of accusations and counteraccusations. The conflict is such that it has defiled all known antidotes, real or imaginary. Until arbitration was resurrected, studied and applied, before it became the messiah or saviour of the two warring groups. Hitherto, the conflict had led to the destruction of equipment/tools, loss of income, loss of company/man hours, peace, and abduction/kidnapping of expatriates/indigenous staffers. In the light of the grave consequences, the author recommended both direct and indirect approaches to deal with the incessant conflicts between the oil and gas firms and oil bearing and host community. Having known that conflict is an ill-wind that blows nobody any good.

  5. Inhibitory effect of isoamericanol A from Jatropha curcas seeds on the growth of MCF-7 human breast cancer cell line by G2/M cell cycle arrest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katagi, Ayako; Sui, Li; Kamitori, Kazuyo; Suzuki, Toshisada; Katayama, Takeshi; Hossain, Akram; Noguchi, Chisato; Dong, Youyi; Yamaguchi, Fuminori; Tokuda, Masaaki

    2016-01-01

    Although various parts of J. curcas (Jatropha curcas L., Euphorbiaceae) have long been used as traditional folk medicines for their antiviral, analgesic, and/or antidotal efficacies, we are the first to investigate the role of anti-carcinogenicity of isoamericanol A (IAA) from the seed extract. Our results showed that IAA is capable of inhibiting cell proliferation in a dose-dependent manner on the human cancer cell lines of MCF-7, MDA-MB231, HuH-7, and HeLa. Flow cytometry analysis showed IAA significantly induces cell cycle arrest at G2/M on MCF-7 cells. At both protein and mRNA levels examined by western blot and real-time PCR, the results revealed increased expression of BTG2 (B-cell translocation gene 2), p21 (p21(WAF1/CIPI) ), and GADD45A (growth arrest and DNA-damage-inducible, alpha) after IAA treatment, but inversed expression in CDK1 (cyclin-dependent kinase 1) and cyclins B1 and B2. All these effects contribute to G2/M cell cycle arrest. Furthermore, these results coincide with the changes in molecular expressions determined by DNA-microarray analysis. Our findings indicate that IAA has an inhibitory effect on cell proliferation of MCF-7 through cell cycle arrest, giving it great potential as a future therapeutic reagent for cancers. PMID:27441238

  6. Nanowall pinning for enhanced pinning force in YBCO films with nanofabricated structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • High resolution lithography techniques to fabricate artificial pinning centres in high temperature superconductors. • Enhanced critical currents of YBCO films with engineered nanofabricated structures. • Controlled nano-walls with weakened superconductivity acting as strong pinning centres. - Abstract: High resolution nanofabrication tools (Focused Ion Beam and Electron Beam Lithography) have been used to fabricate nano-metric milled structures in high critical current YBCO thin films able to further increase their vortex pinning capabilities. We have demonstrated that pinning forces at 77 K and 3 T are increased by a 70–80% by proper nanostructure designs. Model systems with linear trenches and triangular blind antidots of different sizes, distribution and density have been generated and studied. We demonstrate that specific milled nanostructures can increase the total current through the system at expenses of a limited decrease of cross section. We have identified the length of fabricated nano-walls as the main parameter controlling the pinning potential of nanostructures and thus defined the optimised milling conditions and nanostructure morphology to maximise pinning efficiency

  7. Cura animarum as hope care: Towards a theology of the resurrection within the human quest for meaning and hope

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel J. Louw

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The following critical questions are posed: is hope the antidote of dread and despair or a kind of escapism from the harsh realities of anguish and suffering? What is meant by hope in Christian spirituality and how is hope connected to a theology of the resurrection? Is resurrection hope merely a kind of cheap triumphantalism and variant of a theologia gloriae? The basic assumption is that the notion of the resurrection can contribute to ‘the thickening of alternative stories of faith’. A theologia resurrectionis is about the reframing of life by means of a radical paradox: ‘Where, O death is your victory? Where, O death is your sting?’ If pastoral caregiving is indeed about change and hope, the resurrection describes an ontology of hope by which human beings are transformed into a total new being. Beyond the discriminating and stigmatising categories of many social and cultural discourses on our being human, resurrection theology defines hope as a new state of mind and being. The identity of human beings is therefore not determined by descent, gender, race or social status, but by eschatology (new creation. Hope care is primarily about a new courage to be. It opens up different frameworks for meaningful living within the realm of human suffering.

