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Sample records for antidiabetic properties effect

  1. Antidiabetic Properties, Bioactive Constituents, and Other Therapeutic Effects of Scoparia dulcis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pamunuwa, Geethi; Karunaratne, D Nedra; Waisundara, Viduranga Y

    2016-01-01

    This review discusses the antidiabetic activities of Scoparia dulcis as well as its antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties in relation to the diabetes and its complications. Ethnomedical applications of the herb have been identified as treatment for jaundice, stomach problems, skin disease, fever, and kidney stones, reproductory issues, and piles. Evidence has been demonstrated through scientific studies as to the antidiabetic effects of crude extracts of S. dulcis as well as its bioactive constituents. The primary mechanisms of action of antidiabetic activity of the plant and its bioactive constituents are through α-glucosidase inhibition, curbing of PPAR-γ and increased secretion of insulin. Scoparic acid A, scoparic acid D, scutellarein, apigenin, luteolin, coixol, and glutinol are some of the compounds which have been identified as responsible for these mechanisms of action. S. dulcis has also been shown to exhibit analgesic, antimalarial, hepatoprotective, sedative, hypnotic, antiulcer, antisickling, and antimicrobial activities. Given this evidence, it may be concluded that S. dulcis could be promoted among the masses as an alternative and complementary therapy for diabetes, provided further scientific studies on the toxicological and pharmacological aspects are carried out through either in vivo or clinical means. PMID:27594892

  2. Antidiabetic Properties, Bioactive Constituents, and Other Therapeutic Effects of Scoparia dulcis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geethi Pamunuwa

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This review discusses the antidiabetic activities of Scoparia dulcis as well as its antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties in relation to the diabetes and its complications. Ethnomedical applications of the herb have been identified as treatment for jaundice, stomach problems, skin disease, fever, and kidney stones, reproductory issues, and piles. Evidence has been demonstrated through scientific studies as to the antidiabetic effects of crude extracts of S. dulcis as well as its bioactive constituents. The primary mechanisms of action of antidiabetic activity of the plant and its bioactive constituents are through α-glucosidase inhibition, curbing of PPAR-γ and increased secretion of insulin. Scoparic acid A, scoparic acid D, scutellarein, apigenin, luteolin, coixol, and glutinol are some of the compounds which have been identified as responsible for these mechanisms of action. S. dulcis has also been shown to exhibit analgesic, antimalarial, hepatoprotective, sedative, hypnotic, antiulcer, antisickling, and antimicrobial activities. Given this evidence, it may be concluded that S. dulcis could be promoted among the masses as an alternative and complementary therapy for diabetes, provided further scientific studies on the toxicological and pharmacological aspects are carried out through either in vivo or clinical means.

  3. Antidiabetic Properties of Germinated Brown Rice: A Systematic Review

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    Mustapha Umar Imam

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Diet is an important variable in the course of type 2 diabetes, which has generated interest in dietary options like germinated brown rice (GBR for effective management of the disease among rice-consuming populations. In vitro data and animal experiments show that GBR has potentials as a functional diet for managing this disease, and short-term clinical studies indicate encouraging results. Mechanisms for antidiabetic effects of GBR due to bioactive compounds like γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA, γ-oryzanol, dietary fibre, phenolics, vitamins, acylated steryl β-glucoside, and minerals include antihyperglycemia, low insulin index, antioxidative effect, antithrombosis, antihypertensive effect, hypocholesterolemia, and neuroprotective effects. The evidence so far suggests that there may be enormous benefits for diabetics in rice-consuming populations if white rice is replaced with GBR. However, long-term clinical studies are still needed to verify these findings on antidiabetic effects of GBR. Thus, we present a review on the antidiabetic properties of GBR from relevant preclinical and clinical studies, in order to provide detailed information on this subject for researchers to review the potential of GBR in combating this disease.

  4. Antidiabetic effect of Sida cordata in alloxan induced diabetic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Naseer Ali; Khan, Muhammad Rashid

    2014-01-01

    Medicinal plants are efficient ameliorator of oxidative stress associated with diabetes mellitus. In this study, ethyl acetate fraction (SCEE) of Sida cordata was investigated for scientific validation of its folk use in diabetes. Antidiabetic effect of SCEE was confirmed by antihyperglycemic activity in normal glucose loaded and diabetic glucose loaded animals as well as normal off feed animals. Confirmation of antidiabetic activity and toxicity ameliorative role of S. cordata was investigated in a chronic multiple dose treatment study of fifteen days. A single dose of alloxan (120 mg/kg) produced a decrease in insulin level, hyperglycemia, elevated total lipids, triglycerides, and cholesterol and decreased the high-density lipoproteins. Concurrent with these changes, there was an increase in the concentration of lipid peroxidation (TBARS), H2O2, and nitrite in pancreas, liver, and testis. This oxidative stress was related to a decrease in glutathione content (GSH) and antioxidant enzymes. Administration of SCEE for 15 days after diabetes induction ameliorated hyperglycemia, restored lipid profile, blunted the increase in TBARS, H2O2, and nitrite content, and stimulated the GSH production in the organs of alloxan-treated rats. We suggested that SCEE could be used as antidiabetic component in case of diabetes mellitus. This may be related to its antioxidative properties.

  5. Distribution of Phenolic Contents, Antidiabetic Potentials, Antihypertensive Properties, and Antioxidative Effects of Soursop (Annona muricata L.) Fruit Parts In Vitro

    OpenAIRE

    Adefegha, Stephen A.; Sunday I. Oyeleye; Ganiyu Oboh

    2015-01-01

    Soursop fruit has been used in folklore for the management of type-2 diabetes and hypertension with limited information on the scientific backing. This study investigated the effects of aqueous extracts (1 : 100 w/v) of Soursop fruit part (pericarp, pulp, and seed) on key enzymes linked to type-2 diabetes (α-amylase and α-glucosidase) and hypertension [angiotensin-I converting enzyme (ACE)]. Radicals scavenging and Fe2+ chelation abilities and reducing property as well as phenolic contents of...

  6. Distribution of Phenolic Contents, Antidiabetic Potentials, Antihypertensive Properties, and Antioxidative Effects of Soursop (Annona muricata L.) Fruit Parts In Vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adefegha, Stephen A; Oyeleye, Sunday I; Oboh, Ganiyu

    2015-01-01

    Soursop fruit has been used in folklore for the management of type-2 diabetes and hypertension with limited information on the scientific backing. This study investigated the effects of aqueous extracts (1 : 100 w/v) of Soursop fruit part (pericarp, pulp, and seed) on key enzymes linked to type-2 diabetes (α-amylase and α-glucosidase) and hypertension [angiotensin-I converting enzyme (ACE)]. Radicals scavenging and Fe(2+) chelation abilities and reducing property as well as phenolic contents of the extracts were also determined. Our data revealed that the extracts inhibited α-amylase and α-glucosidase and ACE activities dose-dependently. The effective concentration of the extract causing 50% antioxidant activity (EC50) revealed that pericarp extract had the highest α-amylase (0.46 mg/mL), α-glucosidase (0.37 mg/mL), and ACE (0.03 mg/mL) inhibitory activities while the seed extract had the least [α-amylase (0.76 mg/mL); α-glucosidase (0.73 mg/mL); and ACE (0.20 mg/mL)]. Furthermore, the extracts scavenged radicals, reduced Fe(3+) to Fe(2+), and chelated Fe(2+). The phenolic contents in the extracts ranged from 85.65 to 560.21 mg/100 g. The enzymes inhibitory and antioxidants potentials of the extracts could be attributed to their phenolic distributions which could be among the scientific basis for their use in the management of diabetes and hypertension. However, the pericarp appeared to be most promising. PMID:26788368

  7. Distribution of Phenolic Contents, Antidiabetic Potentials, Antihypertensive Properties, and Antioxidative Effects of Soursop (Annona muricata L. Fruit Parts In Vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen A. Adefegha

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Soursop fruit has been used in folklore for the management of type-2 diabetes and hypertension with limited information on the scientific backing. This study investigated the effects of aqueous extracts (1 : 100 w/v of Soursop fruit part (pericarp, pulp, and seed on key enzymes linked to type-2 diabetes (α-amylase and α-glucosidase and hypertension [angiotensin-I converting enzyme (ACE]. Radicals scavenging and Fe2+ chelation abilities and reducing property as well as phenolic contents of the extracts were also determined. Our data revealed that the extracts inhibited α-amylase and α-glucosidase and ACE activities dose-dependently. The effective concentration of the extract causing 50% antioxidant activity (EC50 revealed that pericarp extract had the highest α-amylase (0.46 mg/mL, α-glucosidase (0.37 mg/mL, and ACE (0.03 mg/mL inhibitory activities while the seed extract had the least [α-amylase (0.76 mg/mL; α-glucosidase (0.73 mg/mL; and ACE (0.20 mg/mL]. Furthermore, the extracts scavenged radicals, reduced Fe3+ to Fe2+, and chelated Fe2+. The phenolic contents in the extracts ranged from 85.65 to 560.21 mg/100 g. The enzymes inhibitory and antioxidants potentials of the extracts could be attributed to their phenolic distributions which could be among the scientific basis for their use in the management of diabetes and hypertension. However, the pericarp appeared to be most promising.

  8. Distribution of Phenolic Contents, Antidiabetic Potentials, Antihypertensive Properties, and Antioxidative Effects of Soursop (Annona muricata L.) Fruit Parts In Vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adefegha, Stephen A; Oyeleye, Sunday I; Oboh, Ganiyu

    2015-01-01

    Soursop fruit has been used in folklore for the management of type-2 diabetes and hypertension with limited information on the scientific backing. This study investigated the effects of aqueous extracts (1 : 100 w/v) of Soursop fruit part (pericarp, pulp, and seed) on key enzymes linked to type-2 diabetes (α-amylase and α-glucosidase) and hypertension [angiotensin-I converting enzyme (ACE)]. Radicals scavenging and Fe(2+) chelation abilities and reducing property as well as phenolic contents of the extracts were also determined. Our data revealed that the extracts inhibited α-amylase and α-glucosidase and ACE activities dose-dependently. The effective concentration of the extract causing 50% antioxidant activity (EC50) revealed that pericarp extract had the highest α-amylase (0.46 mg/mL), α-glucosidase (0.37 mg/mL), and ACE (0.03 mg/mL) inhibitory activities while the seed extract had the least [α-amylase (0.76 mg/mL); α-glucosidase (0.73 mg/mL); and ACE (0.20 mg/mL)]. Furthermore, the extracts scavenged radicals, reduced Fe(3+) to Fe(2+), and chelated Fe(2+). The phenolic contents in the extracts ranged from 85.65 to 560.21 mg/100 g. The enzymes inhibitory and antioxidants potentials of the extracts could be attributed to their phenolic distributions which could be among the scientific basis for their use in the management of diabetes and hypertension. However, the pericarp appeared to be most promising.

  9. COST-EFFECTIVENESS ANALYSIS OF ANTI-DIABETIC THERAPY IN A UNIVERSITY TEACHING HOSPITAL

    OpenAIRE

    Giwa Abdulganiyu; Tayo Fola

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: To conduct cost-effectiveness analysis of anti-diabetic therapy in a University Teaching Hospital in 2010. Methods: A retrospective review of selected case-notes was conducted. World Health Organization Defined Daily Dose Method of evaluating drug use and probability method for potential effectiveness of antidiabetic therapeutic options from literature analysis was employed in determining cost-effectiveness of each anti-diabetic therapeutic option identified from anti-diabetic dru...

  10. An overview on antidiabetic medicinal plants having insulin mimetic property

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    DK Patel

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Diabetes mellitus is one of the common metabolic disorders acquiring around 2.8% of the world's population and is anticipated to cross 5.4% by the year 2025. Since long back herbal medicines have been the highly esteemed source of medicine therefore, they have become a growing part of modern, high-tech medicine. In view of the above aspects the present review provides profiles of plants (65 species with hypoglycaemic properties, available through literature source from various database with proper categorization according to the parts used, mode of reduction in blood glucose (insulinomimetic or insulin secretagogues activity and active phytoconstituents having insulin mimetics activity. From the review it was suggested that, plant showing hypoglycemic potential mainly belongs to the family Leguminoseae, Lamiaceae, Liliaceae, Cucurbitaceae, Asteraceae, Moraceae, Rosaceae and Araliaceae. The most active plants are Allium sativum, Gymnema sylvestre, Citrullus colocynthis, Trigonella foenum greacum, Momordica charantia and Ficus bengalensis. The review describes some new bioactive drugs and isolated compounds from plants such as roseoside, epigallocatechin gallate, beta-pyrazol-1-ylalanine, cinchonain Ib, leucocyandin 3-O-beta-d-galactosyl cellobioside, leucopelargonidin-3-O-alpha-L rhamnoside, glycyrrhetinic acid, dehydrotrametenolic acid, strictinin, isostrictinin, pedunculagin, epicatechin and christinin-A showing significant insulinomimetic and antidiabetic activity with more efficacy than conventional hypoglycaemic agents. Thus, from the review majorly, the antidiabetic activity of medicinal plants is attributed to the presence of polyphenols, flavonoids, terpenoids, coumarins and other constituents which show reduction in blood glucose levels. The review also discusses the management aspect of diabetes mellitus using these plants and their active principles.

  11. An overview on antidiabetic medicinal plants having insulin mimetic property

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Patel DK; Prasad SK; Kumar R; Hemalatha S

    2012-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus is one of the common metabolic disorders acquiring around 2.8% of the world’s population and is anticipated to cross 5.4% by the year 2025. Since long back herbal medicines have been the highly esteemed source of medicine therefore, they have become a growing part of modern, high-tech medicine. In view of the above aspects the present review provides profiles of plants (65 species) with hypoglycaemic properties, available through literature source from various database with proper categorization according to the parts used, mode of reduction in blood glucose (insulinomimetic or insulin secretagogues activity) and active phytoconstituents having insulin mimetics activity. From the review it was suggested that, plant showing hypoglycemic potential mainly belongs to the family Leguminoseae, Lamiaceae, Liliaceae, Cucurbitaceae, Asteraceae, Moraceae, Rosaceae and Araliaceae. The most active plants are Allium sativum, Gymnema sylvestre, Citrullus colocynthis, Trigonella foenum greacum, Momordica charantia and Ficus bengalensis. The review describes some new bioactive drugs and isolated compounds from plants such as roseoside, epigallocatechin gallate, beta-pyrazol-1-ylalanine, cinchonain Ib, leucocyandin 3-O-beta-d-galactosyl cellobioside, leucopelargonidin-3- O-alpha-L rhamnoside, glycyrrhetinic acid, dehydrotrametenolic acid, strictinin, isostrictinin, pedunculagin, epicatechin and christinin-A showing significant insulinomimetic and antidiabetic activity with more efficacy than conventional hypoglycaemic agents. Thus, from the review majorly, the antidiabetic activity of medicinal plants is attributed to the presence of polyphenols, flavonoids, terpenoids, coumarins and other constituents which show reduction in blood glucose levels. The review also discusses the management aspect of diabetes mellitus using these plants and their active principles.

  12. An overview on antidiabetic medicinal plants having insulin mimetic property.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, D K; Prasad, S K; Kumar, R; Hemalatha, S

    2012-04-01

    Diabetes mellitus is one of the common metabolic disorders acquiring around 2.8% of the world's population and is anticipated to cross 5.4% by the year 2025. Since long back herbal medicines have been the highly esteemed source of medicine therefore, they have become a growing part of modern, high-tech medicine. In view of the above aspects the present review provides profiles of plants (65 species) with hypoglycaemic properties, available through literature source from various database with proper categorization according to the parts used, mode of reduction in blood glucose (insulinomimetic or insulin secretagogues activity) and active phytoconstituents having insulin mimetics activity. From the review it was suggested that, plant showing hypoglycemic potential mainly belongs to the family Leguminoseae, Lamiaceae, Liliaceae, Cucurbitaceae, Asteraceae, Moraceae, Rosaceae and Araliaceae. The most active plants are Allium sativum, Gymnema sylvestre, Citrullus colocynthis, Trigonella foenum greacum, Momordica charantia and Ficus bengalensis. The review describes some new bioactive drugs and isolated compounds from plants such as roseoside, epigallocatechin gallate, beta-pyrazol-1-ylalanine, cinchonain Ib, leucocyandin 3-O-beta-d-galactosyl cellobioside, leucopelargonidin-3- O-alpha-L rhamnoside, glycyrrhetinic acid, dehydrotrametenolic acid, strictinin, isostrictinin, pedunculagin, epicatechin and christinin-A showing significant insulinomimetic and antidiabetic activity with more efficacy than conventional hypoglycaemic agents. Thus, from the review majorly, the antidiabetic activity of medicinal plants is attributed to the presence of polyphenols, flavonoids, terpenoids, coumarins and other constituents which show reduction in blood glucose levels. The review also discusses the management aspect of diabetes mellitus using these plants and their active principles.

  13. Evaluation of antidiabetic and antioxidant properties of Brucea javanica seed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ablat, Abdulwali; Mohamad, Jamaludin; Awang, Khalijah; Shilpi, Jamil A; Arya, Aditya

    2014-01-01

    The ethanol extract of B. javanica seed was fractionated with solvents of different polarities and tested for antioxidant activities by several assays including DPPH radical scavenging activity, ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP), ferrous ion chelating activity (FCA), and nitric oxide radical scavenging activity (NORSA) along with their polyphenolic contents. Antidiabetic activity was evaluated both in vitro and in vivo using a glycogen phosphorylase α (GPα) inhibition assay and oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) in nondiabetic rats. The ethyl acetate fraction (EAF), rich in tannin, exhibited the strongest antioxidant activities to DPPH, FRAP, and NORSA, except for FCA. The EAF also exerted a dose-depended inhibition of GPα (IC50 = 0.75 mg/ml). Further evaluation of hypoglycemic effect on OGGT indicated that rats treated with EAF (125 mg/kg bw) showed a 39.91% decrease (P EAF was applied to polyamide column chromatography, and the resulting tannin-free fraction was tested for both GPα inhibition and antioxidant (DPPH only) activity. The GP α inhibitory activity was retained, while antioxidant activity was lost (4.6-fold) after tannin removal. These results concluded that the GPα inhibitory activity initially detected was primarily due to the compounds other than tannins, whereas antioxidant activity was mainly due to the tannins.

  14. Hypoglycemic effect of plants used in Mexico as antidiabetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Román Ramos, R; Alarcón-Aguilar, F; Lara-Lemus, A; Flores-Saenz, J L

    1992-01-01

    The objective of this work is to investigate the hypoglycemic effect of 12 "antidiabetic" plants used in Mexico. The studies were performed using 27 healthy rabbits with the gastric administration of water, tolbutamide or decoction of the "antidiabetic" plant before the induction of temporary hyperglycemia by subcutaneous injection of 50% dextrose solution (4 ml/kg of weight) at the beginning of the experiment and after 60 min. Blood glucose was determined every 60 min for a period of 5 h. Tolbutamide and eight of the studied plants decreased significantly the hyperglycemia as compared with control test (water) (p Marrubium vulgare, Crataegus pubescens, Cynodon dactylon, Calea zacatechichi, Buddleia americana, Bauhinia divaricata and Coix lachryma. The decrease of hyperglycemia caused by Physalis phyladelphyca, Pavonia schiedeana and Eucaliptus globulus was not significant (p > 0.05). Urtica dioica increased glycemia slightly. PMID:1308793

  15. Anti-diabetic related health food properties of traditional rice (Oryza sativa L.) in Sri Lanka

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wanigasekara Daya Ratnasooriya; Muhammad Iqbal Choudhary; Kourosh Dalvandi

    2015-01-01

    Objective:To evaluate a range of anti-diabetic related properties and some consumer preferred physicochemical properties of selected Sri Lankan traditional rice varieties. Methods: Sudu Heeneti, Goda Heeneti, Masuran and Dik Wee varieties were used in this study. Anti-diabetic related properties of bran extracts of selected varieties were studied for methylglyoxal mediated protein glycation inhibition, acetyl and butyryl-cholinesterase inhibitionin vitro and anti-hyperglycemic activityin vivo. Further, selected varieties were studied for starch hydrolysis ratein vitro. Physicochemical properties including grain color, size, shape, crude protein, crude fat, ash, dietary fiber and total carbohydrate contents were studied. Results: Brans of selected varieties had significant (P Conclusions: It is concluded that selected varieties could be promoted as physicochemically sound rices with a range of anti-diabetic related properties in the management of diabetes and its complications.

  16. Evaluation of Antidiabetic and Antioxidant Properties of Brucea javanica Seed

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    Abdulwali Ablat

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The ethanol extract of B. javanica seed was fractionated with solvents of different polarities and tested for antioxidant activities by several assays including DPPH radical scavenging activity, ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP, ferrous ion chelating activity (FCA, and nitric oxide radical scavenging activity (NORSA along with their polyphenolic contents. Antidiabetic activity was evaluated both in vitro and in vivo using a glycogen phosphorylase α (GPα inhibition assay and oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT in nondiabetic rats. The ethyl acetate fraction (EAF, rich in tannin, exhibited the strongest antioxidant activities to DPPH, FRAP, and NORSA, except for FCA. The EAF also exerted a dose-depended inhibition of GPα (IC50 = 0.75 mg/ml. Further evaluation of hypoglycemic effect on OGGT indicated that rats treated with EAF (125 mg/kg bw showed a 39.91% decrease (P < 0.05 in blood glucose levels at 30 min, and continuous fall (P < 0.05 of 28.89% and 20.29% was observed in the following hours (60 and 90 min compared to the normal control during OGTT. The EAF was applied to polyamide column chromatography, and the resulting tannin-free fraction was tested for both GPα inhibition and antioxidant (DPPH only activity. The GPα inhibitory activity was retained, while antioxidant activity was lost (4.6-fold after tannin removal. These results concluded that the GPα inhibitory activity initially detected was primarily due to the compounds other than tannins, whereas antioxidant activity was mainly due to the tannins.

  17. Determination of in vitro antidiabetic effects of Zingiber officinale Roscoe

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    Naila Abdul Sattar

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Aqueous extracts of Zingiber officinale rhizomes were studied to evaluate their antidiabetic effects on protein glycation and on the diffusion of glucose in vitro in the present study. Zingiber officinale rhizome aqueous extract were examined at concentrations of 5, 10, 20 and 40 g/L. The antidiabetic effects were found to be dose-dependent. Antidiabetic potential of Zingiber officinale was mainly through inhibition of the glucose diffusion and to a limited extent by reducing the glycation. However, further studies are needed to determine in vitro effects of therapeutic potential by restraining postprandial glucose absorptions and plasma protein glycations in diabetic subjects.Extratos aquosos de rizomas Zingiber officinale foram estudados para avaliar os seus efeitos antidiabéticos em glicação de proteínas e sobre a difusão de glicose in vitro, no presente estudo. Extratos aquosos de Zingiber officinale foram examinados nas concentrações de 5, 10, 20 e 40 g extrato de planta/L. Os efeitos antidiabéticos observados eram dependentes da dose. O potencial antidiabético de Zingiber officinale se verificou, principalmente, através da inibição da difusão de glicose e, em menor extensão, através da redução da glicação. Estudos adicionais são necessários para elucidar se efeitos in vitro representam potencial terapêutico, restringindo a absorção de glicose pós-prandial e a glicação de proteínas plasmáticas em indivíduos diabéticos.

  18. Antidiabetic Effect of Galantamine: Novel Effect for a Known Centrally Acting Drug.

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    Mennatallah A Ali

    Full Text Available The cholinergic anti-inflammatory pathway is one of the putative biochemical pathways that link diabetes with Alzheimer disease. Hence, we aimed to verify the potential antidiabetic effect of galantamine, unveil the possible mechanisms and evaluate its interaction with vildagliptin. The n5-STZ rat model was adopted and the diabetic animals were treated with galantamine and/or vildagliptin for 4 weeks. Galantamine lowered the n5-STZ-induced elevation in body weight, food/water intake, serum levels of glucose, fructosamine, and ALT/AST, as well as AChE in the tested organs. Moreover, it modulated successfully the lipid profile assessed in serum, liver, and muscle, and increased serum insulin level, as well as % β-cell function, in a pattern similar to that of vildagliptin. Additionally, galantamine confirmed its antioxidant (Nrf2, TAC, MDA, anti-inflammatory (NF-κB, TNF-α, visfatin, adiponectin and anti-apoptotic (caspase-3, cytochrome c capabilities by altering the n5-STZ effect on all the aforementioned parameters. On the molecular level, galantamine/vildagliptin have improved the insulin (p-insulin receptor, p-Akt, GLUT4/GLUT2 and Wnt/β-catenin (p-GSK-3β, β-catenin signaling pathways. On almost all parameters, the galantamine effects surpassed that of vildagliptin, while the combination regimen showed the best effects. The present results clearly proved that galantamine modulated glucose/lipid profile possibly through its anti-oxidant, -apoptotic, -inflammatory and -cholinesterase properties. These effects could be attributed partly to the enhancement of insulin and Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathways. Galantamine can be strongly considered as a potential antidiabetic agent and as an add-on therapy with other oral antidiabetics.

  19. Anti-diabetic effects of Ganoderma lucidum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Haou-Tzong; Hsieh, Jung-Feng; Chen, Shui-Tein

    2015-06-01

    Ganoderma lucidum is a white rot fungus widely used as a tonic for the promotion of longevity and health. Extracts of G. lucidum have been recognized as an alternative adjuvant treatment for diabetes. Among the many biologically active constituents of G. lucidum, polysaccharides, proteoglycans, proteins and triterpenoids have been shown to have hypoglycemic effects. G. lucidum polysaccharides have been reported to have hypoglycemic activity by increasing plasma insulin levels and decreasing plasma sugar levels in mice. Protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B is a promising therapeutic target in diabetes, and G. lucidum proteoglycan can inhibit this enzyme in vitro. Moreover, G. lucidum triterpenoids were shown to have inhibitory activity on aldose reductase and α-glucosidase that can suppress postprandial hyperglycemia. In addition, a protein Ling Zhi-8 extracted from G. lucidum significantly decreased lymphocyte infiltration and increased the antibody detection of insulin in diabetic mice. This review summarizes most of the research about the hypoglycemic action effects of polysaccharides, proteoglycans, proteins and tritrerpenoids from G. lucidum as a guide for future research.

  20. Anti-Diabetic Effects of Madecassic Acid and Rotundic Acid

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    Yuan-Man Hsu

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Anti-diabetic effects of madecassic acid (MEA and rotundic acid (RA were examined. MEA or RA at 0.05% or 0.1% was supplied to diabetic mice for six weeks. The intake of MEA, not RA, dose-dependently lowered plasma glucose level and increased plasma insulin level. MEA, not RA, intake dose-dependently reduced plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 activity and fibrinogen level; as well as restored antithrombin-III and protein C activities in plasma of diabetic mice. MEA or RA intake decreased triglyceride and cholesterol levels in plasma and liver. Histological data agreed that MEA or RA intake lowered hepatic lipid droplets, determined by ORO stain. MEA intake dose-dependently declined reactive oxygen species (ROS and oxidized glutathione levels, increased glutathione content and maintained the activity of glutathione reductase and catalase in the heart and kidneys of diabetic mice. MEA intake dose-dependently reduced interleukin (IL-1β, IL-6, tumor necrosis factor-α and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 levels in the heart and kidneys of diabetic mice. RA intake at 0.1% declined cardiac and renal levels of these inflammatory factors. These data indicated that MEA improved glycemic control and hemostatic imbalance, lowered lipid accumulation, and attenuated oxidative and inflammatory stress in diabetic mice. Thus, madecassic acid could be considered as an anti-diabetic agent.

  1. Anti-diabetic property of ethanolic extract of Andrographis paniculata in streptozotocin-diabetic rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiang-Fan ZHANG; Benny Kwong-Huat TAN

    2000-01-01

    extract of A paniculata possesses antidiabetic property. Its antidiabetic effect may be attributed at least in part to increased glucose metabolism. Its hypotriglyceddemic effect is also beneficial in the diabetic state.

  2. Antidiabetic and antidiarrheal effects of the methanolic extract of Phyllanthus reticulatus leaves in mice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mst Hajera Khatun; Mst Luthfun Nesa; Rafikul Islam; Farhana Alam Ripa; Al mamum; Shahin Kadir

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To assess the anti-diabetic and antidiarrheal activity of methanolic extract of Phyllanthus reticulates (P. reticulates) leaves in an animal model. Methods: Phytochemical screening of methanolic extract of P. reticulatus leaves has been performed. Antidiabetic activity have been done by OGTT, normoglycemic hyperglycemia and alloxan induced diabetic mice. Plant extracts (150 mg/kg and 300 mg/kg, b.w.) were administered orally in fasting glucose loaded mice with regard to normal control and in alloxan induced (110 mg/kg body weight i.p.) diabetic mice in comparison with reference drug Metformin hydrochloride (100 mg/kg) during 7 day test period. Antidiarrheal test was conducted by castor oil and magnesium sulfate. Results:Findings confirmed that the continuous post-treatment for 7 days with both extracts showed significant (P<0.05) hypoglycemic activity in OGTT, normoglycemic and alloxan induced mouse models. Castor oil and Magnesium sulfate induced diarrheal test of the extract (200 and 400 mg/kg) has given significant effect in compairing to control diarrheal group. Conclusion:Methanolic extract of P. reticulatus leaves have shown significant antidiabetic and antidiarrheal properties.

  3. Antidiabetic Effect of Oral Borapetol B Compound, Isolated from the Plant Tinospora crispa, by Stimulating Insulin Release

    OpenAIRE

    Lokman, Faradianna E.; Gu, Harvest F.; Wan Nazaimoon Wan Mohamud; Yusoff, Mashitah M.; Keh Leong Chia; Claes-Göran Östenson

    2013-01-01

    Aims. To evaluate the antidiabetic properties of borapetol B known as compound 1 (C1) isolated from Tinospora crispa in normoglycemic control Wistar (W) and spontaneously type 2 diabetic Goto-Kakizaki (GK) rats. Methods. The effect of C1 on blood glucose and plasma insulin was assessed by an oral glucose tolerance test. The effect of C1 on insulin secretion was assessed by batch incubation and perifusion experiments using isolated pancreatic islets. Results. An acute oral administration of C1...

  4. Pharmacological investigations of the anti-diabetic effect of Cortex Moutan and its active component paeonol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, C H; Chan, C M; Chan, Y W; Lau, K M; Lau, T W; Lam, F C; Law, W T; Che, C T; Leung, P C; Fung, K P; Ho, Y Y; Lau, C B S

    2007-11-01

    Cortex Moutan (CM, root bark of Paeonia suffruticosa Andr.) is one of the common herbs found in anti-diabetic traditional Chinese medicine formulae. To study the potential anti-diabetic mechanisms of CM, four in vitro models (intestinal brush border membrane vesicles (BBMV), rat hepatoma cell line H4IIE, human skin fibroblasts cell line Hs68 and mouse adipocytes 3T3-L1) were used. CM showed significant in vitro anti-diabetic effects by inhibiting glucose uptake of BBMV and enhancing glucose uptake into Hs68 and 3T3-L1 cells. Using bioassay-guided fractionation, paeonol was confirmed to be one of the active constituents for inhibiting BBMV glucose uptake. With neonatal-streptozotocin diabetic rats, paeonol (200 and 400mg/kgbody wt.) was found to improve oral glucose tolerance in vivo. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report on the anti-diabetic effect of paeonol.

  5. Antioxidant and antidiabetic properties of condensed tannins in acetonic extract of selected raw and processed indigenous food ingredients from Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunyanga, Catherine Nkirote; Imungi, Jasper Kathenya; Okoth, Michael; Momanyi, Clare; Biesalski, Han Konrad; Vadivel, Vellingiri

    2011-05-01

    Recently, tannins have received considerable attention as health-promoting component in various plant foods and several studies have reported on its nutraceutical properties. However, no study has established the role of condensed tannins in indigenous foods of Kenya. Therefore, this study was designed to evaluate the antioxidant activity (DPPH and FRAP) and antidiabetic effects (α-amylase and α-glucosidase inhibition activities) of condensed tannins in some selected raw and traditionally processed indigenous cereals, legumes, oil seeds, and vegetables. The condensed tannin content of the grains and vegetables ranged between 2.55 and 4.35 g/100 g DM and 1.53 and 5.73 g/100 g DM, respectively. The scavenging effect of acetonic extract on DPPH radical ranged from 77% to 90% while the reducing power was found to be 31 to 574 mmol Fe(II)/g DM in all the investigated food ingredients. The condensed tannin extracts of the analyzed samples showed promising antidiabetic effects with potential α-amylase and α-glucosidase inhibition activities of 23% to 44% and 58% to 88%, respectively. Condensed tannins extracted from the amaranth grain, finger millet, field bean, sunflower seeds, drumstick, and amaranth leaves exerted significantly higher antioxidant and antidiabetic activities than other food ingredients. Among the traditional processing methods, roasting of grains and cooking of vegetables were found to be more suitable mild treatments for preserving the tannin compound and its functional properties as opposed to soaking + cooking and blanching treatments. The identified elite sources of optimally processed indigenous food ingredients with promising results could be used as health-promoting ingredients through formulation of therapeutic diets.

  6. Antidiabetic oils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berraaouan, Ali; Abid, Sanae; Bnouham, Mohamed

    2013-11-01

    Many studies have demonstrated evidence of the health benefits of natural products. Plant extracts have been tested on a variety of physiological disorders, including diabetes mellitus. Studies have tested aqueous extracts, plant fractions extracts, families of active of compounds, and specific active compounds. In this review, we describe the antidiabetic effects of vegetable oils. Information was collected from ScienceDirect and PubMed databases using the following key words: Diabetes mellitus, Oils, Vegetable oils, Type 1 diabetes, type 2 diabetes, antidiabetic effect, antihyperglycemic, antidiabetic oil. We have compiled approximately ten vegetable oils with including experimental studies that have demonstrated benefits on diabetes mellitus. There are soybean, argan, olive, palm, walnut, black cumin, safflower, Colocynth, Black seed, Rice bran, Cinnamom, and Rocket oils. For each vegetable oil, we investigated on the plant's traditional uses, their pharmacological activities and their antidiabetic effects. It seems that many vegetable oils are really interesting and can be used in the improvement of human health, particularly, to prevent or to treat diabetes mellitus complications.

  7. Anti-diabetic related health food properties of traditional rice (Oryza sativa L. in Sri Lanka

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walimuni Kanchana Subhashini Mendis Abeysekera

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate a range of anti-diabetic related properties and some consumer preferred physicochemical properties of selected Sri Lankan traditional rice varieties. Methods: Sudu Heeneti, Goda Heeneti, Masuran and Dik Wee varieties were used in this study. Anti-diabetic related properties of bran extracts of selected varieties were studied for methylglyoxal mediated protein glycation inhibition, acetyl and butyryl-cholinesterase inhibition in vitro and anti-hyperglycemic activity in vivo. Further, selected varieties were studied for starch hydrolysis rate in vitro. Physicochemical properties including grain color, size, shape, crude protein, crude fat, ash, dietary fiber and total carbohydrate contents were studied. Results: Brans of selected varieties had significant (P < 0.05 and dose dependent methylglyoxal mediated protein glycation inhibition [IC50: (174.77 ± 6.65 to (342.87 ± 0.43 µg/mL] and acetyl [(IC50: (37.00 ± 0.68 to (291.00 ± 3.54 µg/mL] and butyryl-cholinesterase [IC50: (18.50 ± 0.60 to (96.60 ± 0.56 µg/mL] inhibitory activities. Further, Sudu Heeneti, Masuran and Dik Wee had low starch digestion rate (52.40 ± 1.44 to 53.76 ± 1.19 indicating that these varieties may be low glycemic index rices. Brans of Masuran tested in rat model showed anti-hyperglycemic activity. Physicochemical properties studied showed that selected varieties were red in color and grain size and shape were mostly medium and bold respectively. Moisture, crude protein, crude fat, ash and total carbohydrate contents varied significantly (P < 0.05 among the varieties. Conclusions: It is concluded that selected varieties could be promoted as physicochemically sound rices with a range of anti-diabetic related properties in the management of diabetes and its complications.

  8. Antidiabetic and Hypolipidemic effect of methanol extract of Lippia nodiflora L. in streptozotocin induced diabetic rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Rangachari Balamurugan; Savarimuthu Ignacimuthu

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To assess the antidiabetic and hypolipidemic properties of Lippia nodiflora (L. nodiflora).Methods:Acute toxicity test was done to check the toxicity of L. nodiflora methanol extract and oral glucose tolerance test was performed in normal rats. L. nodiflora methanol extract at three dose levels was administerd orally to streptozotocin (STZ) (40mg/kg bw) induced diabetic rats for 15 days. The various parameters were studied including body weight, fasting blood glucose levels, plasma insulin, lipid profile, glycogen content, glycoslylated hemoglobin (HbA1c) and serum marker enzyme levels in normal, treated and diabetic rats. Histochemical analysis of pancreas was also carried out in normal, treated and diabetic rats. Results: The treatment group with the extract at three dose levels showed a significant increase in the liver, muscle glycogen and serum insulin level and a significant decrease in fasting blood glucose, glycosylated hemoglobin levels and serum marker enzyme levels. The total cholesterol and serum triglycerides levels were also significantly reduced and the high density lipoprotein level was significantly increased upon treatment with the L. nodiflora methanol extract. Histochemical study of pancreas also confirmed the biochemical findings. Acute toxicity studies revealed the non-toxic nature of the L. nodiflora methanol extract. Conclusions: The results of the experiments presented here suggest that methanol extract of L. nodiflora exerts significant antidiabetic and hypolipidaemic effect in STZ-induced diabetic rats.

  9. Antidiabetic effect of Merremia emarginata Burm. F. in streptozotocin induced diabetic rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    G Rajiv Gandhi; P Sasikumar

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the antidiabetic property of Merremia emarginata (M. emarginata) Burm. F. plant in streptozotocin induced diabetic rats. Methods: The dose dependent effects of 28 days oral treatment with methanol extract (100, 200 and 400 mg/kg) from the plant of M. emarginata on blood glucose level, body weight, insulin, total hemoglobin, glycosylated haemoglobin (HbA1C), total protein, serum urea, serum creatinine and carbohydrate metabolizing enzymes were evaluated in streptozotocin induced diabetic rats. Histology of pancreas was also studied. Results: A significant decrease in blood glucose, serum urea and serum creatinine and significant increase in body weight, insulin and protein level were observed in diabetic rats treated with M. emarginata. Treatment with M. emarginata resulted in a significant reduction of HbA1C and an increase in total hemoglobin level. The activities of carbohydrate metabolizing enzymes such as hexokinase were significantly increased whereas glucose-6-phosphatase, fructose-1, 6-bisphosphatase were significantly decreased by the administration ofM. emarginata in diabetic rats. Histology of diabetic rats treated with M. emarginata showed the pancreatic β-cells regeneration. Conclusions: These findings suggest that M. emarginata has potent antidiabetic activity in streptozotocin induced diabetic rats.

  10. Characterization and comparison of sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 inhibitors: Part 2. Antidiabetic effects in type 2 diabetic mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tahara, Atsuo; Takasu, Toshiyuki; Yokono, Masanori; Imamura, Masakazu; Kurosaki, Eiji

    2016-07-01

    Previously we investigated the pharmacokinetic, pharmacodynamic, and pharmacologic properties of all six sodium-glucose cotransporter (SGLT) 2 inhibitors commercially available in Japan using normal and diabetic mice. We classified the SGLT2 inhibitors with respect to duration of action as either long-acting (ipragliflozin and dapagliflozin) or intermediate-acting (tofogliflozin, canagliflozin, empagliflozin, and luseogliflozin). In the present study, antidiabetic effects of repeated administration of these SGLT2 inhibitors in type 2 diabetic mice were investigated. When repeatedly administered for 4 weeks, all SGLT2 inhibitors significantly exhibited antihyperglycemic, antihyperinsulinemic, and pancreas-protective effects, as well as insulin resistance-improving effects. When compared at doses producing comparable reduction in hyperglycemia across all drugs, the antidiabetic effects of ipragliflozin and dapagliflozin were more potent than those of the other four drugs, but these differences among the six drugs were not statistically significant. Further, an oral glucose tolerance test performed after repeated administration demonstrated significant improvement in glucose tolerance only with ipragliflozin and dapagliflozin, implying improved insulin resistance and secretion. Taken together, these findings demonstrate that, although all SGLT2 inhibitors exert antidiabetic effects in type 2 diabetic mice, these pharmacologic effects might be slightly superior with the long-acting drugs, which are able to provide favorable blood glucose control throughout the day. PMID:27430987

  11. Identification of plant extracts with potential antidiabetic properties

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Kathrine B.; Minet, Ariane; Svenstrup, Henrik;

    2009-01-01

    , and their use is associated with several side effects. Partial PPARgamma agonists appear to be associated with fewer side effects but may still confer the desired insulin sensitizing action. Extracts from common medicinal/food plants were tested in a screening platform comprising a series of bioassays......Thiazolidinediones (TZDs) are insulin sensitizing drugs used to treat type 2 diabetes. The primary target of the TZDs is the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) gamma, a key regulator of adipogenesis and glucose homeostasis. Currently prescribed TZDs are full PPARgamma agonists......, including tests for PPARgamma, alpha and delta transactivation, adipocyte differentiation and insulin-stimulated glucose uptake, allowing identification of plants containing potentially interesting PPAR agonists. Twenty-two plant extracts out of 133 were found to increase insulin-stimulated glucose uptake...

  12. Antidiabetic treatment with gliptins: focus on cardiovascular effects and outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisman, Enrique Z; Tenenbaum, Alexander

    2015-01-01

    The traditional oral pharmacological therapy for type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) has been based on the prescription of metformin, a biguanide, as first line antihyperglycemic agent world over. It has been demonstrated that after 3 years of treatment, approximately 50% of diabetic patients could achieve acceptable glucose levels with monotherapy; but by 9 years this had declined to only 25%. Therefore, the implementation of a combined pharmacological therapy acting via different pathways becomes necessary, and its combination with a compound of the sulfonylurea group was along decades the most frequently employed prescription in routine clinical practice. Meglitinides, glitazones and alpha-glucosidase inhibitors were subsequently developed, but the five mentioned groups of oral antihyperglycemic agents are associated with variable degrees of undesirable or even severe cardiovascular events. The gliptins-also called dipeptidyl peptidase 4 (DPP4) inhibitors--are an additional group of antidiabetic compounds with increasing clinical use. We review the status of the gliptins with emphasis on their capabilities to positively or negatively affect the cardiovascular system, and their potential involvement in major adverse cardiovascular events (MACE). Alogliptin, anagliptin, linagliptin, saxagliptin, sitagliptin, teneligliptin and vildagliptin are the compounds currently in clinical use. Regardless differences in chemical structure and metabolic pathways, gliptins as a group exert favorable changes in experimental models. These changes, as an almost general rule, include improved endothelial function, reduction of inflammatory markers, oxidative stress ischemia/reperfusion injury and atherogenesis. In addition, increased adiponectin levels and modest decreases in lipidemia and blood pressure were reported. In clinical settings, several trials--notably the longer one, employing sitagliptin, with a mean follow-up period of 3 years--did not show an increased risk for ischemic

  13. Evaluation of the anti-diabetic properties ofMucuna pruriensseed extract

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Stephen O Majekodunmi; Ademola A Oyagbemi; Solomon Umukoro; Oluwatoyin A Odeku

    2011-01-01

    Objective:To explore the antidiabetic properties ofMucuna pruriens(M. pruriens).Methods:Diabetes was induced in Wistar rats by single intravenous injection of120 mg/kg of alloxan monohydrate and different doses of the extract were administered to diabetic rats. The blood glucose level was determined using a glucometer and results were compared with normal and untreated diabetic rats. The acute toxicity was also determined in albino mice.Results:Results showed that the administration of5, 10, 20, 30, 40, 50, and100 mg/kg of the crude ethanolic extract ofM. pruriens seeds to alloxan-induced diabetic rats (plasma glucose> 450mg/dL) resulted in18.6%, 24.9%, 30.8%, 41.4%, 49.7%, 53.1% and 55.4% reduction, respectively in blood glucose level of the diabetic rats after 8h of treatment while the administration of glibenclamide (5mg/kg/day) resulted in59.7% reduction. Chronic administration of the extract resulted in a significant dose dependent reduction in the blood glucose level (P<0.001). It also showed that the antidiabetic activity ofM. pruriens seeds resides in the methanolic and ethanolic fractions of the extract. Acute toxicity studies indicated that the extract was relatively safe at low doses, although some adverse reactions were observed at higher doses (8-32 mg/kg body weight), no death was recorded. Furthermore, oral administration ofM. pruriens seed extract also significantly reduced the weight loss associated with diabetes.Conclusions: The study clearly supports the traditional use ofM. pruriens for the treatment of diabetes and indicates that the plant could be a good source of potent antidiabetic drug.

  14. Anti-diabetic effect of methanolic leaf extract of Pongamia pinnata on streptozotocin induced diabetic rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Selvaraju Kavipriya; Narayanaswamy Tamilselvan; Thirunavukkarasu Thirumalai; Gangaipillai Arumugam

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To study the anti-diabetic effect of methanolic leaf extract of Pongamia pinnata (P. pinnata) on streptozotocin induced diabetic rats.Methods:Anti-diabetic activity of P. pinnata leaf extract at dosage of 500 mg/kg and 1 g/kg body weight was evaluated.Results:The levels of glucose, triglycerides, total cholesterol and serum glutamic pyruvic transaminase were significantly increased in streptozotocin induced diabetic rats when compared to that of the normal rats. After supplemented with plant extract, significant lower blood glucose level was recorded.Conclusions:The methanolic leaf extract of P. pinnata has been potent anti-diabetic effect in male albino rats.

  15. Berberine enhances antidiabetic effects and attenuates untoward effects of canagliflozin in streptozotocin-induced diabetic mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Cai-Ming; Jiang, Xin; Ouyang, Xiao-Xi; Zhang, Ya-Ou; Xie, Wei-Dong

    2016-07-01

    The present study aimed at determining whether berberine can enhance the antidiabetic effects and alleviate the adverse effects of canagliflozin in diabetes mellitus. Streptozotocin-induced diabetic mice were introduced, and the combined effects of berberine and canagliflozin on glucose metabolism and kidney functions were investigated. Our results showed that berberine combined with canagliflozin (BC) increased reduction of fasting and postprandial blood glucose, diet, and water intake compared with berberine or canagliflozin alone. Interestingly, BC showed greater decrease in blood urea nitrogen and creatinine levels and lower total urine glucose excretion than canagliflozin alone. In addition, BC showed increased phosphorylated 5' AMP-activated protein kinase (pAMPK) expression and decreased tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFα) levels in kidneys, compared with berberine or canagliflozin alone. These results indicated that BC was a stronger antidiabetic than berberine or canagliflozin alone with less negative side effects on the kidneys in the diabetic mice. The antidiabetic effect was likely to be mediated by synergically promoting the expression of pAMPK and reducing the expression of TNFα in kidneys. The present study represented the first report that canagliflozin combined with berberine was a promising treatment for diabetes mellitus. The exact underlying mechanisms of action should be investigated in future studies. PMID:27507202

  16. COST-EFFECTIVENESS ANALYSIS OF ANTI-DIABETIC THERAPY IN A UNIVERSITY TEACHING HOSPITAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giwa Abdulganiyu

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To conduct cost-effectiveness analysis of anti-diabetic therapy in a University Teaching Hospital in 2010. Methods: A retrospective review of selected case-notes was conducted. World Health Organization Defined Daily Dose Method of evaluating drug use and probability method for potential effectiveness of antidiabetic therapeutic options from literature analysis was employed in determining cost-effectiveness of each anti-diabetic therapeutic option identified from anti-diabetic drug utilization studies. Sample Size, n=1200. Subjects’ case-notes were selected by systematic random sampling (Sampling Interval = 1. Results: Glibenclamide (N1.76/unit of effectiveness which was more cost-effective than chlopropamide (N2.97/unit of effectiveness in the management of moderate hyperglycemia in non-obese Type II Diabetes Mellitus was more frequently prescribed (81.5%. Glibenclamide + Metformin (N7.63/unit of effectiveness which was more frequently prescribed (92.5% was not necessarily more cost-effective than Chlopropamide + Metformin (N9.76/unit of effectiveness in the management of moderate hyperglycemia in obese Type II Diabetes- Mellitus. Biphasic Isophane Insulin (N12.65/unit of effectiveness which was more cost-effective than soluble insulin + insulin zinc (N30.37/unit of effectiveness in the management of serve hyperglycemia in non-obese Type II Diabetes Mellitus was less frequently prescribed (42.3%. Biphasic Isophane Insulin + Metformin (N15.91/unit of effectiveness which was more cost-effective than soluble insulin + insulin zinc + metformin (N34.45/ unit of effectiveness in the management of severe hyperglycemia in obese Type II Diabetes Mellitus patients was less frequently prescribed (25%. Conclusions: Prescription of lees cost-effective anti-diabetic drugs was rampant in Hospitals.

  17. Anti-diabetic effects of rice hull smoke extract in alloxan-induced diabetic mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    We investigated the protective effect of a liquid rice hull smoke extract (RHSE) against diabetes in alloxan-induced diabetic mice. Anti-diabetic effects of RHSE were evaluated in both the rat insulinoma-1 cell line (INS-1) and diabetic ICR mice induced by inraperitoneal (ip) injection of alloxan. ...

  18. Evaluation of the antidiabetic and antioxidant properties of Morinda lucida stem bark extract in streptozotocin intoxicated rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domekouo, Ulrich L F; Longo, Frida; Tarkang, Protus A; Tchinda, Alembert T; Tsabang, Nole; Donfagsiteli, Nehemie T; Tamze, Victorine; Kamtchouing, Pierre; Agbor, Gabriel A

    2016-05-01

    The present research evaluated the antidiabetic and antioxidant properties of M. lucida stem bark (50 and 500mg/kg) and glibenclamide (25mg/kg, standard drug) in acute (Oral glucose tolerance test) and sub-acute (Streptozotocin 60mg/kg, i.p. diabetic model) administration. A group of healthy rats constituted the normal control. The sub-acute experiment lasted 28 days during which water, food intake and weight gain were measured and biochemical parameters analyzed in both plasma and erythrocytes at the end of the experiment. The chemical substances present in M. lucida bark extract were determined. In the Oral glucose tolerance test, the reduction of blood glucose level was statistically significant for both M. lucida extracts and glibenclamide. However, in the diabetic rats acute administration of 500mg/kg extract had better blood sugar lowering effect than glibenclamide, which was better than 50mg/kg extract. Streptozotocin diabetic animal model was characterized by a decrease in weight gain, erythrocyte SOD and CAT activities and an increase in water and food consumption, lipid peroxidation, cholesterol, triglycerides, plasma glucose, creatinine and urea concentrations, and transaminases activities. M. lucida extract and glibenclamide significantly prevented the alteration of these parameters, thus indicating a corrective effect on diabetes and its complications. This study justifies the traditional claim and provides a rationale for the use of M. lucida to treat diabetes. Its antioxidant properties may serve to curb oxidative stress and hence prevent the diabetic complications related to oxidative stress. Chemical substances, which may be accountable for the antidiabetic and antioxidant properties of M. lucida were detected in the aqueous extract of M. lucida bark. PMID:27166555

  19. Adding liraglutide to oral antidiabetic drug therapy: onset of treatment effects over time

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gallwitz, B; Vaag, A; Falahati, A;

    2010-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the onset of treatment effects over time observed for liraglutide in combination with oral antidiabetic drugs (OADs). METHODS: This analysis included patients from three phase 3, 26-week, randomised, double-blind, parallel-group trials. Prior to randomisation, patients underwent...

  20. Antidiabetic property of Symplocos cochinchinensis is mediated by inhibition of alpha glucosidase and enhanced insulin sensitivity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kalathookunnel Antony Antu

    Full Text Available The study is designed to find out the biochemical basis of antidiabetic property of Symplocos cochinchinensis (SC, the main ingredient of 'Nisakathakadi' an Ayurvedic decoction for diabetes. Since diabetes is a multifactorial disease, ethanolic extract of the bark (SCE and its fractions (hexane, dichloromethane, ethyl acetate and 90% ethanol were evaluated by in vitro methods against multiple targets relevant to diabetes such as the alpha glucosidase inhibition, glucose uptake, adipogenic potential, oxidative stress, pancreatic beta cell proliferation, inhibition of protein glycation, protein tyrosine phosphatase-1B (PTP-1B and dipeptidyl peptidase-IV (DPP-IV. Among the extracts, SCE exhibited comparatively better activity like alpha glucosidase inhibition (IC50 value-82.07 ± 2.10 µg/mL, insulin dependent glucose uptake (3 fold increase in L6 myotubes, pancreatic beta cell regeneration in RIN-m5F (3.5 fold increase and reduced triglyceride accumulation (22% decrease in 3T3L1 cells, protection from hyperglycemia induced generation of reactive oxygen species in HepG2 cells (59.57% decrease with moderate antiglycation and PTP-1B inhibition. Chemical characterization by HPLC revealed the superiority of SCE over other extracts due to presence and quantity of bioactives (beta-sitosterol, phloretin 2'glucoside, oleanolic acid in addition to minerals like magnesium, calcium, potassium, sodium, zinc and manganese. So SCE has been subjected to oral sucrose tolerance test to evaluate its antihyperglycemic property in mild diabetic and diabetic animal models. SCE showed significant antihyperglycemic activity in in vivo diabetic models. We conclude that SC mediates the antidiabetic activity mainly via alpha glucosidase inhibition, improved insulin sensitivity, with moderate antiglycation and antioxidant activity.

  1. Antidiabetic effects of Momordica charantia (bitter melon) and its medicinal potency

    OpenAIRE

    Joseph, Baby; Jini, D

    2013-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus is among the most common disorder in developed and developing countries, and the disease is increasing rapidly in most parts of the world. It has been estimated that up to one-third of patients with diabetes mellitus use some form of complementary and alternative medicine. One plant that has received the most attention for its anti-diabetic properties is bitter melon, Momordica charantia (M. charantia), commonly referred to as bitter gourd, karela and balsam pear. Its fruit ...

  2. Antidiabetic and Antioxidant Effect of Methanol Extract of Artanema sesamoides in Streptatozocin-Induced Diabetic Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V T Selvan

    2008-03-01

    major problems. Herbal medicine has significant action, free from side effects and cost effective. Nowadays lots of herbal formulations are available as tablets and other dosage forms. This study would be helpful for the industry to produce herbal formulation with less side effects and cost effective treatment for diabetes. Moreover in vivo models were utilized to test the antidiabetic property and it will be useful for fix the optimized dose in herbal formulation. The findings of the bioactive molecule from the herbals would be effective drug target against the diabetes.

  3. Recent Progress in Anti-Obesity and Anti-Diabetes Effect of Berries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuda, Takanori

    2016-01-01

    Berries are rich in polyphenols such as anthocyanins. Various favorable functions of berries cannot be explained by their anti-oxidant properties, and thus, berries are now receiving great interest as food ingredients with "beyond antioxidant" functions. In this review, we discuss the potential health benefits of anthocyanin-rich berries, with a focus on prevention and treatment of obesity and diabetes. To better understand the physiological functionality of berries, the exact molecular mechanism of their anti-obesity and anti-diabetes effect should be clarified. Additionally, the relationship of metabolites and degradation products with health benefits derived from anthocyanins needs to be elucidated. The preventive effects of berries and anthocyanin-containing foods on the metabolic syndrome are not always supported by findings of interventional studies in humans, and thus further studies are necessary. Use of standardized diets and conditions by all research groups may address this problem. Berries are tasty foods that are easy to consume, and thus, investigating their health benefits is critical for health promotion and disease prevention. PMID:27058561

  4. Antidiabetic Effect of Oral Borapetol B Compound, Isolated from the Plant Tinospora crispa, by Stimulating Insulin Release.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lokman, Faradianna E; Gu, Harvest F; Wan Mohamud, Wan Nazaimoon; Yusoff, Mashitah M; Chia, Keh Leong; Ostenson, Claes-Göran

    2013-01-01

    Aims. To evaluate the antidiabetic properties of borapetol B known as compound 1 (C1) isolated from Tinospora crispa in normoglycemic control Wistar (W) and spontaneously type 2 diabetic Goto-Kakizaki (GK) rats. Methods. The effect of C1 on blood glucose and plasma insulin was assessed by an oral glucose tolerance test. The effect of C1 on insulin secretion was assessed by batch incubation and perifusion experiments using isolated pancreatic islets. Results. An acute oral administration of C1 improved blood glucose levels in treated versus placebo groups with areas under glucose curves 0-120 min being 72 ± 17 versus 344 ± 10 mmol/L (P < 0.001) and 492 ± 63 versus 862 ± 55 mmol/L (P < 0.01) in W and GK rats, respectively. Plasma insulin levels were increased by 2-fold in treated W and GK rats versus placebo group at 30 min (P < 0.05). C1 dose-dependently increased insulin secretion from W and GK isolated islets at 3.3 mM and 16.7 mM glucose. The perifusions of isolated islets indicated that C1 did not cause leakage of insulin by damaging islet beta cells (P < 0.001). Conclusion. This study provides evidence that borapetol B (C1) has antidiabetic properties mainly due to its stimulation of insulin release. PMID:24319481

  5. Antinociceptive, antiinflammatory and antidiabetic effects of Leonotis leonurus (L.) R. BR. [Lamiaceae] leaf aqueous extract in mice and rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ojewole, J A O

    2005-05-01

    The present study was undertaken to investigate the antinociceptive, antiinflammatory, and antidiabetic properties of the aqueous leaf extract of Leonotis leonurus (L.) R. BR. (Lamiaceae) in mice and rats, to scientifically appraise some of the plant's ethnomedical uses, and its safety and efficacy. The leaf powder of the plant was Soxhlet extracted with distilled water and used. The antinociceptive effect of the plant's extract was evaluated by the "hot-plate" and "acetic acid" test models of pain in mice, while the antiinflammatory and antidiabetic effects of the leaf extract were investigated in rats, using fresh egg albumin-induced paw edema, and streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetes mellitus, respectively. Morphine (MPN, 10 mg/kg i.p.), diclofenac (DIC, 100 mg/kg i.p.), and chlorpropamide (250 mg/kg p.o.) were used, respectively, as reference analgesic, antiinflammatory, and hypoglycemic agents for comparison. L. leonurus leaf aqueous extract (LLE, 50-800 mg/kg i.p.) produced dose-dependent and significant (p leonurus possesses antinociceptive, antiinflammatory, and hypoglycemic properties, and thus lend pharmacological credence to the suggested folkloric uses of the herb in the management and/or control of painful, arthritic, and other inflammatory conditions, as well as for adult-onset, type-2 diabetes mellitus in some communities of South Africa.

  6. Evaluation of Antidiabetic and Antihyperlipidemic Effects of Hydroalcoholic Extract of Leaves of Ocimum tenuiflorum (Lamiaceae and Prediction of Biological Activity of its Phytoconstituents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Subramani Parasuraman

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The aim was to evaluate the anti-diabetic and anti-hyperlipidemic effects of hydroalcoholic extract of leaves of Ocimum tenuiflorum (Lamiaceae and prediction of biological activities of its phytoconstituents using in vivo anti-diabetic model and in silico analysis respectively. Materials and Methods: The leaves of O. tenuiflorum were extracted with 60% ethanol, and the extract was used for further pharmacological screening. The acute toxicity of the extract was evaluated as per the guidelines set by the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development, revised draft guidelines 423. The oral anti-diabetic activity of the hydroalcoholic extract of O. tenuiflorum (125, 250 and 500 mg/kg was studied against streptozotocin (STZ (50 mg/kg; i.p. + nicotinamide (120 mg/kg; i.p. induced diabetes mellitus. The animals were treated with the investigational plant extract and standard drug (glibenclamide for 21 consecutive days and the effect of hydroalcoholic extract of O. tenuiflorum on blood glucose levels was measured at regular intervals. At the end of the study, blood samples were collected from all the animals for biochemical estimation, then the animals were sacrificed and the liver and kidney were collected for organ weight analysis. Prediction for pharmacological and toxicological properties of phytoconstituents of O. tenuiflorum was carried out using online web tools such as online pass prediction and lazar toxicity prediction. Results: The hydroalcoholic extract of O. tenuiflorum showed significant anti-diabetic and anti-hyperlipidemic activity at 250 and 500 mg/kg, and this effect was comparable with that of glibenclamide. Predicted biological activities of phytoconstituents of O. tenuiflorum showed presence of various pharmacological actions, which includes anti-diabetic and anti-hyperlipidemic activities. Prediction of toxicological properties of phytoconstituents of O. tenuiflorum did not show any major toxic effects

  7. Antidiabetic and antihiperlipidemic effect of Andrographis paniculata (Burm. f.) Nees and andrographolide in high-fructose-fat-fed rats

    OpenAIRE

    Agung Endro Nugroho; Mohamad Andrie; Ni Kadek Warditiani; Eka Siswanto; Suwidjiyo Pramono; Endang Lukitaningsih

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: Andrographis paniculata (Burm. f.) Nees originates from India and grows widely in many areas in Southeast Asian countries. Andrographis paniculata (Burm. f.) Nees has shown an antidiabetic effect in type 1 DM rats. The present study investigates the purified extract of the plant and its active compound andrographolide for antidiabetic and antihyperlipidemic effects in high-fructose-fat-fed rats, a model of type 2 DM rats. Materials and Methods: Hyperglycemia in rats was induce...

  8. Novel Piperine Derivatives with Antidiabetic Effect as PPAR-γ Agonists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kharbanda, Chetna; Alam, Mohammad Sarwar; Hamid, Hinna; Javed, Kalim; Bano, Sameena; Ali, Yakub; Dhulap, Abhijeet; Alam, Perwez; Pasha, M A Qadar

    2016-09-01

    Piperine is an alkaloid responsible for the pungency of black pepper. In this study, piperine isolated from Piper nigrum L. was hydrolyzed under basic condition to obtain piperic acid and was used as precursor to carry out the synthesis of twenty piperine derivatives containing benzothiazole moiety. All the benzothiazole derivatives were evaluated for their antidiabetic potential by OGT test followed by assessment of active derivatives on STZ-induced diabetic model. It was observed that nine of twenty novel piperine analogues (5b, 6a-h), showed significantly higher antidiabetic activity in comparison with rosiglitazone (standard). Furthermore, these active derivatives were evaluated for their action as PPAR-γ agonists demonstrating their mechanism of action. The effects on body weight, lipid peroxidation, and hepatotoxicity after administration with active derivatives were also studied to further establish these derivatives as lead molecules for treatment of diabetes with lesser side-effects. PMID:27037532

  9. ANTI-DIABETIC EFFECT OF MORUS ALBA ON RABBIT AS ANIMAL MODEL

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    Laddha G. P.

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available A study of ancient literature indicates that diabetes was fairly well known and well conceived as an entity in India. The nature has provided abundant plant wealth for all the living creatures, which possess medicinal virtues. Therefore, there is a necessity to explore their uses and to conduct Pharmacognostic and pharmacological studies to ascertain their therapeutic properties. In fact, nowadays diabetes is a global problem. Hence, the present study aims to open new avenues for the improvement of medicinal uses of Morus alba. for the area for diabetes. Another important objective of such study is to bring the anti-diabetic medicinal plants sector on a firm scientific footing, raise awareness and add value to the resource. Dried petroleum ether (60-80°C extracts of leaves of Morus alba. were subjected for hypoglycemic activity in New Zealand rabbits (1.5-3.5 kg. Blood sugar level was determined using digital glucometer. The oral administration of leaf extracts at doses of 200 mg/ kg− lead to a significant blood glucose reduction. This laid the foundation to study the active compounds of such anti-diabetic plants that are responsible for the hypoglycemic activities. It also proves the traditional claim of Kachh region with regard to Morus Alba for its anti-diabetic activity.

  10. Unexploited Antineoplastic Effects of Commercially Available Anti-Diabetic Drugs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papanagnou, Panagiota; Stivarou, Theodora; Tsironi, Maria

    2016-01-01

    The development of efficacious antitumor compounds with minimal toxicity is a hot research topic. Numerous cancer cell targeted agents are evaluated daily in laboratories for their antitumorigenicity at the pre-clinical level, but the process of their introduction into the market is costly and time-consuming. More importantly, even if these new antitumor agents manage to gain approval, clinicians have no former experience with them. Accruing evidence supports the idea that several medications already used to treat pathologies other than cancer display pleiotropic effects, exhibiting multi-level anti-cancer activity and chemosensitizing properties. This review aims to present the anticancer properties of marketed drugs (i.e., metformin and pioglitazone) used for the management of diabetes mellitus (DM) type II. Mode of action, pre-clinical in vitro and in vivo or clinical data as well as clinical applicability are discussed here. Given the precious multi-year clinical experience with these non-antineoplastic drugs their repurposing in oncology is a challenging alternative that would aid towards the development of therapeutic schemes with less toxicity than those of conventional chemotherapeutic agents. More importantly, harnessing the antitumor function of these agents would save precious time from bench to bedside to aid the fight in the arena of cancer. PMID:27164115

  11. Unexploited Antineoplastic Effects of Commercially Available Anti-Diabetic Drugs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Panagiota Papanagnou

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The development of efficacious antitumor compounds with minimal toxicity is a hot research topic. Numerous cancer cell targeted agents are evaluated daily in laboratories for their antitumorigenicity at the pre-clinical level, but the process of their introduction into the market is costly and time-consuming. More importantly, even if these new antitumor agents manage to gain approval, clinicians have no former experience with them. Accruing evidence supports the idea that several medications already used to treat pathologies other than cancer display pleiotropic effects, exhibiting multi-level anti-cancer activity and chemosensitizing properties. This review aims to present the anticancer properties of marketed drugs (i.e., metformin and pioglitazone used for the management of diabetes mellitus (DM type II. Mode of action, pre-clinical in vitro and in vivo or clinical data as well as clinical applicability are discussed here. Given the precious multi-year clinical experience with these non-antineoplastic drugs their repurposing in oncology is a challenging alternative that would aid towards the development of therapeutic schemes with less toxicity than those of conventional chemotherapeutic agents. More importantly, harnessing the antitumor function of these agents would save precious time from bench to bedside to aid the fight in the arena of cancer.

  12. Anti-diabetic effects of a series of vanadium dipicolinate complexes in rats with streptozotocin-induced diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willsky, Gail R; Chi, Lai-Har; Godzala, Michael; Kostyniak, Paul J; Smee, Jason J; Trujillo, Alejandro M; Alfano, Josephine A; Ding, Wenjin; Hu, Zihua; Crans, Debbie C

    2011-10-01

    sulfate, where both hyperlipidemia and hyperglycemia were normalized. Modification of the metal, changing the coordination chemistry to form a hydroxylamine ternary complex, had the most influence on the anti-diabetic action. Vanadium absorption into serum was determined by atomic absorption spectroscopy for selected vanadium complexes. Only diabetic rats treated with the ternary V5dipicOH hydroxylamine complex showed statistically significant increases in accumulation of vanadium into serum compared to diabetic rats treated with vanadyl sulfate. The chemistry and physical properties of the Vdipic complexes correlated with their anti-diabetic properties. Here, we propose that compound stability and ability to interact with cellular redox reactions are key components for the insulin-enhancing activity of vanadium compounds. Specifically, we found that the most overall effective anti-diabetic Vdipic compounds were obtained when the compound administered had an increased coordination number in the vanadium complex. PMID:23049138

  13. Antidiabetic properties of ethanolic extract of Cnidoscolus aconitifolius on alloxan induced diabetes mellitus in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oyagbemi, A A; Odetola, A A; Azeez, O I

    2010-12-01

    This research was designed to investigate the antidiabetic properties of ethanolic extract of Cnidoscolus aconitifolius in alloxan-induced diabetes mellitus in Wistar male albino rats. Thirty male albino rats were used. Diabetes mellitus was induced in five of the six groups (B-F) by a single intra-peritoneal injection at the dose of 100mg/kg after normal fasting blood glucose had been determined. Group A served as the positive control while groups C-E received 100mg/kg, 500mg/kg and 1000mg/kg of Cnidoscolus aconitifolius extract respectively. Group B did not received any treatment while group F received chlorpropamide, a standard drug used in the treatment of diabetes mellitus. Blood glucose and body weights were monitored weekly for four weeks. Plasma lipids and electrolytes such as Total cholesterol, Triglyceride, Low Density Lipoproteins (LDL), High Density Lipoproteins (HDL), Creatinine and Blood Urea Nitrogen (BUN) were determined after four weeks of treatment with Cnidoscolus aconitifolius extract. The results show significant reduction (PCnidoscolus aconitifolius) when compared with diabetic control (Alloxan only) and other treatment groups. There was gradual increase in weight of all treatment groups compared with the diabetic control, which had progressive weight loss. Plasma cholesterol levels also significantly reduced (PCnidoscolus aconitifolius extract. From this study, Cnidoscolus aconitifolius extract was found to considerably reduce blood glucose and plasma cholesterol levels and progressively increase weight gain in diabetic treated rats confirming its traditional use for the treatment of diabetes. PMID:22416660

  14. Effects of antidiabetes drugs on functional independence measure on a subacute rehabilitation ward for stroke patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kose, E; Toyoshima, M; Tachi, T; Teramachi, H; Kawakubo, T; Hayashi, H

    2015-07-01

    It has been reported that the improvement of activities of daily living (ADL) by rehabilitation affects glycemic control. However, there are no reports about antidiabetes drugs as factors affecting the outcomes of rehabilitation. Therefore, we investigated the effects of antidiabetes drugs on functional independence measure (FIM) [total (T), motor (M), and cognition (C) items] in stroke patients with diabetes who were discharged from the subacute rehabilitation ward. We chose the frequently used antidiabetes drugs [sulfonylurea (SU), dipeptidyl peptidase-IV inhibitors (DPP-IVIs), and α-glycosidase inhibitors (α-GIs)] as the basis for categorizing the patients. We compared the patients' background features and laboratory data among the three groups. As a result, when SU was used in stroke patients with diabetes, it is difficult to obtain significant FIM-M gain, FIM-C gain, FIM-M efficiency, and FIM-C efficiency compared with of-GIs. As a reason for this, we hypothesize the possibility of the involvement of insulin resistance. Therefore, we consider that insulin resistance should be determined early and that it is important to reduce insulin resistance comprehensively by involving experts.

  15. Quinoa seeds leach phytoecdysteroids and other compounds with anti-diabetic properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graf, Brittany L; Poulev, Alexander; Kuhn, Peter; Grace, Mary H; Lila, Mary Ann; Raskin, Ilya

    2014-11-15

    Quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.) contains high levels of biologically active phytoecdysteroids, which have been implicated in plant defense from insects, and have shown a range of beneficial pharmacological effects in mammals. We demonstrated that the most prevalent phytoecdysteroid, 20-hydroxyecdysone (20HE), was secreted (leached) from intact quinoa seeds into water during the initial stages of seed germination. Leaching efficiency was optimized by ethanol concentration (70% ethanol), temperature (80°C), time (4h), and solvent ratio (5 ml/g seed). When compared to extraction of macerated seeds, the leaching procedure released essentially all the 20HE available in the seeds (491 μg/g seed). The optimized quinoa leachate (QL), containing 0.86% 20HE, 1.00% total phytoecdysteroids, 2.59% flavonoid glycosides, 11.9% oil, and 20.4% protein, significantly lowered fasting blood glucose in obese, hyperglycemic mice. Leaching effectively releases and concentrates bioactive phytochemicals from quinoa seeds, providing an efficient means to produce a food-grade mixture that may be useful for anti-diabetic applications. PMID:24912714

  16. Anti-diabetic properties of Momordica charantia L. polysaccharide in alloxan-induced diabetic mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xin; Shan, Bin; Liao, Cai-Hu; Xie, Jian-Hua; Wen, Ping-Wei; Shi, Jia-Yi

    2015-11-01

    A water-soluble polysaccharide (MCP) was isolated from the fruits of Momordica charantia L., and the hypoglycemic effects of MCP were investigated in both normal healthy and alloxan-induced diabetic mice. MCP was orally administered once a day after 3 days of alloxan-induction at 100, 200 and 300mg/kg body weight for 28 day. Results showed that fasting blood glucose level (BGL) was significantly decreased, whereas the glucose tolerance was marked improvement in alloxan-induced diabetic mice, and loss in body weight was also prevented in diabetic mice compared to the diabetic control group. The dosage of 300mg/kg body weight exhibited the best effects. In addition, MCP did not exhibit any toxic symptoms in the limited toxicity evaluation in mice. The results suggest that MCP possess significantly dose-dependent anti-diabetic activity on alloxan-induced diabetic mice. Hence, MCP can be incorporated as a supplement in health-care food, drugs and/or combined with other hypoglycemic drugs. PMID:26318666

  17. Molecular Mechanisms of the Anti-Obesity and Anti-Diabetic Properties of Flavonoids

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    Mohammed Kawser Hossain

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Obesity and diabetes are the most prevailing health concerns worldwide and their incidence is increasing at a high rate, resulting in enormous social costs. Obesity is a complex disease commonly accompanied by insulin resistance and increases in oxidative stress and inflammatory marker expression, leading to augmented fat mass in the body. Diabetes mellitus (DM is a metabolic disorder characterized by the destruction of pancreatic β cells or diminished insulin secretion and action insulin. Obesity causes the development of metabolic disorders such as DM, hypertension, cardiovascular diseases, and inflammation-based pathologies. Flavonoids are the secondary metabolites of plants and have 15-carbon skeleton structures containing two phenyl rings and a heterocyclic ring. More than 5000 naturally occurring flavonoids have been reported from various plants and have been found to possess many beneficial effects with advantages over chemical treatments. A number of studies have demonstrated the potential health benefits of natural flavonoids in treating obesity and DM, and show increased bioavailability and action on multiple molecular targets. This review summarizes the current progress in our understanding of the anti-obesity and anti-diabetic potential of natural flavonoids and their molecular mechanisms for preventing and/or treating obesity and diabetes.

  18. Antidiabetic and enzymatic antioxidant properties from methanol extract of Ficus talboti bark on diabetic rats induced by streptozotocin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Karuppusamy Arunachalam; Thangaraj Parimelazhagan

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To explore scientifically, the type–I anti-diabetic potential of Ficus talboti bark (FTB). Methods:The HPLC analysis was carried out to identify the phenolic compounds. Effect of two doses of methanol extract of FTB (100 mg/kg and 200 mg/kg body wt.) was orally administered to STZ (Streptozotocin) induced diabetic rats for 21 days. The various parameters were studied including body weight, fasting blood glucose levels, plasma insulin, lipid profile, glycogen content, total protein, serum enzymes levels, and antioxidant activities in normal, treated and diabetic rats. Histochemical analysis of liver and pancreas were also carried out in normal, treated and diabetic rats. Results: The HPLC analysis showed the presence of antidiabetic responsible compounds of Rutin, Quercetin and Kaemfeorl. The treatment group with the extract at two dose levels showed a significant increase in the liver, muscle glycogen and serum insulin level and a significant decrease in fasting blood glucose and serum marker enzyme levels. The total cholesterol and serum triglycerides levels were also significantly reduced and the high density lipoprotein and plasma enzymes level was significantly increased upon treatment with the FTB methanol extract. Histochemical study of pancreas also confirmed the biochemical findings. Acute toxicity studies revealed the non-toxic nature of the FTB methanol extract. Conclusion:The results of the experiments presented here suggest that methanol extract of FTB exerts significant antidiabetic and antioxidant effect in STZ induced diabetic rats.

  19. Antioxidative and Antidiabetic Effects of Natural Polyphenols and Isoflavones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umeno, Aya; Horie, Masanori; Murotomi, Kazutoshi; Nakajima, Yoshihiro; Yoshida, Yasukazu

    2016-01-01

    Many polyphenols that contain more than two phenolic hydroxyl groups are natural antioxidants and can provide health benefits to humans. These polyphenols include, for example, oleuropein, hydroxytyrosol, catechin, chlorogenic acids, hesperidin, nobiletin, and isoflavones. These have been studied widely because of their strong radical-scavenging and antioxidative effects. These effects may contribute to the prevention of diseases, such as diabetes. Insulin secretion, insulin resistance, and homeostasis are important factors in the onset of diabetes, a disease that is associated with dysfunction of pancreatic β-cells. Oxidative stress is thought to contribute to this dysfunction and the effects of antioxidants on the pathogenesis of diabetes have, therefore, been investigated. Here, we summarize the antioxidative effects of polyphenols from the perspective of their radical-scavenging activities as well as their effects on signal transduction pathways. We also describe the preventative effects of polyphenols on diabetes by referring to recent studies including those reported by us. Appropriate analytical approaches for evaluating antioxidants in studies on the prevention of diabetes are comprehensively reviewed. PMID:27248987

  20. Antidiabetic and hypolipidaemic effects of a methanol/methylene-chloride extract of Laportea ovalifolia (Urticaceae), measured in rats with alloxan-induced diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Momo, C E N; Oben, J E; Tazoo, D; Dongo, E

    2006-01-01

    A decoction of the leaves of Laportea ovalifolia is widely used in Cameroon for the treatment of several illnesses, including diabetes mellitus. The antidiabetic and hypolipidaemic effects of a methanol/methylene-chloride extract of the aerial parts of L. ovalifolia have now been investigated, in normal rats and rats with diabetes induced by the intraperitoneal injection of alloxan (at 150 mg/kg bodyweight). In the diabetic rats, 2 weeks of daily, intragastric treatment with the L. ovalifolia extract not only produced a significant reduction in the fasting serum glucose concentrations but also lowered the serum concentrations of total cholesterol, triglycerides, and low-density-lipoprotein cholesterol, lowered the ratio of total cholesterol to high-density-lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol, and increased the serum concentration of HDL cholesterol. At least in rats with alloxan-induced diabetes, the methanol/methylene-chloride extract of L. ovalifolia therefore appears to possess antidiabetic and hypolipidaemic properties.

