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Sample records for antidiuretic hormone secretion

  1. Diagnosis of the syndrome of inappropriate secretion of antidiuretic hormone

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    Holm, Ellen Astrid; Bie, Peter; Ottesen, Michael;

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Hyponatremia is a frequent condition in elderly patients. In diagnostic workup, a 24-hour urine sample is used to measure urinary osmolality and urinary sodium concentration necessary to confirm the diagnosis of the syndrome of inappropriate secretion of antidiuretic hormone (SIADH...

  2. Inappropriate secretion of antidiuretic hormone treated with frusemide.

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    Decaux, G; Waterlot, Y; Genette, F; Hallemans, R; Demanet, J C

    1982-07-10

    Seven out of nine patients with chronic inappropriate secretion of antidiuretic hormone were successfully treated with 40 mg frusemide daily. One patient needed 80 mg, and the remaining patient achieved only a small increase in diuresis after 40 mg frusemide; this was probably related to his low creatinine clearance. In order to maintain a salt intake high enough to compensate for the loss of urine electrolytes 3 to 6 g sodium chloride was added as tablets to the sodium-free diet in six patients. Hypokalaemia occurred in five patients but was easily corrected with either supplements of potassium chloride or a potassium-sparing diuretic. These findings add further weight to evidence that Frusemide is a good alternative for the treatment of patients with inappropriate secretion of antidiuretic hormone who cannot tolerate water restriction.

  3. Syndrome of inappropriate secretion of antidiuretic hormone due to desvenlafaxine.

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    Lee, Gary tin-ho; Leung, Jess lam-ming

    2013-01-01

    Hyponatremia secondary to the syndrome of inappropriate secretion of antidiuretic hormone (SIADH) is not uncommon in patients receiving treatment of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors or venlafaxine. This is a case report of a 47-year-old man with depression, who developed hyponatremia after commencing treatment with desvenlafaxine. To our knowledge, this is the first case in which desvenlafaxine-associated SIADH was reported since the introduction of the drug. Physicians should be aware of the possibility of desvenlafaxine-associated hyponatremia in patients under age of 65. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone secretion associated with desvenlafaxine.

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    Liew, Ellise D; Alderman, Christopher P

    2014-04-01

    To report a case of syndrome of inappropriate anti-diuretic hormone (SIADH) secretion associated with desvenlafaxine. A 57-year old female with hyponatraemia. Her medications included desvenlafaxine, and symptoms included nausea, anxiety and confusion. The serum sodium at this time was 120 mmol/L, serum osmolality was 263 mosmol/kg, urine osmolality 410 mosmol/kg and urine sodium 63 mmol/L, consistent with a diagnosis of SIADH. Desvenlafaxine was ceased and fluid restriction implemented. After 4 days the sodium increased to 128 mmol/L and fluid restriction was relaxed. During her further 3 weeks inpatient admission the serum sodium ranged from 134 to 137 mmol/L during treatment with mirtazapine. SIADH has been widely reported with a range of antidepressants. This case report suggests that desvenlafaxine might cause clinically significant hyponatremia. Clinicians should be aware of the potential for antidepressants to cause hyponatremia,and take appropriate corrective action where necessary.

  5. Cerebral salt wasting syndrome distinct from the syndrome of inappropriate secretion of antidiuretic hormone (SIADH).

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    Yamaki, T; Tano-oka, A; Takahashi, A; Imaizumi, T; Suetake, K; Hashi, K

    1992-01-01

    Two cases with pituitary tumour developed postoperative hyponatraemia which was not caused by inappropriate secretion of antidiuretic hormone. The one case with non-functioning macro-adenoma showed severe hyponatraemia (116 mEq/l) on day 11 after trans-sphenoidal surgery in association with diabetes insipidus (DI). The patients was treated by aqueous pitressin and saline administration to control urinary output and keep positive salt balance at the same time. The other case with GH-producing macro-adenoma showed progressive negative sodium balance with the total loss of 644 mEq resulting in hyponatraemia of 133 mEq/l. This was corrected by additional salt intake. The plasma atrial natriuretic polypeptide (ANP), antidiuretic hormone (ADH) as well as aldosterone levels were normal in the latter case. These patients were considered to manifest primary salt wasting disorder, which should be clearly differentiated from the syndrome of inappropriate secretion of antidiuretic hormone (SIADH).

  6. Urea for long-term treatment of syndrome of inappropriate secretion of antidiuretic hormone.

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    Decaux, G; Genette, F

    1981-10-24

    The efficacy of oral urea in producing a sufficiently high osmotic diuresis was tested in seven patients with the syndrome of inappropriate secretion of antidiuretic hormone. In all patients urea corrected the hyponatraemia despite a normal fluid intake. Five patients were controlled (serum sodium concentration greater than 128 mmol(mEq)/1) with a dose of 30 g urea daily, and two with 60 g daily. The patients who needed 30 g drank 1-2 1 of fluid daily, while those who needed 60 g drank up to 3.1 per day. No major side effects were noted, even after treatment periods of up to 270 days. These findings suggest that urea is a safe and efficacious treatment of the syndrome of inappropriate secretion of antidiuretic hormone.

  7. Breast cancer presenting with the syndrome of inappropriate secretion of antidiuretic hormone after simple mastectomy.

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    Hashida, H; Honda, T; Morimoto, H; Sasaki, T; Aibara, Y; Yamanaka, M

    2001-09-01

    A 71-year-old woman showed disorientation 7 days after simple mastectomy for right breast cancer. Computed tomography of the brain was normal. The level of serum sodium was very low (110 mEq/l), while the urine sodium level was normal. The osmolality of urine was higher (342 mosmol/kg) than that of serum (220 mosmol/kg). These data suggested a syndrome of inappropriate secretion of antidiuretic hormone. A fluid restriction, infusion of hypertonic saline and administration of diuretics gradually increased the level of serum sodium. Subsequently, disorientation disappeared. This is a rare case of the syndrome of inappropriate secretion of antidiuretic hormone caused by simple mastectomy, a relatively minor surgical procedure.

  8. Syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone secretion related to Guillain-Barré syndrome after laparoscopic cholecystectomy.

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    Çakırgöz, Mensure Yılmaz; Duran, Esra; Topuz, Cem; Kara, Deniz; Turgut, Namigar; Türkmen, Ülkü Aygen; Turanç, Bülent; Dolap, Mustafa Önder; Hancı, Volkan

    2014-01-01

    Guillain-Barré Syndrome is one of the most common causes of acute polyneuropathy in adults. Recently, the occurrence of Guillain-Barré Syndrome after major and minor surgical operations has been increasingly debated. In Guillain-Barré syndrome, syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone secretion and dysautonomy are generally observed after maximal motor deficit. A 44-year-old male patient underwent a laparoscopic cholecystectomy for acute cholecystitis. After the development of a severe headache, nausea, diplopia, and attacks of hypertension in the early postoperative period, a computer tomography of the brain was normal. Laboratory tests revealed hyponatremia linked to syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone secretion, the patient's fluids were restricted, and furosemide and 3% NaCl treatment was initiated. On the second day postoperative, the patient developed numbness moving upward from the hands and feet, loss of strength, difficulty swallowing and respiratory distress. Guillain-Barré syndrome was suspected, and the patient was moved to intensive care. Cerebrospinal fluid examination showed 320 mg/dL protein, and acute motor-sensorial axonal neuropathy was identified by electromyelography. Guillain-Barré syndrome was diagnosed, and intravenous immune globulin treatment (0.4 g/kg/day, 5 days) was initiated. After 10 days in the intensive care unit, at which the respiratory, hemodynamic, neurologic and laboratory results returned to normal, the patient was transferred to the neurology service. Our case report indicates that although syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone secretion and autonomic dysfunction are rarely the initial characteristics of Guillain-Barré syndrome, the possibility of postoperative syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone secretion should be kept in mind. The presence of secondary hyponatremia in this type of clinical presentation may delay diagnosis. Copyright © 2013 Sociedade Brasileira de Anestesiologia

  9. Syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone secretion related to Guillain-Barré syndrome after laparoscopic cholecystectomy

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    Mensure Yilmaz Çakirgöz

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Background and objectives: Guillain-Barré Syndrome is one of the most common causes of acute polyneuropathy in adults. Recently, the occurrence of Guillain-Barré Syndrome after major and minor surgical operations has been increasingly debated. In Guillain-Barré syndrome, syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone secretion and dysautonomy are generally observed after maximal motor deficit. Case report: A 44-year-old male patient underwent a laparoscopic cholecystectomy for acute cholecystitis. After the development of a severe headache, nausea, diplopia, and attacks of hypertension in the early postoperative period, a computer tomography of the brain was normal. Laboratory tests revealed hyponatremia linked to syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone secretion, the patient's fluids were restricted, and furosemide and 3% NaCl treatment was initiated. On the second day postoperative, the patient developed numbness moving upward from the hands and feet, loss of strength, difficulty swallowing and respiratory distress. Guillain-Barré syndrome was suspected, and the patient was moved to intensive care. Cerebrospinal fluid examination showed 320 mg/dL protein, and acute motor-sensorial axonal neuropathy was identified by electromyelography. Guillain-Barré syndrome was diagnosed, and intravenous immune globulin treatment (0.4 g/kg/day, 5 days was initiated. After 10 days in the intensive care unit, at which the respiratory, hemodynamic, neurologic and laboratory results returned to normal, the patient was transferred to the neurology service. Conclusions: Our case report indicates that although syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone secretion and autonomic dysfunction are rarely the initial characteristics of Guillain-Barré syndrome, the possibility of postoperative syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone secretion should be kept in mind. The presence of secondary hyponatremia in this type of clinical presentation may

  10. Abdominal pain and syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone secretion as clinical presentation of acute intermittent porphyria.

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    Valle Feijóo, M L; Bermúdez Sanjurjo, J R; González Vázquez, L; Rey Martínez, M; de la Fuente Aguado, J

    2015-01-01

    Acute intermittent porphyria (AIP) is a rare condition characterized by abdominal pain and a wide range of nonspecific symptoms. We report the case of a woman with abdominal pain and syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone secretion (SIADH) as clinical presentation of AIP. The diagnosis was achieved through the etiologic study of the SIADH. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier España, S.L.U. y Sociedad Española de Medicina Interna (SEMI). All rights reserved.

  11. Diagnostik og nye behandlingsmuligheder ved syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone secretion (SIADH)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trolle, Christian; Rittig, Søren; Frøkiær, Jørgen

    2012-01-01

    New treatment methods of syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone secretion (SIADH) has emerged with the oral vasopressin V2-receptor antagonist (VV2RA) tolvaptan, but its therapeutic window remains to be defined. We present the scientific data and describe treatment possibilities of SIADH ...... while raising the questions: “Does the present evidence enable us to identify who to treat with VV2RAs?” and “is VV2RAs justified as first-line treatment?”....

  12. Syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone secretion (SIADH and cerebral salt wasting syndrome (CSWS: similarities and differences

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    Ji Young eOh

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Hyponatremia (sodium levels of < 135 mEq/L is one of the most common electrolyte imbalances in hospital settings, especially in patients with neurologic diseases. Hyponatremia can cause cerebral edema and brain herniation and therefore, prompt diagnosis and proper treatment of hyponatremia is important in preventing morbidity and mortality. Among various causes of hyponatremia, the diagnosis of the syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone secretion (SIADH and cerebral salt wasting syndrome (CSW is still confusing due to many similarities between the SIADH and CSW. SIADH is caused by excess of renal water reabsorption through inappropriate antidiuretic hormone (ADH secretion, and fluid restriction is the treatment of choice. Otherwise, CSW is caused by natriuresis, followed by volume depletion and negative sodium balance and replacement of water and sodium is the mainstay of treatment. Differentiation of these two diseases is difficult in most situations, because they overlap in many clinical and laboratory aspects. Although distinction between the SIADH and CSW is difficult, improvement of hypouricemia and an increased the fractional excretion of uric acid (FEUrate after the correction of hyponatremia in SIADH, not in CSW may be one of the helpful points in discriminating the two disease. In this review, we compare these two diseases regarding the pathophysiologic mechanisms, diagnosis and therapeutic point of view.

  13. Syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone secretion and cerebral/renal salt wasting syndrome: similarities and differences.

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    Oh, Ji Young; Shin, Jae Il

    2014-01-01

    Hyponatremia (sodium levels of cerebral edema and brain herniation; therefore, prompt diagnosis and proper treatment is important in preventing morbidity and mortality. Among various causes of hyponatremia, diagnosing syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone secretion (SIADH) and cerebral/renal salt wasting syndrome (C/RSW) is difficult due to many similarities. SIADH is caused by excess of renal water reabsorption through inappropriate antidiuretic hormone secretion, and fluid restriction is the treatment of choice. On the other hand, C/RSW is caused by natriuresis, which is followed by volume depletion and negative sodium balance and replacement of water and sodium is the mainstay of treatment. Determinating volume status in hyponatremic patients is the key point in differential between SIADH and C/RSW. However, in most situations, differential diagnosis of these two diseases is difficult because they overlap in many clinical and laboratory aspects, especially to assess differences in volume status of these patients. Although distinction between the SIADH and C/RSW is difficult, improvement of hypouricemia and an increased fractional excretion of uric acid after the correction of hyponatremia in SIADH, not in C/RSW, may be one of the helpful points in discriminating the two diseases. In this review, we compare these two diseases regarding the pathophysiologic mechanisms, diagnosis, and therapeutic point of view.

  14. Increased secretion of growth hormone, prolactin, antidiuretic hormone, and cortisol induced by the stress of motion sickness.

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    Eversmann, T; Gottsmann, M; Uhlich, E; Ulbrecht, G; von Werder, K; Scriba, P C

    1978-01-01

    The stress of motion sickness was experimentally provoked by Coriolis effect. Significant and reproducible increases from the basal serum level (delta mean +/- S.E.) of antidiuretic hormone delta - ADH: 48.2 +/- 4.6 pg/ml; p less than 0.0005), of growth hormone (delta - hGH: 10.0 +/- 1.2 ng/ml; p less than 0.0005), of prolactin (delta - hPRL: 186.5 +/- 29.9 muU/ml; p less than 0.0005), and of cortisol (delta - F; 12.3 +/- 0.9 microgram%; p less than 0.0005) were observed, whereas the luteinizing hormone levels did not change significantly. The stimulation of hormone secretion induced by different degrees of motion sickness seems to correlate with the severity of motion sickness. The secretion of antidiuretic hormones is the most sensitive indicator for the stress of motion sickness whereas growth hormone, prolactin, and cortisol responses to the stress of motion sickness are more delayed and less pronounced.

  15. Acute intermittent porphyria with syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone secretion (SIADH and neurological crisis, successfully treated with haemodialysis

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    P. S. Singh

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available We report a 35 years old male, a case of Acute Intermittent Porphyria (AIP with Syndrome of Inappropriate Antidiuretic Hormone secretion (SIADH and neurological crisis for its rarity. Since specific parenteral medication (hemin was not available, patient was empirically treated with haemodialysis with satisfactory outcome. [Int J Res Med Sci 2014; 2(2.000: 795-797

  16. Syndrome of recurrent increased secretion of antidiuretic hormone following multiple doses of vincristine.

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    Stuart, M J; Cuaso, C; Miller, M; Oski, F A

    1975-03-01

    The syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone secretion (SIADH) has been recognized to occur following treatment with vincristine. None of the reports have provided information regarding its potential for recurrence on further challenge with vincristine (VCR), an agent generally required for repeated use in patients with malignancies. Symptomatic hyponatremia and SIADH that occurred 8 days following administration of VCR in a child with acute lymphatic leukemia was documented with specific radioimmunoassay of urinary ADH levels. The further occurrence of recurrent elevations in ADH excretion 8-10 days following repeated treatment with VCR was also observed. However, SIADH was prevented by prophylactic rigorous fluid restriction. The occurrence of SIADH following VCR therefore does not preclude the further safe usage of this drug.

  17. Clinical analysis of the syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone secretion after brain injury

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蔡加宁; 王国良; 易俊

    2003-01-01

    Objective: To study the diagnosis and treatment of the syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone secretion (SIADH) after brain injury. Methods: A retrospective analysis was conducted on 12 patients suffered from SIADH after brain injury. The clinical features of these patients were similar to those of common hyponatremia. Most of the hyponatremia were detected by routine examinations. Supplement of salt as the initial treatment was used in these patients. If natremia did not rise or descended 2-3 days after treatment, SIADH was considered or diagnosed. Treatment scheme should be adjusted to limit water and natrium instead of supplying salt. Frusemide and albumin were the first choice for dehydration therapy. Conclusions: Diagnosis of SIADH is difficult before treatment though effective treatment can be obtained if we adopt correct strategy. In these patients, the diagnosis of SIADH is confirmed in the course of treatment.

  18. Syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone secretion concurrent with liver disease in a dog.

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    Kang, Min-Hee; Park, Hee-Myung

    2012-05-01

    A 5-year-old female Chihuahua was presented for acute collapse. Laboratory examinations showed markedly elevated levels of hepatobiliary enzymes. Empiric antibiotic therapy for bacterial infection of the liver was ineffective. The clinical signs worsened with the development of hyponatremia with hypoosmolality and elevated urine sodium levels. The dog was suspected of having acute cholangiohepatitis associated with an immune-mediated disease. Subsequently, it was diagnosed with syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone secretion (SIADH) on the basis of the specific disease criteria. Further tests showed normal function of the adrenal and thyroid glands, and MRI and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) analysis did not show any intracranial diseases. Immunosuppressive therapy and water restriction resolved the clinical signs and improved the SIADH in this dog. This case indicates that SIADH can occur concurrently with suspected immune-mediated liver disease in dogs.

  19. Syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone secretion: Revisiting a classical endocrine disorder

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    Binu P Pillai

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Hyponatremia occurs in about 30% of hospitalized patients and syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone secretion (SIADH is a common cause of hyponatremia. SIADH should be differentiated from other causes of hyponatremia like diuretic therapy, hypothyroidism and hypocortisolism. Where possible, all attempts should be made to identify and rectify the cause of SIADH. The main problem in SIADH is fluid excess, and hyponatremia is dilutional in nature. Fluid restriction is the main stay in the treatment of SIADH; however, cerebral salt wasting should be excluded in the clinical setting of brain surgeries, subarachnoid hemorrhage, etc. Fluid restriction in cerebral salt wasting can be hazardous. Sodium correction in chronic hyponatremia (onset >48 hours should be done slowly to avoid deleterious effects in brain.

  20. [Neuroleptic malignant syndrome associated with the syndrome of inappropriate secretion of antidiuretic hormone].

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    Yamaguchi, K; Takamoto, K; Yagi, K; Tanabe, H

    1995-02-01

    We reported a case of neuroleptic malignant syndrome (NMS) associated with the syndrome of inappropriate secretion of antidiuretic hormone (SIADH). A 71-year-old woman, who had been diagnosed as hypertension and multiple cerebral infarction, was given sulpiride 150 mg daily for depressive state. Three days after started sulpiride, she developed fever, sweating, difficulty of movement and was admitted to the hospital. The white blood cell count rose to 16,300/mm3 and serum creatine kinase (CK) to 3,063 IU/L. Two days later CK rose to 20,050 IU/L regardless of stopping the drug, so she was transferred to our hospital for further investigation. On admission, it was the 6th day from the onset, she was mute and akinetic accompanied by muscle pain and rigidity in extremities. Serum CK was 1,831 IU/L, Na 122 mEq/L, osmolality 244 mOsm/kg, plasma antidiuretic hormone (ADH) level 6.5 pg/ml and urine Na was 101 mEq/L, osmolality 467 mOsm/kg. Renal and adrenal functions, plasma renin activity were normal. From the history, course and these data, diagnosis of NMS associated with SIADH was made. Intravenous sodium (130-200 mEq/day) and fluids (1,000-1,200 ml/day) were carefully infused. She became active, muscle pain disappeared and rigidity, akinesia decreased. CK, serum Na and osmolality gradually improved to normal. About the transient increase in ADH secretion, we considered that hypothalamic disturbance in NMS might induce leakage of stored ADH from neuroendocrine neurons in it.

  1. [Partial defect in the secretion of antidiuretic hormone and disproportionate polydipsia (author's transl)].

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    Montoliu, J; Botey, A; Revert, L

    1980-01-10

    A 20-year-old patient was evaluated because of polydipsia and polyuria; by means of the dehydration test a partial defect in the secretion of antidiuretic hormone (ADH) was demonstrated, since the urinary osmolality after the administration of exogenous vasopressin was superior by 25 percent to the maximum spontaneous urinary osmolality reached after a period of fluid restriction. Nevertheless, there was also a component of psychogenic polydipsia because the daily basal fluid intake was superior to 15 liters, and in view of the fact that the urinary osmolality could reach 600 mOsm/kg, the endocrine defect cannot totally be responsible for the enormous volume of fluid intake. This is the first case in the world literature in which the association between potomania and deficiency in the secretion of ADH is reported. Since ADH is one of the factors which regulate the behaviour of various animal species it is possible that its deficiency may be directly responsible for the psychic disorder which led to the potomania. It is also possible that an anatomical hypothalamic lesion, too small to be demonstrated, might have a simultaneous effect on the centers regulating thirst and the neurons producing vasopressin.

  2. Syndrome of Inappropriate Secretion of Antidiuretic Hormone Cholestasis and Pericardial Effusion Due to Brucellosis Infection: A Case Report

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    Ahmet Cumhur Dülger

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Syndrome of inappropriate secretion of antidiuretic hormone (SIADH is an extremely rare complication of infectious diseases. A rare case of brucellosis complicated by syndrome of inappropriate secretion of antidiuretic hormone (SIADH cholestasis and pericardial involvement is reported. A 27-year-old woman was admitted for fever, abdominal pain, and scleral icterus. Her medical history revealed no recent use of diuretic agents. In addition to cholestasis and elevated liver enzymes, euvolemic hyponatremia, hypouricemia, low plasma osmolality, and high urinary osmolality were also detected. Surrenal and thyroid tests were also within normal range. Echocardiography revealed minimal pericardial effusion with normal cardiac functions. The final diagnosis was SIADH due to Brucellosis. Hyponatremia, cholestasis, and pericardial disease were resolved with effective antibrucellar treatment with streptomycine and doxycycline. After completing treatment of brucellosis, there was not any more evidence of cholestasis and pericardial fluid.

  3. Central neurogenic diabetes insipidus, syndrome of inappropriate secretion of antidiuretic hormone, and cerebral salt-wasting syndrome in traumatic brain injury.

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    John, Cynthia A; Day, Michael W

    2012-04-01

    Central neurogenic diabetes insipidus, syndrome of inappropriate secretion of antidiuretic hormone, and cerebral salt-wasting syndrome are secondary events that affect patients with traumatic brain injury. All 3 syndromes affect both sodium and water balance; however, they have differences in pathophysiology, diagnosis, and treatment. Differentiating between hypernatremia (central neurogenic diabetes insipidus) and the 2 hyponatremia syndromes (syndrome of inappropriate secretion of antidiuretic hormone, and cerebral salt-wasting syndrome) is critical for preventing worsening neurological outcomes in patients with head injuries.

  4. High-Dose Risperidone Induced Latent Syndrome of Inappropriate Antidiuretic Hormone Secretion With Seizure Presentation.

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    Lee, Yen-Feng; Tsai, Chia-Kuang; Liang, Chih-Sung

    2015-01-01

    We report a case of a patient with schizophrenia treated with high-dose risperidone, who developed syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone secretion (SIADH) with the only early symptom of tonic-clonic seizures. A 40-year-old woman with schizophrenia was treated with risperidone 2 mg/d. After the dosage was titrated to 6 mg/d, she experienced generalized seizure attacks. Laboratory screening revealed that the serum sodium level was 106 mmol/L, the urine sodium concentration was 41.2 mmol/L, and the urine osmolality was 371 mOsm/kg H2O. A diagnosis of SIADH was made, and risperidone was stopped. After infusion of hypertonic saline, the serum sodium returned to normal levels, and seizures did not recur. In this patient, SIADH advanced in a latent manner because the first and only symptom of SIADH was seizure attack. High-dose risperidone treatment is the most probable cause, and the mechanisms may be related to risperidone's high affinity for the 5-hydroxytryptamine 2A and dopamine 2 receptors. Patients with schizophrenia can display atypical features of medical illnesses. Routine physical and laboratory examinations may prevent silent disease progression.

  5. Severe hyponatremia caused by nab-paclitaxel-induced syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone secretion

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    Neuzillet, Cindy; Babai, Samy; Kempf, Emmanuelle; Pujol, Géraldine; Rousseau, Benoît; Le-Louët, Hervé; Christophe Tournigand

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Incidence of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) is increasing. Most patients have advanced disease at diagnosis and therapeutic options in this setting are limited. Gemcitabine plus nab-paclitaxel regimen was demonstrated to increase survival compared with gemcitabine monotherapy and is therefore indicated as first-line therapy in patients with metastatic PDAC and performance status Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group (ECOG) 0-2. The safety profile of gemcitabine and nab-paclitaxel combination includes neutropenia, fatigue, and neuropathy as most common adverse events of grade 3 or higher. No case of severe hyponatremia associated with the use of nab-paclitaxel for the treatment of PDAC has been reported to date. We report the case of a 72-year-old Caucasian man with a metastatic PDAC treated with gemcitabine and nab-paclitaxel regimen, who presented with a severe hyponatremia (grade 4) caused by a documented syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone secretion (SIADH). This SIADH was attributed to nab-paclitaxel after a rigorous imputability analysis, including a rechallenge procedure with dose reduction. After dose and schedule adjustment, nab-paclitaxel was pursued without recurrence of severe hyponatremia and with maintained efficacy. Hyponatremia is a rare but potentially severe complication of nab-paclitaxel therapy that medical oncologists and gastroenterologists should be aware of. Nab-paclitaxel-induced hyponatremia is manageable upon dose and schedule adaptation, and should not contraindicate careful nab-paclitaxel reintroduction. This is of particular interest for a disease in which the therapeutic options are limited. PMID:27368013

  6. Multiple system atrophy with syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone secretion: clinical analysis on three cases

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    Man-qing XIE

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Background Multiple system atrophy (MSA is a neurodegenerative disorder affecting motor (either extrapyramidal or cerebellar and autonomic nervous systems. The main clinical manifestations of MSA are parkinsonism, cerebellar ataxia and autonomic dysfunction. It may also affect the hypothalamus and related fibers, resulting in syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone secretion (SIADH and hyponatremia. This study aims to identify the clinical characteristics of MSA with SIADH, so as to provide evidence for clinical diagnosis and treatment. Methods Clinical manifestations, laboratory examinations and imaging features, diagnosis and treatment of 3 MSA patients with SIADH in our hospital from 2011 to 2015 were retrospectively analyzed. Results Among 3 MSA patients, 2 cases were parkinsonism-predominant (MSA-P and the other one was cerebellar-predominant (MSA-C. All of them presented severe hyponatremia. The lowest serum sodium concentration was 123, 118 and 121 mmol/L, respectively. The level of urinary sodium concentration was 91, 114 and 129 mmol/L, respectively. One was diagnosed as definite SIADH, and the other 2 cases were possible SIADH. Two cases were complicated with infection (one Legionella pneumophila and one pulmonary infection, which was greatly improved after anti-infection treatment and sodium supplement. The other case died of refractory hyponatremia in the end. Conclusions MSA patients with autogenous or concurrent infection may be susceptible to SIADH, therefore water-sodium balance management is important for MSA patients. MSA with SIADH is rare, and refractory hyponatremia may indicate a poor prognosis. DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.1672-6731.2017.02.009

  7. Treatment of the syndrome of inappropriate secretion of antidiuretic hormone by urea.

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    Decaux, G; Brimioulle, S; Genette, F; Mockel, J

    1980-07-01

    Recent data have shown the role of urea in the urinary concentrating mechanism. We studied the effects of exogenous urea administration in hyponatremia associated with the syndrome of inappropriate secretion of antidiuretic hormone (SIADH). In 20 patients with SIADH, we observed a positive correlation between serum sodium and blood urea levels (r = 0.65; p less than 0.01). In one patient with an oat cell carcinoma and SIADH-induced hyponatremia, we observed the same positive correlation (r = 0.80; p less than 0.01) but also a negative one between the excreted fraction of filtered sodium and urinary urea (r = -0.67; p less than 0.001). The short-term administration of low doses of urea (4 to 10 g) resulted in correcting the "salt-losing" tendency of this patient. Longer term administration of high doses of urea (30 g/day) was attempted with the same patient as well as with a healthy volunteer subject with Pitressin-induced SIADH. in both patients, urea treatment lowered urinary sodium excretion as long as hyponatremia was significant (less than 130 meq/liter). Urea treatment also induced a persistent osmotic diuresis, allowing a normal daily intake of water despite SIADH. This was clearly shown during the long-term treatment of a third patient with SIADH who was taking 30 g urea/day during 11 weeks. It is concluded that urea is a good alternative in the treatment of patients with SIADH who presented with persistent hyponatremia despite the restriction of water intake.

  8. Clinical guidelines for management of diabetes insipidus and syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone secretion after pituitary surgery.

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    Lamas, Cristina; del Pozo, Carlos; Villabona, Carles

    2014-04-01

    Changes in water metabolism and regulation of vasopressin (AVP) or antidiuretic hormone (ADH) are common complications of pituitary surgery. The scarcity of studies comparing different treatment and monitoring strategies for these disorders and the lack of prior clinical guidelines makes it difficult to provide recommendations following a methodology based on grades of evidence. This study reviews the pathophysiology of diabetes insipidus and inappropriate ADH secretion after pituitary surgery, and is intended to serve as a guide for their diagnosis, differential diagnosis, treatment, and monitoring. Copyright © 2013 SEEN. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  9. [Association between moderate-severe bronchiolitis and syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone secretion in emergency departments].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toledo del Castillo, B; González Ruiz de León, E; Rivas García, A; Vázquez López, P; Miguez Navarro, M C; Marañón Pardillo, R

    2016-01-01

    To identify clinical characteristics that may lead to the early recognition of patients admitted to the hospital for moderate-to-severe bronchiolitis with urine results associated with the syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone secretion (SIADH). A prospective observational study was conducted, spanning the bronchiolitis epidemic season (October 2012-March 2013), including all children who were admitted to the hospital with a diagnosis of moderate-to-severe bronchiolitis. The following criteria were used to establish a diagnosis of SIADH: urine sodium level of 40 mmol/L or greater, urine osmolarity above 500 mosm/Kg, and urine density of 1020 g/L or greater. Demographic characteristics, ventilation mode and clinical outcome were also analyzed. A comparison was made between those patients that met urine SIADH criteria and those who did not. A total of 126 children were included, and 23 (18.6%) of them had urine SIADH criteria. Patients in this group had a higher incidence of pneumonia and/or atelectasis on chest X-Ray (21.7% vs. 1.9%, P=.002), worse response to bronchodilator treatment with nebulized adrenaline (69,5% vs. 28,1%, P=.016), more need for respiratory assistance (high flow oxygen therapy (17.4% vs. 7.7%, p=.016), or non-invasive mechanical ventilation (13% vs. 5.8%, P=.034), and more admissions to the PICU (26.1% vs. 6.8%, P=.007). Patients older than one month with acute moderate bronchiolitis and urine SIADH criteria have worse clinical courses and more need for non-invasive mechanical ventilation, PICU admission, and have a higher incidence of pneumonia on chest X-ray. For that reason, it is recommended to collect a urine sample from these patients to allow an early diagnosis of SIADH, and thus early treatment of fluid and electrolyte abnormalities. Copyright © 2014 Asociación Española de Pediatría. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  10. Syndrome of Inappropriate Antidiuretic Hormone Secretion (SIADH in Strongyloides stercoralis hyperinfection

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    Deepshikha Nag Chowdhury

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Strongyloides stercoralis (S. stercoralis is a soil transmitted intestinal roundworm that has a unique ability to multiply within the human host and reinfect the human carrier by a process of autoinfection. By this property, S. stercoralis can persist as an occult infection for many decades. In situations of immunosuppression or other permissive gastrointestinal conditions, there occurs a massive increase in parasite multiplication. The parasites penetrate through the intestinal mucosa and are carried in circulation and can cause multisystem involvement. We report a case of a 76-year-old Columbian male who presented with intractable vomiting and hyponatremia who was then diagnosed to have syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone (SIADH. The patient′s symptoms improved after treatment with two doses of ivermectin and his serum sodium levels returned to normal. S. stercoralis infection should be suspected in patients from endemic regions who present with gastrointestinal symptoms and unexplained hyponatremia.

  11. Syndrome of Inappropriate Antidiuretic Hormone Secretion (SIADH) in Strongyloides stercoralis Hyperinfection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chowdhury, Deepshikha Nag; Dhadham, Gautamy Chitiki; Shah, Anish; Baddoura, Walid

    2014-01-01

    Strongyloides stercoralis (S. stercoralis) is a soil transmitted intestinal roundworm that has a unique ability to multiply within the human host and reinfect the human carrier by a process of autoinfection. By this property, S. stercoralis can persist as an occult infection for many decades. In situations of immunosuppression or other permissive gastrointestinal conditions, there occurs a massive increase in parasite multiplication. The parasites penetrate through the intestinal mucosa and are carried in circulation and can cause multisystem involvement. We report a case of a 76-year-old Columbian male who presented with intractable vomiting and hyponatremia who was then diagnosed to have syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone (SIADH). The patient's symptoms improved after treatment with two doses of ivermectin and his serum sodium levels returned to normal. S. stercoralis infection should be suspected in patients from endemic regions who present with gastrointestinal symptoms and unexplained hyponatremia.

  12. The prevalence and risk factors of the Syndrome of Inappropriate Anti-Diuretic Hormone secretion (SIADH following spinal surgery

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    Bahram Mobini

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available

    • BACKGROUND: The Syndrome of Inappropriate Anti-Diuretic Hormone (SIADH secretion is the most common etiology of normovolemic hyponatremia, which occurs following non-physiologic release of antidiuretic hormone (ADH from the posterior pituitary, or an ectopic source. SIADH has been reported as a complication of cardiothoracic, brain, and spinal surgeries. This study was conducted to assess the prevalence of SIADH following spinal surgeries and to identify the underlying risk factors.
    • METHODS: Samples were patients undergoing any spinal surgery at the Hospitals of Shafa Yahyaian and Rasoul Akram, Tehran, Iran in a 2-year period. Blood and urine sodium concentrations and osmolarity were measured before and after surgery. The amount of hemorrhage, as well as the patients' fluid input and output during surgery were recorded. Fluid input and output was also recorded on the first postoperative day.
    • RESULTS: The prevalence of SIADH following spinal surgeries was 60.3%. Mean duration of surgery in SIADH patients was longer than in others. Mean amount of hemorrhage and total fluid loss during surgery were significantly higher in SIADH patients than in healthy individuals.
    • CONCLUSIONS: SIADH is the principal cause of hyponatremia following spinal surgeries; the reported prevalence rates vary widely from 5 to 100%. SIADH following surgery has been attributed to stress, and in spinal or neurological surgeries to dural damage or traction of neuronal pathways. Time is of the essence in the treatment of hyponatremia and prevention of complications that may increase the mortality and morbidity of spinal surgeries.
    • KEYWORDS: Inappropriate ADH Syndrome, spinal surgeries, hyponatremia.

  13. COMPARISON OF THE FREQUENCY AND COMPLICATIONS OF INAPPROPRIATE ANTIDIURETIC HORMONE SECRETION IN PATIENTS WITH SEPTIC AND ASEPTIC MENINGITIS

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    Ali HONARPISHEH MD

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available ObjectiveDue to the high prevalence of syndrome of Inappropriate Antidiuretic Hormone Secretion (SIADH. This study was carried out to evaluate the prevalence and relevant parameters of SIADH in children with septic and aseptic memingitis hospitalized at Kashan Shahid Beheshti Hospital between 1996 and 2006.Materials & MethodsThis descriptive study was conducted on 230 patients with meningitis hospitalized in the pediatric wards of Kashan Shahid Beheshti Hospital between 1996 and 2006. Relevant information (age, gender, type of meningitis, serum sodium and potassium, urine specific gravity (USG, blood sugar, blood urea nitrogen, serum creatinin, hydration condition was collected from patients' records. Data was analyzed using Mann-Whitney and K2 tests.ResultsOut of 230 patients with meningitis, 33 had incomplete records and only 197 patients were recruited for this study. Sixty eight cases (34.5% suffered from SIADH. It was more frequent among 1-2 year old  children.According to this research, SIADH was diagnosed in 57% of the 121 patients with hyponatremia, 58.7% of the 167 patients with USG > 1.004, 74% of the 93 patients with serum osmolity ConclusionDue to the high prevalence of SIADH in septic and aseptic meningitis and its complication, it is recommended to restrict fluid therapy and monitor serum sodium, urine specific gravity and other diagnostic tests for SIADH.Keywords: Hyponatremia; Meningitis; SIADH, Septic, Aseptic

  14. SYNDROME OF INADEQUATE SECRETION OF ANTIDIURETIC HORMONE ASSOCIATED TO PULMONARY THROMBOEMBOLISM: A NON-DESCRIBED CAUSE OF HYPONATREMIA IN THE LITERATURE.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos G. Musso

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Syndrome of inadequate secretion of antidiuretic hormone (SIADH is a condition that can be associated to various sort of lung diseases.In this report we present a clinical case where a SIADH associated to pulmonary thromboembolism was documented. As long as we know, this association has not been described yet in the literature, and we hypothesized that lung cytokines released due to pulmonary necrosis could be the main stimulus to vasopressin secretion in this entity.Conclusion: Pulmonary thromboembolism should be incorporated in the list of lung causes of SIADH.

  15. [A case of Guillain-Barré syndrome accompanied by syndrome of inappropriate secretion of antidiuretic hormone].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inoue, Manabu; Kojima, Yasuhiro; Shirakashi, Yoshitomo; Kanda, Masutarou; Shibasaki, Hiroshi

    2010-10-01

    A 73-year-old Japanese male was admitted because of difficulty in standing up after acute upper respiratory inflammation with mild fever followed by watery diarrhea. Neurological examination revealed moderate proximal muscle weakness and loss of tendon reflexes in all extremities. The blood sodium level was 106 mEq/l on admission. The blood level of antidiuretic hormone (ADH), renin and aldsterone was 11.3 pg/ml (normal value 0.3-4.2), 0.2 ng/ml/h (0.2-2.7) and less than 10.0 pg/ml (38.9-307.0), respectively. The plasma osmolarity was 221 mOsm/kg (270-295), and the urine osmolarity was 416 mOsm/kg (50-1400). EMG and nerve conduction studies suggested acute demyelination in the motor and sensory nerves. CSF revealed 10 cells/mm3 and elevated protein to 98 mg/dl. The clinical course, laboratory data and electrophysiological findings suggested coexistence of the syndrome of inappropriate secretion of ADH (SIADH) and Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS) from the very early clinical stage of the diseases. The clinical and laboratory findings improved after intravenous administration of saline over three weeks. When GBS is associated with SIADH, hyponatremia is commonly seen at the peak of motor paralysis, often accompanied by autonomic or respiratory failure requiring mechanical ventilation. This was not the case in the present patient. It is postulated that SIADH, like GBS, might be caused by an autoimmune mechanism.

  16. Syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone secretion in hospital inpatients: a descriptive study in a tertiary care centre in South India

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    Mansoor C. Abdulla

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Hyponatremia is the most common electrolyte abnormality among the patients in medical wards as well as in the intensive care unit contributing to substantial morbidity and mortality. The most common cause of hyponatraemia in hospital inpatients is Syndrome of Inappropriate Anti Diuretic Hormone secretion (SIADH. This prospective observational study was designed to assess the clinical profile of SIADH. Aim: To assess the clinical profile of SIADH in medically ill patients. Methods: This was an observational study for 24 months conducted in a tertiary care hospital. Patients were assessed clinically to study the volume status, effects of hyponatremia on nervous system and find out various etiologies for SIADH. All patients underwent routine hemogram, blood biochemistry, serum electrolytes, thyroid function tests, morning serum cortisol estimation, plasma and urinary osmolality determination as well as urinary sodium estimation. Patients were diagnosed to have Syndrome of Inappropriate Antidiuretic Hormone secretion (SIADH if they satisfied the Bartter and Schwartz criteria. Results: Among the eighty patients with euvolemic, hypoosmolal hyponatremia who were screened for SIADH, seven patients were excluded due to various reasons (hypothyroidism, Sheehan's syndrome, Addison's disease. The mean age of the patients was 64 +/- 13 years. Among 73 patients included there were 33 (45.2% male patients and 40 (54.8% female patients. Severe hyponatremia (Na <110 meq/l was detected in 33 patients (45%. Pulmonary causes were the most common cause of SIADH in this study seen in 25 (34.2%. The other causes were idiopathic in 20 (27.4%, neurological in 17 (23.3%, drug induced in 2 (2.7%, positive pressure ventilation in 5 (6.8% and other infections in 4 (5.5%.The average rate of correction was 5 meq +/- 1.5 in the first 24 hours. The overall mortality was found to be 7%. Conclusion: Hyponatremia due to SIADH is common among elderly patients with

  17. The Syndrome of Inappropriate Secretion of Anti-Diuretic Hormone (SIADH) and Brucellosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bala, Keziban Asli; Doğan, Murat; Kaba, Sultan; Akbayram, Sinan; Aslan, Oktay; Kocaman, Selami; Bayhan, Gülsüm İclal; Üstyol, Lokman; Demir, Nihat

    2016-01-01

    Background Our study aimed to demonstrate the frequency of the syndrome of inappropriate ADH secretion (SIADH) and associated factors during the course of brucellosis in children and adolescents. Material/Methods The study included children and adolescents aged 0–18 years old diagnosed with brucellosis between 2012 and 2014. The data were collected from patient charts. The diagnosis of brucellosis was made based on titrations >1:160 in standard Wright tube agglutination tests and/or positive culture tests. SIADH diagnosis was made based on the following criteria: euvolemic hyponatremia, serum Na+ 25 mmol/L with normal dietary salt intake), low uric acid (brucellosis. PMID:27590789

  18. [Hyponatremia in neurologic intensive care: cerebral salt wasting syndrome and inappropriate antidiuretic hormone secretion].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bracco, D; Favre, J B; Ravussin, P

    2001-02-01

    Hyponatraemia is a frequent complication in neurologically injured patients; it is a secondary cerebral injury. Hyponatraemia leads to consciousness problems, convulsions, worsening of the neurological status and thus the neurological evaluation. Hyponatraemia is secondary to free water retention (inappropriate ADH secretion) or to renal salt loss. The cerebral salt wasting syndrome (CSWS) has been described with head injury, subarachnoid haemorrhage and after several sorts of brain insults. It is characterised by an increased natriuresis and diuresis. Diagnosis is based on hyponatraemia, hypernatriuresis, increased diuresis and hypovolaemia. However, inappropriate ADH secretion and CSWS share several diagnostic criteria. The atrial natriuretic factor and the C-type natriuretic factors play a role in the development of the CSWS. The diagnostic approach and monitoring are based on the assessment of sodium and water losses. Therapy is based on correction of the circulating volume and natraemia. Speed of correction is a matter of debate: slow correction presents the risk of further neurological injury whereas rapid correction presents the risk of central pontine myelinosis.

  19. Copeptin as a marker for arginine-vasopressin/antidiuretic hormone secretion in the diagnosis of paraneoplastic syndrome of inappropriate ADH secretion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wuttke, A; Dixit, K C; Szinnai, G; Werth, S C; Haagen, U; Christ-Crain, M; Morgenthaler, N; Brabant, G

    2013-12-01

    Direct measurement of arginine-vasopressin/antidiuretic hormone (AVP/ADH) concentrations is not included in the standard diagnostic procedures for paraneoplastic syndrome of inappropriate ADH secretion (SIADH). Here, we evaluate the potential of copeptin measurement as a surrogate marker of AVP/ADH secretion for the direct diagnosis of suspected SIADH in cancer patients. Forty-six unselected cancer patients with serum sodium concentrations permanently below 135 mmol/L were included in this study. We compared standard diagnostic criteria for SIADH to the measurement of plasma copeptin in relation to osmolality. Normative data for comparison were constructed from 24 healthy controls studied under basal conditions, experimental dehydration, and hypotonic hypervolemia as well as from 222 hospital patients with no suspicion of an altered ADH regulation. Log transformation of copeptin revealed a linear relationship to plasma osmolality in the controls (R = 0.495, p < 0.001). Compared to these normative data, copeptin levels in most cancer patients were inappropriately high for plasma osmolality and were not significantly correlated. These results, suggestive for paraneoplastic SIADH, could be confirmed by conventional diagnostic procedures for SIADH. Current strategies to diagnose SIADH are difficult to perform under outpatients conditions. Our approach allows screening from a single plasma sample for true paraneoplastic ADH oversecretion and thus rapid selection for a specific therapy with an AVP receptor antagonist.

  20. Anti-aquaporin-4 antibody-positive neuromyelitis optica presenting with syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone secretion as an initial manifestation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakajima, H; Fujiki, Y; Ito, T; Kitaoka, H; Takahashi, T

    2011-09-01

    The distribution of neuromyelitis optica (NMO)-characteristic brain lesions corresponds to sites of high aquaporin-4 (AQP4) expression, and the brainstem and hypothalamus lesions that express high levels of AQP4 protein are relatively characteristic of NMO. The syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone secretion (SIADH) is one of the important causes of hyponatremia and results from an abnormal production or sustained secretion of antidiuretic hormone (ADH). SIADH has been associated with many clinical states or syndromes, and the hypothalamic-neurohypophyseal system regulates the feedback control system for ADH secretion. We report the case of a 63-year-old man with NMO, whose initial manifestation was hyponatremia caused by SIADH. Retrospective analysis revealed that the serum anti-AQP4 antibody was positive, and an MRI scan showed a unilateral lesion in the hypothalamus. SIADH recovered completely with regression of the hypothalamic lesion. As such, NMO should even be considered in patients who develop SIADH and have no optic nerve or spinal cord lesions but have MRI-documented hypothalamic lesions.

  1. Anti-Aquaporin-4 Antibody-Positive Neuromyelitis Optica Presenting with Syndrome of Inappropriate Antidiuretic Hormone Secretion as an Initial Manifestation

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    H. Nakajima

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The distribution of neuromyelitis optica (NMO-characteristic brain lesions corresponds to sites of high aquaporin-4 (AQP4 expression, and the brainstem and hypothalamus lesions that express high levels of AQP4 protein are relatively characteristic of NMO. The syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone secretion (SIADH is one of the important causes of hyponatremia and results from an abnormal production or sustained secretion of antidiuretic hormone (ADH. SIADH has been associated with many clinical states or syndromes, and the hypothalamic-neurohypophyseal system regulates the feedback control system for ADH secretion. We report the case of a 63-year-old man with NMO, whose initial manifestation was hyponatremia caused by SIADH. Retrospective analysis revealed that the serum anti-AQP4 antibody was positive, and an MRI scan showed a unilateral lesion in the hypothalamus. SIADH recovered completely with regression of the hypothalamic lesion. As such, NMO should even be considered in patients who develop SIADH and have no optic nerve or spinal cord lesions but have MRI-documented hypothalamic lesions.

  2. Differentiation of the cerebral salt wasting syndrome and syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone secretion%脑性盐耗综合征与抗利尿激素异常分泌综合征的鉴别

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周莎莎; 李嫔

    2014-01-01

    脑性盐耗综合征和抗利尿激素异常分泌综合征在颅脑疾病相关的低钠血症中均占用一定比例.两种疾病临床表现极为相似,且易混淆,而治疗原则却大不相同.因此,正确鉴别两种疾病,对于临床患者的治疗及预后意义重大.该文从发病机制、诊断及治疗等方面对两种疾病进行鉴别.%The cerebral salt wasting syndrome and syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone secretion are frequent in hyponatremia in patients with intracranial disorders.There is a major problem about the incidence,diagnosis,and differentiation of cerebral salt wasting syndrome and syndrome of inappropriate secretion of antidiuretic hormone in patients with acute central nervous system disorders.Clinical presentation of cerebral salt wasting syndrome is similar to syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone secretion,but the therapy is different.So differential diagnosis is essential for appropriate management.This paper differentiate two kinds of diseases from the pathogenesis,diagnosis and treatment.

  3. Morvan's syndrome with anti contactin associated protein like 2 – voltage gated potassium channel antibody presenting with syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone secretion

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    Anjani Kumar Sharma

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Morvan's syndrome is a rare autoimmune disorder characterized by triad of peripheral nerve hyperexcitability, autonomic dysfunction, and central nervous system symptoms. Antibodies against contactin-associated protein-like 2 (CASPR2, a subtype of voltage-gated potassium channel (VGKC complex, are found in a significant proportion of patients with Morvan's syndrome and are thought to play a key role in peripheral as well as central clinical manifestations. We report a patient of Morvan's syndrome with positive CASPR2–anti-VGKC antibody having syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone as a cause of persistent hyponatremia.

  4. Morvan's syndrome with anti contactin associated protein like 2 – voltage gated potassium channel antibody presenting with syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone secretion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Anjani Kumar; Kaur, Manminder; Paul, Madhuparna

    2016-01-01

    Morvan's syndrome is a rare autoimmune disorder characterized by triad of peripheral nerve hyperexcitability, autonomic dysfunction, and central nervous system symptoms. Antibodies against contactin-associated protein-like 2 (CASPR2), a subtype of voltage-gated potassium channel (VGKC) complex, are found in a significant proportion of patients with Morvan's syndrome and are thought to play a key role in peripheral as well as central clinical manifestations. We report a patient of Morvan's syndrome with positive CASPR2–anti-VGKC antibody having syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone as a cause of persistent hyponatremia. PMID:27695240

  5. Syndrome of Inappropriate Anti-Diuretic Hormone Secretion Secondary to Strongyloides stercoralis Infection in an Allogeneic Stem Cell Transplant Patient: A Case Report and Literature Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khushman, M; Morris, M I; Diaz, L; Goodman, M; Pereira, D; Fuller, K; Garcia-Buitrago, M; Moshiree, B; Zelaya, S; Nayer, A; Benjamin, C L; Komanduri, K V

    2017-03-01

    Syndrome of inappropriate anti-diuretic hormone (SIADH) has been reported to be associated with systemic Strongyloides stercoralis. Here, we report a case of a stem cell transplant (SCT) recipient who developed severe SIADH secondary to systemic S Stercoralis. The SIADH resolved quickly after treating the systemic S Stercoralis with ivermectin. A systematic review of the literature was performed by PubMed, Scopus, and Cochrane database search. Only eight cases of S Stercoralis in allogeneic SCT recipients have been previously reported. To our knowledge, ours is the first reported case of SIADH secondary to S Stercoralis infection in an allogeneic SCT recipient. Prior to transplantation, even if asymptomatic, patients from endemic regions should be screened with strongyloides immunoglobulin (Ig)G serology. Pretransplantation eosinophilia should be evaluated by screening multiple stool samples for ova and parasites. Transplant candidates with positive serology or stool tests can be treated pretransplantation to eradicate infection. Patients at risk for S Stercoralis who develop nonspecific gastrointestinal complaints, rash, pulmonary infiltrates, or gram-negative bacteremia or meningitis may have S Stercoralis hyperinfection syndrome. Our case indicates that the development of SIADH may be an additional clue to this diagnosis. Appropriate diagnostic studies, including repeat stool and other body fluid sampling, should be expedited and ivermectin therapy initiated rapidly to prevent significant morbidity and mortality.

  6. 小细胞肺癌合并抗利尿激素异常分泌综合征研究进展%Syndrome of Inappropriate Antidiuretic Hormone Secretion in Small Cell Lung Cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姜健; 梁军

    2009-01-01

    Syndrome of Inappropriate Antidiuretic Hormone Secretion (SIADH) was a common complica-tion of small cell lung cancer (SCLC). Recent studies have suggested that the origin of this disease is related to seceration of tumor cells and application of medecine. The inappropriate antidiuretic hormone secretion can lead to disturbance of metabolism of water and sodium, resulting in hyponatremia. Because the symp-toms are atypical, the diagnosis is difficult. Many cases are misdiagnosed or misseddiagnosed. The primary tumor must be treated and the restriction of water intake is the main and effective method to deal with SIADH. Prognosis of SCLC patients with SIADH is poor in most reports.%小细胞肺癌患者常合并抗利尿激素异常分泌综合征(SIADH),其发生目前认为主要是肿瘤细胞分泌及药物应用引起体内抗利尿激素增多,引起体内水钠代谢平衡紊乱,导致不同程度的低钠血症,临床症状多样,表现无特异性,尤其与肿瘤引起的症状类似,极易造成误诊、漏诊.治疗上在积极治疗原发肿瘤基础上,严格限水是有效和主要的方法,小细胞肺癌患者合并抗利尿激素异常分泌综合征预后相关研究结果不一致,多认为是预后不良的独立因子.

  7. The syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone: prevalence, causes and consequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hannon, M J; Thompson, C J

    2010-06-01

    Hyponatraemia is the commonest electrolyte abnormality found in hospital inpatients, and is associated with a greatly increased morbidity and mortality. The syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone (SIADH) is the most frequent cause of hyponatraemia in hospital inpatients. SIADH is the clinical and biochemical manifestation of a wide range of disease processes, and every case warrants investigation of the underlying cause. In this review, we will examine the prevalence, pathophysiology, clinical characteristics and clinical consequences of hyponatraemia due to SIADH.

  8. The syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone: prevalence, causes and consequences.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Hannon, M J

    2010-06-01

    Hyponatraemia is the commonest electrolyte abnormality found in hospital inpatients, and is associated with a greatly increased morbidity and mortality. The syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone (SIADH) is the most frequent cause of hyponatraemia in hospital inpatients. SIADH is the clinical and biochemical manifestation of a wide range of disease processes, and every case warrants investigation of the underlying cause. In this review, we will examine the prevalence, pathophysiology, clinical characteristics and clinical consequences of hyponatraemia due to SIADH.

  9. Effect of uric acid on inappropriate secretion of antidiuretic hormone and cerebral salt wasting syndrome%尿酸测定在两种脑性低钠血症中的作用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    南向珍; 潘国权; 严纯雪; 叶璟; 韩国强

    2008-01-01

    目的 探讨尿酸测定在两种脑性低钠血症:抗利尿激素分泌异常综合征(the syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone secretion,SIADH)和脑性耗盐综合征(the cerebral salt wasting syndrome, CSWS)中的作用.方法 把22例颅内疾病并SIADH作为A组,定期监测血清钠浓度,待血钠正常的恢复期患儿设为B组,并把12例颅内疾病并CSWS设为C组,其恢复期作为D组,同时监测其血尿酸、血清抗利尿激素(ADH)、心钠素(ANP)浓度,并监测血渗透压、尿渗透压及尿钠等.结果 A组患儿的血尿酸与B组相比差异有统计学意义(P<0.01),A组的血尿酸水平明显低于B组,C组患儿的血尿酸与D组相比差异无统计学意义(P>0.05),C组的血尿酸水平与D组相似, A组患儿的血尿酸与C组相比差异有统计学意义(P<0.01), A组的血尿酸水平明显低于C组.结论 颅内疾病并发SIADH患儿的血尿酸水平明显低于恢复期及并发CSWS的患儿,临床上对颅内疾病并发SIADH或并发CSWS的诊断起参考作用.

  10. Inappropriate secretion of antidiuretic hormone:a rare complication after common bile duct exploration

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yu Ruan; Wei Zhang; Qing-Qing Wang

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The syndrome of inappropriate secretion of antidiuretic hormone (SIADH) as a dilutional hyponatremia is due to a pathological increase of antidiuretic hormone (ADH). It is characterized by hyponatremia and decreased serum osmolarity as well as an increase in urinary osmolarity. The most common etiological factors of this syndrome include diseases or trauma of the central nervous system and malignant tumor or inflammation of the lung. SIADH following abdominal surgery is rare. METHODS: We report the case of a 68-year-old woman who developed, 24 hours after common bile duct exploration and stone removal, continuous hyponatremia for 20 days and clinical manifestations of nausea, vomiting, and lethargy without focal neurological signs. RESULT: Laboratory examinations supported the diagnosis of SIADH. After therapy with fluid restriction, the patient recovered. CONCLUSION: There are diverse causes for SIADH. It is important to have kept this clinical possibility in mind in the differential diagnosis of refractory hyponatremia under any circumstances.

  11. Evaluation of costs associated with tolvaptan-mediated hospital length of stay reduction among US patients with the syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone secretion, based on SALT-1 and SALT-2 trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dasta, Joseph F; Chiong, Jun R; Christian, Rudell; Lin, Jay

    2012-02-01

    Two randomized clinical trials, the Study of Ascending Levels of Tolvaptan in Hyponatremia 1 and 2 (SALT-1 and SALT-2), showed that tolvaptan was an efficacious and safe therapy for the treatment of hyponatremic patients with the syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone secretion (SIADH). This study evaluated the potential cost savings associated with tolvaptan usage based on the SALT-1 and SALT-2 trials. Hospital length of stay (LOS) reduction associated with tolvaptan versus placebo was evaluated among hyponatremic patients with the SIADH (serum sodium adult (age ≥ 18 years) patients with the SIADH. A cost-offset model was constructed to evaluate the impact of tolvaptan on hospital cost and LOS, with univariate and multivariate Monte Carlo sensitivity analyses. In the SALT-1 and SALT-2 trials, patients with the SIADH receiving tolvaptan had a shorter hospital LOS than patients receiving placebo (4.98 vs 6.19 days, respectively). There were 21 718 hospitalizations for the SIADH identified from the Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project Nationwide 2009 Inpatient Sample database, with a mean LOS of 5.7 days and mean total hospital costs of $8667. Using an inpatient tolvaptan treatment duration of 4 days, with a daily wholesale acquisition cost of $250, the cost-offset model estimated an LOS reduction among SIADH hospitalizations of 1.11 days. The total cost offset, including tolvaptan drug cost, was estimated to be $694 per admission. The cost-neutral break-even duration of tolvaptan therapy is 6.78 days. Univariate and multivariate sensitivity analyses demonstrated consistent cost reduction associated with tolvaptan usage. Ten thousand cycles of Monte Carlo simulation showed the 95% CI for cost offset to be $73 to $1405. Based on the SALT-1 and SALT-2 trials, tolvaptan usage is associated with a shorter hospital LOS than placebo among patients with the SIADH. Including the drug cost for 4 days of inpatient tolvaptan therapy, tolvaptan is associated with an

  12. Effects of endogenous antidiuretic hormone (ADH) on macrophage phagocytosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernandez-Repollet, E.; Opava-Stitzer, S.; Tiffany, S.; Schwartz, A.

    1983-07-01

    Although several studies have indicated that antidiuretic hormone (ADH) enhances the phagocytic function of the reticuloendothelial system (RES) in shock syndromes, it remains unknown what influence ADH exerts upon the individual phagocytic components of this system. The present investigation was designed to evaluate the effects of endogenous ADH on the phagocytic activity of peritoneal macrophage cells. As a phagocytic stimuli, fluorescent methacrylate microbeads were injected intraperitoneally into Brattleboro (ADH deficient) and normal Long Evans rats in the presence and absence of exogenous ADH. Peritoneal cells were harvested 19-22 hr after the administration of the microbeads and the percent phagocytosis was determined in macrophage cells using a fluorescence-activated cell sorter (FACS II). Our results indicate that the percentage of peritoneal macrophages ingesting the fluorescent methacrylate microbeads was significantly reduced in the absence of ADH (Brattleboro rats: 5.4 +/- 0.6% versus Long Evans rats: 16.8 +/- 2.3%; p less than 0.001). In addition, our data demonstrate that exogenous administration of ADH significantly enhanced macrophage phagocytosis in Brattleboro (14.7 +/- 2.2%) and normal Long Evans (49.6 +/- 4.5%) rats. These data suggest, for the first time, that endogenous ADH might play a modulatory role in the phagocytic activity of a specific component of the RES, namely, the macrophage cell.

  13. Vancomycin intoxication in a patient with inappropriate antidiuretic hormone syndrome and diarrhea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia Hidalgo-Collazos

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Vancomycin is an antibiotic used for infections by gram-positive bacteria with a two-compartment pharmacokinetic model. Its monitoring has an established therapeutic range (10-20 mg/L to prevent nephrotoxicity and ototoxicity due to supratherapeutic levels, and inefficiency and development of resistance by subtherapeutic levels. Nephrotoxicity for vancomycin monotherapy at standard doses according to pathogen and typical regimens (usual dose: 15-20 mg/kg/12 h is rare and usually reversible. Moreover, monitoring plasma concentrations allows to achieve concentrations within therapeutic range to allow safe and effective drug use. The renal hypoperfusion can cause pre-renal damage, resulting in elevated levels of serum creatinine, resulting in decreased antibiotic elimination and nephrotoxicity. We report a case of unexpected vancomycin nephrotoxicity in a patient with syndrome Inappropriate antidiuretic hormone secretion associated paraneoplastic

  14. [Pituitary hormone secretion induced by optokinetic stimulation (author's transl)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mang, W L; Scherer, H; Eversmann, T; Gottsmann, M

    1978-08-01

    A slight optokinetic stimulation induces a significant increase of serum levels of antidiuretic hormone 1,1 +/- 0.8 pg/ml (mean +/- SD) to 3,3 +/- 1,9 pg/ml (mean +/- SD). Serum levels of gGH and cortisol remain unchanged, whereas serum prolactin levels decrease slightly. The ADH secretion seems to be the most sensitive hormonal parameter of the stimulation of the vestibular nuclei induced either by the optokinetic stimulation or by the Coriolis effect.

  15. Natriuresis and diuretic hormone synergism in R. prolixus upper Malpighian tubules is inhibited by the anti-diuretic hormone, RhoprCAPA-α2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paluzzi, Jean-Paul V; Naikkhwah, Wida; O'Donnell, Michael J

    2012-04-01

    Insects contain an array of hormones that coordinate the actions of the excretory system to achieve osmotic and ionic balance. In the hematophagous insect, Rhodnius prolixus, two diuretic hormones have been identified, serotonin (5HT) and a corticotropin releasing factor-related peptide (RhoprDH), and both lead to an increase in fluid secretion by Malpighian tubules (MTs). However, only 5HT activates reabsorption by the lower MTs to recover K(+) and Cl(-). An anti-diuretic hormone (RhoprCAPA-α2) is believed to coordinate the cessation of the rapid diuresis following blood meal engorgement. However, the role of RhoprCAPA-α2 on fluid secretion by MTs stimulated by RhoprDH was previously unknown. Here we demonstrate that, unlike the inhibitory effect on 5HT-stimulated secretion by MTs, RhoprCAPA-α2 does not inhibit secretion stimulated by RhoprDH although it does abolish the synergism that occurs between the two diuretic hormones. In addition, we show that the natriuresis elicited by either diuretic hormone is reduced by RhoprCAPA-α2. Using electrophysiological tools, we investigate the possible mechanism by which this complex regulatory pathway is achieved. Analysis of the pH of secreted fluid as well as the triphasic response in transepithelial potential in MTs treated with diuretic hormones, suggests that RhoprCAPA-α2 does not inhibit the V-type H(+) ATPase. Taken together, these results indicate that RhoprCAPA-α2 functions to reduce the rapid diuresis following blood feeding, and in addition, it inhibits the natriuresis associated with diuretic hormone stimulated MTs. This may reflect an important regulatory mechanism related to the slow diuresis that occurs as the K(+)-rich blood cells are digested.

  16. Cerebral Salt-wasting Syndrome and Inappropriate Antidiuretic Hormone Syndrome after Subarachnoid Hemorrhaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakajima, Hanako; Okada, Hiroshi; Hirose, Kazuki; Murakami, Toru; Shiotsu, Yayoi; Kadono, Mayuko; Inoue, Mamoru; Hasegawa, Goji

    2017-01-01

    Hyponatremia is a common finding after subarachnoid hemorrhaging (SAH) and can be caused by either cerebral salt-wasting syndrome (CSWS) or syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone (SIADH). Distinguishing between these two entities can be difficult because they have similar manifestations, including hyponatremia, serum hypo-osmolality, and high urine osmolality. We herein report the case of a 60-year-old man who suffered from SAH complicated by hyponatremia. During his initial hospitalization, he was diagnosed with CSWS. He was readmitted one week later with hyponatremia and was diagnosed with SIADH. This is the first report of SAH causing CSWS followed by SIADH. These two different sources of hyponatremia require different treatments.

  17. [Evaluation of synthetic antidiuretic hormone as a corrective substance following head-down tilt].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noskov, V B; Larina, I M; Nichiporuk, I A; Pastushkova, L Kh; Vasil'eva, G Iu

    2010-01-01

    Effects of synthesized desmopressin, analog of antidiuretic hormone, and water-salt supplement on the renal function and orthostatic stability were studied in 6 normal male subjects after 12-hr. head-down tilt (12 degrees). The combination of water-salt homeostasis normalizing methods was effective in retaining excessive liquid and salts. Moreover, tolerance of the standard 20-min. passive standing test improved significantly. Hence, it was demonstrated that intake of synthetic vasopressin analog combined with WSS counteracted hypohydration of organism due to HDT and improved orthostatic tolerance.

  18. Escitalopram induced syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone in elderly: an interesting scenario

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tarun Sharma

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRI are the first line drugs used in the treatment of endogenous depression. Though clinically well tolerated in elderly, hyponatremia is one of the recognized side effects and its pathophysiology may be linked to syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone (SIADH. This side effect of SSRIs is a serious one since it can cause death also, if not diagnosed at the onset. This is an interesting case of an elderly patient who developed hyponatremia which further related to SIADH induced by escitalopram, an SSRI. The patient had symptomatic improvement in depression within one month but symptoms of hyponatremia appeared and then deteriorated again. Severe hyponatremia, serum hypo-osmolality, urine osmolality, and measurable levels of plasma antidiuretic hormone suggested SIADH. The hyponatremia improved after stoppage of the offending drug along with conservative medical therapy in hospital. Clinicians should be aware of this uncommon but significant side effect of escitalopram and monitor high-risk patients for the development of SIADH. [Int J Basic Clin Pharmacol 2016; 5(3.000: 1131-1133

  19. Study and development of a radioimmunoassay of antidiuretic hormone sensitive at 10/sup -12/M

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caillens, H.; Rousselet, F. (Faculte des Sciences Pharmaceutiques, (France)); Paillard, F. (Hopital Tenon, Paris (France))

    1982-07-01

    A radioimmunoassay of antidiuretic hormone is described. The antiserum was obtained by immunization of rabbits with lysine vasopressin conjugated to hemocyanine. The specificity of the antibody was selective and directed against the pentapeptide ring of the vasopressin molecule: oxytocin showed no cross-reactivity at 10/sup -9/M. The labelled hormone (/sup 125/I-AVP) prepared using the chloramine-T method had a high specific activity (1860 Ci/mmol). Incubation was performed in an equilibrium system. Comparative studies of different separation methods of bounds and free /sup 125/I-AVP showed that the sensitivity and the precision of the standard curve were better using charcoal dextran. The limit of detection of the assay was 1,6 pg per ml.

  20. Correlation of hyponatremia with plasma renin activity, antidiuretic hormone and brain natri- uretic peptide in chronic heart failure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    富路

    2006-01-01

    Objective To observe the changes of plasma renin activity, antidiuretic hormone and brain natriuretic peptide in chronic heart failure (CHF) and their correlation with hyponatremia. Methods Plasma levels of PRA, ADH, and BNP were measured by radioimmunology in 76 CHF patients. Forty-one out of 76 CHF patients with hyponatremia and 35 CHF patients without hyponatremia

  1. Pontine and extrapontine osmotic myelinolysis after the syndrome of inappropriate secretion of antidiuretic hormone (SIADH associated with fluoxetine: case report Mielinólise osmótica pontina e extrapontina após a síndrome da secreção inapropriada de hormônio antidiurético associada com fluoxetina: relato de caso

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Alexandre Twardowschy

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Osmotic demyelination syndrome (ODS may be precipitated by aggressive correction of a hypo or hyper-osmolar states. We describe the case of a 53-year-old woman that was started on fluoxetine 20 mg/day for depression and nine days later was found to have fluoxetine-induced syndrome of inappropriate secretion of antidiuretic hormone. After hyponatremia correction the mental status of the patient gradually improved, but subsequently she had intermittent difficulty in speaking, naming objects, memory deficits and psychomotor slowness. Magnetic resonance revealed bilateral symmetric hyperintense lesions in the basal ganglia, temporal lobe and hippocampal formation compatible with ODS. These symptoms gradually resolved and she was discharged home without any deficits. Two months later, a new image showed lesion in pons and the other lesions had disappeared. Fluoxetine therapy had never been related with a complication like that.A síndrome de desmielinização osmótica (SDO pode ser precipitada pela correção agressiva de um estado hiper ou hipoosmolar. Nós descrevemos o caso de mulher de 53 anos que havia iniciado o uso de fluoxetina 20 mg/dia para depressão e que nove dias depois foi diagnosticada como tendo síndrome da secreção inapropriada de hormônio antidiurético induzida por fluoxetina. Depois da correção da hiponatremia o estado mental da paciente gradualmente melhorou, mas subsequentemente ela apresentou dificuldade intermitente para fala e para nomear objetos, déficits de memória recente e lentidão psicomotora. Ressonância magnética revelou lesões hiperintensas bilaterais e simétricas na região dos gânglios da base, lobo temporal e hipocampo compatíveis com SDO. Estes sintomas gradualmente se resolveram e a paciente foi de alta sem qualquer déficit. Dois meses mais tarde uma nova imagem cerebral mostrou lesão na ponte e ausência das lesões antigas. Até onde sabemos a terapia com fluoxetina nunca foi relacionada a

  2. The syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone: current and future management options.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Sherlock, Mark

    2010-06-01

    Hyponatraemia is the commonest electrolyte abnormality, and syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone (SIADH) is the most frequent underlying pathophysiology. Hyponatraemia is associated with significant morbidity and mortality, and as such appropriate treatment is essential. Treatment options for SIADH include fluid restriction, demeclocycline, urea, frusemide and saline infusion, all of which have their limitations. The introduction of the vasopressin-2 receptor antagonists has allowed clinicians to specifically target the underlying pathophysiology of SIADH. Initial studies have shown good efficacy and safety profiles in the treatment of mild to moderate hyponatraemia. However, studies assessing the efficacy and safety of these agents in acute severe symptomatic hyponatraemia are awaited. Furthermore, the cost of these agents at present may limit their use.

  3. Pulmonary thrombosis associated with antidiuretic hormone replacement therapy due to secondary diabetes insipidus after traumatic brain injury: A case report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naito, Kiyohito; Watari, Taiji; Yasunari, Eisuke; Yamano, Miki; Mogami, Atsuhiko; Obayashi, Osamu; Kaneko, Kazuo

    2012-01-01

    INTRODUCTION Diabetes insipidus is a well-recognized complication of traumatic brain injury. The majority of patients with post-traumatic diabetes insipidus will require antidiuretic hormone (ADH) replacement therapy and tend to show dehydration. On the other hand, some negative effects of ADH on blood coagulation, such as increased platelet cohesion and the promotion of von Willebrand factor release, have also been reported. However, the incidence of thrombosis during antidiuretic hormone replacement therapy is disputed. PRESENTATION OF CASE A case of pulmonary thrombosis associated with ADH replacement therapy due to secondary diabetes insipidus after traumatic brain injury is presented here. DISCUSSION In our case, there were three factors that may have contributed to the observed thrombosis (dehydration, bed rest for a long period and ADH replacement therapy). CONCLUSION We believe that controlling urinary output and monitoring urinary and serum osmotic pressure are necessary for the management for diabetes insipidus patients after traumatic brain injury. In particular, we must carefully monitor the management of such patients during antidiuretic hormone replacement therapy. PMID:23131855

  4. Pulmonary thrombosis associated with antidiuretic hormone replacement therapy due to secondary diabetes insipidus after traumatic brain injury: A case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naito, Kiyohito; Watari, Taiji; Yasunari, Eisuke; Yamano, Miki; Mogami, Atsuhiko; Obayashi, Osamu; Kaneko, Kazuo

    2013-01-01

    Diabetes insipidus is a well-recognized complication of traumatic brain injury. The majority of patients with post-traumatic diabetes insipidus will require antidiuretic hormone (ADH) replacement therapy and tend to show dehydration. On the other hand, some negative effects of ADH on blood coagulation, such as increased platelet cohesion and the promotion of von Willebrand factor release, have also been reported. However, the incidence of thrombosis during antidiuretic hormone replacement therapy is disputed. A case of pulmonary thrombosis associated with ADH replacement therapy due to secondary diabetes insipidus after traumatic brain injury is presented here. In our case, there were three factors that may have contributed to the observed thrombosis (dehydration, bed rest for a long period and ADH replacement therapy). We believe that controlling urinary output and monitoring urinary and serum osmotic pressure are necessary for the management for diabetes insipidus patients after traumatic brain injury. In particular, we must carefully monitor the management of such patients during antidiuretic hormone replacement therapy. Copyright © 2012 Surgical Associates Ltd. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. EP3 receptors inhibit antidiuretic-hormone-dependent sodium transport across frog skin epithelium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rytved, K A; Nielsen, R

    1999-01-01

    We examined the effect of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) on antidiuretic hormone (ADH)-dependent Na+ transport and cAMP production in isolated frog skin epithelium. ADH caused an increase in transepithelial Na+ transport and a decrease in cellular potential, indicating an increase in apical Na+ permeability. Subsequent addition of PGE2 decreased Na+ transport and repolarised the cells. The PGE2 receptor EP1/3-selective analogue sulprostone and the PGE2 receptor EP2/3-selective analogue misoprostol were able to mimic the effect of PGE2. ADH increased cellular cAMP levels, whereas PGE2, sulprostone and misoprostol were able to reduce the ADH-dependent cAMP production. Measurements of intracellular Ca2+ concentration ([Ca2+]i) revealed that it was unaffected by both PGE2 and sulprostone. The inhibitory effect of PGE2 on ADH-dependent Na+ transport was also observed in Ca2+-depleted epithelia. We conclude that ADH stimulates transepithelial Na+ transport by increasing cellular cAMP levels, whereas PGE2 inhibits ADH-dependent Na+ transport by activating EP3-type receptors, which decrease cellular cAMP levels. We have found no evidence that [Ca2+]i is involved in the regulation of ADH-dependent Na+ transport by PGE2.

  6. Paliperidone Inducing Concomitantly Syndrome of Inappropriate Antidiuretic Hormone, Neuroleptic Malignant Syndrome, and Rhabdomyolysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaspinder Kaur

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Paliperidone, an active metabolite of risperidone, is a new atypical antipsychotic agent. Syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone (SIADH, neuroleptic malignant syndrome (NMS, and rhabdomyolysis are the uncommon side effects of psychotropic drugs. We report a case of 35-year-old male with schizoaffective disorder who was admitted for acute-on-chronic exacerbation of his psychotic disorder for which intramuscular paliperidone 234 mg injection was given. Two days later, the patient developed hyponatremic seizures secondary to SIADH which was treated with hypertonic saline. On the third day, he developed high grade fever and severe muscle rigidity with raised creatine phosphokinase (CPK and liver enzymes levels. He was treated with dantrolene 100 mg, bromocriptine 2.5 mg, and lorazepam 2 mg. Our patient required management of the three rare conditions following treatment with paliperidone. This case highlights the need for health care providers to be aware of the rare, potentially life threatening but preventable hyponatremia, NMS, and rhabdomyolysis as a possible adverse effect of paliperidone.