  8. Network segregation in a model of misinformation and fact checking

    CERN Document Server

    Tambuscio, Marcella; Ciampaglia, Giovanni Luca; Ruffo, Giancarlo

    2016-01-01

    Misinformation under the form of rumor, hoaxes, and conspiracy theories spreads on social media at alarming rates. One hypothesis is that, since social media are shaped by homophily, belief in misinformation may be more likely to thrive on those social circles that are segregated from the rest of the network. One possible antidote is fact checking which, in some cases, is known to stop rumors from spreading further. However, fact checking may also backfire and reinforce the belief in a hoax. Here we take into account the combination of network segregation, finite memory and attention, and fact-checking efforts. We consider a compartmental model of two interacting epidemic processes over a network that is segregated between gullible and skeptic users. Extensive simulation and mean-field analysis show that a more segregated network facilitates the spread of a hoax only at low forgetting rates, but has no effect when agents forget at faster rates. This finding may inform the development of mitigation techniques ...

  9. How 'Afro-Americanophilia' became Polyphilia: Joachim-Ernst Berendt’s Journey from Jazz to “Weltmusik”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Wright Hurley

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This article contributes to our understanding of the continuities and disconnects in the way that ‘race,’ and in particular African-American culture, were conceived of in the long postwar era in West Germany. It does so by examining some salient racial aspects in the writings and production activities of West-German ‘jazz pope,’ Joachim-Ernst Berendt, between the late 1940s and the mid-1980s. I demonstrate that the late 1960s brought about a sharpening in talk concerning the racial ‘ownership’ of jazz, and that in these circumstances, Berendt proceeded beyond his earlier, liberal elaborations about jazz, race, and African-Americans to advance an inclusive, ecumenical model of ‘Weltmusik’ (world music. Germany’s National Socialist history figured in important ways in his conception of both jazz and then Weltmusik. Whilst he initially saw jazz as an antidote to National Socialism, by the late 1960s and 1970s, he regarded certain traits of jazz discourse to be, themselves, proto-fascist.  Far from being a boon, Afro-Americanophilia—or at least one strain of it—now became something from which to distance oneself. What was important for Berendt, as for others of his generation, was distance from the past, as much as seeking out racial Others in Germany, engaging with them on their own terms, and yielding to a new racial ‘relationships of representation’ (Stuart Hall.

  10. Mesmerism, Sexuality, and Medicine:"Karezza" and the Sexual Reform Movement

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Heinz Schott

    2015-01-01

    Within the scope of certain social and religious movements, mesmerism had a considerable impact on the Americanway of life during the last decades of 19th century. A famous example is the Christian Science of Mary Baker EddyBut also less known groups adopted mesmeric ideas and practices. The paper focuses on the concept of"Karezza".It combined a specific sexual practice with religious ideas of divine love, birth control, social reform, women'semancipation and health education. It was created by Alice Bunker Stockham (1833-1912), an obstetrician andgynecologist from Chicago. Among other authorities, the writer Leo Tolstoy and medical psychologist HavelockEllis appreciated her approach. She was a pioneer of the sexual and marriage reform promoting practical advice foreveryday life. As a doctor, she stressed especially the disastrous consequences of a brutal sexual life destroyingbody and mind (not only of the women). As an antidote, she propagated the "Karezza love" avoiding ejaculation ada punctual orgasm (climax) during intercourse. The leading idea was the imagery of a mesmeric "fluidum" unitingindividuals spiritually. Bunker's publications were translated into German. They corresponded to the Lebensreformmovement, but never became popular. Also the early sexology about 1900 ignored Bunker's concept as well as thesexual medicine later on. It is worthwhile to reconsider it within the context of the history of medicine, culture, andanthropology.

  11. Effects of {sup 60}Co gamma radiation on toxicity and hemorrhagic, myonecrotic, and edema-forming activities of Cerastes cerastes venom

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abib, H. [Univ. des Sciences et de la Technologie, Lab. de Biologie Cellulaire et Moleculaire, Faculte des Sciences Biologiques, Houari Boumedienne, Bab Ezzouar (Algeria); Laraba-Djebari, F. [Inst. Pasteur d' Algerie, Lab. de Recherche et de Developpement sur les Venins, Alger (Algeria)]. E-mail: flaraba@ibnsina.ands.dz

