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Sample records for antidiabetes drugs retrospective

  1. ANTIDIABETIC DRUGS IN AYURVEDA

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    Ingole Rajesh.Kundlikrao

    2013-01-01

    Ayurveda the Indian traditional Medical science uses many drugs for diseases derived from medicinal plants, Minerals, herbo mineral. Diabetes (Madhumeha) is an important human ailment afflicting many from various walks of life in different countries. This review focuses on Ayurvedic drugs like plants, minerals in single or compound form in various research institutes and articles. A list of Ayurvedic drugs having antidiabetic and related beneficial in treatment of diabetes is compiled. These ...

  2. ANTIDIABETIC DRUGS IN AYURVEDA

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    Ingole Rajesh Kundlikrao

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Ayurveda the Indian traditional Medical science uses many drugs for diseases derived from medicinal plants, Minerals, herbo mineral. Diabetes (Madhumeha is an important human ailment afflicting many from various walks of life in different countries. This review focuses on Ayurvedic drugs like plants, minerals in single or compound form in various research institutes and articles. A list of Ayurvedic drugs having antidiabetic and related beneficial in treatment of diabetes is compiled. These include, Trivanga Bhasma, Triphala Churna, Terminalia chebula, Nimbapatra, Ashvattha, Acacia arabica, Mangifera indica, Eugenia jambolana, Allium cepa, Allium sativum, Aloe vera, Tinospora cordifolia etc.

  3. Optimizing weight control in diabetes: antidiabetic drug selection

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    Kalra, S.; Kalra, B; Unnikrishnan, AG; N. Agrawal; Kumar, S.

    2010-01-01

    Clinical question Which antidiabetic drugs provide optimal weight control in patients with type 2 diabetes? Results Metformin reduces weight gain, and may cause weight loss, when given alone or in combination with other drugs. Pioglitazone and rosiglitazone use is associated with weight gain. Use of the glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) analogs, liraglutide and exenatide, is associated with weight loss. Dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP-4) inhibitors are considered weight-neutral. Results with insuli...

  4. Standardization of some herbal antidiabetic drugs in polyherbal formulation

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    Harinarayan Singh Chandel

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Ayurvedic formulations are used to treat a wide variety of diseases including diabetes mellitus Standardization of herbal formulation is essential in order to assess the quality of drugs. The present paper reports standardization of eight herbal anti-diabetic drugs−Momordica charantia (seeds, Syzigium cumini (seeds, Trigonella foenum (seeds, Azadirachta indica (leaves, Emblica offi cinalis (fruits, Curcuma longa (rhizomes, Gymnema sylvestre (leaves, Pterocarpus marsupium (heart-wood individually and in polyherbal marketed samples of Baidyanath Madhumehari Churna Material and Methods: Shivayu Madhuhari Churna, Meghdut Madhushoonya Churna and were compared to the in-house preparation for physicochemical properties. Results and Conclusions: The limits obtained from the different physicochemical parameters of the individual eight herbal drugs and the marketed formulations could be used as reference standard for standardization of the anti-diabetic drugs in a quality control laboratory.

  5. MICROEMULSIONS AS ANTIDIABETIC DRUG DELIVERY SYSTEMS

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    Omnia Sarhan, Mahmoud M. Ibrahim* and Mahmoud Mahdy

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Glibenclamide is practically insoluble in water and its gastrointestinal absorption is limited by its dissolution rate. Therefore, to enhance the drug dissolution and its hypoglycemic effects, the drug was formulated in different microemulsion systems and in vitro/in vivo evaluated. Microemulsion systems were prepared by Water titration method in which surfactants and cosurfactants (S/CoS were mixed at different weight ratios of 1:1, 2:1 and 3:1. They were subjected to transmission electron microscopical examination, pH determination and viscosity tests. The solubility of Glibenclamide in different microemulsion systems was determined. Forms 8, 9, 10, 11, 14 and 18 were found to have high Glibenclamide solubility using different oils. Form 11 and 9 showed the highest Glibenclamide release rates of 59.72% and 52.35%, respectively after 6 hours. In-vivo studies were tested using diabetic rats by application of form 11 with n-butanol as cosurfactant transdermally and form 8 with propylene glycol cosurfactant orally and transdermally. The results were compared to the drug suspension as a positive control. It was shown that microemulsion systems gave an effective tool of increasing drug dissolution probably due to enhanced wettability and reduced drug particle size, which in turn led to enhance its hypoglycemic effects.

  6. Important Aspects of Post-Prandial Antidiabetic Drug, Acarbose.

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    Singla, Rajeev Kumar; Singh, Radha; Dubey, Ashok Kumar

    2016-01-01

    Acarbose, a well known and efficacious α-amylase and α-glucosidase inhibitor, is a postprandial acting antidiabetic drug. DNS-based α-amylase inhibitory assays showed that use of acarbose at concentrations above 125 µg/ml resulted in release of reducing sugar in the reaction, an unexpected observation. Objective of the present study was to design experimental strategies to address this unusual finding. Acarbose was found to be susceptible to thermo-lysis. Further, besides being an inhibitor, it could also be hydrolyzed by porcine pancreatic α-amylase, but had weaker affinity for α - amylase compared to starch. GRIP docking was done for the mechanistic analysis of the active site in the enzyme for substrate, inhibitor and, inhibitor's metabolite (K2). Interaction between acarbose and α-amylase involved significant hydrogen binding compared to that of starch, producing a stronger enzyme-inhibitor complex. Further, docking analysis led us to predict the site on α-amylase where the inhibitor (acarbose) bound more tightly, which possibly affected the binding and hydrolysis of starch exerting its effective anti-diabetic function. PMID:27086787

  7. Study of variation in price of various antidiabetic drugs available in Indian market

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    Amit Padmakar Date; Harshal M. Mahajan; Amruta V. Dashputra; Rahul R. Bhosale

    2015-01-01

    Background: Diabetes mellitus in early age is on the alarming rise in India, requiring lifelong treatment. There is a wide range of variation in the prices of antidiabetic drugs marketed in India. Hence, we decided to study price variations in the oral antidiabetic drugs available, either singly or in combination, and number of manufacturing companies for each, and to evaluate the difference in cost of different brands of same active drug by calculating percentage variation of cost. Method...

  8. Pharmacogenomics in type 2 diabetes: oral antidiabetic drugs.

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    Daniels, M A; Kan, C; Willmes, D M; Ismail, K; Pistrosch, F; Hopkins, D; Mingrone, G; Bornstein, S R; Birkenfeld, A L

    2016-10-01

    Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is a fast progressing disease reaching pandemic proportions. T2DM is specifically harmful because of its severe secondary complications. In the course of the disease, most patients require treatment with oral antidiabetic drugs (OADs), for which a relatively large number of different options are available. The growing number of individuals affected by T2DM as well as marked interindividual differences in the response to treatment call for individualized therapeutic regimens that can maximize treatment efficacy and thus reduce side effects and costs. A large number of genetic polymorphisms have been described affecting the response to treatment with OADs; in this review, we summarize the most recent advances in this area of research. Extensive evidence exists for polymorphisms affecting pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of biguanides and sulfonylureas. Data on incretin-based medications as well as the new class of sodium/glucose cotransporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitors are just starting to emerge. With diabetes being a known comorbidity of several psychiatric disorders, we also review genetic polymorphisms possibly responsible for a common treatment response in both conditions. For all drug classes reviewed here, large prospective trials are necessary in order to consolidate the existing evidence and derive treatment schemes based on individual genetic traits.

  9. Prescribing pattern of antidiabetic drugs in Indore city hospital

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    Vengurlekar Sudha

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Diabetes mellitus is a metabolic disorder characterized by hyperglycemia, glycosuria, and sometimes ketonemia. The present study was carried out to assess prescribing practice and general trend of diabetes among patients at the Bombay Hospital, Indore. Prescriptions and complete records of diabetic patients were monitored and data was filed as per WHO prescription proforma. The study revealed that prescription of metformin (27% and glimepiride (22.60% were found to be maximum among various available antidiabetic drugs. Category wise the maximum prescribed drugs are glimepride (22.60%, sulfonylurea category, metformin (27%, biguanide category and pioglitazones (13.90%, glitazone category. Insulin prescription was found to be very less (4.5%. Combination of metformin and glimepiride (20.86% was prescribed most commonly. Most common disease associated with diabetes mellitus was found to be hypertension (35%. Highest prevalence of disease was found to be in the age group of 51 to 60 followed by age group of 41 to 50. Men patients (66.36% were found to be predominated over women patients (33.64%.

  10. Drug utilization pattern of antidiabetic agents in a tertiary care hospital of western Odisha, India

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    Ratna Agrawal

    2016-10-01

    Conclusions: The prescribing trend has been monotherapy with insulin followed by oral antidiabetic drugs in the form of glimepiride and metformin combination. [Int J Basic Clin Pharmacol 2016; 5(5.000: 2222-2226

  11. [Are some antidiabetic drugs also drugs useful for heart failure treatment?].

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    Murín, Ján

    2016-04-01

    The prevalence of diabetes mellitus type 2 is rapidly growing. It is the cardiovascular mortality and morbidity why these patients suffer. Also heart failure becomes very frequent in diabetics, as it is a strong risk factor for development of heart failure and for its progression. Recently published data of EMPA-REG OUTCOME trial with empagliflozin hint to the possibility of heart failure treatment with this drug. The author presents data about the influence of antidiabetic drugs on cardiovascular risk factors, specifically on heart failure. This can be a way how to prevent heart failure in diabetic patients. Later he presents data about the influence of antidiabetics on symptoms and signs of heart failure. Some of these drugs are neutral, some are risky for patients and in the case of empagliflozin there is a beneficial influence. As heart failure is a great problem of clinical practice and diabetes is a strong risk factor of heart failure, we are looking also for prevention of heart failure and for its treatment also by using antidiabetic drug. PMID:27250612

  12. Cardiovascular outcome trials for anti-diabetes medication: A holy grail of drug development?

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    John, Mathew; Gopalakrishnan Unnikrishnan, Ambika; Kalra, Sanjay; Nair, Tiny

    2016-01-01

    Since the time questions arose on cardiovascular safety of Rosiglitazone, FDA has suggested guidelines on conduct of studies on anti-diabetic drugs so as to prove that the cardiovascular risk is acceptable. Based on the cardiovascular risks of pre-approval clinical trials, guidelines have been made to conduct cardiovascular safety outcome trials (CVSOTs) prior to the drug approval or after the drug has been approved. Unlike the trials comparing the efficacy of antidiabetic agents, the CVSOTs examine the cardiovascular safety of a drug in comparison to standard of care. These trials are expensive aspects of drug development and are associated with various technical and operational challenges. More cost effective models of assessing cardiovascular safety like use of biomarkers, electronic medical records, pragmatic and factorial designs can be adopted. This article critically looks at the antidiabetic drug approval from a cardiovascular perspective by asking a few questions and arriving at answers. PMID:27543483

  13. Prescribing pattern and efficacy of anti-diabetic drugs in maintaining optimal glycemic levels in diabetic patients

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    Agarwal, Akshay A.; Jadhav, Pradeep R.; Deshmukh, Yeshwant A.

    2014-01-01

    Context: Despite the availability of efficacious anti-diabetic drugs, which act by different mechanisms to reduce the blood-glucose, the majority of people with diabetes on anti-diabetic drug therapy, have poor glycemic control and diabetic vascular complications. Aim and Objectives: The aim was to study the prescribing pattern and efficacy of anti-diabetic drugs in maintaining optimal glycemic levels in diabetic patients attending tertiary care teaching hospital in Navi Mumbai. Materials and...

  14. OUTPATIENT UTILIZATION OF ANTI-DIABETIC DRUGS IN THE SOUTH EASTERN NIGERIA

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    ADIBE M.O. (M.PHARM, PROF. AGUWA C.N. (PHARM D, UKWE C.V. (PH.D, OKONTA J.M. (PH.D, PHARM. UDEOGARANYA P.O (M.PHARM

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Background Recent study in the tertiary hospitals in Nigeria showed that prevalence of diabetes mellitus (DM is on theincrease. With this increase, the prescription volume of anti diabetic drugs, morbidity and ultimately mortality rates areexpected to assume an upward trend especially in regions of the world like Nigeria where healthcare services are suboptimalfor the rapidly expanding populations.Aim To determine the outpatient utilization of anti diabetic drugs in south-eastern Nigeria.Methods This prospective cross-sectional study was undertaken for 20 weeks between July 2008 and November, 2008 in thethree tertiary hospitals which were randomly selected. All prescriptions issued to patients attending endocrinology clinicduring this period following each day’s consultation were copied out from the case files and recorded in case record forms.Cost of the prescribed drugs was obtained from drug price list of the hospital pharmacies.Results Oral hypoglycaemic agents (OHAs ((15.21 DDDs/1000 diabetic patients /day were 4.5 times more utilized thaninsulin (3.4 DDDs/1000 diabetic patients /day. Among OHAs, Biguanide (Metformin was the most utilized (11.3DDDs/1000 diabetic patients /day, it was likely to be prescribed to diabetic patient daily compared to Sulphonylureas(Glibenclamide, Chlorpropamide and Thiazolidinediones (Rosiglitazone with 3.8 DDDs/1000 diabetic patients /day and0.09 DDDs/1000 diabetic patients /day respectively.Conclusion Metformin was the most utilized anti-diabetic drugs and the costs of anti-diabetic drugs were high in the southeasternNigeria. Government should come up with appropriate policies such as free health care for diabetic patients,subsidies for anti-diabetic drugs and finally low import tariff for anti-diabetic drugs. All these measures will reduce theprovocative high cost of anti-diabetic drugs in the zone.

  15. Interaction of mouse intestinal P-glycoprotein with oral antidiabetic drugs and its inhibitors.

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    Kalsi, Harman; Grewal, Ravneet K

    2015-09-01

    Type 2 diabetes (T2DM) is a progressive insulin secretory defect accompanied by resistance to insulin, and thereby making glycemic control a major concern in the treatment of these patients. Oral drug administration, though a popular option for its non-invasiveness, suffer from poor bioavailability. It could be related to the efflux transport of intestinal P-glycoprotein (Pgp). In the present study, we explored the binding interactions of antidiabetic drugs i.e., sulfonylurea drugs (glimepiride, glipizide, glyburide) and rapid acting insulin secretagogues viz., nateglinide, repaglinide and rosiglitazone; and Pgp inhibitors i.e., Generation I (verapamil and tamoxifen), III (tetradrine and tariquidar), and natural inhibitors (fumagillin and piperine) in mouse Pgp model. Our results revealed that fumagillin piperine and verapamil possess maximum interaction energies with Pgp compared to antidiabetic drugs. These observations elucidate the role of fumagillin and piperine as potential natural compounds which could intervene in the efflux action of Pgp in extruding the antidiabetic drugs and may have implications for increasing efficacy of oral antidiabetic therapy. PMID:26548081

  16. COST-EFFECTIVENESS ANALYSIS OF ANTI-DIABETIC THERAPY IN A UNIVERSITY TEACHING HOSPITAL

    OpenAIRE

    Giwa Abdulganiyu; Tayo Fola

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: To conduct cost-effectiveness analysis of anti-diabetic therapy in a University Teaching Hospital in 2010. Methods: A retrospective review of selected case-notes was conducted. World Health Organization Defined Daily Dose Method of evaluating drug use and probability method for potential effectiveness of antidiabetic therapeutic options from literature analysis was employed in determining cost-effectiveness of each anti-diabetic therapeutic option identified from anti-diabetic dru...

  17. Long term trends in oral antidiabetic drug use among children and adolescents in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S. Fazeli Farsani; P. Souverein (Patrick); J.A. Overbeek (Jetty); M.M.J. Van Der Vorst; C.A.J. Knibbe (Catherijne); R.M.C. Herings (Ron); A. de Boer (Anthonius); A.K. Mantel-Teeuwisse (Aukje)

    2015-01-01

    textabstractAim The aim of the study was to document long term trends in oral antidiabetic drug (OAD) use among children and adolescents in the Netherlands. Methods A population-based cohort study was conducted using the Dutch PHARMO Database Network. All patients younger than 20 years old with at l

  18. Adding liraglutide to oral antidiabetic drug therapy: onset of treatment effects over time

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gallwitz, B; Vaag, A; Falahati, A;

    2010-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the onset of treatment effects over time observed for liraglutide in combination with oral antidiabetic drugs (OADs). METHODS: This analysis included patients from three phase 3, 26-week, randomised, double-blind, parallel-group trials. Prior to randomisation, patients underwent...

  19. Study of variation in price of various antidiabetic drugs available in Indian market

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    Amit Padmakar Date

    2015-02-01

    Conclusion: The average percentage price variation of different brands of the same oral antidiabetic drug manufactured in India is very wide. The appropriate changes in the government policy, sensitizing the prescribers about cost of therapy and proper management of marketing drugs should be directed toward maximizing the benefits of therapy and minimizing negative economic consequences. [Int J Basic Clin Pharmacol 2015; 4(1.000: 36-40

  20. Oral antidiabetic therapy in a large Italian sample: drug supply and compliance for different therapeutic regimens

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    Vittorino Gaddi, A; Capello, F; Di Pietro, C; Cinconze, E; Rossi, E; De Sando, V; Cevenini, M; D'Alò, G

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: To define the main features of patients treated with oral antidiabetics, evaluating monotherapy (MT), loose-dose combination therapy (LDCT) and fixed-dose combination therapy (FDCT); to describe medication adherence to the different therapies; and to evaluate the differences in compliance with the prescribed therapy regimen among prevalent and incident patient cohorts. Study design: This study was a retrospective cohort analysis based on the ARNO database, a national record that tracks reimbursable prescription claims submitted from selected pharmacies to the Italian national health system. In total, 169,375 subjects, from an overall population of 4,040,624 were included in this study. The patients represented 12 different local health units. Each patient had at least one oral antidiabetic prescription claim (A10B ATC code). Methods: Patients were divided into four groups according to their treatment regimen during the recruitment period (1 January 2008-31 December 2008): MT, FDCT, LDCT and swi...

  1. Effects of antidiabetes drugs on functional independence measure on a subacute rehabilitation ward for stroke patients.

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    Kose, E; Toyoshima, M; Tachi, T; Teramachi, H; Kawakubo, T; Hayashi, H

    2015-07-01

    It has been reported that the improvement of activities of daily living (ADL) by rehabilitation affects glycemic control. However, there are no reports about antidiabetes drugs as factors affecting the outcomes of rehabilitation. Therefore, we investigated the effects of antidiabetes drugs on functional independence measure (FIM) [total (T), motor (M), and cognition (C) items] in stroke patients with diabetes who were discharged from the subacute rehabilitation ward. We chose the frequently used antidiabetes drugs [sulfonylurea (SU), dipeptidyl peptidase-IV inhibitors (DPP-IVIs), and α-glycosidase inhibitors (α-GIs)] as the basis for categorizing the patients. We compared the patients' background features and laboratory data among the three groups. As a result, when SU was used in stroke patients with diabetes, it is difficult to obtain significant FIM-M gain, FIM-C gain, FIM-M efficiency, and FIM-C efficiency compared with of-GIs. As a reason for this, we hypothesize the possibility of the involvement of insulin resistance. Therefore, we consider that insulin resistance should be determined early and that it is important to reduce insulin resistance comprehensively by involving experts.

  2. Clinically and pharmacologically relevant interactions of antidiabetic drugs.

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    May, Marcus; Schindler, Christoph

    2016-04-01

    Patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus often require multifactorial pharmacological treatment due to different comorbidities. An increasing number of concomitantly taken medications elevate the risk of the patient experiencing adverse drug effects or drug interactions. Drug interactions can be divided into pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic interactions affecting cytochrome (CYP) enzymes, absorption properties, transporter activities and receptor affinities. Furthermore, nutrition, herbal supplements, patient's age and gender are of clinical importance. Relevant drug interactions are predominantly related to sulfonylureas, thiazolidinediones and glinides. Although metformin has a very low interaction potential, caution is advised when drugs that impair renal function are used concomitantly. With the exception of saxagliptin, dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP-4) inhibitors also show a low interaction potential, but all drugs affecting the drug transporter P-glycoprotein should be used with caution. Incretin mimetics and sodium-glucose cotransporter-2 (SGLT-2) inhibitors comprise a very low interaction potential and are therefore recommended as an ideal combination partner from the clinical-pharmacologic point of view. PMID:27092232

  3. Anti-diabetic drugs inhibit obesity-linked phosphorylation of PPARgamma by Cdk5.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Jang Hyun; Banks, Alexander S; Estall, Jennifer L; Kajimura, Shingo; Boström, Pontus; Laznik, Dina; Ruas, Jorge L; Chalmers, Michael J; Kamenecka, Theodore M; Blüher, Matthias; Griffin, Patrick R; Spiegelman, Bruce M

    2010-07-22

    Obesity induced in mice by high-fat feeding activates the protein kinase Cdk5 (cyclin-dependent kinase 5) in adipose tissues. This results in phosphorylation of the nuclear receptor PPARgamma (peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma), a dominant regulator of adipogenesis and fat cell gene expression, at serine 273. This modification of PPARgamma does not alter its adipogenic capacity, but leads to dysregulation of a large number of genes whose expression is altered in obesity, including a reduction in the expression of the insulin-sensitizing adipokine, adiponectin. The phosphorylation of PPARgamma by Cdk5 is blocked by anti-diabetic PPARgamma ligands, such as rosiglitazone and MRL24. This inhibition works both in vivo and in vitro, and is completely independent of classical receptor transcriptional agonism. Similarly, inhibition of PPARgamma phosphorylation in obese patients by rosiglitazone is very tightly associated with the anti-diabetic effects of this drug. All these findings strongly suggest that Cdk5-mediated phosphorylation of PPARgamma may be involved in the pathogenesis of insulin-resistance, and present an opportunity for development of an improved generation of anti-diabetic drugs through PPARgamma.

  4. An invertebrate hyperglycemic model for the identification of anti-diabetic drugs.

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    Yasuhiko Matsumoto

    Full Text Available The number of individuals diagnosed with type 2 diabetes mellitus, which is caused by insulin resistance and/or abnormal insulin secretion, is increasing worldwide, creating a strong demand for the development of more effective anti-diabetic drugs. However, animal-based screening for anti-diabetic compounds requires sacrifice of a large number of diabetic animals, which presents issues in terms of animal welfare. Here, we established a method for evaluating the anti-diabetic effects of compounds using an invertebrate animal, the silkworm, Bombyx mori. Sugar levels in silkworm hemolymph increased immediately after feeding silkworms a high glucose-containing diet, resulting in impaired growth. Human insulin and 5-aminoimidazole-4-carboxamide-1-β-D-ribofuranoside (AICAR, an AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK activator, decreased the hemolymph sugar levels of the hyperglycemic silkworms and restored growth. Treatment of the isolated fat body with human insulin in an in vitro culture system increased total sugar in the fat body and stimulated Akt phosphorylation. These responses were inhibited by wortmannin, an inhibitor of phosphoinositide 3 kinase. Moreover, AICAR stimulated AMPK phosphorylation in the silkworm fat body. Administration of aminoguanidine, a Maillard reaction inhibitor, repressed the accumulation of Maillard reaction products (advanced glycation end-products; AGEs in the hyperglycemic silkworms and restored growth, suggesting that the growth defect of hyperglycemic silkworms is caused by AGE accumulation in the hemolymph. Furthermore, we identified galactose as a hypoglycemic compound in jiou, an herbal medicine for diabetes, by monitoring its hypoglycemic activity in hyperglycemic silkworms. These results suggest that the hyperglycemic silkworm model is useful for identifying anti-diabetic drugs that show therapeutic effects in mammals.

  5. DIFFERENT ANIMAL MODELS FOR DRUGS WITH POTENTIAL ANTIDIABETIC PROPERTIES

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    Shah Tanmay A; Shah Nidhi T; Prajapati Parimal M; Bhatt Pratik B; Solanki Anil S

    2011-01-01

    The increasing worldwide incidence of diabetes mellitus in adults constitutes a global public health burden. It is predicted that by 2030, largest number of people with diabetes. Although medicinal plants have been historically used for diabetes treatment throughout the world, few of them have been validated by scientific criteria. In recent times, an outsized multiplicity of animal models has been developed to enhanced understand the pathogenesis of diabetes mellitus and new drugs have been ...

  6. Glycemic control and antidiabetic drugs in type 2 diabetes mellitus patients with renal complications

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    Huri HZ

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Hasniza Zaman Huri,1,2 Lay Peng Lim,1 Soo Kun Lim3 1Department of Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, University of Malaya, 2Clinical Investigation Centre, University Malaya Medical Centre, 3Renal Unit, Department of Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia Background: Good glycemic control can delay the progression of kidney diseases in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM patients with renal complications. To date, the association between antidiabetic agents and glycemic control in this specific patient population is not well established.Purpose: This study aimed to identify antidiabetic regimens as well as other factors that associated with glycemic control in T2DM patients with different stages of chronic kidney disease (CKD.Patients and methods: This retrospective, cross-sectional study involved 242 T2DM inpatients and outpatients with renal complications from January 2009 to March 2014 and was conducted in a tertiary teaching hospital in Malaysia. Glycated hemoglobin (A1C was used as main parameter to assess patients’ glycemic status. Patients were classified to have good (A1C <7% or poor glycemic control (A1C ≥7% based on the recommendations of the American Diabetes Association.Results: Majority of the patients presented with CKD stage 4 (43.4%. Approximately 55.4% of patients were categorized to have poor glycemic control. Insulin (57.9% was the most commonly prescribed antidiabetic medication, followed by sulfonylureas (43%. Of all antidiabetic regimens, sulfonylureas monotherapy (P<0.001, insulin therapy (P=0.005, and combination of biguanides with insulin (P=0.038 were found to be significantly associated with glycemic control. Other factors including duration of T2DM (P=0.004, comorbidities such as anemia (P=0.024 and retinopathy (P=0.033, concurrent medications such as erythropoietin therapy (P=0.047, a-blockers (P=0.033, and antigouts (P=0.003 were also correlated with A1C.Conclusion: Identification of

  7. Unexploited Antineoplastic Effects of Commercially Available Anti-Diabetic Drugs

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    Papanagnou, Panagiota; Stivarou, Theodora; Tsironi, Maria

    2016-01-01

    The development of efficacious antitumor compounds with minimal toxicity is a hot research topic. Numerous cancer cell targeted agents are evaluated daily in laboratories for their antitumorigenicity at the pre-clinical level, but the process of their introduction into the market is costly and time-consuming. More importantly, even if these new antitumor agents manage to gain approval, clinicians have no former experience with them. Accruing evidence supports the idea that several medications already used to treat pathologies other than cancer display pleiotropic effects, exhibiting multi-level anti-cancer activity and chemosensitizing properties. This review aims to present the anticancer properties of marketed drugs (i.e., metformin and pioglitazone) used for the management of diabetes mellitus (DM) type II. Mode of action, pre-clinical in vitro and in vivo or clinical data as well as clinical applicability are discussed here. Given the precious multi-year clinical experience with these non-antineoplastic drugs their repurposing in oncology is a challenging alternative that would aid towards the development of therapeutic schemes with less toxicity than those of conventional chemotherapeutic agents. More importantly, harnessing the antitumor function of these agents would save precious time from bench to bedside to aid the fight in the arena of cancer. PMID:27164115

  8. Unexploited Antineoplastic Effects of Commercially Available Anti-Diabetic Drugs

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    Panagiota Papanagnou

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The development of efficacious antitumor compounds with minimal toxicity is a hot research topic. Numerous cancer cell targeted agents are evaluated daily in laboratories for their antitumorigenicity at the pre-clinical level, but the process of their introduction into the market is costly and time-consuming. More importantly, even if these new antitumor agents manage to gain approval, clinicians have no former experience with them. Accruing evidence supports the idea that several medications already used to treat pathologies other than cancer display pleiotropic effects, exhibiting multi-level anti-cancer activity and chemosensitizing properties. This review aims to present the anticancer properties of marketed drugs (i.e., metformin and pioglitazone used for the management of diabetes mellitus (DM type II. Mode of action, pre-clinical in vitro and in vivo or clinical data as well as clinical applicability are discussed here. Given the precious multi-year clinical experience with these non-antineoplastic drugs their repurposing in oncology is a challenging alternative that would aid towards the development of therapeutic schemes with less toxicity than those of conventional chemotherapeutic agents. More importantly, harnessing the antitumor function of these agents would save precious time from bench to bedside to aid the fight in the arena of cancer.

  9. 我院2012年~2014年降血糖药物的使用分析%Application of antidiabetic drugs in hospital in 2012~2014

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蒋丽

    2016-01-01

    Objective To investigate the application of antidiabetic drugs in hospital.Methods The use of antidiabetic drugs in hospitalin 2012~2014 was analyzed retrospectively in respect of consumption sum、DDDs、drugs daily cost(DDC) etc.Results The top 5 antidiabetic drugs in respect of DDDs were acarbose, voglibose, glimepiride, glimepiride,metformin.Conclusion The antidiabetic drugs used in our hospital is rational.%目的:了解某院降糖药的应用特点与趋势。方法对某院2012年~2014年降糖药的销售金额、用药频度(DDDs)、日均费用(DDC)等进行回顾性分析。结果降糖药DDDs排序列前5位的是阿卡波糖、伏格列波糖、格列美脲、吡格列酮、二甲双胍。结论降糖药的应用情况基本合理。

  10. Cost analysis study of oral antidiabetic drugs available in Indian market

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    Nisharani B Jadhav, Manisha S Bhosale, Charles V Adhav

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available There exists a wide range of variation in the prices of drugs marketed in India and other countries of the world. Very few studies have been conducted to reveal such price variations in the open market. Aim & Objectives: To evaluate the cost of oral anti-diabetics of different generic classes and different brand names of one compound, To evaluate the difference in cost of different brands for the same active drug by calculating percentage variation of cost. Methods: Cost of a particular drug being manufactured by different companies, in the same strength, number and dosage form was compared. The difference in the maximum and minimum price of the same drug manufactured by different pharmaceutical companies and the percentage variation in price was calculated. Results: In Single drug therapy, among sulfonylurea group of drugs, Glimepiride (1 mg shows maximum price variation of 655.38%, while Glipizide (10mg shows variation of 38.88%. In Biguanides & Thizolidinediones groups of drugs, Metformin (500 mg & Pioglitazone (15 mg show maximum price variation of 308.33% & 542% respectively. In α-glucosidases inhibitor group of drugs, Miglitol shows maximum price variation of 135.50 %. In combination therapies, Glipizide & Metformin combination shows the maximum variation up to 399.04 %. Conclusion: The average percentage price variation of different brands of the same drug manufactured in India is very wide and the appraisal and management of marketing drugs should be directed toward maximizing the benefits of therapy and minimizing negative personal and economic consequences

  11. A stewardship intervention program for safe medication management and use of antidiabetic drugs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhao RY

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Rui-yi Zhao,1 Xiao-wen He,1 Yan-min Shan,1 Ling-ling Zhu,2 Quan Zhou3 1Clinical Nurse Specialist Section, Division of Nursing, 2Geriatric VIP Care Ward, Division of Nursing, 3Department of Pharmacy, Second Affiliated Hospital, School of Medicine, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, Zhejiang Province, People’s Republic of China Background: Diabetes patients are complex due to considerations of polypharmacy, multimorbidities, medication adherence, dietary habits, health literacy, socioeconomic status, and cultural factors. Meanwhile, insulin and oral hypoglycemic agents are high-alert medications. Therefore it is necessary to require a multidisciplinary team’s integrated endeavors to enhance safe medication management and use of antidiabetic drugs.Methods: A 5-year stewardship intervention program, including organizational measures and quality improvement activities in storage, prescription, dispensing, administration, and monitoring, was performed in the Second Affiliated Hospital of Zhejiang University, People’s Republic of China, a 3,200-bed hospital with 3.5 million outpatient visits annually.Results: The Second Affiliated Hospital of Zhejiang University has obtained a 100% implementation rate of standard storage of antidiabetic drugs in the Pharmacy and wards since August 2012. A zero occurrence of dispensing errors related to highly “look-alike” and “sound-alike” NovoMix 30® (biphasic insulin aspart and NovoRapid® (insulin aspart has been achieved since October 2011. Insulin injection accuracy among ward nurses significantly increased from 82% (first quarter 2011 to 96% (fourth quarter 2011 (P<0.05. The number of medication administration errors related to insulin continuously decreased from 20 (2011 to six (2014. The occurrence rate of hypoglycemia in non–endocrinology ward diabetes inpatients during 2011–2013 was significantly less than that in 2010 (5.03%–5.53% versus 8.27% (P<0.01. Percentage of correct management of

  12. LOW RISK OF CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASES WITH METFORMIN COMPARED WITH OTHER ANTI-DIABETIC DRUGS IN PATIENTS WITH TYPE 2 DIABETES

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    Prathima Raj Dara

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Diabetes is treatable, yet not withstanding when glucose levels are under control. It significantly increase the risk of coronary illness and stroke. Especially, type 2 diabetes may have the accompanying conditions that add to their danger for creating cardiovascular illness, for example, hypertension, weight, and abdominal cholesterol. This study to investigate the risk of cardiovascular malady (CVD in people with diabetes mellitus treated with metformin or other antidiabetic medications. SUBJECTS AND METHODS This was an observational study conducted in the Department of Medicine at Government General Hospital, Nizamabad. 500 patients were aged between 60 and below individuals diagnosed with cardiovascular problem irrespective of metformin or other anti-diabetic drugs from past years. Patient’s comparison with previous use of metformin or other anti-diabetic drugs among the individuals and calculated the risk of cardiovascular disease who is on metformin or anti-diabetic drugs. RESULTS In comparison with metformin, long-term use of other than metformin were at greater risk of developing CVD (Adjusted OR (AOR=0.83, 95% CI=1.12-2.60, but there was no consistent trend with increasing number of prescriptions. Long-term use of other antidiabetic drugs such as sulphonylurea (AOR=0.80, 95% CI=0.72-1.42, thiazolidinediones (AOR=0.69, 95% CI=0.31-2.40, or meglitinides (AOR=0.61, 95% CI=0.58-1.73 was showed related risk of developing CVD. CONCLUSION Long-term utilization of sulphonylurea, thiazolidinediones, or meglitinides was showed risk of developing CVD. There was a recommendation of a slightly bring down risk of CVD in long-term use of metformin.