  7. Paliperidone Inducing Concomitantly Syndrome of Inappropriate Antidiuretic Hormone, Neuroleptic Malignant Syndrome, and Rhabdomyolysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez, Ricardo

    2016-01-01

    Paliperidone, an active metabolite of risperidone, is a new atypical antipsychotic agent. Syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone (SIADH), neuroleptic malignant syndrome (NMS), and rhabdomyolysis are the uncommon side effects of psychotropic drugs. We report a case of 35-year-old male with schizoaffective disorder who was admitted for acute-on-chronic exacerbation of his psychotic disorder for which intramuscular paliperidone 234 mg injection was given. Two days later, the patient developed hyponatremic seizures secondary to SIADH which was treated with hypertonic saline. On the third day, he developed high grade fever and severe muscle rigidity with raised creatine phosphokinase (CPK) and liver enzymes levels. He was treated with dantrolene 100 mg, bromocriptine 2.5 mg, and lorazepam 2 mg. Our patient required management of the three rare conditions following treatment with paliperidone. This case highlights the need for health care providers to be aware of the rare, potentially life threatening but preventable hyponatremia, NMS, and rhabdomyolysis as a possible adverse effect of paliperidone. PMID:27721999

  8. Isolation, cloning, and expression mapping of a gene encoding an antidiuretic hormone and other CAPA-related peptides in the disease vector, Rhodnius prolixus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paluzzi, Jean-Paul; Russell, William K; Nachman, Ronald J; Orchard, Ian

    2008-09-01

    After a blood meal, Rhodnius prolixus undergoes a rapid diuresis to eliminate excess water and salts. During the voiding of this primary urine, R. prolixus acts as a vector of Chagas' disease, with the causative agent, Trypanosoma cruzi, infecting the human host via the urine. Diuresis in R. prolixus is under the neurohormonal control of serotonin and peptidergic diuretic hormones, and thus, diuretic hormones play an important role in the transmission of Chagas' disease. Although diuretic hormones may be degraded or excreted, resulting in the termination of diuresis, it would also seem appropriate, given the high rates of secretion, that a potent antidiuretic factor could be present and act to prevent excessive loss of water and salts after the postgorging diuresis. Despite the medical importance of R. prolixus, no genes for any neuropeptides have been cloned, including obviously, those that control diuresis. Here, using molecular biology in combination with matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight-tandem mass spectrometry, we determined the sequence of the CAPA gene and CAPA-related peptides in R. prolixus, which includes a peptide with anti-diuretic activity. We have characterized the expression of mRNA encoding these peptides in various developmental stage and also examined the tissue-specific distribution in fifth-instars. The expression is localized to numerous bilaterally paired cell bodies within the central nervous system. In addition, our results show that RhoprCAPA gene expression is also associated with the testes, suggesting a novel role for this family of peptides in reproduction.

  9. Thyroid hormones and renin secretion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganong, W F

    Circulating angiotensin is produced by the action of renin from the kidneys on circulating angiotensinogen. There are other renin-angiotensin systems in various organs in the body, and recent observations raise the intriguing possibility that angiotensin II is produced by a totally intracellular pathway in the juxtaglomerular cells, the gonadotrops of the anterior pituitary, neurons, in the brain, salivary duct cells, and neuroblastoma cells. Circulating angiotensin II levels depend in large part on the plasma concentration of angiotensinogen, which is hormonally regulated, and on the rate of renin secretion. Renin secretion is regulated by an intrarenal baroreceptor mechanism, a macula densa mechanism, angiotensin II, vasopressin, and the sympathetic nervous system. The increase in renin secretion produced by sympathetic discharge is mediated for the most part by beta-adrenergic receptors, which are probably located on the juxtaglomerular cells. Hyperthyroidism would be expected to be associated with increased renin secretion in view of the increased beta-adrenergic activity in this condition, and hypothyroidism would be associated with decreased plasma renin activity due to decreased beta-adrenergic activity. Our recent research on serotonin-mediated increases in renin secretion that depend on the integrity of the dorsal raphe nucleus and the mediobasal hypothalamus has led us to investigate the effect of the pituitary on the renin response to p-chloroamphetamine. The response is potentiated immediately after hypophysectomy, but 22 days after the operation, it is abolished. This slowly developing decrease in responsiveness may be due to decreased thyroid function.

  10. Radioimmunoassay of (8-arginine)-vasopressin. II. Application to determination of antidiuretic hormone in urine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merkelbach, U; Czernichow, P; Gaillard, R C; Vallotton, M B

    1975-11-01

    A radioimmunoassay for [8-arginine]-vasopressin (AVP), previously described (Czernichow et al. 1975) has been used for the determination of antidiuretic hormone in a 4 ml urine sample. AVP is extracted from acidified urine with a cation exchanger (Amberlite CG 50) with an overall recovery of 72%. The blank value measured in extracted samples of urine was 0.29 pg/ml +/- 0.21 (SEM) and calculated by extrapolation of the regression line of the recovery experiment was 0.49 pg/ml. The coefficient of variation within-assay was 13% and between-assay 18%. Addition of the amounts of AVP found in each specimen of urine voided gave results nearly identical to those of the amounts found in 24 h pool of urine, indicating that the assay was not affected by changes in concentration of the other urinary components during the day. The daily urinary excretion of AVP measured in 34 subjects was found to be 34 ng in 17 women and 70 ng in 17 men, a significant difference. Urinary concentration and excretion rate of AVP rose during thirst test and during Carter-Robbins test performed in 13 healthy subjects. In the latter test it was observed that the women displayed a strikingly more pronounced AVP elevation after the osmolar stimulus than the men. In both sexes a significant correlation was found between AVP excretion rate and plasma osmolality as well as free water clearance. Three cases of complete or incomplete diabetes insipidus and potomania could be clearly differentiated according to the total output of AVP during the thirst test. Extremely high values of AVP were found in the urine of 5 subjects with Schwartz-Bartter syndrome associated with bronchogenic tumours.

  11. Incretin hormone secretion over the day

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahren, B; Carr, RD; Deacon, Carolyn F.

    2010-01-01

    . Regulation of incretin hormone secretion is less well characterized. The main stimulus for incretin hormone secretion is presence of nutrients in the intestinal lumen, and carbohydrate, fat as well as protein all have the capacity to stimulate GIP and GLP-1 secretion. More recently, it has been established...

  12. Hyponatremia in traumatic brain injury patients: Syndrome of Inappropriate Antidiuretic Hormone (SIADH) versus Cerebral Salt Wasting Syndrome(CSWS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sepehri, Parandoush; Abbasi, Zahra; Mohammadi, Najaf Seid; Bagheri, Seyedreza; Fattahian, Reza

    2012-01-01

    Abstract: Background: Two common dysfunctions among traumatic brain injury (TBI) are hyponatremia secondary to the syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone secretion (SIADH) and cerebral salt wasting syndrome (CSWS).The present study was aimed to define real incidence and most common cause of this problem. Differentiation between these two syndromes is difficult because of overlapping signs, symptoms and specially laboratory data. Distinction between the two syndromes is based on patient's volume state. The present study aims to develop an alternative diagnosis strategy for defining the type of post-TBI hyponatremia. Methods: This was a single-center retrospective study conducted on TBI diagnosed patients referred to intensive care unit (ICU) of Taleghani Hospital (Kermanshah, Iran). Hyponatremia condition is diagnosed when sodium level reaches the values of less than 135 meq/lit. Basic criterion for diagnosing the hyponatremia type was only urine volume. Urine volume was compared with previous days and fluid intake. If the volume showed a reduction, then the patient was classified in SIADH group, and the prescribed treatment was only fluid intake restriction. In cases of CSWS that have polyuric state and hyponatremia, treatment is sodium and fluid replacement. CBC, Na, K, FBS, BUN, Cr and urine 24-hour volume were measured daily, while during the treatment, it was performed twice or more. Results: A total of 881 patients were referred to ICU during January 2011 to March 2012, of them, 678 patients had head trauma with and/or without other body injury. Out of all patients, 216 (%32) showed hyponatremia. Based on our diagnosis and treatment strategies, all of patient had lower urine output than previous day and were classified in the SIADH group and treated with only fluid restriction. None of patients were classified in CSWS group. All patients well recovered from hyponatremia with simple fluid restriction. In a clinical examination after a follow up period

  13. Changes of atrial natriuretic peptide and antidiuretic hormone in children with postural tachycardia syndrome and orthostatic hypertension: a case control study

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhao Juan; Yang Jinyan; Du Shuxu; Tang Chaoshu; Du Junbao; Jin Hongfang

    2014-01-01

    Background The abnormal blood volume regulation is one of the most important pathogenesis in postural tachycardia syndrome in children.This study was designed to investigate the plasma atrial natriuretic peptide and antidiuretic hormone levels in postural tachycardia syndrome children,and their associations with the changes in heart rate and blood pressure in head-up test.Methods Twenty-one postural tachycardia syndrome patients ((12±2) years) and 26 healthy children ((12±1) years) were included.According to blood pressure changes in head-up test,the postural tachycardia syndrome patients were divided into two subgroups:postural tachycardia syndrome with orthostatic hypertension and postural tachycardia syndrome without orthostatic hypertension.The plasma atrial natriuretic peptide and antidiuretic hormone levels were measured using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay.Results The plasma atrial natriuretic peptide level in postural tachycardia syndrome patients was higher than the control (P=0.004),whereas the difference in plasma antidiuretic hormone level between postural tachycardia syndrome and controls was not significant (P=0.222).The plasma antidiuretic hormone level of patients suffering from postural tachycardia syndrome with orthostatic hypertension was much higher than that of children having postural tachycardia syndrome without orthostatic hypertension (P <0.05).In postural tachycardia syndrome patients,the updght max heart rate was positively correlated with the plasma atrial natriuretic peptide level (r=0.490,P<0.05) and the upright systolic blood pressure was positively correlated with the plasma antidiuretic hormone levels (r=0.472,P <0.05).Conclusions There was a disturbance of plasma atrial natriuretic peptide and antidiuretic hormone in postural tachycardia syndrome children.

  14. Isolation, Expression Analysis, and Functional Characterization of the First Antidiuretic Hormone Receptor in Insects

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-01

    review March 21, 2010) Diuresis following blood-gorging in Rhodnius prolixus is the major process leading to the transmission of Chagas’ disease. We...have cloned the cDNA of the first receptor known to be involved in an antidiuretic strategy in insects, a strategy that prevents diuresis . This...useful target for development of agonists or antago- nists that could help influence the transmission of Chagas’ disease that occurs during diuresis in

  15. Chlorpromazine increases the lowered response to antidiuretic hormone in rats with lithium-induced diabetes insipidus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kristensen, A R; Hammer, M; Christensen, S

    1985-01-01

    The interaction between chlorpromazine (CPZ) and lithium on renal concentrating ability was studied in rats fed a Li-containing diet for 8 weeks (plasma-Li 0.6-0.7 mmol/l). CPZ (15 mg/kg daily orally) reduced the polydipsia and increased the ability to concentrate the urine upon water deprivation in rats treated with lithium. CPZ also reduced systolic blood pressure, but had no effect on the glomerular filtration rate or plasma levels of arginine vasopressin (AVP) in hydrated rats treated with lithium. However, CPZ prevented the rise in plasma AVP levels observed in lithium-polyuric rats in response to dehydration. During anaesthesia CPZ partially restored the impaired anti-diuretic response to exogenous AVP in rats treated with lithium. CPZ had no influence on plasma-Li levels in rats treated with lithium. It is suggested that CPZ by unknown mechanisms interferes with the effects of lithium on the water permeability response to AVP.

  16. Influence of season on plasma antidiuretic hormone, angiotensin II, aldosterone and plasma renin activity in young volunteers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanikowska, Dominika; Sugenoya, Junichi; Sato, Maki; Shimizu, Yuuki; Inukai, Yoko; Nishimura, Naoki; Iwase, Satoshi

    2010-05-01

    We investigated seasonal changes in hormonal and thermoregulatory responses. Eight volunteers were subjected to the experiment at four times of the year: around the vernal and autumnal equinoxes, and at the summer and winter solstices at latitude 35 degrees N. Plasma antidiuretic hormone (ADH), angiotensin II (ANG II), aldosterone (ALD) and plasma renin activity (PRA) were analyzed before and after water immersion. Seasonal changes in thermoregulatory responses were assessed by measuring core temperature and sweat rate during immersion of the leg in hot water (at 42 degrees C) for 30 min in a room maintained at 26 degrees C. The concentration of plasma ADH and ALD before water immersion was significantly higher in summer than in other seasons. The concentrations of ANG II and PRA did not show seasonal variations. Changes in tympanic temperature during water immersion showed significant differences between seasons, and were higher in winter than in other seasons. The sweat rate was significantly higher in summer than in other seasons. In summary, ADH and ALD concentrations displayed a seasonal rhythm with marked elevation in summer; this may be a compensative mechanism to prevent dehydration from increased sweat loss during summer due to heat acclimatization.

  17. Pathophysiological and diagnostic implications of cardiac biomarkers and antidiuretic hormone release in distinguishing immersion pulmonary edema from decompression sickness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Louge, Pierre; Coulange, Mathieu; Beneton, Frederic; Gempp, Emmanuel; Le Pennetier, Olivier; Algoud, Maxime; Dubourg, Lorene; Naibo, Pierre; Marlinge, Marion; Michelet, Pierre; Vairo, Donato; Kipson, Nathalie; Kerbaul, François; Jammes, Yves; Jones, Ian M; Steinberg, Jean-Guillaume; Ruf, Jean; Guieu, Régis; Boussuges, Alain; Fenouillet, Emmanuel

    2016-06-01

    Immersion pulmonary edema (IPE) is a misdiagnosed environmental illness caused by water immersion, cold, and exertion. IPE occurs typically during SCUBA diving, snorkeling, and swimming. IPE is sometimes associated with myocardial injury and/or loss of consciousness in water, which may be fatal. IPE is thought to involve hemodynamic and cardiovascular disturbances, but its pathophysiology remains largely unclear, which makes IPE prevention difficult. This observational study aimed to document IPE pathogenesis and improve diagnostic reliability, including distinguishing in some conditions IPE from decompression sickness (DCS), another diving-related disorder.Thirty-one patients (19 IPE, 12 DCS) treated at the Hyperbaric Medicine Department (Ste-Anne hospital, Toulon, France; July 2013-June 2014) were recruited into the study. Ten healthy divers were recruited as controls. We tested: (i) copeptin, a surrogate marker for antidiuretic hormone and a stress marker; (ii) ischemia-modified albumin, an ischemia/hypoxia marker; (iii) brain-natriuretic peptide (BNP), a marker of heart failure, and (iv) ultrasensitive-cardiac troponin-I (cTnI), a marker of myocardial ischemia.We found that copeptin and cardiac biomarkers were higher in IPE versus DCS and controls: (i) copeptin: 68% of IPE patients had a high level versus 25% of DCS patients (P < 0.05) (mean ± standard-deviation: IPE: 53 ± 61 pmol/L; DCS: 15 ± 17; controls: 6 ± 3; IPE versus DCS or controls: P < 0.05); (ii) ischemia-modified albumin: 68% of IPE patients had a high level versus 16% of DCS patients (P < 0.05) (IPE: 123 ± 25 arbitrary-units; DCS: 84 ± 25; controls: 94 ± 7; IPE versus DCS or controls: P < 0.05); (iii) BNP: 53% of IPE patients had a high level, DCS patients having normal values (P < 0.05) (IPE: 383 ± 394 ng/L; DCS: 37 ± 28; controls: 19 ± 15; IPE versus DCS or controls: P < 0.01); (iv) cTnI: 63% of IPE patients had a high

  18. Random Secretion of Growth Hormone in Humans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prank, Klaus; Kloppstech, Mirko; Nowlan, Steven J.; Sejnowski, Terrence J.; Brabant, Georg

    1996-08-01

    In normal humans, growth hormone (GH) is secreted from a gland located adjacent to the brain (pituitary) into the blood in distinct pulses, but in patients bearing a tumor within the pituitary (acromegaly) GH is excessively secreted in an irregular manner. It has been hypothesized that GH secretion in the diseased state becomes random. This hypothesis is supported by demonstrating that GH secretion in patients with acromegaly cannot be distinguished from a variety of linear stochastic processes based on the predictability of the fluctuations of GH concentration in the bloodstream.

  19. Clinical implication of the antidiuretic hormone (ADH) receptor antagonist mozavaptan hydrochloride in patients with ectopic ADH syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamaguchi, Ken; Shijubo, Noriharu; Kodama, Tetsuro; Mori, Kiyoshi; Sugiura, Takahiko; Kuriyama, Takayuki; Kawahara, Masaaki; Shinkai, Tetsu; Iguchi, Haruo; Sakurai, Masanori

    2011-01-01

    Ectopic antidiuretic hormone syndrome is a medical emergency characterized by dilutional hyponatremia. Clinical effectiveness of the vasopressin V2 receptor antagonist mozavaptan was evaluated in 16 patients. In short-term (7-day) treatment with the drug, serum sodium concentration (mean ± standard deviation) significantly (P = 0.002) increased from 122.8 ± 6.7 to 133.3 ± 8.3 mEq/l, and symptoms due to hyponatremia were improved. On the basis of these results, mozavaptan (Physuline(®)) was approved as an orphan drug for the treatment of the syndrome in 2006 in Japan. During the 43 months following its launch, 100 patients have been treated with the drug; overall clinical effects of the drug were found similar to those of this clinical trial. Clinically, mozavaptan may allow hyponatremic patients to be treated by aggressive cancer chemotherapy with platinum-containing drugs. Moreover, the drug may free patients from strict fluid-intake restrictions and thereby improve their quality of life.

  20. Requirement of potassium for the action of anti-diuretic hormone (ADH) on frog skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jared, Silviya Rajakumari; Rao, Jonakuty Prakasa

    2011-12-01

    The aim of the present study is to study whether the presence of K(+) in bathing media is required for the action of ADH to the ionic transport across the skin in the frog species Rana hexadactyla. lonic transport was measured as transepithelial potential difference (TEPD) and short circuit current (SCC) by using an indigenously developed computer based voltage-clamp technique. Addition of ADH (40 nM) on the serosal side significantly increased the TEPD and SCC with Normal Ringer (NR) on both sides. ADH had no effect subsequent to amiloride (100 µM) pre-treatment, which confirmed the ADH-induced Na(+) transport. Chloride also has a significant role in the development of TEPD. To determine the role of K(+), Potassium-free Ringer (KFR) was placed on both sides; addition of ADH had no effect consequently. Further experiments were carried out to find out which side of K(+) was required for the action of ADH. There was a lack of ADH effect with apical NR and serosal KFR, demonstrating that serosal K(+) is essential to activate Na(+), K(+)- ATPase. Similarly, the ADH effect was lacking with apical KFR and serosal NR that was the novel finding of this study. Due to the concentration gradient, the K(+) was secreted from serosal side to apical side through barium (1 mM) blockable K(+) channel. This study provides evidence that serosal as well as apical K(+) are necessary for the action of ADH.

  1. Parathyroid hormone secretion in chronic renal failure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, J C; Rasmussen, A Q; Ladefoged, S D

    1996-01-01

    The aim of study was to introduce and evaluate a method for quantifying the parathyroid hormone (PTH) secretion during hemodialysis in secondary hyperparathyroidism due to end-stage renal failure. We developed a method suitable for inducing sequential hypocalcemia and hypercalcemia during....../ionized calcium curves were constructed, and a mean calcium set-point of 1.16 mmol/liter was estimated compared to the normal mean of about 1.13 mmol/liter. In conclusion, we demonstrate that it is important to use a standardized method to evaluate parathyroid hormone dynamics in chronic renal failure. By the use...... of a standardized method we show that the calcium set-point is normal or slightly elevated, indicating normal parathyroid reactivity to calcium in chronic renal failure....

  2. ADH (Antidiuretic Hormone) Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... much urine as expected, urine osmolality is high relative to serum osmolality, and the ADH concentration is in excess of what would be appropriate and does not decrease appropriately with water loading. A water deprivation ADH stimulation test may be used to differentiate ...

  3. Recurrent syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone secretion due to tolterodine in an elderly male patient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdullah K Alhwiesh

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Hyponatremia is defined as serum sodium of <135 mmol/L and equates with a low serum osmolality once translocational hyponatremia and pseudohyponatremia are ruled out. True hyponatremia develops when normal urine-diluting mechanisms are disturbed. In elderly patients, this complication is not uncommon, especially in nursing homes and assisted living facilities. Medications are often the most common cause of hyponatremia in these patients. Herewith, we reported a 65-year-old Saudi male, a known case of benign prostatic hypertrophy and hypertension, who developed recurrent hyponatremia secondary to tolterodine. To our knowledge, this is the fifth case reported in literature of such association.

  4. Regulation of gut hormone secretion. Studies using isolated perfused intestines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svendsen, Berit; Holst, Jens Juul.

    2016-01-01

    hormones is highly increased after gastric bypass operations, which have turned out to be an effective therapy of not only obesity but also type 2 diabetes. These effects are likely to be due, at least in part, to increases in the secretion of these gut hormones (except GIP). Therefore, stimulation......A review. The incretin hormones glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) and glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP) are secreted from enteroendocrine cells in the intestine along with other gut hormones (PYY, CCK and neurotensin) shown to affect metab. and/or appetite. The secretion of many gut...... detailed mapping of the expression profiles of these cells, whereas they are less suitable for physiol. studies of secretion. Isolated perfused prepns. of mouse and rat intestines have proven to be reliable models for dynamic hormone secretion and should be able to bridge the gap between the mol. details...

  5. [Glutamate neurotransmission, stress and hormone secretion].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jezová, D; Juránková, E; Vigas, M

    1995-11-01

    Glutamate neurotransmission has been investigated in relation to several physiological processes (learning, memory) as well as to neurodegenerative and other disorders. Little attention has been paid to its involvement in neuroendocrine response during stress. Penetration of excitatory amino acids from blood to the brain is limited by the blood-brain barrier. As a consequence, several toxic effects but also bioavailability for therapeutic purposes are reduced. A free access to circulating glutamate is possible only in brain structures lacking the blood-brain barrier or under conditions of its increased permeability. Excitatory amino acids were shown to stimulate the pituitary hormone release, though the mechanism of their action is still not fully understood. Stress exposure in experimental animals induced specific changes in mRNA levels coding the glutamate receptor subunits in the hippocampus and hypothalamus. The results obtained with the use of glutamate receptor antagonists indicate that a number of specific receptor subtypes contribute to the stimulation of ACTH release during stress. The authors provided also data on the role of NMDA receptors in the control of catecholamine release, particularly in stress-induced secretion of epinephrine. These results were the first piece of evidence on the involvement of endogenous excitatory amino acids in neuroendocrine activation during stress. Neurotoxic effects of glutamate in animals are well described, especially after its administration in the neonatal period. In men, glutamate toxicity and its use as a food additive are a continuous subject of discussions. The authors found an increase in plasma cortisol and norepinephrine, but not epinephrine and prolactin, in response to the administration of a high dose of glutamate. It cannot be excluded that these effects might be induced even by lower doses in situations with increased vulnerability to glutamate action (age, individual variability). (Tab. 1, Fig. 6, Ref. 44.).

  6. Sweat secretion rates in growth hormone disorders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sneppen, S B; Main, K M; Juul, A

    2000-01-01

    While increased sweating is a prominent symptom in patients with active acromegaly, reduced sweating is gaining status as part of the growth hormone deficiency (GHD) syndrome.......While increased sweating is a prominent symptom in patients with active acromegaly, reduced sweating is gaining status as part of the growth hormone deficiency (GHD) syndrome....

  7. Sweat secretion rates in growth hormone disorders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sneppen, S B; Main, K M; Juul, A

    2000-01-01

    While increased sweating is a prominent symptom in patients with active acromegaly, reduced sweating is gaining status as part of the growth hormone deficiency (GHD) syndrome.......While increased sweating is a prominent symptom in patients with active acromegaly, reduced sweating is gaining status as part of the growth hormone deficiency (GHD) syndrome....

  8. Adrenergic receptor control mechanism for growth hormone secretion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blackard, W G; Heidingsfelder, S A

    1968-06-01

    The influence of catecholamines on growth hormone secretion has been difficult to establish previously, possibly because of the suppressive effect of the induced hyperglycemia on growth hormone concentrations. In this study, an adrenergic receptor control mechanism for human growth hormone (HGH) secretion was uncovered by studying the effects of alpha and beta receptor blockade on insulin-induced growth hormone elevations in volunteer subjects. Alpha adrenergic blockade with phentolamine during insulin hypoglycemia, 0.1 U/kg, inhibited growth hormon elevations to 30-50% of values in the same subjects during insulin hypoglycemia without adrenergic blockade. More complete inhibition by phentolamine could not be demonstrated at a lower dose of insulin (0.05 U/kg). Beta adrenergic blockade with propranolol during insulin hypoglycemia significantly enhanced HGH concentrations in paired experiments. The inhibiting effect of alpha adrenergic receptor blockade on HGH concentrations could not be attributed to differences in blood glucose or free fatty acid values; however, more prolonged hypoglycemia and lower plasma free fatty acid values may have been a factor in the greater HGH concentrations observed during beta blockade. In the absence of insulin induced hypoglycemia, neither alpha nor beta adrenergic receptor blockade had a detectable effect on HGH concentrations. Theophylline, an inhibitor of cyclic 3'5'-AMP phosphodiesterase activity, also failed to alter plasma HGH concentrations. These studies demonstrate a stimulatory effect of alpha receptors and a possible inhibitory effect of beta receptors on growth hormone secretion.

  9. Mortality and reduced growth hormone secretion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stochholm, Kirstine; Christiansen, Jens; Laursen, Torben

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Data regarding the mortality rates of patients with growth hormone deficiency (GHD), whether or not treated with growth hormone (GH), are limited, but an increased mortality rate among hypopituitary patients compared with the general population has been documented. Cardiovascular...... disease has been suggested as a primary cause of death, whereas cancer statistics might be influenced by the number of malignancies causing the pituitary disease. Furthermore, differences in mortality rates in females and males have been reported. METHODS: Epidemiological studies of mortality......-onset GHD might also exist. Two studies showed a normal mortality rate in GHD patients treated with GH compared with the general population. CONCLUSIONS: Although an increased mortality rate in hypopituitary patients is well documented, further research is needed to provide more reliable estimates...

  10. 颅脑损伤后合并抗利尿激素分泌异常综合征九例报告%Syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone after brain injury: a report of 9 cases

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何鹏; 杨锦平; 刘付军

    2012-01-01

    目的 探讨颅脑损伤并发抗利尿激素分泌异常综合征的机制、临床特征及治疗转归.方法 回顾分析我科近9年收治的9例颅脑损伤合并抗利尿激素分泌异常综合征患者的临床资料.结果 9例患者均具有低钠血症、低渗血症及高尿钠症.8例治愈,1例死亡.结论 抗利尿激素分泌异常综合征是由于下丘脑直接或间接受损所致,临床特征为难以纠正的低钠和低血浆渗透压;早期诊治能降低病残率及死亡率;治疗的关键是严格控制摄入水量,适量补钠.%Objective To analyze the cause, the clinical feature and treatment of syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone with brain injury. Methods The clinical data of 9 patients of brain injury with syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone treated in our department in the past 9 years were retrospectively analyzed. Results The 9 patients all had hyponatremia, low plasma osmotic pressure and high urine sodium. Eight of the patients were cured and one died. Conclusion Syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone is caused by injury to the hypothalamus directly or indirectly. The clinical features are mainly irreformable hyponatremia and hyposmolality. Early diagnosis and treatment can reduce the morbidity and mortality. The crux of therapy is that the patients should be controlled with vigorous water restriction and be given sodium properly.

  11. Suppression of Insulin Production and Secretion by a Decretin Hormone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alfa, Ronald W.; Park, Sangbin; Skelly, Kathleen-Rose; Poffenberger, Gregory; Jain, Nimit; Gu, Xueying; Kockel, Lutz; Wang, Jing; Liu, Yinghua; Powers, Alvin C.; Kim, Seung K.

    2015-01-01

    SUMMARY Decretins, hormones induced by fasting that suppress insulin production and secretion, have been postulated from classical human metabolic studies. From genetic screens, we identified Drosophila Limostatin (Lst), a peptide hormone that suppresses insulin secretion. Lst is induced by nutrient restriction in gut-associated endocrine cells. limostatin deficiency led to hyperinsulinemia, hypoglycemia and excess adiposity. A conserved 15-residue polypeptide encoded by limostatin suppressed secretion by insulin-producing cells. Targeted knockdown of CG9918, a Drosophila orthologue of Neuromedin U receptors (NMUR), in insulin-producing cells phenocopied limostatin deficiency, and attenuated insulin suppression by purified Lst, suggesting CG9918 encodes an Lst receptor. NMUR1 is expressed in islet β-cells, and purified NMU suppresses insulin secretion from human islets. A human mutant NMU variant that co-segregates with familial early-onset obesity and hyperinsulinemia fails to suppress insulin secretion. We propose Lst as an index member of an ancient hormone class called decretins, which suppress insulin output. PMID:25651184

  12. Purification and cultivation of human pituitary growth hormone secreting cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hymer, W. C.

    1979-01-01

    Efforts were directed towards maintenance of actively secreting human pituitary growth hormone cells (somatotrophs) in vitro. The production of human growth hormone (hGH) by this means would be of benefit for the treatment of certain human hypopituitary diseases such as dwarfism. One of the primary approaches was the testing of agents which may logically be expected to increase hGH release. The progress towards this goal is summarized. Results from preliminary experiments dealing with electrophoresis of pituitary cell for the purpose of somatotroph separation are described.

  13. Purification and cultivation of human pituitary growth hormone secreting cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hymer, W. C.

    1978-01-01

    The maintainance of actively secreting human pituitary growth hormone cells (somatotrophs) in vitro was studied. The primary approach was the testing of agents which may be expected to increase the release of the human growth hormone (hGH). A procedure for tissue procurement is described along with the methodologies used to dissociate human pituitary tissue (obtained either at autopsy or surgery) into single cell suspensions. The validity of the Biogel cell column perfusion system for studying the dynamics of GH release was developed and documented using a rat pituitary cell system.

  14. Development of gonadotropin-releasing hormone secretion and pituitary response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glanowska, Katarzyna M; Burger, Laura L; Moenter, Suzanne M

    2014-11-05

    Acquisition of a mature pattern of gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) secretion from the CNS is a hallmark of the pubertal process. Little is known about GnRH release during sexual maturation, but it is assumed to be minimal before later stages of puberty. We studied spontaneous GnRH secretion in brain slices from male mice during perinatal and postnatal development using fast-scan cyclic voltammetry (FSCV) to detect directly the oxidation of secreted GnRH. There was good correspondence between the frequency of GnRH release detected by FSCV in the median eminence of slices from adults with previous reports of in vivo luteinizing hormone (LH) pulse frequency. The frequency of GnRH release in the late embryonic stage was surprisingly high, reaching a maximum in newborns and remaining elevated in 1-week-old animals despite low LH levels. Early high-frequency GnRH release was similar in wild-type and kisspeptin knock-out mice indicating that this release is independent of kisspeptin-mediated excitation. In vivo treatment with testosterone or in vitro treatment with gonadotropin-inhibitory hormone (GnIH) reduced GnRH release frequency in slices from 1-week-old mice. RF9, a putative GnIH antagonist, restored GnRH release in slices from testosterone-treated mice, suggesting that testosterone inhibition may be GnIH-dependent. At 2-3 weeks, GnRH release is suppressed before attaining adult patterns. Reduction in early life spontaneous GnRH release frequency coincides with the onset of the ability of exogenous GnRH to induce pituitary LH secretion. These findings suggest that lack of pituitary secretory response, not lack of GnRH release, initially blocks downstream activation of the reproductive system.

  15. Dopamine action in prepubertal Nelore heifers growth hormone secretion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emiliana Oliveira Santana Batista

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the response of dopamine in the growth hormone secretion (GH during Nellore heifer’s sexual maturation. The animals were randomly assigned into two experimental groups: Sulpiride group (dopamine D2 antagonist, 0.59 mg/kg, S.C. and control group (saline solution S.C. at 8, 12 and 16 months of age. Blood samples were collected every 15 min for 10h after drug injection. Growth hormone was quantified by RIA, sensitivity (0.25 ng/mL and intra and inter-assay variation coefficients were 15% and 17%, respectively. GH concentration was higher in sulpiride group than control group at 8 mo (10.1 ± 0.38 ng/mL vs 4.3 ± 0.34 ng/mL; P 0.05 in total GH secretion area, total peak area and maximum peak amplitude. These results suggested an inhibitory dopamine effect on GH secretion in pre-pubertal Nellore heifers that decreases according to age.

  16. Ectopic Adrenocorticotropic Hormone-Secreting Pituitary Adenomas: An Underestimated Entity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knappe, Ulrich J; Jaspers, Christian; Buschsieweke, Desirée; Reinbold, Wolf-Dieter; Alomari, Ali; Saeger, Wolfgang; Ehlenz, Klaus; Mann, W Alexander; Kann, Peter Herbert; Feldkamp, Joachim

    2017-04-01

    The diagnosis of Cushing disease is based on endocrinological pa-rameters, with no single test being specific. In some patients, dynamic thin-slice sellar magnetic resonance imaging fails to detect a pituitary tumor. The purpose of this study is to investigate the role of ectopic pituitary adenoma in this situation. In a retrospective chart review, 5 patients (6%) with ectopic adenomas were identified in 83 consecutive patients undergoing transsphenoidal surgery for adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH)-secreting pituitary adenomas by 1 surgeon. In all 5 patients (all female, 32-41 years of age), an exclusively extrasellar ACTH-secreting adenoma was excised. Three adenomas were located in the cavernous sinus, 1 in the sphenoid sinus, and 1 in the ethmoidal cells. Histologically, none of the tumors showed signs of aggressiveness. Three of the 5 adenomas specifically expressed somatostatin receptor 5. In 4 patients with Cushing disease, postoperative remission was obtained, with 1 recurrence after 14 months. In the patient with Nelson syndrome, ACTH decreased from >800 to ectopic adenoma (positive for somatostatin receptor 5) in the ethmoidal cells turned out to be positive on gallium 68 DOTATATE positron emission tomography/computed tomography. The incidence of primarily ectopic ACTH-secreting adenomas in this series was 6%. In cases of negative MRI findings, an ectopic ACTH-secreting adenoma should be taken into account. 68 Ga DOTATATE positron emission tomography/computed tomography may identify ectopic pituitary adenomas. Hypophysectomy should always be avoided in primary surgery for CD.

  17. [Treatment with urea as an alternative to tolvaptan for the syndrome of inappropriate secretion of antidiuretic hormone].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez Valbuena, I; Alonso Pérez, L; Alioto, D; Cañamares Orbis, I; Ferrari Piquero, J M

    2014-07-01

    El síndrome de secreción inadecuada de la hormona antidiurética (SIADH) es una afectación que cursa con hiponatremia entre otros síntomas. Actualmente la familia de fármacos de elección para este síndrome son los vaptanes, entre ellos el tolvaptán, antagonistas de la vasopresina. La urea actúa como diurético osmótico produciendo la retención de sodio. Se presenta un caso en el que el cambio desde el tratamiento con tolvaptán a urea en el SIADH permitió mantener la respuesta, a un coste muy inferior. La paciente tenía 83 años, ingresó en nuestro Hospital al diagnosticarle una hiponatremia grave (108 mEq/L) durante una exploración por una caída en su casa. Durante el ingreso ante la sospecha de SIADH se le prescribió sucesivamente tres tipos de tratamientos: Restricción hídrica y suero salino, seguido de tolvaptán 15 mg y para finalizar se le prescribió 15 gr de urea cada 12 horas. Durante el primer tratamiento los niveles de sodio sérico no aumentaron lo suficiente, por lo que se cambió al tolvaptán, durante el cual los niveles de sodio sérico subieron a rangos normales. Al considerar que el tratamiento iba a ser de larga duración se decidió cambiar a la urea, durante el mismo los niveles de sodio sérico tuvo un ligero aumento. La paciente es dada de alta con la pauta de urea de forma indefinida. El coste diario del tratamiento de tolvaptán es de 66,91 euros; el de urea supone 0,30 euros. En casos como el descrito, el uso de urea preparada como fórmula magistral por el área de farmacotécnia del Servicio de Farmacia, es una alternativa al tolvaptán con un coste marcadamente inferior.

  18. Metastatic esthesioneuroblastoma secreting adrenocorticotropic hormone in pediatric patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galioto, Silvestre; Di Petrillo, Alessandro; Pastori, Mauro; Arecchi, Alberto

    2011-09-01

    The purpose of this article was to report a pediatric case of secondary cervical esthesioneuroblastoma involving the parapharyngeal lymph nodes. A 3-year-old boy came to our clinical observation because of a right lymphonodal mass evidenced by nuclear magnetic resonance and a diagnosis of Cushing syndrome associated with ectopic adrenocorticotropic hormone secretion, moon face, central obesity, asthenia, and hirsutism. At the age of 10 months, the patient underwent endoscopic surgery for asportation of the World Health Organization stage IV esthesioneuroblastoma. At 38 months of age, the patient underwent right parapharyngeal lymphadenectomy with surgical access by a double mandibulectomy. After surgery, serum ACTH, cortisolemia, and urinary excretion of cortisol were within the reference range. Blood pressure was recorded at 110/70 mm Hg. Moon face disappeared, as well as central obesity and hirsutism. Clinical report is presented together with brief review of literature.

  19. Melatonin and Female Hormone Secretion in Postmenopausal Overweight Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ewa Walecka-Kapica

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Estrogen deficiency is considered to be the main cause of increased appetite and increased weight in postmenopausal women. In this period, reduced secretion of melatonin (MEL was also observed. The aim of the study was to evaluate the secretion of melatonin, 17-β estradiol and follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH in relation to body mass index (BMI in pre- and postmenopausal women. The study included 90 women divided into three equal groups: group I (control—women without menstrual disorders, group II—postmenopausal women without change in appetite and body weight, group III—postmenopausal women experiencing increased appetite and weight gain. In each patient, serum melatonin, 17-β-estradiol, FSH and urine a 6-sulfatoxymelatonin (aMT6s were determined. Compared to the control group, the level of melatonin and estradiol was statistically lower. The FSH level was higher than in the groups of postmenopausal women. No significant correlation was found in all groups between the level of melatonin and the levels of estradiol and FSH. A negative correlation was found between aMT6s excretion and BMI, and a positive correlation between the level of FSH and BMI, mainly in overweight women. The obtained results indicate a significant effect of melatonin deficiency on the process of weight gain in postmenopausal women and justify its use in treatment of these disorders.

  20. Growth hormone secretion in Turner's syndrome and influence of oxandrolone and ethinyl oestradiol.

    OpenAIRE

    Massarano, A A; Brook, C G; Hindmarsh, P C; Pringle, P J; Teale, J D; Stanhope, R; Preece, M A

    1989-01-01

    We investigated 24 hour growth hormone secretion by intermittent 20 minute blood sampling in 34 prepubertal patients with Turner's syndrome, aged 4.3-12.4 years. Growth hormone profiles were analysed by the PULSAR programme and results expressed as the sum of growth hormone pulse amplitudes. Six patients had abnormal growth hormone pulse frequencies. In the remaining 28, growth hormone pulse amplitudes declined significantly with increasing age, but there was no correlation between growth hor...

  1. Gigantism caused by growth hormone secreting pituitary adenoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhee, Noorisaem; Jeong, Kumi; Yang, Eun Mi; Kim, Chan Jong

    2014-06-01

    Gigantism indicates excessive secretion of growth hormones (GH) during childhood when open epiphyseal growth plates allow for excessive linear growth. Case one involved a 14.7-year-old boy presented with extreme tall stature. His random serum GH level was 38.4 ng/mL, and failure of GH suppression was noted during an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT; nadir serum GH, 22.7 ng/mL). Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the brain revealed a 12-mm-sized pituitary adenoma. Transsphenoidal surgery was performed and a pituitary adenoma displaying positive immunohistochemical staining for GH was reported. Pituitary MRI scan was performed 4 months after surgery and showed recurrence/residual tumor. Medical treatment with a long-acting somatostatin analogue for six months was unsuccessful. As a result, secondary surgery was performed. Three months after reoperation, the GH level was 0.2 ng/mL and insulin-like growth factor 1 was 205 ng/mL. Case two involved a 14.9-year-old boy, who was referred to our department for his tall stature. His basal GH level was 9.3 ng/mL, and failure of GH suppression was reported during OGTT (nadir GH, 9.0 ng/mL). Pituitary MRI showed a 6-mm-sized pituitary adenoma. Surgery was done and histopathological examination demonstrated a pituitary adenoma with positive staining for GH. Three months after surgery, the GH level was 0.2 ng/mL and nadir GH during OGTT was less than 0.1 ng/mL. Pituitary MRI scans showed no residual tumor. We present two cases of gigantism caused by a GH-secreting pituitary adenoma with clinical and microscopic findings.

  2. Pituitary glycoprotein hormone a-subunit secretion by cirrhotic patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oliveira M.C.

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Secretion of the a-subunit of pituitary glycoprotein hormones usually follows the secretion of intact gonadotropins and is increased in gonadal failure and decreased in isolated gonadotropin deficiency. The aim of the present study was to determine the levels of the a-subunit in the serum of patients with cirrhosis of the liver and to compare the results obtained for eugonadal cirrhotic patients with those obtained for cirrhotic patients with hypogonadotropic hypogonadism. Forty-seven of 63 patients with cirrhosis (74.6% presented hypogonadism (which was central in 45 cases and primary in 2, 7 were eugonadal, and 9 women were in normal menopause. The serum a-subunit was measured by the fluorimetric method using monoclonal antibodies. Cross-reactivity with LH, TSH, FSH and hCG was 6.5, 1.2, 4.3 and 1.1%, respectively, with an intra-assay coefficient of variation (CV of less than 5% and an interassay CV of 5%, and sensitivity limit of 4 ng/l. The serum a-subunit concentration ranged from 36 to 6253 ng/l, with a median of 273 ng/l. The median was 251 ng/l for patients with central hypogonadism and 198 ng/l for eugonadal patients. The correlation between the a-subunit and basal LH levels was significant both in the total sample (r = 0.48, P<0.01 and in the cirrhotic patients with central hypogonadism (r = 0.33, P = 0.02. Among men with central hypogonadism there was a negative correlation between a-subunit levels and total testosterone levels (r = 0.54, P<0.01 as well as free testosterone levels (r = -0.53, P<0.01. In conclusion, although the a-subunit levels are correlated with LH levels, at present they cannot be used as markers for hypogonadism in patients with cirrhosis of the liver.

  3. Syndrome of inappropriate anti-diuretic hormone in lung-cancer patients:six cases%肺癌合并抗利尿激素分泌不当综合症6例临床分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱丹丹; 周大明; 张丽静

    2014-01-01

    Objective:To investigate the clinical characteristics, treatment, and evaluation of the prognosis of syndrome of inap-propriate anti-diuretic hormone (SIADH) in lung-cancer patients. Methods:We review the clinical data of six lung cancer cases, includ-ing four small cell lung cancer, one adenocarcinoma, and one squamous cell carcinoma, with SIADH complication. All six cases were treated in our hospital over the past three years. Results:Patients with various serum sodium levels were provided different therapeutic regimens. Symptoms of fatigue and nervous system disorders, plasma sodium, urine sodium, and plasma osmotic pressure were alleviat-ed. Conclusion:SIADH is a common complication of lung cancer, particularly in small lung cancer cases. Electrolyte disturbances indi-cate poor prognosis, high mortality rate, and delay in treatment because of clinical interest. After a final diagnosis has been made and ap-propriate treatment has been administered, clinical symptoms were relieved and blood sodium levels were quickly and significantly im-proved in these patients.%目的:研究肺癌合并抗利尿激素分泌不当综合症(syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone secretion,SIADH)引起的低钠血症的临床特点、治疗方法及对评价预后的价值。方法:回顾分析大庆油田总医院2010年6月至2013年12月收治6例肺癌合并SIADH的临床资料,其中小细胞肺癌4例、腺癌1例、鳞癌1例。结果:对于不同血钠水平的患者给予不同的治疗方案,患者的乏力、神经系统等症状及血钠、尿钠、血浆渗透压均得到改善。结论:部分肺癌患者出现SIADH引起的低钠血症,出现电解质紊乱提示预后差、死亡率高,并因临床重视不够而出现延误治疗的情况。对于确诊的患者给予适当的治疗后,不论是临床症状还是血钠水平均可获得明显改善。

  4. Activation of GABA B receptors in the anterior pituitary inhibits prolactin and luteinizing hormone secretion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lux-Lantos, V; Rey, E; Libertun, C

    1992-11-01

    Previous work from our laboratory showed that baclofen could lower serum prolactin (PRL) levels acting at the central nervous system. The present experiments were designed to evaluate whether the gamma-aminobutyric acid B agonist was also effective in inhibiting hormone release at the pituitary level. In monolayer cultures of adenohypophyseal dispersed cells, baclofen inhibited basal PRL secretion after 1 or 2 h of incubation. This inhibition was significantly abolished by three antagonists: phaclofen, 3-aminopropyl-phosphonic acid and 4-aminobutylphosphonic acid. Furthermore, baclofen inhibited the thyrotropin-releasing hormone-induced PRL release in a concentration-dependent manner. With regard to gonadotropin secretion, baclofen was unable to modify basal luteinizing hormone (LH) secretion, but significantly inhibited the LH-releasing hormone-induced LH release. These results show that baclofen, in addition to its central neuroendocrine effects, inhibits pituitary hormone secretion, under basal and/or stimulated conditions, by direct action at the pituitary level.

  5. Kisspeptin regulates gonadotropin-releasing hormone secretion in gonadotropin-releasing hormone/enhanced green fluorescent protein transgenic rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Haogang Xue; Chunying Yang; Xiaodong Ge; Weiqi Sun; Chun Li; Mingyu Qi

    2013-01-01

    Kisspeptin is essential for activation of the hypothalamo-pituitary-gonadal axis. In this study, we established gonadotropin-releasing hormone/enhanced green fluorescent protein transgenic rats. Rats were injected with 1, 10, or 100 pM kisspeptin-10, a peptide derived from full-length kisspeptin, into the arcuate nucleus and medial preoptic area, and with the kisspeptin antagonist peptide 234 into the lateral cerebral ventricle. The results of immunohistochemical staining revealed that pulsatile luteinizing hormone secretion was suppressed after injection of antagonist peptide 234 into the lateral cerebral ventricle, and a significant increase in luteinizing hormone level was observed after kisspeptin-10 injection into the arcuate nucleus and medial preoptic area. The results of an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay showed that luteinizing hormone levels during the first hour of kisspeptin-10 infusion into the arcuate nucleus were significantly greater in the 100 pM kisspeptin-10 group than in the 10 pM kisspeptin-10 group. These findings indicate that kisspeptin directly promotes gonadotropin-releasing hormone secretion and luteinizing hormone release in gonadotropin-releasing hormone/enhanced green fluorescent protein transgenic rats. The arcuate nucleus is a key component of the kisspeptin-G protein-coupled receptor 54 signaling pathway underlying regulating luteinizing hormone pulse secretion.

  6. The controversy concerning counterregulatory hormone secretion. A hypothesis for the prevention of diabetic ketoacidosis?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schade, D S; Eaton, R P

    1977-06-01

    Diabetic ketoacidosis is characterized by an excess secretion of counterregulatory hormones (glucagon, catecholamines, cortisol, and growth hormone). Experimental evidence obtained in both diabetic man and animals suggests that elevation of the plasma concentration of these hormones is necessary to initiate excess hepatic production of ketone bodies. This increase in hepatic ketogenesis in concert with inability of peripheral tissues to completely utilize ketone bodies results in clinical ketoacidosis. This hypothesis would suggest that pharmacologic control of excess counterregulatory hormone secretion would be a rational therapeutic modality to prevent diabetic ketoacidosis.

  7. Oxidative stress impact on growth hormone secretion in the eye

    Science.gov (United States)

    Šarić, Borna; Šarić, Vlatka Brzović; Barberić, Monika; Predović, Jurica; Rumenjak, Vlatko; Cerovski, Branimir

    2015-01-01

    Aim To evaluate the influence of oxidative stress on extrapituitary growth hormone (GH) secretion in the eye and to analyze the interdependence between eye and serum GH levels under normal and hypoxic conditions. Methods Pars plana vitrectomy (PPV) was performed in 32 patients with developed proliferative diabetic retinopathy (PDR) and 49 non-diabetic controls, both of whom required this procedure as part of their regular treatment in the period from April 2013 to December 2014. During PPV, vitreous samples were taken and blood was simultaneously collected from the cubital vein. GH levels in serum and vitreous samples were measured by electrochemical luminescence assay. Oxidative stress was measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay of advanced oxidation protein products (AOPP) and lipid hydroperoxide (LPO) in serum and vitreous. Results Serum AOPP levels were significantly higher than vitreous levels in both groups (P < 0.001 for each group) and LPO levels were significantly higher only in PDR group (P < 0.001). There was a significant positive correlation between serum and vitreous LPO levels in PDR group (r = 0.909; P < 0.001). Serum GH levels were significantly higher than vitreous levels in both groups (P < 0.001 for each group). Serum GH levels were significantly higher in PDR group than in controls (P = 0.012). Vitreous GH values were slightly higher in PDR group, but the difference was not significant. Conclusion Our study confirms that GH production in the eye is autonomous and independent of oxidative stress or pituitary GH influence. PMID:26321025

  8. Transformation of a microprolactinoma into a mixed growth hormone and prolactin-secreting pituitary adenoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CEDRIC eDESSIMOZ

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Combined prolactin (PRL and growth hormone (GH secretion by a single pituitary tumor can occur in approximately 5% of cases. However, in all previously reported patients, combined secretion of both hormones was present at the time of diagnosis. Here we describe a patient initially diagnosed with a pure prolactin-secreting microadenoma, who experienced the progressive apparition of symptomatic autonomous GH secretion while on intermittent long term dopamine agonist therapy. She was operated on, and immunohistochemical analysis of tumour tissue confirmed the diagnosis of pituitary adenoma with uniform co-staining of all cells for both GH and PRL. This patient represents the first documented occurrence of asynchronous development of combined GH and PRL secretion in a pituitary adenoma. Although pathogenic mechanisms implicated remain largely speculative, it emphasizes the need for long term hormonal follow up of patients harboring prolactinomas.

  9. Suppressed spontaneous secretion of growth hormone in girls after treatment for acute lymphoblastic leukaemia.

    OpenAIRE

    Moëll, C; Garwicz, S; Westgren, U; Wiebe, T; Albertsson-Wikland, K.

    1989-01-01

    The spontaneous secretion of growth hormone during a 24 hour period and the response of growth hormone to growth hormone releasing hormone was studied in 13 girls who had received treatment for acute lymphoblastic leukemia that included cranial irradiation with 20-24 Gy in 12-14 fractions. At the time of investigation the girls were at varying stages of puberty and had normal concentrations of thyroid hormones. The mean interval between the end of treatment and investigation was 4.6 years. Th...

  10. Hyperadrenocorticism in a dog due to ectopic secretion of adrenocorticotropic hormone

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Galac, S; Kooistra, HS; Voorhout, G; van den Ingh, TSGAM; Mol, JA; van den Berg, G; Meij, BP

    2005-01-01

    Spontaneous hyperadrenocorticism in dogs is known to be the result of excessive secretion of adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) by the pituitary gland or excessive autonomous glucocorticoid secretion by an adrenocortical tumor. Here, we report on an 8-year-old German shepherd dog in which ACTH-depen

  11. Cephalic phase secretion of insulin and other enteropancreatic hormones in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Veedfald, Simon; Plamboeck, Astrid; Deacon, Carolyn F

    2016-01-01

    Enteropancreatic hormone secretion is thought to include a cephalic phase, but the evidence in humans is ambiguous. We studied vagally induced gut hormone responses with and without muscarinic blockade in 10 glucose-clamped healthy men (age: 24.5 ± 0.6 yr, means ± SE; body mass index: 24.0 ± 0.5 ...

  12. Cushing syndrome due to ectopic adrenocorticotropic hormone secretion in a 3-year-old child.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matarazzo, Patrizia; Tuli, Gerdi; Tessaris, Daniele; Verna, Francesca; Rabbone, Ivana; Lezo, Antonella; Brunati, Andrea; Salizzoni, Mauro; Carbonaro, Giulia; Terzolo, Massimo; Reimondo, Giuseppe; Papotti, Mauro; Lala, Roberto

    2011-01-01

    Ectopic adrenocorticotrophic hormone (ACTH) secretion is a rare cause of Cushing syndrome in paediatric age, due to tumours arising from different tissues. To date, only 11 reports of ACTH-secreting pancreatic tumours in children and adolescents exist in the literature. We present a paediatric case of Cushing syndrome caused by ectopic ACTH secretion. This was caused by a large acinar cell carcinoma that developed in the pancreas of a 3-year-old girl.

  13. Syndrome of inappropriate ADH secretion (SIADH) associated with citalopram use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirpekar, Vivek C.; Joshi, Prashant P.

    2005-01-01

    Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) can cause the syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone secretion (SIADH). SIADH is associated with hyponatraemia without oedema. We report the case of a patient who developed acute-onset hyponatraemia that progressed rapidly to serious neurological dysfunction shortly after the introduction of citalopram. All SSRIs including citalopram should be used with care in the elderly. The water and electrolyte balance should be monitored carefully during SSRI therapy. PMID:20711296

  14. MRI of growth hormone-secreting pituitary adenomas: factors determining pretreatment hormone levels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saeki, N.; Iuchi, T.; Eda, M.; Yamaura, A. [Dept. of Neurological Surgery, Chiba University School of Medicine (Japan); Isono, S. [Dept. of Neurological Surgery, Anesthesiology, Chiba University School of Medicine, Chiba (Japan)

    1999-10-01

    Preoperative serum growth hormone (GH) level is one of the most important determinants of outcome. Our aim was to assess MRI findings which may correlate with pretreatment GH levels in GH-secreting adenomas. We retrospectively studied 29 patients with acromegaly caused by a pituitary adenoma. Tumor size (height, width, thickness and volume), suprasellar extension, sphenoid or cavernous sinus invasion, signal intensity and contrast enhancement were studied. Linear regression analysis or Fisher's exact probability test was used for statistical analysis. Factors related to high GH levels were the maximum dimension of the tumour (r = 0.496, P < 0.01), its volume (r = 0.439, P < 0.05), spenoid sinus invasion (P < 0.01) and intracavernous carotid artery encasement (P < 0.01). The other items were not related to serum GH levels. Since we believe surgery is the first choice of treatment and the cavernous sinus is difficult of access with a conventional surgical approach, preoperative assessment of invasion into the cavernous sinus is critical for predicting the surgical outcome. Low GH levels (5-50 ng/ml) were found with tumours medial to the intercarotid line and high levels (more than 101 ng/ml) with invasive tumours with carotid artery encasement. Variable GH levels were noted with tumours extending beyond the intercarotid line. Because functioning adenomas invading the cavernous sinus tend to have markedly high hormone levels, and only patients with carotid artery encasement showed markedly elevated GH levels, we believe carotid artery encasement a reliable MRI indicator of cavernous sinus invasion. (orig.)

  15. Optimized FPGA Implementation of the Thyroid Hormone Secretion Mechanism Using CAD Tools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alghazo, Jaafar M

    2017-02-01

    The goal of this paper is to implement the secretion mechanism of the Thyroid Hormone (TH) based on bio-mathematical differential eqs. (DE) on an FPGA chip. Hardware Descriptive Language (HDL) is used to develop a behavioral model of the mechanism derived from the DE. The Thyroid Hormone secretion mechanism is simulated with the interaction of the related stimulating and inhibiting hormones. Synthesis of the simulation is done with the aid of CAD tools and downloaded on a Field Programmable Gate Arrays (FPGAs) Chip. The chip output shows identical behavior to that of the designed algorithm through simulation. It is concluded that the chip mimics the Thyroid Hormone secretion mechanism. The chip, operating in real-time, is computer-independent stand-alone system.

  16. Effect of ghrelin and thyrotropin-releasing hormone on prolactin secretion in normal women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Messini, C I; Dafopoulos, K; Chalvatzas, N; Georgoulias, P; Anifandis, G; Messinis, I E

    2010-03-01

    It is known that ghrelin stimulates the secretion of prolactin in women. The aim of this study was to examine the effect of exogenous thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH) on ghrelin-induced prolactin release. Ten healthy normally cycling women were studied in four menstrual cycles. The women were injected intravenously in late follicular phase (follicle size 16-17 mm) with a single dose of normal saline (cycle 1), ghrelin (1 microg/kg) (cycle 2), thyrotropin-releasing hormone (200 microg) (cycle 3), and ghrelin plus thyrotropin-releasing hormone (cycle 4). Blood samples in relation to saline or drugs injection (time 0) were taken at -15, 0, 15, 30, 45, 60, 75, 90, and 120 min. The prolactin and growth hormone responses were assessed. After ghrelin administration (cycles 2 and 4), plasma ghrelin, serum prolactin, and growth hormone levels increased rapidly, peaking at 15-30 min (psecretion markedly (pGhrelin induced a smaller prolactin increase than thyrotropin-releasing hormone (pghrelin and thyrotropin-releasing hormone induced a similar increase in prolactin levels as with thyrotropin-releasing hormone alone. No changes in growth hormone and prolactin levels were seen after saline injection. These results demonstrate that the stimulating effect of ghrelin on prolactin secretion is not additive with that of thyrotropin-releasing hormone.

  17. Nonlinear dynamics in pulsatile secretion of parathyroid hormone in normal human subjects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prank, Klaus; Harms, Heio; Brabant, Georg; Hesch, Rolf-Dieter; Dämmig, Matthias; Mitschke, Fedor

    1995-03-01

    In many biological systems, information is transferred by hormonal ligands, and it is assumed that these hormonal signals encode developmental and regulatory programs in mammalian organisms. In contrast to the dogma of endocrine homeostasis, it could be shown that the biological information in hormonal networks is not only present as a constant hormone concentration in the circulation pool. Recently, it has become apparent that hormone pulses contribute to this hormonal pool, which modulates the responsiveness of receptors within the cell membrane by regulation of the receptor synthesis, movement within the membrane layer, coupling to signal transduction proteins and internalization. Phase space analysis of dynamic parathyroid hormone (PTH) secretion allowed the definition of a (in comparison to normal subjects) relatively quiet ``low dynamic'' secretory pattern in osteoporosis, and a ``high dynamic'' state in hyperparathyroidism. We now investigate whether this pulsatile secretion of PTH in healthy men exhibits characteristics of nonlinear determinism. Our findings suggest that this is conceivable, although on the basis of presently available data and techniques, no proof can be established. Nevertheless, pulsatile secretion of PTH might be a first example of nonlinear deterministic dynamics in an apparently irregular hormonal rhythm in human physiology.

  18. Adrenocorticotropic hormone elicits gonadotropin secretion in premenopausal women

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. Aleknavičiūtė (Jūratė); J.H.M. Tulen (Joke); Timmermans, M. (Mirjam); Y.B. de Rijke (Yolanda); E.F.C. van Rossum (Liesbeth); F.H. de Jong (Frank); S.A. Kushner (Steven)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractSTUDY QUESTION Does adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) induce gonadotropin release in premenopausal women? SUMMARY ANSWER Administration of ACTH stimulates gonadotropin release, most likely by stimulation of the production of cortisol, in premenopausal women. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY In

  19. Stimulatory and inhibitory effects of neuropeptide Y on growth hormone secretion in acromegaly in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanobe, H; Tamura, T

    1997-02-01

    It has been reported that neuropeptide Y (NPY) affects growth hormone (GH) secretion in several animal species. With respect to the role of NPY in regulating GH release in humans, one previous study has reported that NPY inhibited GH secretion from cultured GH-secreting pituitary adenoma cells in vitro. However, since it has yet to be explored whether NPY affects GH secretion in acromegaly in vivo, in this study we attempted to examine the effect of intravenous (i.v.) bolus injection of 100 microg of human NPY on plasma GH levels in 15 patients with active acromegaly, trying to find a possible correlation among GH responses to NPY, thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH;500 microg, i.v.), luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone (LHRH;100 microg, i.v.), and bromocriptine (Br;2.5 mg, per os). NPY significantly increased GH secretion (more than twice the basal level) in 4 (27%) patients, and all of them were responsive to LHRH and non-responsive to Br. In contrast, 3 (20%) acromegalics showed a significant decrease in GH levels (less than half the baseline) after NPY, and all these patients were responsive to both TRH and Br. From these results, we hypothesize that the NPY-induced increase in GH release may be a feature of somatotroph-like pituitary adenoma causing acromegaly, whereas the NPY-induced decrease in GH secretion may be a feature of lactotroph-like adenoma.

  20. A mathematical/physiological model of parathyroid hormone secretion in response to blood-ionized calcium lowering in vivo

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Momsen, G; Schwarz, P

    1997-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to test a mathematical model of the biochemical processes in the parathyroid glands responsible for the secretion of parathyroid hormone resulting from extracellular calcium reduction. A double exponential curve described the parathyroid hormone secretion induced...... plasma and the rate of cellular production/secretion was observed. This could be interpreted as an adaptation of the parathyroid gland's ability to produce parathyroid hormone depending on the average demand from the body....

  1. Follicle stimulating hormone secreting pituitary adenoma: a challenging diagnosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madhuri Alap Mehendale

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available FSH secreting pituitary adenomas are relatively uncommon brain tumours and usually non-functioning. But in rare cases they produce ovarian hyperstimulation. We report a case of a 32 year old female P2L2, with amenorrhoea of 1 year, pain in abdomen and galactorrhoea since 6 months. Initially thought to be a simple prolactinoma with multicystic ovaries, but after thorough investigations to our surprise diagnosed to be a rare case of gonadotropin secreting pituitary adenoma. Patient was successfully managed by excision of the pituitary adenoma. [Int J Reprod Contracept Obstet Gynecol 2015; 4(2.000: 493-496

  2. A regulator of G Protein signaling, RGS3, inhibits gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH-stimulated luteinizing hormone (LH secretion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Musgrove Lois C

    2001-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Luteinizing hormone secreted by the anterior pituitary gland regulates gonadal function. Luteinizing hormone secretion is regulated both by alterations in gonadotrope responsiveness to hypothalamic gonadotropin releasing hormone and by alterations in gonadotropin releasing hormone secretion. The mechanisms that determine gonadotrope responsiveness are unknown but may involve regulators of G protein signaling (RGSs. These proteins act by antagonizing or abbreviating interaction of Gα proteins with effectors such as phospholipase Cβ. Previously, we reported that gonadotropin releasing hormone-stimulated second messenger inositol trisphosphate production was inhibited when RGS3 and gonadotropin releasing hormone receptor cDNAs were co-transfected into the COS cell line. Here, we present evidence for RGS3 inhibition of gonadotropin releasing hormone-induced luteinizing hormone secretion from cultured rat pituitary cells. Results A truncated version of RGS3 (RGS3T = RGS3 314–519 inhibited gonadotropin releasing hormone-stimulated inositol trisphosphate production more potently than did RSG3 in gonadotropin releasing hormone receptor-bearing COS cells. An RSG3/glutathione-S-transferase fusion protein bound more 35S-Gqα than any other member of the G protein family tested. Adenoviral-mediated RGS3 gene transfer in pituitary gonadotropes inhibited gonadotropin releasing hormone-stimulated luteinizing hormone secretion in a dose-related fashion. Adeno-RGS3 also inhibited gonadotropin releasing hormone stimulated 3H-inositol phosphate accumulation, consistent with a molecular site of action at the Gqα protein. Conclusions RGS3 inhibits gonadotropin releasing hormone-stimulated second messenger production (inositol trisphosphate as well as luteinizing hormone secretion from rat pituitary gonadotropes apparently by binding and suppressing the transduction properties of Gqα protein function. A version of RGS3 that is amino

  3. The effects of antidiuretic hormone and state of potassium balance on the renin-angiotensin system in rats with diabetes insipidus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Repollet, E; Maldonado, M M; Opava-Stitzer, S

    1982-02-01

    1. The influence of ADH and the state of potassium balance on the renin-angiotensin system was studied in rats with hereditary diabetes insipidus (DI rats). 2. Plasma renin concentration in DI rats was higher than in control Long-Evans rats. 3. Spontaneous reversal of the hypokalaemia normally found in DI rats did not reduce plasma renin concentration (p.r.c.), suggesting that potassium deficiency does not contribute significantly to the elevation of p.r.c. in DI rats. Similarly, a low potassium diet failed to further increase p.r.c. in DI rats. 4. In contrast, the p.r.c. of DI rats was significantly diminished by a high potassium intake both in the presence and absence of ADH. A highly significant inverse correlation was found between p.r.c. and urinary potassium excretion in both ADH-treated and untreated DI rats on low, normal and high potassium diets. 5. Plasma renin concentration was significantly lower in ADH-treated than in untreated DI rats on a high potassium intake, suggesting that the inhibitory effects of ADH and potassium are additive. 6. ADH consistently reduced p.r.c. in DI rats independent of the state of potassium balance. 7. ADH and potassium may inhibit renin secretion via different mechanisms of action.

  4. The effect of mazindol on growth hormone secretion in boys with Duchenne muscular dystrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coakley, J H; Moorcraft, J; Hipkin, L J; Smith, C S; Griffiths, R D; Edwards, R H

    1988-12-01

    Mazindol has been reported to improve muscle function in Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) by virtue of its growth hormone (GH) suppression. The effects were studied on GH secretion (in response to growth hormone releasing factor and sleep) of mazindol 2 mg daily for 3 months in five boys with DMD. No consistent change was found following mazindol therapy. Adverse effects were noted in all the boys which may preclude long term use of mazindol in DMD.

  5. The effect of mazindol on growth hormone secretion in boys with Duchenne muscular dystrophy.

    OpenAIRE

    Coakley, J. H.; Moorcraft, J; Hipkin, L J; Smith, C. S.; R.D. Griffiths; Edwards, R H

    1988-01-01

    Mazindol has been reported to improve muscle function in Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) by virtue of its growth hormone (GH) suppression. The effects were studied on GH secretion (in response to growth hormone releasing factor and sleep) of mazindol 2 mg daily for 3 months in five boys with DMD. No consistent change was found following mazindol therapy. Adverse effects were noted in all the boys which may preclude long term use of mazindol in DMD.

  6. Incretin hormone secretion in women with polycystic ovary syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svendsen, Pernille Fog; Nilas, Lisbeth; Madsbad, Sten

    2009-01-01

    . Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is associated with insulin resistance, and the pathophysiologic mechanisms behind PCOS resemble those of type 2 diabetes mellitus; therefore, women with PCOS may have alterations in the incretin hormone response. Metformin is widely used in the treatment of both type 2...... treatment. Cross-sectional comparison of 40 women with PCOS (19 lean and 21 obese) and 26 healthy control women (9 lean and 17 obese) and longitudinal evaluation of the effects of 8 months of metformin 1000 mg twice daily in women with PCOS were performed. Plasma concentrations of GIP and GLP-1 were...... determined frequently during a 75-g glucose tolerance test, and insulin sensitivity was evaluated by the euglycemic hyperinsulinemic clamp. The incretin hormone response did not differ between subjects with and without PCOS. Subgroup analysis showed lower GIP (area under the curve [AUC]) levels in obese...

  7. Purification and Cultivation of Human Pituitary Growth Hormones Secreting Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hymer, W. C.; Todd, P.; Grindeland, R.; Lanham, W.; Morrison, D.

    1985-01-01

    The rat and human pituitary gland contains a mixture of hormone producing cell types. The separation of cells which make growth hormone (GH) is attempted for the purpose of understanding how the hormone molecule is made within the pituitary cell; what form(s) it takes within the cell; and what form(s) GH assumes as it leaves the cell. Since GH has a number of biological targets (e.g., muscle, liver, bone), the assessment of the activities of the intracellular/extracellular GH by new and sensitive bioassays. GH cells contained in the mixture was separated by free flow electrophoresis. These experiments show that GH cells have different electrophoretic mobilities. This is relevant to NASA since a lack of GH could be a prime causative factor in muscle atrophy. Further, GH has recently been implicated in the etiology of motion sickness in space. Continous flow electrophoresis experiment on STS-8 showed that GH cells could be partially separated in microgravity. However, definitive cell culture studies could not be done due to insufficient cell recoveries.

  8. Secretion of human parathyroid hormone from rat pituitary cells infected with a recombinant retrovirus encoding preproparathyroid hormone.

    OpenAIRE

    Hellerman, J G; Cone, R C; Potts, J. T.; Rich, A; Mulligan, R C; Kronenberg, H M

    1984-01-01

    In order to study the functions of precursors to secreted proteins, we expressed cloned DNA encoding human preproparathyroid hormone (preproPTH) in rat pituitary cells. We first constructed a recombinant plasmid containing human preproPTH cDNA and retroviral control signals. This recombinant plasmid was transfected into psi-2 cells, a packaging cell line that produces Moloney murine leukemia viral particles containing no retroviral RNA. The transfected psi-2 cells generated helper-free recomb...

  9. Enteroendocrine secretion of gut hormones in diabetes, obesity and after bariatric surgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holst, Jens Juul

    2013-01-01

    Gastric bypass surgery is associated with a major weight loss and often causes remission in patients with type 2 diabetes. Surgery is also associated with dramatic increases in the secretion of the gut hormones, glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) and peptide YY (PYY), both of which regulate appetite...

  10. MR imaging of growth hormone-secreting pituitary adenomas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suzuki, Masayuki; Ueda, Fumiaki; Fujinaga, Yasunari [Kanazawa Univ. (Japan). School of Medicine] (and others)

    2000-11-01

    We evaluated MR imaging of 51 growth hormonesecreting pituitary adenomas. On T1WI, 22 tumors were isointense with gray matter (GM), nine isointense with GM and white matter (WM), 14 isointense with WM, and six more hyperintense than WM. On T2WI of 45 patients, only fifteen tumors showed hypointensity than WM, 10 were isointense with WM, eight isointense with GM and WM, 12 showed in part isointensity with GM, and one was more hyperintense than GM. The dynamic study demonstrated the tumor more clearly than the delayed study in 10, while the opposite was true for two patients. The dynamic study is inevitable for MR imaging of GH-secreting pituitary adenomas. (author)

  11. Giant growth-hormone secreting pituitary tumour with etracranial extension

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ip Taipang; Chan Fuluk; Kung Annie Waichee; Lam Karen Siuling [Univ. of Hong Kong, Queen Mary Hospital (Hong Kong). Depts. of Medicine and Diagnostic Radiology

    1996-02-01

    A 19 year old female patient with typical features of acromegaly was found to have an extensive pituitary tumour with suprasellar, lateral and inferior extensions. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) also showed a portion of the tumour extending from the right cavernous sinus through the foramen ovale to become extracranial. Serum growth hormone (GH) was 52.6 mU/L basally and remained elevated after oral glucose, confirming the diagnosis of acromegaly. Treatment with the long-acting somatostatin analogue, octreotide, for 6 months led to a 30% reduction in tumour volume of the intracranial portion but no effect on the extracranial and sphenoidal extensions. She was subsequently treated with trans-sphenoidal surgery followed by external irradiation. The possibility of perineural spread of the tumour was considered. 9 refs., 1 tab., 1 fig.

  12. Ghrelin suppresses nocturnal secretion of luteinizing hormone (LH) and thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) in patients with major depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kluge, Michael; Schmidt, Doreen; Uhr, Manfred; Steiger, Axel

    2013-09-01

    Major depression is associated with various endocrine disturbances. Apart from the well-known hyperactivity of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, also the function of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) axis and of the hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid (HPT) axis may be altered compared to healthy subjects. The orexigenic hormone ghrelin is involved in mood regulation and may have antidepressant effects. In addition, it has been shown to suppress secretion of luteinizing hormone (LH) and thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) in healthy subjects. Aim of this study was therefore to test the effect of ghrelin on the activity of the HPG and HPT axis in patients with major depression. Therefore, secretion profiles of LH and TSH were determined in 14 unmedicated patients with major depression (7 women) twice, receiving 50 μg ghrelin or placebo at 2200, 2300, 0000, and 0100 h. LH secretion after ghrelin injection as assessed by the AUC (4.05 ± 1.18 mlIU min/ml) was significantly (P = 0.049) lower than after placebo injection (4.75 ± 1.33 mlIU min/ml) during the predefined intervention period (2220-0200 h). In addition, LH pulses occurred significantly (P = 0.045) less frequently after ghrelin injection (3.2 ± 1.4) than after placebo injection (3.9 ± 1.7). Mean TSH plasma levels were significantly lower at 0240 h and from 0320 until 0420 h after ghrelin injection than after placebo injection. In conclusion, ghrelin suppressed nocturnal secretion of LH and TSH in patients with major depression. However, these effects were weaker than previously shown in healthy subjects.

  13. The aging suppressor klotho: a potential regulator of growth hormone secretion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahmoon, Shiri; Rubinfeld, Hadara; Wolf, Ido; Cohen, Zvi R; Hadani, Moshe; Shimon, Ilan; Rubinek, Tami

    2014-08-01

    Klotho is a transmembranal protein highly expressed in the kidneys, choroid plexus, and anterior pituitary. Klotho can also be cleaved and shed and acts as a circulating hormone. Klotho-deficient mice (kl/kl mice) develop a phenotype resembling early aging. Several lines of evidence suggest a role for klotho in the regulation of growth hormone (GH) secretion. The kl/kl mice are smaller compared with their wild-type counterparts, and their somatotropes show reduced numbers of secretory granules. Moreover, klotho is a potent inhibitor of the IGF-I pathway, a negative regulator of GH secretion. Therefore, we hypothesized that klotho may enhance GH secretion. The effect of klotho on GH secretion was examined in GH3 rat somatotrophs, cultured rat pituitaries, and cultured human GH-secreting adenomas. In all three models, klotho treatment increased GH secretion. Prolonged treatment of mice with intraperitoneal klotho injections increased mRNA levels of IGF-I and IGF-I-binding protein-3 mRNA in the liver, reflecting increased serum GH levels. In accord with its ability to inhibit the IGF-I pathway, klotho partially restored the inhibitory effect of IGF-I on GH secretion. Klotho is known to be a positive regulator of basic bFGF signaling. We studied rat pituitaries and human adenoma cultures and noted that bFGF increased GH secretion and stimulated ERK1/2 phosphorylation. Both effects were augmented following treatment with klotho. Taken together, our data indicate for the first time that klotho is a positive regulator of GH secretion and suggest the IGF-I and bFGF pathways as potential mediators of this effect.

  14. Endogenous excitatory amino acid neurotransmission regulates thyroid-stimulating hormone and thyroid hormone secretion in conscious freely moving male rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arufe, M C; Durán, R; Perez-Vences, D; Alfonso, M

    2002-04-01

    The role of neurotransmission of endogenous excitatory amino acid (EAA) on serum thyroid hormones and thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) levels was examined in conscious and freely moving adult male Sprague-Dawley rats. The rats were cannulated at the third ventricle 2 d before the experiments. Several glutamate receptor agonists, such as kainic acid and domoic acid, and antagonists, such as 6-cyano-7-nitroquinoxaline-2,3-dione (CNQX) and dizocilpine (MK-801) were administered into the third ventricle. Serum TSH levels were assesed by radioimmunoassay, and serum thyroid hormone levels were assessed by enzyme immunoassay. The results showed that the administration of CNQX and MK-801 produced a decrease in serum levels of TSH and thyroid hormones. The administration of kainic acid and domoic acid increased TSH concentrations, whereas CNQX completely blocked the release of TSH induced by kainic acid and domoic acid. These results suggest the importance of endogenous EAA in the regulation of hormone secretion from the pituitary-thyroid axis, as well as the role of the N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) and non-NMDA receptors in the stimulatory effect of EAAs on the pituitary-thyroid axis.

  15. Effect of growth hormone replacement therapy on pituitary hormone secretion and hormone replacement therapies in GHD adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hubina, Erika; Mersebach, Henriette; Rasmussen, Ase Krogh;

    2004-01-01

    We tested the impact of commencement of GH replacement therapy in GH-deficient (GHD) adults on the circulating levels of other anterior pituitary and peripheral hormones and the need for re-evaluation of other hormone replacement therapies, especially the need for dose changes.......We tested the impact of commencement of GH replacement therapy in GH-deficient (GHD) adults on the circulating levels of other anterior pituitary and peripheral hormones and the need for re-evaluation of other hormone replacement therapies, especially the need for dose changes....