  1. Anti-diabetic effects of Campomanesia xanthocarpa (Berg) leaf decoction

    OpenAIRE

    Anapaula Sommer Vinagre; Ângela Della'Santa Rubio Origuella Rönnau; Sabrina Francisco Pereira; Lídia Uliano da Silveira; Elenir de Fátima Wiilland; Edna Sayuri Suyenaga

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this research was to identify the effects of 3-week treatment of normal and streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats using a leaf decoction of Campomanesia xanthocarpa Berg. (20 g/L) on physiological, biochemical and histological parameters. Streptozotocin (STZ, 70 mg/kg in citrate buffer, pH 4.5) was administered IP to induce experimental diabetes one week prior to the treatment. STZ caused typical diabetic symptoms: polydypsia, polyuria, polyphagia, hyperglycemia, hypertriglyce...

  2. Evaluation of Antidiabetic and Antihyperlipidemic Effects of Peganum harmala Seeds in Diabetic Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komeili, Gholamreza; Hashemi, Mohammad; Bameri-Niafar, Mohsen

    2016-01-01

    The present study was carried out to investigate the antidiabetic and antihyperlipidemic properties of hydroalcoholic extract of Peganum harmala in streptozotocin-induced diabetic male rats. In an experimental study, 64 normal Wistar albino male rats (200–230 g) were randomly divided into 8 groups. Control and diabetic rats were treated with normal saline and three different doses (30, 60, and 120 mg/kg) of hydroalcoholic extract of Peganum harmala seeds for 4 weeks orally. At the end of treatment, blood samples were taken and glucose, triglycerides, total cholesterol, LDL-c, HDL-c, malondialdehyde (MDA), total antioxidant capacity (TCA), ALT, AST, GGT, bilirubin, and glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1C) were determined. STZ-induced diabetic rats showed significant changes in the values of glucose, triglycerides, total cholesterol, LDL-c, MDA, TAC, ALT, AST, GGT, bilirubin, and HbA1C in comparison with normal rats. Administration of the extract to diabetic rats resulted in a remarkable decrease in glucose, lipid profiles, MDA, ALT, AST, GGT, bilirubin, and HbA1C levels and increase in TAC relative to diabetic group. The results of this study indicated that hydroalcoholic extract of Peganum harmala seeds possesses antidiabetic and hypolipidemic activities and could be useful in treatment of diabetes. PMID:27190643

  3. Antidiabetic and Antilipidemic Effect of Musa balbisiana Root Extract: A Potent Agent for Glucose Homeostasis in Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetic Rat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalita, Himadri; Boruah, Dulal C.; Deori, Meetali; Hazarika, Ankita; Sarma, Rahul; Kumari, Sima; Kandimalla, Raghuram; Kotoky, Jibon; Devi, Rajlakshmi

    2016-01-01

    Folklore studies have revealed that Musa balbisiana Colla (MB; Family: Musaceae) has high medicinal properties. The purpose of the present study is to evaluate antihyperglycemic, and antioxidant activity of MB extracts in streptozotocin (STZ) induced diabetic rats. In vitro antioxidant and antidiabetic activity of MB extracts, i.e., root extract (RE), shoot extract and inflorescence extract were determined by using various methods viz 1,-1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and a method to assess their possible effect on glucose diffusion across gastrointestinal tract and identify bioactive compound of potent extract. In vivo antilipidemic and antidiabetic activity was evaluated by administrating oral dose of RE for 15 days on STZ- induced diabetic rat. RE showed highest antioxidant activity by scavenging DPPH radical (IC50 32.96 μg/ml) and inhibit 30% glucose movement in vitro. The methanol extract of root showed the presence of calyx [4] arene category of the compound. Furthermore, RE treated rat revealed a reduction in fasting blood glucose (62.5%), serum total cholesterol (36.2%), triglyceride (54.5%), and low-density lipoprotein (50.94%) after 15 days as compared to STZ treated animal. There was an initiation of regenerative structures of the affected organs after 15 days of RE treatment. Histopathological observations clearly differentiate the structural changes in pancreas, liver, and kidney of STZ and RE treated group. The presence of calyx [4] arene class of compound may be responsible for its antioxidant and antidiabetic properties by absorbing glucose in vivo. PMID:27199747

  4. Oligosaccharides Might Contribute to the Antidiabetic Effect of Honey: A Review of the Literature

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    Mohd S. Ab Wahab

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Evidence shows that honey improves glycemic control in diabetes mellitus. Besides its hypoglycemic effect, studies indicate that honey ameliorates lipid abnormalities in rats and humans with diabetes. The majority of these studies do not examine the mechanisms by which honey ameliorates glycemic and/or lipid derangements. The gut microbiota is now recognized for its ability to increase energy harvest from the diet and alter lipid metabolism of the host. Recently available data implicate a causal role of these gut microbes in the pathophysiology of obesity, insulin resistance, and diabetes mellitus. In this review, we present some of the latest findings linking gut microbiota to pathogenesis of obesity, insulin resistance, and diabetes mellitus. The review also underlines data that demonstrate the beneficial effects of oligosaccharides on various abnormalities commonly associated with these disorders. Based on the similarities of some of these findings with those of honey, together with the evidence that honey contains oligosaccharides, we hypothesize that oligosaccharides present in honey might contribute to the antidiabetic and other health-related beneficial effects of honey. We anticipate that the possibility of oligosaccharides in honey contributing to the antidiabetic and other health-related effects of honey will stimulate a renewed research interest in this field.

  5. Antidiabetic And Antioxidant Effects Of A Multigrain Diet

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    Sanjay S. Karn

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To investigate the efficacy of a formulated multigrain diet on metabolic alterations in carbohydrate profiles and antioxidant status in diabetic animals Methods: Diabetes was induced by administration of alloxan monohydrate and diabetic status was confirmed by blood glucose levels over a period of two weeks. Diet was formulated using Sorghum vulgare, Avena sativa, Pennisetum typhoideum, Oryza sativa, Eleusine coracana and Zea mays and casein, corn starch and vegetable oil. Carbohydrate (plasma glucose, hepatic glycogen, G-6-Pase and hexokinase, hepatic and renal functions (Total protein, albumin, urea, creatinine, SGOT, SGPT and antioxidant profiles (SOD, CAT, GSH, GPx, TAA were determined. Results and Conclusions: The diabetic animals when fed formulated diet, exhibited significant decreases in serum glucose, SGPT, SGOT, urea, creatinine and hepatic G-6-pase levels along with increased serum protein and glycogen content and hepatic hexokinase activity as compared to those of commercial diet fed diabetic animals. Hepatic and renal enzymatic and non enzymatic antioxidant profiles were also found to be restored to their normal values in those diabetic group of animals fed formulated diet. This study thus indicated that a multigrain formulated diet has a positive effect on diabetic animals with respect to serum glucose levels, hepatic and renal functions and antioxidant activity.

  6. Antidiabetic effects of glucokinase regulatory protein small-molecule disruptors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lloyd, David J.; St Jean, David J.; Kurzeja, Robert J. M.; Wahl, Robert C.; Michelsen, Klaus; Cupples, Rod; Chen, Michelle; Wu, John; Sivits, Glenn; Helmering, Joan; Komorowski, Renée; Ashton, Kate S.; Pennington, Lewis D.; Fotsch, Christopher; Vazir, Mukta; Chen, Kui; Chmait, Samer; Zhang, Jiandong; Liu, Longbin; Norman, Mark H.; Andrews, Kristin L.; Bartberger, Michael D.; van, Gwyneth; Galbreath, Elizabeth J.; Vonderfecht, Steven L.; Wang, Minghan; Jordan, Steven R.; Véniant, Murielle M.; Hale, Clarence

    2013-12-01

    Glucose homeostasis is a vital and complex process, and its disruption can cause hyperglycaemia and type II diabetes mellitus. Glucokinase (GK), a key enzyme that regulates glucose homeostasis, converts glucose to glucose-6-phosphate in pancreatic β-cells, liver hepatocytes, specific hypothalamic neurons, and gut enterocytes. In hepatocytes, GK regulates glucose uptake and glycogen synthesis, suppresses glucose production, and is subject to the endogenous inhibitor GK regulatory protein (GKRP). During fasting, GKRP binds, inactivates and sequesters GK in the nucleus, which removes GK from the gluconeogenic process and prevents a futile cycle of glucose phosphorylation. Compounds that directly hyperactivate GK (GK activators) lower blood glucose levels and are being evaluated clinically as potential therapeutics for the treatment of type II diabetes mellitus. However, initial reports indicate that an increased risk of hypoglycaemia is associated with some GK activators. To mitigate the risk of hypoglycaemia, we sought to increase GK activity by blocking GKRP. Here we describe the identification of two potent small-molecule GK-GKRP disruptors (AMG-1694 and AMG-3969) that normalized blood glucose levels in several rodent models of diabetes. These compounds potently reversed the inhibitory effect of GKRP on GK activity and promoted GK translocation both in vitro (isolated hepatocytes) and in vivo (liver). A co-crystal structure of full-length human GKRP in complex with AMG-1694 revealed a previously unknown binding pocket in GKRP distinct from that of the phosphofructose-binding site. Furthermore, with AMG-1694 and AMG-3969 (but not GK activators), blood glucose lowering was restricted to diabetic and not normoglycaemic animals. These findings exploit a new cellular mechanism for lowering blood glucose levels with reduced potential for hypoglycaemic risk in patients with type II diabetes mellitus.

  7. ANTIDIABETIC AND ANTIHYPERLIPIDAEMIC EFFECT OF POLYGALA JAVANA DC ON ALLOXAN INDUCED DIABETIC RATS

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    Alagammal M

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The ethanol extract of Polygala javana whole plant (Family: Polygalaceae was investigated for it antidiabetic and antihyperlipidaemic effect in Wistar Albino rats. Diabetes was induced in albino rats by administration of alloxan monohydrate (150mg/kg, i.p. The ethanol extracts of Polygala javana at a dose of 100 and 200mg/kg of body weight were administered at single dose per day to diabetes induced rats for a period of 14 days. The effect of ethanol extract of Polygala javana whole plant extract on blood glucose, serum insulin, urea, creatinine, glycosylated haemoglobin, serum lipid profile [total cholesterol (TR, triglycerides (TG, low density lipoprotein – cholesterol (LDL-C, very low density lipoprotein – cholesterol (VLDL-C, high density lipoprotein – cholesterol (HDL-C and phospholipid (PL] serum protein, albumin, globulin, serum enzymes [serum glutamate pyruvate transaminases (SGPT, and serum glutamate oxaloacetate transaminases (SGOT, and alkaline phosphatase (ALP], were measured in the diabetic rats. The ethanol extract of Polygala javana whole plant elicited significant reductions of blood glucose (P<0.05, lipid parameters except HDL-C, serum enzymes and significantly increased HDL-C. The extracts also caused significant increase in serum insulin (P<0.05 in the diabetic rats. From the above results, it is concluded that ethanol extract of Polygala javana possesses significant antidiabetic and antihyperlipidaemic effects in alloxan induced diabetic rats.

  8. Anti-diabetic effects of Campomanesia xanthocarpa (Berg leaf decoction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anapaula Sommer Vinagre

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this research was to identify the effects of 3-week treatment of normal and streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats using a leaf decoction of Campomanesia xanthocarpa Berg. (20 g/L on physiological, biochemical and histological parameters. Streptozotocin (STZ, 70 mg/kg in citrate buffer, pH 4.5 was administered IP to induce experimental diabetes one week prior to the treatment. STZ caused typical diabetic symptoms: polydypsia, polyuria, polyphagia, hyperglycemia, hypertriglyceridemia and histopathological modifications in the pancreas, liver and kidney. The treatment of diabetic rats using the decoction decreased blood glucose levels, inhibited hepatic glycogen loss, and prevented potential histopathological alterations in the pancreas and kidneys. No differences were found between the control rats treated with the decoction and the control rats maintained on water only. In conclusion, these results suggest that C. xanthocarpa leaf decoction (20g/L might be useful for diabetes mellitus management, but further pharmacological and toxicological studies are needed.O objetivo deste trabalho foi identificar os efeitos do tratamento com o decocto das folhas de Campomanesia xanthocarpa Berg. (20 g/L, durante 3 semanas, sobre parâmetros fisiológicos, bioquímicos e histológicos de ratos normais e diabéticos induzidos por estreptozotocina. O diabete melito foi induzido uma semana antes de iniciar o tratamento experimental, pela administração IP de estreptozotocina (STZ, 70 mg/kg em tampão citrato, pH 4.5. Os ratos tratados com STZ apresentaram sintomas típicos de diabete: polifagia, polidipsia, hiperglicemia, hipertrigliceridemia e alterações histopatológicas no pâncreas, fígado e rim. O tratamento dos ratos diabéticos com o decocto diminuiu os níveis de glicose sanguínea, inibiu a degradação do glicogênio hepático e preveniu possíveis alterações histopatológicas no pâncreas e no rim. Nos ratos controles tratados

  9. Assessing the effect of treatment duration on the association between anti-diabetic medication and cancer risk.

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    Anna But

    Full Text Available Most studies that have evaluated the association between anti-diabetic medication and cancer risk have suffered from methodological drawbacks. To avoid time-related biases, we evaluated the effect of treatment duration on the cancer risk among naive users of anti-diabetic medication as compared to non-users. In addition, we addressed the influence of common risk factors such as smoking and BMI. The study population comprised 23,394 participants of FINRISK surveys. Data on cancer and anti-diabetic medication were linked with the study cohorts. We applied Lexis tabulation to the data and analyzed split records by using Poisson regression. Changes in cancer incidence in relation to treatment duration were examined by modeling the rate ratio (RR. After a median follow-up of 9 years, 53 cancer cases among users of anti-diabetic medication and 1,028 among non-users were diagnosed. No significant difference in cancer risk between users and non-users was observed after adjustment. The RR for all medication regardless of its duration was 1.01 [95% CI 0.75-1.33], and 1.37 [0.94-1.94] for period of 1-4 years. The results were similar for metformin, sulfonylurea, and insulin. This study demonstrates that evaluation of the variation in cancer risk in relation to treatment duration is of particular importance for enhancing the accuracy of conclusions on the link between exposure to anti-diabetic medication and cancer risk.

  10. Antidiabetic and Antioxidant Properties of Alkaloids from Catharanthus roseus (L.) G. Don

    OpenAIRE

    Won Fen Wong; Shiau-Chuen Cheah; Mohd Rais Mustafa; Mohammadjavad Paydar; Aditya Arya; Soon Huat Tiong; Chung Yeng Looi; Khalijah Awang; Hazrina Hazni

    2013-01-01

    Catharanthus roseus (L.) G. Don is a herbal plant traditionally used by local populations in India, South Africa, China and Malaysia to treat diabetes. The present study reports the in vitro antioxidant and antidiabetic activities of the major alkaloids isolated from Catharanthus roseus (L.) G. Don leaves extract. Four alkaloids—vindoline I, vindolidine II, vindolicine III and vindolinine IV—were isolated and identified from the dichloromethane extract (DE) of this plant’s leaves. DE and comp...

  11. ANTIDIABETIC AND HYPOLIPIDEMIC EFFECTS OF HIPPOCRATEA AFRICANA (HIPPOCRATEACEAE IN STREPTOZOTOCIN INDUCED DIABETIC RATS

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    JUDE E. OKOKON

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Evaluation of antidiabetic and hypolipidaemic activities of ethanolic root extract of Hippocratea africana (200,400 and 600mg/kg b.w.p.o were carried out in streptozotocin induced diabetic albino rats after a single dose (acute study and after prolonged treatment(chronic study. The activity of the extract was compared with that of referenced drug,glibenclamide (10mg/kg bw.p.o.The blood glucose level was measured by using a glucometer and the various lipids level were estimated using Randox diagnostic kits.Treatment of streptozotocin (STZ diabetic rats with the extract caused a significant (P<0.01 reduction in fasting Blood Glucose levels (BGL of the diabetic rats both in acute study and prolonged treatment (2 weeks. The activity of the extract was comparable to that of the reference drug, glibenclamide. H. africana treatment showed considerable lowering of serum total cholesterol, triglycerides, LDL cholesterol, VLDL cholesterol and an increase in HDL cholesterol in the treated diabetic group. These results suggest that the root extract of H. africana possesses antidiabetic and hypolipidaemic effect on streptozotocin induced diabetic rats and confirms its folkloric use in the management of diabetes.

  12. Rediscovering medicinal plants' potential with OMICS: microsatellite survey in expressed sequence tags of eleven traditional plants with potent antidiabetic properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahu, Jagajjit; Sen, Priyabrata; Choudhury, Manabendra Dutta; Dehury, Budheswar; Barooah, Madhumita; Modi, Mahendra Kumar; Talukdar, Anupam Das

    2014-05-01

    Herbal medicines and traditionally used medicinal plants present an untapped potential for novel molecular target discovery using systems science and OMICS biotechnology driven strategies. Since up to 40% of the world's poor people have no access to government health services, traditional and folk medicines are often the only therapeutics available to them. In this vein, North East (NE) India is recognized for its rich bioresources. As part of the Indo-Burma hotspot, it is regarded as an epicenter of biodiversity for several plants having myriad traditional uses, including medicinal use. However, the improvement of these valuable bioresources through molecular breeding strategies, for example, using genic microsatellites or Simple Sequence Repeats (SSRs) or Expressed Sequence Tags (ESTs)-derived SSRs has not been fully utilized in large scale to date. In this study, we identified a total of 47,700 microsatellites from 109,609 ESTs of 11 medicinal plants (pineapple, papaya, noyontara, bitter orange, bermuda brass, ratalu, barbados nut, mango, mulberry, lotus, and guduchi) having proven antidiabetic properties. A total of 58,159 primer pairs were designed for the non-redundant 8060 SSR-positive ESTs and putative functions were assigned to 4483 unique contigs. Among the identified microsatellites, excluding mononucleotide repeats, di-/trinucleotides are predominant, among which repeat motifs of AG/CT and AAG/CTT were most abundant. Similarity search of SSR containing ESTs and antidiabetic gene sequences revealed 11 microsatellites linked to antidiabetic genes in five plants. GO term enrichment analysis revealed a total of 80 enriched GO terms widely distributed in 53 biological processes, 17 molecular functions, and 10 cellular components associated with the 11 markers. The present study therefore provides concrete insights into the frequency and distribution of SSRs in important medicinal resources. The microsatellite markers reported here markedly add to the genetic

  13. New arylalkanones from Horsfieldia macrobotrys, effective antidiabetic agents concomitantly inhibiting α-glucosidase and free radicals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramadhan, Rico; Phuwapraisirisan, Preecha

    2015-10-15

    In search of effective antidiabetic agents having therapeutic effect by inhibiting α-glucosidase and preventive effect by scavenging free radicals, Horsfieldia macrobotrys showed promising bioactivity required for the proposed criteria. Bioassay-guided isolation of the stem bark extract resulted in two new arylalkanones named horsfieldone A (1) and maingayone D (2), together with a new flavanone C-glucoside named 8-C-β-d-glucopyranosylpinocembrin (3). Their structures and stereochemistry were determined by spectroscopic techniques as well as Mosher's method. Of isolated compounds, maingayone D (2) was the most potent inhibitors against both α-glucosidases and free radicals. The presence of additional phenolic moieties in 2 clearly indicated their critical roles in inhibitory effects. Further investigation on mechanism underlying α-glucosidase inhibition indicated that maingayone D (2) could retard the enzyme function by both competitive and noncompetitive manners.

  14. An experimental evaluation of the antidiabetic and antilipidemic properties of a standardized Momordica charantia fruit extract

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    Naik Suresh R

    2007-09-01

    observed. Conclusion Our experimental findings with respect to the mechanism of action of MCE in alloxan diabetic rats suggest that it enhances insulin secretion by the islets of Langerhans, reduces glycogenesis in liver tissue, enhances peripheral glucose utilisation and increases serum protein levels. Furthermore, MCE treatment restores the altered histological architecture of the islets of Langerhans. Hence, the biochemical, pharmacological and histopathological profiles of MCE clearly indicate its potential antidiabetic activity and other beneficial effects in amelioration of diabetes associated complications. Further, an evaluation of its antilipidemic activity in old obese rats demonstrated significant lowering of cholesterol and triglyceride levels while elevating HDL-cholesterol levels. Also, the extract lowered serum lipids in alloxan diabetic rats, suggesting its usefulness in controlling metabolic alterations associated with diabetes.

  15. Antidiabetic Effect of Salvianolic Acid A on Diabetic Animal Models via AMPK Activation and Mitochondrial Regulation

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    Guifen Qiang

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: Diabetes mellitus (DM characterized by hyperglycemia contributes to macrovascular and microvascular complications. Salvianolic acid A (SalA is a polyphenolic compound isolated from the root of Salvia miltiorrhiza Bunge, which is a traditional Chinese medicine widely used to treat cardiovascular diseases. However, little is known about its antidiabetic effect. Our study aimed to investigate the in vivo and in vitro antidiabetic effect of SalA and the underlying mechanisms. Methods: Alloxan-induced type 1 diabetic mice and high-fat diet (HFD and low-dose streptozotocin (STZ-induced type 2 diabetic rats received SalA treatment. Blood glucose, oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT, 24-h food and water intake were monitored. In vitro, glucose consumption and uptake were measured in HepG2 cells and L6 myotubes. Mitochondrial function was detected in hepatic and skeletal muscle mitochondria. AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK and Akt were analyzed by western blot. Results: In both type 1 and type 2 diabetic animals, SalA lowered fasting blood glucose (FBG and fed blood glucose in dose-dependent manner, as well as reduced 24-h food and water intake. In vitro, SalA caused dose-dependent increase in glucose consumption and enhanced glucose uptake. SalA significantly increased ATP production from 10 min to 12 h in HepG2 cells and L6 myotubes. Interestingly, SalA decreased mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP in HepG2 cells. Furthermore, SalA improved hepatic and skeletal muscle mitochondrial function, increased ATP production, and concurrently decreased MMP. In particularly, SalA activated AMPK phosphorylation through Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase kinase β (CaMKKβ/AMPK signaling pathway, independent of liver kinase 1 (LKB1/AMPK pathway. However, SalA didn't show any effect on insulin secretagogue and activation of PI3K/Akt signaling pathway. Conclusion: SalA exhibits the antidiabetic effects in diabetic animal models through

  16. Anti-diabetic properties of flavonoid compounds isolated from Hyphaene thebaica epicarp on alloxan induced diabetic rats

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    Josline Y Salib

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Diabetes mellitus, becoming the third killer of mankind after cancer and cardiovascular diseases, is one of the most challenging diseases facing health care professionals today. That is why; there has been a growing interest in the therapeutic use of natural products for diabetes, especially those derived from plants. Aim: To evaluate the anti-diabetic activity together with the accompanying biological effects of the fractions and the new natural compounds of Hyphaene thebaica (HT epicarp. Materials and Methods: 500 g of coarsely powdered of (HT fruits epicarp were extracted by acetone. The acetone crude extract was fractionated with methanol and ethyl acetate leaving a residual water-soluble fraction WF . The anti-diabetic effects of the WF and one of its compounds of the acetone extract of the (HT epicarp were investigated in this study using 40 adult male rats. Results: Phytochemical investigation of active WF revealed the presence of ten different flavonoids, among which two new natural compounds luteolin 7-O-[6″-O-α-L-rhamnopyranosyl]-β-D-galactopyranoside 3 and chrysoeriol 7-O-β-D-galactopyranosyl (1®2-α-L-arabinofuranoside 5 were isolated. Supplementation of the WF improved glucose and insulin tolerance and significantly lowered blood glycosylated hemoglobin levels. On the other hand, compound 5 significantly reduced AST and ALT levels of liver, respectively. Likewise, the kidney functions were improved for both WF and compound 5 , whereby both urea and creatinine levels in serum were highly significant. Conclusion: The results justify the use of WF and compound 5 of the (HT epicarp as anti-diabetic agent, taking into consideration that the contents of WF were mainly flavonoids.

  17. Antidiabetic effect of polysaccharides from Pleurotus ostreatus in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yan; Hu, Tao; Zhou, Hongli; Zhang, Yang; Jin, Gang; Yang, Yu

    2016-02-01

    This study was performed to evaluate the effects of total polysaccharides extracted from Pleurotus ostreatus on type 2 diabetes. Rats were administered with high-fat diet and streptozotocin (STZ) to induce diabetes. The rats were then treated with 100, 200, and 400 mg/kg/d POP or vehicle for 4 weeks. Our experiments indicated that POP reduces hyperglycemia and hyperlipidemia levels, improves insulin resistance, and increases glycogen storage by activating GSK3 phosphorylation and GLUT4 translocation. Moreover, POP reduces the risk of oxidative damage by increasing superoxide dismutase(SOD), catalase(CAT), and glutathione peroxidase(GSH-Px) activities and decreasing malonaldehyde(MDA) level. These results suggest that POP exerts antidiabetic effect on STZ-induced diabetic rats. PMID:26627601

  18. Antidiabetic Effect of Young and Old Ethanolic Leaf Extracts of Vernonia amygdalina: A Comparative Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asante, Du-Bois; Effah-Yeboah, Emmanuel; Barnes, Precious; Abban, Heckel Amoabeng; Ameyaw, Elvis Ofori; Boampong, Johnson Nyarko; Ofori, Eric Gyamerah; Dadzie, Joseph Budu

    2016-01-01

    The young leaves of Vernonia amygdalina are often utilized as vegetable and for medicinal purpose compared to the old leaves. This study was designed to evaluate and compare the antidiabetic effects between ethanolic leaf extracts of old and young V. amygdalina on streptozotocin (STZ) induced diabetic rat for four weeks. Preliminary screening of both young and old ethanolic extracts revealed the presence of the same phytochemicals except flavonoids which was only present in the old V. amygdalina. Difference in antioxidant power between the young and old leaf extracts was statistically significant (p pancreas, liver, and spleen, most significantly the regeneration of the beta cells of the islets of Langerhans in treated rats. PMID:27294153

  19. Possible antidiabetic and antihyperlipidaemic effect of fermented Parkia biglobosa (JACQ) extract in alloxan-induced diabetic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odetola, A A; Akinloye, O; Egunjobi, C; Adekunle, W A; Ayoola, A O

    2006-09-01

    normal controls. Low levels of HDL and high levels of LDL were observed in animals treated with the methanolic extract of PB, a pattern similar to that seen in non-treated diabetic controls. 5. The results of the present study demonstrate that both aqueous and methanolic extracts of fermented seeds of PB exert a hypoglycaemic effect; hence, PB has an antidiabetic property. However, only the aqueous extract of PB ameliorated the loss of bodyweight usually associated with diabetes. Although the aqueous extract has a favourable lipid profile, which is probably an indication of its possible anti-arteriogenic property (hypertension and ischaemic heart diseases being common complications in diabetes mellitus), the methanolic extract shows possible contraindication to ischaemic heart diseases.

  20. Antidiabetic Effect of Young and Old Ethanolic Leaf Extracts of Vernonia amygdalina: A Comparative Study

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    Du-Bois Asante

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The young leaves of Vernonia amygdalina are often utilized as vegetable and for medicinal purpose compared to the old leaves. This study was designed to evaluate and compare the antidiabetic effects between ethanolic leaf extracts of old and young V. amygdalina on streptozotocin (STZ induced diabetic rat for four weeks. Preliminary screening of both young and old ethanolic extracts revealed the presence of the same phytochemicals except flavonoids which was only present in the old V. amygdalina. Difference in antioxidant power between the young and old leaf extracts was statistically significant (p<0.05. Both leaf extracts produced a significant (p<0.05 antihyperglycaemic effect. Also results from treated rats revealed increasing effect in some haematological parameters. Similarly, the higher dose (300 mg/kg of both extracts significantly (p<0.05 reduced serum ALT, AST, and ALP levels as compared to the diabetic control rats. Results also showed significant (p<0.05 decrease in LDL-C and VLDL-C in the extract-treated rats with a corresponding increase in HDL-C, as compared to the diabetic control rats. Moreover histopathological analysis revealed ameliorative effect of pathological insults induced by the STZ in the pancreas, liver, and spleen, most significantly the regeneration of the beta cells of the islets of Langerhans in treated rats.

  1. EFFECTS OF SOME ANTIDIABETIC MEDICINAL PLANTS ON PANCREAS AND LIVER OF DIABETIC ALBINO RATS

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    Ashraf M. Mostafa, 1 Abdel Hamid A. Serwah, 2 Waleed S. Mohamed, 3

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and aim of the study- Diabetes is a chronic metabolic disease which affects large number of population all over the world. More than 400 traditional medicinal plants have been recorded for helping in controlling such disease. This study investigated effects of some plants used in Saudi Arabia and some other Arab countries as antidiabetic agents. Materials and Methods: One hundred fifty adult male Albino rats were divided into six experimental groups each consist of twenty five rats. The first group was considered as a control group. The rest of groups were affected by induction of experimental diabetes by subcutaneous injection of Alloxan. The second group consisted of diabetic rats without any treatment. The third group was treated by the aqueous extract of mixture contains Foenugreek, Nigella and Termis seeds. The fourth group was treated with the aqueous extract of Nigella sativa seeds, while the fifth group was treated with the aqueous extract of Foenugreek seeds.The sixth one was treated with the aqueous extract of Termis seeds with the administered dose of the plant extracts (100 mg/kg body weight.After four weeks of treatment, different biochemical parameters were performed including estimation of blood sugar level and serum insulin level. Pancreatic and liver samples were obtained and processed for microscopic and quantitative evaluation after staining the prepared sections with both heamatoxylin and eosin as well as a special stain for demonstration of the different pancreatic cells in the Islet of Langerhans. Results: The usage of the mixture or each plant alone corrected the glucose level and insulin level. Microscopically there was definite decrease in the number and diameter of beta pancreatic cells in the diabetic group, while the other pancreatic cells were not affected (alpha and delta cells. The use of medicinal plants in the different groups of this study greatly improved such cellular changes and the level of blood

  2. Modulation of the Antidiabetic Effect of Glimepiride by Diazepam in Diabetic Rats

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    W.R. Mohamed

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Anxiolytic drugs may influence glycemic control in diabetic subjects, so the present study was conducted to investigate the effect of glimepiride, a commonly used oral hypoglycemic, diazepam, a commonly used anxiolytic, and their combination in STZ-induced diabetic rats. Diabetes was induced by streptozotpcin (50 mg/kg i.p.. Rats were divided into 5 groups namely: normal control, diabetic control, glimepiride (10 mg/kg p.o., diazepam (5 mg/kg i.p. or combination of both glimepiride and diazepam, respectively. All groups received daily treatments for 2 weeks including the normal group which received 1% Tween 80. Diazepam significantly improved the effect of glimepiride on the levels of serum glucose, insulin, C-peptide and liver glycogen content. In addition, combination of diazepam with glimepiride significantly improved the effect of the latter on oxidative stress biomarkers including serum lipid peroxides, blood glutathione levels and blood superoxide dismutase activity of diabetic rats. In conclusion, the present study revealed that diazepam increased the antidiabetic and the antioxidant actions of glimepiride which may be of considerable value in the treatment of diabetes mellitus where both reduction of associated anxiety and tight glycemic control are needed.

  3. Antidiabetic and Antioxidant Properties of Triticum aestivum in Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetic Rats

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    Yogesha Mohan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The antidiabetic and antioxidant potential of Triticum aestivum were evaluated by using in vivo methods in normal and streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Diabetes was induced in the Wistar strain albino rats by injecting streptozotocin at a dose of 55 mg/kg body weight. Ethanolic extracts of Triticum aestivum at doses of 100 mg/kg body weight were administered orally for 30 days. Various parameters were studied and the treatment group with the extract showed a significant increase in the liver glycogen and a significant decrease in fasting blood glucose, glycosylated hemoglobin levels, and serum marker enzyme levels. The total cholesterol and serum triglycerides levels, low density lipoprotein, and very low density lipoprotein were also significantly reduced and the high density lipoprotein level was significantly increased upon treatment with the Triticum aestivum ethanol extract. A significant decrease in the levels of lipid peroxides, superoxide dismutase, and glutathione peroxidise and increase in the levels of vitamin E, catalase, and reduced glutathione were observed in Triticum aestivum treated diabetic rats. Thus, from this study we conclude that ethanolic extract of Triticum aestivum exhibited significant antihyperglycemic, hypolipidemic, and antioxidant activities in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats.

  4. Development and phytochemical characterization of high polyphenol red lettuce with anti-diabetic properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Diana M; Pogrebnyak, Natalia; Kuhn, Peter; Krueger, Christian G; Johnson, William D; Raskin, Ilya

    2014-01-01

    Polyphenol-rich Rutgers Scarlet Lettuce (RSL) (Lactuca sativa L.) was developed through somaclonal variation and selection in tissue culture. RSL may contain among the highest reported contents of polyphenols and antioxidants in the category of common fruits and vegetables (95.6 mg/g dry weight and 8.7 mg/g fresh weight gallic acid equivalents and 2721 µmol/g dry weight and 223 µmol/g fresh weight Trolox equivalents). Three main compounds accumulate at particularly high levels in RSL: chlorogenic acid, up to 27.6 mg/g dry weight, cyanidin malonyl-glucoside, up to 20.5 mg/g dry weight, and quercetin malonyl-glucoside, up to 35.7 mg/g dry weight. Major polyphenolic constituents of RSL have been associated with health promotion as well as anti-diabetic and/or anti-inflammatory activities. Daily oral administration of RSL (100 or 300 mg/kg) for up to eight days acutely reduced hyperglycemia and improved insulin sensitivity in high fat diet-induced obese hyperglycemic mice compared to vehicle (water) control. Data presented here support possible use of RSL as a functional food for the dietary management of diabetes. PMID:24637790

  5. Antidiabetic and antioxidant properties of alkaloids from Catharanthus roseus (L.) G. Don.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiong, Soon Huat; Looi, Chung Yeng; Hazni, Hazrina; Arya, Aditya; Paydar, Mohammadjavad; Wong, Won Fen; Cheah, Shiau-Chuen; Mustafa, Mohd Rais; Awang, Khalijah

    2013-01-01

    Catharanthus roseus (L.) G. Don is a herbal plant traditionally used by local populations in India, South Africa, China and Malaysia to treat diabetes. The present study reports the in vitro antioxidant and antidiabetic activities of the major alkaloids isolated from Catharanthus roseus (L.) G. Don leaves extract. Four alkaloids--vindoline I, vindolidine II, vindolicine III and vindolinine IV--were isolated and identified from the dichloromethane extract (DE) of this plant's leaves. DE and compounds I-III were not cytotoxic towards pancreatic β-TC6 cells at the highest dosage tested (25.0 µg/mL). All four alkaloids induced relatively high glucose uptake in pancreatic β-TC6 or myoblast C2C12 cells, with III showing the highest activity. In addition, compounds II-IV demonstrated good protein tyrosine phosphatase-1B (PTP-1B) inhibition activity, implying their therapeutic potential against type 2 diabetes. III showed the highest antioxidant potential in ORAC and DPPH assays and it also alleviated H₂O₂-induced oxidative damage in β-TC6 cells at 12.5 µg/mL and 25.0 µg/mL. PMID:23955322

  6. Antidiabetic and Antioxidant Properties of Alkaloids from Catharanthus roseus (L. G. Don

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Won Fen Wong

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Catharanthus roseus (L. G. Don is a herbal plant traditionally used by local populations in India, South Africa, China and Malaysia to treat diabetes. The present study reports the in vitro antioxidant and antidiabetic activities of the major alkaloids isolated from Catharanthus roseus (L. G. Don leaves extract. Four alkaloids—vindoline I, vindolidine II, vindolicine III and vindolinine IV—were isolated and identified from the dichloromethane extract (DE of this plant’s leaves. DE and compounds I–III were not cytotoxic towards pancreatic β-TC6 cells at the highest dosage tested (25.0 µg/mL. All four alkaloids induced relatively high glucose uptake in pancreatic β-TC6 or myoblast C2C12 cells, with III showing the highest activity. In addition, compounds II–IV demonstrated good protein tyrosine phosphatase-1B (PTP-1B inhibition activity, implying their therapeutic potential against type 2 diabetes. III showed the highest antioxidant potential in ORAC and DPPH assays and it also alleviated H2O2-induced oxidative damage in β-TC6 cells at 12.5 µg/mL and 25.0 µg/mL.

  7. Development and phytochemical characterization of high polyphenol red lettuce with anti-diabetic properties.

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    Diana M Cheng

    Full Text Available Polyphenol-rich Rutgers Scarlet Lettuce (RSL (Lactuca sativa L. was developed through somaclonal variation and selection in tissue culture. RSL may contain among the highest reported contents of polyphenols and antioxidants in the category of common fruits and vegetables (95.6 mg/g dry weight and 8.7 mg/g fresh weight gallic acid equivalents and 2721 µmol/g dry weight and 223 µmol/g fresh weight Trolox equivalents. Three main compounds accumulate at particularly high levels in RSL: chlorogenic acid, up to 27.6 mg/g dry weight, cyanidin malonyl-glucoside, up to 20.5 mg/g dry weight, and quercetin malonyl-glucoside, up to 35.7 mg/g dry weight. Major polyphenolic constituents of RSL have been associated with health promotion as well as anti-diabetic and/or anti-inflammatory activities. Daily oral administration of RSL (100 or 300 mg/kg for up to eight days acutely reduced hyperglycemia and improved insulin sensitivity in high fat diet-induced obese hyperglycemic mice compared to vehicle (water control. Data presented here support possible use of RSL as a functional food for the dietary management of diabetes.

  8. Antidiabetic and antidiarrhoeal effects on ethanolic extract of Psidium guajava(L.) Bat.leaves in Wister rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Santosh; Mazumdar; Rashcda; Akter; Debashish; Talukder

    2015-01-01

    Objective:To evaluate the antidiabetic and the antidiarrhoeal effects of ethanolic extracts of Psidium guajava leave(EEPGL) in Wisier rais to support its traditional uses.Methods:Oral glucose tolerance test model and alloxan induced diabetic test model were performed to evaluate antidiabetic activity of EEPGL at doses of 1.00.0.50 and 0.75 g/kg respectively.For antidiarrhoeal effects of EEPGL.castor oil-induced diarrhoea model and gastrointestinal motility test with barium sulphate milk model were also assessed at doses of750.500 and 250 mg/kg.respectively.Results:Administration of EEPGL at doses 1.00 and 0.50 g/kg significantly(P<0.05)decreased blood glucose levels in oral glucose tolerance test model as well as 0.75 g/kg dose in alloxan induced diabetic test model in Wister rats(P<0.001).Application of EEPGL at doses of 750 and 500 mg/kg showed antidiarrhoeal effect in castor oil-induced diarrhoeal model(P<0.00 l and P<0.01,respectively),and 750 mg/kg(P<0.01),500 and 250 mg/kg(P<0.05)doses in barium sulphate milk model in aforesaid animals.Conclusions:These results exhibited the significant antidiabetic and antidiarrhoeal activities of ethanolic extracts of Psidium guajava leave in Wister rats.

  9. Antidiabetic effect of a black mangrove species Aegiceras corniculatum in alloxan-induced diabetic rats

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    S Gurudeeban

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Earlier ethnopharmacological records divulged the traditional usages of mangrove Aegiceras corniculatum (Linn. Blanco distributed in coastal and estuarine areas of Southeast India. Excluding scientific knowledge of A. corniculatum against diabetes an upgrowing endocrinal disorder, our present study evaluated the effect on alloxan-induced diabetic rats. Diabetes was induced in adult rats of the Wistar strain by intraperitoneal injection of alloxan monohydrate. The experimental rats were administered with leaf suspension of A. corniculatum post orally using an intragastric tube. On completion of the 60-day treatment, a range of biochemical parameters were tested including liver hexokinase, glucose-6phosphatase and fructose 1, 6 bisphosphatase in the liver of control and allaxon-diabetic rats. As a result, A. corniculatum leaf suspension showed moderate reduction in blood glucose (from 382 ± 34 to 105 ± 35, glycosylated hemoglobin, a decrease in the activities of glucose-6 phosphatase and fructose 1, 6-bisphosphatase, and an increase activity of liver hexokinase achieved through the oral administration of extract on 100 mg/kg. The present findings support promising results in terms of antidiabetic activities establishing its candidacy for further purification of individual compound in order to understand their mechanism of action.

  10. Flavonoid derivative exerts an antidiabetic effect via AMPK activation in diet-induced obesity mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ying; Zhang, Chang; Jin, Mei-Na; Qin, Nan; Qiao, Wei; Yue, Xiao-Long; Duan, Hong-Quan; Niu, Wen-Yan

    2016-09-01

    In our previous study, a derivative of tiliroside, 3-O-[(E)-4-(4-ethoxyphenyl)-2-oxobut-3-en-1-yl]kaempferol (Fla-OEt) significantly enhanced glucose consumption in insulin resistant HepG2 cells. This article deals with the antihyperglycemic and antihyperlipidemic effects of Fla-OEt in diet-induced obesity (DIO) mice. Daily administration of Fla-OEt significantly decreased oral glucose tolerance test, intraperitoneal insulin tolerance test and serum lipids. Hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp and the ratio of high-density-lipoprotein/low-density-lipoprotein with Fla-OEt treatment were increased comparing with high-fat diet (HFD) group, so lipid metabolism was improved. Histopathology examination showed that the Fla-OEt restored the damage of adipose tissues and liver in DIO mice. Moreover, compared with HFD group, Fla-OEt treatment significantly increased the phosphorylation of AMPK and ACC in adiposity tissues, liver, and muscles. The mechanism of its action might be the activation of AMPK pathway. It appears that Fla-OEt is worth further study for development as a lead compound for a potential antidiabetic agent.

  11. Antidiabetic Effect of Morinda citrifolia (Noni Fermented by Cheonggukjang in KK-Ay Diabetic Mice

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    So-Young Lee

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Antidiabetic effects of Morinda citrifolia (aka Noni fermented by Cheonggukjang (fast-fermented soybean paste were evaluated using a T2DM (type 2 diabetes mellitus murine model. Six-week-old KK-Ay/TaJcl mice were randomly divided into four groups: (1 the diabetic control (DC group, provided with a normal mouse diet; (2 the positive control (PC group, provided with a functional health food diet; (3 the M. citrifolia (MC group, provided with an MC-based diet; (4 the fermented M. citrifolia (FMC group, provided with an FMC-based diet. Over a testing period of 90 days, food and water intake decreased significantly in the FMC and PC groups compared with the DC group. Blood glucose levels in the FMC group were 211.60–252.20 mg/dL after 90 days, while those in the control group were over 400 mg/dL after 20 days. In addition, FMC supplementation reduced glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c levels, enhanced insulin sensitivity, and significantly decreased serum triglycerides and low-density lipoprotein (LDL cholesterol. Furthermore, a fermented M. citrifolia 70% ethanolic extract (FMCE activated peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-(PPAR- γ and stimulated glucose uptake via stimulation of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK in cultured C2C12 cells. These results suggest that FMC can be employed as a functional health food for T2DM management.

  12. Antidiabetic Effect of Morinda citrifolia (Noni) Fermented by Cheonggukjang in KK-A(y) Diabetic Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, So-Young; Park, So-Lim; Hwang, Jin-Taek; Yi, Sung-Hun; Nam, Young-Do; Lim, Seong-Il

    2012-01-01

    Antidiabetic effects of Morinda citrifolia (aka Noni) fermented by Cheonggukjang (fast-fermented soybean paste) were evaluated using a T2DM (type 2 diabetes mellitus) murine model. Six-week-old KK-Ay/TaJcl mice were randomly divided into four groups: (1) the diabetic control (DC) group, provided with a normal mouse diet; (2) the positive control (PC) group, provided with a functional health food diet; (3) the M. citrifolia (MC) group, provided with an MC-based diet; (4) the fermented M. citrifolia (FMC) group, provided with an FMC-based diet. Over a testing period of 90 days, food and water intake decreased significantly in the FMC and PC groups compared with the DC group. Blood glucose levels in the FMC group were 211.60-252.20 mg/dL after 90 days, while those in the control group were over 400 mg/dL after 20 days. In addition, FMC supplementation reduced glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c) levels, enhanced insulin sensitivity, and significantly decreased serum triglycerides and low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol. Furthermore, a fermented M. citrifolia 70% ethanolic extract (FMCE) activated peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-(PPAR-) γ and stimulated glucose uptake via stimulation of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) in cultured C2C12 cells. These results suggest that FMC can be employed as a functional health food for T2DM management.

  13. Flavonoid derivative exerts an antidiabetic effect via AMPK activation in diet-induced obesity mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ying; Zhang, Chang; Jin, Mei-Na; Qin, Nan; Qiao, Wei; Yue, Xiao-Long; Duan, Hong-Quan; Niu, Wen-Yan

    2016-09-01

    In our previous study, a derivative of tiliroside, 3-O-[(E)-4-(4-ethoxyphenyl)-2-oxobut-3-en-1-yl]kaempferol (Fla-OEt) significantly enhanced glucose consumption in insulin resistant HepG2 cells. This article deals with the antihyperglycemic and antihyperlipidemic effects of Fla-OEt in diet-induced obesity (DIO) mice. Daily administration of Fla-OEt significantly decreased oral glucose tolerance test, intraperitoneal insulin tolerance test and serum lipids. Hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp and the ratio of high-density-lipoprotein/low-density-lipoprotein with Fla-OEt treatment were increased comparing with high-fat diet (HFD) group, so lipid metabolism was improved. Histopathology examination showed that the Fla-OEt restored the damage of adipose tissues and liver in DIO mice. Moreover, compared with HFD group, Fla-OEt treatment significantly increased the phosphorylation of AMPK and ACC in adiposity tissues, liver, and muscles. The mechanism of its action might be the activation of AMPK pathway. It appears that Fla-OEt is worth further study for development as a lead compound for a potential antidiabetic agent. PMID:26511291

  14. Antidiabetic effect of hydroalcoholic extract of Carthamus tinctorius L. in alloxan-induced diabetic rats

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    Sedigheh Asgary

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Carthamus tinctorius L. (Compositae has been used in Iranian traditional medicine for treatment of diabetes. In this study, anti-diabetic effect of its hydroalcoholic extract was compared with that of glibenclamide. Methods: Male white Wistar rats were randomly allocated into four groups of six each: nondiabetic control; diabetic control; diabetic treated with hydroalcoholic extract of Carthamus tinctorius (200 mg kg -1 BW; diabetic rats treated with glibenclamide (0.6 mg kg -1 BW. Alloxan was administered (120 mg kg -1 BW, intraperitoneally to induce diabetes. Fasting blood samples were collected three times, before injection of alloxan, two weeks and six weeks after injection of alloxan and fasting blood sugar (FBS, Hb A1C, insulin, cholesterol, LDL-C, HDL-C, VLDL-C, triglyceride, alkaline phosphatase (ALP, alanine aminotransferase (ALT and aspartate aminotransferase (AST were measured each time. Results: FBS, triglyceride, cholesterol, LDL-C and VLDL-C had a meaningful decrease in diabetic rats treated with Carthamus tinctorius and diabetic rats treated with glibenclamide as compared with diabetic rats with no treatment. Insulin level increased significantly in diabetic groups received treatment (glibenclamide or Carthamus tinctorius L in comparison with diabetic group with no treatment. The histological study revealed size of islets of Langerhans enlarged significantly consequentially as compared with diabetic rats with no treatment. The extract appeared non toxic as evidenced by normal levels of AST, ALP and ALT. Effects of administrating glibenclamide or extract of Carthamus tinctorius L on all biochemical parameters discussed above showed no difference and both tend to bring the values to near normal. Conclusion: These results suggested that the hydroalcoholic extract of Carthamus tinctorius possesses beneficial effect on treatment of diabetes.

  15. Antidiabetic Plants of Iran

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    Ashrafeddin Goushegir

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available To identify the antidiabetic plants of Iran, a systematic review of the published literature on the efficacy of Iranian medicinal plant for glucose control in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus was conducted. We performed an electronic literature search of MEDLINE, Science Direct, Scopus, Proquest, Ebsco, Googlescholar, SID, Cochrane Library Database, from 1966 up to June 2010. The search terms were complementary and alternative medicine (CAM, diabetes mellitus, plant (herb, Iran, patient, glycemic control, clinical trial, RCT, natural or herbal medicine, hypoglycemic plants, and individual herb names from popular sources, or combination of these key words. Available Randomized Controlled Trials (RCT published in English or Persian language examined effects of an herb (limited to Iran on glycemic indexes in type 2 diabetic patients were included. Among all of the articles identified in the initial database search, 23 trials were RCT, examining herbs as potential therapy for type 2 diabetes mellitus. The key outcome for antidiabetic effect was changes in blood glucose or HbA1 c, as well as improves in insulin sensitivity or resistance. Available data suggest that several antidiabetic plants of Iran need further study. Among the RCT studies, the best evidence in glycemic control was found in Citrullus colocynthus, Ipomoea betatas, Silybum marianum and Trigonella foenum graecum.

  16. Hepatoprotective and antidiabetic effects of Pistacia lentiscus leaf and fruit extracts

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    Chafiaâ Mehenni

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Pistacia lentiscus (Anacardiaceae is commonly used in folk medicine to treat various diseases. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the hepatoprotective and antioxidant activities of extracts of P. lentiscus leaves (PL and fruits (PF against experimentally induced liver damage. Furthermore, characterization of extracts was attempted by a spectroscopic methodology (Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and high-performance liquid chromatography with diode array detection analysis. A hepatoprotective potential against paracetamol [165 mg/kg body weight (b.w.] toxicity was noticed in mice pretreated with the same dose of PL or PF extract (125 mg/kg b.w. or a combination of both (PL/PF 63/63 mg/kg b.w., as revealed by an analysis of biochemical parameters (alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, and alkaline phosphatase activities and total bilirubin. These results were confirmed by histological examination of the liver, which revealed significant protection against paracetamol-induced hepatic necrosis. Furthermore, PF extract exhibited a promising antidiabetic activity in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats, similar to the reference drug glibenclamide (0.91 g/L, a result confirmed by in vitro inhibition of α-amylase. We demonstrated that the leaf crude extract showed the best effect in all tested methods, compared to its fruit counterpart, probably due to the presence of higher amounts of phenolic compounds, as determined by phytochemical and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy analyses. Moreover, high-performance liquid chromatography with diode array detection led to the identification of six compounds for each part of the plant. Gallic acid, a characteristic compound of Pistacia species, was most abundant in leaves and fruits, while luteolin was detected for the first time in fruits. Obtained activities of P. lentiscus extracts may well be due, at least in part, to the presence of the above compounds.

  17. Anti-diabetic properties of rice-based herbal porridges in diabetic Wistar rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senadheera, Senadheera Pathirannehelage Anuruddhika Subhashinie; Ekanayake, Sagarika; Wanigatunge, Chandanie

    2014-10-01

    The present study aims to investigate anti-hyperglycaemic, anti-hyperlipidaemic and toxic effects of long-term consumption of selected green leafy porridges in a streptozotocin-induced diabetic Wistar rat model. Porridges made with Asparagus racemosus Willd. (AR), Hemidesmus indicus (L) R. Br. W. T. Aiton (HI), Scoparia dulcis L. (SD) and coconut milk porridge (CM) were incorporated into diets of diabetic Wistar rats. Diabetic control (DM) and normal control groups (NC) were provided with standard rat diet. Fasting blood glucose (FBG), HbA1c , C reactive protein (CRP), total cholesterol (TC), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), liver enzymes and creatinine were measured. Feed and water intake among diabetic groups were significantly high when compared with those of NC (p  0.05). Among the diabetic groups, lowest TC (119 ± 20.6 mg/dL) and highest HDL-C (33 ± 6.3 mg/dL) were also detected in SD group. Alanine transaminase and creatinine were not significantly different (p > 0.05) among diabetic groups but significant when compared with those of NC. When compared with those of NC, aspartate transaminase levels were significantly (p < 0.05) high in SD, CM and DM groups. Body weight : liver weight and body weight : pancreas weight ratios and CRP were not significantly different among all groups. The study proved that SD porridge reduced weight loss, elicited hypoglycaemic and hypolipidaemic properties, and caused no toxicity in diabetes-induced Wistar rats. PMID:24840113

  18. Antidiabetic and antioxidant effects and phytochemicals of mulberry fruit (Morus alba L.) polyphenol enhanced extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yihai; Xiang, Limin; Wang, Chunhua; Tang, Chao; He, Xiangjiu

    2013-01-01

    The antidiabetic and antioxidant activities of the ethyl acetate-soluble extract (MFE) of mulberry fruit (Morus alba L.) were investigated. In vitro, MFE showed potent α-glucosidase inhibitory activity and radical-scavenging activities against DPPH and superoxide anion radicals. In vivo, MFE could significantly decrease fasting blood glucose (FBG) and glycosylated serum protein (GSP), and increase antioxidant enzymatic activities (SOD, CAT, GSH-Px) in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic mice. Bioactivity-guided fractionation of the MFE led to the isolation of 25 phenolic compounds, and their structures were identified on the basis of MS and NMR data. All the 25 compounds were isolated from mulberry fruit for the first time. Also, the α-glucosidase inhibitory activity and antioxidant activity of the phenolics were evaluated. Potent α-glucosidase inhibitory and radical-scavenging activities of these phenolics suggested that they may be partially responsible for the antidiabetic and antioxidant activities of mulberry fruit.

  19. Antidiabetic and antioxidant effects and phytochemicals of mulberry fruit (Morus alba L. polyphenol enhanced extract.

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    Yihai Wang

    Full Text Available The antidiabetic and antioxidant activities of the ethyl acetate-soluble extract (MFE of mulberry fruit (Morus alba L. were investigated. In vitro, MFE showed potent α-glucosidase inhibitory activity and radical-scavenging activities against DPPH and superoxide anion radicals. In vivo, MFE could significantly decrease fasting blood glucose (FBG and glycosylated serum protein (GSP, and increase antioxidant enzymatic activities (SOD, CAT, GSH-Px in streptozotocin (STZ-induced diabetic mice. Bioactivity-guided fractionation of the MFE led to the isolation of 25 phenolic compounds, and their structures were identified on the basis of MS and NMR data. All the 25 compounds were isolated from mulberry fruit for the first time. Also, the α-glucosidase inhibitory activity and antioxidant activity of the phenolics were evaluated. Potent α-glucosidase inhibitory and radical-scavenging activities of these phenolics suggested that they may be partially responsible for the antidiabetic and antioxidant activities of mulberry fruit.

  20. Neuroprotective, antimicrobial, antioxidant, chemotherapeutic, and antidiabetic properties of Salvia Reuterana: A mini review

    OpenAIRE

    Elham Jafari; Sasan Andalib; Alireza Abed; Mahmoud Rafieian-Kopaei; Golnaz Vaseghi

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: Herbal medicine is known as a valid alternative treatment. Salvia Reuterana, which has been used in the Iranian traditional medicine, is mostly distributed in the central highlands of Iran. Salvia Reuterana is a medicinal herb with various therapeutic usages. The aim of the present review is to take account of pharmacological properties of Salvia Reuterana. Materials and Methods: The present review summarizes the literature with respect to various pharmacological properties of Sal...

  1. Blood Pressure and Cardiovascular Effects of New and Emerging Antidiabetic Agents

    OpenAIRE

    Balfour, Pelbreton C.; Rodriguez, Carlos J.; Ferdinand, Keith C.

    2014-01-01

    Despite remarkable declines in US cardiovascular disease morbidity and mortality over the last several decades, the prevalence of risk factors such as type 2 diabetes and hypertension remains high, associated with increasing obesity rates. Although optimal glycemic control remains a primary focus to decrease the disease burden, the FDA has issued guidance recommendations for documenting cardiovascular disease-related safety with research trials on new antidiabetic agents with more demanding r...

  2. ANTIDIABETIC AND ANTIHYPERLIPIDAEMIC EFFECT OF HYDRO-ALCOHOLIC EXTRACT OF CALENDULA OFFICINALIS

    OpenAIRE

    Chakraborthy G.S; Arora R; Majee C

    2011-01-01

    Calendula officinalis, belonging to the family of Asteraceae, commonly known as English Marigold or Pot Marigold is an aromatic herb which is used in Traditional System of Medicine. It is mainly used because of its various biological activities to treat diseases like analgesic, antidiabetic and anti-inflammatory. It is also used for ingastro-intestinal, gynecological, eye disease, skin injuries and in some cases of burn. The plant is rich in many pharmaceutical active ingredients like Caroten...

  3. Antidiabetic effect of Ethanol extract of Syzygium jambolanum seed (In-Vitro)

    OpenAIRE

    Sumiran Kumar Sinha; Imran Ahmad; Gayathri M

    2013-01-01

    Plant Syzygium Jambolanum is a well known Indian folklore medicine for treatment of diabetes mellitus. They have also reported to possesses anti-bacterial and anti-inflammatory activities .The in-vitro study was undertaken to investigate and confirm antidiabetic activity of the ethanol extract of the seeds using yeast model and to determine α- amylase inhibition. Percentage increase in glucose uptake by yeast was seen by varying; extract concentration and time. At high extract concentration y...

  4. Comparative evaluation of effects of combined oral anti-diabetic drugs (sulfonylurea plus pioglitazone and sulfonylurea plus metformin over lipid parameters in type 2 diabetic patients

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    Sukanta Sen

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Type 2 diabetes is associated with significant cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Dyslipidemia, which affects almost 50% of patients with type 2 diabetes, is a cardiovascular risk factor characterized by elevated triglyceride levels, low high-density lipoprotein (HDL cholesterol levels, and a preponderance of small, dense, low-density lipoprotein (LDL particles. In addition to their glucose-lowering properties, oral anti-diabetic agents may have effects on lipid levels, especially triglycerides (TGs, HDL-C, LDL-C and total cholesterol levels. Methods: A prospective, open-labeled, randomized, parallel-group study was carried out in sizable number of patients (n=40 of established type 2 diabetes on combined oral anti-diabetic drugs, to investigate the effects of combined oral anti-diabetic on lipid parameters who was not receiving any hypolipidemic agent in addition. Results: Statistically significant mean reduction of triglycerides (TGs of 25.1mg/dl (a 15.30% reduction from baseline value and by 13.5 mg/dl (a 8.94% reduction from baseline value in the SU (sulfonylurea plus PIO (pioglitazone and SU plus MET (metformin group respectively. Present study also shows improvement in HDL cholesterol with SU plus PIO group by 13.18% which is almost twice that observed in SU plus MET group (8.06%. Present study also shows increase in LDL cholesterol with SU plus PIO group by 2.10%, is just opposite to SU plus MET group (4.92 % decrease. With SU plus PIO group, a statistically significant mean reduction of total cholesterol (TC of 8.33mg/dl (5.14 % decrease and by 7.62 mg/dl (4.28% decrease in the SU plus MET group. Conclusions: Pioglitazone, a thiazolidinedione, has been shown to improve the lipid profile in patients with type 2 diabetes by increasing HDL-C levels and by decreasing triglyceride and total cholesterol levels in monotherapy or combination regimens with sulfonylurea. Metformin also has been shown to reduce LDL-C, TC, and TG

  5. Antidiabetic Effects of Aqueous Infusions of Artemisia herba-alba and Ajuga iva in Alloxan-Induced Diabetic Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boudjelal, Amel; Siracusa, Laura; Henchiri, Cherifa; Sarri, Madani; Abderrahim, Benkhaled; Baali, Faiza; Ruberto, Giuseppe

    2015-06-01

    The aqueous infusions of the aerial parts of Artemisia herba-alba Asso and Ajuga iva Schreber, prepared in accordance with the traditional procedure used in the local folk medicine, have been analysed for their composition and content of phytochemical constituents and examined for their antidiabetic effectiveness in alloxan-induced diabetic rats. Oral administration of A. herba-alba and A. iva infusions was studied in normal and alloxan-induced diabetic rats, which were randomly divided into nine groups, each group consisting of six animals. The drug preparations (100, 200, and 300 mg/kg b. w.) of each plant were given orally to the rats of each group twice daily for 15 days. Compositional analysis of the aqueous infusions revealed the presence of several polyphenols as main components. A. herba-alba infusion was characterised by mono- and di-cinnamoylquinic acids, with 5-caffeoylquinic (chlorogenic) acid being the main compound, followed by 3,5-dicaffeoylquinic acid. Vicenin-2 (apigenin 6,8-di-C-glucoside) appeared to be the most abundant among flavonoids. On the other hand, A. iva showed the exclusive presence of flavonoids, with the flavanone naringin present in relatively high levels together with several apigenin (flavone) derivatives. Oral administration of 300 mg/kg b. w. of the aqueous infusions of A. herba-alba and A. iva exhibited a significant reduction in blood glucose content, showing a much more efficient antidiabetic activity compared to glibenclamide, the oral hypoglycaemic agent used as a positive control in this study. These results suggest that A. herba-alba and A. iva possess significant antidiabetic activity, as they were able to improve the biochemical damage in alloxan-induced diabetes in rats.

  6. Antidiabetic Effects of Carassius auratus Complex Formula in High Fat Diet Combined Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetic Mice

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    Zhi-Hong Wang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Carassius auratus complex formula, including Carassius auratus, Rhizoma dioscoreae, Lycium chinense, and Rehmannia glutinosa Libosch, is a combination prescription of traditional Chinese medicine, which has always been used to treat diabetes mellitus in ancient China. In this study, we provided experimental evidence for the use of Carassius auratus complex formula in the treatment of high fat diet combined streptozotocin- (STZ- induced type 2 diabetes. Carassius auratus complex formula aqueous extract was prepared and the effects of it on blood glucose, serum insulin, adipose tissue weight, oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT, total cholesterol, and triglyceride (TG levels in mice were measured. Moreover, adiponectin, TG synthesis related gene expressions, and the inhibitory effect of aldose reductase (AR were performed to evaluate its antidiabetic effects. After the 8-week treatment, blood glucose, insulin levels, and adipose tissue weight were significantly decreased. OGTT and HOMA-IR index showed improved glucose tolerance. It could also lower plasma TG, TC, and liver TG levels. Furthermore, Carassius auratus complex formula could inhibit the activity of AR and restore adiponectin expression in serum. Based on these findings, it is suggested that Carassius auratus complex formula possesses potent anti-diabetic effects on high fat diet combined STZ-induced diabetic mice.

  7. Anti-diabetic effects of luteolin and luteolin-7-O-glucoside on KK-A(y) mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zang, Yanqing; Igarashi, Kiharu; Li, Yu

    2016-08-01

    Anti-diabetic potential of luteolin (LU) and luteolin-7-O-glucoside (LUG) were investigated in the amount of equimolar on KK-A(y) mice. The results showed that both of LU and LUG significantly improved blood glucose, HbA1c, insulin, and HOMR-IR levels. Anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidative effects of the LU and LUG were also proved. Furthermore, TGs in serum and liver were significantly decreased in the LU and LUG groups, as well as the mRNA expression of fat acid expression-related genes (SREBP-1c), compared to the basal diet group (CON). When compared the effects between the LU and LUG groups, TGs of the LU group were lower than those of the LUG group, accompanied with significantly decreased FAS activity and SREBP-1c expression in liver. These results suggested that both LU and LUG had positive effects of anti-diabetes on KK-A(y) mice, but LU more potently ameliorated diabetes than LUG, which might be attributed to the inhibitory of lipid synthesis. PMID:27170065

  8. Antidiabetic effect of a novel non-thiazolidinedione PPAR γ/α agonist on ob/ob mice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xi HU; Ying FENG; Yu SHEN; Xiao-feng ZHAO; Juan-hong YU; Yu-she YANG; Ying LENG

    2006-01-01

    Aim: To study whether T33, a new synthesized non-thiazolidinedione (TZD) peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) γ/α dual agonist has an antidiabetic effect on ob/ob mice. Methods: Ob/ob mice were treated with 4 mg/kg or 8 mg/kg T33 by gavage for 20 d. Blood glucose levels were measured regularly. An oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) and an insulin tolerance test (ITT) were preformed on d 8 and d 12, respectively. The levels of insulin, triglyceride and free fatty acid (FFA) in the serum were measured at the end of administration. The intramuscular and liver triglyceride content was also determined. Results: T33 reduced the hyperglycemia, hyperinsulinemia and hyperlipidemia of the ob/ob mice. The OGTT and ITT showed that the insulin resistance state of the ob/ob mice was obviously ameliorated after T33 treatment. After 20 d treatment with 8 mg/kg T33, the triglyceride content in the gastrocnemius muscle decreased significantly. T33 did not have any effect on triglyceride content in the liver, whereas rosiglitazone significantly increased the hepatocyte lipid deposition. Conclusion: The PPARγ/α dual agonist T33 has antidiabetic and insulin-sensitizing effects in ob/ob mice. It has the potential to be a new therapeutic candidate for the treatment of type 2 diabetes.

  9. Identification of PPARgamma partial agonists of natural origin (II: in silico prediction in natural extracts with known antidiabetic activity.

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    Laura Guasch

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Natural extracts have played an important role in the prevention and treatment of diseases and are important sources for drug discovery. However, to be effectively used in these processes, natural extracts must be characterized through the identification of their active compounds and their modes of action. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: From an initial set of 29,779 natural products that are annotated with their natural source and using a previously developed virtual screening procedure (carefully validated experimentally, we have predicted as potential peroxisome proliferators-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ partial agonists 12 molecules from 11 extracts known to have antidiabetic activity. Six of these molecules are similar to molecules with described antidiabetic activity but whose mechanism of action is unknown. Therefore, it is plausible that these 12 molecules could be the bioactive molecules responsible, at least in part, for the antidiabetic activity of the extracts containing them. In addition, we have also identified as potential PPARγ partial agonists 10 molecules from 16 plants with undescribed antidiabetic activity but that are related (i.e., they are from the same genus to plants with known antidiabetic properties. None of the 22 molecules that we predict as PPARγ partial agonists show chemical similarity with a group of 211 known PPARγ partial agonists obtained from the literature. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our results provide a new hypothesis about the active molecules of natural extracts with antidiabetic properties and their mode of action. We also suggest plants with undescribed antidiabetic activity that may contain PPARγ partial agonists. These plants represent a new source of potential antidiabetic extracts. Consequently, our work opens the door to the discovery of new antidiabetic extracts and molecules that can be of use, for instance, in the design of new antidiabetic drugs or functional foods focused

  10. Anti-diabetic effect of citrus pectin in diabetic rats and potential mechanism via PI3K/Akt signaling pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yanlong; Dong, Man; Yang, Ziyu; Pan, Siyi

    2016-08-01

    This study was performed to investigate the anti-diabetic effect of citrus pectin in type 2 diabetic rats and its potential mechanism of action. The results showed that fasting blood glucose levels were significantly decreased after 4 weeks of citrus pectin administration. Citrus pectin improved glucose tolerance, hepatic glycogen content and blood lipid levels (TG, TC, LDL-c and HDL-c) in diabetic rats. Citrus pectin also significantly reduced insulin resistance, which played an important role in the resulting anti-diabetic effect. Moreover, after the pectin treatment, phosphorylated Akt expression was upregulated and GSK3β expression was downregulated, indicating that the potential anti-diabetic mechanism of citrus pectin might occur through regulation of the PI3K/Akt signaling pathway. Together, these results suggested that citrus pectin could ameliorate type 2 diabetes and potentially be used as an adjuvant treatment.

  11. Evaluation of antidiabetic properties of cactus pear seed oil in rats

    OpenAIRE

    Berraaouan, Ali; Ziyyat, Abderrahim; Mekhfi, Hassane; Legssyer, Abdelkhaleq; Sindic, Marianne; Aziz, Mohammed; Bnouham, Mohamed

    2014-01-01

    Cactus pear (Opuntia ficus-indica (L.) Mill. (Cactaceae)) is a medicinal plant widely used to treat diabetes. This work investigates the hypoglycemic and antihyperglycemic effect of cactus pear seed oil (CPSO), its mechanism of action, and any toxic effects. Peer reviewed

  12. Medicinal chemistry of the anti-diabetic effects of momordica charantia: active constituents and modes of actions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Jaipaul; Cumming, Emmanuel; Manoharan, Gunasekar; Kalasz, Huba; Adeghate, Ernest

    2011-01-01

    chemistry and use(s) of M. charantia and its various extracts and compounds, their biochemical properties and how they act as anti-diabetic (hypoglycemic) drugs and the various mechanisms by which they exert their beneficial effects in controlling and treating DM. PMID:21966327

  13. Quinoa seeds leach phytoecdysteroids and other compounds with anti-diabetic properties

    OpenAIRE

    Graf, Brittany L.; Poulev, Alexander.; Kuhn, Peter; Grace, Mary H.; Lila, Mary Ann; Raskin, Ilya

    2014-01-01

    Quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.) contains high levels of biologically active phytoecdysteroids, which have been implicated in plant defense from insects, and have shown a range of beneficial pharmacological effects in mammals. We demonstrated that the most prevalent phytoecdysteroid, 20-hydroxyecdysone (20HE), was secreted (leached) from intact quinoa seeds into water during the initial stages of seed germination. Leaching efficiency was optimized by ethanol concentration (70% ethanol), tem...

  14. Redox properties of ginger extracts: Perspectives of use of Zingiber officinale Rosc. as antidiabetic agent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Račková, Lucia; Cupáková, Máriá; Tažký, Anton; Mičová, Júlia; Kolek, Emil; Košt'álová, Daniela

    2013-03-01

    In traditional medicine, several medicinal plants or their extracts have been used to treat diabetes. Zingiber officinale Roscoe, known commonly as ginger, is consumed worldwide in cookeries as a spice and flavouring agent. It has been used as the spice and medicine for thousands of years. The present study was undertaken to investigate the potential protective effect of Zingiber officinale Rosc. in a model of oxidative damage to pancreatic β cells. The free radical scavenging activities and composition of the isolated n-hexane and ethanolic extracts were confronted with their protective, antioxidant and cytotoxic effects in INS-1E β cells. Unlike the n-hexane extract (exerting, paradoxically, stronger antiradical capacity), both low cytotoxicity and remarkable protective effects on β cell viability, followed by lowering oxidative stress markers were found for the ethanolic extract Zingiber officinale Rosc. The present study is the first pilot study to assess the protective potential of Zingiber officinale Rosc. in a model of cytotoxic conditions imposed by diabetes in β cells. PMID:24170976

  15. Antidiabetic Effect of GII Compound Purified from Fenugreek (Trigonella foenum graecum Linn) Seeds in Diabetic Rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puri, D; Prabhu, K M; Murthy, P S

    2012-01-01

    Aim is to study the antidiabetic effect of a compound GII purified earlier from the water extract of fenugreek (Trigonella foenum graecum) seeds by Murthy and his colleagues (patented in India and USA) in diabetic rabbits. Diabetes was induced in rabbits by injecting 80 mg/kg bw of alloxan intravenously into rabiits. Rabbits were subdivided into subdiabetic [fasting blood sugar (FBG) up to 120 mg/dl with abnormal glucose tolerance in glucose tolerance test (GTT)], moderately diabetic (FBG below 250 mg/dl) and severely diabetic (FBG above 250 mg/dl). Blood glucose and glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1C) were estimated by procedures in the kits of Stangen Immunodiagnostics, Mumbai using, respectively, glucose oxidase method and absorbance at 415 nm. Serum insulin was estimated by the ELISA method as described in the kit of Boehringer Mannheim Immunodiagnostics, Mumbai, India. GII was found to improve blood glucose utilization in GTT and reduced FBG and HbA1C. In the present communication detailed studies were carried out with GII in the subdiabetic, moderately diabetic and severely diabetic rabbits. GII at a dose of 50 mg/kg bw per day brought down the elevated FBG levels in the untreated subdiabetic (FBG 96.6 ± 7 mg/dl), moderately diabetic (150.1 ± 14 mg/dl) and severely diabetic rabbits (427 ± 46 mg/dl) to normal in 12, 15 and 28 days of treatment. It improved serum HbA1C and insulin levels also in these rabbits. Intermittent therapy once a week for 6 weeks with GII at the same dose brought down the FBG values to normal in the subdiabetic (FBG 96.0 ± 2 mg/dl) and in the moderately diabetic rabbits to 133.0 ± 12 mg/dl. After stopping therapy of the subdiabetic and moderately diabetic rabbits whose FBG values came to normal after treatment with GII 50 mg/kg bw, the values remained normal for 1 week and showed a tendency to increase only after 15 days. If these animal studies are applicable to humans these results indicate that a

  16. Antidiabetic effect of an aqueous extract of Pomegranate (Punica granatum L. peels in normal and alloxan diabetic rats

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    Enas A. M. Khalil

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available Hypoglycaemic drugs are either too expensive or have undesirable side effects including hematological, coma and disturbances of liver and kidney. Limiting of diabetes without any side effects is still a challenge to the medical system. This leads to exert effort to search for effective, safer and less cost antidiabetic plants. This investigation aims to evaluate the role of Punica granatum powder peels extract in its human therapeutic dose on beta cell numbers blood glucose and plasma insulin levels in normal and alloxan diabetic rats for 4-weeks of treatment. The treatment revealed that pomegranate aqueous extract significant decreased blood glucose and increased insulin levels in normal and diabetic treated rats. Pancreas showed increased number of beta cells in normal and treated diabetic rats. In conclusion pomegranate peel aqueous extract can reduce blood sugar through regeneration of ß cells.

  17. In vitro Screening for Antioxidant, Antimicrobial, and Antidiabetic Properties of Some Korean Native Plants on Mt. Halla, Jeju Island

    OpenAIRE

    Hyun, T. K.; Kim, H.C.; Kim, J.S.

    2015-01-01

    In this study, Prunus padus, Lonicera caerulea, Berberis amurensis, and Ribes maximowiczianum, which are mainly distributed on Mt. Halla, Jeju Island, have been investigated for their antioxidant, antimicrobial, and antidiabetic activities. The methanol extracts of R. maximowiczianum leaves and P. padus branches exhibited significant and dose-dependent antioxidant activity including electron-donation ability and reducing power. To analyze the antimicrobial activity, each extract was tested by...

  18. Anti-diabetic effect of hydroalcoholic extract of Ficus palmata Forsk leaves in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats

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    Dhirendra Singh

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Ficus palmata Forsk, commonly known as wild fig (also known as bedu is the member of genus Ficus of the family Moraceae. It has been used traditionally in various ailments including diabetes. Aim: The aim of the present study was to investigate anti-diabetic effect of Ficus palmata forsk leaves extract in normal, glucose-loaded hyperglycaemic and streptozotocin (STZ-induced diabetic rats. Materials and Methods: Diabetes was induced by intraperitoneal administration of STZ (45 mg kg–1 . The effect of oral administration of F. palmata at 50, 100 and 200 mg kg–1 was studied in normal, glucose-loaded and STZ-diabetic rats. Results: All three doses of F. palmata caused significant (P < 0.001 reduction in blood glucose levels. The effect was more pronounced at doses of 100 and 200 mg kg–1 . F. palmata also showed significant (P < 0.001 increase in serum insulin, body weight and glycogen content in liver and skeletal muscle of STZ-induced diabetic rats while there was significant reduction in the levels of serum triglyceride and total cholesterol. F. palmata also showed significant anti-lipid peroxidative effect in the pancreas of STZ-induced diabetic rats. Statistical Analysis: All values were expressed as mean ± SEM. Statistical analysis was performed by one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA followed by Tukey′s multiple comparison tests using GraphPad Prism 5. The results were considered statistically significant if P < 0.05. Conclusion: The results obtained in this study indicate that the hydroalcoholic extract of F. palmata leaves possesses significant anti-diabetic activity associated with anti-hyperlipidaemic and anti-lipid peroxidative effects.