    2003-12-01

    Antisera are used as effective antidotes against the local effects of snake bites. To improve antisera production and extend the life of surrogates used to produce antibodies, the chronic effects of venom toxicity must be reduced. The present study evaluated the effectiveness of gamma irradiation to reduce the local effects associated with viperid snake bites by evaluating in NMRI mice the toxicity and edematic, hemorrhagic, and myonecrotic activities of native and irradiated Cerastes cerastes venoms. These results indicated that the toxicity of irradiated venoms (1 and 2 kGy) decreased as compared with that of native venom. The edematic and hemorrhagic activities were also reduced in the detoxified samples, particularly with the 2-kGy radiation dose. Furthermore, the creatine phosphokinase (CPK) activity was significantly increased in the serum and decreased in the myocardium after envenomation with native venom, but no significant enzymatic changes were observed in mice envenomated with irradiated venom. Histopathologic evaluation showed that native venom caused severe degenerative changes in the myocardium. In the case of 2-kGy-irradiated venom, no tissue alterations were observed. These results indicate that irradiation of venom with a 2-kGy dose may offer an effective method for reducing the chronic toxic effects of venom in immunized animals. (author)

  12. Vortex pinning vs superconducting wire network: origin of periodic oscillations induced by applied magnetic fields in superconducting films with arrays of nanomagnets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hybrid magnetic arrays embedded in superconducting films are ideal systems to study the competition between different physical (such as the coherence length) and structural length scales such as are available in artificially produced structures. This interplay leads to oscillation in many magnetically dependent superconducting properties such as the critical currents, resistivity and magnetization. These effects are generally analyzed using two distinct models based on vortex pinning or wire network. In this work, we show that for magnetic dot arrays, as opposed to antidot (i.e. holes) arrays, vortex pinning is the main mechanism for field induced oscillations in resistance R(H), critical current Ic(H), magnetization M(H) and ac-susceptibility χ ac(H) in a broad temperature range. Due to the coherence length divergence at Tc, a crossover to wire network behaviour is experimentally found. While pinning occurs in a wide temperature range up to Tc, wire network behaviour is only present in a very narrow temperature window close to Tc. In this temperature interval, contributions from both mechanisms are operational but can be experimentally distinguished. (papers)

  13. Buddhist philosophy for the treatment of problem gambling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shonin, Edo; Van Gordon, William; Griffiths, Mark D

    2013-06-01

    Purpose In the last five years, scientific interest into the potential applications of Buddhist-derived interventions (BDIs) for the treatment of problem gambling has been growing. This paper reviews current directions, proposes conceptual applications, and discusses integration issues relating to the utilisation of BDIs as problem gambling treatments. Method Aliterature search and evaluation of the empirical literature for BDIs as problem gambling treatments was undertaken. Results To date, research has been limited to cross-sectional studies and clinical case studies and findings indicate that Buddhist-derived mindfulness practices have the potential to play an important role in ameliorating problem gambling symptomatology. As an adjunct to mindfulness, other Buddhist-derived practices are also of interest including: (i) insight meditation techniques (e.g., meditation on 'emptiness') to overcome avoidance and dissociation strategies, (ii) 'antidotes' (e.g., patience, impermanence, etc.) to attenuate impulsivity and salience-related issues, (iii) loving-kindness and compassion meditation to foster positive thinking and reduce conflict, and (iv) 'middle-way' principles and 'bliss-substitution' to reduce relapse and temper withdrawal symptoms. In addition to an absence of controlled treatment studies, the successful operationalisation of BDIs as effective treatments for problem gambling may be impeded by issues such as a deficiency of suitably experienced BDI clinicians, and the poor provision by service providers of both BDIs and dedicated gambling interventions. Conclusions Preliminary findings for BDIs as problem gambling treatments are promising, however, further research is required.

  14. A computational study of detoxification of lewisite warfare agents by British anti-lewisite: catalytic effects of water and ammonia on reaction mechanism and kinetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahu, Chandan; Pakhira, Srimanta; Sen, Kaushik; Das, Abhijit K