  16. Growth hormone-secreting pituitary adenoma:clinical and MR imaging findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Hong Suk; Chang, Kee Hyun; Han, Moon Hee; Sim, Jung Suk; Lee, Sang Hyun; Song, Jae Uoo; Yoo, In Kyu; Jung, Hee Won; Yeon, Kyung Mo [Seoul National Univ. College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1996-10-01

    To describe clinical and MRI findings of growth hormone-secreting pituitary adenoma, to determine if there are any characteristic MRI findings different from those of other pituitary adenomas, to evaluate the relationship between tumor size and serum growth hormone level, and to assess the results of immunohi-stochemical study. We retrospectively analysed clinical and MRI findings of 29 patients with growth hormone-secreting pituitary adenoma confirmed by serum growth hormone level and surgery. We also evaluated the relationship between the tumor volume and serum growth hormone level, and the results of immunohistochemical study. Coronal and sagittal T1-weighted MR images in all patients and gadolinium-enhanced T1-weighted MR images in 28 patients were obtained with 2.0 T(24 cases) and 0.5 T(5 cases) MR imagers. The images were analyzed in terms of tumor size, signal intensity, degree of contrast enhancement, extent of tumor growth and the presence or absence of cystic change, hemorrhage and calcification. Clinical manifestations included facial feature change and soft tissue swelling of hands and feet(n=29), headache(n=12), impaired visual acuity(n=9), symptoms of hyperprolactinemia(n=8), visual field defect(n=5), and others(n=6). On MR images, all of the 29 cases were seen to be macroadenomas and the size of the tumors averaged 2.2cm(1-5.2cm). Supra- and infrasellar extensions were seen in 21 and 22 patients, respectively. Cavernous sinus invasion was noted in seven, and in one this was bilateral. Signal intensity was isointense with cortical grey matter in 26 cases(90%). Cystic change or necrosis was seen in eight cases(28%), hemorrhage in four(14%), and calcification in two(7%). After enhancement, most(25/28) of the tumors enhanced less than normal pituitary in degree. There was no correlation between serum growth hormone level and tumor size. Immunohistochemical study showed positive growth hormone-secreting pituitary adenomas were various and included

  17. Immunostaining Results of Growth Hormone Secreting Adenomas and Their Correlation with Laboratory Findings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mazhar Müslüm Tuna

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Depending on improvements in immunohistochemical and ultrastructural analyses, hormonal immunoreactivity are more commonly detected in pituitary adenomas. In this study, we investigated the correlation between immunohistochemical results and clinical and laboratory findings. Material and Method: The records of 110 patients with acromegaly who were operated at our hospital were retrospectively evaluated. Of the patients, 43 were excluded because of missing data. All patients were clinically evaluated preoperatively and had pituitary hormone profile. Results: Our study population was consisted of 42 females and 25 males. While there were 30 patients with growth hormone staining alone, plurihormonal staining was determined at the remaining 37 patients. Three of 14 patients were diagnosed with thyrotropin-secreting pituitary adenoma according to clinical and findings laboratory, preoperatively. Except these cases, there were no hormone-secreting adenomas even if positive cellular immunreactivity existed. Discussion: Our data suggest that immunohistochemical results may not be correlated with the signs of hormone hypersecretion as evident by symptoms or laboratory results in patients with acromegaly.

  18. Discordant effects of endogenous and exogenous somatostatin on growth hormone-releasing hormone secretion from perifused mouse hypothalami.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pecori Giraldi, F; Frohman, L A

    1995-05-01

    The role of somatostatin (SRIF) on growth hormone-releasing hormone (GRH) secretion has been controversial because of discordant findings that may be model dependent. We have examined possible explanations for these findings by altering endogenous and exogenous SRIF tone in a mouse hypothalamic perifusion system. Four mediobasal hypothalamic fragments were perifused in a single chamber for 6 h. After a 2-hour equilibration period, test substances were introduced and maintained throughout the perifusion. After an additional 2 h, fragments were submaximally stimulated with 30 mM K+. Depletion of tissue SRIF by 10(-3) M cysteamine increased K(+)-stimulated GRH release 2-fold without altering basal GRH secretion. Removal of endogenous SRIF tone by anti-SRIF serum also augmented the GRH response to K+. Perifusion of SRIF at concentrations ranging from 10(-12) to 10(-8) M significantly increased the GRH response to K+ in a dose-dependent manner. A significant increase was also observed during the perifusion of 10(-9) M octreotide. Simultaneous perifusion with anti-SRIF serum and 10(-9) M octreotide (to which the antibody does not bind) resulted in a response of GRH to K+ that was similar to that observed with anti-SRIF serum alone. Combined perifusion with cysteamine and 10(-9) M SRIF also resulted in a GRH response to K+ that did not differ from the response observed during cysteamine alone. The enhancement of GRH secretion by reduction of endogenous SRIF tone or tissue content implies an inhibitory role of endogenous SRIF on GRH secretion.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  19. The effect of L-ornithine hydrochloride ingestion on human growth hormone secretion after strength training

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    This study aimed to examine the effect of L-ornithine hydrochloride ingestion on serum growth hormone secretion response after strength training in young men who did not regularly engage in high intensity exercise. Ten healthy young males without workout habits (age: 22.2 +/- 1.0 yr). Subjects performed biceps curl strength training after L-ornithine hydrochloride and placebo ingestions. They participated in both of the above conditions randomly with a week interval in between. Serum growth h...

  20. Performing resistance exercise before versus after aerobic exercise influences growth hormone secretion in type 1 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yardley, Jane E; Sigal, Ronald J; Riddell, Michael C; Perkins, Bruce A; Kenny, Glen P

    2014-02-01

    We compared growth hormone (GH) and plasma glucose (PG) levels in type 1 diabetic individuals performing aerobic before resistance exercise (AR) to when resistance exercise was performed first (RA). In AR, GH secretion declined in late exercise while it rose throughout exercise in RA, resulting in higher GH in RA versus AR at exercise completion. Higher GH during RA may support PG by increasing hepatic glucose production and lipid mobilization.

  1. Human pituitary and placental hormones control human insulin-like growth factor II secretion in human granulosa cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramasharma, K.; Li, C.H.

    1987-05-01

    Human granulosa cells cultured with calf serum actively proliferated for 18-20 generations and secreted progesterone into the medium; progesterone levels appeared to decline with increase in generation number. Cells cultured under serum-free conditions secreted significant amounts of progesterone and insulin-like growth factor II (IGF-II). The progesterone secretion was enhanced by the addition of human follitropin, lutropin, and chorionic gonadotropin but not by growth hormone. These cells, when challenged to varying concentrations of human growth hormone, human chorionic somatomammotropin, human prolactin, chorionic gonadotropin, follitropin, and lutropin, secreted IGF-II into the medium as measured by specific IGF-II RIA. Among these human hormones, chorionic gonadotropin, follitropin, and lutropin were most effective in inducing IGF-II secretion from these cells. When synthetic lutropin-releasing hormone and ..cap alpha..-inhibin-92 were tested, only lutropin-releasing hormone was effective in releasing IGF-II. The results described suggest that cultured human granulosa cells can proliferate and actively secrete progesterone and IGF-II into the medium. IGF-II production in human granulosa cells was influenced by a multi-hormonal complex including human growth hormone, human chorionic somatomammotropin, and prolactin.

  2. Clinical and Biochemical Characteristics of Growth Hormone-Secreting Pituitary Tumors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    To investigate the difference of biochemical characteristics on gsp-positive and gsp-negative growth hormone (GH)-secreting pituitary tumors, 18 GH-secreting pituitary tumors were examined for their clinical characteristics and gsp oncogenes. All patients received the pituitary function combinative stimulating test. It was found that there were no difference in the sex, age, tumor size, course of disease and plasma basal GH levels with gsp- positive and gsp-negative patients. The plasma levels of PRL were increased in most patients (11/18), and the plasma levels of TSH in gsp-positive patients were higher than those in gsp-negative patients (P<0.05). There was no significant difference in the responses to pituitary combinative stimulating test in gsp-positive and gsp-negative patients. It was concluded that there was little difference in the clinical biochemical characteristics of gsp-positive with gsp-negative GH-secreting pituitary tumors.

  3. Stimulation tests of human growth hormone secretion by insulin, lysine vasopressin, pyrogen and glucagon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ogawa,Norio

    1974-06-01

    Full Text Available Firstly, comparisons have been made of the secretion of human growth hormone (HGH that was induced by insulin, lysine vasopressin and pyrogen injections in order to study whether these substances can be utilized as a rapid test of HGH secretion. In insulin test, a fall of the fasting blood glucose level by 28.6% or more seemed to be sufficient to provoke adequate HGH elevation, and 9.4 ng/ml or higher HGH increment was recognized as being normal, because lysine vasopressin and pyrogen produce varying degrees of side-effects and are less specific and unpredictable in the release of HGH. Secondly, the pharmacologic effects and mechanism of action of exogenous glucagon upon the HGH secretion were studied. In normal subjects after one mg sc glucagon, there was a mean peak blood glucose level of 142. 4±3.l mg/lOO ml at 30 min, HGH levels reached a mean peak level of 22. 6±4. 8 ng/ml at 150 min, and no false negative response was noted. In patients with hypopituitarism, there was no positive response in plasma HGH levels after the sc glucagon. The present study revealed that the rise and subsequent fall of blood glucose are not the sole mechanism responsible for the effct of glucagon on HGH secretion, and that the HGH secretion in response to the sc glucagon was not triggered by cathecholamine via the stimulation of the adrenal medulla.

  4. Interferon-alpha-2a is a potent inhibitor of hormone secretion by cultured human pituitary adenomas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L.J. Hofland (Leo); W.W. de Herder (Wouter); M. Waaijers (Marlijn); J. Zuijderwijk; P. Uitterlinden (Piet); P.M. van Koetsveld (Peter); S.W.J. Lamberts (Steven)

    1999-01-01

    textabstractInterferon-alpha (IFN alpha) may exert direct inhibitory effects on cell proliferation and on the production of different peptide hormones. We investigated the effect of IFN alpha on hormone production by 15 GH-secreting pituitary adenomas, 4 clinically nonf

  5. Growth hormone, ghrelin and peptide YY secretion after oral glucose administration in healthy and obese women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Outeiriño-Blanco, E; Garcia-Buela, J; Sangiao-Alvarellos, S; Pertega-Diaz, S; Martinez-Ramonde, T; Cordido, F

    2011-07-01

    The mechanism of the altered GH secretion in obesity is unclear. There is evidence that oral glucose (OG) administration initially decreases and subsequently stimulates GH secretion. Ghrelin is a peptide that displays strong growth hormone-releasing activity. Its physiological importance on GH regulation is unclear. Our aim was to study fasting GH concentrations and their response to OG administration in relation with ghrelin secretion in obese and healthy women, in order to elucidate the hypothetical participation of ghrelin on post-oral glucose GH secretion. 36 women were included in the study. After an overnight fast, 75 g of oral glucose was administered; glucose, insulin, ghrelin, and PYY (1-36) were obtained at baseline and during 300 min. The area under the curve between 0 and 300 min (AUC) of GH μ/l·min) was lower in obese patients than in controls; 262.5±57.5 vs. 534.9±95.6, p=0.01, for obese and controls respectively. GH peak (μg/l) was lower in obese patients than in controls; 3.7±0.7 vs. 7.1±1.0, p=0.012, for obese and controls, respectively. The AUC of total ghrelin (pg/ml·min) was lower in obese patients than in controls; 233,032±12,641 vs. 333,697±29,877, p=0.004, for the obese patients and controls respectively. PYY (1-36) was similar in obese and healthy women after OG. There were significant correlations between the different indices of post-oral glucose GH and ghrelin secretion. These data suggest that ghrelin is a physiological regulator of GH in the post-oral glucose state, and the decreased ghrelin secretion could be one of the mechanisms responsible for the altered GH secretion in obesity.

  6. Dolomite supplementation improves bone metabolism through modulation of calcium-regulating hormone secretion in ovariectomized rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mizoguchi, Toshihide; Nagasawa, Sakae; Takahashi, Naoyuki; Yagasaki, Hiroshi; Ito, Michio

    2005-01-01

    Dolomite, a mineral composed of calcium magnesium carbonate (CaMg (CO3)2), is used as a food supplement that supplies calcium and magnesium. However, the effect of magnesium supplementation on bone metabolism in patients with osteoporosis is a matter of controversy. We examined the effects of daily supplementation with dolomite on calcium metabolism in ovariectomized (OVX) rats. Dolomite was administered daily to OVX rats for 9 weeks. The same amount of magnesium chloride as that supplied by the dolomite was given to OVX rats as a positive control. Histological examination revealed that ovariectomy decreased trabecular bone and increased adipose tissues in the femoral metaphysis. Dolomite or magnesium supplementation failed to improve these bone histological features. Calcium content in the femora was decreased in OVX rats. Neither calcium nor magnesium content in the femora in OVX rats was significantly increased by dolomite or magnesium administration. Urinary deoxypyridinoline excretion was significantly increased in OVX rats, and was not affected by the magnesium supplementation. Serum concentrations of magnesium were increased, and those of calcium were decreased, in OVX rats supplemented with dolomite or magnesium. However, there was a tendency toward decreased parathyroid hormone secretion and increased calcitonin secretion in OVX rats supplemented with dolomite or magnesium. Serum 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D(3) and osteocalcin levels were significantly increased in the supplemented OVX rats. These results suggest that increased magnesium intake improves calcium metabolism in favor of increasing bone formation, through the modulation of calcium-regulating hormone secretion.

  7. Secretion of Growth Hormone in Response to Muscle Sensory Nerve Stimulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grindeland, Richard E.; Roy, R. R.; Edgerton, V. R.; Gosselink, K. L.; Grossman, E. J.; Sawchenko, P. E.; Wade, Charles E. (Technical Monitor)

    1994-01-01

    Growth hormone (GH) secretion is stimulated by aerobic and resistive exercise and inhibited by exposure to actual or simulated (bedrest, hindlimb suspension) microgravity. Moreover, hypothalamic growth hormone-releasing factor (GRF) and preproGRF mRNA are markedly decreased in spaceflight rats. These observations suggest that reduced sensory input from inactive muscles may contribute to the reduced secretion of GH seen in "0 G". Thus, the aim of this study was to determine the effect of muscle sensory nerve stimulation on secretion of GH. Fed male Wistar rats (304 +/- 23 g) were anesthetized (pentobarbital) and the right peroneal (Pe), tibial (T), and sural (S) nerves were cut. Electrical stimulation of the distal (D) or proximal (P) ends of the nerves was implemented for 15 min. to mimic the EMG activity patterns of ankle extensor muscles of a rat walking 1.5 mph. The rats were bled by cardiac puncture and their anterior pituitaries collected. Pituitary and plasma bioactive (BGH) and immunoactive (IGH) GH were measured by bioassay and RIA.

  8. Secretion of Growth Hormone in Response to Muscle Sensory Nerve Stimulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grindeland, Richard E.; Roy, R. R.; Edgerton, V. R.; Gosselink, K. L.; Grossman, E. J.; Sawchenko, P. E.; Wade, Charles E. (Technical Monitor)

    1994-01-01

    Growth hormone (GH) secretion is stimulated by aerobic and resistive exercise and inhibited by exposure to actual or simulated (bedrest, hindlimb suspension) microgravity. Moreover, hypothalamic growth hormone-releasing factor (GRF) and preproGRF mRNA are markedly decreased in spaceflight rats. These observations suggest that reduced sensory input from inactive muscles may contribute to the reduced secretion of GH seen in "0 G". Thus, the aim of this study was to determine the effect of muscle sensory nerve stimulation on secretion of GH. Fed male Wistar rats (304 +/- 23 g) were anesthetized (pentobarbital) and the right peroneal (Pe), tibial (T), and sural (S) nerves were cut. Electrical stimulation of the distal (D) or proximal (P) ends of the nerves was implemented for 15 min. to mimic the EMG activity patterns of ankle extensor muscles of a rat walking 1.5 mph. The rats were bled by cardiac puncture and their anterior pituitaries collected. Pituitary and plasma bioactive (BGH) and immunoactive (IGH) GH were measured by bioassay and RIA.

  9. Composition of culture media for steroid hormone secretion by murine adrenal tumor cells, Y-1 clone.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ichikawa,Yoshiko

    1989-04-01

    Full Text Available Murine adrenal tumor cells (Y-1 clone were stimulated by adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH and cyclic adenosine 3',5'-monophosphate (cyclic AMP to produce steroid hormone (delta 4, 3-keto steroids. The steroids were secreted into the medium immediately after synthesis. The optimum concentrations of ACTH and cyclic AMP for stimulation of steroid production were 10(-2 U/ml and 1.0 mM, respectively. In serum-free medium, ACTH and cyclic AMP stimulated steroidogenesis in Y-1 cells, but the amount of steroid hormone in the culture medium was low. However, a high level of steroid production was maintained with medium containing 10 mg/ml bovine serum albumin (BSA. In culture medium containing a higher concentration of BSA, Y-1 cells did not become spherical as is usually the case when steroid production is stimulated by ACTH or cyclic AMP. The morphological changes did not always correlate with steroid secretion by Y-1 cells.

  10. A mathematical/physiological model of parathyroid hormone secretion in response to blood-ionized calcium lowering in vivo

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Momsen, G; Schwarz, P

    1997-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to test a mathematical model of the biochemical processes in the parathyroid glands responsible for the secretion of parathyroid hormone resulting from extracellular calcium reduction. A double exponential curve described the parathyroid hormone secretion induced...... plasma and the rate of cellular production/secretion was observed. This could be interpreted as an adaptation of the parathyroid gland's ability to produce parathyroid hormone depending on the average demand from the body....... by rapid lowering of blood-ionized calcium in humans with normal as well as abnormal parathyroid tissue. Our data show that it was possible to establish a simple mathematical model of the parathyroid hormone response to blood-ionized calcium lowering, sufficient to fit experimental data obtained from...

  11. Role of obestatin on growth hormone secretion: An in vitro approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pazos, Yolanda, E-mail: yolanda.pazos@usc.es [Area de Endocrinologia Molecular y Celular, Instituto de Investigacion Sanitaria (IDIS), Complejo Hospitalario Universitario de Santiago (CHUS), Santiago de Compostela (Spain); CIBER Fisiopatologia de la Obesidad y Nutricion (CB06/03), Instituto de Salud Carlos III (Spain); Alvarez, Carlos J.P. [Area de Endocrinologia Molecular y Celular, Instituto de Investigacion Sanitaria (IDIS), Complejo Hospitalario Universitario de Santiago (CHUS), Santiago de Compostela (Spain); CIBER Fisiopatologia de la Obesidad y Nutricion (CB06/03), Instituto de Salud Carlos III (Spain); Universidad de Santiago de Compostela (USC), Santiago de Compostela (Spain); Camina, Jesus P. [Area de Endocrinologia Molecular y Celular, Instituto de Investigacion Sanitaria (IDIS), Complejo Hospitalario Universitario de Santiago (CHUS), Santiago de Compostela (Spain); CIBER Fisiopatologia de la Obesidad y Nutricion (CB06/03), Instituto de Salud Carlos III (Spain); Al-Massadi, Omar [Area de Endocrinologia Molecular y Celular, Instituto de Investigacion Sanitaria (IDIS), Complejo Hospitalario Universitario de Santiago (CHUS), Santiago de Compostela (Spain); CIBER Fisiopatologia de la Obesidad y Nutricion (CB06/03), Instituto de Salud Carlos III (Spain); Universidad de Santiago de Compostela (USC), Santiago de Compostela (Spain); Seoane, Luisa M. [Area de Endocrinologia Molecular y Celular, Instituto de Investigacion Sanitaria (IDIS), Complejo Hospitalario Universitario de Santiago (CHUS), Santiago de Compostela (Spain); CIBER Fisiopatologia de la Obesidad y Nutricion (CB06/03), Instituto de Salud Carlos III (Spain); Casanueva, Felipe F. [Area de Endocrinologia Molecular y Celular, Instituto de Investigacion Sanitaria (IDIS), Complejo Hospitalario Universitario de Santiago (CHUS), Santiago de Compostela (Spain); CIBER Fisiopatologia de la Obesidad y Nutricion (CB06/03), Instituto de Salud Carlos III (Spain); Universidad de Santiago de Compostela (USC), Santiago de Compostela (Spain)

    2009-12-25

    Obestatin, the ghrelin-associated peptide, showed to activate MAPK signaling with no effect on Akt nor cell proliferating activity in rat tumor somatotroph cells (growth cells, GC). A sequential analysis of the obestatin transmembrane signaling pathway indicated a route involving the consecutive activation of G{sub i}, PI3k, novel PKC{epsilon}, and Src for ERK1/2 activation. Furthermore, obestatin treatment triggers growth hormone (GH) release in the first 30 min, being more acute at 15 min. At 1 h, obestatin treated cells showed the same levels in GH secretion than controls. Added to this functionality, obestatin was secreted by GC cells. Based on the capacity to stimulate GH release from somatotroph cells, obestatin may act directly in the pituitary through an autocrine/paracrine mechanism.

  12. Nocturnal secretion of growth hormone, noradrenaline, cortisol and insulin in cluster headache remission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, E L; Marcus, C; Waldenlind, E

    2007-08-01

    We have previously shown decreased, nocturnal lipolysis in both phases of cluster headache (CH). Lipolysis is stimulated by noradrenaline (NA), growth hormone (GH) and cortisol, and inhibited by insulin, hormones which are directly or indirectly regulated by the hypothalamus. Our aim was to investigate the nocturnal secretion of NA, GH, cortisol and insulin in nine CH patients in remission and 10 healthy controls. Nocturnal venous blood samples were collected in hourly intervals for analysis of NA, cortisol and insulin and in 30-min intervals for GH. We found a reduced increase in GH between 24.00 h and 01.00 h (anova, P insulin did not differ significantly between the groups. The altered nocturnal GH pattern that was seen in CH patients in remission might in part explain the altered nocturnal lipolysis previously found and further indicate a permanent hypothalamic disturbance in CH.

  13. The Association of Macro- and Micronutrient Intake with Growth Hormone Secretion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denny-Brown, S.; Stanley, T.L.; Grinspoon, S.K.; Makimura, H.

    2012-01-01

    Context Growth hormone (GH) is known to be nutritionally regulated, but the effect of dietary composition on detailed GH secretion parameters has not previously been comprehensively evaluated. Objective The objective of the study was to determine whether specific macro- and micronutrients are associated with discrete parameters of GH secretion among subjects with wide ranges of body mass index. Design Detailed macro- and micronutrient intake was assessed by four-day food records while GH secretion was assessed by standard stimulation testing in 108 men and women in one study (Study 1), and by overnight frequent blood sampling in 12 men in another study (Study 2). Results Peak stimulated GH was positively associated with vitamin C (r=+0.29; P=0.003), dietary fiber (r=+0.27; P=0.004), arachidic acid (r=+0.25; P=0.008), and behenic acid (r=+0.30; P=0.002) intake in univariate analysis. Controlling for age, gender, race/ethnicity, visceral fat, HOMA-IR, total caloric intake and these four dietary factors in step-wise multivariate modeling, peak GH remained significantly associated with vitamin C and visceral fat (both Pmicronutrients such as vitamin C intake are strongly and uniquely associated with stimulated and endogenous spontaneous GH secretion. PMID:22465725

  14. Maturation of the inhibitory response of growth hormone secretion to ether stress in postnatal rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strbák, V; Jurcovicová, J; Vigas, M

    1985-05-01

    To study the maturation of inhibitory influences on growth hormone (GH) secretion the effect of ether stress on plasma GH levels was studied during postnatal ontogenesis in female rats. Ether stress did not affect plasma GH levels in 1-day-old pups. A distinct decrease of plasma GH was found in 3- and 9-day-old pups, and the response was prevented by treatment of 3-day-old animals with somatostatin antiserum. No effect of ether stress on plasma GH was noted in 12-, 15-, 18- and 21-day-old rats. Treatment of intact 12-day-old pups with the somatostatin antiserum increased plasma GH level under basal conditions. The inhibitory effect of ether stress on plasma GH was noted again at the age 30 days and in adult animals. It is concluded that the hypothalamus of 3-day-old rats is able to release enough somatostatin to inhibit GH secretion after stress. At the period 12-18 days a phase of pituitary refractoriness was noted: ether stress as well as TRH injection (our previous observation) fail to affect plasma GH in female pups, probably due to high somatostatin secretion under basal conditions and (or) low capacity of pituitary to release GH. It is suggested that regulation of GH secretion is not mature until after the 21st day of life.

  15. Mice deficient in MCT8 reveal a mechanism regulating thyroid hormone secretion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Cosmo, Caterina; Liao, Xiao-Hui; Dumitrescu, Alexandra M; Philp, Nancy J; Weiss, Roy E; Refetoff, Samuel

    2010-09-01

    The mechanism of thyroid hormone (TH) secretion from the thyroid gland into blood is unknown. Humans and mice deficient in monocarboxylate transporter 8 (MCT8) have low serum thyroxine (T4) levels that cannot be fully explained by increased deiodination. Here, we have shown that Mct8 is localized at the basolateral membrane of thyrocytes and that the serum TH concentration is reduced in Mct8-KO mice early after being taken off a treatment that almost completely depleted the thyroid gland of TH. Thyroid glands in Mct8-KO mice contained more non-thyroglobulin-associated T4 and triiodothyronine than did those in wild-type mice, independent of deiodination. In addition, depletion of thyroidal TH content was slower during iodine deficiency. After administration of 125I, the rate of both its secretion from the thyroid gland and its appearance in the serum as trichloroacetic acid-precipitable radioactivity was greatly reduced in Mct8-KO mice. Similarly, the secretion of T4 induced by injection of thyrotropin was reduced in Mct8-KO in which endogenous TSH and T4 were suppressed by administration of triiodothyronine. To our knowledge, this study is the first to demonstrate that Mct8 is involved in the secretion of TH from the thyroid gland and contributes, in part, to the low serum T4 level observed in MCT8-deficient patients.

  16. Growth hormone secretion from chicken adenohypophyseal cells in primary culture: effects of human pancreatic growth hormone-releasing factor, thyrotropin-releasing hormone, and somatostatin on growth hormone release.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez, F M; Malamed, S; Scanes, C G

    1987-03-01

    A primary culture of chicken adenohypophyseal cells has been developed to study the regulation of growth hormone (GH) secretion. Following collagenase dispersion, cells were exposed for 2 hr to vehicle (control) or test agents. Human pancreatic (tumor) growth hormone-releasing factor (hpGRF) and rat hypothalamic growth hormone-releasing factor stimulated GH release to similar levels. GH release was increased by the presence of dibutyryl cyclic AMP. Thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH) alone did not influence GH release; however, TRH plus hpGRF together exerted a synergistic (greater than additive) effect, increasing GH release by 100 to 300% over the sum of the values for each secretagogue acting alone. These relationships between TRH and hpGRF were further examined in cultured cells exposed to secretagogues for two consecutive 2-hr incubations. TRH pretreatment enhanced subsequent hpGRF-stimulated GH release by about 80% over that obtained if no secretagogue was present during the first incubation. In other experiments, somatostatin (SRIF) alone did not alter GH secretion. However, SRIF reduced hpGRF-stimulated GH release to levels found in controls. Furthermore, GH release stimulated by the presence of both TRH and hpGRF was lowered to control values by SRIF. The results of these studies demonstrate that a primary culture of chicken adenohypophyseal cells is a useful model for the study of GH secretion. Indeed, these results suggest that TRH and hpGRF regulate GH secretion by mechanisms which are not identical.

  17. Effect of copper deficiency on the content and secretion of pancreatic islet hormones

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bhathena, S.J.; Voyles, N.R.; Timmers, K.I.; Fields, M.; Kennedy, B.W.; Recant, L.

    1986-03-01

    Experimental copper (Cu) deficiency in rats is characterized by glucose intolerance and hyperlipemia. Its severity is increased by dietary fructose (F) as compared to starch (S). Since islet hormones are intimately involved in carbohydrate metabolism the authors studied the effects of Cu deficiency on their content and secretion. Rats were fed Cu deficient (CuD) (0.6 ..mu..g Cu/g) or Cu supplemented (6.0 ..mu..g Cu/g) diets with either 62% F or S for 7 weeks after weaning. Feeding CuD diets decreased plasma insulin (I) (P < 0.001) but not plasma glucagon (G). F feeding compared to S magnified the effects of Cu deficiency. Total pancreatic content of I in CuD rats was increased threefold (P < 0.001). Total somatostatin content increased significantly only in the pancreas of CuD rats fed F. Although total G content was not altered in CuD rats, when G was expressed per g protein or g wet weight, significant increases were found in CuD rats fed F. Thus, of the islet hormones, the major effect of Cu deficiency was on I. When pancreata were perfused in vitro with high glucose, pancreas from CuD rats had reduced insulin response. Thus, cellular functions dependent on Cu are involved in maintaining the ability of the islets of Langerhans to secrete I in a normal fashion.

  18. Unusual cause of ectopic secretion of adrenocorticotropic hormone: Cushing syndrome attributable to small cell prostate cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alshaikh, Omalkhaire M; Al-Mahfouz, Abdulraof A; Al-Hindi, Hindi; Mahfouz, Ali Bin; Alzahrani, Ali S

    2010-01-01

    To report a rare cause of ectopic adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) secretion leading to severe Cushing syndrome. We describe the clinical presentation and management of a case of Cushing syndrome attributable to ectopic ACTH secretion from small cell cancer of the prostate. In a 70-year-old man with hypertension and diabetes, congestive heart failure developed. He was found to have severe hypokalemia (serum potassium, 1.7 mEq/L) and a huge pelvic mass on a computed tomographic scan performed because of a complaint of urinary retention. Transurethral biopsy of the prostate showed features of small cell prostate cancer. Hormonal evaluation revealed a high urine free cortisol excretion of 6,214.5 microg/d (reference range, 36 to 137), confirming the diagnosis of Cushing syndrome. A serum ACTH level was elevated at 316 ng/dL (reference range, 10 to 52). An overnight high-dose (8 mg orally) dexamethasone suppression test was positive (serum cortisol levels were 43.2 and 41 microg/dL before and after suppression, respectively), and magnetic resonance imaging of the pituitary gland disclosed no abnormalities. A prostate biopsy specimen showed small cell prostate cancer with positive staining for ACTH. The tumor was found to be unresectable, and the poor condition of the patient did not allow for bilateral adrenalectomy. He was treated with ketoconazole and metyrapone, which yielded good temporary control of his Cushing syndrome (24-hour urine free cortisol decreased to 55.2 microg/d). He received 1 cycle of chemotherapy (etoposide and cisplatin), but he died 6 months later as a result of sepsis. Small cell prostate cancer is a rare subtype that can be associated with ectopic secretion of ACTH and severe Cushing syndrome. With this subtype of prostate cancer, Cushing syndrome should be considered and appropriately managed.

  19. Growth hormone secretion and clearance rates in growing beef steers implanted with estrogenic anabolic compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gopinath, R; Kitts, W D

    1984-01-01

    The effect of estrogenic anabolic compounds on the kinetic parameters of metabolism of growth hormone (GH) was studied in growing beef steers. Twenty-four beef steers were randomly placed into four groups and assigned to one of the following four treatment groups: zeranol, diethylstilbestrol (DES), Synovex-S and an unimplanted control. GH metabolism was studied from eight steers on day 20 following the implantation of anabolic compounds. The animals were rapidly injected with a solution of bGH (NIH-GH-B18) and the disappearance of injected GH from the plasma was monitored up to 120 min following the injection. The plasma GH disappearance curve displayed an initial rapid phase lasting 5 min and a slow disappearance phase lasting 42 min; the fractional turnover rate from the two compartments were 0.167 and 0.017 min-1, respectively. The average volume of distribution of GH in steers was 6% of the body weight. Mean values of metabolic clearance and secretion rates of GH in steers were 21 liters/h and 252 micrograms/h or 74.5 ml/kg/h and 0.91 microgram/kg/h, respectively. Steers implanted with anabolic compounds gained more rapidly (P less than 0.05) than the controls. Plasma basal GH concentration appeared to be higher in all the implanted than in the control steers. The secretion rate of GH was increased (P less than 0.05) in steers implanted with anabolic compounds when compared to control steers. The secretion rate (microgram/kg/h) was about 96% (P less than 0.05), 107% (P less than 0.05) and 81% (P less than 0.05) higher in steers implanted with DES, zeranol and Synovex-S, respectively, than in the control steers. All the compounds studied were equally effective in increasing the secretion of GH on day 20 following their implantation. Metabolic clearance rate of GH was not affected by anabolic compound implantation in steers. There was, however, a slight reduction in metabolic clearance rate due to DES and a slight elevation due to zeranol and Synovex-S when

  20. Synchronous esthesioneuroblastoma and growth-hormone-secreting pituitary macroadenoma: combined open and endoscopic management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valdes, Costanza J; Tewfik, Marc A; Guiot, Marie-Christine; Di Maio, Salvatore

    2014-12-01

    Background Esthesioneuroblastoma is an uncommon malignant neoplasm that arises from the olfactory neuroepithelium. In this article we report a case of esthesioneuroblastoma presenting concomitantly with a growth-hormone (GH)-secreting pituitary macroadenoma. Results A 52 year old woman underwent surgery for suspected nasal polyps. Intralesional debulking of an intranasal tumor disclosed a low-grade esthesioneuroblastoma. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) demonstrated a large nasal and intracranial tumor, in addition to a separate sellar and suprasellar tumor. The patient was frankly acromegalic. She underwent a first-stage gross total resection of the esthesioneuroblastoma via a combined extended subfrontal and extended endonasal approach, followed by focused radiation therapy. She then returned for endoscopic removal of the GH-secreting pituitary macroadenoma. Conclusion The combined open and endoscopic management of this patient is described and a review of the literature presented. To our knowledge this is the first case of synchronous esthesioneuroblastoma and macroadenoma, in this case GH secreting, described in the literature.

  1. Thyroid hormone modulates food intake and glycemia via ghrelin secretion in Zucker fatty rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, K; Joharapurkar, A; Dhanesha, N; Patel, V; Kshirsagar, S; Raval, P; Raval, S; Jain, M R

    2014-10-01

    Hyperthyroidism is known to increase food intake and central administration of thyroid hormone shows acute orexigenic effects in rodents. We investigated whether T3 influences appetite and glucose homeostasis by modulating circulating ghrelin, an important orexigenic hormone, in Zucker fatty rats. The acute anorectic effects of T3 and ghrelin mimetic MK-0677 were studied in rats trained for fasting induced food intake. The serum concentration of T3, ghrelin, glucose, triglycerides, and liver glycogen were estimated. The involvement of sympathetic nervous system was evaluated by conducting similar experiments in vagotomized rats. T3 increased food intake and glucose in rats over 4 h, with increase in serum T3 and decrease in liver glycogen. T3 treatment was associated with increase in serum ghrelin. An additive effect on appetite and glucose was observed when T3 (oral) was administered with central (intracerebroventricular) administration of a ghrelin mimetic, MK-0677. Ghrelin antagonist, compound 8a, antagonized the hyperglycemic and hyperphagic effects of T3. In vagotomized rats, T3 did not show increase in appetite as well as glucose. Serum ghrelin levels were unchanged in these animals after T3 treatment. However, T3 showed increase in serum triglyceride levels indicating its peripheral lipolytic effect, in vagotomized as well as sham treated animals. To conclude, acute orexigenic and hyperglycemic effects of T3 are associated with ghrelin secretion and activity. This effect seems to be mediated via vagus nerves, and is independent of glucoregulatory hormones.

  2. Influence of leptin on luteinizing hormone and follicle stimulating hormone secreted from cultured rat anterior pituitary cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yuebing Qiao; Xiuyan Ma; Huixian Cui

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Leptin may regulate reproductive function via release of hypothalamic neuropeptide Y. However, it is unknown whether this regulatory effect is limited to the hypothalamus. OBJECTIVE: To detect the effect of different dosages of leptin on luteinizing hormone (LH) and follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) secretion from in vitro cultured rat anterior pituitary cells. DESIGN: Contrast study based on cells. SETTING: This study was performed in the Basic Institute of Chengde Medical College, Chengde City, Hebei Province, China from March to June 2007. MATERIALS: Eighteen female Wistar rats of three months of age, weighing 200-220 g, and of clean grade were used. Leptin was provided by Peprotech Company, DMEM culture medium by Invitrogen Company, and the radioimmunological kit by Beijing Zhongshan Jinqiao Biotechnology Co., Ltd. METHODS: Three glandular organs were regarded as one group for culture of anterior pituitary cells. In the control group, saline was added to the culture medium instead of leptin. In the leptin group, leptin was prepared into different concentrations of 1×10-12, 1×10-11, 1×10-9, 1×10-7, and 1×10-6 mol/L for stimulation of cultured cells. The culture supernatant was obtained at three hours after additional of saline/leptin. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Contents of LH and FSH were detected by radioimmunology. RESULTS: Following leptin stimulation, LH release increased with increasing concentrations of leptin up to 1×10-9 mol/L, where LH release peaked. LH release then progressively decreased with increasing leptin concentrations (P<0.01). LH release in the leptin (1×10-12, 1×10-11, 1×10-7, and 1×10-6 mol/L) groups was significantly higher than that in the control group (P<0.01). FSH content in the leptin (1×10-11, 1×10-9, and 1×10-7 mol/L) groups was significantly higher than that in the control group (P<0.01). CONCLUSION: Leptin can directly affect pituitary tissue to promote the secretion of LH and FSH in a dose-dependent manner.

  3. Luteinizing Hormone Secretion during Gonadotropin-Releasing Hormone Stimulation Tests in Obese Girls with Central Precocious Puberty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hae Sang; Yoon, Jong Seo; Hwang, Jin Soon

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Girls with precocious puberty have high luteinizing hormone (LH) levels and advanced bone age. Obese children enter puberty at earlier ages than do non-obese children. We analyzed the effects of obesity on LH secretion during gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) tests in girls with precocious puberty. Methods: A total of 981 subjects with idiopathic precocious puberty who had undergone a GnRH stimulation testing between 2008 and 2014 were included in the study. Subjects were divided into three groups based on body mass index (BMI). Auxological data and gonadotropin levels after the GnRH stimulation test were compared. Results: In Tanner stage 2 girls, peak stimulated LH levels on GnRH test were 11.9±7.5, 10.4±6.4, and 9.1±6.1 IU/L among normal-weight, overweight, and obese subjects, respectively (p=0.035 for all comparisons). In Tanner stage 3 girls, peak stimulated LH levels were 14.9±10.9, 12.8±7.9, and 9.6±6.0 IU/L, respectively (p=0.022 for all comparisons). However, in Tanner stage 4 girls, peak stimulated LH levels were not significantly different among normal, overweight, and obese children. On multivariate analysis, BMI standard deviation score was significantly and negatively associated with peak LH (β=-1.178, p=0.001). Conclusion: In girls with central precocious puberty, increased BMI was associated with slightly lower peak stimulated LH levels at early pubertal stages (Tanner stages 2 and 3). This association was not valid in Tanner stage 4 girls. PMID:27215137

  4. [Alteration of thyroid hormone secretion after long-term exposure to low doses of endocrine disruptor DDT].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iaglova, N V; Iaglov, V V

    2014-01-01

    Endocrine disruptors are exogenous substances that exhibit hormone-like action and consequently disrupt homeostatic action of endogenous hormones. DDT is the most common disruptor. The objective was to evaluate changes in thyroid hormone secretion after long-term exposure to low doses of DDT. The experiment was performed on male Wistar rats. The rats were given DDT at doses of 1.89±0.86 мg/kg/day and 7.77±0.17 мg/kg/day for 6 and 10 weeks. Dose dependent increase of serum total thyroxine, total triiodthyronine, and thyroid peroxidase was revealed after 6 weeks exposure. After 10 weeks free thyroxine secretion was reduced. Such alterations of the thyroid status are typical for iodine deficient goiter. The data obtained indicate that the main mechanism of DDT action includes disruption of thyroxine secretion by thyrocytes, but not inhibition of deiodinase activity and decrease of blood thyroid binding proteins.

  5. The novel somatostatin analog SOM230 is a potent inhibitor of hormone release by growth hormone- and prolactin-secreting pituitary adenomas in vitro

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L.J. Hofland (Leo); A-J. van der Lely (Aart-Jan); S.W.J. Lamberts (Steven); A. Beckers (Albert); J. van der Hoek (Joost); P.M. van Koetsveld (Peter); W.W. de Herder (Wouter); M. Waaijers (Marlijn); D. Sprij-Mooij (Diana); C. Bruns (Christian); G. Weckbecker (Gisbert); R.A. Feelders (Richard)

    2004-01-01

    textabstractTo determine the inhibitory profile of the novel somatostatin (SRIF) analog SOM230 with broad SRIF receptor binding, we compared the in vitro effects of SOM230, octreotide (OCT), and SRIF-14 on hormone release by cultures of different types of secreting pituitary adenom

  6. Impact of Metabolic Hormones Secreted in Human Breast Milk on Nutritional Programming in Childhood Obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badillo-Suárez, Pilar Amellali; Rodríguez-Cruz, Maricela; Nieves-Morales, Xóchitl

    2017-06-27

    Obesity is the most common metabolic disease whose prevalence is increasing worldwide. This condition is considered a serious public health problem due to associated comorbidities such as diabetes mellitus and hypertension. Perinatal morbidity related to obesity does not end with birth; this continues affecting the mother/infant binomial and could negatively impact on metabolism during early infant nutrition. Nutrition in early stages of growth may be essential in the development of obesity in adulthood, supporting the concept of "nutritional programming". For this reason, breastfeeding may play an important role in this programming. Breast milk is the most recommended feeding for the newborn due to the provided benefits such as protection against obesity and diabetes. Health benefits are based on milk components such as bioactive molecules, specifically hormones involved in the regulation of food intake. Identification of these molecules has increased in recent years but its action has not been fully clarified. Hormones such as leptin, insulin, ghrelin, adiponectin, resistin, obestatin and insulin-like growth factor-1 copeptin, apelin, and nesfatin, among others, have been identified in the milk of normal-weight women and may influence the energy balance because they can activate orexigenic or anorexigenic pathways depending on energy requirements and body stores. It is important to emphasize that, although the number of biomolecules identified in milk involved in regulating food intake has increased considerably, there is a lack of studies aimed at elucidating the effect these hormones may have on metabolism and development of the newborn. Therefore, we present a state-of-the-art review regarding bioactive compounds such as hormones secreted in breast milk and their possible impact on nutritional programming in the infant, analyzing their functions in appetite regulation.

  7. Effect of cadmium on sexual hormone secretion from pituitary and ovary

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZhanWC; WuZR

    2002-01-01

    The objective of this study is to provide the evidence of endocrine disruption induced by Cd.The changes of serum luteinizing hormone(LH),follicle stimulating hormone(FSH),progesterone(P) and estradiol(E2) levels were observed in female rats administrated ac with Cd.Serum FSH or LH was no significant difference between groups for 7-day and for 14-day exposure.But the serum E2 of the high dose group of 7-day exposure,the low dose and high dose group for 14d was significantly lower than that of the control group.Serum P of the low dose group of 7 day exposure was significantly lower than that of the control group.After injection of gonadotropin-release hormones (GnRH) the serum FSH and LH levels increased significantly in each group(Cd 0.5,1.0mg·kg-1,5days a week, for 6 weeks).However,the serum LH was lower significantly in the rats administrated Cd than in the control rats after the injection of GnRH.There was no difference of the number of ovum between groups(0,1.5,3.0mg·kg-1 for 5d) in the super-ovulation test(P>0.05).Cadmium has the distinct adverse effect on the ovary of female rats.But the response function of the ovary to excess gonadotropin was basically normal.Under this experimental conditions.the function of secual hormone secretion of pituitary has been damaged,but the normal level of both FSH and LH could be maintained because of the limited compensative function of pituitary.

  8. The Role of Protein Kinase C and Its Effect on GHRH in the Regulation of Hormone Secretion by Somatotrophinomas

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Kui; BAI Xiangjun; LEI Ting; XUE Delin; LIU Qin

    2000-01-01

    Phorbol ester-induced release of growth hormone (GH) and prolactin (PRL) from human somatotrophic tumors was examined in vitro. 12-O-tetradecanoyl-phorbol-13- acetate (TPA)strongly stimulated GH and PRL secretion and showed an additive effect on GH secretion if used in combination with GH releasing hormone (GHRH). In contrast, staurosporine exerted a variable inhibitory effect on GH release. There was no correlation between such effects and gsp mutations.The findings suggested that TPA doesn't act directly through cAMP signal transduction system.

  9. Clinical applications of somatostatin analogs for growth hormone-secreting pituitary adenomas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang JW

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Ji-wen Wang,1,2 Ying Li,3 Zhi-gang Mao,1,2 Bin Hu,1,2 Xiao-bing Jiang,1,2 Bing-bing Song,4 Xin Wang,4 Yong-hong Zhu,4 Hai-jun Wang1,21Department of Neurosurgery and Pituitary Tumor Center, The First Affiliated Hospital, Sun Yat-sen University, 2Key Laboratory of Pituitary Adenoma in Guangdong Province, 3State Key Laboratory of Ophthalmology, Zhongshan Ophthalmic Center, Sun Yat-sen University, 4Department of Histology and Embryology, Zhongshan School of Medicine, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou, People's Republic of ChinaAbstract: Excessive growth hormone (GH is usually secreted by GH-secreting pituitary adenomas and causes gigantism in juveniles or acromegaly in adults. The clinical complications involving cardiovascular, respiratory, and metabolic systems lead to elevated morbidity in acromegaly. Control of serum GH and insulin-like growth factor (IGF 1 hypersecretion by surgery or pharmacotherapy can decrease morbidity. Current pharmacotherapy includes somatostatin analogs (SAs and GH receptor antagonist; the former consists of lanreotide Autogel (ATG and octreotide long-acting release (LAR, and the latter refers to pegvisomant. As primary medical therapy, lanreotide ATG and octreotide LAR can be supplied in a long-lasting formulation to achieve biochemical control of GH and IGF-1 by subcutaneous injection every 4–6 weeks. Lanreotide ATG and octreotide LAR provide an effective medical treatment, whether as a primary or secondary therapy, for the treatment of GH-secreting pituitary adenoma; however, to maximize benefits with the least cost, several points should be emphasized before the application of SAs. A comprehensive assessment, especially of the observation of clinical predictors and preselection of SA treatment, should be completed in advance. A treatment process lasting at least 3 months should be implemented to achieve a long-term stable blood concentration. More satisfactory surgical outcomes for noninvasive macroadenomas treated

  10. Diurnal secretion profiles of growth hormone, thyrotrophin and prolactin in Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aziz, N A; Pijl, H; Frölich, M; Roelfsema, F; Roos, R A C

    2011-06-01

    Recently, a massive loss of both hypocretin and melanin-concentrating hormone (MCH) neurones was found in the hypothalamus of Parkinson's disease (PD) patients. Because both hypocretin and MCH play a key role in the regulation of sleep, energy homeostasis and autonomic function, partly by modulation of the somatotrophic, thyrotrophic and lactotrophic axes, neuroendocrine dysregulation may contribute to some of the non-motor features of PD. In eight de novo, medication-free PD patients and eight age-, sex- and body mass index-matched controls, we measured serum levels of growth hormone (GH), thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) and prolactin every 10 min for 24 h. Auto-deconvolution, cosinor and approximate entropy analysis were applied to quantify GH, TSH and prolactin secretion rates, diurnal rhythmicity, as well as regularity of hormone release. Sleep was polygraphically-recorded throughout the night. Total 24-h secretion of GH (191 ± 31 versus 130 ± 39 mU/l/24 h), TSH (38 ± 9 versus 36 ± 2 mU/l/24 h) and prolactin (102 ± 14 versus 116 ± 17 μg/l/24 h), as well as their diurnal rhythmicity and regularity of release, were not significantly different between PD patients and controls (all P ≥ 0.12). Fasting levels of insulin-like growth factor-1 were also unaltered in PD patients. However, free thyroxine (T(4) ) levels were significantly higher in PD patients compared to controls (16.19 ± 0.80 versus 13.88 ± 0.40 pmol/l; P = 0.031). In PD patients, prolactin levels were related to disease duration (r = 0.76, P = 0.028), whereas both GH (r = -0.91, P = 0.002) and free T(4) (r = -0.71, P = 0.050) levels correlated inversely with body fat content. Apart from a mild increase in free T(4) levels, we found no indications for altered somatotrophic, thyrotrophic and lactotrophic axes activity in early-stage PD patients.

  11. Effects of ghrelin on growth hormone secretion in vivo in ruminants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashizume, Tsutomu; Horiuchi, Mami; Nonaka, Sumie; Kasuya, Etsuko; Kojima, Masayasu; Hosoda, Hiroshi; Kangawa, Kenji

    2005-03-15

    Ghrelin, a novel endogenous growth hormone (GH) secretagogue, has been shown to exert very potent and specific GH-releasing activity in rats and humans. However, little is known about its GH-releasing activity and endocrine effects in domestic animals. To clarify the effect of ghrelin on GH secretion in vivo in ruminants, plasma GH responses to intra-arterial and intra-hypothalamic injections of rat ghrelin (rGhrelin) were examined in goats and cattle. The intra-arterial injection of 1 microg/kg BW of rGhrelin in ovariectomized goats failed to stimulate GH release, however, a dosage of 3 microg/kg BW significantly increased plasma GH concentrations (Pghrelin into the medial basal hypothalamus (arcuate nucleus) significantly stimulated the release of GH in male calves (Pghrelin stimulates GH release in ruminants.

  12. Insulin secretion and incretin hormones after oral glucose in non-obese subjects with impaired glucose tolerance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rask, E; Olsson, T; Söderberg, S;

    2004-01-01

    Subjects with impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) are usually overweight and exhibit insulin resistance with a defective compensation of insulin secretion. In this study, we sought to establish the interrelation between insulin secretion and insulin sensitivity after oral glucose in non-obese subjects......). Plasma levels of GLP-1 and GIP increased after oral glucose. Total secretion of these incretin hormones during the 3-hour test did not differ between the 2 groups. However, the 30-minute increase in GLP-1 concentrations was lower in IGT than in NGT (P =.036). We conclude that also in non-obese subjects...

  13. Synthetic peptide with inhibin-like activity preferentially inhibits follitropin secretion in comparison with lutropin-releasing hormone antagonists

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sairam, M.R.; Ramasharma, K.; Li, C.H.

    1987-04-01

    Biological activity of a synthetic peptide with inhibin-like activity under in vitro and in vivo conditions was compared with three highly potent synthetic lutropin-releasing hormone antagonists. Unlike the synthetic lutropin-releasing hormone antagonists, which effectively inhibited both lutropin and follitropin secretion from the pituitary, the inhibin-like peptide showed a preferential effect by inhibiting follitropin release both in vitro and in vivo. Thus, small peptides such as inhibin-like peptide with a sequence unrelated to lutropin-releasing hormone may provide a basis for design of selective inhibitors of gonadotropin release. FSH and LH were measured by radioimmunoassay.

  14. Effects of retinoic acid on growth hormone-releasing hormone receptor, growth hormone secretagogue receptor gene expression and growth hormone secretion in rat anterior pituitary cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maliza, Rita; Fujiwara, Ken; Tsukada, Takehiro; Azuma, Morio; Kikuchi, Motoshi; Yashiro, Takashi

    2016-06-30

    Retinoic acid (RA) is an important signaling molecule in embryonic development and adult tissue. The actions of RA are mediated by the nuclear receptors retinoic acid receptor (RAR) and retinoid X receptor (RXR), which regulate gene expression. RAR and RXR are widely expressed in the anterior pituitary gland. RA was reported to stimulate growth hormone (GH) gene expression in the anterior pituitary cells. However, current evidence is unclear on the role of RA in gene expression of growth hormone-releasing hormone receptor (Ghrh-r), growth hormone secretagogue receptor (Ghs-r) and somatostatin receptors (Sst-rs). Using isolated anterior pituitary cells of rats, we examined the effects of RA on gene expression of these receptors and GH release. Quantitative real-time PCR revealed that treatment with all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA; 10(-6) M) for 24 h increased gene expression levels of Ghrh-r and Ghs-r; however, expressions of Sst-r2 and Sst-r5 were unchanged. Combination treatment with the RAR-agonist Am80 and RXR-agonist PA024 mimicked the effects of ATRA on Ghrh-r and Ghs-r gene expressions. Exposure of isolated pituitary cells to ATRA had no effect on basal GH release. In contrast, ATRA increased growth hormone-releasing hormone (GHRH)- and ghrelin-stimulated GH release from cultured anterior pituitary cells. Our results suggest that expressions of Ghrh-r and Ghs-r are regulated by RA through the RAR-RXR receptor complex and that RA enhances the effects of GHRH and ghrelin on GH release from the anterior pituitary gland.

  15. Development of Gonadotropin-Releasing Hormone-Secreting Neurons from Human Pluripotent Stem Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carina Lund

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH neurons regulate human puberty and reproduction. Modeling their development and function in vitro would be of interest for both basic research and clinical translation. Here, we report a three-step protocol to differentiate human pluripotent stem cells (hPSCs into GnRH-secreting neurons. Firstly, hPSCs were differentiated to FOXG1, EMX2, and PAX6 expressing anterior neural progenitor cells (NPCs by dual SMAD inhibition. Secondly, NPCs were treated for 10 days with FGF8, which is a key ligand implicated in GnRH neuron ontogeny, and finally, the cells were matured with Notch inhibitor to bipolar TUJ1-positive neurons that robustly expressed GNRH1 and secreted GnRH decapeptide into the culture medium. The protocol was reproducible both in human embryonic stem cells and induced pluripotent stem cells, and thus provides a translational tool for investigating the mechanisms of human puberty and its disorders.

  16. Clinical applications of somatostatin analogs for growth hormone-secreting pituitary adenomas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ji-wen; Li, Ying; Mao, Zhi-gang; Hu, Bin; Jiang, Xiao-bing; Song, Bing-bing; Wang, Xin; Zhu, Yong-hong; Wang, Hai-jun

    2014-01-01

    Excessive growth hormone (GH) is usually secreted by GH-secreting pituitary adenomas and causes gigantism in juveniles or acromegaly in adults. The clinical complications involving cardiovascular, respiratory, and metabolic systems lead to elevated morbidity in acromegaly. Control of serum GH and insulin-like growth factor (IGF) 1 hypersecretion by surgery or pharmacotherapy can decrease morbidity. Current pharmacotherapy includes somatostatin analogs (SAs) and GH receptor antagonist; the former consists of lanreotide Autogel (ATG) and octreotide long-acting release (LAR), and the latter refers to pegvisomant. As primary medical therapy, lanreotide ATG and octreotide LAR can be supplied in a long-lasting formulation to achieve biochemical control of GH and IGF-1 by subcutaneous injection every 4–6 weeks. Lanreotide ATG and octreotide LAR provide an effective medical treatment, whether as a primary or secondary therapy, for the treatment of GH-secreting pituitary adenoma; however, to maximize benefits with the least cost, several points should be emphasized before the application of SAs. A comprehensive assessment, especially of the observation of clinical predictors and preselection of SA treatment, should be completed in advance. A treatment process lasting at least 3 months should be implemented to achieve a long-term stable blood concentration. More satisfactory surgical outcomes for noninvasive macroadenomas treated with presurgical SA may be achieved, although controversy of such adjuvant therapy exists. Combination of SA and pegvisomant or cabergoline shows advantages in some specific cases. Thus, an individual treatment program should be established for each patient under a full evaluation of the risks and benefits. PMID:24421637

  17. Is bursting more effective than spiking in evoking pituitary hormone secretion? A spatiotemporal simulation study of calcium and granule dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tagliavini, Alessia; Tabak, Joël; Bertram, Richard; Pedersen, Morten Gram

    2016-04-01

    Endocrine cells of the pituitary gland secrete a number of hormones, and the amount of hormone released by a cell is controlled in large part by the cell's electrical activity and subsequent Ca(2+) influx. Typical electrical behaviors of pituitary cells include continuous spiking and so-called pseudo-plateau bursting. It has been shown that the amplitude of Ca(2+) fluctuations is greater in bursting cells, leading to the hypothesis that bursting cells release more hormone than spiking cells. In this work, we apply computer simulations to test this hypothesis. We use experimental recordings of electrical activity as input to mathematical models of Ca(2+) channel activity, buffered Ca(2+) diffusion, and Ca(2+)-driven exocytosis. To compare the efficacy of spiking and bursting on the same cell, we pharmacologically block the large-conductance potassium (BK) current from a bursting cell or add a BK current to a spiking cell via dynamic clamp. We find that bursting is generally at least as effective as spiking at evoking hormone release and is often considerably more effective, even when normalizing to Ca(2+) influx. Our hybrid experimental/modeling approach confirms that adding a BK-type K(+) current, which is typically associated with decreased cell activity and reduced secretion, can actually produce an increase in hormone secretion, as suggested earlier.

  18. Thyroid-stimulating Hormone (TSH): Measurement of Intracellular, Secreted, and Circulating Hormone in Xenopus laevis and Xenopus tropicalis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thyroid Stimulating Hormone (TSH) is a hormone produced in the pituitary that stimulates the thyroid gland to grow and produce thyroid hormone (TH). The concentration of TH controls developmental changes that take place in a wide variety of organisms. Many use the metaphoric ch...

  19. Experiment K-7-22: Growth Hormone Regulation Synthesis and Secretion in Microgravity. Part 3; Plasma Analysis Hormone Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grindeland, R. E.; Popova, I. A.; Grossman, E.; Rudolph, I.

    1994-01-01

    Plasma from space flight and tail suspended rats was analyzed for a number of constituents in order to evaluate their metabolic status and endocrine function. The data presented here cover plasma hormone measurements. Corticosterone, thyroxine, and testosterone were measured by radioimmunoassay. Prolactin and growth hormone were measured by double antibody immunoassays using hormones and antisera prepared in house. Data were evaluated by analysis of variance.

  20. Calcium-sensing receptor expression and parathyroid hormone secretion in hyperplastic parathyroid glands from humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cañadillas, Sagrario; Canalejo, Antonio; Santamaría, Rafael; Rodríguez, Maria E; Estepa, Jose C; Martín-Malo, Alejandro; Bravo, Juan; Ramos, Blanca; Aguilera-Tejero, Escolastico; Rodríguez, Mariano; Almadén, Yolanda

    2005-07-01

    In uremic patients, severe parathyroid hyperplasia is associated with reduced parathyroid calcium-sensing receptor (CaR) expression. Thus, in these patients, a high serum Ca concentration may be required to inhibit parathyroid hormone (PTH) secretion. This study compares the magnitude of reduction in CaR expression and the degree of the abnormality in Ca-regulated PTH release in vitro. A total of 50 glands from 23 hemodialysis patients with refractory hyperparathyroidism were studied. Tissue slices were incubated in vitro to evaluate (1) the PTH secretory output in a normal Ca concentration (1.25 mM) and (2) the PTH secretory response to high (1.5 mM) and low (0.6 mM) Ca concentration. Tissue aliquots were processed for determination of CaRmRNA expression. The results showed that, corrected for DNA, parathyroid tissue with lowest CaR expression secreted more PTH than that with relatively high CaR expression (146 +/- 23 versus 60 +/- 2 pg/microg DNA; P < 0.01). Furthermore, glands with low CaR expression demonstrated a blunted PTH secretory response to both the inhibitory effect of high Ca and the stimulatory effect of low Ca. The study also showed that the larger the gland, the lower the CaRmRNA expression. Thus, large parathyroid glands produce a large amount of PTH not only as a result of the increased gland size but also because the parathyroid tissue secretory output is increased. These abnormalities in PTH regulation are related to low CaR expression.

  1. Intracerebroventricular and intravenous administration of growth hormone secretagogue L-692,585, somatostatin, neuropeptide Y and galanin in pig: dose-dependent effects on growth hormone secretion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, S-J; Lee, J-S; Mathias, E D; Chang, C; Hickey, G J; Lkhagvadorj, S; Anderson, L L

    2010-05-01

    Central regulation of growth hormone (GH) secretion by the GH secretagogue, L-692,585 (585), was determined in Yorkshire barrows (40-45kg BW) with intracerebroventricular (icv) stainless steel cannulas placed by stereotaxic coordinates and indwelling external jugular vein (iv) cannulas for injecting 585 or saline during 3h serial blood sampling. Dose-dependent effects of 585 were determined by icv injections of saline vehicle, 3, 10, and 30microg/kg BW by once daily increment. A switchback study of iv and icv 585 treatment determined central and peripheral regulation of GH secretion by the secretagogue at 30microg/kg BW. When administered icv, 585 increased GH concentration in a dose-dependent manner, with a return to baseline by 60min. GH secretion was attenuated by increased numbers of icv 585 injections (padministration of somatostatin (SRIF) decreased (padministration indicate that the GH secretagogue and neuropeptides act at the level of both porcine pituitary and hypothalamus.

  2. Direct suppressive effect of acute metabolic and respiratory alkalosis on parathyroid hormone secretion in the dog.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez, Ignacio; Rodriguez, Mariano; Felsenfeld, Arnold J; Estepa, Jose Carlos; Aguilera-Tejero, Escolastico

    2003-08-01

    Acute alkalosis may directly affect PTH secretion. The effect of acute metabolic and respiratory alkalosis was studied in 20 dogs. PTH values were lower in the metabolic (5.6 +/- 0.8 pg/ml) and respiratory (1.8 +/- 0.6 pg/ml) alkalosis groups than in the control group (27 +/- 5 pg/ml). Acute alkalosis is an independent factor that decreases PTH values during normocalcemia and delays the PTH response to hypocalcemia. We recently showed that acute metabolic and respiratory acidosis stimulated PTH secretion. This study was designed to evaluate whether acute metabolic and respiratory alkalosis suppressed parathyroid hormone (PTH) secretion. Three groups of 10 dogs were studied: control, acute metabolic alkalosis, and acute respiratory alkalosis. Metabolic alkalosis was induced with an infusion of sodium bicarbonate and respiratory alkalosis by hyperventilation. Calcium chloride was infused to prevent alkalosis-induced hypocalcemia during the first 60 minutes. During the next 30 minutes, disodium EDTA was infused to induce hypocalcemia and to evaluate the PTH response to hypocalcemia. Because the infusion of sodium bicarbonate resulted in hypernatremia, the effect of hypernatremia was studied in an additional group that received hypertonic saline. After 60 minutes of a normocalcemic clamp, PTH values were less (p respiratory (1.8 +/- 0.6 pg/ml) alkalosis groups than in the control group (27 +/- 5 pg/ml); the respective blood pH values were 7.61 +/- 0.01, 7.59 +/- 0.02, and 7.39 +/- 0.02. The maximal PTH response to hypocalcemia was similar among the three groups. However, the maximal PTH response was observed after a decrease in ionized calcium of 0.20 mM in the control group but not until a decrease of 0.40 mM in the metabolic and respiratory alkalosis groups. In contrast to the metabolic alkalosis group, hypernatremia (157 +/- 2 mEq/liter) in the hypertonic saline group was associated with an increased PTH value (46 +/- 4 pg/ml). Finally, the half-life of intact PTH

  3. Cytoplasmic kinases downstream of GPR30 suppress gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH)-induced luteinizing hormone secretion from bovine anterior pituitary cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudolf, Faidiban O; Kadokawa, Hiroya

    2016-01-01

    GPR30 is known as a membrane receptor for picomolar concentrations of estradiol. The GPR30-specific agonist G1 causes a rapid, non-genomic suppression of gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH)-induced luteinizing hormone (LH) secretion from bovine anterior pituitary (AP) cells. A few studies have recently clarified that protein kinase A (PKA) and phosphorylated extracellular signal-regulated kinase (pERK) might be involved in cytoplasmic signaling pathways of GPR30 in other cells. Therefore, we tested the hypothesis that PKA and ERK kinase (MEK) are important cytoplasmic mediators for GPR30-associated non-genomic suppression of GnRH-induced LH secretion from bovine AP cells. Bovine AP cells (n = 8) were cultured for 3 days under steroid-free conditions. The AP cells were previously treated for 30 min with one of the following: 5000 nM of PKA inhibitor (H89), 1000 nM of MEK inhibitor (U0126), or a combination of H89 and U0126. Next, the AP cells were treated with 0.01 nM estradiol for 5 min before GnRH stimulation. Estradiol treatment without inhibitor pretreatment significantly suppressed GnRH-induced LH secretion (P < 0.01). In contrast, estradiol treatment after pretreatment with H89, U0126 or their combination had no suppressive effect on GnRH-induced LH secretion. The inhibitors also inhibited the G1 suppression of GnRH-induced LH secretion. Therefore, these data supported the hypothesis that PKA and MEK (thus, also pERK) are the intracellular mediators downstream of GPR30 that induce the non-genomic suppression of GnRH-induced LH secretion from bovine AP cells by estradiol or G1.

  4. Antagonizing the parathyroid calcium receptor stimulates parathyroid hormone secretion and bone formation in osteopenic rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gowen, Maxine; Stroup, George B.; Dodds, Robert A.; James, Ian E.; Votta, Bart J.; Smith, Brian R.; Bhatnagar, Pradip K.; Lago, Amparo M.; Callahan, James F.; DelMar, Eric G.; Miller, Michael A.; Nemeth, Edward F.; Fox, John

    2000-01-01

    Parathyroid hormone (PTH) is an effective bone anabolic agent, but it must be administered parenterally. An orally active anabolic agent would provide a valuable alternative for treating osteoporosis. NPS 2143 is a novel, selective antagonist (a “calcilytic”) of the parathyroid cell Ca2+ receptor. Daily oral administration of NPS 2143 to osteopenic ovariectomized (OVX) rats caused a sustained increase in plasma PTH levels, provoking a dramatic increase in bone turnover but no net change in bone mineral density. Concurrent oral administration of NPS 2143 and subcutaneous infusion of 17β-estradiol also resulted in increased bone turnover. However, the antiresorptive action of estrogen decreased the extent of bone resorption stimulated by the elevated PTH levels, leading to an increase in bone mass compared with OVX controls or to either treatment alone. Despite the sustained stimulation to the parathyroid gland, parathyroid cells did not undergo hyperplasia. These data demonstrate that an increase in endogenous PTH secretion, induced by antagonism of the parathyroid cell Ca2+ receptor with a small molecule, leads to a dramatic increase in bone turnover, and they suggest a novel approach to the treatment of osteoporosis. PMID:10841518

  5. Does priming with sex steroids improve the diagnosis of normal growth hormone secretion in short children?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashraf Soliman

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: There is still controversy for priming with sex steroid before growth hormone (GH testing. Objective: We studied GH response to stimulation in 92 children >9 years with idiopathic short stature (height standard deviation score [HtSDS]-2. They were divided randomly into two groups. Children in Group 1 (n = 50 were primed with premarin in girls and testosterone in boys and those in Group 2 were not primed (n = 42. All children were tested using standard clonidine test and their serum insulin-like growth factor-I concentration (IGF-I. Additionally the growth and GH-IGF-I data of the two groups of children were compared with those for 32 short children (HtSDS 9 years. The peak GH response to clonidine provocation test did not differ before (n = 42 versus after 9 years (n = 32 of age. Conclusions: In this randomized study priming with sex steroids before GH testing did not significantly increase the yield of diagnosing short patients with normal GH secretion. In addition, GH response to provocation did not vary significantly between young (9 years short children.

  6. Cushing syndrome secondary to ectopic adrenocorticotropic hormone secretion from a Meckel diverticulum neuroendocrine tumor: case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paun, Diana Loreta; Vija, Lavinia; Stan, Emilia; Banica, Alexandra; Bobeica, Elena; Terzea, Dana; Poiana, Catalina; Badiu, Corin; Paun, Sorin

    2015-11-26

    Ectopic production of adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) by neuroendocrine tumours (NET) is a rare condition, occult presentations often hampering the diagnosis. Although NET are relatively frequent in the ileon and Meckel diverticulum, we describe the first Cushing's syndrome due to ectopic adrenocorticotropic syndrome (CS-EAS) arising from a Meckel diverticulum. A 44-year-old man was admitted with recent onset of diabetes, myopathy, edema and hypokalemic metabolic alkalosis consistent with Cushing's syndrome. Both basal and dynamic laboratory evaluation suggested CS-EAS. Laboratory testing also showed high serum levels of chromogranin A (CgA) and urinary 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5HIAA). Pituitary and neck/thorax/abdomen/pelvis imaging proved to be normal, while somatostatin analogue ((99m)Tc-HYNIC-TOC) scintigraphy revealed increased focalized ileum uptake on the right iliac fossa. Pre-operative ketoconazole and sandostatin treatment controlled the hypercortisolism within a month. Pathological analysis of the resected submucosal 1.8 cm tumour of the Meckel diverticulum and a metastatic local lymph node confirmed a well differentiated neuroendocrine tumour (grade I), whereas immunohistochemistry was positive for ACTH, chromogranin A and synaptophysin. Post-operative clinical and biochemical resolution of Cushing's syndrome was followed by normalization of both CgA and 5HIAA, which were maintained at the 6 month follow-up. The identification, characterization and follow-up of this rare cause of ectopic ACTH secretion is important in order to assess the long-term prognostic and management.

  7. Growth Hormone Is Secreted by Normal Breast Epithelium upon Progesterone Stimulation and Increases Proliferation of Stem/Progenitor Cells

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    Sara Lombardi

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Using in vitro and in vivo experimental systems and in situ analysis, we show that growth hormone (GH is secreted locally by normal human mammary epithelial cells upon progesterone stimulation. GH increases proliferation of a subset of cells that express growth hormone receptor (GHR and have functional properties of stem and early progenitor cells. In 72% of ductal carcinoma in situ lesions, an expansion of the cell population that expresses GHR was observed, suggesting that GH signaling may contribute to breast cancer development.

  8. Growth hormone is secreted by normal breast epithelium upon progesterone stimulation and increases proliferation of stem/progenitor cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lombardi, Sara; Honeth, Gabriella; Ginestier, Christophe; Shinomiya, Ireneusz; Marlow, Rebecca; Buchupalli, Bharath; Gazinska, Patrycja; Brown, John; Catchpole, Steven; Liu, Suling; Barkan, Ariel; Wicha, Max; Purushotham, Anand; Burchell, Joy; Pinder, Sarah; Dontu, Gabriela

    2014-06-01

    Using in vitro and in vivo experimental systems and in situ analysis, we show that growth hormone (GH) is secreted locally by normal human mammary epithelial cells upon progesterone stimulation. GH increases proliferation of a subset of cells that express growth hormone receptor (GHR) and have functional properties of stem and early progenitor cells. In 72% of ductal carcinoma in situ lesions, an expansion of the cell population that expresses GHR was observed, suggesting that GH signaling may contribute to breast cancer development.

  9. The endocrine regulation network of growth hormone synthesis and secretion in fish: Emphasis on the signal integration in somatotropes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    In teleosts, growth hormone (GH) production is governed by multiple neuroendocrine factors from the hypothalamus and other regulators from the pituitary and peripheral organs. Exploring the principles followed by pituitary somatotropes when differentiating and integrating the signals from these regulators at the cellular and intracellular level is essential for understanding the endocrine regulation network of growth hormone synthesis and secretion in fish. This paper discusses recent advances in the action mechanisms of GH regulation factors, including the neuroendocrine regulators, pituitary level factors and peripheral factors, primarily involved in their receptor systems as well as in post-receptor signal transduction pathways.

  10. Gamma irradiation effects on human growth hormone producing pituitary adenoma tissue. An analysis of morphology and hormone secretion in an in vitro model system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anniko, M. (Karolinska sjukhuset, Stockholm (Sweden). Dept. of Oto-Rhino-Laryngology); Arndt, J. (Karolinska sjukhuset, Stockholm (Sweden). Dept. of Radiophysics, Radiumhemmet); Raehn, T. (Karolinska sjukhuset, Stockholm (Sweden). Dept. of Neurosurgery); Werner, S. (Karolinska sjukhuset, Stockholm (Sweden). Dept. of Endocrinology)

    1982-01-01

    Irradiation-induced effects on pituitary cell morphology and secretion of growth hormone (GH) and prolactin (PRL) have been analysed using an in vitro system. Specimens for organ culture were were obtained from three patients with pituitary tumours causing acromegaly but with different clinical activity of disease. Specimens were followed in vitro 1 h - 6 days after single-dose gamma irradiation (/sup 60/Co) with 70 100 and 150 Gy, respectively. These doses are used in clinical work for the stereotactic radiosuregery of pituitary adenomas. Considerable fluctuations in hormone secretion/release occurred during the first 24h after irradiation. All three tumours showed individual differences concern ing irradiation-induced morphological damage. Only a minor variation occurred between specimens from the same tumour. An individual sensitivity to irradiation of pituitary tumours in vitro is documented. The great number of surviving pituitary tumour cells one week after irradiation-many with an intact ultrastructure and containing hormone granules-indicated an initial high degree of radioresistance.

  11. Effects on steroid hormones secretion resulting from the acute stimulation of sectioning the superior ovarian nerve to pre-pubertal rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morales-Ledesma Leticia

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In the adult rat, neural signals arriving to the ovary via the superior ovarian nerve (SON modulate progesterone (P4, testosterone (T and estradiol (E2 secretion. The aims of the present study were to analyze if the SON in the pre-pubertal rat also modulates ovarian hormone secretion and the release of follicle stimulating hormone (FSH and luteinizing (LH hormone. P4, T, E2, FSH and LH serum levels were measured 30 or 60 minutes after sectioning the SON of pre-pubertal female rats. Our results indicate that the effects on hormone levels resulting from unilaterally or bilaterally sectioning the SON depends on the analyzed hormone, and the time lapse between surgery and autopsy, and that the treatment yielded asymmetric results. The results also suggest that in the pre-pubertal rat the neural signals arriving to the ovaries via the SON regulate the enzymes participating in P4, T and E2 synthesis in a non-parallel way, indicating that the mechanisms regulating the synthesis of each hormone are not regulated by the same signals. Also, that the changes in the steroids hormones are not explained exclusively by the modifications in gonadotropins secretion. The observed differences in hormone levels between rats sacrificed 30 and 60 min after surgery reflect the onset of the compensatory systems regulating hormones secretion.

  12. Gonadotropins in the Russian Sturgeon: Their Role in Steroid Secretion and the Effect of Hormonal Treatment on Their Secretion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yom-Din, Svetlana; Hollander-Cohen, Lian; Aizen, Joseph; Boehm, Benjamin; Shpilman, Michal; Golan, Matan; Hurvitz, Avshalom; Degani, Gad; Levavi-Sivan, Berta

    2016-01-01

    In the reproduction process of male and female fish, pituitary derived gonadotropins (GTHs) play a key role. To be able to specifically investigate certain functions of Luteinizing (LH) and Follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) in Russian sturgeon (Acipenser gueldenstaedtii; st), we produced recombinant variants of the hormones using the yeast Pichia pastoris as a protein production system. We accomplished to create in vitro biologically active heterodimeric glycoproteins consisting of two associated α- and β-subunits in sufficient quantities. Three dimensional modelling of both GTHs was conducted in order to study the differences between the two GTHs. Antibodies were produced against the unique β-subunit of each of the GTHs, in order to be used for immunohistochemical analysis and to develop an ELISA for blood and pituitary hormone quantification. This detection technique revealed the specific localization of the LH and FSH cells in the sturgeon pituitary and pointed out that both cell types are present in substantially higher numbers in mature males and females, compared to immature fish. With the newly attained option to prevent cross-contamination when investigating on the effects of GTH administration, we compared the steroidogeneic response (estradiol and 11-Keto testosterone (11-KT) in female and males, respectively) of recombinant stLH, stFSH, and carp pituitary extract in male and female sturgeon gonads at different developmental stages. Finally, we injected commercially available gonadotropin releasing hormones analog (GnRH) to mature females, and found a moderate effect on the development of ovarian follicles. Application of only testosterone (T) resulted in a significant increase in circulating levels of 11-KT whereas the combination of GnRH + T did not affect steroid levels at all. The response pattern for estradiol demonstrated a similar situation. FSH levels showed significant increases when GnRH + T was administered, while no changes were present in

  13. Influence of catecholamines, prostaglandins and thyroid hormones on growth hormone secretion by chicken pituitary cells in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donoghue, D J; Perez, F M; Diamante, B S; Malamed, S; Scanes, C G

    1990-01-01

    In young chickens plasma concentrations of growth hormone (GH) are depressed by prostaglandins (PG) E1 and E2, epinephrine, norepinephrine, alpha 2 and beta agonists or thyroid hormones. A primary culture of chicken adenohypophyseal cells was used to examine the direct effects of these agents at the level of the pituitary as evaluated by GH release in the presence and absence of growth hormone releasing factor (GRF). Following collagenase dispersion and culture (preincubation, 48 hr) cells were exposed (incubation, 2 hr) to test agents, except for thyroid hormones which were added during the preincubation, and incubation period. Growth hormone release was increased (P less than .05) in the presence of PGE1 (10(-8)M by 34%; 10(-7)M by 54%), PGE2 (10(-8)M by 29%; 10(-7)M by 29%), PGF2 alpha (10(-8)M by 28%), and the beta agonist isoproterenol (10(-7)M by 46%). Basal GH release from chicken pituitary cells was not affected by dopamine, norepinephrine, epinephrine, thyroxine (T4), triiodothyronine (T3), or alpha adrenergic agonists. Growth hormone releasing factor stimulated GH release was not affected by the presence of prostaglandins E1, E2 or F2 alpha in the incubation media. However, GRF stimulated GH release was reduced by high doses of catecholamines: dopamine (10(-6)M by 34%), norepinephrine (10(-6)M by 74%), epinephrine (10(-8)M by 47%; 10(-7)M by 41%; 10(-6)M by 89%), and by the alpha 1 adrenergic agonist, phenylephrine (10(-7)M by 52%), the alpha 2 agonist, clonidine (10(-8)M by 34%; 10(-7)M by 83%) and the beta agonist, isoproterenol (10(-7)M by 64%).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  14. Humoral hypercalcemia associated with gastric carcinoma secreting parathyroid hormone: a case report and review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakajima, Koji; Tamai, Masataka; Okaniwa, Shinji; Nakamura, Yoshiyuki; Kobayashi, Mutsuhiro; Niwa, Tomohiro; Horigome, Naoto; Ito, Nobuo; Suzuki, Satoru; Nishio, Shinichi; Komatsu, Mitsuhisa

    2013-01-01

    Hypercalcemia with concomitant elevation of serum parathyroid hormone (PTH) and PTH-related protein (PTHrP) levels was found in a patient with advanced gastric carcinoma and multiple liver metastases. The most common features are hypercalcemia associated with hypersecretion of PTHrP and physiological suppression of PTH secretion in the syndrome of humoral hypercalcemia of malignancy (HHM). Although we initially made a diagnosis of primary hyperparathyroidism concomitant with HHM due to gastric cancer, diagnostic imaging studies, such as echography, CT, sestamibi scintigraphy, and autopsy findings, did not reveal evidence of any parathyroid tumors or ectopic parathyroid glands in the mediastinum. Both primary and metastatic tumor cells showed positive staining with PTH-specific antibody as well as PTHrP-specific antibody on immunohistochemical examination. PTH concentration in the cytosolic fraction of the metastatic tumor was elevated compared to that from a control patient with no calcium metabolic disorders in vitro. These findings indicated that PTH secreted ectopically by gastric cancer cells, not by parathyroid glands, caused hypercalcemia in this patient. To our knowledge, this is the first case report of PTH-secreting gastric carcinoma cells. We report the case and a review of the previous reported PTH-secreting non-parathyroid tumors along with the mechanisms of secretion.