  13. Transporter-Mediated Drug–Drug Interactions with Oral Antidiabetic Drugs

    OpenAIRE

    Jörg König; Fromm, Martin F; Sabine Klatt

    2011-01-01

    Uptake transporters (e.g., members of the SLC superfamily of solute carriers) and export proteins (e.g., members of the ABC transporter superfamily) are important determinants for the pharmacokinetics of drugs. Alterations of drug transport due to concomitantly administered drugs that interfere with drug transport may alter the kinetics of drug substrates. In vitro and in vivo studies indicate that many drugs used for the treatment of metabolic disorders and cardiovascular diseases (e.g., ora...

  14. 42 CFR 456.709 - Retrospective drug use review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL ASSISTANCE PROGRAMS UTILIZATION CONTROL Drug Use Review (DUR) Program and Electronic... pattern analysis, using predetermined standards, of physician prescribing practices, drug use by... 42 Public Health 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Retrospective drug use review. 456.709 Section...

  15. Screening of Undiagnosed Hypothyroidism in Elderly Persons with Diabetes according to Age-Specific Reference Intervals for Serum Thyroid Stimulating Hormone and the Impact of Antidiabetes Drugs

    OpenAIRE

    Fontes, Rosita; Teixeira, Patricia de Fatima dos Santos; Vaisman, Mario

    2016-01-01

    Background. Studies have suggested that hypothyroidism is more frequent in the elderly with diabetes mellitus. However, an adaptation of TSH levels to age should be considered in this assessment. Some antidiabetes drugs reportedly interfere with TSH levels. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the prevalence of undiagnosed hypothyroidism in patients with diabetes and the influence of antidiabetes drugs. Material and Methods. 1160 subjects, 60 years and older (751 with diabetes), were...

  16. [A 50-year history of new drugs in Japan-the development and progress of anti-diabetic drugs and the epidemiological aspects of diabetes mellitus].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozawa, Hikaru; Murai, Yuriko; Ozawa, Terutaka

    2003-01-01

    The development and progress of antidiabetic drugs (e.g., insulin preparations and hypoglycemic drugs) are retrospectively investigated in Japan. Their influences on the treatment of diabetes mellitus (DM) and its epidemiological aspects are also discussed. 1) Insulin preparations: Insulin was introduced for DM therapy in 1925, two or three years after its discovery in Canada. The preparations were raw extracts of bovine or porcine pancreas. These did not prevail widely in Japan because of the low incidence of DM before World Wan II. After the war, a shortage of mammalian materials compelled the use of fish pancreatic tissues such as bonito and/or tuna for insulin production. Insulin infection, so-called regular insulin, was first promoted in the 6th "Pharmacopoeia Japonica" (JP6) in 1951 and has been maintained to the present edition (JP14, 2001). Although depot-type insulin preparations were developed in the USA and Europe during the war, the introduction of those preparations to Japan was delayed until 1951, when Protamine zinc insulin appeared. Globin zinc insulin and Isophane insulin were introduced for clinical use in 1952 and 1955, respectively. These were also adopted for JP7 (1961). Biphasic-type insulin, which has a rapid onset and long duration of activity, appeared in 1965. Purified preparations from bovine or porcine sources have been available since 1980, which might be a strong reason for the decrease in insulin allergy. Insulin from animal origin has been supplied for almost 60 years since its discovery. Amino acid sequences of insulins from various species of animals were determined by the pioneering studies of Sanger and his associates. Human insulin, which differs from porcine insulin by only one amino acid, was produced by Novo researchers in 1982 using a semi-synthetic method. Then the Lilly group soon succeeded in obtaining human insulin by recombinant DNA technology in the same year. Both products were introduced to Japan in 1985, and the

  17. Metformin-loaded BSA nanoparticles in cancer therapy: a new perspective for an old antidiabetic drug.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jose, Pinkybel; Sundar, K; Anjali, C H; Ravindran, Aswathy

    2015-03-01

    Clinical and experimental data suggest that there is a strong association between type II diabetic mellitus and pancreatic cancer. The present study focuses on exploring the anticancer and antidiabetic properties of metformin-loaded bovine serum albumin nanoparticles (BSA NPs) on (MiaPaCa-2) pancreatic carcinoma cell lines. Albumin nanoparticles were synthesized using coacervation method and the average size of the particles was found to be 97 nm. The particles were stable and showed a spherical morphology with narrow size distribution. We investigated the impact of two stages characterized in type II diabetes mellitus (hyperglycemia and hyperinsulinemia) on the proliferation of MiaPaCa-2 cells and compared the inhibitory effects of bare metformin to that of MET-BSA NPs. Further, different concentrations of insulin and glucose were added along with bare metformin, bare BSA, and metformin encapsulated BSA carrier on MiaPaCa-2 cells to check the strong association between type II diabetes and pancreatic cancer. The results revealed that MET-BSA NPs showed more toxicity when compared with drug and carrier individually.

  18. Adherence to oral anti-diabetic drugs among patients attending a Ghanaian teaching hospital

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    Bruce SP

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: The burden of diabetes mellitus, especially Type-2, continues to increase across the world. Medication adherence is considered an integral component in its management. Poor glycemic controls due to medication nonadherence accelerates the development of long-term complications which consequently leads to increased hospitalization and mortality. Objective: This study examined the level of adherence to oral antidiabetic drugs among patients who visited the teaching hospital and explored the probable contributory factors to non-adherence. Methods: A cross-sectional descriptive study using systematic sampling to collect quantitative data was undertaken. Questionnaires were administered to out-patients of the medical department of a teaching hospital in Ghana. Logistic regression was performed with statistical significance determined at p<0.05. Results: A total of 200 diabetic patients participated in the study. Using the Morisky Medication Adherence scale, the level of adherence determined was 38.5%. There were significant correlations between level of adherence and educational level [(OR=1.508; (CI 0.805- 2.825, P=0.019, and mode of payment [(OR=1.631; (CI 0.997- 2.669, P=0.05. Conclusion: Adherence in diabetic patients was low among respondents and this can be improved through education, counseling and reinforcement of self-care. There were several possible factors that contributed to the low adherence rate which could benefit from further studies.

  19. Antidiabetic drug metformin inhibits esophageal adenocarcinoma cell proliferation in vitro and in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujihara, Shintaro; Kato, Kiyohito; Morishita, Asahiro; Iwama, Hisakazu; Nishioka, Tomoko; Chiyo, Taiga; Nishiyama, Noriko; Miyoshi, Hisaaki; Kobayashi, Mitsuyoshi; Kobara, Hideki; Mori, Hirohito; Okano, Keiichi; Suzuki, Yasuyuki; Masaki, Tsutomu

    2015-05-01

    Esophageal carcinoma is the eighth most common cancer worldwide and the sixth leading cause of cancer-related deaths, with one of the worst prognoses of any form of cancer. Treatment with the anti-diabetic drug metformin has been associated with reduced cancer incidence in patients with type 2 diabetes. This study therefore evaluated the effects of metformin on the proliferation, in vitro and in vivo, of human esophageal adenocarcinoma cells, as well as the microRNAs associated with the antitumor effects of metformin. Metformin inhibited the proliferation of the esophageal adenocarcinoma cell lines OE19, OE33, SK-GT4 and OACM 5.1C, blocking the G0 to G1 transition in the cell cycle. This was accompanied by strong reductions in G1 cyclins, especially cyclin D1, cyclin-dependent kinase (Cdk)4, and Cdk6, and decreases in retinoblastoma protein phosphorylation. In addition, metformin reduced the phosphorylation of epidermal growth factor receptor and insulin-like growth factor and insulin-like growth factor-1 receptor, as well as angiogenesis-related proteins, such as vascular endothelial growth factor, tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases (TIMP)-1, and TIMP-2. Metformin also markedly altered microRNA expression. Treatment with metformin of athymic nude mice bearing xenograft tumors reduced tumor proliferation. These findings suggest that metformin may have clinical use in the treatment of esophageal adenocarcinoma. PMID:25709052

  20. 我院2006-2010年抗糖尿病药物应用分析%Utilization analysis of anti-diabetic drugs in our hospital during 2006-2010

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘朋; 纪立伟; 梁晓丽

    2013-01-01

      目的:分析北京医院抗糖尿病药的应用情况,为临床合理用药提供参考。方法:对卫生部北京医院2006–2010年抗糖尿病药物的种类、用量、销售金额、用药频度、日均费用等进行分析。结果:我院口服抗糖尿病药的销售金额占抗糖尿病药总金额的70%,其中,以α-葡萄糖苷酶抑制剂所占比例最高,胰岛素类约占30%;阿卡波糖、二甲双胍、诺和灵30R的DDDs较高,临床较为常用;二甲双胍、格列美脲、格列喹酮的DDC较低;噻唑烷二酮类药物的销售金额和DDDs逐年下降,其他药品的销售金额和DDDs均呈上升趋势,DDC逐年下降。瑞格列奈、那格列奈、甘精胰岛素的排序比值较低。结论:我院2006–2010年抗糖尿病药物的使用品种相对稳定,基本满足临床安全、经济、有效用药的需求。%Objective:To analyze the application situation of antidiabetic drugs in our hospital to provide reference for clinical rational drug use. Methods:The variety, amount, consumption sum, DDDs and average daily cost of antidiabetic drugs used in our hospital during 2006–2010 were analyzed retrospectively. Results:Sales amount of oral antidiabetic drugs accounted for 70%of the total amount of antidiabetic drugs. The sales amount ofα-glucosidase inhibitor was the largest and the sales amount of insulin accounted for about 30%of the total amount of antidiabetic drugs. The values of DDDs of acarbose, metformin and Novolin 30R were higher than that of other antidiabetic drugs due to more common use in clinic. The values of DDC of metformin, glimepiride, gliquidone were lower. Exception for the decrease in the sales amount and DDDs of thiazolidinediones, the sales amount and DDDs of other antidiabetic drugs showed an upward trend. The ratios of consumption sum sequence to DDDs sequence of repaglinide, nateglinide and the insulin glargine were smaller. Conclusion:The oral antidiabetic drugs used in our

  1. Development of PPAR-agonist GW0742 as antidiabetic drug: study in animals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niu HS

    2015-10-01

    increase of insulin sensitivity due to GW0742 was observed in these diabetic rats. Moreover, GW0742 reduced the hyperglycemia in T1DM rats lacking insulin. Western blotting analysis indicated that GW0742 reversed the decrease in GLUT4 and markedly reduced the increased PEPCK in liver.Conclusion: The data showed that GW0742 has the ability to improve glucose homeostasis in diabetic rats through activation of PPAR-δ. Therefore, PPAR-δ is a good target for the development of antidiabetic drugs in the future.Keywords: insulin resistance, fructose-rich chow, HOMA-IR, streptozotocin, insulinotropic action, rats

  2. Comparison of anti-diabetic drug prescribing in children and adolescents in seven European countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Neubert, Antje; Hsia, Yingfen; de Jong-van den Berg, Lolkje T. W.; Janhsen, Katrin; Glaeske, Gerd; Furu, Kari; Kieler, Helle; Norgaard, Mette; Clavenna, Antonio; Wong, Ian C. K.

    2011-01-01

    AIMS The aim of this study was to compare the prevalence of diabetes in children across seven European countries, when using prescribing of anti-diabetics as a proxy for diabetes. A secondary aim was to assess the potential for collaboration between countries using different databases in diabetes re

  3. A drug utilization and pharmacoeconomic study of anti-diabetic drugs prescribed to type 2 diabetes mellitus patients visiting the medicine out-patient department of a tertiary care hospital of north India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amandeep Singh

    2016-08-01

    Conclusions: Metformin was the most common OAD agent and insulin aspart was the most common injectable anti-diabetic drug prescribed in patients with T2DM. The newer anti-diabetic drugs sitagliptin and newer insulin analogues were also prescribed to a great extent. Overall, the prescribing trend was rational to a great extent and had improved since the earlier study in the same institute. The most cost-effective anti-diabetic therapy was combination therapy of glipizide and metformin. The cost of diabetes management is high, especially for insulin therapy. [Int J Basic Clin Pharmacol 2016; 5(4.000: 1220-1227

  4. Berberine, a natural antidiabetes drug, attenuates glucose neurotoxicity and promotes Nrf2-related neurite outgrowth

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hsu, Ya-Yun [Department of Pharmacology, School of Medicine, Kaohsiung Medical University, Kaohsiung 80708, Taiwan (China); Graduate Institute of Medicine, College of Medicine, Kaohsiung Medical University, Kaohsiung 80708, Taiwan (China); Tseng, Yu-Ting [Graduate Institute of Natural Products, Kaohsiung Medical University, Kaohsiung 80708, Taiwan (China); Lo, Yi-Ching, E-mail: yichlo@kmu.edu.tw [Department of Pharmacology, School of Medicine, Kaohsiung Medical University, Kaohsiung 80708, Taiwan (China); Graduate Institute of Medicine, College of Medicine, Kaohsiung Medical University, Kaohsiung 80708, Taiwan (China); Graduate Institute of Natural Products, Kaohsiung Medical University, Kaohsiung 80708, Taiwan (China)

    2013-11-01

    Reactive oxygen intermediates production and apoptotic damage induced by high glucose are major causes of neuronal damage in diabetic neuropathy. Berberine (BBR), a natural antidiabetes drug with PI3K-activating activity, holds promise for diabetes because of its dual antioxidant and anti-apoptotic activities. We have previously reported that BBR attenuated H{sub 2}O{sub 2} neurotoxicity via activating the PI3K/Akt/Nrf2-dependent pathway. In this study, we further explored the novel protective mechanism of BBR on high glucose-induced apoptotic death and neurite damage of SH-SY5Y cells. Results indicated BBR (0.1–10 nM) significantly attenuated reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, nucleus condensation, and apoptotic death in high glucose-treated cells. However, AG1024, an inhibitor of insulin growth factor-1 (IGF-1) receptor, significantly abolished BBR protection against high glucose-induced neuronal death. BBR also increased Bcl-2 expression and decreased cytochrome c release. High glucose down-regulated IGF-1 receptor and phosphorylation of Akt and GSK-3β, the effects of which were attenuated by BBR treatment. BBR also activated nuclear erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2), the key antioxidative transcription factor, which is accompanied with up-regulation of hemeoxygenase-1 (HO-1). Furthermore, BBR markedly enhanced nerve growth factor (NGF) expression and promoted neurite outgrowth in high glucose-treated cells. To further determine the role of the Nrf2 in BBR neuroprotection, RNA interference directed against Nrf2 was used. Results indicated Nrf2 siRNA abolished BBR-induced HO-1, NGF, neurite outgrowth and ROS decrease. In conclusion, BBR attenuated high glucose-induced neurotoxicity, and we are the first to reveal this novel mechanism of BBR as an Nrf2 activator against glucose neurotoxicity, providing another potential therapeutic use of BBR on the treatment of diabetic complications. - Highlights: • BBR attenuates high glucose-induced ROS

  5. Treating diet-induced diabetes and obesity with human embryonic stem cell-derived pancreatic progenitor cells and antidiabetic drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruin, Jennifer E; Saber, Nelly; Braun, Natalie; Fox, Jessica K; Mojibian, Majid; Asadi, Ali; Drohan, Campbell; O'Dwyer, Shannon; Rosman-Balzer, Diana S; Swiss, Victoria A; Rezania, Alireza; Kieffer, Timothy J

    2015-04-14

    Human embryonic stem cell (hESC)-derived pancreatic progenitor cells effectively reverse hyperglycemia in rodent models of type 1 diabetes, but their capacity to treat type 2 diabetes has not been reported. An immunodeficient model of type 2 diabetes was generated by high-fat diet (HFD) feeding in SCID-beige mice. Exposure to HFDs did not impact the maturation of macroencapsulated pancreatic progenitor cells into glucose-responsive insulin-secreting cells following transplantation, and the cell therapy improved glucose tolerance in HFD-fed transplant recipients after 24 weeks. However, since diet-induced hyperglycemia and obesity were not fully ameliorated by transplantation alone, a second cohort of HFD-fed mice was treated with pancreatic progenitor cells combined with one of three antidiabetic drugs. All combination therapies rapidly improved body weight and co-treatment with either sitagliptin or metformin improved hyperglycemia after only 12 weeks. Therefore, a stem cell-based therapy may be effective for treating type 2 diabetes, particularly in combination with antidiabetic drugs.

  6. Treating Diet-Induced Diabetes and Obesity with Human Embryonic Stem Cell-Derived Pancreatic Progenitor Cells and Antidiabetic Drugs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer E. Bruin

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Human embryonic stem cell (hESC-derived pancreatic progenitor cells effectively reverse hyperglycemia in rodent models of type 1 diabetes, but their capacity to treat type 2 diabetes has not been reported. An immunodeficient model of type 2 diabetes was generated by high-fat diet (HFD feeding in SCID-beige mice. Exposure to HFDs did not impact the maturation of macroencapsulated pancreatic progenitor cells into glucose-responsive insulin-secreting cells following transplantation, and the cell therapy improved glucose tolerance in HFD-fed transplant recipients after 24 weeks. However, since diet-induced hyperglycemia and obesity were not fully ameliorated by transplantation alone, a second cohort of HFD-fed mice was treated with pancreatic progenitor cells combined with one of three antidiabetic drugs. All combination therapies rapidly improved body weight and co-treatment with either sitagliptin or metformin improved hyperglycemia after only 12 weeks. Therefore, a stem cell-based therapy may be effective for treating type 2 diabetes, particularly in combination with antidiabetic drugs.

  7. PROSPECTS FOR DEVELOPMENT OF ANTIDIABETIC POLYPHENOL-BASED DRUGS: MECHANISMS OF HYPOGLYCEMIC ACTION AND PHARMACOKINETICS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruban E. A.

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Diabetes mellitus is one of the most serious chronic diseases and considered to be non-infectious epidemic worldwide. Persistent hyperglycemia is a major hallmark of diabetes and risk factor for the development of its complications. Therefore, the main therapeutic goal in the treatment of diabetes is to reduce the elevated blood glucose level. Unfortunately, management of diabetes without any side effects is still a challenge to the modern medicine and pharmacy. Among potential alternatives to synthetic antidiabetic drugs plant polyphenols are very promising. However, polyphenol efficiency in diabetes is determined by their chemical structure and hence the affinity to a certain molecular targets in body tissues. Moreover, the bioavailability and other pharmacokinetic parameters of different individual substances may also vary significantly. In this context the present paper is devoted to the analysis of the available data on the hypoglycemic mechanisms and pharmacokinetics of various individual polyphenolic compounds in order to provide the necessary biopharmaceutical requirements in the development of a new blood glucose-lowering drug. Materials and methods. A systematic literature search of Pubmed, EMBASE and other databases with no language restrictions was performed until to the end of August 2015. The following terms were used: polyphenols, diabetes mellitus, hypoglycemic action, pharmacokinetics and bioavailability of polyphenols. Results and discussion. According to available experimental data various polyphenols may influence carbohydrate metabolism at many levels. The mechanisms by which plant polyphenols exert their hypoglycemic action are mediated primarily by their ability to directly bind to target proteins (or peptides and include inhibition of carbohydrate digestion and glucose absorption in the intestine, stimulation of insulin secretion from the pancreatic β-cells, modulation of glucose release from the liver

  8. Synthesis, spectroscopic, structural and thermal characterizations of vanadyl(IV) adenine complex prospective as antidiabetic drug agent

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Megharbel, Samy M.; Hamza, Reham Z.; Refat, Moamen S.

    2015-01-01

    The vanadyl(IV) adenine complex; [VO(Adn)2]ṡSO4; was synthesized and characterized. The molar conductivity of this complex was measured in DMSO solution that showed an electrolyte nature. Spectroscopic investigation of the green solid complex studied here indicate that the adenine acts as a bidentate ligand, coordinated to vanadyl(IV) ions through the nitrogen atoms N7 and nitrogen atom of amino group. Thus, from the results presented the vanadyl(IV) complex has square pyramid geometry. Further characterizations using thermal analyses and scanning electron techniques was useful. The aim of this paper was to introduce a new drug model for the diabetic complications by synthesized a novel mononuclear vanadyl(IV) adenine complex to mimic insulin action and reducing blood sugar level. The antidiabetic ability of this complex was investigated in STZ-induced diabetic mice. The results suggested that VO(IV)/adenine complex has antidiabetic activity, it improved the lipid profile, it improved liver and kidney functions, also it ameliorated insulin hormone and blood glucose levels. The vanadyl(IV) complex possesses an antioxidant activity and this was clear through studying SOD, CAT, MDA, GSH and methionine synthase. The current results support the therapeutic potentiality of vanadyl(IV)/adenine complex for the management and treatment of diabetes.

  9. Antidiabetic Effect of Galantamine: Novel Effect for a Known Centrally Acting Drug.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mennatallah A Ali

    Full Text Available The cholinergic anti-inflammatory pathway is one of the putative biochemical pathways that link diabetes with Alzheimer disease. Hence, we aimed to verify the potential antidiabetic effect of galantamine, unveil the possible mechanisms and evaluate its interaction with vildagliptin. The n5-STZ rat model was adopted and the diabetic animals were treated with galantamine and/or vildagliptin for 4 weeks. Galantamine lowered the n5-STZ-induced elevation in body weight, food/water intake, serum levels of glucose, fructosamine, and ALT/AST, as well as AChE in the tested organs. Moreover, it modulated successfully the lipid profile assessed in serum, liver, and muscle, and increased serum insulin level, as well as % β-cell function, in a pattern similar to that of vildagliptin. Additionally, galantamine confirmed its antioxidant (Nrf2, TAC, MDA, anti-inflammatory (NF-κB, TNF-α, visfatin, adiponectin and anti-apoptotic (caspase-3, cytochrome c capabilities by altering the n5-STZ effect on all the aforementioned parameters. On the molecular level, galantamine/vildagliptin have improved the insulin (p-insulin receptor, p-Akt, GLUT4/GLUT2 and Wnt/β-catenin (p-GSK-3β, β-catenin signaling pathways. On almost all parameters, the galantamine effects surpassed that of vildagliptin, while the combination regimen showed the best effects. The present results clearly proved that galantamine modulated glucose/lipid profile possibly through its anti-oxidant, -apoptotic, -inflammatory and -cholinesterase properties. These effects could be attributed partly to the enhancement of insulin and Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathways. Galantamine can be strongly considered as a potential antidiabetic agent and as an add-on therapy with other oral antidiabetics.

  10. Causative anti-diabetic drugs and the underlying clinicalfactors for hypoglycemia in patients with diabetes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hidekatsu Yanai; Hiroki Adachi; Hisayuki Katsuyama; Sumie Moriyama; Hidetaka Hamasaki; Akahito Sako

    2015-01-01

    Recent clinical trials indicated that the intensiveglycemic control do not reduce cardiovascular diseasemortality among diabetic patients, challenging asignificance of the strict glycemic control in diabetesmanagement. Furthermore, retrospective analysis ofthe Action to Control Cardiovascular Risk in Diabetesstudy demonstrated a significant association betweenhypoglycemia and mortality. Here, we systematicallyreviewed the drug-induced hypoglycemia, and alsothe underlying clinical factors for hypoglycemiain patients with diabetes. The sulfonylurea use issignificantly associated with severe hypoglycemia inpatients with type 2 diabetes. The use of biguanide(approximately 45%-76%) and thiazolidinediones(approximately 15%-34%) are also highly associatedwith the development of severe hypoglycemia. Inpatients treated with insulin, the intensified insulintherapy is more frequently associated with severehypoglycemia than the conventional insulin therapy andcontinuous subcutaneous insulin infusion. Among theunderlying clinical factors for development of severehypoglycemia, low socioeconomic status, aging, longerduration of diabetes, high HbA1c and low body massindex, comorbidities are precipitating factors for severehypoglycemia. Poor cognitive and mental functions arealso associated with severe hypoglycemia.

  11. Retrospective evaluation of adverse drug reactions induced by antihypertensive treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pierandrea Rende

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The use of cardiovascular drugs is related to the development of adverse drug reactions (ADRs in about 24% of the patients in the Cardiovascular Care Unit. Here, we evaluated the ADRs in patients treated with antihypertensive drugs. The study was conducted in two phases: In the first phase, we performed a retrospective study on clinical records of Clinical Divisions (i.e., Internal Medicine Operative Unit and Geriatric Operative Unit from January 1, 2012 to December 31, 2012. Moreover from January 1, 2013 to March 30, 2013 we performed a prospective study on the outpatients attending the Emergency Department (ED of the Pugliese-Ciaccio Hospital of Catanzaro, by conducting patient interviews after their informed consent was obtained. The association between a drug and ADR was evaluated using the Naranjo scale. We recorded 72 ADRs in the Clinical Divisions and six in the ED, and these were more frequent in women. Using the Naranjo score, we showed a probable association in 92% of these reactions and a possible association in 8%. The most vulnerable age group involved in ADRs was that of the elderly patients. In conclusion, our results indicate that antihypertensive drugs may be able to induce the development of ADRs, particularly in elderly women receiving multiple drug treatment. Therefore, it is important to motivate the healthcare providers to understand their role and responsibility in the detection, management, documentation, and reporting of ADRs, as also all the essential activities for optimizing patient safety.

  12. Progress of pharmacogenomic studies on anti-diabetic drugs%口服降糖药的药物基因组学研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王婕; 贾伟平

    2009-01-01

    药物基因组学是研究基因组变异与药物疗效、安全性间关系的学科.本文主要介绍临床常用降糖药的药物基因组学研究进展.%Pharmacogenomics aims to identify the effects of genomie variants on drug efficacy and safety. This article summarized the progress of pharmacogenomic study on anti-diabetic drugs.

  13. Advances of new antidiabetic drugs%新型抗糖尿病药物的研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐斯盛; 张惠斌; 周金培; 黄建军

    2011-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus, an epidemic metabolic disorder characterized by high blood glucose level associated with various microvascular complications, is one of the main causes of human suffering across the globe.With the advance of the pathogenesis of diabetic research, the study of anti-diabetic drugs has transformed from the traditional drugs to the current products with new targets and new mechanism.Some of these drugs are already marketed or still in clinical trials, e.g.GLP-1 activator, DPP4 inhibitor, C.PR119 activator, SGLT-2 inhibitor, 11βHSDl inhibitor, PTPIB inhibitor and so on.In this article, the new antidiabetic drugs mentioned above are reviewed with regard to the therapeutic targets and mechanism.%糖尿病是一种慢性代谢性疾病,其主要表现为高血糖及微血管并发症,是影响人类生活的重大疾病之一.随着对糖尿病发病机制的深入研究,糖尿病药物研究也从对传统机制的药物研究过渡到对具有新作用靶点和新作用机制的药物研究.其中一些药物已经上市或正处于临床研究阶段,如胰高血糖素样肽.1受体激动剂、二肽基肽酶4抑制剂、G蛋白偶联受体119激动剂、钠一葡萄糖同向转运体-2抑制剂、11β-羟基固醇脱氢酶1抑制剂以及蛋白质酪氨酸磷酸酶抑制剂等.本文按作用靶点和机制分类对上述新型抗糖尿病药物进行了综述.

  14. The Antidiabetic Drug Metformin Inhibits the Proliferation of Bladder Cancer Cells in Vitro and in Vivo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tao Zhang

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Recent studies suggest that metformin, a widely used antidiabetic agent, may reduce cancer risk and improve prognosis of certain malignancies. However, the mechanisms for the anti-cancer effects of metformin remain uncertain. In this study, we investigated the effects of metformin on human bladder cancer cells and the underlying mechanisms. Metformin significantly inhibited the proliferation and colony formation of 5637 and T24 cells in vitro; specifically, metformin induced an apparent cell cycle arrest in G0/G1 phases, accompanied by a strong decrease of cyclin D1, cyclin-dependent kinase 4 (CDK4, E2F1 and an increase of p21waf-1. Further experiments revealed that metformin activated AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK and suppressed mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR, the central regulator of protein synthesis and cell growth. Moreover, daily treatment of metformin led to a substantial inhibition of tumor growth in a xenograft model with concomitant decrease in the expression of proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA, cyclin D1 and p-mTOR. The in vitro and in vivo results demonstrate that metformin efficiently suppresses the proliferation of bladder cancer cells and suggest that metformin may be a potential therapeutic agent for the treatment of bladder cancer.

  15. 抗糖尿病药物的临床用药分析%Analysis of the usage of anti-diabetes drugs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李旭; 何晶; 韩莹旻; 邹明

    2011-01-01

    Objective To analyze the clinical application status of anti-diabetes agent used in our hospital, and to provide reference for clinical application. Methods The anti-diabetes drugs variety, amount and the frequency of drug usage and other data from 2007 to 2009, were statistically analyzed using internet methods. Results The sales revenue of the anti-diabetes drugs increased from year to year, and its sales proportion among all drugs in the hospital was gradually increasing at the same time. The sales revenue of the insulin-type drugs was the largest and increased every year. Acarbose, metformin and glimepiride were the main oral anti-diabetes drugs in our hospital. Conclusions Anti-diabetes drugs have big market potential. The drugs that are safe, effective with good compliance and moderate prices are the majority of diabetes-treating drugs.%目的 分析医院抗糖尿病药物的使用情况,为临床合理用药提供依据.方法 运用医院药库计算机网络系统对我院2007-2009年所用的抗糖尿病药物品种、金额和用药频度等数据进行统计学分析.结果 抗糖尿病药物的销售金额呈逐年上升趋势,在我院药物总销售金额所占比例逐渐增加.其中胰岛素类药物在所有抗糖尿病药物的销售中占有率最大,3年的销售金额分别为30.21万元、126.93和246.58万元.阿卡波糖、二甲双胍和格列美脲是我院使用的主要口服抗糖尿病药物.结论 糖尿病的致病因素很多,主要和胰岛素分泌或生成异常有关.抗糖尿病药物市场潜力大,安全、有效、依从性好、价格适中的药物是糖尿病治疗药物的必然发展趋势.

  16. Drug–drug Interaction between Pravastatin and Gemfibrozil (Antihyperlipidemic) with Gliclazide (Antidiabetic) in Rats

    OpenAIRE

    Sultanpur, CM; Satyanarayana, S.; Reddy, NS; Kumar, KE; Kumar, S

    2010-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus is a condition of increased blood glucose level in the body. Antihyperlipidemic drugs like statins and fibrates are widely used for prophylactic treatment in dyslipideamia and atherosclerosis. Diabetic dislipidemia exists with increased triglycerides, low HDL and high LDL levels. Hence, with oral hypoglycemic drugs, the addition of a lipid-lowering drug is necessary for controlling dislipidemia. In such a situation, there may be chances of drug–drug interactions between anti...

  17. Recent development of single preparations and fixed-dose combination tablets for the treatment of non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus : A comprehensive summary for antidiabetic drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jianwen; Lian, He

    2016-06-01

    As a complex endocrine and metabolic disorder, type 2 diabetes mellitus (non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus, NIDDM) has become a major threat to human health. Because of the heterogeneous and progressive disorders induced by insulin resistance and pancreatic b-cell dysfunction, the treatment of NIDDM is still challenging. Although antidiabetic drugs with different pharmacological mechanisms of action have been used clinically, different degrees of undesirable glucose control and the incidences of a variety of side effects, including hypoglycemia, cardiovascular complications and weight gain require the better treatment options. This article has overviewed the current literature about commercially available antidiabetic drugs with different pharmacological mechanisms of action in the treatment of NIDDM, and summarized the published data regarding the efficacy, tolerability, and safety of currently available single preparations and fixed-dose combinations, aiming to provide important information for the development and application of antidiabetic drugs in the future. The literature search from 1989 to 2015 was conducted by PubMed, ScienceDirect, Springer, American Diabetes Association, and U.S. FDA Drugs databases. PMID:27230777

  18. Difference in the Pharmacokinetics and Hepatic Metabolism of Antidiabetic Drugs in Zucker Diabetic Fatty and Sprague-Dawley Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Xin; Rougée, Luc R A; Bedwell, David W; Cramer, Jeff W; Mohutsky, Michael A; Calvert, Nathan A; Moulton, Richard D; Cassidy, Kenneth C; Yumibe, Nathan P; Adams, Lisa A; Ruterbories, Kenneth J

    2016-08-01

    The Zucker diabetic fatty (ZDF) rat, an inbred strain of obese Zucker fatty rat, develops early onset of insulin resistance and displays hyperglycemia and hyperlipidemia. The phenotypic changes resemble human type 2 diabetes associated with obesity and therefore the strain is used as a pharmacological model for type 2 diabetes. The aim of the current study was to compare the pharmacokinetics and hepatic metabolism in male ZDF and Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats of five antidiabetic drugs that are known to be cleared via various mechanisms. Among the drugs examined, metformin, cleared through renal excretion, and rosiglitazone, metabolized by hepatic cytochrome P450 2C, did not exhibit differences in the plasma clearance in ZDF and SD rats. In contrast, glibenclamide, metabolized by hepatic CYP3A, canagliflozin, metabolized mainly by UDP-glucuronosyltransferases (UGT), and troglitazone, metabolized by sulfotransferase and UGT, exhibited significantly lower plasma clearance in ZDF than in SD rats after a single intravenous administration. To elucidate the mechanisms for the difference in the drug clearance, studies were performed to characterize the activity of hepatic drug-metabolizing enzymes using liver S9 fractions from the two strains. The results revealed that the activity for CYP3A and UGT was decreased in ZDF rats using the probe substrates, and decreased unbound intrinsic clearance in vitro for glibenclamide, canagliflozin, and troglitazone was consistent with lower plasma clearance in vivo. The difference in pharmacokinetics of these two strains may complicate pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic correlations, given that ZDF is used as a pharmacological model, and SD rat as the pharmacokinetics and toxicology strain. PMID:27217490

  19. Predicting Noninsulin Antidiabetic Drug Adherence Using a Theoretical Framework Based on the Theory of Planned Behavior in Adults With Type 2 Diabetes

    OpenAIRE

    Zomahoun, Hervé Tchala Vignon; Moisan, Jocelyne; Lauzier, Sophie; Guillaumie,Laurence; Grégoire, Jean-Pierre; Guénette, Line

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Understanding the process behind noninsulin antidiabetic drug (NIAD) nonadherence is necessary for designing effective interventions to resolve this problem. This study aimed to explore the ability of the theory of planned behavior (TPB), which is known as a good predictor of behaviors, to predict the future NIAD adherence in adults with type 2 diabetes. We conducted a prospective study of adults with type 2 diabetes. They completed a questionnaire on TPB variables and external varia...