    2013-04-25

    trans-2-Chlorovinyldichloroarsine (lewisite, L agent, Lew-I) acts as a blistering agents. British anti-lewisite (BAL, 2,3-dimercaptopropanol) has long been used as an L-agent antidote. The main reaction channels for the detoxification proceed via breaking of As-Cl bonds and formation of As-S bonds, producing stable, nontoxic ring product [(2-methyl-1,3,2-dithiarsolan-4-yl)methanol]. M06-2X/GENECP calculations have been carried out to establish the enhanced rate of detoxification mechanism in the presence of NH3 and H2O catalysts in both gas and solvent phases, which has been modeled by use of the polarized continuum model (PCM). In addition, natural bond orbital (NBO) and atoms in molecules (AIM) analysis have been performed to characterize the intermolecular hydrogen bonding in the transition states. Transition-state theory (TST) calculation establishes that the rates of NH3-catalyzed (2.88 × 10(-11) s(-1)) and H2O-catalyzed (2.42 × 10(-11) s(-1)) reactions are reasonably faster than the uncatalyzed detoxification (5.44 × 10(-13) s(-1)). The results obtained by these techniques give new insight into the mechanism of the detoxification process, identification and thermodynamic characterization of the relevant stationary species, the proposal of alternative paths on modeled potential energy surfaces for uncatalyzed reaction, and the rationalization of the mechanistic role played by catalysts and solvents. PMID:23540856

  15. Successful treatment of methemoglobinemia in an elderly couple with severe cyanosis: two case reports

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Su Ying-Fu

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Methemoglobinemia should be considered in all cyanotic patients who remain unresponsive to oxygen therapy. Rapid diagnosis is very important in emergency cases. Here, we present the cases of two patients, a married couple, admitted to our hospital with methemoglobinemia after exposure to sodium nitrite. Case presentation Two patients, a married couple, presented with methemoglobinemia. The 72-year-old Taiwanese man and 68-year-old Taiwanese woman were referred to our hospital with dizziness and tachypnea. On examination, their mucous membranes were cyanotic, and their blood samples showed the classic ‘chocolate brown’ appearance. The man also reported having experienced twitching of his right arm for a few minutes before arrival at the hospital. The symptoms of both patients failed to improve in response to supplemental oxygen delivered via oxygen masks, although the arterial blood gas data of these patients were normal and their pulse oximetry showed oxyhemoglobin levels of approximately 85%. A carbon monoxide-oximeter showed that the man’s methemoglobin concentration was 48.3%, and the woman’s was 36.4%. Methylene blue (100mg was administered intravenously to both patients, and their symptoms improved dramatically. They were admitted to the intensive care unit and discharged three days later, without neurological sequelae. Conclusion Severe methemoglobinemia is a life-threatening condition and, if untreated, may result in death. Early diagnosis and appropriate antidotal treatment are crucial in treating this emergency situation.

  16. The role of chelation in the treatment of arsenic and mercury poisoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosnett, Michael J

    2013-12-01

    Chelation for heavy metal intoxication began more than 70 years ago with the development of British anti-lewisite (BAL; dimercaprol) in wartime Britain as a potential antidote the arsenical warfare agent lewisite (dichloro[2-chlorovinyl]arsine). DMPS (unithiol) and DMSA (succimer), dithiol water-soluble analogs of BAL, were developed in the Soviet Union and China in the late 1950s. These three agents have remained the mainstay of chelation treatment of arsenic and mercury intoxication for more than half a century. Animal experiments and in some instances human data indicate that the dithiol chelators enhance arsenic and mercury excretion. Controlled animal experiments support a therapeutic role for these chelators in the prompt treatment of acute poisoning by arsenic and inorganic mercury salts. Treatment should be initiated as rapidly as possible (within minutes to a few hours), as efficacy declines or disappears as the time interval between metal exposure and onset of chelation increases. DMPS and DMSA, which have a higher therapeutic index than BAL and do not redistribute arsenic or mercury to the brain, offer advantages in clinical practice. Although chelation following chronic exposure to inorganic arsenic and inorganic mercury may accelerate metal excretion and diminish metal burden in some organs, potential therapeutic efficacy in terms of decreased morbidity and mortality is largely unestablished in cases of chronic metal intoxication.