  19. Novel synergic antidiabetic effects of Astragalus polysaccharides combined with Crataegus flavonoids via improvement of islet function and liver metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Kai; Zhang, Shaobo; Jiang, Xin; Xie, Weidong

    2016-06-01

    The present study investigated the synergic effects and potential mechanisms of action of Astragalus polysaccharides (APS) combined with Crataegus flavonoids (CF) in the treatment of type 1 diabetes. Diabetes was induced by intraperitoneal injection of 100 mg/kg streptozotocin in mice. Normal and untreated diabetic control mice were used, and CF‑treated (200 mg/kg/day), APS‑treated (200 mg/kg/day), APS + CF (AC)‑treated (200 mg/kg/day of each) and metformin‑treated (200 mg/kg/day) diabetic mice were orally administrated the appropriate therapeutic agent for 4 weeks. The results demonstrated that AC treatment significantly reduced the fasting blood glucose, food and water intake in the diabetic mice. The AC group demonstrated increased serum insulin levels and islet cell function was restored. Furthermore, the AC‑treated mice demonstrated significant increases in the protein expression levels of pancreatic and duodenal homeobox‑1 and phosphorylated adenosine 5'‑monophosphate‑activated protein kinase in the pancreatic and liver tissue samples, respectively. In addition, AC significantly increased the mRNA expression levels of neurogenin 3, v‑maf musculoaponeurotic fibrosarcoma oncogene family, protein A and insulin, and simultaneously decreased the expressions of interleukin 6, tumor necrosis factor‑α and chemokine (C‑C motif) ligand 2 in the pancreatic islet cells of diabetic mice. The anti‑inflammatory activity of APS and the islet‑restoring effect of CF may contribute to the improvement of islet function. AC exerted greater antidiabetic effects compared with APS or CF treatments alone. These results indicated that AC treatment had a synergic antidiabetic effect, which may involve improvements in islet function and liver metabolism. These effects of AC may facilitate the treatment of type 1 or 2 diabetes, as these patients frequently experience impaired islet function and disordered extrapancreatic metabolism. PMID

  20. In Vitro Antioxidant, Anti-Diabetes, Anti-Dementia, and Inflammation Inhibitory Effect of Trametes pubescens Fruiting Body Extracts

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    Kyung Hoan Im

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Trametes pubescens, white rot fungus, has been used for folk medicine in Asian countries to treat ailments such as cancer and gastrointestinal diseases. This study was initiated to evaluate the in vitro antioxidant, anti-diabetes, anti-dementia, and anti-inflammatory activities of T. pubescens fruiting bodies. The 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl-hydrazyl (DPPH free radical scavenging activities of T. pubescens methanol (ME and hot water (HWE extracts (2.0 mg/mL were comparable to butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT, the positive control. However, the chelating effects of ME and HWE were significantly higher than that of BHT. The HWE (6 mg/mL also showed comparable reducing power to BHT. Eleven phenol compounds were detected by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC analysis. The α-amylase and α-glucosidase inhibitory activities of the ME and HWE of the mushroom were lower than Acarbose, the standard reference; however, the inhibitory effects of the mushroom extracts at 2.0 mg/mL were moderate. The acetylcholinesterase (AChE and butyrylcholinesterase (BChE inhibitory effects of ME and HWE were moderate and comparable with galanthamine, the standard drug to treat early stages of Alzheimer’s disease (AD. The ME had a neuroprotective effect against glutamate-induced PC-12 cell cytotoxicity at the concentration range of 2–40 μg/mL. The mushroom extracts also showed inflammation inhibitory activities such as production of nitric oxide (NO and expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS in lipopolysaccharide (LPS-induced murine macrophage-like cell lines (RAW 264.7 and significantly suppressed the carrageenan-induced rat paw-edema. Therefore, fruiting body extracts of T. pubescens demonstrated antioxidant related anti-diabetes, anti-dementia and anti-inflammatory activities.

  1. In Vitro Antioxidant, Anti-Diabetes, Anti-Dementia, and Inflammation Inhibitory Effect of Trametes pubescens Fruiting Body Extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Im, Kyung Hoan; Nguyen, Trung Kien; Choi, Jaehyuk; Lee, Tae Soo

    2016-01-01

    Trametes pubescens, white rot fungus, has been used for folk medicine in Asian countries to treat ailments such as cancer and gastrointestinal diseases. This study was initiated to evaluate the in vitro antioxidant, anti-diabetes, anti-dementia, and anti-inflammatory activities of T. pubescens fruiting bodies. The 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl-hydrazyl (DPPH) free radical scavenging activities of T. pubescens methanol (ME) and hot water (HWE) extracts (2.0 mg/mL) were comparable to butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT), the positive control. However, the chelating effects of ME and HWE were significantly higher than that of BHT. The HWE (6 mg/mL) also showed comparable reducing power to BHT. Eleven phenol compounds were detected by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) analysis. The α-amylase and α-glucosidase inhibitory activities of the ME and HWE of the mushroom were lower than Acarbose, the standard reference; however, the inhibitory effects of the mushroom extracts at 2.0 mg/mL were moderate. The acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and butyrylcholinesterase (BChE) inhibitory effects of ME and HWE were moderate and comparable with galanthamine, the standard drug to treat early stages of Alzheimer's disease (AD). The ME had a neuroprotective effect against glutamate-induced PC-12 cell cytotoxicity at the concentration range of 2-40 μg/mL. The mushroom extracts also showed inflammation inhibitory activities such as production of nitric oxide (NO) and expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced murine macrophage-like cell lines (RAW 264.7) and significantly suppressed the carrageenan-induced rat paw-edema. Therefore, fruiting body extracts of T. pubescens demonstrated antioxidant related anti-diabetes, anti-dementia and anti-inflammatory activities. PMID:27196881

  2. Honey - A Novel Antidiabetic Agent

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    Omotayo O. Erejuwa, Siti A. Sulaiman, Mohd S. Ab Wahab

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Diabetes mellitus remains a burden worldwide in spite of the availability of numerous antidiabetic drugs. Honey is a natural substance produced by bees from nectar. Several evidence-based health benefits have been ascribed to honey in the recent years. In this review article, we highlight findings which demonstrate the beneficial or potential effects of honey in the gastrointestinal tract (GIT, on the gut microbiota, in the liver, in the pancreas and how these effects could improve glycemic control and metabolic derangements. In healthy subjects or patients with impaired glucose tolerance or diabetes mellitus, various studies revealed that honey reduced blood glucose or was more tolerable than most common sugars or sweeteners. Pre-clinical studies provided more convincing evidence in support of honey as a potential antidiabetic agent than clinical studies did. The not-too-impressive clinical data could mainly be attributed to poor study designs or due to the fact that the clinical studies were preliminary. Based on the key constituents of honey, the possible mechanisms of action of antidiabetic effect of honey are proposed. The paper also highlights the potential impacts and future perspectives on the use of honey as an antidiabetic agent. It makes recommendations for further clinical studies on the potential antidiabetic effect of honey. This review provides insight on the potential use of honey, especially as a complementary agent, in the management of diabetes mellitus. Hence, it is very important to have well-designed, randomized controlled clinical trials that investigate the reproducibility (or otherwise of these experimental data in diabetic human subjects.

  3. Antidiabetic and haematological effect of aqueous extract of stem bark of Afzelia africana (Smith) on streptozotocin-induced diabetic Wistar rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Oyedemi SO; Adewusi EA; Aiyegoro OA; Akinpelu DA

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the antidiabetic properties of aqueous extract of stem bark of Afzeliaafricana (A. africana) and its beneficial effect on haematological parameters in streptozotocin induced diabetic rats. Methods: A total of 30 rats including 24 diabetic and 6 normal rats were used for this study. Diabetes was induced in male Wistar rats by intraperitoneal injection of streptozotocin. After being confirmed diabetic, animals were orally treated with distilled water or extracts at 100 or 200 mg/kg body weight daily for 10 days. The haematological parameters including red blood and white blood cells and their functional indices were evaluated in diabetic treated groups compared with the controls. Results: The extract significantly reduced the blood glucose levels while the best result was obtained at 200 mg/kg body weight. The feed and water intake in diabetic rats were significantly reduced while weight loss was minimized at both dosages. Similarly, the levels of red blood, white blood cells and their functional indices were significantly improved after extract administration at both doses. Conclusions: It can be concluded that the aqueous extract of bark of A. africana possesses antihyperglycemic properties. In addition, the extract can prevent various complications of diabetes and improve some haematological parameters. Further experimental investigation is needed to exploit its relevant therapeutic effect to substantiate its ethnomedicinal usage.

  4. Next generation sequencing and de novo transcriptome analysis of Costus pictus D. Don, a non-model plant with potent anti-diabetic properties

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    Annadurai Ramasamy S

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Phyto-remedies for diabetic control are popular among patients with Type II Diabetes mellitus (DM, in addition to other diabetic control measures. A number of plant species are known to possess diabetic control properties. Costus pictus D. Don is popularly known as “Insulin Plant” in Southern India whose leaves have been reported to increase insulin pools in blood plasma. Next Generation Sequencing is employed as a powerful tool for identifying molecular signatures in the transcriptome related to physiological functions of plant tissues. We sequenced the leaf transcriptome of C. pictus using Illumina reversible dye terminator sequencing technology and used combination of bioinformatics tools for identifying transcripts related to anti-diabetic properties of C. pictus. Results A total of 55,006 transcripts were identified, of which 69.15% transcripts could be annotated. We identified transcripts related to pathways of bixin biosynthesis and geraniol and geranial biosynthesis as major transcripts from the class of isoprenoid secondary metabolites and validated the presence of putative norbixin methyltransferase, a precursor of Bixin. The transcripts encoding these terpenoids are known to be Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor (PPAR agonists and anti-glycation agents. Sequential extraction and High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC confirmed the presence of bixin in C. pictus methanolic extracts. Another significant transcript identified in relation to anti-diabetic, anti-obesity and immuno-modulation is of Abscisic Acid biosynthetic pathway. We also report many other transcripts for the biosynthesis of antitumor, anti-oxidant and antimicrobial metabolites of C. pictus leaves. Conclusion Solid molecular signatures (transcripts related to bixin, abscisic acid, and geranial and geraniol biosynthesis for the anti-diabetic properties of C. pictus leaves and vital clues related to the other phytochemical functions

  5. Antidiabetic effect of Chloroxylon swietenia bark extracts on streptozotocin induced diabetic rats

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    B. Jayaprasad

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Diabetes has been increasing at an alarming rate around the world, and experts have relied on remedies from the utilization of ancient drugs that are essentially derived from plants. The present study aimed to evaluate the antidiabetic potential of Chloroxylon swietenia bark extracts on streptozotocin induced diabetic rats. Diabetes was induced in male albino Wistar rats by single intraperitoneal injection of streptozotocin (STZ (50 mg/kg b.w.. The diabetic rats were administered orally with C. swietenia bark (CSB methanolic (CSBMEt and aqueous (CSBAEt (250 mg/kg b.w. extracts and glibenclamide (600 µg/kg b.w. by intragastric intubation for 45 days. The result showed a heavy loss in weight, increase in blood glucose and glycosylated hemoglobin level, and decline in plasma insulin and total hemoglobin content. Furthermore, glucose-6-phosphatase and fructose-1,6-bis phosphatase were found to be increased whereas hexokinase and glycogen contents were decreased in STZ induced diabetic rats. CSBAEt, CSBMEt and glibenclamide treated diabetic rats showed moderate reduction in blood glucose and glycosylated hemoglobin levels; in addition, plasma insulin and hemoglobin levels were elevated. The altered activities of carbohydrate metabolizing enzymes and liver glycogen were improved remarkably. CSBMEt results were comparable to the standard drug glibenclamide. The present findings support the usage of the plant extracts for the traditional treatment of diabetes.

  6. Analisis Cost Effectiveness Penggunaan Antidiabetes Berdasarkan Paket Ina-Cbgs Pada Pasien Diabetes Mellitus Tipe I Rawat Inap Di Rumah Sakit Umum Pusat Haji Adam Malik Medan

    OpenAIRE

    Benny

    2015-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a chronic metabolic disorder characterized by blood glucose levels exceeded the normal value (hyperglycemia) as a result of the inability of the body to produce normal amounts of insulin or the insulin does not work effectively. This condition will cause complications of the disease. Antidiabetics model therapy to treat DM varies from one patient to another which cause differences in cost and effectiveness of therapy. Therefore, cost effectiveness analysis is require...

  7. Honey - A Novel Antidiabetic Agent

    OpenAIRE

    Omotayo O. Erejuwa, Siti A. Sulaiman, Mohd S. Ab Wahab

    2012-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus remains a burden worldwide in spite of the availability of numerous antidiabetic drugs. Honey is a natural substance produced by bees from nectar. Several evidence-based health benefits have been ascribed to honey in the recent years. In this review article, we highlight findings which demonstrate the beneficial or potential effects of honey in the gastrointestinal tract (GIT), on the gut microbiota, in the liver, in the pancreas and how these effects could improve glycemic ...

  8. Anti-diabetic property of Tinospora cordifolia and its active compound is mediated through the expression of Glut-4 in L6 myotubes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sangeetha, M K; Priya, C D Mohana; Vasanthi, Hannah R

    2013-02-15

    Tinospora cordifolia is a well reported plant possessing numerous medicinal values including anti-diabetic property. Aim of the present study is to study the mechanism of action of Tinospora cordifolia and its active compound in differentiated myocytes, L6 cells. Key marker of diabetes in cells is the insulin dependent glucose transporter-4 (Glut-4) which also responds to exogenous chemicals, and is over expressed up to 5- and 4-fold, by Tinospora cordifolia and palmatine, respectively. Next to Glut-4, the predominant protein influencing glucose metabolism is PPARα and γ whose expressions were also positively modulated. Further, the inhibitors of insulin pathway prevented glucose uptake mediated by Tinospora cordifolia and palmatine which shows that the activity is majorly mediated through insulin pathway. PMID:23290487

  9. POTENTIAL APPLICATIONS OF SOS-GFP BIOSENSOR TO IN VITRO RAPID SCREENING OF CYTOTOXIC AND GENOTOXIC EFFECT OF ANTICANCER AND ANTIDIABETIC PHARMACIST RESIDUES IN SURFACE WATER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marzena Matejczyk

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Escherichia coli K-12 GFP-based bacterial biosensors allowed the detection of cytotoxic and genotoxic effect of anticancer drug– cyclophosphamide and antidiabetic drug – metformin in PBS buffer and surface water. Experimental data indicated that recA::gfpmut2 genetic system was sensitive to drugs and drugs mixture applied in experiment. RecA promoter was a good bioindicator in cytotoxic and genotoxic effect screening of cyclophosphamide, metformin and the mixture of the both drugs in PBS buffer and surface water. The results indicated that E. coli K-12 recA::gfp mut2 strain could be potentially useful for first-step screening of cytotoxic and genotoxic effect of anticancer and antidiabetic pharmacist residues in water. Next steps in research will include more experimental analysis to validate recA::gfpmut2 genetic system in E. coli K-12 on different anticancer drugs.

  10. In vitro Screening for Antioxidant, Antimicrobial, and Antidiabetic Properties of Some Korean Native Plants on Mt. Halla, Jeju Island.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyun, T K; Kim, H C; Kim, J S

    2015-01-01

    In this study, Prunus padus, Lonicera caerulea, Berberis amurensis, and Ribes maximowiczianum, which are mainly distributed on Mt. Halla, Jeju Island, have been investigated for their antioxidant, antimicrobial, and antidiabetic activities. The methanol extracts of R. maximowiczianum leaves and P. padus branches exhibited significant and dose-dependent antioxidant activity including electron-donation ability and reducing power. To analyze the antimicrobial activity, each extract was tested by a serial two-fold dilution method against five selected gram-positive bacteria and four gram-negative bacteria, and this suggested that P. padus branches possessed the maximum antimicrobial activity against most of the gram-positive bacteria tested. In addition, the methanol extracts of P. padus branches exhibited the highest α-glucosidase inhibitory activity with an IC50 value of 1.0±0.1 μg/ml, indicating that P. padus is a promising source as a herbal medicine. PMID:26997693

  11. Anti-diabetic effects of polysaccharides from Talinum triangulare in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced type 2 diabetic male mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Wei; Zhou, Qing; Yin, Jiao-jiao; Yao, Yong; Zhang, Jiu-liang

    2015-01-01

    The present study evaluated the anti-diabetic effects of the polysaccharides obtained from Talinum triangulare (TTP). Two TTP doses (150 mg/kg and 300 mg/kg · bw/d) were administered orally to normal and streptozotocin (STZ)-induced type 2 diabetic male Kunming mice, respectively. The TTP hypoglycemic and hypolipidemic effects were evaluated by testing the fast blood glucose (FBG) level, fasting serum insulin (FINS), and serum lipids (TC, TG, HDL, LDL) as well as the body, hepar and kidney weights. After four weeks administration, the low-dose group 150 mg/kg · bw/d) and high-dose group (300 mg/kg · bw/d) showed a marked FBG fall rate of 29.85% and 41.18% (FBG fall rate% = ((Diabetic control--TTP group)/Diabetic control) × 100%). The results of FBG and serum lipids indicate that TTP possess significant hypoglycemic effect, but no significant hypolipidemic effect. These results suggest the potential use of TTP as a functional food for the treatment of type 2 diabetic mellitus (T2DM). PMID:25236607

  12. Antidiabetic and Synergistic Effects of Anthocyanin Fraction from Berberis integerrima Fruit on Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetic Rats Model

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    Zahra Sabahi

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Diabetes mellitus is a complex endocrine disorder. There is a serious attempt to identify antidiabetic compounds from natural sources to use with other drugs for reduction of diabetes complications. Present study is based on the investigation of antihyperglycemic effect of anthocyanin fraction of Berberis integerrima Bunge (AFBI fruits on some physiological parameters (glucose level, glycogen content, and body weight in normal and streptozotocin-induced (STZ-induced diabetic rats and evaluation of synergic effect of this fraction with metformin and glibenclamide. Male Sprague dawley rats were divided into nine groups: healthy control group, diabetic control group, diabetic groups treated with anthocyanin fraction (200, 400 and 1000 mg/kg, respectively; diabetic groups treated with glibenclamide and metformin separately, diabetic groups treated with glibenclamide + anthocyanin fraction (1000 mg/kg, metformin + anthocyanin fraction (1000 mg/kg. Treatment of diabetic rats with AFBI (400, 1000mg/kg significantly decreased blood glucose as compared with control. Moreover, AFBI (400, 1000mg/kg significantly increased liver glycogen and body weight compared to control. Nevertheless, there were no synergistic effects between anthocyanin fraction and metformin or glibenclamide on blood glucose, liver glycogen, and body weight. The results of this study indicate that AFBI possesses hypoglycemic effects and may be considered for evaluation in future diabetes clinical studies.

  13. Comparative Evaluation of the Antidiabetic Effects of Different Parts of Cassia fistula Linn, a Southeast Asian Plant

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    John Wilking Einstein

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The hypoglycemic effect of the methanolic and aqueous extracts of whole parts of Cassia fistula in both normoglycemic and streptozotocin-nictotinamide induced Type 2 diabetic rats were investigated. Acute toxicity, oral glucose tolerance test and glucose uptake in isolated rat hemidiaphragm were performed in normal rats. Diabetes was induced in Sprague Dawley rats by the administration of streptozotocin-nictotinamide (50, 110 mg/kg b.w., resp. intraperitoneally. Different extracts of Cassia was administered to diabetic rats at 250 and 500 mg/kg doses for 21 days. Biochemical parameters like blood glucose, insulin, glycosylated hemoglobin, lipid profile, and serum marker enzymes were determined. The methanolic extract of the bark and leaves were show more effective in causing hypoglycemia in normoglycemic rats. Diabetic rats showed increased levels of glycosylated hemoglobin, reduced levels of plasma insulin, were significantly reverted to near normal after oral administration of the bark and leaf methanolic extracts. Glucose uptake studies in isolated rat hemidiaphragm have shown enhanced peripheral utilization of glucose. Chronic treatment of Cassia remarkably restored the normal status of the histopathological changes observed in the selected tissues. Dose dependent anti-diabetic effects with the cohorts receiving the methanolic extract of bark followed by leaves of Cassia was revealed.

  14. Antidiabetic Effect of Hydroalcholic Urtica dioica Leaf Extract in Male Rats with Fructose-Induced Insulin Resistance

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    Akram Ahangarpour

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Urtica dioica has been used as antihypertensive, antihyperlipidemic and antidiabetic herbal medicine. The purpose of this study was to study the effect of hydroalcoholic extract of Urtica dioica on fructose-induced insulin resistance rats. Methods: Forty male Wistar rats were randomly divided into five groups including control, fructose, extract 50, extract 100 and extract 200. The control rat received vehicle, the fructose and extract groups received fructose 10% for eight weeks. The extract groups received single daily injection of vehicle, 50, 100 or 200 mg/kg/day for the two weeks. Blood glucose, insulin, last fasting insulin resistance index (FIRI, serum triglyceride (TG, low-density lipoprotein (LDL, very low-density lipoprotein (VLDL, high-density lipoprotein (HDL, alanin trasaminase (AST and alkaline phosphatase (ALP, leptin and LDL/HDL ratio were determined.Results: Compared to control group, daily administration of fructose was associated with significant increase in FIRI, blood glucose and insulin, significant decrease in lepin, and no significant change in TG, HDL, LDL, LDL/HDL ratio, VLDL, ALT, and ALP. The extract significantly decreased serum glucose, insulin, LDL and leptin, and LDL/HDL ratio and FIRI. It also significantly increased serum TG, VLDL, and AST, but did not change serum ALP.Conclusion: We suggest that Urtica dioica extract, by decreasing serum glucose, and FIRI, may be useful to improve type 2 diabetes mellitus. Also, by positive effect on lipid profile and by decreasing effect on leptin, it may improve metabolic syndrome.

  15. Chronic antidiabetic sulfonylureas in vivo: reversible effects on mouse pancreatic beta-cells.

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    Maria Sara Remedi

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Pancreatic beta-cell ATP-sensitive potassium (K ATP channels are critical links between nutrient metabolism and insulin secretion. In humans, reduced or absent beta-cell K ATP channel activity resulting from loss-of-function K ATP mutations induces insulin hypersecretion. Mice with reduced K ATP channel activity also demonstrate hyperinsulinism, but mice with complete loss of K ATP channels (K ATP knockout mice show an unexpected insulin undersecretory phenotype. Therefore we have proposed an "inverse U" hypothesis to explain the response to enhanced excitability, in which excessive hyperexcitability drives beta-cells to insulin secretory failure without cell death. Many patients with type 2 diabetes treated with antidiabetic sulfonylureas (which inhibit K ATP activity and thereby enhance insulin secretion show long-term insulin secretory failure, which we further suggest might reflect a similar progression. METHODS AND FINDINGS: To test the above hypotheses, and to mechanistically investigate the consequences of prolonged hyperexcitability in vivo, we used a novel approach of implanting mice with slow-release sulfonylurea (glibenclamide pellets, to chronically inhibit beta-cell K ATP channels. Glibenclamide-implanted wild-type mice became progressively and consistently diabetic, with significantly (p < 0.05 reduced insulin secretion in response to glucose. After 1 wk of treatment, these mice were as glucose intolerant as adult K ATP knockout mice, and reduction of secretory capacity in freshly isolated islets from implanted animals was as significant (p < 0.05 as those from K ATP knockout animals. However, secretory capacity was fully restored in islets from sulfonylurea-treated mice within hours of drug washout and in vivo within 1 mo after glibenclamide treatment was terminated. Pancreatic immunostaining showed normal islet size and alpha-/beta-cell distribution within the islet, and TUNEL staining showed no evidence of apoptosis

  16. Antidiabetic and antihyperlipidemic effects of ethanolic extract of leaves of Punica granatum in alloxan-induced non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus albino rats

    OpenAIRE

    Swarnamoni Das; Sarajita Barman

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: Punica granatum L., (Family: Punicaceae) is used in Indian Unani medicine for treatment of diabetes mellitus. Therefore, the present study was done to evaluate the antidiabetic and antihyperlipidemic effects of ethanolic extract of leaves of P. granatum in alloxan-induced diabetic rats. Materials and Methods: Healthy Wistar albino rats (100-150 g) were divided into four groups of six animals each. Groups A and B received normal saline [(10 ml/kg/day/per oral (p.o.)]; group C ...

  17. Antidiabetic and antioxidant effects of catalpol extracted from Rehmannia glutinosa (Di Huang) on rat diabetes induced by streptozotocin and high-fat, high-sugar feed

    OpenAIRE

    Zhu, HuiFeng; Wang, Yuan; Liu, Zhiqiang; Wang, Jinghuan; Wan, Dong; Feng, Shan; Yang, Xian; Tao WANG

    2016-01-01

    Background Diabetes, associated with hyperlipidemia and oxidative stress, would lead to an increased production of reactive oxygen species. Rehmannia glutinosa (Di Huang) is widely used to nourish yin, invigorate the kidney (shen), and treat xiao ke (a diabetes-like syndrome in Chinese medicine). This study aims to investigate the antidiabetic and antioxidant effects of catalpol from R. glutinosa on rat diabetes induced by streptozotocin (STZ) and high-fat, high-sugar feed. Methods Rats (eigh...

  18. Antidiabetic effects of Aloe ferox and Aloe greatheadii var. davyana leaf gel extracts in a low-dose streptozotocin diabetes rat model

    OpenAIRE

    Botes, Lisa; Islam, Md. Shahidul; Loots, Du Toit; Pieters, Marlien

    2011-01-01

    The medicinal use and commercialisation of the plants Aloe ferox and Aloe greatheadii are primarily based on research done on Aloe vera and Aloe arborescens. Consequently, in this study we investigated the possible antidiabetic effects of ethanol extracts of A. ferox and A. greatheadii var. davyana leaf gel in a streptozotocin (STZ)-induced type 2 diabetes rat model. Fifty male Wistar rats, weighing 200 g – 250 g, were randomly divided into five groups of n = 10: normal control rats, diabetic...

  19. Metabolomics Study of Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus and the AntiDiabetic Effect of Berberine in Zucker Diabetic Fatty Rats Using Uplc-ESI-Hdms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Yu; Chen, Yi-Tao; Yang, Yuan-Xiao; Zhou, Xiao-Jie; Dai, Shi-Jie; Tong, Jun-Feng; Shou, Dan; Li, Changyu

    2016-05-01

    The present study aimed to evaluate the pathogenesis of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and the anti-diabetic effect of berberine in Zucker diabetic fatty (ZDF) rats. A urinary metabolomics analysis was performed with ultra-performance liquid chromatography/electrospray ionization synapt high-definition mass spectrometry. Pattern recognition approaches were integrated to discover differentiating metabolites. We identified 29 ions (13 in negative mode and 16 in positive mode) as 'differentiating metabolites' with this metabolomic approach. A functional pathway analysis revealed that the alterations were mainly associated with glyoxylate and dicarboxylate metabolism, pentose and glucuronate interconversions and sphingolipid metabolism. These results indicated that the dysfunctions of glycometabolism and lipometabolism are involved in the pathological process of T2DM. Berberine could decrease the serum levels of glycosylated hemoglobin, total cholesterol and triglyceride and increase the secretion of insulin. The urinary metabolomics analysis showed that berberine could reduce the concentrations of citric acid, tetrahydrocortisol, ribothymidine and sphinganine to a near-normal state. These results suggested that the anti-diabetic effect of berberine occurred mainly via its regulation of glycometabolism and lipometabolism and activation of adenosine 5'-monophosphate-activated protein kinase. Our work not only provides a better understanding of the anti-diabetic effect of berberine in ZDF rats but also supplies a useful database for further study in humans and for investigating the pharmacological actions of drugs. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:26888689

  20. Anti-diabetic and hypolipidemic effects of Sargassum yezoense in db/db mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Su-Nam, E-mail: snkim@kist.re.kr [Natural Medicine Center, KIST Gangneung Institute, Gangneung 210-340 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Woojung [Natural Medicine Center, KIST Gangneung Institute, Gangneung 210-340 (Korea, Republic of); Bae, Gyu-Un [College of Pharmacy, Sookmyung Women' s University, Seoul 140-742 (Korea, Republic of); Research Center for Cell Fate Control, Sookmyung Women' s University, Seoul 140-742 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Yong Kee, E-mail: yksnbk@sookmyung.ac.kr [College of Pharmacy, Sookmyung Women' s University, Seoul 140-742 (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-08-10

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Sargassum yezoense (SY) treatment improved glucose and lipid impairment in vivo. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer This pharmacological action is associated with PPAR{alpha}/{gamma} dual activation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer It decreases the expression of G6Pase for gluconeogenesis in liver. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer It increases the expression of UCP3 for lipid metabolism in adipose tissue. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer There are no significant side effects such as body weight gain and hepatomegaly. -- Abstract: Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) have been considered to be desirable targets for metabolic syndrome, even though their specific agonists have several side effects including body weight gain, edema and tissue failure. Previously, we have reported in vitro effects of Sargassum yezoense (SY) and its ingredients, sargaquinoic acid (SQA) and sargahydroquinoic acid (SHQA), on PPAR{alpha}/{gamma} dual transcriptional activation. In this study, we describe in vivo pharmacological property of SY on metabolic disorders. SY treatment significantly improved glucose and lipid impairment in db/db mice model. More importantly, there are no significant side effects such as body weight gain and hepatomegaly in SY-treated animals, indicating little side effects of SY in liver and lipid metabolism. In addition, SY led to a decrease in the expression of G6Pase for gluconeogenesis in liver responsible for lowering blood glucose level and an increase in the expression of UCP3 in adipose tissue for the reduction of total and LDL-cholesterol level. Altogether, our data suggest that SY would be a potential therapeutic agent against type 2 diabetes and related metabolic disorders by ameliorating the glucose and lipid metabolism.

  1. Anti-diabetic and hypolipidemic effects of Sargassum yezoense in db/db mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ► Sargassum yezoense (SY) treatment improved glucose and lipid impairment in vivo. ► This pharmacological action is associated with PPARα/γ dual activation. ► It decreases the expression of G6Pase for gluconeogenesis in liver. ► It increases the expression of UCP3 for lipid metabolism in adipose tissue. ► There are no significant side effects such as body weight gain and hepatomegaly. -- Abstract: Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) have been considered to be desirable targets for metabolic syndrome, even though their specific agonists have several side effects including body weight gain, edema and tissue failure. Previously, we have reported in vitro effects of Sargassum yezoense (SY) and its ingredients, sargaquinoic acid (SQA) and sargahydroquinoic acid (SHQA), on PPARα/γ dual transcriptional activation. In this study, we describe in vivo pharmacological property of SY on metabolic disorders. SY treatment significantly improved glucose and lipid impairment in db/db mice model. More importantly, there are no significant side effects such as body weight gain and hepatomegaly in SY-treated animals, indicating little side effects of SY in liver and lipid metabolism. In addition, SY led to a decrease in the expression of G6Pase for gluconeogenesis in liver responsible for lowering blood glucose level and an increase in the expression of UCP3 in adipose tissue for the reduction of total and LDL-cholesterol level. Altogether, our data suggest that SY would be a potential therapeutic agent against type 2 diabetes and related metabolic disorders by ameliorating the glucose and lipid metabolism.

  2. Antidiabetic Effects of Yam (Dioscorea batatas) and Its Active Constituent, Allantoin, in a Rat Model of Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Go, Hyeon-Kyu; Rahman, Md Mahbubur; Kim, Gi-Beum; Na, Chong-Sam; Song, Choon-Ho; Kim, Jin-Shang; Kim, Shang-Jin; Kang, Hyung-Sub

    2015-10-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the therapeutic efficacies of crude yam (Dioscorea batatas) powder (PY), water extract of yam (EY), and allantoin (the active constituent of yam) in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rats with respect to glucose, insulin, glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1), C-peptide, glycated hemoglobin (HbAlc), lipid metabolism, and oxidative stress. For this purpose, 50 rats were divided into five groups: normal control (NC), diabetic control (STZ), and STZ plus treatment groups (STZ + PY, STZ + EY, and STZ + allantoin). After treatment for one-month, there was a decrease in blood glucose: 385 ± 7 in STZ, 231 ± 3 in STZ + PY, 214 ± 11 in STZ + EY, and 243 ± 6 mg/dL in STZ + allantoin, respectively. There were significant statistical differences (p yam and allantoin have antidiabetic effects by modulating antioxidant activities, lipid profiles and by promoting the release of GLP-1, thereby improving the function of β-cells maintaining normal insulin and glucose levels. PMID:26501316

  3. Antidiabetic Effects of Add-On Gynostemma pentaphyllum Extract Therapy with Sulfonylureas in Type 2 Diabetic Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. T. T. Huyen

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims. To investigate the antidiabetic effect of the traditional Vietnamese herb Gynostemma pentaphyllum (GP together with sulfonylurea (SU in 25 drug-naïve type 2 diabetic patients. Methods. After 4-week treatment with gliclazide (SU, 30 mg daily, all patients were randomly assigned into 2 groups to add on GP extract or placebo extract, 6 g daily, during eight weeks. Results. After 4-week SU treatment, fasting plasma glucose (FPG and HbA1C decreased significantly (P<0.001. FPG was further reduced after add-on therapy with 2.9 ± 1.7 and 0.9 ± 0.6 mmol/L in the GP and placebo groups, respectively (P<0.001. Therapy with GP extract also reduced 30- and 120-minute oral glucose tolerance test postload values. HbA1C levels decreased approximately 2% units in the GP group compared to 0.7% unit in the placebo group (P<0.001. Conclusion. GP extract in addition to SU offers an alternative to addition of other oral medication to treat type 2 diabetic patients.

  4. In vitro anti-diabetic effect and chemical component analysis of 29 essential oils products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hsiu-Fang Yen

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Twenty-nine commercial essential oil (EO products that were purchased from the Taiwan market, including three different company-made Melissa officinalis essential oils, were assayed on their glucose consumption activity and lipid accumulation activity on 3T3-L1 adipocytes. The EOs of M. officinalis were significantly active in both model assays. By contrast, EOs of peppermint, lavender, bergamot, cypress, niaouli nerolidol, geranium-rose, and revensara did not increase glucose consumption activity from media, but displayed inhibited lipid accumulation activity (65–90% of lipid accumulation vs. the control 100%. Because of the promising activity of M. officinalis EOs, three different products were collected and compared for their gas chromatography chemical profiles and bioactivity. The Western blot data suggest that the key factors of the adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase/acetyl-CoA carboxylase pathway can be mediated by M. officinalis EOs. Together with biodata, gas chromatography–mass spectrometry profiles suggested mixtures of citrals and minor compounds of M. officinalis EOs may play an important role on effect of antidiabetes.

  5. Evaluation of Traditional Indian Antidiabetic Medicinal Plants for Human Pancreatic Amylase Inhibitory Effect In Vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sudha Ponnusamy

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Pancreatic α-amylase inhibitors offer an effective strategy to lower the levels of post prandial hyperglycemia via control of starch breakdown. Eleven Ayurvedic Indian medicinal plants with known hypoglycemic properties were subjected to sequential solvent extraction and tested for α-amylase inhibition, in order to assess and evaluate their inhibitory potential on pancreatic α-amylase. Analysis of 91 extracts, showed that 10 exhibited strong Human Pancreatic Amylase (HPA inhibitory potential. Of these, 6 extracts showed concentration dependent inhibition with IC50 values, namely, cold and hot water extracts from Ficus bengalensis bark (4.4 and 125 μgmL-1, Syzygium cumini seeds (42.1 and 4.1 μgmL-1, isopropanol extracts of Cinnamomum verum leaves (1.0 μgmL-1 and Curcuma longa rhizome (0.16 μgmL-1. The other 4 extracts exhibited concentration independent inhibition, namely, methanol extract of Bixa orellana leaves (49 μgmL-1, isopropanol extract from Murraya koenigii leaves (127 μgmL-1, acetone extracts from C. longa rhizome (7.4 μgmL-1 and Tribulus terrestris seeds (511 μgmL-1. Thus, the probable mechanism of action of the above fractions is due to their inhibitory action on HPA, thereby reducing the rate of starch hydrolysis leading to lowered glucose levels. Phytochemical analysis revealed the presence of alkaloids, proteins, tannins, cardiac glycosides, flavonoids, saponins and steroids as probable inhibitory compounds.

  6. Evaluation of traditional Indian antidiabetic medicinal plants for human pancreatic amylase inhibitory effect in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponnusamy, Sudha; Ravindran, Remya; Zinjarde, Smita; Bhargava, Shobha; Ravi Kumar, Ameeta

    2011-01-01

    Pancreatic α-amylase inhibitors offer an effective strategy to lower the levels of post prandial hyperglycemia via control of starch breakdown. Eleven Ayurvedic Indian medicinal plants with known hypoglycemic properties were subjected to sequential solvent extraction and tested for α-amylase inhibition, in order to assess and evaluate their inhibitory potential on pancreatic α-amylase. Analysis of 91 extracts, showed that 10 exhibited strong Human Pancreatic Amylase (HPA) inhibitory potential. Of these, 6 extracts showed concentration dependent inhibition with IC(50) values, namely, cold and hot water extracts from Ficus bengalensis bark (4.4 and 125 μgmL(-1)), Syzygium cumini seeds (42.1 and 4.1 μgmL(-1)), isopropanol extracts of Cinnamomum verum leaves (1.0 μgmL(-1)) and Curcuma longa rhizome (0.16 μgmL(-1)). The other 4 extracts exhibited concentration independent inhibition, namely, methanol extract of Bixa orellana leaves (49 μgmL(-1)), isopropanol extract from Murraya koenigii leaves (127 μgmL(-1)), acetone extracts from C. longa rhizome (7.4 μgmL(-1)) and Tribulus terrestris seeds (511 μgmL(-1)). Thus, the probable mechanism of action of the above fractions is due to their inhibitory action on HPA, thereby reducing the rate of starch hydrolysis leading to lowered glucose levels. Phytochemical analysis revealed the presence of alkaloids, proteins, tannins, cardiac glycosides, flavonoids, saponins and steroids as probable inhibitory compounds. PMID:20953430

  7. Chemical compositions and antioxidative and antidiabetic properties of underutilized vegetable palm hearts from Plectocomiopsis geminiflora and Eugeissona insignis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad Aufa, Zabidah; Hassan, Fouad Abdulrahman; Ismail, Amin; Mohd Yusof, Barakatun Nisak; Hamid, Muhajir

    2014-03-01

    Underutilized vegetables are currently studied not only for their nutrient values but also for their health-promoting components for protection against chronic diseases. The present study was performed to evaluate chemical compositions and antioxidant properties of underutilized vegetable palm hearts, namely, lalis (Plectocomiopsis geminiflora) and pantu (Eugeissona insignis). Additionally, the vegetable extracts were evaluated for their activities in the inhibition of digestive enzymes and effects on insulin secretion using BRIN BD11 pancreatic cell lines. Both vegetables contain valuable sources of dietary fiber, potassium, and zinc. For the first time, the phenolic compounds of the vegetables were identified and quantified using HPLC-DAD and LC-ESI-MS. Appreciable amounts of chlorogenic acid were found in the studied vegetables. The sample extracts exhibited potential antioxidant capacities through chemical and biological in vitro assays. High inhibition of α-amylase activity (>50%) was found from the extracts. Thus, it was suggested the vegetable consumption could fulfill the nutrient requirements among local communities.

  8. Antioxidant, antilipidemic and antidiabetic effects of ficusin with their effects on GLUT4 translocation and PPARγ expression in type 2 diabetic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irudayaraj, Santiagu Stephen; Stalin, Antony; Sunil, Christudas; Duraipandiyan, Veeramuthu; Al-Dhabi, Naif Abdullah; Ignacimuthu, Savarimuthu

    2016-08-25

    In this study, the antioxidant, antilipidemic and antidiabetic effects of ficusin isolated from Ficus carica leaves and their effects on GLUT4 translocation and PPARγ expression were evaluated in HFD-STZ induced type 2 diabetic rats. Ficusin (20 and 40 mg/kg b. wt.) lowered the levels of fasting blood glucose, plasma insulin and body weight gain, in HFD-STZ induced diabetic rats. Ficusin also significantly lowered the serum antioxidant enzymes (SOD, CAT and GPx) and lipids (TC, TG and FFA) levels to near normal. Ficusin significantly enhanced the PPARγ expression and improved the translocation and activation of GLUT4 in the adipose tissue. Molecular docking analysis exhibited promising interactions of GLUT4 and PPARγ into their active sites. This study suggests that ficusin improved the insulin sensitivity on adipose tissue and it can be used for the treatment of obesity related type 2 diabetes mellitus. PMID:27350165

  9. Seasonal Variation in the Anti-Diabetic and Hypolipidemic Effects of Momordica charantia Fruit Extract in Rats

    OpenAIRE

    Kolawole O. T.; Ayankunle A. A.

    2012-01-01

    Aims: To investigate seasonal variation in anti-diabetic and hypolipidemic activities of Momordica charantia fruits harvested at different seasons of the year, namely spring, summer, autumn and winter. Methodology: Air-dried and pulverized fruit samples were extracted by soaking in 70% methanol for 72h. The filtrate was concentrated using rotary evaporator. The yields of spring (MME), summer (JME), autumn (SME) and winter (DME) samples were 8.4, 7.1, 4.8 and 5.1% respectivel...

  10. Antidiabetic effects of chitooligosaccharides on pancreatic islet cells in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bing Liu; Wan-Shun Liu; Bao-Qin Han; Yu-Ying Sun

    2007-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the effect of chitooligosaccharides on proliferation of pancreatic islet cells, release of insulin and 2 h plasma glucose in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats.METHODS: In vitro, the effect of chitooligosaccharides on proliferation of pancreatic islet cells and release of insulin was detected with optical microscopy, colorimetric assay, and radioimmunoassay respectively. In vivo, the general clinical symptoms, 2 h plasma glucose, urine glucose, oral glucose tolerance were examined after sixty days of feeding study to determine the effect of chitooligosaccharides in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats.RESULTS: Chitooligosaccharides could effectively accelerate the proliferation of pancreatic islet cells. Chitooligosaccharides (100 mg/L) had direct and prominent effect on pancreastic β cells and insulin release from islet cells. All concentrations of chitooligosaccharides could improve the general clinical symptoms of diabetic rats, decrease the 2 h plasma glucose and urine glucose, and normalize the disorders of glucose tolerance.CONCLUSION: Chitooligosaccharides possess various biological activities and can be used in the treatment of diabetes mellitus.

  11. The Anti-diabetic Effects of GLP-1-gastrin Dual Agonist ZP3022 in ZDF rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skarbaliene, Jolanta; Secher, Thomas; Jelsing, Jacob;

    2015-01-01

    AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: Combination treatment with exendin-4 and gastrin has proven beneficial in treatment of diabetes and preservation of beta cell mass in diabetic mice. Here, we examined the chronic effects of a GLP-1-gastrin dual agonist ZP3022 on glycemic control and beta cell dysfunction in overtly...

  12. Antidiabetic effects of the medicinal plants Efeitos antidiabéticos de plantas medicinais

    OpenAIRE

    Waleska C. Dornas; Tânia T. de Oliveira; Rosana G. R. Dores; Mary Helen A. Fabres; Nagem, Tanus J.

    2009-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a chronic metabolic disease characterized by hyperglycemy that has a significant impact for their patients. Its incidence is raising leading to an increase in the cost of the cares of the disease and of its complications. The treatment involves, besides dietary control and physical activity, the use of drugs that cause side effects to reach wanted pharmacological actions. However, products of plants are, frequently, considered less poisonous and with fewer side effec...

  13. Oligosaccharides Might Contribute to the Antidiabetic Effect of Honey: A Review of the Literature

    OpenAIRE

    Ab Wahab, Mohd S.; Sulaiman, Siti A.; Erejuwa, Omotayo O.

    2011-01-01

    Evidence shows that honey improves glycemic control in diabetes mellitus. Besides its hypoglycemic effect, studies indicate that honey ameliorates lipid abnormalities in rats and humans with diabetes. The majority of these studies do not examine the mechanisms by which honey ameliorates glycemic and/or lipid derangements. The gut microbiota is now recognized for its ability to increase energy harvest from the diet and alter lipid metabolism of the host. Recently available data implicate a cau...

  14. Antidiabetic Effects of Yam (Dioscorea batatas and Its Active Constituent, Allantoin, in a Rat Model of Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyeon-Kyu Go

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to investigate the therapeutic efficacies of crude yam (Dioscorea batatas powder (PY, water extract of yam (EY, and allantoin (the active constituent of yam in streptozotocin (STZ-induced diabetic rats with respect to glucose, insulin, glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1, C-peptide, glycated hemoglobin (HbAlc, lipid metabolism, and oxidative stress. For this purpose, 50 rats were divided into five groups: normal control (NC, diabetic control (STZ, and STZ plus treatment groups (STZ + PY, STZ + EY, and STZ + allantoin. After treatment for one-month, there was a decrease in blood glucose: 385 ± 7 in STZ, 231 ± 3 in STZ + PY, 214 ± 11 in STZ + EY, and 243 ± 6 mg/dL in STZ + allantoin, respectively. There were significant statistical differences (p < 0.001 compared to STZ (100%: 60% in STZ + PY, 55% in STZ + EY, and 63% in STZ + allantoin. With groups in the same order, there were significant decreases (p < 0.001 in HbAlc (100% as 24.4 ± 0.6 ng/mL, 78%, 75%, and 77%, total cholesterol (100% as 122 ± 3 mg/dL, 70%, 67%, and 69%, and low-density lipoprotein (100% as 29 ± 1 mg/dL, 45%, 48%, and 38%. There were also significant increases (p < 0.001 in insulin (100% as 0.22 ± 0.00 ng/mL, 173%, 209%, and 177%, GLP-1 (100% as 18.4 ± 0.7 pmol/mL, 160%, 166%, and 162%, and C-peptide (100% as 2.56 ± 0.10 ng/mL, 129%, 132%, and 130%. The treatment effectively ameliorated antioxidant stress as shown by a significant decrease (p < 0.001 in malondialdehyde (100% as 7.25 ± 0.11 nmol/mL, 87%, 86%, and 85% together with increases (p < 0.01 in superoxide dismutase (100% as 167 ± 6 IU/mL, 147%, 159%, and 145% and reduced glutathione (100% as 167 ± 6 nmol/mL, 123%, 141%, and 140%. The results indicate that yam and allantoin have antidiabetic effects by modulating antioxidant activities, lipid profiles and by promoting the release of GLP-1, thereby improving the function of β-cells maintaining normal insulin and glucose levels.

  15. Anti-Diabetic Effects of CTB-APSL Fusion Protein in Type 2 Diabetic Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yunlong Liu

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available To determine whether cholera toxin B subunit and active peptide from shark liver (CTB-APSL fusion protein plays a role in treatment of type 2 diabetic mice, the CTB-APSL gene was cloned and expressed in silkworm (Bombyx mori baculovirus expression vector system (BEVS, then the fusion protein was orally administrated at a dose of 100 mg/kg for five weeks in diabetic mice. The results demonstrated that the oral administration of CTB-APSL fusion protein can effectively reduce the levels of both fasting blood glucose (FBG and glycosylated hemoglobin (GHb, promote insulin secretion and improve insulin resistance, significantly improve lipid metabolism, reduce triglycerides (TG, total cholesterol (TC and low density lipoprotein (LDL levels and increase high density lipoprotein (HDL levels, as well as effectively improve the inflammatory response of type 2 diabetic mice through the reduction of the levels of inflammatory cytokines tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α and interleukin-6 (IL-6. Histopathology shows that the fusion protein can significantly repair damaged pancreatic tissue in type 2 diabetic mice, significantly improve hepatic steatosis and hepatic cell cloudy swelling, reduce the content of lipid droplets in type 2 diabetic mice, effectively inhibit renal interstitial inflammatory cells invasion and improve renal tubular epithelial cell nucleus pyknosis, thus providing an experimental basis for the development of a new type of oral therapy for type 2 diabetes.

  16. Effect of the anti-diabetic drug metformin in hepatocellular carcinoma in vitro and in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyoshi, Hisaaki; Kato, Kiyohito; Iwama, Hisakazu; Maeda, Emiko; Sakamoto, Teppei; Fujita, Koji; Toyota, Yuka; Tani, Joji; Nomura, Takako; Mimura, Shima; Kobayashi, Mitsuyoshi; Morishita, Asahiro; Kobara, Hideki; Mori, Hirohito; Yoneyama, Hirohito; Deguchi, Akihiro; Himoto, Takashi; Kurokohchi, Kazutaka; Okano, Keiichi; Suzuki, Yasuyuki; Murao, Koji; Masaki, Tsutomu

    2014-07-01

    Metformin is a commonly used oral anti-hyperglycemic agent of the biguanide family. Recent studies suggest that metformin may reduce cancer risk and improve prognosis. However, the antitumor mechanism of metformin in several types of cancers, including hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), has not been elucidated. The goal of the present study was to evaluate the effects of metformin on HCC cell proliferation in vitro and in vivo, and to study microRNAs (miRNAs) associated with the antitumor effect of metformin in vitro. We used the cell lines Alex, HLE and Huh7, and normal hepatocytes to study the effects of metformin on human HCC cells. In an in vivo study, athymic nude mice bearing xenograft tumors were treated with metformin or left untreated. Tumor growth was recorded after 4 weeks, and the expression of cell cycle-related proteins was determined. Metformin inhibited the proliferation of Alex, HLE and Huh7 cells in vitro and in vivo. Metformin blocked the cell cycle in G0/G1 in vitro and in vivo. This blockade was accompanied by a strong decrease of G1 cyclins, especially cyclin D1, cyclin E and cyclin-dependent kinase 4 (Cdk4). In addition, microRNA (miRNA) expression was markedly altered by the treatment with metformin in vitro and in vivo. In addition, various miRNAs induced by metformin also may contribute to the suppression of tumor growth. Our results demonstrate that metformin inhibits the growth of HCC, possibly by inducing G1 cell cycle arrest through the alteration of microRNAs. PMID:24806290

  17. Antidiabetic effects of the medicinal plants Efeitos antidiabéticos de plantas medicinais

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Waleska C. Dornas

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Diabetes mellitus (DM is a chronic metabolic disease characterized by hyperglycemy that has a significant impact for their patients. Its incidence is raising leading to an increase in the cost of the cares of the disease and of its complications. The treatment involves, besides dietary control and physical activity, the use of drugs that cause side effects to reach wanted pharmacological actions. However, products of plants are, frequently, considered less poisonous and with fewer side effects than synthetic drugs and widely used by the population. In this paper, several species of plants, used experimentally or in the popular medicine, acting by different ways to control glycemia and/or to inhibit symptoms and characteristic complications of the diabetes, they will be reviewed for evaluation of their supposed therapeutic effects.Diabetes mellitus (DM é uma doença metabólica crônica caracterizada por hipeglicemia que tem impacto significante em seus pacientes. Sua incidência está crescendo rapidamente conduzindo para aumento no custo dos cuidados da doença e de suas complicações. O tratamento envolve, além de controle dietético e atividade física, o uso de fármacos que ocasionam efeitos colaterais para atingir ações farmacológicas desejadas. Entretanto, produtos de plantas são, freqüentemente, considerados menos tóxicos e com menos efeitos colaterais que drogas sintéticas e amplamente utilizadas pela população. Nesse trabalho várias espécies de plantas utilizadas experimentalmente ou na medicina popular, agindo de diferentes formas de modo a controlar glicemia e/ou inibir sintomas e complicações características da diabetes serão revisadas para avaliação de seus supostos efeitos terapêuticos.

  18. Anti-Diabetic Effects of CTB-APSL Fusion Protein in Type 2 Diabetic Mice

    OpenAIRE

    Yunlong Liu; Zhangzhao Gao; Qingtuo Guo; Tao Wang; Conger Lu; Ying Chen; Qing Sheng; Jian Chen; Zuoming Nie; Yaozhou Zhang; Wutong Wu; Zhengbing Lv; Jianhong Shu

    2014-01-01

    To determine whether cholera toxin B subunit and active peptide from shark liver (CTB-APSL) fusion protein plays a role in treatment of type 2 diabetic mice, the CTB-APSL gene was cloned and expressed in silkworm (Bombyx mori) baculovirus expression vector system (BEVS), then the fusion protein was orally administrated at a dose of 100 mg/kg for five weeks in diabetic mice. The results demonstrated that the oral administration of CTB-APSL fusion protein can effectively reduce the levels of bo...

  19. Modulation of the Antidiabetic Effect of Glimepiride by Diazepam in Diabetic Rats

    OpenAIRE

    W.R. Mohamed; G.A. El Sherbiny; H.F. Zaki; El Sayed, M.E.

    2012-01-01

    Anxiolytic drugs may influence glycemic control in diabetic subjects, so the present study was conducted to investigate the effect of glimepiride, a commonly used oral hypoglycemic, diazepam, a commonly used anxiolytic, and their combination in STZ-induced diabetic rats. Diabetes was induced by streptozotpcin (50 mg/kg i.p.). Rats were divided into 5 groups namely: normal control, diabetic control, glimepiride (10 mg/kg p.o.), diazepam (5 mg/kg i.p.) or combination of both glimepiride and dia...

  20. Study of the anti-hyperglycemic effect of plants used as antidiabetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alarcon-Aguilara, F J; Roman-Ramos, R; Perez-Gutierrez, S; Aguilar-Contreras, A; Contreras-Weber, C C; Flores-Saenz, J L

    1998-06-01

    The purpose of this research was to study the anti-hyperglycemic effect of 28 medicinal plants used in the treatment of diabetes mellitus. Each plant was processed in the traditional way and intragastrically administered to temporarily hyperglycemic rabbits. The results showed that eight out of the 28 studied plants significantly decrease the hyperglycemic peak and/or the area under the glucose tolerance curve. These plants were: Guazuma ulmifolia, Tournefortia hirsutissima, Lepechinia caulescens, Rhizophora mangle, Musa sapientum, Trigonella foenum graceum, Turnera diffusa, and Euphorbia prostrata. The results suggest the validity of their clinical use in diabetes mellitus control, after their toxicological investigation. PMID:9683340

  1. Evaluation of antidiabetic, antioxidant effect and safety profile of gomutra ark in Wistar albino rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sachdev, Devender O; Gosavi, Devesh D; Salwe, Kartik J

    2012-01-01

    The effect of Gomutra ark (GoA) on experimental alloxan-induced diabetes in rats was studied. For this purpose, Wistar albino rats of either sex weighing 200-250 g were used. The biochemical parameters like blood sugar, vitamin C, and malondialdehyde release were measured. The safety profile of GoA was evaluated using acute and chronic toxicity studies. GoA significantly lowers blood glucose in diabetic rats although the observed effect was found to be less than glibenclamide. It significantly lowers the level of malondialdehyde and vitamin C in diabetic rats. No toxicity was observed even when cow urine was given 32 times of the study dose in acute toxicity and no significant changes were seen when it was used chronically, which suggests that cow urine is having a very high therapeutic index. This study supports the traditional use of GoA in diabetes and is having a high therapeutic index and is safe for chronic use. However, further studies are needed to elucidate the mechanism of action of Gomutra ark.

  2. Antidiabetic effect of aqueous extract of seed of Tamarindus indica in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maiti, R; Jana, D; Das, U K; Ghosh, D

    2004-05-01

    In Indian traditional system of medicine, herbal remedies are prescribed for the treatment of diseases including diabetes mellitus. In recent years, plants are being effectively tried in a variety of pathophysiological states. Tamarindus indica Linn. is one of them. In the present study, aqueous extract of seed of Tamarindus indica Linn. was found to have potent antidiabetogenic activity that reduces blood sugar level in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic male rat. Supplementation of this aqueous extract by gavage at the dose of 80 mg/0.5 ml distilled water/100 g body weight per day in STZ-induced diabetic rat resulted a significant diminution of fasting blood sugar level after 7 days. Continuous supplementation of this extract for 14 days resulted no significant difference in this parameter from control level. Moreover, this supplementation produced a significant elevation in liver and skeletal muscle glycogen content, activity of liver glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase in respect to diabetic group. Activities of liver glucose-6-phosphatase, liver and kidney glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase (GOT) and glutamate pyruvate transaminase (GPT) activities were decreased significantly in the aqueous extract supplemented group in respect to diabetic group. All these parameters were not resettled to the controlled level after 7 days of this extract supplementation but after 14 days of this supplementation, all the above mentioned parameters were restored to the control level.

  3. Antidiabetic effect, antioxidant activity, and toxicity of 3',4'-Di-O-acetyl-cis-khellactone in Streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domínguez-Mendoza, Elix Alberto; Cornejo-Garrido, Jorge; Burgueño-Tapia, Eleuterio; Ordaz-Pichardo, Cynthia

    2016-08-15

    Pyranocoumarins are compounds with an important pharmacological profile, such as anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, cytotoxic, antiviral, antibacterial, and hypoglycemic effects. These molecules have a widespread presence as secondary metabolites in medicinal plants used to treat Diabetes Mellitus (DM). The aim of this work was to evaluate antidiabetic activity in Streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rats and the antioxidant effects of 3',4'-Di-O-acetyl-cis-khellactone (DOAcK), as well as its toxic potential. We obtained DOAcK with an enantiomeric excess of 70% by chemical synthesis. Our results showed that this compound exerts an important antidiabetic effect: blood glucose decreased in groups treated with DOAcK by 60.9% at dose of 15mg/kg (p2000mg/kg and, at this dose, no signs of toxicity or death were reported after 14days of observation. These results indicate that DOAcK can improve glucose metabolism, which may be due to the increased antioxidant activity of CAT, GPx and SOD. In addition, DOAcK is not toxic in the studies tested. PMID:27397496

  4. Anti-diabetic effects of Caulerpa lentillifera:stimulation of insulin secretion in pancreatic β-cells and enhancement of glucose uptake in adipocytes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bhesh; Raj; Sharma; Dong; Young; Rhyu

    2014-01-01

    Objective:To evaluate anti-diabetic effect of Caulrpa kntillifera(C.lentillifera).Methods:The inhibitory effect of C.lentillifera extract on dipeptidyl peptidase-IV and a-glucosidase enzyme was measured in a cell free system.Then,interleukin-1βand interferon-γinduced cell death and insulin secretion were measured in rat insulinoma(RIN)cells by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide assay and ELISA kit,respectively.Glucose uptake and glucose transporter expression were measured by fluorometry and western blotting,using 3T3-Ll adipocytes.Results:C.lentillifera extract significantly decreased dipeptidyl peptidase-IV and a-glucosidase enzyme activities,and effectively inhibited cell death and iNOS expression in interleukin-1βand interfcron-γinduced RIK cells.Furthermore,C.lntillifera extract significantly enhanced insulin secretion in RTN cells and glucose transporter expression and glucose uptake in 3T3-L1adipocytes.Conclusions:Thus,our results suggest that C.lentillifera could be used as a potential antidiabetic agenl.

  5. Anti-diabetic effects of Caulerpa lentillifera:stimulation of insulin secretion in pancreatic β-cells and enhancement of glucose uptake in adipocytes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bhesh Raj Sharma; Dong Young Rhyu

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate anti-diabetic effect of Caulerpa lentillifera (C. lentillifera).Methods:The inhibitory effect of C. lentillifera extract on dipeptidyl peptidase-IV andα-glucosidase enzyme was measured in a cell free system. Then, interleukin-1β and interferon-γinduced cell death and insulin secretion were measured in rat insulinoma (RIN) cells by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide assay and ELISA kit, respectively. Glucose uptake and glucose transporter expression were measured by fluorometry and western blotting, using 3T3-L1 adipocytes.Results: C. lentillifera extract significantly decreased dipeptidyl peptidase-IV and α-glucosidase enzyme activities, and effectively inhibited cell death and iNOS expression in interleukin-1βand interferon-γ induced RIN cells. Furthermore, C. lentillifera extract significantly enhanced insulin secretion in RIN cells and glucose transporter expression and glucose uptake in 3T3-L1 adipocytes.Conclusions:Thus, our results suggest that C. lentillifera could be used as a potential anti-diabetic agent.

  6. Antidiabetic and antidiarrhoeal potentials of ethanolic extracts of aerial parts of Cynodon dactylon Pers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Md.Saidur; Rahman; Rasheda; Akter; Santosh; Mazumdar; Faridul; Islam; Nusrat; Jahan; Mouri; Nemai; Chandra; Nandi; Abu; Syeed

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To explore the antidiabetic and the antidiarrhoeal effects of ethanolic extracts of Cynodon dactylon Pers. aerial parts(EECA) in Wistar rats.Methods: To assess the antidiabetic activity of EECA, oral glucose tolerance test(OGTT) model and alloxan induced diabetic test(AIDT) model were performed. The EECA was used at the doses of 2 g/kg, 1 g/kg and 500 mg/kg body weight in OGTT model and 1.5 g/kg was used for AIDT model. Castor oil-induced diarrhoeal model and gastrointestinal motility test with barium sulphate milk model were performed for evaluating the antidiarrhoeal effects at doses of 1 g/kg, 750 mg/kg respectively.Results: The dose 2 g/kg in OGTT and 1.5 g/kg in AIDT model blood glucose levels decreased significantly(P < 0.01) in Wistar rats that showed antidiabetic effect of EECA. After administration of EECA at the dose of 1 g/kg, the extract showed significant(P < 0.05) antidiarrhoeal activity in castor oil-induced diarrhoeal model. The results were also significant(P < 0.01) in barium sulphate milk model for the same dose by using above mentioned animals.Conclusions: It is concluded that EECA contains both antidiabetic and the antidiarrhoeal properties.

  7. ANTIDIABETIC DRUGS IN AYURVEDA

    OpenAIRE

    Ingole Rajesh.Kundlikrao

    2013-01-01

    Ayurveda the Indian traditional Medical science uses many drugs for diseases derived from medicinal plants, Minerals, herbo mineral. Diabetes (Madhumeha) is an important human ailment afflicting many from various walks of life in different countries. This review focuses on Ayurvedic drugs like plants, minerals in single or compound form in various research institutes and articles. A list of Ayurvedic drugs having antidiabetic and related beneficial in treatment of diabetes is compiled. These ...

  8. Antidiabetic potential and secondary metabolites screening of mangrove gastropod Cerithidea obtusa

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Reni Tri Cahyani; Sri Purwaningsih; Azrifitria

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To study the possible effects of Cerithidea obtusa extract as antidiabetic and to screen the secondary metabolites presence. Methods: Antidiabetic activity of Cerithidea obtusa extract was measured in vitro usingα-glucosidase inhibition method. Whereas, secondary metabolites screening was measured qualitatively. Results: The methanol extract had antidiabetic activity (IC50 = 36.40 mg/mL). However, the control drug acarbose had significantly higher antidiabetic activity (IC50 = 0.32 mg/mL). Secondary metabolites screening showed the presence of alkaloids, flavonoids, triterpenoids and saponins. Conclusions: The methanol extract had antidiabetic activity and the presence of alkaloids, flavonoids and triterpenoids might contribute to the activity.

  9. Antidiabetic and Antihyperlipidemic Effects of Clitocybe nuda on Glucose Transporter 4 and AMP-Activated Protein Kinase Phosphorylation in High-Fat-Fed Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mei-Hsing Chen

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the antihyperlipidemic and antihyperglycemic effects and mechanism of the extract of Clitocybe nuda (CNE, in high-fat- (HF- fed mice. C57BL/6J was randomly divided into two groups: the control (CON group was fed with a low-fat diet, whereas the experimental group was fed with a HF diet for 8 weeks. Then, the HF group was subdivided into five groups and was given orally CNE (including C1: 0.2, C2: 0.5, and C3: 1.0 g/kg/day extracts or rosiglitazone (Rosi or vehicle for 4 weeks. CNE effectively prevented HF-diet-induced increases in the levels of blood glucose, triglyceride, insulin (P<0.001, P<0.01, P<0.05, resp. and attenuated insulin resistance. By treatment with CNE, body weight gain, weights of white adipose tissue (WAT and hepatic triacylglycerol content were reduced; moreover, adipocytes in the visceral depots showed a reduction in size. By treatment with CNE, the protein contents of glucose transporter 4 (GLUT4 were significantly increased in C3-treated group in the skeletal muscle. Furthermore, CNE reduces the hepatic expression of glucose-6-phosphatase (G6Pase and glucose production. CNE significantly increases protein contents of phospho-AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK in the skeletal muscle and adipose and liver tissues. Therefore, it is possible that the activation of AMPK by CNE leads to diminished gluconeogenesis in the liver and enhanced glucose uptake in skeletal muscle. It is shown that CNE exhibits hypolipidemic effect in HF-fed mice by increasing ATGL expression, which is known to help triglyceride to hydrolyze. Moreover, antidiabetic properties of CNE occurred as a result of decreased hepatic glucose production via G6Pase downregulation and improved insulin sensitization. Thus, amelioration of diabetic and dyslipidemic states by CNE in HF-fed mice occurred by regulation of GLUT4, G6Pase, ATGL, and AMPK phosphorylation.

  10. Tissue lipid lowering-effect of a traditional Nigerian anti-diabetic infusion of Rauwolfia vomitoria foilage and Citrus aurantium fruit

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Campbell, J. I. A.; Mortensen, Alicja; Mølgaard, P.

    2006-01-01

    The toxicity and anti-diabetic properties of an aqueous plant extract made by boiling Rauwolfia vomitoria foilage and Citrus aurantium fruits were evaluated in mice. A single dosage corresponding to 70 x the human-daily-dose was non-toxic when administered to 6-week-old NMRI lean mice or 6- or 11...... carbohydrate-deficient Altromin C1009 diet. Although the food intake in the treated mice was not statistically significant from that in the controls, the treated animals had significantly higher serum triglyceride contents, suggesting that the treatment induced lipid mobilization from internal stores. Moreover....../KsBom-db pancreas were observed 5 weeks after cessation of treatment when the treated animals were maintained on the poorer Altromin C1009 diet. (c) 2006 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved....

  11. Absence of antidiabetic and hypolipidemic effect of Gymnema sylvestre in non-diabetic and alloxan-diabetic rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Galletto

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available In this study we investigated the antidiabetic and hypolipidemic potential of dried powdered leaves of Gymnema sylvestre (GS. The acute effect of GS administered by oral gavage on glucose blood level of and lipids in non-diabetic and alloxan-diabetic rats were investigated in the following conditions: a after a balanced meal; b after the ingestion of 1000 mg/kg amylose or 1000 mg/kg glucose; c after the ingestion of a mixture of 12 mL/kg soybean oil + 1% cholesterol (SOC. In addition, the effect of the treatment with GS during two (sub-acute or four weeks (chronic on body weight, food and water ingestion, glucose blood level and lipids in non-diabetic and alloxan-diabetic rats were measured. The dose of GS utilized in the majority of the experiments, i.e., 30 mg/kg, corresponds to that given to treat diabetes in Brazil. GS acutely did not influence the elevation of glycemia promoted by a balanced meal or by the administration of amylose or glucose; but promoted more intense (PNeste estudo foi investigado o potencial antidiabético e hipolipemiante da Gymnema sylvestre (GS. O efeito agudo da GS administrada via oral sobre a glicemia e lipidemia foi avaliado em ratos Wistar sob as seguintes condições: a após refeição balanceada; b após ingestão de 1000 mg de amylose ou 1000 mg/kg de glicose; c após ingestão de uma mistura de 12 mL/kg de óleo de soja + 1% de colesterol (OSC. Foi avaliado também o efeito do tratamento com GS durante duas (sub-agudo ou quatro semanas (crônico sobre o peso corporal, ingestão de água e alimento, glicemia e lipidemia em ratos não diabéticos e diabéticos induzidos com aloxana. A dose de GS utilizada na maioria dos experimentos (30 mg/kg corresponde a dose empregada para tratar diabetes no Brasil. A administração aguda de GS não influenciou a elevação da glicemia durante a refeição balanceada, administração de amilose ou glicose; mas intensificou a elevação da concentração sérica de lip

  12. Anti-diabetic formulations of Nāga bhasma (lead calx: A brief review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dhirajsingh Rajput

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Ayurvedic formulations usually contain ingredients of herbal, mineral, metal or animal in origin. Nāga bhasma (lead calx is a potent metallic formulation mainly indicated in the treatment of Prameha (~diabetes. Until date, no published information is available in compiled form on the formulations containing Nāga bhasma as an ingredient, their dose and indications. Therefore, in the present study, an attempt has been made to compile various formulations of Nāga bhasma indicated in treating Prameha. Aim: The present work aims to collect information on various formulations of Nāga bhasma mainly indicated in treating Prameha and to elaborate the safety and efficacy of Nāga bhasma as a Pramehaghna (antidiabetic drug. Materials and Methods: Critical review of formulations of Nāga bhasma is compiled from various Ayurvedic texts and the therapeutic efficacy of Nāga bhasma is discussed on the basis of available data. Result and Conclusion: Antidiabetic formulations of Nāga bhasma were discovered around 12th century CE. There are 44 formulations of Nāga bhasma mainly indicated for Prameha. Haridrā (Curcuma longa Linn, Āmalakī (Emblica officinalis, Guḍūci (Tinospora cordifolia and Madhu (honey enhance the antidiabetic action of Nāga bhasma and also help to prevent diabetic complications as well as any untoward effects of Nāga bhasma. On the basis of the reviewed research, it is concluded that Nāga bhasma possesses significant antidiabetic property.

  13. ANTIDIABETIC DRUGS IN AYURVEDA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ingole Rajesh Kundlikrao

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Ayurveda the Indian traditional Medical science uses many drugs for diseases derived from medicinal plants, Minerals, herbo mineral. Diabetes (Madhumeha is an important human ailment afflicting many from various walks of life in different countries. This review focuses on Ayurvedic drugs like plants, minerals in single or compound form in various research institutes and articles. A list of Ayurvedic drugs having antidiabetic and related beneficial in treatment of diabetes is compiled. These include, Trivanga Bhasma, Triphala Churna, Terminalia chebula, Nimbapatra, Ashvattha, Acacia arabica, Mangifera indica, Eugenia jambolana, Allium cepa, Allium sativum, Aloe vera, Tinospora cordifolia etc.

  14. [Cardiovascular safety of antidiabetics].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aline Roth, Pressl-Wenger; Jornayvaz, François R

    2016-06-01

    Type 2 diabetes is characterized by a high risk of micro- and macro-vascular complications. Cardiovascular diseases are the leading cause of death of diabetic patients. In this context, the search for molecules decreasing cardiovascular mortality makes sense. Until the EMPA-REG OUTCOME study published late 2015, showing a reduction of cardiovascular mortality of patients treated with empagliflozin, an SGLT2 inhibitor, there was no molecule known to decrease cardiovascular mortality. The purpose of this article is to review the various existing antidiabetic molecules and their impact (positive/neutral/negative) on cardiovascular mortality. PMID:27487675

  15. Antidiabetic activities of ethanolic extract and fraction of Anthocleista djalonensis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jude E Okokon

    2012-06-01

    Conclusions: These results suggest that the root extract/fractions of A. djalonensis possess antidiabetic effect on alloxan-induced diabetic rats and this justifies its use in ethnomedicine and can be exploited in the management of diabetes.

  16. Antidiabetic activity of a polyherbal formulation (Karnim Plus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bangar Om

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Karnim Plus, an herbal formulation marketed for diabetes, was investigated for its glucose tolerance, hypoglycaemic, and antidiabetic effects in rats. The glucose tolerance test was studied at 400 mg/kg. Hypoglycemic studies were carried out in normal rats at two dose levels, 200 mg/kg and 400 mg/kg. Antidiabetic effect was analyzed in alloxan-induced diabetic rats at two dose levels, 200 mg/kg and 400 mg/kg. Glibenclamide, 4 mg/kg, was used as the standard drug. The biochemical parameters such as glucose, urea, creatinine, serum cholesterol, and serum triglyceride were also assessed in experimental animals. The product showed its effectiveness in oral glucose tolerance test and antidiabetic activity, but it did not produce hypoglycemic effect. Treatment of diabetic rats with the product restored the elevated biochemical parameters significantly. The present study supports the use of this product as an antidiabetic.

  17. Assessment of the antidiabetic and antilipidemic properties of Bacillus subtilis SPB1 biosurfactant in alloxan-induced diabetic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zouari, Raida; Ben Abdallah-Kolsi, Rihab; Hamden, Khaled; Feki, Abdelfattah El; Chaabouni, Khansa; Makni-Ayadi, Fatma; Sallemi, Fahima; Ellouze-Chaabouni, Semia; Ghribi-Aydi, Dhouha

    2015-11-01

    The present study aimed to scrutinize the potential of Bacillus subtilis SPB1biosurfactant, orally administered, for preventing diabetic complications in rats. The findings revealed that, Bacillus subtilis biosurfactant was an effective reducer of α-amylase activity in the plasma. Moreover, this supplement helped protect the β-cells from death and damage. Both the inhibitory action of SPB1 biosurfactant on α-amylase and the protection of the pancreas' β-cells lead to a decrease of the blood glucose levels, consequently antihyperglycemic effect. Interestingly, this lipopeptide biosurfactant modulated key enzyme related to hyperlipidemia as lipase; which leads to the regulation of the lipid profile in serum by the delay in the absorption of LDL-cholesterol and triglycerides, and a significant increase in HDL-cholesterol. Histological analyses also showed that it exerted a protective action on the pancreases and efficiently preserved the liver-kidney functions of diabetic rats, evidenced by significant decreases in aspartate transaminase, alanine transaminase, gamma-glytamyl transpeptidase and lactate deshydrogenase activities in the plasma, as well as in the creatinine and urea contents. Overall, the present study demonstrated that the hypoglycemic and antilipidemic activities exhibited by Bacillus subtilis biosurfactant were effective enough to alleviate induced diabetes in experimental rats. Therefore, SPB1biosurfactant could be considered as a potential strong candidate for the treatment and prevention of diabetes. PMID:26228442

  18. Bromophenols from Marine Algae with Potential Anti-Diabetic Activities

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIN Xiukun; LIU Ming

    2012-01-01

    Marine algae contain various bromophenols with a variety of biological activities,including antimicrobial,anticancer,and anti-diabetic effects.Here,we briefly review the recent progress in researches on the biomaterials from marine algae,emphasizing the relationship between the structure and the potential anti-diabetic applications.Bromophenols from marine algae display their hyperglycemic effects by inhibiting the activities of protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B,α-glucosidase,as well as other mechanisms.

  19. Potent anti-diabetic effects of MHY908, a newly synthesized PPAR α/γ dual agonist in db/db mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min Hi Park

    Full Text Available Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR α/γ dual agonists have been developed to alleviate metabolic disorders and have the potential to be used as therapeutic agents for the treatment of type 2 diabetes. In this study, we investigated the effects of a newly synthesized PPAR α/γ dual agonist, 2-[4-(5-chlorobenzo [d] thiazol-2-yl phenoxy]-2-methylpropanoic acid (MHY908 on type 2 diabetes in vitro and in vivo. To obtain initial evidence that MHY908 acts as a PPAR α/γ dual agonist, ChIP and reporter gene assays were conducted in AC2F rat liver cells, and to investigate the anti-diabetic effects and molecular mechanisms, eight-week-old, male db/db mice were allowed to eat ad libitum, placed on calorie restriction, or administered MHY908 (1 mg or 3 mg/kg/day mixed in food for 4 weeks. Age-matched male db/m lean mice served as non-diabetic controls. It was found that MHY908 enhanced the binding and transcriptional activity of PPAR α and γ in AC2F cells, and it reduced serum glucose, triglyceride, and insulin levels, however increased adiponectin levels without body weight gain. In addition, MHY908 significantly improved hepatic steatosis by enhancing CPT-1 levels. Remarkably, MHY908 reduced endoplasmic reticulum (ER stress and c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK activation in the livers of db/db mice, and subsequently reduced insulin resistance. The study shows MHY908 has beneficial effects on type 2 diabetes by simultaneously activating PPAR α/γ and improving ER stress, and suggests that MHY908 could have a potent anti-diabetic effect as a PPAR α/γ dual agonist, and potential for the treatment of type 2 diabetes.

  20. Anti-diabetic Effects of Polysaccharides from Ethanol-insoluble Residue of Schisandra chinensis(Turcz.) Baill on Alloxan-induced Diabetic Mice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO Ting; WU Xiang-yang; MAO Guang-hua; ZHANG Min; LI Fang; ZOU Ye; ZHOU Ye; ZHENG Wei; ZHENG Da-heng; YANG Liu-qing

    2013-01-01

    The ethanol-insoluble residue of Schisandra generated during lignans industrial production is usually treated as solid waste.However,there is active polysaccharide which could be used in it.In this work,the water-soluble polysaccharides from the ethanol-insoluble residue of Schisandra(ESCP) were obtained and their anti-diabetic effect was evaluated.The results indicate that ESCP could significantly reduce the blood glucose level in alloxan-induced diabetic mice.Moreover,the ESCP could significantly improve the lipid metabolism and increase the content of liver glycogen in ailoxan-induced diabetic mice.The results indicate that ESCP could be developed into a potential natural hypoglycemic agent.