  20. Comparative Efficacy and Safety of Antidiabetic Drug Regimens Added to Metformin Monotherapy in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes: A Network Meta-Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Elizabeth S Mearns; Sobieraj, Diana M.; White, C. Michael; Saulsberry, Whitney J.; Kohn, Christine G; Doleh, Yunes; Zaccaro, Eric; Coleman, Craig I

    2015-01-01

    Introduction When first line therapy with metformin is insufficient for patients with type 2 diabetes (T2D), the optimal adjunctive therapy is unclear. We assessed the efficacy and safety of adjunctive antidiabetic agents in patients with inadequately controlled T2D on metformin alone. Materials and Methods A search of MEDLINE and CENTRAL, clinicaltrials.gov, regulatory websites was performed. We included randomized controlled trials of 3–12 months duration, evaluating Food and Drug Administr...

  1. The anti-diabetic drug metformin reduces BACE1 protein level by interfering with the MID1 complex.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moritz M Hettich

    Full Text Available Alzheimer's disease (AD, the most common form of dementia in the elderly, is characterized by two neuropathological hallmarks: senile plaques, which are composed of Aβ peptides, and neurofibrillary tangles, which are composed of hyperphosphorylated TAU protein. Diabetic patients with dysregulated insulin signalling are at increased risk of developing AD. Further, several animal models of diabetes show increased Aβ expression and hyperphosphorylated tau. As we have shown recently, the anti-diabetic drug metformin is capable of dephosphorylating tau at AD-relevant phospho-sites. Here, we investigated the effect of metformin on the main amyloidogenic enzyme BACE1 and, thus, on the production of Aβ peptides, the second pathological hallmark of AD. We find similar results in cultures of primary neurons, a human cell line model of AD and in vivo in mice. We show that treatment with metformin decreases BACE1 protein expression by interfering with an mRNA-protein complex that contains the ubiquitin ligase MID1, thereby reducing BACE1 activity. Together with our previous findings these results indicate that metformin may target both pathological hallmarks of AD and may be of therapeutic value for treating and/or preventing AD.

  2. Antidiabetic oils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berraaouan, Ali; Abid, Sanae; Bnouham, Mohamed

    2013-11-01

    Many studies have demonstrated evidence of the health benefits of natural products. Plant extracts have been tested on a variety of physiological disorders, including diabetes mellitus. Studies have tested aqueous extracts, plant fractions extracts, families of active of compounds, and specific active compounds. In this review, we describe the antidiabetic effects of vegetable oils. Information was collected from ScienceDirect and PubMed databases using the following key words: Diabetes mellitus, Oils, Vegetable oils, Type 1 diabetes, type 2 diabetes, antidiabetic effect, antihyperglycemic, antidiabetic oil. We have compiled approximately ten vegetable oils with including experimental studies that have demonstrated benefits on diabetes mellitus. There are soybean, argan, olive, palm, walnut, black cumin, safflower, Colocynth, Black seed, Rice bran, Cinnamom, and Rocket oils. For each vegetable oil, we investigated on the plant's traditional uses, their pharmacological activities and their antidiabetic effects. It seems that many vegetable oils are really interesting and can be used in the improvement of human health, particularly, to prevent or to treat diabetes mellitus complications.

  3. Antidiabetic drugs restore abnormal transport of amyloid-β across the blood-brain barrier and memory impairment in db/db mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Fang; Dong, Rong Rong; Zhong, Kai Long; Ghosh, Arijit; Tang, Su Su; Long, Yan; Hu, Mei; Miao, Ming Xing; Liao, Jian Min; Sun, Hong Bing; Kong, Ling Yi; Hong, Hao

    2016-02-01

    Previous studies have shown significant changes in amyloid-β (Aβ) transport across the blood-brain barrier (BBB) under diabetic conditions with hypoinsulinemia, which is involved in diabetes-associated cognitive impairment. Present study employed db/db mice with hyperinsulinemia to investigate changes in Aβ transport across the BBB, hippocampal synaptic plasticity, and restorative effects of antidiabetic drugs. Our results showed that db/db mice exhibited similar changes in Aβ transport across the BBB to that of insulin-deficient mice. Chronic treatment of db/db mice with antidiabetic drugs such as metformin, glibenclamide and insulin glargine significantly decreased Aβ influx across the BBB determined by intra-arterial infusion of (125)I-Aβ(1-40), and expression of the receptor for advanced glycation end products (RAGE) participating in Aβ influx. Insulin glargine, but not, metformin or glibenclamide increased Aβ efflux across the BBB determined by stereotaxic intra-cerebral infusion of (125)I-Aβ(1-40), and expression of the low-density lipoprotein receptor related protein 1 (LRP1) participating in Aβ efflux. Moreover, treatment with these drugs significantly decreased hippocampal Aβ(1-40) or Aβ(1-42) and inhibited neuronal apoptosis. The drugs also ameliorated memory impairment confirmed by improved performance on behavioral tasks. However, insulin glargine or glibenclamide, but not metformin, restored hippocampal synaptic plasticity characterized by enhancing in vivo long-term potentiation (LTP). Further study found that these three drugs significantly restrained NF-κB, but only insulin glargine enhanced peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ) activity at the BBB in db/db mice. Our data indicate that the antidiabetic drugs can partially restore abnormal Aβ transport across the BBB and memory impairment under diabetic context. PMID:26211973

  4. [Metformin - new data for an "old", but efficient, safe and reliable antidiabetic drug].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winkler, Gábor

    2016-06-01

    Metformin is the basic drug of antihyperglycemic therapy in type 2 diabetes: according to actual therapeutic guidelines, it should be given in the absence of contraindications or intolerance during the whole course of the disease even after the initiation of insulin therapy. Recently more and more details have been explored regarding the molecular background of its effects, however, in parallel with the enormous growing knowledge, the number of questions still waiting to be answered has also grown. This review article deals with data already crystallized as well as with details not definitely cleared up. Genetic polymorphisms as well as potential drug interactions influencing the effects of metformin are also briefly summarized.

  5. [Metformin - new data for an "old", but efficient, safe and reliable antidiabetic drug].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winkler, Gábor

    2016-06-01

    Metformin is the basic drug of antihyperglycemic therapy in type 2 diabetes: according to actual therapeutic guidelines, it should be given in the absence of contraindications or intolerance during the whole course of the disease even after the initiation of insulin therapy. Recently more and more details have been explored regarding the molecular background of its effects, however, in parallel with the enormous growing knowledge, the number of questions still waiting to be answered has also grown. This review article deals with data already crystallized as well as with details not definitely cleared up. Genetic polymorphisms as well as potential drug interactions influencing the effects of metformin are also briefly summarized. PMID:27233831

  6. After Avandia: The Use of Antidiabetic Drugs in Patients with Heart Failure

    OpenAIRE

    Khalaf, Khaled I.; Taegtmeyer, Heinrich

    2012-01-01

    Managing diabetes mellitus is an ongoing concern, especially in the presence of heart failure. Recent reports have drawn attention to adverse cardiovascular events associated with the use of thiazolidinediones, including rosiglitazone (Avandia). In 2011, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration implemented a stringent “restricted access program” for the prescription of Avandia. Other studies, which have revealed increased mortality rates in association with tight glycemic control, raise serious ...

  7. Efficacy and safety of oral antidiabetic drugs in comparison to insulin in treating gestational diabetes mellitus: a meta-analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nalinee Poolsup

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To assess the efficacy and safety of oral antidiabetic drugs (OADs in gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM in comparison to insulin. METHODS: A meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials was conducted. The efficacy and safety of OADs in comparison to insulin in GDM patients were explored. Studies were identified by conducting a literature search using the electronic databases of Medline, CENTRAL, CINAHL, LILACS, Scopus and Web of Science in addition to conducting hand search of relevant journals from inception until October 2013. RESULTS: Thirteen studies involving 2,151 patients met the inclusion criteria. These studies were randomized controlled trials of metformin and glyburide in comparison to insulin therapy. Our results indicated a significant increase in the risk for preterm births (RR, 1.51; 95% CI, 1.04-2.19, p = 0.03 with metformin compared to insulin. However, a significant decrease in the risk for gestational hypertension (RR, 0.54; 95% CI, 0.31-0.91, p = 0.02 was found. Postprandial glucose levels also decreased significantly in patients receiving metformin (MD, -2.47 mg/dL; 95% CI, -4.00, -0.94, p = 0.002. There was no significant difference between the two groups for the remaining outcomes. There were significant increases in the risks of macrosomia (RR, 2.34; 95% CI, 1.18-4.63, p = 0.03 and neonatal hypoglycemia (RR, 2.06; 95% CI, 1.27-3.34, p = 0.005 in the glyburide group compared to insulin whereas results for the other analyzed outcomes remained non-significant. CONCLUSION: The available evidence suggests favorable effects of metformin in treating GDM patients. Metformin seems to be an efficacious alternative to insulin and a better choice than glyburide especially those with mild form of disease.

  8. Establishment of liver specific glucokinase gene knockout mice:a new animal model for screening anti-diabetic drugs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ya-li ZHANG; Xiao-hong TAN; Mei-fang XIAO; Hui LI; Yi-qing Mao; Xiao YANG; Huan-ran TAN

    2004-01-01

    AIM: To characterize the liver-specific role of glucokinase in maintaining glucose homeostasis and to create an animal model for diabetes. METHODS: We performed hepatocyte-specific gene knockout of glucokinase in mice using Cre-loxP gene targeting strategy. First, two directly repeated loxP sequences were inserted to flank the exon 9 and exon 10 of glucokinase in genomic DNA. To achieve this, linearized targeting vector was electroporated into ES cells. Then G418- and Gancyclovir-double-resistant clones were picked and screened by PCR analysis and the positives identified by PCR were confirmed by Southern blot. A targeted clone was selected for microinjection into C57BL/6J blastocysts and implanted into pseudopregnant FVB recipient. Chimeric mice and their offspring were analyzed by Southern blot. Then by intercrossing the Alb-Cre transgenic mice with mice containing a conditional gk allele, we obtained mice with liver-specific glucokinase gene knockout. RESULTS: Among 161 double resistant clones 4 were positive to PCR and Southern blot and only one was used for further experiments. Eventually we generated the liver specific glucokinase knockout mice. These mice showed increased glucose level with age and at the age of 6 weeks fasting blood glucose level was significantly higher than control and they also displayed impaired glucose tolerance. CONCLUSION: Our studies indicate that hepatic glucokinase plays an important role in glucose homeostasis and its deficiencies contribute to the development of diabetes. The liver glucokinase knockout mouse is an ideal animal model for MODY2, and it also can be applied for screening anti-diabetic drugs.

  9. Microencapsulation as a novel delivery method for the potential antidiabetic drug, Probucol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mooranian A

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Armin Mooranian,1 Rebecca Negrulj,1 Nigel Chen-Tan,2 Hesham S Al-Sallami,3 Zhongxiang Fang,4 TK Mukkur,5 Momir Mikov,6,7 Svetlana Golocorbin-Kon,6,7 Marc Fakhoury,8 Gerald F Watts,9 Vance Matthews,10 Frank Arfuso,5 Hani Al-Salami1 1Biotechnology and Drug Development Research Laboratory School of Pharmacy, Curtin Health Innovation Research Institute, Biosciences Research Precinct, Curtin University, Perth, Western Australia, Australia; 2Faculty of Science and Engineering, Curtin University, Perth, Western Australia, Australia; 3School of Pharmacy, University of Otago, Dunedin, New Zealand; 4School of Public Health, Curtin University, Perth, Western Australia, Australia; 5Curtin Health Innovation Research Institute, Biosciences Research Precinct, School of Biomedical Science, Curtin University, Perth, Western Australia, Australia; 6Department of Pharmacology, Toxicology and Clinical Pharmacology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Novi Sad, Serbia; 7Department of Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, University of Novi Sad, Serbia; 8Faculty of Medicine, University of Montreal, Montreal, Quebec, Canada; 9School of Medicine and Pharmacology, Royal Perth Hospital, University of Western Australia; 10Laboratory for Metabolic Dysfunction, UWA Centre for Medical Research, Harry Perkins Institute of Medical Research, Perth, Western Australia, Australia Introduction: In previous studies, we successfully designed complex multicompartmental microcapsules as a platform for the oral targeted delivery of lipophilic drugs in type 2 diabetes (T2D. Probucol (PB is an antihyperlipidemic and antioxidant drug with the potential to show benefits in T2D. We aimed to create a novel microencapsulated formulation of PB and to examine the shape, size, and chemical, thermal, and rheological properties of these microcapsules in vitro. Method: Microencapsulation was carried out using the Büchi-based microencapsulating system developed in our laboratory. Using the polymer, sodium

  10. EXPERIENCE WITH THE ROSINSULIN C IN COMBINATION WITH ORAL ANTIDIABETIC DRUGS IN PATIENTS WITH TYPE 2 DIABETES IN ROUTINE CLINICAL PRACTICE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. D. Rymar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to estimate the efficacy and safety of intermediate-acting insulin Rosinsulin C in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus inadequately controlled with oral antidiabetic drugs.The present study is a 6-month, prospective, uncontrolled, clinical experience evaluation study using insulin Rosinsulin С for type 2 diabetes patients in daily clinical practice. Episodes of hypoglycaemia, adverse events were recorded. The study included 28 patients with type 2 diabetes, 4 men and 24 women who treated with metformin in combination with sulfonylureas in the highest dose. Indicators of glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c of 8 to 14%, the median HbA1c was 11 (10; 13% of patients age 65 (57; 72 years, body mass index – 33 (30; 35 kg/m2, waist circumference – 105 (99; 111 cm, diabetes duration – 7 (2; 11 years. With the introduction of Rosinsulin С cartridges carried pen Autopen. At the start of the study and after 3 and 6 months, determined the level of HbA1c, fasting plasma glucose.After 6 months' treatment with Rosinsulin С in combination with oral antidiabetic drugs HbA1c was significantly lowered (–3% (p = 0,001, fasting plasma glucose level decreased by 5 mmol/L (p = 0,001. There was not severe hypoglycemia during the observation period.This research showed that Rosinsulin C is effective and safe in the treatment of patients with type 2 diabetes who were decompensated with oral antidiabetic drugs and can be recommended for use as the initiation of insulin therapy in routine clinical practice.

  11. Incomplete aerobic degradation of the antidiabetic drug Metformin and identification of the bacterial dead-end transformation product Guanylurea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trautwein, Christoph; Kümmerer, Klaus

    2011-10-01

    Active pharmaceutical ingredients as well as personal care products are detected in increasing prevalence in different environmental compartments such as surface water, groundwater and soil. Still little is known about the environmental fate of these substances. The type II antidiabetic drug Metformin has already been detected in different surface waters worldwide, but concentrations were significantly lower than the corresponding predicted environmental concentration (PEC). In human and mammal metabolism so far no metabolites of Metformin have been identified, so the expected environmental concentrations should be very high. To assess the aerobic biodegradability of Metformin and the possible formation of degradation products, three Organisation of Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) test series were performed in the present study. In the Closed Bottle test (OECD 301 D), a screening test that simulates the conditions of an environmental surface water compartment, Metformin was classified as not readily biodegradable (no biodegradation). In the Manometric Respiratory test (OEDC 301 F) working with high bacterial density, Metformin was biodegraded in one of three test bottles to 48.7% and in the toxicity control bottle to 57.5%. In the Zahn-Wellens test (OECD 302 B) using activated sludge, Metformin was biodegraded in both test vessels to an extent of 51.3% and 49.9%, respectively. Analysis of test samples by high performance liquid chromatography coupled to multiple stage mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS(n)) showed in the tests vessels were biodegradation was observed full elimination of Metformin and revealed Guanylurea (Amidinourea, Dicyandiamidine) as single and stable aerobic bacterial degradation product. In another Manometric Respiratory test Guanylurea showed no more transformation. Photodegradation of Guanylurea was also negative. A first screening in one of the greatest sewage treatment plant in southern Germany found Metformin with high concentrations

  12. The Impact of Initiating Biphasic Human Insulin 30 Therapy in Type 2 Diabetes Patients After Failure of Oral Antidiabetes Drugs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Yunjuan; Hou, Xuhong; Zhang, Lei; Pan, Jiemin; Cai, Qingxia; Bao, Yuqian

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background The present study evaluated the efficacy of biphasic human insulin 30 (BHI 30) in type 2 diabetes patients who had failed in therapy with two or more oral antidiabetes drugs (OADs). Methods This open-label, nonrandomized, 4-month, multicenter, clinical observational study was conducted in Shanghai, China. A total of 660 insulin-naive type 2 diabetes patients with poor glycemic control (glycosylated hemoglobin [HbA1c] ≥7.5%), despite treatment with two or more OADs for more than 6 months, were recruited and received BHI 30 monotherapy or BHI 30 plus OAD(s) (metformin only, α-glucosidase inhibitor only, or both). Results Among the 660 subjects, 644 completed the 4-month study. At the end of the study, the median level of HbA1c decreased by 2.0% (from 9.1% to 7.0%) in the BHI 30 monotherapy group and also 2.0% (from 9.5% to 7.3%) in the BHI 30 plus OAD group. More patients achieved the HbA1c <7.0% target in the BHI 30 monotherapy group than in the BHI 30 plus OAD(s) group (47.9% vs. 35.3%, P=0.002). Compared with the expenses of the prior treatment strategy, the median daily cost decreased by 39.8% (4.5 yuan, Chinese RMB) at the end point in the BHI 30 monotherapy group but increased by 20.0% (2.2 yuan) in the BHI 30 plus OAD(s) group (P<0.0001). Moreover, patients in the BHI 30 plus OAD(s) group had fewer minor hypoglycemic episodes than in the BHI 30 monotherapy group (mean of 1.06 vs. 2.77 per patient per year, P<0.0001). Conclusions Short-term BHI 30 therapy can improve glycemic control in insulin-naive type 2 diabetes patients after failure of two or more OADs. With higher baseline glucose level, the BHI 30 plus OAD(s) group had lower pharmacoeconomic efficacy than the BHI 30 monotherapy group despite having fewer hypoglycemia events. PMID:22047050

  13. Magnetic solid-phase extraction based on mesoporous silica-coated magnetic nanoparticles for analysis of oral antidiabetic drugs in human plasma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Souza, Karynne Cristina; Andrade, Gracielle Ferreira; Vasconcelos, Ingrid; de Oliveira Viana, Iara Maíra; Fernandes, Christian; de Sousa, Edésia Martins Barros

    2014-07-01

    In the present work, magnetic nanoparticles embedded into mesoporous silica were prepared in two steps: first, magnetite was synthesized by oxidation-precipitation method, and next, the magnetic nanoparticles were coated with mesoporous silica by using nonionic block copolymer surfactants as structure-directing agents. The mesoporous SiO2-coated Fe3O4 samples were functionalized using octadecyltrimethoxysilane as silanizing agent. The pure and functionalized silica nanoparticles were physicochemically and morphologically characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), N2 adsorption, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The resultant magnetic silica nanoparticles were applied as sorbents for magnetic solid-phase extraction (MSPE) of oral antidiabetic drugs in human plasma. Our results revealed that the magnetite nanoparticles were completely coated by well-ordered mesoporous silica with free pores and stable pore walls, and that the structural and magnetic properties of the Fe3O4 nanoparticles were preserved in the applied synthesis route. Indeed, the sorbent material was capable of extracting the antidiabetic drugs from human plasma, being useful for the sample preparation in biological matrices.

  14. Substandard and falsified medicines in the UK: a retrospective review of drug alerts (2001–2011)

    OpenAIRE

    Almuzaini, Tariq; Sammons, Helen; Choonara, Imti

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To determine the extent of substandard and falsified medicines in the UK. Design: A retrospective review of drug alerts and company-led recalls. Setting: The Medicines and Healthcare Products Regulatory Agency (MHRA) website search for drug alerts issued between 2001 and 2011. Eligibility criteria: Drug alerts related to quality defect in medicinal products. Main outcome measure: Relevant data about defective medicines reported in drug alerts and co...

  15. SGLT-2 inhibitors: the glucosuric antidiabetics

    OpenAIRE

    Rekha Thaddanee; Ajeet Kumar Khilnani; Gurudas Khilnani

    2013-01-01

    Despite availability of a number of oral antidiabetics, a sizeable population of diabetics remains uncontrolled. Thus there is growing need of new group of drugs for diabetic control. Understanding renal conservation of glucose by efficient reabsorption through sodium glucose cotransporter-2 (SGLT-2) has paved way for development of an entirely new group of drugs, the SGLT-2 inhibitors. These glucosuric antidiabetic agents have shown promise in early clinical studies. Canagliflozin is recentl...

  16. Comparison of the Efficacy of Glimepiride, Metformin, and Rosiglitazone Monotherapy in Korean Drug-Naïve Type 2 Diabetic Patients: The Practical Evidence of Antidiabetic Monotherapy Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kun Ho Yoon

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundAlthough many anti-diabetic drugs have been used to control hyperglycemia for decades, the efficacy of commonly-used oral glucose-lowering agents in Korean type 2 diabetic patients has yet to be clearly demonstrated.MethodsWe evaluated the efficacy of glimepiride, metformin, and rosiglitazone as initial treatment for drug-naïve type 2 diabetes mellitus patients in a 48-week, double-blind, randomized controlled study that included 349 Korean patients. Our primary goal was to determine the change in HbA1c levels from baseline to end point. Our secondary goal was to evaluate changes in fasting plasma glucose (FPG levels, body weight, frequency of adverse events, and the proportion of participants achieving target HbA1c levels.ResultsHbA1c levels decreased from 7.8% to 6.9% in the glimepiride group (P<0.001, from 7.9% to 7.0% in the metformin group (P<0.001, and from 7.8% to 7.0% (P<0.001 in the rosiglitazone group. Glimepiride and rosiglitazone significantly increased body weight and metformin reduced body weight during the study period. Symptomatic hypoglycemia was more frequent in the glimepiride group and diarrhea was more frequent in the metformin group.ConclusionThe efficacy of glimepiride, metformin, and rosiglitazone as antidiabetic monotherapies in drug-naïve Korean type 2 diabetic patients was similar in the three groups, with no statistical difference. This study is the first randomized controlled trial to evaluate the efficacy of commonly-used oral hypoglycemic agents in Korean type 2 diabetic patients. An additional subgroup analysis is recommended to obtain more detailed information.

  17. Magnetic solid-phase extraction based on mesoporous silica-coated magnetic nanoparticles for analysis of oral antidiabetic drugs in human plasma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Souza, Karynne Cristina de; Andrade, Gracielle Ferreira [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear, CDTN/CNEN, Rua Professor Mário Werneck, s/n. Campus Universitário, Belo Horizonte, MG CEP 30.123-970 (Brazil); Vasconcelos, Ingrid; Oliveira Viana, Iara Maíra de; Fernandes, Christian [Departamento de Produtos Farmacêuticos, Faculdade de Farmácia, Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil); Martins Barros de Sousa, Edésia, E-mail: sousaem@cdtn.br [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear, CDTN/CNEN, Rua Professor Mário Werneck, s/n. Campus Universitário, Belo Horizonte, MG CEP 30.123-970 (Brazil)

    2014-07-01

    In the present work, magnetic nanoparticles embedded into mesoporous silica were prepared in two steps: first, magnetite was synthesized by oxidation–precipitation method, and next, the magnetic nanoparticles were coated with mesoporous silica by using nonionic block copolymer surfactants as structure-directing agents. The mesoporous SiO{sub 2}-coated Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} samples were functionalized using octadecyltrimethoxysilane as silanizing agent. The pure and functionalized silica nanoparticles were physicochemically and morphologically characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), N{sub 2} adsorption, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The resultant magnetic silica nanoparticles were applied as sorbents for magnetic solid-phase extraction (MSPE) of oral antidiabetic drugs in human plasma. Our results revealed that the magnetite nanoparticles were completely coated by well-ordered mesoporous silica with free pores and stable pore walls, and that the structural and magnetic properties of the Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} nanoparticles were preserved in the applied synthesis route. Indeed, the sorbent material was capable of extracting the antidiabetic drugs from human plasma, being useful for the sample preparation in biological matrices. - Highlights: • SBA-15/Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} was synthesized and functionalized with octadecyltrimethoxysilane. • Magnetite nanoparticles were completely coated by well-ordered mesoporous silica. • The samples were used as sorbent for magnetic solid-phase extraction (MSPE). • The sorbent material was capable of extracting drugs from human plasma. • The extraction ability makes the material a candidate to be employed as MSPE.

  18. Risk of Falling and Hypnotic Drugs: Retrospective Study of Inpatients

    OpenAIRE

    Obayashi, Kyoko; Araki, Takuya; Nakamura, Katsunori; Kurabayashi, Masahiko; NOJIMA, YOSHIHISA; Hara, Katsuyuki; Nakamura, Tomonori; Yamamoto, Koujirou

    2013-01-01

    Background Falls and related injuries remain a concern for patient safety in many hospitals and nursing care facilities. In particular, reports examining the relationship between accidents and drugs with a sedative effect have been increasing; however, the analysis of correlation between the background factors of fall accidents and the detailed therapeutic category of drugs is insufficient. Objectives Our objective was to estimate fall risk following the administration of hypnotics in inpatie...

  19. Retrospective drug utilization review: impact of pharmacist interventions on physician prescribing

    OpenAIRE

    Angalakuditi M; Gomes J.

    2011-01-01

    Mallik Angalakuditi1, Joseph Gomes21Georgia State University, Atlanta, GA, USA; 2Baxter Health Care, Deerfield, IL, USAObjectives: To evaluate the impact of retrospective drug utilization review (RDUR), pharmacist’s interventions on physician prescribing, and the level of spillover effect on future prescriptions following the intervention.Methods: A retrospective case–control study was conducted at a pharmacy benefits management company using the available prescription dat...

  20. The 1.76 A resolution crystal structure of glycogen phosphorylase B complexed with glucose, and CP320626, a potential antidiabetic drug.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oikonomakos, Nikos G; Zographos, Spyros E; Skamnaki, Vicky T; Archontis, Georgios

    2002-05-01

    CP320626, a potential antidiabetic drug, inhibits glycogen phosphorylase in synergism with glucose. To elucidate the structural basis of synergistic inhibition, we determined the structure of muscle glycogen phosphorylase b (MGPb) complexed with both glucose and CP320626 at 1.76 A resolution, and refined to a crystallographic R value of 0.211 (R(free)=0.235). CP320626 binds at a novel allosteric site, which is some 33 A from the catalytic site, where glucose binds. The high resolution structure allows unambiguous definition of the conformation of the 1-acetyl-4-hydroxy-piperidine ring supported by theoretical energy calculations. Both CP320626 and glucose promote the less active T-state, thereby explaining their synergistic inhibition. Structural comparison of MGPb--glucose--CP320626 complex with liver glycogen phosphorylase a (LGPa) complexed with a related compound (CP403700) show that the ligand binding site is conserved in LGPa. PMID:11886794

  1. Kinetics and Molecular Docking Study of an Anti-diabetic Drug Glimepiride as Acetylcholinesterase Inhibitor: Implication for Alzheimer's Disease-Diabetes Dual Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizvi, Syed Mohd Danish; Shaikh, Sibhghatulla; Naaz, Deeba; Shakil, Shazi; Ahmad, Adnan; Haneef, Mohd; Abuzenadah, Adel M

    2016-06-01

    At the present time, treatment of two most common degenerative disorders of elderly population i.e., Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus (T2DM) and Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a major concern worldwide. As there are several evidences that proved strong linkages between these two disorders, the idea of using dual therapeutic agent for both the diseases might be considered as a good initiative. Earlier reports have revealed that oral anti-diabetic drugs such as peroxisome proliferator activated receptor γ (PPARγ) agonists (thiazolidinediones) when used in T2DM patients suffering from AD showed improved memory and cognition. However, the underlying mechanism still needs to be deciphered. Therefore, the present study was carried out to find whether glimepiride, an oral antidiabetic drug which is a PPARγ agonist could inhibit the activity of acetylcholine esterase (AChE) enzyme. Actually, AChE inhibitors seize the breakdown of acetylcholine which forms the main therapeutic strategy for AD. Here, glimepiride showed dose dependent inhibitory activity against AChE enzyme with IC50 value of 235 μM. Kinetic analysis showed competitive inhibition, which was verified by in silico docking studies. Glimepiride was found to interact with AChE enzyme at the same locus as that of substrate acetylcholine iodide (AChI). Interestingly, amino acid residues, Q71, Y72, V73, D74, W86, N87, Y124, S125, W286, F295, F297, Y337, F338 and Y341 of AChE were found to be common for 'glimepiride-AChE interaction' as well as 'AChI-AChE interaction'. Thus the present computational and kinetics study concludes that glimepiride and other thiazolidinediones derivatives could form the basis of future dual therapy against diabetes associated neurological disorders. PMID:26886763

  2. Comparative evaluation of effects of combined oral anti-diabetic drugs (sulfonylurea plus pioglitazone and sulfonylurea plus metformin over lipid parameters in type 2 diabetic patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sukanta Sen

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Type 2 diabetes is associated with significant cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Dyslipidemia, which affects almost 50% of patients with type 2 diabetes, is a cardiovascular risk factor characterized by elevated triglyceride levels, low high-density lipoprotein (HDL cholesterol levels, and a preponderance of small, dense, low-density lipoprotein (LDL particles. In addition to their glucose-lowering properties, oral anti-diabetic agents may have effects on lipid levels, especially triglycerides (TGs, HDL-C, LDL-C and total cholesterol levels. Methods: A prospective, open-labeled, randomized, parallel-group study was carried out in sizable number of patients (n=40 of established type 2 diabetes on combined oral anti-diabetic drugs, to investigate the effects of combined oral anti-diabetic on lipid parameters who was not receiving any hypolipidemic agent in addition. Results: Statistically significant mean reduction of triglycerides (TGs of 25.1mg/dl (a 15.30% reduction from baseline value and by 13.5 mg/dl (a 8.94% reduction from baseline value in the SU (sulfonylurea plus PIO (pioglitazone and SU plus MET (metformin group respectively. Present study also shows improvement in HDL cholesterol with SU plus PIO group by 13.18% which is almost twice that observed in SU plus MET group (8.06%. Present study also shows increase in LDL cholesterol with SU plus PIO group by 2.10%, is just opposite to SU plus MET group (4.92 % decrease. With SU plus PIO group, a statistically significant mean reduction of total cholesterol (TC of 8.33mg/dl (5.14 % decrease and by 7.62 mg/dl (4.28% decrease in the SU plus MET group. Conclusions: Pioglitazone, a thiazolidinedione, has been shown to improve the lipid profile in patients with type 2 diabetes by increasing HDL-C levels and by decreasing triglyceride and total cholesterol levels in monotherapy or combination regimens with sulfonylurea. Metformin also has been shown to reduce LDL-C, TC, and TG

  3. 抗糖尿病药物治疗儿童糖尿病的安全性%Safety of antidiabetic drugs using in children with diabetes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨昱; 刘超

    2009-01-01

    The mobidity and morality of diabetes in childhood and adolescence increase dramatically along with the higher prevalence of diabetes worldwide. It is crucial to get tight glycemic control in order to reduce the risk of long-term chronic complications. Therefore, using antidiabetic drugs properly is very impor-tant. In adult patients,all kinds of antidiabetic drugs are commonly presctibed,but the safety of these drugs in children and adolescents is not fully understood. There were evidences of glibenclamide treating permanent neonatal diabetes,however,metformin is currently the only oral diabetes agent ratified to children patients. It can achieve similar glycemic control and weight loss safely as in adults. Other oral agents like snlfonylurea, repaglinide, nateglinide, α-glucosidase inhibitors and TZDs are not qualified for children's prescription. Insu-lin analogues including lispro, aspart and detemir are as safe and efficacious as human insulin, and even more acceptable and flexible in usage. Glargine is not recommended because of its carcinogenic possibility in chil-dren,%目前儿童糖尿病患病率逐渐升高,安全有效降糖十分重要,而各类在成人糖尿病患者中广泛应用的抗糖尿病药物并非完全适合儿童患者.二甲双胍是唯一被批准用于儿童的口服降糖药,它能安全降糖并控制体重.虽有格列本脲成功治疗永久性新生儿糖尿病的实例,但磺脲类和格列奈类胰岛素促泌剂、α-糖苷酶抑制剂及噻唑烷二酮类药物至今尚未被批准用于儿童糖尿病患者.胰岛素类似物如赖脯胰岛素、门冬胰岛素及地特胰岛素被证实与人胰岛素同样安全有效,并且应用更加灵活.关于甘精胰岛素,虽然其理论上的潜在致癌性尚未被证实,但一些专家仍不建议在儿童中使用.

  4. Honey - A Novel Antidiabetic Agent

    OpenAIRE

    Omotayo O. Erejuwa, Siti A. Sulaiman, Mohd S. Ab Wahab

    2012-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus remains a burden worldwide in spite of the availability of numerous antidiabetic drugs. Honey is a natural substance produced by bees from nectar. Several evidence-based health benefits have been ascribed to honey in the recent years. In this review article, we highlight findings which demonstrate the beneficial or potential effects of honey in the gastrointestinal tract (GIT), on the gut microbiota, in the liver, in the pancreas and how these effects could improve glycemic ...

  5. COST-EFFECTIVENESS ANALYSIS OF ANTI-DIABETIC THERAPY IN A UNIVERSITY TEACHING HOSPITAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giwa Abdulganiyu

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To conduct cost-effectiveness analysis of anti-diabetic therapy in a University Teaching Hospital in 2010. Methods: A retrospective review of selected case-notes was conducted. World Health Organization Defined Daily Dose Method of evaluating drug use and probability method for potential effectiveness of antidiabetic therapeutic options from literature analysis was employed in determining cost-effectiveness of each anti-diabetic therapeutic option identified from anti-diabetic drug utilization studies. Sample Size, n=1200. Subjects’ case-notes were selected by systematic random sampling (Sampling Interval = 1. Results: Glibenclamide (N1.76/unit of effectiveness which was more cost-effective than chlopropamide (N2.97/unit of effectiveness in the management of moderate hyperglycemia in non-obese Type II Diabetes Mellitus was more frequently prescribed (81.5%. Glibenclamide + Metformin (N7.63/unit of effectiveness which was more frequently prescribed (92.5% was not necessarily more cost-effective than Chlopropamide + Metformin (N9.76/unit of effectiveness in the management of moderate hyperglycemia in obese Type II Diabetes- Mellitus. Biphasic Isophane Insulin (N12.65/unit of effectiveness which was more cost-effective than soluble insulin + insulin zinc (N30.37/unit of effectiveness in the management of serve hyperglycemia in non-obese Type II Diabetes Mellitus was less frequently prescribed (42.3%. Biphasic Isophane Insulin + Metformin (N15.91/unit of effectiveness which was more cost-effective than soluble insulin + insulin zinc + metformin (N34.45/ unit of effectiveness in the management of severe hyperglycemia in obese Type II Diabetes Mellitus patients was less frequently prescribed (25%. Conclusions: Prescription of lees cost-effective anti-diabetic drugs was rampant in Hospitals.