  15. Effects of extracerebral dopamine on salsolinol- or thyrotropin-releasing hormone-induced prolactin (PRL) secretion in goats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inaba, Yuki; Kato, Yuki; Itou, Azumi; Chiba, Aoi; Sawai, Ken; Fülöp, Ferenc; Nagy, György Miklos; Hashizume, Tsutomu

    2016-12-01

    The aim of the present study was to clarify the effect of extracerebral dopamine (DA) on salsolinol (SAL)-induced prolactin (PRL) secretion in goats. An intravenous injection of SAL or thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH) was given to female goats before and after treatment with an extracerebral DA receptor antagonist, domperidone (DOM), and the PRL-releasing response to SAL was compared with that to TRH. DOM alone increased plasma PRL concentrations and the PRL-releasing response to DOM alone was greater than that to either SAL alone or TRH alone. The PRL-releasing response to DOM plus SAL was similar to that to DOM alone, and no additive effect of DOM and SAL on the secretion of PRL was observed. In contrast, the PRL-releasing response to DOM plus TRH was greater than that to either TRH alone or DOM alone and DOM synergistically increased TRH-induced PRL secretion. The present results demonstrate that the mechanism involved in PRL secretion by SAL differs from that by TRH, and suggest that the extracerebral DA might be associated in part with the modulation of SAL-induced PRL secretion in goats.

  16. Hyperpolarization of the Membrane Potential Caused by Somatostatin in Dissociated Human Pituitary Adenoma Cells that Secrete Growth Hormone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamashita, Naohide; Shibuya, Naohiko; Ogata, Etsuro

    1986-08-01

    Membrane electrical properties and the response to somatostatin were examined in dissociated human pituitary adenoma cells that secrete growth hormone (GH). Under current clamp condition with a patch electrode, the resting potential was -52.4 ± 8.0 mV, and spontaneous action potentials were observed in 58% of the cells. Under voltage clamp condition an outward K+ current, a tetrodotoxin-sensitive Na+ current, and a Ca2+ current were observed. Cobalt ions suppressed the Ca2+ current. The threshold of Ca2+ current activation was about -60 mV. Somatostatin elicited a membrane hyperpolarization associated with increased membrane permeability in these cells. The reversal potential of somatostatin-induced hyperpolarization was -78.4 ± 4.3 mV in 6 mM K+ medium and -97.2 ± 6.4 mV in 3 mM K+ medium. These reversal potential values and a shift with the external K+ concentration indicated that membrane hyperpolarization was caused by increased permeability to K+. The hyperpolarized membrane potential induced by somatostatin was -63.6 ± 5.9 mV in the standard medium. This level was subthreshold for Ca2+ and Na+ currents and was sufficient to inhibit spontaneous action potentials. Hormone secretion was significantly suppressed by somatostatin and cobalt ions. Therefore, we suggest that Ca2+ entering the cell through voltage-dependent channels are playing an important role for GH secretion and that somatostatin suppresses GH secretion by blocking Ca2+ currents. Finally, we discuss other possibilities for the inhibitory effect of somatostatin on GH secretion.

  17. [Syndrome of inappropriate secretion of ADH following chemoradiation therapy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kikuchi, Norihiro; Masuda, Michiko; Tamura, Tomohiro; Nakazawa, Kensuke; Kanemoto, Koji; Iijima, Hiroaki; Ishikawa, Hirokazu; Sato, Shinya; Ishii, Yukio

    2012-11-01

    We report a 69-year-old female patient with pulmonary adenocarcinoma complicated by the syndrome of inappropriate secretion of antidiuretic hormone(SIADH)following systemic chemotherapy with cisplatin(CDDP)and vinorelbine(VNR). She was admitted to our hospital for chemo-radiotherapy for advanced lung cancer, and became restless 4 hours after the administration of CDDP and VNR. Symptoms such as restlessness and incontinence were worsening despite the massive infusion that was completed. Laboratory examinations on day 6 after chemotherapy showed severe hyponatremia(107mEq/L)with decreased serum osmolarity(227mOsm/L)and increased urine osmolarity(452mOsm/L). The serum anti-diuretic hormone(ADH)level was elevated to 16. 7 pg/mL despite severe hyponatremia. She was diagnosed with SIADH and was treated with hypertonic saline infusion and fluid restriction. Her restlessness and other psychiatric symptoms were improved. The use of carboplatin and VNR in the subsequent course did not develop SIADH, indicating that the SIADH was induced by CDDP. Although SIADH following CDDP administration is rare, the electrolyte balance should be carefully monitored throughout the clinical course of chemo-radiation therapy, when psychiatric symptoms are found in patients with lung cancer.

  18. Effect of gonadotropin secretion rate on the radiosensitivity of the rat luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone neuron and gonadotroph

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Winterer, J.; Barnes, K.M.; Lichter, A.S.; Deluca, A.M.; Loriaux, D.L.; Cutler, G.B. Jr.

    1988-03-01

    To test the hypothesis that the functional state of hypothalamic LHRH neurons and pituitary gonadotrophs might alter their radiosensitivity, we determined the experimental conditions under which the gonadotropin response to castration could be impaired by a single dose of cranial irradiation. Single doses of cranial irradiation greater than 2000 rads were lethal to unshielded rats. Shielding of the oropharynx and esophagus allowed the animals to survive doses up to 5000 rads. Doses between 2000 and 5000 rads had no effect on basal gonadotropin levels for as long as 3 months after irradiation. Irradiation caused a dose- and time-dependent impairment, however, in the gonadotropin response to castration. Impairment of the gonadotropin levels of castrate animals occurred in animals that were irradiated either before or after castration. However, rats irradiated in the castrate state showed a decreased susceptibility to irradiation damage. Additionally, stimulation of the pituitary by LHRH agonist (LHRHa) 3 h before irradiation significantly reduced the impairment of gonadotropin secretion 12-20 weeks after irradiation (P less than 0.05). Thus, increased functional activity of the rat hypothalamus or pituitary at the time of irradiation, induced by either castration or acute LHRHa administration, was associated with some protection against the gonadotropin-lowering effect of irradiation. Based upon these data, we hypothesize that stimulation of gonadotropin secretion at the time of therapeutic cranial irradiation in humans might protect against subsequent impairment of gonadotropin secretion.

  19. Role of incretin hormones in the regulation of insulin secretion in diabetic and nondiabetic humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holst, Jens Juul; Gromada, Jesper

    2004-01-01

    of GIP is near normal, whereas the secretion of GLP-1 is decreased. On the other hand, the insulintropic effect of GLP-1 is preserved, whereas the effect of GIP is greatly reduced, mainly because of a complete loss of the normal GIP-induced potentiation of second-phase insulin secretion. These two...

  20. Experiment K-7-22: Growth Hormone Regulation Synthesis and Secretion in Microgravity. Part 1; Growth Hormone Regulation Synthesis and Secretion in Microgravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hymer, W. C.; Grindeland, R.; Vale, W.; Sawchenko, P.; Ilyina-Kakueva, E. I.

    1994-01-01

    Changes in the musculoskeletal, immune, vascular, and endocrine system of the rat occur as a result of short-term spaceflight. Since pituitary gland growth hormone (GH) plays a role in the control of these systems, and since the results of an earlier spaceflight mission (Spacelab 3, 1985) showed that GH cell function was compromised in a number of post-flight tests, we repeated and extended the 1985 experiment in two subsequent spaceflights: the 12.5 day mission of Cosmos 1887 (in 1987) and the 14 day mission of Cosmos 2044 (in 1989). The results of these later two flight experiments are the subject of this report. They document repeatable and significant changes in the GH cell system of the spaceflown rat in several post-flight tests.

  1. Music increase altruism through regulating the secretion of steroid hormones and peptides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukui, Hajime; Toyoshima, Kumiko

    2014-12-01

    Music is well known for its effect on human behavior especially of their bonding and empathy towards others. Music provokes one's emotion and activates mirror neurons and reward system. It also regulates social hormones such as steroid hormones or peptides, and increases empathy, pro-sociality and altruism. As a result, it improves one's reproductive success.

  2. Noninvasive test for the diagnosis of ovarian hormone-secreting-neoplasm in postmenopausal women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilan Cohen

    2016-01-01

    Conclusions: To our knowledge, these are the first cases of ovarian hormone-producing tumors in postmenopausal women diagnosed by noninvasive hormonal test. The proposed test can be considered in postmenopausal women suspected of having androgen and/or estrogen producing tumors.

  3. Estrogenic effects of the new opioid antagonist naltrexone-estrone azine on pituitary luteinizing hormone secretion in ovariectomized rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armeanu, M C; van Dieten, J A; Kolb, V M; Schoemaker, J; de Koning, J

    1992-01-01

    The effect of the new opioid antagonist naltrexone-estrone azine (EH-NX) on pituitary luteinizing hormone (LH) secretion in the ovariectomized rat was studied. EH-NX is a hybrid between the steroid component estrone and the opioid antagonist naltrexone (NX). It is a potent and long-acting opioid antagonist in vitro and in vivo, but its effect upon in vivo LH secretion has not been tested before. The aims of the study were to investigate whether, unlike naltrexone, EH-NX can stimulate LH secretion without the need of additional estrogen pretreatment and whether EH-NX has peripheral estrogenic effects upon the uterine weight, when administered chronically to long-term ovariectomized rats. Female rats were injected subcutaneously with EH-NX 21 days after ovariectomy. The effects of EH-NX injections on LH secretion were compared to the effects of NX and estrone hydrazone (EH) alone, or in combination, with or without estradiol-benzoate (EB) pretreatment. Inhibition of LH secretion and uterine proliferation were observed in rats treated chronically with EH-NX in dosages of 0.250 mg/kg bw and higher. These effects were similar to those caused by EH and EB. In short-term OVX rats EH-NX appeared to act faster than EH. In contrast to NX, no stimulatory effect on LH secretion was seen with EH-NX in EB primed OVX rats. These results surprisingly demonstrate that EH-NX behaves like an estrogen and not like an opioid antagonist. The unexpected pharmacological profile of this new drug may open up doors for several medical applications.

  4. Humoral hypercalcemia due to gastric carcinoma secreting parathyroid hormone-related protein during chemotherapy: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iino, Chikara; Shimoyama, Tadashi; Akemoto, Yui; Igarashi, Takasato; Aihara, Tomoyuki; Ishii, Kentaro; Sakamoto, Juichi; Tono, Hiroshi; Fukuda, Shinsaku

    2016-04-01

    Humoral hypercalcemia due to a gastric carcinoma-secreting parathyroid hormone-related protein (PTHrP) is a rare disease associated with poor prognosis. A 61-year-old male with gastric cancer who had been receiving chemotherapy showed serum hypercalcemia and an elevated level of serum PTHrP with a suppressed intact parathyroid hormone level. Computed tomography revealed stable disease 4 weeks prior, and the laboratory examination revealed no adverse effects 2 weeks prior. The biopsy at the time of diagnosis was immunohistochemically positive for PTHrP later. Despite intensive care, the patient died of multiorgan failure on the 14th day after admission. In case of undifferentiated gastric cancer, the possibility of humoral hypercalcemia of malignancy caused by gastric cancer should be considered even when the patient is receiving chemotherapy.

  5. Repetitive ultrasonographic assessment of adrenal size and shape changes: a clue for an asymptomatic sex hormone-secreting adenoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Seunghyeon; Oui, Heejin; Lee, Ju-hwan; Son, Kyu-Yeol; Cho, Kyoung-Oh

    2017-01-01

    Diagnosis of an adrenal tumor without typical clinical signs related to hyperadrenocorticism and elevated alkaline phosphatase is challenging. This report describes a sex hormone-secreting adrenal tumor in a 10-year-old castrated male Shih Tzu evaluated through repetitive ultrasonographic examination. An adrenocorticotropic hormone stimulation test revealed elevated concentrations of androstenedione and 17-hydroxyprogesterone but a normal cortisol concentration. A mass was surgically excised and adenoma was diagnosed histopathologically. In the present case, adrenal tumor was strongly suspected based on a gradual increase in adrenal size and a change from peanut shape to an irregular mass on repetitive ultrasonography. Repetitive ultrasonographic examination of the adrenal gland is recommended when an abnormal ultrasonographic appearance of adrenal gland is identified, even in an asymptomatic dog. PMID:27297418

  6. Simultaneous stimulation of slow-wave sleep and growth hormone secretion by gamma-hydroxybutyrate in normal young Men.

    OpenAIRE

    Van Cauter, E; Plat, L; Scharf, M B; R Leproult; Cespedes, S; L'Hermite-Balériaux, M; Copinschi, G..

    1997-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate, in normal young men, whether gamma-hydroxybutyrate (GHB), a reliable stimulant of slow-wave (SW) sleep in normal subjects, would simultaneously enhance sleep related growth hormone (GH) secretion. Eight healthy young men participated each in four experiments involving bedtime oral administration of placebo, 2.5, 3.0, and 3.5 g of GHB. Polygraphic sleep recordings were performed every night, and blood samples were obtained at 15-min intervals from 2000...

  7. Altered regulation of luteinizing hormone secretion in 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin-treated male rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bookstaff, R.C.

    1989-01-01

    2,3,7,8-Tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) severely decreases plasma androgen concentrations, yet plasma luteinizing hormone (LH) concentrations remain unchanged. The mechanism by which TCDD prevents the expected compensatory increase in plasma LH was investigated. No effect on the plasma disappearance rate of LH or on pituitary capacity to synthesize or secrete LH was detected. Rather, TCDD altered the regulation of LH secretion by substantially increasing the potency of both androgens and estrogens as feedback inhibitors of LH secretion. The mechanism by which TCDD alters androgen-regulated LH secretion was further investigated. Seven days after dosing, TCDD decreased plasma testosterone concentrations but prevented the expected compensatory increases in pituitary gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) receptor number, pituitary responsiveness to GnRH, and plasma LH concentrations as seen in similarly hypoandrogenic vehicle dosed rats. Furthermore, the TCDD dose-response relationships for preventing the compensatory increases in pituitary GnRH receptor number and plasma LH concentration were similar. However, in the absence of gonadal steroids (7 days after castration) TCDD did not affect the compensatory increases in pituitary GnRH receptor number, pituitary responsiveness to GnRH, or plasma LH concentration. All of these parameters increased substantially relative to intact TCDD treated rats, and to levels virtually identical to those seen in castrated control rats. Treatment of castrated rats with testosterone restored the ability of TCDD to prevent these compensatory increases. Taken together, these results demonstrate that the presence of androgens is required for TCDD to alter the regulation of pituitary GnRH receptors.

  8. Stimulation of gastric bicarbonate secretion by an analog of thyrotropin-releasing hormone, YM-14673, in the rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeuchi, K; Ueshima, K; Okabe, S

    1991-03-01

    The effects of YM-14673, a thyrotropin-releasing hormone analog, on gastric alkaline secretion were investigated in the anesthetized rat pretreated with omeprazole (60 mg/kg, intraperitoneally) by measuring the luminal pH, transmucosal PD and HCO3- output. The whole stomach was perfused at a flow rate of 0.7 ml/min with saline (pH 4.5) in the absence of acid secretion, the pH of the perfusate and PD were continuously monitored and the HCO3- output was measured as acid-neutralizing capacity by back-titration of the perfusate to pH 4.5. YM-14673, given intravenously at the doses (0.1-1 mg/kg) that stimulated acid secretion, increased the pH and HCO3- output in a dose-dependent fashion, but did not significantly affect the PD. Prostaglandin E2 (1 mg/kg) elevated the pH and HCO3- output with concomitant decrease in the PD, whereas carbachol (4 micrograms/kg), similar to YM-14673, produced an increase of the pH and HCO3- output with no change in the PD. The net HCO3- output (4.3 +/- 0.3 muEq) induced by 0.3 mg/kg of YM-14673 was about 60 and 150% of that induced by prostaglandin E2 and carbachol, respectively. The increased pH and HCO3- responses caused by YM-14673 were almost completely abolished by vagotomy, significantly inhibited by atropine (0.3 mg/kg, intravenously) and indomethacin (5 mg/kg, subcutaneously) but not affected by pirenzepine (1 mg/kg, intravenously). These results suggest that YM-14673, a thyrotropin-releasing hormone analog, produced vagally mediated HCO3- secretion in the rat stomach, and the mechanism may involve the cholinergic system, which is mediated with muscarinic M2 receptors and interacts with endogenous prostaglandins.

  9. [Influence of nutrition on hormone secretion. I. Study in Agua Preta (author's transl)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaves, N; Guimarães, E D; Aguiar, F; Viana, T; Matos, E; Basto de Medeiros, R; Martins, G C; Bazante, M O; Pimenta, P P

    1975-01-01

    A positive correlation between the circulating growth hormone levels and the nutritional status was reported in 9 children of both sexes, aged 1 to 6 years, suffering from 2nd degree malnutrition. The mean serum insulin levels, the mean urinary 17-KS and 17-OHCS levels were low before the dietary therapy. No significant correlation between the levels of these hormones and the nutritional status was found. The hormone levels gradually returned to normal after the dietary therapy and the nutritional status of the children improved, according to the observed biochemical, clinical and anthropometric data.

  10. Growth hormone and cortisol secretion in relation to sleep and wakefulness.

    OpenAIRE

    Davidson, J. R.; Moldofsky, H.; Lue, F A

    1991-01-01

    The study investigated secretory patterns of growth hormone (GH) and cortisol in relation to sleep and wakefulness. Plasma hormone levels were monitored in 10 young men during baseline waking and sleeping, during 40 hours of wakefulness, and during sleep following deprivation. The normal nocturnal GH surge disappeared with sleep deprivation, and was intensified following sleep deprivation. Mean GH levels were higher during slow wave sleep (SWS) compared with other sleep stages. During sleep a...

  11. Ectopic acromegaly due to a growth hormone-secreting neuroendocrine-differentiated tumor developed from ovarian mature cystic teratoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozkaya, Mesut; Sayiner, Zeynel Abidin; Kiran, Gurkan; Gul, Kamile; Erkutlu, Ibrahim; Elboga, Umut

    2015-06-01

    Acromegaly is a clinical syndrome caused by the overproduction of growth hormone (GH) and also known as a rare disease. Clinical, biochemical, and radiological features are often indistinguishable between GH-producing hypophysis adenomas and ectopic GH-releasing hormone (GHRH)-producing tumors. A 40-year-old woman presented to us with her growing feet, hands especially fingers, and enlarging nose. Biochemical diagnosis of acromegaly was made by measuring insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) level and glucose-suppressed GH estimation. Her spot IGF-1 level was 1300 ng/ml (90-226 ng/ml). The basal GH was 30 ng/l, and 60- and 120-min GH levels after 75-g oral glucose load were 29 and 40 ng/l, respectively. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of pituitary was normal. There was no pituitary adenoma or pituitary hyperplasia. Extrapituitary ectopic hypersecretion of GH or GHRH-secreting tumor search was done by high-resolution computed tomography (CT) of chest and whole abdomen. Abdomen CT revealed 9.5 × 8 cm pelvic mass, which included calcific regions and solid component. The specimen's immunohistochemical staining with GH was positive but interestingly GHRH was negative. According to immunohistochemical staining, the patient's diagnosis was ectopic acromegaly due to a GH-secreting neuroendocrine-differentiated tumor developed from an ovarian mature cystic teratoma. Herein, we present excellent illustration of an unusual and confusing clinical scenario of ectopic acromegaly.

  12. Effect of therapy with a new glucocorticoid, deflazacort, on linear growth and growth hormone secretion after renal transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferraris, J R; Fainstein Day, P; Gutman, R; Granillo, E; Ramirez, J; Ruiz, S; Pasqualini, T

    1992-11-01

    Deflazacort is an oxazoline compound derived from prednisolone with similar antiinflammatory effects but fewer side effects. We studied changes in kidney function, growth velocity, weight/height ratio, and growth hormone secretion before and a year after substitution of deflazacort for methylprednisone in nine patients aged 9 to 15 years, 4 years after renal transplantation; all were in Tanner pubertal stage 1. Methylprednisone (mean +/- SEM: 0.2 +/- 0.02 mg/kg per day) was replaced by deflazacort (0.3 +/- 0.03 mg/kg per day) for a mean period of 15 months. Serum creatinine and calculated creatinine clearance did not change significantly during deflazacort treatment. Growth velocity increased from 1.5 +/- 0.3 to 3.2 +/- 0.5 cm/yr (p < 0.005) in the nine patients. Weight/height ratio decreased from 28.4% +/- 8.5% to 16% +/- 6.7% (p < 0.005). Cushingoid appearance decreased in all patients. Mean spontaneous growth hormone secretion increased from 2.5 +/- 0.4 to 4.4 +/- 1.2 ng/ml (p < 0.05). Our findings indicate that immunosuppressive treatment with deflazacort is as effective as methylprednisone and is associated with fewer side effects.

  13. Antidiuretic effects of a factor in brain/corpora cardiaca/corpora allata extract on fluid reabsorption across the cryptonephric complex of Manduca sexta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, S; Audsley, N; Schooley, D A

    2000-02-01

    Extracts of the brain/corpora cardiaca/corpora allata (Br/CC/CA) complex of Manduca sexta larvae elicit an antidiuretic effect, measured by an increase in fluid reabsorption across the cryptonephric complex of larval M. sexta. Separation of the extract by reversed-phase liquid chromatography gave two fractions with antidiuretic effects. The more potent of these two factors was further characterized for its effects on the cryptonephric complex. Its antidiuretic effect is not inhibited by bumetanide, a drug that inhibits M. sexta diuretic hormone (Mas-DH)-stimulated fluid reabsorption. These data indicate that the mechanism of the antidiuretic effect of the factor is different from that of Mas-DH on the cryptonephric complex. The basal reabsorption of the cryptonephric complex is blocked when treated on the lumen side with bafilomycin A(1), an inhibitor of the H(+)-ATPase, or with amiloride, an inhibitor of the H(+)/K(+) antiporter. However, the antidiuretic-factor-stimulated fluid reabsorption is not affected by either bafilomycin A(1) or amiloride. The increase in reabsorption triggered by the semi-purified factor can be inhibited by Cl(-) channel blockers or by removing Cl(-) from the lumen side of the cryptonephric complex. It appears that this factor activates a Cl(-) pump associated with the cryptonephric complex. Forskolin mimics the effect of this factor on fluid reabsorption, and the effect of forskolin is not inhibited by bumetanide. A selective and potent inhibitor of protein kinase A, H-89, also inhibits antidiuretic-factor-stimulated fluid reabsorption. Addition of the factor to cryptonephric complexes maintained in vitro caused a significant increase in cyclic AMP levels extracted from these tissues compared with values for controls. These data suggest that the antidiuretic effect of the factor in Br/CC/CA extract is mediated by cyclic AMP.

  14. Improving Effect of the Acute Administration of Dietary Fiber-Enriched Cereals on Blood Glucose Levels and Gut Hormone Secretion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Eun Ky; Oh, Tae Jung; Kim, Lee-Kyung; Cho, Young Min

    2016-02-01

    Dietary fiber improves hyperglycemia in patients with type 2 diabetes through its physicochemical properties and possible modulation of gut hormone secretion, such as glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1). We assessed the effect of dietary fiber-enriched cereal flakes (DC) on postprandial hyperglycemia and gut hormone secretion in patients with type 2 diabetes. Thirteen participants ate isocaloric meals based on either DC or conventional cereal flakes (CC) in a crossover design. DC or CC was provided for dinner, night snack on day 1 and breakfast on day 2, followed by a high-fat lunch. On day 2, the levels of plasma glucose, GLP-1, glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP), and insulin were measured. Compared to CC, DC intake exhibited a lower post-breakfast 2-hours glucose level (198.5±12.8 vs. 245.9±15.2 mg/dL, P<0.05) and a lower incremental peak of glucose from baseline (101.8±9.1 vs. 140.3±14.3 mg/dL, P<0.001). The incremental area under the curve (iAUC) of glucose after breakfast was lower with DC than with CC (P<0.001). However, there were no differences in the plasma insulin, glucagon, GLP-1, and GIP levels. In conclusion, acute administration of DC attenuates postprandial hyperglycemia without any significant change in the representative glucose-regulating hormones in patients with type 2 diabetes (ClinicalTrials.gov. NCT 01997281).

  15. Control of luteinizing hormone and testosterone secretion in a flexibly breeding male passerine, the Rufous-winged Sparrow, Aimophila carpalis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deviche, Pierre; Small, Thomas; Sharp, Peter; Tsutsui, Kazuyoshi

    2006-12-01

    Rufous-winged Sparrows, Aimophila carpalis, reside in the Sonoran desert and although testicular development is initiated in the spring under the influence of increasing day length, breeding occurs opportunistically in summer in association with heavy rainfall or "monsoon". The aim of this study in free-living male Rufous-winged Sparrows was to establish the relationship between concentrations of plasma luteinizing hormone (LH) and testosterone (T), and breeding associated with heavy rainfall, and to investigate whether breeding is mediated by changes in pituitary gland sensitivity to gonadotropin releasing hormone-I (GnRH) and the recently discovered avian gonadotropin-inhibitory hormone (GnIH). Concentrations of plasma LH and T were relatively low until mid-summer, but increased rapidly and transiently immediately prior to the monsoon which occurred after the summer solstice, when day lengths were decreasing. At this time the birds came into full breeding condition. An injection of chicken GnRH (10 ng) increased plasma LH within 2 min when given before or during the monsoon. An injection of GnIH (1 microg) did not affect plasma LH within 2 min during the monsoon and did not decrease GnRH-elicited LH secretion before or during the monsoon. No experimental treatment affected plasma T concentrations. The data suggest in male Rufous-winged Sparrows that the seasonal increase in plasma LH associated with summer monsoon results from increased stimulation of the pituitary gland by GnRH, rather than from a change in the responsiveness of the gland to GnRH, and that GnIH does not play an acute role in this mechanism. However, a possible chronic role for GnIH in the seasonal control of LH synthesis and secretion through an inhibitory effect on the hypothalamic GnRH system remains to be investigated.

  16. Narrative Time and the Thyroid: Hormone Secretions and Storytelling in Italo Svevo's "Doctor Menghi's Drug"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Fratto

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In the wake of fin-de-siècle discoveries in the field of endocrinology, bodily glands and the hormones they produced featured prominently in the literary works, visual arts, and popular culture of early twentieth-century Europe. Experimental surgery promised rejuvenation and intellectual vitality through gland transplantation and grafting, while phenomena of all sorts began to be associated to hormone production in causal links—from bodily rhythms to behavioral patterns, from the pace of history to the trajectory of nations. Italo Svevo was fascinated by Basedow and Graves’s discoveries on the thyroid, a gland that was supposed to determine the speed and promptness of one’s body according to the amount of hormones it produced—hypothyroidism, or scarcity of hormones, would entail lethargic behavior and slow movements, while hyperthyroidism, or the abundant production of hormones, would lead to excessive activity and consumption. Through the analysis of an early short story by Svevo, “Doctor Menghi’s Drug” (ca. 1904, this paper addresses how the activity of the thyroid affects not only bodily rhythms, but also narrative time—intended as both the time of the story (diegetic time and the pace of storytelling—and it explores how metabolic processes act as constraints for literary creativity by complicating narrative time and raising questions of narrative agency.

  17. Attenuation of skeletal muscle wasting with recombinant human growth hormone secreted from a tissue-engineered bioartificial muscle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandenburgh, H.; Del Tatto, M.; Shansky, J.; Goldstein, L.; Russell, K.; Genes, N.; Chromiak, J.; Yamada, S.

    1998-01-01

    Skeletal muscle wasting is a significant problem in elderly and debilitated patients. Growth hormone (GH) is an anabolic growth factor for skeletal muscle but is difficult to deliver in a therapeutic manner by injection owing to its in vivo instability. A novel method is presented for the sustained secretion of recombinant human GH (rhGH) from genetically modified skeletal muscle implants, which reduces host muscle wasting. Proliferating murine C2C12 skeletal myoblasts stably transduced with the rhGH gene were tissue engineered in vitro into bioartificial muscles (C2-BAMs) containing organized postmitotic myofibers secreting 3-5 microg of rhGH/day in vitro. When implanted subcutaneously into syngeneic mice, C2-BAMs delivered a sustained physiologic dose of 2.5 to 11.3 ng of rhGH per milliliter of serum. rhGH synthesized and secreted by the myofibers was in the 22-kDa monomeric form and was biologically active, based on downregulation of a GH-sensitive protein synthesized in the liver. Skeletal muscle disuse atrophy was induced in mice by hindlimb unloading, causing the fast plantaris and slow soleus muscles to atrophy by 21 to 35% ( muscle-wasting disorders.

  18. EFFECT OF PREOPERATIVE USE OF LONG-ACTING OCTREOTIDE ON GROWTH HORMONE SECRETING PITUITARY ADENOMA AND TRANSSPHENOIDAL SURGERY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jian Yin; Chang-bao Su; Zhi-qin Xu; Yi Yang; Wen-bin Ma; Wei Tao; Zhong Yang; Xue-wei Xia

    2005-01-01

    Objective To investigate whether somatostatin analog octreotide long acting release (LAR) shrinks growth hormone (GH) secreting adenomas, and improves the results of subsequent transsphenoidal surgery.Methods Seventeen previously untreated active acromegalic patients with pituitary adenomas were treated with LAR (30 mg intramuscular injection every 28 days) for 3 months prior to transsphenoidal surgery. Clinical reaction, mean GH secretion, and tumor volume were measured under basal conditions and after LAR treatment.Results Presurgical treatment improved acromegaly symptoms and induced a significant reduction of GH under the 5 ng/mL limit in microadenoma (P < 0.05), while only 18.2% (2/11) in macroadenoma. Meanwhile, tumor shrinkage occurred in 58.8% (10/17) patients, with 1 case in the microadenoma group. All marked shrinkage (> 25%) occurred in the macroadenoma group. Statistical analysis showed tumor shrinkage caused by LAR was greater in macroadenoma group than that in microadenoma group (P < 0.05). During operation, adenoma was soft in 15 cases, with the exception of 2cases in which the soft rumor was divided by fibrous septa, but all tumor removal was smooth.Conclusions A short term administration of preoperative LAR may induce a significant decrease in GH-secretion level and adenoma volume. Presurgical use of octreotide LAR improves surgical results especially in macroadenomas.

  19. Oral phosphorus supplementation secondarily increases circulating fibroblast growth factor 23 levels at least partially via stimulation of parathyroid hormone secretion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takasugi, Satoshi; Akutsu, Miho; Nagata, Masashi

    2014-01-01

    Oral phosphorus supplementation stimulates fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23) secretion; however, the underlying mechanism remains unclear. The aim of this study was to investigate the involvement of parathyroid hormone (PTH) in increased plasma FGF23 levels after oral phosphorus supplementation in rats. Rats received single dose of phosphate with concomitant subcutaneous injection of saline or human PTH (1-34) after treatment with cinacalcet or its vehicle. Cinacalcet is a drug that acts as an allosteric activator of the calcium-sensing receptor and reduces PTH secretion. Plasma phosphorus and PTH levels significantly increased 1 h after oral phosphorus administration and returned to basal levels within 3 h, while plasma FGF23 levels did not change up to 2 h post-treatment, but rather significantly increased at 3 h after administration and maintained higher levels for at least 6 h compared with the 0 time point. Plasma PTH and FGF23 levels were significantly lower in the cinacalcet-treated rats than in the vehicle-treated rats. Plasma phosphorus levels were significantly higher in the cinacalcet-treated rats than in the vehicle-treated rats at 2, 3, 4, and 6 h after oral phosphorus administration. Furthermore, rats treated with cinacalcet+human PTH (1-34) showed transiently but significantly higher plasma FGF23 levels at 3 h after oral phosphorus administration compared with cinacalcet-treated rats. These results suggest that oral phosphorus supplementation secondarily increases circulating FGF23 levels at least partially by stimulation of PTH secretion.

  20. The response of luteinizing hormone secretion to photoperiod is modified by the level of nutrition in female Mediterranean goats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zarazaga, L A; Celi, I; Guzmán, J L; Malpaux, B

    2011-06-01

    This paper reports the influence of nutrition on the photoperiodic control of luteinizing hormone (LH) secretion in female Mediterranean goats (i.e., goats from the Mediterranean area in general). Ovariectomized, oestradiol-treated goats were subjected to two consecutive intervals of 3 months of long days followed by 3 months of short days (group LDSD, N=20), or vice versa (group SDLD, N=20). The LDSD and SDLD does were also randomly assigned to one of two nutrition groups that received either 1.1 (H group, N=10) or 0.7 (L group, N=10) times their maintenance requirements. Live weight and body condition score were determined weekly and LH concentrations twice per week. To establish the pulsatility of secretion of LH, three periods of intensive sampling were undertaken. Melatonin was determined after a period of 45 short or long days. All photoperiod/nutrition groups showed large variations in LH concentrations according to photoperiod, with nutrition having a significant effect (Pnutrition group (at least Pnutrition groups, but differences between sampling periods were observed (Pgoats are sensitive to photoperiod, (2) that this environmental cue may control the timing of pituitary activity under natural conditions, and (3) suggest that nutrition plays an important role in the effect of photoperiod on LH secretion. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Attenuation of skeletal muscle wasting with recombinant human growth hormone secreted from a tissue-engineered bioartificial muscle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandenburgh, H.; Del Tatto, M.; Shansky, J.; Goldstein, L.; Russell, K.; Genes, N.; Chromiak, J.; Yamada, S.

    1998-01-01

    Skeletal muscle wasting is a significant problem in elderly and debilitated patients. Growth hormone (GH) is an anabolic growth factor for skeletal muscle but is difficult to deliver in a therapeutic manner by injection owing to its in vivo instability. A novel method is presented for the sustained secretion of recombinant human GH (rhGH) from genetically modified skeletal muscle implants, which reduces host muscle wasting. Proliferating murine C2C12 skeletal myoblasts stably transduced with the rhGH gene were tissue engineered in vitro into bioartificial muscles (C2-BAMs) containing organized postmitotic myofibers secreting 3-5 microg of rhGH/day in vitro. When implanted subcutaneously into syngeneic mice, C2-BAMs delivered a sustained physiologic dose of 2.5 to 11.3 ng of rhGH per milliliter of serum. rhGH synthesized and secreted by the myofibers was in the 22-kDa monomeric form and was biologically active, based on downregulation of a GH-sensitive protein synthesized in the liver. Skeletal muscle disuse atrophy was induced in mice by hindlimb unloading, causing the fast plantaris and slow soleus muscles to atrophy by 21 to 35% ( muscle-wasting disorders.

  2. Experiment K-7-22: Growth Hormone Regulation Synthesis and Secretion in Microgravity. Part 2; Hypothalamic Growth Hormone-Releasing Factor, Somatostatin Immunoreactivity, and Messenger RNA Levels in Microgravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawchenko, P. E.; Arias, C.; Krasnov, I.; Grindeland, R. E.; Vale, W.

    1994-01-01

    Immunohistochemical analyses of hypothalamic hormones carried out on tissue from rats flown on an earlier flight (Cosmos 1887) suggested preferential effects on hypophysiotropic principles involved in the regulation of growth hormone secretion and synthesis. We found that staining in the median eminence for peptides that provide both stimulatory (growth hormone-releasing factor, or GRF) and inhibitory (somatostatin, SS) influences on growth hormone secretion were depressed in flight animals relative to synchronous controls, while staining for other neuroendocrine peptides, cortocotropin-releasing factor and arginine vasopressin, were similar in these two groups. While this suggests some selective impact of weightlessness on the two principal central nervous system regulators of growth hormone dynamics, the fact that both GRF- and SS-immunoreactivity (IR) appeared affected in the same direction is somewhat problematic, and makes tentative any intimation that effects on CNS control mechanisms may be etiologically significant contributors to the sequelae of reduced growth hormone secretion seen in prolonged space flight. To provide an additional, and more penetrating, analysis we attempted in hypothalamic material harvested from animals flown on Cosmos 2044 to complement immunohistochemical analyses of GRF and SS staining with quantitative, in situ assessments of messenger RNAs encoding the precursors for both these hormones.

  3. Hormones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hormones are your body's chemical messengers. They travel in your bloodstream to tissues or organs. They work ... glands, which are special groups of cells, make hormones. The major endocrine glands are the pituitary, pineal, ...

  4. Neural Mechanism by which Gravitational Stimuli and Stress Affect the Secretion of Renin and Other Hormones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganong, W. F.; Gotoh, E.; Alper, R. H.

    1985-01-01

    The serotonin-releasing drug p-chloroamphetamine (PCA), as well as L-propranolol and chloriasondamine were used in a study which established that the pathway from the hypothalamus to the kidneys is sympathetic. Which hypothalamic nuclei mediate the response to PCA is being investigated experiments are being conducted to determine a readily reproducible psychological stimulus to renin secretion that can be used in rats. The effects of equithesin, urethane, and inactin on plasma renin activity were examined in preparation for tilting experiments. The relation of vasopressin-secreting neurons in the brain sem to PCA response was explored in Brattleboro rats that are congenitally unable to produce vasopressin in their hypothalami.

  5. Neural Mechanism by which Gravitational Stimuli and Stress Affect the Secretion of Renin and Other Hormones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganong, W. F.; Gotoh, E.; Alper, R. H.

    1985-01-01

    The serotonin-releasing drug p-chloroamphetamine (PCA), as well as L-propranolol and chloriasondamine were used in a study which established that the pathway from the hypothalamus to the kidneys is sympathetic. Which hypothalamic nuclei mediate the response to PCA is being investigated experiments are being conducted to determine a readily reproducible psychological stimulus to renin secretion that can be used in rats. The effects of equithesin, urethane, and inactin on plasma renin activity were examined in preparation for tilting experiments. The relation of vasopressin-secreting neurons in the brain sem to PCA response was explored in Brattleboro rats that are congenitally unable to produce vasopressin in their hypothalami.

  6. Meal induced gut hormone secretion is altered in aerobically trained compared to sedentary young healthy males

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Michael Taulo; Taudorf, Lærke; Hartmann, Bolette

    2013-01-01

    was to assess and compare gut hormone response and satiety changes after a liquid meal intake in young, healthy T and UT males. Postprandial gut hormone release and subjective feelings of hunger, satiety, fullness and prospective food consumption were assessed before and frequently for the following 3 h after...... concentration was higher in T versus UT, but the response in the following 3 h after a liquid meal was similar in T and UT. Satiety measures did not differ between groups throughout the test. It is possible that in aerobically T subjects, a lower GIP release is partly responsible for a lower postprandial...

  7. Hormonal secretion and quality of life in Nelson syndrome and Cushing disease after long acting repeatable octreotide: a short series and update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arregger, Alejandro L; Cardoso, Estela M L; Sandoval, Olga B; Monardes Tumilasci, Elida G; Sanchez, Rocío; Contreras, Liliana N

    2014-01-01

    Clinical management of persistent adrenocorticotropin hormone (ACTH) excess in Nelson syndrome (NS) and Cushing disease (CD) remains a challenge. Somatostatin and its analogs as octreotide decrease ACTH secretion through somatostatin receptors of pituitary cells. To our knowledge, there are no reports on the effect of long-acting repeatable octreotide (oct-lar) on hormonal secretion and quality of life in patients with NS and CD who failed conventional therapy. Herein, we describe the effects of treatment with oct-lar (20 mg/month intramurally) in 1 woman with NS and 2 women with persistent CD. Oct-lar therapy reduced ACTH secretion and improved the quality of life in NS patient. By contrast, in CD patients, it failed to control ACTH and cortisol secretion, and the quality of life remained unchanged.

  8. Neural mechanisms by which gravitational stimuli and stress affect the secretion of renin and other hormones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganong, William F.

    1987-01-01

    The present goal is to determine by the production of discrete lesions the parts of the hypothalamus and brainstem that are involved in serotonin-mediated increases in renin secretion. A variety of stimuli which act in different ways to increase renin stimuli were developed and standardized. The experiments with p-chloroamphetamine (PCA) demonstrated that there is a serotonergic pathway which projects from the dorsal raphe nuclei to the paraventricular nuclei and the vetromedial nuclei of the hypothalamus; that projection from paraventricular nuclei to the brainstem and spinal cord may be oxytocinergic; and that the pathway from the spinal cord to the renin secreting cells is sympathetic. The demonstration that paraventicular lesions lower circulating renin substrate is important because it raises the possibility that substrate secretion is under neural control, either via the pituitary or by direct neural pathways. The discovery that lesions of the ventromedial nuclei appear to abolish the increase in renin secretion produced by many different stimuli without affecting the concentration of renin substrate in the plasma makes the position of the hypothalamus in the regulation of fluid and electrolyte balance more prominent than previously suspected.

  9. Human longevity is characterised by high thyroid stimulating hormone secretion without altered energy metabolism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jansen, S W; Akintola, A A; Roelfsema, F;

    2015-01-01

    hormone (TH) in an inverse relationship. Greater longevity has been associated with higher TSH and lower TH levels, but mechanisms underlying TSH/TH differences and longevity remain unknown. The HPT axis plays a pivotal role in growth, development and energy metabolism. We report that offspring...... may favour longevity without altering energy metabolism....

  10. Switching of G-protein Usage by the Calcium-sensing Receptor Reverses Its Effect on Parathyroid Hormone-related Protein Secretion in Normal Versus Malignant Breast Cells*

    OpenAIRE

    Mamillapalli, Ramanaiah; VanHouten, Joshua; Zawalich, Walter; Wysolmerski, John

    2008-01-01

    The calcium-sensing receptor (CaR) is a G-protein-coupled receptor that signals in response to extracellular calcium and regulates parathyroid hormone secretion. The CaR is also expressed on normal mammary epithelial cells (MMECs), where it has been shown to inhibit secretion of parathyroid hormone-related protein (PTHrP) and participate in the regulation of calcium and bone metabolism during lactation. In contrast to normal breast cells, the CaR has been reported to s...

  11. Influence of Exogenous Reproductive Hormones on Specific Antibody Production in Genital Secretions after Vaginal Vaccination with Recombinant Cholera Toxin B Subunit in Humans

    OpenAIRE

    Wassen, Lotta; Jertborn, Marianne

    2006-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the influence of exogenous reproductive hormones on the local and systemic production of specific immunoglobulin A (IgA) and IgG antibodies after vaginal vaccination with recombinant cholera toxin subunit B (CTB). Three groups of women using either progesterone-containing intrauterine devices (n = 9), oral contraceptives (n = 8), or no hormonal contraceptive methods (n = 9) were vaginally immunized twice, 2 weeks apart. Cervical secretions, vagin...

  12. Effects of oleic acid and olive oil on gastric emptying, gut hormone secretion and appetite in lean and overweight or obese males

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damgaard, Morten; Graff, Jesper; Fuglsang, Stefan

    2013-01-01

    lean subjects, free fatty acid (FFA) promotes gut hormone release, delays gastric emptying, and reduces appetite and energy intake more than an isocaloric load of triglyceride (TG). In obesity, the gastrointestinal sensitivity to lipids may be reduced. Therefore, we compared the effects of the FF...... oleic acid and the TG olive oil on gut hormone secretion, gastric emptying, appetite, and energy intake in lean and overweight/obese subjects....

  13. Site of Action of Antidiuretic Hormone on Mammalian Nephrons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-01-01

    beginning of the stop-flow periods, ureteral pressure was raised to that of mean blood pressure by means of a mercury manometer , through a small...imposed through one of the needles by a mercury manometer and chnages in pressure transmitted to the needles at varied distances (0-5 mm) from the

  14. Site of Action of Antidiuretic Hormone on Mammalian Nephrons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-01-01

    the epithelium and by changing capillary and tissue pre;sures resulting in a change in the magnitude of ultrafiltration across the capillaries and...linear-If function. TIhe effects of glucagon could not We attributed to t he con coit ant in crease ilood g)0()Ilu cose or insulin nor were they mimnic ked

  15. Peptidomic profiling of secreted products from pancreatic islet culture results in a higher yield of full-length peptide hormones than found using cell lysis procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Steven W; Nikoulina, Svetlana E; Andon, Nancy L; Lowe, Carolyn

    2013-08-02

    Peptide Hormone Acquisition through Smart Sampling Technique-Mass Spectrometry (PHASST-MS) is a peptidomics platform that employs high resolution liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) techniques to identify peptide hormones secreted from in vitro or ex vivo cultures enriched in endocrine cells. Application of the methodology to the study of murine pancreatic islets has permitted evaluation of the strengths and weaknesses of the approach, as well as comparison of our results with published islet studies that employed traditional cellular lysis procedures. We found that, while our PHASST-MS approach identified fewer peptides in total, we had greater representation of intact peptide hormones. The technique was further refined to improve coverage of hydrophilic as well as hydrophobic peptides and subsequently applied to human pancreatic islet cultures derived from normal donors or donors with type 2 diabetes. Interestingly, in addition to the expected islet hormones, we identified alpha-cell-derived bioactive GLP-1, consistent with recent reports of paracrine effects of this hormone on beta-cell function. We also identified many novel peptides derived from neurohormonal precursors and proteins related to the cell secretory system. Taken together, these results suggest the PHASST-MS strategy of focusing on cellular secreted products rather than the total tissue peptidome may improve the probability of discovering novel bioactive peptides and also has the potential to offer important new insights into the secretion and function of known hormones.

  16. Pioglitazone treatment increases spontaneous growth hormone (GH) secretion and stimulated GH levels in polycystic ovary syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Glintborg, Dorte; Støving, René Klinkby; Hagen, Claus

    2005-01-01

    and improved insulin sensitivity during pioglitazone treatment may affect GH secretion. OBJECTIVE: The objective of the study was to investigate the effect of pioglitazone on GH levels in PCOS. DESIGN: Thirty insulin-resistant PCOS patients were randomized to either 16 wk pioglitazone (30 mg/d) or placebo...... treatment. Before and after intervention, levels of fasting insulin, GH, total IGF-I, free IGF-I, IGF binding protein-1, IGF-II, free fatty acids, testosterone, and SHBG were measured. Patients underwent whole-body dual x-ray absorptiometry scans, pyridostigmine-GHRH tests, and 24-h 20-min integrated blood...... sampling for measurement of GH. RESULTS: Peak GH and area under the curve for GH in pyridostigmine-GHRH tests and 24-h mean GH concentrations and pulsatile GH secretion significantly increased after pioglitazone treatment. No significant changes were observed in GH pulse frequency, pulse duration...

  17. Impact of glucocorticoid hormones on adipokine secretion and human adipose tissue metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fain, John N

    2013-08-01

    The glucocorticoid hormones alter the metabolism of the adipose tissue after an approximately 2-h lag period. The effects are mediated through the nuclear receptors that alter the expression of a wide variety of genes through the mechanisms that are similar to those seen in the other cells. There are many direct metabolic effects of the glucocorticoids on the adipose tissue metabolism, and every year, new effects are added to the list of proteins whose expression is influenced by the glucocorticoids. Furthermore, some enzymatic processes are affected by these hormones only in the presence of the other hormones such as growth hormone (GH) or insulin. Most of the effects of the glucocorticoids are on the gene transcription, and the effects on the mRNA are reflected in the altered levels of the target proteins. The glucocorticoids enhance the leptin release, while reducing that of the inflammatory adipokines and stimulating that of the lipoprotein lipase (LPL) in the presence of insulin. The activity of 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 (HSD1) is enhanced by the glucocorticoids along with that of α1 glycoprotein 1 and serum amyloid A release by the adipose tissue. In contrast, the tumor necrosis factor α (TNF)-stimulated lipolysis in the adipose tissue is blocked by the glucocorticoids. It is still unclear which, if any, of these effects account for the insulin resistance due to the glucocorticoids in the adipose tissue. However, recent work suggests that, at least in mice, the reduction in the osteocalcin release by the osteoblasts in the presence of the glucocorticoids accounts for much of the in vivo insulin resistance. In summary, there are multiple direct effects of the glucocorticoids, both anti-inflammatory and proinflammatory, on the adipose tissue.

  18. PPARalpha activation and increased dietary lipid oppose thyroid hormone signaling and rescue impaired glucose-stimulated insulin secretion in hyperthyroidism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holness, Mark J; Greenwood, Gemma K; Smith, Nicholas D; Sugden, Mary C

    2008-12-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate the impact of hyperthyroidism on the characteristics of the islet insulin secretory response to glucose, particularly the consequences of competition between thyroid hormone and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)alpha in the regulation of islet adaptations to starvation and dietary lipid-induced insulin resistance. Rats maintained on standard (low-fat/high-carbohydrate) diet or high-fat/low-carbohydrate diet were rendered hyperthyroid (HT) by triiodothyronine (T(3)) administration (1 mg.kg body wt(-1).day(-1) sc, 3 days). The PPARalpha agonist WY14643 (50 mg/kg body wt ip) was administered 24 h before sampling. Glucose-stimulated insulin secretion (GSIS) was assessed during hyperglycemic clamps or after acute glucose bolus injection in vivo and with step-up and step-down islet perifusions. Hyperthyroidism decreased the glucose responsiveness of GSIS, precluding sufficient enhancement of insulin secretion for the degree of insulin resistance, in rats fed either standard diet or high-fat diet. Hyperthyroidism partially opposed the starvation-induced increase in the glucose threshold for GSIS and decrease in glucose responsiveness. WY14643 administration restored glucose tolerance by enhancing GSIS in fed HT rats and relieved the impact of hyperthyroidism to partially oppose islet starvation adaptations. Competition between thyroid hormone receptor (TR) and PPARalpha influences the characteristics of GSIS, such that hyperthyroidism impairs GSIS while PPARalpha activation (and increased dietary lipid) opposes TR signaling and restores GSIS in the fed hyperthyroid state. Increased islet PPARalpha signaling and decreased TR signaling during starvation facilitates appropriate modification of islet function.

  19. The ghrelin/obestatin balance in the physiological and pathological control of growth hormone secretion, body composition and food intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassouna, R; Zizzari, P; Tolle, V

    2010-07-01

    Ghrelin and obestatin are two gastrointestinal peptides obtained by post-translational processing of a common precursor, preproghrelin. Ghrelin is an orexigenic and adipogenic peptide and a potent growth hormone secretagogue (GHS) modified by the enzyme ghrelin-O-acyl-transferase to bind and activate its receptor, the GHS-R. The ghrelin/GHS-R pathway is complex and the effects of ghrelin on GH secretion, adiposity and food intake appear to be relayed by distinct mechanisms involving different transduction signals and constitutive activity for the GH-R, different cofactors as modulators of endogenous ghrelin signalling and/or alternative ghrelin receptors. The discovery of obestatin in 2005 brought an additional level of complexity to this fascinating system. Obestatin was initially identified as an anorexigenic peptide and as the cognate ligand for GPR39, but its effect on food intake and its ability to activate GPR39 are still controversial. Although several teams failed to reproduce the anorexigenic actions of obestatin, this peptide has been shown to antagonise GH secretion and food intake induced by ghrelin and could be an interesting pharmacological tool to counteract the actions of ghrelin. Ghrelin and obestatin immunoreactivities are recovered in the blood with an ultradian pulsatility and their concentrations in plasma vary with the nutritional status of the body. It is still a matter of debate whether both hormones are regulated by independent mechanisms and whether obestatin is a physiologically relevant peptide. Nevertheless, a significant number of studies show that the ghrelin/obestatin ratio is modified in anorexia nervosa and obesity. This suggests that the ghrelin/obestatin balance could be essential to adapt the body's response to nutritional challenges. Although measuring ghrelin and obestatin in plasma is challenging because many forms of the peptides circulate, more sensitive and selective assays to detect the different preproghrelin

  20. Hyponatremia hypo-osmolarity in neurosurgical patients. "Appropriate secretion of ADH" and "cerebral salt wasting syndrome".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vingerhoets, F; de Tribolet, N

    1988-01-01

    This prospective study is based on 256 patients with severe brain injury. Six patients (2.3%) developed the clinical picture of inappropriate secretion of antidiuretic hormone (SIADH): 3 in the first 3 days following the injury, 3 after more than a week. Their ADH plasmatic level were measured by radio-immunoassay. In the former, many factors, largely iatrogenic, can explain the increased secretion of ADH we found and which is then definitely "appropriate". It should be prevented by fluid restriction. In the latter, we found adequately low ADH levels, when the hypo-osmolarity is taken into account. Here, the aetiology seems to be a renal salt loss, eventually in relation to a natriuric factor (e.g. atrial natriuretic factor), justifying the term: "Cerebral salt wasting syndrome". With the resistance to fluid restriction, the treatment still remains a problem.

  1. Humoral Hypercalcemia of Malignancy with a Parathyroid Hormone-Related Peptide-Secreting Intrahepatic Cholangiocarcinoma Accompanied by a Gastric Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katsushi Takeda

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Humoral hypercalcemia of malignancy (HHM is caused by the oversecretion of parathyroid hormone-related peptide (PTHrP from malignant tumors. Although any tumor may cause HHM, that induced by intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma (ICC or gastric cancer (GC is rare. We report here a 74-year-old male who displayed HHM with both ICC and GC and showed an elevated serum PTHrP level. Treatment of the hypercalcemia with saline, furosemide, elcatonin, and zoledronic acid corrected his serum calcium level and improved symptoms. Because treatment of ICC should precede that of GC, we chose chemotherapy with cisplatin (CDDP and gemcitabine (GEM. Chemotherapy reduced the size of the ICC and decreased the serum PTHrP level. One year after diagnosis, the patient was alive in the face of a poor prognosis for an ICC that produced PTHrP. Immunohistochemical staining for PTHrP was positive for the ICC and negative for the GC, leading us to believe that the cause of the HHM was a PTHrP-secreting ICC. In conclusion, immunohistochemical staining for PTHrP may be useful in discovering the cause of HHM in the case of two cancers accompanied by an elevated serum PHTrP level. Chemotherapy with CDDP and GEM may be the most appropriate treatment for a PTHrP-secreting ICC.

  2. Hormone-sensitive lipase deficiency suppresses insulin secretion from pancreatic islets of Lep{sup ob/ob} mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sekiya, Motohiro [Department of Metabolic Diseases, Graduate School of Medicine, University of Tokyo, Tokyo 113-8655 (Japan); Yahagi, Naoya, E-mail: nyahagi-tky@umin.ac.jp [Department of Metabolic Diseases, Graduate School of Medicine, University of Tokyo, Tokyo 113-8655 (Japan); Laboratory of Molecular Physiology on Energy Metabolism, Graduate School of Medicine, University of Tokyo, Tokyo 113-8655 (Japan); Tamura, Yoshiaki; Okazaki, Hiroaki; Igarashi, Masaki; Ohta, Keisuke; Takanashi, Mikio; Kumagai, Masayoshi; Takase, Satoru; Nishi, Makiko; Takeuchi, Yoshinori; Izumida, Yoshihiko; Kubota, Midori; Ohashi, Ken; Iizuka, Yoko [Department of Metabolic Diseases, Graduate School of Medicine, University of Tokyo, Tokyo 113-8655 (Japan); Yagyu, Hiroaki [Division of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Department of Medicine, Jichi Medical University, Tochigi 329-0498 (Japan); Gotoda, Takanari [Department of Nephrology and Endocrinology, Graduate School of Medicine, University of Tokyo, Tokyo 113-8655 (Japan); Nagai, Ryozo [Department of Cardiovascular Medicine, Graduate School of Medicine, University of Tokyo, Tokyo 113-8655 (Japan); Shimano, Hitoshi; Yamada, Nobuhiro [Advanced Biomedical Applications, Graduate School of Comprehensive Human Sciences, University of Tsukuba, Ibaragi 305-8575 (Japan); and others

    2009-09-25

    It has long been a matter of debate whether the hormone-sensitive lipase (HSL)-mediated lipolysis in pancreatic {beta}-cells can affect insulin secretion through the alteration of lipotoxicity. We generated mice lacking both leptin and HSL (Lep{sup ob/ob}/HSL{sup -/-}) and explored the role of HSL in pancreatic {beta}-cells in the setting of obesity. Lep{sup ob/ob}/HSL{sup -/-} developed elevated blood glucose levels and reduced plasma insulin levels compared with Lep{sup ob/ob}/HSL{sup +/+} in a fed state, while the deficiency of HSL did not affect glucose homeostasis in Lep{sup +/+} background. The deficiency of HSL exacerbated the accumulation of triglycerides in Lep{sup ob/ob} islets, leading to reduced glucose-stimulated insulin secretion. The deficiency of HSL also diminished the islet mass in Lep{sup ob/ob} mice due to decreased cell proliferation. In conclusion, HSL affects insulin secretary capacity especially in the setting of obesity.

  3. Lead (Pb) alters the norepinephrine-induced secretion of luteinizing hormone releasing hormone from the median eminence of adult male rats in vitro

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bratton, G.R.; Hiney, J.K.; Dees, W.L. (Texas A M Univ., College Station, TX (United States))

    1994-01-01

    In the present study, the authors evaluated the in vitro effects of lead (Pb) on basal and stimulated luteinizing hormone releasing hormone (LHRH) and Prostaglandin E[sub 2] (PGE[sub 2]) secretion. Median eminences (ME) were removed from brains of adult male rats and preincubated for 15 minutes in Krebs-Ringer bicarbonate glucose buffer in an atmosphere of 95% O[sub 2]-5% CO[sub 2]. These media were discarded and all MEs were subjected to one of the following experiments. In Experiment 1, all MEs were incubated for 30 minutes in medium only. These media were collected and replaced with medium only (controls) or with medium containing Pb doses ranging from 5 to 20 [mu]M. After this 60-minute incubation, media were collected, then replaced with new medium containing 60 [mu]M norepinephrine (NE), or NE plus each dose of Pb, then incubated for a final 30-minute period. Experiment 2 was conducted as above, except PGE[sub 2] (2.8 [mu]M) replaced the NE. In both experiments, the amounts of LHRH released was measured by RIA. In experiment 3, NE was again used for the challenge; however, this time, the amount of PGE[sub 2] released was measured by RIA. Results indicate that Pb did not alter basal LHRH release, but compared with controls, significantly blocked NE-induced LHRH release in a dose-related manner. Conversely, Pb had no effect on the PGE[sub 2]-induced release of LHRH. Additionally, Pb did not alter basal PGE[sub 2] release; however, it significantly blocked the NE-induced release of PGE[sub 2]. Since NE-induced LHRH release is mediated by PGE[sub 2], these results support the hypothesis that Pb is capable of altering the hypothalamus and suggest that this effect is due, at least in part, to the diminished PGE[sub 2] synthesis/release within the ME, resulting in diminished LHRH secretion.

  4. Attenuation of skeletal muscle wasting with recombinant human growth hormone secreted from a tissue-engineered bioartificial muscle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandenburgh, H.; Del Tatto, M.; Shansky, J.; Goldstein, L.; Russell, K.; Genes, N.; Chromiak, J.; Yamada, S.

    1998-01-01

    Skeletal muscle wasting is a significant problem in elderly and debilitated patients. Growth hormone (GH) is an anabolic growth factor for skeletal muscle but is difficult to deliver in a therapeutic manner by injection owing to its in vivo instability. A novel method is presented for the sustained secretion of recombinant human GH (rhGH) from genetically modified skeletal muscle implants, which reduces host muscle wasting. Proliferating murine C2C12 skeletal myoblasts stably transduced with the rhGH gene were tissue engineered in vitro into bioartificial muscles (C2-BAMs) containing organized postmitotic myofibers secreting 3-5 microg of rhGH/day in vitro. When implanted subcutaneously into syngeneic mice, C2-BAMs delivered a sustained physiologic dose of 2.5 to 11.3 ng of rhGH per milliliter of serum. rhGH synthesized and secreted by the myofibers was in the 22-kDa monomeric form and was biologically active, based on downregulation of a GH-sensitive protein synthesized in the liver. Skeletal muscle disuse atrophy was induced in mice by hindlimb unloading, causing the fast plantaris and slow soleus muscles to atrophy by 21 to 35% ( < 0.02). This atrophy was significantly attenuated 41 to 55% (p < 0.02) in animals that received C2-BAM implants, but not in animals receiving daily injections of purified rhGH (1 mg/kg/day). These data support the concept that delivery of rhGH from BAMs may be efficacious in treating muscle-wasting disorders.

  5. Neuropeptide S receptor 1 expression in the intestine and skin--putative role in peptide hormone secretion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sundman, L; Saarialho-Kere, U; Vendelin, J; Lindfors, K; Assadi, G; Kaukinen, K; Westerholm-Ormio, M; Savilahti, E; Mäki, M; Alenius, H; D'Amato, M; Pulkkinen, V; Kere, J; Saavalainen, P

    2010-01-01

    Neuropeptide S receptor 1 (NPSR1) was recently found to be genetically associated with inflammatory bowel disease in addition to asthma and related traits. Epithelia of several organs express NPSR1 isoforms A and B, including the intestine and the skin, and NPSR1 appears to be upregulated in inflammation. In this study, we used cell lines and tissue samples to characterize the expression of NPSR1 and its ligand neuropeptide S (NPS) in inflammation. We used polyclonal and monoclonal antibodies to investigate the expression of NPS and NPSR1 in intestinal diseases, such as celiac disease and food allergy, and in cutaneous inflammatory disorders. We found that NPSR1-A was expressed by the enteroendocrine cells of the gut. Overall, the expression pattern of NPS was similar to its receptor suggesting an autocrine mechanism. In an NPSR1-A overexpressing cell model, stimulation with NPS resulted in a dose-dependent upregulation of glycoprotein hormone, alpha polypeptide (CGA), tachykinin 1 (TAC1), neurotensin (NTS) and galanin (GAL) encoding peptide hormones secreted by enteroendocrine cells. Because NPSR1 was also expressed in macrophages, neutrophils, and intraepithelial lymphocytes, we demonstrated that stimulation with the pro-inflammatory cytokines tumour necrosis factor alpha and interferon gamma increased NPSR1 expression in the THP-1 monocytic cells. In conclusion, similar to other neuropeptides and their receptors, NPSR1 signalling might play a dual role along the gut-brain axis. The NPS/NPSR1 pathway may participate in the regulation of the peptide hormone production in enteroendocrine cells of the small intestine.

  6. Effect of pioglitazone on glucose metabolism and luteinizing hormone secretion in women with polycystic ovary syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Glintborg, Dorte; Hermann, Anne Pernille; Andersen, Marianne

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To thoroughly examine the mechanisms for insulin resistance in polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) and to evaluate the effects of pioglitazone treatment on insulin resistance, beta-cell function, LH secretion, and glucose metabolism. DESIGN: Randomized, blinded, placebo-controlled study....... SETTING: Outpatient clinic, at a university hospital in Denmark. PATIENT(S): Thirty obese women with PCOS and 14 weight-matched healthy females. INTERVENTION(S): Sixteen weeks of blinded treatment with pioglitazone (30 mg/d) or placebo. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE(S): Fasting blood samples, 24-hour 20-minute...

  7. A S TUDY ON CONCOMITANT OCCURRENCE OF SUBCLINICAL HYPOTHYROIDISM AND REDUCED GROWTH HORMONE SECRETION ON FIBROMYALGIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chandan

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Fibromyalgia, the abnormal pain perception by an individual has a complex etiopathogenesis with multifactorial involvement. The current study was conducted in 39 clinically diagnosed cases of fibromyalgia in NEIGRIHMS shilling from September 2013 to March 2014. Data from the cases when compared with 25 numbers of age matched control revealed a non - significance of growth hormone in fibromyalgia with p value >0.05. The study also showed a significant difference in TSH concentration among cases and control as indicated by a p value of <0.05.

  8. β-Hydroxybutyric acid inhibits growth hormone-releasing hormone synthesis and secretion through the GPR109A/extracellular signal-regulated 1/2 signalling pathway in the hypothalamus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, S-P; Liu, B-R; Wang, J-F; Xue, W-J; Liu, H-M; Zeng, Y-L; Huang, B-X; Li, S-N; Lv, Q-K; Wang, W; Liu, J-X

    2015-03-01

    β-Hydroxybutyric acid (BHBA) has recently been shown to regulate hormone synthesis and secretion in the hypothalamus. However, little is known about the effects of BHBA-mediated hormone regulation or the detailed mechanisms by which BHBA regulates growth hormone-releasing hormone (GHRH) synthesis and secretion. In the present study, we examined the expression of the BHBA receptor GPR109A in primary hypothalamic cell cultures. We hypothesised that BHBA regulates GHRH via GPR109A and its downstream signals. Initial in vivo studies conducted in rats demonstrated that GHRH mRNA expression in the hypothalamus was strongly inversely correlated with BHBA levels in the cerebrospinal fluid during postnatal development (r = -0.89, P hypothalamus in both in vivo and in vitro, and this effect was also inhibited by PTX in vitro. In primary hypothalamic cells, BHBA activated the extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK)1/2, p38 and c-Jun N-terminal kinase mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) kinases, as shown by western blot analysis. Moreover, inhibition of ERK1/2 with U0126 attenuated the BHBA-mediated reduction in Gsh-1 expression and GHRH synthesis and secretion. These results strongly suggest that BHBA directly regulates GHRH synthesis and secretion via the GPR109A/ERK1/2 MAPK pathway, and also that Gsh-1 is essential for this function. © 2015 British Society for Neuroendocrinology.

  9. Comparison of the in vitro effects of TCDD, PCB 126 and PCB 153 on thyroid-restricted gene expression and thyroid hormone secretion by the chicken thyroid gland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katarzyńska, Dorota; Hrabia, Anna; Kowalik, Kinga; Sechman, Andrzej

    2015-03-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the in vitro effects of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD), 3,3',4,4',5-pentachlorobiphenyl (PCB 126; a coplanar PCB congener) and 2,2'4,4',5,5'-hexachlorobiphenyl (PCB153; non-coplanar PCB) on mRNA expression of thyroid-restricted genes, i.e. sodium iodide symporter (NIS), thyroid peroxidase (TPO) and thyroglobulin (TG), and thyroid hormone secretion from the thyroid gland of the laying chicken. Relative expression levels of NIS, TG and TPO genes and thyroxine (T4) and triiodothyronine (T3) secretion from the thyroidal explants were quantified by the real-time qPCR and RIA methods, respectively. In comparison with the control group, TCDD and PCB 126 significantly increased mRNA expression of TPO and TG genes. TCDD did not affect NIS mRNA levels, but PCB 126 decreased its expression. No effect of PCB 153 on the expression of these genes was observed. TCDD and PCB 126 significantly decreased T4 and T3 secretion. There was no significant effect of PCB 153 on these hormone secretions. In conclusion, the results obtained show that in comparison with non-coplanar PCB 153, TCDD and coplanar PCB 126 can directly affect thyroid hormone synthesis and secretion, and in consequence, they may disrupt the endocrine function of the thyroid gland of the laying chicken. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Thyroid-stimulating hormone-secreting pituitary adenoma presenting with recurrent hyperthyroidism in post-treated Graves’ disease: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ogawa Yoshikazu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction The coexistence of autoimmune hyperthyroid disease and thyroid-stimulating hormone-secreting pituitary adenoma is rare. The simple presumption of coincidence of these two diseases has a calculated incidence of less than one/several hundred million, and only four cases with histological confirmation have been reported. A rapid decrease in thyroid-stimulating hormone level after pituitary tumor removal may induce subsequent activation of autoimmune responses against the thyroid gland. We report the first case of a sequential and paradoxical occurrence of Graves’ disease and a thyroid-stimulating hormone-secreting pituitary adenoma. Case presentation A 32-year-old Japanese woman had recurrent hyperthyroidism. She had a history of Graves’ hyperthyroidism, which had been successfully treated with propylthiouracil. A head magnetic resonance imaging showed a less enhanced area in the left lateral wing of her sella turcica. Transsphenoidal surgery was performed, and the diagnosis was established as thyroid-stimulating hormone-secreting plurihormonal adenoma. A rapid reduction in thyroid hormone levels was achieved, and her blood pressure was normalized after the operation. Conclusion Although incidental occurrence is the most probable etiology, long and repeated followup examinations of both thyroid and pituitary gland should be performed in patients with an atypical clinical course.

  11. Diagnostic challenges and management of a patient with acromegaly due to ectopic growth hormone-releasing hormone secretion from a bronchial carcinoid tumour

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kyriakakis, Nikolaos; Trouillas, Jacqueline; Dang, Mary N; Lynch, Julie; Belchetz, Paul; Korbonits, Márta

    2017-01-01

    Summary A male patient presented at the age of 30 with classic clinical features of acromegaly and was found to have elevated growth hormone levels, not suppressing during an oral glucose tolerance test. His acromegaly was originally considered to be of pituitary origin, based on a CT scan, which was interpreted as showing a pituitary macroadenoma. Despite two trans-sphenoidal surgeries, cranial radiotherapy and periods of treatment with bromocriptine and octreotide, his acromegaly remained active clinically and biochemically. A lung mass was discovered incidentally on a chest X-ray performed as part of a routine pre-assessment for spinal surgery 5 years following the initial presentation. This was confirmed to be a bronchial carcinoid tumour, which was strongly positive for growth hormone-releasing hormone (GHRH) and somatostatin receptor type 2 by immunohistochemistry. The re-examination of the pituitary specimens asserted the diagnosis of pituitary GH hyperplasia. Complete resolution of the patient’s acromegaly was achieved following right lower and middle lobectomy. Seventeen years following the successful resection of the bronchial carcinoid tumour the patient remains under annual endocrine follow-up for monitoring of the hypopituitarism he developed after the original interventions to his pituitary gland, while there has been no evidence of active acromegaly or recurrence of the carcinoid tumour. Ectopic acromegaly is extremely rare, accounting for <1% of all cases of acromegaly. Our case highlights the diagnostic challenges differentiating between ectopic acromegaly and acromegaly of pituitary origin and emphasises the importance of avoiding unnecessary pituitary surgery and radiotherapy. The role of laboratory investigations, imaging and histology as diagnostic tools is discussed. Learning points: Ectopic acromegaly is rare, accounting for less than 1% of all cases of acromegaly. Ectopic acromegaly is almost always due to extra-pituitary GHRH secretion

  12. Diagnostic challenges and management of a patient with acromegaly due to ectopic growth hormone-releasing hormone secretion from a bronchial carcinoid tumour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kyriakakis, Nikolaos; Trouillas, Jacqueline; Dang, Mary N; Lynch, Julie; Belchetz, Paul; Korbonits, Márta; Murray, Robert D

    2017-01-01

    A male patient presented at the age of 30 with classic clinical features of acromegaly and was found to have elevated growth hormone levels, not suppressing during an oral glucose tolerance test. His acromegaly was originally considered to be of pituitary origin, based on a CT scan, which was interpreted as showing a pituitary macroadenoma. Despite two trans-sphenoidal surgeries, cranial radiotherapy and periods of treatment with bromocriptine and octreotide, his acromegaly remained active clinically and biochemically. A lung mass was discovered incidentally on a chest X-ray performed as part of a routine pre-assessment for spinal surgery 5 years following the initial presentation. This was confirmed to be a bronchial carcinoid tumour, which was strongly positive for growth hormone-releasing hormone (GHRH) and somatostatin receptor type 2 by immunohistochemistry. The re-examination of the pituitary specimens asserted the diagnosis of pituitary GH hyperplasia. Complete resolution of the patient's acromegaly was achieved following right lower and middle lobectomy. Seventeen years following the successful resection of the bronchial carcinoid tumour the patient remains under annual endocrine follow-up for monitoring of the hypopituitarism he developed after the original interventions to his pituitary gland, while there has been no evidence of active acromegaly or recurrence of the carcinoid tumour. Ectopic acromegaly is extremely rare, accounting for ectopic acromegaly and acromegaly of pituitary origin and emphasises the importance of avoiding unnecessary pituitary surgery and radiotherapy. The role of laboratory investigations, imaging and histology as diagnostic tools is discussed. Ectopic acromegaly is rare, accounting for less than 1% of all cases of acromegaly.Ectopic acromegaly is almost always due to extra-pituitary GHRH secretion, mainly from neuroendocrine tumours of pancreatic or bronchial origin.Differentiating between acromegaly of pituitary origin and

  13. How effective is external pituitary irradiation for growth hormone-secreting pituitary tumours

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feek, C.M.; McLelland, J.; Seth, J.; Toft, A.D.; Irvine, W.J.; Padfield, P.L.; Edwards, C.R.W. (Western General Hospital, Edinburgh (UK); Royal Infirmary, Edinburgh (UK))

    1984-04-01

    Forty-six patients with GH-secreting pituitary tumours were treated with external pituitary irradiation through two opposed fields to a total dose of 3750 cGy over 15 fractions. Thirty-patients received external radiotherapy as primary treatment; 16 received radiotherapy combined with pituitary surgery. The mean (+- SD) serum GH in the former group was 74.3 +- 74.8 mU/l before treatment, falling by 28% per year over 0-5 years and by 16% per year over 0-20 years. The mean (+- SD) serum GH in the latter group was 265.4 +- 209.3 mU/l before treatment, falling by 76% in the first year-a direct result of surgery-then by 30% per year over 1-5 years and 16% per year over 1-20 years. Progressive failure of normal anterior pituitary function developed by 10 years, with variable loss of gonadotrophin, corticotrophin and thyrotrophin function. The respective figures for patients treated with radiotherapy alone were 47.4, 29.6 and 16.0% and for the combined group 70.2, 53.9 and 38.1%. Whilst external pituitary irradiation appears to reduce serum GH concentrations in patients with GH-secreting pituitary tumours the major disadvantages are the time taken to achieve a cure and the high incidence of hypopituitarism.

  14. Paraneoplastic Erythropoietin Secreting Tumor of Renal Origin:A Forgotten Endocrine Hormone

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yaseen Ali; Amila M. Parekh; Rahul K. Rao; Taseen Ali; Jordan Garvey

    2015-01-01

    Paraneoplastic syndromes are a group of disorders associated by the presence of cancer in the human body, but are not caused by the cancer or its metastatic potential. These syndromes are usually the result of cell mediators. For instance, the interleukins and cytokines secreted by the body’s defense system combat with neoplastic cells that inadvertently bind to cell speciifc receptors in the endocrine system due to similar structural morphology and produce undesired side effects. In this article, we presented an interesting case of a 44-year-old male veteran who came to our free clinic for his chronic constipation unmitigated by over the counter laxatives and sought other provider care in the past few months. During our brief clinic visit, his history and examination revealed that he had also been suffering from mild abdominal pain, decrease in appetite, inconvenient reddish plethoric facial appearance and lethargy. A careful review of the history, physical and laboratory examination revealed erythrocytosis and mild hypercalcemia. Meanwhile, a renal mass biopsy was proven to be erythropoietin secreting renal cell tumor. Subsequently, the patient underwent resection and was followed to complete resolution of his symptoms.