  1. NN2211: a long-acting glucagon-like peptide-1 derivative with anti-diabetic effects in glucose-intolerant pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ribel, Ulla; Larsen, Marianne O; Rolin, Bidda;

    2002-01-01

    Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) is an effective anti-diabetic agent, but its metabolic instability makes it therapeutically unsuitable. This study investigated the pharmacodynamics of a long-acting GLP-1 derivative (NN2211: (Arg(34)Lys(26)-(N- epsilon -(gamma-Glu(N-alpha-hexadecanoyl)))-GLP-1......(7-37)), after acute and chronic treatment in hyperglycaemic minipigs. During hyperglycaemic glucose clamps, NN2211 (2 micrograms kg(-1) i.v.) treated pigs required more (P NN......2211 (15,367 +/- 5,438 vs. 9,014 +/- 2,952 pmol l(-1) min), and glucagon levels were suppressed (P NN2211 (3.3 micrograms kg(-1) s.c.) reduced the glucose excursion during an oral glucose tolerance test, to 59 +/- 15% of pre-treatment values by 4 weeks (P

  2. Medicinal plants of India with anti-diabetic potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grover, J K; Yadav, S; Vats, V

    2002-06-01

    Since ancient times, plants have been an exemplary source of medicine. Ayurveda and other Indian literature mention the use of plants in treatment of various human ailments. India has about 45000 plant species and among them, several thousands have been claimed to possess medicinal properties. Research conducted in last few decades on plants mentioned in ancient literature or used traditionally for diabetes have shown anti-diabetic property. The present paper reviews 45 such plants and their products (active, natural principles and crude extracts) that have been mentioned/used in the Indian traditional system of medicine and have shown experimental or clinical anti-diabetic activity. Indian plants which are most effective and the most commonly studied in relation to diabetes and their complications are: Allium cepa, Allium sativum, Aloe vera, Cajanus cajan, Coccinia indica, Caesalpinia bonducella, Ficus bengalenesis, Gymnema sylvestre, Momordica charantia, Ocimum sanctum, Pterocarpus marsupium, Swertia chirayita, Syzigium cumini, Tinospora cordifolia and Trigonella foenum graecum. Among these we have evaluated M. charantia, Eugenia jambolana, Mucuna pruriens, T. cordifolia, T. foenum graecum, O. sanctum, P. marsupium, Murraya koeingii and Brassica juncea. All plants have shown varying degree of hypoglycemic and anti-hyperglycemic activity. PMID:12020931

  3. Anti-diabetic effects of cinnamaldehyde and berberine and their impacts on retinol-binding protein 4 expression in rats with type 2 diabetes mellitus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Wei; XU Ya-cheng; GUO Fang-jian; MENG Ye; LI Ming-li

    2008-01-01

    Background Retinol binding protein 4 (RBP4),as an adipocyte secreted cytokine,was recently found to be inversely correlated with expression of glucose transporter 4 (GLUT4) in insulin resistance (IR) state and to have an intimate relationship with IR and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM).The present study aimed to evaluate the anti-diabetic efficacy of cinnamaldehyde (tin),berberine (Bet),and metformin (Met) as well as their impacts on the RBP4-GLUT4 system.Methods Rat models of T2DM were established by combination of intraperitoneal injection of low-dose streptozotocin and high fat diet induction.Rats were divided into five groups:the control group,the diabetes group,the diabetes+Ber group,the diabetes+Cin group,and the diabetes+Met group.Western blotting was used to detect the serum or tissue RBP4 and GLUT4 protein levels.Results After treatment for four weeks,both Cin and Ber displayed significant hypolipidemic,hypoglycemic,and insulin sensitizing functions (P<0.01) compared with the control group.Their effects on lowering fasting plasma glucose (FPG),low density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C) and homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) seem even better than that of Met.Cin and Bet markedly lowered serum RBP4 levels and up-regulated the expression of tissue GLUT4 protein,and Cin seemed more notable in affecting these two proteins.Conclusions Both Cin and Ber display an exciting anti-diabetic efficacy in this study and may be of great value for the treatment of type 2 diabetes.Their mechanisms involve the RBP4-GLUT4 system,during which the serum RBP4 levels are lowered and the expression of tissue GLUT4 protein is up-regulated.

  4. Antidiabetic Effect of Methanolic Extract from Berberis julianae Schneid. via Activation of AMP-Activated Protein Kinase in Type 2 Diabetic Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Yang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We have investigated the antidiabetic effect and mechanism of methanolic extract of Berberis julianae Schneid. (BJSME in STZ induced Type 2 diabetes mellitus mice. T2DM mice were induced by high fat diet and low dose streptozotocin (STZ. BJSME was orally administrated at the doses of 60, 120, and 240 mg/kg/d, for 21 days. Metformin was used as positive control drug. Food intake, body weight, plasma glucose, oral glucose tolerance test, insulin tolerance test, insulin, and blood-lipid content were measured. The effects of BJSME on the glucose transporter 4 (GLUT4 translocation in L6 myotubes and the GLUT4 protein expression in skeletal muscle as well as phosphorylation of the AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK in liver and muscle were examined. In vitro and in vivo results indicate that BJSME increased GLUT4 translocation by 1.8-fold and BJSME significantly improved the oral glucose tolerance and low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C of serum and reduced body weight, glucose, and other related blood-lipid contents. The BJSME treatment also stimulated the phosphorylation of AMPK. Thus, BJSME seems to possess promising beneficial effects for the treatment of T2DM with the possible mechanism via stimulating AMPK activity.

  5. Antidiabetic effects of Aloe ferox and Aloe greatheadii var. davyana leaf gel extracts in a low-dose streptozotocin diabetes rat model

    OpenAIRE

    Lisa Botes; Md Shahidul Islam; Marlien Pieters; Du Toit Loots

    2011-01-01

    The medicinal use and commercialisation of the plants Aloe ferox and Aloe greatheadii are primarily based on research done on Aloe vera and Aloe arborescens. Consequently, in this study we investigated the possible antidiabetic effects of ethanol extracts of A. ferox and A. greatheadii var. davyana leaf gel in a streptozotocin (STZ)-induced type 2 ...

  6. Antidiabetic and pancreas-protective effects of zinc threoninate chelate in diabetic rats may be associated with its antioxidative stress ability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Kexue; Nie, Shaoping; Li, Chuan; Huang, Jianqin; Hu, Xiaobo; Li, Wenjuan; Gong, Deming; Xie, Mingyong

    2013-06-01

    Zinc exerts a wide range of important biological roles. The present study was carried out to investigate the effects of zinc threoninate chelate in blood glucose levels, lipid peroxidation, activities of antioxidant defense systems and nitrite concentration, and histology of the pancreas in diabetic rats. Wistar rats were intravenously injected with a single dose of streptozotocin to induce diabetes. Then, diabetic rats were administrated orally with zinc threoninate chelate (3, 6, and 9 mg/kg body weight) once daily for 7 weeks. Fasting blood glucose was monitored weekly. At the end of the experimental period, the diabetic rats were killed, and levels of serum insulin, malondialdehyde, and nitric oxide, activities of glutathione peroxidase, total superoxide dismutase, copper/zinc-superoxide dismutase, and nitric oxide synthase were determined; pancreas was examined histopathologically as well. Zinc threoninate chelate significantly reduced the blood glucose levels and significantly increased the serum insulin levels in diabetic rats. In addition, zinc threoninate chelate caused a significant increase in activities of antioxidant enzymes and significant decrease in nitrite concentration and malondialdehyde formation in the pancreas and serum of diabetic rats. These biochemical observations were supplemented by histopathological examination of the pancreas. These results suggested that the antidiabetic effect of zinc threoninate chelate may be related to its antioxidative stress ability in diabetic rats.

  7. Anti-diabetic effect of a combination of andrographolide-enriched extract of Andrographis paniculata (Burm f.) Nees and asiaticoside-enriched extract of Centella asiatica L. in high fructose-fat fed rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nugroho, Agung Endro; Lindawati, Novena Yety; Herlyanti, Kyky; Widyastuti, Lina; Pramono, Suwidjiyo

    2013-12-01

    Traditionally, a combination of medicinal plants is commonly used for lowering blood glucose in diabetic patients in order to provide additional benefits of the single drug. A. paniculata and C. asiatica are two traditional medicines form South Asian and Southeast Asain countries consumed by people for treating daibates mellitus and its complications. Hyperglycemia in the rats was stimulated by high fructose-fat diet that consists of 36% fructose, 15% lard, and 5% egg yolks in 0.36 g/200 g body weight for 70 days. The rats were orally administered with the combination of andrographolide-enriched extract of A. paniculata (AEEAP) leaves and asiaticoside-enriched extract of C. asiatica (AEECA) herbs from day 70 for 7 days. Antidiabetic activity was evaluated by estimating mainly the blood glucose levels and other parameters such as HDL, LDL, cholesterol and triglyceride. The results showed that combination at the ratio of 70:30 exhibited a promosing antidiabetic effect in high-fat-fructose-fed rat, and exhibited sinergistic effects on blood cholesterol and HDL levels. It can be concluded that its antidiabetic effect was better than that of single treatment of AEEAP or AEECA. That combination was also potential to develop as a blood glucose-lowering agent for diabetic patients.

  8. Antidiabetic effect of Punica granatum flowers: effect on hyperlipidemia, pancreatic cells lipid peroxidation and antioxidant enzymes in experimental diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagri, Priyanka; Ali, Mohd; Aeri, Vidhu; Bhowmik, Malay; Sultana, Shahnaz

    2009-01-01

    The present study investigated the effects of Punica granatum aqueous extract (PgAq) on streptozotocin (STZ) induced diabetic rats by measuring fasting blood glucose, lipid profiles (atherogenic index), lipid peroxidation (LPO) and activities of both non-enzymatic and enzymatic antioxidants. Diabetes was induced by single intraperitoneal injection of STZ (60 mg/kg) to albino Wistar rats. The increase in blood glucose level, total cholesterol (TC), triglycerides (TG), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), very low density lipoprotein (VLDL), LPO level with decrease in high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), reduced glutathione (GSH) content and antioxidant enzymes namely, glutathione peroxidase (GPx), glutathione reductase (GR), glutathione-S-transferase (GST), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) were the salient features observed in diabetic rats. On the other hand, oral administration of PgAq at doses of 250 mg/kg and 500 mg/kg for 21 days resulted in a significant reduction in fasting blood glucose, TC, TG, LDL-C, VLDL-C and tissue LPO levels coupled with elevation of HDL-C, GSH content and antioxidant enzymes in comparison with diabetic control group. The results suggest that PG could be used, as a dietary supplement, in the treatment of chronic diseases characterized by atherogenous lipoprotein profile, aggravated antioxidant status and impaired glucose metabolism and also in their prevention. PMID:18950673

  9. Sodium-glucose cotransporter-2 inhibitors and blood pressure decrease: a valuable effect of a novel antidiabetic class?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imprialos, Konstantinos P; Sarafidis, Pantelis A; Karagiannis, Asterios I

    2015-11-01

    Diabetes mellitus is a major issue of public health, affecting more than 300 million people worldwide. Inhibitors of the sodium-glucose cotransporter-2 (SGLT-2) in the renal proximal tubule are a novel class of agents for the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus. Inhibition of the SGLT-2 results in reduced glucose reabsorption and improvement in glycemic control. Alongside glucose excretion, SGLT-2 inhibitors also have mild natriuretic and diuretic effects, combining actions of a proximal tubule diuretic and an osmotic diuretic; these properties are expected to lead to small blood pressure (BP) reductions. Clinical studies with dapagliflozin, canagliflozin, empagliflozin, ipragliflozin, luseogliflozin, and tofogliflozin used either as monotherapy or add-on therapy and compared with placebo or active treatment have also examined the effect of these agents on BP as a secondary endpoint. Although with some differences between individual agents, all of the approved SGLT-2 inhibitors provided a mild but meaningful reduction in office SBP and DBP. Recent studies with the use of ambulatory blood pressure monitoring suggest that the magnitude of this BP reduction can be even greater. The aim of this review is to systematically summarize and present the studies reporting the effect of approved SGLT-2 inhibitors on BP. PMID:26372321

  10. Harnessing the potential clinical use of medicinal plants as anti-diabetic agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Campbell-Tofte JI

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Joan IA Campbell-Tofte,1 Per Mølgaard,2 Kaj Winther11Department of Clinical Biochemistry, Frederiksberg University Hospital, Frederiksberg, Denmark; 2Department of Medicinal Chemistry, Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, DenmarkAbstract: Diabetes is a metabolic disorder arising from complex interactions between multiple genetic and/or environmental factors. The characteristic high blood sugar levels result from either lack of the hormone insulin (type 1 diabetes, T1D, or because body tissues do not respond to the hormone (type 2 diabetes, T2D. T1D patients currently need exogenous insulin for life, while for T2D patients who do not respond to diet and exercise regimes, oral anti-diabetic drugs (OADs and sometimes insulin are administered to help keep their blood glucose as normal as possible. As neither the administration of insulin nor OADs is curative, many patients develop tissue degenerative processes that result in life-threatening diabetes comorbidities. Several surveys of medicinal plants used as anti-diabetic agents amongst different peoples have been published. Some of this interest is driven by the ongoing diabetes pandemic coupled with the inadequacies associated with the current state of-the-art care and management of the syndrome. However, there is a huge cleft between traditional medicine and modern (Western medicine, with the latter understandably demanding meaningful and scientific validation of anecdotal evidence for acceptance of the former. The main problems for clinical evaluation of medicinal plants with promising anti-diabetic properties reside both with the complexity of components of the plant materials and with the lack of full understanding of the diabetes disease etiology. This review is therefore focused on why research activities involving an integration of Systems Biology-based technologies of pharmacogenomics, metabolomics, and bioinformatics with standard clinical data

  11. Anti-Diabetic Effect of Balanced Deep-Sea Water and Its Mode of Action in High-Fat Diet Induced Diabetic Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yun Hee Shon

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we investigated the effects of balanced deep-sea water (BDSW on hyperglycemia and glucose intolerance in high-fat diet (HFD-induced diabetic C57BL/6J mice. BDSW was prepared by mixing deep-sea water (DSW mineral extracts and desalinated water to give a final hardness of 500–2000. Mice given an HFD with BDSW showed lowered fasting plasma glucose levels compared to HFD-fed mice. Oral and intraperitoneal glucose tolerance tests showed that BDSW improves impaired glucose tolerance in HFD-fed mice. Histopathological evaluation of the pancreas showed that BDSW recovers the size of the pancreatic islets of Langerhans, and increases the secretion of insulin and glucagon in HFD-fed mice. Quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction results revealed that the expression of hepatic genes involved in glucogenesis, glycogenolysis and glucose oxidation were suppressed, while those in glucose uptake, β-oxidation, and glucose oxidation in muscle were increased in mice fed HFD with BDSW. BDSW increased AMP-dependent kinase (AMPK phosphorylation in 3T3-L1 pre- and mature adipocytes and improved impaired AMPK phosphorylation in the muscles and livers of HFD-induced diabetic mice. BDSW stimulated phosphoinositol-3-kinase and AMPK pathway-mediated glucose uptake in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. Taken together, these results suggest that BDSW has potential as an anti-diabetic agent, given its ability to suppress hyperglycemia and improve glucose intolerance by increasing glucose uptake.

  12. In silico, in vitro and in vivo analyses of dipeptidyl peptidase IV inhibitory activity and the antidiabetic effect of sodium caseinate hydrolysate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsieh, Cheng-Hong; Wang, Tzu-Yuan; Hung, Chuan-Chuan; Jao, Chia-Ling; Hsieh, You-Liang; Wu, Si-Xian; Hsu, Kuo-Chiang

    2016-02-01

    The frequency (A), a novel in silico parameter, was developed by calculating the ratio of the number of truncated peptides with Xaa-proline and Xaa-alanine to all peptide fragments from a protein hydrolyzed with a specific protease. The highest in vitro DPP-IV inhibitory activity (72.7%) was observed in the hydrolysate of sodium caseinate by bromelain (Cas/BRO), and the constituent proteins of bovine casein also had relatively high A values (0.10-0.17) with BRO hydrolysis. 1CBR (the <1 kDa fraction of Cas/BRO) showed the greatest in vitro DPP-IV inhibitory activity of 77.5% and was used for in vivo test by high-fat diet-fed and low-dose streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. The daily administration of 1CBR for 6 weeks was effective to improve glycaemic control in diabetic rats. The results indicate that the novel in silico method has the potential as a screening tool to predict dietary proteins to generate DPP-IV inhibitory and antidiabetic peptides. PMID:26796955

  13. In silico, in vitro and in vivo analyses of dipeptidyl peptidase IV inhibitory activity and the antidiabetic effect of sodium caseinate hydrolysate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsieh, Cheng-Hong; Wang, Tzu-Yuan; Hung, Chuan-Chuan; Jao, Chia-Ling; Hsieh, You-Liang; Wu, Si-Xian; Hsu, Kuo-Chiang

    2016-02-01

    The frequency (A), a novel in silico parameter, was developed by calculating the ratio of the number of truncated peptides with Xaa-proline and Xaa-alanine to all peptide fragments from a protein hydrolyzed with a specific protease. The highest in vitro DPP-IV inhibitory activity (72.7%) was observed in the hydrolysate of sodium caseinate by bromelain (Cas/BRO), and the constituent proteins of bovine casein also had relatively high A values (0.10-0.17) with BRO hydrolysis. 1CBR (the <1 kDa fraction of Cas/BRO) showed the greatest in vitro DPP-IV inhibitory activity of 77.5% and was used for in vivo test by high-fat diet-fed and low-dose streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. The daily administration of 1CBR for 6 weeks was effective to improve glycaemic control in diabetic rats. The results indicate that the novel in silico method has the potential as a screening tool to predict dietary proteins to generate DPP-IV inhibitory and antidiabetic peptides.

  14. Anti-diabetic effects of hydroalcohlic juglans regia male flower extract on blood glucose level and on liver enzymes activity in intact and diabetogenized adult male rat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyyed Ebrahim Hosseini

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim: Diabetes is a metabolic disorder resulting from defects in insulin secretion or function. Walnut is a nutrient used in traditional medicine to treat diabetes. In the current study, anti-diabetic effects of the Hydroalcoholic extract of walnut male flowers on diabetogenized rats by using Streptozocin were evaluated.   Materials and Methods: Seventy two adult male Wistar rats weighing 200-225 g each were randomly selected and divided into three main groups, i.e. control, diabetic, and non-diabetic(intact The control group included 8 rats (n=8. The diabetic and non-diabetic groups covered 32 rats each. Each of these groups were divided into four 8 rats including the control, diabetic, experimental 1, 2, and 3 which received 2, 4, or 6 g/kg of the extract per day for 15 days ,respectively. The three diabetic groups were each treated with the above doses of the extract, and the fourth group received no treatment. Diabetes was induced in diabetic rats through intraperitoneal injection of 60 mg/kg of Streptozotocin. At the end, blood samples were taken from the experimental and control groups and the serum levels of insulin and glucose were measured.   Results: A significant reduction in blood sugar and increase of insulin in diabetics receiving Hydroalcoholic extract of male flowers walnut was observed compared with non-diabetic ones.   Conclusion: Hydroalcoholic extract of male Walnut flowers, due to increasing insulin, causes reduction of blood sugar.

  15. Anti-diabetic polysaccharides from natural sources: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Peng-Cheng; Zhao, Shan; Yang, Bing-You; Wang, Qiu-Hong; Kuang, Hai-Xue

    2016-09-01

    Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a metabolic disease attracted worldwide concerns, which severely impairs peoples' quality of life and is attributed to several life-threatening complications, including atherosclerosis, nephropathy and retinopathy. The current therapies for DM include mainly oral anti-diabetic drugs and insulin. However, continuous use of these causes insulin resistance and side-effects, and the demand of effective, nontoxic and affordable drugs for DM patients is eager. Several previous studies have shown that non-toxic biological macromolecules, mainly polysaccharides, possess prominent efficacies on DM. Based on these encouraging observations, a great deal of efforts have been focused on discovering anti-diabetic polysaccharides for the development of effective therapeutics for DM. This review focuses on the advancements in the anti-diabetic efficacy of various natural polysaccharides and polysaccharide complexes from 2010 to 2015. PMID:27185119

  16. The Effects of Diet and Exercise on HbA1c Levels in patients with Type 2 Diabetes under Oral Antidiabetic Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sönmez B

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective: In this study, we aimed to examine the effects of diet and exercise on diabetes control in type 2 diabetics (NIDDM who use only oral anti-diabetic drugs (OAD. Methods: 217 patients with the diagnosis of NIDDM and using OAD, who admitted to family medicine outpatient clinic between December 2012 and February 2013, were included in the study. Patients were divided into four groups according to their regular diet and exercise. Group 1: Only dieting, Group 2: Only exercising, Group 3: Both dieting and exercising, Group 4: Neither dieting nor exercising. Age, duration of diabetes, body mass index (BMI and hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c levels were compared between groups. Results: The mean age of patients participating in the study was 54.5±10.0 years (p=0.878. 62.7% were women and 37.3% were men. The median duration of diabetes, mean BMI, median HbA1c levels were 36 months, 30.2±4.6 kg/m2 and 7.1. Statistically significant difference was not detected (diabetes duration; p=0.188, BMI; p=0,163 and HbA1c; p=0,290. Median HbA1c levels of groups were 7.0; 7.3; 6.8 and 7.2 respectively. No other difference was observed in the other comparisons between groups (p>0.05. Conclusion: There are positive effects of diet and exercise on diabetes control in type 2 diabetics who use only OAD. Diet and exercise have better control in diabetes patients on OAD. However these effects are more noticeable in patients who tackle implement diet and exercise together.

  17. SOME EFFECTS ASSOCIATED WITH THE USE OF THE BIOPREPARATION FROM Picralima nitida SEEDS EXTRACT AS ANTIDIABETIC AGENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. A. Akinloye

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The study was aimed to investigate some untoward effects that could be associated with the use of P. nitida as hypoglycemic agent using some biochemical and histological evidences. The antioxidant property of the plant was determined by using 1, 1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radical scavenging activity. Biochemical studies in plasma using determining the testes such as blood glucose, alanine and aspartate aminotransferases, gamma glutamyl transferase activities, electrolytes (sodium, potassium and bicarbonate, lipid peroxidation levels, haematological parameters (red blood cell and whole blood cell, platelets, and lymphocyte counts, blood glucose level, lipid profile, and also liver and kidney function tests were performed. Histopathological examinations of the liver, kidney and pancreas were done following the standard Heamatoxylin and Eosin staining method. Methanol extract of the seeds has the highest antioxidant level (36.73%, indicating higher free radical scavenging activity; followed by aqueous extract (19.36% and coconut water extract (4.09%. There was significant reduction (p<0.05 in blood glucose of all the treated rats at the end of the experiment (ranging from 55.59% to 41.66%. Significant increase (p<0.05 in body weights of the treated rats were also observed at the end of the treatment (ranging from 9.26% to 38.89%. There was a significant (p<0.05 increase in the hematological parameters in all the extract treated groups. There was also significant decrease (p<0.05 in the lipid profiles of the treated groups. Plasma studied enzymes activities decreased in all treated groups. Ionoregulatory disturbances observed included hyperkalemia and hypernatremia in all the treated groups but were reduced significantly (p<0.05 at the end of the treatment. Urea and bicarbonate concentrations and also of lipid peroxidation level decreased significantly in all the groups. The histopathological studies revealed that the extracts were unable to

  18. Design, synthesis and antidiabetic evaluation of oxazolone derivatives

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    G Mariappan; B P Saha; Sriparna Datta; Deepak Kumar; P K Haldar

    2011-05-01

    A series of ten novel (2a-j) 4-arylidine 2-[4-methoxy phenyl] oxazol-5-one derivatives were synthesized and assayed in vivo to investigate their antidiabetic activities by streptozotocin-induced model in rat. These derivatives showed considerable biological efficacy when compared to rosiglitazone, a potent and wellknown antidiabetic agent as a reference drug. All the compounds were effective, amongst them 2d shows more prominent activity at 50 mg/k.g.p.o. The experimental results are statistically significant at P < 0.01 level.

  19. Antidiabetic activity of Rheum emodi in Alloxan induced diabetic rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radhika.R

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The present study was carried out to evaluate the antidiabetic effect of Rheum emodi rhizome extract and to study the activities of hexokinase, aldolase and phosphoglucoisomerase, and gluconeogenic enzymes such as glucose-6- phosphatase and fructose 1,6-diphosphatase in liver and kidney of normal and alloxan induced diabetic rats. Oral administration of 75 % ethanolic extract of R. emodi (250 mg/kg body weight for 30 days, resulted in decrease inthe activities of glucose-6-phosphatase, fructose-1,6-disphosphatase, aldolase and an increase in the activity of phosphoglucoisomerase and hexokinase in tissues. The study clearly shows that the R.emodi possesses antidiabetic activity.

  20. [Anti-diabetics and chronic kidney disease].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garofalo, Carlo; Iazzetta, Nicolangelo; Camocardi, Andrea; Pacilio, Mario; Iodice, Carmela; Minutolo, Roberto; De Nicola, Luca; Conte, Giuseppe

    2015-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus (DM) is the most important non-communicable disease after hypertension. Prevalence of type 2 DM has progressively increased over the last decades. In Italy, 11.8% of the general adult population can be identified as diabetic. The major complication of DM is diabetic nephropathy (DM-CKD), which develops in approximately one-third of diabetics. Achieving optimal glycemic control is the first therapeutic goal in the management of DM-CKD. In recent years, new antidiabetic drugs have been marketed (GLP1 analogues, DPP-4 inhibitors, SGLT-2 inhibitors) to ameliorate glycemia in patients nave or treated by means of traditional agents, such as sulfonylureas, metformin, glinides, insulin. However, use of these drugs in DM-CKD should be evaluated carefully, mainly because of the higher risk of hypoglycemia that requires dosing adjustments. Metformin still represents an adequate choice if proper dose adjustments are made on the basis of renal function. Sulfonylureas with limited renal clearance, i.e., gliquidone, glipizide and gliclazide are an alternative to metformin and more effective than repaglinide on glycemic control. Other antidiabetic agents with potential nephroprotective effects, namely DPP-4 inhibitors, incretin analogues and SGLT-2 inhibitors, may allow nephroprotective effects independent of glycemic control. Insulin remains the cornerstone of therapy when oral therapy is no longer effective. PMID:26480253

  1. Fumosorinone, a novel PTP1B inhibitor, activates insulin signaling in insulin-resistance HepG2 cells and shows anti-diabetic effect in diabetic KKAy mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Insulin resistance is a characteristic feature of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and is characterized by defects in insulin signaling. Protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B (PTP1B) is a key negative regulator of the insulin signaling pathways, and its increased activity and expression are implicated in the pathogenesis of insulin resistance. Therefore, the inhibition of PTP1B is anticipated to become a potential therapeutic strategy to treat T2DM. Fumosorinone (FU), a new natural product isolated from insect fungi Isaria fumosorosea, was found to inhibit PTP1B activity in our previous study. Herein, the effects of FU on insulin resistance and mechanism in vitro and in vivo were investigated. FU increased the insulin-provoked glucose uptake in insulin-resistant HepG2 cells, and also reduced blood glucose and lipid levels of type 2 diabetic KKAy mice. FU decreased the expression of PTP1B both in insulin-resistant HepG2 cells and in liver tissues of diabetic KKAy mice. Furthermore, FU increased the phosphorylation of IRβ, IRS-2, Akt, GSK3β and Erk1/2 in insulin-resistant HepG2 cells, as well as the phosphorylation of IRβ, IRS-2, Akt in liver tissues of diabetic KKAy mice. These results showed that FU increased glucose uptake and improved insulin resistance by down-regulating the expression of PTP1B and activating the insulin signaling pathway, suggesting that it may possess antidiabetic properties. - Highlights: • Fumosorinone is a new PTP1B inhibitor isolated from insect pathogenic fungi. • Fumosorinone attenuated the insulin resistance both in vitro and in vivo. • Fumosorinone decreased the expression of PTP1B both in vitro and in vivo. • Fumosorinone activated the insulin signaling pathway both in vitro and in vivo

  2. Fumosorinone, a novel PTP1B inhibitor, activates insulin signaling in insulin-resistance HepG2 cells and shows anti-diabetic effect in diabetic KKAy mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Zhi-Qin [College of Life Sciences, Key Laboratory of Medicinal Chemistry and Molecular Diagnosis of Ministry of Education, Hebei University, Baoding 071002 (China); College of Pharmaceutical Sciences, key laboratory of pharmaceutical quality control of Hebei province, Hebei University, Baoding 071002 (China); Liu, Ting; Chen, Chuan [College of Life Sciences, Key Laboratory of Medicinal Chemistry and Molecular Diagnosis of Ministry of Education, Hebei University, Baoding 071002 (China); Li, Ming-Yan; Wang, Zi-Yu; Chen, Ruo-song; Wei, Gui-xiang; Wang, Xiao-yi [College of Pharmaceutical Sciences, key laboratory of pharmaceutical quality control of Hebei province, Hebei University, Baoding 071002 (China); Luo, Du-Qiang, E-mail: duqiangluo999@126.com [College of Life Sciences, Key Laboratory of Medicinal Chemistry and Molecular Diagnosis of Ministry of Education, Hebei University, Baoding 071002 (China)

    2015-05-15

    Insulin resistance is a characteristic feature of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and is characterized by defects in insulin signaling. Protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B (PTP1B) is a key negative regulator of the insulin signaling pathways, and its increased activity and expression are implicated in the pathogenesis of insulin resistance. Therefore, the inhibition of PTP1B is anticipated to become a potential therapeutic strategy to treat T2DM. Fumosorinone (FU), a new natural product isolated from insect fungi Isaria fumosorosea, was found to inhibit PTP1B activity in our previous study. Herein, the effects of FU on insulin resistance and mechanism in vitro and in vivo were investigated. FU increased the insulin-provoked glucose uptake in insulin-resistant HepG2 cells, and also reduced blood glucose and lipid levels of type 2 diabetic KKAy mice. FU decreased the expression of PTP1B both in insulin-resistant HepG2 cells and in liver tissues of diabetic KKAy mice. Furthermore, FU increased the phosphorylation of IRβ, IRS-2, Akt, GSK3β and Erk1/2 in insulin-resistant HepG2 cells, as well as the phosphorylation of IRβ, IRS-2, Akt in liver tissues of diabetic KKAy mice. These results showed that FU increased glucose uptake and improved insulin resistance by down-regulating the expression of PTP1B and activating the insulin signaling pathway, suggesting that it may possess antidiabetic properties. - Highlights: • Fumosorinone is a new PTP1B inhibitor isolated from insect pathogenic fungi. • Fumosorinone attenuated the insulin resistance both in vitro and in vivo. • Fumosorinone decreased the expression of PTP1B both in vitro and in vivo. • Fumosorinone activated the insulin signaling pathway both in vitro and in vivo.

  3. Anti-diabetic effect of amorphastilbol through PPARα/γ dual activation in db/db mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Woojung; Ham, Jungyeob; Kwon, Hak Cheol [Natural Medicine Center, KIST Gangneung Institute, Gangneung 210-340 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Yong Kee, E-mail: yksnbk@sookmyung.ac.kr [College of Pharmacy, Sookmyung Women’s University, Seoul 140-742 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Su-Nam, E-mail: snkim@kist.re.kr [Natural Medicine Center, KIST Gangneung Institute, Gangneung 210-340 (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-03-01

    Highlights: ► Amorphastilbol stimulates the transcriptional activities of both PPARα and PPARγ. ► Amorphastilbol improves glucose and lipid impairment in db/db mice. ► There are no side effects, such as hepatomegaly, in amorphastilbol-treated mice. ► Amorphastilbol can be used as a potential therapeutic agent against T2DM. - Abstract: Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) have been considered as desirable targets for metabolic syndrome treatments, even though their specific agonists have several side effects, including body weight gain, edema, and tissue failure. The effects of amorphastilbol (APH) on glucose- and lipid metabolism were investigated with in vitro 3T3-L1 adipocyte systems and in vivo db/db mice model. APH selectively stimulates the transcriptional activities of both PPARα and PPARγ, which are able to enhance fatty acid oxidation and glucose utilization. Furthermore, APH improves glucose and lipid impairment in db/db mice. More importantly, there are no significant side effects, such as weight gain or hepatomegaly, in APH-treated animals, implying that APH do not adversely affect liver or lipid metabolism. All our data suggest that APH can be used as potential therapeutic agents against type 2 diabetes and related metabolic disorders, including obesity, by enhancing glucose and lipid metabolism.

  4. Anti-diabetic effect of amorphastilbol through PPARα/γ dual activation in db/db mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ► Amorphastilbol stimulates the transcriptional activities of both PPARα and PPARγ. ► Amorphastilbol improves glucose and lipid impairment in db/db mice. ► There are no side effects, such as hepatomegaly, in amorphastilbol-treated mice. ► Amorphastilbol can be used as a potential therapeutic agent against T2DM. - Abstract: Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) have been considered as desirable targets for metabolic syndrome treatments, even though their specific agonists have several side effects, including body weight gain, edema, and tissue failure. The effects of amorphastilbol (APH) on glucose- and lipid metabolism were investigated with in vitro 3T3-L1 adipocyte systems and in vivo db/db mice model. APH selectively stimulates the transcriptional activities of both PPARα and PPARγ, which are able to enhance fatty acid oxidation and glucose utilization. Furthermore, APH improves glucose and lipid impairment in db/db mice. More importantly, there are no significant side effects, such as weight gain or hepatomegaly, in APH-treated animals, implying that APH do not adversely affect liver or lipid metabolism. All our data suggest that APH can be used as potential therapeutic agents against type 2 diabetes and related metabolic disorders, including obesity, by enhancing glucose and lipid metabolism

  5. 小球藻和螺旋藻的营养成分及其降血糖活性比较%Comparison of Chlorella and Spirulina on Nutrients and Anti-diabetic Effects

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    史珅; 张旗; 王娜; 尚小玉; 栾少萌; 艾君

    2015-01-01

    Providing technical basis for product development and application , by comparing the chlorella and spirulina nutrition composition and anti-diabetic effects. Contrast the concentration of nucleotide, amino acid, inositol, calcium, zinc, chlorophyll, folic acid, biotin in chlorella pyrenoidosa and DunDing spirulina, as well as auxiliary anti-diabetic function , via the biochemical methods and analytical chemistry recorded in national standard, the line mark and “Health food inspection and evaluation of technical specifications”. The results show that the samples of chlorella pyrenoidosa contained lower nucleotide content , especially lower purine nucleotides, higher contents of calcium, zinc, chlorophyll, biotin and folic acid, which could effectively reduce the glycemia concentration in hyperglycemia mice; in another word it had anti-diabetic effects. It is clear that spirulina and chlorella could be used in the development of hypoglycemic kind of health food for their different advantages in nutrients, anti-diabetic function and improving glucose tolerance.%通过对比小球藻和螺旋藻的营养成分和辅助降血糖功能,为产品开发应用提供技术依据。采用国标、行标和《保健食品检验与评价技术规范》等规定的生物化学、分析化学检测方法,对比蛋白核小球藻、钝顶螺旋藻样品的核苷酸、氨基酸、肌醇、钙、锌、叶绿素、叶酸、生物素含量,以及辅助降血糖功能。结果发现,实验中采样的蛋白核小球藻含有更低的核苷酸含量,尤其是更低的嘌呤核苷酸,更高的钙、锌、叶绿素、叶酸和生物素含量,并可以有效降低高血糖小鼠的空腹血糖,具有降血糖功效。可见,螺旋藻和小球藻在营养成分、降低空腹血糖和改善糖耐量方面,具有不同优势,在开发降糖类保健食品时可以配合使用。

  6. Effect of the anti-diabetic drug metformin in hepatocellular carcinoma in vitro and in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyoshi, Hisaaki; Kato, Kiyohito; Iwama, Hisakazu; Maeda, Emiko; Sakamoto, Teppei; Fujita, Koji; Toyota, Yuka; Tani, Joji; Nomura, Takako; Mimura, Shima; Kobayashi, Mitsuyoshi; Morishita, Asahiro; Kobara, Hideki; Mori, Hirohito; Yoneyama, Hirohito; Deguchi, Akihiro; Himoto, Takashi; Kurokohchi, Kazutaka; Okano, Keiichi; Suzuki, Yasuyuki; Murao, Koji; Masaki, Tsutomu

    2013-12-30

    Metformin is a commonly used oral anti-hyperglycemic agent of the biguanide family. Recent studies suggest that metformin may reduce cancer risk and improve prognosis. However, the antitumor mechanism of metformin in several types of cancers, including hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), has not been elucidated. The goal of the present study was to evaluate the effects of metformin on HCC cell proliferation in vitro and in vivo, and to study microRNAs (miRNAs) associated with the antitumor effect of metformin in vitro. We used the cell lines Alex, HLE and Huh7, and normal hepatocytes to study the effects of metformin on human HCC cells. In an in vivo study, athymic nude mice bearing xenograft tumors were treated with metformin or left untreated. Tumor growth was recorded after 4 weeks, and the expression of cell cycle‑related proteins was determined. Metformin inhibited the proliferation of Alex, HLE and Huh7 cells in vitro and in vivo. Metformin blocked the cell cycle in G0/G1 in vitro and in vivo. This blockade was accompanied by a strong decrease of G1 cyclins, especially cyclin D1, cyclin E and cyclin-dependent kinase 4 (Cdk4). In addition, microRNA (miRNA) expression was markedly altered by the treatment with metformin in vitro and in vivo. In addition, various miRNAs induced by metformin also may contribute to the suppression of tumor growth. Our results demonstrate that metformin inhibits the growth of HCC, possibly by inducing G1 cell cycle arrest through the alteration of microRNAs. PMID:24378856

  7. Novel Small Molecule Agonist of TGR5 Possesses Anti-Diabetic Effects but Causes Gallbladder Filling in Mice.

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    Daniel A Briere

    Full Text Available Activation of TGR5 via bile acids or bile acid analogs leads to the release of glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1 from intestine, increases energy expenditure in brown adipose tissue, and increases gallbladder filling with bile. Here, we present compound 18, a non-bile acid agonist of TGR5 that demonstrates robust GLP-1 secretion in a mouse enteroendocrine cell line yet weak GLP-1 secretion in a human enteroendocrine cell line. Acute administration of compound 18 to mice increased GLP-1 and peptide YY (PYY secretion, leading to a lowering of the glucose excursion in an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT, while chronic administration led to weight loss. In addition, compound 18 showed a dose-dependent increase in gallbladder filling. Lastly, compound 18 failed to show similar pharmacological effects on GLP-1, PYY, and gallbladder filling in Tgr5 knockout mice. Together, these results demonstrate that compound 18 is a mouse-selective TGR5 agonist that induces GLP-1 and PYY secretion, and lowers the glucose excursion in an OGTT, but only at doses that simultaneously induce gallbladder filling. Overall, these data highlight the benefits and potential risks of using TGR5 agonists to treat diabetes and metabolic diseases.

  8. Immunomodulatory and Antidiabetic Effects of a New Herbal Preparation (HemoHIM on Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetic Mice

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    Jong-Jin Kim

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available HemoHIM (a new herbal preparation of three edible herbs: Angelica gigas Nakai, Cnidium officinale Makino, and Paeonia japonica Miyabe was developed to protect immune, hematopoietic, and self-renewal tissues against radiation. This study determined whether or not HemoHIM could alter hyperglycemia and the immune response in diabetic mice. Both nondiabetic and diabetic mice were orally administered HemoHIM (100 mg/kg once a day for 4 weeks. Diabetes was induced by single injection of streptozotocin (STZ, 200 mg/kg, i.p.. In diabetic mice, HemoHIM effectively improved hyperglycemia and glucose tolerance compared to the diabetic control group as well as elevated plasma insulin levels with preservation of insulin staining in pancreatic β-cells. HemoHIM treatment restored thymus weight, white blood cells, lymphocyte numbers, and splenic lymphocyte populations (CD4+ T and CD8+ T, which were reduced in diabetic mice, as well as IFN-γ production in response to Con A stimulation. These results indicate that HemoHIM may have potential as a glucose-lowering and immunomodulatory agent by enhancing the immune function of pancreatic β-cells in STZ-induced diabetic mice.

  9. Antidiabetic claims of Tinospora cordifolia(Willd.)Miers:critical appraisal and role in therapy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Rohit; Sharma; Hetal; Amin; Galib; Pradeep; Kumar; Prajapati

    2015-01-01

    Currently,available conventional options for diabetes mellitus have certain limitations of their own,and options from medicinal plants with antihyperglycemic activities are being searched to meet the need.Antidiabetic properties of Tmospora cordifolia are highly appreciated in Ayurveda and even in recent modern researches.Several studies on its extracts(viz,immunemodulatory.anti-hyperglycemic.antioxidant,adaptogenic.hepatoprotective.hormone regulator etc.) and isolated phytoconstituents(like tinosporin,berberine.jatrorrhizine etc.) have reported that it is a preventive and curative antidiabetic herb,which are substantiated by clinical trials.Scattered information pertaining to antidiabetic potential of Tmospora is reported.Present review encompasses(i) in-depth information of reported antidiabetic activities of the plant in light of available experimental and clinical studies,and(ii) understanding on the possible mechanism of its action in combating the complex pathology of diabetes.

  10. Antidiabetic and hypolipidemic activities of ethanolic leaf extract and fractions of Melanthera scandens

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    Enomfon J Akpan

    2012-07-01

    Conclusions: These results suggest that the leaf extract/fractions of M. scandens possesses antidiabetic effect on alloxan induced diabetic rats and this justifies its use in ethno medicine and can be exploited in the management of diabetes.

  11. Effect of number and type of antidiabetes medications on adherence and glycemia of ambulatory type 2 diabetes patients in southwestern Nigeria

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    Adisa R

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To determine the influence of number and type of antidiabetes medications on adherence and glycemia of ambulatory type 2 diabetes patients in southwestern Nigeria.Methods: A cross-sectional study using pre-tested structured questionnaire among 176 consented patients recruited from the endocrinology clinics of two teaching hospitals between November, 2010 and January, 2011; and a retrospective review of case notes of the cohort for details of prescribed medications and blood glucose values. Descriptive statistics were used to summarize the data. Tests of proportions were evaluated using Chi-square or Fisher’s exact test as appropriate. The differences in mean fasting blood glucose (FBG between and among categorical variables were compared using student t-test and ANOVA respectively, with p4 medications. Adherence was better among patients on >4 medications compared to those on ≤4 medications (p=0.05. However, patients on >4 medications were mostly older adults (>60 years of age, and they were in the majority (66.7% who had tertiary education compared to 33.3% of those on ≤4 medications who had tertiary education (p=0.02. Adherence rates to antidiabetes medications were in the ranking of oral antidiabetes medications (OAM alone (50.0% > insulin plus OAM (44.0% > insulin alone (41.7% with no significant difference (p=0.77. There was a significant difference in mean FBG among patients on >4 medications (172.1 ±61.1mg/dL versus (198.8 ±83.8mg/dL among those on ≤4 medications (p=0.02. Conclusion: Prescribing more than four medications is linked to improved adherence and glycemic outcome. However, age and educational background of patients are important factors that need to be considered when prescribing multiple medications for type 2 diabetes.

  12. Antidiabetic and antioxidant activities of ethanolic extract of Semecarpus anacardium (Linn.) bark

    OpenAIRE

    Ali, Md Ashraf; Wahed, Mir Imam Ibne; Khatune, Naznin Ara; Rahman, Bytul Mokaddesur; Barman, Ranjan Kumar; Islam, Md. Rafiqul

    2015-01-01

    Background Diabetes mellitus is a global health problem and constantly increasing day by day. The number of diabetic people in world is expected to rise to 366 million in 2030. The available drugs for diabetes, insulin or oral hypoglycemic agents have one or more side effects and search for new antidiabetic drugs with minimal or no side effects from medicinal plants is a challenging for us. The present study was undertaken to investigate the antidiabetic and antioxidant activity of Semecarpus...

  13. Evaluation of Antioxidant, Antidiabetic and Anticholinesterase Activities of Smallanthus sonchifolius Landraces and Correlation with Their Phytochemical Profiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russo, Daniela; Valentão, Patrícia; Andrade, Paula B; Fernandez, Eloy C; Milella, Luigi

    2015-01-01

    The present study aimed to investigate the phytochemical profile of leaf methanol extracts of fourteen Smallanthus sonchifolius (yacon) landraces and their antioxidant, anticholinesterase and antidiabetic activities that could lead to the finding of more effective agents for the treatment and management of Alzheimer's disease and diabetes. For this purpose, antioxidant activity was assessed using different tests: ferric reducing ability power (FRAP), 2,2-diphenyl-1-picryl hydrazyl (DPPH), nitric oxide (˙NO) and superoxide (O2˙-) scavenging and lipid peroxidation inhibition assays. Anticholinesterase activity was investigated by quantifying the acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and butyrylcholinesterase (BChE) inhibitory activities, whereas antidiabetic activity was investigated by α-amylase and α-glucosidase inhibition tests. To understand the contribution of metabolites, phytochemical screening was also performed by high performance liquid chromatography-diode array detector (HPLC-DAD) system. Among all, methanol extract of PER09, PER04 and ECU44 landraces exhibited the highest relative antioxidant capacity index (RACI). ECU44 was found to be rich in 4,5-di-O-caffeoylquinic acid (CQA) and 3,5-di-O-CQA and displayed a good α-amylase and α-glucosidase inhibition, showing the lowest IC50 values. Flavonoids, instead, seem to be involved in the AChE and BChE inhibition. The results of this study revealed that the bioactive compound content differences could be determinant for the medicinal properties of this plant especially for antioxidant and antidiabetic activities. PMID:26263984

  14. Screening of antidiabetic and antioxidant activities of medicinal plants

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Amal Bakr Shori

    2015-01-01

    Diabetes is a common metabolic disorder characterized by abnormaly increased plasma glucose levels. Postprandial hyperglycemia plays an essential role in development of type-2 diabetes. Inhibitors of carbohydrate-hydrolyzing enzymes (such as α-glucosidase and α-amylase) offer an effective strategy to regulate/prevent hyperglycemia by controling starch breakdown. Natural α-amylase and α-glucosidase inhibitors, as wel as antioxidants from plant-based sources, offer a source of dietary ingredients that affect human physiological function in order to treat diabetes. Several research studies have investigated the effectiveness of plant-based inhibitors of α-amylase and α-glucosidase, as wel as their antioxidant activity. The aim of this review is to summarize the antidiabetic and antioxidant properties of several medicinal plants around the world. Half inhibitory concentration (IC50,for enzyme suppression) and half effective concentration (EC50, for antioxidant activity) values of less than 500 μg/mL were deifned as the most potent plant-based inhibitors (in vitro) and are expected to provide interesting candidates for herbal treatment of diabetes, as foods, supplements, or reifned drugs.

  15. A BRIEF ON DIABETIC, AND ANTIDIABETIC PLANTS FOUND IN EASTERN UTTARPRADESH

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    MISHRA JHANSEE

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Traditional Medicines derived from medicinal plants are used by about 60% of the world’s population. This review focuses on Indian Herbal drugs and plants used in the treatment of diabetes, especially in India. Diabetes is an important human ailment afflicting many from various walks of life in different countries. In India it is proving to be a major health problem, especially in the urban areas. Though there are various approaches to reduce the ill effects of diabetes and its secondary complications, herbal formulations are preferred due to lesser side effects and low cost. A list of medicinal plants with proven antidiabetic and related beneficial effects and of herbal drugs used in treatment of diabetes is compiled. These include, Allium sativum, Eugenia jambolana, Momordica charantia Ocimum sanctum, Phyllanthus amarus, Pterocarpus marsupium, Tinospora cordifolia, Trigonella foenum graecum and Withania somnifera. One of the etiologic factors implicated in the development of diabetes and its complications is the damage induced by free radicals and hence an antidiabetic compound with antioxidant properties would be more beneficial. Therefore information on antioxidant effects of these medicinal plants is also included.

  16. Standardization of some herbal antidiabetic drugs in polyherbal formulation

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    Harinarayan Singh Chandel

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Ayurvedic formulations are used to treat a wide variety of diseases including diabetes mellitus Standardization of herbal formulation is essential in order to assess the quality of drugs. The present paper reports standardization of eight herbal anti-diabetic drugs−Momordica charantia (seeds, Syzigium cumini (seeds, Trigonella foenum (seeds, Azadirachta indica (leaves, Emblica offi cinalis (fruits, Curcuma longa (rhizomes, Gymnema sylvestre (leaves, Pterocarpus marsupium (heart-wood individually and in polyherbal marketed samples of Baidyanath Madhumehari Churna Material and Methods: Shivayu Madhuhari Churna, Meghdut Madhushoonya Churna and were compared to the in-house preparation for physicochemical properties. Results and Conclusions: The limits obtained from the different physicochemical parameters of the individual eight herbal drugs and the marketed formulations could be used as reference standard for standardization of the anti-diabetic drugs in a quality control laboratory.

  17. Ficus Deltoidea: A potential source for new oral antidiabetic agent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ficus deltoidea or locally known as Mas Cotek is one of the common medicinal plant used in Malaysia. Ethno botanical approaches showed that this plant possess antidiabetic property. Previous study had shown that F. deltoidea reduced hyperglycemia in type I diabetic rats at different prandial state. This study was done to elucidate the possible antihyperglycemic mechanisms of F. deltoidea. The results showed that F. deltoidea significantly stimulated insulin secretion from pancreatic β-cells with the highest magnitude of stimulation was 7.31-fold (p50 value was 4.15±0.25 mg/ml. Kinetic analysis of the enzyme activity revealed the F. deltoidea exhibited a mixed-type inhibition mechanism against sucrase activity. Such observations showed that F. deltoidea has the potential to be developed as new oral antidiabetic agent for the treatment of diabetes mellitus. (author)

  18. In vitro and in silico antidiabetic activity of pyran ester derivative isolated from Tragia cannabina

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Vaiyapuri Sivajothi; Shruthi Shirur Dakappa

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the in vitro antidiabetic effects of isolated 4-Oxo-4H-pyran-2,6-dicarboxylic acid bis-[6-methyl-heptyl] ester from the chloroform extract of root of Tragia cannabina (T. cannabina) and AMP kinase activation property of the isolated compound.Methods:chromatographed over silica gel 60-120 mesh of column length 100 cm and diameter 3 cm. Elution was carried out with solvents and solvent mixtures of increasing polarities. Then the chloroform extract was used for isolation. In vitro antidiabetic activity was performed with fertile eggs of White Leghorn chicks by induction of diabetes by streptozotocin.Results:The roots of T. cannabina were collected and extracted with ethanol [95% v/v] then formation of hydrogen bond and consuming less binding energy, which is good when compared to orientation of standard drug metformin. In in vitro antidiabetic evaluation by streptozotocin treated chick embryo the administration of isolated compound at a doses of 0.5 mg/egg and 1 mg/egg produced a significant reduction in the blood glucose levels in a dose dependant manner (P<0.01). The blood glucose level of diabetic control was (244.20±12.64) mg/dL, whereas it was (207.40±2.43) mg/dL (P<0.001) for isolated compound 0.5 mg/egg and 174.800±2.410 mg/dL (P<0.001) for 1 mg/ egg of the isolated compound.Conclusions:The significant glucose levels were reduced (P<0.01) after administration of the The isolated pyran ester binds very efficiently within the active pocket of AMPK with the pyran ester isolated from T. cannabina to streptozotocin treated chick embryo.

  19. ANTIDIABETIC ACTIVITY OF CICHORIUM INTYBUS L. SEEDS ON STZ-INDUCED DIABETIC RATS

    OpenAIRE

    Raad A Kaskoos

    2012-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus is a chronic disorder of metabolism caused by an absolute or relative lack of insulin. WHO recommends evaluation of the antidiabetic potential of more and more plants to find a tenable cure for the disease. The folkloric claim that Cichorium intybus seeds are very effective in diabetes and its manifestations prompted us to evaluate its antidiabetic potential. C. intybus L. (Asteraceae), popularly known as Kasini, was first introduced by Prophet Mohammed 1400 years ago. The p...

  20. Effective Transport Properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mauri, Roberto

    In this chapter we study a particular case of multiphase systems, namely two-phase materials in which one of the phases is randomly dispersed in the other, so that the composite can be viewed on a macroscale as an effective continuum, with well defined properties. In general, the theoretical determination of the parameter for an effective medium requires, as a rule, the solution of a corresponding transport problem at the microscale, which takes into account the morphology of the system and its evolution. As the mathematical problem is well-posed on a microscale, this can be accomplished using, for example, the multiple scale approach shown in Chap. 11 ; however, the task requires massive computations and is therefore difficult to implement from the practical standpoint. Here, instead, we focus on a deterministic approach to the problem, where the geometry and spatial configuration of the particles comprising the included phase are given and the solution to the microscale problem is therefore sought analytically. As examples, we study the effective thermal conductivity of solid reinforced materials (Sect. 10.1), the effective viscosity of non-colloidal suspensions (Sect. 10.2), the effective permeability of porous materials (10.3) and the effective self- and gradient diffusivities of colloidal suspensions (Sect. 10.4). Then, in Sect. 10.5, an alternative dynamic definition of the transport coefficients is considered, which can also serve as a basis to determine the effective properties of complex systems.

  1. SGLT-2 inhibitors: the glucosuric antidiabetics

    OpenAIRE

    Rekha Thaddanee; Ajeet Kumar Khilnani; Gurudas Khilnani

    2013-01-01

    Despite availability of a number of oral antidiabetics, a sizeable population of diabetics remains uncontrolled. Thus there is growing need of new group of drugs for diabetic control. Understanding renal conservation of glucose by efficient reabsorption through sodium glucose cotransporter-2 (SGLT-2) has paved way for development of an entirely new group of drugs, the SGLT-2 inhibitors. These glucosuric antidiabetic agents have shown promise in early clinical studies. Canagliflozin is recentl...

  2. Continuous-Flow Synthesis of Deuterium-Labeled Antidiabetic Chalcones: Studies towards the Selective Deuteration of the Alkynone Core.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ötvös, Sándor B; Hsieh, Chi-Ting; Wu, Yang-Chang; Li, Jih-Heng; Chang, Fang-Rong; Fülöp, Ferenc

    2016-01-01

    Flow chemistry-based syntheses of deuterium-labeled analogs of important antidiabetic chalcones were achieved via highly controlled partial C≡C bond deuteration of the corresponding 1,3-diphenylalkynones. The benefits of a scalable continuous process in combination with on-demand electrolytic D2 gas generation were exploited to suppress undesired over-reactions and to maximize reaction rates simultaneously. The novel deuterium-containing chalcone derivatives may have interesting biological effects and improved metabolic properties as compared with the parent compounds. PMID:26959006

  3. Continuous-Flow Synthesis of Deuterium-Labeled Antidiabetic Chalcones: Studies towards the Selective Deuteration of the Alkynone Core

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sándor B. Ötvös

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Flow chemistry-based syntheses of deuterium-labeled analogs of important antidiabetic chalcones were achieved via highly controlled partial C≡C bond deuteration of the corresponding 1,3-diphenylalkynones. The benefits of a scalable continuous process in combination with on-demand electrolytic D2 gas generation were exploited to suppress undesired over-reactions and to maximize reaction rates simultaneously. The novel deuterium-containing chalcone derivatives may have interesting biological effects and improved metabolic properties as compared with the parent compounds.

  4. In Vitro anti-diabetic activity of aqueous extract of the medicinal plants Nigella sativa, Eugenia jambolana, Andrographis paniculata and Gymnema sylvestre

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    Arunachalam Sathiavelu

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: In vitro analysis of the anti-diabetic effect of aqueous extracts of the medicinal plants Nigella sativa, Eugenia jambolana, Andrographis paniculata, Gymnema sylvestre. Methods: Aqueous extracts of the plants were prepared by maceration. They were then tested for inhibition of alpha-amylase activity by DNSA colour reagent. They were tested for their ability to hinder diffusion of glucose across a dialysis membrane. Results: The aqueous extract of Nigella sativa showed maximum inhibition of alpha-amylase activity and a strong hindrance to diffusion of glucose across a dialysis membrane. Andrographis paniculata showed both a strong inhibition of alpha-amylase and a significant hindrance to the diffusion of glucose across the dialysis membrane. Gymnema sylvestre showed low inhibition of -amylase activity, but it showed maximum hindrance to the diffusion of glucose across the dialysis membrane. Nigella sativa was found to possess maximum anti-diabetic properties. Conclusions: The findings indicate that all the above plants possess antidiabetic properties too varying degrees. They can be used to develop natural drugs which may be used in lieu of commonly used strong allopathic drugs which possess a number of harmful side effects.

  5. Cellular localisation of the kinin B1R in the pancreas of streptozotocin-treated rat and the anti-diabetic effect of the antagonist SSR240612.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tidjane, Nejla; Gaboury, Louis; Couture, Réjean

    2016-04-01

    The mechanism by which kinin B1 receptor (B1R) contributes to type 1 diabetes is addressed by determining the impact of its inhibition on diabetes and on its pancreatic expression and cellular localisation on immunocompetent cells and primary sensory C-fibres. Rats were made diabetic with streptozotocin (STZ). On day 4, they were treated daily for 7 days with a B1R antagonist (SSR240612, 10 mg/kg) or its vehicle. The surviving β-cells were measured by immunostaining. The expression of B1R, iNOS, TNF-α, macrophages, TCD4+, CGRP and TRPV1 was measured by Western blotting, qRT-PCR and immunofluorescence. Macrophages and TCD4+ lymphocytes were absent in control, but distributed abundantly in the pancreas of STZ-diabetic rats. B1R was upregulated on these immune cells infiltrating the diabetic rat pancreas while it was not expressed on primary sensory C-fibres even if the expression of TRPV1 and CGRP was enhanced. SSR240612 prevented the infiltration of macrophages and TCD4+ lymphocytes and the upregulation of B1R, iNOS, TNF-α and TRPV1. SSR240612 corrected hyperglycaemia and hypoinsulinaemia by improving the Langerhans islets survival or regeneration. It is concluded that kinin B1R antagonism exerts anti-diabetic action by preventing the infiltration of immune cells in the pancreas and by preserving the integrity of Langerhans islets β-cells. PMID:26841446

  6. The Antidiabetic Effect of Low Doses of Moringa oleifera Lam. Seeds on Streptozotocin Induced Diabetes and Diabetic Nephropathy in Male Rats

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    Abdulrahman L. Al-Malki

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The antidiabetic activity of two low doses of Moringa seed powder (50 and 100 mg/kg body weight, in the diet on streptozotocin (STZ induced diabetes male rats was investigated. Forty rats were divided into four groups. The diabetic positive control (STZ treated group showed increased lipid peroxide, increased IL-6, and decreased antioxidant enzyme in the serum and kidney tissue homogenate compared with that of the negative control group. Immunoglobulins (IgA, IgG, fasting blood sugar, and glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c were also increased as a result of diabetes in G2 rats. Moreover albumin was decreased, and liver enzymes and α-amylase were not affected. In addition, the renal functions and potassium and sodium levels in G2 were increased as a sign of diabetic nephropathy. Urine analysis showed also glucosuria and increased potassium, sodium, creatinine, uric acid, and albumin levels. Kidney and pancreas tissues showed also pathological alteration compared to the negative control group. Treating the diabetic rats with 50 or 100 mg Moringa seeds powder/kg body weight in G3 and G4, respectively, ameliorated the levels of all these parameters approaching the negative control values and restored the normal histology of both kidney and pancreas compared with that of the diabetic positive control group.

  7. The antidiabetic effect of low doses of Moringa oleifera Lam. seeds on streptozotocin induced diabetes and diabetic nephropathy in male rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Malki, Abdulrahman L; El Rabey, Haddad A

    2015-01-01

    The antidiabetic activity of two low doses of Moringa seed powder (50 and 100 mg/kg body weight, in the diet) on streptozotocin (STZ) induced diabetes male rats was investigated. Forty rats were divided into four groups. The diabetic positive control (STZ treated) group showed increased lipid peroxide, increased IL-6, and decreased antioxidant enzyme in the serum and kidney tissue homogenate compared with that of the negative control group. Immunoglobulins (IgA, IgG), fasting blood sugar, and glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c) were also increased as a result of diabetes in G2 rats. Moreover albumin was decreased, and liver enzymes and α-amylase were not affected. In addition, the renal functions and potassium and sodium levels in G2 were increased as a sign of diabetic nephropathy. Urine analysis showed also glucosuria and increased potassium, sodium, creatinine, uric acid, and albumin levels. Kidney and pancreas tissues showed also pathological alteration compared to the negative control group. Treating the diabetic rats with 50 or 100 mg Moringa seeds powder/kg body weight in G3 and G4, respectively, ameliorated the levels of all these parameters approaching the negative control values and restored the normal histology of both kidney and pancreas compared with that of the diabetic positive control group.

  8. Histological changes and antidiabetic activities of Icacina trichantha tuber extract in beta–cells of alloxan induced diabetic rats

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    Onakpa Michael Monday

    2013-08-01

    Conclusions: I. trichantha tuber extracts posses antidiabetic activities as well as improve liver and renal profile and total lipids levels. I. trichantha tuber extracts also have favourable effects to inhibit the histopathological changes of the pancreas in alloxan induced diabetes.

  9. Allosteric inhibition of glycogen phosphorylase a by the potential antidiabetic drug 3-isopropyl 4-(2-chlorophenyl)-1,4-dihydro-1-ethyl-2-methyl-pyridine-3,5,6-tricarbo xylate.

    OpenAIRE

    Oikonomakos, N. G.; Tsitsanou, K. E.; Zographos, S. E.; Skamnaki, V. T.; Goldmann, S.; Bischoff, H

    1999-01-01

    The effect of the potential antidiabetic drug (-)(S)-3-isopropyl 4-(2-chlorophenyl)-1,4-dihydro-1-ethyl-2-methyl-pyridine-3,5,6-tricarbox ylate (W1807) on the catalytic and structural properties of glycogen phosphorylase a has been studied. Glycogen phosphorylase (GP) is an allosteric enzyme whose activity is primarily controlled by reversible phosphorylation of Ser14 of the dephosphorylated enzyme (GPb, less active, predominantly T-state) to form the phosphorylated enzyme (GPa, more active, ...

  10. Study on the Antidiabetic Effect of Electuary of Dietary Fiber and Its Companion%膳食纤维复合冲剂及其辅剂的降血糖作用研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蔡琳; 刘莹; 丛峰; 王秋雨

    2011-01-01

    目的:研究膳食纤维复合冲剂的降糖作用及其辅剂在降糖作用中的辅助功效.方法:建立四氧嘧啶诱导的昆明种小鼠糖尿病模型;模型小鼠连续灌胃膳食纤维复合冲剂14d(50mg/kg·d),观察实验期间小鼠的体貌特征,测定给药前后小鼠空腹血糖值;膳食纤维复合冲剂灌胃同时,将其辅剂掺入小鼠饲料中,测定给药前后小鼠空腹血糖值.结果:膳食纤维复合冲剂可明显降低糖尿病模型小鼠的血糖,与对照组相比差异显著;饲喂辅剂具有进一步辅助降血糖功效,结果有统计学意义.结论:膳食纤维复合冲剂对四氧嘧啶诱发的实验性糖尿病小鼠有显著的降血糖效果,辅剂具有辅助降血糖作用.%Objective To explore the antidiabetic effect of Electuary of Dietary Fiber and the auxiliary efficacy of its companion.Methods Diabetes in mice was induced by alloxan.The diabetic mice were treated with Electuary of Dietary Fiber intragastrically at the dose of 50 mg/kg·d for 14 days.Thc physical features of the mice were observed during the experiment.The fasting blood glucose levels of the mice before and after drug administration were determined.The companion of Electuary of Dietary Fiber was incorporated into the fodder of the diabetic mice, and the fasting blood glucose levels of the mice before and after drug administration were determined.Results Electuary of Dietary Fiber could lower blood glucose levels of diabetic animals significantly compared with those of control group (P<0.01).Its companion could lower blood glucose levels further and the results showed statistic significance.Conclusion Electuary of Dietary Fiber can lower blood glucose levels of diabetic mice, and its companion has auxiliary antidiabetic efficacy.

  11. Evaluation of Antioxidant, Antidiabetic and Anticholinesterase Activities of Smallanthus sonchifolius Landraces and Correlation with Their Phytochemical Profiles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Russo

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The present study aimed to investigate the phytochemical profile of leaf methanol extracts of fourteen Smallanthus sonchifolius (yacon landraces and their antioxidant, anticholinesterase and antidiabetic activities that could lead to the finding of more effective agents for the treatment and management of Alzheimer’s disease and diabetes. For this purpose, antioxidant activity was assessed using different tests: ferric reducing ability power (FRAP, 2,2-diphenyl-1-picryl hydrazyl (DPPH, nitric oxide (˙NO and superoxide (O2˙− scavenging and lipid peroxidation inhibition assays. Anticholinesterase activity was investigated by quantifying the acetylcholinesterase (AChE and butyrylcholinesterase (BChE inhibitory activities, whereas antidiabetic activity was investigated by α-amylase and α-glucosidase inhibition tests. To understand the contribution of metabolites, phytochemical screening was also performed by high performance liquid chromatography-diode array detector (HPLC-DAD system. Among all, methanol extract of PER09, PER04 and ECU44 landraces exhibited the highest relative antioxidant capacity index (RACI. ECU44 was found to be rich in 4,5-di-O-caffeoylquinic acid (CQA and 3,5-di-O-CQA and displayed a good α-amylase and α-glucosidase inhibition, showing the lowest IC50 values. Flavonoids, instead, seem to be involved in the AChE and BChE inhibition. The results of this study revealed that the bioactive compound content differences could be determinant for the medicinal properties of this plant especially for antioxidant and antidiabetic activities.

  12. Cardiovascular outcome trials for anti-diabetes medication: A holy grail of drug development?

    Science.gov (United States)

    John, Mathew; Gopalakrishnan Unnikrishnan, Ambika; Kalra, Sanjay; Nair, Tiny

    2016-01-01

    Since the time questions arose on cardiovascular safety of Rosiglitazone, FDA has suggested guidelines on conduct of studies on anti-diabetic drugs so as to prove that the cardiovascular risk is acceptable. Based on the cardiovascular risks of pre-approval clinical trials, guidelines have been made to conduct cardiovascular safety outcome trials (CVSOTs) prior to the drug approval or after the drug has been approved. Unlike the trials comparing the efficacy of antidiabetic agents, the CVSOTs examine the cardiovascular safety of a drug in comparison to standard of care. These trials are expensive aspects of drug development and are associated with various technical and operational challenges. More cost effective models of assessing cardiovascular safety like use of biomarkers, electronic medical records, pragmatic and factorial designs can be adopted. This article critically looks at the antidiabetic drug approval from a cardiovascular perspective by asking a few questions and arriving at answers. PMID:27543483

  13. Evaluation of Anti-Inflammatory, Anti-diabetic activityof Indian Bauhinia vahlii (stembark)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Das Surya Narayan; Patro Varanashi Jagannath; Dinda Subas Chandra

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the anti-inflammatory and antidiabetic property of Bauhinia vahlii (stem bark) with preliminary phytochemical profile of the extracts. Methods: The dried whole plant material (1400 g) was packed in soxhlet apparatus and extracted successively with Pet. Ether (PE) to defat the drug, petroleum ether was removed from the powdered defatted drug which was then extracted with benzene (BE), chloroform(CE) and 95% of Ethanol (EE) as increasing polarity and all extracts screened for anti-inflammatory and antidiabetic activity using carrageenan induced paw edema and streptozotacin induced diabetic respectively. The toxicity and phytochemical screening were done using standard procedure. Result: The preliminary phytochemical tests revealed the presence of alkaloids, flavonoids, phytosterol, phenolic compounds, and glycoside. While carbohydrates, protein, gums and amino acids were absent. The acute toxicity study of various extracts of Bauhinia vahlii was conducted and dose of 353 mg/kg is fixed for anti-inflammatory and antidiabetic perperty. The pet ether, chloroform and ethanolic extract ofBauhinia vahlii significantly decreased the paw edema induced by carrageenin in rats at a dose of 353 mg/kg comparable to standard ibuprofen (100 mg/kg). Similarly in case of antidiabetic property, the ethanolic and chloroform extract of Bauhinia vahlii at a dose level 353 mg/kg, showed significant reduction in blood sugar level from 2 to 24 h in progressive manner comparable to standard glibenclamide (5mg/kg).

  14. Synthesis and biological activity of trans-tiliroside derivatives as potent anti-diabetic agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Yujin; Zhang, Yanjun; Liu, Yi; Chu, Hongwan; Duan, Hongquan

    2010-12-10

    A set of novel trans-tiliroside derivatives were synthesized. The structures of the derivatives were identified by their IR, 1H-NMR, and MS spectra analysis. Their anti-diabetic activities were evaluated on the insulin resistant (IR) HepG2 cell model. As a result, compounds 7a, 7c, 7h, and trans-tiliroside exhibited significant glucose consumption-enhancing effects in IR-HepG2 cells compared with the positive control (metformin). This research provides useful clues for further design and discovery of anti-diabetic agents.

  15. Synthesis and Biological Activity of trans-Tiliroside Derivatives as Potent Anti-Diabetic Agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi Liu

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available A set of novel trans-tiliroside derivatives were synthesized. The structures of the derivatives were identified by their IR, 1H-NMR, and MS spectra analysis. Their anti-diabetic activities were evaluated on the insulin resistant (IR HepG2 cell model. As a result, compounds 7a, 7c, 7h, and trans-tiliroside exhibited significant glucose consumption-enhancing effects in IR-HepG2 cells compared with the positive control (metformin. This research provides useful clues for further design and discovery of anti-diabetic agents.

  16. Antidiabetic activity of aqueous extract of Eucalyptus citriodorahook. in alloxan induced diabetic rats

    OpenAIRE

    Arjun Patra; Shivesh Jha; Sahu, Alakh N.

    2009-01-01

    The present study was undertaken to study the antidiabetic activity of the aqueous extract of Eucalyptus citriodora Hook. leaf in alloxan-induced diabetic rats. The activity of the extract was studied on glucose loaded and alloxan-induced diabetic rats. In both the tests, the extract has shown significant and considerable antidiabetic effect in a dose dependent manner. On oral administration of the extract at a dose of 500 mg/kg of body weight, the reduction of blood glucose level was 22.9% a...

  17. Effectively designed molecularly imprinted polymers for selective isolation of the antidiabetic drug metformin and its transformation product guanylurea from aqueous media

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kyzas, George Z.; Nanaki, Stavroula G. [Laboratory of Polymer Chemistry and Technology, Department of Chemistry, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, GR-541 24 Thessaloniki (Greece); Koltsakidou, Anastasia; Papageorgiou, Myrsini; Kechagia, Maria [Laboratory of Environmental Pollution Control, Department of Chemistry, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, GR-541 24 Thessaloniki (Greece); Bikiaris, Dimitrios N. [Laboratory of Polymer Chemistry and Technology, Department of Chemistry, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, GR-541 24 Thessaloniki (Greece); Lambropoulou, Dimitra A., E-mail: dlambro@chem.auth.gr [Laboratory of Environmental Pollution Control, Department of Chemistry, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, GR-541 24 Thessaloniki (Greece)

    2015-03-25

    Highlights: • Preparation of novel MIPs with remarkable recognition properties. • Selective isolation and removal of metformin and guanylurea from aqueous media. • Detailed adsorbent characterization and adsorption studies. • Successful application of synthesized MIPs as dispersive SPE sorbents. • Estimation of expanded uncertainty following a bottom-up approach. - Abstract: In the present study, two novel molecularly imprinted polymers (MIPs) with remarkable recognition properties for metformin and its transformation product, guanylurea, have been prepared for their selective, enrichment, isolation and removal from aqueous media. The prepared adsorbents were characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and swelling experiments. The performance of the prepared MIPs was evaluated by various parameters including the influence of pH, contact time, temperature and initial compound concentration. The effects on the adsorption behavior of the removal process parameters were studied and the equilibrium data were fitted by the Langmuir and Freundlich models. Due to the imprinting effect, adsorption performance of MIPs was always superior to its corresponding NIP (non-imprinted polymer), with maximum adsorption capacity ∼80 mg g{sup −1} for both MIPs. Stability and reusability of the MIPs up to the 5th cycle meant that they could be applied repeatedly without losing substantial removal ability. In the next step, the prepared MIP nanoparticles were evaluated as sorbents in a dispersive solid phase extraction (D-SPE) configuration for selective enrichment and determination of metformin and guanylurea in different aqueous matrices. Under the working extraction conditions, the D-SPE method showed good linearity in the range of 50–1000 ng L{sup −1}, repeatability of the extractions (RSD 2.1–5.1%, n = 3), and low limits of detection (1.5–3.4 ng L{sup −1}). The expanded uncertainty of the data obtained

  18. Effectively designed molecularly imprinted polymers for selective isolation of the antidiabetic drug metformin and its transformation product guanylurea from aqueous media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Preparation of novel MIPs with remarkable recognition properties. • Selective isolation and removal of metformin and guanylurea from aqueous media. • Detailed adsorbent characterization and adsorption studies. • Successful application of synthesized MIPs as dispersive SPE sorbents. • Estimation of expanded uncertainty following a bottom-up approach. - Abstract: In the present study, two novel molecularly imprinted polymers (MIPs) with remarkable recognition properties for metformin and its transformation product, guanylurea, have been prepared for their selective, enrichment, isolation and removal from aqueous media. The prepared adsorbents were characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and swelling experiments. The performance of the prepared MIPs was evaluated by various parameters including the influence of pH, contact time, temperature and initial compound concentration. The effects on the adsorption behavior of the removal process parameters were studied and the equilibrium data were fitted by the Langmuir and Freundlich models. Due to the imprinting effect, adsorption performance of MIPs was always superior to its corresponding NIP (non-imprinted polymer), with maximum adsorption capacity ∼80 mg g−1 for both MIPs. Stability and reusability of the MIPs up to the 5th cycle meant that they could be applied repeatedly without losing substantial removal ability. In the next step, the prepared MIP nanoparticles were evaluated as sorbents in a dispersive solid phase extraction (D-SPE) configuration for selective enrichment and determination of metformin and guanylurea in different aqueous matrices. Under the working extraction conditions, the D-SPE method showed good linearity in the range of 50–1000 ng L−1, repeatability of the extractions (RSD 2.1–5.1%, n = 3), and low limits of detection (1.5–3.4 ng L−1). The expanded uncertainty of the data obtained was estimated

  19. A pharmacological appraisal of medicinal plants with antidiabetic potential

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasim Khan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Diabetes mellitus is a complicated metabolic disorder that has gravely troubled the human health and quality of life. Conventional agents are being used to control diabetes along with lifestyle management. However, they are not entirely effective and no one has ever been reported to have fully recovered from diabetes. Numerous medicinal plants have been used for the management of diabetes mellitus in various traditional systems of medicine worldwide as they are a great source of biological constituents and many of them are known to be effective against diabetes. Medicinal plants with antihyperglycemic activities are being more desired, owing to lesser side-effects and low cost. This review focuses on the various plants that have been reported to be effective in diabetes. A record of various medicinal plants with their established antidiabetic and other health benefits has been reported. These include Allium sativa, Eugenia jambolana, Panax ginseng, Gymnema sylvestre, Momrodica charantia, Ocimum sanctum, Phyllanthus amarus, Pterocarpus marsupium, Trigonella foenum graecum and Tinospora cordifolia. All of them have shown a certain degree of antidiabetic activity by different mechanisms of action.

  20. Influence of Total Anthocyanins from Bitter Melon (Momordica charantia Linn.) as Antidiabetic and Radical Scavenging Agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Güdr, Aytaç

    2016-01-01

    The majority of the antioxidant and antidiabetic activities of fruits are anthocyanins; a group of polyphenolics that are responsible for the color of many fruits, vegetables and flowers. The harvesting time, storage conditions, maturity, extraction steps etc. are very important for the biological activities based on the alteration of chemical composition. The free radical scavenging and antidiabetic activities of total anthocyanins from bitter melon (Momordica charantia Linn) fruit (TAMC) were evaluated by considering four harvesting times. The free radical scavenging activities of the TAMC samples were assessed using DPPH(•), DMPD(•+) and ABTS(•+) assays against BHA, rutin and trolox standards. September as a harvesting period (TAMC-S) had effective DPPH(•) (SC50 2.55 ± 0.08 μg/mL), DMPD(•+) (SC50 2.68 ± 0.09 μg/mL) and ABTS(•+) (SC50 8.19 ± 0.09 μg/mL) scavenging activities compared with other samples and standards. In addition, August (TAMC-A) as a harvesting period showed very influential inhibitory activity against α-amylase (IC50 56.86 ± 1.12 μg/mL) and moderate inhibitory activity against α-glucosidase (IC50 88.19 ± 0.74 μg/mL). In comparison, pharmaceutical active ingredients such as acarbose exhibited anti-amylase and anti-glucosidase activities with IC50 values of 93.07 ± 1.49 μg/mL and 77.25 ± 1.20 μg/mL respectively. These results suggest that the correct selection of harvest period can significantly increase anthocyanin quantity because of the pharmaceutic properties of TAMC. Consequently, TAMC may be interesting for incorporation in pharmaceutical preparations for human health, since it can suppress hyperglycaemia that can be also used as food additives due to its antiradical activity. PMID:27610171

  1. The Antidiabetics Market: Tendencies and Research Directions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudiu MOROGVAN

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Diabetes mellitus is a pathology with multiple and severe implications. Its prevalence has been continuously increasing during the last years, as well as the number of drugs introduced in its therapy. The value of the antidiabetics global market was evaluated at over 18 billion USD in 2005. The following five international producers hold the biggest share: NovoNordisk, Takeda, Sanofi-Aventis, GlaxoSmithkline and Eli Lilly. The two bestselling drugs in the USA in 2008 were Actos and Lantus, two products of latest generation, which, however, seems to be a global tendency. As far as the OAD (Oral Antidiabetic Drug category is concerned, the products to be prescribed in the following years will be those of latest generation, such as thiazolidinedione, GLP-1 analogues, DPP-4 inhibitors, as well as their fixed combinations with metformine. Rapid or slow acting Insulin analogues and their combinations with isophane insulins replace the classic insulins which seem to be outdated.