  6. Honey - A Novel Antidiabetic Agent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omotayo O. Erejuwa, Siti A. Sulaiman, Mohd S. Ab Wahab

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Diabetes mellitus remains a burden worldwide in spite of the availability of numerous antidiabetic drugs. Honey is a natural substance produced by bees from nectar. Several evidence-based health benefits have been ascribed to honey in the recent years. In this review article, we highlight findings which demonstrate the beneficial or potential effects of honey in the gastrointestinal tract (GIT, on the gut microbiota, in the liver, in the pancreas and how these effects could improve glycemic control and metabolic derangements. In healthy subjects or patients with impaired glucose tolerance or diabetes mellitus, various studies revealed that honey reduced blood glucose or was more tolerable than most common sugars or sweeteners. Pre-clinical studies provided more convincing evidence in support of honey as a potential antidiabetic agent than clinical studies did. The not-too-impressive clinical data could mainly be attributed to poor study designs or due to the fact that the clinical studies were preliminary. Based on the key constituents of honey, the possible mechanisms of action of antidiabetic effect of honey are proposed. The paper also highlights the potential impacts and future perspectives on the use of honey as an antidiabetic agent. It makes recommendations for further clinical studies on the potential antidiabetic effect of honey. This review provides insight on the potential use of honey, especially as a complementary agent, in the management of diabetes mellitus. Hence, it is very important to have well-designed, randomized controlled clinical trials that investigate the reproducibility (or otherwise of these experimental data in diabetic human subjects.

  7. Allosteric inhibition of glycogen phosphorylase a by the potential antidiabetic drug 3-isopropyl 4-(2-chlorophenyl)-1,4-dihydro-1-ethyl-2-methyl-pyridine-3,5,6-tricarbo xylate.

    OpenAIRE

    Oikonomakos, N. G.; Tsitsanou, K. E.; Zographos, S. E.; Skamnaki, V. T.; Goldmann, S.; Bischoff, H

    1999-01-01

    The effect of the potential antidiabetic drug (-)(S)-3-isopropyl 4-(2-chlorophenyl)-1,4-dihydro-1-ethyl-2-methyl-pyridine-3,5,6-tricarbox ylate (W1807) on the catalytic and structural properties of glycogen phosphorylase a has been studied. Glycogen phosphorylase (GP) is an allosteric enzyme whose activity is primarily controlled by reversible phosphorylation of Ser14 of the dephosphorylated enzyme (GPb, less active, predominantly T-state) to form the phosphorylated enzyme (GPa, more active, ...

  8. 2010-2012年我院抗糖尿病药物应用分析%Use of anti-diabetic drugs of 2010-2012 in our hospital

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈娟娟; 杨世民; 薛京会

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To analyze use of anti-diabetic drugs in our hospital from 2010 through 2012 in order to provide some references for guiding and managing clinical use of anti-diabetic drugs. Methods: We analyzed consumption sum, defined daily dose(DDD), DDDs ,DDC and constituent ratio for anti-diabetic drugs use. Results: The sales amount of anti-diabetic drugs was increasing steadily. The top 3 DDDs were insulin glargine injection, repaglinide tablets and isophane protamine biosynthetic human insulin injection(pre-mixed 30R). The top 3 DDC were epalrestat tablets,insulin glargine injection and mixed protamine zinc recombinant human insulin lispro injection(25R). Conclusion: The use of anti-diabetic drugs was most rational in our hospital from 2010 to 2012. Non-sulfonylureas insulin secretagogues were often used in the clinic. The new , expensive oral drug and insulin preparations wil occupy a larger market, and we should pay close attention to this in clinic.%目的:分析我院2010-2012年抗糖尿病药物的应用情况,为其合理用药提供依据。方法:对我院2010-2012年抗糖尿病药物的使用数据用Excel2003软件进行销售金额、用药频度(DDDs)、构成比、日均费用(DDC)等统计分析。结果:我院抗糖尿病药物的用药金额逐年稳定上升,DDDs排在前3位的为甘精胰岛素、瑞格列奈、精蛋白生物合成人胰岛素(预混30R);DDC排名前3位的为依帕司他、甘精胰岛素、精蛋白锌重组赖脯胰岛素混合注射液(25R)。结论:我院2010-2012年抗糖尿病药物的使用状况较为合理,非磺脲类促胰岛素分泌剂的选用倾向较大,口服新贵药和胰岛素制剂将会占据更大份额,临床应引起足够重视。

  9. Development of a fast high performance liquid chromatographic screening system for eight antidiabetic drugs by an improved methodology of in-silico robustness simulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mokhtar, Hatem I; Abdel-Salam, Randa A; Haddad, Ghada M

    2015-06-19

    Robustness of RP-HPLC methods is a crucial method quality attribute which has gained an increasing interest throughout the efforts to apply quality by design concepts in analytical methodology. Improvement to design space modeling approaches to represent method robustness was the goal of many previous works. Modeling of design spaces regarding to method robustness fulfils quality by design essence of ensuring method validity throughout the design space. The current work aimed to describe an improvement to robustness modeling of design spaces in context of RP-HPLC method development for screening of eight antidiabetic drugs. The described improvement consisted of in-silico simulation of practical robustness testing procedures thus had the advantage of modeling design spaces with higher confidence in estimated of method robustness. The proposed in-silico robustness test was performed as a full factorial design of simulated method conditions deliberate shifts for each predicted point in knowledge space with modeling error propagation. Design space was then calculated as zones exceeding a threshold probability to pass the simulated robustness testing. Potential design spaces were mapped for three different stationary phases as a function of gradient elution parameters, pH and ternary solvent ratio. A robust and fast separation for the eight compounds within less than 6 min was selected and confirmed through experimental robustness testing. The effectiveness of this approach regarding definition of design spaces with ensured robustness and desired objectives was demonstrated.

  10. Dietary Intake as a Link between Obesity, Systemic Inflammation, and the Assumption of Multiple Cardiovascular and Antidiabetic Drugs in Renal Transplant Recipients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruna Guida

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We evaluated dietary intake and nutritional-inflammation status in ninety-six renal transplant recipients, years after transplantation. Patients were classified as normoweight (NW, overweight (OW, and obese (OB, if their body mass index was between 18.5 and 24.9, 25.0 and 29.9, and ≥30 kg/m2, respectively. Food composition tables were used to estimate nutrient intakes. The values obtained were compared with those recommended in current nutritional guidelines. 52% of the patients were NW, 29% were OW, and 19% were OB. Total energy, fat, and dietary n-6 PUFAs intake was higher in OB than in NW. IL-6 and hs-CRP were higher in OB than in NW. The prevalence of multidrug regimen was higher in OB. In all patients, total energy, protein, saturated fatty acids, and sodium intake were higher than guideline recommendations. On the contrary, the intake of unsaturated and n-6 and n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids and fiber was lower than recommended. In conclusion, the prevalence of obesity was high in our patients, and it was associated with inflammation and the assumption of multiple cardiovascular and antidiabetic drugs. Dietary intake did not meet nutritional recommendations in all patients, especially in obese ones, highlighting the need of a long-term nutritional support in renal transplant recipients.

  11. Comparison of the influence of oral antidiabetic drug and combined with basal insulin treatment on diabetic control and micro-inflammatory state in type 2 diabetes mellitus patients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gang Wu; Dong-Liang Liu; Xiang-Jun Li; Xiao-Yun Fan

    2016-01-01

    Objective:To investigate the influence of oral antidiabetic drug and combined with basal insulin treatment on diabetic control and micro-inflammatory state in type 2 diabetes mellitus patients.Methods:From May 2014 to June 2015, 128 cases of Type 2 diabetes mellitus were recruited and divided randomly into two groups as observation group and control group. The observation group was given metformin (Glucophage, 0.25 tid) plus basal insulin (glargine) treatment, while the control group was given metformin (Glucophage, initial dose of 0.25 tid; the largest total dose of 2 g) plus other non-euglycemic OADs necessarily for 6 months to adjust dose and control blood glucose at target. The diabetic control indexes, islet function and micro-inflammatory factors were detected and analyzed.Results:After 6 months of medication, the observation group showed significantly lower level of FPG, and HbA1cthan the control group. While AUCc-p, HOMA-β and HOMA-IR of the observation group showed significant difference compared to that of the control group after treatment. Also the micro-inflammatory indexes including hs-CRP, IGF-1, IL-6 and TNF-α of the observation group after treatment were significantly lower than the control group .Conclusions:Type 2 diabetes given metformin plus glargine not only could control and steady blood glucose, but also significant decrease the micro-inflammation state.

  12. Drug Induced Toxic Epidermal Necrolysis - A Retrospective Study In South India

    OpenAIRE

    Karthikeyan K; Hemanth Kumar R; Thappa Devinder Mohan; D′Souza Mariette; Singh Sirisha

    1999-01-01

    Toxic epidermal necrolysis (TEN) is a severe mucocutaneous reaction pattern characterized by fever, systemic toxicity, tenderness, erythema and wide-spread exfoliation. A retrospective analysis from January 1990 to December 1996 was undertaken to see the changing trends and outcome of this disorder in a third world country. A total of eleven cases were found. Their mean age was 33.09 years and male to female ratio was 2.6:1. Various drugs implicated were paracetamol (2 cases), co-trimoxazole ...

  13. Anti-diabetic drugs, insulin and metformin, have no direct interaction with hepatitis C virus infection or anti-viral interferon response

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamad S. Hakim

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Hepatitis C virus (HCV infection is associated with insulin resistance (IR and type 2 diabetes (T2D. Chronic HCV patients with IR and T2D appear to have a decreased response to the standard pegylated-interferon-alpha and ribavirin (PEG-IFN/RBV anti-viral therapy. Insulin and metformin are anti-diabetic drugs regularly used in the clinic. A previous in vitro study has shown a negative effect of insulin on interferon signaling. In the clinic, adding metformin to PEG-IFN/RBV therapy was reported to increase the response rate in chronic HCV patients and it has been suggested this effect derives from an improved anti-viral action of interferon. The goal of this study was to further investigate the molecular insight of insulin and metformin interaction with HCV infection and the anti-viral action of interferon. We used two cell culture models of HCV infection. One is a sub-genomic model that assays viral replication through luciferase reporter gene expression. The other one is a full-length infectious model derived from the JFH1 genotype 2a isolate. We found that both insulin and metformin do not affect HCV infection. Insulin and metformin also do not influence the anti-viral potency of interferon. In addition, there is no direct interaction between these two drugs and interferon signaling. Our results do not confirm the previous laboratory observation that insulin interferes with interferon signaling and suggest that classical nutritional signaling through mTOR may be not involved in HCV replication. If metformin indeed can increase the response rate to interferon therapy in patients, our data indicate that this could be mediated via an indirect mechanisms.

  14. Clinically relevant QTc prolongation due to overridden drug-drug interaction alerts: A retrospective cohort study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    I.H. van der Sijs (Heleen); R. Kowlesar (Ravi); A.P.J. Klootwijk (Peter); S.P. Nelwan (Stefan); A.G. Vulto (Arnold); T. van Gelder (Teun)

    2009-01-01

    textabstractAIMS: To investigate whether, in patients in whom drug-drug interaction (DDI) alerts on QTc prolongation were overridden, the physician had requested an electrocardiogram (ECG), and if these ECGs showed clinically relevant QTc prolongation. METHODS: For all patients with overridden DDI a

  15. Predicting Noninsulin Antidiabetic Drug Adherence Using a Theoretical Framework Based on the Theory of Planned Behavior in Adults With Type 2 Diabetes: A Prospective Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zomahoun, Hervé Tchala Vignon; Moisan, Jocelyne; Lauzier, Sophie; Guillaumie, Laurence; Grégoire, Jean-Pierre; Guénette, Line

    2016-04-01

    Understanding the process behind noninsulin antidiabetic drug (NIAD) nonadherence is necessary for designing effective interventions to resolve this problem. This study aimed to explore the ability of the theory of planned behavior (TPB), which is known as a good predictor of behaviors, to predict the future NIAD adherence in adults with type 2 diabetes. We conducted a prospective study of adults with type 2 diabetes. They completed a questionnaire on TPB variables and external variables. Linear regression was used to explore the TPB's ability to predict future NIAD adherence, which was prospectively measured as the proportion of days covered by at least 1 NIAD using pharmacy claims data. The interaction between past NIAD adherence and intention was tested. The sample included 340 people. There was an interaction between past NIAD adherence and intention to adhere to the NIAD (P = 0.032). Intention did not predict future NIAD adherence in the past adherers and nonadherers groups, but its association measure was high among past nonadherers (β = 5.686, 95% confidence interval [CI] -10.174, 21.546). In contrast, intention was mainly predicted by perceived behavioral control both in the past adherers (β = 0.900, 95% CI 0.796, 1.004) and nonadherers groups (β = 0.760, 95% CI 0.555, 0.966). The present study suggests that TPB is a good tool to predict intention to adhere and future NIAD adherence. However, there was a gap between intention to adhere and actual adherence to the NIAD, which is partly explained by the past adherence level in adults with type 2 diabetes. PMID:27082543

  16. Predicting Noninsulin Antidiabetic Drug Adherence Using a Theoretical Framework Based on the Theory of Planned Behavior in Adults With Type 2 Diabetes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zomahoun, Hervé Tchala Vignon; Moisan, Jocelyne; Lauzier, Sophie; Guillaumie, Laurence; Grégoire, Jean-Pierre; Guénette, Line

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Understanding the process behind noninsulin antidiabetic drug (NIAD) nonadherence is necessary for designing effective interventions to resolve this problem. This study aimed to explore the ability of the theory of planned behavior (TPB), which is known as a good predictor of behaviors, to predict the future NIAD adherence in adults with type 2 diabetes. We conducted a prospective study of adults with type 2 diabetes. They completed a questionnaire on TPB variables and external variables. Linear regression was used to explore the TPB's ability to predict future NIAD adherence, which was prospectively measured as the proportion of days covered by at least 1 NIAD using pharmacy claims data. The interaction between past NIAD adherence and intention was tested. The sample included 340 people. There was an interaction between past NIAD adherence and intention to adhere to the NIAD (P = 0.032). Intention did not predict future NIAD adherence in the past adherers and nonadherers groups, but its association measure was high among past nonadherers (β = 5.686, 95% confidence interval [CI] −10.174, 21.546). In contrast, intention was mainly predicted by perceived behavioral control both in the past adherers (β = 0.900, 95% CI 0.796, 1.004) and nonadherers groups (β = 0.760, 95% CI 0.555, 0.966). The present study suggests that TPB is a good tool to predict intention to adhere and future NIAD adherence. However, there was a gap between intention to adhere and actual adherence to the NIAD, which is partly explained by the past adherence level in adults with type 2 diabetes. PMID:27082543

  17. Predicting Noninsulin Antidiabetic Drug Adherence Using a Theoretical Framework Based on the Theory of Planned Behavior in Adults With Type 2 Diabetes: A Prospective Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zomahoun, Hervé Tchala Vignon; Moisan, Jocelyne; Lauzier, Sophie; Guillaumie, Laurence; Grégoire, Jean-Pierre; Guénette, Line

    2016-04-01

    Understanding the process behind noninsulin antidiabetic drug (NIAD) nonadherence is necessary for designing effective interventions to resolve this problem. This study aimed to explore the ability of the theory of planned behavior (TPB), which is known as a good predictor of behaviors, to predict the future NIAD adherence in adults with type 2 diabetes. We conducted a prospective study of adults with type 2 diabetes. They completed a questionnaire on TPB variables and external variables. Linear regression was used to explore the TPB's ability to predict future NIAD adherence, which was prospectively measured as the proportion of days covered by at least 1 NIAD using pharmacy claims data. The interaction between past NIAD adherence and intention was tested. The sample included 340 people. There was an interaction between past NIAD adherence and intention to adhere to the NIAD (P = 0.032). Intention did not predict future NIAD adherence in the past adherers and nonadherers groups, but its association measure was high among past nonadherers (β = 5.686, 95% confidence interval [CI] -10.174, 21.546). In contrast, intention was mainly predicted by perceived behavioral control both in the past adherers (β = 0.900, 95% CI 0.796, 1.004) and nonadherers groups (β = 0.760, 95% CI 0.555, 0.966). The present study suggests that TPB is a good tool to predict intention to adhere and future NIAD adherence. However, there was a gap between intention to adhere and actual adherence to the NIAD, which is partly explained by the past adherence level in adults with type 2 diabetes.

  18. Study of the Mucoadhesive Potential of Carbopol Polymer in the Preparation of Microbeads Containing the Antidiabetic Drug Glipizide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bera, Khokan; Mazumder, Bhaskar; Khanam, Jasmina

    2016-06-01

    The present investigation was aimed at exploitation of the mucoadhesive potential of carbopol 934P polymer in developing microbeads of glipizide (GLP) for its effectivity in controlling blood sugar in diabetic patients. Various batches of GLP beads were prepared by an emulsion-solvent evaporation technique using the release-retarding polymer carbopol and subjected to a systematic evaluation such as physical characterization, ex vivo mucoadhesion, hydration and erosion test, and in vitro drug release; and instrumental and in vivo studies were performed with the best formulation. The highest yield and loading efficiency were observed as 94 and ∼90%, respectively. The mean particle size of the microbeads ranged from 832 to 742 μm. The oval shape of the microbeads with slight roughness was apparent in the SEM micrograph. The release period was extended till 18 h. In vitro release of the drug from the beads followed the diffusion and erosion mechanism. In the oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT), there is a significant (p reduction in fasting blood glucose levels in Wistar rat and guinea pig in comparison with that using the marketed product. Results indicated that process parameters-drug-polymer ratio, concentration of the surfactant, and stirring speed-controlled the various characteristics of the microparticles. The mucoadhesivity test ensured strong adherence of the beads to the mucosal membrane in pH 1.2 for a prolonged period. Owing to the mucoadhesivity of carbopol 934P, prolonged release of GLP and reduction of fasting sugar in the animal model were observed to a satisfactory level, and thus, management of diabetes in a better manner is expected with this new formulation. PMID:26335417

  19. The clinical application of the anti-diabetic drug during the time from 2006 to 2008 in our hospital%2006-2008年我院抗糖尿病药物临床应用分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    莫灼康; 杨晓东

    2009-01-01

    Objective Statistics of the antidiabetic drugs in our hospital the clinical application of data,and analysis of clinical application of hypoglycemic drug trends was done.Methods From 2006 to 2008 by application of the hypoglycemic drug variety,amount and frequency of use(DDDs)and other data were statistically analyzed.Results The anti-diabetic drugs sales showed an upward trend year after year,its share of drugs in our hospital the proportion of the total amount of sales was also an upward trend year after year.Among them,the insulin-type drugs,anti-diabetic drug sales in the largest proportion of,and has increased year by year.Novolin 30R and the sales amount of DDDs in-the 3 years are among the first sort.Conclusions The anti-diabetic drugs,the demand for year-on-year growth,including insulin drugs,α-glucosidase inhibitor and insulin secretion promoting agent is a clinical application in our hospital as the main hypoglycemic drugs.%目的 统计我院抗糖尿病药物的临床应用数据,分析降糖药物临床应用的发展趋势.方法 对我院2006-2008年所应用的降糖药物品种、金额和用药频度(DDDs)等数据进行统计学分析.结果 抗糖尿病类药物的销售金额呈逐年上升趋势,其所占我院药品销售总金额的比例亦呈逐年上升趋势.其中,胰岛素类药物的销售在抗糖尿病药物中的比例最大,且逐年增加.诺和灵30R的销售金额及其DDDs在3年中排序均佗列第一位.结论 抗糖尿病药物的需求逐年增长,其中胰岛素类药物、α-葡萄糖苷酶抑制剂和促胰岛素分泌剂是我院临床应用的主要降糖药物.

  20. Rapid Acting Insulin Use and Persistence among Elderly Type 2 Diabetes Patients Adding RAI to Oral Antidiabetes Drug Regimens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Steve; Fan, Tao

    2016-01-01

    We examined the real-world utilization and persistence of rapid acting insulin (RAI) in elderly patients with type 2 diabetes who added RAI to their drug (OAD) regimen. Insulin-naïve patients aged ≥65 years, with ≥1 OAD prescription during the baseline period, who were continuously enrolled in the US Humana Medicare Advantage insurance plan for 18 months and initiated RAI were included. Among patients with ≥2 RAI prescriptions (RAIp), persistence during the 12-month follow-up was assessed. Multivariate logistic regression analyses identified factors affecting RAI use and persistence. Of 3734 patients adding RAI to their OAD regimen, 2334 (62.5%) had a RAIp during follow-up. Factors associated with RAIp included using ≤2 OADs; cognitive impairment, basal insulin use during follow-up; and higher RAI out-of-pocket costs ($36 to <$56 versus $0 to $6.30). Patients were less likely to persist with RAI when on ≤2 OADs versus ≥3 OADs and when having higher RAI out-of-pocket costs ($36 to <$56 versus $0 to $6.30) and more likely to persist when they had cognitive impairment and basal insulin use during follow-up. Real-world persistence of RAI in insulin-naïve elderly patients with type 2 diabetes was very poor when RAI was added to an OAD regimen. PMID:27761472

  1. Antiepileptic drug use in a nursing home setting: a retrospective study in older adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callegari, Camilla; Ielmini, Marta; Bianchi, Lucia; Lucano, Melissa; Bertù, Lorenza; Vender, Simone

    2016-01-01

    Summary The authors set out to examine qualitatively the use of antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) in a population of older adults in a nursing home setting, evaluating aspects such as specialist prescriptions and changes in dosage. This retrospective prevalence study was carried out in a state-funded nursing home that provides care and rehabilitation for elderly people. The first objective of the study was to determine the prevalence of AED use in this population. The second objective was to monitor AED dosage modifications during the fifteen-month study period, focusing on the safety and the tolerability of AEDs. In the period of time considered, 129 of 402 monitored patients received at least one anti-epileptic therapy. The prevalence of AED use was therefore 32%. Gabapentin was found to be the most commonly prescribed drug, with a frequency of 29%, and it was used mainly for anxiety disorders, psychosis, neuropathic pain and mood disorders. PMID:27358221

  2. Inhibition of human insulin gene transcription by peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ and thiazolidinedione oral antidiabetic drugs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schinner, S; Krätzner, R; Baun, D; Dickel, C; Blume, R; Oetjen, E

    2009-01-01

    Background and purpose: The transcription factor peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ) is essential for glucose homeostasis. PPARγ ligands reducing insulin levels in vivo are used as drugs to treat type 2 diabetes mellitus. Genes regulated by PPARγ have been found in several tissues including insulin-producing pancreatic islet β-cells. However, the role of PPARγ at the insulin gene was unknown. Therefore, the effect of PPARγ and PPARγ ligands like rosiglitazone on insulin gene transcription was investigated. Experimental approach: Reporter gene assays were used in the β-cell line HIT and in primary mature pancreatic islets of transgenic mice. Mapping studies and internal mutations were carried out to locate PPARγ-responsive promoter regions. Key results: Rosiglitazone caused a PPARγ-dependent inhibition of insulin gene transcription in a β-cell line. This inhibition was concentration-dependent and had an EC50 similar to that for the activation of a reporter gene under the control of multimerized PPAR binding sites. Also in normal primary pancreatic islets of transgenic mice, known to express high levels of PPARγ, rosiglitazone inhibited glucose-stimulated insulin gene transcription. Transactivation and mapping experiments suggest that, in contrast to the rat glucagon gene, the inhibition of the human insulin gene promoter by PPARγ/rosiglitazone does not depend on promoter-bound Pax6 and is attributable to the proximal insulin gene promoter region around the transcription start site from −56 to +18. Conclusions and implications: The human insulin gene represents a novel PPARγ target that may contribute to the action of thiazolidinediones in type 2 diabetes mellitus. PMID:19338578

  3. Hospitalizations Due to Adverse Drug Events in the Elderly—A Retrospective Register Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laatikainen, Outi; Sneck, Sami; Bloigu, Risto; Lahtinen, Minna; Lauri, Timo; Turpeinen, Miia

    2016-01-01

    Adverse drug events (ADEs) are more likely to affect geriatric patients due to physiological changes occurring with aging. Even though this is an internationally recognized problem, similar research data in Finland is still lacking. The aim of this study was to determine the number of geriatric medication-related hospitalizations in the Finnish patient population and to discover the potential means of recognizing patients particularly at risk of ADEs. The study was conducted retrospectively from the 2014 emergency department patient records in Oulu University Hospital. A total number of 290 admissions were screened for ADEs, adverse drug reactions (ADRs) and drug-drug interactions (DDIs) by a multi-disciplinary research team. Customized Naranjo scale was used as a control method. All admissions were categorized into “probable,” “possible,” or “doubtful” by both assessment methods. In total, 23.1% of admissions were categorized as “probably” or “possibly” medication-related. Vertigo, falling, and fractures formed the largest group of ADEs. The most common ADEs were related to medicines from N class of the ATC-code system. Age, sex, residence, or specialty did not increase the risk for medication-related admission significantly (min p = 0.077). Polypharmacy was, however, found to increase the risk (OR 3.3; 95% CI, 1.5–6.9; p = 0.01). In conclusion, screening patients for specific demographics or symptoms would not significantly improve the recognition of ADEs. In addition, as ADE detection today is largely based on voluntary reporting systems and retrospective manual tracking of errors, it is evident that more effective methods for ADE detection are needed in the future. PMID:27761112

  4. Antituberculosis drug resistance patterns in two regions of Turkey: a retrospective analysis

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    Oymak Sema F

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Backround The emergence of Mycobacterium tuberculosis strains resistant to antituberculosis agents has recently received increased attention owing largely to the dramatic outbreaks of multi drug resistance tuberculosis (MDR-TB. Methods Patients residing in Zonguldak and Kayseri provinces of Turkey with, pulmonary tuberculosis diagnosed between 1972 and 1999 were retrospectively identified. Drug susceptibility tests had been performed for isoniazid (INH, rifampin (RIF, streptomycin (SM, ethambutol (EMB and thiacetasone (TH after isolation by using the resistance proportion method. Results Total 3718 patients were retrospectively studied. In 1972–1981, resistance rates for to SM and INH were found to be 14.8% and 9.8% respectively (n: 2172. In 1982–1991 period, resistance rates for INH, SM, RIF, EMB and TH were 14.2%, 14.4%, 10.5%, 2.7% and 2.9% (n: 683, while in 1992–1999 period 14.4%, 21.1%, 10.6%, 2.4% and 3.7% respectively (n: 863. Resistance rates were highest for SM and INH in three periods. MDR-TB patients constituted 7.3% and 6.6% of 1982–1991 and 1992–1999 periods (p > 0.05. Conclusion This study demonstrates the importance of resistance rates for TB. Continued surveillance and immediate therapeutic decisions should be undertaken in order to prevent the dissemination of such resistant strains.

  5. Temporal differences in gamma-hydroxybutyrate overdoses involving injecting drug users versus recreational drug users in Helsinki: a retrospective study

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    Boyd James J

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Gamma-hydroxybutyrate (GHB and gamma-butyrolactone (GBL have been profiled as 'party drugs' used mainly at dance parties and in nightclubs on weekend nights. The purpose of this study was to examine the frequency of injecting drug use among GHB/GBL overdose patients and whether there are temporal differences in the occurrence of GHB/GBL overdoses of injecting drug and recreational drug users. Methods In this retrospective study, the ambulance and hospital records of suspected GHB- and GBL overdose patients treated by the Helsinki Emergency Medical Service from January 1st 2006 to December 31st 2007 were reviewed. According to the temporal occurrence of the overdose, patients were divided in two groups. In group A, the overdose occurred on a Friday-Saturday or Saturday-Sunday night between 11 pm-6 am. Group B consisted of overdoses occurring on outside this time frame. Results Group A consisted of 39 patient contacts and the remaining 61 patient contacts were in group B. There were statistically significant differences between the two groups in (group A vs. B, respectively: history of injecting drug abuse (33% vs. 59%, p = 0.012, reported polydrug and ethanol use (80% vs. 62%, p = 0.028, the location where the patients were encountered (private or public indoors or outdoors, 10%, 41%, 41% vs. 25%, 18%, 53%, p = 0.019 and how the knowledge of GHB/GBL use was obtained (reported by patient/bystanders or clinical suspicion, 72%, 28% vs. 85%, 10%, p = 0.023. Practically all (99% patients were transported to emergency department after prehospital care. Conclusion There appears to be at least two distinct groups of GHB/GBL users. Injecting drug users represent the majority of GHB/GBL overdose patients outside weekend nights.

  6. Antidiabetic potential and secondary metabolites screening of mangrove gastropod Cerithidea obtusa

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Reni Tri Cahyani; Sri Purwaningsih; Azrifitria

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To study the possible effects of Cerithidea obtusa extract as antidiabetic and to screen the secondary metabolites presence. Methods: Antidiabetic activity of Cerithidea obtusa extract was measured in vitro usingα-glucosidase inhibition method. Whereas, secondary metabolites screening was measured qualitatively. Results: The methanol extract had antidiabetic activity (IC50 = 36.40 mg/mL). However, the control drug acarbose had significantly higher antidiabetic activity (IC50 = 0.32 mg/mL). Secondary metabolites screening showed the presence of alkaloids, flavonoids, triterpenoids and saponins. Conclusions: The methanol extract had antidiabetic activity and the presence of alkaloids, flavonoids and triterpenoids might contribute to the activity.

  7. Comparative efficacy and safety of antidiabetic drug regimens added to metformin monotherapy in patients with type 2 diabetes: a network meta-analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth S Mearns

    Full Text Available When first line therapy with metformin is insufficient for patients with type 2 diabetes (T2D, the optimal adjunctive therapy is unclear. We assessed the efficacy and safety of adjunctive antidiabetic agents in patients with inadequately controlled T2D on metformin alone.A search of MEDLINE and CENTRAL, clinicaltrials.gov, regulatory websites was performed. We included randomized controlled trials of 3-12 months duration, evaluating Food and Drug Administration or European Union approved agents (noninsulin and long acting, once daily basal insulins in patients experiencing inadequate glycemic control with metformin monotherapy (≥ 1500 mg daily or maximally tolerated dose for ≥ 4 weeks. Random-effects network meta-analyses were used to compare the weighted mean difference for changes from baseline in HbA1c, body weight (BW and systolic blood pressure (SBP, and the risk of developing hypoglycemia, urinary (UTI and genital tract infection (GTI.Sixty-two trials evaluating 25 agents were included. All agents significantly reduced HbA1c vs. placebo; albeit not to the same extent (range, 0.43% for miglitol to 1.29% for glibenclamide. Glargine, sulfonylureas (SUs and nateglinide were associated with increased hypoglycemia risk vs. placebo (range, 4.00-11.67. Sodium glucose cotransporter-2 (SGLT2 inhibitors, glucagon-like peptide-1 analogs, miglitol and empagliflozin/linagliptin significantly reduced BW (range, 1.15-2.26 kg whereas SUs, thiazolindinediones, glargine and alogliptin/pioglitazone caused weight gain (range, 1.19-2.44 kg. SGLT2 inhibitors, empagliflozin/linagliptin, liraglutide and sitagliptin decreased SBP (range, 1.88-5.43 mmHg. No therapy increased UTI risk vs. placebo; however, SGLT2 inhibitors were associated with an increased risk of GTI (range, 2.16-8.03.Adding different AHAs to metformin was associated with varying effects on HbA1c, BW, SBP, hypoglycemia, UTI and GTI which should impact clinician choice when selecting adjunctive

  8. Determinants for inadequate glycaemic control in Chinese patients with mild-to-moderate type 2 diabetes on oral antidiabetic drugs alone

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Shao-ling; CHEN Zong-cun; YAN Li; CHEN Li-hong; CHENG Hua; JI Li-nong

    2011-01-01

    Background Prevalence of inadequate glycaemic control among patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM)remains high. We assessed glycaemic control in the real-life practice among people with T2DM in metropolises in China who were treated with oral antidiabetic drugs (OAD) alone and to determine factors associated with inadequate giycaemic control in this population.Methods An observational, cross-sectional multicentre study was conducted in 16 metropolitan medical centers.People with T2DM who had been followed-up before the index visit which occurred from January to September 2007 were included in the study. All subjects were ≥30 years of age at the time of T2DM diagnosis and had received monotherapy or combination therapy of OAD for at least 6 months. Demographic and clinical data were collected from medical records. The main study outcome was the inadequate glucose control rate, which was calculated by the proportion of patients with haemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) ≥6.5% detected on the index visit.Results In this cohort of 455 patients with T2DM whose mean age was 60.6 years and mean disease duration was 6.1 years, 45.5% had inadequate glycaemic control. The mean (SD) HbA1c was 6.7% (1.3). Multivariate Logistic regression showed that physical inactivity, disease duration >10 years, body mass index (BMI) ≥24 kg/m2, low homeostasis model assessment of β-cell function (HOMA-β) index, less frequency of medical visit and hypertriglyceridaemia were independent determinants of inadequate glycaemic control. Higher incidence of self-reported hypoglycemia experience (47.1% vs. 34.8%, P=0.008) and more fear of hypoglycemia quantified by Worry subscaie of the Hypoglycaemia Fear Survey (HFS) Ⅱ were happened in subjects with good glycemic control.Conclusion Approximately one half of these outpatients with T2DM from the metropolitan medical centers in China had inadequate glycaemic control treated with OAD alone, which raises the need for more effective educational and

  9. Retrospective drug utilization review: impact of pharmacist interventions on physician prescribing

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    Angalakuditi M

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Mallik Angalakuditi1, Joseph Gomes21Georgia State University, Atlanta, GA, USA; 2Baxter Health Care, Deerfield, IL, USAObjectives: To evaluate the impact of retrospective drug utilization review (RDUR, pharmacist’s interventions on physician prescribing, and the level of spillover effect on future prescriptions following the intervention.Methods: A retrospective case–control study was conducted at a pharmacy benefits management company using the available prescription data from April 2004 to August 2005. RDUR conflicts evaluated and intervened by a clinical pharmacist served as a case group, whereas conflicts that were not evaluated and intervened by a clinical pharmacist served as a control group.Results: A total of 40,284 conflicts in cases and 13,044 in controls were identified. For cases, 32,780 interventions were considered nonrepetitive, and 529 were repetitive. There were 22,870 physicians in cases that received intervention letters and 2348 physicians in the control group that would have received intervention letters during the study period. Each physician received on average 1.4 interventions for cases vs 3.0 for controls. Among the case physicians who were intervened during the study period, 2.2% (505 were involved in a repeated intervention vs 18.2% (428 in controls (P < 0.001, which is an eight-fold difference. The most common conflict intervened on in cases was therapeutic appropriateness (8277, 25.3%, and for controls it was drug–drug interactions (1796, 25.4%. The overall interventional spillover effect in cases was 98.4% vs 89.4% in controls (P = 0.01.Conclusion: RDUR is an effective interventional program which results in decreased numbers of interventions per physician and provides a significant impact on future prescribing habits.Keywords: pharmacy management, spillover effect, RDUR, DUR

  10. The Antidiabetics Market: Tendencies and Research Directions

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    Claudiu MOROGVAN

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Diabetes mellitus is a pathology with multiple and severe implications. Its prevalence has been continuously increasing during the last years, as well as the number of drugs introduced in its therapy. The value of the antidiabetics global market was evaluated at over 18 billion USD in 2005. The following five international producers hold the biggest share: NovoNordisk, Takeda, Sanofi-Aventis, GlaxoSmithkline and Eli Lilly. The two bestselling drugs in the USA in 2008 were Actos and Lantus, two products of latest generation, which, however, seems to be a global tendency. As far as the OAD (Oral Antidiabetic Drug category is concerned, the products to be prescribed in the following years will be those of latest generation, such as thiazolidinedione, GLP-1 analogues, DPP-4 inhibitors, as well as their fixed combinations with metformine. Rapid or slow acting Insulin analogues and their combinations with isophane insulins replace the classic insulins which seem to be outdated.