  15. Modulation by thyroid hormones of rat parotid amylase secretion stimulated by 5-hydroxytryptamine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostuni, Mariano Aníbal; Houssay, Alberto Bernardo; Tumilasci, Omar René

    2003-12-01

    The effects of 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) upon amylase secretion by rat parotid glands were studied in three groups of animals: (a) intact control rats (euthyroid rats); (b) hypothyroid rats obtained by surgical thyroidectomy 2 wk before the experiments; and (c) hyperthyroid rats obtained by the administration of sodium l-triiodothyronine for 2 wk before the experiments. Hyperthyroid rats showed significantly higher baseline amylase release than control rats. When the glands were stimulated with 5-HT (30 micro m), amylase release was significantly lower in the hypothyroid group and higher in the hyperthyroid rats than in control group. Addition of cholinergic, adrenergic or substance P antagonists did not modify 5-HT-stimulated amylase activity. The effects of 5-HT were partly but significantly blocked by the addition of 10 micro m methysergide (HT1/2/7 receptor blocker) in the three groups of rats. In contrast, 10 micro m ketanserine (HT2A receptor blocker) partly blocked the response to 5-HT only in the hyperthyroid animals. It was concluded that 5-HT induces amylase secretion by rat parotid glands through specific serotoninergic receptors, and that thyroid status modulates the 5-HT effect.

  16. OXIDATIVE STRESS: ITS ROLE IN INSULIN SECRETION, HORMONE RECEPTION BY ADIPOCYTES AND LIPOLYSIS IN ADIPOSE TISSUE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. V. Ivanov

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Oxidative stress is one of the pathogenetic components of many diseases during which generation of reactive oxigen species increases and the capacity of the antioxidant protection system diminishes. In the research of the last decades special attention has been given to adipose tissue, production of adipokines by it and their role in development of immunoresistance associated with formation of the metabolic syndrome and diabetes.Search for methods of therapeutic correction of adipokine secretion disorders, their influence on metabolism of separate cells and the organism on the whole as well as development of new approaches to correction of disorders in cell sensitivity to insulin are extremely topical nowadays. Systematization and consolidation of accumulated data allow to determine the strategies of further research more accurately; as a result, we have attempted to summarize and analyze the accumulated data on the role of adipose tissue in oxidative stress development.On the basis of literature data and the results of the personal investigations, the role of adipose tissue in forming oxidative stress in diabetes has been analyzed in the article. Brief description of adipose tissue was given as a secretory organ regulating metabolic processes in adipocytes and influencing functions of various organs and systems of the body. Mechanisms of disorder in insulin secretion as well as development of insulin sesistance in type I diabetes were described along with the contribution of lipolysis in adipose tissue to these processes.

  17. Beneficial metabolic effects of a probiotic via butyrate-induced GLP-1 hormone secretion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yadav, Hariom; Lee, Ji-Hyeon; Lloyd, John; Walter, Peter; Rane, Sushil G

    2013-08-30

    Obesity and diabetes are associated with excess caloric intake and reduced energy expenditure resulting in a negative energy balance. The incidence of diabetes has reached epidemic proportions, and childhood diabetes and obesity are increasing alarmingly. Therefore, it is important to develop safe, easily deliverable, and economically viable treatment alternatives for these diseases. Here, we provide data supporting the candidacy of probiotics as such a therapeutic modality against obesity and diabetes. Probiotics are live bacteria that colonize the gastrointestinal tract and impart beneficial effects for health. However, their widespread prescription as medical therapies is limited primarily because of the paucity of our understanding of their mechanism of action. Here, we demonstrate that the administration of a probiotic, VSL#3, prevented and treated obesity and diabetes in several mouse models. VSL#3 suppressed body weight gain and insulin resistance via modulation of the gut flora composition. VSL#3 promoted the release of the hormone GLP-1, resulting in reduced food intake and improved glucose tolerance. The VSL#3-induced changes were associated with an increase in the levels of a short chain fatty acid (SCFA), butyrate. Using a cell culture system, we demonstrate that butyrate stimulated the release of GLP-1 from intestinal L-cells, thereby providing a plausible mechanism for VSL#3 action. These findings suggest that probiotics such as VSL#3 can modulate the gut microbiota-SCFA-hormone axis. Moreover, our results indicate that probiotics are of potential therapeutic utility to counter obesity and diabetes.

  18. Adrenocorticotropic hormone-independent cushing syndrome with bilateral cortisol-secreting adenomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ku, Eu Jeong; Hong, A Ram; Kim, Ye An; Bae, Jae Hyun; Chang, Mee Soo; Kim, Sang Wan

    2013-06-01

    A 48-year-old woman was incidentally found to have bilateral adrenal masses, 2.8 cm in diameter on the right, and 2.3 cm and 1.7 cm in diameter on the left, by abdominal computed tomography. The patient had a medical history of hypertension, which was not being controlled by carvedilol, at a dose of 25 mg daily. She presented with signs and symptoms that suggested Cushing Syndrome. We diagnosed adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH)-independent Cushing Syndrome based on the results of basal and dynamic hormone tests. Adrenal vein sampling (AVS) was performed to localize a functioning adrenal cortical mass. AVS results were consistent with hypersecretion of cortisol from both adrenal glands, with a cortisol lateralization ratio of 1.1. Upon bilateral laparoscopic adrenalectomy, bilateral ACTH-independent adrenal adenomas were found. The patient's signs and symptoms of Cushing Syndrome improved after surgery just as the blood pressure was normalized. After surgery, the patient was started on glucocorticoid and mineralocorticoid replacement therapy.

  19. 异基因造血干细胞移植后的抗利尿激素分泌失调综合征%Syndrome of Inappropriate Antidiuretic Hormone(ADH)Secretion after Allogeneic Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    肖毅; 张义成; 周剑峰; 孙汉英; 刘文励

    2009-01-01

    目的 提高异基因造血干细胞移植(allo-HSCT)后的抗利尿激素分泌失调综合征(SIADH)的认识,探讨其病因及诊疗方法.方法 报道1例慢性粒细胞性白血病患者行allo-HSCT后发生SIADH的诊疗经过.结果 患者在移植后第5d发生超急性移植物抗宿主病,予糖皮质激素治疗后控制,移植后第18d出现烦躁、抽搐等中枢神经系统症状,出现严重的低钠血症,并呈进行性下降,血渗透压明显下降,尿钠及尿渗透压明显升高,血渗透压小于尿渗透压,诊断SIADH,予以限制人液量,补充钠盐,及其他对症治疗后血钠有所上升,但中枢神经系统症状无好转,患者家属要求自动出院.结论 allo-HSCT后SIADH罕见,起病隐匿,病情发展迅速,早期的正确诊断和治疗有利于改善其预后.

  20. Small cell lung cancer caused by abnormal secretion of antidiuretic hormone syndrome 1 case%小细胞肺癌所致抗利尿激素分泌异常综合症1例

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张海良

    2012-01-01

      Objective:To analyze the clinical characteristics of SIADH caused by SCLC to improve the diagnosis and treatment of rare cases. Methods: Case analysis and understanding of SIADH. Results: SCLC can cause SIADH. Conclusion: SIADH clinical features of intractable hyponatremia, low-osmolality disorders;key is to remove the cause of the treatment, control volume and the appropriate complement of sodium infusion.%  目的:分析SCLC所致SIADH的临床特点,提高对罕见病例的诊治水平.方法:通过病例分析,了解SIADH.结果:SCLC可引起SIADH.结论:SIADH临床特征为顽固性低钠血症、低渗透压症;治疗关键是去除病因、控制补液量及适当补钠.

  1. Effects of gonadotrophins, growth hormone, and activin A on enzymatically isolated follicle growth, oocyte chromatin organization, and steroid secretion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ola, Safiriyu Idowu; Ai, Jun-Shu; Liu, Jing-He; Wang, Qiang; Wang, Zhen-Bo; Chen, Da-Yuan; Sun, Qing-Yuan

    2008-01-01

    So far, standard follicle culture systems can produce blastocyst from less than 40% of the in vitro matured oocytes compared to over 70% in the in vivo counterpart. Because the capacity for embryonic development is strictly associated with the terminal stage of oocyte growth, the nuclear maturity status of the in vitro grown oocyte was the subject of this study. Mouse early preantral follicles (100-130 microm) and early antral follicles (170-200 microm) isolated enzymatically were cultured for 12 and 4 days, respectively, in a collagen-free dish. The serum-based media were supplemented with either 100 mIU/ml FSH (FSH only); 100 mIU/ml FSH + 10 mIU/ml LH (FSH-LH); 100 mIU/ml FSH + 1 mIU/ml GH (FSH-GH) or 100 mIU/ml FSH + 100 ng/ml activin A (FSH-AA). Follicle survival was highest in follicle stimulating hormone (FSH)-AA group in both cultured preantral (91.8%) and antral follicles (82.7%). Survival rates in the other groups ranged between 48% (FSH only, preantral follicle culture) and 78.7% (FSH only, antral follicle culture). Estradiol and progesterone were undetectable in medium lacking gonadotrophins while AA supplementation in synergy with FSH caused increased estradiol secretion and a simultaneously lowered progesterone secretion. Chromatin configuration of oocytes from surviving follicles at the end of culture revealed that there were twice more developmentally incompetent non-surrounded nucleolus (NSN) oocytes (>65%) than the competent surrounded nucleolus (SN) oocytes (produce optimum proportion of developmentally competent oocytes.

  2. Renal tubule-specific expression and urinary secretion of human growth hormone: a kidney-based transgenic bioreactor growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Xinhua; Cheng, Jin; Huang, Liwei; Gao, Jin; Zhang, Zhong-Ting; Pak, Joanne; Wu, Xue-Ru

    2003-04-01

    Tissue-specific expression of human genes and secretion of human proteins into the body fluids in transgenic animals provides an important means of manufacturing large-quantity and high-quality pharmaceuticals. The present study demonstrates using transgenic mice that a 3.0 kb promoter of the mouse Tamm-Horsfall protein (THP, or uromodulin) gene directs the specific expression of human growth hormone (hGH) gene in the kidney followed by the secretion of hGH protein into the urine. hGH expression was detected in renal tubules that actively produce the THP, that is, the ascending limb of Henle's loop and distal convoluted tubules. Up to 500 ng/ml of hGH was detected in the urine, and this level remained constant throughout the 10-month observation period. hGH was also detectable in the stomach epithelium and serum in two of the transgenic lines, suggesting position-dependent effects of the transgene and leakage of hGH from the site of synthesis into the bloodstream, respectively. These results indicate that the 3.0 kb mouse THP promoter is primarily kidney-specific and can be used to convert kidney into a bioreactor in transgenic animals to produce recombinant proteins. Given the capacity of urine production independent of age, sex and lactation, the ease of urinary protein purification, and the potentially distinct machinery for post-translational modifications in the kidney epithelial cells, the kidney-based transgenic bioreactor may offer unique opportunities for producing certain complex pharmaceuticals.

  3. Vasopressin-induced taurine efflux from rat pituicytes: a potential negative feedback for hormone secretion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosso, Lia; Peteri-Brunbäck, Brigitta; Poujeol, Philippe; Hussy, Nicolas; Mienville, Jean-Marc

    2004-02-01

    Previous work on the whole neurohypophysis has shown that hypotonic conditions increase release of taurine from neurohypophysial astrocytes (pituicytes). The present work confirms that taurine is present in cultured pituicytes, and that its specific release increases in response to a hypotonic shock. We next show that vasopressin (VP) and oxytocin (OT) also specifically release taurine from pituicytes. With an EC(50) of approximately 2 nm, VP is much more potent than OT, and the effects of both hormones are blocked by SR 49059, a V(1a) receptor antagonist. This pharmacological profile matches the one for VP- and OT-evoked calcium signals in pituicytes, consistent with the fact that VP-induced taurine efflux is blocked by BAPTA-AM. However, BAPTA-AM also blocks the taurine efflux induced by a 270 mosmol l(-1) challenge, which per se does not evoke any calcium signal, suggesting a permissive role for calcium in this case. Nevertheless, the fact that structurally unrelated calcium-mobilizing agents and ionomycin are able to induce taurine efflux suggests that calcium may also play a signalling role in this event. It is widely accepted that in hypotonic conditions taurine exits cells through anionic channels. Antagonism by the chloride channel inhibitors 4,4'-diisothiocyanatostilbene-2,2'-disulphonic acid (DIDS) and 5-nitro-2-(3-phenylpropylamino)-benzoic acid (NPPB) suggests the same pathway for VP-induced taurine efflux, which is also blocked in hypertonic conditions (330 mosmol l(-1)). Moreover, it is likely that the osmosensitivity of the taurine channel is up-regulated by calcium. These results, together with our in situ experiments showing stimulation of taurine release by endogenous VP, strengthen the concept of a glial control of neurohormone output.

  4. Differential secretion of satiety hormones with progression of obesity in JCR:LA-corpulent rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parnell, Jill A; Reimer, Raylene A

    2008-04-01

    To characterize the gastrointestinal tract at the onset and in well-established obesity. Lean (+/?) and obese (cp/cp) male JCR:LA-cp rats lacking a functional leptin receptor were killed at 3.5 weeks and 9 months of age and plasma concentrations of satiety hormones determined. The small intestine, colon, and stomach were measured, weighed, and mRNA levels of satiety genes quantified. At the onset of obesity, obese rats had greater intestine, colon, and liver mass when adjusted for body weight compared to lean rats. Conversely, adult rats with established obesity had lower intestine and colon mass and length after adjustment for body weight. Early changes in gene expression included decreased ghrelin mRNA levels in stomach and increased peptide YY (PYY) mRNA levels in duodenum of young obese rats. After massive accumulation of adipose tissue had occurred, adult obese rats had increased proglucagon and ghrelin mRNA expression in the proximal intestine. In the distal small intestine, obese rats had lower proglucagon, ghrelin, and PYY mRNA levels. Finally, at the onset and in well-established obesity, obese rats had higher plasma insulin, amylin, glucagon like peptide-1 (GLP-1), and PYY, a finding, with the exception of insulin, unique to this model. Plasma total ghrelin levels were significantly lower at the onset of obesity and established obesity compared to the lean rats. Several defects are manifested in the obese gut early on in the disease before the accumulation of large excesses of body fat and represent potential targets for early intervention in obesity.

  5. Sulfated gastrin stimulates ghrelin and growth hormone release but inhibits insulin secretion in cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Hongqiong; Yannaing, Swe; Thanthan, Sint; Kuwayama, Hideto

    2011-11-01

    This study was designed to determine the effects of gastrin on the circulating levels of ghrelin, growth hormone (GH), insulin, glucagon and glucose in ruminants. Two experiments were done in eight Holstein steers. Animals were randomly assigned to receive intravenous bolus injections: (1) 0.1% bovine serum albumin in saline as vehicle, 0.8, 4.0 and 20.0 μg/kg body weight (BW) of bovine sulfated gastrin-34; (2) vehicle, 0.53 μg/kg BW of bovine sulfated gastrin-17 alone or combined with 20.0 μg/kg BW of [D-Lys(3)]-GHRP-6, the selective antagonist of GHS-R1a. Blood samples were collected from -10 to 150 min relative to injection time. Concentrations of acyl and total ghrelin in response to gastrin-34 injection were significantly increased in a dose-dependent manner. Concentrations of GH were also markedly elevated by gastrin-34 injection; however, the effect of 20.0 μg/kg was weaker than that of 4.0 μg/kg. The three doses of gastrin-34 equally decreased insulin levels within 15 min and maintained the level until the time of last sampling. Gastrin-34 had no effect (P > 0.05) on the levels of glucagon and glucose. Levels of acyl ghrelin increased after administration of gastrin-17 alone or combined with [D-Lys(3)]-GHRP-6; however, [D-Lys(3)]-GHRP-6 did not block the elevation of GH by gastrin-17. The present results indicate that sulfated gastrin stimulates both ghrelin and GH release, but the GHS-R1a may not contribute to the release of GH by gastrin. Moreover, sulfated gastrin seems to indirectly maintain the homeostasis of blood glucose through the down-regulation of insulin in ruminants.

  6. Effects of ghrelin on psychopathology, sleep and secretion of cortisol and growth hormone in patients with major depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kluge, Michael; Schüssler, Petra; Dresler, Martin; Schmidt, Doreen; Yassouridis, Alexander; Uhr, Manfred; Steiger, Axel

    2011-03-01

    Ghrelin showed antidepressant-like effects in mice. Furthermore, ghrelin influences sleep and the activity of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) and somatotropic axis in healthy humans as indicated by increased cortisol and growth hormone (GH) plasma levels. Both sleep and the activity of these endocrine axes are disturbed in depression. We therefore studied the impact of ghrelin on psychopathology, sleep and secretion of cortisol and GH in patients with major depression. Depressive symptoms as assessed by a validated self rating scale ('Befindlichkeits-Skala', [mental state scale]), secretion profiles of cortisol and GH and sleep-EEGs were determined in 14 unmedicated patients with major depression (7 women) twice, receiving 50 μg ghrelin or placebo at 22:00, 23:00, 00:00, and 01:00 hours. Overall, depressive symptoms did not change significantly after ghrelin administration (placebo: 37 ± 8; ghrelin: 33 ± 10, p = 0.178). However, there was an improvement at trend level in men (placebo: 36 ± 9 to ghrelin: 30 ± 9, p = 0.093) but not in women. In men, ghrelin was associated with less time awake (placebo: 149.0 ± 11.1; ghrelin: 88.0 ± 12.2 min, p = 0.029) and more non-REM sleep (placebo: 263.2 ± 24.1; ghrelin: 304.9 ± 14.1 min, p = 0.027), in women with less REM sleep (placebo: 108.6 ± 15.7; ghrelin: 74.1 ± 13.8 min, p = 0.031) and longer REM latency (placebo: 49.9 ± 6.5; ghrelin: 85.6 ± 14.1 min, p = 0.019). In both sexes, ghrelin caused strong transient increases of GH and cortisol. In conclusion, our study may provide some initial indication that ghrelin can exert antidepressant effects in patients with major depression. Ghrelin strongly affected sleep and secretion of GH and cortisol in a partly different way as previously reported in healthy subjects.

  7. Further studies on the role of cholecystokinin-A and B receptors in secretion of anterior pituitary hormones in male rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peuranen, E; Vasar, E; Koks, S; Volke, V; Lang, A; Rauhala, P; Männistö, P T

    1995-01-01

    We compared the effects of unselective cholecystokinin (CCK) agonists (caerulein and CCK-8s) and a CCKB agonist CCK-4 on the secretion of thyrotropin (TSH), growth hormone (GH) and prolactin (PRL) in male rats. The subcutaneous (s.c.) administration of caerulein and CCK-8s suppressed dose-dependently TSH and GH levels. In contrast, when given into the 3rd brain ventricle (i.c.v.) caerulein dose-dependently elevated the GH levels. Next the importance of the afferent vagal nerves was studied in the action of caerulein and CCK-4. Subdiaphragmatic vagotomy itself decreased cold-stimulated TSH levels but abolished the suppressing effect of intraperitoneal (i.p.), and apparently also that of the i.c.v. caerulein. GH and PRL levels were altered neither by vagotomy nor caerulein. CCK-4 did not affect hormone levels. Atropine and butylscopolamine (i.p.) themselves did not alter TSH, PRL or GH secretion in intact rats. Neither did they reverse the effect of caerulein on TSH. In conclusion, CCKA receptors dominate in TSH and CCKB receptors in GH regulation. CCKA receptors in the gastrointestinal tract, related to the nervus vagus are mediating the inhibitory effect of caerulein upon TSH secretion but inhibition of GH secretion does not depend on the nervus vagus. CCKB receptors in the brain stem or near the 3rd brain ventricle are responsible for stimulation of GH secretion.

  8. Hormonal Disturbances in Visceral Leishmaniasis (Kala-Azar)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araujo Lima Verde, Frederico; Agenor Araujo Lima Verde, Francisco; Neto, Augusto Saboia; Almeida, Paulo César; Mendonça Lima Verde, Emir

    2011-01-01

    This study presents a cross-sectional analysis of the hormonal alterations of patients with visceral leishmaniasis. The diagnosis was established by the bone marrow aspiration and polymerase chain reaction test. Primary adrenal insufficiency was observed in 45.8% of patients; low aldosterone/renin plasma ratio in 69.4%; low daily urinary aldosterone excretion in 61.1%; and low transtubular potassium gradient in 68.0%. All patients had normal plasma antidiuretic hormone (ADH) concentrations, hyponatremia, and high urinary osmolality. Plasma parathyroid hormone was low in 63%; hypomagnesemia was present in 46.4%, and increased Mg++EF in 100%. Primary thyroid insufficiency was observed in 24.6%, and secondary thyroid insufficiency in 14.1%. Normal follicle-stimulating hormone plasma levels were present in 81.4%; high luteinizing hormone and low testosterone plasma levels in 58.2% of men. There are evidences of hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal axis abnormalities, inappropriate aldosterone and ADH secretions, and presence of hypoparathyroidism, magnesium depletion, thyroid and testicular insufficiencies. PMID:21540373

  9. The lipolysis/esterification cycle of hepatic triacylglycerol. Its role in the secretion of very-low-density lipoprotein and its response to hormones and sulphonylureas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiggins, D; Gibbons, G F

    1992-01-01

    In hepatocyte cultures maintained in the absence of extracellular fatty acids, at least 70% of the secreted very-low-density lipoprotein (VLDL) triacylglycerol was derived via lipolysis of intracellular triacylglycerol. This proportion was unchanged when the cells were exposed for 24 h to insulin or glucagon, hormones which decreased the overall secretion of intracellular triacylglycerol, or to chloroquine or tolbutamide, agents which inhibit lysosomal lipolysis. The rate of intracellular lipolysis was 2-3-fold greater than that required to maintain the observed rate of triacylglycerol secretion. Most of the fatty acids released were returned to the intracellular pool. Neither insulin nor glucagon had any significant effect on the overall lipolysis and re-esterification of intracellular triacylglycerol. In these cases a greater proportion of the released fatty acids re-entered the cellular pool, rather than being recruited for VLDL assembly. Tolbutamide inhibited intracellular lipolysis, but suppressed VLDL secretion to a greater extent. 3,5-Dimethylpyrazole did not affect lipolysis or VLDL secretion. The increased secretion of VLDL triacylglycerol observed after exposure of cells to insulin for 3 days was not accompanied by an increased rate of intracellular lipolysis. However, a larger proportion of the triacylglycerol secreted under these conditions may not have undergone prior lipolysis. PMID:1599431

  10. Desensitization of brain opiate receptor mechanisms by gonadal steroid treatments that stimulate luteinizing hormone secretion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berglund, L A; Derendorf, H; Simpkins, J W

    1988-06-01

    We studied the effects of two ovarian steroid treatments that induce proestrous-like surges in LH secretion on responsiveness to morphine sulfate (MS), as measured by induced hypothermic, antinociceptive, behavioral, and LH secretory changes. Ovariectomized rats received no steroids (OVX), 7.5 micrograms estradiol benzoate 2 days before the experiment (EB), or EB and then 5 mg progesterone 48 h later (EBP). MS administration coincided with the steroid-induced LH hypersecretion that occurs in the EB and EBP rats at 1530-1630 h. Serum LH concentrations were determined 30 min after administration of MS. In OVX and EB rats, MS caused a dose-dependent decrease in serum LH, but even 20 mg/kg MS did not alter serum LH during the EBP-induced LH surge. Brain-mediated morphine-induced analgesia was evaluated in the three steroid treatment groups from measurement of latency to pawlick on a hot plate. EB and EBP rats were less responsive than OVX rats to MS-induced antinociception. EB and EBP rats were also less responsive than OVX animals to the spinal cord-mediated analgesia due to MS, as calculated by tail-flick latency. MS-induced hypothermia revealed a responsiveness order of OVX greater than EB greater than EBP. Whereas MS caused a dose-dependent reduction in locomotor activity in OVX and EB rats, EBP rats showed marked hyperactivity at low MS doses and were less responsive to the suppression of locomotor activity at higher doses. These marked steroid-induced changes in MS responsiveness could not be explained by altered pharmacokinetic disposition of morphine. These data indicate that treatment with EBP, which stimulates a preovulatory-like LH surge, decreases the ability of MS to induce hypothermic, antinociceptive, and behavioral responses and abolishes its capacity to suppress LH release. These effects of gonadal steroids were not observed before the LH surge, which suggests that this surge is linked to the decline in MS sensitivity. Further, the diminished response

  11. Relative sparing of anterior pituitary function in patients with growth hormone-secreting macroadenomas: comparison with nonfunctioning macroadenomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenman, Y; Tordjman, K; Kisch, E; Razon, N; Ouaknine, G; Stern, N

    1995-05-01

    Pre- and postoperative anterior pituitary function was assessed in 26 subjects with nonfunctioning macroadenoma (NFMA) and in 15 acromegalic subjects with macroadenomas. Preoperatively, NFMA patients had a higher prevalence of secondary hypogonadism (78% vs. 40%; P < 0.05), hypothyroidism (23% vs. 0%; P = 0.06), and hypoadrenalism (43% vs. 7%; P = 0.02) compared to individuals with GH-secreting macroadenoma (GHMA). Patients with NFMA also had a higher prevalence of more severe pituitary failure compared with acromegalic patients; 56% of the patients in this group had more than one pituitary hormone axis impaired compared to only 8% in the acromegalic group. These differences could not be accounted for by tumor grade and/or stage. Transsphenoidal pituitary surgery led to a significant improvement in anterior pituitary function in the NFMA group. Nevertheless, the prevalence of pituitary deficiency postoperatively was still significantly greater in NFMA patients than in the acromegalic group (68% vs. 17%, respectively; P < 0.04). The results suggest that anterior pituitary function is better preserved in GHMA than in NFMA and that this difference is independent of tumor size. The mechanism underlying the lower rate of hypopituitarism in acromegalics with macroadenomas remains to be elucidated.

  12. Growth hormone secretion during space flight and evaluation of the physiological responses of animals held in the research animal holding facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fast, Thomas N.; Grindeland, Richard; Mehler, William; Oyama, Jiro

    1987-01-01

    The spaceflight of the Research Animal Holding Facility (RAHF) on the Space Laboratory 3 (SL 3) provided the opportunity to evaluate the suitability of the RAHF for housing and maintaining experimental animals during spaceflight, and to determine changes in the secretion of growth hormone during spaceflight. Using ground-based studies the following were investigated: the optimum conditions for creating gravitational force on space flight animals; neural pathways that may play a role in the space flight syndrome; and the time course of muscle atrophy due to hypodynamia and hypokenesia in hindlimb-suspended animals and the role of growth hormone in these processes.

  13. Anti-diuretic factors in insects: the role of CAPA peptides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paluzzi, Jean-Paul V

    2012-05-01

    Insects have adapted to live in a wide variety of habitats and utilize an array of feeding strategies that present challenges to their ability to maintain osmotic balance. Regardless of the feeding strategy, water and ion levels within the haemolymph (insect blood) are maintained within a narrow range. This homeostasis involves the action of a variety of tissues, but is often chiefly regulated by the excretory system. Until recently, most research on the hormonal control of the excretory tissues has focused on factors known to have diuretic activities. In this mini-review, the current state of knowledge on anti-diuretic factors in insects will be discussed with a particular emphasis on the CAPA peptides in the blood-feeding Chagas' disease vector, Rhodnius prolixus.

  14. The Disorders of Growth Hormone Secretion in Women with Polycystic Ovary Syndrome Compared to Patients with the Non-Functional Pituitary Adenomas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu.M. Urmanova

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective of the study — to investigate the disorders of growth hormone (GH secretion in women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS compared to patients with non-functional pituitary adenomas (NFPA. Under our supervision during period from September 2015 to March 2016, there were 15 female outpatients of childbearing age with PCOS and 15 — with NFPA. Average age of patients was 25.5 and 28.9 years, respectively. The duration of disease ranged from 7 months to 9 years. It was found that in both groups, there were neuroendocrine disorders typical for each pathology. So, in the first group of patients with PCOS, the following violations were most often: obesity, striae, acanthosis, аcne, hyperandrogenemia, hyperpolyme­norrhea, and in the second one — secondary amenorrhea, hyperprolactinemia, panhypopituitarism. In both groups, there was anovulation, as well as decline of GH and insulin-like growth factor‑1 (IGF‑1 secretion. In addition, patients with NFPA had significantly decreased basal levels of tropic hormones — GH, luteinizing hormone (LH and follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH on the background of hyperprolactinemia and normal values of IGF‑1, while in patients with PCOS, the levels of GH, LH, FSH were reduced on the background of hyperandrogenemia and IGF‑1 decline. Thus, it was found that in the group of patients with PCOS, there was the most significant reduction of basal IGF‑1 levels, whereas GH deficiency was less frequent. Patients with NFPA had panhypopituitarism, namely combined deficiency of GH, LH, FSH, thyroid stimulating hormone, while IGF‑1 deficiency was less frequent. Disorders of GH and IGF‑1 secretion identified in our study confirm the literature data that patients with PCOS have a reduction in the levels of GH and IGF‑1 on the background of hyperinsulinemia and hyperandrogenaemia.

  15. Total glycosides of Paeony shows Neuroprotective effects against Semen Strychni-induced neurotoxicity by recovering secretion of hormones and improving brain energy metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Chenzhi; Zhang, Ruowen; Zhang, Kexia; Chen, Xiaohui

    2017-08-29

    In this study, we investigated the protective effect of total glycosides of paeony against Semen Strychni-induced neurotoxicity and discussed some probably mechanisms. Levels of estrone, estradiol, estriol and growth hormone in male rats' serum were determined by ELISA, levels of ATP and substances associated with energy metabolism in rats' brain were determined by HPLC and levels of progesterone was determined by a UPLC-MS/MS method. The results showed that neurotoxicity induced by Semen Strychni could cause a significant decrease (p < 0.05, compare to the blank group) in secretion of estrogens and GH and disorder brain energy metabolism at the same time. While, rats with total glycosides of paeony pre-protection (orally administrated with total glycosides of paeony for 15 days before administrating Semen Strychni extract) showed a much better condition in the secretion of hormones and brain energy metabolism, and showed no significant changes in most of those associated substances when comparing to the blank group. Our study indicated that total glycosides of paeony have neuroprotective effects on Semen Strychni-induced neurotoxicity. It could recover the disordered hormone secretion and improve the brain energy metabolism. Total glycosides of paeony is potential to be further used in clinic to protect against neurotoxicity induced by other reasons.

  16. Acromegaly caused by a growth hormonereleasing hormone secreting carcinoid tumour of the lung : the effect of octreotide treatment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Heide, L. J. M.; Van den Berg, G.; Wolthuis, A.; Van Schelven, W. D.

    2007-01-01

    in acromegaly, the overproduction of growth hormone is usually caused by a pituitary adenoma. We report a 74-year-old woman with acromegaly caused by ectopic overproduction of growth hormone-releasing hormone (GHRH), a rare diagnosis. The GHRH appeared to be produced by a carcinoid tumour of the

  17. Acromegaly caused by a growth hormonereleasing hormone secreting carcinoid tumour of the lung : the effect of octreotide treatment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Heide, L. J. M.; Van den Berg, G.; Wolthuis, A.; Van Schelven, W. D.

    2007-01-01

    in acromegaly, the overproduction of growth hormone is usually caused by a pituitary adenoma. We report a 74-year-old woman with acromegaly caused by ectopic overproduction of growth hormone-releasing hormone (GHRH), a rare diagnosis. The GHRH appeared to be produced by a carcinoid tumour of the lun

  18. Juvenile hormone biosynthesis and secretion by the female Corpora allata of the larval gypsy moth, Lymantria dispar (L. ) utilizing in vitro organ culture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jones, G.L.

    1986-01-01

    Junvenile hormone synthesis and secretion in the female larval gypsy moth was investigated. In vitro culturing methods were developed including: incubating 2 pair of CC-CA gland complexes in 50 ul of osmotically balanced Grace's insect medium containing 1 uCi /sup 3/H-methyl-methionine for 6 hr. JH homologues were identified and quantified using TLC and HPLC. In vitro methods were employed to investigate trends of JH secretion in 4th and ultimate female larval instar CA. Fourth instar CA produced JH peaks of 0.15 pmole/pr/hr between days 2 and 3, but the rate declined to half by day 4. Ultimate instar larvae began secreting 0.48 pmole/pr/hr, but by day 10, had decreased JH output to negligible levels which continued until pupation. Effects upon in vitro JH secretion produced by precocene II and caffeine were examined. Feulgen staining techniques revealed an equal number of cells (30) in 4th and last instar CA. Last instar Ca were 3 times larger than 4th in volume but their actual in vitro JH secretion at peak levels was only 20% greater. In vitro methods demonstrated that JH secretory trends differ in younger versus mature larval instars. Glandular volume increased in last instars but JH secretion was only 20% greater than in 4th's when compared on the basis of volume. Precocene II elicited a negative response on in vivo JH secretion at levels 10 times less than caffeine. Caffeine was judged not to significantly alter JH secretion.

  19. The Sertoli cell hormones inhibin-B and anti Müllerian hormone have different patterns of secretion in prepubertal cryptorchid boys

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cortes, Dina; Clasen-Linde, Erik; Hutson, John M

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVES AND HYPOTHESES: The Sertoli-cells produce inhibin-B and Anti-Müllerian-Hormone (AMH). Much is still unknown about these hormones in prepubertal cryptorchids. The Sertoli-cells are mandatory for germ cell development. The aim of the study was to investigate if there are differences in s...

  20. CaSR function in the intestine: Hormone secretion, electrolyte absorption and secretion, paracrine non-canonical Wnt signaling and colonic crypt cell proliferation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macleod, R John

    2013-06-01

    Expression and function of the CaSR have been shown in some mammalian taste buds and basal cells of the esophagus. Signaling cascades responsible for CaSR-mediated stimulation of H(+)-K(+)-ATPase on human parietal cells have been defined. Transgenic mice and reductionistic cell culture models have shown that the CaSR promotes gastrin secretion from G cells, cholecystokinin (CCK) secretion from duodenal I cells and BMP-2 secretion from sub-epithelial myofibroblasts. In addition, the CaSR mediates a novel paracrine relationship between myofibroblasts and overlying epithelial cells in the colon. Thus, CaSR activators stimulate secretion of Wnt5a from myofibroblasts and expression of the Wnt5a receptor Ror2 in epithelial cells. CaSR-mediated Wnt5a/Ror2 engagement stimulates epithelial differentiation and reduces expression of the receptor for tumor necrosis factor (TNFR1). CaSR activators also modulate intestinal motility, inhibit Cl(-) secretion and stimulate Na(+) absorption in both the small intestine and colon. Colonic epithelia from conditional and global CaSR knockout mice exhibit increased proliferation with increased Wnt/β-catenin signaling, demonstrating that the CaSR negatively modulates colonic epithelial growth.

  1. Actions of NPY, and its Y1 and Y2 receptors on pulsatile growth hormone secretion during the fed and fasted state.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Lili; Tan, Hwee Y; Fogarty, Matthew J; Andrews, Zane B; Veldhuis, Johannes D; Herzog, Herbert; Steyn, Frederik J; Chen, Chen

    2014-12-01

    The hypothalamic NPY system plays an important role in regulating food intake and energy expenditure. Different biological actions of NPY are assigned to NPY receptor subtypes. Recent studies demonstrated a close relationship between food intake and growth hormone (GH) secretion; however, the mechanism through which endogenous NPY modulates GH release remains unknown. Moreover, conclusive evidence demonstrating a role for NPY and Y-receptors in regulating the endogenous pulsatile release of GH does not exist. We used genetically modified mice (germline Npy, Y1, and Y2 receptor knock-out mice) to assess pulsatile GH secretion under both fed and fasting conditions. Deletion of NPY did not impact fed GH release; however, it reversed the fasting-induced suppression of pulsatile GH secretion. The recovery of GH secretion was associated with a reduction in hypothalamic somatotropin release inhibiting factor (Srif; somatostatin) mRNA expression. Moreover, observations revealed a differential role for Y1 and Y2 receptors, wherein the postsynaptic Y1 receptor suppresses GH secretion in fasting. In contrast, the presynaptic Y2 receptor maintains normal GH output under long-term ad libitum-fed conditions. These data demonstrate an integrated neural circuit that modulates GH release relative to food intake, and provide essential information to address the differential roles of Y1 and Y2 receptors in regulating the release of GH under fed and fasting states.

  2. Dynamics of circulating concentrations of gonadotropins and ovarian hormones throughout the menstrual cycle in the bonnet monkey: role of inhibin A in the regulation of follicle-stimulating hormone secretion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suresh, P S; Medhamurthy, R

    2009-10-01

    In higher primates, increased circulating follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) levels seen during late menstrual cycle and during menstruation has been suggested to be necessary for initiation of follicular growth, recruitment of follicles and eventually culminating in ovulation of a single follicle. With a view to establish the dynamics of circulating FSH secretion with that of inhibin A (INH A) and progesterone (P(4)) secretions during the menstrual cycle, blood was collected daily from bonnet monkeys beginning day 1 of the menstrual cycle up to 35 days. Serum INH A levels were low during early follicular phase, increased significantly coinciding with the mid cycle luteinizing hormone (LH) surge to reach maximal levels during the mid luteal phase before declining at the late luteal phase, essentially paralleling the pattern of P(4) secretion seen throughout the luteal phase. Circulating FSH levels were low during early and mid luteal phases, but progressively increased during the late luteal phase and remained high for few days after the onset of menses. In another experiment, lutectomy performed during the mid luteal phase resulted in significant decrease in INH A concentration within 2 hr (58.3+/-2 vs. 27.3+/-3 pg/mL), and a 2- to 3-fold rise in circulating FSH levels by 24 hr (0.20+/-0.02 vs. 0.53+/-0.14 ng/mL) that remained high until 48 hr postlutectomy. Systemic administration of Cetrorelix (150 microg/kg body weight), a gonadotropin releasing hormone receptor antagonist, at mid luteal phase in monkeys led to suppression of serum INH A and P(4) concentrations 24 hr post treatment, but circulating FSH levels did not change. Administration of exogenous LH, but not FSH, significantly increased INH A concentration. The results taken together suggest a tight coupling between LH and INH A secretion and that INH A is largely responsible for maintenance of low FSH concentration seen during the luteal phase.

  3. ASSESSMENT OF T-2 TOXIN EFFECT AND ITS COMBINATION WITH GROWTH FACTOR AND METABOLIC HORMONES ON 17β-ESTRADIOL SECRETION BY RABBIT OVARIAN FRAGMENTS IN VITRO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Kolesárová

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Assessment of T-2 effect and its combination with growth factor IGF-I, metabolic hormones leptin and ghrelin on 17β-estradiol secretion by rabbit ovarian fragments was studied. Rabbit ovarian fragments were incubated without (control group or with alone T-2 toxin (0.01; 0.1; 1; 10; and 100 ng.mL-1, or its combination with insulin-like growth factor I - IGF-I (100 ng.mL-1, leptin (1000 ng.mL-1 or ghrelin (500 ng.mL-1 for 24 hours. Secretion of 17β-estradiol was determined by ELISA. T-2 toxin was not shown to be potential regulator of 17β-estradiol secretion in rabbit ovarian fragments. On the other hand T-2 toxin at all used doses combined with IGF-I significantly (P<0.05 inhibited 17β-estradiol secretion by the fragments. Similarly, 17β-estradiol secretion was significantly (P<0.05 inhibited by T-2 toxin at the highest used doses (10 and 100 ng.mL-1 combined with leptin (1000 ng.mL-1. On the other hand T-2 toxin combined with ghrelin was not shown to be potential regulator of 17β-estradiol secretion in rabbit ovarian fragments. Results in this study showed that trichothecene as T-2 toxin combined with IGF-I or leptin was able to modulate 17β-estradiol secretion in rabbit ovarian fragments in vitro. We suggest their possible involvement to the process of steroidogenesis.

  4. Influence of season and nutritional status on the direct effects of leptin, orexin-A and ghrelin on luteinizing hormone and growth hormone secretion in the ovine pituitary explant model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirsz, K; Szczesna, M; Dudek, K; Bartlewski, P M; Zieba, D A

    2014-07-01

    The aim of this study was to examine whether leptin (anorexigenic peptide), orexin-A, and ghrelin (orexigenic peptides) could directly (ie, independently of hypothalamic influences) affect the secretion of luteinizing hormone (LH) and growth hormone (GH) by adenohypophyseal (AP) explants obtained from normally fed or fasted (48 h) ewes during the breeding and nonbreeding seasons. In addition, a specific ovine super leptin antagonist (SLAN-3) was used to assess the interactions between leptin and ghrelin and/or orexin-A. Pituitary glands from 16 ovariectomized Polish Longwool ewes that had received estradiol-releasing subcutaneous implants were collected in the breeding (November; n = 8) and nonbreeding (May; n = 8) seasons. The AP explants were incubated for 240 min in a gas-liquid interface and treated with leptin (50 ng/mL), ghrelin (100 ng/mL), orexin-A (100 ng/mL), and SLAN-3 (500 ng/mL) with orexin-A or ghrelin. Treatments with leptin and SLAN-3 + orexin-A increased (P secretion by AP explants from both fasted and fed animals in the breeding season. Ghrelin stimulated (P secretion by AP explants collected from fasted animals in nonbreeding season and from normally fed ewes in both seasons. Leptin decreased (P secretion by AP explants collected from fasted ewes in both seasons and from nonfasted ewes in the breeding season. However, the treatment with SLAN-3 + ghrelin resulted in greater (P ghrelin exerted direct effects on AP secretory function in an ex situ model and both the reproductive season and nutritional status of the animals impinged on the direct effects of the peptides on LH and GH release. Specifically, orexin-A was more potent than leptin in directly stimulating LH secretion in cycling ewes, whereas ghrelin and leptin generally had opposing effects on the secretory function of somatotrophs in sheep.

  5. Normal sweat secretion despite impaired growth hormone-insulin-like growth factor-I axis in obese subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, M H; Juul, Anders; Main, Katharina M;

    2011-01-01

    Adults with GH deficiency are known to exhibit reduced sweating. Whether sweating capacity is impacted in obese subjects with impaired GH secretion have not previously been investigated. The main objective was to investigate sweat secretion rate and the GH-IGF-I axis in obese subjects before......, and impaired insulin sensitivity, which all were normalised after diet-induced weight loss of 30 ± 5 kg. Sweat secretion rates were similar comparing obese and nonobese subjects (78 ± 10 versus 82 ± 9 mg/30 minutes) and sweat secretion did not change after a diet-induced weight loss in obese subjects. We...... conclude that although obese subjects have markedly reduced GH release and impaired IGF-I levels, sweat secretion rate is found to be normal....

  6. Effects of glucagon-like peptide 1 on counterregulatory hormone responses, cognitive functions, and insulin secretion during hyperinsulinemic, stepped hypoglycemic clamp experiments in healthy volunteers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nauck, Michael A; Heimesaat, Markus M; Behle, Kai

    2002-01-01

    and neuroglucopenic symptoms were assessed, and cognitive function was tested at each plateau. Insulin secretion rates were estimated by deconvolution (two-compartment model of C-peptide kinetics). At insulin concentrations of approximately 45 mU/liter, glucose infusion rates were similar with and without GLP-1 (P.......97). The other counterregulatory hormones and autonomic or neuroglucopenic symptom scores increased, and cognitive functions decreased with decreasing glucose concentrations, but there were no significant differences comparing experiments with GLP-1 or placebo, except for a significant reduction of GH responses...... during hypoglycemia with GLP-1 (P = 0.04). GLP-1 stimulated insulin secretion only at plasma glucose concentrations of at least 4.3 mmol/liter. In conclusion, the suppression of glucagon by GLP-1 does occur at euglycemia, but not at hypoglycemic plasma glucose concentrations (

  7. Pathophysiologic changes in IA-2/IA-2β null mice are secondary to alterations in the secretion of hormones and neurotransmitters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Tao; Notkins, Abner L

    2016-02-01

    IA-2 and IA-2β are transmembrane proteins of dense-core vesicles (DCV). The deletion of these proteins results in a reduction in the number of DCV and the secretion of hormones and neurotransmitters. As a result, this leads to a variety of pathophysiologic changes. The purpose of this review is to describe these changes, which are characterized by glucose intolerance, female infertility, behavior and learning abnormalities and alterations in the diurnal circadian rhythms of blood pressure, heart rate, spontaneous physical activity and body temperature. These findings show that the deletion of IA-2 and IA-2β results in multiple pathophysiologic changes and represents a unique in vivo model for studying the effect of hormone and neurotransmitter reduction on known and still unrecognized targets.

  8. Normal secretion of the incretin hormones glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide and glucagon-like peptide-1 during gestational diabetes mellitus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cypryk, Katarzyna; Vilsbøll, Tina; Nadel, Iwona

    2007-01-01

    Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) and type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM2) are suggested to be caused by the same metabolic disorder. Defects in gut hormone-dependent regulation of beta-cell function (entero-insular axis) have been proposed to contribute to the pathogenesis of DM2. The aim of study...... was to evaluate whether an impaired secretion of glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) and/or glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP) could play a role in the development of carbohydrate disorders during pregnancy....

  9. Ectopic adrenocorticotropic hormone and corticotropin-releasing hormone co-secreting tumors in children and adolescents causing cushing syndrome: a diagnostic dilemma and how to solve it.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karageorgiadis, Alexander S; Papadakis, Georgios Z; Biro, Juliana; Keil, Meg F; Lyssikatos, Charalampos; Quezado, Martha M; Merino, Maria; Schrump, David S; Kebebew, Electron; Patronas, Nicholas J; Hunter, Maya K; Alwazeer, Mouhammad R; Karaviti, Lefkothea P; Balazs, Andrea E; Lodish, Maya B; Stratakis, Constantine A

    2015-01-01

    Ectopic ACTH/CRH syndrome is a rare cause of Cushing syndrome (CS), especially in children. The localization, work-up, and management of ACTH/CRH-secreting tumors are discussed. A retrospective study was conducted of patients under 21 years of age evaluated at the National Institutes of Health (NIH) for CS and diagnosed with ectopic ACTH/CRH-secreting tumors during the period 2009-2014. Seven patients with ectopic ACTH/CRH CS are included in this study with a median age 13.6 years (range 1-21), and 3 are female. Clinical, biochemical, radiological features, treatment, and histological findings are described. Seven patients were found to have ACTH/CRH-secreting tumors, all with neuroendocrine features. The site of the primary lesion varied: pancreas (3), thymus (2), liver (1), right lower pulmonary lobe (1). PATIENTS underwent biochemical evaluation for CS, including diurnal serum cortisol and ACTH levels, urinary free cortisol levels (UFC), and CRH stimulation tests. All patients underwent radiological investigations including MRI, CT, and PET scan; imaging with octreotide and 68 gallium DOTATATE scans were performed in individual cases. Five patients underwent inferior petrosal sinus sampling; 4 patients had sampling for ACTH and CRH levels from additional sites. Three patients underwent trans-sphenoidal surgery (TSS), and 3 patients required bilateral adrenalectomy. Three patients (43%) died due to metastatic disease, demonstrating the high mortality rate. One of the unique findings in these seven patients is that in each case, their neuroendocrine tumors were ultimately proven to be co-secreting ACTH and CRH. This explains the enigmatic presentation, in which 3 patients initially thought to have Cushing's disease (CD) with corresponding pituitary hyperplasia underwent TSS prior to the correct localization of the causative tumor. Ectopic ACTH/CRH co-secreting tumors are extremely rare in children and adolescents. The diagnosis of this condition is frequently

  10. Competing interests in a lung cancer with metastasis to the pituitary gland: syndrome of inappropriate ADH secretion versus diabetes insipidus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gulsin, Gaurav Singh; Jacobs, Madeleine Louisa Bryson; Gohil, Shailesh; Thomas, Adam; Levy, Miles

    2016-01-01

    Metastases to the pituitary gland are rare; cancers that most commonly metastasize to the pituitary are breast and lung cancers. No specific computed tomography or magnetic resonance imaging features reliably distinguish primary pituitary masses from metastases. A combination of a detailed clinical assessment together with specialist endocrine and neuroradiology support is essential to make the rare diagnosis of a pituitary metastasis. We present the case of a man with metastatic lung cancer, initially presenting as hypopituitarism. Subtle features in the history, together with neuroimaging findings atypical for pituitary adenomas, provided clues that the diagnosis was one of the pituitary metastases. Treatment of diabetes insipidus (DI) with replacement antidiuretic hormone (ADH) was complicated by extreme difficulties in achieving a satisfactory sodium and water balance. This was the result of coexistent DI and syndrome of inappropriate ADH secretion perpetuated by the patient's primary lung cancer, a phenomenon not previously described in the literature.

  11. Influence of age and gender on secretion of anti-Müllerian hormone in Asian (Elephas maximus) and African (Loxodonta africana) elephants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dow, T L; Roudebush, W; Parker, F N; Brown, J L

    2011-03-01

    Anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH) secretion was studied in Asian and African elephants varying in age and reproductive status. Overall mean concentrations did not differ (P > 0.05) between species, but were markedly higher in male than female Asian elephants (31.01 ± 4.22 ng/mL and 0.19 ± 0.02 ng/mL, mean ± SEM) and African elephants (40.27 ± 3.18 ng/mL, 0.17 ± 0.04 ng/mL), respectively. Anti-Müllerian hormone secretion was not significantly affected by ovarian cyclicity status (cycling vs noncycling), but was higher (P 0.05) in prepubertal (49.08 ± 6.11 ng/mL) as compared to aged (≥36 y; 22.27 ± 5.82 ng/mL) bulls; concentrations in mature bulls (8-35 y; 37.01 ± 3.17 ng/mL) were similar to prepubertal and older bulls. We concluded that circulating AMH concentrations in elephants were similar between species and not affected by reproductive status; however, concentrations were significantly higher in males than females, and in younger animals. The diagnostic value of AMH to assess fertility status of individual elephants remains to be determined.

  12. Normal Sweat Secretion Despite Impaired Growth Hormone-Insulin-Like Growth Factor-I Axis in Obese Subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Højby Rasmussen

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Adults with GH deficiency are known to exhibit reduced sweating. Whether sweating capacity is impacted in obese subjects with impaired GH secretion have not previously been investigated. The main objective was to investigate sweat secretion rate and the GH-IGF-I axis in obese subjects before and after weight loss. Sixteen severely obese women (BMI, 40.6 ± 1.1 kg/m2 were investigated before and after a diet-induced weight loss. Sixteen age-matched nonobese women served as controls. The obese subjects presented the characteristic decreased GH release, hyperinsulinaemia, increased FFA levels, and impaired insulin sensitivity, which all were normalised after diet-induced weight loss of 30 ± 5 kg. Sweat secretion rates were similar comparing obese and nonobese subjects (78 ± 10 versus 82 ± 9 mg/30 minutes and sweat secretion did not change after a diet-induced weight loss in obese subjects. We conclude that although obese subjects have markedly reduced GH release and impaired IGF-I levels, sweat secretion rate is found to be normal.

  13. Normal sweat secretion despite impaired growth hormone-insulin-like growth factor-I axis in obese subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Michael Højby; Juul, Anders; Main, Katharina M

    2011-01-01

    and after weight loss. Sixteen severely obese women (BMI, 40.6 ± 1.1 kg/m(2)) were investigated before and after a diet-induced weight loss. Sixteen age-matched nonobese women served as controls. The obese subjects presented the characteristic decreased GH release, hyperinsulinaemia, increased FFA levels......, and impaired insulin sensitivity, which all were normalised after diet-induced weight loss of 30 ± 5 kg. Sweat secretion rates were similar comparing obese and nonobese subjects (78 ± 10 versus 82 ± 9 mg/30 minutes) and sweat secretion did not change after a diet-induced weight loss in obese subjects. We...... conclude that although obese subjects have markedly reduced GH release and impaired IGF-I levels, sweat secretion rate is found to be normal....

  14. The relationship between gut hormone secretion and gastric emptying in different phases of the migrating motor complex

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, L; Oster-Jørgensen, E; Qvist, N;

    1996-01-01

    a higher incremental integrated postprandial motilin response in phase I than in phase II (998 pmol/l*30 min (495 to 2010) versus 210 pmol/l*30 min (-270 to 2323), p total integrated motilin response and solid emptying at 120 min in phase I (Rs = 0.58; p......BACKGROUND: No studies are available on the relationship between the response of gut hormones and gastric emptying in different phases of the migrating motor complex. This study examined whether basal gut hormone concentrations in plasma before food ingestion are predictors of emptying...... total integrated area of cholecystokinin and solid emptying at 120 min was demonstrated (Rs = 0.62; p

  15. Clinical characteristics and outcome of acromegaly induced by ectopic secretion of growth hormone-releasing hormone (GHRH): a French nationwide series of 21 cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garby, Laetitia; Caron, Philippe; Claustrat, Francine; Chanson, Philippe; Tabarin, Antoine; Rohmer, Vincent; Arnault, Gwenaëlle; Bonnet, Fabrice; Chabre, Olivier; Christin-Maitre, Sophie; du-Boullay, Hélène; Murat, Arnaud; Nakib, Ihab; Sadoul, Jean-Louis; Sassolas, Geneviève; Claustrat, Bruno; Raverot, Gérald; Borson-Chazot, Françoise

    2012-06-01

    Ectopic GHRH secretion is a rare cause of acromegaly, and case reports are mainly isolated. From the registry of the sole laboratory performing plasma GHRH assays in France, we identified cases of ectopic GHRH secretion presenting with acromegaly between 1983 and 2008. Twenty-one patients aged 14-77 yr were identified from 12 French hospitals. Median GHRH was 548 (270-9779) ng/liter. Outcome measures included description of tumor features and outcome and the relation between plasma GHRH values and tumor site, size, and spread. The primary neuroendocrine tumor was identified for 20 of 21 patients (12 pancreatic, seven bronchial, one appendicular). Tumors were large (10-80 mm), identified on computed tomography scan in 18 cases and by endoscopic ultrasound and somatostatin receptor scintigraphy in two. Somatostatin receptor scintigraphy had a similar sensitivity to computed tomography scan (81 vs. 86%). Tumors were all well differentiated; 47.6% had metastasized at the time of diagnosis of acromegaly. After a median follow-up of 5 yr, 85% of patients were alive. Ninety-one percent of patients whose tumor was completely removed were considered in remission, and most had normalized plasma GHRH. The remaining patients were treated with somatostatin analogs: IGF-I normalized except for one patient who required pegvisomant, but GHRH levels remained elevated. No correlations were found between GHRH levels and tumor site or size or the existence of metastases. Identification of increased plasma GHRH during follow-up was an accurate indicator of recurrence. The prognosis of endocrine tumors responsible for GHRH secretion appears relatively good. Plasma GHRH assay is an accurate tool for diagnosis and follow-up.

  16. Diagnostic challenges and management of a patient with acromegaly due to ectopic growth hormone-releasing hormone secretion from a bronchial carcinoid tumour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikolaos Kyriakakis

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A male patient presented at the age of 30 with classic clinical features of acromegaly and was found to have elevated growth hormone levels, not suppressing during an oral glucose tolerance test. His acromegaly was originally considered to be of pituitary origin, based on a CT scan, which was interpreted as showing a pituitary macroadenoma. Despite two trans-sphenoidal surgeries, cranial radiotherapy and periods of treatment with bromocriptine and octreotide, his acromegaly remained active clinically and biochemically. A lung mass was discovered incidentally on a chest X-ray performed as part of a routine pre-assessment for spinal surgery 5 years following the initial presentation. This was confirmed to be a bronchial carcinoid tumour, which was strongly positive for growth hormone-releasing hormone (GHRH and somatostatin receptor type 2 by immunohistochemistry. The re-examination of the pituitary specimens asserted the diagnosis of pituitary GH hyperplasia. Complete resolution of the patient’s acromegaly was achieved following right lower and middle lobectomy. Seventeen years following the successful resection of the bronchial carcinoid tumour the patient remains under annual endocrine follow-up for monitoring of the hypopituitarism he developed after the original interventions to his pituitary gland, while there has been no evidence of active acromegaly or recurrence of the carcinoid tumour. Ectopic acromegaly is extremely rare, accounting for <1% of all cases of acromegaly. Our case highlights the diagnostic challenges differentiating between ectopic acromegaly and acromegaly of pituitary origin and emphasises the importance of avoiding unnecessary pituitary surgery and radiotherapy. The role of laboratory investigations, imaging and histology as diagnostic tools is discussed.

  17. Intracellular mechanism of the action of inhibin on the secretion of follicular stimulating hormone and of luteinizing hormone induced by LH-RH in vitro

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lecomte-Yerna, M. J.; Hazee-Hagelstein, M. T.; Charlet-Renard, C.; Franchimont, P.

    1982-01-01

    The FSH secretion-inhibiting action of inhibin in vitro under basal conditions and also in the presence of LH-RH is suppressed by the addition of MIX, a phosphodiesterase inhibitor. In the presence of LH-RH, inhibin reduces significantly the intracellular level of cAMP in isolated pituitary cells. In contrast, the simultaneous addition of MIX and inhibin raises the cAMP level, and this stimulation is comparable to the increase observed when MIX is added alone. These observations suggest that one mode of action of inhibin could be mediated by a reduction in cAMP within the pituitary gonadotropic cell.

  18. The VGF-Derived Neuropeptide TLQP-21 Shows No Impact on Hormone Secretion in the Isolated Perfused Rat Pancreas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Charlotte Bayer; Svendsen, B; Holst, Jens Juul

    2015-01-01

    TLQP-21 is a VGF-derived neuropeptide proposed to be involved in regulation of metabolism. More specifically it has been suggested that TLQP-21 has the ability to enhance glucose stimulated insulin secretion, making it a candidate for treatment of patients with type 2 diabetes.In this study, we...

  19. Male axillary extracts contain pheromones that affect pulsatile secretion of luteinizing hormone and mood in women recipients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preti, George; Wysocki, Charles J; Barnhart, Kurt T; Sondheimer, Steven J; Leyden, James J

    2003-06-01

    Human underarm secretions, when applied to women recipients, alter the length and timing of the menstrual cycle. These effects are thought to arise from exposure to primer pheromones that are produced in the underarm. Pheromones can affect endocrine (primer) or behavioral (releaser) responses, provide information (signaler), or perhaps even modify emotion or mood (modulator). In this study, we extracted underarm secretions from pads worn by men and placed the extract under the nose of women volunteers while monitoring serum LH and emotion/mood. Pulses of LH are excellent indicators of the release of GnRH from the brain's hypothalamus. In women, the positive influence of GnRH on LH affects the length and timing of the menstrual cycle, which, in turn, affects fertility. Here we show that extracts of male axillary secretions have a direct effect upon LH-pulsing and mood of women. In our subjects, the putative male pheromone(s) advanced the onset of the next peak of LH after its application, reduced tension, and increased relaxation. These results demonstrate that male axillary secretions contain one or more constituents that act as primer and modulator pheromones.

  20. Effects of ghrelin on Kisspeptin mRNA expression in the hypothalamic medial preoptic area and pulsatile luteinising hormone secretion in the female rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forbes, Sarah; Li, Xiao Feng; Kinsey-Jones, James; O'Byrne, Kevin

    2009-08-28

    The orexigenic gut peptide ghrelin negatively modulates the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) axis. Hyperghrelinaemia results during negative energy balance, a state often associated with delayed puberty and disrupted fertility, whilst exogenous ghrelin suppresses pulsatile luteinising hormone (LH) secretion. The recent identification of kisspeptin (Kiss1) and its G protein-coupled receptor (GPR)54 (Kiss1r) as an essential component of the HPG axis controlling gonadotrophin secretion raises the possibility that kisspeptin-Kiss1r signalling may play a critical role in the transduction of ghrelin-induced suppression of LH. Ovariectomised oestrogen-replaced rats were implanted with intravenous catheters and blood samples collected for detection of LH pulses prior to and after intravenous administration of ghrelin (3nM/250 microl) or saline (250 microl) during ad libitum feeding or after overnight fasting. Quantitative RT-PCR was used to determine Kiss1 and Kiss1r mRNA levels in brain punches of the key hypothalamic sites regulating gonadotrophin secretion, the medial preoptic area (mPOA) and arcuate nucleus (ARC), collected 6h following administration of ghrelin. Ghrelin significantly lowered LH pulse frequency in fed rats, an effect significantly enhanced by food deprivation. Fasting, ghrelin or their combination down-regulated Kiss1, without affecting Kiss1r, expression in the mPOA, and affected the expression of neither in the ARC. Considering the pivotal role for kisspeptin signalling in the activation of the HPG axis, the ability of ghrelin to down-regulate Kiss1 expression in mPOA may be a contributing factor in ghrelin-related suppression of pulsatile LH secretion.

  1. A mathematical/physiological model of parathyroid hormone secretion in response to blood-ionized calcium lowering in vivo

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Momsen, G; Schwarz, P

    1997-01-01

    patients with abnormal and normal parathyroid tissue. The fitted parameters showed no significant differences between patients with insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus and controls. In primary hyperparathyroidism, the parathyroid hormone production and steady-state transport across the cell membrane were...

  2. Preservation of active incretin hormones by inhibition of dipeptidyl peptidase IV suppresses meal-induced incretin secretion in dogs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Deacon, C F; Wamberg, S; Bie, P

    2002-01-01

    The incretin hormones glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) and glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP) are degraded by dipeptidyl peptidase IV (DPP IV), thereby losing insulinotropic activity. DPP IV inhibition reduces exogenous GLP-1 degradation, but the extent of endogenous incretin prote...

  3. Hormone-sensitive lipase null mice exhibit signs of impaired insulin sensitivity whereas insulin secretion is intact

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mulder, Hindrik; Sörhede-Winzell, Maria; Contreras, Juan Antonio;

    2003-01-01

    Lipid metabolism plays an important role in glucose homeostasis under normal and pathological conditions. In adipocytes, skeletal muscle, and pancreatic beta-cells, lipids are mobilized from acylglycerides by the hormone-sensitive lipase (HSL). Here, the consequences of a targeted disruption...

  4. Experiment K-6-22. Growth hormone regulation, synthesis and secretion in microgravity. Part 1: Somatotroph physiology. Part 2: Immunohistochemical analysis of hypothalamic hormones. Part 3: Plasma analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grindeland, R.; Vale, W.; Hymer, W.; Sawchenko, P.; Vasques, M.; Krasnov, I.; Kaplanski, A.; Victorov, I.

    1990-01-01

    The objectives of the 1887 mission were: (1) to determine if the results of the SL-3 pituitary gland experiment (1) were repeatable; and (2) to determine what effect a longer mission would have on the rat pituitary gland growth hormone (GH) system. In the 1887 experiment two issues were considered especially important. First, it was recognized that cells prepared from individual rat pituitary glands should be considered separately so that the data from the 5 glands could be analyzed in a statistically meaningful way. Second, results of the SL-3 flight involving the hollow fiber implant and HPLC GH-variant experiments suggested that the biological activity of the hormone had been negatively affected by flight. The results of the 1887 experiment documented the wisdom of addressing both issues in the protocol. Thus, the reduction in secretory capacity of flight cells during subsequent extended cell culture on Earth was documented statistically, and thereby established the validity of the SL-3 result. The results of both flight experiments thus support the contention that there is a secretory lesion in pituitary GH cells of flight animals. The primary objective of both missions was a clear definition of the effect of spaceflight on the GH cell system. There can no longer be any reasonable doubt that this system is affected in microgravity. One explanation for the reason(s) underlying the better known effects of spaceflight on organisms, viz. changes in bone, muscle and immune systems may very well rest with such changes in bGH. In spite of the fact that rats in the Cosmos 1887 flight were on Earth for two days after flight, the data show that the GH system had still not recovered from the effects of flight. Many questions remain. One of the more important concerns the GRF responsiveness of somatotrophs after flight. This will be tested in an upcoming experiment.

  5. Effect of L-Tryptophan and L-Leucine on Gut Hormone Secretion, Appetite Feelings and Gastric Emptying Rates in Lean and Non-Diabetic Obese Participants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meyer-Gerspach, Anne Christin; Häfliger, Simon; Meili, Julian

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Gut hormones such as cholecystokinin (CCK) and glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) play a role as satiation factors. Strategies to enhance satiation peptide secretion could provide a therapeutic approach for obesity. Carbohydrates and lipids have been extensively investigated...... as a randomized (balanced), double-blind, parallel-group trial. A total of 10 lean and 10 non-diabetic obese participants were included. Participants received intragastric loads of L-trp (0.52 g and 1.56 g) and L-leu (1.56 g), dissolved in 300 mL tap water; 75 g glucose and 300 mL tap water served as control...

  6. A double-blind placebo-controlled study on the effects of omeprazole on gut hormone secretion and gastric emptying rate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, L; Qvist, N; Oster-Jørgensen, E;

    1997-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The present study was designed to investigate whether an effect of omeprazole on gastric emptying is related to changes in the secretion of selected gut hormones. METHODS: The studies were performed in healthy men after 10 days' treatment with 40 mg omeprazole daily/placebo. Food...... ingestion took place in a duodenal phase, I and the meal consisted of an omelette labelled with technetium Tc 99m, followed by 150 ml water labelled with indium In 111. Plasma concentrations of gastrin, cholecystokinin (CCK), and motilin were measured. RESULTS: Pretreatment with omeprazole reduced gastric...... emptying rates. This applied to all variables and was most pronounced with regard to amounts of solid (median (95% confidence interval)) emptied at 180 min (71% (48 - 86) for omeprazole versus 96% (87 - 100) for placebo; P omeprazole...

  7. Normal secretion of the incretin hormones glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide and glucagon-like peptide-1 during gestational diabetes mellitus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cypryk, Katarzyna; Vilsbøll, Tina; Nadel, Iwona

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND AIM: Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) and type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM2) are suggested to be caused by the same metabolic disorder. Defects in gut hormone-dependent regulation of beta-cell function (entero-insular axis) have been proposed to contribute to the pathogenesis of DM2....... The aim of study was to evaluate whether an impaired secretion of glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) and/or glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP) could play a role in the development of carbohydrate disorders during pregnancy. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: The study group (GDM) consisted of 13...... gestational women with diabetes mellitus in whom GDM was diagnosed according to the World Health Organization criteria (75-g oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT)). The control group consisted of 13 pregnant women with normal glucose tolerance (NGT), matched according to age and duration of pregnancy. For all...

  8. Dynamic evaluation of growth hormone (GH) and prolactin (hPRL) secretion in active acromegaly with high and low GH output.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tolis, G; Kovacs, L; Friesen, H; Martin, J B

    1975-02-01

    Ten patients with active acromegaly were studied. In 9 plasma GH levels failed to suppress after glucose (OGTT), in 8 an increase in serum GH occurred after thyrotropin releasing hormone (TRH). After L-Dopa, 4 patients showed no change in serum GH, 3 exhibited a decrease and in 3 an increase in serum hGH occurred. With a combined insulin (ITT) and arginine (ATT) test, 2 patients exhibited an increase in hGH, and in 6 no change occurred. Fasting serum GH concentration was less than 11 ng/ml in 5 patients. Basal prolactin (hPRL) levels were normal in all patients including two with galactorrhea. L-Dopa suppressed and TRH stimulated hPRL secretion in all, but the responses which were seen were subnormal. Hydrocortisone infusion in two acromegalics did not affect the prolactin induced increase after TRH but blunted the GH increase after TRH.

  9. Benign hormone-secreting adenoma within a larger adrenocortical mass showing intensely increased activity on (18)F-FDG PET/CT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papadakis, Georgios Z; Millo, Corina; Stratakis, Constantine A

    2016-10-01

    Adrenal adenomas usually show (18)F-FDG activity less than that of the liver parenchyma. However, lipid-poor and hormone-secreting adenomas have been reported to show mild (18)F-FDG avidity. We report on a 51-year-old female with clinical symptoms of hypercortisolemia and a large right adrenal mass detected on CT. Post-contrast CT images showed an enhancing focus in the lower pole of the mass, with corresponding markedly increased activity on (18)F-FDG PET/CT. Right adrenalectomy was performed and histology revealed a benign adenoma, indicating that functioning benign adenomas can show intensely increased metabolic activity on (18)F-FDG mimicking malignancy.

  10. Thyroid hormone synthesis and secretion in humans after 80 milligrams of iodine for 15 days and subsequent withdrawal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theodoropoulou, Anastasia; Vagenakis, Apostolos G; Makri, Maria; Markou, Kostas B

    2007-01-01

    In animals, acute iodine administration results in acute intrathyroidal inhibition of iodinations followed by escape of the inhibition if the excessive iodine intake continues. In humans, the intrathyroidal nonhormonal and hormonal iodine concentration after exposure to large doses of iodine for a relatively long period of time is not known. To determine whether, in human thyroid, administration of large doses of iodine for a relatively long time results in alterations of intrathyroidal hormonal (HI) T4 and T3 and total iodine (TI) content, as well as whether changes in serum concentration of thyroid hormones and TSH would occur after iodine administration or discontinuation. In 33 euthyroid patients with single thyroid nodule or hyperparathyroidism, Lugol solution (80 mg iodine) was administered for 15 d before operation. Groups of six to eight patients underwent operation 0, 5, 10, and 15 d after iodine withdrawal. TI, HI in a sample of thyroid tissue, and serum concentration of T4, T3, and TSH were measured. In 21 normal euthyroid subjects who did not undergo operation, a similar protocol was used and serial blood measurements were taken. Intrathyroidal TI, HI, and serum thyroid hormone and TSH measurements were the main outcome measure. Intrathyroidal HI content and serum T4 and T3 were unchanged during and after iodine discontinuation. TI was increased during iodine administration and returned to control values 5 d after discontinuation of iodine. The ratio of HI/TI was decreased and returned to control values 15 d after the iodine was discontinued. Serum TSH was increased during iodine administration and returned to control values 10 d after iodine withdrawal. In humans, administration of iodine for a relatively long period of time was accompanied by increased intrathyroidal TI, but no changes in HI or demonstrable increases of serum T4 and T3 were observed. It is hypothesized that the maintenance of normal intrathyroidal HI is the result of the combined

  11. Exposure assessment of arc welders to extremely low frequency magnetic field: its relationship with the secretion of paratormone hormone and mood states

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roohalah Hajizadeh

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Nowadays, exposure to extremely low frequency (ELF magnetic field has been interested in many studies due to possible effects on human physical-mental health. Therefore, this study aimed to assess arc welders’ exposure to extremely low frequency magnetic field and to determine its relationship with the secretion of paratormone (PTH hormone and mood states. Material and Method: The present study has been conducted among 35 healthy production workers (as exposed group and 35 healthy administrative personnel (as unexposed group. After checking the work activities of participants according to the guide recommended by the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH, ELF magnetic fields were measured using an ELF measurement device in the regions including trunk, head, and neck. The plasma levels of PTH hormone of both groups were evaluated by the Electrochemiluminescence method. Stress-Arousal Checklist (SACL was used to assess the mode states of subjects in both groups. The collected data were analyzed by SPSS software version 16. Result: There was a significant difference between the exposed and unexposed groups with respect to the exposure level to ELF magnetic fields (P-value<0.0001. Mean PTH hormone level in exposed group (34.54 pg/ml was lower than unexposed ones (37 pg/ml, however these mean values weren’t significantly different (P-value=0.67. Score of “stress” subscale related to the “pleasure” and score of “arousal” subscale  related to the “activities and alertness” in the unexposed group were significantly higher than those in exposed group (p<0.0001. Regarding the relationship between exposure level to ELF electromagnetic field and scores of  stress, arousal, and PTH hormone level in the two groups, it should be stated that only a significant and positive association was found between the average exposure to ELF magnetic fields and PTH levels in the exposed group (P-value<0.009, r=0

  12. Effects of central infusion of ghrelin on food intake and plasma levels of growth hormone, luteinizing hormone, prolactin, and cortisol secretion in sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iqbal, Javed; Kurose, Yohei; Canny, Benedict; Clarke, Iain J

    2006-01-01

    Ghrelin is an endogenous ligand for the GH secretagogue/ghrelin receptor (GHS-R) and stimulates feeding behavior and GH levels in rodents and humans. A preprandial increase in plasma ghrelin levels is seen in sheep on programmed feeding, followed by a postprandial rise in plasma GH levels, but effects on food intake and endocrine function are not defined in this ruminant species. We administered ghrelin to female sheep in various modes and measured effects on voluntary food intake (VFI) and plasma levels of GH, LH, prolactin, and cortisol. Whether administered intracerebroventricularly or iv, ghrelin consistently failed to stimulate VFI. On the other hand, ghrelin invariably increased plasma GH levels and alpha,beta-diaminopropanoic acid-octanoyl3 human ghrelin was more potent than ovine ghrelin. Bolus injection of ghrelin into the third cerebral ventricle reduced plasma LH levels but did not affect levels of prolactin or cortisol. These findings suggested that the preprandial rise in plasma ghrelin that is seen in sheep on programmed feeding does not influence VFI but is likely to be important in the postprandial rise in GH levels. Thus, ghrelin does not appear to be a significant regulator of ingestive behavior in this species of ruminant but acts centrally to indirectly regulate GH and LH secretion.

  13. The role of nutrition in the regulation of luteinizing hormone secretion by the opioidergic, dopaminergic, and serotonergic systems in female Mediterranean goats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zarazaga, Luis A; Celi, Irma; Guzmán, José Luis; Malpaux, Benoît

    2011-03-01

    This study examined which neural mechanism (opioid, dopaminergic, or serotonergic system) is involved in the regulation of luteinizing hormone (LH) secretion, with and without nutritional modulation, at different times of the photoperiodic cycle. Goats were randomly distributed into two experimental groups that received either 1.1 (high group; n = 18) or 0.7 (low group; n = 18) times the nutritional maintenance requirements. The goats were exposed to alternations of 3 mo of long days and 3 mo of short days. Plasma LH concentrations were measured twice a week. The effects of intravenous injections of naloxone (endogenous opioid receptor antagonist), pimozide (dopaminergic(2) receptor antagonist), and cyproheptadine (serotonin 5-hydroxytryptamine(2) receptor antagonist) on LH secretion were assessed during challenges in three different photoperiodic situations: the onset of LH stimulation by short days (OnsetSD), the onset of LH inhibition by long days (OnsetLD), and during the LH inhibition by long days (LateLD). The role of the different neural systems was clearly modified by the level of nutrition. In the low-nutrition group, only naloxone increased LH concentrations during onsetLD (P nutrition group, naloxone increased the concentration and pulsatility of LH (P nutrition.

  14. Effect of investigational kisspeptin/metastin analog, TAK-683, on luteinizing hormone secretion at different stages of the luteal phase in goats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahayu, Larasati Puji; El Behiry, Mohammed; Endo, Natsumi; Tanaka, Tomomi

    2017-03-25

    This study aimed to examine the response of luteinizing hormone (LH) secretion and ovarian steroid profile to TAK-683, an investigational metastin/kisspeptin analog, through treatment during different stages of the luteal phase in goats. Nine cycling Shiba goats (4.4 ± 2.3 years old) were assigned to early luteal phase (ELP, n = 4), mid-luteal phase (MLP, n = 4), and control (n = 5) groups. The ELP and MLP groups were administered 50 µg of TAK-683 intravenously on either day 5 or between days 7-14 after ovulation, respectively. The control group received vehicle between days 7-14 after ovulation. Blood samples were collected at 10-min (2-6 h), 2-h (6-24 h), and 24-h (24-96 h) intervals after treatment. Significant increases in plasma LH concentration were detected during the periods of 3 to 5 h and 2 to 5 h in the ELP and MLP groups, respectively. Estradiol concentrations continuously increased with the rise of basal LH secretion after TAK-683 treatment in two goats of the ELP group with a surge-like release of LH, but not in the goats without LH surge, i.e. the MLP and control group ones. Plasma progesterone concentration and the lengths of estrous cycle in all groups did not change significantly from the time before and after treatment. Present findings indicate that the responses of LH and ovarian steroids to treatment with TAK-683 depend on the stage of the luteal phase of the estrous cycle. We suggest that the stimulatory effects of TAK-683 on LH secretion are reduced in the process leading to the mid-luteal phase in cycling goats.