  2. Validation of the Antidiabetic and Hypolipidemic Effects of Clitocybe nuda by Assessment of Glucose Transporter 4 and Gluconeogenesis and AMPK Phosphorylation in Streptozotocin-Induced Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chun-Ching Shih

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The study was designed to investigate the effects of extract of Clitocybe nuda (CNE on type 1 diabetes mellitus and dyslipidemia in streptozotocin- (STZ- induced diabetic mice. Diabetes was induced by injection of STZ. Diabetic mice were randomly divided into five groups and given orally CNE (C1: 0.2, C2: 0.5, and C3: 1.0 g/kg body weight or metformin (Metf or vehicle for 4 weeks. STZ induction decreased in the levels of insulin, body weight, and the weight of skeletal muscle, whereas the levels of blood glucose, hemoglobin nonenzymatically (percent HbA1c, and circulating triglyceride (P < 0.001, P < 0.001, and P < 0.01, resp. were increased. CNE decreased the levels of blood glucose, HbA1c, and triglyceride levels, whereas it increased the levels of insulin and leptin compared with the vehicle-treated STZ group. STZ induction caused a decrease in the protein contents of skeletal muscular and hepatic phosphorylation of AMP-activated protein kinase (phospho-AMPK and muscular glucose transporter 4 (GLUT4. Muscular phospho-AMPK contents were increased in C2-, C3-, and Metf-treated groups. CNE and Metf significantly increased the muscular proteins of GLUT4. Liver phospho-AMPK showed an increase in all CNE- and Metf-treated groups combined with the decreased hepatic glucose production by decreasing phosphenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK, glucose-6-phosphatase (G6Pase, and 11beta hydroxysteroid dehydroxygenase (11β-HSD1 gene, which contributed to attenuating diabetic state. The study indicated that the hypoglycemic properties of CNE were related to both the increased muscular glucose uptake and the reduction in hepatic gluconeogenesis. CNE exerts hypolipidemic effect by increasing gene expressions of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α (PPARα and decreasing expressions of fatty acid synthesis, including acyl-coenzyme A: diacylglycerol acyltransferase (DGAT 2. Therefore, amelioration of diabetic and dyslipidemic state by CNE in STZ

  3. SGLT-2 inhibitors: the glucosuric antidiabetics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rekha Thaddanee

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Despite availability of a number of oral antidiabetics, a sizeable population of diabetics remains uncontrolled. Thus there is growing need of new group of drugs for diabetic control. Understanding renal conservation of glucose by efficient reabsorption through sodium glucose cotransporter-2 (SGLT-2 has paved way for development of an entirely new group of drugs, the SGLT-2 inhibitors. These glucosuric antidiabetic agents have shown promise in early clinical studies. Canagliflozin is recently approved for use in diabetes alone or along with other antidiabetics. Other highly selective inhibitors undergoing various stages of clinical developments are dapagliflozin, sergliflozin, remogliflozin, ipragliflozin, empagliflozin, luseogliflozin, tofogliflozin and desoxyrhaponticin. KGA-2727 (pyrazole-O-glucoside is the first selective SGLT-1 inhibitor undergoing intense preclinical testing. There are safety issues associated with this group like urogenital infections (fungal, weight loss, initial osmotic diuresis and increased incidence of cardiovascular events. The long term safety remains to be established. Despite these limitations, SGLT-2 inhibition offers a unique target for achieving adequate control of diabetes in adults. [Int J Basic Clin Pharmacol 2013; 2(4.000: 347-352

  4. Screening and design of anti-diabetic compounds sourced from the leaves of neem (Azadirachta indica).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jalil, Asma; Ashfaq, Usman Ali; Shahzadi, Samar; Rasul, Ijaz; Rehman, Shahid-Ur; Shah, Masaud; Javed, Muhammad Rizwan; Masoud, Muhammad Shareef

    2013-01-01

    Diabetes Mellitus is affecting people of all age groups worldwide. Many synthetic medicines available for type 2 diabetes mellitus in the market. However, there is a strong requirement for the development of better anti-diabetes compounds sourced especially from natural sources like medicinal plants. The extracts from the leaves of neem (Azadirachta indica) is traditionally known to have anti-diabetes properties. Therefore, there is an increased interest to identify potential compounds identified from neem leaf extracts showing predicted binding property with the known diabetes mellitus type 2 protein enzyme target phosphoenol-pyruvate carboxykinase(PEPCK). The structure data for compounds found in the leaf extract of neem was screened against PEPCK using molecular docking simulation and screening techniques. Results show that the compound 3-Deacetyl-3-cinnamoyl-azadirachtin possesses best binding properties with PEPCK. This observation finds application for further consideration in in vitro and in vivo validation. PMID:24497731

  5. Antidiabetic activities of ethanolic extract and fraction of Anthocleista djalonensis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Okokon Jude E; Antia Bassey S; Udobang John A

    2012-01-01

    Objective:To evaluate the antidiabetic activities of ethanolic root extract/fraction of Anthocleista djalonensis (A. djalonensis) in alloxan-induced diabetic rats. Methods:A. djalonensis root extract/fractions (37-111 mg/kg) were administered to alloxan-induced diabetic rats for 14 days and blood glucose levels (BGLs) of the diabetic rats were monitored at intervals of hours and days throughout the duration of the treatment. Results: Treatment of alloxan-induced diabetic rats with the extract/fractions caused a significant (P<0.001) reduction in fasting BGLs of the diabetic rats both in acute study and prolonged treatment (2 weeks). The activities of the extract and fractions were more than that of the reference drug, glibenclamide. Conclusions:These results suggest that the root extract/fractions of A. djalonensis possess antidiabetic effect on alloxan-induced diabetic rats and this justifies its use in ethnomedicine and can be exploited in the management of diabetes.

  6. Important Aspects of Post-Prandial Antidiabetic Drug, Acarbose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singla, Rajeev Kumar; Singh, Radha; Dubey, Ashok Kumar

    2016-01-01

    Acarbose, a well known and efficacious α-amylase and α-glucosidase inhibitor, is a postprandial acting antidiabetic drug. DNS-based α-amylase inhibitory assays showed that use of acarbose at concentrations above 125 µg/ml resulted in release of reducing sugar in the reaction, an unexpected observation. Objective of the present study was to design experimental strategies to address this unusual finding. Acarbose was found to be susceptible to thermo-lysis. Further, besides being an inhibitor, it could also be hydrolyzed by porcine pancreatic α-amylase, but had weaker affinity for α - amylase compared to starch. GRIP docking was done for the mechanistic analysis of the active site in the enzyme for substrate, inhibitor and, inhibitor's metabolite (K2). Interaction between acarbose and α-amylase involved significant hydrogen binding compared to that of starch, producing a stronger enzyme-inhibitor complex. Further, docking analysis led us to predict the site on α-amylase where the inhibitor (acarbose) bound more tightly, which possibly affected the binding and hydrolysis of starch exerting its effective anti-diabetic function. PMID:27086787

  7. Antidiabetic and antioxidant activity of Scoparia dulcis linn.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M R Mishra

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The hypoglycaemic activity of methanol extract of Scoparia dulcis was performed on both in vitro and in vivo models along with determination of total extractable polyphenol. Methanol extract of Scoparia dulcis contains 4.9% and water extract contains 3.2% of total extractable polyphenol. The antioxidant activity showed very promising result in both the tested methods that is 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl and ferric ion reducing capacity. The antioxidant activity is directly correlated to the antidiabetic potential of drug. The two enzymes (amylase and glycosidase found in intestine are responsible for the increasing postprandial glucose in body. In vitro model was performed on these enzymes and the results showed that methanol extract of Scoparia dulcis was effective to check the postprandial glucose level. The in vivo hypoglycaemic activity of methanol extract of Scoparia dulcis was performed on streptozotocin-induced diabetes mellitus showed significant inhibition of blood glucose level as compared to control and similar to that of standard glibenclamide. The overall data potentiates the traditional value of Scoparia dulcis as an antidiabetic drug.

  8. Antidiabetic and Antioxidant Activity of Scoparia dulcis Linn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, M R; Mishra, A; Pradhan, D K; Panda, A K; Behera, R K; Jha, S

    2013-09-01

    The hypoglycaemic activity of methanol extract of Scoparia dulcis was performed on both in vitro and in vivo models along with determination of total extractable polyphenol. Methanol extract of Scoparia dulcis contains 4.9% and water extract contains 3.2% of total extractable polyphenol. The antioxidant activity showed very promising result in both the tested methods that is 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl and ferric ion reducing capacity. The antioxidant activity is directly correlated to the antidiabetic potential of drug. The two enzymes (amylase and glycosidase) found in intestine are responsible for the increasing postprandial glucose in body. In vitro model was performed on these enzymes and the results showed that methanol extract of Scoparia dulcis was effective to check the postprandial glucose level. The in vivo hypoglycaemic activity of methanol extract of Scoparia dulcis was performed on streptozotocin-induced diabetes mellitus showed significant inhibition of blood glucose level as compared to control and similar to that of standard glibenclamide. The overall data potentiates the traditional value of Scoparia dulcis as an antidiabetic drug. PMID:24403665

  9. In Vitro Antioxidant Effects of Aloe barbadensis Miller Extracts and the Potential Role of These Extracts as Antidiabetic and Antilipidemic Agents on Streptozotocin-Induced Type 2 Diabetic Model Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md. Ibrahim Khalil

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the total phenolic and flavonoid contents, the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picryl hydrazyl (DPPH radical scavenging ability and the ferric reducing power (FRAP of Aloe vera were measured to determine the antioxidant activity of this species. The in vivo antidiabetic effects of the plant were also investigated using streptozotocin-induced type 2 diabetic model rats that were divided into five groups based on the treatment received: (1 water (WC; (2 glibenclamide; (3 concentrated gel extract (Gel-C; (4 ethanol (80% gel extract (Gel-Et; and (5 ethanol (80% skin extract of Aloe vera (Skin-Et. Skin-Et, which contained the highest level of total phenolics (62.37 ± 1.34 mggallic acid/kg and flavonoids (20.83 ± 0.77 mg/kg, exhibited the highest scavenging activity (85.01 ± 0.52% and the greatest reducing power (185.98 ± 0.41 µM, indicating that the skin contained the highest level of antioxidants. The oral consumption of Gel-Et for 4 weeks a caused significant reduction in the fasting serum glucose levels of the rats. The rats in the Gel-C-, Gel-Et- and Skin-Et-treated groups experienced a reduction in their total cholesterol levels by 11%, 17% and 25%, respectively and a reduction in their LDL cholesterol levels by 45%, 3% and 69%, respectively. The in vivo experimental antioxidant parameter MDA is strongly correlated with the in vitro antioxidant parameters of flavonoids and polyphenols, namely the DPPH and FRAP values (r = 0.94, 0.92, 0.93, 0.90, thus confirming the antioxidant potential of the Aloe vera extracts.

  10. Antidiabetic and Antihyperlipidemic Activity of Cucurbita maxima Duchense (Pumpkin Seeds on Streptozotocin Induced Diabetic Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashish K. Sharma

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present study was to evaluate the antidiabetic and antihyperlipidemic effect of petroleum ether, ethyl acetate and alcohol extract of seeds of Cucurbita maxima for its purported use in diabetes. The antidiabetic and antihyperlipidemic activity of different extracts of Cucurbita maxima seeds was evaluated in wistar albino rats against streptozotocin (50 mg/kg i.p. at dose of 200 mg/kg p.o. for 21 days. Glibenclamide (500µg/kg was used as reference drug. Fasting blood glucose (FBG levels were measured on day 0, 7, 14 and 21. It was found that blood glucose concentration was significantly (P<0.05 decreased compared to control. In addition, oral administration of Cucurbita maxima significantly (P<0.05 decreased serum total cholesterol, LDL, VLDL, triglycerides and at the same time markedly increased serum insulin and HDL-cholesterol levels. Administration of glibenclamide, a reference drug also produced a significant (P<0.05 reduction in blood glucose concentration in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Thus, the results of this experimental study shows that Cucurbita maxima possess antidiabetic and antihyperlipidemic effect and is able to ameliorate the diabetic state and is a source of potent antidiabetic agent.

  11. A TWELVE-MONTHLY REVIEW ON ANTI-DIABETIC PLANTS: JAN-DEC-2011

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anil Boddupalli

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the commonest endocrine disorders is diabetes mellitus, that is characterized by insufficient or lack of insulin and impaired carbohydrate metabolism in the body leading to excretion of sweet urine and long-term complications affecting the eyes, nerves, blood vessels, skin, and kidneys. As per the current estimate, there are about 143 million people in worldwide suffering from diabetes. In the global scenario, diabetic patients may rise to 300 million in 2025. This disease occurs worldwide and its incidence is increasing rapidly in most parts of the world. Moreover, continuous use of the synthetic anti-diabetic drugs causes side effects and toxicity. Therefore, seeking natural and non-toxic anti-diabetic drugs is necessary for diabetic therapy. Medicinal plants play an important role in the development of potent therapeutic agents. The present paper reviews the data reported on pharmacologically active phyto constituents obtained from the different plants involved in anti-diabetic activity along with pharmacological status which have been experimentally studied for hypoglycaemic activity during January-December 2011. This work stimulates the researchers for further research on the potential use of medicinal plants having anti-diabetic potential.

  12. ANTIOXIDANT AND ANTIDIABETIC ACTIVITY OF CURCUMA AROMATICA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ammayappan Rajam Srividya

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this paper is to find out the antidiabetic activity of Curcuma aromatica. In this research paper we dealt with antioxidant activities by DPPH method, ABTS method, Lipid peroxidation assay and scavenging ability of the extract for the hydrogen peroxide radical, Glucose uptake by rat hemi diaphragm method. Antidiabetic activity using healthy adult Wister rats were also carried out. Toluene extract of Curcuma aromatica showed the potent scavenging activity by DPPH method with the IC 50 value of 50.62±0.998 µg/ml, by lipid per oxidation method with the IC 50 value of 75±0.87 µg/ml, hydrogen peroxide radical scavenging activity with the IC 50 value 43.75±1.24 µg/ml, and ABTS radical scavenging method with the IC 50 value 0.038±1.54 µg/ml. After the treatment with the toluene extract of Curcuma aromatica, serum glucose level was found to be decreased from 278.53 to 116.5 mg/dl, total protein level increased from 3.09 to 5.78 mg/dl. There was a decrease in total cholesterol level from 292.33 to 134.50 mg/dl, decrease in serum triglyceride level from 85.66 to 64.16mg/dl when compared to diabetic control group. Toluene extract of Curcuma aromatica exhibited significant antioxidant and antidiabetic activities in both in vitro and in vivo models. So, it can be used as alternative herbal medicine in the treatment of diabetes and diabetic induced complication.

  13. Antidiabetic effects of dietary administration of Aloe arborescens Miller components on multiple low-dose streptozotocin-induced diabetes in mice: investigation on hypoglycemic action and systemic absorption dynamics of aloe components.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beppu, Hidehiko; Shimpo, Kan; Chihara, Takeshi; Kaneko, Takaaki; Tamai, Ikuko; Yamaji, Sachiyo; Ozaki, Sayaka; Kuzuya, Hiroshi; Sonoda, Shigeru

    2006-02-20

    We carried out three experimental trials to determine antidiabetic effects of Aloe arborescens Miller components. Firstly, ICR mice which received frequent injections of streptozotocin (Sz) in small doses (low-dose Sz-induced diabetes mice) were fed ad libitum with basal diets supplemented with components of Aloe arborescens Miller var. natalensis Berger (Kidachi aloe) and Aloe vera Linne from 31 days before to 73 days after the Sz injections. Variation in blood glucose levels, incidence rates of insulitis and blood insulin levels were examined during the trial. As a result, groups receiving diets supplemented at the rate of 2% with whole leaf of Kidachi aloe and 10 KDa fraction powder (a fraction with less than 10 KDa molecular weight derived from Kidachi aloe leaf skin juice by ultra filtration) significantly suppressed the elevation of blood sugar as compared to a control group receiving basal diet. In contrast, there was no significant effect with Aloe vera leaf pulp powder. Insulitis emerged at the rate of 87% in the basal diet group. On the contrary, the whole aloe leaf and 10 KDa fraction groups significantly decreased the incidence of insulitis and incidence rates of whole aloe leaf and 10 KDa fraction powder were 51 and 38%, respectively. While insulin levels in the basal diet group averaged at 0.05 ng, more than four times the insulin level was observed in the 10 KDa group relative to the basal diet group. Secondary, the inhibitory effects of test materials on intestinal glucose absorption were observed using the jejunum of rats. A strong inhibitory action on intestinal glucose absorption was observed in the 10 KDa fraction powder group. Thirdly, phenol compounds derived from aloe in the blood serum and organs were quantitatively measured by a HPLC following forced administration of aloe components to rats to determine absorption kinetics of aloe components inside the body. The primary component of aloe phenol compounds is the same component of the 10 KDa

  14. Effect of stevia and citric acid on the stability of phenolic compounds and in vitro antioxidant and antidiabetic capacity of a roselle (Hibiscus sabdariffa L.) beverage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Ramírez, Iza F; Castaño-Tostado, Eduardo; Ramírez-de León, José A; Rocha-Guzmán, Nuria E; Reynoso-Camacho, Rosalía

    2015-04-01

    Plant infusions are consumed due to their beneficial effects on health, which is attributed to their bioactive compounds content. However, these compounds are susceptible to degradation during processing and storage. The objective of this research was to evaluate the effect of stevia and citric acid on the stability of phenolic compounds, antioxidant capacity and carbohydrate-hydrolysing enzyme inhibitory activity of roselle beverages during storage. The optimum extraction conditions of roselle polyphenolic compounds was of 95 °C/60 min, which was obtained by a second order experimental design. The incorporation of stevia increased the stability of colour and some polyphenols, such as quercetin, gallic acid and rosmarinic acid, during storage. In addition, stevia decreased the loss of ABTS, DPPH scavenging activity and α-amylase inhibitory capacity, whereas the incorporation of citric acid showed no effect. These results may contribute to the improvement of technological processes for the elaboration of hypocaloric and functional beverages. PMID:25442634

  15. Glycemic control and cost-effectiveness attained by the drug utilization of oral antidiabetic agents in a tertiary care hospital in South India

    OpenAIRE

    Nirmal George; Ajith Kumar PV; Vijayalekshmi Amma S.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Diabetes mellitus require lifelong intervention and Kerala has high prevalence. New expensive agents require comparison with existing regimens for cost-effectiveness. Methods: Socio-demographic, anthropometric, FPG and HbA1C (baseline and post treatment) of 150 patients (73 men; 77 women) were obtained from records using standard case report forms in our retrospective study. ANOVA and paired t test were used for between groups and within group comparison. Results: Metformin ...

  16. Antidiabetic effects of Aloe ferox and Aloe greatheadii var. davyana leaf gel extracts in a low-dose streptozotocin diabetes rat model

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    Lisa Botes

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The medicinal use and commercialisation of the plants Aloe ferox and Aloe greatheadii are primarily based on research done on Aloe vera and Aloe arborescens. Consequently, in this study we investigated the possible antidiabetic effects of ethanol extracts of A. ferox and A. greatheadii var. davyana leaf gel in a streptozotocin (STZ-induced type 2 diabetes rat model. Fifty male Wistar rats, weighing 200 g – 250 g, were randomly divided into five groups of n = 10: normal control rats, diabetic control rats, diabetic rats receiving A. ferox leaf gel extract (300 mg/kg, diabetic rats receiving A. greatheadii leaf gel extract (300 mg/kg, and diabetic rats receiving glibenclamide (600 μg/kg. Diabetes was induced by a single intraperitoneal injection of STZ (40 mg/kg. Rats were sacrificed 5 weeks after injection, following a 12-hour fast, and blood and tissue samples were collected. Compared to the normal control group, STZ significantly increased relative liver and kidney weights, end-point plasma glucose, fructosamine, oxidative stress, liver enzymes, total cholesterol (TC, triglycerides, very low density lipoprotein-cholesterol and TC: high density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C values and reduced serum insulin levels. Treatment with A. greatheadii moderately increased serum insulin and HDL-C levels and moderately reduced end-point plasma glucose and liver alkaline phosphatase (ALP and significantly decreased TC:HDL-C ratios. A. ferox supplementation similarly resulted in moderately increased serum insulin, accompanied by slight corrections in ALP and HDL-C, without any change to end-point plasma glucose values. A. greatheadii and, to a lesser extent, A. ferox, resulted in a clinically relevant improved diabetic state (indicated by moderate to high effect sizes, suggesting that these Aloe species may show promise

  17. Effect of ethanolic extract of Cryptolepis sanguinolenta stem on in vivo and in vitro glucose absorption and transport: Mechanism of its antidiabetic activity

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    A F Ajayi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Extracts from various morphological parts of Cryptolepis sanguinolenta are widely used traditionally in folklore medicine in many parts of the world for the management, control, and/or treatment of a plethora of human ailments, including diabetes mellitus. In order to scientifically appraise some of the ethnomedical uses of Cryptolepis sanguinolenta, the present study was undertaken to investigate its influence at varying doses on intestinal glucose absorption and transport in relation to its hypoglycemic and hypolipidemic effects in rat experimental paradigms. Materials and Methods: The animals used were divided into four groups. Control animals received 2 ml of distilled water, while treated groups received 50, 150, and 250 mg/kg bw of Cryptolepis sanguinolenta extract per oral respectively daily for 21 days. Results: Cryptolepis sanguinolenta led to a significant decrease in glucose transport and absorption. It also caused significant reductions in plasma glucose, total cholesterol, triglyceride, and LDL cholesterol. Biochemical changes observed were suggestive of dose dependence. Histopathological studies also showed increased sizes of β cells of the pancreas. Conclusion: The findings in these normoglycemic laboratory animals suggest that Cryptolepis sanguinolenta has hypoglycemic and hypolipidemic activities, possibly by reducing glucose absorption and transport, and enhancing the structural and functional abilities of the β cells. This is the first study to report the effect of Cryptolepis sanguinolenta on intestinal glucose absorption. This effect could be attributed to its major bioactive principle, cryptolepine, an indoloquinoline alkaloid. This study thus lends credence to the use of Cryptolepis sanguinolenta in the management of diabetes mellitus.

  18. Antidiabetic effects of chamomile flowers extract in obese mice through transcriptional stimulation of nutrient sensors of the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR family.

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    Christopher Weidner

    Full Text Available Given the significant increases in the incidence of metabolic diseases, efficient strategies for preventing and treating of these common disorders are urgently needed. This includes the development of phytopharmaceutical products or functional foods to prevent or cure metabolic diseases. Plant extracts from edible biomaterial provide a potential resource of structurally diverse molecules that can synergistically interfere with complex disorders. In this study we describe the safe application of ethanolic chamomile (Matricaria recutita flowers extract (CFE for the treatment and prevention of type 2 diabetes and associated disorders. We show in vitro that this extract activates in particular nuclear receptor peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ and its isotypes. In a cellular context, in human primary adipocytes CFE administration (300 µg/ml led to specific expression of target genes of PPARγ, whereas in human hepatocytes CFE-induced we detected expression changes of genes that were regulated by PPARα. In vivo treatment of insulin-resistant high-fat diet (HFD-fed C57BL/6 mice with CFE (200 mg/kg/d for 6 weeks considerably reduced insulin resistance, glucose intolerance, plasma triacylglycerol, non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA and LDL/VLDL cholesterol. Co-feeding of lean C57BL/6 mice a HFD with 200 mg/kg/d CFE for 20 weeks showed effective prevention of fatty liver formation and hepatic inflammation, indicating additionally hepatoprotective effects of the extract. Moreover, CFE treatment did not reveal side effects, which have otherwise been associated with strong synthetic PPAR-targeting molecules, such as weight gain, liver disorders, hemodilution or bone cell turnover. Taken together, modulation of PPARs and other factors by chamomile flowers extract has the potential to prevent or treat type 2 diabetes and related disorders.

  19. Antidiabetic effects of chamomile flowers extract in obese mice through transcriptional stimulation of nutrient sensors of the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) family.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weidner, Christopher; Wowro, Sylvia J; Rousseau, Morten; Freiwald, Anja; Kodelja, Vitam; Abdel-Aziz, Heba; Kelber, Olaf; Sauer, Sascha

    2013-01-01

    Given the significant increases in the incidence of metabolic diseases, efficient strategies for preventing and treating of these common disorders are urgently needed. This includes the development of phytopharmaceutical products or functional foods to prevent or cure metabolic diseases. Plant extracts from edible biomaterial provide a potential resource of structurally diverse molecules that can synergistically interfere with complex disorders. In this study we describe the safe application of ethanolic chamomile (Matricaria recutita) flowers extract (CFE) for the treatment and prevention of type 2 diabetes and associated disorders. We show in vitro that this extract activates in particular nuclear receptor peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ) and its isotypes. In a cellular context, in human primary adipocytes CFE administration (300 µg/ml) led to specific expression of target genes of PPARγ, whereas in human hepatocytes CFE-induced we detected expression changes of genes that were regulated by PPARα. In vivo treatment of insulin-resistant high-fat diet (HFD)-fed C57BL/6 mice with CFE (200 mg/kg/d) for 6 weeks considerably reduced insulin resistance, glucose intolerance, plasma triacylglycerol, non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA) and LDL/VLDL cholesterol. Co-feeding of lean C57BL/6 mice a HFD with 200 mg/kg/d CFE for 20 weeks showed effective prevention of fatty liver formation and hepatic inflammation, indicating additionally hepatoprotective effects of the extract. Moreover, CFE treatment did not reveal side effects, which have otherwise been associated with strong synthetic PPAR-targeting molecules, such as weight gain, liver disorders, hemodilution or bone cell turnover. Taken together, modulation of PPARs and other factors by chamomile flowers extract has the potential to prevent or treat type 2 diabetes and related disorders. PMID:24265809

  20. Antcin K, a Triterpenoid Compound from Antrodia camphorata, Displays Antidiabetic and Antihyperlipidemic Effects via Glucose Transporter 4 and AMP-Activated Protein Kinase Phosphorylation in Muscles

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    Yueh-Hsiung Kuo

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to screen firstly the potential effects of antcin K (AnK, the main constituent of the fruiting body of Antrodia camphorata, in vitro and further evaluate the activities and mechanisms in high-fat-diet- (HFD- induced mice. Following 8-week HFD-induction, mice were treated with AnK, fenofibrate (Feno, metformin (Metf, or vehicle for 4 weeks afterward. In C2C12 myotube cells, the membrane GLUT4 and phospho-Akt expressions were higher in insulin and AnK-treated groups than in the control group. It was observed that AnK-treated mice significantly lowered blood glucose, triglyceride, total cholesterol, and leptin levels in AnK-treated groups. Of interest, AnK at 40 mg/kg/day dosage displayed both antihyperglycemic effect comparable to Metf (300 mg/kg/day and antihypertriglyceridemic effect comparable to Feno (250 mg/kg/day. The combination of significantly increased skeletal muscular membrane expression levels of glucose transporter 4 (GLUT4 but decreased hepatic glucose-6-phosphatase (G6 Pase mRNA levels by AnK thus contributed to a decrease in blood glucose levels. Furthermore, AnK enhanced phosphorylation of AMP-activated protein kinase (phospho-AMPK expressions in the muscle and liver. Moreover, AnK treatment exhibited inhibition of hepatic fatty acid synthase (FAS but enhancement of fatty acid oxidation peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α (PPARα expression coincident with reduced sterol response element binding protein-1c (SREBP-1c mRNA levels in the liver may contribute to decreased plasma triglycerides, hepatic steatosis, and total cholesterol levels. The present findings indicate that AnK displays an advantageous therapeutic potential for the management of type 2 diabetes and hyperlipidemia.

  1. Modulating gut microbiota as an anti-diabetic mechanism of berberine

    OpenAIRE

    Han, Junling; Lin, Huiling; HUANG, Weiping

    2011-01-01

    Summary Berberine, one of the main constituents of a Chinese traditional herb used to treat bacterial diarrhea, has an effect of lowering glucose, which has been recently confirmed by many studies. However, the mechanism of berberine’s antidiabetic effect has not yet been well explained. Recent evidence suggests that the gut microbiota composition is associated with obesity and type 2 diabetes, which are closely associated with a low-grade inflammatory state. The protective effect against dia...

  2. GLUT4 Expression in Adipocytes Regulates De Novo Lipogenesis and Levels of a Novel Class of Lipids With Antidiabetic and Anti-inflammatory Effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moraes-Vieira, Pedro M; Saghatelian, Alan; Kahn, Barbara B

    2016-07-01

    Adipose tissue (AT) regulates systemic insulin sensitivity through multiple mechanisms, and alterations in de novo lipogenesis appear to contribute. Mice overexpressing GLUT4 in adipocytes (AG4OX) have elevated AT lipogenesis and enhanced glucose tolerance despite being obese and having elevated circulating fatty acids. Lipidomic analysis of AT identified a structurally unique class of lipids, branched fatty acid esters of hydroxy-fatty acids (FAHFAs), which were elevated in AT and serum of AG4OX mice. Palmitic acid esters of hydroxy-stearic acids (PAHSAs) are among the most upregulated FAHFA families in AG4OX mice. Eight PAHSA isomers are present in mouse and human tissues. PAHSA levels are reduced in insulin resistant people, and levels correlate highly with insulin sensitivity. PAHSAs have beneficial metabolic effects. Treatment of obese mice with PAHSAs lowers glycemia and improves glucose tolerance while stimulating glucagon-like peptide 1 and insulin secretion. PAHSAs also reduce inflammatory cytokine production from immune cells and ameliorate adipose inflammation in obesity. PAHSA isomer concentrations are altered in physiological and pathophysiological conditions in a tissue- and isomer-specific manner. The mechanisms most likely involve changes in PAHSA biosynthesis, degradation, and secretion. The discovery of PAHSAs reveals the existence of previously unknown endogenous lipids and biochemical pathways involved in metabolism and inflammation, two fundamental physiological processes. PMID:27288004

  3. Anti-Obesity and Anti-Diabetic Effects of Acacia Polyphenol in Obese Diabetic KKAy Mice Fed High-Fat Diet

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    Nobutomo Ikarashi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Acacia polyphenol (AP extracted from the bark of the black wattle tree (Acacia meansii is rich in unique catechin-like flavan-3-ols, such as robinetinidol and fisetinidol. The present study investigated the anti-obesity/anti-diabetic effects of AP using obese diabetic KKAy mice. KKAy mice received either normal diet, high-fat diet or high-fat diet with additional AP for 7 weeks. After the end of administration, body weight, plasma glucose and insulin were measured. Furthermore, mRNA and protein expression of obesity/diabetic suppression-related genes were measured in skeletal muscle, liver and white adipose tissue. As a result, compared to the high-fat diet group, increases in body weight, plasma glucose and insulin were significantly suppressed for AP groups. Furthermore, compared to the high-fat diet group, mRNA expression of energy expenditure-related genes (PPARα, PPARδ, CPT1, ACO and UCP3 was significantly higher for AP groups in skeletal muscle. Protein expressions of CPT1, ACO and UCP3 for AP groups were also significantly higher when compared to the high-fat diet group. Moreover, AP lowered the expression of fat acid synthesis-related genes (SREBP-1c, ACC and FAS in the liver. AP also increased mRNA expression of adiponectin and decreased expression of TNF-α in white adipose tissue. In conclusion, the anti-obesity actions of AP are considered attributable to increased expression of energy expenditure-related genes in skeletal muscle, and decreased fatty acid synthesis and fat intake in the liver. These results suggest that AP is expected to be a useful plant extract for alleviating metabolic syndrome.

  4. Characterisation of Potential Antidiabetic-Related Proteins from Pleurotus pulmonarius (Fr. Quél. (Grey Oyster Mushroom by MALDI-TOF/TOF Mass Spectrometry

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    Nurul Azwa Abd. Wahab

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Pleurotus pulmonarius has been reported to have a potent remedial effect on diabetic property and considered to be an alternative for type 2 diabetes mellitus treatment. This study aimed to investigate the antidiabetic properties of ammonium sulphate precipitated protein fractions from P. pulmonarius basidiocarps. Preliminary results demonstrated that 30% (NH42SO4 precipitated fraction (F30 inhibited Saccharomyces cerevisiae α-glucosidase activity (24.18%, and 100% (NH42SO4 precipitated fraction (F100 inhibited porcine pancreatic α-amylase activity (41.80%. Following RP-HPLC purification, peak 3 from F30 fraction demonstrated inhibition towards α-glucosidase at the same time with meagre inhibition towards α-amylase activity. Characterisation of proteins using MALDI-TOF/TOF MS demonstrated the presence of four different proteins, which could be implicated in the regulation of blood glucose level via various mechanisms. Therefore, this study revealed the presence of four antidiabetic-related proteins which are profilin-like protein, glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase-like protein, trehalose phosphorylase-like (TP-like protein, and catalase-like protein. Hence, P. pulmonarius basidiocarps have high potential in lowering blood glucose level, reducing insulin resistance and vascular complications.

  5. Characterisation of potential antidiabetic-related proteins from Pleurotus pulmonarius (Fr.) Quél. (grey oyster mushroom) by MALDI-TOF/TOF mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wahab, Nurul Azwa Abd; Abdullah, Noorlidah; Aminudin, Norhaniza

    2014-01-01

    Pleurotus pulmonarius has been reported to have a potent remedial effect on diabetic property and considered to be an alternative for type 2 diabetes mellitus treatment. This study aimed to investigate the antidiabetic properties of ammonium sulphate precipitated protein fractions from P. pulmonarius basidiocarps. Preliminary results demonstrated that 30% (NH4)2SO4 precipitated fraction (F30) inhibited Saccharomyces cerevisiae α-glucosidase activity (24.18%), and 100% (NH4)2SO4 precipitated fraction (F100) inhibited porcine pancreatic α-amylase activity (41.80%). Following RP-HPLC purification, peak 3 from F30 fraction demonstrated inhibition towards α-glucosidase at the same time with meagre inhibition towards α-amylase activity. Characterisation of proteins using MALDI-TOF/TOF MS demonstrated the presence of four different proteins, which could be implicated in the regulation of blood glucose level via various mechanisms. Therefore, this study revealed the presence of four antidiabetic-related proteins which are profilin-like protein, glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase-like protein, trehalose phosphorylase-like (TP-like) protein, and catalase-like protein. Hence, P. pulmonarius basidiocarps have high potential in lowering blood glucose level, reducing insulin resistance and vascular complications. PMID:25243114

  6. Evaluation of anti-diabetic activity of Glucova Active Tablet on Type I and Type II diabetic model in rats

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    Hardik Soni

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Glucova Active Tablet is a proprietary Ayurvedic formulation with ingredients reported for anti-hyperglycemic, anti-hyperlipidemic activity and antioxidant properties. Objective: Evaluation of anti-diabetic activity of Glucova Active Tablet on Type I and Type II diabetic model in rats. Materials and Methods: Experimental Type I diabetes was induced in 24 albino rats with intra-peritoneal injection of streptozotocin (50 mg/kg. Type II diabetes was induced in 18 albino rats by intra-peritoneal injection of streptozotocin (35 mg/kg along with high fat diet. The rats were divided in 5 groups for Type I model and 4 groups for Type II model. Normal control group was kept common for both experimental models. Glucova Active Tablet (108 mg/kg treatment was provided for 28 days twice daily orally. Fasting blood glucose level, serum lipid profile and liver anti-oxidant parameters like superoxide dismutase and reduced glutathione was carried out in both experimental models. Pancreas histopathology was also done. Statistical analysis were done by ′analysis of variance′ test followed by post hoc Tukey′s test, with significant level of P < 0.05.Results and Discussion: Glucova Active Tablet showed significant effect on fasting blood glucose level. It also showed significant alteration in lipid profile and antioxidant parameters. Histopathology study revealed restoration of beta cells in pancreas in Glucova Active Tablet treated group. Conclusion: Finding of this study concludes that Glucova Active Tablet has shown promising anti-diabetic activity in Type I and Type II diabetic rats. It was also found showing good anti-hyperlipidemic activity and anti-oxidant property.

  7. Polyherbal preparation for anti-diabetic activity: A screening study

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    Noopur Srivastava

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To screen the Polyherbal preparation for anti-diabetic activity in rats. Materials and Methods: The blood glucose lowering activity of the Polyherbal preparation-I (1:1:1 of Wheat germ oil, Coriandrum sativum and Aloe vera was studied in normal rats after oral administration at doses of 1.0 and 2.0 ml/kg and Polyherbal preparation-I, II (Wheat germ oil, fresh juice of C. sativum and Aloe vera in the ratio of 2:2:1, and III (Wheat germ oil, fresh juice of C. sativum and Aloe vera in the ratio of 1:2:2 on alloxan-induced diabetic rats, after oral administration at doses of 1.0 and 2.0 ml/kg. Blood samples were collected from the tail vein method at 0, 0.5, 1, 2, 4, 8, 12, and 24 h in normal rats and in diabetic rats at 0, 1, 3, 7, 15, and 30 days. Blood plasma glucose was estimated by the GOD/POD (glucose oxidase and peroxidase method. The data was compared statistically using the one-way ANOVA method followed by the Dunnett multiple component test. Statistical significance was set at P<0.05. Results: The Polyherbal preparation-I produced significant (P<0.05 reduction in the blood glucose level of normal rats and Polyherbal preparation-I, II, and III produced significant (P<0.01 reduction in the blood glucose level of diabetic rats during 30 days study and compared with that of control and Glibenclamide. Conclusion: The Polyherbal preparation-I showed a significant glucose lowering effect in normal rats and Polyherbal preparation-I, II, and III in diabetic rats. This preparation is going to be promising anti-diabetic preparation for masses; however, it requires further extensive studies in human beings.

  8. Enhancement of Sodium Caprate on Intestine Absorption and Antidiabetic Action of Berberine

    OpenAIRE

    Lv, Xiao-Yan; Li, Jing; Zhang, Ming; Wang, Chun-Mei; Fan, Zheng; Wang, Chun-Yan; Li CHEN

    2010-01-01

    Berberine, a plant alkaloid used in traditional Chinese medicine, has a wide spectrum of pharmacological actions, but the poor bioavailability limits its clinical use. The present aim was to observe the effects of sodium caprate on the intestinal absorption and antidiabetic action of berberine. The in situ, in vitro, and in vivo models were used to observe the effect of sodium caprate on the intestinal absorption of berberine. Intestinal mucosa morphology was measured to evaluate the toxic ef...

  9. Antidiabetic Activities of Abutilon indicum (L.) Sweet Are Mediated by Enhancement of Adipocyte Differentiation and Activation of the GLUT1 Promoter

    OpenAIRE

    Chutwadee Krisanapun; Seong-Ho Lee; Penchom Peungvicha; Rungravi Temsiririrkkul; Seung Joon Baek

    2011-01-01

    Abutilon indicum (L.) Sweet is an Asian phytomedicine traditionally used to treat several disorders, including diabetes mellitus. However, molecular mechanisms supporting the antidiabetic effect of A. indicum L. remain unknown. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether extract of A. indicum L. improves insulin sensitivity. First, we observed the antidiabetic activity of aqueous extract of the entire plant (leaves, twigs and roots) of A. indicum L. on postprandial plasma glucose in diabeti...

  10. A comparative study: Homoeopathic medicine and a medicinal plant withania somnifera for antidiabetic activity

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    Navinder

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Homeopathy has a distinct air of science involves books of rules, complex procedures, a proprietary lingo. Secondly, the method of carefully listening to the patient, meticulously recording every symptom experienced, lots of details from the patient’s background, is bound to make practitioners feel important and a lot of patients feel good. Homoeopathy is widely used, but specific effects of homoeopathic remedies seem implausible. In the present work pre-clinical trials have been performed to show that the Homeopathic Formulations have some Pharmacological effect. In the present work, ethanol extract of withania somnifera shows significantly positive antidiabetic activity on rats when compared with Glibenclamide standard antidiabetic drug. Antidiabetic effect is thought to be due to increased hepatic metabolism, increased insulin release from pancreatic beta cells and/or insulin sparing effect. Homeopathic formulation of Potency Q, 30 and 200 shows significant pharmacological effect in animals (Rats and shows the Pre-clinical effects. It shows Homeopathic formulations is not mere Placebo but have some Pharmacological/Therapeutic effect.

  11. Enhancement of sodium caprate on intestine absorption and antidiabetic action of berberine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lv, Xiao-Yan; Li, Jing; Zhang, Ming; Wang, Chun-Mei; Fan, Zheng; Wang, Chun-Yan; Chen, Li

    2010-03-01

    Berberine, a plant alkaloid used in traditional Chinese medicine, has a wide spectrum of pharmacological actions, but the poor bioavailability limits its clinical use. The present aim was to observe the effects of sodium caprate on the intestinal absorption and antidiabetic action of berberine. The in situ, in vitro, and in vivo models were used to observe the effect of sodium caprate on the intestinal absorption of berberine. Intestinal mucosa morphology was measured to evaluate the toxic effect of sodium caprate. Diabetic model was used to evaluate antidiabetic effect of berberine coadministered with sodium caprate. The results showed that the absorption of berberine in the small intestine was poor and that sodium caprate could significantly improve the poor absorption of berberine in the small intestine. Sodium caprate stimulated mucosal-to-serosal transport of berberine; the enhancement ratios were 2.08, 1.49, and 3.49 in the duodenum, jejunum, and ileum, respectively. After coadministration, the area under the plasma concentration-time curve of berberine was increased 28% than that in the absence of sodium caprate. Furthermore, both berberine and coadministration with sodium caprate orally could significantly decrease fasting blood glucose and improve glucose tolerance in diabetic rats (P effect of coadministration group was remarkably stronger, and the areas under the glucose curves was decreased 22.5%, compared with berberine treatment group (P berberine in intestine and enhance its antidiabetic effect without any serious mucosal damage.

  12. Finding needles in a haystack: application of network analysis and target enrichment studies for the identification of potential anti-diabetic phytochemicals.

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    Shaik M Fayaz

    Full Text Available Diabetes mellitus is a debilitating metabolic disorder and remains a significant threat to public health. Herbal medicines have been proven to be effective anti-diabetic agents compared to synthetic drugs in terms of side effects. However, the complexity in their chemical constituents and mechanism of action, hinder the effort to discover novel anti-diabetic drugs. Hence, understanding the biological and chemical basis of pharmacological action of phytochemicals is essential for the discovery of potential anti-diabetic drugs. Identifying important active compounds, their protein targets and the pathways involved in diabetes would serve this purpose. In this context, the present study was aimed at exploring the mechanism of action of anti-diabetic plants phytochemicals through network and chemical-based approaches. This study also involves a focused and constructive strategy for preparing new effective anti-diabetic formulations. Further, a protocol for target enrichment was proposed, to identify novel protein targets for important active compounds. Therefore, the successive use of network analysis combined with target enrichment studies would accelerate the discovery of potential anti-diabetic phytochemicals.

  13. Phytochemical Study and Anti-inflammatory, Antidiabetic and Free Radical Scavenger Evaluations of Krameria pauciflora Methanol Extract

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    A. Berenice Aguilar-Guadarrama

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The plant Krameria pauciflora MOC et. Sessé ex DC. is used as an anti-inflammatory and antidiabetic in traditional medicine. The aim of this study was to evaluate the in vivo anti-inflammatory and antidiabetic effects of a methanol extract from the roots of K. pauciflora. Dichloromethane and ethyl acetate extracts obtained by partitioning the methanol extract were also evaluated. Complete methanol and dichloromethane extracts showed anti-inflammatory effects at 3 mg/kg. An anti-inflammatory effect similar to indomethacin (10 mg/kg was observed when the methanol and dichloromethane extracts, which contain a cycloartane-type triterpene and an sterol, were administered orally at several doses (3, 10, 30 and 100 mg/kg, whereas no anti-inflammatory effect was observed at any dose for the ethyl acetate extract, which contains catechin-type flavonoids. The antidiabetic effect of each extract was also determined. An antihyperglycaemic effect was observed in diabetic rats, but no effect in normoglycaemic animals was observed when the methanol extract was administrated at 30 mg/kg. All of the extracts exhibited radical scavenger activity. Additionally, constituents from all of the extracts were identified by NMR. This article supports the use of K. pauciflora as an anti-inflammatory because it exhibits a similar effect to indomethacin. However, its antidiabetic effect is not completely clear, although it could be useful for preventing diabetic complications.

  14. Fractionation of Plant Bioactives from Black Carrots (Daucus carota subspecies sativus varietas atrorubens Alef.) by Adsorptive Membrane Chromatography and Analysis of Their Potential Anti-Diabetic Activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esatbeyoglu, Tuba; Rodríguez-Werner, Miriam; Schlösser, Anke; Liehr, Martin; Ipharraguerre, Ignacio; Winterhalter, Peter; Rimbach, Gerald

    2016-07-27

    Black and purple carrots have attracted interest as colored extracts for coloring food due to their high content of anthocyanins. This study aimed to investigate the polyphenol composition of black carrots. Particularly, the identification and quantification of phenolic compounds of the variety Deep Purple carrot (DPC), which presents a very dark color, was performed by HPLC-PDA and HPLC-ESI-MS(n) analyses. The separation of polyphenols from a DPC XAD-7 extract into an anthocyanin fraction (AF) and co-pigment fraction (CF; primarily phenolic acids) was carried out by membrane chromatography. Furthermore, possible anti-diabetic effects of the DPC XAD-7 extract and its AF and CF were determined. DPC samples (XAD-7, CF, and AF) inhibited α-amylase and α-glucosidase in a dose-dependent manner. Moreover, DPC XAD-7 and chlorogenic acid, but not DPC CF and DPC AF, caused a moderate inhibition of intestinal glucose uptake in Caco-2 cells. However, DPC samples did not affect glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) secretion and dipeptidyl peptidase IV (DPP-4) activity. Overall, DPC exhibits an inhibitory effect on α-amylase and α-glucosidase activity and on cellular glucose uptake indicating potential anti-diabetic properties. PMID:27362825

  15. Antidiabetic Indian plants: a good source of potent amylase inhibitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhat, Menakshi; Zinjarde, Smita S; Bhargava, Shobha Y; Kumar, Ameeta Ravi; Joshi, Bimba N

    2011-01-01

    Diabetes is known as a multifactorial disease. The treatment of diabetes (Type II) is complicated due to the inherent patho-physiological factors related to this disease. One of the complications of diabetes is post-prandial hyperglycemia (PPHG). Glucosidase inhibitors, particularly α-amylase inhibitors are a class of compounds that helps in managing PPHG. Six ethno-botanically known plants having antidiabetic property namely, Azadirachta indica Adr. Juss.; Murraya koenigii (L.) Sprengel; Ocimum tenuflorum (L.) (syn: Sanctum); Syzygium cumini (L.) Skeels (syn: Eugenia jambolana); Linum usitatissimum (L.) and Bougainvillea spectabilis were tested for their ability to inhibit glucosidase activity. The chloroform, methanol and aqueous extracts were prepared sequentially from either leaves or seeds of these plants. It was observed that the chloroform extract of O. tenuflorum; B. spectabilis; M. koenigii and S. cumini have significant α-amylase inhibitory property. Plants extracts were further tested against murine pancreatic, liver and small intestinal crude enzyme preparations for glucosidase inhibitory activity. The three extracts of O. tenuflorum and chloroform extract of M. koenigi showed good inhibition of murine pancreatic and intestinal glucosidases as compared with acarbose, a known glucosidase inhibitor. PMID:18955350

  16. Antidiabetic Indian Plants: A Good Source of Potent Amylase Inhibitors

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    Menakshi Bhat

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Diabetes is known as a multifactorial disease. The treatment of diabetes (Type II is complicated due to the inherent patho-physiological factors related to this disease. One of the complications of diabetes is post-prandial hyperglycemia (PPHG. Glucosidase inhibitors, particularly α-amylase inhibitors are a class of compounds that helps in managing PPHG. Six ethno-botanically known plants having antidiabetic property namely, Azadirachta indica Adr. Juss.; Murraya koenigii (L. Sprengel; Ocimum tenuflorum (L. (syn: Sanctum; Syzygium cumini (L. Skeels (syn: Eugenia jambolana; Linum usitatissimum (L. and Bougainvillea spectabilis were tested for their ability to inhibit glucosidase activity. The chloroform, methanol and aqueous extracts were prepared sequentially from either leaves or seeds of these plants. It was observed that the chloroform extract of O. tenuflorum; B. spectabilis; M. koenigii and S. cumini have significant α-amylase inhibitory property. Plants extracts were further tested against murine pancreatic, liver and small intestinal crude enzyme preparations for glucosidase inhibitory activity. The three extracts of O. tenuflorum and chloroform extract of M. koenigi showed good inhibition of murine pancreatic and intestinal glucosidases as compared with acarbose, a known glucosidase inhibitor.

  17. Antidiabetic and antioxidant activities ofNypa fruticans Wurmb. vinegar sample from Malaysia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Nor Adlin Yusoff; Mun Fei Yam; Hooi Kheng Beh; Khairul Niza Abdul Razak; Tri Widyawati; Roziahanim Mahmud; Mariam Ahmad; Mohd Zaini Asmawi

    2015-01-01

    Objective:To study the antidiabetic and antioxidant activities of nipa palm vinegar (NPV) used in traditional Malay medicine for treating diabetes.Methods:NPV was extracted using liquid-liquid extraction method and the obtained samples were subjected to antidiabetic studies using normal and streptozotocin-induced diabetic rat models whereas antidoxidant activities were investigated viain vitroantioxidant tests namely 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl and 2,2’-azinobis-3-ethylbenzothiozoline-6-sulfonic acid free radicals scavenging activities and the reducing power assay.Results:Single administration of NPV and its extracts were not effective in both normal and diabetic rats. In intraperitoneal glucose tolerance test, NPV and its aqueous extract showed significant blood glucose lowering effect. In the sub-acute study, compared with the diabetic control, aqueous extract of NPV showed the most notable blood glucose lowering effect (56.6%) and a significant improvement in serum insulin levels (79.8%, P<0.05). To assess NPV’s antioxidant activity, threein vitro antioxidant tests were employed:2,2-diphenyl-1-picryhydrazyl and 2,2’-azinobis-3-ethylbenzothiozoline-6-sulfonic acid free radical-scavenging assays, and the reducing power assay. Ethyl acetate extract had the greatest antioxidant potential and content of phenolic and flavonoid compounds. A linear positive correlation between the antioxidant parameters was observed. Chemical profiling analysis of aqueous extract of NPV revealed the presence of acetic acid (35.25%), the main active constituent which significantly contributed to the observed antidiabetic activity.Conclusions:Aqueous extract of NPV possesses antihyperglycaemic activities comparable to the metformin, while the ethyl acetate extract precipitated significant antioxidant effects attributable to its high phenolic content. These findings suggest that antioxidant compounds of NPV do not contribute much towards the overall observed antidiabetic effect.

  18. Antidiabetic and antioxidant activities of Nypa fruticans Wurmb. vinegar sample from Malaysia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Nor; Adlin; Yusoff; Mun; Fei; Yam; Hooi; Kheng; Beh; Khairul; Niza; Abdul; Razak; Tri; Widyawati; Roziahanim; Mahmud; Mariam; Ahmad; Mohd; Zaini; Asmawi

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To study the antidiabetic and antioxidant activities of nipa palm vinegar(NPV) used in traditional Malay medicine for treating diabetes. Methods: NPV was extracted using liquid-liquid extraction method and the obtained samples were subjected to antidiabetic studies using normal and streptozotocin-induced diabetic rat models whereas antidoxidant activities were investigated via in vitro antioxidant tests namely 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl and 2,2’-azinobis-3-ethylbenzothiozoline-6-sulfonic acid free radicals scavenging activities and the reducing power assay. Results: Single administration of NPV and its extracts were not effective in both normal and diabetic rats. In intraperitoneal glucose tolerance test, NPV and its aqueous extract showed significant blood glucose lowering effect. In the sub-acute study, compared with the diabetic control, aqueous extract of NPV showed the most notable blood glucose lowering effect(56.6%) and a significant improvement in serum insulin levels(79.8%, P<0.05). To assess NPV’s antioxidant activity, three in vitro antioxidant tests were employed: 2,2-diphenyl-1-picryhydrazyl and 2,2’-azinobis-3-ethylbenzothiozoline-6-sulfonic acid free radical-scavenging assays, and the reducing power assay. Ethyl acetate extract had the greatest antioxidant potential and content of phenolic and flavonoid compounds. A linear positive correlation between the antioxidant parameters was observed. Chemical profiling analysis of aqueous extract of NPV revealed the presence of acetic acid(35.25%), the main active constituent which significantly contributed to the observed antidiabetic activity. Conclusions: Aqueous extract of NPV possesses antihyperglycaemic activities comparable to the metformin, while the ethyl acetate extract precipitated significant antioxidant effects attributable to its high phenolic content. These findings suggest that antioxidant compounds of NPV do not contribute much towards the overall observed antidiabetic

  19. Metformin-loaded BSA nanoparticles in cancer therapy: a new perspective for an old antidiabetic drug.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jose, Pinkybel; Sundar, K; Anjali, C H; Ravindran, Aswathy

    2015-03-01

    Clinical and experimental data suggest that there is a strong association between type II diabetic mellitus and pancreatic cancer. The present study focuses on exploring the anticancer and antidiabetic properties of metformin-loaded bovine serum albumin nanoparticles (BSA NPs) on (MiaPaCa-2) pancreatic carcinoma cell lines. Albumin nanoparticles were synthesized using coacervation method and the average size of the particles was found to be 97 nm. The particles were stable and showed a spherical morphology with narrow size distribution. We investigated the impact of two stages characterized in type II diabetes mellitus (hyperglycemia and hyperinsulinemia) on the proliferation of MiaPaCa-2 cells and compared the inhibitory effects of bare metformin to that of MET-BSA NPs. Further, different concentrations of insulin and glucose were added along with bare metformin, bare BSA, and metformin encapsulated BSA carrier on MiaPaCa-2 cells to check the strong association between type II diabetes and pancreatic cancer. The results revealed that MET-BSA NPs showed more toxicity when compared with drug and carrier individually.

  20. Evaluation of Antidiabetic Activity and Associated Toxicity of Artemisia afra Aqueous Extract in Wistar Rats

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    Taofik O. Sunmonu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Artemisia afra Jacq. ex Willd. is a widely used medicinal plant in South Africa for the treatment of diabetes. This study aimed to evaluate the hypoglycemic activity and possible toxicity effect of aqueous leaf extract of the herb administered at different dosages for 15 days in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Administration of the extract at 50, 100, and 200 mg/kg body weight significantly (P<0.05 increased body weight, decreased blood glucose levels, increased glucose tolerance, and improved imbalance in lipid metabolism in diabetic rats. These are indications of antidiabetic property of A. afra with 200 mg/kg body weight of the extract showing the best hypoglycemic action by comparing favourably well with glibenclamide, a standard hypoglycemic drug. The extract at all dosages tested also restored liver function indices and haematological parameters to normal control levels in the diabetic rats, whereas the kidney function indices were only normalized in the diabetic animals administered with 50 mg/kg body weight of the extract. This investigation clearly showed that in addition to its hypoglycemic activity, A. afra may also protect the liver and blood against impairment due to diabetes. However, some kidney functions may be compromised at high dosages of the extract.

  1. Efek Antidiabetes dari Ekstrak Kelopak Bunga Rosela (Hibiscus sabdariffa L) terhadap Mencit yang Diinduksi Streptozotocin

    OpenAIRE

    Hutagaol, Rosemary Yuliana

    2012-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus is a symptom that can be characterized by chronic hyperglycemia and impaired metabolism of carbohydrates, fats and proteins associated with the lack of insulin secretion or insulin action both in absolute and relative terms. Treatment with drugs distributed on the market either relatively more expensive because of its use in the long term or have considerable side effects. Previous studies show that roselle calyces have a potent antidiabetic activity. Therefore the rese...

  2. ANTIGLYCATION, ANTIOXIDANT AND ANTIDIABETIC ACTIVITY OF MATURE STRAWBERRY (FRAGARIA x ANANASSA) FRUITS

    OpenAIRE

    Pallavi Mandave; Sandhya Rani; Aniket Kuvalekar; Prabhakar Ranjekar

    2013-01-01

    A comprehensive in vitro study involving antiglycation, antioxidant and anti-diabetic assays was carried out in mature fruits of strawberry. The effect of aqueous extract of mature strawberry fruits on glycation of guanosine with glucose and fructose with or without oxidizing entities like reactive oxygen species was analyzed. Spectral studies showed that glycation and/or fructation of guanosine was significantly inhibited by aqueous extract of strawberry. The UV absorbance of the glycation r...

  3. Triglyceride/HDL ratio as a screening tool for predicting success at reducing anti-diabetic medications following weight loss.

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    Ghanshyam Palamaner Subash Shantha

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Intentional weight loss, by reducing insulin resistance, results in both better glycemic control and decreased need for anti-diabetic medications. However, not everyone who is successful with weight loss is able to reduce anti-diabetic medication use. In this retrospective cohort study, we assessed the predictive accuracy of baseline triglyceride (TGL/HDL ratio, a marker of insulin resistance, to screen patients for success in reducing anti-diabetic medication use with weight loss. METHODS: Case records of 121 overweight and obese attendees at two outpatient weight management centers were analyzed. The weight loss intervention consisted of a calorie-restricted diet (~1000Kcal/day deficit, a behavior modification plan, and a plan for increasing physical activity. RESULTS: Mean period of follow-up was 12.5 ± 3.5 months. By study exit, mean weight loss and mean HbA1c% reduction were 15.4 ± 5.5 kgs and 0.5 ± 0.2% respectively. 81 (67% in the study cohort achieved at least 1 dose reduction of any anti-diabetic medication. Tests for predictive accuracy of baseline TGL/HDL ratio ≤ 3 to determine success with dose reductions of anti-diabetic medications showed a sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, negative predictive value, area under the curve, likelihood ratio (LR + and LR-of 81, 83, 90, 70, 78, 4.8 and 0.2, respectively. Reproducibility of TGL/HDL ratio was acceptable. CONCLUSION: TGL/HDL ratio shows promise as an effective screening tool to determine success with dose reductions of anti-diabetic medications. The results of our study may inform the conduct of a systematic review using data from prior weight loss trials.

  4. An invertebrate hyperglycemic model for the identification of anti-diabetic drugs.

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    Yasuhiko Matsumoto

    Full Text Available The number of individuals diagnosed with type 2 diabetes mellitus, which is caused by insulin resistance and/or abnormal insulin secretion, is increasing worldwide, creating a strong demand for the development of more effective anti-diabetic drugs. However, animal-based screening for anti-diabetic compounds requires sacrifice of a large number of diabetic animals, which presents issues in terms of animal welfare. Here, we established a method for evaluating the anti-diabetic effects of compounds using an invertebrate animal, the silkworm, Bombyx mori. Sugar levels in silkworm hemolymph increased immediately after feeding silkworms a high glucose-containing diet, resulting in impaired growth. Human insulin and 5-aminoimidazole-4-carboxamide-1-β-D-ribofuranoside (AICAR, an AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK activator, decreased the hemolymph sugar levels of the hyperglycemic silkworms and restored growth. Treatment of the isolated fat body with human insulin in an in vitro culture system increased total sugar in the fat body and stimulated Akt phosphorylation. These responses were inhibited by wortmannin, an inhibitor of phosphoinositide 3 kinase. Moreover, AICAR stimulated AMPK phosphorylation in the silkworm fat body. Administration of aminoguanidine, a Maillard reaction inhibitor, repressed the accumulation of Maillard reaction products (advanced glycation end-products; AGEs in the hyperglycemic silkworms and restored growth, suggesting that the growth defect of hyperglycemic silkworms is caused by AGE accumulation in the hemolymph. Furthermore, we identified galactose as a hypoglycemic compound in jiou, an herbal medicine for diabetes, by monitoring its hypoglycemic activity in hyperglycemic silkworms. These results suggest that the hyperglycemic silkworm model is useful for identifying anti-diabetic drugs that show therapeutic effects in mammals.

  5. Glucose Supply and Insulin Demand Dynamics of Antidiabetic Agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monte, Scott V.; Schentag, Jerome J.; Adelman, Martin H.; Paladino, Joseph A.

    2010-01-01

    Background For microvascular outcomes, there is compelling historical and contemporary evidence for intensive blood glucose reduction in patients with either type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) or type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). There is also strong evidence to support macrovascular benefit with intensive blood glucose reduction in T1DM. Similar evidence remains elusive for T2DM. Because cardiovascular outcome trials utilizing conventional algorithms to attain intensive blood glucose reduction have not demonstrated superiority to less aggressive blood glucose reduction (Action to Control Cardiovascular Risk in Diabetes; Action in Diabetes and Vascular Disease: Preterax and Diamicron Modified Release Controlled Evaluation; and Veterans Affairs Diabetes Trial), it should be considered that the means by which the blood glucose is reduced may be as important as the actual blood glucose. Methods By identifying quantitative differences between antidiabetic agents on carbohydrate exposure (CE), hepatic glucose uptake (HGU), hepatic gluconeogenesis (GNG), insulin resistance (IR), peripheral glucose uptake (PGU), and peripheral insulin exposure (PIE), we created a pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic model to characterize the effect of the agents on the glucose supply and insulin demand dynamic. Glucose supply was defined as the cumulative percentage decrease in CE, increase in HGU, decrease in GNG, and decrease in IR, while insulin demand was defined as the cumulative percentage increase in PIE and PGU. With the glucose supply and insulin demand effects of each antidiabetic agent summated, the glucose supply (numerator) was divided by the insulin demand (denominator) to create a value representative of the glucose supply and insulin demand dynamic (SD ratio). Results Alpha-glucosidase inhibitors (1.25), metformin (2.20), and thiazolidinediones (TZDs; 1.25–1.32) demonstrate a greater effect on glucose supply (SD ratio >1), while secretagogues (0.69–0.81), basal insulins (0.77

  6. Current status of Indian medicinal plants with antidiabetic potential:a review

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Raju Patil; Ravindra Patil; Bharati Ahirwar; Dheeraj Ahirwar

    2011-01-01

    In India, indigenous remedies have been used in the treatment of diabetes mellitus since the time of Charaka and Sushruta. Plants have always been an exemplary source of drugs and many of the currently available drugs have been derived directly or indirectly from them. The ethnobotanical information reports that about 800 plants may possess anti-diabetic potential. Out of several Indian medicinal plants 33 plants were reviewed. The most effective antidiabetic Indian medicinal plants are Acacia arabica, Aegle marmelose, Agrimonia eupatoria, Allium cepa, Allium sativum, Aloe vera, Azadirachta indica, Benincasa hispida, Beta vulgaris, Caesalpinia bonducella, Citrullus colocynthis, Coccinia indica, Eucalyptus globules, Ficus bengalenesis, Gymnema sylvestre, Hibiscus rosasinesis, Ipomoea batatas, Jatropha curcus, Mangifera indica, Momordica charantia, Morus alba, Mucuna pruriens, Ocimum sanctum, Pterocarpus marsupium, Punica granatum, Syzigium cumini, Tinospora cordifolia, Trigonella foenum graecum. A wide array of plant derived active principles representing numerous chemical compounds has demonstrated activity consistent with their possible use in the treatment of diabetes.

  7. Antidiabetic and hypolipidemic activities of Kigelia pinnata flowers extract in streptozotocin induced diabetic rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kumar S; Kumar V; Prakash OM

    2012-01-01

    Objective:To evaluate antidiabetic and hypolipidemic activities of Kigelia pinnata methanolic flowers extract in streptozotocin (STZ) induced diabetic wistar rat. Methods: Rats were made diabetic by a single dose of STZ at 60 mg/kg body weight i.p. The blood glucose level was checked before and 72 h after STZ injection to confirm the development of diabetes. The flower extract and glibenclamide were administered orally at the doses of 250 and 500 mg/kg body weight for 21 days. Results:Daily oral treatment with the extract and standard drug for 21 days significantly reduced blood glucose, serum cholesterol and triglycerides levels. High density lipoprotein-cholesterol level was found to be improved (P<0.01) as compared to diabetic control group. Conclusions:It is concluded that Kigellia pinnata flowers extract have significant antidiabetic and hypolipidemic effect.

  8. Saffron (Crocus sativus L.) powder as an ingredient of rye bread: an anti-diabetic evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bajerska, Joanna; Mildner-Szkudlarz, Sylwia; Podgórski, Tomasz; Oszmatek-Pruszyńska, Ewa

    2013-09-01

    In this study, a most consumer-acceptable rye bread (RB) containing saffron (S) powder (RB+S) was designed to verify its anti-diabetic properties, and to compare these effects with those of RB and S separately, matched to a similar dose of bioactive components, used in the high-fat (HF) diet in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced Wistar rats. After baking, beneficial antioxidant and sensory properties for RB enriched with 0.12% S were achieved. Twenty-four severely diabetic rats (fasting blood glucose (FBG) ≥350 mg/dL) were randomized to incorporate either 0.08% of pure S, or RB enriched with 0.12% S (the diet provided 0.08% of S), or RB alone into their diet for 5 weeks. As controls, nontreated, HF-feeding STZ-induced rats (positive control-HF/STZ) and rats receiving normal laboratory diet (negative control-C) were used. A significant FBG-lowering effect was observed (47%, 53%, and 54% reduction vs. HF/STZ; P<.05) after S, RB, and RB+S treatment. Improvements in the rats' glycemia were achieved by β-cell regeneration and increases in insulin secretion. Only in the S and RB+S group of rats, a significant (P<.05) increase in relative pancreas (vs. HF/STZ) was noted. A significant (P<.05) reduction in the concentration of thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS) was achieved, whereas the ferric-reducing ability of plasma (FRAP) was not changed after S, RB and RB+S treatment (vs. HF/STZ). Triglyceride (TG) concentrations after S, RB, and RB+S treatment were significantly decreased (P<.05) versus HF/STZ. Both S and RB can be used in diabetic therapy, but no additional metabolic effect was achieved after consumption of RB+S.

  9. Antidiabetic activity and chemical constituents of the aerial parts of Heracleum dissectum Ledeb.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hailong; Su, Yaping; Wang, Xinrui; Mi, Jie; Huo, Yayu; Wang, Zhigang; Liu, Ying; Gao, Yang

    2017-01-01

    Heracleum dissectum Ledeb. has long been used as a wild edible vegetable by local people in China. The purpose of this study is to investigate the antidiabetic potential of aerial part of H. dissectum methanol extract (HdME) and the chemical constituents. Ten compounds including eight coumarins were isolated and four of them were found from H. dissectum for the first time. HdME potently inhibited the elevation of plasma glucose after its oral administration to glucose-loaded mice, and its petroleum ether (PE) fraction exerted the greatest inhibitory activities. Meanwhile, HdME (125 and 250mg/kg) also significantly decreased the blood glucose level in STZ-induced diabetic mice, but had no effect in normoglycemic mice. Additionally, HdME showed weak inhibitory effects on α-glucosidase activity and DPPH free radicals scavenging. In conclusion, HdME has antidiabetic action and PE fraction is the active part where coumarins possibly play an important role in antidiabetic activity. PMID:27507512

  10. Anti-diabetic activity of Shilajatvadi Lauha, an Ayurvedic traditional herbo-mineral formulation

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    Thakur Rakesh Singh

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Shilajatvadi Lauha (SL is used in Ayurveda as Indian traditional medicine for treating diabetes mellitus. Aims: To explore the anti-diabetic potential of SL in nicotinamide-streptozotocin induced diabetic rats. Materials and Methods: SL (10, 30, and 100 mg/kg and glibenclamide (10 mg/kg were orally administered once daily to diabetic rats for 14 days. Blood glucose, plasma insulin, total cholesterol (TC, triglycerides (TGs, low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C, high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C, and very LDL-C (VLDL-C were examined. Results: SL significantly lowered the blood glucose without any hypoglycemic effect on their control counterparts, which was comparable to that of the standard anti-diabetic drug, glibenclamide. SL also showed reduction in the levels of TC, TGs, LDL-C, VLDL-C, but it increases the levels of plasma insulin and HDL-C in diabetic rats. Conclusions: SL possesses anti-diabetic and anti-hyperlipidemic activities in Type 2DM rats, which seems to scientifically validate its traditional uses and might be a promising drug in the therapy of diabetes mellitus and its hyperlipidemic complications.

  11. Synthesis, characterization and in vitro anti-diabetic activity of catechin grafted inulin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jun; Lu, Jian-feng; Kan, Juan; Wen, Xiao-yuan; Jin, Chang-hai

    2014-03-01

    In this study, a novel biological macromolecule with strong in vitro anti-diabetic activity was developed by grafting catechin onto inulin via a free radical mediated method. The characterization, α-glucosidase and α-amylase inhibitory activities of catechin grafted inulin (catechin-g-inulin) were investigated. Results showed that the grafting ratio of catechin-g-inulin was 124.8 mg CAE/g. UV-vis spectrum of catechin-g-inulin exhibited a new band at 280 nm, attributing to B ring of catechin moiety. FT-IR spectrum of catechin-g-inulin showed new absorption bands between 1540 and 1418 cm(-1), attributing to CC stretching vibration of catechin moiety. (1)H NMR spectrum of catechin-g-inulin preserved all the characteristic proton signals of inulin and partial signals of catechin. These all confirmed the successful grafting copolymerization. Conjugation probably occurred between OH of inulin (C-6) and H-6/H-8 of catechin (A ring). Catechin-g-inulin also exhibited increased thermal stability and crystallinity as compared to inulin. Moreover, in vitro anti-diabetic assays showed the α-glucosidase inhibitory activity decreased in the order of catechin-g-inulin>catechin>acarbose>inulin, and α-amylase inhibitory activity decreased in the order of catechin-g-inulin>acarbose>catechin>inulin. These indicated the potential of catechin-g-inulin in the development of a novel effective anti-diabetic agent.

  12. Antidiabetic and antioxidant activities of methanol extract of Syzygium operculatum (Roxb.) Niedz. bark

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Md. Mizanur Rahman; Ahmmed Rusti Foysol; Anaytulla; Md. Masudur Rahman; Mohammed Aktar Sayeed; Md. Abdullah-Al-Mamun; Mohammad Mustakim

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the antidiabetic and antioxidant effects of the methanol extract of Syzygium operculatum bark (MSOB) using in vivo and in vitro models. Methods: Antidiabetic activity was assessed by using alloxan induced (120 mg/kg body weight) diabetic mice. The plant extract (200 mg/kg and 400 mg/kg body weight) was administrated i.p. to diabetic mice in comparison with standard metformin hydrochloride (150 mg/kg body weight). The antioxidant activity of the extract was evaluated by using a range of in vitro assays and results were compared to standards. Results: The extract MSOB 200 mg/kg and 400 mg/kg reduced the blood glucose level 44.05%and 55.53% respectively where the standard drug metformin reduced 69.42% in dose of 150 mg/kg body weight. The extract MSOB showed significant 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl scavenging activity, total phenol content, total flavonoid content and reducing power capacity compared to standards. The IC50 values were found 300.34 μg/mL in 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radical scavenging assay where 40.31 μg/mL for ascorbic acid. The total phenol and flavonoid contents were 197.5 and 267.5 mg of gallic acid equivalent per gram, respectively. Conclusions: The present study indicates that the extract of Syzygium operculatum bark is the potential sources of natural antioxidant and possesses significant antidiabetic activities.

  13. Anti-diabetic drugs inhibit obesity-linked phosphorylation of PPARgamma by Cdk5.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Jang Hyun; Banks, Alexander S; Estall, Jennifer L; Kajimura, Shingo; Boström, Pontus; Laznik, Dina; Ruas, Jorge L; Chalmers, Michael J; Kamenecka, Theodore M; Blüher, Matthias; Griffin, Patrick R; Spiegelman, Bruce M

    2010-07-22

    Obesity induced in mice by high-fat feeding activates the protein kinase Cdk5 (cyclin-dependent kinase 5) in adipose tissues. This results in phosphorylation of the nuclear receptor PPARgamma (peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma), a dominant regulator of adipogenesis and fat cell gene expression, at serine 273. This modification of PPARgamma does not alter its adipogenic capacity, but leads to dysregulation of a large number of genes whose expression is altered in obesity, including a reduction in the expression of the insulin-sensitizing adipokine, adiponectin. The phosphorylation of PPARgamma by Cdk5 is blocked by anti-diabetic PPARgamma ligands, such as rosiglitazone and MRL24. This inhibition works both in vivo and in vitro, and is completely independent of classical receptor transcriptional agonism. Similarly, inhibition of PPARgamma phosphorylation in obese patients by rosiglitazone is very tightly associated with the anti-diabetic effects of this drug. All these findings strongly suggest that Cdk5-mediated phosphorylation of PPARgamma may be involved in the pathogenesis of insulin-resistance, and present an opportunity for development of an improved generation of anti-diabetic drugs through PPARgamma.

  14. Thermal Analysis of Some Antidiabetic Pharmaceutical Compounds

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    Ali Kamal Attia

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Thermal behavior of some antidiabetic drugs such as pioglitazone hydrochloride (PTZ, rosiglitazone maleate (RGZ, glibenclamide (GBD and glimepiride (GMP has been studied. Methods: Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA, derivative thermogravimetry (DTG and differential thermal analysis (DTA techniques were used to study the thermal behavior of the drugs under investigation. Results: Thermal analysis technique was used to obtain quality control parameters such as melting point 193.13 °C, 122.42 °C, 173.75 °C and 208 °C for PTZ, RGZ, GBD and GMP, respectively. The values of melting point of gave satisfactory results in comparison to that obtained by using the official method. Non-isothermal methods were employed to determine the activation energy values of the first stage of thermal decomposition. Comparison of the activation energy values suggests the following sequence of thermal stability: GMP > GBD > RGZ > PTZ. Conclusion: The results obtained are useful for the identification of these compounds and permitted interpretations concerning their thermal decomposition. Thermal stability of pharmaceutical compounds can be studied and compared by using thermal analysis techniques.

  15. Review of antidiabetic mechanism of Metformin%二甲双胍降糖机制研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    潘小康

    2016-01-01

    [Summary] Metformin is the first‐line oral antidiabetic drug.However ,its antidiabetic mechanism is not well understood.The glucose‐lowering effect of Metformin has been attributed to increase insulin sensitivity and glucose disposal ,suppress hepatic gluconeogenesis and inhibit glucagon action.Metformin can decrease the glucose level by activating AMPK dependent/independent pathway ,but its antidiabetic effect is not limited to this.Here we reviewed antidiabetic mechanism of Metformin.%二甲双胍(M et )是临床一线口服降糖药物,但其降低血糖(BG )的机制还不完全清楚。M et降低BG主要通过增加IS、增加外周组织对葡萄糖(PG )的摄取、抑制肝脏糖异生和拮抗胰升血糖素的作用。Met可通过激活腺苷酸激活蛋白激酶(AMPK)降低BG ,同时,Met也能不依赖AMPK降低BG。本文就M et主要的降糖机制作一综述。

  16. Evaluation of the Antidiabetic and Antibacterial Activity of Cissus sicyoides

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    Flavio Luis Beltrame

    2002-03-01

    Full Text Available In this work we investigated the antidiabetic and antibacterial effect of Cissus sicyoides (CS from Brazil. Diabetic rats that received water (A group or extracts from the aerial parts of the plant (Cs group during four weeks were employed. After this period, serum levels of glucose, cholesterol and triglycerides were measured. Glycemia was not affected by treatment with CS. However, there was an increased cholesterol and triglyceride level in Cs group. In addition, bioassay-guided fractionation of methanolic extract from aerial parts of CS was performed for isolation of antibacterial compounds.beta-Sitosterol and sitosterol-beta-D-glucopyranoside isolated showed antibacterial activity against Bacillus subtilis with minimal inhibitory concentrations (MICs of 50 mug/ml and 100 mug/ml, respectively. In spite of popular belief, CS did not show antidiabetic activity. However, two compounds isolated from aerial parts of the plant (beta-sitosterol and sitosterol-beta-D-glucopyranoside showed antibacterial activity.No presente trabalho foram investigados os efeitos antibacteriano e antidiabético da planta Cissus sicyoides (CS coletada no Brasil. Ratos diabéticos receberam água (grupo A ou extratos da parte aérea da planta (grupo CS durante 4 semanas. Após este período, os níveis séricos de glicose, colesterol e triglicerídeos dos ratos foram determinados. A glicemia não foi afetada pelo tratamento com CS. Entretanto, houve aumento nos níveis de colesterol e triglicerídeos nos ratos do grupo CS. Em adição, fracionamento bio-monitorado foi realizado para o isolamento de compostos com atividade antibacteriana. beta-Sitosterol e sitosterol-beta-D-glucopiranosídeo isolados mostram atividade antibacteriana contra Bacillus subtilis com concentrações mínimas inibitórias (MICs de 50 mig/ml e 100 mig/ml, respectivamente. Apesar da crença popular, CS não mostrou atividade antidiabética. Entretanto, dois compostos isolados da parte aérea da

  17. Pharmacogenomics in type 2 diabetes: oral antidiabetic drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniels, M A; Kan, C; Willmes, D M; Ismail, K; Pistrosch, F; Hopkins, D; Mingrone, G; Bornstein, S R; Birkenfeld, A L

    2016-10-01

    Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is a fast progressing disease reaching pandemic proportions. T2DM is specifically harmful because of its severe secondary complications. In the course of the disease, most patients require treatment with oral antidiabetic drugs (OADs), for which a relatively large number of different options are available. The growing number of individuals affected by T2DM as well as marked interindividual differences in the response to treatment call for individualized therapeutic regimens that can maximize treatment efficacy and thus reduce side effects and costs. A large number of genetic polymorphisms have been described affecting the response to treatment with OADs; in this review, we summarize the most recent advances in this area of research. Extensive evidence exists for polymorphisms affecting pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of biguanides and sulfonylureas. Data on incretin-based medications as well as the new class of sodium/glucose cotransporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitors are just starting to emerge. With diabetes being a known comorbidity of several psychiatric disorders, we also review genetic polymorphisms possibly responsible for a common treatment response in both conditions. For all drug classes reviewed here, large prospective trials are necessary in order to consolidate the existing evidence and derive treatment schemes based on individual genetic traits.