  11. Polypharmacy and adverse drug reactions in Japanese elderly taking antihypertensives: a retrospective database study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Izumi; Akazawa, Manabu

    2013-01-01

    Background The concomitant use of multiple medications by elderly patients with hypertension is a relatively common and growing phenomenon in Japan. This has been attributed to several factors, including treatment guidelines recommending prescription of multiple medications and a continuing increase in the elderly population with multiple comorbidities. Objective This study was aimed at investigating the association between polypharmacy, defined as the concomitant use of five or more medications, and risk of adverse drug reaction (ADR) in elderly Japanese hypertensive patients to examine the hypothesis that risk of ADR increases with the administration of an increasing number of co-medications. Methods Using a retrospective cohort design, the data regarding all hypertensive patients aged 65 years or older were extracted from the Risk/Benefit Assessment of Drugs – Analysis and Response Council antihypertensive medication database. The data were reviewed for classification of patients into one of three groups according to drug use at the initiation of therapy – a monotherapy group composed of patients who had taken the investigated drug only, a co-medication group composed of patients who had taken the investigated drug and a maximum of three other medications, and a polypharmacy group composed of patients who had taken the investigated drug and four or more other medications – and determination of the number of ADR events experienced. Estimated rate ratios (RRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated using a Poisson regression model adjusted for drug category and patient age and sex. Various sensitivity analyses were performed to confirm the robustness of the study findings. Results Of 61,661 elderly Japanese patients (men, 41.8%; 75 years or older, 35.1%) registered in the database, 2491 patients (4.0%) experienced a total of 3144 ADR events during the study period. The rate of ADR per 10,000 person-days was 2.0 for the monotherapy group, 5.1 for

  12. Drug Induced Toxic Epidermal Necrolysis - A Retrospective Study In South India

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    Karthikeyan K

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Toxic epidermal necrolysis (TEN is a severe mucocutaneous reaction pattern characterized by fever, systemic toxicity, tenderness, erythema and wide-spread exfoliation. A retrospective analysis from January 1990 to December 1996 was undertaken to see the changing trends and outcome of this disorder in a third world country. A total of eleven cases were found. Their mean age was 33.09 years and male to female ratio was 2.6:1. Various drugs implicated were paracetamol (2 cases, co-trimoxazole (2 cases, aspirin (1 case, thiacetazone (1 case, streptomycin (1 case, etc. On an average, the patients developed TEN at the interval of 4.68 days following the drug intake. Fever was presenting symptom in all cases and burning sensation preceded it in 6 of them. Percentage area. Involved ranged from 40% to 90%. Other target areas involved in order of decreasing frequency were oral mucosa (9 cases genitalia (8 cases, eye (5 cases, palms and soles (3 cases. Oral prednisolonoe therapy was started in all cases in the range of 20 to 80 mg. According to the severity, extent of lesion and body weight. Epithelisation of denuded areas took an average of 10.6 days. Complications in the form of secondary infection (3 cases, septicaemia and death (1 case and symblepheron formation (1 case were noted.

  13. Adverse drug events with hyperkalaemia during inpatient stays: evaluation of an automated method for retrospective detection in hospital databases

    OpenAIRE

    Ficheur, Grégoire; Chazard, Emmanuel; Beuscart, Jean-Baptiste; Merlin, Béatrice; Luyckx, Michel; Beuscart, Régis

    2014-01-01

    Background Adverse drug reactions and adverse drug events (ADEs) are major public health issues. Many different prospective tools for the automated detection of ADEs in hospital databases have been developed and evaluated. The objective of the present study was to evaluate an automated method for the retrospective detection of ADEs with hyperkalaemia during inpatient stays. Methods We used a set of complex detection rules to take account of the patient’s clinical and biological context and th...

  14. Polypharmacy and adverse drug reactions in Japanese elderly taking antihypertensives: a retrospective database study

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    Sato I

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Izumi Sato,1 Manabu Akazawa21Department of Epidemiology and Statistics, Graduate School of Medicine, The University of Tokyo Tokyo, Japan; 2Department of Public Health and Epidemiology, Meiji Pharmaceutical University, Tokyo, JapanBackground: The concomitant use of multiple medications by elderly patients with hypertension is a relatively common and growing phenomenon in Japan. This has been attributed to several factors, including treatment guidelines recommending prescription of multiple medications and a continuing increase in the elderly population with multiple comorbidities.Objective: This study was aimed at investigating the association between polypharmacy, defined as the concomitant use of five or more medications, and risk of adverse drug reaction (ADR in elderly Japanese hypertensive patients to examine the hypothesis that risk of ADR increases with the administration of an increasing number of co-medications.Methods: Using a retrospective cohort design, the data regarding all hypertensive patients aged 65 years or older were extracted from the Risk/Benefit Assessment of Drugs – Analysis and Response Council antihypertensive medication database. The data were reviewed for classification of patients into one of three groups according to drug use at the initiation of therapy – a monotherapy group composed of patients who had taken the investigated drug only, a co-medication group composed of patients who had taken the investigated drug and a maximum of three other medications, and a polypharmacy group composed of patients who had taken the investigated drug and four or more other medications – and determination of the number of ADR events experienced. Estimated rate ratios (RRs and 95% confidence intervals (CIs were calculated using a Poisson regression model adjusted for drug category and patient age and sex. Various sensitivity analyses were performed to confirm the robustness of the study findings.Results: Of 61,661 elderly

  15. Appropriateness of antibiotic treatment in intravenous drug users, a retrospective analysis

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    Fluckiger Ursula

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Infectious disease is often the reason for intravenous drug users being seen in a clinical setting. The objective of this study was to evaluate the appropriateness of treatment and outcomes for this patient population in a hospital setting. Methods Retrospective study of all intravenous drug users hospitalized for treatment of infectious diseases and seen by infectious diseases specialists 1/2001–12/2006 at a university hospital. Treatment was administered according to guidelines when possible or to alternative treatment program in case of patients for whom adherence to standard protocols was not possible. Outcomes were defined with respect to appropriateness of treatment, hospital readmission, relapse and mortality rates. For statistical analysis adjustment for multiple hospitalizations of individual patients was made by using a generalized estimating equation. Results The total number of hospitalizations for infectious diseases was 344 among 216 intravenous drug users. Skin and soft tissue infections (n = 129, 37.5% of hospitalizations, pneumonia (n = 75, 21.8% and endocarditis (n = 54, 15.7% were most prevalent. Multiple infections were present in 25%. Treatment was according to standard guidelines for 78.5%, according to an alternative recommended program for 11.3%, and not according to guidelines or by the infectious diseases specialist advice for 10.2% of hospitalizations. Psychiatric disorders had a significant negative impact on compliance (compliance problems in 19.8% of hospitalizations in multiple logistic regression analysis (OR = 2.4, CI 1.1–5.1, p = 0.03. The overall readmission rate and relapse rate within 30 days was 13.7% and 3.8%, respectively. Both non-compliant patient behavior (OR = 3.7, CI 1.3–10.8, p = 0.02 and non-adherence to treatment guidelines (OR = 3.3, CI 1.1–9.7, p = 0.03 were associated with a significant increase in the relapse rate in univariate analysis. In 590 person-years of follow

  16. Antidiabetic Plants of Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashrafeddin Goushegir

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available To identify the antidiabetic plants of Iran, a systematic review of the published literature on the efficacy of Iranian medicinal plant for glucose control in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus was conducted. We performed an electronic literature search of MEDLINE, Science Direct, Scopus, Proquest, Ebsco, Googlescholar, SID, Cochrane Library Database, from 1966 up to June 2010. The search terms were complementary and alternative medicine (CAM, diabetes mellitus, plant (herb, Iran, patient, glycemic control, clinical trial, RCT, natural or herbal medicine, hypoglycemic plants, and individual herb names from popular sources, or combination of these key words. Available Randomized Controlled Trials (RCT published in English or Persian language examined effects of an herb (limited to Iran on glycemic indexes in type 2 diabetic patients were included. Among all of the articles identified in the initial database search, 23 trials were RCT, examining herbs as potential therapy for type 2 diabetes mellitus. The key outcome for antidiabetic effect was changes in blood glucose or HbA1 c, as well as improves in insulin sensitivity or resistance. Available data suggest that several antidiabetic plants of Iran need further study. Among the RCT studies, the best evidence in glycemic control was found in Citrullus colocynthus, Ipomoea betatas, Silybum marianum and Trigonella foenum graecum.

  17. Antidiabetic activity of a polyherbal formulation (Karnim Plus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bangar Om

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Karnim Plus, an herbal formulation marketed for diabetes, was investigated for its glucose tolerance, hypoglycaemic, and antidiabetic effects in rats. The glucose tolerance test was studied at 400 mg/kg. Hypoglycemic studies were carried out in normal rats at two dose levels, 200 mg/kg and 400 mg/kg. Antidiabetic effect was analyzed in alloxan-induced diabetic rats at two dose levels, 200 mg/kg and 400 mg/kg. Glibenclamide, 4 mg/kg, was used as the standard drug. The biochemical parameters such as glucose, urea, creatinine, serum cholesterol, and serum triglyceride were also assessed in experimental animals. The product showed its effectiveness in oral glucose tolerance test and antidiabetic activity, but it did not produce hypoglycemic effect. Treatment of diabetic rats with the product restored the elevated biochemical parameters significantly. The present study supports the use of this product as an antidiabetic.

  18. Adherence to Disease Modifying Drugs among Patients with Multiple Sclerosis in Germany: A Retrospective Cohort Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kerstin Hansen

    Full Text Available Long-term therapies such as disease modifying therapy for Multiple Sclerosis (MS demand high levels of medication adherence in order to reach acceptable outcomes. The objective of this study was to describe adherence to four disease modifying drugs (DMDs among statutorily insured patients within two years following treatment initiation. These drugs were interferon beta-1a i.m. (Avonex, interferon beta-1a s.c. (Rebif, interferon beta-1b s.c. (Betaferon and glatiramer acetate s.c. (Copaxone.This retrospective cohort study used pharmacy claims data from the data warehouse of the German Institute for Drug Use Evaluation (DAPI from 2001 through 2009. New or renewed DMD prescriptions in the years 2002 to 2006 were identified and adherence was estimated during 730 days of follow-up by analyzing the medication possession ratio (MPR as proxy for compliance and persistence defined as number of days from initiation of DMD therapy until discontinuation or interruption.A total of 52,516 medication profiles or therapy cycles (11,891 Avonex, 14,060 Betaferon, 12,353 Copaxone and 14,212 Rebif from 50,057 patients were included into the analysis. Among the 4 cohorts, no clinically relevant differences were found in available covariates. The Medication Possession Ratio (MPR measured overall compliance, which was 39.9% with a threshold MPR≥0.8. There were small differences in the proportion of therapy cycles during which a patient was compliant for the following medications: Avonex (42.8%, Betaferon (40.6%, Rebif (39.2%, and Copaxone (37%. Overall persistence was 32.3% at the end of the 24 months observation period, i.e. during only one third of all included therapy cycles patients did not discontinue or interrupt DMD therapy. There were also small differences in the proportion of therapy cycles during which a patient was persistent as follows: Avonex (34.2%, Betaferon (33.4%, Rebif (31.7% and Copaxone (29.8%.Two years after initiating MS-modifying therapy, only

  19. SGLT-2 inhibitors: the glucosuric antidiabetics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rekha Thaddanee

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Despite availability of a number of oral antidiabetics, a sizeable population of diabetics remains uncontrolled. Thus there is growing need of new group of drugs for diabetic control. Understanding renal conservation of glucose by efficient reabsorption through sodium glucose cotransporter-2 (SGLT-2 has paved way for development of an entirely new group of drugs, the SGLT-2 inhibitors. These glucosuric antidiabetic agents have shown promise in early clinical studies. Canagliflozin is recently approved for use in diabetes alone or along with other antidiabetics. Other highly selective inhibitors undergoing various stages of clinical developments are dapagliflozin, sergliflozin, remogliflozin, ipragliflozin, empagliflozin, luseogliflozin, tofogliflozin and desoxyrhaponticin. KGA-2727 (pyrazole-O-glucoside is the first selective SGLT-1 inhibitor undergoing intense preclinical testing. There are safety issues associated with this group like urogenital infections (fungal, weight loss, initial osmotic diuresis and increased incidence of cardiovascular events. The long term safety remains to be established. Despite these limitations, SGLT-2 inhibition offers a unique target for achieving adequate control of diabetes in adults. [Int J Basic Clin Pharmacol 2013; 2(4.000: 347-352

  20. A retrospective study on the incidences of adverse drug events and analysis of the contributing trigger factors

    OpenAIRE

    Sam, Aaseer Thamby; Lian Jessica, Looi Li; Parasuraman, Subramani

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: To retrospectively determine the extent and types of adverse drug events (ADEs) from the patient cases sheets and identify the contributing factors of medication errors. To assess causality and severity using the World Health Organization (WHO) probability scale and Hartwig's scale, respectively. Methods: Hundred patient case sheets were randomly selected, modified version of the Institute for Healthcare Improvement (IHI) Global Trigger Tool was utilized to identify the ADEs; caus...

  1. [Cardiovascular safety of antidiabetics].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aline Roth, Pressl-Wenger; Jornayvaz, François R

    2016-06-01

    Type 2 diabetes is characterized by a high risk of micro- and macro-vascular complications. Cardiovascular diseases are the leading cause of death of diabetic patients. In this context, the search for molecules decreasing cardiovascular mortality makes sense. Until the EMPA-REG OUTCOME study published late 2015, showing a reduction of cardiovascular mortality of patients treated with empagliflozin, an SGLT2 inhibitor, there was no molecule known to decrease cardiovascular mortality. The purpose of this article is to review the various existing antidiabetic molecules and their impact (positive/neutral/negative) on cardiovascular mortality. PMID:27487675

  2. A Retrospective Analysis of Urine Drugs of Abuse Immunoassay True Positive Rates at a National Reference Laboratory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson-Davis, Kamisha L; Sadler, Aaron J; Genzen, Jonathan R

    2016-03-01

    Urine drug screens are commonly performed to identify drug use or monitor adherence to drug therapy. The purpose of this retrospective study was to evaluate the true positive and false positive rates of one of our in-house urine drug screen panels. The urine drugs of abuse panel studied consists of screening by immunoassay then positive immunoassay results were confirmed by mass spectrometry. Reagents from Syva and Microgenics were used for the immunoassay screen. The screen was performed on a Beckman AU5810 random access automated clinical analyzer. The percent of true positives for each immunoassay was determined. Agreement with previously validated GC-MS or LC-MS-MS confirmatory methods was also evaluated. There were 8,825 de-identified screening results for each of the drugs in the panel, except for alcohol (N = 2,296). The percent of samples that screened positive were: 10.0% for amphetamine/methamphetamine/3,4-methylenedioxy-methamphetamine (MDMA), 12.8% for benzodiazepines, 43.7% for opiates (including oxycodone) and 20.3% for tetrahydrocannabinol (THC). The false positive rate for amphetamine/methamphetamine was ∼14%, ∼34% for opiates (excluding oxycodone), 25% for propoxyphene and 100% for phencyclidine and MDMA immunoassays. Based on the results from this retrospective study, the true positive rate for THC drug use among adults were similar to the rate of illicit drug use in young adults from the 2013 National Survey; however, our positivity rate for cocaine was higher than the National Survey. PMID:26668238

  3. Drug: D00625 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ose metabolism hsa04973(8972) Carbohydrate digestion and absorption map07051 Antidiabetics Therapeutic categ...ory of drugs in Japan [BR:br08301] 3 Agents affecting metabolism 39 Other agents affecting metabolism 396 Antidiabetic...Miglitol (JAN/USAN/INN) USP drug classification [BR:br08302] Blood Glucose Regulators Antidiabetic

  4. Drug: D08996 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available nhibitor [HSA:1803] [KO:K01278] hsa04974(1803) Protein digestion and absorption Transporter: ABCB1 [HSA:5243] map07051 Antidiabetic...P drug classification [BR:br08302] Blood Glucose Regulators Antidiabetic Agents S

  5. Drug: D09753 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Protein digestion and absorption map07051 Antidiabetics Therapeutic category of d...rugs in Japan [BR:br08301] 3 Agents affecting metabolism 39 Other agents affecting metabolism 396 Antidiabetic

  6. Anti-diabetic polysaccharides from natural sources: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Peng-Cheng; Zhao, Shan; Yang, Bing-You; Wang, Qiu-Hong; Kuang, Hai-Xue

    2016-09-01

    Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a metabolic disease attracted worldwide concerns, which severely impairs peoples' quality of life and is attributed to several life-threatening complications, including atherosclerosis, nephropathy and retinopathy. The current therapies for DM include mainly oral anti-diabetic drugs and insulin. However, continuous use of these causes insulin resistance and side-effects, and the demand of effective, nontoxic and affordable drugs for DM patients is eager. Several previous studies have shown that non-toxic biological macromolecules, mainly polysaccharides, possess prominent efficacies on DM. Based on these encouraging observations, a great deal of efforts have been focused on discovering anti-diabetic polysaccharides for the development of effective therapeutics for DM. This review focuses on the advancements in the anti-diabetic efficacy of various natural polysaccharides and polysaccharide complexes from 2010 to 2015. PMID:27185119

  7. Antidiabetic drugs utilization, compliance and relevant factors in elderly diabetic patients in Shanghai community%社区老年糖尿病人群抗糖尿病药物的利用情况、依从性及影响因素

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    汤文璐; 张莉蓉; 王永铭; 杜文民; 程能能; 陈斌艳

    2007-01-01

    目的 了解实际自然人群中老年糖尿病患者抗糖尿病药物的分布和使用情况,评价老年糖尿病人群药物治疗依从性并探讨其影响因素.方法 利用社区老年糖尿病人群抗糖尿病药物的用药监测系统,统计各类抗糖尿病药物的使用情况和依从性;对依从性的影响因素进行非条件logistic回归分析.结果 监测社区老年糖尿病3 040例,未服药197例(占6.48%),不规则服药1 836例(占60.39%),规则服药1 007例(占33.13%,口服降糖药物治疗936例,胰岛素治疗71例;单一服药614例,联合服药393例);单独服用格列齐特218例,单独服用二甲双胍111例,单独服用格列吡嗪91例,单独服用其他药物194例;格列齐特与二甲双胍联合服用124例,格列吡嗪与二甲双胍联合服用76例,其他药物联合服用193例.结论 社区老年人群抗糖尿病药物服药依从性低.发病时间长、接受糖尿病知识教育、经常监测血糖、非药物治疗是不规则服药的主要独立保护因素,嗜甜食、医疗费支付有困难、空腹血糖控制不良是不规则服药的主要独立危险因素;发病时间长、有糖尿病家族史、经常监测血糖是未服药的主要独立保护因素,空腹血糖控制不良、低级别医疗购药渠道是未服药的主要独立危险因素.%AIM To assess the profile of antidiabetic drugs utilization and compliance of the elderly diabetes mellitus (DM) in Shanghai community and to screen the possible risk factors. METHODS By cluster sampling from five administrative areas of Shanghai, the sample size was 3 259 subjects with clinically diagnosed elderly DM. A door-to-door retrospectively pharmacoepidemiological survey was conducted and we established a monitoring system of antidiabetic drugs in elderly diabetic population in Shanghai. We investigated the utilization and compliance of antidiabetic drugs and identified possible risk factors in logistic regression. RESULTS A total of 3 040

  8. A Retrospective Longitudinal Cohort Study of Antihypertensive Drug Use and New-Onset Diabetes in Taiwanese Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ching-Ya Huang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Antihypertensive drugs have been linked to new-onset diabetes (NOD; however, data on the effect of these drugs on the development of NOD in hypertensive patients has not been well determined in a clinical setting. The aim was to investigate the association between antihypertensive drugs and NOD in Taiwan. We conducted a retrospective study of hypertensive Taiwanese patients receiving antihypertensive drugs treatment between January 2006 and December 2011. Clinical information and laboratory parameters were collected by reviewing the medical records. We estimated the odds ratios (ORs of NOD associated with antihypertensive drug use; nondiabetic subjects served as the reference group. A total of 120 NOD cases were identified in 1001 hypertensive patients during the study period. The risk of NOD after adjusting sex, age, baseline characteristics, and lipid profiles was higher among users of thiazide diuretics (OR, 1.65; 95% confidence interval (CI, 1.12–2.45 and nondihydropyridine (non-DHP calcium channel blockers (CCBs (OR, 1.96; 95% CI, 1.01–3.75 than among nonusers. Other antihypertensive drug classes were not associated with risk of NOD. Our results show that patients with hypertension who take thiazide diuretics and non-DHP CCBs are at higher risk of developing NOD than those who take other classes of antihypertensive drugs in Taiwan.

  9. Drug: D00380 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available D00380 Drug Tolbutamide (JP16/USP/INN); Orinase (TN) C12H18N2O3S 270.1038 270.3479 D00380.gif Antidiabetic...lycemic agents map07051 Antidiabetics map07055 Sulfonamide derivatives - overview... Agents affecting metabolism 39 Other agents affecting metabolism 396 Antidiabetic agents 3961 Sulfonylureas.../INN) USP drug classification [BR:br08302] Blood Glucose Regulators Antidiabetic Agents Tolbutamide D00380 T

  10. Glycemic control and cost-effectiveness attained by the drug utilization of oral antidiabetic agents in a tertiary care hospital in South India

    OpenAIRE

    Nirmal George; Ajith Kumar PV; Vijayalekshmi Amma S.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Diabetes mellitus require lifelong intervention and Kerala has high prevalence. New expensive agents require comparison with existing regimens for cost-effectiveness. Methods: Socio-demographic, anthropometric, FPG and HbA1C (baseline and post treatment) of 150 patients (73 men; 77 women) were obtained from records using standard case report forms in our retrospective study. ANOVA and paired t test were used for between groups and within group comparison. Results: Metformin ...

  11. Design, synthesis and antidiabetic evaluation of oxazolone derivatives

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    G Mariappan; B P Saha; Sriparna Datta; Deepak Kumar; P K Haldar

    2011-05-01

    A series of ten novel (2a-j) 4-arylidine 2-[4-methoxy phenyl] oxazol-5-one derivatives were synthesized and assayed in vivo to investigate their antidiabetic activities by streptozotocin-induced model in rat. These derivatives showed considerable biological efficacy when compared to rosiglitazone, a potent and wellknown antidiabetic agent as a reference drug. All the compounds were effective, amongst them 2d shows more prominent activity at 50 mg/k.g.p.o. The experimental results are statistically significant at P < 0.01 level.

  12. Inhibition of P-glycoprotein expression and function by anti-diabetic drugs gliclazide, metformin, and pioglitazone in vitro and in situ.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbasi, Mehran Mesgari; Valizadeh, Hadi; Hamishehkar, Hamed; Zakeri-Milani, Parvin

    2016-01-01

    P-glycoprotein (P-gp) is a trans-membrane drug efflux pump. Several drugs are P-gp substrates. Some drugs may affect the activity of P-gp by inhibiting its function, resulting in significant drug-drug interactions (DDIs). It is critical to understand which drugs are inhibitors of P-gp so that adverse DDIs can be minimized or avoided. This study investigated the effects of gliclazide, metformin, and pioglitazone on the function and expression of P-gp. Rhodamine 123 (Rh 123) efflux assays in Caco-2 cells and western blot testing were used to study in vitro the effect of the drugs on P-gp function and expression. The in situ rat single-pass intestinal permeability model was developed to study the effect of the drugs on P-gp function. Digoxin and verapamil were used as a known substrate and inhibitor of P-gp, respectively. Digoxin levels in intestinal perfusion samples were analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography. Intestinal effective permeability (Peff) of digoxin in the presence of 0.1, 10, and 500 μM gliclazide, 100 and 7000 μM metformin, and 50 and 300 μM pioglitazone was significantly increased relative to the digoxin treated cells (P P-gp expression was decreased by gliclazide, metformin and pioglitazone. Intracellular accumulation of Rh 123 by the drugs increased, but the differences were not significant relative to the control cells (P > 0.05). It was found that gliclazide, metformin, and pioglitazone inhibited P-gp efflux activity in situ and down-regulated P-gp expression in vitro. Further investigations are necessary to confirm the obtained results and to define the mechanism underlying P-gp inhibition by the drugs. PMID:27499787

  13. Non-injected illicit drug use and infectious disease risk of donor tissue: a single institution retrospective review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barton, Mark D; Qureshi, Amir; Vijapura, Anita; Temple, H Thomas

    2015-12-01

    This study assessed the relationship of non-injected illicit drug use and infectious disease seropositivity for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-1), hepatitis B virus (HBV), hepatitis C virus (HCV), and Syphilis. In a retrospective review of 986 donor charts recovered from 2009 to 2011 at a single tissue bank, the absence of reported non-injected illicit drug use corresponded with seropositivity in 6.61 %, of recovered donors while reported illicit drug use in the medical and social history corresponded with seropositivity in 11.25 %, representing a 70 % increased risk. There was no significant difference noted for overall seropositivity rates between types on noninjected illicit drugs, although donors that used cocaine had a higher incidence of HIV, while marijuana use was associated with a higher rate of HBV, HCV, and syphilis positivity. Toxicology screening results were not an accurate predictor of seropositivity (PPV = 3.77 %; NPV = 91.56 %). Further, the degree of relationship between the donor and the next of kin had no bearing on the veracity of actual drug use when comparing the response of the medical-social history and the toxicology screen. PMID:26006785

  14. The drug-target residence time model: a 10-year retrospective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Copeland, Robert A

    2016-02-01

    The drug-target residence time model was first introduced in 2006 and has been broadly adopted across the chemical biology, biotechnology and pharmaceutical communities. While traditional in vitro methods view drug-target interactions exclusively in terms of equilibrium affinity, the residence time model takes into account the conformational dynamics of target macromolecules that affect drug binding and dissociation. The key tenet of this model is that the lifetime (or residence time) of the binary drug-target complex, and not the binding affinity per se, dictates much of the in vivo pharmacological activity. Here, this model is revisited and key applications of it over the past 10 years are highlighted.

  15. RETROSPECTIVE ANALYSIS OF APPROACHES TO A PROBLEM OF DRUG ADDICTION AMONG YOUTH IN RUSSIA

    OpenAIRE

    Landysh Afraimovna Gizyatova

    2015-01-01

    The article examines spread and use of drugs in Russia in its relation to political and social factors, as well as the evolution of scientific approaches to a problem of drug abuse among young people across the historical development of society. The response of the state to the spread of youth drug addiction and its efforts to find some solution to the problem are analyzed. The author draws a connection between the drug situation and the social and economical conditions in Russian society.Pur...

  16. Antidiabetic and antioxidant activities of ethanolic extract of Semecarpus anacardium (Linn.) bark

    OpenAIRE

    Ali, Md Ashraf; Wahed, Mir Imam Ibne; Khatune, Naznin Ara; Rahman, Bytul Mokaddesur; Barman, Ranjan Kumar; Islam, Md. Rafiqul

    2015-01-01

    Background Diabetes mellitus is a global health problem and constantly increasing day by day. The number of diabetic people in world is expected to rise to 366 million in 2030. The available drugs for diabetes, insulin or oral hypoglycemic agents have one or more side effects and search for new antidiabetic drugs with minimal or no side effects from medicinal plants is a challenging for us. The present study was undertaken to investigate the antidiabetic and antioxidant activity of Semecarpus...

  17. Potency of Drugs Interaction among Geriatric Patients Prescribing: Retrospective Study in Pharmacies in Bandung

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nurul Annisa

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Geriatric age is an age group that vulnerable to the problems which associated with drug use, one of them is the incidence of drug-drug interactions. This research, conducted to determine potential drug-drug interactions. Data processed through www.drugs.comdatabase. This evaluation explain the prevalence and classify types of potential interactions based on the level of interactions and medical specialities. Based on the total of 29.839 prescriptions from seven pharmacies in the Bandung city obtained 334 prescription sheet of geriatrics (1.12% and from that geriatric prescriptions, there are 4 prescriptions sheets (1.20 % that contain 1 R/, which means that in this prescriptions is do not have any potential for interaction. The number of R/ on prescription sheets which contain more than 1 R / is 1.136 with an average number of R/ on each sheet prescriptions is 3.40. Total of 131 (39.22% sheets of prescriptions contain potential drug-drug interaction. Total potential interactions that occur are 210 interactions. The moderate interaction potential is 187 (89.05%, while severe as much as 23 (10.95%. The incidence of moderate and severe potential interaction in the group of medical specialities are 85.50% interactions in general practitioners, 8.40% in internist, 2.30% in cardiologist, 2.30% in ENT, 0.76% in neurologists and 0.76% in dentist.

  18. A RETROSPECTIVE STUDY ON THE POTENTIAL DRUG INTERACTION BETWEEN ANGIOTENSIN CONVERTING ENZYME INHIBITOR OR ANGIOTENSIN RECEPTOR ANTAGONIST AND OTHER DRUGS IN END-STAGE CHRONIC RENAL FAILURE PATIENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Honey Iskandar

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Increasing number of chronic renal failure (CRF patients had reflected an increase in the number of patients with diabetes and hypertension. Therefore, health practitioners would be faced with management of complicated medical problems for the patients of chronic renal disease. In this way, various complications of chronic renal failure would lead to polypharmacy, where the patients receive three to five drugs in a dose. Development of polypharmacy had made the potential of drug interaction greater. The objective was to determine whether CRF patients admitted to hospital with specific adverse drug reactions were likely to have been prescribed with interacting drugs. Retrospective study was designed. The study was conducted at the General Practice Rooms Floor 1 – Floor VI of Central Army Hospital Gatot Soebroto Jakarta. The study was conducted from December 2011 – February 2012. The data were collected in a retrospective way for a year (January – December 2011. End-stage CRF patients who were having hemodialysis therapy and receiving ACE Inhibitor drugs or Angiotensin II Receptor Antagonist (AIIRA and receiving treatment at the General Practice Rooms at Central Army Hospital Gatot Soebroto Jakarta. During the period of January – December 2011, 84 patients were treated with end-stage CRF at the Central Army Hospital and having routine hemodialysis and 44 patients were receiving therapy with ACE Inhibitor and AIIRA. Other drugs simultaneously given with ACE Inhibitor and AIIRA were captopril-spironolactone, captopril-aspirin, captopril-allopurinol, captopril-KSR, captopril-furosemide, lisinopril-furosemide and valsartan-mefenemic acid. An increase in adverse effects of the drugs was found based on the clinical evaluation and laboratory examination. The adverse effects included hyperkalemia (9,09%, decrease in anti-hypertension effect (6,8%, acute hypotension (40%, and declining renal function (11,36%. The study identifies drug interaction

  19. [Anti-diabetics and chronic kidney disease].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garofalo, Carlo; Iazzetta, Nicolangelo; Camocardi, Andrea; Pacilio, Mario; Iodice, Carmela; Minutolo, Roberto; De Nicola, Luca; Conte, Giuseppe

    2015-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus (DM) is the most important non-communicable disease after hypertension. Prevalence of type 2 DM has progressively increased over the last decades. In Italy, 11.8% of the general adult population can be identified as diabetic. The major complication of DM is diabetic nephropathy (DM-CKD), which develops in approximately one-third of diabetics. Achieving optimal glycemic control is the first therapeutic goal in the management of DM-CKD. In recent years, new antidiabetic drugs have been marketed (GLP1 analogues, DPP-4 inhibitors, SGLT-2 inhibitors) to ameliorate glycemia in patients nave or treated by means of traditional agents, such as sulfonylureas, metformin, glinides, insulin. However, use of these drugs in DM-CKD should be evaluated carefully, mainly because of the higher risk of hypoglycemia that requires dosing adjustments. Metformin still represents an adequate choice if proper dose adjustments are made on the basis of renal function. Sulfonylureas with limited renal clearance, i.e., gliquidone, glipizide and gliclazide are an alternative to metformin and more effective than repaglinide on glycemic control. Other antidiabetic agents with potential nephroprotective effects, namely DPP-4 inhibitors, incretin analogues and SGLT-2 inhibitors, may allow nephroprotective effects independent of glycemic control. Insulin remains the cornerstone of therapy when oral therapy is no longer effective. PMID:26480253

  20. Drug: D09566 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available -peptidase 4 (DPP4) inhibitor [HSA:1803] [KO:K01278] hsa04974(1803) Protein digestion and absorption map07051 Antidiabetic...cting metabolism 39 Other agents affecting metabolism 396 Antidiabetic agents 3969 Others D09566 Linagliptin...P drug classification [BR:br08302] Blood Glucose Regulators Antidiabetic Agents Linagliptin D09566 Linaglipt

  1. Drug: D06553 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ipeptidyl-peptidase 4 (DPP4) inhibitor [HSA:1803] [KO:K01278] hsa04974(1803) Protein digestion and absorption map07051 Antidiabetic...ents affecting metabolism 39 Other agents affecting metabolism 396 Antidiabetic agents 3969 Others D06553 Al...te (JAN/USAN) USP drug classification [BR:br08302] Blood Glucose Regulators Antidiabetic Agents Alogliptin D

  2. Death due to an unrecognized groin abscess in a drug addict: a retrospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Ovidio, Cristian; Vellante, Paola; Costantini, Sara; Carnevale, Aldo

    2013-07-01

    Intravenous drug injection persists despite health risks and medical complications. Venous thrombosis, septic thrombophlebitis, artery necrosis, arterio-venous fistula, mycotic aneurysm, dissecting hematoma, pseudoaneurysm formation, and soft tissues infections (i.e. abscesses, cellulitis, infected ulcers), are some of the major clinical consequences lives threatening. The aim of this work is to present this unusual autoptic case of a drug addict man died for an unrecognized groin abscess referred to the Institute of Legal Medicine, University of Chieti, causing femoral vein's erosion, and to analyse the most common patterns of vascular lesions among drug addicts. It could be stimulated a new scientific debate because groin injections and their vascular complications increase over years; while soft tissue infections may hide vascular lesions' diagnosis. So physicians should have a high index of suspicion for serious vascular problems, among intravenous drug users (IDUs): prevention for avoiding groin injection and a proper treatment are necessary.