  15. Suppression of episodic growth hormone secretion in streptozotocin-induced diabetic mice: time-course studies on the hypothalamic pituitary axis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murao, S; Sato, M; Tamaki, M; Niimi, M; Ishida, T; Takahara, J

    1995-10-01

    To elucidate the roles of the hypothalamic peptides, GH-releasing hormone (GRH) and somatostatin (SRIH), potentially responsible for altered GH dynamics in diabetes, we studied the time courses of their changes in level associated with altered GH secretion in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic mice. Diabetic mice were used at 4, 7, and 14 days after STZ injection for analyses of 1) GH secretion in vivo, 2) hypothalamic GRH and SRIH messenger RNA (mRNA) levels, 3) pituitary GH mRNA and protein contents, and 4) pituitary GH response to GRH in vitro. GH secretion was completely suppressed 7 and 14 days after STZ injection. The hypothalamic GRH mRNA level was reduced to 59.8%, 61.2%, and 48.5% of control values at 4, 7, and 14 days, respectively. In contrast, the hypothalamic SRIH mRNA level was not altered at all of these time points. Pituitary GH mRNA and protein contents were significantly reduced to 70.2% and 61.5% of those in controls, respectively, only at 14 days. Pituitary GH responses to GRH at three doses (10, 50, and 250 nM) in vitro were remarkably increased at 4, 7, and 14 days. These findings indicate that the diabetic state rapidly and primarily inhibits hypothalamic GRH gene expression without affecting SRIH. A persistent decrease in hypothalamic GRH tone has been suggested to result in inhibition of GH synthesis in the pituitary. Enhancement of GH responsiveness to GRH may be due to the up-regulation of GRH receptors in the pituitary.

  16. Effect of the human follicle-stimulating hormone-binding inhibitor and its N-terminal fragment on follicle-stimulating hormone-induced progesterone secretion by granulosa cells in vitro

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Perinaaz R Wadia; Smita D Mahale; Tarala D Nandedkar

    2007-09-01

    Intrafollicular factors play an important role in folliculogenesis. The follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH)-binding inhibitor (FSHBI), purified by our laboratory from human ovarian follicular fluid, has been shown to suppress ovulation and induce follicular atresia/apoptosis in mice as well as impair fertility in marmosets, the new world monkeys. The octapeptide, a peptide corresponding to the N-terminal region of human FSHBI (hFSHBI), has been synthesized and also shows FSHBI activity in vitro. In the present study, we have attempted to identify the mechanism of action of the peptide in granulosa cell cultures. Rat granulosa cell cultures were treated with varying concentrations of the octapeptide or partially purified hFSHBI (gel chromatography fraction hGF2) in the presence or absence of human FSH (hFSH) and the amount of progesterone (P4) secreted in the culture supernatants after 3 h/48 h was estimated. Both hGF2 and the octapeptide failed to alter basal levels as well as 8-bromo cAMP-induced P4 production, while FSH-induced P4 secretion was inhibited in a dose-dependent manner. These studies reveal that the octapeptide, a fragment of FSHBI, and the native protein have similar activity in vitro and both compounds alter FSH action at the receptor level upstream of cAMP formation.

  17. SEMICIRCADIAN RHYTHM OF DOPAMINE RELEASE IN THE MEDIOBASAL HYPOTHALAMUS IN AWAKE RATS DURING PSEUDOPREGNANCY - EVIDENCE THAT A THYROTROPIN-RELEASING-HORMONE ANALOG STIMULATES DOPAMINE RELEASE AND THEREBY INHIBITS PROLACTIN SECRETION

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    TIMMERMAN, W; POELMAN, RT; WESTERINK, BHC; SCHUILING, GA

    1995-01-01

    The release of dopamine (DA) from tuberoinfundibular (TIDA) neurons during prolactin (PRL) surge and nonsurge periods and the effects of the thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH) analogue CG 3703 on DA and PRL secretion were studied in awake pseudopregnant (PSP) rats by simultaneous measurement of ext

  18. Atrial fibrillation associated with a thyroid stimulating hormone-secreting adenoma of the pituitary gland leading to a presentation of acute cardiac decompensation: A case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George Jyothis T

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Hyperthyroidism is a well established cause of atrial fibrillation (AF. Thyroid Stimulating Hormone-secreting pituitary tumours are rare causes of pituitary hyperthyroidism. Whilst pituitary causes of hyperthyroidism are much less common than primary thyroid pathology, establishing a clear aetiology is critical in minimising complications and providing appropriate treatment. Measuring Thyroid Stimulating Hormone (TSH alone to screen for hyperthyroidism may be insufficient to appropriately evaluate the thyroid status in such cases. Case presentation A 63-year-old Caucasian man, previously fit and well, presented with a five-day history of shortness of breath associated with wheeze and dry cough. He denied symptoms of hyperthyroidism and his family, social and past history were unremarkable. Initial investigation was in keeping with a diagnosis of atrial fibrillation (AF with fast ventricular response leading to cardiac decompensation. TSH 6.2 (Normal Range = 0.40 – 4.00 mU/L, Free T3 of 12.5 (4.00 – 6.8 pmol/L and Free T4 51(10–30 pmol/L. Heterophilic antibodies were ruled out. Testosterone was elevated at 43.10 (Normal range: 10.00 – 31.00 nmol/L with an elevated FSH, 18.1 (1.0–7.0 U/L and elevated LH, 12.4 (1.0–8.0 U/L. Growth Hormone, IGF-1 and prolactin were normal. MRI showed a 2.4 cm pituitary macroadenoma. Visual field tests showed a right inferotemporal defect. While awaiting neurosurgical removal of the tumour, the patient was commenced on antithyroid medication (carbimazole and maintained on this until successful trans-sphenoidal excision of the macroadenoma had been performed. AF persisted post-operatively, but was electrically cardioverted subsequently and he remains in sinus rhythm at twelve months follow-up off all treatment. Conclusion This case reiterates the need to evaluate thyroid function in all patients presenting with atrial fibrillation. TSH-secreting pituitary adenomas must be considered

  19. Management of nocturia: the role of antidiuretic pharmacotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, Jeffrey P; Juul, Kristian V; Wein, Alan J

    2014-04-01

    Strategies to manage nocturia include lifestyle modifications and treatment with alpha-blockers, antimuscarinic therapies, and antidiuretics. The concept of achieving success should not be limited to reduction of nighttime voids; it should ideally include proof of improvement of conditions generally associated with nocturia, such as falls, quality of life, and overall health. Few studies have looked specifically at parameters other than nocturnal voids, such as sleep latency, first undisturbed sleep period (FUSP), and total sleep time, including their clinical relevance to patient well-being. Lifestyle modifications, such as voiding before bedtime, limiting caffeine and alcohol, and adjusting medication timing, may be initially effective in mild cases of nocturia. Statistically significant reductions in voiding have been reported with antimuscarinic agents and alpha-blockers as initial therapy, but these reductions generally are not clinically relevant. The antidiuretic therapy desmopressin acetate, a selective vasopressin receptor 2 agonist, is effective in adults with nocturia associated with nocturnal polyuria; however, hyponatremia can occur. The newest formulation-desmopressin orally disintegrating sublingual tablet (ODST)--has greater bioavailability; thus, lower doses can be used, potentially reducing hyponatremia risk. A phase 3 study demonstrated statistically significant reductions in nocturnal voids for desmopressin ODST 50 and 100 µg versus placebo (-1.18 and -1.43 vs. -0.86; P = 0.02 and P < 0.0001, respectively) in patients with nocturia. Treatment was well-tolerated, and low-dose desmopressin ODST was associated with statistically significant increases in duration of FUSP. Development of a validated composite endpoint may help clinicians identify and compare strategies for treating nocturia.

  20. Secretion of incretin hormones and the insulinotropic effect of gastric inhibitory polypeptide in women with a history of gestational diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meier, J J; Gallwitz, B; Askenas, M

    2005-01-01

    of diabetes in women with previous gestational diabetes. The inverse relationship between insulin resistance and the insulin secretory response to glucose or GIP suggests that beta cell secretory function in response to different stimuli increases adaptively when insulin sensitivity is diminished.......AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: The insulinotropic effect of gastric inhibitory polypeptide (GIP) is reduced in patients with type 2 diabetes and around 50% of their first-degree relatives under hyperglycaemic conditions. It is unknown whether this is a result of a specific defect in GIP action or of a general...... reduction in beta cell function. Moreover, impaired secretion of glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) has been described in patients with type 2 diabetes. Therefore, we studied the insulinotropic effect of GIP in women with previous gestational diabetes (pGDM) under euglycaemic fasting conditions and during...

  1. Cinacalcet Effectively Reduces Parathyroid Hormone Secretion and Gland Volume Regardless of Pretreatment Gland Size in Patients with Secondary Hyperparathyroidism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komaba, Hirotaka; Nakanishi, Shohei; Fujimori, Akira; Tanaka, Motoko; Shin, Jeongsoo; Shibuya, Koji; Nishioka, Masato; Hasegawa, Hirohito; Kurosawa, Takeshi

    2010-01-01

    Background and objectives: Cinacalcet is effective in reducing serum parathyroid hormone (PTH) in patients with secondary hyperparathyroidism. However, it has not been proven whether parathyroid gland size predicts response to therapy and whether cinacalcet is capable of inducing a reduction in parathyroid volume. Design, setting, participants, & measurements: This 52-week, multicenter, open-label study enrolled hemodialysis patients with moderate to severe secondary hyperparathyroidism (intact PTH >300 pg/ml). Doses of cinacalcet were adjusted between 25 and 100 mg to achieve intact PTH 30% reduction from baseline (88 versus 78%), but this was not statistically significant. Cinacalcet therapy also resulted in a significant reduction in parathyroid gland volume regardless of pretreatment size, which was in sharp contrast to historical controls (n = 87) where parathyroid gland volume progressively increased with traditional therapy alone. Conclusions: Cinacalcet effectively decreases serum PTH levels and concomitantly reduces parathyroid gland volume, even in patients with marked parathyroid hyperplasia. PMID:20798251

  2. [Syndrome of inadequate ADH secretion: pitfalls in diagnosis and therapy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schäffler, Andreas; Lindner, Uwe

    2015-03-01

    Euvolemic hyponatremia is most frequently caused by the syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone secretion (SIADH). Causes of SIADH-induced hyponatremia are myriad and include tumors, pulmonary diseases or central nervous system disorders. SIADH can also be induced by a broad spectrum of drugs such as antidepressants and antiepileptics. The unfavorable prognostic relevance of hyponatremia is often underestimated. SIADH therapy focuses on the treatment of the underlying disease. Thus, a thorough differential diagnostic assessment of the genesis of SIADH is crucial. Therapy options for euvolemic hyponatremia include fluid restriction, administration of hyperosmolar saline solution in case of severe symptoms, or therapy with tolvaptan. Tolvaptan is a selective, oral vasopressin-V2-receptor-antagonist that inhibits ADH-induced retention of electrolyte-free water in the connecting duct of the kidney. This inhibition results in an increased serum sodium level. Close monitoring of serum sodium levels and volume status is imperative, especially during the initial phase of therapy. Fluid restriction is unnecessary during tolvaptan therapy; a previously prescribed fluid re-striction should be stopped when therapy begins. Treatment with tolvaptan can often result in a rapid and controlled improvement of the symptoms. Different cases presented in this article illustrate the diversity of SIADH in clinical practice relating to its diagnosis and its therapy as well as difficulties in identifying the underlying cause in clinical practice.

  3. An autopsy case of macroglobulinemia complicated with syndrome of inappropriate secretion of ADH (SIADH) like hyponatremia, hypopituitarism and AL amyloidosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamada, Chika; Yoneda, Chihiro; Ogino, Jun; Fukushima, Sayaka; Kodama, Shoko; Asano, Chihiro; Masuda, Michihiko; Horie-Tajima, Kanako; Toyonaga, Aiko; Hiroshima, Kenzo; Kawamura, Shunji; Hashimoto, Naotake

    2014-01-01

    An 88-year-old male patient with macroglobulinemia was admitted to our hospital because of severe hyponatremia and unconsciousness. Laboratory findings showed decreased inhibition of antidiuretic hormone (ADH) and he was diagnosed with syndrome of inappropriate secretion of ADH (SIADH). Hyponatremia improved with only limitation of water intake and the patient was followed up on a continuing outpatient basis. However, soon after discharge from hospital, his legs started swelling with edema and hyponatremia worsened. He was re-admitted due to a fall at home. Hyponatremia was observed at re-admission. A CRH challenge test showed partial dysfunction of ACTH secretion. Corticosteroid therapy was performed, but the patient subsequently died from pneumonia. Pathological findings at autopsy revealed invasion of plasma cells and amyloid depositions in multiple organs, including the pituitary, adrenal cortex, heart, liver, kidney, lymph nodes and bone marrow. Consistent with these results, fibrosis was observed in the anterior lobe of the pituitary, suggesting that the autopsy findings were related to the clinical observations and diagnosis. This is the first reported case of macroglobulinemia complicated with multiple hormone dysfunction.

  4. Recombinant human growth hormone secreted from tissue-engineered bioartificial muscle improves left ventricular function in rat with acute myocardial infarction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    RONG Shu-ling; WANG Yong-jin; WANG Xiao-lin; LU Yong-xin; CHANG Chao; WANG Feng-zhi; LIU Qi-yun; LIU Xiang-yang; GAO Yan-zhang; MI Shao-hua

    2009-01-01

    Background Experimental studies and preliminary clinical studies have suggested that growth hormone (GH) treatment may improve cardiovascular parameters in chronic heart failure (CHF). Recombinant human GH (rhGH) has been delivered by a recombinant protein, by plasmid DNA, and by genetically engineered cells with different pharmacokinetic and physiological properties. The present study aimed to examine a new method for delivery of rhGH using genetically modified bioartificial muscles (BAMs), and investigate whether the rhGH delivered by this technique improves left ventricular (LV) function in rats with CHF.Methods Primary skeletal myoblasts were isolated from several Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats, cultured, purified, and retrovirally transduced to synthesize and secrete human rhGH, and tissue-engineered into implantable BAMs. Ligation of the left coronary artery or sham operation was performed. The rats that underwent ligation were randomly assigned to 2 groups: CHF control group (n=6) and CHF treatment group (n=6). The CHF control group received non-rhGH-secreting BAM (GFP-BAMs) transplantation, and the CHF treatment group received rhGH-secreting BAM (GH-BAMs) transplantation. Another group of rats served as the sham operation group, which was also randomly assigned to 2 subgroups: sham control group (n=6) and sham treatment group (n=6). The sham control group underwent GFP-BAM transplantation, and the sham treatment group underwent GH-BAM transplantation. GH-BAMs and GFP-BAMs were implanted subcutaneously into syngeneic rats with ligaUon of the left coronary artery or sham operation was performed. Eight weeks after the treatment,echocardiography was performed, hGH, insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) and TNF-a levels in rat serum were measured by radioimmunoassay and ELISA, and then the rats were killed and ventricular samples were subjected to immunohistochemistry. Results Primary rat myoblasts were retrovirally transduced to secrete rhGH and tissue-engineered into

  5. Localization, expression, and secretion pathway of diapause hormone in embryo and larva of the silkworm, Bombyx mori

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SUN Jiusong; CHEN Fusheng; XU Weihua

    2004-01-01

    In this paper, the distribution and expression of diapause hormone (DH) at mRNA and protein levels in the central nervous system of Bombyx mori embryo and larva were studied using whole-mount in situ hybridization and immunocytochemistry. Whole-mount immunocytochemistry revealed that the distribution of the DH-like immunoreactivity was throughout the central nervous system including the brain, suboesophageal ganglion (SG) and thoracic ganglia (TG); and that the corpus cardiacum and terminal abdominal ganglion may be the site for DH release due to the presence of strong immunoreactivity. In situ hybridization with the probe labeled by digoxigenin shows that the Bom-DH mRNA was also localized in the mandibular, maxillary, labial cell clusters. In addition, a pair of lateral neurons in the SG and a pair of ventral midline neurons in each TG expressing the Bom-DH transcript were also identified. These results were consistent with the localization of Bom-DH mRNA in larva by in situ hybridization and the distribution of the gene by RT-PCR, which is some different from the results reported previously.

  6. Adverse eff ects of polymeric nanoparticle poly(ethylene glycol)- block-polylactide methyl ether (PEG-b-PLA) on steroid hormone secretion by porcine granulosa cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scsukova, Sona; Bujnakova, Mlynarcikova A; Kiss, A; Rollerova, E

    2017-04-25

    Development of nanoparticles (NPs) for biomedical applications, including medical imaging and drug delivery, is currently undergoing a dramatic expansion. Diverse effects of different type NPs relating to mammalian reproductive tissues have been demonstrated. Th e objective of this study was to explore the in vitro effects of polymeric nanoparticle poly(ethylene glycol)-blockpolylactide methyl ether (PEG-b-PLA NPs) on functional state and viability of ovarian granulosa cells (GCs), which play an important role in maintaining ovarian function and female fertility. The GCs isolated from porcine ovarian follicles were incubated with the different concentrations of PEG-b-PLA NPs (PEG average Mn=350 g/mol and PLA average Mn=1000 g/mol; 0.2-100 μg/ml) or poly(ethylene glycol) with an average molecular weight of 300 (PEG-300; 0.2- 40 mg/ml) in the presence or absence of stimulators, follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH; 1 μg/ml), androstenedione (100 nM), forskolin (10 μM) or 8Br-cAMP (100 μM), for different time periods (24, 48, 72 h). At the end of the incubation, progesterone and estradiol levels produced by GCs were measured in the culture media by radioimmunoassay. Th e viability of GCs was determined by the method using a colorimetric assay with MTT. Treatment of GCs with PEG-b-PLA NPs induced a significant decrease in basal as well as FSH-stimulated progesterone secretion above the concentration of 20 and 4 μg/ml, respectively. Moreover, PEG-b-PLA NPs reduced forskolin-stimulated, but not cAMP-stimulated progesterone production by GCs. A dose-dependent inhibition of androstenedione-stimulated estradiol release by GCs was found by the action of PEG-b-PLA NPs. Incubation of GCs with PEG-300 significantly inhibited basal as well as FSH-stimulated progesterone secretion above the concentration of 40 mg/ml. PEG-b-PLA NPs and PEG-300 significantly reduced the viability of GCs at the highest tested concentrations (100 μg/ml and 40 mg/ml, respectively). The obtained

  7. Empty sella syndrome associated with hormone deficiency in adults; Silla turca vacia asociada a disfuncion hormonal en adultos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oleaga, L.; Paja, M.; Goni, F.; Grande, J.; Grande, D. [Hospital de Basurto. Bilbao (Spain); Merino, M. [Hospital General Yague (Spain); Delgado, A. [Hospital Marques de Valdecilla. Santander (Spain)

    1999-07-01

    The objective of this study was to correlate the magnetic resonance (MR) images in patients with hormone deficiencies with the clinical data and the hormonal status. We studied 11 cases ef empty sella with different peripheral pituitary deficiencies. Hormone levels were determined according to standard laboratory methods. All the patients underwent MR imaging. The studies were carried out with a 1 Tesla superconducting magnet, using the cranial cavity for transmission and reception. Segittal and coronal T1-weighted spin-echo sequences (TR/TE: 600/15 ms), axial T2-weighted spin-echo sequences (TR/TE: 3,500/19/93 ms) and gadolinium-enhanced (=.2 cc/kg body weight) sagital and coronal T1-weighted spin-echo sequences (TR/TE: 600/15 ms) were employed. Six of the patients presented partial or total hypopituitarism associated with the syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone secretion (SIADH); there was one case of panhypopituitarism without SIADH and four cases of primary hypothyroidism, there of which were associated with pituitary deficiency, MR imaging revealed five cases of partially empty sella with residual pituitary gland on the sella floor and six cases in which the sella was completely empty. This study also identified six cases of normally situated neurohypophysis, another four in which the neurohypophysis could not be identified and one case of ectopic neurohypophysis. MR imaging is the technique of choice in the study of abnormal hypothalamic-pituitary activity. Empty and partially empty sella should be included among the frequent causes of hypopituitarism, although there is no clear relationship between the degree of adenohypophyseal insufficiency and the degree of atrophy of this system as viewed in MR images. In some cases, this entity may be the radiological sign of a phase in the development of an autoimmune inflammatory process involving the pituitary gland. (Author) 16 refs.

  8. Secretion of Recombinant Proteins in Mammalian Cells Directed by Growth Hormone Signal Peptide%生长激素信号肽可诱导重组蛋白外分泌表达

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张志谦; 李金萍; 胡颖

    2005-01-01

    Signal peptide capable of efficiently directing many protein secretion in mammalian cells is one ot the key elements in recombinant protein production, gene therapy and the development of DNA vaccines. In order to explore the possibility of rat growth hormone signal peptide as such an element, a new vector based on the mammalian expression vector pcDNA3 was constructed by employing rat growth hormone (rGH) signal peptide as leading sequence, followed by multiple cloning sites, the myc epitope-tag and 6 × his purification tag in the expression cassette. The vector was validated by successfully expressing and secretion of chick MMP-2 Cterminal PEX domain, a potential angiogenesis inhibitor, and tandem peptide repeats of myc epitope-tag in COS-7 cells. These results suggest that rat growth hormone signal peptide is effective in the mediation of recombinant protein expression and secretion, and this vector provides a new tool for universal cloning and secretion of exogenous proteins in mammalian cells.

  9. Ambient temperature effects on photo induced gonadal cycles and hormonal secretion patterns in Great Tits from three different breeding latitudes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silverin, Bengt; Wingfield, John; Stokkan, Karl-Arne; Massa, Renato; Järvinen, Antero; Andersson, Nils-Ake; Lambrechts, Marcel; Sorace, Alberto; Blomqvist, Donald

    2008-06-01

    The present study determines how populations of Great Tits (Parus major) breeding in southern, mid and northern European latitudes have adjusted their reproductive endocrinology to differences in the ambient temperature during the gonadal cycle. A study based on long-term breeding data, using the Colwell predictability model, showed that the start of the breeding season has a high predictability ( approximately 0.8-0.9) at all latitudes, and that the environmental information factor (I(e)) progressively decreased from mid Italy (I(e)>4) to northern Finland (I(e)Tits from northern Norway, southern Sweden and northern Italy to sub-maximal photo-stimulatory day lengths (13L:11D) under two different ambient temperature regimes (+4 degrees C and +20 degrees C). Changes in testicular size, plasma levels of LH and testosterone were measured. The main results were: (1) Initial testicular growth rate, as well as LH secretion, was affected by temperature in the Italian, but not in birds from the two Scandinavian populations. (2) Maximum testicular size, maximum LH and testosterone levels were maintained for a progressively shorter period of time with increasing latitude, regardless of whether the birds were kept on a low or a high ambient temperature. (3) In birds from all latitudes, the development of photorefractoriness, as indicated by testicular regression and a decrease in plasma levels of LH and testosterone, started much earlier (with the exception for LH Great Tits from northern Scandinavia) when kept on +20 degrees C than when kept on +4 degrees C. The prolonging effects of a low temperature was more pronounced in Mediterranean birds, than in birds from Scandinavia, and more pronounced in Great Tits from southern Scandinavia than in Great Tits from northern Scandinavia. Ecological implications of the results are discussed, as well as possible impact of global warming on the breeding success of European Great Tits from different breeding latitudes.

  10. Circadian Control of the Estrogenic Circuits Regulating GnRH Secretion and the Preovulatory Luteinizing Hormone Surge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lance J Kriegsfeld

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Female reproduction requires the precise temporal organization of interacting, estradiol-sensitive neural circuits that converge to optimally drive hypothalamo-pituitary-gonadal (HPG axis functioning. In mammals, the master circadian pacemaker in the suprachaismatic nucleus (SCN of the anterior hypothalamus coordinates reproductively-relevant neuroendocrine events necessary to maximize reproductive success. Likewise, in species where periods of fertility are brief, circadian oversight of reproductive function ensures that estradiol-dependent increases in sexual motivation coincide with ovulation. Across species, including humans, disruptions to circadian timing (e.g., through rotating shift work, night shift work, poor sleep hygiene lead to pronounced deficits in ovulation and fecundity. Despite the well-established roles for the circadian system in female reproductive functioning, the specific neural circuits and neurochemical mediators underlying these interactions are not fully understood. Most work to date has focused on the direct and indirect communication from the SCN to the GnRH system in control of the preovulatory LH surge. However, the same clock genes underlying circadian rhythms at the cellular level in SCN cells are also common to target cell populations of the SCN, including the GnRH neuronal network. Exploring the means by which the master clock synergizes with subordinate clocks in GnRH cells and its upstream modulatory systems represents an exciting opportunity to further understand the role of endogenous timing systems in female reproduction. Herein we provide an overview of the state of knowledge regarding interactions between the circadian timing system and estradiol-sensitive neural circuits driving GnRH secretion and the preovulatory LH surge.

  11. Secretion of anti-Müllerian hormone in the Florida manatee Trichechus manatus latirostris, with implications for assessing conservation status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Rhian C.; Reynolds, John E.; Wetzel, Dana L.; Schwierzke-Wade, Leslie; Bonde, Robert K.; Breuel, Kevin F.; Roudebush, William E.

    2011-01-01

    Environmental and anthropogenic stressors can affect wildlife populations in a number of ways. For marine mammals (e.g. the Florida manatee Trichechus manatus latirostris), certain stressors or conservation risk factors have been identified, but sublethal effects have been very difficult to assess using traditional methods. The development of 'biomarkers' allows us to correlate effects, such as impaired reproduction, with possible causes. A recently developed biomarker (anti-Müllerian hormone, AMH) provides an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay of gonadal function. The study objective was to determine AMH levels in wild manatees. In total, 28 male and 17 female manatee serum samples were assayed. Animal demographics included collection date, body weight (kg) and total length (cm). In certain cases, age of individuals was also known. AMH levels ranged from 160 to 2451.85 ng ml-1 (mean = 844.65 ng ml-1) in males and 0.00 to 0.38 ng ml-1 (mean = 0.10 ng ml-1) in females. Linear regression analyses revealed a significant relationship between male AMH levels and body weight (R2 = 0.452; p 2 = 0.338; p < 0.001). Due to the small sample size, regression analyses for female AMH and body weight and length were not significant. This represents the first report of AMH detection in a marine mammal. AMH levels in male manatees are the highest of any species observed to date, whereas levels in females are within reported ranges. Further studies will promote improved conservation decision by assessing AMH levels in the manatee as a function of various stressors including, but not limited to, nutritional status, serious injuries (e.g. watercraft collisions), exposure to biotoxins or contaminants, or disease.

  12. Prazosin blocks the glutamatergic effects of N-methyl-D-aspartic acid on lordosis behavior and luteinizing hormone secretion in the estrogen-primed female rat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Landa A.I.

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available We have observed that intracerebroventricular (icv injection of selective N-methyl-D-aspartic acid (NMDA-type glutamatergic receptor antagonists inhibits lordosis in ovariectomized (OVX, estrogen-primed rats receiving progesterone or luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone (LHRH. When NMDA was injected into OVX estrogen-primed rats, it induced a significant increase in lordosis. The interaction between LHRH and glutamate was previously explored by us and another groups. The noradrenergic systems have a functional role in the regulation of LHRH release. The purpose of the present study was to explore the interaction between glutamatergic and noradrenergic transmission. The action of prazosin, an alpha1- and alpha2b-noradrenergic antagonist, was studied here by injecting it icv (1.75 and 3.5 µg/6 µL prior to NMDA administration (1 µg/2 µL in OVX estrogen-primed Sprague-Dawley rats (240-270 g. Rats manually restrained were injected over a period of 2 min, and tested 1.5 h later. The enhancing effect induced by NMDA on the lordosis/mount ratio at high doses (67.06 ± 3.28, N = 28 when compared to saline controls (6 and 2 µL, 16.59 ± 3.20, N = 27 was abolished by prazosin administration (17.04 ± 5.52, N = 17, and 9.33 ± 3.21, N = 20, P < 0.001 for both doses. Plasma LH levels decreased significantly only with the higher dose of prazosin (1.99 ± 0.24 ng/mL, N = 18, compared to saline-NMDA effect, 5.96 ± 2.01 ng/mL, N = 13, P < 0.05. Behavioral effects seem to be more sensitive to the alpha-blockade than hormonal effects. These findings strongly suggest that the facilitatory effects of NMDA on both lordosis and LH secretion in this model are mediated by alpha-noradrenergic transmission.

  13. Treatment protocols for growth hormone-secreting pituitary adenomas combined with craniofacial fibrous dysplasia: A case report of atypical McCune-Albright syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jia; Li, Xi; Lv, Chang-Sheng; Chen, Ying; Wang, Meng; Liu, Jian-Feng; Gui, Lai

    2014-09-01

    McCune-Albright syndrome (MAS) is a rare, post-zygotic (non-germline) disorder, characterized by hypersecretory endocrinopathies, fibrous dysplasia of the bone and café-au-lait macules. The most common endocrine dysfunction is gonadal hyperfunction; thus, hypersecretion of growth hormones (GHs) as a manifestation of endocrine hyperfunction in MAS is rarely reported. MAS affects both genders, although the majority of cases have been reported in young females. Atypical presentations of MAS, with only one or two of the classic symptoms, have been previously described, but remain particularly challenging due to the lack of a diagnostic phenotype. In patients with atypical MAS, analysis of mutations in the gene of the α-subunit of the stimulatory G-protein is limited; thus, diagnosis is based on clinical judgment. In the present study, a male with polyostotic fibrous dysplasia and GH-secreting pituitary adenomas, diagnosed with atypical MAS, was reported. The pituitary adenoma was effectively treated with radiotherapy and the patient underwent surgery for the polyostotic fibrous dysplasia, with marked improvements observed in appearance.

  14. Diurnal secretion of ghrelin, growth hormone, insulin binding proteins, and prolactin in normal weight and overweight subjects with and without the night eating syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birketvedt, Grethe S; Geliebter, Allan; Kristiansen, Ingrid; Firgenschau, Yngve; Goll, Rasmus; Florholmen, Jon R

    2012-12-01

    The regulatory peptide ghrelin has been proposed to help mediate both hunger and sleep. The neuroendocrine circadian patterns in the night eating syndrome (NES) have been distinguished by an attenuated nocturnal rise in the plasma concentrations of melatonin and leptin and a greater increase in the concentrations of cortisol. In this study we wanted to test the hypothesis that night eaters have disturbances in the circadian levels of ghrelin, growth hormone (GH) and associated regulatory peptides. In 12 female night eaters (6 normal weight and 6 overweight), and 25 healthy controls (12 normal weight and 13 overweight), blood was sampled over a 24-hour period. Four meals were served from 8 AM to 8 PM, and blood samples were drawn every second hour for determination of plasma ghrelin concentrations and GH by radioimmunoassay (RIA). Analysis of serum GH, IGF-1, IGFBP-3 and prolactin were performed by ELISA. In healthy normal weight subjects there was a slight but non significant nocturnal increase of ghrelin, whereas a more or less flat curve was observed for healthy overweight, NES normal weight and NES overweight patients. The RMANOVA analysis showed a significant independent lowering effect of overweight on the grand mean of ghrelin. No direct effects on NES normal weight and overweight subjects were found, but a near-significant interaction was found between healthy overweight and overweight NES subjects. There were independent significant lowering effects of overweight and NES on the serum GH levels. During the time course no changes in the serum levels of IGF-1 or IGFB-3 were observed. Independent significant lowering effects of overweight and NES on the levels of IGF-1 were detected, whereas a near significant reduction in the global levels of IGFBP-3 was observed in both NES groups. Finally, significant nocturnal changes were observed for serum levels of prolactin in all four subgroups. Grand mean levels tended to be higher in NES subjects whereas the opposite

  15. Normal secretion and action of the gut incretin hormones glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) and glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP) in young men with low birth weight

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hagen Schou, Jakob; Pilgaard, Kasper; Vilsbøll, Tina

    2005-01-01

    Context. Low birth weight (LBW) is associated with increased risk of Type 2 diabetes mellitus. An impaired incretin effect was previously reported in type 2 diabetic patients. Objective. We studied the secretion and action of GLP-1 and GIP in young LBW men (n = 24) and matched normal birth weight...... in response to changes in glucose concentration ("beta-cell-responsiveness") during the meal test was similar in LBW and NBW, but inappropriate in LBW relative to insulin sensitivity. Fasting and postprandial p-GLP-1 and GIP was similar in the groups. First and second phase insulin responses were similar...... in LBW and NBW during a hyperglycemic clamp (7 mM) with infusion of GLP-1 or GIP, respectively, demonstrating normal action of these hormones on insulin secretion. Conclusion. Reduced secretion or action of GLP-1 or GIP does not explain a relative reduced beta-cell responsiveness to glucose...

  16. Augmented Growth Hormone Secretion and Stat3 Phosphorylation in an Aryl Hydrocarbon Receptor Interacting Protein (AIP)-Disrupted Somatotroph Cell Line

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamaguchi, Yuriko; Kawanami, Takako; Nomiyama, Takashi; Yanase, Toshihiko

    2016-01-01

    Aryl hydrocarbon receptor interacting protein (AIP) is thought to be a tumor suppressor gene, as indicated by a mutational analysis of pituitary somatotroph adenomas. However, the physiological significance of AIP inactivation in somatotroph cells remains unclear. Using CRISPR/Cas9, we identified a GH3 cell clone (termed GH3-FTY) in which Aip was genetically disrupted, and subsequently investigated its character with respect to growth hormone (Gh) synthesis and proliferation. Compared with GH3, GH3-FTY cells showed remarkably increased Gh production and a slight increase in cell proliferation. Gh-induced Stat3 phosphorylation is known to be a mechanism of Gh oversecretion in GH3. Interestingly, phosphorylated-Stat3 expression in GH3-FTY cells was increased more compared with GH3 cells, suggesting a stronger drive for this mechanism in GH3-FTY. The phenotypes of GH3-FTY concerning Gh overproduction, cell proliferation, and increased Stat3 phosphorylation were significantly reversed by the exogenous expression of Aip. GH3-FTY cells were less sensitive to somatostatin than GH3 cells in the suppression of cell proliferation, which might be associated with the reduced expression of somatostatin receptor type 2. GH3-FTY xenografts in BALB/c nude mice (GH3-FTY mice) formed more mitotic somatotroph tumors than GH3 xenografts (GH3 mice), as also evidenced by increased Ki67 scores. GH3-FTY mice were also much larger and had significantly higher plasma Gh levels than GH3 mice. Furthermore, GH3-FTY mice showed relative insulin resistance compared with GH3 mice. In conclusion, we established a somatotroph cell line, GH3-FTY, which possessed prominent Gh secretion and mitotic features associated with the disruption of Aip. PMID:27706259

  17. Evaluation of insect CAP2b analogs with either an (E)-alkene, trans- or a (Z)-alkene, cis-Pro isostere identifies the Pro orientation for antidiuretic activity in the stink bug.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nachman, Ronald J; Wang, Xiaodong J; Etzkorn, Felicia A; Kaczmarek, Krzysztof; Zabrocki, Janusz; Lopez, Juan; Coast, Geoffrey M

    2013-03-01

    The CAP2b neuropeptide family plays an important role in the regulation of the processes of diuresis and/or antidiuresis in a variety of insects. While Manse-CAP2b (pELYAFPRV-NH2) and native CAP2bs elicit diuretic activity in a number of species of flies, native CAP2b sequences have been shown to elicit antidiuretic activity in the kissing bug Rhodnius prolixus and the green stink bug Acrosternum hilare, the latter being an important pest of cotton and soybean in the southern United States. Analogs of CAP2b containing either a (Z)-alkene, cis-Pro or an (E)-alkene, trans-Pro isosteric component were synthesized and evaluated in an in vitro stink bug diuretic assay, which involved measurement of fluid secretion by Malpighian tubules isolated from A. hilare. The conformationally constrained trans-Pro analog demonstrated statistically significant antidiuretic activity, whereas the cis-Pro analog failed to elicit activity. The results are consistent with the adoption of a trans orientation for the Pro in CAP2b neuropeptides during interaction with receptors associated with the antidiuretic process in the stink bug. In addition, the results are further consistent with a theory of ligand-receptor coevolution between the CAP2b and pyrokinin/PBAN neuropeptide classes, both members of the '-PRXamide' superfamily. This work further identifies a scaffold with which to design mimetic CAP2b analogs as potential leads in the development of environmentally favorable pest management agents capable of disrupting CAP2b-regulated diuretic/antidiuretic functions.

  18. [Hormones and the cardiovascular system].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacka, Katarzyna; Czyzyk, Adam

    2008-01-01

    Hormones have an influence on many tissues and organs, including the cardio-vascular system (CVS). Depending on their activity on CVS, they can be divided into 4 groups: having hypertensive or hypotensive influence and chronotropic positive or negative action. Endocrine regulation in CVS may occur in many ways. Apart from hormones usually connected with CVS regulation, other more recently, discovered ones can act on it. A few of these act directly through specific receptors in heart or vessel wall cells, whereas some act indirectly - stimulating other neuroendocrine factors. Additionally, novel mechanisms of signal transduction have been discovered for steroid and thyroid hormones, which are independent of gene transcription regulation and are - known as "nongenomic". Hormones which increase blood pressure include: urotensin II, endothelins, angiotensin II, catecholamines, aldosterone, antidiuretic hormone, glucocorticosteroids, thyroid hormones, growth hormone and leptin. On the other hand, blood pressure can be decreased by: natriuretic peptides, the calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) family, angiotensin 1-7, substance P, neurokinin A, ghrelin, Parathyroid hormone-related protein (PTHrP), oxytocin, and, sex hormones. Hormones which when appearing in excess increase the heart rate are: catecholamines, endothelins, glucocorticosteroids, thyroid hormones, leptin and PTHrP. Those which decrease the heart rate include: natriuretic peptides, substance P, neurokinin A, oxytocin, angiotensin 1-7. This paper describes the contemporary view of the functions of hormones which act on the vessel tree and heart. The particular effect of mediator depends on many circumstances i.e.: hormone concentration, receptor type. It may also undergo contraregulation. The majority of those hormones play an important role in the pathogenesis of CVS diseases', which can result in the development of new medicines.

  19. Repeated administration of meta-chlorophenylpiperazine or 1-(2,5-dimethoxy-4-iodophenyl)-2-aminopropane produces tolerance to its stimulatory effect on adrenocorticotropin hormone but not prolactin or corticosterone secretion in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazzola-Pomietto, P; Aulakh, C S; Huang, S J; Murphy, D L

    1996-11-01

    In an attempt to clarify whether m-chlorophenylpiperazine-(m-CPP) and 1-(2,5-dimethoxy-4-iodophenyl)-2-aminopropane-(DOI) induced increases in plasma adrenocorticotropin hormone, corticosterone and prolactin secretion are mediated by the same or different mechanisms, we studied the time course of development of tolerance to the neuroendocrine effects of m-CPP (2.5 mg/kg/day) and DOI (2.5 mg/kg/day) in rats and, furthermore, also evaluated possible cross-tolerance in responses to m-CPP and DOI. We observed the development of tolerance in adrenocorticotropin hormone responses after a single i.p. injection of m-CPP. However, there was no cross-tolerance to DOI when chronic (13 days) m-CPP-treated animals were challenged with DOI (2.5 mg/kg). Injections of DOI (2.5 mg/kg) for six days were required before tolerance developed to the effect of DOI on adrenocorticotropin hormone. Furthermore, cross-tolerance was observed when DOI-treated animals (2.5 mg/kg/day x 6) were challenged with m-CPP (2.5 mg/kg) on day 7. In contrast, daily administration of m-CPP and DOI for 13 days did not produce tolerance to their stimulating effects on corticosterone and prolactin secretion. Hypothalamic levels of 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid but not 5-HT were significantly reduced after acute or subchronic administration of both m-CPP and DOI. Furthermore, no change in the approximate 50% reduction in 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid after m-CPP was observed after subchronic administration of this drug. These findings suggest that separate mechanisms mediate m-CPP and DOI-induced adrenocorticotropin hormone secretion in rats.

  20. Acute and chronic effects of growth hormone on renal regulation of electrolyte and water homeostasis.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dimke, H.; Flyvbjerg, A.; Frische, S.

    2007-01-01

    For decades, growth hormone (GH) has been known to influence electrolyte and water handling in humans and animals. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying the GH-induced anti-natriuretic and anti-diuretic effects have remained elusive. This review will examine the existing literature on renal e

  1. 2,3,7,8-Tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin activates the aryl hydrocarbon receptor and alters sex steroid hormone secretion without affecting growth of mouse antral follicles in vitro

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karman, Bethany N., E-mail: bklement@illinois.edu; Basavarajappa, Mallikarjuna S., E-mail: mbshivapur@gmail.com; Craig, Zelieann R., E-mail: zelieann@illinois.edu; Flaws, Jodi A., E-mail: jflaws@illinois.edu

    2012-05-15

    The persistent environmental contaminant, 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) is an ovarian toxicant. These studies were designed to characterize the actions of TCDD on steroidogenesis and growth of intact mouse antral follicles in vitro. Specifically, these studies tested the hypothesis that TCDD exposure leads to decreased sex hormone production/secretion by antral follicles as well as decreased growth of antral follicles in vitro. Since TCDD acts through binding to the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR), and the AHR has been identified as an important factor in ovarian function, we also conducted experiments to confirm the presence and activation of the AHR in our tissue culture system. To do so, we exposed mouse antral follicles for 96 h to a series of TCDD doses previously shown to have effects on ovarian tissues and cells in culture, which also encompass environmentally relevant and pharmacological exposures (0.1–100 nM), to determine a dose response for TCDD in our culture system for growth, hormone production, and expression of the Ahr and Cyp1b1. The results indicate that TCDD decreases progesterone, androstenedione, testosterone, and estradiol levels in a non-monotonic dose response manner without altering growth of antral follicles. The addition of pregnenolone substrate (10 μM) restores hormone levels to control levels. Additionally, Cyp1b1 levels were increased by 3–4 fold regardless of the dose of TCDD exposure, evidence of AHR activation. Overall, these data indicate that TCDD may act prior to pregnenolone formation and through AHR transcriptional control of Cyp1b1, leading to decreased hormone levels without affecting growth of antral follicles. -- Highlights: ►TCDD disrupts sex steroid hormone levels, but not growth of antral follicles. ►Pregnenolone co-treatment by-passes TCDD-induced steroid hormone disruption. ►TCDD affects steroid hormone levels through an AHR pathway in antral follicles.

  2. Suppression of ADH during water immersion in normal man. [antidiuretic hormone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epstein, M.; Pins, D. S.; Miller, M.

    1975-01-01

    A study was undertaken to ascertain whether diuresis induced by immersion is medicated by an inhibition of ADH. Immersion resulted in a progressive decrease in ADH excretion from 80.1 + or - 7 (SEM) to 37.3 + or - 6.3 microU/min (P less than 0.025). Cessation of immersion was associated with a marked increase in ADH from 37.3 + or - 6.3 microU/min to 176.6 + or - 72.6 microU/min during the recovery hour (P less than 0.05). Concomitant with these changes, urine osmolality decreased significantly beginning as early as the initial hour of immersion from 1044 + or - 36 to 542 + or - 66 mosmol/kg H2O during the final hour of immersion (P less than 0.001). These findings are consistent with the earlier suggestion that suppression of ADH release contributes to enhanced free water clearance in hydrated subjects undergoing immersion.

  3. A Case of Syndrome of Inappropriate Scretion of Anti-Diuretic Hormone Associated with Sodium Valproate

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Hong Joo; Wi, Jung Kook; Moon, Ju Young; Jeong, Kyung Hwan; Ihm, Chun Gyoo; Lee, Sang Ho; Lee, Tae Won

    2012-01-01

    We report a rare case of the concurrent manifestation of central diabetes insipidus (CDI) and type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM). A 56 year-old man was diagnosed as a type 2 DM on the basis of hyperglycemia with polyuria and polydipsia at a local clinic two months ago and started an oral hypoglycemic medication, but resulted in no symptomatic improvement at all. Upon admission to the university hospital, the patient's initial fasting blood sugar level was 140 mg/dL, and he showed polydipsic and po...

  4. A case of syndrome of inappropriate scretion of anti-diuretic hormone associated with sodium valproate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hong Joo; Wi, Jung Kook; Moon, Ju Young; Jeong, Kyung Hwan; Ihm, Chun Gyoo; Lee, Sang Ho; Lee, Tae Won

    2012-12-01

    We report a rare case of the concurrent manifestation of central diabetes insipidus (CDI) and type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM). A 56 year-old man was diagnosed as a type 2 DM on the basis of hyperglycemia with polyuria and polydipsia at a local clinic two months ago and started an oral hypoglycemic medication, but resulted in no symptomatic improvement at all. Upon admission to the university hospital, the patient's initial fasting blood sugar level was 140 mg/dL, and he showed polydipsic and polyuric conditions more than 8 L urine/day. Despite the hyperglycemia controlled with metformin and diet, his symptoms persisted. Further investigations including water deprivation test confirmed the coexisting CDI of unknown origin, and the patient's symptoms including an intense thirst were markedly improved by desmopressin nasal spray (10 µg/day). The possibility of a common origin of CDI and type 2 DM is raised in a review of the few relevant adult cases in the literature.

  5. Jointly amplified basal and pulsatile growth hormone (GH) secretion and increased process irregularity in women with anorexia nervosa: indirect evidence for disruption of feedback regulation within the GH-insulin-like growth factor I axis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Støving, R K; Veldhuis, J D; Flyvbjerg, A;

    1999-01-01

    pulsatility in AN using the techniques of deconvolution analysis and approximate entropy, which quantify secretory activity and serial irregularity of underlying hormone release not reflected in peak occurrence or amplitudes. To this end, 24-h GH profiles were obtained by continuous blood sampling aliquoted...... and the basal as well as pulsatile GH secretion rates. Moreover, AN patients exhibited significantly greater GH approximate entropy scores than the controls, denoting marked irregularity of the GH release process. In contrast to previous reports in healthy fasting subjects, cortisol levels in AN patients were....... Accordingly, GH secretion in AN probably reflects altered neuroendocrine feedback regulation, e.g. associated with increased hypothalamic GHRH discharge superimposed on reduced hypothalamic somatostatinergic tone....

  6. β-Hydroxybutyric Sodium Salt Inhibition of Growth Hormone and Prolactin Secretion via the cAMP/PKA/CREB and AMPK Signaling Pathways in Dairy Cow Anterior Pituitary Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shou-Peng Fu

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available β-hydroxybutyric acid (BHBA regulates the synthesis and secretion of growth hormone (GH and prolactin (PRL, but its mechanism is unknown. In this study, we detected the effects of BHBA on the activities of G protein signaling pathways, AMPK-α activity, GH, and PRL gene transcription, and GH and PRL secretion in dairy cow anterior pituitary cells (DCAPCs. The results showed that BHBA decreased intracellular cAMP levels and a subsequent reduction in protein kinase A (PKA activity. Inhibition of PKA activity reduced cAMP response element-binding protein (CREB phosphorylation, thereby inhibiting GH and PRL transcription and secretion. The effects of BHBA were attenuated by a specific Gαi inhibitor, pertussis toxin (PTX. In addition, intracellular BHBA uptake mediated by monocarboxylate transporter 1 (MCT1 could trigger AMPK signaling and result in the decrease in GH and PRL mRNA translation in DCAPCs cultured under low-glucose and non-glucose condition when compared with the high-glucose group. This study identifies a biochemical mechanism for the regulatory action of BHBA on GH and PRL gene transcription, translation, and secretion in DCAPCs, which may be one of the factors that regulate pituitary function during the transition period in dairy cows.

  7. Tolvaptan Treatment in Syndrome of Inappropriate ADH Secretion due to Small Cell Lung Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mucahit Gur

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Experience of ADH receptor antagonist (-vaptanes treatment in hyponatremia in malign patient is very limited. 68 years old male patient admitted to our department with a complain of nause, vomitting and epigastric pain. He has advanced stage of small cell lung cancer. He had treated with cisplatin and etoposide regimen 10 days ago as a first cure. We diagnosed inapropriate secretion of antidiuretic hormone syndrome (SIADH with low sodium level (118 meq/dl. Although the treatment with water restriction and 3% NaCl infusion, sodium level was not in normal. So we ordered 30 mg tolvaptan tablet. And then sodium levels were reached normal. After one month of discharge from hospital, he has hospitilized with same symptom and diagnosis. And again we ordered same treatment procedure and tolvaptane treatment. He had normal sodium (136 mEq/dl level during his follow up. This case demostrate that tolvaptane treatment is suitable aproaches in hyponatremia due to SIADH in oncologic patient.

  8. A model of human sleep-related growth hormone secretion in dogs: effects of 3, 6, and 12 hours of forced wakefulness on plasma growth hormone, cortisol, and sleep stages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Y; Ebihara, S; Nakamura, Y; Takahashi, K

    1981-07-01

    Twenty-four canine GH (cGH) and cortisol secretion patterns associated with sleep stages were studied in 10 male adult dogs. Plasma samples were obtained at 30- or 15-min intervals via an indwelling catheter. Under baseline conditions, all dogs showed irregular polyphasic sleep, and the episodic cGH secretion had no apparent relationship with sleep or the light-dark cycle. Five dogs were subjected to regular sleep-wake cycles; 3, 6, and 12 h of forced wakefulness (FW) were repeated at 3-, 6-, and 12-h intervals (recovery sleep periods), respectively. Peak cGH secretion (mean +/- SD, 6.4 ng/ml +/- 2.4) occurred soon after recovery sleep onset in 25 of 40 total recovery periods. The incidence of sleep-onset cGH peaks and cGH secretion during the first hour of recovery sleep significantly increased with the length of the preceding FW, but were not affected by the time of day. Delta wave sleep increased during this hour, suggesting a possible correlation with the sleep-onset cGH peak. During the first 3 h of recovery after 6 and 12 h of FW, cGH secretion was significantly enhanced, but cortisol was not. Considering the characteristics of human sleep-related GH secretion, we suggest that this peak cGH secretion represents a model of human GH secretion. Possibly, a close association of cGH secretion with sleep is concealed under the baseline condition and uncovered by inducing longer sleep-wake cycles in dogs. No circadian cortisol variation was detected under the baseline or the experimental conditions.

  9. The effect of a very low calorie diet on insulin sensitivity, beta cell function, insulin clearance, incretin hormone secretion, androgen levels and body composition in obese young women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svendsen, Pernille F; Jensen, Frank K; Holst, Jens Juul

    2012-01-01

    Evaluation of the effect of an 8-week very low calorie diet (VLCD, 500-600 kcal daily) on weight, body fat distribution, glucose, insulin and lipid metabolism, androgen levels and incretin secretion in obese women....

  10. Expression of receptors for luteinizing hormone, gastric-inhibitory polypeptide, and vasopressin in normal adrenal glands and cortisol-secreting adrenocortical tumors in dogs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Galac, S.; Kars, V.J.; Klarenbeek, S.; Teerds, K.J.; Mol, J.A.; Kooistra, H.S.

    2010-01-01

    Hypercortisolism caused by an adrenocortical tumor (AT) results from adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH)-independent hypersecretion of glucocorticoids. Studies in humans demonstrate that steroidogenesis in ATs may be stimulated by ectopic or overexpressed eutopic G protein-coupled receptors. We repor

  11. Growth hormone (GH) secretory dynamics in a case of acromegalic gigantism associated with hyperprolactinemia: nonpulsatile secretion of GH may induce elevated insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) and IGF-binding protein-3 levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshida, T; Shimatsu, A; Sakane, N; Hizuka, N; Horikawa, R; Tanaka, T

    1996-01-01

    We describe a case of pituitary gigantism with low levels of growth hormone (GH), elevated insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I), and IGF-binding protein-3 (IGF-BP-3). The patient had characteristic clinical features of gigantism and acromegaly. The basal serum GH levels ranged from 1.2-1.9 micrograms/L, which were considered to be within normal limits. Serum GH response to either insulin-induced hypoglycemia or GH-releasing hormone was blunted. Frequent blood samplings during daytime and at night showed nonpulsatile GH secretion. Serum prolactin, IGF-I and IGF-binding protein-3 levels were elevated. After unsuccessful surgery, bromocryptine treatment normalized serum prolactin without affecting serum GH and IGF-I levels. Combined administration of octreotide and bromocryptine reduced serum GH and IGF-I levels. GH bioactivity as measured by Nb2 cell proliferation assay was within reference range. In the present case, nonpulsatile GH secretion and enhanced tissue sensitivity to GH may induce hypersecretion of IGF-I and IGF-BP-3 and cause clinical acromegalic gigantism.

  12. Severe hyponatremia and the syndrome of inappropriate secretion of antidiuretic hormone (SIADH associated with fluoxetine: case report Hiponatremia grave e síndrome da secreção inapropriada de hormônio antidiurético (SSIHAD associada com fluoxetina: relato de caso

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Alexandre Twardowschy

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Hyponatremia is a significant complication of treatment with serotonin selective reuptake inhibitors (SSRI. We describe a case of a 53-year-old woman that was started on fluoxetine 20 mg/day for depression. Nine days later, the patient started with weakness, nausea, progressing to confusion, inapetence and vomit. Three hours later she became unresponsive and had a generalized seizure. She was brought to our emergency service. On admission, the patient was normovolemic, without focal motor deficits, but had mild generalized muscle rigidity and Babinski's sign bilaterally. Serum sodium was 105 mmol/L, serum osmolality, 220 mmol/L, and urinary osmolality, 400 mmol/L. The other laboratory exams, chest X-ray, cerebrospinal fluid and cranium tomography were normal. She was found to have fluoxetine-induced SIADH and it was descontinued. We started the hyponatremia correction and, in 5 days, the mental status of the patient gradually returned to a normal baseline, paralleling the resolution of her hyponatremia, without recurrence. Hyponatremia and SIADH should be considered if a patient experiences deterioration in his or her clinical condition while taking SSRI. The use of SSRI antidepressants should be remembered in the differential diagnosis of drug-induced hyponatremia.A hiponatremia é complicação significativa do tratamento com inibidores seletivos da recaptação da serotonina (ISRS. Descrevemos o caso de uma paciente de 53 anos de idade que iniciou uso de fluoxetina 20 mg/dia para depressão. Nove dias depois, a paciente apresentou fraqueza, náusea, progredindo para confusão, inapetência e vômitos. Três horas depois ela tornou-se irresponsiva e teve uma crise convulsiva generalizada. Foi então trazida ao nosso serviço de emergência. Na admissão, a paciente estava normovolêmica, sem déficits motores focais, mas apresentava leve rigidez muscular generalizada e sinal de Babinski bilateralmente. O sódio sérico era 105 mmol/L, osmolaridade sérica, 220 mmol/L, e osmolaridade urinária, 400 mmol/L. Os outros exames laboratoriais, Raio-X do pulmão, líquido cefalorraqueano e tomografia do crânio eram normais. Ela foi diagnosticada como tendo SSIHAD induzida por fluoxetina sendo esta descontinuada. Nós iniciamos a correção da hiponatremia e, em 5 dias, o estado mental da paciente gradualmente retornou ao normal, paralelamente a resolução da hiponatremia. SSIHAD e hiponatremia devem ser consideradas em um paciente que apresenta deterioração de sua condição clinica quando estiver em uso de ISRS. O uso de antidepressivos ISRS deve ser lembrado no diagnóstico diferencial de hiponatremia induzida por drogas.

  13. The sensitivity of growth hormone and prolactin secretion to the somatostatin analogue SMS 201-995 in patients with prolactinomas and acromegaly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamberts, S W; Zweens, M; Klijn, J G; van Vroonhoven, C C; Stefanko, S Z; Del Pozo, E

    1986-08-01

    The somatostatin analogue SMS 201-995 has recently been shown to be effective in suppressing GH secretion in most acromegalic patients. In the present study it was investigated whether PRL release in prolactinoma and acromegalic patients might also be sensitive to SMS 201-995 and whether co-secretion of PRL in acromegaly plays a role in determining the sensitivity of GH secretion to SMS 201-995. The s.c. administration of 50 micrograms SMS 201-995 did not affect high plasma PRL levels in four microprolactinoma patients. Therapy of one of these patients for 3 d with 50 micrograms three times a day also did not affect PRL levels. The single administration of 50 micrograms SMS 201-995 in 22 acromegalic patients lowered plasma GH levels for 2-6 h to less than 5 micrograms/l in 14 patients and to less than 50% of control values in 16 patients. In 18 of these 22 patients the immunohistochemical picture of the pituitary tumour was known. Eleven patients had pure GH-containing tumours and in seven patients there were mixed GH/PRL-containing tumours. In two of these latter patients there was evidence for GH and PRL being secreted by the same tumour cells. The sensitivity of GH secretion to SMS 201-995 did not differ between the patients with pure GH or mixed GH/PRL-containing adenomas. Plasma PRL levels were not affected by SMS 201-995 in the patients with pure GH-secreting tumours, but were significantly suppressed in four of the seven patients with mixed GH/PRL containing tumours. Chronic treatment for 16 weeks of one patient with a mixed GH/PRL-containing tumour with SMS 201-995 (100 micrograms three times a day) resulted in normalization of both the increased GH and PRL levels. It is concluded that SMS 201-995 does not affect tumorous PRL secretion in patients with pure prolactinomas. In acromegalic patients with mixed GH/PRL-containing tumours PRL secretion in some patients is sensitive to SMS 201-995, making these patients good candidates for chronic treatment with

  14. Incretin secretion: direct mechanisms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Balk-Møller, Emilie; Holst, Jens Juul; Kuhre, Rune Ehrenreich

    2014-01-01

    The incretin hormones glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP) and glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) are secreted from gastro-intestinal K- and L-cells, respectively, and play an important role in post-prandial blood glucose regulation. They do this by direct stimulation of the pancreatic β...... enzyme responsible for incretin degradation (dipeptidyl peptidase-4) is inhibited (drugs are already on the market) while the secretion of endogenous GLP-1 secretion is stimulated at the same time may prove particularly rewarding. In this section we review current knowledge on the mechanisms for direct...

  15. In utero and lactational exposure to PCB 118 and PCB 153 alter ovarian follicular dynamics and GnRH-induced luteinizing hormone secretion in female lambs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kraugerud, Marianne; Aleksandersen, Mona; Nyengaard, Jens Randel;

    2012-01-01

    The effects of in utero and lactational exposure to two structurally different polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners on follicular dynamics and the pituitary-gonadal axis in female lambs were investigated. Pregnant ewes received corn oil, PCB 118, or PCB 153, and offspring was maintained until...... 60 days postpartum. Ovarian follicles were quantified using stereology. Plasma luteinizing hormone (LH) and follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) were measured using radioimmunoassay before and after administration of a gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH) analog. PCB 118 exposure increased numbers...... of transitional, secondary, and the sum of secondary, early antral, and antral (Σsecondary-antral) follicles, PCB 153 exposure only increased the number of primary follicles. GnRH-induced LH levels were significantly elevated in the PCB 153 exposure group. We conclude that PCB 153 and PCB 118 alter follicular...

  16. ANTIDIURETIC ACTIVITY OF AQUEOUS AND ETHANOLIC EXTRACTS OF PROP ROOTS OF PANDANUS FASCICULARIS LAM.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jothimani Rajeswari et al.

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The extracts of the prop roots of Pandanus fascicularis Lam (Family: Pandanaceae is claimed as an antidiuretic by some traditional practitioners. However, the validity of this claim has not been scientifically proven or refuted. The aim of this study was to evaluate the antidiuretic potential of ethanol and aqueous extracts of prop roots of P. fascicularis in rats following oral administration. Ethanol and aqueous extracts were prepared from P. facicularis by percolation and cold maturation, respectively. Furosemide was used as a diuretic agent to induce diuresis. Vasopressin (ADH was used as a standard. The results demonstrated both the ethanol and aqueous extracts of P. facicularis and ADH significantly impaired the total urine output. However, antidiuretic potential of ethanolic extract was similar to that of ADH. The extracts caused a significant decrease in natriuresis and kaliuresis. From this study, we can conclude that ethanol extract of prop roots of Pandanus fascicularis has beneficial effects on anti diuretic activity. It has the potential to impart therapeutic effect in diuretic.

  17. Secretion of incretin hormones (GIP and GLP-1) and incretin effect after oral glucose in first-degree relatives of patients with type 2 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nauck, Michael A; El-Ouaghlidi, Andrea; Gabrys, Bartholomäus

    2004-01-01

    AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: Since insulin secretion in response to exogenous gastric inhibitory polypeptide (GIP) is diminished not only in patients with type 2 diabetes, but also in their normal glucose-tolerant first-degree relatives, it was the aim to investigate the integrity of the entero-insular axis ...

  18. The influence of nutrients, biliary-pancreatic secretions, and systemic trophic hormones on intestinal adaptation in a Roux-en-Y bypass model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Taqi, Esmaeel; Wallace, Laurie E; de Heuvel, Elaine

    2010-01-01

    The signals that govern the upregulation of nutrient absorption (adaptation) after intestinal resection are not well understood. A Gastric Roux-en-Y bypass (GRYB) model was used to isolate the relative contributions of direct mucosal stimulation by nutrients, biliary-pancreatic secretions, and sy...

  19. Enhanced insulin sensitivity mediated by adipose tissue browning perturbs islet morphology and hormone secretion in response to autonomic nervous activation in female mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omar, Bilal A; Kvist-Reimer, Martina; Enerbäck, Sven; Ahrén, Bo

    2016-01-01

    Insulin resistance results in a compensatory increase in insulin secretion to maintain normoglycemia. Conversely, high insulin sensitivity results in reduced insulin secretion to prevent hypoglycemia. The mechanisms for this inverse adaptation are not well understood. We utilized highly insulin-sensitive mice, due to adipocyte-specific overexpression of the FOXC2 transcription factor, to study mechanisms of the reversed islet adaptation to increased insulin sensitivity. We found that Foxc2TG mice responded to mild hyperglycemia with insulin secretion significantly lower than that of wild-type mice; however, when severe hyperglycemia was induced, Foxc2TG mice demonstrated insulin secretion equal to or greater than that of wild-type mice. In response to autonomic nervous activation by 2-deoxyglucose, the acute suppression of insulin seen in wild-type mice was absent in Foxc2TG mice, suggesting impaired sympathetic signaling to the islet. Basal glucagon was increased in Foxc2TG mice, but they displayed severely impaired glucagon responses to cholinergic and autonomic nervous stimuli. These data suggest that the autonomic nerves contribute to the islet adaptation to high insulin sensitivity, which is compatible with a neuro-adipo regulation of islet function being instrumental for maintaining glucose regulation.

  20. Role of gonadotrophin releasing hormone baseline concentrations in the control of pituitary gonadotrophin and ovarian steroid secretion in the pseudopregnant rat

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schuiling, GA; Valkhof, N; Koiter, TR

    1996-01-01

    To study the effect of moderately elevated gonadotrophin releasing hormone (GnRH) baseline concentrations during the luteal and the follicular phase, pseudopregnant rats were infused s.c. with GnRH at several doses for 5 days, These rats were also treated with oestradiol or sham-treated during the l

  1. Does cortisol acting via the type II glucocorticoid receptor mediate suppression of pulsatile luteinizing hormone secretion in response to psychosocial stress?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breen, Kellie M; Oakley, Amy E; Pytiak, Andrew V; Tilbrook, Alan J; Wagenmaker, Elizabeth R; Karsch, Fred J

    2007-04-01

    This study assessed the importance of cortisol in mediating inhibition of pulsatile LH secretion in sheep exposed to a psychosocial stress. First, we developed an acute psychosocial stress model that involves sequential layering of novel stressors over 3-4 h. This layered-stress paradigm robustly activated the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis and unambiguously inhibited pulsatile LH secretion. We next used this paradigm to test the hypothesis that cortisol, acting via the type II glucocorticoid receptor (GR), mediates stress-induced suppression of pulsatile LH secretion. Our approach was to determine whether an antagonist of the type II GR (RU486) reverses inhibition of LH pulsatility in response to the layered stress. We used two animal models to assess different aspects of LH pulse regulation. With the first model (ovariectomized ewe), LH pulse characteristics could vary as a function of both altered GnRH pulses and pituitary responsiveness to GnRH. In this case, antagonism of the type II GR did not prevent stress-induced inhibition of pulsatile LH secretion. With the second model (pituitary-clamped ovariectomized ewe), pulsatile GnRH input to the pituitary was fixed to enable assessment of stress effects specifically at the pituitary level. In this case, the layered stress inhibited pituitary responsiveness to GnRH and antagonism of the type II GR reversed the effect. Collectively, these findings indicate acute psychosocial stress inhibits pulsatile LH secretion, at least in part, by reducing pituitary responsiveness to GnRH. Cortisol, acting via the type II GR, is an obligatory mediator of this effect. However, under conditions in which GnRH input to the pituitary is not clamped, antagonism of the type II GR does not prevent stress-induced inhibition of LH pulsatility, implicating an additional pathway of suppression that is independent of cortisol acting via this receptor.

  2. A Case with Insulinoma Experiencing Syndrome of Inappropriate Secretion of ADH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Özgür Demir

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available We report a case of thirty-five years old woman with insulinoma, syndrome of inappropriate secretion of antidiuretic hormone (SIADH. She had a previous history of epidural hematoma operation. She was given oxcarbazepine 300 mg/day because of epilepsy. At the third month of the treatment the patient referred to our clinic with tonic-clonic convulsion, hypoglycemia (serum glucose level of 34 mg/dl and hyponatremia (118 mEq/l were detected. The biochemical diagnosis of hypoglycemia was established in the third hour of prolonged fasting test when blood glucose level was 32 mg/dl, serum insulin level was 26.5 mIU/ml, C-peptid was 6.8 ng/ml, the insulin/glucose ratio was 0.82. Endoscopic ultrasonography detected 18x19 mm lesion in pancreas. Hyponatremia was diagnosed as SIADH after excluding other possible etiologies of hyponatremia. Because of hyponatremic effect of oxcarbazepine, it was changed with valproate sodium. Water restriction therapy was applied. After enucleation of insulinoma, hyperglycemia persisted for a week, but there was no need for insulin and plasma glucose levels never exceeded 250 mg/dl. Then sustained improvement in hypoglycemic attacks and hyponatremia has been observed. Thus the patient was cured and remained euglycemic. Although oxcarbazepine was started again, hyponatremia did not reoccur. Hypoglycemia stimulates the secretion of neurotransmitter and neuropeptides including arginine-vasopressin (AVP, but hypoglycemia related hyponatremia has not been reported up to now. This is the first case with insulinoma presenting with persisting hyponatremia and improving after insulinoma resection. Turk Jem 2009; 13: 34-6

  3. Ghrelin and gastric acid secretion

    OpenAIRE

    Yakabi, Koji; Kawashima, Junichi; Kato, Shingo

    2008-01-01

    Ghrelin, a novel growth hormone-releasing peptide, was originally isolated from rat and human stomach. Ghrelin has been known to increase the secretion of growth hormone (GH), food intake, and body weight gain when administered peripherally or centrally. Ghrelin is also known to stimulate the gastric motility and the secretion of gastric acid. In the previous studies, the action of ghrelin on acid secretion was shown to be as strong as that of histamine and gastrin in in-vivo experiment. In t...

  4. Incretin and pancreatic hormone secretion in Caucasian non-diabetic carriers of the TCF7L2 rs7903146 risk T allele

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Faerch, K.; Pilgaard, K.; Knop, F. K.;

    2013-01-01

    sensitivity and endogenous glucose production. All participants had a 3-h oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT), an intravenous glucose tolerance test and a euglycaemic, hyperinsulinaemic clamp. After adjustment for age and sex, risk T allele carriers had higher haemoglobin A1c levels (p?=?0.030), reduced first......We characterised 62 non-diabetic, middle-aged, Caucasians with and without the T risk allele of rs7903146 in transcription factor 7-like 2 (TCF7L2) with regard to secretion of insulin, glucagon, glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP), glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) as well as insulin...... production, hepatic insulin sensitivity or fasting concentrations of glucose, insulin, glucagon and GLP-1 between the groups. The findings suggest that the effect of TCF7L2 on diabetes risk may include reduced secretion of GIP....

  5. Involvement of the orphan nuclear receptor SF-1 in the effect of PCBs, DDT and DDE on the secretion of steroid hormones and oxytocin from bovine granulosa cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mlynarczuk, J; Wrobel, M H; Ziolkowska, A; Kotwica, J

    2013-12-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), DDT and its metabolite (DDE) belong to estrogen-like endocrine disruptors. However, though their activity is approximately 1000-fold lower than the activity of estradiol (E2), this steroid's high concentration in follicular fluid and incubation media does not inhibit the influence of these xenobiotics. It was hypothesized that these xenobiotics might affect Steroidogenic Factor-1 (SF-1) and impair ovary function. To test this hypothesis, granulosa cells were obtained from ovarian follicles >1 or 0.05) the expression for SF-1 mRNA. It is suggested that the SF-1 receptor may be involved in the adverse effects of xenobiotics on P4 secretion as well as the synthesis and secretion of OT.

  6. Augmented Growth Hormone Secretion and Stat3 Phosphorylation in an Aryl Hydrocarbon Receptor Interacting Protein (AIP)-Disrupted Somatotroph Cell Line

    OpenAIRE

    Fukuda, Takashi; Tanaka, Tomoko; Hamaguchi, Yuriko; Kawanami, Takako; Nomiyama, Takashi; Yanase, Toshihiko

    2016-01-01

    Aryl hydrocarbon receptor interacting protein (AIP) is thought to be a tumor suppressor gene, as indicated by a mutational analysis of pituitary somatotroph adenomas. However, the physiological significance of AIP inactivation in somatotroph cells remains unclear. Using CRISPR/Cas9, we identified a GH3 cell clone (termed GH3-FTY) in which Aip was genetically disrupted, and subsequently investigated its character with respect to growth hormone (Gh) synthesis and proliferation. Compared with GH...

  7. Treatment protocols for growth hormone-secreting pituitary adenomas combined with craniofacial fibrous dysplasia: A case report of atypical McCune-Albright syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    Xu, Jia; Li, Xi; LV, CHANG-SHENG; Chen, Ying; Wang, Meng; Liu, Jian-Feng; GUI, LAI

    2014-01-01

    McCune-Albright syndrome (MAS) is a rare, post-zygotic (non-germline) disorder, characterized by hypersecretory endocrinopathies, fibrous dysplasia of the bone and café-au-lait macules. The most common endocrine dysfunction is gonadal hyperfunction; thus, hypersecretion of growth hormones (GHs) as a manifestation of endocrine hyperfunction in MAS is rarely reported. MAS affects both genders, although the majority of cases have been reported in young females. Atypical presentations of MAS, wit...

  8. Changes in diurnal sympathoadrenal balance and pituitary hormone secretion in subjects with Leu7Pro polymorphism in the prepro-neuropeptide Y.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kallio, Jaana; Pesonen, Ullamari; Jaakkola, Ulriikka; Karvonen, Matti K; Helenius, Hans; Koulu, Markku

    2003-07-01

    Neuropeptide Y (NPY) is an important neurotransmitter in the central and peripheral nervous systems. It has a regulatory role in cardiovascular and metabolic functions and control of hormone release. The leucine 7 to proline 7 (Leu7Pro) polymorphism in the signal peptide of prepro-NPY is associated with increased blood lipid levels, accelerated atherosclerosis, and diabetic retinopathy. This study elucidated the role of this polymorphism in diurnal cardiovascular, metabolic, and hormonal functions of healthy subjects during rest. The two study groups comprised individuals with different genotype, but they were matched for age and body mass index. Subjects with the Leu7Pro polymorphism had significantly lower plasma NPY and norepinephrine concentrations, lower insulin concentrations, higher glucose concentrations, and lower insulin-glucose ratio in plasma than the controls. Heart rate was significantly higher during daytime in the subjects with Leu7Pro polymorphism. Furthermore, these subjects had significantly lower prolactin concentrations in plasma. Systolic and diastolic blood pressure, serum free fatty acid and plasma leptin, ACTH, cortisol, LH, FSH, TSH, free thyroxin, and melatonin concentrations were similar during the 24-h period, compared with controls. These results show that genetically determined changes in NPY levels lead to widespread consequences in the control of sympathoadrenal, metabolic, and hormonal balance in healthy subjects.

  9. Neuroendocrine function in survivors of childhood acute lymphocytic leukemia and non-Hodgkins lymphoma: a study of pulsatile growth hormone and gonadotropin secretions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mauras, N.; Sabio, H.; Rogol, A.D.

    To assess the neuroendocrine function of long-term survivors of childhood hematologic malignancies, 10 patients who had acute lymphocytic leukemia and two who had non-Hodgkins lymphoma (NHL) (mean age 13.5 +/- 1 year) were studied, who were treated with similar chemotherapeutic regimens with or without 2400 rads of prophylactic cranial irradiation. Pharmacologic growth hormone (GH) stimulation tests and three graded doses of the GH-releasing hormone (1-40-OH-GRH, 0.1, 0.3, and 1 microgram/kg) were administered. Venous sampling for GH and gonadotropin determinations was done at 20-min intervals for 24 h, and a new computerized pulse detection algorithm was used to analyze pulses. All the patients who had neuroendocrine abnormalities were in the cranially irradiated group. Two of the 12 patients were GH deficient, and had abnormal 24-h secretory profiles, blunted GH responses to pharmacologic stimuli, and minimal responses to the three doses of GRH. The pulsatile properties of luteinizing hormone (LH) were normal in 10 of the 12 nongonadally irradiated patients, irrespective of previous cranial irradiation and pubertal stage, when compared with available normative data.

  10. Changes of growth hormone secretion in children with obstructive sleep apnea syndrome%阻塞性睡眠呼吸暂停综合征患儿体内生长激素水平的变化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢利生; 黄群

    2011-01-01

    Objective To observe changes of growth hormone (GH) secretion levels in children with obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS). Methods 60 in-patients in the Nanjing Children's Hospital had polysomnography (PSG) performed. 45 OSAS cases served as the experimental group, and IS non-OSAS cases as the control group. Growth hormone secretion levels in both groups were examined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Results GH secretion level in the OSAS group was (8.% ±1.74) ng/mL, significantly lower than that in the control group (10.09 ±1.54)ng/ mL. And in the experimental group, there was no significant difference between mild and moderate cases, while they were obviously reduced in severe cases. Further correlation and regression analysis showed that GH secretion levels were negatively correlated with the oxygen de-saturation index (r = -0.507). Conclusion Growth hormone secretion in OSAS patients was inhibited, especially in severe OSAS cases with a decrease of the oxygen de-saturation index.%目的 探讨阻塞性睡眠呼吸暂停综合征(OSAS)对儿童体内生长激素(GH)分泌水平的影响.方法 经患儿家长知情同意,选取南京市儿童医院经多导睡眠监测仪(PSG)确诊为OSAS的患儿45例为实验组,非OSAS患儿15例为对照组,应用酶联免疫吸附测定法(ELISA)测定晨起生长激素(GH).结果 OSAS组患儿GH值为(8.96±1.74)ng/mL,明显低于对照组(10.09±1.54)ng/mL,差异有统计学意义.进一步分析显示轻中度OSAS组患儿体内的GH分泌水平与正常组差异无统计学意义,而重度OSAS体内的GH分泌水平与轻中度OSAS及对照组差异明显.进一步相关回归分析显示,GH的分泌量与OSAS患儿的氧减指数呈负相关(r=-0.507).结论 OSAS患儿体内生长激素水平受到一定的抑制,尤其伴氧减指数增加的量度OSAS患儿下降明显,应早期治疗,以防影响患儿生长发育.

  11. Impact of the Leu7Pro polymorphism of preproNPY on diurnal NPY and hormone secretion in type 2 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaakkola, U; Koulu, M; Karvonen, M K; Seppälä, H; Pesonen, U; Vahlberg, T; Kallio, J

    2007-05-01

    Neuropeptide Y (NPY) is a sympathetic neurotransmitter that plays a role in e.g. circulation, hormone release and angiogenesis. Earlier studies have shown that the Leucine 7 to Proline 7 (Leu7Pro) polymorphism of preproNPY is associated with increased risk for vascular complications in type 2 diabetes. The mechanism for this maybe altered transmitter and hormone levels or altered cardiovascular functions, which have been observed in healthy subjects having the Leu7Pro polymorphism. The current study was undertaken to explore if the Leu7Pro polymorphism has an impact on these functions in subjects with type 2 diabetes. Diurnal measurements were performed for Finnish Caucasian type 2 diabetes patients of two preproNPY genotypes (matched by sex, age, BMI, duration of diabetes and HbA1c) in resting position to prevent sympathetic stimulation. Standard meals were offered during the 24-hour study period. Nine subjects with the Leu7Pro polymorphism and ten subjects without this polymorphism were studied. Plasma concentrations of NPY, glucose, insulin, cortisol, prolactin and leptin were measured by taking blood samples at 20 time points (from 8 a.m. to 8 a.m.). Heart rate and blood pressure were measured at the same time points. The results show that NPY concentrations were similar in both preproNPY genotypes. Glucose, insulin, cortisol and leptin concentrations as well as heart rate and blood pressure were also similar. However, a significant difference between genotypes was found in the association of NPY concentrations with cortisol concentrations (p for difference=0.002). Also a statistically significant negative association of plasma NPY levels with plasma glucose levels was found in both genotypes. Since no impact of preproNPY genotype on mean NPY or hormone levels were detected in subjects with type 2 diabetes, the mechanisms for the increased risk for diabetic complications in the subjects with the Leu7Pro polymorphism need to be further explored.