  18. A drug utilization and pharmacoeconomic study of anti-diabetic drugs prescribed to type 2 diabetes mellitus patients visiting the medicine out-patient department of a tertiary care hospital of north India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amandeep Singh

    2016-08-01

    Conclusions: Metformin was the most common OAD agent and insulin aspart was the most common injectable anti-diabetic drug prescribed in patients with T2DM. The newer anti-diabetic drugs sitagliptin and newer insulin analogues were also prescribed to a great extent. Overall, the prescribing trend was rational to a great extent and had improved since the earlier study in the same institute. The most cost-effective anti-diabetic therapy was combination therapy of glipizide and metformin. The cost of diabetes management is high, especially for insulin therapy. [Int J Basic Clin Pharmacol 2016; 5(4.000: 1220-1227

  19. Stevia rebaudiana loaded titanium oxide nanomaterials as an antidiabetic agent in rats

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    Ariadna Langle

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Stevia rebaudiana (Bertoni Bertoni, Asteraceae, is a plant with hypoglycemic and antihyperlipidemic properties. S. rebaudiana (SrB has become a lead candidate for the treatment of the diabetes mellitus. However, chronic administrations of S. rebaudiana are required to cause the normoglycemic effect. Importantly, nanomaterials in general and titanium dioxide (TiO2 in particular have become effective tools for drug delivery. In this work, we obtained TiO2 nanomaterials with SrB at different concentrations (10, 20 and 30 µM by sol–gel method. After this nanomaterials were characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and transmission electron microscopy. Where it was demonstrated, the presence of the S. rebaudiana in TiO2 nanomaterials, which were observed as hemispherical agglomerated particles of different sizes. The nanomaterials were evaluated in male rats whose diabetes mellitus-phenotype was induced by alloxan (200 mg/kg, i.p.. The co-administration of TiO2-SrB (20 and 30 µM induced a significant and permanent decrease in the glucose concentration since 4 h, until 30 days post-administration. Likewise, the concentrations of insulin, glycosylated hemoglobin, cholesterol, and triacylglycerides showed a significant recovery to basal levels. The major finding of the study was that the TiO2-SrB (20 and 30 µM has a potent and prolonged activity antidiabetic. TiO2 can be considered like an appropriated vehicle in the continuous freeing of active substances to treat of diabetes mellitus.

  20. Isolation of Antidiabetic Principle from Fruit Rinds of Punica granatum

    OpenAIRE

    Vishal Jain; G. L. Viswanatha; Manohar, D.; Shivaprasad, H. N.

    2012-01-01

    Present study was aimed to isolate and evaluate the antidiabetic activity of phytoconstituents from fruit rinds of Punica granatum. With the above objectives Valoneic acid dilactone (VAD) was isolated from methanolic fruit rind extracts of Punica granatum (MEPG) and confirmed by 1H-NMR, 13C-NMR, and mass spectral data. Antidiabetic activity was evaluated by Aldose reductase, α -amylase and PTP1B inhibition assays in in vitro and Alloxan-induced diabetes in rats was used as an in vivo model. I...

  1. Application of Herbal Medicines with Bitter Flavor and Cold Property on Treating Diabetes Mellitus

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    Hongdong Chen

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Diabetes mellitus has been a global pandemic. Traditional Chinese Medicine has been used on diabetes mellitus for thousands of years and the modern Chinese medicine studies have found a curative effect of herbal medicine with bitter flavor and cold property on diabetes. This review will introduce the theory summary of flavor and property in TCM, argument basis, the evidences from clinical trails and animal experiments, the possible antidiabetic mechanisms, and advantages on lowering glucose of herbal medicines with bitter flavor and cold property and take rhizome, Chinese rhubarb, and Momordica charantia, the three herbal medicines with bitter flavor and cold property, as examples to illustrate the exact antidiabetic effect. It is hoped that this review can provide some ideas and inspiration for the treatment of diabetes with herbal medicine.

  2. Application of Herbal Medicines with Bitter Flavor and Cold Property on Treating Diabetes Mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hongdong; Guo, Jing; Pang, Bing; Zhao, Linhua; Tong, Xiaolin

    2015-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus has been a global pandemic. Traditional Chinese Medicine has been used on diabetes mellitus for thousands of years and the modern Chinese medicine studies have found a curative effect of herbal medicine with bitter flavor and cold property on diabetes. This review will introduce the theory summary of flavor and property in TCM, argument basis, the evidences from clinical trails and animal experiments, the possible antidiabetic mechanisms, and advantages on lowering glucose of herbal medicines with bitter flavor and cold property and take rhizome, Chinese rhubarb, and Momordica charantia, the three herbal medicines with bitter flavor and cold property, as examples to illustrate the exact antidiabetic effect. It is hoped that this review can provide some ideas and inspiration for the treatment of diabetes with herbal medicine. PMID:26557150

  3. ANTIDIABETIC ACTIVITY OF CICHORIUM INTYBUS L. SEEDS ON STZ-INDUCED DIABETIC RATS

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    Raad A. Kaskoos

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Diabetes mellitus is a chronic disorder of metabolism caused by an absolute or relative lack of insulin. WHO recommends evaluation of the antidiabetic potential of more and more plants to find a tenable cure for the disease. The folkloric claim that Cichorium intybus seeds are very effective in diabetes and its manifestations prompted us to evaluate its antidiabetic potential. C. intybus L. (Asteraceae, popularly known as Kasini, was first introduced by Prophet Mohammed 1400 years ago. The present study investigated the effect of a single oral administration of aqueous extract of C. intybus seeds on glucose levels in normal, normal hyperglycemic and STZ-induced diabetic rats at 100 mg/kg, 200 mg/kg and 500 mg/kg doses. A moderate dose-dependent antihyperglycaemic activity in STZ-induced diabetic rats was observed. For chronic studies 500 mg/kg was administered for 21 days and its effect on blood-glucose, serum insulin and lipid profile was estimated during the study. The results indicate that the continued administration of C. intybus extract produced a sustained antihyperglycaemic effect in STZ-induced diabetic rats. The insulin levels did not increase significantly. This indicated that the extract did not induce any regeneration of pancreatic b-cells. Thus the possible mechanism may either be increase in glucose utilization in the periphery or decrease in endogenous glucose production in the liver. It also decreased the levels of circulating lipids and lowered the atherogenic index. Thus, our study lends support to the claim for antidiabetic effect of C. intybus by pharmacological experimentation.

  4. Phytochemistry and medicinal properties of Phaleria macrocarpa (Scheff.) Boerl. extracts

    OpenAIRE

    Rabia Altaf; Mohammad Zaini Bin Asmawi; Aidiahmad Dewa; Amirin Sadikun; Muhammad Ihtisham Umar

    2013-01-01

    Phaleria macrocarpa, commonly known as Mahkota dewa is a medicinal plant that is indigenous to Indonesia and Malaysia. Extracts of P. macrocarpa have been used since years in traditional medicine that are evaluated scientifically as well. The extracts are reported for a number of valuable medicinal properties such as anti-cancer, anti-diabetic, anti-hyperlipidemic, anti-inflammatory, anti-bacterial, anti-fungal, anti-oxidant and vasorelaxant effect. The constituents isolated from different pa...

  5. Potent Antidiabetic Activity and Metabolite Profiling of Melicope Lunu-ankenda Leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Zuaidy, Mizher Hezam; Hamid, Azizah Abdul; Ismail, Amin; Mohamed, Suhaila; Abdul Razis, Ahmad Faizal; Mumtaz, Muhammad Waseem; Salleh, Syafiq Zikri

    2016-05-01

    Diabetes mellitus is normally characterized by chronic hyperglycemia associated with disturbances in the fat, carbohydrate, and protein metabolism. There is an increasing trend of using natural products instead of synthetic agents as alternative therapy for disorders due to their fewer side effects. In this study, antidiabetic and antioxidant activities of different Melicope lunu-ankenda (ML) ethanolic extracts were evaluated using inhibition of α-glucosidase and 2,2-diphenyl-l-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radicals scavenging activity, respectively; whereas, proton nuclear magnetic resonance ((1) H NMR) and ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometric (UHPLC-MS/MS) techniques were used for metabolite profiling of ML leaf extracts at different concentrations of ethanol and water. Sixty percent of ethanolic ML extract showed highest inhibitory effect against α-glucosidase enzyme (IC50 of 37 μg/mL) and DPPH scavenging activity (IC50 of 48 μg/mL). Antidiabetic effect of ML extracts was also evaluated in vivo and it was found that the high doses (400 mg/Kg BW) of ML extract exhibited high suppression in fasting blood glucose level by 62.75%. The metabolites responsible for variation among ML samples with variable ethanolic levels have been evaluated successfully using (1) H-NMR-based metabolomics. The principal component analysis (PCA) and partial least squares(PLS) analysis scores depicted clear and distinct separations into 4 clusters representing the 4 ethanolic concentrations by PC1 and PC2, with an eigenvalue of 69.9%. Various (1) H-NMR chemical shifts related to the metabolites responsible for sample difference were also ascribed. The main bioactive compounds identified attributing toward the separation included: isorhamnetin, skimmianine, scopoletin, and melicarpinone. Hence, ML may be used as promising medicinal plant for the development of new functional foods, new generation antidiabetic drugs, as a single entity phytomedicine or in

  6. Caffeamide 36-13 Regulates the Antidiabetic and Hypolipidemic Signs of High-Fat-Fed Mice on Glucose Transporter 4, AMPK Phosphorylation, and Regulated Hepatic Glucose Production

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    Yueh-Hsiung Kuo

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was to investigate the antidiabetic and antihyperlipidemic effects of (E-3-[3, 4-dihydroxyphenyl-1-(piperidin-1-ylprop-2-en-1-one] (36-13 (TS, one of caffeic acid amide derivatives, on high-fat (HF- fed mice. The C57BL/6J mice were randomly divided into the control (CON group and the experimental group, which was firstly fed a HF diet for 8 weeks. Then, the HF group was subdivided into four groups and was given TS orally (including two doses or rosiglitazone (Rosi or vehicle for 4 weeks. Blood, skeletal muscle, and tissues were examined by measuring glycaemia and dyslipidemia-associated events. TS effectively prevented HF diet-induced increases in the levels of blood glucose, triglyceride, insulin, leptin, and free fatty acid (FFA and weights of visceral fa; moreover, adipocytes in the visceral depots showed a reduction in size. TS treatment significantly increased the protein contents of glucose transporter 4 (GLUT4 in skeletal muscle; TS also significantly enhanced Akt phosphorylation in liver, whereas it reduced the expressions of phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK and glucose-6-phosphatase (G6Pase. Moreover, TS enhanced phosphorylation of AMP-activated protein kinase (phospho-AMPK both in skeletal muscle and liver tissue. Therefore, it is possible that the activation of AMPK by TS resulted in enhanced glucose uptake in skeletal muscle, contrasting with diminished gluconeogenesis in liver. TS exhibits hypolipidemic effect by decreasing the expressions of fatty acid synthase (FAS. Thus, antidiabetic properties of TS occurred as a result of decreased hepatic glucose production by PEPCK and G6Pase downregulation and improved insulin sensitization. Thus, amelioration of diabetic and dyslipidemic state by TS in HF-fed mice occurred by regulation of GLUT4, G6Pase, and FAS and phosphorylation of AMPK.

  7. Evaluation of antidiabetic activity of plants used in Western Sudan

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Maha; Abdulrahman; Alamin; Ahmed; Ibrahim; Yagi; Sakina; Mohamed; Yagi

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the traditional antidiabetic uses of some indigenous Sudanese plants on streptozotocin-induced diabetes rats. Methods: Diabetic rats were treated with a 400 mg/kg dose of aqueous extracts of five plant species orally for 2 h(acute) or 14 days(chronic). In acute model blood glucose levels were monitored at specific intervals. In the chronic model blood samples were collected from overnight fasted diabetic rats on day 15 to estimate blood glucose level. And the body weight, serum lipid profile and activities of liver and kidney enzymes were measured. Histopathological observations of liver sections were also studied.Results: In the case of acute treatment, aqueous extracts of Tinospora bakis(T. bakis), Nauclea latifolia(N. latifolia) and Randia nilotica(R. nilotica) at 400 mg/kg significantly lowered(P < 0.05) blood glucose levels in diabetic rats whereas, chronic treatment of diabetic rats with 400 mg/kg of T. bakis, N. latifolia, R. nilotica and Mitragyna inremis proved to have significant(P < 0.05) antihyperglycemic effect and have the capacity to correct the metabolic disturbances associated with diabetes. Histopathological studies showed that the aqueous extracts of these four plants reinforced the healing of liver. However, Striga hermonthica aqueous extract did not exert any antihyperglycemic effect to diabetic rats. Conclusions: This study demonstrated that T. bakis, N. latifolia, R. nilotica and Mitragyna inremis have therapeutic value in diabetes and related complications and thus supporting the traditional uses of these plants in Sudanese traditional medicine.

  8. Antidiabetic and Antioxidant Impacts of Desert Date (Balanites aegyptiaca) and Parsley (Petroselinum sativum) Aqueous Extracts: Lessons from Experimental Rats

    OpenAIRE

    Abou Khalil, Nasser S.; Alaa S. Abou-Elhamd; Wasfy, Salwa I. A.; El Mileegy, Ibtisam M. H.; Hamed, Mohamed Y.; Ageely, Hussein M

    2016-01-01

    Medicinal plants are effective in controlling plasma glucose level with minimal side effects and are commonly used in developing countries as an alternative therapy for the treatment of type 1 diabetes mellitus. The aim of this study is to evaluate the potential antidiabetic and antioxidant impacts of Balanites aegyptiaca and Petroselinum sativum extracts on streptozotocin-induced diabetic and normal rats. The influences of these extracts on body weight, plasma glucose, insulin, total antioxi...

  9. Isolation of Antidiabetic Principle from Fruit Rinds of Punica granatum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vishal Jain

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Present study was aimed to isolate and evaluate the antidiabetic activity of phytoconstituents from fruit rinds of Punica granatum. With the above objectives Valoneic acid dilactone (VAD was isolated from methanolic fruit rind extracts of Punica granatum (MEPG and confirmed by 1H-NMR, 13C-NMR, and mass spectral data. Antidiabetic activity was evaluated by Aldose reductase, α-amylase and PTP1B inhibition assays in in vitro and Alloxan-induced diabetes in rats was used as an in vivo model. In bioactivity studies, MEPG and VAD have showed potent antidiabetic activity in α-amylase, aldose reductase, and PTP1B inhibition assays with IC50 values of 1.02, 2.050, 26.25 μg/mL and 0.284, 0.788, 12.41 μg/mL, respectively. Furthermore, in alloxan-induced diabetes model MEPG (200 and 400 mg/kg, p.o. and VAD (10, 25, and 50 mg/kg, p.o. have showed significant and dose dependent antidiabetic activity by maintaining the blood glucose levels within the normal limits. Inline with the biochemical findings histopathology of MEPG (200 and 400 mg/kg, p.o., VAD (10, 25, and 50 mg/kg, p.o., and glibenclamide (10 mg/kg, p.o. treated animals showed significant protection against alloxan-induced pancreatic tissue damage. These findings suggest that MEPG and VAD possess significant antidiabetic activity in both in vitro and in vivo models.

  10. Pharmacological Effects of Rosa Damascena

    OpenAIRE

    Boskabady, Mohammad Hossein; Shafei, Mohammad Naser; Saberi, Zahra; Amini, Somayeh

    2011-01-01

    Rosa damascena mill L., known as Gole Mohammadi in is one of the most important species of Rosaceae family flowers. R. damascena is an ornamental plant and beside perfuming effect, several pharmacological properties including anti-HIV, antibacterial, antioxidant, antitussive, hypnotic, antidiabetic, and relaxant effect on tracheal chains have been reported for this plant. This article is a comprehensive review on pharmacological effects of R. damascena. Online literature searches were perform...

  11. DIFFERENT ANIMAL MODELS FOR DRUGS WITH POTENTIAL ANTIDIABETIC PROPERTIES

    OpenAIRE

    Shah Tanmay A; Shah Nidhi T; Prajapati Parimal M; Bhatt Pratik B; Solanki Anil S

    2011-01-01

    The increasing worldwide incidence of diabetes mellitus in adults constitutes a global public health burden. It is predicted that by 2030, largest number of people with diabetes. Although medicinal plants have been historically used for diabetes treatment throughout the world, few of them have been validated by scientific criteria. In recent times, an outsized multiplicity of animal models has been developed to enhanced understand the pathogenesis of diabetes mellitus and new drugs have been ...

  12. Antidiabetic principles ofLoranthus micranthus Linn. parasitic onPersea americana

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Patience Ogoamaka Osadebe; Edwin Ogechukwu Omeje; Sylvester Chukwuemeka Nworu; Charles Okechukwu Esimone; Philip Felix Uzor; Ernest kenechukwu David; John Uchechukwu Uzoma

    2010-01-01

    Objective:To explore antidiabetic principles of the Eastern Nigeria mistletoe,Loranthus micranthus Linn. parasitic on Persea Americana.Methods:The weakly acidic fraction of the aqueous methanol extract of the leaves ofLoranthus micranthus (Linn.) was isolated and tested for its antidiabetic activities. The isolation of the weakly acidic fraction was carried out following established physico-chemical based procedures. Furthermore, alloxan-induced diabetic rats were treated intraperitoneally (ip) with250 mg/kg and400 mg/kg of the weakly acidic fraction, glibenclamide10mg/kg (positive control) and 2 mg/kg of3 % v/v tween20 (negative control). The sugar levels of the treated and untreated animals were determined by withdrawing the blood at regular intervals and testing them with an automated glucometer. The phytochemical analysis of the acidic fraction was carried out using standard procedures. Chromatographic techniques were employed in the subsequent isolation and purification of the constituents of the weakly acidic fraction.Results:It was shown that the maximum effect of the weakly acidic fraction was obtained at24 hours after administration and was found to be statistically comparable with that of the positive control. The phytochemical analysis revealed the presence of steroids, terpenoids, alkaloids, flavonoids, glycosides, carbohydrates, saponins, and acidic compounds in the crude extract and carbohydrates, flavonoids, terpenoids and oil in the weakly acidic fraction. Further purification of the weakly acidic fraction of the methanol extract using thin layer chromatography shows that toluene : methanol : diethyl amine (3:1:1) and chloroform: methanol: diethyl amine (9:1:1) are the best solvent system for the isolation of the various components of the weakly acidic fraction of the crude methanol extract ofLoranthus micranthus.Conclusions:The present study has led to the conclusion that the weakly acidic fraction of the plant under study has the potent

  13. [Incretin-based antidiabetic treatment and diseases of the pancreas (pancreatitis, pancreas carcinoma)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jermendy, György

    2016-04-01

    In the last couple of years incretin-based antidiabetic drugs became increasingly popular and widely used for treating patients with type 2 diabetes. Immediately after launching, case reports and small case series were published on the potential side effects of the new drugs, with special attention to pancreatic disorders such as acute pancreatitis or pancreatic cancer. As clinical observations accumulated, these side-effects were noted with nearly all drugs of this class. Although these side-effects proved to be rare, an intensive debate evolved in the literature. Opinion of diabetes specialists and representatives of pharmaceutical industry as well as position statements of different international scientific boards and health authorities were published. In addition, results of randomized clinical trials with incretin-based therapy and meta-analyses became available. Importantly, in everyday clinical practice, the label of the given drug should be followed. With regards to incretins, physicians should be cautious if pancreatitis in the patients' past medical history is documented. Early differential diagnosis of any abdominal pain during treatment of incretin-based therapy should be made and the drug should be discontinued if pancreatitis is verified. Continuous post-marketing surveillance and side-effect analysis are still justified with incretin-based antidiabetic treatment in patients with type 2 diabetes.

  14. ANTIDIABETIC ACTIVITY OF AQUEOUS EXTRACT OF ROTULA AQUATICA LOUR. ROOTS IN STREPTOZOTOCIN-INDUCED DIABETIC RATS

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    Ashwini C.S.

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Rotula aquatica (Lour. family-Boraginaceae roots are used for the treatment of diabetes traditionally. The aim of the present study was undertaken to investigate the hypoglycaemic and antidiabetic effect of single and repeated oral administration of the aqueous extract in normal and streptozotocin induced diabetic rats respectively, serum lipid profile was also examined. The dose of 200, 300 and 500 mg/kg body weight p.o. of the aqueous extract were evaluated and the dose of 200 mg/kg was identified as the most effective which reduced blood glucose level upto 40.6% after 4 hr of administration in normal rats and a fall of 38% in blood glucose level within 1 hr during glucose tolerance test (GTT in mild diabetic rats which has almost similar effect as that of standard drug glibenclamide (3 mg/kg bw. Severe diabetic rats were treated daily with 200 mg/kg bw for 14 days and a significant reduction of 56% was observed in fasting blood glucose level respectively, urine sugar level was decreasing with increasing in body weight and total cholesterol (TC, low density lipoprotein (LDL, triglyceride (TG levels were decreased by 24, 59 and 41% respectively, in severely diabetic rats whereas, cardioprotective, high density lipoprotein (HDL was increased by 26%. The data showed that aqueous extract has a remarkable hypoglycaemic, antidiabetic and hypolipidemic effect.

  15. [Incretin-based antidiabetic treatment and diseases of the pancreas (pancreatitis, pancreas carcinoma)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jermendy, György

    2016-04-01

    In the last couple of years incretin-based antidiabetic drugs became increasingly popular and widely used for treating patients with type 2 diabetes. Immediately after launching, case reports and small case series were published on the potential side effects of the new drugs, with special attention to pancreatic disorders such as acute pancreatitis or pancreatic cancer. As clinical observations accumulated, these side-effects were noted with nearly all drugs of this class. Although these side-effects proved to be rare, an intensive debate evolved in the literature. Opinion of diabetes specialists and representatives of pharmaceutical industry as well as position statements of different international scientific boards and health authorities were published. In addition, results of randomized clinical trials with incretin-based therapy and meta-analyses became available. Importantly, in everyday clinical practice, the label of the given drug should be followed. With regards to incretins, physicians should be cautious if pancreatitis in the patients' past medical history is documented. Early differential diagnosis of any abdominal pain during treatment of incretin-based therapy should be made and the drug should be discontinued if pancreatitis is verified. Continuous post-marketing surveillance and side-effect analysis are still justified with incretin-based antidiabetic treatment in patients with type 2 diabetes. PMID:27017851

  16. Compositional analysis and in vivo anti-diabetic activity of wild Algerian Marrubium vulgare L. infusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boudjelal, Amel; Henchiri, Cherifa; Siracusa, Laura; Sari, Madani; Ruberto, Giuseppe

    2012-03-01

    Marrubium vulgare (Lamiaceae) is a plant traditionally used for the treatment of diabetes in Algeria. Compositional analysis of the aqueous infusion revealed the presence of fifteen metabolites, all belonging to the class of polyphenols. Particularly, seven flavonoids have been detected, together with 5-caffeoylquinic (chlorogenic) acid in small amounts; the extract is dominated by the presence of a series of complex molecules, characterized as verbascoside (acteoside) derivatives. Concerning the anti-diabetic effectiveness a series of in vivo experiments were carried out on albinos Wistar rats. Diabetes was induced in the animals by intra-peritoneal injection of alloxane; they were treated twice a day with aqueous extract from aerial part infusion (100, 200 and 300 mg/kg body weight) and glibenclamide (5mg/kg body weight) for 15 days. Oral administration of 200 and 300 mg/kg body weight of aqueous extract the Marrubium vulgare induced an significant effect antidiabetic and antihyperlipidemic (dose-dependent effect). A decrease in blood glucose by 50% for the dose 100 mg/kg and more than 60% for doses 200 and 300 mg/kg, as well as a significant lowering of total lipids, triglycerides, and total cholesterol levels in treated animals, compared with diabetic controls group (p<0.001), have been observed. Glibenclamide was used as reference and showed similar effects. PMID:22100836

  17. Compositional analysis and in vivo anti-diabetic activity of wild Algerian Marrubium vulgare L. infusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boudjelal, Amel; Henchiri, Cherifa; Siracusa, Laura; Sari, Madani; Ruberto, Giuseppe

    2012-03-01

    Marrubium vulgare (Lamiaceae) is a plant traditionally used for the treatment of diabetes in Algeria. Compositional analysis of the aqueous infusion revealed the presence of fifteen metabolites, all belonging to the class of polyphenols. Particularly, seven flavonoids have been detected, together with 5-caffeoylquinic (chlorogenic) acid in small amounts; the extract is dominated by the presence of a series of complex molecules, characterized as verbascoside (acteoside) derivatives. Concerning the anti-diabetic effectiveness a series of in vivo experiments were carried out on albinos Wistar rats. Diabetes was induced in the animals by intra-peritoneal injection of alloxane; they were treated twice a day with aqueous extract from aerial part infusion (100, 200 and 300 mg/kg body weight) and glibenclamide (5mg/kg body weight) for 15 days. Oral administration of 200 and 300 mg/kg body weight of aqueous extract the Marrubium vulgare induced an significant effect antidiabetic and antihyperlipidemic (dose-dependent effect). A decrease in blood glucose by 50% for the dose 100 mg/kg and more than 60% for doses 200 and 300 mg/kg, as well as a significant lowering of total lipids, triglycerides, and total cholesterol levels in treated animals, compared with diabetic controls group (p<0.001), have been observed. Glibenclamide was used as reference and showed similar effects.

  18. Antidiabetic activity and phytochemical screening of crude extract of Stevia rebaudiana in alloxan-induced diabetic rats

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    R S Kujur

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background : Stevia rebaudiana regulates blood sugar, prevents hypertension and tooth decay. Other studies have shown that it has antibacterial as well as antiviral property. Methods : Preliminary phytochemical screening of aqueous, ether and methanolic extracts of S. rebaudiana was done. Acute and sub-acute toxicity were conducted on twenty four Albino rats, divided into one control (Group I and three treatment groups viz. aqueous extract (Group II, ether extract (Group III and methanolic extract (Group IV. For the study of antidiabetic effect of S. rebaudiana rats were divided into seven groups (n=6. Diabetes was induced by a single dose of 5% alloxan monohydrate (125 mg/kg, i.p. after 24 hour fasting.Blood samples were analysed on day 0, 1, 5, 7, 14 and 28. Results : Phytochemical tests showed presence of different kinds of phyto-constituents in aqueous, ether and methanol extract of Stevia rebaudiana leaves. Daily single dose (2.0 g/kg administration of aqueous extract (A.E. , ether extract (E.E. and methanol extract (M.E. for 28 days of S. rebaudiana could not show any significant change in ALT and AST levels in rats. Blood sugar level was found to be decreased on day 28 in groups of rats treated with A.E., E.E. and M.E. of S. rebaudiana. Conclusion : The extracts of Stevioside rebaudiana could decrease the blood glucose level in diabetic rats in time dependent manner.

  19. In-vitro Enzyme Inhibition Studies for Antidiabetic Activity of Mature and Tender Leaves of Mangifera indica var. Totapuri.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhuvaneshwari J

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Diabetes mellitus is a chronic disorder characterized by high blood glucose levels, whose critical management alleviates multiple complications. Ill-managed diabetes often precedes incidence of dyslipidaemia and cardiac diseases. Mangifera indica L (Anacardiaceae is a popular Indian horticultural tree also used medicinally. Hypoglycaemic and/or antidiabetic activity of leaf has been investigated in various models; however a comparative account of hypoglycaemic potential of mature and tender leaf is not reported; effect of leaves on carbohydrate digesting enzymes also is not reported. The present study is a preliminary report on comparative hypoglycaemic properties of aqueous methanolic extracts of mature and tender leaves of M indica L var. Totapuri in glucose loaded Wistar Albino rats and In-vitro glucosidase and  amylase inhibition bioassays. Significant hypoglycaemic activity was observed with both extracts in oral glucose tolerance test at 500mg/Kg b.wt. given orally one hour prior glucose loading. The extracts also showed inhibition of rat intestinal alpha glucosidase ,as well as porcine pancreatic alpha amylase with IC50: 21.03 and 35.73 for mature leaf and 27.16 and 22.01 for tender leaf extracts respectively. Thus the hypoglycaemic potential of mango leaves may be due to inhibition of carbohydrate digesting enzymes. Polyphenols, flavonoids and saponins identified in the extracts may be responsible for their hypoglycaemic activity.

  20. Effect of Nanofiller Characteristics on Nanocomposite Properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Working, Dennis C.; Lillehei, Peter T.; Lowther, Sharon E.; Siochi, Emilie J.; Kim, Jae-Woo; Sauti, Godfrey; Wise, Kristopher E.; Park, Cheol

    2016-01-01

    This report surveys the effect of nanofiller characteristics on nanocomposites fabricated with two polyimide matrices. Mechanical and electrical properties were determined. Microscopy results showed that matrix chemistry, nanofiller characteristics and processing conditions had significant impact on nanocomposite quality.

  1. Anti-Diabetic Activity and Metabolic Changes Induced by Andrographis paniculata Plant Extract in Obese Diabetic Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akhtar, Muhammad Tayyab; Bin Mohd Sarib, Mohamad Syakir; Ismail, Intan Safinar; Abas, Faridah; Ismail, Amin; Lajis, Nordin Hj; Shaari, Khozirah

    2016-01-01

    Andrographis paniculata is an annual herb and widely cultivated in Southeast Asian countries for its medicinal use. In recent investigations, A. paniculata was found to be effective against Type 1 diabetes mellitus (Type 1 DM). Here, we used a non-genetic out-bred Sprague-Dawley rat model to test the antidiabetic activity of A. paniculata against Type 2 diabetes mellitus (Type 2 DM). Proton Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (¹H-NMR) spectroscopy in combination with multivariate data analyses was used to evaluate the A. paniculata and metformin induced metabolic effects on the obese and obese-diabetic (obdb) rat models. Compared to the normal rats, high levels of creatinine, lactate, and allantoin were found in the urine of obese rats, whereas, obese-diabetic rats were marked by high glucose, choline and taurine levels, and low lactate, formate, creatinine, citrate, 2-oxoglutarate, succinate, dimethylamine, acetoacetate, acetate, allantoin and hippurate levels. Treatment of A. paniculata leaf water extract was found to be quite effective in restoring the disturbed metabolic profile of obdb rats back towards normal conditions. Thisstudy shows the anti-diabetic potential of A. paniculata plant extract and strengthens the idea of using this plant against the diabetes. Further classical genetic methods and state of the art molecular techniques could provide insights into the molecular mechanisms involved in the pathogenesis of diabetes mellitus and anti-diabetic effects of A. paniculata water extract. PMID:27517894

  2. Antidiabetic activity of aqueous root extract ofMerremia tridentata (L.) Hall. f. in streptozotocin-induced-diabetic rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Karuppusamy Arunachalam; Thangaraj Parimelazhagan

    2012-01-01

    Objective:To investigate the antidiabetic effect of aqueous extract ofMerremia tridentata (M. tridentata) root(MTRAE) in normal, glucose-loaded hyperglycemic and streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rats.Methods: Oral administration ofMTRAE at the doses of50, 100 and150 mg/kg was studied in normal, glucose-loaded andSTZ-diabetic rats. The three doses caused significant reduction in blood glucose levels in all the models.Results: The effect was more pronounced in100and150mg/kg than50 mg/kg.MTRAE also showed significant increase in serum insulin, body weight and glycogen content in liver and skeletal muscle ofSTZ-induced diabetic rats while there was significant reduction in the levels of serum triglyceride and total cholesterol.MTRAE also showed significant antilipidperoxidative effect in the pancreas ofSTZ-induced diabetic rats. The antidiabetic effect ofM. tridentata was compared with glibenclamide, a well known hypoglycemic drug.Conclusions:The results indicate that aqueous extract ofM. tridentata root possesses significant antidiabetic activity.

  3. Anti-Diabetic Activity and Metabolic Changes Induced by Andrographis paniculata Plant Extract in Obese Diabetic Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Tayyab Akhtar

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Andrographis paniculata is an annual herb and widely cultivated in Southeast Asian countries for its medicinal use. In recent investigations, A. paniculata was found to be effective against Type 1 diabetes mellitus (Type 1 DM. Here, we used a non-genetic out-bred Sprague-Dawley rat model to test the antidiabetic activity of A. paniculata against Type 2 diabetes mellitus (Type 2 DM. Proton Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (1H-NMR spectroscopy in combination with multivariate data analyses was used to evaluate the A. paniculata and metformin induced metabolic effects on the obese and obese–diabetic (obdb rat models. Compared to the normal rats, high levels of creatinine, lactate, and allantoin were found in the urine of obese rats, whereas, obese-diabetic rats were marked by high glucose, choline and taurine levels, and low lactate, formate, creatinine, citrate, 2-oxoglutarate, succinate, dimethylamine, acetoacetate, acetate, allantoin and hippurate levels. Treatment of A. paniculata leaf water extract was found to be quite effective in restoring the disturbed metabolic profile of obdb rats back towards normal conditions. Thisstudy shows the anti-diabetic potential of A. paniculata plant extract and strengthens the idea of using this plant against the diabetes. Further classical genetic methods and state of the art molecular techniques could provide insights into the molecular mechanisms involved in the pathogenesis of diabetes mellitus and anti-diabetic effects of A. paniculata water extract.

  4. The Creation of Effective Property Rights

    OpenAIRE

    Herschel I. Grossman

    2001-01-01

    Traditionally, general-equilibrium models have taken effective property rights to be given and have been concerned only with analysing the allocation of resources among productive uses and the distribution of the resulting product. But, this formulation of the economic problem is incomplete because it neglects that the appropriative activities by which people create the effective property rights that inform allocation and distribution are themselves an alternative use of scarce resources.This...

  5. Evaluation of Antioxidant, Antidiabetic and Anticholinesterase Activities of Smallanthus sonchifolius Landraces and Correlation with Their Phytochemical Profiles

    OpenAIRE

    Daniela Russo; Patrícia Valentão; Andrade, Paula B.; Fernandez, Eloy C.; Luigi Milella

    2015-01-01

    The present study aimed to investigate the phytochemical profile of leaf methanol extracts of fourteen Smallanthus sonchifolius (yacon) landraces and their antioxidant, anticholinesterase and antidiabetic activities that could lead to the finding of more effective agents for the treatment and management of Alzheimer’s disease and diabetes. For this purpose, antioxidant activity was assessed using different tests: ferric reducing ability power (FRAP), 2,2-diphenyl-1-picryl hydrazyl (DPPH), ...

  6. Anti-Diabetic Potential of Noni: The Yin and the Yang.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nerurkar, Pratibha V; Hwang, Phoebe W; Saksa, Erik

    2015-01-01

    Escalating trends of chronic diseases such as type-2 diabetes (T2D) have sparked a renewed interest in complementary and alternative medicine, including herbal products. Morinda citrifolia (noni) has been used for centuries by Pacific Islanders to treat various ailments. Commercial noni fruit juice has been marketed as a dietary supplement since 1996. In 2003, the European Commission approved Tahitian noni juice as a novel food by the Health and Consumer Protection Directorate General. Among noni's several health benefits, others and we have demonstrated the anti-diabetic effects of fermented noni fruit juice in animal models. Unfortunately, noni's exciting journey from Polynesian medicine to the research bench does not reach its final destination of successful clinical outcomes when translated into commercial products. Noni products are perceived to be safe due to their "natural" origin. However, inadequate evidence regarding bioactive compounds, molecular targets, mechanism of action, pharmacokinetics, long-term safety, effective dosages, and/or unanticipated side effects are major roadblocks to successful translation "from bench side to bedside". In this review we summarize the anti-diabetic potential of noni, differences between traditional and modern use of noni, along with beneficial clinical studies of noni products and challenges in clinical translation of noni's health benefits.

  7. Anti-Diabetic Potential of Noni: The Yin and the Yang

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pratibha V. Nerurkar

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Escalating trends of chronic diseases such as type-2 diabetes (T2D have sparked a renewed interest in complementary and alternative medicine, including herbal products. Morinda citrifolia (noni has been used for centuries by Pacific Islanders to treat various ailments. Commercial noni fruit juice has been marketed as a dietary supplement since 1996. In 2003, the European Commission approved Tahitian noni juice as a novel food by the Health and Consumer Protection Directorate General. Among noni’s several health benefits, others and we have demonstrated the anti-diabetic effects of fermented noni fruit juice in animal models. Unfortunately, noni’s exciting journey from Polynesian medicine to the research bench does not reach its final destination of successful clinical outcomes when translated into commercial products. Noni products are perceived to be safe due to their “natural” origin. However, inadequate evidence regarding bioactive compounds, molecular targets, mechanism of action, pharmacokinetics, long-term safety, effective dosages, and/or unanticipated side effects are major roadblocks to successful translation “from bench side to bedside”. In this review we summarize the anti-diabetic potential of noni, differences between traditional and modern use of noni, along with beneficial clinical studies of noni products and challenges in clinical translation of noni’s health benefits.

  8. Comparative study of antidiabetic activity of Cajanus cajan and Tamarindus indica in alloxan-induced diabetic mice with a reference to in vitro antioxidant activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laizuman Nahar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Oxidative stress not only develops complications in diabetic (type 1 and type 2 but also contributes to beta cell destruction in type 2 diabetes in insulin resistance hyperglycemia. Glucose control plays an important role in the pro-oxidant/antioxidant balance. Some antidiabetic agents may by themselves have antioxidant properties independently of their role on glucose control. Objective: The present investigation draws a comparison of the protective antioxidant activity, total phenol content and the antihyperglycemic activity of the methanolic extract of Cajanus cajan root (MCC and Tamarindus indica seeds (MTI. Materials and Methods: Antidiabetic potentials of the plant extracts were evaluated in alloxan-induced diabetic Swiss albino mice. The plant extracts at the doses of 200 and 400 mg/kg body weight was orally administered for glucose tolerance test during 1-hour study and hypoglycemic effect during 5-day study period in comparison with reference drug Metformin HCl (50 mg/kg. In vitro antioxidant potential of MCC and MTI was investigated by using 1, 1- diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH free radical scavenging activity at 517 nm. Total phenolic content, total antioxidant capacity and reducing power activity was also assayed. Results: There was a significant decrease in fasting serum glucose level (P < 0.001, reduction in blood glucose level (P < 0.001 in 5-days study, observed in the alloxan-induced diabetic mice. The reduction efficacy of blood glucose level of both the extracts is proportional to their dose but MCC is more potent than MTI. Antioxidant study and quantification of phenolic compound of both the extracts revealed that they have high antioxidant capacity. Conclusion: These studies showed that MCC and MTI have both hypoglycemic and antioxidant potential but MCC is more potent than MTI. The present study suggests that both MCC and MTI could be used in managing oxidative stress.

  9. Antidiabetic and Cytotoxic Activities of Methanolic Extract of Tabernaemontana divaricata (L. Flowers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MD. MASUDUR RAHMAN

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The research work was designed to investigate the antidiabetic activity of the methanol extract of flowers of Tabernaemontana divaricata on alloxan indueced diabetic mouse model. The extract was given intraperitonially at a single dose of 200 mg/kg and 300 mg/kg body weight and the blood glucose levels were measured at 0, 1, 3, 5, 10 and 24 hours of the study period. The antihyperglycemic effect of the extract was compared with metformin, a standard drug. The dose of 300 mg/kg was found to be more effective dose to reduce maximum blood glucose level at 10th hour of the treatment period from 14.15± 0.42 to 8.81± 0.27 mg/dl whereas maximum result was obtained for metformin at the same time from 14.04±0.36 to 6.13±0.19 mg/dl. The extract was also subjected to Brine shrimp lethality bioassay. LC50 value of the extract was 84.03 μg/ml and for vincristin sulphate, it was 10.58 μg/ml. So, the present results suggest that Tabernaemontana divaricata possess antidiabetic activity in mice with alloxan induced diabetes and low cytotoxicity that may provide new molecules for the treatment of diabetes

  10. Evaluation of antidiabetic activity of plants used in Western Sudan

    OpenAIRE

    Maha Abdulrahman Alamin; Ahmed Ibrahim Yagi; Sakina Mohamed Yagi

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the traditional antidiabetic uses of some indigenous Sudanese plants on streptozotocin-induced diabetes rats. Methods: Diabetic rats were treated with a 400 mg/kg dose of aqueous extracts of five plant species orally for 2 h (acute) or 14 days (chronic). In acute model blood glucose levels were monitored at specific intervals. In the chronic model blood samples were collected from overnight fasted diabetic rats on day 15 to estimate blood glucose level. And the bo...

  11. Optimizing weight control in diabetes: antidiabetic drug selection

    OpenAIRE

    Kalra, S.; Kalra, B; Unnikrishnan, AG; N. Agrawal; Kumar, S.

    2010-01-01

    Clinical question Which antidiabetic drugs provide optimal weight control in patients with type 2 diabetes? Results Metformin reduces weight gain, and may cause weight loss, when given alone or in combination with other drugs. Pioglitazone and rosiglitazone use is associated with weight gain. Use of the glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) analogs, liraglutide and exenatide, is associated with weight loss. Dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP-4) inhibitors are considered weight-neutral. Results with insuli...

  12. Studies on the Antidiabetic Activities of Cordyceps militaris Extract in Diet-Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetic Sprague-Dawley Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuan Dong

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Due to substantial morbidity and high complications, diabetes mellitus is considered as the third “killer” in the world. A search for alternative antidiabetic drugs from herbs or fungi is highly demanded. Our present study aims to investigate the antidiabetic activities of Cordyceps militaris on diet-streptozotocin-induced type 2 diabetes mellitus in rats. Diabetic rats were orally administered with water extract or alcohol extract at 0.05 g/kg and 2 g/kg for 3 weeks, and then, the factors levels related to blood glucose, lipid, free radicals, and even nephropathy were determined. Pathological alterations on liver and kidney were examined. Data showed that, similar to metformin, Cordyceps militaris extracts displayed a significant reduction in blood glucose levels by promoting glucose metabolism and strongly suppressed total cholesterol and triglycerides concentration in serum. Cordyceps militaris extracts exhibit antioxidative effects indicated by normalized superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase levels. The inhibitory effects on blood urea nitrogen, creatinine, uric acid, and protein revealed the protection of Cordyceps militaris extracts against diabetic nephropathy, which was confirmed by pathological morphology reversion. Collectively, Cordyceps militaris extract, a safe pharmaceutical agent, presents excellent antidiabetic and antinephropathic activities and thus has great potential as a new source for diabetes treatment.

  13. Antidiabetic and hypolipidemic activities of ethanolic leaf extract and fractions of Melanthera scandens

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Enomfon J Akpan; Jude E Okokon; Emem Offong

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the antidiabetic and hypolipidemic activities of ethanolic leaf extract and fraction of Melanthera scandens (M. scandens) in alloxan-induced diabetic rats. Methods:M. scandens leaf extract/fractions (37-111 mg/kg) were administered to alloxan-induced diabetic rats for 14 days and blood glucose levels (BGL) of the diabetic rats were monitored at intervals of 7 hours for acute study and 14 days for prolonged study. Lipid profiles of the treated diabetic rats were determined after the period of treatment. Results: Treatment of alloxan-induced diabetic rats with the extract/fractions caused a significant (P<0.001) reduction in fasting bloodglucose levels (BGL) of the diabetic rats both in acute study and prolonged treatment (2 weeks). The activities of the extract and fractions were more than that of the reference drug, glibenclamide. The extract/fractions exerted a significant reduction in the levels of serum total cholesterol, triglycerides, LDL and VLDL of extract with increases in HDL levels of the diabetic rats. Conclusions:These results suggest that the leaf extract/fractions of M. scandens possesses antidiabetic effect on alloxan induced diabetic rats and this justifies its use in ethno medicine and can be exploited in the management of diabetes.

  14. Antioxidant and antidiabetic activities of 11 herbal plants from Hyrcania region, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hossein Dehghan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical scavenging, α-amylase and α-glucosidase inhibition activities, and total phenolic contents of n-hexane, ethyl acetate, and methanol extracts of various parts of Allium paradoxum, Buxus hyrcana, Convolvulus persicus, Eryngium caucasicum, Heracleum persicum, Pimpinella affinis, Parrotia persica, Primula heterochroma, Pyrus boissieriana, Ruscus hyrcanus, and Smilax excelsa were investigated. These plants, which mostly serve as food flavoring, were collected from Hyrcania region, Sari, Iran. Some extracts of H. persicum, S. excels, P. boissieriana, P. persica, and P. heterochroma exhibited significant antidiabetic activities in α-amylase and α-glucosidase assays, more effective than acarbose (concentrations that cause 50% inhibition = 75.7 μg/mL and 6.1 μg/mL against α-amylase and α-glucosidase, respectively. Also, C. persicus, P. boissieriana, and P. heterochroma showed strong antioxidant activities, compared with butylated hydroxytoluene (concentration that causes 50% inhibition = 16.7 μg/mL. In conclusion, this study can recommend these plants as good candidates for further investigations to find potent antidiabetic natural products or probable lead compounds. Statistical analysis showed significant correlation between the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl scavenging activity and total phenolic contents (r = 0.711, p < 0.001.

  15. Antidiabetic and Hypolipidemic Activity of Monochoria Vaginalis Presl. On Alloxan Induced Diabetic Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chinna RR

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The Antidiabetic activity of Monochoria vaginalis presl. (Family: pontederiaceae was investigated inAlloxan induced diabetic albino rats. The Monochoria vaginalis prel plant has been reported for itsanalgesic activity, nephrotoxic, antioxidant activities and nutritive values, paniya tribe of India used theleaves for diabetes15 but there are no scientific data is available regarding the effect on the blood glucoselevels. So we have made an attempt to use hydroalcoholic extract of Monochoria vaginalis presl leaf(HAEMV for studying anti-diabetic activity. The dried leaves of Monochoria vaginalis presl. weresubjected to extraction by continuous hot percolation using water and ethanol (50 : 50 as solvent andwere subjected to standardization using pharmacognostical and phytochemical screening. Dose selectionwas made on the basis of acute oral toxicity study (200 mg/kg body weight as per OECD and CPCSEAguidelines. Oral administration of extracts of Monochoria vaginalis presl (200mg/kg, 400mg/kg for 14days resulted in a significant reduction in blood glucose levels. The extract also prevented body weightloss in diabetic rats.

  16. Aviation fuel property effects on altitude relight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venkataramani, K.

    1987-01-01

    The major objective of this experimental program was to investigate the effects of fuel property variation on altitude relight characteristics. Four fuels with widely varying volatility properties (JP-4, Jet A, a blend of Jet A and 2040 Solvent, and Diesel 2) were tested in a five-swirl-cup-sector combustor at inlet temperatures and flows representative of windmilling conditions of turbofan engines. The effects of fuel physical properties on atomization were eliminated by using four sets of pressure-atomizing nozzles designed to give the same spray Sauter mean diameter (50 + or - 10 micron) for each fuel at the same design fuel flow. A second series of tests was run with a set of air-blast nozzles. With comparable atomization levels, fuel volatility assumes only a secondary role for first-swirl-cup lightoff and complete blowout. Full propagation first-cup blowout were independent of fuel volatility and depended only on the combustor operating conditions.

  17. How gluten properties are effected by pentosans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wang, M.; Vliet, van T.; Hamer, R.J.

    2004-01-01

    During the wet separation of starch and gluten, both water extractable pentosans (WEP) and water unextractable solids (WUS) have a negative effect on gluten yield. Gluten properties are also affected: the gluten becomes less extensible. In comparison to the control, addition of WUS or WEP resulted i

  18. Microbial effect on soil hydraulic properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furman, Alex; Rosenzweig, Ravid; Volk, Elazar; Rosenkranz, Hella; Iden, Sascha; Durner, Wolfgang

    2014-05-01

    Although largely ignored, the soil contains large amount of biofilms (attached microbes) that can affect many processes. While biochemical processes are studied, biophysical processes receive only little attention. Biofilms may occupy some of the pore space, and by that affect the soil hydraulic properties. This effect on unsaturated soils, however, was not intensively studied. In this research we directly measure the hydraulic properties, namely the soil's unsaturated hydraulic conductivity function and retention curve, for soils containing real biofilm. To do that we inoculate soil with biofilm-forming bacteria and incubate it with sufficient amounts of nutrient until biofilm is formed. The hydraulic properties of the incubated soil are then measured using several techniques, including multi-step outflow and evaporation method. The longer measurements (evaporation method) are conducted under refrigeration conditions to minimize microbial activity during the experiment. The results show a clear effect of the biofilm, where the biofilm-affected soil (sandy loam in our case) behaves like a much finer soil. This qualitatively makes sense as the biofilm generates an effective pore size distribution that is characterized by smaller pores. However, the effect is much more complex and needs to be studied carefully considering (for example) dual porosity models. We compare our preliminary results with other experiments, including flow-through column experiments and experiments with biofilm analogues. Clearly a better understanding of the way microbial activity alters the hydraulic properties may help designing more efficient bioremediation, irrigation, and other soil-related processes.

  19. Effect of mixing on properties of SCC

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Geiker, Mette Rica; Ekstrand, John Peter; Hansen, Rune

    2007-01-01

    The method of mixing may affect the degree of agglomeration of particles in cement-based materials and thus the properties of the materials in their fresh, hardening, and hardened state. The larger the external force applied during mixing, the larger surface forces can be overcome and the smaller...... agglomerates will remain. The paper focuses on the effect of mixing schedule on self-compacting concrete properties. Workability and micro structure of a typical Danish self-compacting concrete mixed at varying intensity and with addition of superplasticizer in either one or two batches are described...

  20. Analytical fuel property effects--small combustors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutton, R. D.; Troth, D. L.; Miles, G. A.

    1984-01-01

    The consequences of using broad-property fuels in both conventional and advanced state-of-the-art small gas turbine combustors are assessed. Eight combustor concepts were selected for initial screening, of these, four final combustor concepts were chosen for further detailed analysis. These included the dual orifice injector baseline combustor (a current production 250-C30 engine combustor) two baseline airblast injected modifications, short and piloted prechamber combustors, and an advanced airblast injected, variable geometry air staged combustor. Final predictions employed the use of the STAC-I computer code. This quasi 2-D model includes real fuel properties, effects of injector type on atomization, detailed droplet dynamics, and multistep chemical kinetics. In general, fuel property effects on various combustor concepts can be classified as chemical or physical in nature. Predictions indicate that fuel chemistry has a significant effect on flame radiation, liner wall temperature, and smoke emission. Fuel physical properties that govern atomization quality and evaporation rates are predicted to affect ignition and lean-blowout limits, combustion efficiency, unburned hydrocarbon, and carbon monoxide emissions.

  1. EVALUATION OF ANTI-OXIDANT AND ANTI-DIABETIC ACTIVITIES OF CINNAMOMUM TAMALA LINN LEAVES IN STREPTOZOTOCIN-INDUCED DIABETIC RATS

    OpenAIRE

    Palanisamy P; K.R.Srinath; D Yoganand Kumar; Pooja Chowdary C

    2011-01-01

    The main objective of this study was to focus on the anti-diabetic activity of Cinnamomum tamala Linn, with special reference to its curative and protective role in streptozotocin- induced diabetic animal model. Attempts were further made to study the antioxidant properties of Cinnamomum tamala Linn. leaves. The efficacy of 50% ethanolic extract of leaves of Cinnamomum tamala showed significant decrease in the blood glucose level and increase in the antioxidant efficacy in streptozotocin indu...

  2. Effective Rheological Properties in Semidilute Bacterial Suspensions

    CERN Document Server

    Potomkin, Mykhailo; Berlyand, Leonid

    2015-01-01

    Interactions between swimming bacteria have led to remarkable experimentally observable macroscopic properties such as the reduction of the effective viscosity, enhanced mixing, and diffusion. In this work, we study an individual based model for a suspension of interacting point dipoles representing bacteria in order to gain greater insight into the physical mechanisms responsible for the drastic reduction in the effective viscosity. In particular, asymptotic analysis is carried out on the corresponding kinetic equation governing the distribution of bacteria orientations. This allows one to derive an explicit asymptotic formula for the effective viscosity of the bacterial suspension in the limit of bacterium non-sphericity. The results show good qualitative agreement with numerical simulations and previous experimental observations. Finally, we justify our approach by proving existence, uniqueness, and regularity properties for this kinetic PDE model.

  3. Effective Optical Properties of Plasmonic Nanocomposites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christoph Etrich

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Plasmonic nanocomposites find many applications, such as nanometric coatings in emerging fields, such as optotronics, photovoltaics or integrated optics. To make use of their ability to affect light propagation in an unprecedented manner, plasmonic nanocomposites should consist of densely packed metallic nanoparticles. This causes a major challenge for their theoretical description, since the reliable assignment of effective optical properties with established effective medium theories is no longer possible. Established theories, e.g., the Maxwell-Garnett formalism, are only applicable for strongly diluted nanocomposites. This effective description, however, is a prerequisite to consider plasmonic nanocomposites in the design of optical devices. Here, we mitigate this problem and use full wave optical simulations to assign effective properties to plasmonic nanocomposites with filling fractions close to the percolation threshold. We show that these effective properties can be used to properly predict the optical action of functional devices that contain nanocomposites in their design. With this contribution we pave the way to consider plasmonic nanocomposites comparably to ordinary materials in the design of optical elements.

  4. Effective structural properties in polycrystalline graphene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hossain, Zubaer

    This talk will discuss effective structural properties in polycrystalline graphene under the presence of atomic scale heterogeneity. Polycrystallinity is ubiquitous in solids, but theories describing their effective behavior remain limited, particularly when heterogeneity is present in the form of nonuniform deformation or composition. Over the decades, exploration of the effective transport and strength properties of heterogeneous systems has been carried out mostly with random distribution of grains or regular periodic structures under various approximations, in translating the underlying physics into a single representative volume element. Although heterogeneity can play a critical role in modulating the basic behavior of low-dimensional materials, it is difficult to capture the local characteristics accurately by these approximations. Taking polycrystalline graphene as an example material, we study the effective structural properties (such as Young's Modulus, Poisson's ratio and Toughness) by using a combination of density functional theory and molecular dynamic simulations. We identify the key mechanisms that govern their effective behavior and exploit the understanding to engineer the behavior by doping with a carefully selected choice of chemical elements.

  5. The effect of yacon (Samallanthus sonchifolius) ethanol extract on cell proliferation and migration of C6 glioma cells stimulated with fetal bovine serum

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Kang Pa; Choi, Nan Hee; Kim, Jin Teak; Park, In-Sik

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES Yacon (Samallanthus sonchifolius), a common edible plant grown throughout the world, is well known for its antidiabetic properties. It is also known to have several other pharmacological properties including anti-inflammatory, anti-oxidant, anti-allergic, and anti-cancer effects. To date, the effect of yacon on gliomas has not been studied. In this study, we investigated the effects of yacon on the migration and proliferation of C6 glioma cells stimulated by fetal bovine...

  6. ANTIDIABETIC ACTIVITY OF METHANOLIC EXTRACT OF MEMECYLON MALABARICUM (MELASTOMATACEAE LEAVES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Ramaiah

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Memecylon malabaricum cogn (Melastomataceae is an indigenous medicinal plant used in ethno medicine for the treatment of bacterial infections, inflammation and skin diseases including herpes, chickenpox. It’s also a root ecbolic. The methanolic extract of Memecylon malabaricum leaves is subjected to antidiabetic activity using experimental model of alloxan induced diabetes. The results showed that the methanolic extract significantly decrease the raised blood glucose level, comparable to reference standard, gliclazide. The results of this study explicate justification of the use of this plant in the treatment of diabetes.  

  7. Polyherbal preparation for anti-diabetic activity: A screening study

    OpenAIRE

    Noopur Srivastava; Gaurav Tiwari; Ruchi Tiwari

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To screen the Polyherbal preparation for anti-diabetic activity in rats. Materials and Methods: The blood glucose lowering activity of the Polyherbal preparation-I (1:1:1 of Wheat germ oil, Coriandrum sativum and Aloe vera) was studied in normal rats after oral administration at doses of 1.0 and 2.0 ml/kg and Polyherbal preparation-I, II (Wheat germ oil, fresh juice of C. sativum and Aloe vera in the ratio of 2:2:1), and III (Wheat germ oil, fresh juice of C. sativum and Aloe vera ...

  8. MEDICINAL PLANTS OF RAJASTHAN (INDIA WITH ANTIDIABETIC POTENTIAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Batra Shikha

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Rajasthan has a rich heritage of traditional system of medicine and many medicinally useful plants are found growing wildly because of vast area and variety of agro-climatic conditions. These plants are being used for the treatment of many human ailments including diabetes. Plants that are specifically employed for the treatment of diabetes are Acacia nilotica, Acacia senegal, Aegle marmelos, Calotropis procera, Capparis deciduas, Cassia auriculata, Cassia sophera, Cayratia trifolia, Cyamopsis tetragonoloba, Dalbergia sisso, Gymnema sylvestre, Momordica charantia, Syzygium cumini, Withania somnifera. This article aims to provide a comprehensive review on the some plants of Rajasthan having antidiabetic potential.

  9. [Effectiveness of phytotherapy in supportive treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus II. Fenugreek (Trigonella foenum-graecum)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koupý, David; Kotolová, Hana; Rudá Kučerová, Jana

    2015-06-01

    Fenugreek seeds are known for their characteristic smell of soup seasoning and as an ingredient of Indian curry. Traditionally the seeds are used as macerate for the treatment of diabetes, cough, and flatulence, to increase breast milk secretion, and for anti-inflammatory and aphrodisiac effects. The use is limited by its unpleasant smell and bitter taste which can be modified by adding mint leaves to the macerate. Antidiabetic properties are attributed mainly to galactomannan, 4-hydroxyisoleucin (4-OH-Ile), diosgenin and trigonelline. These substances demonstrate direct antidiabetic properties in clinical studies by increasing insulin secretion (4-OH-Ile), decreasing insulin resistance and glucose resorption from the GIT (galactomannan) and improvement in B-cells regeneration (trigonelline). Besides this main effect, the herb improves blood lipid spectre (4-OH-Ile, diosgenin), and has reno-protective (4-OH-Ile, trigonelline), neuroprotective (trigonelline) and antioxidant (diosgenin, trigonelline) effects. Antidiabetic efficacy of trigonelline is comparable to glibenclamide treatment and more effective than sitagliptine therapy. Given the large body of evidence and promising results in comparison with standard pharmacotherapy, fenugreek active substances have a potential to become a source of new antidiabetic medication.Key words: fenugreek Trigonella foenum-graecum diabetes mellitus type 2 biological activity. PMID:26400229

  10. Elevated temperature effects on concrete properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The design of facilities to process or store radioactive wastes presents many challenging engineering problems. Such facilities must not only provide for safe storage of radioactive wastes but they must also be able to maintain confinement of these materials during and after natural phenomena events. Heat generated by the radioactive decay of the wastes will cause the temperature of the concrete containment structure to increase to a magnitude higher than that found in conventional structures. These elevated temperatures will cause strength-related concrete properties to degrade over time. For concrete temperatures less than 150 degree F, no reduction in strength is taken and the provisions of ACI 349, which states that higher temperatures are allowed if tests are provided to evaluate the reduction in concrete strength properties, apply. Methods proposed in a Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) report, Modeling of Time-Variant Concrete Properties at Elevated Temperatures, can be used to evaluate the effects of elevated temperatures on concrete properties. Using these modified concrete properties the capacity of a concrete structure, subjected to elevated temperatures, to resist natural phenomena hazards can be determined

  11. Effect of melt cleanliness on the properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samuel, F. H.; Liu, H.; Samuel, A. M.

    1993-07-01

    An experimental study was conducted to examine the effect of melt cleanliness with respect to the presence of inclusions on the properties of an Al-10 wt pct Si metal matrix composite (MMC) reinforced with 10 vol pct SiC particles. The occurrence of inclusions was controlled by filtra- tion, using ceramic foam filters of 10, 20, and 30 ppi sizes, under gravity and pressure. Test bars obtained from filtered and unfiltered melt castings, prepared from fresh (as-received) and recycled composite materials, were T6-tempered and tensile tested at room temperature. The casting quality was examined using X-ray radiography. The results indicate that various factors influence the casting quality and mechanical properties of the cast composite. The A12O3 films and spinel MgAl2O4 — the main inclusions observed in the present composite — are chiefly responsible for the degradation in the mechanical properties. In addition, SiC sedimentation, Al4C3 formation, the hydrogen level of the melt, and the starting material used can also influence these properties. Fracture studies reveal that the inclusions and associated microvoids act as the crack initiation sites during composite fracture. Simple filtration using 10 ppi ceramic foam filters under gravity serves adequately in removing these inclusions and producing the desired mechanical properties.

  12. MICROEMULSIONS AS ANTIDIABETIC DRUG DELIVERY SYSTEMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omnia Sarhan, Mahmoud M. Ibrahim* and Mahmoud Mahdy

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Glibenclamide is practically insoluble in water and its gastrointestinal absorption is limited by its dissolution rate. Therefore, to enhance the drug dissolution and its hypoglycemic effects, the drug was formulated in different microemulsion systems and in vitro/in vivo evaluated. Microemulsion systems were prepared by Water titration method in which surfactants and cosurfactants (S/CoS were mixed at different weight ratios of 1:1, 2:1 and 3:1. They were subjected to transmission electron microscopical examination, pH determination and viscosity tests. The solubility of Glibenclamide in different microemulsion systems was determined. Forms 8, 9, 10, 11, 14 and 18 were found to have high Glibenclamide solubility using different oils. Form 11 and 9 showed the highest Glibenclamide release rates of 59.72% and 52.35%, respectively after 6 hours. In-vivo studies were tested using diabetic rats by application of form 11 with n-butanol as cosurfactant transdermally and form 8 with propylene glycol cosurfactant orally and transdermally. The results were compared to the drug suspension as a positive control. It was shown that microemulsion systems gave an effective tool of increasing drug dissolution probably due to enhanced wettability and reduced drug particle size, which in turn led to enhance its hypoglycemic effects.

  13. Anti-diabetic and anti-adipogenic effects of a novel selective 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 inhibitor, 2-(3-benzoyl)-4-hydroxy-1,1-dioxo-2H-1,2-benzothiazine-2-yl-1-phenylethanone (KR-66344).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Ji Seon; Rhee, Sang Dal; Kang, Nam Sook; Jung, Won Hoon; Kim, Hee Youn; Kim, Jun Hyoung; Kang, Seung Kyu; Cheon, Hyae Gyeong; Ahn, Jin Hee; Kim, Ki Young

    2011-04-15

    The selective inhibitors of 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 (11β-HSD1) have considerable potential for treating type 2 diabetes mellitus and metabolic syndrome. In the present study, we investigated the anti-diabetic and anti-adipogenic effects of 2-(3-benzoyl)-4-hydroxy-1,1-dioxo-2H-1,2-benzothiazine-2-yl-1-phenylethanone (KR-66344), as a 11β-HSD1 inhibitor; we also investigated the underlying molecular mechanisms in the cortisone-induced 3T3-L1 adipogenesis model system and C57BL/6-Lep(ob/ob) mice. KR-66344 concentration-dependently inhibited 11β-HSD1 activity in human liver microsome, mouse C2C12 myotube and human SW982 cells. In the C57BL/6-Lep(ob/ob) mice study, the administration of KR-66344 (200mg/kg/d, orally for 5 days) improved the glucose intolerance as determined by the oral glucose tolerance test, in which the area under the curve (AUC) of the plasma glucose concentration was significantly reduced by 27% compared with the vehicle treated group. Further, KR-66344 suppressed adipocyte differentiation on cortisone-induced adipogenesis in 3T3-L1 cells is associated with the suppression of the cortisone-induced mRNA levels of FABP4, G3PD, PPARγ2 and Glut4, and 11β-HSD1 expression and activity. Our results additionally demonstrate evidence showing that KR-66344 improved glycemic control and inhibited adipogenesis via 11β-HSD1 enzyme activity. Taken together, these results may provide evidence of the therapeutic potential of KR-66344, as a 11β-HSD1 inhibitor, in obesity and type 2 diabetes patients with metabolic syndrome.

  14. Effect of Exenatide on Plasma Glucose,Weight and Body Fat in Poorly Controlled Type 2 Diabetes Patients Using Oral Antidiabetic Drug%艾塞那肽对2型糖尿病患者疗效、体重及体质成分的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    卢林娜; 高政南; 朱珠; 罗兰; 刘羽晗; 王冰; 李欣宇; 牛敏; 侯桂梅

    2014-01-01

    Objective:To evaluate the effect of exenatide on plasma glucose,weight and body fat in poorly controlled type 2 diabetes patients using oral antidiabetic drug.Method:15 cases of poorly controlled type 2 diabetes who used oral antidiabetic drug in our hospital were selected. Exenatide was injected subcutaneously together with the original basis of oral hypoglycemic agents for three months,and the body weight,body mass index(BMI),the percentage of body fat tissue, the percentage of fat tissue of waist to hip and visceral fat range were analyzed by body composition analyzer before and after treatment. In the mean time,Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry was used to determine the fat mass and percentage,muscle and bone mineral salts mass of upper limb,Lower limb,trunk,and whole body. Result:After 3 months’treatment,HbA1c were significantly decreased than before,had statistical differences(t=3.472,P0.05). The body weight,BMI, the percentage of body fat and visceral fat range were significantly decreased before and after treatment(t=4.424,P0.05). After 3 months’ treatment,the fat tissue mass of lower limb,trunk,and whole body were significantly decreased than before,had statistical differences(t=4.008,P0.05). The muscle and bone mineral salts mass were not altered(P>0.05). After 3 months’ treatment,the decrease of body weight was highly correlated with the decrease of trunk fat and whole body fat(r=0.860,0.819,P0.05);治疗后体重、体重指数、体脂百分比及内脏脂肪区域均明显下降,与治疗前比较差异均有统计学意义(t体重=4.424,P0.05);治疗后下肢、躯干、全身脂肪量较治疗前均明显下降,差异有统计学意义(t下肢脂肪量=4.008,P0.05);治疗前后上肢、下肢、躯干、全身肌肉及骨矿物盐含量无明显改变;治疗后体重下降幅度与躯干和全身脂肪量下降幅度高度相关(r=0.860、0.819,P<0.01);治疗后全身脂肪量下降幅度与下肢和躯干脂

  15. In vitro anti-diabetic, anti-obesity and antioxidant proprieties of Juniperus phoenicea L. leaves from Tunisia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To examine chemical composition and antioxidant activity as well as the in vitroα-amylase and pancreatic lipase inhibitory activities of the essential oil and various extracts of Juniperus phoenicea (J. phoenicea). Methods: Essential oil obtained by steam distillation were analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry technique. The antioxidant activity of the essential oil and various extracts of J. phoenicea were determined by DPPH andβ-carotene bleaching methods. Results: Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis of the J. phoenicea essential oil resulted in the identification of 37 compounds, representing 96.98% of the oil; α-Pinene (24.02%), limonene (7.94%), D-3-Carene (16.9%), Germacrene D (11.98%), Germacrene B (5.40%) and δ-cadinene (6.52%) were the major compounds. The IC50 values of essential oil, hexane and methanol extracts against α-amylase were 35.44, 30.15 and 53.76 µg/mL respectively, and those against pancreatic lipase were 66.15, 68.47 and 60.22 µg/mL respectively, suggesting powerful anti-diabetic and anti-obesity effects. Antioxidant activity (IC50=2 µg/mL) and total phenolics content (265 mg as gallic acid equivalent/g extract) of the methanol extract were found to be the highest compared to the other extracts. Conclusions:The findings showed that the extents ofα-amylase and pancreatic lipase inhibitory activities of the J. phoenicea extracts as well as their antioxidant activity are in accordance with total phenolics contents. Leaves of J. phoenicea being rich in phenolics may provide a good source of natural products with interesting medicinal properties.

  16. The effects of Artemisia aucheri extract on hepatotoxicity induced by thioacetamide in male rats

    OpenAIRE

    Azam Rezaei; Shahnaz ShekarForoush; Saeed Changizi Ashtiyani; Hydar Aqababa; Ali Zarei; Maryam Azizi; Hasan Yarmahmodi

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Liver is an important organ that is exposed to many oxidant and carcinogenic agents, thus antioxidant compounds are beneficial for liver health. Artemisia contains flavonoid compounds and anti-diabetic, antioxidant, and anti-inflammatory properties. Due to possessing terpene and sesquiterpene compounds, this plant has antioxidant properties. This study was done to investigate the effects of Artemisia plant extract on thioacetamide-induced hepatotoxicity in Wistar rats. Materials an...

  17. Formation, properties and climatic effects of contrails

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schumann, U.

    2005-05-15

    Condensation trails (contrails) are aircraft induced cirrus clouds, which may persist and grow to large cirrus cover in ice-supersaturated air, and may cause a warming of the atmosphere. This paper describes the formation, occurrence, properties and climatic effects of contrails. The global cover by lined-shaped contrails and the radiative impact of line-shaped contrails is smaller than assessed in an international assessment in 1999. Contrails trigger contrail cirrus with far larger coverage than observed for line-shaped contrails, but still unknown radiative properties. Some model simulations indicate an impact of particles and particle precursors emitted from aircraft engines on cirrus cloud properties. However, the magnitude of this effect cannot yet be assessed. Contrail formation can be avoided only by flying in sufficiently warm and dry air. The formation of contrail cirrus can be reduced by avoiding flights in ice-supersaturated regions of the atmosphere, e.g. by raising the flight level into the lower-most stratosphere. (orig.)

  18. [Prebiotics: concept, properties and beneficial effects].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corzo, N; Alonso, J L; Azpiroz, F; Calvo, M A; Cirici, M; Leis, R; Lombó, F; Mateos-Aparicio, I; Plou, F J; Ruas-Madiedo, P; Rúperez, P; Redondo-Cuenca, A; Sanz, M L; Clemente, A

    2015-01-01

    Prebiotics are non-digestible food ingredients (oligosaccharides) that reach the colon and are used as substrate by microorganisms producing energy, metabolites and micronutrients used for the host; in addition they also stimulate the selective growth of certain beneficial species (mainly bifidobacteria and lactobacilli) in the intestinal microbiota. In this article, a multidisciplinary approach to understand the concept of prebiotic carbohydrates, their properties and beneficial effects in humans has been carried out. Definitions of prebiotics, reported by relevant international organizations and researchers, are described. A comprehensive description of accepted prebiotics having strong scientific evidence of their beneficial properties in humans (inulin-type fructans, FOS, GOS, lactulose and human milk oligosaccharides) is reported. Emerging prebiotics and those which are in the early stages of study have also included in this study. Taken into account that the chemical structure greatly influences carbohydrates prebiotic properties, the analytical techniques used for their analysis and characterization are discussed. In vitro and in vivo models used to evaluate the gastrointestinal digestion, absorption resistance and fermentability in the colon of prebiotics as well as major criteria to design robust intervention trials in humans are described. Finally, a comprehensive summary of the beneficial effects of prebiotics for health at systemic and intestinal levels is reported. The research effort on prebiotics has been intensive in last decades and has demonstrated that a multidisciplinary approach is necessary in order to claim their health benefits. PMID:25659062

  19. Antidiabetic treatment restores adiponectin serum levels and APPL1 expression, but does not improve adiponectin-induced vasodilation and endothelial dysfunction in Zucker diabetic fatty rats

    OpenAIRE

    Schmid, Peter M.; Resch, Markus; Schach, Christian; Birner, Christoph; Günter A J Riegger; Luchner, Andreas; Endemann, Dierk H.

    2013-01-01

    Background Adiponectin is able to induce NO-dependent vasodilation in Zucker lean (ZL) rats, but this effect is clearly alleviated in their diabetic littermates, the Zucker diabetic fatty (ZDF) rats. ZDF rats also exhibit hypoadiponectinemia and a suppressed expression of APPL1, an adaptor protein of the adiponectin receptors, in mesenteric resistance arteries. Whether an antidiabetic treatment can restore the vasodilatory effect of adiponectin and improve endothelial function in diabetes mel...

  20. EFFECT OF POZZOLAN PROPERTIES ON THE PROPERTIES OF BUILDING COMPOSITES

    OpenAIRE

    Pavia, Sara; WALKER, ROSANNE

    2010-01-01

    PUBLISHED University College Cork Pozzolans were used by ancient civilizations to enhance the properties of mortars and concrete and are now regaining popularity as sustainable, environmentally-friendly alternatives to cement. This paper studies the relationships amongst some properties of nine pozzolans and their impact on compressive strength and setting time of the resultant composites. Its objective is to assist in making informed choices in the selection of pozzolans...

  1. Phytochemical properties, total antioxidant status of acetone and methanol extract of Terminalia arjuna Roxb. bark and its hypoglycemic effect on Type-II diabetic albino rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chandan Kumar

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, acetone and methanol extract of T. arjuna Roxb. bark was evaluated for its phytochemical properties and antioxidant status by FRAP method. The result indicated that tannin, alkaloid, triterpenoid, flavonoid, phytosteroids and saponin are present in both the acetone and methanol extract. Total antioxidant status was found to be significantly (P˂0.01 higher in acetone extract (212.5±11.55 µM as compared to methanol extract (35.50±4.70 µM. This indicates higher antioxidative property of T. arjuna bark acetone extract in comparison to methanol extract and selected for in vivo study. In vivo study, showed protective effect of acetone extract of T. arjuna bark towards blood glucose, oral glucose tolerance (OGTT and insulin tolarence test in STZ treated rats. Feeding 500 mg/kg bw arjuna bark extract to rats showed significantly (P<0.05 lower parameters as compared to rats of diabetic control rats and 250 mg/kg bw arjuna bark fed rats and was non-significant with glimepiride fed rats. Feeding 500 mg/kg bw extract showed significantly (P<0.05 higher anti-hyperglycemic and anti-diabetic effects as compared to 250 mg/kg bw extract. It is concluded that the acetone extract of Terminalia arjuna bark exhibit antioxidant power and hypoglycemic properties.

  2. Database on Antidiabetic indigenous plants of Tamil Nadhu, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.Uma Makheswari

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available An Ethnobotanical and Literature survey was conducted to collect information about medicinal plants used for the treatment of diabetics and associated complications by tribals people of Tamil Nadhu. Analysis of remedies obtained from different plant parts was performed. The indigenous knowledge of plants used for the treatment of diabetics was collected through questionnaire and personal interviews. A total of 46 plants used to treat diabetes have been documented. The investigation revealed that, leaf materials (37% followed by seeds (16% and fruits (14% were mostly used for the treatment of Diabetes. Anti-diabetic medicinal plants used by Tamil People have been listed along with plant parts used and its active chemical constituents.

  3. Pairing properties of realistic effective interactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gargano A.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We investigate the pairing properties of an effective shell-model interaction defined within a model space outside 132Sn and derived by means of perturbation theory from the CD-Bonn free nucleon-nucleon potential. It turns out that the neutron pairing component of the effective interaction is significantly weaker than the proton one, which accounts for the large pairing gap difference observed in the two-valence identical particle nuclei 134Sn and 134Te. The role of the contribution arising from one particle-one hole excitations in determining the pairing force is discussed and its microscopic structure is also analyzed in terms of the multipole decomposition.

  4. Molecular interaction between glimepiride and Soluplus®-PEG 4000 hybrid based solid dispersions: Characterisation and anti-diabetic studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reginald-Opara, Joy Nneji; Attama, Anthony; Ofokansi, Kenneth; Umeyor, Chukwuebuka; Kenechukwu, Frankline

    2015-12-30

    The objective of this study was to evaluate a novel blend of polyvinyl caprolactam-polyvinyl acetate-polyethylene glycol 6000 grafted copolymer (Soluplus®) and polyethylene glycol (PEG) 4000 for solubility enhancement, physicochemical stability and anti-diabetic efficacy of the produced solid dispersions containing glimepiride, a biopharmaceutics classification system (BCS) class II sulphonylurea. Different batches of glimepiride solid dispersions (SD) were prepared by the solvent evaporation method using the individual polymers and blends of the polymers at different ratios. The Soluplus®-PEG 4000 (sol-PEG) hybrid polymer based glimepiride solid dispersions were characterized by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, micromeritics and dissolution studies. In vivo anti-diabetic activity was determined by measuring the changes in blood glucose concentrations in albino rats. The solid dispersions showed good flow properties and excellent practical yield. Drug content and release from the different formulations increased when Soluplus® was used as the main matrix polymer. The kinetics of drug release from all the solid dispersions followed first order. Solid state characterization confirmed the formation of amorphous glimepiride solid dispersions in the Sol-PEG hybrid polymer and no strong drug-polymer interaction was observed. The blood glucose reduction in albino rats by the Sol-PEG-Glim SDs was significantly (pglimepiride. PMID:26581773

  5. Antidiabetic, antihyperlipidemic and antioxidant potential of methanol extract ofTectona grandis flowers in streptozotocin induced diabetic rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Subramaniam Ramachandran; Aiyalu Rajasekaran; KT Manisenthil Kumar

    2011-01-01

    Objective:To investigate antidiabetic, antihyperlipidemic and antioxidant activity of methanol extract ofTectona grandis (T. grandis) flowers(METGF)in streptozotocin (STZ) induced diabetic rats to supports its traditional use.Methods: Acute toxicity study of METGF was carried out in rat to determine its dose for the antidiabetic study. Oral glucose tolerance test(OGTT) was performed to evaluateMETGF effect on elevated blood glucose level. Diabetes was induced in rats by administration ofSTZ(60 mg/kg, ip.) and it was confirmed 72 h after induction.METGF was orally given to the diabetic rats up to28 days and blood glucose level were estimated each week. On28 day of the experiment, diabetic rats were sacrificed after the blood collection for the biochemical parameters analysis and liver, kidney was collected to determine antioxidants levels.Results:In acute toxicity,METGFdid not show toxicity and death up to a dose 2 000mg/kg in rats. Administration ofMETGF 100 and200mg/kg significantly (P<0.001) reduced blood glucose levels inOGTTand STZ-induced diabetic rats. Both doses ofMETGF treatment significantly (P<0.001, P<0.01 andP<0.05) increased body weight, serum insulin, haemoglobin (Hb) and total protein levels in diabetic rats. Also,MEGTF treatment reduced elevated glycosylated haemoglobin(HbA1c) and other biochemical parameters levels significantly (P<0.001) in diabetic rats. Altered lipid profiles and antioxidants levels were reversed to near normal in diabetic rats treated withMETGF. Conclusions: These results concluded that METGF possesses antidiabetic, antihyperglycemic and antioxidant activity which supports its traditional use.