  3. Drug: D00336 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Micronase (TN) C23H28ClN3O5S 493.1438 494.0035 D00336.gif Antidiabetic [DS:H00409] Same as: C07022 Therapeut...onamide derivatives - hypoglycemic agents map07051 Antidiabetics map07232 Potassium channel blocking and ope... metabolism 39 Other agents affecting metabolism 396 Antidiabetic agents 3961 Sulfonylureas D00336 Glibencla...NN); Glyburide (USP) USP drug classification [BR:br08302] Blood Glucose Regulators Antidiabetic Agents Glybu

  4. Drug: D00945 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 0961 392.8996 D00945.gif Antidiabetic [DS:H00409] Therapeutic category: 3969 ATC code: A10BG03 peroxisome pr...way CYP induction: CYP3A [HSA:1576 1577 1551] map07051 Antidiabetics map07222 Per...3 Agents affecting metabolism 39 Other agents affecting metabolism 396 Antidiabetic agents 3969 Others D0094...(JP16/USP) USP drug classification [BR:br08302] Blood Glucose Regulators Antidiabetic

  5. Adolescent Drug Trafficking Trends in the United Kingdom--A 10-Year Retrospective Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vale, Ellen Louise Eva; Kennedy, Patrick John

    2004-01-01

    This paper reports data from HM Customs and Excise (HMCE) of recorded cases of adolescent drug trafficking through all sea and air points of entry into the UK over a 10-year period (May 1992-May 2002). We report the characteristics of 38 cases of mixed gender and nationality ranging in age between 13 and 18 years who have been apprehended by HMCE…

  6. A retrospective study of drug prescribing pattern in burns patients in a tertiary care rural hospital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Palak Agrawal

    2015-06-01

    Conclusions: Females are more vulnerable to burn injuries. Polypharmacy was observed in prescriptions. Systemic antibiotic should be used with caution to prevent emergence of resistant microorganisms. Results of the present study indicate that some aspects of drug treatment need to be rationalized in order to achieve better patient care. [Int J Res Med Sci 2015; 3(6.000: 1446-1452

  7. Drug: D01111 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available D01111 Drug Nateglinide (JP16/USAN/INN); Starsis (TN) C19H27NO3 317.1991 317.4226 D01111.gif Antidiabetic...s mellitus Enzyme: CYP2C9 [HSA:1559], CYP3A4 [HSA:1576], CYP3A5 [HSA:1577], CYP3A7 [HSA:1551] map07051 Antidiabetic...ffecting metabolism 396 Antidiabetic agents 3969 Others D01111 Nateglinide (JP16/...) USP drug classification [BR:br08302] Blood Glucose Regulators Antidiabetic Agents Nateglinide D01111 Nateg

  8. A Retrospective Analysis of Spontaneous Adverse Drug Reactions Reports Relating to Paediatric Patients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosliana Rosli

    Full Text Available Spontaneous reporting on adverse drug reactions (ADR has been established in Malaysia since 1987, and although these reports are monitored by the Malaysia drug monitoring authority, the National Pharmaceutical Control Bureau, information about ADRs in the paediatric patient population still remains unexplored. The aims of this study, therefore, were to characterize the ADRs reported in respect to the Malaysian paediatric population and to relate the data to specific paediatric age groups.Data on all ADRs reported to the National Pharmaceutical Control Bureau between 2000 and 2013 for individuals aged from birth to 17 years old were analysed with respect to age and gender, type of reporter, suspected medicines (using the Anatomical Therapeutic Chemical classification, category of ADR (according to system organ class as well as the severity of the ADR.In total, 11,523 ADR reports corresponding to 22,237 ADRs were analysed, with half of these reporting one ADR per report. Vaccines comprised 55.7% of the 11,523 ADR reports with the remaining being drug related ADRs. Overall, 63.9% of ADRs were reported for paediatric patients between 12 and 17 years of age, with the majority of ADRs reported in females (70.7%. The most common ADRs reported were from the following system organ classes: application site disorders (32.2%, skin and appendages disorders (20.6%, body as a whole general disorders (12.8% and central and peripheral nervous system disorders (11.2%. Meanwhile, ADRs in respect to anti-infectives for systemic use (2194/5106; 43.0% were the most frequently reported across all age groups, followed by drugs from the nervous system (1095/5106; 21.4%. Only 0.28% of the ADR cases were reported as fatal. A large proportion of the reports were received from healthcare providers in government health facilities.ADR reports concerning vaccines and anti-infectives were the most commonly reported in children, and are mainly seen in adolescents, with most of

  9. Peer review comments on drug trials submitted to medical journals differ depending on sponsorship, results and acceptance: a retrospective cohort study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lent, M. van; Hout, J. in't; Out, H.J.

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: During peer review, submitted manuscripts are scrutinised by independent experts to assist journal editors in their decision-making and to help improve the quality of articles. In this retrospective cohort study, peer review comments for drug trials submitted to medical journals were anal

  10. Prediction of human pharmacokinetics using physiologically based modeling: a retrospective analysis of 26 clinically tested drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Buck, Stefan S; Sinha, Vikash K; Fenu, Luca A; Nijsen, Marjoleen J; Mackie, Claire E; Gilissen, Ron A H J

    2007-10-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate different physiologically based modeling strategies for the prediction of human pharmacokinetics. Plasma profiles after intravenous and oral dosing were simulated for 26 clinically tested drugs. Two mechanism-based predictions of human tissue-to-plasma partitioning (P(tp)) from physicochemical input (method Vd1) were evaluated for their ability to describe human volume of distribution at steady state (V(ss)). This method was compared with a strategy that combined predicted and experimentally determined in vivo rat P(tp) data (method Vd2). Best V(ss) predictions were obtained using method Vd2, providing that rat P(tp) input was corrected for interspecies differences in plasma protein binding (84% within 2-fold). V(ss) predictions from physicochemical input alone were poor (32% within 2-fold). Total body clearance (CL) was predicted as the sum of scaled rat renal clearance and hepatic clearance projected from in vitro metabolism data. Best CL predictions were obtained by disregarding both blood and microsomal or hepatocyte binding (method CL2, 74% within 2-fold), whereas strong bias was seen using both blood and microsomal or hepatocyte binding (method CL1, 53% within 2-fold). The physiologically based pharmacokinetics (PBPK) model, which combined methods Vd2 and CL2 yielded the most accurate predictions of in vivo terminal half-life (69% within 2-fold). The Gastroplus advanced compartmental absorption and transit model was used to construct an absorption-disposition model and provided accurate predictions of area under the plasma concentration-time profile, oral apparent volume of distribution, and maximum plasma concentration after oral dosing, with 74%, 70%, and 65% within 2-fold, respectively. This evaluation demonstrates that PBPK models can lead to reasonable predictions of human pharmacokinetics. PMID:17620347

  11. Drug: D00594 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 675 452.5857 D00594.gif Antidiabetic [oral hypoglycemic agent] [DS:H00409] Same as: C07670 Therapeutic categ...Enzyme: CYP2C8 [HSA:1558], CYP3A4 [HSA:1576] Transporter: SLCO1B1 [HSA:10599] map07051 Antidiabetics Therape...utic category of drugs in Japan [BR:br08301] 3 Agents affecting metabolism 39 Other agents affecting metabolism 396 Antidiabetic...ation [BR:br08302] Blood Glucose Regulators Antidiabetic Agents Repaglinide D00594 Repaglinide (JAN/USP/INN)

  12. Seriousness, preventability, and burden impact of reported adverse drug reactions in Lombardy emergency departments: a retrospective 2-year characterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perrone, Valentina; Conti, Valentino; Venegoni, Mauro; Scotto, Stefania; Degli Esposti, Luca; Sangiorgi, Diego; Prestini, Lucia; Radice, Sonia; Clementi, Emilio; Vighi, Giuseppe

    2014-01-01

    Objective The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence of adverse drug reactions (ADRs) reported in emergency departments (EDs) and carry out a thorough characterization of these to assess preventability, seriousness that required hospitalization, subsequent 30-day mortality, and economic burden. Methods This was a retrospective cohort study of data from an active pharmacovigilance project at 32 EDs in the Lombardy region collected between January 1, 2010 and December 31, 2011. Demographic, clinical, and pharmacological data on patients admitted to EDs were collected by trained and qualified monitors, and deterministic record linkage was performed to estimate hospitalizations. Pharmacoeconomic analyses were based on Diagnosis-Related Group reimbursement. Results 8,862 ADRs collected with an overall prevalence rate of 3.5 per 1,000 visits. Of all ADRs, 42% were probably/definitely preventable and 46.4% were serious, 15% required hospitalization, and 1.5% resulted in death. The System Organ Classes most frequently associated with ADRs were: skin and subcutaneous tissue, gastrointestinal, respiratory thoracic and mediastinal, and nervous system disorders. The most common Anatomical Therapeutic Chemical classes involved in admissions were J (anti-infectives and immunomodulating agents), B (blood and blood-forming organs), and N (nervous system). Older age, yellow and red triage, higher number of concomitantly taken drugs, and previous attendance in ED for the same ADR were significantly associated with an increased risk of hospitalization. The total cost associated with ADR management was €5,184,270, with a mean cost per patient of €585. Fifty-eight percent of the economic burden was defined as probably/definitely preventable. Conclusion ADRs are a serious health/economic issue in EDs. This assessment provides a thorough estimation of their seriousness, preventability, and burden impact in a large population from a representative European region. PMID

  13. Prevalence and impact of alcohol and other drug use disorders on sedation and mechanical ventilation: a retrospective study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jenvey Wendy I

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Experience suggests that patients with alcohol and other drug use disorders (AOD are commonly cared for in our intensive care units (ICU's and require more sedation. We sought to determine the impact of AOD on sedation requirement and mechanical ventilation (MV duration. Methods Retrospective review of randomly selected records of adult patients undergoing MV in the medical ICU. Diagnoses of AOD were identified using strict criteria in Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, and through review of medical records and toxicology results. Results Of the 70 MV patients reviewed, 27 had AOD (39%. Implicated substances were alcohol in 22 patients, cocaine in 5, heroin in 2, opioids in 2, marijuana in 2. There was no difference between AOD and non-AOD patients in age, race, or reason for MV, but patients with AOD were more likely to be male (21 versus 15, p Conclusion The prevalence of AOD among medical ICU patients undergoing MV is high. Patients with AOD receive higher doses of sedation than their non-AOD counterparts to achieve similar RASS scores but do not undergo longer duration of MV.

  14. Glitazone Treatment and Incidence of Parkinson's Disease among People with Diabetes: A Retrospective Cohort Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruth Brauer

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Recent in vitro and animal experiments suggest that peroxisome proliferation-activated receptor gamma (PPARɣ agonist medications, such as antidiabetic glitazone (GTZ drugs, are neuroprotective in models of Parkinson's disease (PD. These findings have not been tested in humans. We hypothesized that individuals prescribed GTZ drugs would have a lower incidence of PD compared to individuals prescribed other treatments for diabetes.Using primary care data from the United Kingdom Clinical Practice Research Datalink (CPRD, we conducted a retrospective cohort study in which individuals with diabetes who were newly prescribed GTZ (GTZ-exposed group were matched by age, sex, practice, and diabetes treatment stage with up to five individuals prescribed other diabetes treatments (other antidiabetic drug-exposed group. Patients were followed up from 1999 until the first recording of a PD diagnosis, end of observation in the database, or end of the study (1 August 2013. An incidence rate ratio (IRR was calculated using conditional Poisson regression, adjusted for possible confounders. 44,597 GTZ exposed individuals were matched to 120,373 other antidiabetic users. 175 GTZ-exposed individuals were diagnosed with PD compared to 517 individuals in the other antidiabetic drug-exposed group. The incidence rate (IR of PD in the GTZ-exposed group was 6.4 per 10,000 patient years compared with 8.8 per 10,000 patient years in those prescribed other antidiabetic treatments (IRR 0.72, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.60-0.87. Adjustments for potential confounding variables, including smoking, other medications, head injury, and disease severity, had no material impact (fully adjusted IRR 0.75, 0.59-0.94. The risk was reduced in those with current GTZ prescriptions (current GTZ-exposed IRR 0.59, 0.46-0.77 but not reduced among those with past prescriptions (past GTZ-exposed IRR 0.85, 0.65-1.10. Our study only included patients with diabetes who did not have a PD

  15. Drug: D00216 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available n hsa04973(279+280+8972) Carbohydrate digestion and absorption map07051 Antidiabetics Therapeutic category o...0BF01 Acarbose D00216 Acarbose (JAN/USAN/INN) USP drug classification [BR:br08302] Blood Glucose Regulators Antidiabetic...ting metabolism 396 Antidiabetic agents 3969 Others D00216 Acarbose (JAN/USAN/INN) Anatomical Therapeutic Ch...f drugs in Japan [BR:br08301] 3 Agents affecting metabolism 39 Other agents affec

  16. Drug: D01665 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available D01665 Drug Voglibose (JP16/USAN/INN); Basen (TN) C10H21NO7 267.1318 267.2762 D01665.gif Antidiabetic...se metabolism hsa04973(8972) Carbohydrate digestion and absorption map07051 Antidiabetics Therapeutic catego...ry of drugs in Japan [BR:br08301] 3 Agents affecting metabolism 39 Other agents affecting metabolism 396 Antidiabetic

  17. Drug: D02206 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available pocytokine signaling pathway map07051 Antidiabetics Therapeutic category of drugs in Japan [BR:br08301] 3 Ag...ents affecting metabolism 39 Other agents affecting metabolism 396 Antidiabetic agents 3962 Biguanides D0220...D02206 Drug Buformin hydrochloride (JP16); Dibetos-B (TN) C6H15N5. HCl 193.1094 193.6777 D02206.gif Antidiab...etic [DS:H00409] Therapeutic category: 3962 ATC code: A10BA03 biguanides AMPK activ

  18. A retrospective drug use evaluation of cabergoline for lactation inhibition at a tertiary care teaching hospital in Qatar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AlSaad D

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Doua AlSaad,1 Samah ElSalem,1 Palli Valapila Abdulrouf,1 Binny Thomas,1,2 Tayseer Alsaad,3 Afif Ahmed,1 Moza AlHail4 1Department of Pharmacy, Women’s Hospital, Hamad Medical Corporation, Doha, Qatar; 2Department of Pharmacy and Life Sciences, Robert Gordon University, Aberdeen, UK; 3Department of Pediatrics, Hamad General Hospital, 4Clinical Support Service Unit, Hamad Medical Corporation, Doha, Qatar Background: Breastfeeding is considered as gold standard for infant nutrition and should be interrupted only when a compelling indication exists. Certain medical conditions such as abortion, stillbirth, HIV infection, or infant galactosemia and certain medications such as chemotherapy necessitate lactation inhibition to protect the health of mother and infant. Drug use evaluation (DUE studies are done to explore the current practice in a setting and help to identify areas in which further information and education may be needed by clinicians.Objective: The aim of this study was to conduct a DUE of cabergoline to assess indications for lactation inhibition, dosage regimen, and its safety.Method: A retrospective cross-sectional DUE study was conducted over a period of 4 months from September 1, 2013, till December 31, 2013, at the Women’s Hospital, Qatar. All cabergoline prescriptions written for lactation inhibition within 10 days of delivery or abortion were included in the study. A descriptive data analysis was undertaken.Results: Of the 85 patients included, stillbirth (50.6% was considered as the main reason for lactation inhibition, followed by abortion (27.1% and neonatal death (12.9%. The remaining 9.4% of the patients had live baby, and the majority of them were prescribed cabergoline for lactation inhibition because their maternal medical conditions required the use of drugs with insufficient safety data (n=6. Seventy-four percent of patients received cabergoline at accurate time and dose. However, 14% of the patients had preexisting

  19. Seriousness, preventability, and burden impact of reported adverse drug reactions in Lombardy emergency departments: a retrospective 2-year characterization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Perrone V

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Valentina Perrone,1,* Valentino Conti,2,* Mauro Venegoni,2 Stefania Scotto,2 Luca Degli Esposti,3 Diego Sangiorgi,3 Lucia Prestini,4 Sonia Radice,1 Emilio Clementi,5,6 Giuseppe Vighi,2,4 1Unit of Clinical Pharmacology, Department of Biomedical and Clinical Sciences, University Hospital Luigi Sacco, Università di Milano, Milan, Italy; 2Regional Centre for Pharmacovigilance, Lombardy, Milan, Italy; 3CliCon Srl, Health, Economics and Outcomes Research, Ravenna, Italy; 4Unit of Clinical Pharmacology and Pharmacovigilance, Niguarda Ca’Granda Hospital, Milan, Italy; 5Unit of Clinical Pharmacology, CNR Institute of Neuroscience, Department of Biomedical and Clinical Sciences, University Hospital Luigi Sacco, Università di Milano, Milan, Italy; 6Scientific Institute, IRCCS Eugenio Medea, Lecco, Italy *These authors contributed equally to the work Objective: The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence of adverse drug reactions (ADRs reported in emergency departments (EDs and carry out a thorough characterization of these to assess preventability, seriousness that required hospitalization, subsequent 30-day mortality, and economic burden. Methods: This was a retrospective cohort study of data from an active pharmacovigilance project at 32 EDs in the Lombardy region collected between January 1, 2010 and December 31, 2011. Demographic, clinical, and pharmacological data on patients admitted to EDs were collected by trained and qualified monitors, and deterministic record linkage was performed to estimate hospitalizations. Pharmacoeconomic analyses were based on Diagnosis-Related Group reimbursement. Results: 8,862 ADRs collected with an overall prevalence rate of 3.5 per 1,000 visits. Of all ADRs, 42% were probably/definitely preventable and 46.4% were serious, 15% required hospitalization, and 1.5% resulted in death. The System Organ Classes most frequently associated with ADRs were: skin and subcutaneous tissue, gastrointestinal

  20. Identification of PPARgamma partial agonists of natural origin (II: in silico prediction in natural extracts with known antidiabetic activity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Guasch

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Natural extracts have played an important role in the prevention and treatment of diseases and are important sources for drug discovery. However, to be effectively used in these processes, natural extracts must be characterized through the identification of their active compounds and their modes of action. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: From an initial set of 29,779 natural products that are annotated with their natural source and using a previously developed virtual screening procedure (carefully validated experimentally, we have predicted as potential peroxisome proliferators-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ partial agonists 12 molecules from 11 extracts known to have antidiabetic activity. Six of these molecules are similar to molecules with described antidiabetic activity but whose mechanism of action is unknown. Therefore, it is plausible that these 12 molecules could be the bioactive molecules responsible, at least in part, for the antidiabetic activity of the extracts containing them. In addition, we have also identified as potential PPARγ partial agonists 10 molecules from 16 plants with undescribed antidiabetic activity but that are related (i.e., they are from the same genus to plants with known antidiabetic properties. None of the 22 molecules that we predict as PPARγ partial agonists show chemical similarity with a group of 211 known PPARγ partial agonists obtained from the literature. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our results provide a new hypothesis about the active molecules of natural extracts with antidiabetic properties and their mode of action. We also suggest plants with undescribed antidiabetic activity that may contain PPARγ partial agonists. These plants represent a new source of potential antidiabetic extracts. Consequently, our work opens the door to the discovery of new antidiabetic extracts and molecules that can be of use, for instance, in the design of new antidiabetic drugs or functional foods focused

  1. Thermal Analysis of Some Antidiabetic Pharmaceutical Compounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Kamal Attia

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Thermal behavior of some antidiabetic drugs such as pioglitazone hydrochloride (PTZ, rosiglitazone maleate (RGZ, glibenclamide (GBD and glimepiride (GMP has been studied. Methods: Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA, derivative thermogravimetry (DTG and differential thermal analysis (DTA techniques were used to study the thermal behavior of the drugs under investigation. Results: Thermal analysis technique was used to obtain quality control parameters such as melting point 193.13 °C, 122.42 °C, 173.75 °C and 208 °C for PTZ, RGZ, GBD and GMP, respectively. The values of melting point of gave satisfactory results in comparison to that obtained by using the official method. Non-isothermal methods were employed to determine the activation energy values of the first stage of thermal decomposition. Comparison of the activation energy values suggests the following sequence of thermal stability: GMP > GBD > RGZ > PTZ. Conclusion: The results obtained are useful for the identification of these compounds and permitted interpretations concerning their thermal decomposition. Thermal stability of pharmaceutical compounds can be studied and compared by using thermal analysis techniques.

  2. Uso de anti-hipertensivos e antidiabéticos por idosos: inquérito em Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais, Brasil Use of anti-hypertensive and anti-diabetic drugs by the elderly: a survey in Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais State, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mônica de Fátima Gontijo

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available A preocupação com efeitos prejudiciais do uso de medicamentos por idosos tem motivado estudos com o objetivo de identificar problemas nessa utilização. Realizou-se um inquérito domiciliar entre aposentados, com idade > 60 anos, residentes em Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais, Brasil (2003, que declararam ter diabetes ou hipertensão arterial. A qualidade do uso de medicamentos anti-hipertensivos e antidiabéticos foi avaliada com base em redundância, associações medicamentosas e fármacos inapropriados. Entre os 283 (89% idosos autodeclarados hipertensos, em uso de farmacoterapia, 68,2% utilizavam diuréticos, e 37,8% utilizavam IECA. Entre os 22 (64,7% autodeclarados diabéticos sob farmacoterapia, 45,5% utilizavam insulina, e 77,3%, antidiabéticos orais. Entre os 89 autodeclarados diabéticos hipertensos, 80 (90% utilizavam anti-hipertensivos, e 51 (57,3%, antidiabéticos. Observou-se o uso de associações medicamentosas, medicamentos redundantes ou inadequados, o que indica a necessidade de seguimento de protocolos terapêuticos e maior atenção à saúde dos pacientes idosos.Concern over the harmful effects of drug use by the elderly has motivated studies aimed at identifying problems in such utilization. This was a household survey with retirees aged > 60 years living in Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais State, Brazil, in 2003, who reported having a diagnosis of diabetes and/or hypertension. Quality of anti-hypertensive and anti-diabetic medication was measured by redundancy, combinations of drugs, and inappropriate drugs. Among 283 elderly patients (89% with self-reported hypertension and use of anti-hypertensive pharmacotherapy, 68.2% were using diuretics and 37.8% ACE inhibitors. Among the 22 (64.7% self-reported diabetic patients under pharmacotherapy, 45.5% were using insulin and 77.3% oral anti-diabetic agents. Among the 89 self-reported diabetic and hypertensive patients, 80 (90% were using anti-hypertensive drugs and 51 (57.3% anti-diabetic

  3. Drug: D05595 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available e Leu Pro Pro Thr Asn Val Gly Ser Asn Thr Tyr-NH2 (Disulfide bridge: 2-7) Peptide Treatment of metabolic disorders, antidiabetic...USP drug classification [BR:br08302] Blood Glucose Regulators Antidiabetic Agents Pramlintide D05595 Pramlintide acetate (USAN) CAS: 196078-30-5 PubChem: 47207258 DrugBank: DB01278 ...

  4. Drug: D00335 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available D00335 Drug Glipizide (USP/INN); Glucotrol (TN) C21H27N5O4S 445.1784 445.5352 D00335.gif Antidiabetic...USP/INN) USP drug classification [BR:br08302] Blood Glucose Regulators Antidiabetic Agents Glipizide D00335

  5. Drug: D08491 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available D08491 Drug Rosiglitazone (INN); Gaudil (TN) C18H19N3O3S 357.1147 357.4268 D08491.gif Antidiabetic...1 Rosiglitazone (INN) USP drug classification [BR:br08302] Blood Glucose Regulators Antidiabetic

  6. Allosteric inhibition of glycogen phosphorylase a by the potential antidiabetic drug 3-isopropyl 4-(2-chlorophenyl)-1,4-dihydro-1-ethyl-2-methyl-pyridine-3,5,6-tricarbo xylate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oikonomakos, N G; Tsitsanou, K E; Zographos, S E; Skamnaki, V T; Goldmann, S; Bischoff, H

    1999-10-01

    The effect of the potential antidiabetic drug (-)(S)-3-isopropyl 4-(2-chlorophenyl)-1,4-dihydro-1-ethyl-2-methyl-pyridine-3,5,6-tricarbox ylate (W1807) on the catalytic and structural properties of glycogen phosphorylase a has been studied. Glycogen phosphorylase (GP) is an allosteric enzyme whose activity is primarily controlled by reversible phosphorylation of Ser14 of the dephosphorylated enzyme (GPb, less active, predominantly T-state) to form the phosphorylated enzyme (GPa, more active, predominantly R-state). Upon conversion of GPb to GPa, the N-terminal tail (residues 5-22), which carries the Ser14(P), changes its conformation into a distorted 3(10) helix and its contacts from intrasubunit to intersubunit. This alteration causes a series of tertiary and quaternary conformational changes that lead to activation of the enzyme through opening access to the catalytic site. As part of a screening process to identify compounds that might contribute to the regulation of glycogen metabolism in the noninsulin dependent diabetes diseased state, W1807 has been found as the most potent inhibitor of GPb (Ki = 1.6 nM) that binds at the allosteric site of T-state GPb and produces further conformational changes, characteristic of a T'-like state. Kinetics show W1807 is a potent competitive inhibitor of GPa (-AMP) (Ki = 10.8 nM) and of GPa (+1 mM AMP) (Ki = 19.4 microM) with respect to glucose 1-phosphate and acts in synergism with glucose. To elucidate the structural features that contribute to the binding, the structures of GPa in the T-state conformation in complex with glucose and in complex with both glucose and W1807 have been determined at 100 K to 2.0 A and 2.1 A resolution, and refined to crystallographic R-values of 0.179 (R(free) = 0.230) and 0.189 (R(free) = 0.263), respectively. W1807 binds tightly at the allosteric site and induces substantial conformational changes both in the vicinity of the allosteric site and the subunit interface. A disordering of the N

  7. Drug: D00944 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 81 165.6246 D00944.gif Antidiabetic [DS:H00409] Therapeutic category: 3962 ATC code: A10BA02 biguanides AMPK... SCL47A2 [HSA:146802] map07051 Antidiabetics map04150 mTOR signaling pathway Therapeutic category of drugs i...n Japan [BR:br08301] 3 Agents affecting metabolism 39 Other agents affecting metabolism 396 Antidiabetic...min D00944 Metformin hydrochloride (JP16/USP) USP drug classification [BR:br08302] Blood Glucose Regulators Antidiabetic

  8. Progress in drug gene polymorphism and varieties oral antidiabetic drug%药物基因多态性与口服降糖药物效应多样性关系的研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王丹蕾; 于伟; 肖江宁

    2013-01-01

    2型糖尿病是一种高发的基础疾病,以药物治疗为主,饮食、运动为辅.在降糖药物的治疗中,由于个体差异,导致疗效及不良反应多样性.药物基因组学是导致这一差异的重要原因,其研究目的 是明确遗传因素对药物效应的影响,是近年来一大研究热点.并为临床合理用药提供理论依据,这也势必将成为未来医药学的一个重要发展方向.%Type 2 diabetes mellitus is a common epidemic disease, which depends on drug treatment adjuvant with diet and exercise. During the drug treatment, varieties of curative effect and adverse effect resulted of individual difference. While pharmacogenomics is an important cause of individual difference and one of hot points of investigation. Pharmacogenomics will be an important direction of medical and pharmaceutical development as a theoretical foundation for rational use of drug and personalized treatment.

  9. Drug: D08378 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available D08378 Drug Pioglitazone (INN); Actos (TN) C19H20N2O3S 356.1195 356.4387 D08378.gif Antidiabetic...:br08302] Blood Glucose Regulators Antidiabetic Agents Pioglitazone D08378 pioglitazone (INN) Target-based c...1577 1551] map07051 Antidiabetics map07222 Peroxisome proliferator-activated rece...) gamma agonist [HSA:5468] [KO:K08530] hsa03320(5468) PPAR signaling pathway CYP induction: CYP3A [HSA:1576

  10. Drug: D01854 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available st (TN) (C19H24NO3)2. 2H2O. Ca 704.335 704.9061 D01854.gif Antidiabetic [DS:H00409] Therapeutic category: 39... Type II diabetes mellitus Enzyme: UGT1A9 [HSA:54600], UGT1A3 [HSA:54659] map07051 Antidiabetics Therapeutic... category of drugs in Japan [BR:br08301] 3 Agents affecting metabolism 39 Other agents affecting metabolism 396 Antidiabetic

  11. Drug: D04121 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ys Asn Gly Gly Pro Ser Ser Gly Ala Pro Pro Pro Ser Peptide Antidiabetic [DS:H00409] Same as: C15894 Therapeu... Neuroactive ligand-receptor interaction hsa04911(2740) Insulin secretion map07051 Antidiabetics Therapeutic...nsulins A10BX04 Exenatide D04121 Exenatide (JAN/USAN/INN) USP drug classification [BR:br08302] Blood Glucose Regulators Antidiabetic

  12. Drug-induced Stevens-Johnson syndrome (SJS, toxic epidermal necrolysis (TEN, and SJS-TEN overlap: A multicentric retrospective study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Barvaliya

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background : Stevens-Johnson syndrome (SJS and toxic epidermal necrolysis (TEN are rare immune-mediated severe cutaneous adverse reactions with incidence rate of 0.05 to 2 persons per million populations per year. Drugs are the most commonly implicated in 95% of cases. Aims : To audit the causative drugs, clinical outcome, and cost of management in SJS, TEN, and SJS-TEN overlap. Setting and Design: Tertiary care hospitals-based multicentric retrospective study (case series. Materials and Methods : Indoor case papers of SJS, TEN, and SJS-TEN overlap admitted between January 2006 and December 2009 in four tertiary care hospitals of Gujarat were scrutinized. Data were collected for demographic information, causative drugs, investigations, treatment given, duration of hospital stay, time interval between onset of symptoms and drug intake, clinical outcome, and complications. Data were analyzed to find out proportion of individual drugs responsible, major complications, and clinical outcome in SJS, TEN, and SJS-TEN overlap. Total cost of management was calculated by using cost of drugs, investigations, and consumables used during entire hospital stay. Statistical Analysis : One-way Analysis of Variance followed by Tukey-Kramer multiple comparison test was used for comparison of incubation period, duration of hospital stay, and cost of management. Results : Antimicrobials (50%, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (22.41%, and antiseizure drugs (18.96% were the most commonly associated groups. Nevirapine (28.12% was the most common drug. Antiseizure drugs were more often associated with serious form of adverse reaction (TEN: 81.8% than other drugs. Duration of hospital stay (20.6 vs 9.7 days and cost of management (Rs 7 910/- vs Rs 2 460/- were significantly higher in TEN than SJS (P=0.020 and P<0.001, respectively. Time duration between drug intake and onset of symptoms (17.7 vs 27.5 days was nonsignificantly lower in TEN as compared with SJS

  13. Patient factors influencing the prescribing of lipid lowering drugs for primary prevention of cardiovascular disease in UK general practice: a national retrospective cohort study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianhua Wu

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Guidelines indicate eligibility for lipid lowering drugs, but it is not known to what extent GPs' follow guidelines in routine clinical practice or whether additional clinical factors systematically influence their prescribing decisions. METHODS: A retrospective cohort analysis was undertaken using electronic primary care records from 421 UK general practices. At baseline (May 2008 patients were aged 30 to 74 years, free from cardiovascular disease and not taking lipid lowering drugs. The outcome was prescription of a lipid lowering drug within the next two years. The proportions of eligible and ineligible patients prescribed lipid lowering drugs were reported and multivariable logistic regression models were used to investigate associations between age, sex, cardiovascular risk factors and prescribing. RESULTS: Of 365,718 patients with complete data, 13.8% (50,558 were prescribed lipid lowering drugs: 28.5% (21,101/74,137 of those eligible and 10.1% (29,457/291,581 of those ineligible. Only 41.7% (21,101/50,558 of those prescribed lipid lowering drugs were eligible. In multivariable analysis prescribing was most strongly associated with increasing age (OR for age ≥ 65 years 4.21; 95% CI 4.05-4.39; diabetes (OR 4.49; 95% CI 4.35-4.64; total cholesterol level ≥ 7 mmol/L (OR 2.20; 95% CI 2.12-2.29; and ≥ 4 blood pressure measurements in the past year (OR 4.24; 95% CI 4.06-4.42. The predictors were similar in eligible and ineligible patients. CONCLUSIONS: Most lipid lowering drugs for primary prevention are prescribed to ineligible patients. There is underuse of lipid lowering drugs in eligible patients.