  12. Normal secretion and action of the gut incretin hormones glucagon-like peptide-1 and glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide in young men with low birth weight

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schou, Jakob Hagen; Pilgaard, Kasper; Vilsbøll, Tina

    2005-01-01

    CONTEXT: Low birth weight (LBW) is associated with increased risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus. An impaired incretin effect was reported previously in type 2 diabetic patients. OBJECTIVE: We studied the secretion and action of glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) and glucose-dependent insulinotropic po...... or action of GLP-1 or GIP does not explain a relative reduced beta-cell responsiveness to glucose or the slightly elevated plasma glucose concentrations observed in young LBW men....... polypeptide (GIP) in young LBW men (n = 24) and matched normal birth weight controls (NBW) (n = 25). RESULTS: LBW subjects were 5 cm shorter but had a body mass index similar to NBW. LBW subjects had significantly elevated fasting and postprandial plasma glucose, as well as postprandial (standard meal test......) plasma insulin and C-peptide concentrations, suggestive of insulin resistance. Insulin secretion in response to changes in glucose concentration ("beta-cell responsiveness") during the meal test was similar in LBW and NBW but inappropriate in LBW relative to insulin sensitivity. Fasting and postprandial...

  13. Whey proteins have beneficial effects on intestinal enteroendocrine cells stimulating cell growth and increasing the production and secretion of incretin hormones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillespie, Anna L; Calderwood, Danielle; Hobson, Laura; Green, Brian D

    2015-12-15

    Whey protein has been indicated to curb diet-induced obesity, glucose intolerance and delay the onset of type 2 diabetes mellitus. Here the effects of intact crude whey, intact individual whey proteins and beta-lactoglobulin hydrolysates on an enteroendocrine (EE) cell model were examined. STC-1 pGIP/neo cells were incubated with several concentrations of yogurt whey (YW), cheese whey (CW), beta-lactoglobulin (BLG), alpha-lactalbumin (ALA) and bovine serum albumin (BSA). The findings demonstrate that BLG stimulates EE cell proliferation, and also GLP-1 secretion (an effect which is lost following hydrolysis with chymotrypsin or trypsin). ALA is a highly potent GLP-1 secretagogue which also increases the intracellular levels of GLP-1. Conversely, whey proteins and hydrolysates had little impact on GIP secretion. This appears to be the first investigation of the effects of the three major proteins of YW and CW on EE cells. The anti-diabetic potential of whey proteins should be further investigated.

  14. Hypothalamic modulation of growth hormone secretion in the rhesus monkey: evidence from intracerebroventricular infusions of glucose, free fatty acid, and ketone bodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quabbe, H J; Bumke-Vogt, C; Iglesias-Rozas, J R; Freitag, S; Breitinger, N

    1991-10-01

    To evaluate the hypothalamus as a possible site of metabolic modulation of GH secretion, we studied the GH response to insulin hypoglycemia (IHG) and nicotinic acid (NA)-induced FFA depression in the absence and presence of third ventricular (ivt) infusions of glucose, oleic acid (Ol-Ac), or beta-hydroxybutyrate (beta OHB). Four rhesus monkeys had been prepared for chronic remote iv and ivt infusions as well as blood sampling from the adjacent room. Statistical evaluation used a two-way analysis of variance and individual comparisons with Tukey's Studentized range test. The GH response (area under the curve +/- SE) to IHG was significantly reduced by a concomitant ivt glucose infusion (control, 1.0 +/- 0.1; IHG, 12.1 +/- 3.3; IHG plus ivt glucose, 7.0 +/- 1.2 microgram/L.120 min). The GH response to FFA depression was significantly reduced by ivt Ol-Ac or beta OHB infusion (control, 6.0 +/- 1.0; NA, 51.5 +/- 4.1; Na plus Ol-Ac, 81.2 +/- 1.3; NA plus beta OHB, 38.6 +/- 3.5 microgram/L.300 min). Introcerebroventricular infusions of glucose, Ol-Ac, or beta OHB alone had no effect on plasma GH, glucose, FFA, or beta OHB concentrations. These results provide evidence for a hypothalamic site of metabolic modulation of GH secretion in the rhesus monkey. This does not exclude an additional effect directly at the pituitary gland.

  15. Lack of sensorial innervation in the newborn female rats affects the activity of hypothalamic monoaminergic system and steroid hormone secretion during puberty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quiróz, Ubaldo; Morales-Ledesma, Leticia; Morán, Carolina; Trujillo, Angélica; Domínguez, Roberto

    2014-06-01

    There is evidence that sensory innervation plays a role regulating ovarian functions, including fertility.Since sensory denervation by means of capsaicin in newborn female rats results in a lower response togonadotropins, the present study analyzed the effects that sensory denervation by means of capsaicin in neonatal rats has on the concentration of monoamines in the anterior(AH) and medium (MH) hypothalamus, and on steroid hormone levels in serum. Groups of newborn female rats were injected subcutaneously with capsaicin and killed at 10, 20, and 30 days of age and on the first vaginal estrous.The concentrations of noradrenaline, dopamine, serotonin(5-HT), and their metabolites in the AH and MH were measured using HPLC, and the levels of estradiol (E),progesterone (P), testosterone (T), FSH, and luteinizing hormone using radioimmunoanalysis. The results show thatat 20 days of age, capsaicin-treated rats have lowernoradrenergic and serotonergic activities in the AH, and that the dopaminergic activity was lower in the MH. These results suggest that the sensorial system connections within the monoaminergic systems of the AH and MH are different.Capsaicin-treated animals had lower T, E, and P levels than in the control group, suggesting that the lower activity in the AH monoaminergic system and lower hormonesecretion could be explained by the blockade of information mediated by the sensory innervation (probably substance P), mainly between the ovary and the AH.

  16. contribution of growth hormone-releasing hormone and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    hormone (GHRH) and increased somatostatin secretion to this phenomenon. ... negative feedback effects of IGF-1 or combinations of these factors. Studies to ..... increase in lean body mass and reduction in adipose tissue.6. Reduced GH ...

  17. Estrogen and Growth Hormone and their Roles in Reproductive Function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hüseyin Baki ÇİFTCİ

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to review the effect of estrogen on growth hormone secretion and the roles of estrogen and growth hormone in reproductive function. Estrogen is the main hormone affecting growth, development, maturation and functioning of reproductive tract as well as the sexual differentiation and the behavior. Growth hormone is also important factor in sexual maturation and attainment of puberty. The impact of estrogen on growth hormone secretion has been reported in rodents and primates. However, the precise mechanism for the alterations in growth hormone secretion is not clearly known. Estrogen may possibility have a direct affect on growth hormone secretion via the binding to estrogen receptor-α due to its co-expression in growth hormone neurons in the medial preoptic area and arcuate nucleus. Estrogen may also have an indirect effect via the reducing insulin-like growth factor-1 feedback inhibition resulting with increased growth hormone secretion.

  18. Measurement of the incretin hormones

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kuhre, Rune Ehrenreich; Wewer Albrechtsen, Nicolai Jacob; Hartmann, Bolette;

    2015-01-01

    The two incretin hormones, glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) and glucose-dependent insulinotropic peptide (GIP), are secreted from the gastrointestinal tract in response to meals and contribute to the regulation of glucose homeostasis by increasing insulin secretion. Assessment of plasma concentrat......The two incretin hormones, glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) and glucose-dependent insulinotropic peptide (GIP), are secreted from the gastrointestinal tract in response to meals and contribute to the regulation of glucose homeostasis by increasing insulin secretion. Assessment of plasma...... concentrations of GLP-1 and GIP is often an important endpoint in both clinical and preclinical studies and, therefore, accurate measurement of these hormones is important. Here, we provide an overview of current approaches for the measurement of the incretin hormones, with particular focus on immunological...

  19. Ghrelin and gastric acid secretion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Koji Yakabi; Junichi Kawashima; Shingo Kato

    2008-01-01

    Ghrelin, a novel growth hormone-releasing peptide, was originally isolated from rat and human stomach. Ghrelin has been known to increase the secretion of growth hormone (GH), food intake, and body weight gain when administered peripherally or centrally. Ghrelin is also known to stimulate the gastric motility and the secretion of gastric acid. In the previous studies, the action of ghrelin on acid secretion was shown to be as strong as that of histamine and gastrin in-vivo experiment. In the studies, the mechanism for the action of ghrelin was also investigated. It was shown that vagotomy completely inhibited the action of ghrelin on the secretion of gastric acid suggesting that vagal nerve is involved in the mechanism for the action of ghrelin on acid secretion. As famotidine did not inhibit ghrelin-in-duced acid secretion in the study by Masuda et al, they concluded that histamine was not involved in the action of ghrelin on acid secretion. However, we have shown that famotidine completely inhibited ghrelin-induced acid secretion and histidine decarboxylase (HDC) mRNA was increased in gastric mucosa by ghrelin injection which is inhibited by vagotomy Our results indicate that histamine is involved in the action of ghrelin on acid secretion. Furthermore synergistic action of gastrin and ghrelin on gastric add secretion was shown. Although gastrin has important roles in postprandial secretion of gastric acid, ghrelin may be related to acid secretion during fasting period or at night. However, further studies are needed to elucidate the physiological role of ghrelin in acid secretion.

  20. Ghrelin and gastric acid secretion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yakabi, Koji; Kawashima, Junichi; Kato, Shingo

    2008-11-07

    Ghrelin, a novel growth hormone-releasing peptide, was originally isolated from rat and human stomach. Ghrelin has been known to increase the secretion of growth hormone (GH), food intake, and body weight gain when administered peripherally or centrally. Ghrelin is also known to stimulate the gastric motility and the secretion of gastric acid. In the previous studies, the action of ghrelin on acid secretion was shown to be as strong as that of histamine and gastrin in in-vivo experiment. In the studies, the mechanism for the action of ghrelin was also investigated. It was shown that vagotomy completely inhibited the action of ghrelin on the secretion of gastric acid suggesting that vagal nerve is involved in the mechanism for the action of ghrelin on acid secretion. As famotidine did not inhibit ghrelin-induced acid secretion in the study by Masuda et al, they concluded that histamine was not involved in the action of ghrelin on acid secretion. However, we have shown that famotidine completely inhibited ghrelin-induced acid secretion and histidine decarboxylase (HDC) mRNA was increased in gastric mucosa by ghrelin injection which is inhibited by vagotomy Our results indicate that histamine is involved in the action of ghrelin on acid secretion. Furthermore synergistic action of gastrin and ghrelin on gastric acid secretion was shown. Although gastrin has important roles in postprandial secretion of gastric acid, ghrelin may be related to acid secretion during fasting period or at night. However, further studies are needed to elucidate the physiological role of ghrelin in acid secretion.

  1. Changes in the mRNA expression of structural proteins, hormone synthesis and secretion from bovine placentome sections after DDT and DDE treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wojciechowska, A; Mlynarczuk, J; Kotwica, J

    2017-01-15

    Disorders in the barrier function and secretory activity of the placenta can be caused by xenobiotics (XB) present in the environment and their accumulation in tissues of living organisms. Thus, the aim of this study was to investigate the effect of 1,1,1-trichloro-2,2,-bis-4-chlorophenyl-ethane (DDT) and its metabolite 1,1-dichloro-2,2-bis-4-chlorophenyl-ethene (DDE) (for 24 or 48h) at doses of 1, 10 or 100ng/ml on the function of cow placentome sections in the second trimester of pregnancy. DDT and DDE affected neither (P>0.05) the viability nor hypoxia inducible factor 1 (HIF1α) mRNA expression of the sections. XB decreased (P0.05) keratin 8 (KRT8) mRNA expression. DDT and DDE also reduced (P<0.05) prostaglandin F2α (PGF2α) synthase (PGFS) mRNA expression, while DDT increased (P<0.05) prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) synthase (PGES) mRNA expression. Neither cyclooxygenase 2 (COX-2) mRNA expression nor PGF2α and PGE2 secretion were affected. Both DDT and DDE increased (P<0.05) neurophysin I/oxytocin (NP1/OT) mRNA expression and oxytocin (OT), oestradiol (E2) and progesterone (P4) secretion while DDT stimulated only 3β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (3βHSD) and cholesterol side-chain cleavage enzyme (CYP11A1) mRNA expression (P<0.05). In summary, DDT and DDE impaired the barrier function and secretory activity of the placenta. Thus, these compounds can disrupt trophoblast invasion, myometrium contractility and gas/nutrient exchange throughout pregnancy in cows.

  2. Dose-dependent effects of a soluble dietary fibre (pectin on food intake, adiposity, gut hypertrophy and gut satiety hormone secretion in rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clare L Adam

    Full Text Available Soluble fermentable dietary fibre elicits gut adaptations, increases satiety and potentially offers a natural sustainable means of body weight regulation. Here we aimed to quantify physiological responses to graded intakes of a specific dietary fibre (pectin in an animal model. Four isocaloric semi-purified diets containing 0, 3.3%, 6.7% or 10% w/w apple pectin were offered ad libitum for 8 or 28 days to young adult male rats (n = 8/group. Measurements were made of voluntary food intake, body weight, initial and final body composition by magnetic resonance imaging, final gut regional weights and histology, and final plasma satiety hormone concentrations. In both 8- and 28-day cohorts, dietary pectin inclusion rate was negatively correlated with food intake, body weight gain and the change in body fat mass, with no effect on lean mass gain. In both cohorts, pectin had no effect on stomach weight but pectin inclusion rate was positively correlated with weights and lengths of small intestine and caecum, jejunum villus height and crypt depth, ileum crypt depth, and plasma total glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1 and peptide tyrosine tyrosine (PYY concentrations, and at 8 days was correlated with weight and length of colon and with caecal mucosal depth. Therefore, the gut's morphological and endocrine adaptations were dose-dependent, occurred within 8 days and were largely sustained for 28 days during continued dietary intervention. Increasing amounts of the soluble fermentable fibre pectin in the diet proportionately decreased food intake, body weight gain and body fat content, associated with proportionately increased satiety hormones GLP-1 and PYY and intestinal hypertrophy, supporting a role for soluble dietary fibre-induced satiety in healthy body weight regulation.

  3. Evaluation of the influence of prenatal transportation stress on GnRH-stimulated luteinizing hormone and testosterone secretion in sexually mature Brahman bulls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Littlejohn, B P; Roberts, M C; Bedenbaugh, M N; Lewis, A W; Neuendorff, D A; Riley, D G; Carroll, J A; Vann, R C; Amstalden, M; Randel, R D; Welsh, T H

    2017-01-01

    This study examined the relationship of prenatal transportation stress (PNS) with exogenous GnRH-induced LH and testosterone secretion in sexually mature Brahman bulls. Brahman cows (n = 96; 48 were stressed by transportation at 5 stages of gestation and 48 were controls) produced a calf crop of 85 calves. All bulls (n = 46) from this calf crop were electroejaculated every 2 wk beginning at a scrotal circumference of 24 cm until sexual maturity (SM; i.e., 500 million sperm/ejaculate). The initial 11 control and 12 PNS bulls to reach SM were selected for the experiment. Within 7-21 d after reaching SM, bulls were fitted with jugular cannulas, from which blood samples were collected at 15-min intervals for 6 h prior to exogenous GnRH administration (10 ng/kg BW; i.v.) and for 6 h after GnRH. Serum concentrations of LH, testosterone, and cortisol were determined by RIA. Age and body weight did not differ ( > 0.1) between PNS and control bulls at the time of the experiment. All bulls responded similarly to exogenous GnRH, indicating no influence of PNS on LH or testosterone response to GnRH. More ( < 0.01) PNS (9 of 11) than control (3 of 12) bulls exhibited an endogenous pre-GnRH LH pulse, and more ( = 0.02) PNS (9 of 11) than control bulls (4 of 12) exhibited a pre-GnRH testosterone response to LH. The average concentration of testosterone during the 60 min (time -60, -45, -30, -15, and 0 min relative to GnRH) immediately preceding GnRH, tended to be greater ( = 0.07) in PNS (1.46 ± 0.30 ng/mL) than control (0.68 ± 0.28 ng/mL) bulls. During that time span serum cortisol was lower ( < 0.01) in PNS (4.00 ± 0.91 ng/mL) than control (7.8 ± 0.87 ng/mL) bulls. A treatment by time interaction ( = 0.03) affected testosterone concentrations from time -240 to 360 min relative to GnRH. Results from this study indicate that PNS did not affect pituitary responsiveness to GnRH or testicular responsiveness to GnRH-induced LH secretion.

  4. Genetic Markers of Insulin Sensitivity and Insulin Secretion Are Associated With Spontaneous Postnatal Growth and Response to Growth Hormone Treatment in Short SGA Children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Rikke Beck; Thankamony, Ajay; Day, Felix

    2015-01-01

    with spontaneous postnatal weight gain (regression coefficient [B]: 0.12 SD scores per allele; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.01-0.23; P = .03) and also in response to GH therapy with first-year height velocity (B: 0.18 cm/y per allele; 95% CI, 0.02-0.35; P = .03) and change in IGF-1 (B: 0.17 SD scores per allele......; 95% CI, 0.00-0.32; P = .03). The association with first-year height velocity was independent of reported predictors of response to GH therapy (adjusted P = .04). The insulin secretion allele score (GS-InSec) was positively associated with spontaneous postnatal height gain (B: 0.15; 95% CI, 0.......01-0.30; P = .03) and disposition index both before (B: 0.02; 95% CI, 0.00-0.04; P = .04) and after 1 year of GH therapy (B: 0.03; 95% CI, 0.01-0.05; P = .002), but not with growth and IGF-1 responses to GH therapy. Neither of the allele scores was associated with size at birth. CONCLUSION: Genetic allele...

  5. Linear growth, growth-hormone secretion and IGF-I generation in children with neglected hypothyroidism before and after thyroxine replacement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soliman, Ashraf T; Omar, Magdy; El Awwa, Ahmad; Rizk, Mostafa M; El Alaily, Rania K; Bedair, Elsaid M A

    2008-10-01

    We studied growth hormone (GH) stimulation and insulin-like growth factor -I (IGF-I) generation tests in 15 children with neglected congenital hypothyroidism (CH) (age = 6.4 +/- 4.2 years) and measured their growth parameters for >1 years after starting thyroxine (T4) replacement. One year after treatment, height SDS (HtSDS) increased from -4.3 +/- 2.5 to -2.7 +/- 2.3. Peak GH response to clonidine increased from 3.2 +/- 1.2 ng ml(-1) to 7.62 +/- 1.38 ng ml(-1) after treatments. Basal and peak IGF-I response to GH increased from (34.66 +/- 17.3 ng ml(-1) and 58.4 +/- 36.99 ng ml(-1), respectively) before treatment to (130.6 +/- 97.8 ng ml(-1) and 193.75 +/- 122.5 ng ml(-1), respectively). HtSDS increments were correlated significantly with basal free T4 concentrations (r = 0.622, P < 0.01). In summary, after long period of hypothyroidism, T4 replacement produced significant, although incomplete, catch-up growth through a partial recovery of GH- IGF-I axis.

  6. 垂体生长激素腺瘤的临床和病理特征%Clinical and pathological characteristics of patients with growth hormone-secreting pituitary adenomas

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈晓; 何新尧; 陈宇凡; 赵卫国; 孙青芳; 卞留贯; 王卫庆; 宁光

    2013-01-01

    目的 探讨垂体生长激素(GH)腺瘤患者的临床及病理学特征.方法 回顾性分析92例垂体GH腺瘤患者的临床资料,均采用经鼻蝶手术治疗.结果 本组患者均有典型肢端肥大症状,但只有20例出现其他内分泌症状;共有微腺瘤20例,大腺瘤72例;侵袭性腺瘤19例,非侵袭性73例;术后免疫组织病理学结果示,GH(+)15例,GH(+)和泌乳素(+)38例,GH(+)和促肾上腺皮质激素(+)2例,GH(+)和促卵泡激素(+)1例,GH(+)和促黄体激素(+)l例;包括GH在内的三种及以上激素(+)35例.术后1周总缓解率为55.4%(51/92).单纯GH(+)腺瘤缓解率为66.7%(10/15),伴其它激素阳性腺瘤缓解率为53.2%(41/77),两者无统计学差异(P>0.05).73例患者术后随访3~52个月,平均30.3个月,肢端肥大症状、月经不调、溢乳、性欲减退和甲状腺功能异常缓解率分另为86.3%(63/73)、71.4%(5/7)、66.7%(4/6)、33.3%(2/6)和42.9%(3/7).结论 多数垂体GH腺瘤组织病理学表现为多激素阳性腺瘤,但是仅有少数患者表现出除肢端肥大症外的其它内分泌症状.%Objective To analyze the clinical and pathological characteristics of growth hormone (GH)-secreting pituitary adenomas.Methods The clinical and pathological data of 92 patients with GH-secreting pituitary adenomas,who underwent microsurgery from January,2000 to July,2012,were analyzed retrospectively.Results Of 92 GH-secreting pituitary adenomas,the pathological findings showed that 20 were microadenoma (≤ 10 mm in size) and 72 macroadenoma (>10 mm in size); 19 were invasive adenomas and 73 non-invasive; 15 were GH-positive adenomas and 77 GH-positive and other hormones positive (38 were GH-and prolactin-positive).All patients presented with acromegaly,but only 20 patients (21.7%) presented with other endocrinolgical symptoms besides acromegaly.The overall rate of postoperative symptom relief was 55.4% (51/92) one week after operation,and there were no

  7. Bravo capsule system optimizes intragastric pH monitoring over prolonged time: Effects of ghrelin on gastric acid and hormone secretion in the rat

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tobias Rudholm; Per Mikael Hellstrom; Elvar Theodorsson; Colin Allan Campbell; Peter Geoffrey McLean; Erik Naslund

    2008-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate measurements of intragastric pH with the Bravo capsule system over a prolonged time. METHODS: A Bravo capsule was placed inside the rat gastric body and pH was studied for periods up to five consecutive days. For comparison, a gastric fistula model was used. Effects of ghrelin and esomeprazole, with or without pentagastrin, on gastric pH were studied. In addition, effects of esomeprazole on plasma ghrelin, gastrin and somatostatin were analyzed. RESULTS: All rats recovered after surgery. The average 24-h pH during free feeding was 2.3±0.1 (η = 20) with a variation of 18%±6% over 5 d. Ghrelin, 2400 pmol/kg, t.i.d, increased pH from 1.7± 0.1 to 3.1±0.3 (P<0.01) as recorded with the Bravo system. After esomeprazole (1 mg/kg, 3 mg/kg and 5 mg/kg) there was a dose-dependent pH increase of maximally 3.4±0.1, with day-to-day variation over the entire period of 8%±3%. The fistula and pH studies generated similar results. Acid inhibition with esomeprazole increased plasma ghrelin from 10±2 pmol/L to 65±26 pmol/L (P<0.001), and somatostatin from 10±2 pmol/L to 67±18 pmol/L (P <0.001). CONCLUSION: pH measurements with the Bravo capsule are reliable, and comparable to those of the gastric fistula model. The Bravo system optimizes accurate intragastric pH monitoring over prolonged periods and allows both short- and long-term evaluation of effects of drugs and hormones.

  8. Evidence that gonadal steroids modulate nitric oxide efflux in the medial preoptic area: effects of N-methyl-D-aspartate and correlation with luteinizing hormone secretion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pu, S; Xu, B; Kalra, S P; Kalra, P S

    1996-05-01

    Several lines of evidence suggest that nitric oxide (NO) is involved in the neuroendocrine control of reproductive function. This study was undertaken to determine 1) NO activity in the medial preoptic area (MPOA) where LHRH- and NO synthase-containing neurons are coextensive; 2) whether N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor activation, which stimulates LHRH release, augments NO activity in the MPOA; and 3) whether NO activation in the MPOA underlies the steroid dependency of NMDA-induced pituitary LH release. As extracellular levels of cGMP in discrete brain sites are a reliable index of basal and stimulated activity of NO, extracellular cGMP levels in the MPOA of freely moving, awake rats were measured by microdialysis in the current study. In the first experiment, the MPOA of intact and castrated male rats were microdialyzed with artificial cerebrospinal fluid at a rate of 5 microliters/min. The basal level of cGMP efflux was determined from the initial seven samples collected at 20-min intervals. The NO response to a single i.v. injection of NMDA (10 mg/kg) or saline was assessed in the next five samples. In the second experiment, the basal and NMDA-evoked NO effluxes in the MPOA of ovariectomized (ovx) and estrogen-treated ovx rats were examined. Results showed that in both sexes, the absence of gonadal steroids resulted in significantly lower basal cGMP levels. Additionally, the cGMP response to NMDA was steroid dependent. Whereas in castrated rats it failed to affect cGMP efflux, NMDA in intact male rats promptly raised cGMP levels at 20 min, and these elevated levels were maintained through the duration of the experiment. This NMDA-induced cGMP response, observed selectively in intact rats, was also associated with stimulation of plasma LH levels. In female rats, NMDA similarly enhanced MPOA cGMP efflux and pituitary LH secretion in estradiol benzoate-treated, but not in oil-treated, ovx rats. The NMDA receptor antagonist D,L-amino-5-phosphoropentanoic acid

  9. Growth hormone-secreting pituitary adenoma with concomitant colorectal cancer: a report of 8 cases%垂体生长激素腺瘤合并结直肠癌:附8例报告

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    伍韶斌; 陈志康; 陈晋湘; 葛杰; 袁伟杰; 裴海平; 陈子华

    2011-01-01

    Objective To study the clinical characteristics of growth hormone (GH) -secreting pituitary adenoma with concomitant colorectal cancer. Methods The clinical and pathological data of 8 patients with GH-secreting pituitary adenoma and concomitant colorectal cancer admitted from 2006 to 2011 were retrospectively analyzed. Results There were 6 male and 2 female patients, and the median age was 59 (48-69) years. The history of acromegaly caused by pituitary tumor of the patients ranged from 10 to 30 years. Two patients had undergone treatment for pituitary adenoma. The serum levels of hormones were detected and MRI/CT examinations were performed before surgery. All patients were diagnosed as having colorectal cancer by colonoscopic biopsy and all underwent radical operation for colorectal cancer. The clinical stages of the tumor were Dukes B and C. Adjuvant chemotherapy was given in all patients after surgery. The postoperative complications included pulmonary infection , hypertension , hyperglycemia , hypokalemia, etc. , which were all resolved by symptomatic treatments. No anastomotic fistula or abdominal infection occurred. One case was self - discharged from hospital against advice (and then was lost to follow-up). The other 7 cases were followed up for 2 to 44 months and all were alive. Conclusions For patients with GH-secreting pituitary adenoma and concomitant colorectal cancer, the comprehensive treatments for colorectal cancer shoud be adopted first, and later the pituitary adenoma is treated according to the patient' s situation.%目的 探讨垂体生长激素腺瘤合并结直肠癌的临床特征.方法 回顾分析2006-2011年收治的8例垂体生长激素腺瘤合并结直肠癌的临床和病理资料.结果 男6例,女2例;中位年龄59岁(48 ~69岁).有垂体瘤肢端肥大病史10 ~30年,2例已行垂体瘤治疗.术前检测激素水平和MRI及CT影像学检查.经纤维结肠镜活检确定为结直肠癌.所有患者均按结直肠癌

  10. Analysis of factors influencing effect of transsphenoidal microsurgery for growth hormone-secreting pituitary adenoma%垂体生长激素腺瘤经蝶入路手术预后因素分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    毕智勇; 贾旺; 贾桂军

    2011-01-01

    目的 评价垂体生长激素腺瘤经蝶手术的疗效和分析影响手术疗效的相关因素.方法 回顾性分析106例资料完整经蝶手术治疗的垂体生长激素腺瘤病人的临床资料,根据肿瘤大小、术前生长激素水平、侵袭性等进行分类.随访术后激素水平、影像学检查评价手术疗效.结果 垂体生长激素腺瘤患者进行经蝶手术后总缓解率为72.6%,Ⅰ级缓解率为84.2%,Ⅱ级为82.6%,Ⅲ级为64.7%,Ⅳ级为14.4%.Knosp 0、l、2、3、4级术后患者缓解率分别为89.7%、80.6%、66.7%、45.5%、0.0%.结论患者术前生长激素(growth hormone,GH)>30 μg/L、肿瘤侵袭度>Ⅱ级是影响预后的危险因素;随肿瘤发展对患者颈内动脉包裹程度增加,术后缓解率显著下降.生长激素腺瘤患者缓解率和肿瘤大小、侵袭性、术前GH水平显著相关.%Objective To evaluate the therapeutic effect of transsphenoidal microsurgery for growth hormone-secreting pituitary adenoma(GHPA) and analyze the correlative factors influencing the effect. Methods The clinical data of 106 patients who underwent transsphenoidal microsurgery for GHPA were retrospectively analyzed. The tumors were classified according to tumor size, preoperative GH levels, and invasion etc. Based on the criterion of cure of acromegaly, postoperative hormone level and imaging examination were used to evaluate the post-operative outcomes. Results Total remission rate was 72. 6% , and grades I , II , Ⅲ , and Ⅳ adenomas were 84.2% , 82.6% , 64.7% , and 14.4% , respectively. But according to Knosp grading, the remission rate of 0 ~4 grade were 89.7% , 80.6% , 66. 7% , 45. 5% and 0. 0% , respectively. Conclusion The prognoses were related to the size of the adenomas, the preoperative level of GH and invasiveness of GH-secreting adenomas.

  11. Hormonal regulation of spermatogenesis in zebrafish

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Waal, P.P.

    2009-01-01

    Across vertebrates, spermatogenesis is under the endocrine control of two hormones, follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and androgens; the testicular production and secretion of the latter are controlled by luteinizing hormone. In fish, also the strong steroidogenic potency of Fsh should be taken int

  12. Secrets Law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luz Helena Guamanzara Torres

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper provides a review of the book The Law of Secrets, of the author Juan Carlos Martínez-Villalba Riofrío studying the secrets and how law does protect. To this end, the author has analyzed the general theory of secrecy, secrets and methodology, its overall rating, essential elements and their different legal dimensions, the secret as a subjective right. It also establishes that professional secrecy is protected by constitutional principles such as the right to privacy.

  13. CRC handbook of neurohypophyseal hormone analogs. Volume 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jost, K.; Lebl, M.; Brtnik, F.

    1987-01-01

    This book is discussed in two parts. The Part 1 discusses the: Prohormones and Hormonogens of Neuro-hypophyseal Hormones, Analogs with Inhibitory properties. Analogs with Dissociated and/or High activities. Introduction. Uterotonic Activity. Galactogogic Activity. Pressor Activity. Antidiuretic Activity. References. Part 2 discusses the Other Important Activities. CNS Activities. Corticotropin- and ..beta..-Entriuretic Action. Natriferic Action. References. Practical Use in Human and Veterinary Medicine. Introduction. Methyloxytocin. Deamino-Oxytocin. Cargutocin. Glypressin. Octapressin. Desmopressin. Analogs Clinically Tried But Not Introduced into Production and Routine Clinical Practice. References. Tables of Analogs and Index.

  14. Influence of low protein diets on gene expression of digestive enzymes and hormone secretion in the gastrointestinal tract of young weaned piglets

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhi-mei TIAN; Xian-yong MA; Xue-fen YANG; Qiu-li FAN; Yun-xia XIONG; Yue-qin QIU; Li WANG; Xiao-lu WEN; Zong-yong JIANG‡

    2016-01-01

    中文概要题目:低蛋白日粮对断奶仔猪胃肠道消化酶表达及激素分泌的影响目的:研究蛋白日粮水平对断奶仔猪消化的影响机制。创新点:从营养物质消化及激素变化方面研究低蛋白日粮对仔猪胃肠道消化吸收的影响,探究低蛋白日粮饲养的可行性。方法:18头28日龄断奶仔猪经过7天适应期后平均体重为(9.57±0.64) kg。仔猪随机分为三组,每组6头,分别饲喂20%、17%和14%粗蛋白日粮并自由采食45天。根据国家研究委员会(NRC)2012年的标准,通过添加赖氨酸、蛋氨酸、半胱氨酸、苏氨酸及色氨酸等理想蛋白模型满足仔猪生长需求。实验结束后,进行颈静脉采血并屠宰取样。结论:结果表明基于蛋白日粮水平对内分泌及消化酶影响,与14%及20%粗蛋白组相比,17%蛋白日粮更有利于胃肠道和胰腺等组织中三种主要营养物质的消化。因此,17%粗蛋白水平更适合断奶仔猪的营养需求,证实了低蛋白日粮对断奶仔猪饲养的可行性。%To investigate dietary protein level effects on digestive mechanisms, weaned piglets were fed for 45 d with diets containing 20%, 17%, or 14% crude protein (CP) supplemented to meet requirements for essential amino acids. This article describes the influence of dietary protein on gastrointestinal hormones and expression of an array of digestive enzymes in the gastrointestinal tract and pancreas. Results indicated that there were no significant differ-ences in expression of enzymes involved in carbohydrate digestion, except for maltase in the duodenum. In the je-junum, amylase expression in pigs fed 20% CP was much higher than that in pigs fed other diets (P0.05), there was a trend towards higher expression of various proteases in pigs fed 17% CP. The duodenal expression of en-teropeptidase in diets with 14% and 17% CP was significantly higher than that with 20% CP (P0.05). The expression of GPR93 as

  15. Síndromes hormonales paraneoplásicos Paraneoplastic hormonal syndromes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Forga

    2005-08-01

    depend on the secretion of hormonal peptides or their precursors, cytokines and, more rarely, thyroidal hormones and Vitamin D, which act in an endocrine, paracrine or autocrine way. Sometimes, paraneoplastic syndromes can be more serious than the consequences of the primary tumour itself and can precede, develop in parallel, or follow the manifestations of this tumour. It is important to recognise a paraneoplastic hormonal syndrome for several reasons, amongst which we would draw attention to three: 1 It can lead to the diagnosis of a previously undetected, underlying malign or benign neoplasia; 2 It can dominate the clinical picture and thus lead to errors with respect to the origin and type of primary tumour; and 3 It can follow the clinical course of the underlying tumour and thus be useful for monitoring its evolution. The molecular mechanisms responsible for the development of these syndromes are not well-known, but it is believed that they might be inherent to the mutations responsible for the primary tumour or depend on epigenetic factors such as methylation. In this review, we consider the following paraneoplastic hormonal syndromes: malign hypercalcaemia, hyponatraemia (inappropiate secretion of the antidiuretic hormone, ectopic Cushing’s syndrome, ectopic acromegaly, hypoglycaemia due to tumours different from those of the islet cells and paraneoplastic gynaecomastia; we make a brief final reference to other hormones (calcitonin, somatostatin, and VIP.

  16. Specific involvement of gonadal hormones in the functional maturation of growth hormone releasing hormone (GHRH) neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gouty-Colomer, Laurie-Anne; Méry, Pierre-François; Storme, Emilie; Gavois, Elodie; Robinson, Iain C; Guérineau, Nathalie C; Mollard, Patrice; Desarménien, Michel G

    2010-12-01

    Growth hormone (GH) is the key hormone involved in the regulation of growth and metabolism, two functions that are highly modulated during infancy. GH secretion, controlled mainly by GH releasing hormone (GHRH), has a characteristic pattern during postnatal development that results in peaks of blood concentration at birth and puberty. A detailed knowledge of the electrophysiology of the GHRH neurons is necessary to understand the mechanisms regulating postnatal GH secretion. Here, we describe the unique postnatal development of the electrophysiological properties of GHRH neurons and their regulation by gonadal hormones. Using GHRH-eGFP mice, we demonstrate that already at birth, GHRH neurons receive numerous synaptic inputs and fire large and fast action potentials (APs), consistent with effective GH secretion. Concomitant with the GH secretion peak occurring at puberty, these neurons display modifications of synaptic input properties, decrease in AP duration, and increase in a transient voltage-dependant potassium current. Furthermore, the modulation of both the AP duration and voltage-dependent potassium current are specifically controlled by gonadal hormones because gonadectomy prevented the maturation of these active properties and hormonal treatment restored it. Thus, GHRH neurons undergo specific developmental modulations of their electrical properties over the first six postnatal weeks, in accordance with hormonal demand. Our results highlight the importance of the interaction between the somatotrope and gonadotrope axes during the establishment of adapted neuroendocrine functions.

  17. Gastrointestinal hormones and their targets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rehfeld, Jens F.

    2014-01-01

    Gastrointestinal hormones are peptides released from endocrine cells and neurons in the digestive tract. More than 30 hormone genes are currently known to be expressed in the gastrointestinal tract, which makes the gut the largest hormone producing organ in the body. Modern biology makes......, paracrine, spermiocrine secretion etc.), so the same peptide may act as a blood-borne hormone, a neurotransmitter, a local growth factor, or a fertility factor. The molecular targets of each bioactive peptide are specific G-protein coupled receptors expressed in the cell membranes of different target cells...... it feasible to conceive the hormones under five headings: The structural homology groups a majority of the hormones into nine families, each of which is assumed to originate from one ancestral gene. The individual hormone gene often has multiple phenotypes due to alternative splicing, tandem organization...

  18. Development of Chemiluminscence Immunoaasy Kit for Follicle-Stimulating Hormone

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    <正>Follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) is a gonadotropic hormone, and it is synthesized and secreted by basophilic cell of anterior lobe of hypophysis. Detection of FSH levels in human serum is useful in

  19. The parathyroid hormone-related protein is secreted during the osteogenic differentiation of human dental follicle cells and inhibits the alkaline phosphatase activity and the expression of DLX3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klingelhöffer, C; Reck, A; Ettl, T; Morsczeck, C

    2016-08-01

    The dental follicle is involved in tooth eruption and it expresses a great amount of the parathyroid hormone-related protein (PTHrP). PTHrP as an extracellular protein is required for a multitude of different regulations of enchondral bone development and differentiation of bone precursor cells and of the development of craniofacial tissues. The dental follicle contains also precursor cells (DFCs) of the periodontium. Isolated DFCs differentiate into periodontal ligament cells, alveolar osteoblast and cementoblasts. However, the role of PTHrP during the human periodontal development remains elusive. Our study evaluated the influence of PTHrP on the osteogenic differentiation of DFCs under in vitro conditions for the first time. The PTHrP protein was highly secreted after 4days of the induction of the osteogenic differentiation of DFCs with dexamethasone (2160.5pg/ml±345.7SD. in osteogenic differentiation medium vs. 315.7pg/ml±156.2SD. in standard cell culture medium; Student's t Test: pPTHrP inhibited the alkaline phosphatase activity and the expression of the transcription factor DLX3, but the depletion of PTHrP did not support the differentiation of DFCs. Previous studies have shown that Indian Hedgehog (IHH) induces PTHrP and that PTHrP, in turn, inhibits IHH via a negative feedback loop. We showed that SUFU (Suppressor Of Fused Homolog) was not regulated during the osteogenic differentiation in DFCs. So, neither the hedgehog signaling pathway induced PTHrP nor PTHrP suppressed the hedgehog signaling pathway during the osteogenic differentiation in DFCs. In conclusion, our results suggest that PTHrP regulates independently of the hedgehog signaling pathway the osteogenic differentiated in DFCs. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Growth sensitivity in the epiphyseal growth plate, liver and muscle of SD rats is significantly enhanced by treatment with a fermented soybean product (cheonggukjang) through stimulation of growth hormone secretion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, In Sik; Kim, Ji Eun; Lee, Young Ju; Kwak, Mun Hwa; Lee, Hong Gu; Kim, Hye Sung; Lee, Hee Seob; Hwang, Dae Youn

    2014-01-01

    Cheonggukjang (CKJ), a fermented soybean product, has been reported to have beneficial effects on various chronic diseases, including cardiovascular disease, cancer and immune diseases. To investigate whether CKJ induces growth sensitivity in mammals, alterations of key parameters related to their growth were analyzed. Sprague‑Dawley (SD) rats were treated with a high concentration of CKJ (H‑CKJ) or a low concentration of CKJ (L‑CKJ) for 10 days, and compared with vehicle-treated rats. The CKJ contained a high concentration of total flavonoids, phenolic compounds, daidzein and genistein, compared with the non-fermented soybean product. Body weight was higher in the H‑CKJ‑treated group compared with that in the vehicle‑ and L‑CKJ‑treated groups, whereas the weights of three organs (the brain, liver and kidney) were higher in the L‑CKJ‑treated group compared with the remaining two groups. However, no significant differences in femur length and weight were detected between the CKJ‑ and vehicle‑treated groups. The thickness of the epiphyseal growth plate in proximal femoral epiphysis was broadest in the H‑CKJ‑treated group compared with the vehicle- and L‑CKJ‑treated groups. Furthermore, the level of growth hormone (GH) was highest in the serum of the L‑CKJ‑treated group, although that of the H‑CKJ‑treated group was lower compared with that in the L‑CKJ group. Moreover, the expression levels of the GH receptor increased in the liver tissue, but not in the muscle tissue, of the L‑CKJ‑ and H‑CKJ‑treated groups. In the downstream signaling pathway of the GH receptor, the phosphorylation levels of Akt and Erk were differentially regulated between the liver and muscle. These results suggest that CKJ extract may enhance the sensitivity of the femur, liver and muscle epiphyseal growth plate in SD rats, through the upregulation of GH secretion.

  1. Analysis of gamma-aminobutyric acidB receptor function in the in vitro and in vivo regulation of alpha-melanotropin-stimulating hormone secretion from melanotrope cells of Xenopus laevis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Koning, H P; Jenks, B G; Roubos, E W

    1993-02-01

    The activity of many endocrine cells is regulated by gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA). The effects of GABA are mediated by GABAA and/or GABAB receptors. While GABAB receptors in the central nervous system have now been extensively characterized, little is known of the function and pharmacology of GABAB receptors on endocrine cells. In the amphibian Xenopus laevis, GABA inhibits the release of alpha MSH from the endocrine melanotrope cells through both GABAA and GABAB receptors. We have investigated the following aspects of the GABAB receptor of the melanotrope cells of X. laevis: 1) the pharmacology of this receptor, using antagonists previously established to demonstrate GABAB receptors in the mammalian central nervous system; 2) the relative contribution to the regulation of hormone secretion by the GABAA and GABAB receptors on melanotrope cells in vitro; and 3) the role of the GABAB receptor with respect to the physiological function of the melanotrope cell in vivo, i.e. regulation of pigment dispersion in skin melanophores in relation to background color. Our results demonstrate that phaclofen, 2-hydroxysaclofen, and 4-aminobutylphosphonic acid dose-dependently blocked the inhibition of alpha MSH release by GABAB receptor activation, but not by GABAA receptor activation. The GABAB receptor antagonist delta-aminovaleric acid appeared to be a selective agonist on the GABAB receptor of melanotrope cells. The inhibitory secretory response to a low dose of GABA (10(-5) M) was not affected by bicuculline, but was significantly reduced by phaclofen, indicating that at a low GABA concentration, the GABAB receptor mechanism would dominate in inhibiting the melanotrope cells. Different thresholds of activation may form the basis for differential action of GABA through both GABA receptor types. The tonic inhibition of alpha MSH release in animals adapted to a white background was not affected by 4-aminobutylphosphonic acid, indicating that the GABAB receptor is not (solely

  2. Growth Hormone

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... AACC products and services. Advertising & Sponsorship: Policy | Opportunities Growth Hormone Share this page: Was this page helpful? Also known as: GH; Human Growth Hormone; HGH; Somatotropin; Growth Hormone Stimulation Test; Growth ...

  3. Physiology of bile secretion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Alejandro Esteller

    2008-01-01

    The formation of bile depends on the structural and functional integrity of the bile-secretory apparatus and its impairment,in different situations,results in the syndrome of cholestasis.The structural bases that permit bile secretion as well as various aspects related with its composition and flow rate in physiological conditions will first be reviewed.Canalicular bile is produced by polarized hepatocytes that hold transporters in their basolateral (sinusoidal) and apical (canalicular) plasma membrane.This review summarizes recent data on the molecular determinants of this primary bile formation.The major function of the biliary tree is modification of canalicular bile by secretory and reabsorptive processes in bileduct epithelial cells (cholangiocytes) as bile passes through bile ducts.The mechanisms of fluid and solute transport in cholangiocytes will also be discussed.In contrast to hepatocytes where secretion is constant and poorly controlled,cholangiocyte secretion is regulated by hormones and nerves.A short section dedicated to these regulatory mechanisms of bile secretion has been included.The aim of this revision was to set the bases for other reviews in this series that will be devoted to specific issues related with biliary physiology and pathology.

  4. Familial growth hormone releasing factor deficiency in pseudopseudohypoparathyroidism.

    OpenAIRE

    Stirling, H F; Barr, D G; Kelnar, C J

    1991-01-01

    A mother with pseudopseudohypoparathyroidism and her short son showed poor spontaneous growth hormone secretion, and provocation tests suggested a deficiency of growth hormone releasing factor. This is the first report of growth hormone releasing factor deficiency in pseudopseudohypoparathyroidism. The boy has responded well to growth hormone treatment over a period of three years.

  5. SnapShot: Hormones of the gastrointestinal tract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coate, Katie C; Kliewer, Steven A; Mangelsdorf, David J

    2014-12-04

    Specialized endocrine cells secrete a variety of peptide hormones all along the gastrointestinal (GI) tract, making it one of the largest endocrine organs in the body. Nutrients and developmental and neural cues trigger the secretion of gastrointestinal (GI) hormones from specialized endocrine cells along the GI tract. These hormones act in target tissues to facilitate digestion and regulate energy homeostasis. This SnapShot summarizes the production and functions of GI hormones.

  6. Novel mechanisms of growth hormone regulation: growth hormone-releasing peptides and ghrelin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.-M.J. Lengyel

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Growth hormone secretion is classically modulated by two hypothalamic hormones, growth hormone-releasing hormone and somatostatin. A third pathway was proposed in the last decade, which involves the growth hormone secretagogues. Ghrelin is a novel acylated peptide which is produced mainly by the stomach. It is also synthesized in the hypothalamus and is present in several other tissues. This endogenous growth hormone secretagogue was discovered by reverse pharmacology when a group of synthetic growth hormone-releasing compounds was initially produced, leading to the isolation of an orphan receptor and, finally, to its endogenous ligand. Ghrelin binds to an active receptor to increase growth hormone release and food intake. It is still not known how hypothalamic and circulating ghrelin is involved in the control of growth hormone release. Endogenous ghrelin might act to amplify the basic pattern of growth hormone secretion, optimizing somatotroph responsiveness to growth hormone-releasing hormone. It may activate multiple interdependent intracellular pathways at the somatotroph, involving protein kinase C, protein kinase A and extracellular calcium systems. However, since ghrelin has a greater ability to release growth hormone in vivo, its main site of action is the hypothalamus. In the current review we summarize the available data on the: a discovery of this peptide, b mechanisms of action of growth hormone secretagogues and ghrelin and possible physiological role on growth hormone modulation, and c regulation of growth hormone release in man after intravenous administration of these peptides.

  7. Hormones in pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pratap Kumar

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The endocrinology of human pregnancy involves endocrine and metabolic changes that result from physiological alterations at the boundary between mother and fetus. Progesterone and oestrogen have a great role along with other hormones. The controversies of use of progestogen and others are discussed in this chapter. Progesterone has been shown to stimulate the secretion of Th2 and reduces the secretion of Th1 cytokines which maintains pregnancy. Supportive care in early pregnancy is associated with a significant beneficial effect on pregnancy outcome. Prophylactic hormonal supplementation can be recommended for all assisted reproduction techniques cycles. Preterm labor can be prevented by the use of progestogen. The route of administration plays an important role in the drug′s safety and efficacy profile in different trimesters of pregnancy. Thyroid disorders have a great impact on pregnancy outcome and needs to be monitored and treated accordingly. Method of locating review: Pubmed, scopus

  8. Role of sodium depletion in acute antidiuretic effect of bendroflumethiazide in rats with nephrogenic diabetes insipidus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janjua, N R; Jonassen, T E; Langhoff, S; Thomsen, K; Christensen, S

    2001-10-01

    The mechanisms underlying the acute antidiuretic response to bendroflumethiazide (BFTZ; 0.25 mg/h for 3 h) in rats with nephrogenic diabetes insipidus (NDI) was investigated. NDI was induced in conscious chronically instrumented female Wistar rats either by chronic lithium administration (40-60 mmol Li/kg of diet for 4 weeks) or by acute infusion of V2 antagonist OPC-31260 (0.2 mg/h). Renal clearance experiments were performed in conscious rats instrumented with permanent catheters. During experiments total body water content was held constant by i.v. replacement of urine production (V) with 150 mM glucose. One group in addition received i.v. replacement of urinary sodium losses. In both models of NDI, BFTZ-induced antidiuresis was associated with a decrease in the delivery of tubular fluid to the distal nephron, as measured by lithium clearance (C(Li)). Both the antidiuresis and the decrease in C(Li) could be prevented by sodium replacement. BFTZ did not affect distal water handling as measured by V/C(Li). BFTZ did not induce antidiuresis in normal rats with water diuresis. It is concluded that in rats with NDI, thiazide-induced antidiuresis can be entirely explained by a fall in distal delivery of tubular fluid related to sodium depletion. This contrasts the response in rats with central diabetes insipidus, where thiazides in addition increase distal water reabsorption.

  9. Growth Hormone and Aging

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-08-01

    thru ADP010582 UNCLASSIFIED 23-1 GROWTH HORMONE AND AGING J.A.F. Tresguerres , Perez Romero, N. de las Heras, S. Vazquez, C. Ariznavarreta Complutense... Tresguerres 1996). GHRH is were treated as children with GH, a significant secreted in peaks as well as somatostatin, both number of problems were detected...of GH ( Tresguerres 1996) reduction in muscular and bone mass together IGFI is a peptide of 70 aminoacids that shows with an increase in body fat

  10. 21 CFR 862.1665 - Sodium test system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... excretion of large amounts of dilute urine, accompanied by extreme thirst), adrenal hypertension, Addison's disease (caused by destruction of the adrenal glands), dehydration, inappropriate antidiuretic hormone secretion, or other diseases involving electrolyte imbalance. (b) Classification. Class II. ...

  11. Growth hormone and selective attention : A review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Quik, Elise H.; van Dam, P. Sytze; Kenemans, J. Leon

    2010-01-01

    Introduction: The relation between growth hormone (GH) secretion and general cognitive function has been established. General cognitive functioning depends on core functions including selective attention, which have not been addressed specifically in relation to GH. The present review addresses curr

  12. Pathology of sleep, hormones and depression

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steiger, A.; Dresler, M.; Kluge, M.; Schussler, P.

    2013-01-01

    In patients with depression, characteristic changes of sleep electroencephalogram and nocturnal hormone secretion occur including rapid eye movement (REM) sleep disinhibition, reduced non-REM sleep and impaired sleep continuity. Neuropeptides are common regulators of the sleep electroencephalogram (

  13. Does growth hormone cause cancer?

    OpenAIRE

    Jenkins, P.J.; Mukherjee, A.; Shalet, S. M.

    2006-01-01

    KEYWORDS - CLASSIFICATION: adverse effects;Acromegaly;Adult;Animals;cancer epidemiology;complications;Child;Child Development;Colorectal Neoplasms;deficiency;epidemiology;etiology;Evaluation;Growth Hormone;Human Growth Hormone;Humans;Insulin-Like Growth Factor I;mechanisms of carcinogenesis;Neoplasm Recurrence,Local;Neoplasms;Neoplasms,Multiple Primary;physiology;physiopathology;Risk Factors;secretion;therapy. The ability of GH, via its mediator peptide IGF-1, to influence regulation of ce...

  14. Effects of jejunal infusion of amino acids on secretion of gastrointestinal hormone in dog model%空肠输注氨基酸单体对犬胃肠道激素的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    夏建福; 周宏; 方阳; 李霄阳; 余震

    2015-01-01

    目的 观察空肠输注氨基酸单体对健康犬胃肠道激素的影响.方法 6只健康成年犬行空肠造瘘及股静脉插管,手术后24 h开始分别向空肠输注各种氨基酸单体(实验组)和生理盐水(对照组),各溶液输注间隔时间为24 h.输注前及输注后30、60、90、120 min收集血标本,采用放射免疫分析法检测血浆胆囊收缩素(CCK)、胃动素和胃泌素浓度.结果 空肠输注不同氨基酸单体后,仅苯丙氨酸和色氨酸引起血浆CCK浓度升高,犬空肠输注苯丙氨酸30、60 min时CCK浓度高于输注生理盐水组[(1.25±0.19) ng/L比(0.66±0.14) ng/L, (1.23 ±0.12) ng/L比(0.80±0.03) ng/L,均P<0.01],犬空肠输注色氨酸30 min时CCK浓度高于输注生理盐水组[(1.08±0.26) ng/L比(0.66±0.14) ng/L,P<0.01].结论 空肠输注苯丙氨酸或色氨酸在一定程度上能促进胃肠道激素释放;芳香族氨基酸(苯丙氨酸和色氨酸)比脂肪族氨基酸(亮氨酸、异亮氨酸和甲硫氨酸)和带电荷氨基酸(门冬氨酸、精氨酸和谷氨酸)更能刺激CCK释放,这可能跟氨基酸自身的性质有关.%Objective To investigate the effect of jejunal infusion of amino acids on secretion of gastrointestinal hormone in healthy dogs.Methods Six healthy adult dogs were treated with jejunal fistulas and femoral vein intubation.Twenty-four hours after the operation,solution of 8 different amino acid monomers (experimental group) or normal saline (control group) were infused into the jejunum of the dogs every 24hours.The levels of cholecystokinin (CCK),motilin,and gastrin in the peripheral plasma were measured using radioimmunoassay at the start of infusion (0 minute),and 30,60,90,and 120 minutes after infusion.Results Compared with the control group,the serum CCK level in the phenylalanine group was significantly higher 30 and 60 minutes after infusion [(1.25 ±0.19) ng/L vs.(0.66 ±0.14) ng/L,(1.23 ±0.12) ng/L vs.(0.80 ± 0.03) ng/L,both P < 0.01],while that

  15. Long-term outcomes of surgery and radiotherapy for secreting and non-secreting pituitary adenoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Mi Young; Kim, Jin Hee; Oh, Young Kee; Kim, El [Dongsan Medical Center, Keimyung University School of Medicine, Daegu (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-06-15

    To investigate treatment outcome and long term complication after surgery and radiotherapy (RT) for pituitary adenoma. From 1990 to 2009, 73 patients with surgery and RT for pituitary adenoma were analyzed in this study. Median age was 51 years (range, 25 to 71 years). Median tumor size was 3 cm (range, 1 to 5 cm) with suprasellar (n = 21), cavernous sinus extension (n = 14) or both (n = 5). Hormone secreting tumor was diagnosed in 29 patients; 16 patients with prolactin, 12 patients with growth hormone, and 1 patient with adrenocorticotrophic hormone. Impairment of visual acuity or visual field was presented in 33 patients at first diagnosis. Most patients (n = 64) received RT as postoperative adjuvant setting. Median RT dose was 45 Gy (range, 45 to 59.4 Gy). Median follow-up duration was 8 years (range, 3 to 22 years). In secreting tumors, hormone normalization rate was 55% (16 of 29 patients). For 25 patients with evaluable visual field and visual acuity test, 21 patients (84%) showed improvement of visual disturbance after treatment. The 10-year tumor control rate for non-secreting and secreting adenoma was 100% and 58%, respectively (p < 0.001). Progression free survival rate at 10 years was 98%. Only 1 patient experienced endocrinological recurrence. Following surgery, 60% (n = 44) suffered from pituitary function deficit. Late complication associated with RT was only 1 patient, who developed cataract. Surgery and RT are very effective and safe in hormonal and tumor growth control for secreting and non-secreting pituitary adenoma.

  16. A controlled study on serum insulin-like growth factor-I and urinary excretion of growth hormone in fibromyalgia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, S; Main, K; Danneskiold-Samsøe, B

    1995-01-01

    It has been hypothesized that secretory deficiencies of growth hormone may play a pathophysiological role in fibromyalgia (FM). Our objective was thus to evaluate the secretion of growth hormone in FM.......It has been hypothesized that secretory deficiencies of growth hormone may play a pathophysiological role in fibromyalgia (FM). Our objective was thus to evaluate the secretion of growth hormone in FM....

  17. Protein Hormones and Immunity‡

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelley, Keith W.; Weigent, Douglas A.; Kooijman, Ron

    2007-01-01

    A number of observations and discoveries over the past 20 years support the concept of important physiological interactions between the endocrine and immune systems. The best known pathway for transmission of information from the immune system to the neuroendocrine system is humoral in the form of cytokines, although neural transmission via the afferent vagus is well documented also. In the other direction, efferent signals from the nervous system to the immune system are conveyed by both the neuroendocrine and autonomic nervous systems. Communication is possible because the nervous and immune systems share a common biochemical language involving shared ligands and receptors, including neurotransmitters, neuropeptides, growth factors, neuroendocrine hormones and cytokines. This means that the brain functions as an immune-regulating organ participating in immune responses. A great deal of evidence has accumulated and confirmed that hormones secreted by the neuroendocrine system play an important role in communication and regulation of the cells of the immune system. Among protein hormones, this has been most clearly documented for prolactin (PRL), growth hormone (GH), and insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-I), but significant influences on immunity by thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) have also been demonstrated. Here we review evidence obtained during the past 20 years to clearly demonstrate that neuroendocrine protein hormones influence immunity and that immune processes affect the neuroendocrine system. New findings highlight a previously undiscovered route of communication between the immune and endocrine systems that is now known to occur at the cellular level. This communication system is activated when inflammatory processes induced by proinflammatory cytokines antagonize the function of a variety of hormones, which then causes endocrine resistance in both the periphery and brain. Homeostasis during inflammation is achieved by a balance between cytokines and

  18. Changes of hypothalamus-pituitary hormones in patients after total removal of craniopharyngiomas

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周忠清; 石祥恩

    2004-01-01

    Background This paper aimed to elucidate the changes of hypothalamus-pituitary hormones in patients after total removal of craniopharyngiomas.Methods A total of 40 patients with craniopharyngiomas received surgery. The levels of triiodothyronine (T3), thyroxine (T4), thyrotropic hormone (TSH), antidiuretic hormone (ADH), and adrenocorticotropin (ACTH) were measureed in the 40 patients before surgery and one week after surgery respectively.Results Twenty-eight patients (70%) had hypothyroidism before surgery, but 38 (95%) had hypothyroidism after surgery (P0.05), whereas those of ACTH were (23.97±2.69) pg/ml and (15.60±1.91) pg/ml respectively (P<0.05).Conclusions Hormone deficits after total removal of craniopharyngioma appear to be the common complication of surgery. Hypothyroidism and diabetes insipidus are more frequent after surgery than before surgery. Thyroxine and glucocorticoids should be administered routinely after total removal of craniopharyngioma.

  19. Growth Hormone Response after Administration of L-dopa, Clonidine, and Growth Hormone Releasing Hormone in Children with Down Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pueschel, Seigfried M.

    1993-01-01

    This study of eight growth-retarded children with Down's syndrome (aged 1 to 6.5 years) found that administration of growth hormone was more effective than either L-dopa or clonidine. Results suggest that children with Down's syndrome have both anatomical and biochemical hypothalamic derangements resulting in decreased growth hormone secretion and…

  20. Hormonal regulation in insects: facts, gaps, and future directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gäde, G; Hoffmann, K H; Spring, J H

    1997-10-01

    There are two main classes of hormones in insects: 1) the true hormones produced by epithelial glands and belonging to the ecdysteroids or juvenile hormones and 2) the neuropeptide hormones produced by neurosecretory cells. Members of these classes regulate physiological, developmental, and behavioral events in insects. Detailed accounts are given on isolation, identification, structure-activity relationships, mode of action, biological function, biosynthesis, inactivation, metabolism, and feedback for hormones involved in 1) metabolic regulation such as the adipokinetic/hypertrehalosemic peptides and the diuretic and antidiuretic peptides; 2) stimulation or inhibition of muscle activity such as the myotropic peptides; 3) control of reproduction, growth, and development such as allatotropins, allatostatins, juvenile hormones, ecdysteroids, folliculostimulins and folliculostatins, ecdysis-triggering and eclosion hormones, pheromone biosynthesis activating neuropeptides, and diapause hormones; and 4) regulation of tanning and of color change. Because of the improvements in techniques for isolation and structure elucidation, there has been rapid progress in our knowledge of the chemistry of certain neuropeptide families. With the employment of molecular biological techniques, the genes of some neuropeptides have been successfully characterized. There are, however, areas that are still quite underdeveloped. These are, for example, 1) receptor studies, which are still in their infancy; 2) the hormonal status of certain sequenced peptides is not clarified; and 3) functional studies are lacking even for established hormones. The authors plead for a concerted effort to continue research in this field, which will also advance our knowledge into the use of insect hormones as safer and species-specific molecules for insect pest management.

  1. A dopamine-secreting pheochromocytoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yasunari, K; Kohno, M; Minami, M; Kano, H; Ohhira, M; Nakamura, K; Yoshikawa, J

    2000-01-01

    We describe a patient with pheochromocytoma, which secretes dopamine. He was admitted to hospital because of chronic diarrhea. After surgical resection of the tumor, dramatic cessation of the diarrhea and blood pressure elevation were observed. Decreased expression of dopamine beta-hydroxylase in the tumor was considered a possible mechanism of producing a pathophysiological concentration of dopamine. This case shows that excessive excretion of dopamine, a vasodilative hormone, may affect blood pressure.

  2. Gut hormones and gastric bypass

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holst, Jens J.

    2016-01-01

    , oxyntomodulin, neurotensin and peptide YY (PYY). However, some proximal hormones also show changes probably reflecting that the distribution of these hormones is not restricted to the bypassed segments of the gut. Thus, cholecystokinin responses are increased, whereas gastric inhibitory polypeptide responses......%. The increased insulin responses after the operation, one of the important mechanisms whereby these operations cause diabetes remission, is clearly due to a combination of the increased glucose absorption rates and the exaggerated GLP-1 secretion. The hormonal changes are therefore very important...

  3. Nursing of patients undergoing operations on growth hormone-secreting pituitary adenoma complicated by sleep apnea syndrome%经鼻蝶入路垂体瘤切除术治疗生长激素型垂体腺瘤并发睡眠呼吸暂停综合征的疗效观察与护理

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    仲丽芸; 范艳竹; 黄娜; 刘珊

    2015-01-01

    Objective To summarize the effect of surgical treatment and nursing strategies of patients with growth hormone-secreting pituitary adenoma complicated by sleep apnea syndrome. Method Forty-three cases with growth hormone-secreting pituitary adenoma complicated by sleep apnea syndrome underwent surgical treatment in our department , with their history retrospectively analyzed to compare the hormone levels and blood oxygen saturation between pre-and post-operation. Result After the operation, both levels of the hormone and blood oxygen saturation were improved than those before operation; the incidence of sleep apnea syndrome was also lower than that before operation (all P<0.05). Conclusions Surgical treatment is better for patients with growth hormone-secreting pituitary adenoma complicated by sleep apnea syndrome. Reasonable treatment and effective nursing are favorable for the recovery of patients.%目的 观察生长激素型垂体腺瘤并发睡眠呼吸暂停综合征行经鼻蝶窦入路垂体瘤切除术的治疗效果,总结护理要点. 方法 对43例生长激素型垂体腺瘤并发呼吸暂停综合征的疗效患者行经鼻蝶窦入路垂体瘤切除术,手术前后比较患者激素水平和血氧饱和度的差异,观察患者睡眠呼吸暂停综合征的疗效改善情况.结果 手术后,患者生长激素、胰岛素样生长因子、血氧饱和度水平均优于手术前;睡眠呼吸暂停综合征发生率低于手术前(均P<0.05).结论 行经鼻蝶窦入路垂体瘤切除术治疗生长激素型垂体腺瘤并发睡眠呼吸暂停综合征的疗效效果较好.有效的经口呼吸锻炼,保持患者有效的通气,做好并发症的护理对提高手术成功率具有重要意义.

  4. Therapy for obesity based on gastrointestinal hormones

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bagger, Jonatan I; Christensen, Mikkel; Knop, Filip K;

    2011-01-01

    It has long been known that peptide hormones from the gastrointestinal tract have significant impact on the regulation of nutrient metabolism. Among these hormones, incretins have been found to increase insulin secretion, and thus incretin-based therapies have emerged as new modalities...

  5. Efecto de melatonina sobre la secreción pulsátil de hormona luteinizante y de hormona del crecimiento en borregas con restricción alimenticia Effect of melatonin on the pulsatile luteinizing hormone and growth hormone secretion in ewe lambs under food restriction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. E. RECABARREN

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo del presente trabajo fue caracterizar la secreción pulsátil de LH y GH en borregas sometidas a restricción alimenticia (n=5, grupo R-MEL, a las 20, 26 y 30 semanas de edad, tratadas diariamente con melatonina (3 mg/día, a las 16:00 h, desde las 10 semanas de edad. La restricción alimenticia se inició a las 16 semanas de edad. Borregas de la misma edad con restricción alimenticia sin administración de melatonina actuaron como grupo comparativo (n=6, R-SOL. El promedio transversal de LH tendió a aumentar desde 0,35± 0,04 a las 20 sem. hasta 0,61±0,15 ng/ml/6h a las 30 sem en las borregas del grupo R-MEL, mientras que en las borregas del grupo R-SOL el promedio no cambió entre ambas edades: 0,34± 0,03 a las 20 sem y 0,25±0,05 ng/ml/6h a las 30 sem. La frecuencia de pulsos de LH no cambió y no fue diferente entre los 2 grupos. La amplitud de pulsos de LH tendió a ser mayor en las borregas R-MEL a las 30 sem: 0,76± 0,28 y 0,38± 0,09 ng/ml respectivamente (PThe aim of the present work was to characterize the pulsatile LH and GH secretion in food restricted Suffolk ewe lambs (n=5, R-MEL group receiving daily oral administration of melatonin (3mg/20 mL, at 16:00 h, at 20-26- and 30 weeks of age, after 4,10 and 14 weeks of food restriction. Melatonin treatment was initiated at 10 weeks of age. Food restricted lambs of the same age, without melatonin treatment acted as comparative group (n=6, R-SOL. Blood samples were collected from a jugular vein by means of an indwelling catheter at 10 min-intervals for 6 hours, from 09:00 h. LH and GH were measured by radioimmunoassay. Plasma concentrations of both hormones were analyzed by the Cluster program to define pulse frequency (n° pulses/6h, and pulse amplitude (ng/mL. The transversal mean of LH and GH was also calculated (ng/mL/6h. In the R-MEL group, the transversal mean of LH tended to increase from 0.35± 0.04 in 20 weeks old lambs to 0.61± 0.15 ng/mL/6h in 30 weeks old

  6. Hormonal determinants of pubertal growth.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Delamarre-van Waal, H.A.; Coeverden, S.C. van; Rotteveel, J.J.

    2001-01-01

    Pubertal growth results from increased sex steroid and growth hormone (GH) secretion. Estrogens appear to play an important role in the regulation of pubertal growth in both girls and boys. In girls, however, estrogens cannot be the only sex steroids responsible for pubertal growth, as exogenous est

  7. Google Secrets

    CERN Document Server

    Davis, Yvette

    2011-01-01

    Become a Google guru with these effective tips, tricks, and techniques Sure, you use Google. But do you really use Google-and everything it has to offer-in the most effective way possible? Wish you could just sit down with a Google expert who would show you how to take your Google savviness to the next level? With Google Secrets, you can! Tech expert Jerri Ledford reveals the ins, outs, and little-known facts about Google to show you how to sharpen your skills so you can get more done, more efficiently. You may already be familiar with Google's most popular applications, but this indispensable

  8. Decreased hypothalamic growth hormone-releasing hormone content and pituitary responsiveness in hypothyroidism.

    OpenAIRE

    Katakami, H; Downs, T. R.; Frohman, L A

    1986-01-01

    The effects of thyroidectomy (Tx) and thyroxine replacement (T4Rx) on pituitary growth hormone (GH) secretion and hypothalamic GH-releasing hormone (GRH) concentration were compared to define the mechanism of hypothyroid-associated GH deficiency. Thyroidectomized rats exhibited a complete loss of pulsatile GH secretion with extensive reduction in GRH responsiveness and pituitary GH content. Cultured pituitary cells from Tx rats exhibited reduced GRH sensitivity, maximal GH responsiveness, and...

  9. Ghrelin drives GH secretion during fasting in man

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.F. Muller (Alex); S.W.J. Lamberts (Steven); L.J. Hofland (Leo); M. Bidlingmaier (Martin); C.J. Strasburger; E. Ghigo (Ezio); A-J. van der Lely (Aart-Jan); J.A.M.J.L. Janssen (Joseph); P.M. van Koetsveld (Peter)

    2002-01-01

    textabstractOBJECTIVES: In humans, fasting leads to elevated serum GH concentrations. Traditionally, changes in hypothalamic GH-releasing hormone and somatostatin release are considered as the main mechanisms that induce this elevated GH secretion during fasting. Ghrelin is an

  10. GnRH激动剂主动免疫母羊对生殖激素分泌的作用%Effects of GnRH agonist active immunization on reproductive hormone secretion of Ewes (Ovis aries)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    魏锁成; 巩转娣; 欧阳霞辉; 董江陵; 李琼毅; 韦敏; 谢坤; 张锋; 孙建龙

    2012-01-01

    Objective; To explore the characteristics of reproductive hormones synthesis and secretion in ewes actively immunized with GnRH agonist,further to study the mechanisms of GnRH agonists regulating reproductive functions in animals. Methods:Forty-two ewes were randomly assigned into six groups ( each of 7 eves ). Ewes in experiment group ( EG)-I ,EG-Ⅱ and EG-Ⅲ were injected subcutaneously twice ( at days 0 and 7 ) with 200,300 and 400 μg GnRH agonist ( Alarelin ) antigen respectively. Animals in EG-IV and EG-Vwere injected subcutaneously with 200 μg and 300 μg Alarelin antigen for four times ( at days 0,7,14 and 21 ) respectively. The control group ( CG ) was injected with 2. 0 ml solvent subcutaneously twice ( at days 0 and 7 ). Blood samples were collected from jugular vein. Serum concentrations of anti-GnRH antibody,GnRH,FSH,LH and estradiol( E2 ) were detected using ELISA. ResultS:( 1 ) Anti-GnRH antibody was detected at days 7 after the first injection of alarelin antigen,antibody concentrations in EG- I , EG-Ⅱ and EG-Ⅲ reached peak levels at days 28,28 and 35 respectively. Both EG-IV and EG-V reached the peak values at days 45.Serum concentrations of GnRH antibody in five experiment groups were higher than that CG ( P <0. 05 ) from days 14 to 70. ( 2 ) When compared to CG, serum GnRH concentrations in EG- I , EG- Ⅱ, EG- Ⅲ , EG- IV and EG- V reached the bottom values at days 21,28 ( P <0. 05 ),45,45 and 45 ( P <0.01 ). GnRH concentrations in EG-V was the lowest. ( 3 ) Serum FSH concentrations in experiment groups began to increase gradually from days 14. FSH concentrations in experiment groups were higher than that in CG during whole experiment. ( 4 )Serum LH concentrations in experiment groups declined compared to CG. At days 35, EG-IV and EG-Vwere lower than EG- I ,EG-II and EG-!. ( 5 ) Serum estradiol levels had no significant differences among all groups. Conclusion: GnRH agonist ( alarelin )antigen active immunization could stimulate

  11. Regulation of glucagon secretion by incretins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holst, Jens Juul; Christensen, M; Lund, A;

    2011-01-01

    Glucagon secretion plays an essential role in the regulation of hepatic glucose production, and elevated fasting and postprandial plasma glucagon concentrations in patients with type 2 diabetes (T2DM) contribute to their hyperglycaemia. The reason for the hyperglucagonaemia is unclear, but recent...... that endogenous GLP-1 plays an important role in regulation of glucagon secretion during fasting as well as postprandially. The mechanisms whereby GLP-1 regulates glucagon secretion are debated, but studies in isolated perfused rat pancreas point to an important role for a paracrine regulation by somatostatin...... studies have shown lack of suppression after oral but preserved suppression after isoglycaemic intravenous glucose, pointing to factors from the gut. Gastrointestinal hormones that are secreted in response to oral glucose include glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) that strongly inhibits glucagon secretion...

  12. Effect of luteinizing hormone vs follicular stimulating hormone ratio on anti-Müllerian hormone secretion and folliculogenesis in patients with polycystic ovarian syndrome%不同黄体生成素与卵泡刺激素比值的多囊卵巢综合征患者抗苗勒管激素分泌特点及卵泡发育障碍机制

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李轶; 魏莉娜; 熊永崂; 梁晓燕

    2010-01-01

    Objective To investigate characteristics of anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH) secretion and mechanism of aberrant folliculogenesis by the ratio of luteinizing hormone (LH)/follicle-stimulating hormone(FSH) in polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS) patients. Methods Base on the ratio of LH/FSH,total 95 patients with PCOS were divided into two groups,including 49 cases in higher ratio group (LH/FSH≥2) and 46 cases in normal ratio group (LH/FSH < 2) matched with 62 infertile cases with tubal factor and regular menstruation as control group. Body mass index (BMI) were calculated in all objectives. The serum AMH were detected by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay(ELISA). Ovarian sexual hormones,fasting blood glucose, insulin and lipid were measured by chemiluminescence method. The correlation between AMH and metabolic index was analyzed by multilinear regression. Results (1) AMH: the serum level of AMH were (7.2±4. 3) μg/L in higher LH/FSH group, (5. 2±3. 8) μg/L in normal LH/FSH group and (3.7 ±2. 2) μg/L in control group, which all reached significant difference among those 3 groups(P < 0. 01). (2) The correlation between AMH and biological metabolic index: estradiol (E2) was negatively correlated with serum level of AMH in higher LH/FSH ratio group (r = -0. 318). The serum level of AMH were positively correlated with BMI, fasting glucose, homeostasis model assessment insulin resistance index (HOMA-IR) in normal LH/FSH ratio group (r = 0. 493,0. 362,0.303). After controlling affect factors, serum levels of AMH were positively correlated with LH/FSH in higher LH/FSH ratio group (r = 0. 301), but negatively correlated with E2 (r = -0. 429). However, in normal LH/FSH group, serum level of AMH was only positively correlated with BMI (r = 0. 428). Conclusion The PCOS patients with higher LH/FSH ratio are primarily caused by hypothalamic-pituitary dysfunction, while the PCOS patients with normal LH/FSH ratio are mainly caused by metabolic disorders.%目的 比较不同血

  13. Growth hormone and aging

    OpenAIRE

    Bartke, Andrzej; Brown-Borg, Holly; Kinney, Beth; Mattison, Julie; Wright, Chris; Hauck, Steven; Coschigano, Karen; Kopchick, John

    2000-01-01

    The potential usefulness of growth hormone (GH) as an anti-aging therapy is of considerable current interest. Secretion of GH normally declines during aging and administration of GH can reverse age-related changes in body composition. However, mutant dwarf mice with congenital GH deficiency and GH resistant GH-R-KO mice live much longer than their normal siblings, while a pathological elevation of GH levels reduces life expectancy in both mice and men. We propose that the actions of GH on gro...

  14. Thyroid Hormone and Estrogen Regulate Exercise-Induced Growth Hormone Release

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    Growth hormone (GH) regulates whole body metabolism, and physical exercise is the most potent stimulus to induce its secretion in humans. The mechanisms underlying GH secretion after exercise remain to be defined. The aim of this study was to elucidate the role of estrogen and pituitary type 1 deiodinase (D1) activation on exercise-induced GH secretion. Ten days after bilateral ovariectomy, animals were submitted to 20 min of treadmill exercise at 75% of maximum aerobic capacity and tissues w...