  6. The anti-diabetic drug metformin inhibits pancreatic cancer cell proliferation in vitro and in vivo: Study of the microRNAs associated with the antitumor effect of metformin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kato, Kiyohito; Iwama, Hisakazu; Yamashita, Takuma; Kobayashi, Kiyoyuki; Fujihara, Shintaro; Fujimori, Takayuki; Kamada, Hideki; Kobara, Hideki; Masaki, Tsutomu

    2016-03-01

    Recent studies suggest that metformin, which is a commonly used oral anti-hyperglycemic agent of the biguanide family, may reduce cancer risk and improve prognosis, yet the detailed mechanisms by which metformin affects various types of cancers, including pancreatic cancer, remain unknown. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effects of metformin on human pancreatic cancer cell proliferation in vitro and in vivo, and to study microRNAs (miRNAs) associated with the antitumor effect of metformin. We used the human pancreatic cancer cell lines Panc1, PK1 and PK9 to study the effects of metformin on human pancreatic cancer cells. Athymic nude mice bearing xenograft tumors were treated with or without metformin. Tumor growth was recorded after 5 weeks, and the expression of cell cycle-related proteins was determined. In addition, we used miRNA microarray tips to explore the differences in the levels of miRNAs in Panc1 cells and xenograft tumors treated with metformin or without. Metformin inhibited the proliferation of Panc1, PK1 and PK9 cells in vitro. This inhibition was accompanied by a strong decrease in G1 cyclins (particularly in cyclin D1) and retinoblastoma protein (Rb) phosphorylation. In addition, metformin reduced the phosphorylation of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), particularly the phosphorylation of EGFR at Tyr845, and insulin-like growth factor 1 receptor (IGF-1R) in vitro and in vivo. miRNA expression was markedly altered by the treatment with metformin in vitro and in vivo. Our results revealed that metformin inhibits human pancreatic cancer cell proliferation and tumor growth, possibly by suppressing the cell cycle-related molecules via alteration of miRNAs. PMID:26708419

  7. 糖智宁胶囊抗糖尿病记忆障碍药效学研究%Studies on the effect of anti-diabetic memory disorders by Tangzhining Capsules

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    康亚国; 张欣; 许苗苗; 王薇; 宋小妹

    2014-01-01

    目的:研究糖智宁胶囊对链脲佐菌素所致糖尿病大鼠血糖及记忆障碍的影响。方法采用链脲佐菌素腹腔一次性注射诱发 SD 大鼠糖尿病模型,随机分为模型组、糖智宁胶囊(0.47,0.94和1.40 g ・ kg -1)治疗组、二甲双胍阳性组,另设正常对照组。给药20 d 后,测定小鼠血糖水平,并通过 Morris 水迷宫实验测试大鼠学习记忆能力,检测数据进行统计学处理。结果糖智宁胶囊治疗组和阳性组均能降低糖尿病大鼠空腹血糖;除低剂量外,各治疗组的学习记忆功能具有不同程度的改善。结论糖智宁胶囊具有较好的降血糖作用,对糖尿病大鼠记忆障碍有一定的防治作用。%Objective To study the effects of Tangzhining Capsules (TZN Capsules) on blood glucose levels and dysmnesia in diabet-ic model rats induced by streptozotocin (STZ) .Methods Diabetic models were induced by intraperitoneal injection of streptozoto-cin (STZ) in rats .The study was divided into diabetic model group ,TZN Capsules groups (0 .47 ,0 .94 and 1 .40 g ・ kg - 1 ) ,and metformin positive group ,and healthy rats were served as the normal control .After taken the drugs orally 20 days ,the blood glu-cose levels of each rat were determined ,and rats were tested in Morris water maze .Results TZN Capsules showed therapeutic ac-tion on diabetes rats .Except for those in the low-dose TZN Capsules group ,rat situation in other treatment groups had been im-proved .Conclusion TZN Capsules have a good hypoglycemic effect in mice ,and have a preventive effect for memory disorders .

  8. Drug utilization pattern of antidiabetic agents in a tertiary care hospital of western Odisha, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ratna Agrawal

    2016-10-01

    Conclusions: The prescribing trend has been monotherapy with insulin followed by oral antidiabetic drugs in the form of glimepiride and metformin combination. [Int J Basic Clin Pharmacol 2016; 5(5.000: 2222-2226

  9. Progress of pharmacogenomic studies on anti-diabetic drugs%口服降糖药的药物基因组学研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王婕; 贾伟平

    2009-01-01

    药物基因组学是研究基因组变异与药物疗效、安全性间关系的学科.本文主要介绍临床常用降糖药的药物基因组学研究进展.%Pharmacogenomics aims to identify the effects of genomie variants on drug efficacy and safety. This article summarized the progress of pharmacogenomic study on anti-diabetic drugs.

  10. Predicting Noninsulin Antidiabetic Drug Adherence Using a Theoretical Framework Based on the Theory of Planned Behavior in Adults With Type 2 Diabetes

    OpenAIRE

    Zomahoun, Hervé Tchala Vignon; Moisan, Jocelyne; Lauzier, Sophie; Guillaumie,Laurence; Grégoire, Jean-Pierre; Guénette, Line

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Understanding the process behind noninsulin antidiabetic drug (NIAD) nonadherence is necessary for designing effective interventions to resolve this problem. This study aimed to explore the ability of the theory of planned behavior (TPB), which is known as a good predictor of behaviors, to predict the future NIAD adherence in adults with type 2 diabetes. We conducted a prospective study of adults with type 2 diabetes. They completed a questionnaire on TPB variables and external varia...

  11. In Vitro anti-diabetic activity of aqueous extract of the medicinal plants Nigella sativa, Eugenia jambolana, Andrographis paniculata and Gymnema sylvestre

    OpenAIRE

    Arunachalam Sathiavelu; Sundaramoorthy Sangeetha; Rastogi Archit; Sathiavelu Mythili

    2013-01-01

    Objective: In vitro analysis of the anti-diabetic effect of aqueous extracts of the medicinal plants Nigella sativa, Eugenia jambolana, Andrographis paniculata, Gymnema sylvestre. Methods: Aqueous extracts of the plants were prepared by maceration. They were then tested for inhibition of alpha-amylase activity by DNSA colour reagent. They were tested for their ability to hinder diffusion of glucose across a dialysis membrane. Results: The aqueous extract of Nigella sativa showed maximum inhib...

  12. Binding Energy calculation of GSK-3 protein of Human against some anti-diabetic compounds of Momordica charantia linn (Bitter melon)

    OpenAIRE

    Hazarika, Ridip; Parida, Pratap; Neog, Bijoy; Yadav, Raj Narain Singh

    2012-01-01

    Diabetes is one of the major life threatening diseases worldwide. It creates major health problems in urban India. Glycogen Synthase Kinase-3 (GSK-3) protein of human is known for phosphorylating and inactivating glycogen synthase which also acts as a negative regulator in the hormonal control of glucose homeostasis. In traditional medicine, Momordica charantia is used as antidiabetic plant because of its hypoglycemic effect. Hence to block the active site of the GSK-3 protein three anti-diab...

  13. Effect of bars on the galaxy properties

    CERN Document Server

    Vera, Matias; Coldwell, Georgina

    2016-01-01

    Aims: With the aim of assessing the effects of bars on disc galaxy properties, we present an analysis of different characteristics of spiral galaxies with strong, weak and without bars. Method: We identified barred galaxies from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey. By visual inspection, we classified the face-on spiral galaxies brighter than g<16.5 mag into strong-bar, weak-bar and unbarred. In order to provide an appropiate quantification of the influence of bars on galaxy properties, we also constructed a suitable control sample of unbarred galaxies with similar redshift, magnitude, morphology, bulge sizes, and local density environment distributions to that of barred galaxies. Results: We found 522 strong-barred and 770 weak-barred galaxies, representing a 25.82% of the full sample of spiral galaxies, in good agreement with previous studies. We also found that strong-barred galaxies show less efficient star formation activity and older stellar populations compared to weak-barred and unbarred spirals from the c...

  14. Effect of cryogel on soil properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altunina, L. K.; Fufaeva, M. S.; Filatov, D. A.; Svarovskaya, L. I.; Rozhdestvenskii, E. A.; Gan-Erdene, T.

    2014-05-01

    Samples from the A1 and A1A2 horizons of sandy loamy gray forest soil containing 3.1% organic matter have been mixed with a 5% solution of polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) at a ratio of 7 : 1 under laboratory conditions. The samples were frozen at -20°C in a refrigerator; after a freezing-thawing cycle, the evaporation of water from their surface, their thermal conductivity coefficient, their elasticity modulus, and other properties were studied. It has been experimentally found that the thermal conductivity coefficient of cryostructured soil is lower than that of common soil by 25%. It has been shown that the cryostructured soil retains water for a longer time and that the water evaporation rate from its surface is significantly lower compared to the control soil. Cryogel has no negative effect on the catalase activity of soil; it changes the physical properties of soils and positively affects the population of indigenous soil microflora and the growth of the sown plants.

  15. Immunomodulatory effects of oral antidiabetic drugs in lymphocyte cultures from patients with type 2 diabetes Efeito imunomodulador de hipoglicemiantes orais em cultura de linfócitos de pacientes com diabetes tipo 2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karina Faccio Mello

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION AND OBJECTIVE: It has been suggested that type 2 diabetes is an inflammatory response manifestation. The main drugs used to treat type 2 diabetes are sulphonylureas and biguanides. The aim of this study was to demonstrate the modulatory effects of oral hypoglycemic drugs (chlorpropamide and metformin on lymphocyte proliferation in vitro and ex vivo. METHODS: Peripheral blood mononuclear cells were isolated from human blood by gradient centrifugation. T-lymphocytes were stimulated by phytohemagglutinin (PHA and oral hypoglycemic drugs. RESULTS: In both in vitro and ex vivo experiments, there was a reduction in cell proliferation after treatment with oral hypoglycemic drugs. When both drugs were used in combination, a high level of cytotoxicity was observed, which made analysis of immunomodulatory effects unfeasible. DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSION: We demonstrated that diabetes itself may reduce cell proliferation significantly when stimulated by PHA, which may indicate that diabetic patients have difficulties in promoting an efficient inflammatory response. Moreover, the use of oral hypoglycemic drugs may aggravate this situation.INTRODUÇÃO E OBJETIVOS: Tem sido sugerido que o diabetes mellitus tipo 2 (DM2 é uma manifestação da resposta inflamatória. As principais drogas utilizadas no tratamento do DM2 são as sulfonilureias e as biguanidas. O objetivo deste trabalho é demonstrar os efeitos moduladores na proliferação de linfócitos causada pelos hipoglicemiantes orais (clorpropamida e metformina, in vitro e ex vivo. MÉTODOS: Células mononucleares de sangue periférico foram isoladas de seres humanos por gradiente de centrifugação. Os linfócitos T foram estimulados com fito-hemaglutinina (PHA e hipoglicemiantes. RESULTADOS: Nos experimentos in vitro e ex vivo, mostramos a redução da proliferação celular quando do tratamento com drogas hipoglicemiantes orais. Quando as drogas foram utilizadas em combinação, foi

  16. Study of variation in price of various antidiabetic drugs available in Indian market

    OpenAIRE

    Amit Padmakar Date; Harshal M. Mahajan; Amruta V. Dashputra; Rahul R. Bhosale

    2015-01-01

    Background: Diabetes mellitus in early age is on the alarming rise in India, requiring lifelong treatment. There is a wide range of variation in the prices of antidiabetic drugs marketed in India. Hence, we decided to study price variations in the oral antidiabetic drugs available, either singly or in combination, and number of manufacturing companies for each, and to evaluate the difference in cost of different brands of same active drug by calculating percentage variation of cost. Method...

  17. Glycated hemoglobin and antidiabetic strategies as risk factors for hepatocellular carcinoma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Valter; Donadon; Massimiliano; Balbi; Francesca; Valent; Angelo; Avogaro

    2010-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate the relationship between glycemic control [assessed by glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c)], antidiabetic therapies and the risk of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC).METHODS: We recruited 465 patients with HCC, 618 cases with liver cirrhosis and 490 controls with no liver disease. Among subjects with type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM2), the associations between the antidiabetic strategies and HbA1c level with HCC were determined through 2 series of multivariate logistic regression models using cirrhotic pa...

  18. Beliefs related to adherence to oral antidiabetic treatment according to the Theory of Planned Behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Fernanda Freire Jannuzzi; Roberta Cunha Matheus Rodrigues; Marilia Estevam Cornélio; Thaís Moreira São-João; Maria Cecília Bueno Jayme Gallani

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: to identify salient behavioral, normative, control and self-efficacy beliefs related to the behavior of adherence to oral antidiabetic agents, using the Theory of Planned Behavior. METHOD: cross-sectional, exploratory study with 17 diabetic patients in chronic use of oral antidiabetic medication and in outpatient follow-up. Individual interviews were recorded, transcribed and content-analyzed using pre-established categories. RESULTS: behavioral beliefs concerning advantages and di...

  19. The Action of Antidiabetic Plants of the Canadian James Bay Cree Traditional Pharmacopeia on Key Enzymes of Hepatic Glucose Homeostasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abir Nachar

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We determined the capacity of putative antidiabetic plants used by the Eastern James Bay Cree (Canada to modulate key enzymes of gluconeogenesis and glycogen synthesis and key regulating kinases. Glucose-6-phosphatase (G6Pase and glycogen synthase (GS activities were assessed in cultured hepatocytes treated with crude extracts of seventeen plant species. Phosphorylation of AMP-dependent protein kinase (AMPK, Akt, and Glycogen synthase kinase-3 (GSK-3 were probed by Western blot. Seven of the seventeen plant extracts significantly decreased G6Pase activity, Abies balsamea and Picea glauca, exerting an effect similar to insulin. This action involved both Akt and AMPK phosphorylation. On the other hand, several plant extracts activated GS, Larix laricina and A. balsamea, far exceeding the action of insulin. We also found a significant correlation between GS stimulation and GSK-3 phosphorylation induced by plant extract treatments. In summary, three Cree plants stand out for marked effects on hepatic glucose homeostasis. P. glauca affects glucose production whereas L. laricina rather acts on glucose storage. However, A. balsamea has the most promising profile, simultaneously and powerfully reducing G6Pase and stimulating GS. Our studies thus confirm that the reduction of hepatic glucose production likely contributes to the therapeutic potential of several antidiabetic Cree traditional medicines.

  20. Treating diet-induced diabetes and obesity with human embryonic stem cell-derived pancreatic progenitor cells and antidiabetic drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruin, Jennifer E; Saber, Nelly; Braun, Natalie; Fox, Jessica K; Mojibian, Majid; Asadi, Ali; Drohan, Campbell; O'Dwyer, Shannon; Rosman-Balzer, Diana S; Swiss, Victoria A; Rezania, Alireza; Kieffer, Timothy J

    2015-04-14

    Human embryonic stem cell (hESC)-derived pancreatic progenitor cells effectively reverse hyperglycemia in rodent models of type 1 diabetes, but their capacity to treat type 2 diabetes has not been reported. An immunodeficient model of type 2 diabetes was generated by high-fat diet (HFD) feeding in SCID-beige mice. Exposure to HFDs did not impact the maturation of macroencapsulated pancreatic progenitor cells into glucose-responsive insulin-secreting cells following transplantation, and the cell therapy improved glucose tolerance in HFD-fed transplant recipients after 24 weeks. However, since diet-induced hyperglycemia and obesity were not fully ameliorated by transplantation alone, a second cohort of HFD-fed mice was treated with pancreatic progenitor cells combined with one of three antidiabetic drugs. All combination therapies rapidly improved body weight and co-treatment with either sitagliptin or metformin improved hyperglycemia after only 12 weeks. Therefore, a stem cell-based therapy may be effective for treating type 2 diabetes, particularly in combination with antidiabetic drugs.

  1. Histological changes and antidiabetic activities of Icacina trichantha tuber extract in beta-cells of alloxan induced diabetic rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Onakpa Michael Monday; Asuzu Isaac Uzoma

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the antidiabetic, hypolipidaemic activities and histopathological changes of Icacina trichantha (I. trichantha) tuber extract in alloxan induced diabetic rats. Methods:In the present study, 80% methanol extract of I. trichantha tuber was tested on alloxan induced diabetic rats. They were randomly grouped into control (distilled water and glibenclamide) and experimental (200, 400 and 600 mg/kg body weight). Diabetes was induced by a single intraperitoneal injection of 160 mg/kg body weight of alloxan. Blood glucose levels were measured using blood glucose test strips with AccuCheck Advantage II glucometer at 1, 3, 6, and 24 h on the first day and 1 h after treatment on Day 7, 14 and 21. Blood samples were collected and centrifuged to separate serum for estimation of lipid profile and other biochemical parameters. Histopathological changes in diabetic rats pancreas were also studied after extract treatment. Results: Daily oral administration of I. trichantha tuber extract (200, 400, and 600 mg/kg body weight) and glibenclamide (2 mg/kg) showed beneficial effects on blood glucose level (P Conclusions: I. trichantha tuber extracts posses antidiabetic activities as well as improve liver and renal profile and total lipids levels. I. trichantha tuber extracts also have favourable effects to inhibit the histopathological changes of the pancreas in alloxan induced diabetes.

  2. Treating Diet-Induced Diabetes and Obesity with Human Embryonic Stem Cell-Derived Pancreatic Progenitor Cells and Antidiabetic Drugs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer E. Bruin

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Human embryonic stem cell (hESC-derived pancreatic progenitor cells effectively reverse hyperglycemia in rodent models of type 1 diabetes, but their capacity to treat type 2 diabetes has not been reported. An immunodeficient model of type 2 diabetes was generated by high-fat diet (HFD feeding in SCID-beige mice. Exposure to HFDs did not impact the maturation of macroencapsulated pancreatic progenitor cells into glucose-responsive insulin-secreting cells following transplantation, and the cell therapy improved glucose tolerance in HFD-fed transplant recipients after 24 weeks. However, since diet-induced hyperglycemia and obesity were not fully ameliorated by transplantation alone, a second cohort of HFD-fed mice was treated with pancreatic progenitor cells combined with one of three antidiabetic drugs. All combination therapies rapidly improved body weight and co-treatment with either sitagliptin or metformin improved hyperglycemia after only 12 weeks. Therefore, a stem cell-based therapy may be effective for treating type 2 diabetes, particularly in combination with antidiabetic drugs.

  3. Antidiabetic and Antioxidant Impacts of Desert Date (Balanites aegyptiaca and Parsley (Petroselinum sativum Aqueous Extracts: Lessons from Experimental Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nasser S. Abou Khalil

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Medicinal plants are effective in controlling plasma glucose level with minimal side effects and are commonly used in developing countries as an alternative therapy for the treatment of type 1 diabetes mellitus. The aim of this study is to evaluate the potential antidiabetic and antioxidant impacts of Balanites aegyptiaca and Petroselinum sativum extracts on streptozotocin-induced diabetic and normal rats. The influences of these extracts on body weight, plasma glucose, insulin, total antioxidant capacity (TAC, malondialdehyde (MDA levels, and liver-pyruvate kinase (L-PK levels were assessed. Furthermore, the weight and histomorphological changes of the pancreas were studied in the different experimental groups. The herbal preparations significantly reduced the mean plasma glucose and MDA levels and significantly increased the mean plasma insulin, L-PK, and TAC levels in the treated diabetic groups compared to the diabetic control group. An obvious increase in the weight of the pancreas and the size of the islets of Langerhans and improvement in the histoarchitecture were evident in the treated groups compared to untreated ones. In conclusion, the present study provides a scientific evidence for the traditional use of these extracts as antidiabetic and antioxidant agents in type 1 diabetes mellitus.

  4. Antidiabetic and Antioxidant Impacts of Desert Date (Balanites aegyptiaca) and Parsley (Petroselinum sativum) Aqueous Extracts: Lessons from Experimental Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abou Khalil, Nasser S; Abou-Elhamd, Alaa S; Wasfy, Salwa I A; El Mileegy, Ibtisam M H; Hamed, Mohamed Y; Ageely, Hussein M

    2016-01-01

    Medicinal plants are effective in controlling plasma glucose level with minimal side effects and are commonly used in developing countries as an alternative therapy for the treatment of type 1 diabetes mellitus. The aim of this study is to evaluate the potential antidiabetic and antioxidant impacts of Balanites aegyptiaca and Petroselinum sativum extracts on streptozotocin-induced diabetic and normal rats. The influences of these extracts on body weight, plasma glucose, insulin, total antioxidant capacity (TAC), malondialdehyde (MDA) levels, and liver-pyruvate kinase (L-PK) levels were assessed. Furthermore, the weight and histomorphological changes of the pancreas were studied in the different experimental groups. The herbal preparations significantly reduced the mean plasma glucose and MDA levels and significantly increased the mean plasma insulin, L-PK, and TAC levels in the treated diabetic groups compared to the diabetic control group. An obvious increase in the weight of the pancreas and the size of the islets of Langerhans and improvement in the histoarchitecture were evident in the treated groups compared to untreated ones. In conclusion, the present study provides a scientific evidence for the traditional use of these extracts as antidiabetic and antioxidant agents in type 1 diabetes mellitus. PMID:27019854

  5. Antidiabetic thiazolidinediones induce ductal differentiation but not apoptosis in pancreatic cancer cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Elisabetta Ceni; Tommaso Mello; Mirko Tarocchi; David W Crabb; Anna Caldini; Pietro Invernizzi; Calogero Surrenti; Stefano Milani; Andrea Galli

    2005-01-01

    AIM: Thiazolidinediones (TZD) are a new class of oral antidiabetic drugs that have been shown to inhibit growth of same epithelial cancer cells. Although TZD were found to be ligands for peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ), the mechanism by which TZD exert their anticancer effect is presently unclear. In this study,we analyzed the mechanism by which TZD inhibit growth of human pancreatic carcinoma cell lines in order to evaluate the potential therapeutic use of these drugs in pancreatic adenocarcinoma.METHODS: The effects of TZD in pancreatic cancer cells were assessed in anchorage-independent growth assay.Expression of PPARγ was measured by reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction and confirmed by Western blot analysis. PPARγ activity was evaluated by transient reporter gene assay. Flow cytometry and DNA fragmentationassay were used to determine the effect of TZD on cell cycle progression and apoptosis respectively. The effect of TZD on ductal differentiation markers was performed by Western blot.RESULTS: Exposure to TZD inhibited colony formation in a PPARγ-dependent manner. Growth inhibition was linked to G1 phase cell cycle arrest through induction of the ductal differentiation program without any increase of the apoptotic rate.CONCLUSION: TZD treatment in pancreatic cancer cells has potent inhibitory effects on growth by a PPAR-dependent induction of pacreatic ductal differentiation.

  6. Antidiabetic and insulin-sensitizing effects of neoglitazone in different animal models of type 2 diabetes%那格列酮对不同2型糖尿病模型动物的治疗及胰岛素增敏作用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩向晖; 陆泽安; 周伟

    2008-01-01

    AIM To assess antidiabetic and insulin sensitizing effect of a novel thiazolidinedione,neoglitazone, in different animal models of type 2 diabetes. METHODS Neoglitazone combined with low-dose insulin(0.2U·d-1 per mouse,sc)were given in streptozotiocin (STZ)-induced diabetic mice for 7 d to inspect its insulin-sensitive improvement. The antidiabetic effect of chronic oral treatment (8 wk) with neoglitazone on spontaneous diabetes mice (DB/DB mice) was examined. The levels of blood glucose were measured by a One-Touch blood glucose meter and pathology of heart, kidney, and pancreas tissues were observed under a light microscope. The hyperinsulinaemic-euglycaemic clamp technique was applied to measure the increase of glucose infusion rate (GIR) of neoglitazone on the immune insulin-resistant rats induced by Bacillus Calmette-Guerin therapy decreased ( 14±s4)%, (55±24)%,and (28±7)% of blood glucose levels compared with CMC-Na+insulin group, respectively (P < 0.01) . In DB/DB mice, neoglitazone showed better reduction in blood glucose levels than those of model animals (P < 0.01) , and pathological studies indicated that neoglitazone attenuated the diabetic kidney and pancreas lesions. During a hyperinsulinaemic-euglycaemic clamp,neoglitaxone(10,30,and 100mg·kg-1·d-1,ig for 2 wk )-treated groups required significantly higher GIR to maintain basal glucose concentrations than model group (P < 0.01 ). CONCLUSION Neoglitazone could directly enhance insulin sensitivity and ameliorate insulin resistance in different diabetic animal models.%目的 观察那格列酮对不同2型糖尿病模型动物的治疗及胰岛素增敏作用.方法 那格列酮联合应用小剂量长效胰岛素(每只每日0.2 U,sc)治疗链佐菌素(150 mg·kg-1,ip)诱导的化学性糖尿病小鼠,观察那格列酮的胰岛素直接增敏作用;那格列酮ig,8 wk,分别采用ONE TOUCH稳豪型血糖测定仪及病理组织学检查,观察受试药物对自发性糖尿病小鼠(DB/DB小鼠)

  7. Unexploited Antineoplastic Effects of Commercially Available Anti-Diabetic Drugs

    OpenAIRE

    Panagiota Papanagnou; Theodora Stivarou; Maria Tsironi

    2016-01-01

    The development of efficacious antitumor compounds with minimal toxicity is a hot research topic. Numerous cancer cell targeted agents are evaluated daily in laboratories for their antitumorigenicity at the pre-clinical level, but the process of their introduction into the market is costly and time-consuming. More importantly, even if these new antitumor agents manage to gain approval, clinicians have no former experience with them. Accruing evidence supports the idea that several medications...

  8. Anti-diabetic activity of Celosia argentea root in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghule Santosh

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was designed to investigate the anti-diabetic hypoglycaemic properties of an ethanolic extract of the root of Celosia argentea which is widely used in India as a traditional treatment for diabetes mellitus. An ethanolic extract of C. argentea root was found to lower blood glucose in basal conditions and after a heavy glucose load in normal rats. Maximum reduction in serum glucose was observed after 90 minutes at a dose of 500 mg/kg (63.28% of body weight, but petroleum ether and chloroform extracts (8.52% and 9.81%, respectively did not reduce the serum glucose. Ethanolic extract of C. argentea was also found to reduce the increase of blood sugar found in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats (73.43% at 250 mg/kg and 80.20% at 500 mg/kg body weight on 15th day. Chronic administration of the extract significantly reduced the blood sugar in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats for several days (15 days. The ethanolic extract was also found to reduce the increased levels of cholesterol, triglycerides and urea. The extract also restored the decreased level of proteins and liver glycogen in streptozotocin-induced diabetic animals and inhibited the body weight reduction induced by streptozotocin administration. These results indicate that C. argentea root extracts are able to ameliorate biochemical damages induced by streptozotocin in diabetic rats.

  9. The Effects Of Demolition Control Precincts On Property Values

    OpenAIRE

    Elliott, P.; Warren, C.; Staines, J

    2015-01-01

    As municipal governments continue to implement historic preservation regulations, it is vitally important to understand the effects on the designated properties and the housing market. Determining and understanding the impact is important for property owners, buyers, planning authorities and valuers. Whilst it is known that historic preservation designation has an effect on property value, the effects are mixed and unclear. The direction and magnitude of the effect is dependent on locational ...

  10. Prescribing pattern and efficacy of anti-diabetic drugs in maintaining optimal glycemic levels in diabetic patients

    OpenAIRE

    Agarwal, Akshay A.; Jadhav, Pradeep R.; Deshmukh, Yeshwant A.

    2014-01-01

    Context: Despite the availability of efficacious anti-diabetic drugs, which act by different mechanisms to reduce the blood-glucose, the majority of people with diabetes on anti-diabetic drug therapy, have poor glycemic control and diabetic vascular complications. Aim and Objectives: The aim was to study the prescribing pattern and efficacy of anti-diabetic drugs in maintaining optimal glycemic levels in diabetic patients attending tertiary care teaching hospital in Navi Mumbai. Materials and...

  11. 不同种类口服降糖药联用对2型糖尿病患者动脉内膜中层厚度和斑块发生的影响%Effects of combination of antidiabetic agents on artery intima-media thickness and plaque occurrence.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    巴根; 王奇金; 缪雄; 丁长花; 冯正康; 黄勤; 邹大进

    2011-01-01

    artery IMT of TRIP group at 09 had a decreased trend compared to that at 07,while the control group all increased (P <0. 05). (3) The artery plaque incidence of TRIP group was markedly lower than that of other groups at the same time endpoint ( P <0.05). (4) The sorts of combined antidiabetic agents were highly associated with the incidence of carotid and iliac artery plaque (P<0.05). (5)Among all clinical indicators in this study,INS was identified as a risk factor for carotid artery plaque incidence (P < 0.05) ,2hPG and INS for iliac artery plaque (P < 0. 05 ). Conclusion Triple oral hypoglycemic therapy (rosiglitazone in combination with glimepiride plus metformin) improves insulin control,attenuates and even reverses the progression of artery IMT and delays the occurrence of artery plaque. Triple therapy shows a synergistic effect in T2DM macrovascular disease.

  12. Evaluation of biological properties and clinical effectiveness of Aloe vera: A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radha, Maharjan H; Laxmipriya, Nampoothiri P

    2015-01-01

    Aloe vera ( lú huì) is well known for its considerable medicinal properties. This plant is one of the richest natural sources of health for human beings coming. The chemistry of the plant has revealed the presence of more than 200 different biologically active substances. Many biological properties associated with Aloe species are contributed by inner gel of the leaves. Most research has been centralized on the biological activities of the various species of Aloe, which include antibacterial and antimicrobial activities of the nonvolatile constituents of the leaf gel. Aloe species are widely distributed in the African and the eastern European continents, and are spread almost throughout the world. The genus Aloe has more than 400 species but few, such as A. vera, Aloe ferox, and Aloe arborescens, are globally used for trade. A. vera has various medicinal properties such as antitumor, antiarthritic, antirheumatoid, anticancer, and antidiabetic properties. In addition, A. vera has also been promoted for constipation, gastrointestinal disorders, and for immune system deficiencies. However, not much convincing information is available on properties of the gel. The present review focuses on the detailed composition of Aloe gel, its various phytocomponents having various biological properties that help to improve health and prevent disease conditions. PMID:26151005

  13. Assessment of antidiabetic activity and acute toxicity of leaf extracts from Physalis peruviana L. in guinea-pig

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasali, Félicien Mushagalusa; Kadima, Justin Ntokamunda; Mpiana, Pius Tshimankinda; Ngbolua, Koto-te-Nyiwa; Tshibangu, Damien Sha-Tshibey

    2013-01-01

    Objective To verify the antidiabetic activity of leaf extracts from Physalis peruviana L. popularly used in the Eastern part of the Democratic Republic of the Congo and to point out the possible toxicity. Method Aqueous decoctions prepared from dried leaves powder were administrated to guinea pigs at the dose range of 100 mg/kg to 3.2 g/kg of body weight. The hypoglycemic activity was evaluated by glucose tolerance test, loading animals with glucose 4 g/kg and measuring blood glucose concentrations at various times. The effect was compared to the control and glibenclamide as antidiabetic reference drug. Acute toxicity was evaluated by recording mortality rate, changes on blood biomarkers and damage caused to vital organs. Results At a dose of 100 mg/kg, the aqueous extract induced a significant reduction of peak concentration at 30 min after glucose loading as compared with control or reference (PPhysalis peruviana L. present hypoglycemic activity in animal model, but at high doses the plant may cause severe intoxication.

  14. Evaluation of Anti-diabetic Activity of Ethanolic Extract of Alternanthera sessilis Linn. in Streptozotocin-induced Diabetic rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mrinmay Das

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The antidiabetic activity of ethanolic extract of whole plant of Alternanthera sessilis Linn. (EEAS was investigated in a model of streptozotocin induced diabetes in rats. The biochemical parameters studied were: plasma glucose, degree of glycosylation of hemoglobin and peripheral consumption of glucose levels on 1, 3, 7 and 10th day. Ethanolic extract had shown significant protection and lowered the blood glucose levels to normal in glucose tolerance test. In streptozotocin induced diabetic rats the maximum reduction in blood glucose was observed after 2h at a dose level of 200 and 400 mg/kg of body weight. The streptozotocin induced diabetic rats showed significant reductions in biochemical parameter after treatment with the extract and Glibenclamide (used as standard as compared to the diabetic controls. The ethanolic extract of Alternanthera sessilis Linn. exhibited antidiabetic activity and its sensitivity in experimentally induced diabetic rats in dose dependent manner. The current results clearly indicated the beneficial effects of the ethanolic extract of Alternanthera sessilis Linn. in both controlling hyperglycemia and the protection of the pancreatic islet cells against oxidative stress in the diabetic animals.

  15. Assessment of antidiabetic activity and acute toxicity of leaf extracts from Physalis peruviana L. in guinea-pig

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Flicien Mushagalusa Kasali; Justin Ntokamunda Kadima; Pius Tshimankinda Mpiana; Koto-te-Nyiwa Ngbolua; Damien Sha-Tshibey Tshibangu

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To verify the antidiabetic activity of leaf extracts from Physalis peruviana L. popularly used in the Eastern part of the Democratic Republic of the Congo and to point out the possible toxicity.Method:pigs at the dose range of 100 mg/kg to 3.2 g/kg of body weight. The hypoglycemic activity was evaluated by glucose tolerance test, loading animals with glucose 4 g/kg and measuring blood glucose concentrations at various times. The effect was compared to the control and glibenclamide as antidiabetic reference drug. Acute toxicity was evaluated by recording mortality rate, changes on blood biomarkers and damage caused to vital organs.Results:At a dose of 100 mg/kg, the aqueous extract induced a significant reduction of peak Aqueous decoctions prepared from dried leaves powder were administrated to guinea concentration at 30 min after glucose loading as compared with control or reference (P<0.05). At doses greater than 400 mg, some alterations on blood, kidney and liver markers were observed. Upper 800 mg/kg, mortality was observed with LD50 estimated at about 1280 mg/kg. At the autopsy, vital organs were in haemorrhage and swelling state.Conclusion:The crude aqueous extracts from the leaves of Physalis peruviana L. present hypoglycemic activity in animal model, but at high doses the plant may cause severe intoxication.

  16. Anti-diabetic potential of chloroform extract of flowers of Calotropis gigantea: An in vitro and in vivo study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N K Choudhary

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The chloroform extract of Calotropis gigantea flowers was evaluated for anti-diabetic activity in alloxan-induced hyperglycemia in vivo and inhibition of α-amylase and α-glucosidase in vitro. It was also intended to establish correlation between the serum marker antioxidant enzymes and diabetes. Diabetes was induced by a single intraperitoneal injection of alloxan monohydrate freshly prepared in a dose of 150 mg/kg. Chloroform extract showing presence of flavonoids was administered orally at the doses of 100 and 200 mg/kg for 21 consecutive days. Fasting blood glucose level, glycosylated haemoglobin, blood glutathione, serum creatinine kinase, serum lactate dehydrogenase levels as well as final change in body weight were evaluated. In vitro inhibition of carbohydrate digestive enzymes (α-amylase and α-glucosidase was also determined. Experimental findings showed moderately significant anti-diabetic potential of extract in terms of reduction of fasting glucose level in diabetic rats. The extract was found statistically significant in maintaining the level of serum marker antioxidant enzymes. Overall, the effect of chloroform extract particularly 200 mg/kg was moderate as compared to that of standard drug glibenclamide.

  17. EFFECT OF ELECTRIC FERTILIZER ON SOIL PROPERTIES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Ya-qin; WANG Ji-hong

    2004-01-01

    Electric fertilizer, I. E. Exerting electric field on plants during growing season instead of chemical fertilizer, is a kind of physical fertilizer, and the third kind of fertilizer with developmental prospect after inorganic fertilizer and organic fertilizer. For the purpose of studying the changes of physical and chemical properties of soil after exerting electric field, five treatments with different applications of chemical fertilizer were arranged on the black soil in Yushu City of Jilin Province by randomized block method, and electric field was exerted on plants every ten days during the growing season. Through sample analysis the paper arrives at following conclusions: 1) Exerting electric field can make soil's granular structure increase, bulk density decrease, moisture capacity increase,thus improving the perviousness of soil. 2) Exerting electric field can make microorganism's number increase and activity strengthen, thus activating nutrient and increasing organic matter content. 3) Exerting electric field with 0.1A medium has the best effect. So the chemical fertilizer can be saved. Therefore, we can say that the application of electric fertilizer is favorable for decreasing chemical poison, improving soil, relaxing the contradiction between the supply and demand of chemical fertilizer, and decreasing production cost of agriculture and forestry.

  18. Recent development of single preparations and fixed-dose combination tablets for the treatment of non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus : A comprehensive summary for antidiabetic drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jianwen; Lian, He

    2016-06-01

    As a complex endocrine and metabolic disorder, type 2 diabetes mellitus (non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus, NIDDM) has become a major threat to human health. Because of the heterogeneous and progressive disorders induced by insulin resistance and pancreatic b-cell dysfunction, the treatment of NIDDM is still challenging. Although antidiabetic drugs with different pharmacological mechanisms of action have been used clinically, different degrees of undesirable glucose control and the incidences of a variety of side effects, including hypoglycemia, cardiovascular complications and weight gain require the better treatment options. This article has overviewed the current literature about commercially available antidiabetic drugs with different pharmacological mechanisms of action in the treatment of NIDDM, and summarized the published data regarding the efficacy, tolerability, and safety of currently available single preparations and fixed-dose combinations, aiming to provide important information for the development and application of antidiabetic drugs in the future. The literature search from 1989 to 2015 was conducted by PubMed, ScienceDirect, Springer, American Diabetes Association, and U.S. FDA Drugs databases. PMID:27230777

  19. Severe hypoglycemia in users of sulfonylurea antidiabetic agents and antihyperlipidemics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonard, C E; Bilker, W B; Brensinger, C M; Han, X; Flory, J H; Flockhart, D A; Gagne, J J; Cardillo, S; Hennessy, S

    2016-05-01

    Drug-drug interactions causing severe hypoglycemia due to antidiabetic drugs is a major clinical and public health problem. We assessed whether sulfonylurea use with a statin or fibrate was associated with severe hypoglycemia. We conducted cohort studies of users of glyburide, glipizide, and glimepiride plus a statin or fibrate within a Medicaid population. The outcome was a validated, diagnosis-based algorithm for severe hypoglycemia. Among 592,872 persons newly exposed to a sulfonylurea+antihyperlipidemic, the incidence of severe hypoglycemia was 5.8/100 person-years. Adjusted hazard ratios (HRs) for sulfonylurea+statins were consistent with no association. Most overall HRs for sulfonylurea+fibrate were elevated, with sulfonylurea-specific adjusted HRs as large as 1.50 (95% confidence interval (CI): 1.24-1.81) for glyburide+gemfibrozil, 1.37 (95% CI: 1.11-1.69) for glipizide+gemfibrozil, and 1.63 (95% CI: 1.29-2.06) for glimepiride+fenofibrate. Concomitant therapy with a sulfonylurea and fibrate is associated with an often delayed increased rate of severe hypoglycemia. PMID:26566262

  20. Prescribing pattern of antidiabetic drugs in Indore city hospital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vengurlekar Sudha

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Diabetes mellitus is a metabolic disorder characterized by hyperglycemia, glycosuria, and sometimes ketonemia. The present study was carried out to assess prescribing practice and general trend of diabetes among patients at the Bombay Hospital, Indore. Prescriptions and complete records of diabetic patients were monitored and data was filed as per WHO prescription proforma. The study revealed that prescription of metformin (27% and glimepiride (22.60% were found to be maximum among various available antidiabetic drugs. Category wise the maximum prescribed drugs are glimepride (22.60%, sulfonylurea category, metformin (27%, biguanide category and pioglitazones (13.90%, glitazone category. Insulin prescription was found to be very less (4.5%. Combination of metformin and glimepiride (20.86% was prescribed most commonly. Most common disease associated with diabetes mellitus was found to be hypertension (35%. Highest prevalence of disease was found to be in the age group of 51 to 60 followed by age group of 41 to 50. Men patients (66.36% were found to be predominated over women patients (33.64%.

  1. Prevalence, Trends, and Patterns of Use of Antidiabetic Medications Among Pregnant Women, 2001–2007

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawrence, Jean M.; Andrade, Susan E.; Avalos, Lyndsay A.; Beaton, Sarah J.; Chiu, Vicki Y.; Davis, Robert L.; Dublin, Sascha; Pawloski, Pamala A.; Raebel, Marsha A.; Smith, David H.; Toh, Sengwee; Wang, Jean Q.; Kaplan, Sigal; Amini, Thushi; Hampp, Christian; Hammad, Tarek A.; Scott, Pamela E.; Cheetham, T. Craig

    2013-01-01

    Objective To describe the prevalence, trends, and patterns in use of antidiabetic medications to treat hyperglycemia and insulin resistance prior to and during pregnancy in a large U.S. cohort of insured pregnant women. Methods Pregnancies resulting in livebirths were identified (N=437,950) from 2001–2007 among 372,543 women 12–50 years of age at delivery from 10 health maintenance organizations participating in the Medication Exposure in Pregnancy Risk Evaluation Program. Information for these descriptive analyses, including all antidiabetic medications dispensed during this period, was extracted from electronic health records and infant birth certificates. Results Just over one percent (1.21%) of deliveries were to women dispensed antidiabetic medication(s) in the 120 days before pregnancy. Use of antidiabetic medications before pregnancy increased from 0.66% of deliveries in 2001 to 1.66% of deliveries in 2007 (p<0.001) due to a rise in metformin use. Most women using metformin before pregnancy had a diagnosis code for polycystic ovaries or female infertility (67.2%) while only 13.6% had a diagnosis code for diabetes. The use of antidiabetic medications during the second or third trimester of pregnancy increased from 2.8% of deliveries in 2001 to 3.6% in 2007 (p <0.001). Approximately two-thirds (68%) of women using metformin before pregnancy did not use any antidiabetic medications during pregnancy. Conclusions Antidiabetic medication use prior to and during pregnancy rose from 2001–2007, possibly due to increasing prevalence of gestational diabetes mellitus, type 1 and type 2 diabetes, and other conditions associated with insulin resistance. PMID:23262934

  2. Assessment of antidiabetic potential of Cinnamomum tamala leaves extract in streptozotocin induced diabetic rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shradha Bisht

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective : To establish the effect of Cinnamomum tamala leaves extract on diabetes and diabetes induced dyslipidemia in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Materials and Methods : Diabetes was induced by a single intravenous injection of streptozotocin (50 mg/kg body weight. Group I and II were kept as control and diabetic control respectively. And group III was further treated with ethanolic leaf extract of C. tamala (200 mg/kg body weight, orally for a period of 40 days. Oral glucose tolerance test was performed before starting the experiment and blood glucose level was estimated. Statistical analysis was performed using one-way Analysis of Variance (using Statistical Package for the Social Sciences [SPSS] version 10.0 and student′s ′t′- test (Sigma Plot version 8.0. The values of P < 0.05 were considered as statistically significant. Results : Treatment of diabetic animals with Cinnamomum tamala extract significantly lowered the blood glucose level, and maintained body weight and lipid-profile parameters towards near normal range. Conclusion : The extract exhibited antidiabetic and antidyslipidemic effect. Further, chemical and pharmacological investigations are required to elucidate the exact mechanism of action of this extract and to isolate the active principles responsible for these effects.

  3. Antidiabetic Medicinal Plants Used by the Basotho Tribe of Eastern Free State: A Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balogun, Fatai Oladunni; Tshabalala, Natu Thomas; Ashafa, Anofi Omotayo Tom

    2016-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus (DM) belongs to the group of five leading important diseases causing death globally and remains a major health problem in Africa. A number of factors such as poverty, poor eating habit, and hormonal imbalance are responsible for the occurrence of the disease. It poses a major health challenge in Africa continent today and the prevalence continues to increase at an alarming rate. Various treatment options particularly the usage of herbs have been effective against diabetes because they have no adverse effects. Interestingly, South Africa, especially the Basotho tribe, is blessed with numerous medicinal plants whose usage in the treatment of DM has been effective since the conventional drugs are expensive and often unaffordable. The present study attempted to update the various scientific evidence on the twenty-three (23) plants originating from different parts of the world but widely used by the Sotho people in the management of DM. Asteraceae topped the list of sixteen (16) plant families and remained the most investigated according to this review. Although limited information was obtained on the antidiabetic activities of these plants, it is however anticipated that government parastatals and scientific communities will pay more attention to these plants in future research. PMID:27437404

  4. Identification of effective properties of particle reinforced composite materials

    OpenAIRE

    Kushnevsky, V.; Morachkovsky, O.; Altenbach, H.

    1998-01-01

    For the determination of effective elastic properties an energy averaging procedure has been used for particle reinforced composite materials. This procedure is based on finite element calculations of the deformation energy of a characteristic volume element. The proposed approach allows the determination of effective properties of particle reinforced composite with acceptable precision. The calculated effective properties of the composite are found in range between upper and lower Hashin-Sht...

  5. DETERMINATION OF EFFECTIVE PROPERTIES OF FIBER-REINFORCED COMPOSITE LAMINATES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrzej Skrzat

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The determination of effective mechanical properties of multi-layer composite is presented in this paper. Computations based on finite element method predicting properties of inhomogeneous materials require solving huge tasks. More effective is Mori-Tanaka approach, typical for micromechanics problems. For regularly distributed fibers closed-forms for effective composite material properties are possible to derive. The results of homogenization are used in strength analysis of the composite pressure vessel.

  6. Effect of Syzygium cumini (jamun) seed powder on dyslipidemia: a double blind randomized control trial

    OpenAIRE

    Shivani Sidana; Veer Bahadur Singh; Babu Lal Meena; Sanjay Beniwal; Subhash Chandra; Kulvinder Singh; Rahul Singla; Deepak Kumar

    2016-01-01

    Background: Diabetes is a metabolic syndrome characterized by disturbance in carbohydrate, fat and protein metabolism. Dyslipidemia, commonly associated in diabetes, is major risk factor for macrovascular complications leading to CAD, major contributor to mortality associated with diabetes. Managing DM without side effects is challenge that attracts researchers toward plant based new products. Many studies have found anti-diabetic and anti-hyperlipidemic properties of seeds of Syzygium cumini...

  7. Antidiabetic activity of Randia dumetorum against streptozotocin (STZ induced diabetics in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Viji Stella Bai

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available In the present investigates the antidiabetic activity of Randia dumetorum against streptozotocin (stz induced diabetics in rats. The rats treated with Streptozotocin showed a significant increased in glucose level and altered level of lipid profile, heamoglobin and insulin were observed. The mechanism underlying STZ hyperglycemia in diabetes mellitus involves over-production (excessive hepatic glycogenolysis and gluconeogenesis and decreased utilization of glucose by the tissues. Fifteen days administration of ethanolic extract of leaf of the Randia dumetorum (500mg/kg b.wt. and standard as glibenclamide (0.25mg/kg to diabetic rats resulted in significant reduction in blood glucose level, restored heamoglobin, and lipid profile as compared to diabetic rats. The present study suggests that the Randia dumetorum leaves extracts had synergetic hypoglycemic and hypolipidemic effect revealed by decreased glucose, lipid levels and heamoglobin therefore attribute to therapeutic value of the Randia dumetorum extracts of leaves to combat the diabetic condition in rats. The effect of Randia dumetorum leaves was better than glibenclamide.  The potential activity of Randia dumetorum leaves may due to the presence of phytochemicals.

  8. Antidiabetic drug metformin inhibits esophageal adenocarcinoma cell proliferation in vitro and in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujihara, Shintaro; Kato, Kiyohito; Morishita, Asahiro; Iwama, Hisakazu; Nishioka, Tomoko; Chiyo, Taiga; Nishiyama, Noriko; Miyoshi, Hisaaki; Kobayashi, Mitsuyoshi; Kobara, Hideki; Mori, Hirohito; Okano, Keiichi; Suzuki, Yasuyuki; Masaki, Tsutomu

    2015-05-01

    Esophageal carcinoma is the eighth most common cancer worldwide and the sixth leading cause of cancer-related deaths, with one of the worst prognoses of any form of cancer. Treatment with the anti-diabetic drug metformin has been associated with reduced cancer incidence in patients with type 2 diabetes. This study therefore evaluated the effects of metformin on the proliferation, in vitro and in vivo, of human esophageal adenocarcinoma cells, as well as the microRNAs associated with the antitumor effects of metformin. Metformin inhibited the proliferation of the esophageal adenocarcinoma cell lines OE19, OE33, SK-GT4 and OACM 5.1C, blocking the G0 to G1 transition in the cell cycle. This was accompanied by strong reductions in G1 cyclins, especially cyclin D1, cyclin-dependent kinase (Cdk)4, and Cdk6, and decreases in retinoblastoma protein phosphorylation. In addition, metformin reduced the phosphorylation of epidermal growth factor receptor and insulin-like growth factor and insulin-like growth factor-1 receptor, as well as angiogenesis-related proteins, such as vascular endothelial growth factor, tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases (TIMP)-1, and TIMP-2. Metformin also markedly altered microRNA expression. Treatment with metformin of athymic nude mice bearing xenograft tumors reduced tumor proliferation. These findings suggest that metformin may have clinical use in the treatment of esophageal adenocarcinoma. PMID:25709052

  9. From antidiabetic to antifungal: discovery of highly potent triazole-thiazolidinedione hybrids as novel antifungal agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Shanchao; Zhang, Yongqiang; He, Xiaomeng; Che, Xiaoying; Wang, Shengzheng; Liu, Yang; Jiang, Yan; Liu, Na; Dong, Guoqiang; Yao, Jianzhong; Miao, Zhenyuan; Wang, Yan; Zhang, Wannian; Sheng, Chunquan

    2014-12-01

    In an attempt to discover a new generation of triazole antifungal agents, a series of triazole-thiazolidinedione hybrids were designed and synthesized by molecular hybridization of the antifungal agent fluconazole and rosiglitazone (an antidiabetic). Most of the target compounds showed good to excellent inhibitory activity against a variety of clinically important fungal pathogens. In particular, compounds (Z)-5-(2,4-dichlorobenzylidene)-3-(2-(2,4-difluorophenyl)-2-hydroxy-3-(1H-1,2,4-triazol-1-yl)propyl)thiazolidine-2,4-dione) (15 c), (Z)-3-(2-(2,4-difluorophenyl)-2-hydroxy-3-(1H-1,2,4-triazol-1-yl)propyl)-5-(furan-3-ylmethylene)thiazolidine-2,4-dione (15 j), and (Z)-3-(2-(2,4-difluorophenyl)-2-hydroxy-3-(1H-1,2,4-triazol-1-yl)propyl)-5-(furan-3-ylmethylene)thiazolidine-2,4-dione (15 r) were highly active against Candida albicans, with MIC80 values in the range of 0.03-0.15 μM. Moreover, compounds 15 j and 15 r were found to be effective against four fluconazole-resistant clinical isolates; these two compounds are particularly promising antifungal leads for further optimization. Molecular docking studies revealed that the hydrogen bonding interactions between thiazolidinedione and CYP51 from C. albicans are important for antifungal activity. This study also demonstrates the effectiveness of molecular hybridization in antifungal drug discovery. PMID:25196996

  10. The Antidiabetic Drug Metformin Inhibits the Proliferation of Bladder Cancer Cells in Vitro and in Vivo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tao Zhang

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Recent studies suggest that metformin, a widely used antidiabetic agent, may reduce cancer risk and improve prognosis of certain malignancies. However, the mechanisms for the anti-cancer effects of metformin remain uncertain. In this study, we investigated the effects of metformin on human bladder cancer cells and the underlying mechanisms. Metformin significantly inhibited the proliferation and colony formation of 5637 and T24 cells in vitro; specifically, metformin induced an apparent cell cycle arrest in G0/G1 phases, accompanied by a strong decrease of cyclin D1, cyclin-dependent kinase 4 (CDK4, E2F1 and an increase of p21waf-1. Further experiments revealed that metformin activated AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK and suppressed mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR, the central regulator of protein synthesis and cell growth. Moreover, daily treatment of metformin led to a substantial inhibition of tumor growth in a xenograft model with concomitant decrease in the expression of proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA, cyclin D1 and p-mTOR. The in vitro and in vivo results demonstrate that metformin efficiently suppresses the proliferation of bladder cancer cells and suggest that metformin may be a potential therapeutic agent for the treatment of bladder cancer.

  11. Anti-obesity and anti-diabetic actions of histamine neurons

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    The present study aimed to examine roles of histamine neurons in leptin signaling pathways and leptin resistant states. H1-receptor knockout (H1KO) mice showed no change in daily food intake, adiposity, growth curve, basal expression of hypothalamic neuropeptides, uncoupling proteins (UCPs) or ob gene. However, H1KO mice fed with high fat diet increased fat deposition and ob gene expression more excessively. Leptin-induced feeding suppression was attenuated in H1KO mice. Chronic leptin treatment decreased visceral fat and up-regulated UCPs expression in brown and white fat. These effects of leptin were attenuated in pair-fed H1KO mice. Chronic histamine or histidine treatment decreased body weight, body fat deposition, and serum glucose and insulin in diet-induced obese, ob/ob and db/db mice. Activation of histamine neurons suppressed ob gene expression in the fat tissue together with elevation of seurm leptin and UCPs mRNA. These actions of neuronal histamine were attenuated in the double knockout mice, i.e., db/db mice with H1KO. Taken together, H1KO mice, a novel leptin resistant model, elucidate essential roles of H1-R in energy intake and expenditure as a down-stream-signaling message of leptin actions in the brain. The anti-obesity and anti-diabetic effects of histamine neurons provide a new insight into therapeutic strategies on human obesity and diabetes with leptin resistance.

  12. Ocimum sanctum: a review on the pharmacological properties

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    Siva M.

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Herbal medicine, the backbone of traditional medicine in many countries have played an important role in curing the diseases of humans since ancient time. Medicinal plants are great source of bioactive compounds and chemical structures that have potential beneficial effects. The present review compiles information on ethnopharmacologically useful information and pharmacological properties of Ocimum sanctum. Ocimum sanctum (OS has many medicinal properties like antioxidant, antidiabetic, antiulcer, anticancer, antibacterial, antifungal and other. The phytochemicals compounds of Ocimum, alkaloids, flavonoids, phenolics, essential oils, tannins and saponins play an important role in herbal medicine. Bioactive compounds of Ocimum responsible for its various medicinal properties and their effects at the molecular level need to be investigated in more detail. Furthermore, pharmacological properties of bioactive compounds in Ocimum sanctum are required to confirm the ethnomedicinal claims of Ocimum sanctum for pharmaceutical therapeutic applications. [Int J Basic Clin Pharmacol 2016; 5(3.000: 558-565

  13. Explorations of Crystalline Effects on 4-(Benzyloxy)Benzaldehyde Properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harismah, Kun; Ozkendir, O. Murat; Mirzaei, Mahmoud

    2015-12-01

    The properties of 4-(benzyloxy)benzaldehyde (BBA), as a pharmaceutically important compound, have been investigated through the density functional theory (DFT) calculations. The properties of original crystalline and optimised gaseous structures have been evaluated to recognise the crystalline effects. In addition to the structural properties, nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) properties have also been evaluated for both investigated systems to better detect the effects in atomic levels. The results indicated that the structural shape of BBA is significantly changed in the optimised gaseous system, showing significant crystalline effects on the geometrical positions. Moreover, the magnitudes for energies and dipole moments indicate notable effects on the electronic properties. The evaluated NMR properties also show that the atoms of aromatic systems detect significant changes more than the atoms of aliphatic systems in the investigated BBA. And finally, the oxygen bridge atom plays a dominant role in combining two benzene rings of BBA.

  14. Rodent carcinogenicity with the thiazolidinedione antidiabetic agent troglitazone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herman, J R; Dethloff, L A; McGuire, E J; Parker, R F; Walsh, K M; Gough, A W; Masuda, H; de la Iglesia, F A

    2002-07-01

    Carcinogenic potential of the thiazolidinedione antidiabetic troglitazone was assessed in 104-week studies in mice and rats. Mice were given 50, 400, or 800 mg/kg, male rats 100, 400, or 800 mg/kg, and female rats 25, 50, or 200 mg/kg. Vehicle and placebo controls were included. Survival was significantly decreased in both sexes of both species at high doses, but was adequate for valid evaluation of carcinogenicity. Hypertrophy and hyperplasia of brown adipose tissue was observed in both species at all doses, and fatty change and hypocellularity of bone marrow was noted in mice at all doses and in female rats at 50 and 200 mg/kg. Hepatocellular vacuolation was observed in mice at 400 and 800 mg/kg, and centrilobular hepatocellular hypertrophy occurred in rats at > or = 200 mg/kg. Ventricular dilatation, myocardial fibrosis, and atrial myocyte karyomegaly in male rats at 400 and 800 mg/kg and female rats at all doses were morphologically similar to spontaneous lesions, but incidence and severity were increased compared with controls. In mice, the incidence of hemangiosarcoma was increased in females at 400 mg/kg and in both sexes at 800 mg/kg. The incidence of hepatocellular carcinoma was increased in female mice at 800 mg/kg. Troglitazone exposure [AUC((0-24))] at the lowest dose associated with increased tumor incidence in mice was 16 times human therapeutic exposure at 400 mg daily. No tumors of any type were increased in rats at exposures up to 47 times therapeutic exposure.

  15. Frequency-dependent dynamic effective properties of porous materials

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Peijun Wei; Zhuping Huang

    2005-01-01

    The frequency-dependent dynamic effective properties (phase velocity, attenuation and elastic modulus) of porous materials are studied numerically. The coherent plane longitudinal and shear wave equations, which are obtained by averaging on the multiple scattering fields, are used to evaluate the frequency-dependent dynamic effective properties of a porous material. It is found that the prediction of the dynamic effective properties includes the size effects of voids which are not included in most prediction of the traditional static effective properties. The prediction of the dynamic effective elastic modulus at a relatively low frequency range is compared with that of the traditional static effective elastic modulus, and the dynamic effective elastic modulus is found to be very close to the Hashin-Shtrikman upper bound.

  16. Nutritional efects of antidiabetic diets on concentartion of tissue antioksidant on rats with induced diabetes mellitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Crceva - Nikolovska Radmila

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Oxidative stress is currently suggested to play as a pathogenesis in the development of diabetes mellitus. There are many reports indicating the changes in parameters of oxidative stress in diabetes mellitus. The role of dietary management in diabetes mellitus is to provide a proper balance of total nutrients while meeting the special dietary needs of the patient. Complex carbohydrates and dietary fiber help to delay the absorption of glucose from the intestinal tract and minimize postprandial fluctuation of glucose. The present study was designated to evaluate the effect of special antidiabetic diet treatment upon oxidative stress parameters in the initial stages of the development of diabetes. The findings of the present study suggest that special diet formula useful for prevention of progressive hyperglycaemia in aged provoked diabetes in dogs could not restore the imbalance of cellular defense mechanism provoked by streptozotocin. Soluble fiber in the diet may also prolong gastrointestinal transit time, allow greater water absorption, and promote the production of short chain fatty acids which nourish the intestinal mucosa.

  17. A Novel Diphenylthiosemicarbazide Is a Potential Insulin Secretagogue for Anti-Diabetic Agen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugawara, Kenji; Honda, Kohei; Reien, Yoshie; Yokoi, Norihide; Seki, Chihiro; Takahashi, Harumi; Minami, Kohtaro; Mori, Ichiro; Matsumoto, Akio; Nakaya, Haruaki; Seino, Susumu

    2016-01-01

    Insulin secretagogues are used for treatment of type 2 diabetes. We attempted to discover novel small molecules to stimulate insulin secretion by using in silico similarity search using sulfonylureas as query, followed by measurement of insulin secretion. Among 38 compounds selected by in silico similarity search, we found three diphenylsemicarbazides and one quinolone that stimulate insulin secretion. We focused on compound 8 (C8), which had the strongest insulin-secreting effect. Based on the structure-activity relationship of C8-derivatives, we identified diphenylthiosemicarbazide (DSC) 108 as the most potent secretagogue. DSC108 increased the intracellular Ca2+ level in MIN6-K8 cells. Competitive inhibition experiment and electrophysiological analysis revealed sulfonylurea receptor 1 (SUR1) to be the target of DSC108 and that this diphenylthiosemicarbazide directly inhibits ATP-sensitive K+ (KATP) channels. Pharmacokinetic analysis showed that DSC108 has a short half-life in vivo. Oral administration of DSC108 significantly suppressed the rises in blood glucose levels after glucose load in wild-type mice and improved glucose tolerance in the Goto-Kakizaki (GK) rat, a model of type 2 diabetes with impaired insulin secretion. Our data indicate that DSC108 is a novel insulin secretagogue, and is a lead compound for development of a new anti-diabetic agent. PMID:27764176

  18. Use of oral anti-diabetic agents in pregnancy: A pragmatic approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bharti Kalra

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Insulin is the gold standard for treatment of hyperglycemia during pregnancy, when lifestyle measures do not maintain glycemic control during pregnancy. However, recent studies have suggested that certain oral hypoglycemic agents (metformin and glyburide may be safe and be acceptable alternatives. There are no serious safety concerns with metformin, despite it crossing the placenta. Neonatal outcomes are also comparable, with benefit of reductions in neonatal hypoglycemia, maternal hypoglycemia and weight gain, and improved treatment satisfaction. Glibenclamide is more effective in lowering blood glucose in women with gestational diabetes, and with a lower treatment failure rate than metformin. Although generally well-tolerated, some studies have reported higher rates of pre-eclampsia, neonatal jaundice, longer stay in the neonatal care unit, macrosomia, and neonatal hypoglycaemia. There is also paucity of long-term follow-up data on children exposed to oral agents in utero. This review aims to provide an evidence-based approach, concordant with basic and clinical pharmacological knowledge, which will help medical practitioners use oral anti-diabetic agents in a rational and pragmatic manner. Pubmed search was made using Medical Subject Headings (MESH terms "Diabetes" and "Pregnancy" and "Glyburide"; "Diabetes" and "Pregnancy" and "Metformin". Limits were randomized controlled trials (RCTs and meta-analysis. The expert reviews on the topic were also used for discussion. Additional information (studies/review pertaining to discussion under sub-headings like safety during breastfeeding; placental transport; long-term safety data were searched (pubmed/cross-references/expert reviews.

  19. Use of oral anti-diabetic agents in pregnancy: a pragmatic approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalra, Bharti; Gupta, Yashdeep; Singla, Rajiv; Kalra, Sanjay

    2015-01-01

    Insulin is the gold standard for treatment of hyperglycemia during pregnancy, when lifestyle measures do not maintain glycemic control during pregnancy. However, recent studies have suggested that certain oral hypoglycemic agents (metformin and glyburide) may be safe and be acceptable alternatives. There are no serious safety concerns with metformin, despite it crossing the placenta. Neonatal outcomes are also comparable, with benefit of reductions in neonatal hypoglycemia, maternal hypoglycemia and weight gain, and improved treatment satisfaction. Glibenclamide is more effective in lowering blood glucose in women with gestational diabetes, and with a lower treatment failure rate than metformin. Although generally well-tolerated, some studies have reported higher rates of pre-eclampsia, neonatal jaundice, longer stay in the neonatal care unit, macrosomia, and neonatal hypoglycaemia. There is also paucity of long-term follow-up data on children exposed to oral agents in utero. This review aims to provide an evidence-based approach, concordant with basic and clinical pharmacological knowledge, which will help medical practitioners use oral anti-diabetic agents in a rational and pragmatic manner. Pubmed search was made using Medical Subject Headings (MESH) terms "Diabetes" and "Pregnancy" and "Glyburide"; "Diabetes" and "Pregnancy" and "Metformin". Limits were randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and meta-analysis. The expert reviews on the topic were also used for discussion. Additional information (studies/review) pertaining to discussion under sub-headings like safety during breastfeeding; placental transport; long-term safety data were searched (pubmed/cross-references/expert reviews). PMID:25709972

  20. Antiobesity, antioxidant and antidiabetic activities of red Ginseng plant extract in obese diabetic rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mostafa Abbas Shalaby

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Aim: This study aimed to investigate the effects of red ginseng extract (RGE on adiposity index, some serum biochemical parameters and tissue antioxidant activity in obese diabetic rats. Materials and Methods: Five groups of male Sprague-Dawley rats were used. Group (1 was negative control and the other 4 groups were fed on high fat-diet for 6 weeks to induce obesity. The obese rats were then rendered diabetic by intraperitoneal injection of alloxan for 5 days. Group (2 was kept obese diabetic (positive control and the other 3 groups were orally given RGE at 100, 200 and 400 mg /kg /day, respectively, for 4 weeks. Blood samples were collected for biochemical analyses and kidneys were taken to assay of activities of antioxidant enzymes. Results: oral dosage of RGE to obese diabetic rats significantly (P < 0.05 reduced adiposity index; decreased serum levels of aspartate aminotransferase (AST, alanine aminotransferase (ALT, gamma- glutamyl transpeptidase (GGT enzymes, total cholesterol (TC, triglycerides (TG, and low density lipoproteins (LDL-c and improved atherogenic index. Blood glucose and leptin hormone decreased, but insulin increased by administration of RGE. it increased activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD, glutathione peroxidase (GPx and catalase (CAT antioxidant enzymes in kidneys tissues. Conclusion: Red ginseng extract produces antiobesity, antioxidant, and antidiabetic activities in obese diabetic rats. The study suggests that red ginseng plant may be beneficial for the treatment of patients who suffer from obesity associated with diabetes. [J Intercult Ethnopharmacol 2013; 2(3.000: 165-172

  1. Polymethoxy flavones do not exert an inducing effect on the biosynthesis and secretion of insulin by pancreatic β-cells

    OpenAIRE

    Dong, Hao; Chen, Hong-Dong; ZHAO, YI-JUN; Li, Hong-Min

    2014-01-01

    Polymethoxylated flavones (PMFs), which are compounds characteristic of citrus plants, possess a wide range of biological properties, particularly affecting glucose and lipid metabolism. However, the mechanism underlying the antidiabetic activity of PMFs has not been fully elucidated. In this study, we aimed to investigate the potential effect of PMFs on the biosynthesis and secretion of insulin, which are crucial in diabetes. We investigated whether PMFs are able to induce insulin secretion ...

  2. 抗糖尿病药物的临床用药分析%Analysis of the usage of anti-diabetes drugs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李旭; 何晶; 韩莹旻; 邹明

    2011-01-01

    Objective To analyze the clinical application status of anti-diabetes agent used in our hospital, and to provide reference for clinical application. Methods The anti-diabetes drugs variety, amount and the frequency of drug usage and other data from 2007 to 2009, were statistically analyzed using internet methods. Results The sales revenue of the anti-diabetes drugs increased from year to year, and its sales proportion among all drugs in the hospital was gradually increasing at the same time. The sales revenue of the insulin-type drugs was the largest and increased every year. Acarbose, metformin and glimepiride were the main oral anti-diabetes drugs in our hospital. Conclusions Anti-diabetes drugs have big market potential. The drugs that are safe, effective with good compliance and moderate prices are the majority of diabetes-treating drugs.%目的 分析医院抗糖尿病药物的使用情况,为临床合理用药提供依据.方法 运用医院药库计算机网络系统对我院2007-2009年所用的抗糖尿病药物品种、金额和用药频度等数据进行统计学分析.结果 抗糖尿病药物的销售金额呈逐年上升趋势,在我院药物总销售金额所占比例逐渐增加.其中胰岛素类药物在所有抗糖尿病药物的销售中占有率最大,3年的销售金额分别为30.21万元、126.93和246.58万元.阿卡波糖、二甲双胍和格列美脲是我院使用的主要口服抗糖尿病药物.结论 糖尿病的致病因素很多,主要和胰岛素分泌或生成异常有关.抗糖尿病药物市场潜力大,安全、有效、依从性好、价格适中的药物是糖尿病治疗药物的必然发展趋势.

  3. Assessment of the antidiabetic potential of Cassia grandis using an in vivo model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandesh R Lodha

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The aqueous and ethanolic extracts of C. grandis (Family: Leguminosae were evaluated for antidiabetic activity by a glucose tolerance test, in normal rats and alloxan-induced diabetic rats. The aqueous and ethanolic extracts showed that they significantly lowered the blood glucose levels to normal in the glucose tolerance test. In alloxan-induced diabetic rats the maximum reduction in blood glucose was observed after three hours, at a dose level of 150 mg/kg of body weight. The percentage of protection given by the aqueous and ethanolic extracts was 32.72 and 46.42%, respectively. In the long-term treatment of alloxan-induced diabetic rats, the degree of protection was determined by measuring the blood glucose, cholesterol, and triglycerides on the tenth day. Both the extracts showed a significant antidiabetic activity comparable to that of glibenclamide. These results showed that the Cassia grandis possessed significant antidiabetic activity.

  4. Antihyperglycemic and antihyperlipidemic properties of aqueous root extract of Icacina senegalensis in alloxan induced diabetic rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GC Akuodor

    2014-01-01

    Conclusions: The results suggest that the root extract of I. senegalensis possesses antidiabetic and hypolipidemic properties, which might be a potential source for isolation of new orally active agent in the treatment of diabetes and its associated complications.

  5. Aviation-fuel property effects on combustion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosfjord, T. J.

    1984-01-01

    The fuel chemical property influence on a gas turbine combustor was studied using 25 test fuels. Fuel physical properties were de-emphasized by using fuel injectors which produce highly-atomized, and hence rapidly vaporizing sprays. A substantial fuel spray characterization effort was conducted to allow selection of nozzles which assured that such sprays were achieved for all fuels. The fuels were specified to cover the following wide ranges of chemical properties: hydrogen, 9.1 to 15 (wt) pct; total aromatics, 0 to 100 (vol) pct; and naphthalene, 0 to 30 (vol) pct. standard fuels (e.g., Jet A, JP4), speciality products (e.g., decalin, xylene tower bottoms) and special fuel blends were included. The latter group included six, 4-component blends prepared to achieve parametric variations in fuel hydrogen, total aromatics and naphthalene contents. The principle influences of fuel chemical properties on the combustor behavior were reflected by the radiation, liner temperature, and exhaust smoke number (or equivalently, soot number density) data. Test results indicated that naphthalene content strongly influenced the radiative heat load while parametric variations in total aromatics did not.

  6. Molecular interaction between glimepiride and Soluplus®-PEG 4000 hybrid based solid dispersions: Characterisation and anti-diabetic studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reginald-Opara, Joy Nneji; Attama, Anthony; Ofokansi, Kenneth; Umeyor, Chukwuebuka; Kenechukwu, Frankline

    2015-12-30

    The objective of this study was to evaluate a novel blend of polyvinyl caprolactam-polyvinyl acetate-polyethylene glycol 6000 grafted copolymer (Soluplus®) and polyethylene glycol (PEG) 4000 for solubility enhancement, physicochemical stability and anti-diabetic efficacy of the produced solid dispersions containing glimepiride, a biopharmaceutics classification system (BCS) class II sulphonylurea. Different batches of glimepiride solid dispersions (SD) were prepared by the solvent evaporation method using the individual polymers and blends of the polymers at different ratios. The Soluplus®-PEG 4000 (sol-PEG) hybrid polymer based glimepiride solid dispersions were characterized by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, micromeritics and dissolution studies. In vivo anti-diabetic activity was determined by measuring the changes in blood glucose concentrations in albino rats. The solid dispersions showed good flow properties and excellent practical yield. Drug content and release from the different formulations increased when Soluplus® was used as the main matrix polymer. The kinetics of drug release from all the solid dispersions followed first order. Solid state characterization confirmed the formation of amorphous glimepiride solid dispersions in the Sol-PEG hybrid polymer and no strong drug-polymer interaction was observed. The blood glucose reduction in albino rats by the Sol-PEG-Glim SDs was significantly (p<0.05) higher and more sustained when compared with the plain drug sample and commercially available product. Optimized SD batches (SP1 and SP3) showed a reduction in blood glucose level from 100% to 9.81% and 8.97%, respectively, at Tmax of 3h. The Sol-PEG-Glim SD was found to be stable over a period of 6 months (at 40°C, 70% RH) with no significant changes in the drug content. Thus, the Sol-PEG polymeric hybrids represent a promising tool for enhanced delivery of glimepiride.

  7. Compositional Studies: Antioxidant and Antidiabetic Activities of Capparis decidua (Forsk. Edgew

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Zia-Ul-Haq

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Capparis decidua is one of the traditional remedies used for various medicinal treatments in Pakistan. This study presents the determination of proximate composition, amino acids, fatty acids, tocopherols, sterols, glucosinolate and phenolic content in extracts obtained from different aerial parts of C. decidua, as well as their antidiabetic and antioxidant activity. All examined extracts were prominently rich in phenolics and glucosinates, and they showed potent antidiabetic and antihemolytic activity. The present study could be helpful in developing medicinal preparations for the treatment of diabetes and related symptoms.

  8. Antidiabetic Activity of Vinca rosea Extracts in Alloxan-Induced Diabetic Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed Fazil Ahmed

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study was carried out to evaluate the antidiabetic activity of Vinca rosea methanolic whole plant extracts in alloxan induced diabetic rats for 14 days. The methanolic whole plant extract at high dose (500 mg/kg exhibited significant anti-hyperglycemic activity than whole plant extract at low dose (300 mg/kg in diabetic rats. The methanolic extracts also showed improvement in parameters like body weight and lipid profile as well as regeneration of β-cells of pancreas in diabetic rats. Histopathological studies reinforce the healing of pancreas, by methanolic Vinca rosea extracts, as a possible mechanism of their antidiabetic activity.

  9. Antidiabetic Activity of Cocor Bebek Leaves (Kalanchoe pinnata Lam.Pers.) Ethanolic Extract from Various Areas

    OpenAIRE

    Indah Dwiatmi Dewiyanti; Euis Filailla; Megawati; Tri Yuliani

    2012-01-01

    Antidiabetic activity of Cocor Bebek leaves (Kalanchoe pinnata Lam.Pers.) ethanolic extract from Bogor city, kabupaten Bogor and south of Tangerang city has been studied. The study was conducted in vitro using α glucosidase inhibitor method. The results of the study showed that IC50 of the extract from Bogor city, kabupaten Bogor, and Tangerang Selatan city is 40.94 ppm, 33.58 ppm and 16.12 ppm respectively. Meanwhile, IC50 of quersetin which has antidiabetic activity is 10.22 ppm. The res...

  10. Quantifying effects of particulate properties on powder flow properties using a ring shear tester.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Hao; Sun, Changquan Calvin

    2008-09-01

    Effects of particle size, morphology, particle density, and surface silicification, on powder flow properties were investigated using a ring shear tester. Flow properties were quantified by flow function (FF), that is, unconfined yield strength, f(c), as a function of major principal stress. A total of 11 powders from three series of microcrystalline cellulose (MCC): Avicel (regular MCC, elongated particles), Prosolv (silicified MCC, elongated particles), and Celphere (spherical MCC), were studied. Particle size distribution in each type of MCC was systematically different. Within each series, smaller particles always led to poorer powder flow properties. The slope of FF line was correlated to degree of powder consolidation by external stress. A key mechanism of the detrimental effect of particle size reduction on flow properties was the larger powder specific surface area. Flow properties of Celphere were significantly better than Avicel of comparable particles size, suggesting spherical morphology promoted better powder flow properties. Flow properties of powders different in densities but similar in particle size, shape, and surface properties were similar. When corrected for density effect, higher particle density corresponded to better flow behavior. Surface silicification significantly improved flow properties of finer MCC, but did not improve those of coarser. PMID:18228607

  11. A better anti-diabetic recombinant human fibroblast growth factor 21 (rhFGF21 modified with polyethylene glycol.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhifeng Huang

    Full Text Available As one of fibroblast growth factor (FGF family members, FGF21 has been extensively investigated for its potential as a drug candidate to combat metabolic diseases. In the present study, recombinant human FGF21 (rhFGF21 was modified with polyethylene glycol (PEGylation in order to increase its in vivo biostabilities and therapeutic potency. At N-terminal residue rhFGF21 was site-selectively PEGylated with mPEG20 kDa-butyraldehyde. The PEGylated rhFGF21 was purified to near homogeneity by Q Sepharose anion-exchange chromatography. The general structural and biochemical features as well as anti-diabetic effects of PEGylated rhFGF21 in a type 2 diabetic rat model were evaluated. By N-terminal sequencing and MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry, we confirmed that PEG molecule was conjugated only to the N-terminus of rhFGF21. The mono-PEGylated rhFGF21 retained the secondary structure, consistent with the native rhFGF21, but its biostabilities, including the resistance to physiological temperature and trypsinization, were significantly enhanced. The in vivo immunogenicity of PEGylated rhFGF21 was significantly decreased, and in vivo half-life time was significantly elongated. Compared to the native form, the PEGylated rhFGF21 had a similar capacity of stimulating glucose uptake in 3T3-L1 cells in vitro, but afforded a significantly long effect on reducing blood glucose and triglyceride levels in the type 2 diabetic animals. These results suggest that the PEGylated rhFGF21 is a better and more effective anti-diabetic drug candidate than the native rhFGF21 currently available. Therefore, the PEGylated rhFGF21 may be potentially applied in clinics to improve the metabolic syndrome for type 2 diabetic patients.