  17. Ethylene glycol, hazardous substance in the household.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patocka, Jirí; Hon, Zdenek

    2010-01-01

    Ethylene glycol is a colorless, odorless, sweet-tasting but poisonous type of alcohol found in many household products. The major use of ethylene glycol is as an antifreeze in, for example, automobiles, in air conditioning systems, in de-icing fluid for windshields, and else. People sometimes drink ethylene glycol mistakenly or on purpose as a substitute for alcohol. Ethylene glycol is toxic, and its drinking should be considered a medical emergency. The major danger from ethylene glycol is following ingestion. Due to its sweet taste, peoples and occasionally animals will sometimes consume large quantities of it if given access to antifreeze. While ethylene glycol itself has a relatively low degree of toxicity, its metabolites are responsible for extensive cellular damage to various tissues, especially the kidneys. This injury is caused by the metabolites, glycolic and oxalic acid and their respective salts, through crystal formation and possibly other mechanisms. Toxic metabolites of ethylene glycol can damage the brain, liver, kidneys, and lungs. The poisoning causes disturbances in the metabolism pathways, including metabolic acidosis. The disturbances may be severe enough to cause profound shock, organ failure, and death. Ethylene glycol is a common poisoning requiring antidotal treatment. PMID:20608228

  18. An Overview to the Research on Clinical Application of Du Meridian%督脉的临床应用研究概况

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张海山; 高希言

    2008-01-01

    Du meridian is one of the eight extra meridians, having the functions of defending pathogenic factors,inducing diaphoresis to dispel cold, warming the viscera and bowels, elevating the pure yang, promoting the flow qi by warming channels, promoting blood circulation to stop pain, clearing heat by dredging du meridian, treating carbuncle and malaria, dredging du meridian to treat encephalic disease, nourishing brain and nourish marrow, benefiting intelligence and spirit, waking up patient from unconsciousness, relieving convulsion, calming the nerves, stopping endogenous wind, calming the spirit. Moreover it also has the functions of sectional treatment and antidotal health care. Du meridian is widely used clinically in treating many kinds of diseases.%督脉为奇经八脉之一,在临床上具有温阳泻热的作用,可以卫外御邪、祛寒解表、温煦脏腑、升举清阳、温经通络、活血止痛、通督泻热、疗疔截疟.还有通督治脑的作用,可用于补脑益髓、聪神益智、醒神通脑、开窍启闭、镇惊安神、熄风定志.另外还具有分段主治的特性和强壮抗衰老的保健作用,临床应用十分广泛.

  19. Assessment of the Impact of Potential Tetracycline Exposure on the Phenotype of Aedes aegypti OX513A: Implications for Field Use.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zoe Curtis

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Aedes aegypti is the primary vector of dengue fever, a viral disease which has an estimated incidence of 390 million infections annually. Conventional vector control methods have been unable to curb the transmission of the disease. We have previously reported a novel method of vector control using a tetracycline repressible self-limiting strain of Ae. aegypti OX513A which has achieved >90% suppression of wild populations.We investigated the impact of tetracycline and its analogues on the phenotype of OX513A from the perspective of possible routes and levels of environmental exposure. We determined the minimum concentration of tetracycline and its analogues that will allow an increased survivorship and found these to be greater than the maximum concentration of tetracyclines found in known Ae. aegypti breeding sites and their surrounding areas. Furthermore, we determined that OX513A parents fed tetracycline are unable to pre-load their progeny with sufficient antidote to increase their survivorship. Finally, we studied the changes in concentration of tetracycline in the mass production rearing water of OX513A and the developing insect.Together, these studies demonstrate that potential routes of exposure of OX513A individuals to tetracycline and its analogues in the environment are not expected to increase the survivorship of OX513A.

  20. The Existing Condition of Mangrove Region of Avicenia marina, Its: Distribution and Functional Transformation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Herison

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Mangrove ecosystem existence is important for environment and other organisms because of its ecological and economical values, so that management and preservation of mangrove ecosystem are needed. The purpose of this research was to determine the existing condition of mangrove, both its distribution and its functional transformation in Indah Kapuk Coastal Area. Avicennia marina becomes important as wave attenuation, a form of abrasion antidote. Transect-Square and Spot-Check methods were used to determine the existing condition of A.marina mangrove forests. Autocad program, coordinate converter, Google Earth, Google Map, and Arc View were applied in process of making mangrove distribution map. In western of research location exactly at Station 1 and Station 2, the density value of mangrove was 450 and 825 tree ha-1, respectively with sparse category because they were contaminated by waste and litter. In eastern of research location namely Station 3, Station 4, and Station 5 the mangroves grow well with density value of 650 (sparse, 1,500 (very dense, and 1,200 tree ha-1 (fair, respectively, eventhough the contamination still happened. The mangrove forests around the stations do not function as wave attenuation because there were many waterfront constructions which have replaced the function of mangrove forests to damp the wave. In short, it can be stated that the mangrove's function has changed in a case of wave attenuation. The function of mangrove forests is not determined by mangrove forest density but it is determined by mangrove's free position.