  14. Predictors of death among drug-resistant tuberculosis patients in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia: A retrospective cohort study from 2009 to 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohd Shariff, Noorsuzana; Shah, Shamsul Azhar; Kamaludin, Fadzilah

    2016-09-01

    The emergence of drug-resistant tuberculosis (TB) is a major public health threat. However, little is known about the predictors of death in drug-resistant TB in Malaysia. This study aimed to determine the predictors of death in drug-resistant TB patients, including multidrug-resistant TB (MDR-TB), in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. This study adopted a retrospective cohort study design and involved laboratory-confirmed drug-resistant TB patients (n=426) from January 2009 to June 2013. A Cox regression model and Kaplan-Meier curves were used to model the outcome measure. Data were analysed by using SPSS v.20.0 for Windows. In this study, 15.3% (n=65) of the patients died. Among the study patients, 70.9% were monoresistant TB cases, 9.4% were poly-resistant TB and 19.7% were MDR-TB. MDR-TB [adjusted hazard ratio (aHR)=2.23, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.26-3.95], ethnicity [Malay (aHR=5.95, 95% CI 2.30-15.41), Chinese (aHR=4.01, 95% CI 1.38-11.66) and Indian (aHR=3.76, 95% CI 1.19-11.85)], coronary heart disease (aHR=6.82, 95% CI 2.16-21.50), drug abuse (aHR=3.79, 95% CI 2.07-6.93) and treatment non-compliance (aHR=1.81, 95% CI 1.01-3.27) were independent predictors of poorer survival in the multivariate Cox regression analysis. This study suggests that MDR-TB, local ethnicity, coronary heart disease, history of drug abuse and treatment non-compliance are factors predicting poor survival in drug-resistant TB patients. More emphasis should be given to the management of drug-resistant TB patients with these characteristics to achieve better treatment outcomes.

  15. Drug: D04966 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available D04966 Drug Metformin (USAN/INN) C4H11N5 129.1014 129.1636 D04966.gif Antidiabetic ...br08302] Blood Glucose Regulators Antidiabetic Agents Metformin D04966 Metformin (USAN/INN) Target-based cla... signaling pathway Transporter: SLC22A2 [HSA:6582], SLC22A1 [HSA:6580], SLC47A1 [HSA:55244], SCL47A2 [HSA:146802] map07051 Antidiabet...ics Anatomical Therapeutic Chemical (ATC) classification [BR:br08303] A ALIMENTARY

  16. Drug: D10195 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available D10195 Drug Luseogliflozin hydrate (JAN) C23H30O6S. xH2O D10195.gif Antidiabetic [D...S:H00409] sodium glucose co-transporter2 (SGLT2) inhibitor [HSA:6524] [KO:K14382] map07051 Antidiabetics Tar

  17. Drug: D00395 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available D00395 Drug Troglitazone (JAN/USAN/INN); Rezulin (TN) C24H27NO5S 441.161 441.5399 D00395.gif Antidiabetic...HSA:1576], CYP3A5 [HSA:1577], CYP3A7 [HSA:1551] map07051 Antidiabetics map07222 P

  18. Drug: D04541 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ane insulin [DR:D04547] Antidiabetic [DS:H00408 H00409] Component of Humulin 70/30 (TN) insulin receptor ago...absorption CYP induction: CYP1A2 [HSA:1544] map07051 Antidiabetics USP drug classification [BR:br08302] Bloo

  19. Drug: D00379 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available D00379 Drug Tolazamide (JP16/USP/INN); Tolinase (TN) C14H21N3O3S 311.1304 311.3998 D00379.gif Antidiabetic...od Glucose Regulators Antidiabetic Agents Tolazamide D00379 Tolazamide (JP16/USP/INN) Target-based classific

  20. Drug: D10200 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available D10200 Drug Ipragliflozin L-proline (JAN) C21H21FO5S. C5H9NO2 519.1727 519.5823 D10200.gif Antidiabetic... [DS:H00409] sodium glucose co-transporter2 (SGLT2) inhibitor [HSA:6524] [KO:K14382] map07051 Antidiabetic

  1. Drug: D10336 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available D10336 Drug Fasiglifam (INN) C29H32O7S 524.1869 524.6252 D10336.gif Antidiabetic [D...S:H00409] free fatty acid receptor 1 (GPR40) agonist [HSA:2864] [KO:K04325] map07051 Antidiabetics Target-ba

  2. Drug: D05594 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Asn Val Gly Ser Asn Thr Tyr-NH2 (Disulfide bridge: 2-7) Peptide Antidiabetic [DS:H00408 H00409] ATC code: A...94 Pramlintide (USAN/INN) USP drug classification [BR:br08302] Blood Glucose Regulators Antidiabetic

  3. Drug: D04547 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available e (USP); Humalog PEN (TN) Antidiabetic [DS:H00408 H00409] insulin receptor agonist [HSA:3643] [KO:K04527] hs...A2 [HSA:1544] map07051 Antidiabetics USP drug classification [BR:br08302] Blood Glucose Regulators Insulins

  4. Drug: D00219 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available D00219 Drug Acetohexamide (JP16/USP/INN); Dymelor (TN) C15H20N2O4S 324.1144 324.3953 D00219.gif Antidiabetic...ts affecting metabolism 396 Antidiabetic agents 3961 Sulfonylureas D00219 Acetohexamide (JP16/USP/INN) Anato

  5. Drug: D10196 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available D10196 Drug Ipragliflozin (INN) C21H21FO5S 404.1094 404.4518 D10196.gif Antidiabetic... [DS:H00409] sodium glucose co-transporter2 (SGLT2) inhibitor [HSA:6524] [KO:K14382] map07051 Antidiabetics

  6. Drug: D01599 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available D01599 Drug Gliclazide (JP16/INN); Glimicron (TN) C15H21N3O3S 323.1304 323.4105 D01599.gif Antidiabetic...ents affecting metabolism 396 Antidiabetic agents 3961 Sulfonylureas D01599 Glicl

  7. Drug: D08516 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available D08516 Drug Sitagliptin (Prop.INN) C16H15F6N5O 407.1181 407.3136 D08516.gif Antidiabetic...1803) Protein digestion and absorption Transporter: ABCB1 [HSA:5243], SLC22A8 [HSA:9376] map07051 Antidiabetic

  8. Antidiabetic and antioxidant activity of Scoparia dulcis linn.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M R Mishra

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The hypoglycaemic activity of methanol extract of Scoparia dulcis was performed on both in vitro and in vivo models along with determination of total extractable polyphenol. Methanol extract of Scoparia dulcis contains 4.9% and water extract contains 3.2% of total extractable polyphenol. The antioxidant activity showed very promising result in both the tested methods that is 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl and ferric ion reducing capacity. The antioxidant activity is directly correlated to the antidiabetic potential of drug. The two enzymes (amylase and glycosidase found in intestine are responsible for the increasing postprandial glucose in body. In vitro model was performed on these enzymes and the results showed that methanol extract of Scoparia dulcis was effective to check the postprandial glucose level. The in vivo hypoglycaemic activity of methanol extract of Scoparia dulcis was performed on streptozotocin-induced diabetes mellitus showed significant inhibition of blood glucose level as compared to control and similar to that of standard glibenclamide. The overall data potentiates the traditional value of Scoparia dulcis as an antidiabetic drug.

  9. Antidiabetic and Antioxidant Activity of Scoparia dulcis Linn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, M R; Mishra, A; Pradhan, D K; Panda, A K; Behera, R K; Jha, S

    2013-09-01

    The hypoglycaemic activity of methanol extract of Scoparia dulcis was performed on both in vitro and in vivo models along with determination of total extractable polyphenol. Methanol extract of Scoparia dulcis contains 4.9% and water extract contains 3.2% of total extractable polyphenol. The antioxidant activity showed very promising result in both the tested methods that is 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl and ferric ion reducing capacity. The antioxidant activity is directly correlated to the antidiabetic potential of drug. The two enzymes (amylase and glycosidase) found in intestine are responsible for the increasing postprandial glucose in body. In vitro model was performed on these enzymes and the results showed that methanol extract of Scoparia dulcis was effective to check the postprandial glucose level. The in vivo hypoglycaemic activity of methanol extract of Scoparia dulcis was performed on streptozotocin-induced diabetes mellitus showed significant inhibition of blood glucose level as compared to control and similar to that of standard glibenclamide. The overall data potentiates the traditional value of Scoparia dulcis as an antidiabetic drug. PMID:24403665

  10. Antidiabetic and Antihyperlipidemic Activity of Cucurbita maxima Duchense (Pumpkin Seeds on Streptozotocin Induced Diabetic Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashish K. Sharma

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present study was to evaluate the antidiabetic and antihyperlipidemic effect of petroleum ether, ethyl acetate and alcohol extract of seeds of Cucurbita maxima for its purported use in diabetes. The antidiabetic and antihyperlipidemic activity of different extracts of Cucurbita maxima seeds was evaluated in wistar albino rats against streptozotocin (50 mg/kg i.p. at dose of 200 mg/kg p.o. for 21 days. Glibenclamide (500µg/kg was used as reference drug. Fasting blood glucose (FBG levels were measured on day 0, 7, 14 and 21. It was found that blood glucose concentration was significantly (P<0.05 decreased compared to control. In addition, oral administration of Cucurbita maxima significantly (P<0.05 decreased serum total cholesterol, LDL, VLDL, triglycerides and at the same time markedly increased serum insulin and HDL-cholesterol levels. Administration of glibenclamide, a reference drug also produced a significant (P<0.05 reduction in blood glucose concentration in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Thus, the results of this experimental study shows that Cucurbita maxima possess antidiabetic and antihyperlipidemic effect and is able to ameliorate the diabetic state and is a source of potent antidiabetic agent.

  11. Mechanisms of Action of Indigenous Antidiabetic Plants from the Boreal Forest of Northeastern Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hoda M. Eid

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Indigenous populations in Canada possess a wealth of native traditional knowledge. However, their rates of Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM, a disease that was unheard of in their midst 50 years ago, are the highest in the country. In an effort to cut the impact of T2DM epidemic on Indigenous health, the Canadian Institutes of Health Research funded the “CIHR Team in Aboriginal Antidiabetic Medicines (CIHR-TAAM.” The goal was to explore Boreal forest medicinal plants stemming from Indigenous Traditional Medicine to be included in T2DM care. Six out of nine communities of the Cree of Eeyou Istchee (CEI participated in ethnobotanical studies that resulted in the identification of 17 potential antidiabetic plant species. These species were screened for antidiabetic activities using a platform of in vitro bioassays and in vivo models of T2DM. This paper summarizes results on the 10 most promising plant species, their active constituents, and the mechanisms behind their antidiabetic activities. In addition, potential herb-drug interactions were examined at the level of drug-metabolizing enzymes, notably the cytochrome P450 family. This review serves as a canvas onto which is discussed the value of Indigenous medicinal plants, future avenues of research, and the ethical approach required in this field.

  12. A TWELVE-MONTHLY REVIEW ON ANTI-DIABETIC PLANTS: JAN-DEC-2011

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anil Boddupalli

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the commonest endocrine disorders is diabetes mellitus, that is characterized by insufficient or lack of insulin and impaired carbohydrate metabolism in the body leading to excretion of sweet urine and long-term complications affecting the eyes, nerves, blood vessels, skin, and kidneys. As per the current estimate, there are about 143 million people in worldwide suffering from diabetes. In the global scenario, diabetic patients may rise to 300 million in 2025. This disease occurs worldwide and its incidence is increasing rapidly in most parts of the world. Moreover, continuous use of the synthetic anti-diabetic drugs causes side effects and toxicity. Therefore, seeking natural and non-toxic anti-diabetic drugs is necessary for diabetic therapy. Medicinal plants play an important role in the development of potent therapeutic agents. The present paper reviews the data reported on pharmacologically active phyto constituents obtained from the different plants involved in anti-diabetic activity along with pharmacological status which have been experimentally studied for hypoglycaemic activity during January-December 2011. This work stimulates the researchers for further research on the potential use of medicinal plants having anti-diabetic potential.

  13. Evaluation of Anti-Inflammatory, Anti-diabetic activityof Indian Bauhinia vahlii (stembark)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Das Surya Narayan; Patro Varanashi Jagannath; Dinda Subas Chandra

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the anti-inflammatory and antidiabetic property of Bauhinia vahlii (stem bark) with preliminary phytochemical profile of the extracts. Methods: The dried whole plant material (1400 g) was packed in soxhlet apparatus and extracted successively with Pet. Ether (PE) to defat the drug, petroleum ether was removed from the powdered defatted drug which was then extracted with benzene (BE), chloroform(CE) and 95% of Ethanol (EE) as increasing polarity and all extracts screened for anti-inflammatory and antidiabetic activity using carrageenan induced paw edema and streptozotacin induced diabetic respectively. The toxicity and phytochemical screening were done using standard procedure. Result: The preliminary phytochemical tests revealed the presence of alkaloids, flavonoids, phytosterol, phenolic compounds, and glycoside. While carbohydrates, protein, gums and amino acids were absent. The acute toxicity study of various extracts of Bauhinia vahlii was conducted and dose of 353 mg/kg is fixed for anti-inflammatory and antidiabetic perperty. The pet ether, chloroform and ethanolic extract ofBauhinia vahlii significantly decreased the paw edema induced by carrageenin in rats at a dose of 353 mg/kg comparable to standard ibuprofen (100 mg/kg). Similarly in case of antidiabetic property, the ethanolic and chloroform extract of Bauhinia vahlii at a dose level 353 mg/kg, showed significant reduction in blood sugar level from 2 to 24 h in progressive manner comparable to standard glibenclamide (5mg/kg).

  14. Treatment seeking for alcohol and drug use disorders by immigrants to the Netherlands : Retrospective, population-based, cohort study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Selten, Jean-Paul; Wierdsma, Andre; Mulder, Niels; Burger, Huibert

    2007-01-01

    Background We compared risks of first contact with services for an alcohol use disorder (AUD) or drug use disorder (DUD) between the largest immigrant groups to the Netherlands and Dutch nationals. We tested the hypothesis that the ethnic pattern for DUD is similar to the previously demonstrated pat

  15. Antidiabetic activities of ethanolic extract and fraction of Anthocleista djalonensis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Okokon Jude E; Antia Bassey S; Udobang John A

    2012-01-01

    Objective:To evaluate the antidiabetic activities of ethanolic root extract/fraction of Anthocleista djalonensis (A. djalonensis) in alloxan-induced diabetic rats. Methods:A. djalonensis root extract/fractions (37-111 mg/kg) were administered to alloxan-induced diabetic rats for 14 days and blood glucose levels (BGLs) of the diabetic rats were monitored at intervals of hours and days throughout the duration of the treatment. Results: Treatment of alloxan-induced diabetic rats with the extract/fractions caused a significant (P<0.001) reduction in fasting BGLs of the diabetic rats both in acute study and prolonged treatment (2 weeks). The activities of the extract and fractions were more than that of the reference drug, glibenclamide. Conclusions:These results suggest that the root extract/fractions of A. djalonensis possess antidiabetic effect on alloxan-induced diabetic rats and this justifies its use in ethnomedicine and can be exploited in the management of diabetes.

  16. The characteristics and clinical outcome of drug-induced liver injury in a Chinese hospital: A retrospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Sheng-Sen; Yu, Kang-Kang; Huang, Chong; Li, Ning; Zheng, Jian-Ming; Bao, Su-Xia; Chen, Ming-Quan; Zhang, Wen-Hong

    2016-08-01

    The aim of this cohort study was to determine the characteristics and clinical outcome of 287 patients with drug-induced liver injury (DILI) in a Chinese hospital.Between January 2008 and January 2013, individuals who were diagnosed with DILI were selected. The complete medical records of each case were reviewed, and factors for the outcome of patients with DILI were extracted and analyzed using univariate and multivariate analysis.Two hundred eighty-seven cases identified as DILI were included in the study. A total of 105 different drugs were considered to be related to the hepatotoxicity. The main causative group of drugs was Chinese herb (n = 111). Liver failure developed in 9 (3.1%) patients, and 2 died (0.7%). Overall, complete recovery occurred in 92 (32.1%) patients. Univariate analysis and binary logistic regression analysis identified the digestive symptoms, jaundice, total bilirubin (TBIL), and direct bilirubin (DBIL) as independent factors for the non-recovery of DILI. Then the prediction model, including digestive symptoms, jaundice, TBIL, and DBIL, was built by using binary logistic regression analysis again. Receiver operating characteristic curve validated the strong power (area under the curve (AUC) = 0.907) of prediction model for predicting the DILI non-recovery.DILI is an important cause of liver test abnormalities, and Chinese herb represented the most common drug group. The factors such as digestive symptoms, jaundice, TBIL, and DBIL have effect on DILI outcomes. The prediction model, including digestive symptoms, jaundice, TBIL, and DBIL, established in this study is really an excellent predictive tool for non-recovery of DILI patients. PMID:27559976

  17. 667例药物咨询回顾性分析%Retrospective Analysis of 667 Drug Counseling Cases

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    甘美婵; 甄乐锋; 郑卫宁; 李星; 余碧霞; 蓝美群

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE:To investigate the drug counseling in The People's Hospital of Jiangmen ( hereinafter referred to as “our hospital”) and explore the entry point for clinical pharmacist to carry out pharmaceutical care .METHODS:The drug counseling data of 667 cases in our hospital from 2011 to 2013 were analyzed statistically with regard to people seeking for counseling service , the mode and the contents of counseling , the type of drugs inquired and follow-up etc .RESULTS:The number of people seeking for counseling service in our hospital increased year by year , with young physicians topping the list , and they inquired mostly about drug information and usage , dosage , anti-infective drugs and drugs for chronic diseases .Clinical pharmacists'timely and effective responses to and follow-up of people seeking for counseling service improved their trust toward clinical pharmacists .CONCLUSIONS: The clinical pharmaceutical care working mode with drug counseling as starting point is an opportunity as well as a challenge to clinical pharmacists .Clinical pharmacists need to think more and summarize and adapt the clinical pharmaceutical care to the actuality , and constantly improve the level of clinical pharmaceutical care .%目的:了解江门市人民医院(以下简称“我院”)药物咨询工作开展情况,探讨临床药师调整药学服务工作的切入点。方法:收集2011—2013年我院667例药物咨询资料,从咨询人员、咨询方式、咨询内容、咨询药物种类及随访情况等方面进行统计分析。结果:我院药物咨询例数逐年增多,咨询人员以年轻医师居多,主要咨询药物信息及用法、用量的问题,咨询涉及的药物以抗感染药、慢性病用药为主;及时、有效的答复与随访,提高了咨询者对临床药师的信任度。结论:以药物咨询为切入点的临床药学服务工作模式,对临床药师而言,既是机遇又是挑战

  18. Anti-diabetic formulations of Nāga bhasma (lead calx: A brief review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dhirajsingh Rajput

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Ayurvedic formulations usually contain ingredients of herbal, mineral, metal or animal in origin. Nāga bhasma (lead calx is a potent metallic formulation mainly indicated in the treatment of Prameha (~diabetes. Until date, no published information is available in compiled form on the formulations containing Nāga bhasma as an ingredient, their dose and indications. Therefore, in the present study, an attempt has been made to compile various formulations of Nāga bhasma indicated in treating Prameha. Aim: The present work aims to collect information on various formulations of Nāga bhasma mainly indicated in treating Prameha and to elaborate the safety and efficacy of Nāga bhasma as a Pramehaghna (antidiabetic drug. Materials and Methods: Critical review of formulations of Nāga bhasma is compiled from various Ayurvedic texts and the therapeutic efficacy of Nāga bhasma is discussed on the basis of available data. Result and Conclusion: Antidiabetic formulations of Nāga bhasma were discovered around 12th century CE. There are 44 formulations of Nāga bhasma mainly indicated for Prameha. Haridrā (Curcuma longa Linn, Āmalakī (Emblica officinalis, Guḍūci (Tinospora cordifolia and Madhu (honey enhance the antidiabetic action of Nāga bhasma and also help to prevent diabetic complications as well as any untoward effects of Nāga bhasma. On the basis of the reviewed research, it is concluded that Nāga bhasma possesses significant antidiabetic property.

  19. Target analysis and retrospective screening of veterinary drugs, ergot alkaloids, plant toxins and other undesirable substances in feed using liquid chromatography-high resolution mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    León, Nuria; Pastor, Agustín; Yusà, Vicent

    2016-01-01

    A comprehensive strategy combining a quantitative method for 77 banned veterinary drugs, mycotoxins, ergot alkaloids and plant toxins, and a post-target screening for 425 substances including pesticides and environmental contaminants in feed were developed using a QuEChERS-based extraction and an ultra-high performance liquid chromatography coupled to high-resolution mass spectrometry (UHPLC-HRMS). The quantitative method was validated after previous statistical optimisation of the main parameters governing ionisation, and presented recoveries ranging, in general, from 80 to 120%, with a precision in terms of Relative Standard Deviation (RSD) lower than 20%. The full-scan accurate mass data were acquired with a resolving power of 50000 FWHM and a mass accuracy lower than 5ppm. The method LOQ was lower than 12.5µgkg(-1) for the majority of the veterinary drugs and plant toxins and 20µgkg(-1) for ergot alkaloids. For post-target screening a customised theoretical database including the exact mass, the polarity of acquisition and the expected adducts was built and used for post-run retrospective screening. The analytical strategy was applied to 32 feed samples collected from farms of the Valencia Region (Spain). Florfenicol, zearalenone and atropine were identified and quantified at concentrations around 10µgkg(-1). In the post-target screening of the real samples, Sulfadiazine, Thrimetoprin and Pirimiphosmethyl were tentatively identified.

  20. A Metabolomics Study of Retrospective Forensic Data from Whole Blood Samples of Humans Exposed to 3,4-Methylenedioxymethamphetamine: A New Approach for Identifying Drug Metabolites and Changes in Metabolism Related to Drug Consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, Kirstine L; Telving, Rasmus; Andreasen, Mette F; Hasselstrøm, Jørgen B; Johannsen, Mogens

    2016-02-01

    The illicit drug 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) has profound physiological cerebral, cardiac, and hepatic effects that are reflected in the blood. Screening of blood for MDMA and other narcotics are routinely performed in forensics analysis using ultra-performance liquid chromatography with high-resolution time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UPLC-HR-TOFMS). The aim of this study was to investigate whether such UPLC-HR-TOFMS data collected over a two-year period could be used for untargeted metabolomics to determine MDMA metabolites as well as endogenous changes related to drug response and toxicology. Whole blood samples from living Danish drivers' positive for MDMA in different concentrations were compared to negative control samples using various statistical methods. The untargeted identification of known MDMA metabolites was used to validate the methods. The results further revealed changes of several acylcarnitines, adenosine monophosphate, adenosine, inosine, thiomorpholine 3-carboxylate, tryptophan, S-adenosyl-l-homocysteine (SAH), and lysophospatidylcholine (lysoPC) species in response to MDMA. These endogenous metabolites could be implicated in an increased energy demand and mechanisms related to the serotonergic syndrome as well as drug induced neurotoxicity. The findings showed that it was possible to extract meaningful results from retrospective UPLC-HR-TOFMS screening data for metabolic profiling in relation to drug metabolism, endogenous physiological effects, and toxicology. PMID:26705142

  1. Relationship between obesity and antipsychotic drug use in the adult population: A longitudinal, retrospective claim database study in Primary Care settings

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    Antoni Sicras-Mainar

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Antoni Sicras-Mainar1, Ruth Navarro-Artieda2, Javier Rejas-Gutiérrez3, Milagrosa Blanca-Tamayo41Planning Management, Badalona Serveis Assistencials S.A., Badalona, Barcelona, Spain; 2Medical Documentation Service, Hospital Germans Trías i Pujol, Badalona, Barcelona, Spain; 3Health Outcomes Research Derpartment, Medical Unit, Pfizer Spain, Alcobendas, Madrid, Spain; 4Department of Psychiatry, Badalona Serveis Assistencials S.A., Badalona, Barcelona, SpainObjective: To describe the association between obesity and the use of antipsychotic drugs (APDs in adult outpatients followed-up on in five Primary Care settings.Methods: A longitudinal, retrospective design study carried out between July 2004 and June 2005, in patients who were included in a claim database and for whom an APD treatment had been registered. A body mass index (BMI <30 kg/m2 was defined as obesity. The main measurements were: use of APDs, demographics, medical background and co-morbidities, and clinical parameters. Logistic regression analysis and ANCOVA with Bonferroni adjustment were applied to correct the model.Results: A total of 42,437 subjects (mean age: 50.8 (18.4 years; women: 54.5%; obesity: 27.3% [95% confidence intervals (CI, 26.9%–27.7%] were analyzed. A total of 1.3% of the patients were receiving APDs, without statistical differences in distribution by type of drug (typical: 48.8%; atypical: 51.2%. Obesity was associated with the use of APDs [OR = 1.5 (CI: 1.3–1.8], hypertension [OR = 2.4 (CI: 2.2–2.5], diabetes [OR = 1.4 (CI: 1.3–1.5] and dyslipidemia [OR = 1.3 (CI: 1.2–1.4], p < 0.0001 in all cases. BMI was significantly higher in subjects on APDs; 28.8 vs. 27.3 kg/m2, p = 0.002, and remained higher after adjusting by age and sex (mean difference 0.4 (CI: 0.1–0.7, p < 0.01. After adjusting by age, sex and the Charlson index, obese subjects generated higher average annual total costs than nonobese subjects; 811 (CI: 787–835 vs. 694 (CI: 679–709

  2. Finding needles in a haystack: application of network analysis and target enrichment studies for the identification of potential anti-diabetic phytochemicals.

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    Shaik M Fayaz

    Full Text Available Diabetes mellitus is a debilitating metabolic disorder and remains a significant threat to public health. Herbal medicines have been proven to be effective anti-diabetic agents compared to synthetic drugs in terms of side effects. However, the complexity in their chemical constituents and mechanism of action, hinder the effort to discover novel anti-diabetic drugs. Hence, understanding the biological and chemical basis of pharmacological action of phytochemicals is essential for the discovery of potential anti-diabetic drugs. Identifying important active compounds, their protein targets and the pathways involved in diabetes would serve this purpose. In this context, the present study was aimed at exploring the mechanism of action of anti-diabetic plants phytochemicals through network and chemical-based approaches. This study also involves a focused and constructive strategy for preparing new effective anti-diabetic formulations. Further, a protocol for target enrichment was proposed, to identify novel protein targets for important active compounds. Therefore, the successive use of network analysis combined with target enrichment studies would accelerate the discovery of potential anti-diabetic phytochemicals.

  3. Drug dependence and psychotic symptoms: a retrospective study of adolescents who abuse drugs at Al-Amal Hospital in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia

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    Osama Alibrahim

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Drug abuse is reported to be on the increase among young persons using illicit substances but little is known about the frequency with which they occur, the symptoms on presentation to health institutions, and the different substances abused. To establish this, we reviewed patient data collected at Al-Amal Hospital in Jeddah Kingdom of Saudi Arabia on young persons who are refered to the hospital for problems related to drug abuse. Data on 69 adolescent drug users were reviewed and analyzed using the Composite International Diagnostic Interview - Substance Abuse Model (CIDI-SAM to assess dependence on substances including amphetamines, cannabis, cocaine, and opioids. Furthermore, we assessed the adolescents’ data on history of delusions and hallucinations in the context of use of, or withdrawal from, these specific substances. Our analysis shows that 10 to 79.6% of users of amphetamines, cannabis, cocaine, and opiates met DSM-III-R dependence criteria for each specific substance. The prevalence of psychotic symptoms associated with each specific substance ranged from users with no diagnosis to users with severe dependence as follows: amphetamines (3-100%, cannabis (7- 60.0%, cocaine (5-70.7%, and opiates (4- 88%. The risk of psychotic symptoms increased for respondents who abused (OR=7.2 or had mild (OR=8.1, moderate (OR=20.0, or severe dependence (OR=14.0 on cocaine when compared to those who were users with no diagnosis. A similar pattern was evident in cannabis, opiate, and amphetamine users. In conclusion, most adolescent drug users in Saudi Arabia who are dependent on illicit substances experience psychotic symptoms in the context of use of, or withdrawal from, these substances. Psychotic symptoms increased with the severity of the disorders associated with use of all four substances. These findings underscore the importance of developing services to target this population; a population at risk of developing psychotic symptoms.

  4. Current status of Indian medicinal plants with antidiabetic potential:a review

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Raju Patil; Ravindra Patil; Bharati Ahirwar; Dheeraj Ahirwar

    2011-01-01

    In India, indigenous remedies have been used in the treatment of diabetes mellitus since the time of Charaka and Sushruta. Plants have always been an exemplary source of drugs and many of the currently available drugs have been derived directly or indirectly from them. The ethnobotanical information reports that about 800 plants may possess anti-diabetic potential. Out of several Indian medicinal plants 33 plants were reviewed. The most effective antidiabetic Indian medicinal plants are Acacia arabica, Aegle marmelose, Agrimonia eupatoria, Allium cepa, Allium sativum, Aloe vera, Azadirachta indica, Benincasa hispida, Beta vulgaris, Caesalpinia bonducella, Citrullus colocynthis, Coccinia indica, Eucalyptus globules, Ficus bengalenesis, Gymnema sylvestre, Hibiscus rosasinesis, Ipomoea batatas, Jatropha curcus, Mangifera indica, Momordica charantia, Morus alba, Mucuna pruriens, Ocimum sanctum, Pterocarpus marsupium, Punica granatum, Syzigium cumini, Tinospora cordifolia, Trigonella foenum graecum. A wide array of plant derived active principles representing numerous chemical compounds has demonstrated activity consistent with their possible use in the treatment of diabetes.

  5. Patients’ beliefs about adherence to oral antidiabetic treatment: a qualitative study

    OpenAIRE

    Guénette, Line; Lauzier, Sophie; Guillaumie, Laurence; Giguère, Gabriel; Grégoire, Jean-Pierre; Moisan, Jocelyne

    2015-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this study was to elicit patients’ beliefs about taking their oral antidiabetic drugs (OADs) as prescribed to inform the development of sound adherence-enhancing interventions. Methods A qualitative study was performed. Adults with type 2 diabetes who had been taking an OAD for >3 months were solicited to participate in one of six focus groups. Discussions were facilitated using a structured guide designed to gather beliefs related to important constructs of the theory ...

  6. Efek Antidiabetes dari Ekstrak Kelopak Bunga Rosela (Hibiscus sabdariffa L) terhadap Mencit yang Diinduksi Streptozotocin

    OpenAIRE

    Hutagaol, Rosemary Yuliana

    2012-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus is a symptom that can be characterized by chronic hyperglycemia and impaired metabolism of carbohydrates, fats and proteins associated with the lack of insulin secretion or insulin action both in absolute and relative terms. Treatment with drugs distributed on the market either relatively more expensive because of its use in the long term or have considerable side effects. Previous studies show that roselle calyces have a potent antidiabetic activity. Therefore the rese...

  7. Association between patients' beliefs and oral antidiabetic medication adherence in a Chinese type 2 diabetic population

    OpenAIRE

    Wu P; Liu N

    2016-01-01

    Ping Wu,1 Naifeng Liu2 1Department of Clinical Pharmacy, School of Basic Medical Sciences and Clinical Pharmacy, China Pharmaceutical University, 2Institute of Cardiovascular Disease, Southeast University Medical School, Nanjing, People’s Republic of China Purpose: The objective of this study was to identify, using the theory of planned behavior (TPB), patients’ beliefs about taking oral antidiabetic drugs (OADs) as prescribed, and to measure the correlations between beliefs and...

  8. Triglyceride/HDL ratio as a screening tool for predicting success at reducing anti-diabetic medications following weight loss.

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    Ghanshyam Palamaner Subash Shantha

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Intentional weight loss, by reducing insulin resistance, results in both better glycemic control and decreased need for anti-diabetic medications. However, not everyone who is successful with weight loss is able to reduce anti-diabetic medication use. In this retrospective cohort study, we assessed the predictive accuracy of baseline triglyceride (TGL/HDL ratio, a marker of insulin resistance, to screen patients for success in reducing anti-diabetic medication use with weight loss. METHODS: Case records of 121 overweight and obese attendees at two outpatient weight management centers were analyzed. The weight loss intervention consisted of a calorie-restricted diet (~1000Kcal/day deficit, a behavior modification plan, and a plan for increasing physical activity. RESULTS: Mean period of follow-up was 12.5 ± 3.5 months. By study exit, mean weight loss and mean HbA1c% reduction were 15.4 ± 5.5 kgs and 0.5 ± 0.2% respectively. 81 (67% in the study cohort achieved at least 1 dose reduction of any anti-diabetic medication. Tests for predictive accuracy of baseline TGL/HDL ratio ≤ 3 to determine success with dose reductions of anti-diabetic medications showed a sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, negative predictive value, area under the curve, likelihood ratio (LR + and LR-of 81, 83, 90, 70, 78, 4.8 and 0.2, respectively. Reproducibility of TGL/HDL ratio was acceptable. CONCLUSION: TGL/HDL ratio shows promise as an effective screening tool to determine success with dose reductions of anti-diabetic medications. The results of our study may inform the conduct of a systematic review using data from prior weight loss trials.