  12. Anti-diabetic activity of traditional Indian gold containing preparation: Shadguna Balijarita Makaradhwaja on streptozotocin induced diabetic rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khedekar, Sanjay; Rukkudin, Galib; Ravishankar, Basavaiah; Prajapati, Pradeepkumar

    2016-01-01

    Background: Makaradhwaja a gold containing mercurial preparation used for diabetes mellitus in indigenous system of medicine. It is a popular aphrodisiac and rejuvenator traditional medicine. It is prepared by using processed gold, mercury and sulfur in different ratios by applying intermittent heating pattern in Valuka Yantra. Objectives: The aim of the study was to evaluate anti-diabetic effect of Shadguna Balijarita Makaradhwaja (SBM) on streptozotocin (STZ) induced diabetic rats. Materials and Methods: Diabetes was induced to normal rats by injecting STZ in dose 40 mg/kg. Powdered SBM and dried extract of Tinospora cordifolia were mixed with honey and administered orally for 20 days at dose 2.63 mg/kg and 42.34 mg/kg body weight, respectively. The effects of treatment on body weight changes and blood glucose levels were quantified on day 1, 5, 10, 15 and 21 of the experiments. On the 21st day, animals were sacrificed and gross histopathological changes in liver, kidney and pancreas were illustrated. Blood sugar level, glyacated hemoglobin, blood urea, serum cholesterol, serum creatinine, serum triglyceride and serum protein were estimated with standard methods. The study was conducted in the year 2011. Results: Test drug observed significant decrease (P < 0.001) in glyacated hemoglobin level compared to diabetic control rats. Blood sugar level of test drug group shown a significant decrease (279.11 ± 57.95) compared with diabetic rats. Conclusion: The present study demonstrates that SBM and dried extract of T. cordifolia with honey significantly reduces the blood glucose level and shows anti-diabetic effect. PMID:27104037

  13. 抗糖尿病新药(D-Ser2)Oxm拮抗淀粉样β蛋白细胞毒性的神经保护效应观察%Neuroprotective effects of a novel antidiabetic drug (D-Ser2)Oxm on amyloid β protein-induced cytotoxicity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩宇飞; H(O)LSCHER christian; 王昭君; 张军; 原丽; 仝嘉庆; 王丹丹; 武美娜; 祁金顺

    2016-01-01

    淀粉样β蛋白(amyloid β-protein,Aβ)在脑内的沉积及其神经毒性是阿尔茨海默病(Alzheimer's disease,AD)的主要原因之一,目前仍缺乏拮抗Aβ的有效药物.最新报道表明,一种新的抗糖尿病药物(D-Ser2)Oxm不仅可以改善2型糖尿病(T2DM)大鼠的血糖和胰岛素水平,也具有促进皮层和海马神经元及其突触发生的效应.然而,(D-Ser2)Oxm是否能拮抗AD时Aβ所致的细胞损伤仍缺乏实验依据.本研究在培养原代大鼠海马神经细胞基础上,通过细胞活性和早期凋亡测定、细胞内钙成像以及线粒体膜电位检测,研究了(D-Ser2)Oxm对Aβ1-42所致细胞毒性的拮抗效应.结果显示,与单独给予Aβ1-42处理的细胞相比,(D-Ser2)Oxm+ Aβ1-42处理组的细胞活力明显提高,而加入GLP-1受体抑制剂exendin(9-39)后,细胞活力则显著下降;(D-Ser2)Oxm可有效拮抗Aβ1-42导致的细胞凋亡,并使凋亡相关蛋白caspase3含量显著降低;(D-Ser2)Oxm处理还有效阻止了Aβ1-42引起的海马细胞内钙水平升高、线粒体膜电位去极化以及糖原合成酶激酶-3β (glycogen synthase kinase-3β,GSK-3β)(Y216)的活化.以上结果表明,(D-Ser2)Oxm可能是通过激动GLP-1受体对抗Aβ1-42的神经毒性,并且这种保护效应可能与细胞内钙稳态调节和线粒体膜电位稳定有关.%The accumulation and neurotoxicity of amyloid β protein (Aβ) in the brain is one of major pathological hallmarks of Alzheimer's disease (AD).The effective drugs against Aβ have been still deficient up to now.According to a most recent study,(D-Ser2) Oxm,a new antidiabetic drug,not only improves the disorders in plasma glucose and insulin in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) rats,but also exerts positive effects on hippocampal neurogenesis and synaptogenesis.However,it is still unclear whether (D-Ser2)Oxm can directly protect cultured neurons against Aβ1-42-induced cytotoxicity.In the present study,we investigated the neuroprotective

  14. Do geriatrics require dose titration for antidiabetic agents?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R Shastry

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate the antidiabetic drug dosage differences between geriatric and nongeriatric diabetics with reference to duration of disease and creatinine clearance (Crcl. Materials and Methods: Prospective study conducted for 6 months in a tertiary care hospital. Patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus were grouped into geriatric (age ≥60 years and nongeriatric (age <60 years. Patients′ demographic data, duration of diabetes, medication, and serum creatinine were recorded. Crcl was calculated using Cockcroft-Gault formula. Doses of sulfonylureas (SU were converted into equivalent doses, taking glibenclamide as standard. Univariate analysis was done for comparison of drug doses between groups. Result: A total of 320 geriatric and 157 nongeriatric diabetics completed the study. The duration of diabetes and Crcl adjusted dose reduction of glibenclamide (mean dose: Geriatrics 7.2±0.4 mg, nongeriatrics 9.6±0.7 mg; P=0.01 and gliclazide (mean dose: Geriatrics 85.5±11.5 mg, nongeriatrics 115.3±32.7 mg; P=0.42 was 25%, glimepiride (mean dose: Geriatrics 1.62±0.13 mg, nongeriatrics 2.1±0.18 mg; P=0.06 was 22%. Glipizide did not require dose reduction. Mean converted equivalent dose of sulfonylurea monotherapy was significantly lower in geriatrics than nongeriatrics (3.2±0.5 vs 6.4±1.02 mg; P=0.01 and showed 50% dose reduction. Mean dose of metformin was lower in geriatrics (901±32.2 mg vs 946.7±45.8 mg; P=0.45 and showed 5% reduction in dosage. There was no difference in the mean drug doses of thiazolidinediones and insulin between the groups. Conclusion: A substantial dose reduction of glibenclamide (25%, gliclazide (25%, glimepiride (22%, and metformin (5% in geriatrics compared to nongeriatrics was observed. Smaller dosage formulations like 0.75 mg glibenclamide, 0.5 mg glimepiride, 20 mg gliclazide, and 250 mg metformin may be of value in geriatric diabetic practice.

  15. The Effects of Ginger on Fasting Blood Sugar, Hemoglobin A1c, Apolipoprotein B, Apolipoprotein A-I and Malondialdehyde in Type 2 Diabetic Patients

    OpenAIRE

    Khandouzi, Nafiseh; Shidfar, Farzad; Rajab, Asadollah; Rahideh, Tayebeh; Hosseini, Payam; Mir Taheri, Mohsen

    2015-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus is the most common endocrine disorder, causes many complications such as micro- and macro-vascular diseases. Anti-diabetic, hypolipidemic and anti-oxidative properties of ginger have been noticed in several researches. The present study was conducted to investigate the effects of ginger on fasting blood sugar, Hemoglobin A1c, apolipoprotein B, apolipoprotein A-I, and malondialdehyde in type 2 diabetic patients. In a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, clinical tria...

  16. ANTI-DIABETIC ACTIVITY OF LAGENARIA SICERARIA PULP AND SEED EXTRACT IN NORMAL AND ALLOXAN-INDUCED DIABETIC RATS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Somshuvra Bhattacharya et al

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to evaluate the possible anti-diabetic potential of Lagenaria siceraria pulp extract (LSPE and Lagenaria siceraria seed extract (LSSE against the pancreatic damage from alloxan-induced diabetes in rats related to diabetes mellitus. Lagenaria siceraria induced significant reduction in blood glucose and increasing of serum insulin, our data indicate that the level of glucose in the animals that were subjected with alloxan was 210 mg/dl comparing with normal 70 mg/dl, the level of blood glucose in diabetic group when subjected with Lagenaria siceraria extract decreased to 89-106.5 mg/dl. These findings suggest that LSPE and LSSE treatment exerts therapeutic protective effect in diabetes by preserving pancreatic cell integrity and significant activity extract, which supports traditional usage of the plant to prevent diabetic complications.

  17. Forage density effect on sound insulation properties

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Green, Ole; Tortajada, Vicent Gassó; Gislum, René;

    2010-01-01

    One of the main parameters affecting forage management and quality is density. Existing methods used for measuring physical properties of forage involve costly destructive analysis. A frequent and appropriate control of the forage density is required for optimizing the management of silage, hay and...... forage density. The method has been used to analyse the correlation of the density with the sound insulation spectra produced by small-scale models of hay, silage and straw. Results show that the sound insulation spectra of forage have a high correlation with the density and a significant congruence with...

  18. Geographical networks: geographical effects on network properties

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kong-qing YANG; Lei YANG; Bai-hua GONG; Zhong-cai LIN; Hong-sheng HE; Liang HUANG

    2008-01-01

    Complex networks describe a wide range of sys-tems in nature and society. Since most real systems exist in certain physical space and the distance between the nodes has influence on the connections, it is helpful to study geographi-cal complex networks and to investigate how the geographical constrains on the connections affect the network properties. In this paper, we briefly review our recent progress on geo-graphical complex networks with respect of statistics, mod-elling, robustness, and synchronizability. It has been shown that the geographical constrains tend to make the network less robust and less synchronizable. Synchronization on random networks and clustered networks is also studied.

  19. Effects of Particle Shape on Mechanical Properties of Aggregates

    OpenAIRE

    Benediktsson, Stefán

    2015-01-01

    Aggregates are one of the primary building material used in the world. The durability of construction aggregates will therefore depend upon the quality of aggregate mechanical properties. It is therefore important to understand how particle shape will effect mechanical properties of aggregates, measured by the Los Angeles and micro-Deval values. In order to assess the influence of particle shape on aggregate mechanical properties, the proportion of flaky and cubic particles, measured by the f...

  20. Development of an antidiabetic formulation (ADJ6) and its inhibitory activity against α-amylase and α-glucosidase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duraiswamy, Anand; Shanmugasundaram, Devanand; Sasikumar, Changam Sheela; Cherian, Sanjay M; Cherian, Kotturathu Mammen

    2016-07-01

    There has recently been much advancement in the diagnosis, treatment, and research of metabolic disorders, especially diabetes. Current research around the world is focused on finding an alternative source of treatment from natural resources for diabetic management, apart from the available synthetic medicines. The present study is a preliminary study of a polyherbal formulation using edible natural resources and an assessment of its antidiabetic activity. The formulation was screened for its phytochemical constituents, total phenols, flavonoids, and vitamin C content. It was also analyzed for its inhibitory effect against the digestive enzymes α-amylase and α-glucosidase, compared with the standard drug acarbose. The formulation showed the presence of major constituents such as steroids, cardiac glycosides, phenols, flavonoids, and saponins. It also had a high level of phenols (340 ± 2.5 mg/g), flavonoids (235.4 ± 8.3 mg/g), and vitamin C (470.8 ± 16.6 mg/g), and showed a half-maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50) value of 0.41 ± 0.03 mg/mL and 0.51 ± 0.01 mg/mL for amylase and glucosidase, respectively. The results showed that ADJ6 had a significant inhibitory activity on α-amylase and α-glucosidase; however, its inhibitory activity was less than that of acarbose. The plants that are formulated in ADJ6 possess potent antidiabetic activity. Thus, we found that ADJ6 is a potent lead for effective diabetic management; however, an evaluation of the formulation must be illustrated using an in vivo model. PMID:27419082

  1. Effects of drilling variables on burr properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gillespie, L.K.

    1976-09-01

    An investigation utilizing 303Se stainless steel, 17-4PH stainless steel, 1018 steel, and 6061-T6 aluminum was conducted to determine the influence of drilling variables in controlling burr size to minimize burr-removal cost and improve the quality and reliability of parts for small precision mechanisms. Burr thickness can be minimized by reducing feedrate and cutting velocity, and by using drills having high helix angles. High helix angles reduce burr thickness, length, and radius, while most other variables reduce only one of these properties. Radial-lip drills minimize burrs from 303Se stainless steel when large numbers of holes are drilled; this material stretches 10 percent before drill-breakthrough. Entrance burrs can be minimized by the use of subland drills at a greatly increased tool cost. Backup-rods used in cross-drilled holes may be difficult to remove and may scratch the hole walls.

  2. Exposure effects on the optical properties of building materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lane, Sarah; Cathcart, J. Michael; Harrell, J. Timothy

    2008-04-01

    Georgia Tech recently initiated a weathering effects measurement program to monitor the optical properties of several common building materials. A set of common building materials were placed outdoors and optical property measurements made over a series of weeks to assess the impact of exposure on these properties. Both reflectivity and emissivity measurements were made. Materials in this program included aluminum flashing, plastic sheets, bricks, roof shingles, and tarps. This paper will discuss the measurement approach, experimental setup, and present preliminary results from the optical property measurements.

  3. Comparison of anti-diabetic drug prescribing in children and adolescents in seven European countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Neubert, Antje; Hsia, Yingfen; de Jong-van den Berg, Lolkje T. W.; Janhsen, Katrin; Glaeske, Gerd; Furu, Kari; Kieler, Helle; Norgaard, Mette; Clavenna, Antonio; Wong, Ian C. K.

    2011-01-01

    AIMS The aim of this study was to compare the prevalence of diabetes in children across seven European countries, when using prescribing of anti-diabetics as a proxy for diabetes. A secondary aim was to assess the potential for collaboration between countries using different databases in diabetes re

  4. Prescribing of Antidiabetic Medicines before, during and after Pregnancy : A Study in Seven European Regions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Charlton, Rachel A; Klungsøyr, Kari; Neville, Amanda J; Jordan, Sue; Pierini, Anna; Jong-van den Berg, de Lolkje; Bos, H Jens; Puccini, Aurora; Engeland, Anders; Gini, Rosa; Davies, Gareth; Thayer, Daniel; Hansen, Anne V; Morgan, Margery; Wang, Hao; McGrogan, Anita; Nybo Andersen, Anne-Marie; Dolk, Helen; Garne, Ester

    2016-01-01

    AIM: To explore antidiabetic medicine prescribing to women before, during and after pregnancy in different regions of Europe. METHODS: A common protocol was implemented across seven databases in Denmark, Norway, The Netherlands, Italy (Emilia Romagna/Tuscany), Wales and the rest of the UK. Women wit

  5. Rosmarinic acid content in antidiabetic aqueous extract of Ocimum canum Sims grown in Ghana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosmarinic acid (RA) is an important polyphenol that is found in a variety of herbs including Ocimum canum sims (locally called eme or akokobesa in Ghana). Aqueous extracts from the leaves of O.canum are used as an antidiabetic herbal medicine in Ghana. Interestingly, rosmarinic acid content and p...

  6. Rosmarinic acid content in antidiabetic aqueous extract from ocimum canum sims in Ghana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosmarinic acid (RA) is an important polyphenol that is found in a variety of herbs including Ocimum canum sims (locally called eme or akokobesa in Ghana). Aqueous extracts from the leaves of O. canum are used as an antidiabetic herbal medicine in Ghana. Analytical TLC was used to examine the compos...

  7. Long term trends in oral antidiabetic drug use among children and adolescents in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S. Fazeli Farsani; P. Souverein (Patrick); J.A. Overbeek (Jetty); M.M.J. Van Der Vorst; C.A.J. Knibbe (Catherijne); R.M.C. Herings (Ron); A. de Boer (Anthonius); A.K. Mantel-Teeuwisse (Aukje)

    2015-01-01

    textabstractAim The aim of the study was to document long term trends in oral antidiabetic drug (OAD) use among children and adolescents in the Netherlands. Methods A population-based cohort study was conducted using the Dutch PHARMO Database Network. All patients younger than 20 years old with at l

  8. Mechanisms of Action of Indigenous Antidiabetic Plants from the Boreal Forest of Northeastern Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hoda M. Eid

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Indigenous populations in Canada possess a wealth of native traditional knowledge. However, their rates of Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM, a disease that was unheard of in their midst 50 years ago, are the highest in the country. In an effort to cut the impact of T2DM epidemic on Indigenous health, the Canadian Institutes of Health Research funded the “CIHR Team in Aboriginal Antidiabetic Medicines (CIHR-TAAM.” The goal was to explore Boreal forest medicinal plants stemming from Indigenous Traditional Medicine to be included in T2DM care. Six out of nine communities of the Cree of Eeyou Istchee (CEI participated in ethnobotanical studies that resulted in the identification of 17 potential antidiabetic plant species. These species were screened for antidiabetic activities using a platform of in vitro bioassays and in vivo models of T2DM. This paper summarizes results on the 10 most promising plant species, their active constituents, and the mechanisms behind their antidiabetic activities. In addition, potential herb-drug interactions were examined at the level of drug-metabolizing enzymes, notably the cytochrome P450 family. This review serves as a canvas onto which is discussed the value of Indigenous medicinal plants, future avenues of research, and the ethical approach required in this field.

  9. Evaluation of antidiabetic antihyperlipidemic and pancreatic regeneration, potential of aerial parts of Clitoria ternatea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prashant R. Verma

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to investigate the pancreatic regeneration potential of of diferent fractions of the ethanol extract Clitoria ternateaL., Fabaceae. The antidiabetic and antihyperlipidemic potential was evaluated in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats and correlated with its in vivoand in vitro antioxidant activity. The extract and its fractions were initially screened for acute and sub-chronic antidiabetic activity in the dose range of 100200 mg/kg. The most potent extract and fractions were further evaluated for pancreatic β-cells regeneration activity along with antioxidant and antihyperlipidemic activity. The polyphenolic, flavonoid and flavanone contents were assessed and correlated with its antidiabetic activity. The most significant pancreatic regeneration activity, antidiabetic and antihyperlipidemic activity and was shown by ethanol extract and butanol soluble fraction at a dose level of 200 mg/kg, while rutin was found to be least potent. In conclusion, pancreatic regeneration studies of ethanol extract treated rats show nesidioblastosis. It is also suggested that the factors causing regeneration are present within the pancreas. The newly generated islets may have formed from the ductal precursor cells and reduced oxidative stress helps in restoration of β-cell function.

  10. Interaction of mouse intestinal P-glycoprotein with oral antidiabetic drugs and its inhibitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalsi, Harman; Grewal, Ravneet K

    2015-09-01

    Type 2 diabetes (T2DM) is a progressive insulin secretory defect accompanied by resistance to insulin, and thereby making glycemic control a major concern in the treatment of these patients. Oral drug administration, though a popular option for its non-invasiveness, suffer from poor bioavailability. It could be related to the efflux transport of intestinal P-glycoprotein (Pgp). In the present study, we explored the binding interactions of antidiabetic drugs i.e., sulfonylurea drugs (glimepiride, glipizide, glyburide) and rapid acting insulin secretagogues viz., nateglinide, repaglinide and rosiglitazone; and Pgp inhibitors i.e., Generation I (verapamil and tamoxifen), III (tetradrine and tariquidar), and natural inhibitors (fumagillin and piperine) in mouse Pgp model. Our results revealed that fumagillin piperine and verapamil possess maximum interaction energies with Pgp compared to antidiabetic drugs. These observations elucidate the role of fumagillin and piperine as potential natural compounds which could intervene in the efflux action of Pgp in extruding the antidiabetic drugs and may have implications for increasing efficacy of oral antidiabetic therapy. PMID:26548081

  11. Scorpion in Combination with Gypsum: Novel Antidiabetic Activities in Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetic Mice by Up-Regulating Pancreatic PPARγ and PDX-1 Expressions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weidong Xie

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The management of diabetes without any side effects remains a challenge in medicine. In this study, antidiabetic activity and the mechanism of action of scorpion combined with gypsum (SG were investigated. Streptozotocin-induced diabetic mice were orally administrated with scorpion (200 mg kg−1 per day in combination with gypsum (200 mg kg−1 per day for 5 weeks. SG treatment resulted in decreased body weight, blood glucose and lipid levels, and increased serum and pancreatic insulin levels in diabetic mice. Furthermore, SG significantly increased the number and volume of beta cells in the Islets of Langerhans and promoted peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma and pancreatic duodenal homeobox 1 expressions in pancreatic tissues. However, scorpion or gypsum alone had no significant effect in this animal model. Metformin showed a slight or moderate effect in this diabetic model, but this effect was weak compared with that of SG. Taken together, SG showed a new antidiabetic effect in streptozotocin-induced diabetic mice. This effect may possibly be involved in enhancing beta-cell regeneration and promoting insulin secretion by targeting PPARγ and PDX-1. Moreover, this new effect of SG offers a promising step toward the treatment of diabetic patients with beta-cell failure as a complementary and alternative medicine.

  12. Effects of crushed stone dust on some properties of concrete

    OpenAIRE

    Çelik, Tahir; Marar, Khaled

    1996-01-01

    Crusher dust is a fine material formed during the process of comminution of rock into crushed stone or crushed sand. This dust is composed by particles which pass 75 μm BS sieve. Effects of dust content in aggregate on properties of fresh and hardened concrete are not known very well. An experimental study was undertaken to find out the effects of various proportions of dust content on properties of fresh concrete and hardened concrete.

  13. Influence of gallic acid on α-amylase and α-glucosidase inhibitory properties of acarbose

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    Ganiyu Oboh

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Acarbose is an antidiabetic drug which acts by inhibiting α-amylase and α-glucosidase activities but with deleterious side effects. Gallic acid (GA is a phenolic acid that is widespread in plant foods. We therefore investigated the influence of GA on α-amylase and α-glucosidase inhibitory properties of acarbose (in vitro. Aqueous solutions of acarbose and GA were prepared to a final concentration of 25μM each. Thereafter, mixtures of the samples (50% acarbose + 50% GA; 75% acarbose+25% GA; and 25% acarbose+75% GA were prepared. The results revealed that the combination of 50% acarbose and 50% GA showed the highest α-glucosidase inhibitory effect, while 75% acarbose+25% GA showed the highest α-amylase inhibitory effect. Furthermore, all the samples caused the inhibition of Fe2+-induced lipid peroxidation (in vitro in rat pancreatic tissue homogenate, with the combination of 50% acarbose and 50% GA causing the highest inhibition. All the samples also showed antioxidant properties (reducing property, 2,2'-azino-bis (-3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulphonate [ABTS*] and 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl [DPPH] free radicals scavenging abilities, and Fe2+ chelating ability. Therefore, combinations of GA with acarbose could be employed as antidiabetic therapy, with a possible reduction of side effects of acarbose; nevertheless, the combination of 50% acarbose and 50% GA seems the best.

  14. Bioassay-Guided Antidiabetic Study of Phaleria macrocarpa Fruit Extract

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    Mohd Z. Asmawi

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available An earlier anti-hyperglycemic study with serial crude extracts of Phaleria macrocarpa (PM fruit indicated methanol extract (ME as the most effective. In the present investigation, the methanol extract was further fractionated to obtain chloroform (CF, ethyl acetate (EAF, n-butanol (NBF and aqueous (AF fractions, which were tested for antidiabetic activity. The NBF reduced blood glucose (p < 0.05 15 min after administration, in an intraperitoneal glucose tolerance test (IPGTT similar to metformin. Moreover, it lowered blood glucose in diabetic rats by 66.67% (p < 0.05, similar to metformin (51.11%, glibenclamide (66.67% and insulin (71.43% after a 12-day treatment, hence considered to be the most active fraction. Further fractionation of NBF yielded sub-fractions I (SFI and II (SFII, and only SFI lowered blood glucose (p < 0.05, in IPGTT similar to glibenclamide. The ME, NBF, and SFI correspondingly lowered plasma insulin (p < 0.05 and dose-dependently inhibited glucose transport across isolated rat jejunum implying an extra-pancreatic mechanism. Phytochemical screening showed the presence of flavonoids, terpenes and tannins, in ME, NBF and SFI, and LC-MS analyses revealed 9.52%, 33.30% and 22.50% mangiferin respectively. PM fruit possesses anti-hyperglycemic effect, exerted probably through extra-pancreatic action. Magniferin, contained therein may be responsible for this reported activity.

  15. Changes in endotoxin levels in T2DM subjects on anti-diabetic therapies

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    Kumar Sudhesh

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Chronic low-grade inflammation is a significant factor in the development of obesity associated diabetes. This is supported by recent studies suggesting endotoxin, derived from gut flora, may be key to the development of inflammation by stimulating the secretion of an adverse cytokine profile from adipose tissue. Aims The study investigated the relationship between endotoxin and various metabolic parameters of diabetic patients to determine if anti-diabetic therapies exerted a significant effect on endotoxin levels and adipocytokine profiles. Methods Fasting blood samples were collected from consenting Saudi Arabian patients (BMI: 30.2 ± (SD5.6 kg/m2, n = 413, consisting of non-diabetics (ND: n = 67 and T2DM subjects (n = 346. The diabetics were divided into 5 subgroups based on their 1 year treatment regimes: diet-controlled (n = 36, metformin (n = 141, rosiglitazone (RSG: n = 22, a combined fixed dose of metformin/rosiglitazone (met/RSG n = 100 and insulin (n = 47. Lipid profiles, fasting plasma glucose, insulin, adiponectin, resistin, TNF-α, leptin, C-reactive protein (CRP and endotoxin concentrations were determined. Results Regression analyses revealed significant correlations between endotoxin levels and triglycerides (R2 = 0.42; p 2 = 0.10; p 2 = 0.076; p 2 = 0.032; p 2 = 0.055; p Conclusion We conclude that sub-clinical inflammation in T2DM may, in part, be mediated by circulating endotoxin. Furthermore, that whilst the endotoxin and adipocytokine profiles of diabetic patients treated with different therapies were comparable, the RSG group demonstrated significant differences in both adiponectin and endotoxin levels. We confirm an association between endotoxin and serum insulin and triglycerides and an inverse relationship with HDL. Lower endotoxin and higher adiponectin in the groups treated with RSG may be related and indicate another mechanism for the effect of RSG on insulin sensitivity.

  16. Analytical fuel property effects: Small combustors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, J. D.

    1984-01-01

    The study performed in Phase 1 of this program applies only to a T700/CT7 engine family type combustor functioning in the engine as defined and does not necessarily apply to other cycles or combustors of differing stoichiometry. The study was not extended to any of the fuel delivery accessories such as pumps or control systems, nor was there any investigation of potential systems problems which might arise as a consequence of abnormal properties such as density which might affect delivery schedules or aromatics content which might affect fuel system seals. The T700/CT7 engine is a front drive turboshaft or turboprop engine in the 1500-1800 shp (1120-1340 kW) class as currently configured with highpower core flows of about 10 lb/sec (4.5 kg/sec). It employs a straight-through annular combustion system less than 5 in. (12.5 cm) in length utilizing a machined ring film cooled construction and twelve low-pressure air blast fuel injectors. Commercial and Naval versions employ two 0.5 Joule capacitive discharge surface gap ignitors.

  17. OUTPATIENT UTILIZATION OF ANTI-DIABETIC DRUGS IN THE SOUTH EASTERN NIGERIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ADIBE M.O. (M.PHARM, PROF. AGUWA C.N. (PHARM D, UKWE C.V. (PH.D, OKONTA J.M. (PH.D, PHARM. UDEOGARANYA P.O (M.PHARM

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Background Recent study in the tertiary hospitals in Nigeria showed that prevalence of diabetes mellitus (DM is on theincrease. With this increase, the prescription volume of anti diabetic drugs, morbidity and ultimately mortality rates areexpected to assume an upward trend especially in regions of the world like Nigeria where healthcare services are suboptimalfor the rapidly expanding populations.Aim To determine the outpatient utilization of anti diabetic drugs in south-eastern Nigeria.Methods This prospective cross-sectional study was undertaken for 20 weeks between July 2008 and November, 2008 in thethree tertiary hospitals which were randomly selected. All prescriptions issued to patients attending endocrinology clinicduring this period following each day’s consultation were copied out from the case files and recorded in case record forms.Cost of the prescribed drugs was obtained from drug price list of the hospital pharmacies.Results Oral hypoglycaemic agents (OHAs ((15.21 DDDs/1000 diabetic patients /day were 4.5 times more utilized thaninsulin (3.4 DDDs/1000 diabetic patients /day. Among OHAs, Biguanide (Metformin was the most utilized (11.3DDDs/1000 diabetic patients /day, it was likely to be prescribed to diabetic patient daily compared to Sulphonylureas(Glibenclamide, Chlorpropamide and Thiazolidinediones (Rosiglitazone with 3.8 DDDs/1000 diabetic patients /day and0.09 DDDs/1000 diabetic patients /day respectively.Conclusion Metformin was the most utilized anti-diabetic drugs and the costs of anti-diabetic drugs were high in the southeasternNigeria. Government should come up with appropriate policies such as free health care for diabetic patients,subsidies for anti-diabetic drugs and finally low import tariff for anti-diabetic drugs. All these measures will reduce theprovocative high cost of anti-diabetic drugs in the zone.

  18. Antibacterial, antioxidant and antidiabetic activities of Gmelina arborea roxb fruit extracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhabani Shankar Nayak

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The plant Gmelina arborea has been traditionally used in India for several medicinal purposes like anthelmintic, diuretic, antibacterial, antioxidant and antidiabetic. Aim: The present study is an attempt to explore the antibacterial, antioxidant and antidiabetic activities of different extracts of fruits of plant G. arborea using ethanol, ethyl acetate, n-butanol and petroleum ether as solvents. Materials and Methods: A single dose (1000 =g/ml of extract was evaluated for their antibacterial activities on human pathogens like Bacillus subtilis, Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. In-vitro antioxidant activity of G. arborea fruits was determined by 1, 1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazil (DPPH free radical scavenging and reducing power assay. Ascorbic acid was used as standard and positive control for both the analyses. The antidiabetic activity of above extracts was evaluated in alloxan induced diabetic model of Wistar rats. Statistical Analysis: All data are verified for statistically significant by using one way ANOVA at 1% level of significance (P < 0.01. Results: Only ethanol extract showed significant antibacterial activity against all pathogens and the activities were compared with the standard drug, streptomycin. The n-butanol extract did not show antibacterial activity against any pathogens, whereas ethyl acetate and petroleum ether extracts showed inhibitory action against P. aeruginosa. The extracts showed significant antioxidant activities in a dose dependent manner. The ethanol extract showed good antioxidant activity when compared to the other three extracts. All the extracts were able to reduce sugar level in blood. Ethanol extract was found to have good antidiabetic activity in comparison to other extracts. Conclusion: It can be concluded that the extracts of G. arborea possess antibacterial, antioxidant and antidiabetic activities.

  19. Antidiabetic effects of PBudCE4. 1/Reg gene combined with insulin on type 1 diabetic mice%PBudCE4.1/Reg基因联合胰岛素自身抗原防治1型糖尿病的作用研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢胜男; 侯文睿; 鲁憬莉; 奚炜; 向明

    2011-01-01

    目的 探讨PBudCE4.1/Reg基因联合胰岛素自身抗原共同防治1型糖尿病的作用及机制.方法 构建PBudCE4.1/Reg基因;采用40 mg/kg链脲佐菌素(STZ)连续5 d腹腔注射建立1型糖尿病小鼠模型,小鼠每周肌肉注射Reg基因,皮下注射胰岛素不完全弗氏佐剂(IFA)混合乳剂各1次,连续4周.每周测定小鼠血糖,6周后处死小鼠.采用四唑盐比色法(MTT)检测小鼠脾淋巴细胞增殖反应;采用流式细胞术(FACS)分析脾淋巴细胞CD4+CD25+Foxp3+调节性T细胞阳性率;采用ELISA法检测小鼠血清胰岛素分泌水平;采用HE染色法进行胰腺组织病理组织学检查.结果 Reg/胰岛素联合给药可有效减少胰岛细胞损伤及炎性细胞浸润,提高糖尿病小鼠胰岛素分泌水平,从而显著降低糖尿病小鼠血糖值(P<0.01),且停药2周后,降糖作用仍持续存在;同时可降低脾淋巴细胞增殖能力(P<0.01),促进CD4+CD25+Foxp3+调节性T细胞分化(P<0.05).结论 Reg基因联合胰岛素自身抗原对STZ诱导的T1DM模型有明显的抗糖尿病作用及协同效应,作用机制可能与免疫耐受的诱导及β细胞修复再生有关.%Objective To investigate the antidiabetic effects of PBudCE4. l/Reg gene combined with insulin on streptozotocin (STZ)-induced type 1 diabetic mice and explore a new way for diabetes gene therapy. Methods The recombinant vector carrying Reg gene was constructed (PBudCE4.1/Reg). The T1DM model was established in BALB/c mice by a daily intraperitoneal injection of 40 mg/kg of STZ per mouse for 5 consecutive days, PBudCE4. 1/Reg gene and/or insulin were i. m. and s. c. injected,respectively, into the diabetic mice once a week for consecutive 4 weeks. At the end of experiment,pancreas tissues were taken for histologic examination with HE staining. Splenocytes were harvested for the assay of lymphocyte proliferation with MTT method. Serum insulin was determined according to the protocol described by the manufacturer of the

  20. Effect Of Solidification Speed On Fatigue Properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mccay, M. H.; Schmidt, D. D.; Hamilton, W. D.; Alter, W. S.; Parr, R. A.

    1989-01-01

    Fast solidification increases fatigue life, but failure distribution becomes less predictable. Report describes effects of rate of solidification on nickel-based super-alloy MAR-M246(Hf) used in turbine blades. Based on experiments in which specimens directionally solidified at 5 cm/h and 30 cm/h, then tested for high cycle fatigue. Specimens also inspected by energy-dispersive x-ray (EDX) analysis and optical and electron microscopy.

  1. Effect of Zn on mechanical property and corrosion property of extruded Mg-Zn-Mn alloy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YIN Dong-song; ZHANG Er-lin; ZENG Song-yan

    2008-01-01

    The effect of Zn on the microstructure, the mechanical property and the corrosion property in simulated body fluid(SBF) of an extruded Mg-Mn alloy was studied. The results indicate that the addition of Zn element can significantly refine the grain size of the extruded Mg-Mn alloy. When Zn content is increased from 0% to 3%, the grain size decreases from 12 μm to 4 μm. Meanwhile, the mechanical properties also increase remarkably with increasing Zn content. When Zn content is 3%, the ultimate tensile strength and the yield strength are increased by 54.7 MPa and 69.7 MPa, respectively. Zn can also improve the anti-corrosion property of the alloy. The best anti-corrosion property is obtained with 1% Zn. However, further increase of Zn content up to 3% deteriorates the corrosion property. Finally, the influence mechanism of Zn on the microstructure, the mechanical property and the corrosion property was discussed.

  2. Antidiabetic therapy and increased risk of hepatocellular carcinoma in chronic liver disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Valter Donadon; Massimiliano Balbi; Michela Ghersetti; Silvia Grazioli; Antonio Perciaccante; Giovanni Della Valentina; Rita Gardenal; Maria Dal Mas; Pietro Casarin; Giorgio Zanette; Cesare Miranda

    2009-01-01

    AIM:To explore the association between hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and type 2 diabetes mellitus,describe the temporal relations between the onset of diabetes and the development of HCC and evaluate the possible effects of antidiabetic therapy on HCC risk.METHODS:We recruited 465 HCC patients, 618 with cirrhosis and 490 control subjects. We evaluated the odds ratio (OR) for HCC by univariate and multivariate analysis. Moreover, OR for HCC in diabetic subjects treated with insulin or sulphanylureas and with metformin were calculated.RESULTS:The prevalence of diabetes mellitus was 31.2% in HCC, 23.3% in cirrhotic patients and 12.7% in the Control group. By univariate and multivariate analysis, the OR for HCC in diabetic patients were respectively 3.12 (CI 2.2-4.4, P < 0.001) and 2.2 (CI 1.2-4.4, P = 0.01). In 84.9% of cases, type 2 diabetes mellitus was present before the diagnosis of HCC. Moreover, we report an OR for HCC of 2.99 (CI 1.34-6.65, P = 0.007) in diabetic patients treated with insulin or sulphanylureas, and an OR of 0.33 (CI 0.1-0.7,P = 0.006) in diabetic patients treated with metformin.= 0.006) in diabetic patients treated with metformin.CONCLUSION:Our study confirms that type 2 diabetes mellitus is an independent risk factor for HCC and pre-exists in the majority of HCC patients. Moreover, in male patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus, our data shows a direct association of HCC with insulin and sulphanylureas treatment and an inverse relationship with metformin therapy.

  3. Magnetic solid-phase extraction based on mesoporous silica-coated magnetic nanoparticles for analysis of oral antidiabetic drugs in human plasma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Souza, Karynne Cristina; Andrade, Gracielle Ferreira; Vasconcelos, Ingrid; de Oliveira Viana, Iara Maíra; Fernandes, Christian; de Sousa, Edésia Martins Barros

    2014-07-01

    In the present work, magnetic nanoparticles embedded into mesoporous silica were prepared in two steps: first, magnetite was synthesized by oxidation-precipitation method, and next, the magnetic nanoparticles were coated with mesoporous silica by using nonionic block copolymer surfactants as structure-directing agents. The mesoporous SiO2-coated Fe3O4 samples were functionalized using octadecyltrimethoxysilane as silanizing agent. The pure and functionalized silica nanoparticles were physicochemically and morphologically characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), N2 adsorption, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The resultant magnetic silica nanoparticles were applied as sorbents for magnetic solid-phase extraction (MSPE) of oral antidiabetic drugs in human plasma. Our results revealed that the magnetite nanoparticles were completely coated by well-ordered mesoporous silica with free pores and stable pore walls, and that the structural and magnetic properties of the Fe3O4 nanoparticles were preserved in the applied synthesis route. Indeed, the sorbent material was capable of extracting the antidiabetic drugs from human plasma, being useful for the sample preparation in biological matrices.

  4. Medicinal properties of macrofungi

    OpenAIRE

    Hilszczańska, Dorota

    2012-01-01

    This review highlights the importance to people of some types of wild fungi considered in the context of non-wood forest products. Macrofungi are used both for food and medicine proposes. Substances isolated from the higher Basidiomycetes and Ascomycetes mushrooms express promising immune modulating, antitumor, antiviral, antibacterial and antidiabetic properties. They have been, and are presently, used against cancer in some countries in Far East as well as in the United States of America...

  5. Clinically and pharmacologically relevant interactions of antidiabetic drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    May, Marcus; Schindler, Christoph

    2016-04-01

    Patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus often require multifactorial pharmacological treatment due to different comorbidities. An increasing number of concomitantly taken medications elevate the risk of the patient experiencing adverse drug effects or drug interactions. Drug interactions can be divided into pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic interactions affecting cytochrome (CYP) enzymes, absorption properties, transporter activities and receptor affinities. Furthermore, nutrition, herbal supplements, patient's age and gender are of clinical importance. Relevant drug interactions are predominantly related to sulfonylureas, thiazolidinediones and glinides. Although metformin has a very low interaction potential, caution is advised when drugs that impair renal function are used concomitantly. With the exception of saxagliptin, dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP-4) inhibitors also show a low interaction potential, but all drugs affecting the drug transporter P-glycoprotein should be used with caution. Incretin mimetics and sodium-glucose cotransporter-2 (SGLT-2) inhibitors comprise a very low interaction potential and are therefore recommended as an ideal combination partner from the clinical-pharmacologic point of view. PMID:27092232

  6. EXPERIENCE WITH THE ROSINSULIN C IN COMBINATION WITH ORAL ANTIDIABETIC DRUGS IN PATIENTS WITH TYPE 2 DIABETES IN ROUTINE CLINICAL PRACTICE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. D. Rymar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to estimate the efficacy and safety of intermediate-acting insulin Rosinsulin C in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus inadequately controlled with oral antidiabetic drugs.The present study is a 6-month, prospective, uncontrolled, clinical experience evaluation study using insulin Rosinsulin С for type 2 diabetes patients in daily clinical practice. Episodes of hypoglycaemia, adverse events were recorded. The study included 28 patients with type 2 diabetes, 4 men and 24 women who treated with metformin in combination with sulfonylureas in the highest dose. Indicators of glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c of 8 to 14%, the median HbA1c was 11 (10; 13% of patients age 65 (57; 72 years, body mass index – 33 (30; 35 kg/m2, waist circumference – 105 (99; 111 cm, diabetes duration – 7 (2; 11 years. With the introduction of Rosinsulin С cartridges carried pen Autopen. At the start of the study and after 3 and 6 months, determined the level of HbA1c, fasting plasma glucose.After 6 months' treatment with Rosinsulin С in combination with oral antidiabetic drugs HbA1c was significantly lowered (–3% (p = 0,001, fasting plasma glucose level decreased by 5 mmol/L (p = 0,001. There was not severe hypoglycemia during the observation period.This research showed that Rosinsulin C is effective and safe in the treatment of patients with type 2 diabetes who were decompensated with oral antidiabetic drugs and can be recommended for use as the initiation of insulin therapy in routine clinical practice.

  7. Antidiabetic drugs restore abnormal transport of amyloid-β across the blood-brain barrier and memory impairment in db/db mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Fang; Dong, Rong Rong; Zhong, Kai Long; Ghosh, Arijit; Tang, Su Su; Long, Yan; Hu, Mei; Miao, Ming Xing; Liao, Jian Min; Sun, Hong Bing; Kong, Ling Yi; Hong, Hao

    2016-02-01

    Previous studies have shown significant changes in amyloid-β (Aβ) transport across the blood-brain barrier (BBB) under diabetic conditions with hypoinsulinemia, which is involved in diabetes-associated cognitive impairment. Present study employed db/db mice with hyperinsulinemia to investigate changes in Aβ transport across the BBB, hippocampal synaptic plasticity, and restorative effects of antidiabetic drugs. Our results showed that db/db mice exhibited similar changes in Aβ transport across the BBB to that of insulin-deficient mice. Chronic treatment of db/db mice with antidiabetic drugs such as metformin, glibenclamide and insulin glargine significantly decreased Aβ influx across the BBB determined by intra-arterial infusion of (125)I-Aβ(1-40), and expression of the receptor for advanced glycation end products (RAGE) participating in Aβ influx. Insulin glargine, but not, metformin or glibenclamide increased Aβ efflux across the BBB determined by stereotaxic intra-cerebral infusion of (125)I-Aβ(1-40), and expression of the low-density lipoprotein receptor related protein 1 (LRP1) participating in Aβ efflux. Moreover, treatment with these drugs significantly decreased hippocampal Aβ(1-40) or Aβ(1-42) and inhibited neuronal apoptosis. The drugs also ameliorated memory impairment confirmed by improved performance on behavioral tasks. However, insulin glargine or glibenclamide, but not metformin, restored hippocampal synaptic plasticity characterized by enhancing in vivo long-term potentiation (LTP). Further study found that these three drugs significantly restrained NF-κB, but only insulin glargine enhanced peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ) activity at the BBB in db/db mice. Our data indicate that the antidiabetic drugs can partially restore abnormal Aβ transport across the BBB and memory impairment under diabetic context. PMID:26211973

  8. Properties of Strange Matter in a Model with Effective Lagrangian

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Ping; SU Ru-Keng; SONG Hong-Qiu; ZHANG Li-Liang

    2001-01-01

    The strange hadronic matter with nucleons, A-hyperons and E-hyperons is studied by using an effective nuclear model in a mean-field approximation. The density and strangeness fraction dependence of the effective baryon masses as well as the saturation properties and stabilities of the strange hadronic matter are discussed.``

  9. Free Radicals Scavenging Capacity, Antidiabetic and Antihypertensive Activities of Flavonoid-Rich Fractions from Leaves of Trichilia emetica and Opilia amentacea in an Animal Model of Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kiessoun Konaté

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Trichilia emetica and Opilia amentacea traditional Burkinabe medicinal plants were investigated to determine their therapeutic potential to inhibit key enzymes in carbohydrate metabolism, which has relevance to the management of type 2 diabetes. In vitro and in vivo antioxidant and antihypertensive potential and antilipidemia and antihyperglycemia activities in an animal model of type 2 diabetes mellitus have been studied. The antioxidant activity of the flavonoids from leaves of Trichilia emetica and Opilia amentacea has been evaluated using β-carotene-linoleic acid system, 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl inhibitory activity, chelation of iron (II ions, and lipid peroxidation which showed more pronounced antioxidant capacities of Trichilia emetica. Total cholesterol concentrations decreased in an animal model of type 2 diabetes mellitus under effects of flavonoid-rich fractions from leaves of Trichilia emetica and Opilia amentacea has been observed. Extract of flavonoid-rich fractions from Trichilia emetica shown maximum radical scavenging activity and possessed marked antiamylase activity which may be due to the presence of certain secondary metabolites. Suggested better antihyperglycemia, antilipidemia, and antihypertensive properties of flavonoid-rich fractions from Trichilia emetica compared to the extract of Opilia amentacea are demonstrating antidiabetic potential of Trichilia emetica as therapeutic targets for the management of type 2 diabetes.

  10. Effects of titanium coating on property of diamond

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    The titanium film was coated on the surface of diamond crystal in order to improve the chemical properties of diamond and the effect of titanium coating on the property of diamond was discussed. The anti-impacting strength, the oxidization process and the soakage property between vitrified bond and diamond were investigated. It is found that, when the titanium film is coated on the surface of diamond crystal, the soakage angle between vitrified bond and diamond decreases from 39.5° to 34.5° at 993 K, and the oxidization degree on the surface of diamonds is lowered greatly.

  11. Studying laser radiation effect on steel structure and properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    А. М. Gazaliyev

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available There was studied the effect of laser radiation on the structure and properties of annealed and tempered steel with different content of carbon. For surface hardening there was used a laser complex equipped with Nd: YAG pulse laser with power density up to 30 kW/сm2. As a result of the carried-out studies there were calculated characteristics of laser, steel microstructure and properties.

  12. Effect of Surfactant Mixtures on Skin Structure and Barrier Properties

    OpenAIRE

    James-Smith, Monica A.; Hellner, Brittney; Annunziato, Nancy; Mitragotri, Samir

    2010-01-01

    We investigated the effect of two commonly studied surfactants, sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) and dodecyl trimethylammonium bromide (C12TAB), on skin barrier properties. Using skin conductivity, FT-IR of stratum corneum samples, and penetration of radiolabelled SDS, we determined that addition of C12TAB lowers the ability of SDS to perturb skin’s barrier properties. Ultrafiltration experiments revealed that addition of C12TAB serves to decrease the concentration of monomers and sub-micellar ag...

  13. Antidiabetic and Antinephritic Activities of Aqueous Extract of Cordyceps militaris Fruit Body in Diet-Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetic Sprague Dawley Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chungang Liu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Cordyceps militaris has long been used as a crude drug and folk tonic food in East Asia. The present study aims to evaluate the antidiabetic and antinephritic effects of the aqueous extract of the Cordyceps militaris fruit body (CM in diet-streptozotocin- (STZ- induced diabetic rats. During four weeks of continuous oral administration of CM at doses of 0.5, 1.0, and 2.0 g/kg and metformin at 100 mg/kg, the fasting blood glucose and bodyweight of each rat were monitored. Hypoglycemic effects of CM on diabetic rats were indicated by decreases in plasma glucose, food and water intake, and urine output. The hypolipidemic activity of CM was confirmed by the normalization of total cholesterol, triglycerides, and low- and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol in diabetic rats. Inhibitory effects on albuminuria, creatinine, urea nitrogen, and n-acetyl-β-d-glucosaminidase verified CM’s renal protective activity in diabetic rats. Furthermore, CM exerted beneficial modulation of inflammatory factors and oxidative enzymes. Compared with untreated diabetic rats, CM decreased the expression of phosphor-AKT and phosphor-GSK-3β in the kidneys. Altogether, via attenuating oxidative stress, CM displayed antidiabetic and antinephritic activities in diet-STZ-induced diabetic rats.

  14. Antidiabetic and Antinephritic Activities of Aqueous Extract of Cordyceps militaris Fruit Body in Diet-Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetic Sprague Dawley Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chungang; Song, Jingjing; Teng, Meiyu; Zheng, Xiaoyi; Li, Xiangmei; Tian, Yue; Pan, Minlian; Li, Yuhuan; Lee, Robert J; Wang, Di

    2016-01-01

    Cordyceps militaris has long been used as a crude drug and folk tonic food in East Asia. The present study aims to evaluate the antidiabetic and antinephritic effects of the aqueous extract of the Cordyceps militaris fruit body (CM) in diet-streptozotocin- (STZ-) induced diabetic rats. During four weeks of continuous oral administration of CM at doses of 0.5, 1.0, and 2.0 g/kg and metformin at 100 mg/kg, the fasting blood glucose and bodyweight of each rat were monitored. Hypoglycemic effects of CM on diabetic rats were indicated by decreases in plasma glucose, food and water intake, and urine output. The hypolipidemic activity of CM was confirmed by the normalization of total cholesterol, triglycerides, and low- and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol in diabetic rats. Inhibitory effects on albuminuria, creatinine, urea nitrogen, and n-acetyl-β-d-glucosaminidase verified CM's renal protective activity in diabetic rats. Furthermore, CM exerted beneficial modulation of inflammatory factors and oxidative enzymes. Compared with untreated diabetic rats, CM decreased the expression of phosphor-AKT and phosphor-GSK-3β in the kidneys. Altogether, via attenuating oxidative stress, CM displayed antidiabetic and antinephritic activities in diet-STZ-induced diabetic rats. PMID:27274781

  15. Modelling the electrical properties of concrete for shielding effectiveness prediction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Concrete is a porous, heterogeneous material whose abundant use in numerous applications demands a detailed understanding of its electrical properties. Besides experimental measurements, material theoretical models can be useful to investigate its behaviour with respect to frequency, moisture content or other factors. These models can be used in electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) to predict the shielding effectiveness of a concrete structure against external electromagnetic waves. This paper presents the development of a dispersive material model for concrete out of experimental measurement data to take account of the frequency dependence of concrete's electrical properties. The model is implemented into a numerical simulator and compared with the classical transmission-line approach in shielding effectiveness calculations of simple concrete walls of different moisture content. The comparative results show good agreement in all cases; a possible relation between shielding effectiveness and the electrical properties of concrete and the limits of the proposed model are discussed

  16. ANTI-DIABETIC ACTIVITY OF ROOTS OF QUERCUS INFECTORIA OLIVIER IN ALLOXAN INDUCED DIABETIC RATS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Saini * and S.M. Patil

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The methanolic extract of roots of Quercus infectoria Olivier at a dose of 250 mg/kg and 500 mg/kg body weight respectively was tested for anti-diabetic activity in Alloxan-induced hyperglycaemic rats. The blood glucose levels were measured at 0, 2h, 4h and 6h after the treatment. The methanolic extract reduced the blood glucose Alloxan- induced diabetic rats from 285.52 to 206.57mg/dl, 6h after oral administration of extract (P<0.01. The antidiabetic activity of methanolic extract of Quercus infectoria Olivier was compared with glibenclamide, an oral hypoglycaemic agent (3mg/kg.

  17. Oral antidiabetic therapy in a large Italian sample: drug supply and compliance for different therapeutic regimens

    CERN Document Server

    Vittorino Gaddi, A; Capello, F; Di Pietro, C; Cinconze, E; Rossi, E; De Sando, V; Cevenini, M; D'Alò, G

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: To define the main features of patients treated with oral antidiabetics, evaluating monotherapy (MT), loose-dose combination therapy (LDCT) and fixed-dose combination therapy (FDCT); to describe medication adherence to the different therapies; and to evaluate the differences in compliance with the prescribed therapy regimen among prevalent and incident patient cohorts. Study design: This study was a retrospective cohort analysis based on the ARNO database, a national record that tracks reimbursable prescription claims submitted from selected pharmacies to the Italian national health system. In total, 169,375 subjects, from an overall population of 4,040,624 were included in this study. The patients represented 12 different local health units. Each patient had at least one oral antidiabetic prescription claim (A10B ATC code). Methods: Patients were divided into four groups according to their treatment regimen during the recruitment period (1 January 2008-31 December 2008): MT, FDCT, LDCT and swi...

  18. Antidiabetic activity of Adina cordifolia (Roxb) leaves in alloxan induced diabetic rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Prashant Chaudhary; Bharat Goel; Ashoke Kumar Ghosh

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the antidiabetic activity of hydro-alcoholic extract of Adina cordifolia (Roxb.) leaves (HAEACL) in alloxan induced diabetic rats at 250 and 500 mg/kg doses. Methods:Glibenclamide (10 mg/kg, s.c.) was used as the standard which produced a significant reduction in blood glucose levels. The blood glucose levels of experimental animals were determined at 0, 2, 4 and 6 h after treatment with the plant extract by using glu-oxidase peroxidise reactive strips and glucometer. Results: Treatment with HAEACL at 500 mg/kg dose decreased the blood glucose level significantly. However, the lower doses (250 mg/kg) of HAEACL produced a little decrease in blood glucose level. It showed that there was a dose dependent decrease in blood glucose level in the alloxan induced diabetic rats as compared to the control group. Conclusions: The present study shows that HAEACL possessed significant antidiabetic activity.

  19. Antidiabetic activity of Pseudarthria viscida aqueous root extract in neonatal streptozotocin-induced NIDDM rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajendran Kuppusamy

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The antidiabetic activity of the aqueous root extract of Pseudarthria viscida (L. Wight & Arn., Fabaceae, was investigated in normal and neonatal streptozotocin (n2-STZ-induced non insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM rats and compared with glibenclamide as a reference standard. Two different doses (250 and 500 mg/kg of the extract were administered to normal and experimental diabetic rats for 21 days. Fasting blood glucose levels, serum lipid profiles and changes in body weight were evaluated in normal and diabetic rats while serum insulin, glycated hemoglobin, urea, creatinine, magnesium, protein, albumin and glycogen, glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase (GOT, glutamate pyruvate transaminase (GPT, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH levels in kidney and liver were evaluated additionally in diabetic rats. Treatment with extract at both dose levels was found to exhibit antidiabetic activity, with the higher dose showing more significant activity.

  20. Evaluation of antidiabetic and related actions of some Indian medicinal plants in diabetic rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Raju N Patil; Ravindra Y Patil; Bharati Ahirwar; Dheeraj Ahirwar

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate antidiabetic activity of chloroform extracts of Acacia arabica bark,Benincasa hispida fruit, Tinispora cordifolia stem, Ocimum sanctum areal parts and Jatropha curcus leaves. Methods: The chloroform extracts of Acacia arabica bark, Benincasa hispida fruit, Tinospora cordifolia stem, aerial part of Ocimum sanctum and Jatropha curcus leaves were evaluated at different doses (250 and 500 mg/kg body weight.) for antidiabetic potentials in alloxan induced diabetic albino rats. The extracts were administered for two weeks in different groups whereas tolbutamide (80 mg/kg body weight) was used as reference standard throughout study. Results: The result of present study showed test compounds significantly decreases elevated level of serum glucose and also caused to reverse the cholesterol, triglyceride, HDL and LDL values when compared to untreated diabetic rats. Conclusions: Our finding indicates that different test extracts were able to ameliorate the derangements in lipid metabolism caused by diabetes mellitus in alloxan induced diabetic rats towards normal level.

  1. A Database of Antidiabetic Plant Species of Family Asteraceae, Euphorbiaceae, Fabaceae, Lamiaceae and Moraceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanu Sharma

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Plants are playing a great role in the fulfillment of day to day needs and are an integral component of the health care systems. Present review is concerned with the compilation of information related to antidiabetic activity of medicinal plants belonging to families Asteraceae, Euphorbiaceae, Fabaceae, Lamiaceae and Moraceae from the available literature. A detailed account of 88 plant species has been collected. This information is useful in different areas of research especially for the pharmaceutical industry. Based on this data, some species can thoroughly be explored and used for the preparation of additional or alternative antidiabetic drugs. The present review has also highlighted the richness of medicinal plants diversity for the management of diabetes.

  2. Anti-Diabetic Activities of Jiaotaiwan in db/db Mice by Augmentation of AMPK Protein Activity and Upregulation of GLUT4 Expression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Na Hu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Jiaotaiwan (JTW, which is composed of Coptis chinensis (CC and cinnamon (CIN, is one of the most well-known traditional Chinese medicines. In this study, we investigated the antidiabetic effects and mechanism of JTW in db/db mice. Results showed that JTW significantly decreased the level of fasting blood glucose and improved glucose and insulin tolerance better than CC or CIN alone. JTW also effectively protected the pancreatic islet shape, augmented the activation of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK in the liver, and increased the expression of glucose transporter 4 (GLUT4 protein in skeletal muscle and white fat. AMPK and GLUT4 contributed to glucose metabolism regulation and had an essential function in the development of diabetes mellitus (DM. Therefore, the mechanisms of JTW may be related to suppressing gluconeogenesis by activating AMPK in the liver and affecting glucose uptake in surrounding tissues through the upregulation of GLUT4 protein expression. These findings provided a new insight into the antidiabetic clinical applications of JTW and demonstrated the potential of JTW as a new drug candidate for DM treatment.

  3. Patients’ beliefs about adherence to oral antidiabetic treatment: a qualitative study

    OpenAIRE

    Guénette, Line; Lauzier, Sophie; Guillaumie, Laurence; Giguère, Gabriel; Grégoire, Jean-Pierre; Moisan, Jocelyne

    2015-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this study was to elicit patients’ beliefs about taking their oral antidiabetic drugs (OADs) as prescribed to inform the development of sound adherence-enhancing interventions. Methods A qualitative study was performed. Adults with type 2 diabetes who had been taking an OAD for >3 months were solicited to participate in one of six focus groups. Discussions were facilitated using a structured guide designed to gather beliefs related to important constructs of the theory ...

  4. Alpha-Glucosidase Enzyme Biosensor for the Electrochemical Measurement of Antidiabetic Potential of Medicinal Plants

    OpenAIRE

    Mohiuddin, M.; D. Arbain; Islam, A. K. M. Shafiqul; M. S. Ahmad; Ahmad, M.N.

    2016-01-01

    A biosensor for measuring the antidiabetic potential of medicinal plants was developed by covalent immobilization of α-glucosidase (AG) enzyme onto amine-functionalized multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs-NH2). The immobilized enzyme was entrapped in freeze-thawed polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) together with p-nitrophenyl-α-d-glucopyranoside (PNPG) on the screen-printed carbon electrode at low pH to prevent the premature reaction between PNPG and AG enzyme. The enzymatic reaction within the biosen...

  5. Alpha-Glucosidase Enzyme Biosensor for the Electrochemical Measurement of Antidiabetic Potential of Medicinal Plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohiuddin, M; Arbain, D; Islam, A K M Shafiqul; Ahmad, M S; Ahmad, M N

    2016-12-01

    A biosensor for measuring the antidiabetic potential of medicinal plants was developed by covalent immobilization of α-glucosidase (AG) enzyme onto amine-functionalized multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs-NH2). The immobilized enzyme was entrapped in freeze-thawed polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) together with p-nitrophenyl-α-D-glucopyranoside (PNPG) on the screen-printed carbon electrode at low pH to prevent the premature reaction between PNPG and AG enzyme. The enzymatic reaction within the biosensor is inhibited by bioactive compounds in the medicinal plant extracts. The capability of medicinal plants to inhibit the AG enzyme on the electrode correlates to the potential of the medicinal plants to inhibit the production of glucose from the carbohydrate in the human body. Thus, the inhibition indicates the antidiabetic potential of the medicinal plants. The performance of the biosensor was evaluated to measure the antidiabetic potential of three medicinal plants such as Tebengau (Ehretis laevis), Cemumar (Micromelum pubescens), and Kedondong (Spondias dulcis) and acarbose (commercial antidiabetic drug) via cyclic voltammetry, amperometry, and spectrophotometry. The cyclic voltammetry (CV) response for the inhibition of the AG enzyme activity by Tebengau plant extracts showed a linear relation in the range from 0.423-8.29 μA, and the inhibition detection limit was 0.253 μA. The biosensor exhibited good sensitivity (0.422 μA/mg Tebengau plant extracts) and rapid response (22 s). The biosensor retains approximately 82.16 % of its initial activity even after 30 days of storage at 4 °C. PMID:26887579

  6. Association between patients' beliefs and oral antidiabetic medication adherence in a Chinese type 2 diabetic population

    OpenAIRE

    Wu P; Liu N

    2016-01-01

    Ping Wu,1 Naifeng Liu2 1Department of Clinical Pharmacy, School of Basic Medical Sciences and Clinical Pharmacy, China Pharmaceutical University, 2Institute of Cardiovascular Disease, Southeast University Medical School, Nanjing, People’s Republic of China Purpose: The objective of this study was to identify, using the theory of planned behavior (TPB), patients’ beliefs about taking oral antidiabetic drugs (OADs) as prescribed, and to measure the correlations between beliefs and...

  7. Study of variation in price of various antidiabetic drugs available in Indian market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amit Padmakar Date

    2015-02-01

    Conclusion: The average percentage price variation of different brands of the same oral antidiabetic drug manufactured in India is very wide. The appropriate changes in the government policy, sensitizing the prescribers about cost of therapy and proper management of marketing drugs should be directed toward maximizing the benefits of therapy and minimizing negative economic consequences. [Int J Basic Clin Pharmacol 2015; 4(1.000: 36-40

  8. Antidiabetic activity of Pseudarthria viscida aqueous root extract in neonatal streptozotocin-induced NIDDM rats

    OpenAIRE

    Rajendran Kuppusamy; Annie Shirwaikar; Kishore G. Sam; Srinivasan K. Kaitheri

    2012-01-01

    The antidiabetic activity of the aqueous root extract of Pseudarthria viscida (L.) Wight & Arn., Fabaceae, was investigated in normal and neonatal streptozotocin (n2-STZ)-induced non insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM) rats and compared with glibenclamide as a reference standard. Two different doses (250 and 500 mg/kg) of the extract were administered to normal and experimental diabetic rats for 21 days. Fasting blood glucose levels, serum lipid profiles and changes in body weight wer...

  9. Alpha-Glucosidase Enzyme Biosensor for the Electrochemical Measurement of Antidiabetic Potential of Medicinal Plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohiuddin, M.; Arbain, D.; Islam, A. K. M. Shafiqul; Ahmad, M. S.; Ahmad, M. N.

    2016-02-01

    A biosensor for measuring the antidiabetic potential of medicinal plants was developed by covalent immobilization of α-glucosidase (AG) enzyme onto amine-functionalized multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs-NH2). The immobilized enzyme was entrapped in freeze-thawed polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) together with p-nitrophenyl-α- d-glucopyranoside (PNPG) on the screen-printed carbon electrode at low pH to prevent the premature reaction between PNPG and AG enzyme. The enzymatic reaction within the biosensor is inhibited by bioactive compounds in the medicinal plant extracts. The capability of medicinal plants to inhibit the AG enzyme on the electrode correlates to the potential of the medicinal plants to inhibit the production of glucose from the carbohydrate in the human body. Thus, the inhibition indicates the antidiabetic potential of the medicinal plants. The performance of the biosensor was evaluated to measure the antidiabetic potential of three medicinal plants such as Tebengau ( Ehretis laevis), Cemumar ( Micromelum pubescens), and Kedondong ( Spondias dulcis) and acarbose (commercial antidiabetic drug) via cyclic voltammetry, amperometry, and spectrophotometry. The cyclic voltammetry (CV) response for the inhibition of the AG enzyme activity by Tebengau plant extracts showed a linear relation in the range from 0.423-8.29 μA, and the inhibition detection limit was 0.253 μA. The biosensor exhibited good sensitivity (0.422 μA/mg Tebengau plant extracts) and rapid response (22 s). The biosensor retains approximately 82.16 % of its initial activity even after 30 days of storage at 4 °C.

  10. A Database of Antidiabetic Plant Species of Family Asteraceae, Euphorbiaceae, Fabaceae, Lamiaceae and Moraceae

    OpenAIRE

    Tanu Sharma; M C Sidhu

    2013-01-01

    Plants are playing a great role in the fulfillment of day to day needs and are an integral component of the health care systems. Present review is concerned with the compilation of information related to antidiabetic activity of medicinal plants belonging to families Asteraceae, Euphorbiaceae, Fabaceae, Lamiaceae and Moraceae from the available literature. A detailed account of 88 plant species has been collected. This information is useful in different areas of research especially for the ph...

  11. Antidiabetic activity of Annona squamosa Linn. in alloxan - induced diabetic rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ranveer Singh Tomar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Diabetes mellitus is characterised by rise in blood sugar levels resulting from insulin dysfunction or insulin insufficiency. Aim: The aim of the present investigation is to evaluate antidiabetic activity of hydroalcoholic extract of Annona squamosa Linn (A. squamosa Linn in alloxan-induced diabetic rat model. Materials and Methods: Diabetes is induced by a single-dose intraperitoneal injection (i.p. of alloxan (120 mg/kg to albino rats. Results and Discussion: Treatment with A. squamosa Linn. extract at a dose of 350 mg/kg and 700 mg/kg and glibenclamide at a dose of 5mg/kg for 28 days, after induction of diabetes by alloxan, caused significant reduction in blood serum glucose and serum lipid profiles like total cholesterol and triglycerides but significant increase in body weight and serum high density lipoproteins (HDL level in diabetic rats compared to untreated group. Histological study of the pancreas of diabetic rat treated with A. squamosa extract also showed partial regeneration of beta cells. The antidiabetic activity of this extract is found comparable to glibenclamide. Thus, leaves of A. squamosa Linn. can be used as potential antidiabetic drug .

  12. Diabetes mellitus:An overview on its pharmacological aspects and reported medicinal plants having antidiabetic activity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Patel DK; Kumar R; Laloo D; Hemalatha S

    2012-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus is not a single disease but is a group of metabolic disorders affecting a huge number of population in the world. It is mainly characterized by chronic hyperglycemia, resulting from defects in insulin secretion or insulin action. It is predicated that the number of diabetes person in the world could reach upto 366 million by the year 2030. Even though the cases of diabetes are increasing day by day, except insulin and oral hypoglycemic drugs no other way of treatment has been successfully developed so far. Thus, the objective of the present review is to provide an insight over the pathophysiological and etiological aspects of diabetes mellitus along with the remedies available for this metabolic disorder. The review also contains brief idea about diabetes mellitus and the experimental screening model with their relevant mechanism and significance mainly used nowadays. Alloxan and streptozotocin are mainly used for evaluating the antidiabetic activity of a particular drug. This review contain list of medicinal plants which have been tested for their antidiabetic activity in the alloxan induced diabetic rat model. From the available data in the literature, it was found that plant having antidiabetic activity is mainly due to the presence of the secondary metabolite. Thus, the information provided in this review will help the researchers for the development of an alternative methods rather than insulin and oral hypoglycemic agents for the treatment of diabetes mellitus, which will minimize the complication associated with the diabetes and related disorder.

  13. [Are some antidiabetic drugs also drugs useful for heart failure treatment?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murín, Ján

    2016-04-01

    The prevalence of diabetes mellitus type 2 is rapidly growing. It is the cardiovascular mortality and morbidity why these patients suffer. Also heart failure becomes very frequent in diabetics, as it is a strong risk factor for development of heart failure and for its progression. Recently published data of EMPA-REG OUTCOME trial with empagliflozin hint to the possibility of heart failure treatment with this drug. The author presents data about the influence of antidiabetic drugs on cardiovascular risk factors, specifically on heart failure. This can be a way how to prevent heart failure in diabetic patients. Later he presents data about the influence of antidiabetics on symptoms and signs of heart failure. Some of these drugs are neutral, some are risky for patients and in the case of empagliflozin there is a beneficial influence. As heart failure is a great problem of clinical practice and diabetes is a strong risk factor of heart failure, we are looking also for prevention of heart failure and for its treatment also by using antidiabetic drug. PMID:27250612

  14. Effect of hydrogen on mechanical properties of -titanium alloys

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    H-J Christ; A Senemmar; M Decker; K Prüßner

    2003-06-01

    Conflicting opinions exist in the literature on the manner in which hydrogen influences the mechanical properties of -titanium alloys. This can be attributed to the -stabilizing effect of hydrogen in these materials leading to major changes in the microstructure as a result of hydrogen charging. The resulting (extrinsic) effect of hydrogen on the mechanical properties can possibly cover up the direct (intrinsic) influences. On the basis of experimentally determined thermodynamic and kinetic data regarding the interaction of hydrogen with -titanium alloys, hydrogen concentrations of up to 8 at.% were established in three commercial alloys by means of hydrogen charging from the gas phase. In order to separate intrinsic and extrinsic effects the charging was carried out during one step of the two-step heat treatment typical of metastable -titanium alloys, while the other step was performed in vacuum. The results on the single-phase condition represent the intrinsic hydrogen effect. Monotonic and cyclic strength increase at the expense of ductility with increasing hydrogen concentration. The brittle to ductile transition temperature shifts to higher values and the fatigue crack propagation threshold value decreases. The microstructure of the metastable, usually two-phase -titanium alloys is strongly affected by hydrogen, although the extent of this effect depends not only on the hydrogen concentration but also on the temperature of charging. This microstructural influence (extrinsic effect) changes the mechanical properties in the opposite direction as compared to the intrinsic hydrogen effect.

  15. Effect of extrusion processing on the microstructure, mechanical properties, biocorrosion properties and antibacterial properties of Ti-Cu sintered alloys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Erlin; Li, Shengyi; Ren, Jing; Zhang, Lan; Han, Yong

    2016-12-01

    Ti-Cu sintered alloys, Ti-Cu(S) alloy, have exhibited good anticorrosion resistance and strong antibacterial properties, but low ductility in previous study. In this paper, Ti-Cu(S) alloys were subjected to extrusion processing in order to improve the comprehensive property. The phase constitute, microstructure, mechanical property, biocorrosion property and antibacterial activity of the extruded alloys, Ti-Cu(E), were investigated in comparison with Ti-Cu(S) by X-ray diffraction (XRD), optical microscopy (OM), scanning electronic microscopy (SEM) with energy disperse spectroscopy (EDS), mechanical testing, electrochemical testing and plate-count method in order to reveal the effect of the extrusion process. XRD, OM and SEM results showed that the extrusion process did not change the phase constitute but refined the grain size and Ti2Cu particle significantly. Ti-Cu(E) alloys exhibited higher hardness and compressive yield strength than Ti-Cu(S) alloys due to the fine grain and Ti2Cu particles. With the consideration of the total compressive strain, it was suggested that the extrusion process could improve the ductility of Ti-Cu alloy(S) alloys. Electrochemical results have indicated that the extrusion process improved the corrosion resistance of Ti-Cu(S) alloys. Plate-count method displayed that both Ti-Cu(S) and Ti-Cu(E) exhibited strong antibacterial activity (>99%) against S. aureus. All these results demonstrated that hot forming processing, such as the extrusion in this study, refined the microstructure and densified the alloy, in turn improved the ductility and strength as well as anticorrosion properties without reduction in antibacterial properties.

  16. Effect of extrusion processing on the microstructure, mechanical properties, biocorrosion properties and antibacterial properties of Ti-Cu sintered alloys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Erlin; Li, Shengyi; Ren, Jing; Zhang, Lan; Han, Yong

    2016-12-01

    Ti-Cu sintered alloys, Ti-Cu(S) alloy, have exhibited good anticorrosion resistance and strong antibacterial properties, but low ductility in previous study. In this paper, Ti-Cu(S) alloys were subjected to extrusion processing in order to improve the comprehensive property. The phase constitute, microstructure, mechanical property, biocorrosion property and antibacterial activity of the extruded alloys, Ti-Cu(E), were investigated in comparison with Ti-Cu(S) by X-ray diffraction (XRD), optical microscopy (OM), scanning electronic microscopy (SEM) with energy disperse spectroscopy (EDS), mechanical testing, electrochemical testing and plate-count method in order to reveal the effect of the extrusion process. XRD, OM and SEM results showed that the extrusion process did not change the phase constitute but refined the grain size and Ti2Cu particle significantly. Ti-Cu(E) alloys exhibited higher hardness and compressive yield strength than Ti-Cu(S) alloys due to the fine grain and Ti2Cu particles. With the consideration of the total compressive strain, it was suggested that the extrusion process could improve the ductility of Ti-Cu alloy(S) alloys. Electrochemical results have indicated that the extrusion process improved the corrosion resistance of Ti-Cu(S) alloys. Plate-count method displayed that both Ti-Cu(S) and Ti-Cu(E) exhibited strong antibacterial activity (>99%) against S. aureus. All these results demonstrated that hot forming processing, such as the extrusion in this study, refined the microstructure and densified the alloy, in turn improved the ductility and strength as well as anticorrosion properties without reduction in antibacterial properties. PMID:27612770

  17. Fracture properties of short-dough biscuits: Effect of composition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baltsavias, A.; Jurgens, A.; Vliet, T. van

    1999-01-01

    The mechanical properties of short-dough biscuits of various composition were determined in three-point bending tests. In general, reduction of fat content increased the modulus and the fracture stress of biscuits. The relative magnitude of this effect depended on the fat type. Sucrose syrup slightl

  18. Effect of oxygen on the hydrogenation properties of magnesium films

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ostenfeld, Christopher Worsøe; Chorkendorff, Ib

    2006-01-01

    The effect of magnesium oxide on the magnesium and hydrogen desorption properties of magnesium films have been investigated. We find that by capping metallic magnesium films with oxide overlayers the apparent desorption energy of magnesium is increased from 146 kJ/mol to 314 kJ/mol. The results...... are discussed in light of previous investigations of ball-milled magnesium powders....

  19. Exploratory Characterization of Phenolic Compounds with Demonstrated Anti-Diabetic Activity in Guava Leaves at Different Oxidation States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díaz-de-Cerio, Elixabet; Verardo, Vito; Gómez-Caravaca, Ana María; Fernández-Gutiérrez, Alberto; Segura-Carretero, Antonio

    2016-01-01

    Psidium guajava L. is widely used like food and in folk medicine all around the world. Many studies have demonstrated that guava leaves have anti-hyperglycemic and anti-hyperlipidemic activities, among others, and that these activities belong mainly to phenolic compounds, although it is known that phenolic composition in guava tree varies throughout seasonal changes. Andalusia is one of the regions in Europe where guava is grown, thus, the aim of this work was to study the phenolic compounds present in Andalusian guava leaves at different oxidation states (low, medium, and high). The phenolic compounds in guava leaves were determined by HPLC-DAD-ESI-QTOF-MS. The results obtained by chromatographic analysis reported that guava leaves with low degree of oxidation had a higher content of flavonols, gallic, and ellagic derivatives compared to the other two guava leaf samples. Contrary, high oxidation state guava leaves reported the highest content of cyanidin-glucoside that was 2.6 and 15 times higher than guava leaves with medium and low oxidation state, respectively. The QTOF platform permitted the determination of several phenolic compounds with anti-diabetic properties and provided new information about guava leaf phenolic composition that could be useful for nutraceutical production. PMID:27187352

  20. Exploratory Characterization of Phenolic Compounds with Demonstrated Anti-Diabetic Activity in Guava Leaves at Different Oxidation States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elixabet Díaz-de-Cerio

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Psidium guajava L. is widely used like food and in folk medicine all around the world. Many studies have demonstrated that guava leaves have anti-hyperglycemic and anti-hyperlipidemic activities, among others, and that these activities belong mainly to phenolic compounds, although it is known that phenolic composition in guava tree varies throughout seasonal changes. Andalusia is one of the regions in Europe where guava is grown, thus, the aim of this work was to study the phenolic compounds present in Andalusian guava leaves at different oxidation states (low, medium, and high. The phenolic compounds in guava leaves were determined by HPLC-DAD-ESI-QTOF-MS. The results obtained by chromatographic analysis reported that guava leaves with low degree of oxidation had a higher content of flavonols, gallic, and ellagic derivatives compared to the other two guava leaf samples. Contrary, high oxidation state guava leaves reported the highest content of cyanidin-glucoside that was 2.6 and 15 times higher than guava leaves with medium and low oxidation state, respectively. The QTOF platform permitted the determination of several phenolic compounds with anti-diabetic properties and provided new information about guava leaf phenolic composition that could be useful for nutraceutical production.