  15. Network identification of hormonal regulation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel J Vis

    Full Text Available Relations among hormone serum concentrations are complex and depend on various factors, including gender, age, body mass index, diurnal rhythms and secretion stochastics. Therefore, endocrine deviations from healthy homeostasis are not easily detected or understood. A generic method is presented for detecting regulatory relations between hormones. This is demonstrated with a cohort of obese women, who underwent blood sampling at 10 minute intervals for 24-hours. The cohort was treated with bromocriptine in an attempt to clarify how hormone relations change by treatment. The detected regulatory relations are summarized in a network graph and treatment-induced changes in the relations are determined. The proposed method identifies many relations, including well-known ones. Ultimately, the method provides ways to improve the description and understanding of normal hormonal relations and deviations caused by disease or treatment.

  16. Hormonal changes during long-term isolation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Custaud, M A; Belin de Chantemele, E; Larina, I M; Nichiporuk, I A; Grigoriev, A; Duvareille, M; Gharib, C; Gauquelin-Koch, G

    2004-05-01

    Confinement and inactivity induce considerable psychological and physiological modifications through social and sensory deprivation. The aim of the SFINCSS-99 experiment was to determine the cardiovascular and hormonal pattern of blood volume regulation during long-term isolation and confinement. Simulation experiments were performed in pressurized chambers similar in size to the volumes of modern space vehicles. Group I consisted of four Russian male volunteers, who spent 240 days in a 100-m(3 )chamber. Group II included four males (one German and three Russians) who spent 110 days in isolation (200-m(3) module). The blood samples, taken before, during and after the isolation period, were used to determine haematocrit (Ht), growth hormone (GH), active renin, aldosterone, and osmolality levels. From the urine samples, electrolytes, osmolality, nitrites, nitrates, cortisol, antidiuretic hormone (ADH), aldosterone, normetanephrine and metanephrine levels were determined. The increase in plasma volume (PV) that is associated with a tendency for a decrease in plasma active renin is likely to be due to decreased sympathetic activity, and concords with the changes in urinary catecholamine levels during confinement. Urinary catecholamine levels were significantly higher during the recovery period than during confinement. This suggests that the sympathoadrenal system was activated, and concords with the increase in heart rate. Vascular resistance is determined by not only the vasoconstrictor but also vasodilator systems. The ratio of nitrite/nitrate in urine, as an indicator of nitric oxide release, did not reveal any significant changes. Analysis of data suggests that the duration of the isolation was a main factor involved in the regulation of hormones.

  17. 垂体生长激素瘤患者血清生长激素水平的改变及其与糖代谢异常的关系%Changes of serum growth hormone (GH) levels and its relationship with abnormal glucose metabolism in patients with growth hormone-secreting pituitary adenoma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张炜; 张征; 徐尔理

    2014-01-01

    目的 评价垂体生长激素瘤(GH-secreting pituitary adenoma)患者血清生长激素(GH)水平的改变及其与糖代谢异常的关系. 方法 检测GH-secreting pituitary adenoma (GH-secreting pituitary adenoma组)患者BP、血GH、IGF-1及泌乳素,并行75 g OGTT,计算ISI、稳态模型胰岛素抵抗指数(HOMA-IR)、葡萄糖及胰岛素曲线下面积(AUCg,AUCi),将所得结果与垂体无功能瘤(NPA)组及糖代谢正常(NGT组)者进行比较. 结果 GH-secreting pituitary adenoma组血GH、IGF-1、IGF-1%及泌乳素高于其他两组(P<0.01).GH-secreting pituitary adenoma组IGR及糖尿病患病率高于NPA组及NGT组.GH-secreting pituitary adenoma组FPG、2 hPG高于NGT组,ISI则低于NGT组(P<0.05或P<0.01);FIns、AUCg、AUCi及HOMA-IR高于其他两组(P<0.05或P<0.01).根据75 g OGTT结果将GH-secreting pituitary adenoma组分为两亚组,高血糖亚组血GH高于血糖正常亚组.相关性分析结果显示,GH-secreting pituitary adenoma组血GH与FPG、2 hPG及AUCg呈正相关;IGF-1%与2hPG及AUCg呈正相关. 结论 GH-secreting pituitary adenoma患者高血糖患病率升高,且其原因与GH高分泌相关.

  18. The effect of 30 months of low-dose replacement therapy with recombinant human growth hormone (rhGH) on insulin and C-peptide kinetics, insulin secretion, insulin sensitivity, glucose effectiveness, and body composition in GH-deficient adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosenfalck, A M; Maghsoudi, S; Fisker, S

    2000-01-01

    the insulin sensitivity index, calculated from the frequently sampled iv glucose tolerance test, only decreased slightly. The clearance of C-peptide and insulin increased 100% and 60%, respectively, and the prehepatic insulin secretion was tripled during rhGH treatment; but related to the impairment...... an increase in lean body mass and a reduction of fat mass. Therefore, rhGH treatment may precipitate diabetes in some patients already susceptible to the disorder....

  19. Angiotensin II in the brain and pituitary: contrasting roles in the regulation of adenohypophyseal secretion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganong, W F

    1989-01-01

    Angiotensin II (AII) is present in gonadotropes in rats, and there are AII receptors on lactotropes and corticotropes. AII may be a paracrine mediator that stimulates the secretion of prolactin and adrenocorticotropin (ACTH) at the level of the pituitary, but additional research is needed to define its exact role. Angiotensinogen may also reach the gonadotropes via a paracrine route. On the other hand, there is considerable evidence that brain AII stimulates the secretion of luteinizing hormone (LH) by increasing the secretion of LH-releasing hormone, and that this effect is due to AII-mediated release of norepinephrine from noradrenergic nerve terminals in the preoptic region of the hypothalamus. In addition, brain AII inhibits the secretion of prolactin, probably by increasing the release of dopamine into the portal hypophyseal vessels. Circulating AII stimulates the secretion of a third anterior pituitary hormone, ACTH, by acting on one or more of the circumventricular organs to increase the secretion of corticotropin-releasing hormone.

  20. The influence of vasopressin deficiency and acute desmopressin administration on melatonin secretion in patients with central diabetes insipidus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catrina, S B; Rotarus, R; Wivall, I-L; Coculescu, M; Brismar, K

    2004-01-01

    Melatonin secretion is modulated by the light-dark schedule, mainly through a sympathetic input to the pineal gland. Besides this, arginine vasopressin (AVP) has been found in the pineal glands of several animal species and there is experimental evidence that AVP modulates melatonin secretion in animals. However, the interaction between vasopressin and melatonin secretion in humans has not been systematically investigated. We proposed to study the nocturnal melatonin pattern in patients with central diabetes insipidus (CDI) who lack endogenous secretion of AVP, and the effect on their melatonin secretion of the agonist for V2 type receptors: desmopressin (1-Desamino [8-D Arginine] vasopressin). Plasma melatonin levels were measured in 14 patients with CDI, every 2 h starting from 22:00 h until 06:00 h, following iv injection of saline (day 1) and 3 microg desmopressin (day 2) at 20:00 h. The lights were turned off at 22:30 h and the samples were taken in a dim light. The plasma melatonin secretion pattern was normal in patients with CDI. Desmopressin at a dose 3 times higher than the antidiuretic one did not modify the melatonin levels or the time of the peak secretion. In conclusion melatonin secretion is not modulated by AVP in humans.

  1. Hormone Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Hormones quantified from marine mammal and sea turtle tissue provide information about the status of each animal sampled, including its sex, reproductive status and...

  2. Physical Activity and Obesity Related Hormones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehdi Hedayati

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Probably, obesity can be considered as the most common metabolic disorder. In other words, the control of metabolism is disrupted in this condition. The most important metabolic control is performed by hormones. Today, adipose tissue is considered as an active tissue in secretion of hormones. In obesity, in addition to adipose tissue hormones, effective neuropeptides on appetite are interfered. There are 4 main approaches in the management and treatment of obesity including nutrition and diet therapy, physical activity, medical and surgical approaches. The specialists and obese patients prefer the first and second approaches. Physical activity helps to control and treat this disorder by influencing on obesity-related hormones. The main obesity-related hormones are ghrelin, agouti, obestatin, leptin, adiponectin, nesfatin, visfatin, tumor necrosis factor, interleukin-6, and resistin. In this review, the effect of physical activity on 10 major obesity-related hormones has been discussed.

  3. Nitric oxide Mocks growth hormone secretion and cell proliferation induced by ghrelin in GH3 cells%一氧化氮抑制ghrelin诱导的生长激素腺瘤GH3细胞生长激素分泌和细胞增殖及其机制

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    田春雷; 叶飞; 徐同江; 王胜; 王晓丹; 刘红朝; 舒凯; 雷霆

    2010-01-01

    Objective To investigate the effects of ghrelin and nitric oxide (NO) on growth hormone (GH) secretion and cell proliferation in rat GH3 cells and explore the possible action mechanism of NO. Methods GH3 cells were incubated with ghrelin at different concentrations for 2 h or at the dose of 1 × 10-7 mol/L for different time points to investigate the effects of ghrelin on GH secretion. The effects of ghrelin on GH secretion and cell proliferation after SNAP ( 1 × 10-5 mol/L) and NAME ( 1 × 10-5 mol/L)treatment were determined. GH levels in the cells medium were tested by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) kit. The cell proliferation rate was measured by MTT and the expression of cells proteins were examined by Western blotting. Results Ghrelin induced GH secretion in both time- and dose-dependent manners (P <0. 01 ) and ghrelin induced cell proliferation (P <0. 05 ). The stimulatory effects of ghrelin were reduced by SNAP ( P <0. 01 ) but not by NAME. SNAP could also inhibit the basal GH secretion and cell proliferation ( P < 0. 01 ). Ghrelin activated extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) signaling pathway, which was blocked by SNAP. Conclusion NO blocks growth hormone secretion and cell proliferation induced by ghrelin in GH3 cells via blocking ERK signaling pathway.%目的 检测一氧化氮(NO)对ghrelin诱导的大鼠GH3细胞的生长激素(GH)分泌和细胞增殖的影响,探讨NO的作用机制.方法 首先应用ghrelin在不同浓度分别作用2 h;应用ghrelin在工作浓度1×10-7mol/L,分别作用不同时间,检测对GH3细胞GH分泌的影响;然后检测NO的供体(SNAP,1×10-5 mol/L)和NO合成酶的抑制剂(NAME,1×10-5mol/L)对ghrelin诱导的GH分泌和细胞增殖的影响;用酶联免疫吸附试验(ELISA)方法检测GH水平,噻唑蓝(MTT)比色法检测细胞增殖,Western免疫印迹法检测细胞内信号通路蛋白的活性变化.结果 ghrelin刺激GH3细胞分泌GH呈时间和浓度依赖性(P<0

  4. [Acne and hormones].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faure, Michel

    2002-04-15

    Androgens stimulate sebum production which is necessary for the development of acne. Acne in women may thus be considered as a manifestation of cutaneous androgenization. Most of acnes may be related to an idiopathic skin hyperandrogenism due to in situ enzyme activity and androgen receptor hypersensitivity, as also noted in idiopathic hirsutism. Some acne may correspond to elevated ovarian or adrenal androgen secretion. The presence of acne in women may lead to a diagnosis of functional hyperandrogenism, either polycysticovary syndrome or nonclassical 21-hydroxylase deficiency. Plasma level assays for testosterone, delta 4 androstenedione and 17-OH progesterone and ovarian echography are necessary to determine the possibility for an ovarian or adrenal hyperandrogenism, but not to better treat acne. The goal of hormonal therapy in acne is to oppose the effects of androgens on the sebaceous gland. Hormones may be used in female acne in the absence of endocrine abnormalities. Antiandrogens (cyproterone acetate or aldactone) may be useful in severe acne, hormonal contraceptives with cyproterone acetate or non androgenic progestins in mild or common acne often in association with other anti-acneic drugs. Glucocorticoids have to be administered in acne fulminans and other forms of acute, severe, inflammatory acne, for their anti-inflammatory properties.

  5. In vitro effect of 4-nonylphenol on human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) stimulated hormone secretion, cell viability and reactive oxygen species generation in mice Leydig cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jambor, Tomáš; Tvrdá, Eva; Tušimová, Eva; Kováčik, Anton; Bistáková, Jana; Forgács, Zsolt; Lukáč, Norbert

    2017-03-01

    Nonylphenol is considered an endocrine disruptor and has been reported to affect male reproductive functions. In our in vitro study, we evaluated the effects of 4-nonylphenol (4-NP) on cholesterol levels, hormone formation and viability in cultured Leydig cells from adult ICR male mice. We also determined the potential impact of 4-NP on generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) after 44 h of cultivation. The cells were cultured with addition of 0.04; 0.2; 1.0; 2.5 and 5.0 μg/mL of 4-NP in the present of 1 IU/mL human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) and compared to the control. The quantity of cholesterol was determined from culture medium using photometry. Determination of hormone production was performed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Metabolic activity assay was used for quantification of cell viability. The chemiluminescence technique, which uses a luminometer to measure reactive oxygen species, was employed. Applied doses of 4-NP (0.04-5.0 μg/mL) slight increase cholesterol levels and decrease production of dehydroepiandrosterone after 44 h of cultivation, but not significantly. Incubation of 4-NP treated cells with hCG significantly (P concentration (5.0 μg/mL). The viability was significantly (P cells. Taken together, the results of our in vitro study reported herein is consistent with the conclusion that 4-nonylphenol is able to influence hormonal profile, cell viability and generate ROS.

  6. Regulation of Insulin in Secretion and Activity of Gonadotropin-Releasing Hormone%胰岛素对促性腺激素释放激素分泌及活性的调控

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱宇旌; 丁兰; 张勇; 王艳; 张宝生

    2013-01-01

    Insulin is a key hormone in regulating energy metabolism, whereas gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) is a key hormone in regulating animal reproduction, and an onset factor of empathema of animals. The shorten of time before empathema is important in livestock breeding. It has been widely reported that GnRH can be regulated by insulin in vivo, which controls empathema of animals. This paper mainly reviews the three factors (early growth response protein 1, extracellular regulated kinase and neuropeptide Y) associated with the regulation of insulin on the activity and function of GnRH and summarizes the regulation mechanism of insulin on GnRH in animal breeding.%胰岛素是动物体内能量代谢调控的重要激素,促性腺激素释放激素(GnRH)是动物体内调控繁殖的重要激素,是使动物发情的起始因素.促进家畜尽早进入发情期是现今畜牧业中的一个重要课题.大量研究报道了通过控制动物体内胰岛素水平可影响GnRH水平,从而调控动物发情.本文综述了胰岛素调节GnRH活性和功能过程中早期生长应答蛋白-1、胞外信号调节激酶和神经肽Y发挥的作用,对养殖生产实践中通过胰岛素调控实现GnRH分泌释放的机理作简要的总结.

  7. Cell Secretion: Current Structural and Biochemical Insights

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saurabh Trikha

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Essential physiological functions in eukaryotic cells, such as release of hormones and digestive enzymes, neurotransmission, and intercellular signaling, are all achieved by cell secretion. In regulated (calcium-dependent secretion, membrane-bound secretory vesicles dock and transiently fuse with specialized, permanent, plasma membrane structures, called porosomes or fusion pores. Porosomes are supramolecular, cup-shaped lipoprotein structures at the cell plasma membrane that mediate and control the release of vesicle cargo to the outside of the cell. The sizes of porosomes range from 150nm in diameter in acinar cells of the exocrine pancreas to 12nm in neurons. In recent years, significant progress has been made in our understanding of the porosome and the cellular activities required for cell secretion, such as membrane fusion and swelling of secretory vesicles. The discovery of the porosome complex and the molecular mechanism of cell secretion are summarized in this article.

  8. Hormonal and morphological study of the pituitaries in reeler mice

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lombardero, Matilde; Kovacs, Kalman; Horvath, Eva; Salazar, Ignacio

    2007-01-01

    .... Since the brain is one of the main regulator of pituitary hormone secretion and no information was reported regarding pituitary function and structure in these mutant mice, we studied pituitary...

  9. The Thr92Ala 5' type 2 deiodinase gene polymorphism is associated with a delayed triiodothyronine secretion in response to the thyrotropin-releasing hormone-stimulation test: a pharmacogenomic study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, Peter W; Smith, Sheila M; Linderman, Joyce D; Brychta, Robert J; Alberobello, Anna Teresa; Dubaz, Ornella M; Luzon, Javier A; Skarulis, Monica C; Cochran, Craig S; Wesley, Robert A; Pucino, Frank; Celi, Francesco Saverio

    2010-12-01

    The common Thr92Ala D2 polymorphism has been associated with changes in pituitary-thyroid axis homeostasis, but published results are conflicting. To investigate the effects of the Thr92Ala polymorphism on intrathyroidal thyroxine (T4) to triiodothyronine (T3) conversion, we designed prospective pharmacogenomic intervention aimed to detect differences in T3 levels after thyrotropin (TSH)-releasing hormone (TRH)-mediated TSH stimulation of the thyroid gland. Eighty-three healthy volunteers were screened and genotyped for the Thr92Ala polymorphism. Fifteen volunteers of each genotype (Thr/Thr, Thr/Ala, and Ala/Ala) underwent a 500 mcg intravenous TRH stimulation test with serial measurements of serum total T3 (TT3), free T4, and TSH over 180 minutes. No differences in baseline thyroid hormone levels were seen among the study groups. Compared to the Thr/Thr group, the Ala/Ala group showed a significantly lower TRH-stimulated increase in serum TT3 at 60 minutes (12.07 ± 2.67 vs. 21.07 ± 2.86 ng/dL, p = 0.029). Thr/Ala subjects showed an intermediate response. Compared to Thr/Thr subjects, the Ala/Ala group showed a blunted rate of rise in serum TT3 as measured by mean time to 50% maximum delta serum TT3 (88.42 ± 6.84 vs. 69.56 ± 6.06 minutes, p = 0.028). Subjects attained similar maximal (180 minutes) TRH-stimulated TT3 levels. TRH-stimulated TSH and free T4 levels were not significantly different among the three genotype groups. The commonly occurring Thr92Ala D2 variant is associated with a decreased rate of acute TSH-stimulated T3 release from the thyroid consistent with a decrease in intrathyroidal deiodination. These data provide a proof of concept that the Thr92Ala polymorphism is associated with subtle changes in thyroid hormone homeostasis.

  10. Plants altering hormonal milieu: A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prashant Tiwari

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present review article is to investigate the herbs which can alter the levels of hormones like Follicle stimulating hormone, Prolactin, Growth hormone, Insulin, Thyroxine, Estrogen, Progesterone, Testosterone, and Relaxin etc. Hormones are chemical signal agents produced by different endocrine glands for regulating our biological functions. The glands like pituitary, thyroid, adrenal, ovaries in women and testes in men all secrete a number of hormones with different actions. However, when these hormones are perfectly balanced then people become healthy and fit. But several factors like pathophysiological as well as biochemical changes, disease conditions, changes in the atmosphere, changes in the body, diet changes etc. may result in imbalance of various hormones that produce undesirable symptoms and disorders. As medicinal plants have their importance since ancient time, people have been using it in various ways as a source of medicine for regulation of hormonal imbalance. Moreover, it is observed that certain herbs have a balancing effect on hormones and have great impact on well-being of the people. So, considering these facts we expect that the article provides an overview on medicinal plants with potential of altering hormone level.

  11. The effect of 30 months of low-dose replacement therapy with recombinant human growth hormone (rhGH) on insulin and C-peptide kinetics, insulin secretion, insulin sensitivity, glucose effectiveness, and body composition in GH-deficient adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosenfalck, A M; Maghsoudi, S; Fisker, S;

    2000-01-01

    (frequently sampled iv glucose tolerance test) glucose tolerance test, and body composition was estimated by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry. Treatment with rhGH induced persistent favorable changes in body composition, with a 10% increase in lean body mass (P ...The aim of the present study was to evaluate the long-term (30 months) metabolic effects of recombinant human GH (rhGH) given in a mean dose of 6.7 microg/kg x day (= 1.6 IU/day), in 11 patients with adult GH deficiency. Glucose metabolism was evaluated by an oral glucose tolerance test and an iv...... in glucose tolerance, beta-cell response was still inappropriate. Our conclusion is that long-term rhGH-replacement therapy in GH deficiency adults induced a significant deterioration in glucose tolerance, profound changes in kinetics of C-peptide, and insulin and prehepatic insulin secretion, despite...

  12. Pancreatic enzyme secretion during intravenous fat infusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, G P; Stein, T A

    1987-01-01

    The nutritional support of patients with pancreatic and high gastrointestinal fistulas and severe pancreatitis frequently involves intravenous fat infusion. There are conflicting reports on the effect of intravenous fat on pancreatic exocrine secretion. In 10 dogs with chronic pancreatic fistulas, pancreatic juice was collected during secretin (n = 10) or secretin + cholecystokinin (n = 4) stimulation, with and without intravenous fat infusion (5 g/hr). The hormonal-stimulated secretion of lipase, amylase, trypsin, total protein, bicarbonate, and water was unchanged during fat infusion. This study supports the use of intravenous fat as a nutritional source when it is desirable to avoid stimulation of the pancreas.

  13. Etiology of growth hormone deficiency in children and adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mitrović Katarina

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Growth hormone deficiency (GHD can be isolated or associated with deficiency of other pituitary gland hormones. According to age at diagnosis, causes of GHD are divided into congenital or acquired, and according to etiology into recognized and unknown. Objective. We analyzed etiology and prevalence of GHD, demographic data at birth, age, body height (BH and bone age at diagnosis as well as the frequency of other pituitary hormone deficiencies. Methods. The study involved 164 patients (109 male. The main criterion for the diagnosis of GHD was inadequate response of GH after two stimulation tests. The patients were classified into three groups: idiopathic, congenital and acquired GHD. Results. Idiopathic GHD was confirmed in 57.9% of patients, congenital in 11.6% and acquired in 30.5%. The mean age at diagnosis of GHD was 10.1±4.5 years. The patients with congenital GHD had most severe growth retardation (-3.4±1.4 SDS, while the patients with idiopathic GHD showed most prominent bone delay (-3.6±2.3 SDS. The prevalence of multiple pituitary hormone deficiency was 56.1%, in the group with congenital GHD 73.7%, acquired GHD 54.0% and idiopathic GHD 53.7%. The frequency of thyrotropin deficiency ranged from 88.2-100%, of adrenocorticotrophin 57.1-68.8% and of gonadotrophins deficiency 57.1- 63.0%, while deficiency of antidiuretic hormone was 2.0-25.0%. Conclusion. Although regular BH measurements enable early recognition of growth retardation, patients’ mean age and degree of growth retardation indicate that GHD is still diagnosed relatively late. A high incidence of other pituitary hormone deficiencies requires a detailed investigation of the etiology of disorders and evaluation of all pituitary functions in each child with confirmed GHD.

  14. Effect of Valsartan on the hormones of Pituitary-gonadal axis Performance in mature female Wistar Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ebrahim Hosseini

    2013-02-01

    Conclusion: Valsartan , as a receptor antagonist of Ang II inhibits the secretion of gonadotropin hormones and accelerates their effect on blocking the follicular cells of the female sex ,causing the reduction of female hormones.

  15. Significance of hyperprolactinemia for cytomorphologic features of breast secretions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radojković Danijela

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. Nipple discharge syndrome is a clinical entity capable of presenting various disorders such is mammary infection (nonpuerperal and puerperal mastitis, intraductal papillomas, fibrodenoma, breast cancer and hyperprolactinemia syndrome. The aim of the study was to determine differencies in cytological features of mammary secretion in patients with hyperprolactinemia and those with normal serum prolactin levels and to define the role of growth hormone, follicle-stimulating hormone, luteinizing hormone and thyroid-stimulating hormone in creating cellular profile of breast secretion. Methods. The study included 50 patients with nipple discharge syndrome. The patients were devided into the clinical group (27 patients with hyperprolactinemia and nipple discharge and the control group I (23 patients with normal serum prolactin and nipple discharge. The control group II included the patients of the clinical group achiving normalised serum prolactin levels after the treatment of hyperprolactinemia. Serum prolactin, follicle-stimulating hormone and luteinizing hormone levels were assessed by RIA using commercial kits IRMA hPRL, hLH and hFSH, (INEP, Zemun, Serbia while serum growth hormone and thyroid-stimulating hormone levels were assessed by RIA using commercial kits LKB-wallac. Cytologic evaluation of samples, taken from all the patients with mammary secretion, was done using standard techniques of staining Haemathoxilin-eozine and May- Grünwald/Giemsa. Results. Our results showed a significantly higher presence of lipid and protein material in clinical group, in comparison with the control group I (p < 0.01. Also, our data demonstrated significantly higher number of ductal epithelial cells (p < 0.05 and ductal histiocities (p < 0.001 in the clinical group, compared with the control group I. Macrophagies frequency was proportionally higher in clinical group (44.44% compared the control group I (17.39%. Erythrocites were significantly

  16. Hormone impostors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Colborn, T.; Dumanoski, D.; Myers, J.P.

    1997-01-01

    This article discusses the accumulating evidence that some synthetic chemicals disrupt hormones in one way or another. Some mimic estrogen and others interfere with other parts of the body`s control or endocrine system such as testosterone and thyroid metabolism. Included are PCBs, dioxins, furans, atrazine, DDT. Several short sidebars highlight areas where there are or have been particular problems.

  17. Postprandial gut hormone responses and glucose metabolism in cholecystectomized patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sonne, David P; Hare, Kristine J; Martens, Pernille

    2013-01-01

    Preclinical studies suggest that gallbladder emptying, via bile acid-induced activation of the G protein-coupled receptor TGR5 in intestinal L cells, may play a significant role in the secretion of the incretin hormone glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) and, hence, postprandial glucose homeostasis. We...... glycemic control, probably because of metabolic changes unrelated to incretin secretion....

  18. LUTEINIZING HORMONE SECRETION IN NELLORE HEIFER’S AFTER WEANING TO FIRST OVULATION CONCENTRAÇÃO DE LH EM NOVILHAS DA RAÇA NELORE DA DESMAMA À PRIMEIRA OVULAÇÃO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Cardoso

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available

    The aim was to evaluate the LH secretion in B. indicus heifers, on the presence or absence of gonadal steroid, generating information about the mechanisms evolved on sexual maturation in Nellore heifers. LH and progesterone concentration were quantified by RIA. First ovulation was determined by plasma progesterone concentration (>1 ng/ml. Greater mean LH concentrations was observed in ovariectomized (OVX; P?0.05 compared to intact heifers (INT. Mean LH concentration increased (P?0.05 during the sexual maturation, in both intact and ovariectomized heifers. The number of peaks was higher (P?0.05 in ovariectomized heifer. The results suggest decrease in estradiol hypothalamus negative feedback during Nellore heifer’s sexual maturation. It was possible to conclude that in pre-pubertal Nellore heifers the increase on positive gonadal steroids feedback was necessary to increase LH secretion before first ovulation.

    KEY WORDS: Cattle, endocrinology, hypothalamus, puberty, steroids.
    O presente trabalho teve por objetivo investigar a variação na secreção de LH na presença ou não de esteroides gonadais e, dessa forma, gerar informações sobre os mecanismos envolvidos na maturação sexual de novilhas da raça Nelore. Quantificou-se a concentração de LH e progesterona por radioimunoensaio. A primeira ovulação foi determinada pela concentração plasmática de progesterona (>1 ng/ml. As novilhas ovariectomizadas (OVX apresentaram maior concentração basal de LH (P?0,05 que as novilhas inteiras (INT. Houve uma concentração de LH durante a maturação sexual, tanto nas novilhas INT quanto nas OVX. O número de picos de secreção de LH foi maior (P?0,05 nas novilhas OVX. Os resultados indicam uma diminuição da sensibilidade do hipotálamo aos esteroides gonadais durante o processo de maturação sexual nas novilhas da raça Nelore. Conclui-se que, em novilhas pré-púberes da raça Nelore, o

  19. Antidiuretic Action of Collecting Duct (Pro)Renin Receptor Downstream of Vasopressin and PGE2 Receptor EP4.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Fei; Lu, Xiaohan; Peng, Kexin; Fang, Hui; Zhou, Li; Su, Jiahui; Nau, Adam; Yang, Kevin T; Ichihara, Atsuhiro; Lu, Aihua; Zhou, Shu-Feng; Yang, Tianxin

    2016-10-01

    Within the kidney, the (pro)renin receptor (PRR) is predominantly expressed in the collecting duct (CD), particularly in intercalated cells, and it is regulated by the PGE2 receptor EP4 Notably, EP4 also controls urinary concentration through regulation of aquaporin 2 (AQP2). Here, we tested the hypothesis that sequential activation of EP4 and PRR determines AQP2 expression in the CD, thus mediating the antidiuretic action of vasopressin (AVP). Water deprivation (WD) elevated renal PRR expression and urinary soluble PRR excretion in rats. Intrarenal infusion of a PRR decoy peptide, PRO20, or an EP4 antagonist partially prevented the decrease in urine volume and the increase in urine osmolality and AQP2 expression induced by 48-hour WD. In primary cultures of rat inner medullary CD cells, AQP2 expression induced by AVP treatment for 24 hours depended on sequential activation of the EP4 receptor and PRR. Additionally, mice lacking PRR in the CD exhibited increased urine volume and decreased urine osmolality under basal conditions and impaired urine concentrating capability accompanied by severe volume loss and a dangerous level of plasma hyperosmolality after WD. Together, these results suggest a previously undescribed linear AVP/PGE2/EP4/PRR pathway in the CD for regulation of AQP2 expression and urine concentrating capability.

  20. Synergistic action of gastrin and ghrelin on gastric acid secretion in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukumoto, Kaori; Nakahara, Keiko; Katayama, Tetsuro; Miyazatao, Mikiya; Kangawa, Kenji; Murakami, Noboru

    2008-09-12

    Gastrin and ghrelin are secreted from G cells and X/A-like cells in the stomach, respectively, and respective hormones stimulate gastric acid secretion by acting through histamine and the vagus nerve. In this study, we examined the relationship between gastrin, ghrelin and gastric acid secretion in rats. Intravenous (iv) administration of 3 and 10 nmol of gastrin induced transient increases of ghrelin levels within 10 min in a dose-dependent manner. Double immunostaining for ghrelin and gastrin receptor revealed that a proportion of ghrelin cells possess gastrin receptors. Although (iv) administration of gastrin or ghrelin induced significant gastric acid secretion, simultaneous treatment with both hormones resulted in a synergistic, rather than additive, increase of gastric acid secretion. This synergistic increase was not observed in vagotomized rats. These results suggest that gastrin may directly stimulate ghrelin release from the stomach, and that both hormones may increase gastric acid secretion synergistically.

  1. 低温环境下饲粮硒添加水平对初产蛋鸭生殖器官发育及相关激素分泌的影响%Effects of Selenium Supplementation on Reproductive Organ Development and Relative Hormone Secretion of Primiparous Laying Ducks at Low Ambient Temperatures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡晨晖; 王安; 靳峰涛

    2011-01-01

    The experiment was conducted to study the effects of selenium (Se) supplementation on reproductive organ development and relative hormone secretion of primiparous laying ducks aged from 120 to 155 days at low ambient temperatures (1 to 7 °C). Two hundred and sixteen 120-day-old Jinding ducks (female) were randomly allotted to 6 groups with 6 replicates per group and 6 ducks in each replicate. Ducks in control group were fed a basal diet, and the others in experimental groups were fed the basal diet supplemented with 0. 08, 0.12, 0.20, 0. 41 and 0. 71 mg/kg Se, respectively. The experiment lasted for 5 weeks. The results showed as follows: 1) compared with the control group, adding 0. 20 mg/kg Se significantly increased the contents of follicle-stimulating hormone, luteinizing hormone, progesterone in serum and the ovarium index (P 0.05). 2) Adding 0.20 mg/kg Se significantly decreased the contents of triiodothyronine and cortisol in serum (P 0.05). In conclusion, under the condition of the experiment, adding 0.20 mg/kg Se can promote genital organ development and gonadal hormone secretion, regulate endocrine and reduce adverse effects of cold stress on primiparous laying ducks.%本试验旨在研究低温(1 ~7℃)环境下饲粮硒(Se)添加水平对产蛋初期(120~155日龄)蛋鸭生殖器官发育及相关激素分泌的影响.试验选用120日龄金定鸭(母)216只,随机分为6组,每组6个重复,每个重复6只鸭.对照组饲喂玉米-豆粕型基础饲粮,试验组分别在基础饲粮中添加0.08、0.12、0.20、0.41、0.71 mg/kg硒.试验期5周.结果表明:1)与对照组相比,饲粮添加0.20 mg/kg硒可显著提高血清促卵泡生成激素(FSH)、促黄体生成激素(LH)、孕酮(P4)含量和卵巢指数(P<0.05),但不同水平硒对输卵管长度指数和各级卵泡数影响不显著(P>0.05);2)饲粮添加0.20 mg/kg硒可显著降低血清三碘甲腺原氨酸(T3)和皮质醇(Cort)含量(P<0.05),但不同水

  2. Gastric Lipase Secretion in Children with Gastritis

    OpenAIRE

    Krystyna Sztefko; Krzysztof Fyderek; Andrzej Zając; Andrzej Wędrychowicz; Iwona Rogatko; Tomasik, Przemyslaw J

    2013-01-01

    Gastric lipase is one of the prepancreatic lipases found in some mammalian species and in humans. Our knowledge of the hormonal regulation of gastric lipase secretion in children and adolescents is still very limited. The aim of this study was to compare the activity of human gastric lipase (HGL) in gastric juice in healthy adolescents and in patients with gastritis. The adolescents were allocated to three groups: the first including patients with Helicobacter pylori gastritis (HPG; n = 10), ...

  3. ACTH-Secreting Pheochromocytoma. Case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N S Kuznetsov

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Ectopic hormone-secreting pheochromocytomas are rare. Only case reports exist in the literature. Despite the large number of guides on diagnosis and treatment of pheochromocytoma, and Cushing syndrome, the extreme rarity of ectopic ACTH-syndrome caused by pheochromocytoma, and complexity of clinical cause numerous diagnostic errors leading to treatment failure. Therefore, we belive it appropriate to share our experience of this group of patients.

  4. The orphan nuclear receptor SF-1 is involved in the effect of PCBs, DDT, and DDE on the secretion of steroid hormones and oxytocin from bovine luteal cells during the estrous cycle in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mlynarczuk, J; Wrobel, M H; Kotwica, J

    2014-04-15

    The orphan receptor steroidogenic factor-1 (SF-1) is involved in the regulation of ovarian steroidogenesis in cows. It is hypothesized that estrogen-like chlorinated compounds might affect SF-1, and thus impair the function of the ovary. Bovine luteal cells from the estrous cycle (Days: 1-5, 6-10, 11-15, and 16-19) were treated for 50 hours with DDT, 1,1-dichloro-2,2-bis(4-chlorophenyl)ethene, 3,3'4,4'-tetrachlorobiphenyl or 2'2'4,4',5,5'-hexachlorobiphenyl (each at a dose of 10 ng/mL). Luteal cells were also treated with 4-(heptyloxy)phenol (1 × 10(-7) M), an SF-1 agonist, and F0160 (1 × 10(-6) M), an SF-1 blocker, jointly or separately. The secretion of progesterone and oxytocin and the expression of oxytocin precursor (NP-I/OT) messenger RNA were increased (P 0.05) SF-1 messenger RNA expression. In summary, SF-1 is involved in the adverse effect of chlorinated xenobiotics on the regulation of the bovine CL.

  5. ATP-sensitive K/sup +/ channels that are blocked by hypoglycemia-inducing sulfonylureas in insulin-secreting cells are activated by galanin, a hyperglycemia-inducing hormone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    de Weille, J.; Schmid-Antomarchi, H.; Fosset, M.; Lazdunski, M.

    1988-02-01

    The action of the hyperglycemia-inducing hormone galanin, a 29-amino acid peptide names from its N-terminal glycine and C-terminal amidated alanine, was studied in rat insulinoma (RINm5F) cells using electrophysiological and /sup 86/Rb/sup +/ flux techniques. Galanin hyperpolarizes and reduces spontaneous electrical activity by activating a population of APT-sensitive K/sup +/ channels with a single-channel conductance of 30 pS (at -60 mV). Galanin-induced hyperpolarization and reduction of spike activity are reversed by the hypoglycemia-inducing sulfonylurea glibenclamine. Glibenclamide blocks the galanin-activated ATP-sensitive K/sup +/ channel. /sup 86/Rb/sup +/ efflux from insulinoma cells is stimulated by galanin in a dose-dependent manner. The half-maximum value of activation is found at 1.6 nM. Galanin-induced /sup 86/Rb/sup +/ efflux is abolished by glibenclamide. The half-maximum value of inhibition is found at 0.3 nM, which is close to the half-maximum value of inhibition of the ATP-dependent K/sup +/ channel reported earlier. /sup 86/Rb/sup +/ efflux studies confirm the electrophysiological demonstration that galanin activates and ATP-dependent K/sup +/ channel.

  6. Pituitary and mammary growth hormone in dogs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bhatti, Sofie Fatima Mareyam

    2006-01-01

    Several pathological (e.g. obesity and chronic hypercortisolism) and non-pathological (e.g. ageing) states in humans are characterized by a reduction in pituitary growth hormone (GH) secretion. Chronic hypercortisolism in humans is also associated with an impaired GH response to various stimuli. Pit

  7. Active acromegaly enhances spontaneous parathyroid hormone pulsatility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazziotti, Gherardo; Cimino, Vincenzo; De Menis, Ernesto; Bonadonna, Stefania; Bugari, Giovanna; De Marinis, Laura; Veldhuis, Johannes D; Giustina, Andrea

    2006-06-01

    In healthy subjects, parathyroid hormone (PTH) is secreted in a dual fashion, with low-amplitude and high-frequency pulses superimposed on tonic secretion. These 2 components of PTH secretion seem to have different effects on target organs. The aim of our study was to evaluate whether growth hormone excess in acromegaly may modify the spontaneous pulsatility of PTH. Five male patients with newly diagnosed active acromegaly and 8 healthy subjects were evaluated by 3-minute blood sampling for 6 hours. Plasma PTH concentrations were evaluated by multiparameter deconvolution analysis. Plasma PTH release profiles were also subjected to an approximate entropy (ApEn) estimate, which provides an ensemble measure of the serial regularity or orderliness of the release process. In acromegalic patients, baseline serum PTH values were not significantly different from those measured in the healthy subjects, as well as tonic PTH secretion rate, number of bursts, fractional pulsatile PTH secretion, and ApEn ratio. Conversely, PTH pulse half-duration was significantly longer in acromegalic patients vs healthy subjects (11.8+/-0.95 vs 6.9+/-1.6 minutes; P=.05), whereas PTH pulse mass showed a tendency (P=.06) to be significantly greater in acromegalic patients. These preliminary data suggest that growth hormone excess may affect PTH secretory dynamics in patients with acromegaly. Potentially negative bone effects of the modifications of PTH secretory pattern in acromegaly should be investigated.

  8. The optimal hormonal replacement modality selection for multiple organ procurement from brain-dead organ donors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mi Z

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Zhibao Mi,1 Dimitri Novitzky,2 Joseph F Collins,1 David KC Cooper3 1Cooperative Studies Program Coordinating Center, VA Maryland Health Care Systems, Perry Point, MD, USA; 2Department of Cardiothoracic Surgery, University of South Florida, Tampa, FL, USA; 3Thomas E Starzl Transplantation Institute, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA, USA Abstract: The management of brain-dead organ donors is complex. The use of inotropic agents and replacement of depleted hormones (hormonal replacement therapy is crucial for successful multiple organ procurement, yet the optimal hormonal replacement has not been identified, and the statistical adjustment to determine the best selection is not trivial. Traditional pair-wise comparisons between every pair of treatments, and multiple comparisons to all (MCA, are statistically conservative. Hsu’s multiple comparisons with the best (MCB – adapted from the Dunnett’s multiple comparisons with control (MCC – has been used for selecting the best treatment based on continuous variables. We selected the best hormonal replacement modality for successful multiple organ procurement using a two-step approach. First, we estimated the predicted margins by constructing generalized linear models (GLM or generalized linear mixed models (GLMM, and then we applied the multiple comparison methods to identify the best hormonal replacement modality given that the testing of hormonal replacement modalities is independent. Based on 10-year data from the United Network for Organ Sharing (UNOS, among 16 hormonal replacement modalities, and using the 95% simultaneous confidence intervals, we found that the combination of thyroid hormone, a corticosteroid, antidiuretic hormone, and insulin was the best modality for multiple organ procurement for transplantation. Keywords: best treatment selection, brain-dead organ donors, hormonal replacement, multiple binary endpoints, organ procurement, multiple comparisons

  9. Análogo de GnRH disminuye la secreción de hormona folículo estimulante (FSH en ovejas prepúberes A gonadotropin releasing hormone analogue decreases follicle stimulating hormone (FSH secretion in prepubertal female sheep

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S E Recabarren

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available La secreción de LH y FSH depende de la liberación pulsátil de GnRH desde el hipotálamo; sin embargo, el grado de dependencia así como la relación entre los pulsos de GnRH y la secreción de FSH es menos clara. Experimentos en monos han mostrado que altas frecuencias de liberación de pulsos de GnRH estimulan preferentemente la secreción de LH, mientras que bajas frecuencias de pulsos de GnRH favorecen la secreción de FSH. Estudios sobre el control de la secreción de FSH en ovejas prepúberes son escasos. Con el objetivo de reconocer la dependencia de la secreción de FSH por parte de la GnRH, se administró un análogo de GnRH en microcápsulas de liberación lenta (Trp6-GnRH, Decapeptyl® y cuyo efecto bloqueador sobre la secreción de LH ha sido demostrado. El análogo se administró intramuscularmente cada cuatro semanas a partir de las 20 semanas de edad a cinco borregas Suffolk por tres veces. Otro grupo de ovejas prepúberes de las mismas edades recibió el vehículo. Estudios de pulsatilidad de FSH se efectuaron a las, 20, 26 y 30 semanas de edad. Se utilizó el programa Cluster para reconocer las características de la secreción pulsátil de FSH. En las borregas del grupo control no hubo cambios en las características de la secreción pulsátil de FSH entre las 20 y 30 semanas de edad. En el grupo tratado con el análogo de GnRH, las concentraciones plasmáticas de FSH disminuyeron desde 3,4±0,3 ng/mL/5h a las 20 semanas de edad hasta los 0,36±0,1 ng/mL/5h a las 30 semanas de edad (pLH and FSH secretions depend on the pulsatile secretion of GnRH from the hypothalamus. However, the grade of dependency as well as the relationship between pulses of GnRH and pulses of FSH secretion is less clear. Experiments in monkeys have shown that high GnRH pulse frequency favors LH secretion while low frequency of GnRH pulses preferentially stimulates the FSH secretion. The objective of the present work was to recognize the dependence of Gn

  10. Primary gonadal failure in men selectively amplifies the mass of follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) secreted per burst and increases the disorderliness of FSH release patterns: reversibility with testosterone replacement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veldhuis, J D; Iranmanesh, A; Urban, R J

    1997-10-01

    The neuroendocrine mechanisms by which primary gonadal failure in men increases mean serum FSH concentrations (castration-like response) are not known. To investigate the testosterone-dependent mechanisms of the FSH castration response: (i) blood was sampled at 10-min intervals for 24 h for later FSH assay in seven normal middle-aged men and in six patients with primary testicular failure, during testosterone withdrawal and after 6 weeks of parenteral testosterone replacement; (ii) using a specific two-site IRMA, serum FSH concentrations were measured, since this assay correlates well with an in-vitro Sertoli cell bioassay; (iii) multiparameter deconvolution analysis was then applied to estimate the frequency, amplitude, duration, and mass of underlying FSH secretory bursts, and the half-life of endogenous FSH, and (iv) approximate entropy was calculated to quantify the relative orderliness of FSH release over 24 h. Mean (+/- SEM) 24-h serum FSH concentrations were 3.9 +/- 0.8 IU/L in control subjects and 39 +/- 10 IU/L in unreplaced hypogonadal patients (p = 0.034). Deconvolution analysis revealed similar estimated mean FSH half-lives of 346 +/- 40 min (control) and 321 +/- 47 min (untreated patients), and indistinguishable FSH secretory burst frequencies, namely, 20 +/- 0.95 (normal) and 21 +/- 1.3 (patients) pulses per 24 h. In contrast, the daily production rate of FSH was markedly increased in testosterone-withdrawn hypogonadal men at 117 +/- 25 vs. 9.3 +/- 1.8 IU/L/day (control) (p gonadal failure 0.74 +/- 0.087 IU/L/min, p gonadal failure in men evokes FSH hypersecretion which is marked by more disorderly FSH release patterns and a selectively amplified mass of FSH secreted per burst. These hypergonadotrophic mechanisms are, to a significant extent, testosterone-suppressible.

  11. A possible new syndrome with growth-hormone secreting pituitary adenoma, colonic polyposis, lipomatosis, lentigines and renal carcinoma in association with familial testicular germ cell malignancy: A case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mai Phuong L

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Germ-cell testicular cancer has not been definitively linked to any known hereditary cancer susceptibility disorder. Familial testicular cancer in the presence of other findings in affected and unaffected family members might indicate a previously-unidentified hereditary cancer syndrome. Case presentation The patient was diagnosed with a left testicular seminoma at age 28, and treated with left orchiectomy followed by adjuvant cobalt radiation. His family history is significant for testicular seminoma in his son, bladder cancer in his sister, and lipomatosis in his father. His evaluation as part of an etiologic study of familial testicular cancer revealed multiple colon polyps (adenomatous, hyperplastic, and hamartomatous first found in his 50 s, multiple lipomas, multiple hyperpigmented skin lesions, left kidney cancer diagnosed at age 64, and a growth-hormone producing pituitary adenoma with associated acromegaly diagnosed at age 64. The patient underwent genetic testing for Cowden syndrome (PTEN gene, Carney complex (PRKAR1A gene, and multiple endocrine neoplasia syndrome type 1 (MEN1 gene; no deleterious mutations were identified. Discussion The constellation of benign and malignant neoplasms in the context of this patient's familial testicular cancer raised the possibility that these might be manifestations of a known hereditary susceptibility cancer syndrome; however, genetic testing for the three syndromes that were most likely to explain these findings did not show any mutation. Alternatively, this family's phenotype might represent a novel neoplasm susceptibility disorder. This possibility cannot be evaluated definitively on the basis of a single case report; additional observations and studies are necessary to investigate this hypothesis further.

  12. Single-Cell Phenotypic Characterization of Human Pituitary GHomas and Non-Functioning Adenomas Based on Hormone Content and Calcium Responses to Hypothalamic Releasing Hormones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senovilla, Laura; Núñez, Lucía; de Campos, José María; de Luis, Daniel A; Romero, Enrique; García-Sancho, Javier; Villalobos, Carlos

    2015-01-01

    Human pituitary tumors are generally benign adenomas causing considerable morbidity due to excess hormone secretion, hypopituitarism, and other tumor mass effects. Pituitary tumors are highly heterogeneous and difficult to type, often containing mixed cell phenotypes. We have used calcium imaging followed by multiple immunocytochemistry to type growth hormone secreting (GHomas) and non-functioning pituitary adenomas (NFPAs). Individual cells were typed for stored hormones and calcium responses to classic hypothalamic releasing hormones (HRHs). We found that GHomas contained growth hormone cells either lacking responses to HRHs or responding to all four HRHs. However, most GHoma cells were polyhormonal cells responsive to both thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH) and GH-releasing hormone. NFPAs were also highly heterogeneous. Some of them contained ACTH cells lacking responses to HRHs or polyhormonal gonadotropes responsive to LHRH and TRH. However, most NFPAs were made of cells storing no hormone and responded only to TRH. These results may provide new insights on the ontogeny of GHomas and NFPAs.

  13. Effects of Gonadotropin-releasing Hormone (GnRH) and Dopamine on Gonadotropin(GTH) Secretion from in vitro Pituitary Cells of Rainbow Trout%促性腺激素释放激素和多巴胺对虹鳟( Oncorhynchus mykiss )离体脑垂体细胞分泌促性腺激素的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    侯亚义

    2001-01-01

    本文研究了不同性腺发育时期淡水饲养的雌雄虹鳟(Oncorhynchus mykiss)血浆促性腺激素(GTH)浓度的变化规律;以及在离体条件下,探讨了促性腺激素释放激素(GnRH)、GnRH拮抗物和多巴胺对虹鳟脑垂体细胞分泌促性腺激素(GTH-Ⅱ)的影响。结果表明:(1)在雄性,血浆中GTH-Ⅱ的水平随性腺发育而逐渐增高;在雌性,仅排卵期血浆中GTH-Ⅱ的水平明显增高。(2)未成熟期和成熟期的雌性虹鳟脑垂体细胞对sGnRH和cGnRH刺激的敏感性表现不尽相同。成熟期和排卵后的脑垂体细胞对GnRH的刺激较为敏感,GTH-Ⅱ的分泌量较多。(3)在没有sGnRH的存在下,GnRH拮抗物对GTH-Ⅱ的分泌不发生作用,而在sGnRH的存在下,GnRH拮抗物对GTH-Ⅱ的分泌表现出浓度依赖的抑制作用。(4)在没有sGnRH的存在下,多巴胺对GTH-Ⅱ的分泌不发生作用,而当多巴胺的浓度一定时,随着sGnRH浓度的增加,GTH-Ⅱ分泌的量增大。另外,不论sGnRH还是cGnRH都不影响不同时期的脑垂体细胞GTH-I的分泌这些结果可为虹鳟的人工催产提供一些理论依据。%Plasma gonadotropin (GTH) levels during immature, mature and ovulated periods and effects of gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) and dopamine on GTH secretion of in vitro pituitary cells of rainbow trout were investigated. Plasma GTH levels increased with gonadal development. The different effects of sGnRH and cGnRH on GTH- Ⅱ secretions of pituitary cells in vitro from immature, mature and ovulated periods of rainbow trout were observed. GnRH antagonist did not change GTH - Ⅱ contents under the absence of sGnRH while GnRH antagonist suppressed dose-dependently GTH- Ⅱ secretions of pituitary cells in combination with sGnRH.Dopamine also did not affect GTH- Ⅱ levels under the absence of sGnRH, while GTH- Ⅱ secretions of pituitary cells were enhanced when the dosage of sGnRH was increased with the presence of

  14. 人垂体腺瘤细胞原代培养的纯化及其激素的表达与分泌%Primary Culture and Purification of Pituitary Adenoma Cells and Characteristics of Hormone Expression and Secretion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐伟光; 王海军; 黄锦桃; 刘爱军; 李海标; 朱永红

    2006-01-01

    [目的]探讨原代培养垂体腺瘤的细胞纯化方法及其激素表达与分泌的特点.[方法]采用三种原代培养方法对垂体腺瘤细胞进行培养,方法Ⅰ为目前常用的垂体瘤细胞培养方法,方法Ⅱ结合使用右旋颉氨酸(D-valine DMEM D-valine)培养液,方法Ⅲ采用反复贴壁法结合DMEM D-valine培养液培养.观察其细胞形态变化和生长特征,放射免疫法测定不同培养时间培养液中相应激素的水平.免疫组织化学染色法检测培养细胞生长激素(growth hormone,GH)、泌乳素(prolactin,PRL)的表达.[结果]3种方法均能成功培养出垂体腺瘤细胞,呈圆形或椭圆形,其纯度随培养时间的延长逐渐下降,培养第20天其平均纯度分别为40%,46%,96%.方法Ⅲ明显高于方法Ⅰ和方法Ⅱ,差异具有显著性意义(P0.05);腺瘤细胞分别呈GH,PRL阳性表达,成纤维细胞表达Ⅰ型胶原.[结论]方法Ⅲ可得到纯度达95%以上的人垂体腺瘤细胞,纯化后的细胞可分别呈GH和PRL阳性表达并具有良好的激素分泌功能,为进一步研究人垂体腺瘤的发病机理、药物治疗和颅外移植等方面奠定了实验基础.

  15. Antidiuretic effect of hydrochlorothiazide in lithium-induced nephrogenic diabetes insipidus is associated with upregulation of aquaporin-2, Na-Cl co-transporter, and epithelial sodium channel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Gheun-Ho; Lee, Jay Wook; Oh, Yun Kyu; Chang, Hye Ryun; Joo, Kwon Wook; Na, Ki Young; Earm, Jae-Ho; Knepper, Mark A; Han, Jin Suk

    2004-11-01

    Thiazides have been used in patients with nephrogenic diabetes insipidus (NDI) to decrease urine volume, but the mechanism by which it produces the paradoxic antidiuretic effect remains unclear. Previous studies have reported that downregulation of aquaporin-2 (AQP2) is important for the development of lithium-induced (Li-induced) polyuria and that hydrochlorothiazide (HCTZ) increases renal papillary osmolality and Na(+) concentration in Brattleboro rats. For elucidating the molecular basis of the antidiuretic action of HCTZ in diabetes insipidus, whether administration of HCTZ may affect the expression of AQP2 and major renal Na(+) transporters in Li-induced NDI rats was investigated, using semiquantitative immunoblotting and immunohistochemistry. After feeding male Sprague-Dawley rats Li chloride-containing rat diet for 4 wk, HCTZ or vehicle was infused subcutaneously via osmotic minipump. Urine output was significantly decreased by HCTZ treatment, whereas it was not changed in vehicle-treated rats. Urine osmolality was also higher in HCTZ-treated rats than in vehicle-treated rats. Semiquantitative immunoblotting using whole-kidney homogenates revealed that HCTZ treatment caused a significant partial recovery in AQP2 abundance from Li-induced downregulation. AQP2 immunohistochemistry showed compatible findings with the immunoblot results in both cortex and medulla. The abundances of thiazide-sensitive NaCl co-transporter and alpha-epithelial sodium channel were increased by HCTZ treatment. Notably, HCTZ treatment induced a shift in molecular weight of gamma-epithelial sodium channel from 85 to 70 kD, consistent with previously demonstrated aldosterone stimulation. The upregulation of AQP2 and distal renal Na(+) transporters in response to HCTZ treatment may account for the antidiuretic action of HCTZ in NDI.

  16. GLP1 and glucagon co-secreting pancreatic neuroendocrine tumor presenting as hypoglycemia after gastric bypass

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guimarães, Marta; Rodrigues, Pedro; Pereira, Sofia S;

    2015-01-01

    Post-prandial hypoglycemia is frequently found after bariatric surgery. Although rare, pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors (pNET), which occasionally are mixed hormone secreting, can lead to atypical clinical manifestations, including reactive hypoglycemia. Two years after gastric bypass surgery for...

  17. Parathyroid hormone pulsatility:physiological and clinical aspects

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Silvia Chiavistelli; Andrea Giustina; Gherardo Mazziotti

    2015-01-01

    Parathyroid hormone (PTH) secretion is characterized by an ultradian rhythm with tonic and pulsatile components. In healthy subjects, the majority of PTH is secreted in tonic fashion, whereas approximately 30%is secreted in low-amplitude and high-frequency bursts occurring every 10–20 min, superimposed on tonic secretion. Changes in the ultradian PTH secretion were shown to occur in patients with primary and secondary osteoporosis, with skeletal effects depending on the reciprocal modifications of pulsatile and tonic components. Indeed, pathophysiology of spontaneous PTH secretion remains an area potentially suitable to be explored, particularly in those conditions such as secondary forms of osteoporosis, in which conventional biochemical and densitometric parameters may not always give reliable diagnostic and therapeutic indications. This review will highlight the literature data supporting the hypothesis that changes of ultradian PTH secretion may be correlated with skeletal fragility in primary and secondary osteoporosis.

  18. [Dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA)--youth hormone?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zdrojewicz, Z; Kesik, S

    2001-01-01

    Dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) and its sulphated metabolite (DHEA-S) are endogenous steroid hormones, synthesized by the adrenal cortex, gonads and CNS. The secretion profile changes with age and depends on the sex. Human DHEA and DHEA-S levels decline linearly and systematically with age and suggest the potential importance of that parameter as a biomarker of ageing. The counteraction of DHEA against atherosclerotic disease, cancer growth, diabetes mellitus, insulin resistance, obesity and the influence on immunological functions are observed in researches. DHEA influences the condition of mind, cognition functions, memory and well-being. DHEA hormonal replacement therapy is expected to lengthen human life by the stoppage of physiological degeneration changes and prevention of age-related clinical disorders.

  19. Gene Regulation System of Vasopressin and Corticotoropin-Releasing Hormone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masanori Yoshida

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The neurohypophyseal hormones, arginine vasopressin and corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH, play a crucial role in the physiological and behavioral response to various kinds of stresses. Both neuropeptides activate the hypophysialpituitary-adrenal (HPA axis, which is a central mediator of the stress response in the body. Conversely, they receive the negative regulation by glucocorticoid, which is an end product of the HPA axis. Vasopressin and CRH are closely linked to immune response; they also interact with pro-inflammatory cytokines. Moreover, as for vasopressin, it has another important role, which is the regulation of water balance through its potent antidiuretic effect. Hence, it is conceivable that vasopressin and CRH mediate the homeostatic responses for survival and protect organisms from the external world. A tight and elaborate regulation system of the vasopressin and CRH gene is required for the rapid and flexible response to the alteration of the surrounding environments. Several important regulatory elements have been identified in the proximal promoter region in the vasopressin and CRH gene. Many transcription factors and intracellular signaling cascades are involved in the complicated gene regulation system. This review focuses on the current status of the basic research of vasopressin and CRH. In addition to the numerous known facts about their divergent physiological roles, the recent topics of promoter analyses will be discussed.

  20. Resistance to growth hormone releasing hormone and gonadotropins in Albright's hereditary osteodystrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mantovani, Giovanna; Spada, Anna

    2006-05-01

    Heterozygous inactivating mutations in the Gs alpha gene cause Albright's hereditary osteo-dystrophy (AHO). Consistent with the observation that only maternally inherited mutations lead to resistance to hormone action (pseudohypoparathyroidism type Ia [PHP-Ia), recent studies have provided evidence for a predominant maternal origin of Gs alpha transcripts in endocrine organs, such as thyroid, gonad and pituitary. Accordingly, patients with PHP-Ia display variable degrees of resistance to parathyroid hormone (PTH), thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH), gonadotropins and growth hormone (GH) releasing hormone (GHRH). Although the incidence and the clinical and biochemical characteristics of PTH and TSH resistance have been widely investigated and described, the cause and significance of the reproductive dysfunction in AHO is still poorly understood. The clinical finding of alterations of GH secretion in these patients was described for the first time only 2 years ago. The present report briefly reviews the literature focusing on the actual knowledge about these last two subjects.

  1. Thiazide-induced hyponatraemia is associated with increased water intake and impaired urea-mediated water excretion at low plasma antidiuretic hormone and urine aquaporin-2.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Frenkel, N.J.; Vogt, L.; Rooij, S.E. De; Trimpert, C.; Levi, M.M.; Deen, P.M.T.; Born, B.J. van den

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Hyponatraemia is a common, potentially life-threatening, complication of thiazide diuretics. The mechanism of thiazide-induced hyponatraemia is incompletely understood. Previous experiments have suggested a direct effect of thiazide diuretics on the plasma membrane expression of aquapori

  2. Thiazide-induced hyponatraemia is associated with increased water intake and impaired urea-mediated water excretion at low plasma antidiuretic hormone and urine aquaporin-2

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Frenkel, Nanne J.; Vogt, Liffert; De Rooij, Sophia E.; Trimpert, Christiane; Levi, Marcel M.; Deen, Peter M. T.; van den Born, Bert-Jan H.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Hyponatraemia is a common, potentially life-threatening, complication of thiazide diuretics. The mechanism of thiazide-induced hyponatraemia is incompletely understood. Previous experiments have suggested a direct effect of thiazide diuretics on the plasma membrane expression of aquapori

  3. Thiazide-induced hyponatraemia is associated with increased water intake and impaired urea-mediated water excretion at low plasma antidiuretic hormone and urine aquaporin-2

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Frenkel, Nanne J; Vogt, Liffert; De Rooij, Sophia E; Trimpert, Christiane; Levi, Marcel M; Deen, Peter M T; van den Born, Bert-Jan H

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Hyponatraemia is a common, potentially life-threatening, complication of thiazide diuretics. The mechanism of thiazide-induced hyponatraemia is incompletely understood. Previous experiments have suggested a direct effect of thiazide diuretics on the plasma membrane expression of aquapori

  4. Effects of Evans Blue and amiloride on anti-diuretic hormone (ADH)-induced sodium transport across frog (Rana hexadactyla) skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jared, Silviya Rajakumari; Rao, Jonakuty Prakasa

    2013-05-01

    The epithelial sodium channel (ENaC) has four subunits, namely α (alpha), β (beta), γ (gamma) and δ (delta). The functional ENaC is formed by the combination of either αβγ or δβγ subunits. The aim of the present study is to determine the combination of ENaC subunits predominant on the apical side of the frog skin, and the effect of ADH on sodium transport though these two ENaCs subunit combinations. The ventral abdominal skin of the frog, Rana hexadactyla was mounted in an Ussing-type chamber. The voltage-clamp method was performed to measure the ionic transport across the frog skin with normal Ringer solution (NR) on both sides. Evans blue (300 µM) and amiloride (100 µM) were added to the NR on the apical side and ADH (40 nM) was added on the serosal side. Statistical significance was analyzed by Student's paired t-test and repeated-measures ANOVA, P < 0.05 was considered significant. This study suggests that the ENaC of the frog skin consist of both αβγ and δβγ subunit combinations on the apical side. Though both types of subunit combination are present, the αβγ type was found to be more common than δβγ. ADH increases the sodium transport across the frog skin. The effect of ADH on sodium transport is achieved through the combination of δ-subunits, not through the combination of a-subunits in the skin of Pana hexadactyla.

  5. [Dehydroepiandrosterone [DHEA(S)]: anabolic hormone?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luci, Michele; Valenti, Giorgio; Maggio, Marcello

    2010-09-01

    The role of dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) and its sulphated form (DHEAS) as anabolic hormones is still debated in the literature. In this review we describe the fundamental steps of DHEA physiological secretion and its peripheral metabolism. Moreover we will list all the observational and intervention studies conducted in humans. Many observational studies have tested the relationship between low DHEA levels and age-related changes in skeletal muscle and bone, while intervention studies underline the positive and significant effects of DHEA treatment on several parameters of body composition. Surprisingly, observational studies are not consistent with different effects in men and women. There is recent evidence of a significant role of DHEA in frailty syndrome and as predictor of mortality. However a more complete approach of the problem suggests the opportunity to not focus only on one single hormonal derangement but to analyze the parallel dysregulation of anabolic hormones including sex steroids, GH-IGF-1 system and other catabolic hormones.

  6. Authentication Without Secrets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pierson, Lyndon G. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Robertson, Perry J. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2015-11-01

    This work examines a new approach to authentication, which is the most fundamental security primitive that underpins all cyber security protections. Current Internet authentication techniques require the protection of one or more secret keys along with the integrity protection of the algorithms/computations designed to prove possession of the secret without actually revealing it. Protecting a secret requires physical barriers or encryption with yet another secret key. The reason to strive for "Authentication without Secret Keys" is that protecting secrets (even small ones only kept in a small corner of a component or device) is much harder than protecting the integrity of information that is not secret. Promising methods are examined for authentication of components, data, programs, network transactions, and/or individuals. The successful development of authentication without secret keys will enable far more tractable system security engineering for high exposure, high consequence systems by eliminating the need for brittle protection mechanisms to protect secret keys (such as are now protected in smart cards, etc.). This paper is a re-release of SAND2009-7032 with new figures numerous edits.

  7. Blood, pituitary, and brain renin-angiotensin systems and regulation of secretion of anterior pituitary gland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganong, W F

    1993-07-01

    In addition to increasing blood pressure, stimulating aldosterone and vasopressin secretion, and increasing water intake, angiotensin II affects the secretion of anterior pituitary hormones. Some of these effects are direct. There are angiotensin II receptors on lactotropes and corticotropes in rats, and there may be receptors on thyrotropes and other secretory cells. Circulating angiotensin II reaches these receptors, but angiotensin II is almost certainly generated locally by the pituitary renin-angiotensin system as well. There are also indirect effects produced by the effects of brain angiotensin II on the secretion of hypophyseotropic hormones. In the anterior pituitary of the rat, the gonadotropes contain renin, angiotensin II, and some angiotensin-converting enzyme. There is debate about whether these cells also contain small amounts of angiotensinogen, but most of the angiotensinogen is produced by a separate population of cells and appears to pass in a paracrine fashion to the gonadotropes. An analogous situation exists in the brain. Neurons contain angiotensin II and probably renin, but most angiotensin-converting enzyme is located elsewhere and angiotensinogen is primarily if not solely produced by astrocytes. Angiotensin II causes secretion of prolactin and adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) when added to pituitary cells in vitro. Paracrine regulation of prolactin secretion by angiotensin II from the gonadotropes may occur in vitro under certain circumstances, but the effects of peripheral angiotensin II on ACTH secretion appear to be mediated via the brain and corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH). In the brain, there is good evidence that locally generated angiotensin II causes release of norepinephrine that in turn stimulates gonadotropin-releasing hormone-secreting neurons, increasing circulating luteinizing hormone. In addition, there is evidence that angiotensin II acts in the arcuate nuclei to increase the secretion of dopamine into the portal

  8. Growth hormone suppression test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003376.htm Growth hormone suppression test To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. The growth hormone suppression test determines whether growth hormone production ...

  9. Growth hormone test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003706.htm Growth hormone test To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. The growth hormone test measures the amount of growth hormone ...

  10. Hormone Replacement Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... before and during menopause, the levels of female hormones can go up and down. This can cause ... hot flashes and vaginal dryness. Some women take hormone replacement therapy (HRT), also called menopausal hormone therapy, ...

  11. Effects of ZCF on the Hormones Secretion of Pituitary-gonad Axis in Kidney-Yang Deficiency Female Rats%壮阳促孕散对雌性肾阳虚大鼠垂体-性腺轴分泌激素的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐红艳; 鞠玉琳; 张敏; 夏广军

    2011-01-01

    试验研究了中药壮阳促孕散对雌性肾阳虚大鼠垂体-性腺轴分泌激素的影响,初步探讨其作用机制.用氢化可的松造雌性大鼠肾阳虚模型,造模21d,从试验第八天开始,中药治疗组灌胃中药壮阳促孕散,阳性对照组灌胃金匮肾气丸,连续给药14d.放射免疫法测定血清中雌二醇(E2)、孕酮(P)、黄体生成素(LH)和促卵泡激素(FSH).结果表明,模型对照组造模后大鼠出现明显的阳虚症状,体重下降,血清中E2、P下降,LH、FSH升高,给药后阳性对照组、中药治疗组大鼠体重增加,血清中E2、P升高,LH、FSH下降.中药壮阳促孕散可调节雌性肾阳虚大鼠血清中LH、FSH、E2和P的分泌,对生殖内分泌有促进作用.%To study the effects of traditional Chinese medicine ZCF on the hormones secretion of pituitary-gonad axis in kid-ney yang deficiency female rats and preliminarily discuss the action mechanism, the kidney-yang deficiency model of female rats was built by using hydrocortisone for 21 days. From the eighth day, Jinkuishenqi pill and traditional Chinese medicine ZCF was given to positive control group and treating group by gavage for 14 days, respectively. The contents of E2, P, LH and FSH in serum were determined by radioimmunoassay. After the model building, the control group presented obvious yang deficiency symptom. The weight of the rats decreased, the content of E2 and P in serum decreased but the contents of LH and FSH increased. After medication, the content of E2 and P in serum of the treating group increased; while the contents of LH and FSH decreased. It indicated that Chinese medicine ZCF could adjust the secretion of LH, FSH, E2 and P in serum of kidney-yang deficiency female rats, and had stimulative function on procreation endocrine.

  12. Growth hormone modulation of arginine-induced glucagon release: studies of isolated growth hormone deficiency and acromegaly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seino, Y; Taminato, T; Goto, Y; Inoue, Y; Kadowaki, S; Hattori, M; Mori, K; Kato, Y; Matsukura, S; Imura, H

    1978-12-01

    Plasma glucagon and insulin responses to L-arginine were compared in normal controls and patients with isolated growth hormone deficiency and acromegaly. Patients with isolated growth hormone deficiency were characterized by high plasma glucagon response and low plasma insulin response, whereas acromegalic patients showed exaggerated plasma glucagon response and almost normal insulin response. These results suggest that growth hormone is probably required for optimum function of the islets, and since hyperglucagonaemia was observed in both growth hormone deficiency and acromegaly, metabolic disturbances stemming from the respective primary diseases may affect glucagon secretion.

  13. Ghrelin drives GH secretion during fasting in man

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.F. Muller (Alex); S.W.J. Lamberts (Steven); L.J. Hofland (Leo); M. Bidlingmaier (Martin); C.J. Strasburger; E. Ghigo (Ezio); A-J. van der Lely (Aart-Jan); J.A.M.J.L. Janssen (Joseph); P.M. van Koetsveld (Peter)

    2002-01-01

    textabstractOBJECTIVES: In humans, fasting leads to elevated serum GH concentrations. Traditionally, changes in hypothalamic GH-releasing hormone and somatostatin release are considered as the main mechanisms that induce this elevated GH secretion during fasting. Ghrelin is an endo

  14. [Thyroid hormone and the cardiovascular system].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraczek, Magdalena Maria; Łacka, Katarzyna

    2014-09-01

    It is well established that thyroid hormones affect the cardiovascular system through genomic and nongenomic actions. TRalpha1 is the major thyroid hormone receptor in the heart. T3 suppresses increased mitotic activity of stimulated cardiomyocytes. Hyperthyroidism induces a hyperdynamic cardiovascular state, which is associated with enhanced left ventricular systolic and diastolic function and the chronotropic and inotropic properties of thyroid hormones. Hypothyroidism, however, is characterized by opposite changes. In addition, thyroid hormones decrease peripheral vascular resistance, influence the rennin-angiotensin system (RAS), and increase blood volume and erythropoetin secretion with subsequent increased preload and cardiac output. Thyroid hormones play an important role in cardiac electrophysiology and have both pro- and anti-arrhytmic potential. Thyroid hormone deficiency is associated with a less favorable lipid profile. Selective modulation of the TRbeta1 receptor is considered as a potential therapeutic target to treat dyslipidemia without cardiac side effects. Thyroid hormones have a beneficial effect on limiting myocardial ischemic injury, preventing and reversing cardiac remodeling and improving cardiac hemodynamics in endstage heart failure. This is crucial because a low T3 syndrome accompanies both acute and chronic cardiac diseases.

  15. Immunoglobins in mammary secretions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hurley, W L; Theil, Peter Kappel

    2013-01-01

    Immunoglobulins secreted in colostrum and milk by the lactating mammal are major factors providing immune protection to the newborn. Immunoglobulins in mammary secretions represent the cumulative immune response of the lactating animal to exposure to antigenic stimulation that occurs through inte...

  16. Efecto de la leptina en el tratamiento de la obesidad e influencia de la dieta en la secreción y acción de la hormona Effect of leptin in the treatment of obesity and influences of diet in the secretion and action of hormone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. L. Rosado

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available La obesidad es una enfermedad multicausal que incluye factores exógenos y endógenos. Destacamos la leptina, una hormona sintetizada en el tejido adiposo, cuyo receptor se encuentra en el hipotálamo. La leptina ha sido considerada importante en el desarrollo de la obesidad, pues influye en la ingesta y en el gasto energético. En la revisión se propone evaluar la leptina como factor relacionado al desarrollo de la obesidad, así como la influencia de la dieta en la secreción y acción de la leptina. En la obesidad humana, la deficiencia de leptina funcional es rara, sin embargo, puede existir resistencia a la leptina. Tras la pérdida de peso ocurre reducción en los niveles de leptina, lo que puede resultar en la recuperación del peso corporal. La leptina es regulada por la ingesta de alimentos y sus niveles circulantes y potencial de acción se encuentran asociados con el contenido de macronutrientes de la dieta y la composición corporal del individuo. Sin embargo, estudios demuestran que tanto la alta cuanto la baja ingesta de alimentos pueden influir en la secreción de leptina, independiente del efecto de la adiposidad. Además, la grasa de la dieta presenta efecto importante en la secreción y acción de la leptina. También la deficiencia de zinc ha sido asociada con los niveles reducidos de leptin. Varios estudios experimentales han siendo hechos para evaluar el efecto de la administración de leptina en el tratamiento de la obesidad, sea por medio de inyecciones, inhalación o formas de leptina más activas. Sin embargo, nos faltan estudios semejantes con humanos. Es importante el desarrollo de estudios que asocien los factores ambientales, particularmente la dieta, con la regulación de los niveles séricos y acción de la leptina en humanos.The obesity is a multicausal disease that includes exogenous and endogenous factors. We emphasized the leptin, a hormone produced by adipose tissue, whose receiver is in the hypothalamus. The

  17. Review of novel aspects of the regulation of ghrelin secretion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Massadi, Omar; Lear, Pamela V; Muller, Timo D; Lopez, Miguel; Dieguez, Carlos; Tschop, Matthias H; Nogueiras, Ruben

    2014-01-01

    The role of ghrelin in regulating metabolism and energy balance has been a subject of intense focus ever since its discovery. Ghrelin regulates energy balance in the short term by induction of appetite and in the longer term by increasing body weight and adiposity. It is the only known peripheral orexigenic hormone and one of the most potent endogenous orexigenic factors discovered to date. However, whilst extensively studied, the mechanism of ghrelin secretion is not well understood. A better understanding of the pathways controlling ghrelin secretion could be useful in the development of new therapeutic approaches to appetite-related disorders. Here, we discuss current knowledge of the processes that control ghrelin secretion, focusing on neural, chemical and hormonal stimuli. In addition, we share our view on the potential of targeting ghrelin for the treatment of eating disorders such as obesity, anorexia nervosa and cachexia.

  18. Low glucose-induced ghrelin secretion is mediated by an ATP-sensitive potassium channel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oya, Manami; Kitaguchi, Tetsuya; Harada, Kazuki; Numano, Rika; Sato, Takahiro; Kojima, Masayasu; Tsuboi, Takashi

    2015-07-01

    Ghrelin is synthesized in X/A-like cells of the gastric mucosa, which plays an important role in the regulation of energy homeostasis. Although ghrelin secretion is known to be induced by neurotransmitters or hormones or by nutrient sensing in the ghrelin-secreting cells themselves, the mechanism of ghrelin secretion is not clearly understood. In the present study, we found that changing the extracellular glucose concentration from elevated (25  mM) to optimal (10 mM) caused an increase in the intracellular Ca2+ concentration ([Ca2+]i) in ghrelin-secreting mouse ghrelinoma 3-1 (MGN3-1) cells (n=32, Pghrelin secretion (n≥3, Pghrelin secretion (n≥3, Pghrelin secretion (n≥5, Pghrelin secretion in MGN3-1 cells.

  19. Human Beta Cells Produce and Release Serotonin to Inhibit Glucagon Secretion from Alpha Cells

    OpenAIRE

    Joana Almaça; Judith Molina; Danusa Menegaz; Pronin, Alexey N.; Alejandro Tamayo; Vladlen Slepak; Per-Olof Berggren; Alejandro Caicedo

    2016-01-01

    In the pancreatic islet, serotonin is an autocrine signal increasing beta cell mass during metabolic challenges such as those associated with pregnancy or high-fat diet. It is still unclear whether serotonin is relevant for regular islet physiology and hormone secretion. Here, we show that human beta cells produce and secrete serotonin when stimulated with increases in glucose concentration. Serotonin secretion from beta cells decreases cyclic AMP (cAMP) levels in neighboring alpha cells via ...

  20. Somatomammotrophic cells in GH-secreting and PRL-secreting human pituitary adenomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bassetti, M; Brina, M; Spada, A; Giannattasio, G

    1989-11-01

    A morphological study has been carried out on 20 GH-secreting adenomas removed from acromegalic normoprolactinemic patients, on 29 PRL-secreting adenomas removed from hyperprolactinemic patients without signs of acromegaly and on one normal human anterior pituitary gland collected at autopsy. The protein A-gold immunoelectron microscopic technique has been utilized in order to verify the presence of mixed cells producing both GH and PRL (somatomammotrophs) in these pituitary tissues. In the normal pituitary a considerable number of somatomammotrophs (15-20%) was found, thus supporting the idea that these cells are normal components of the human anterior pituitary gland. In 10 GH-secreting adenomas and in 10 PRL-secreting adenomas somatomammotrophs were present in a variable number (from 4 to 20% of the whole cell population in GH adenomas and from 1 to 47% in PRL tumors). It can be concluded therefore that these cells, largely present in all GH/PRL-secreting adenomas, can also be found in GH-secreting and PRL-secreting tumors without clinical evidence of a mixed secretion