  9. [Update on the latest family of oral drugs marketed for the treatment of type 2 diabetes: DPP-4 inhibitors. Contributions with respect to other families of oral antidiabetic agents].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez Guisasola, Fernando

    2010-09-01

    The recent introduction of new drugs in the therapeutic arsenal for the management of hyperglycemia in type 2 diabetes has opened up new perspectives and raised hope for improved metabolic control in these patients. DPP-4 inhibitors are a family of drugs whose action is mediated by the incretin hormones, in particular GLP-1. This hormone is involved in the control of glucose homeostasis, as it stimulates insulin secretion in response to food intake and halts glucagon production. This effect, which is altered in patients with type 2 diabetes, can be improved by administering this group of drugs. The available evidence suggests that the efficacy, tolerability, safety, low drop-out rate and limited effects on weight, together with the low risk of hypoglycemic episodes, could place this group of drugs high on the treatment list in patients with type 2 diabetes. Incretin therapy provides an alternative to currently available glucose-lowering drugs for type 2 diabetes with good efficacy and a favorable profile on weight. In the studies performed to date, DPP-4 inhibitors seem safe. However, these agents must continue to be evaluated in long-term studies performed in clinical practice to ensure their effectiveness and safety profile, as well as to determine their precise role among all the currently available options in the treatment of type 2 diabetes. PMID:21074074

  10. Antibacterial, antioxidant and antidiabetic activities of Gmelina arborea roxb fruit extracts

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    Bhabani Shankar Nayak

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The plant Gmelina arborea has been traditionally used in India for several medicinal purposes like anthelmintic, diuretic, antibacterial, antioxidant and antidiabetic. Aim: The present study is an attempt to explore the antibacterial, antioxidant and antidiabetic activities of different extracts of fruits of plant G. arborea using ethanol, ethyl acetate, n-butanol and petroleum ether as solvents. Materials and Methods: A single dose (1000 =g/ml of extract was evaluated for their antibacterial activities on human pathogens like Bacillus subtilis, Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. In-vitro antioxidant activity of G. arborea fruits was determined by 1, 1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazil (DPPH free radical scavenging and reducing power assay. Ascorbic acid was used as standard and positive control for both the analyses. The antidiabetic activity of above extracts was evaluated in alloxan induced diabetic model of Wistar rats. Statistical Analysis: All data are verified for statistically significant by using one way ANOVA at 1% level of significance (P < 0.01. Results: Only ethanol extract showed significant antibacterial activity against all pathogens and the activities were compared with the standard drug, streptomycin. The n-butanol extract did not show antibacterial activity against any pathogens, whereas ethyl acetate and petroleum ether extracts showed inhibitory action against P. aeruginosa. The extracts showed significant antioxidant activities in a dose dependent manner. The ethanol extract showed good antioxidant activity when compared to the other three extracts. All the extracts were able to reduce sugar level in blood. Ethanol extract was found to have good antidiabetic activity in comparison to other extracts. Conclusion: It can be concluded that the extracts of G. arborea possess antibacterial, antioxidant and antidiabetic activities.

  11. Factors related to patient adherence to antidiabetic drug therapy Factores relacionados a la adhesión del paciente diabético a la terapéutica medicamentosa Fatores relacionados à adesão do paciente diabético à terapêutica medicamentosa

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    Heloisa Turcatto Gimenes

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present study was to assess patient adherence to antidiabetic drug therapy and its association with factors related to the patient, patient-provider relationship, therapeutic regimen and the disease itself. The study comprised 46 diabetic patients enrolled in a research and extension education center in the State of Sao Paulo, southeastern Brazil, in 2007. Data was collected through interviews using a questionnaire and the Treatment Adherence Measure (TAM. The patient adherence level to antidiabetic drug therapy was 78.3%. In conclusion, since prevalence of adherence is below that recommended in the literature, and in the light of poor blood glucose control and alleged failure of therapeutic regimen, health providers are urged to measure diabetic patient treatment adherence, because it is key to adequate diabetes management with drugs.Este estudio tuvo el objetivo de determinar la adhesión del paciente diabético a la terapéutica medicamentosa y verificar la asociación de la adhesión con factores relacionados al paciente, a la relación profesional-paciente, al esquema terapéutico y a la enfermedad. Participaron 46 diabéticos registrados en un centro de investigación y extensión universitaria en el interior del Estado de San Pablo, en 2007. Los datos fueron obtenidos mediante entrevista, utilizándose un cuestionario y la prueba de Medida de Adhesión al Tratamiento - MAT. Los resultados mostraron que la adhesión del paciente diabético al tratamiento medicamentoso para tratamiento de la diabetes fue de 78,3%. Se concluye que, al considerar que la prevalencia de la adhesión obtenida en el presente estudio estuvo por debajo de la recomendada en la literatura y frente a la vigencia del mal control de la glucemia y de la supuesta falencia en el esquema terapéutico, se urgente que los profesionales de la salud reconozcan la importancia de evaluar la adhesión de los pacientes diabéticos, al tratamiento medicamentoso

  12. Immunomodulatory effects of oral antidiabetic drugs in lymphocyte cultures from patients with type 2 diabetes Efeito imunomodulador de hipoglicemiantes orais em cultura de linfócitos de pacientes com diabetes tipo 2

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    Karina Faccio Mello

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION AND OBJECTIVE: It has been suggested that type 2 diabetes is an inflammatory response manifestation. The main drugs used to treat type 2 diabetes are sulphonylureas and biguanides. The aim of this study was to demonstrate the modulatory effects of oral hypoglycemic drugs (chlorpropamide and metformin on lymphocyte proliferation in vitro and ex vivo. METHODS: Peripheral blood mononuclear cells were isolated from human blood by gradient centrifugation. T-lymphocytes were stimulated by phytohemagglutinin (PHA and oral hypoglycemic drugs. RESULTS: In both in vitro and ex vivo experiments, there was a reduction in cell proliferation after treatment with oral hypoglycemic drugs. When both drugs were used in combination, a high level of cytotoxicity was observed, which made analysis of immunomodulatory effects unfeasible. DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSION: We demonstrated that diabetes itself may reduce cell proliferation significantly when stimulated by PHA, which may indicate that diabetic patients have difficulties in promoting an efficient inflammatory response. Moreover, the use of oral hypoglycemic drugs may aggravate this situation.INTRODUÇÃO E OBJETIVOS: Tem sido sugerido que o diabetes mellitus tipo 2 (DM2 é uma manifestação da resposta inflamatória. As principais drogas utilizadas no tratamento do DM2 são as sulfonilureias e as biguanidas. O objetivo deste trabalho é demonstrar os efeitos moduladores na proliferação de linfócitos causada pelos hipoglicemiantes orais (clorpropamida e metformina, in vitro e ex vivo. MÉTODOS: Células mononucleares de sangue periférico foram isoladas de seres humanos por gradiente de centrifugação. Os linfócitos T foram estimulados com fito-hemaglutinina (PHA e hipoglicemiantes. RESULTADOS: Nos experimentos in vitro e ex vivo, mostramos a redução da proliferação celular quando do tratamento com drogas hipoglicemiantes orais. Quando as drogas foram utilizadas em combinação, foi

  13. An overview on antidiabetic medicinal plants having insulin mimetic property

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    DK Patel

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Diabetes mellitus is one of the common metabolic disorders acquiring around 2.8% of the world's population and is anticipated to cross 5.4% by the year 2025. Since long back herbal medicines have been the highly esteemed source of medicine therefore, they have become a growing part of modern, high-tech medicine. In view of the above aspects the present review provides profiles of plants (65 species with hypoglycaemic properties, available through literature source from various database with proper categorization according to the parts used, mode of reduction in blood glucose (insulinomimetic or insulin secretagogues activity and active phytoconstituents having insulin mimetics activity. From the review it was suggested that, plant showing hypoglycemic potential mainly belongs to the family Leguminoseae, Lamiaceae, Liliaceae, Cucurbitaceae, Asteraceae, Moraceae, Rosaceae and Araliaceae. The most active plants are Allium sativum, Gymnema sylvestre, Citrullus colocynthis, Trigonella foenum greacum, Momordica charantia and Ficus bengalensis. The review describes some new bioactive drugs and isolated compounds from plants such as roseoside, epigallocatechin gallate, beta-pyrazol-1-ylalanine, cinchonain Ib, leucocyandin 3-O-beta-d-galactosyl cellobioside, leucopelargonidin-3-O-alpha-L rhamnoside, glycyrrhetinic acid, dehydrotrametenolic acid, strictinin, isostrictinin, pedunculagin, epicatechin and christinin-A showing significant insulinomimetic and antidiabetic activity with more efficacy than conventional hypoglycaemic agents. Thus, from the review majorly, the antidiabetic activity of medicinal plants is attributed to the presence of polyphenols, flavonoids, terpenoids, coumarins and other constituents which show reduction in blood glucose levels. The review also discusses the management aspect of diabetes mellitus using these plants and their active principles.

  14. An overview on antidiabetic medicinal plants having insulin mimetic property

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Patel DK; Prasad SK; Kumar R; Hemalatha S

    2012-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus is one of the common metabolic disorders acquiring around 2.8% of the world’s population and is anticipated to cross 5.4% by the year 2025. Since long back herbal medicines have been the highly esteemed source of medicine therefore, they have become a growing part of modern, high-tech medicine. In view of the above aspects the present review provides profiles of plants (65 species) with hypoglycaemic properties, available through literature source from various database with proper categorization according to the parts used, mode of reduction in blood glucose (insulinomimetic or insulin secretagogues activity) and active phytoconstituents having insulin mimetics activity. From the review it was suggested that, plant showing hypoglycemic potential mainly belongs to the family Leguminoseae, Lamiaceae, Liliaceae, Cucurbitaceae, Asteraceae, Moraceae, Rosaceae and Araliaceae. The most active plants are Allium sativum, Gymnema sylvestre, Citrullus colocynthis, Trigonella foenum greacum, Momordica charantia and Ficus bengalensis. The review describes some new bioactive drugs and isolated compounds from plants such as roseoside, epigallocatechin gallate, beta-pyrazol-1-ylalanine, cinchonain Ib, leucocyandin 3-O-beta-d-galactosyl cellobioside, leucopelargonidin-3- O-alpha-L rhamnoside, glycyrrhetinic acid, dehydrotrametenolic acid, strictinin, isostrictinin, pedunculagin, epicatechin and christinin-A showing significant insulinomimetic and antidiabetic activity with more efficacy than conventional hypoglycaemic agents. Thus, from the review majorly, the antidiabetic activity of medicinal plants is attributed to the presence of polyphenols, flavonoids, terpenoids, coumarins and other constituents which show reduction in blood glucose levels. The review also discusses the management aspect of diabetes mellitus using these plants and their active principles.

  15. An overview on antidiabetic medicinal plants having insulin mimetic property.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, D K; Prasad, S K; Kumar, R; Hemalatha, S

    2012-04-01

    Diabetes mellitus is one of the common metabolic disorders acquiring around 2.8% of the world's population and is anticipated to cross 5.4% by the year 2025. Since long back herbal medicines have been the highly esteemed source of medicine therefore, they have become a growing part of modern, high-tech medicine. In view of the above aspects the present review provides profiles of plants (65 species) with hypoglycaemic properties, available through literature source from various database with proper categorization according to the parts used, mode of reduction in blood glucose (insulinomimetic or insulin secretagogues activity) and active phytoconstituents having insulin mimetics activity. From the review it was suggested that, plant showing hypoglycemic potential mainly belongs to the family Leguminoseae, Lamiaceae, Liliaceae, Cucurbitaceae, Asteraceae, Moraceae, Rosaceae and Araliaceae. The most active plants are Allium sativum, Gymnema sylvestre, Citrullus colocynthis, Trigonella foenum greacum, Momordica charantia and Ficus bengalensis. The review describes some new bioactive drugs and isolated compounds from plants such as roseoside, epigallocatechin gallate, beta-pyrazol-1-ylalanine, cinchonain Ib, leucocyandin 3-O-beta-d-galactosyl cellobioside, leucopelargonidin-3- O-alpha-L rhamnoside, glycyrrhetinic acid, dehydrotrametenolic acid, strictinin, isostrictinin, pedunculagin, epicatechin and christinin-A showing significant insulinomimetic and antidiabetic activity with more efficacy than conventional hypoglycaemic agents. Thus, from the review majorly, the antidiabetic activity of medicinal plants is attributed to the presence of polyphenols, flavonoids, terpenoids, coumarins and other constituents which show reduction in blood glucose levels. The review also discusses the management aspect of diabetes mellitus using these plants and their active principles.

  16. Severe hypoglycemia in users of sulfonylurea antidiabetic agents and antihyperlipidemics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonard, C E; Bilker, W B; Brensinger, C M; Han, X; Flory, J H; Flockhart, D A; Gagne, J J; Cardillo, S; Hennessy, S

    2016-05-01

    Drug-drug interactions causing severe hypoglycemia due to antidiabetic drugs is a major clinical and public health problem. We assessed whether sulfonylurea use with a statin or fibrate was associated with severe hypoglycemia. We conducted cohort studies of users of glyburide, glipizide, and glimepiride plus a statin or fibrate within a Medicaid population. The outcome was a validated, diagnosis-based algorithm for severe hypoglycemia. Among 592,872 persons newly exposed to a sulfonylurea+antihyperlipidemic, the incidence of severe hypoglycemia was 5.8/100 person-years. Adjusted hazard ratios (HRs) for sulfonylurea+statins were consistent with no association. Most overall HRs for sulfonylurea+fibrate were elevated, with sulfonylurea-specific adjusted HRs as large as 1.50 (95% confidence interval (CI): 1.24-1.81) for glyburide+gemfibrozil, 1.37 (95% CI: 1.11-1.69) for glipizide+gemfibrozil, and 1.63 (95% CI: 1.29-2.06) for glimepiride+fenofibrate. Concomitant therapy with a sulfonylurea and fibrate is associated with an often delayed increased rate of severe hypoglycemia. PMID:26566262

  17. Harnessing the potential clinical use of medicinal plants as anti-diabetic agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Campbell-Tofte JI

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Joan IA Campbell-Tofte,1 Per Mølgaard,2 Kaj Winther11Department of Clinical Biochemistry, Frederiksberg University Hospital, Frederiksberg, Denmark; 2Department of Medicinal Chemistry, Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, DenmarkAbstract: Diabetes is a metabolic disorder arising from complex interactions between multiple genetic and/or environmental factors. The characteristic high blood sugar levels result from either lack of the hormone insulin (type 1 diabetes, T1D, or because body tissues do not respond to the hormone (type 2 diabetes, T2D. T1D patients currently need exogenous insulin for life, while for T2D patients who do not respond to diet and exercise regimes, oral anti-diabetic drugs (OADs and sometimes insulin are administered to help keep their blood glucose as normal as possible. As neither the administration of insulin nor OADs is curative, many patients develop tissue degenerative processes that result in life-threatening diabetes comorbidities. Several surveys of medicinal plants used as anti-diabetic agents amongst different peoples have been published. Some of this interest is driven by the ongoing diabetes pandemic coupled with the inadequacies associated with the current state of-the-art care and management of the syndrome. However, there is a huge cleft between traditional medicine and modern (Western medicine, with the latter understandably demanding meaningful and scientific validation of anecdotal evidence for acceptance of the former. The main problems for clinical evaluation of medicinal plants with promising anti-diabetic properties reside both with the complexity of components of the plant materials and with the lack of full understanding of the diabetes disease etiology. This review is therefore focused on why research activities involving an integration of Systems Biology-based technologies of pharmacogenomics, metabolomics, and bioinformatics with standard clinical data

  18. Deliberate drug poisoning with slight symptoms on admission: are there predictive factors for intensive care unit referral? A three-year retrospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maignan, Maxime; Pommier, Philippe; Clot, Sandrine; Saviuc, Philippe; Debaty, Guillaume; Briot, Raphaël; Carpentier, Françoise; Danel, Vincent

    2014-03-01

    Deliberate drug poisoning leads to 1% of emergency department (ED) admissions. Even if most patients do not exhibit any significant complication, 5% need to be referred to an intensive care unit (ICU). Emergency physicians should distinguish between low- and high-acuity poisoned patients at an early stage to avoid excess morbidity. Our aim was to identify ICU transfer factors in deliberately self-poisoned patients without life-threatening symptoms on admission. We performed a 3-year retrospective observational study in a university hospital. Patients over 18 years of age with a diagnosis of deliberate drug poisoning were included. Clinical and toxicological data were analysed with univariate tests between groups (ED stay versus ICU transfer). Factors associated with ICU admission were then included in a logistic regression analysis. Two thousand five hundred and sixty-five patients were included. 63.2% were women, and median age was 40 (28-49). 142 patients (5.5%) were transferred to ICU. Cardiac drugs [adjusted OR (aOR) = 19.81; 95% confidence interval (95% CI): 7.93-49.50], neuroleptics (aOR = 2.78; 95% CI: 1.55-4.97) and meprobamate (aOR = 2.71; 95% CI: 1.27-5.81) ingestions were significantly linked to ICU admission. A presumed toxic dose ingestion (aOR = 2.27; 95% CI: 1.28-4.02), number of ingested tablets (aOR = 1.01; 95% CI: 1.01-1.02 for each tablet) and delay between ingestion and ED arrival <2 hr (aOR = 2.85; 95%CI: 1.62-5.03) were also factors for ICU referral. The Glasgow Coma Scale was the only clinical feature associated with ICU admission (aOR = 1.57; 95% CI: 1.44-1.70 for each point loss). These results suggest that emergency physicians should pay particular attention to toxicological data on ED admission to distinguish between low- and high-acuity self-poisoned patients. PMID:23998644

  19. Retrospective Analysis of Adverse Drug Reaction of Ibuprofen%布洛芬不良反应回顾性分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴朝霞

    2014-01-01

    目的:通过分析布洛芬所致药物不良反应(ADR)的一般规律和药物流行病学特点,为临床合理安全使用提供参考。方法:以“布洛芬”、“不良反应”关键词检索中国期刊全文数据库(CNKI)和中文科技期刊数据库(VIP)1996-2012年中文期刊,收集布洛芬所致ADR案例,对其ADR信息进行回顾性分析。结果:布洛芬所致ADR在各年龄组段均有分布且临床表现复杂多样涉及多器官、多系统,应警惕其引发严重ADR。结论:应注重患者个体差异,规范用药,提高患者用药依从性,强化药物治疗监测,以确保用药安全。%Objective:To analyze the general rules of the adverse drug reactions induced by ibuprofen and the pharmacoepidemiology features so as to provide a reference for rational and safe application of ibuprofen in clinical practice. Methods: ADR cases induced by ibuprofen were retrieved through key words searching and database review of CNKI and VIP from 1996 to 2012. The ADR information was retrospectively analyzed using statistical method. Results:The ADRs induced by ibuprofen presented in all age groups and the clinical manifestations were many and complex involving multiple organs and systems, therefore precautions should be made for the occurrence of serious ADRs. Conclusion: In order to ensure safe medication attention should be paid to the individual difference of patients and the standardization of drug application, in addition, medication compliance of patients should be improved and the therapeutic drug monitoring be strengthened.

  20. Anti-diabetic activity of Shilajatvadi Lauha, an Ayurvedic traditional herbo-mineral formulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thakur Rakesh Singh

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Shilajatvadi Lauha (SL is used in Ayurveda as Indian traditional medicine for treating diabetes mellitus. Aims: To explore the anti-diabetic potential of SL in nicotinamide-streptozotocin induced diabetic rats. Materials and Methods: SL (10, 30, and 100 mg/kg and glibenclamide (10 mg/kg were orally administered once daily to diabetic rats for 14 days. Blood glucose, plasma insulin, total cholesterol (TC, triglycerides (TGs, low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C, high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C, and very LDL-C (VLDL-C were examined. Results: SL significantly lowered the blood glucose without any hypoglycemic effect on their control counterparts, which was comparable to that of the standard anti-diabetic drug, glibenclamide. SL also showed reduction in the levels of TC, TGs, LDL-C, VLDL-C, but it increases the levels of plasma insulin and HDL-C in diabetic rats. Conclusions: SL possesses anti-diabetic and anti-hyperlipidemic activities in Type 2DM rats, which seems to scientifically validate its traditional uses and might be a promising drug in the therapy of diabetes mellitus and its hyperlipidemic complications.

  1. Diabetes mellitus:An overview on its pharmacological aspects and reported medicinal plants having antidiabetic activity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Patel DK; Kumar R; Laloo D; Hemalatha S

    2012-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus is not a single disease but is a group of metabolic disorders affecting a huge number of population in the world. It is mainly characterized by chronic hyperglycemia, resulting from defects in insulin secretion or insulin action. It is predicated that the number of diabetes person in the world could reach upto 366 million by the year 2030. Even though the cases of diabetes are increasing day by day, except insulin and oral hypoglycemic drugs no other way of treatment has been successfully developed so far. Thus, the objective of the present review is to provide an insight over the pathophysiological and etiological aspects of diabetes mellitus along with the remedies available for this metabolic disorder. The review also contains brief idea about diabetes mellitus and the experimental screening model with their relevant mechanism and significance mainly used nowadays. Alloxan and streptozotocin are mainly used for evaluating the antidiabetic activity of a particular drug. This review contain list of medicinal plants which have been tested for their antidiabetic activity in the alloxan induced diabetic rat model. From the available data in the literature, it was found that plant having antidiabetic activity is mainly due to the presence of the secondary metabolite. Thus, the information provided in this review will help the researchers for the development of an alternative methods rather than insulin and oral hypoglycemic agents for the treatment of diabetes mellitus, which will minimize the complication associated with the diabetes and related disorder.

  2. A detection method for rapid screening and confirmation of 11 antidiabetic drugs in health products%一种快速筛查和确定保健品中11种降糖类药物的检测方法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李强; 夏静; 吴春敏; 张岩

    2014-01-01

    采用高效液相色谱-离子阱飞行时间串联高分辨质谱对于保健品中降糖类药物共11种成分进行快速筛查、定性识别和准确定量。样品经含甲醇溶液超声提取,提取液经QuEChERS吸附剂净化,以C18色谱柱(150mm ×2.0mm ,3.0μm )分离,5mmol/L乙酸铵溶液和0.5%甲酸乙腈为流动相梯度洗脱,正离子模式扫描。结果表明,11种化合物在2~1000μg/L范围内呈良好的线性相关性,相关系数均大于0.991。保健品样品中各化合物的定量限(以信噪比≥10计)分别为2.0~50μg/kg。在低、中、高3个添加水平下,各化合物的平均回收率为72.3%~118.1%,相对标准偏差(RSD )为0.5%~8.4%。该方法利用精确质量数匹配和自建标准谱库检索,实现快速筛查,并使用多级特征碎片离子进行确证,具有简便、快速、高效、准确等优点,适用于保健食品中降压降糖类药物的快速筛查和测定。%A method w as developed for the screening and confirmation and quantification of 11 antidiabetic drugs in healthy foods by high performance liquid chromatography ion trap time of flight tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC‐IT‐TOF‐MS) .The analytes in the sample were ex‐tracted with methanol and the extract was purified with the mixed QuEChERS sorbents .In the chromatographic analysis ,the 11 antidiabetic drugs were separated on a C18 column with the gradient elution using the mobile phases of acetonitrile and water containing 0 .5% acetic acid .The mass analyzer was performed in positive modes in one injection .The results showed that the line arranges of the 11 compounds were 2-1000μg/L with the correlation coefficients above 0 .991 and the limits of quantification(LOQ ,S/N≥10)were2 .0-50 .0μg/kg for capsule and oral solution ,respectively .T he method validation w as carried out at three spiked levels , and the recoveries were 72 .3% -118 .1% with the

  3. Effect of Exenatide on Plasma Glucose,Weight and Body Fat in Poorly Controlled Type 2 Diabetes Patients Using Oral Antidiabetic Drug%艾塞那肽对2型糖尿病患者疗效、体重及体质成分的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    卢林娜; 高政南; 朱珠; 罗兰; 刘羽晗; 王冰; 李欣宇; 牛敏; 侯桂梅

    2014-01-01

    Objective:To evaluate the effect of exenatide on plasma glucose,weight and body fat in poorly controlled type 2 diabetes patients using oral antidiabetic drug.Method:15 cases of poorly controlled type 2 diabetes who used oral antidiabetic drug in our hospital were selected. Exenatide was injected subcutaneously together with the original basis of oral hypoglycemic agents for three months,and the body weight,body mass index(BMI),the percentage of body fat tissue, the percentage of fat tissue of waist to hip and visceral fat range were analyzed by body composition analyzer before and after treatment. In the mean time,Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry was used to determine the fat mass and percentage,muscle and bone mineral salts mass of upper limb,Lower limb,trunk,and whole body. Result:After 3 months’treatment,HbA1c were significantly decreased than before,had statistical differences(t=3.472,P0.05). The body weight,BMI, the percentage of body fat and visceral fat range were significantly decreased before and after treatment(t=4.424,P0.05). After 3 months’ treatment,the fat tissue mass of lower limb,trunk,and whole body were significantly decreased than before,had statistical differences(t=4.008,P0.05). The muscle and bone mineral salts mass were not altered(P>0.05). After 3 months’ treatment,the decrease of body weight was highly correlated with the decrease of trunk fat and whole body fat(r=0.860,0.819,P0.05);治疗后体重、体重指数、体脂百分比及内脏脂肪区域均明显下降,与治疗前比较差异均有统计学意义(t体重=4.424,P0.05);治疗后下肢、躯干、全身脂肪量较治疗前均明显下降,差异有统计学意义(t下肢脂肪量=4.008,P0.05);治疗前后上肢、下肢、躯干、全身肌肉及骨矿物盐含量无明显改变;治疗后体重下降幅度与躯干和全身脂肪量下降幅度高度相关(r=0.860、0.819,P<0.01);治疗后全身脂肪量下降幅度与下肢和躯干脂

  4. Antidiabetic and hypolipidemic activities of Kigelia pinnata flowers extract in streptozotocin induced diabetic rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kumar S; Kumar V; Prakash OM

    2012-01-01

    Objective:To evaluate antidiabetic and hypolipidemic activities of Kigelia pinnata methanolic flowers extract in streptozotocin (STZ) induced diabetic wistar rat. Methods: Rats were made diabetic by a single dose of STZ at 60 mg/kg body weight i.p. The blood glucose level was checked before and 72 h after STZ injection to confirm the development of diabetes. The flower extract and glibenclamide were administered orally at the doses of 250 and 500 mg/kg body weight for 21 days. Results:Daily oral treatment with the extract and standard drug for 21 days significantly reduced blood glucose, serum cholesterol and triglycerides levels. High density lipoprotein-cholesterol level was found to be improved (P<0.01) as compared to diabetic control group. Conclusions:It is concluded that Kigellia pinnata flowers extract have significant antidiabetic and hypolipidemic effect.

  5. A Database of Antidiabetic Plant Species of Family Asteraceae, Euphorbiaceae, Fabaceae, Lamiaceae and Moraceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanu Sharma

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Plants are playing a great role in the fulfillment of day to day needs and are an integral component of the health care systems. Present review is concerned with the compilation of information related to antidiabetic activity of medicinal plants belonging to families Asteraceae, Euphorbiaceae, Fabaceae, Lamiaceae and Moraceae from the available literature. A detailed account of 88 plant species has been collected. This information is useful in different areas of research especially for the pharmaceutical industry. Based on this data, some species can thoroughly be explored and used for the preparation of additional or alternative antidiabetic drugs. The present review has also highlighted the richness of medicinal plants diversity for the management of diabetes.

  6. Antidiabetic Activity of Benzopyrone Analogues in Nicotinamide-Streptozotocin Induced Type 2 Diabetes in Rats

    OpenAIRE

    Yogendra Nayak; Venkatachalam Hillemane; Vijay Kumar Daroji; Jayashree, B. S.; Unnikrishnan, M. K.

    2014-01-01

    Benzopyrones are proven antidiabetic drug candidate in diabetic drug discovery. In this view novel synthetic benzopyrone analogues were selected for testing in experimental diabetes. Type 2 diabetes (T2D) was induced in Wistar rats by streptozotocin (60 mg/kg, i.p.) followed by nicotinamide (120 mg/kg i.p.). Rats having fasting blood glucose (FBG) >200 mg/dL, 7 days after T2D-induction, are selected for the study. Test compounds and standard treatment were continued for 15 days. FBG, oral glu...

  7. ANTIOXIDANT AND ANTIDIABETIC ACTIVITY OF CURCUMA AROMATICA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ammayappan Rajam Srividya

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this paper is to find out the antidiabetic activity of Curcuma aromatica. In this research paper we dealt with antioxidant activities by DPPH method, ABTS method, Lipid peroxidation assay and scavenging ability of the extract for the hydrogen peroxide radical, Glucose uptake by rat hemi diaphragm method. Antidiabetic activity using healthy adult Wister rats were also carried out. Toluene extract of Curcuma aromatica showed the potent scavenging activity by DPPH method with the IC 50 value of 50.62±0.998 µg/ml, by lipid per oxidation method with the IC 50 value of 75±0.87 µg/ml, hydrogen peroxide radical scavenging activity with the IC 50 value 43.75±1.24 µg/ml, and ABTS radical scavenging method with the IC 50 value 0.038±1.54 µg/ml. After the treatment with the toluene extract of Curcuma aromatica, serum glucose level was found to be decreased from 278.53 to 116.5 mg/dl, total protein level increased from 3.09 to 5.78 mg/dl. There was a decrease in total cholesterol level from 292.33 to 134.50 mg/dl, decrease in serum triglyceride level from 85.66 to 64.16mg/dl when compared to diabetic control group. Toluene extract of Curcuma aromatica exhibited significant antioxidant and antidiabetic activities in both in vitro and in vivo models. So, it can be used as alternative herbal medicine in the treatment of diabetes and diabetic induced complication.

  8. [Incretin-based antidiabetic treatment and diseases of the pancreas (pancreatitis, pancreas carcinoma)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jermendy, György

    2016-04-01

    In the last couple of years incretin-based antidiabetic drugs became increasingly popular and widely used for treating patients with type 2 diabetes. Immediately after launching, case reports and small case series were published on the potential side effects of the new drugs, with special attention to pancreatic disorders such as acute pancreatitis or pancreatic cancer. As clinical observations accumulated, these side-effects were noted with nearly all drugs of this class. Although these side-effects proved to be rare, an intensive debate evolved in the literature. Opinion of diabetes specialists and representatives of pharmaceutical industry as well as position statements of different international scientific boards and health authorities were published. In addition, results of randomized clinical trials with incretin-based therapy and meta-analyses became available. Importantly, in everyday clinical practice, the label of the given drug should be followed. With regards to incretins, physicians should be cautious if pancreatitis in the patients' past medical history is documented. Early differential diagnosis of any abdominal pain during treatment of incretin-based therapy should be made and the drug should be discontinued if pancreatitis is verified. Continuous post-marketing surveillance and side-effect analysis are still justified with incretin-based antidiabetic treatment in patients with type 2 diabetes.

  9. [Incretin-based antidiabetic treatment and diseases of the pancreas (pancreatitis, pancreas carcinoma)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jermendy, György

    2016-04-01

    In the last couple of years incretin-based antidiabetic drugs became increasingly popular and widely used for treating patients with type 2 diabetes. Immediately after launching, case reports and small case series were published on the potential side effects of the new drugs, with special attention to pancreatic disorders such as acute pancreatitis or pancreatic cancer. As clinical observations accumulated, these side-effects were noted with nearly all drugs of this class. Although these side-effects proved to be rare, an intensive debate evolved in the literature. Opinion of diabetes specialists and representatives of pharmaceutical industry as well as position statements of different international scientific boards and health authorities were published. In addition, results of randomized clinical trials with incretin-based therapy and meta-analyses became available. Importantly, in everyday clinical practice, the label of the given drug should be followed. With regards to incretins, physicians should be cautious if pancreatitis in the patients' past medical history is documented. Early differential diagnosis of any abdominal pain during treatment of incretin-based therapy should be made and the drug should be discontinued if pancreatitis is verified. Continuous post-marketing surveillance and side-effect analysis are still justified with incretin-based antidiabetic treatment in patients with type 2 diabetes. PMID:27017851

  10. Antidiabetic and antidiarrheal effects of the methanolic extract of Phyllanthus reticulatus leaves in mice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mst Hajera Khatun; Mst Luthfun Nesa; Rafikul Islam; Farhana Alam Ripa; Al mamum; Shahin Kadir

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To assess the anti-diabetic and antidiarrheal activity of methanolic extract of Phyllanthus reticulates (P. reticulates) leaves in an animal model. Methods: Phytochemical screening of methanolic extract of P. reticulatus leaves has been performed. Antidiabetic activity have been done by OGTT, normoglycemic hyperglycemia and alloxan induced diabetic mice. Plant extracts (150 mg/kg and 300 mg/kg, b.w.) were administered orally in fasting glucose loaded mice with regard to normal control and in alloxan induced (110 mg/kg body weight i.p.) diabetic mice in comparison with reference drug Metformin hydrochloride (100 mg/kg) during 7 day test period. Antidiarrheal test was conducted by castor oil and magnesium sulfate. Results:Findings confirmed that the continuous post-treatment for 7 days with both extracts showed significant (P<0.05) hypoglycemic activity in OGTT, normoglycemic and alloxan induced mouse models. Castor oil and Magnesium sulfate induced diarrheal test of the extract (200 and 400 mg/kg) has given significant effect in compairing to control diarrheal group. Conclusion:Methanolic extract of P. reticulatus leaves have shown significant antidiabetic and antidiarrheal properties.

  11. Antidiabetic activity of Annona squamosa Linn. in alloxan - induced diabetic rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ranveer Singh Tomar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Diabetes mellitus is characterised by rise in blood sugar levels resulting from insulin dysfunction or insulin insufficiency. Aim: The aim of the present investigation is to evaluate antidiabetic activity of hydroalcoholic extract of Annona squamosa Linn (A. squamosa Linn in alloxan-induced diabetic rat model. Materials and Methods: Diabetes is induced by a single-dose intraperitoneal injection (i.p. of alloxan (120 mg/kg to albino rats. Results and Discussion: Treatment with A. squamosa Linn. extract at a dose of 350 mg/kg and 700 mg/kg and glibenclamide at a dose of 5mg/kg for 28 days, after induction of diabetes by alloxan, caused significant reduction in blood serum glucose and serum lipid profiles like total cholesterol and triglycerides but significant increase in body weight and serum high density lipoproteins (HDL level in diabetic rats compared to untreated group. Histological study of the pancreas of diabetic rat treated with A. squamosa extract also showed partial regeneration of beta cells. The antidiabetic activity of this extract is found comparable to glibenclamide. Thus, leaves of A. squamosa Linn. can be used as potential antidiabetic drug .

  12. Antidiabetic and antioxidant activities of methanol extract of Syzygium operculatum (Roxb.) Niedz. bark

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Md. Mizanur Rahman; Ahmmed Rusti Foysol; Anaytulla; Md. Masudur Rahman; Mohammed Aktar Sayeed; Md. Abdullah-Al-Mamun; Mohammad Mustakim

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the antidiabetic and antioxidant effects of the methanol extract of Syzygium operculatum bark (MSOB) using in vivo and in vitro models. Methods: Antidiabetic activity was assessed by using alloxan induced (120 mg/kg body weight) diabetic mice. The plant extract (200 mg/kg and 400 mg/kg body weight) was administrated i.p. to diabetic mice in comparison with standard metformin hydrochloride (150 mg/kg body weight). The antioxidant activity of the extract was evaluated by using a range of in vitro assays and results were compared to standards. Results: The extract MSOB 200 mg/kg and 400 mg/kg reduced the blood glucose level 44.05%and 55.53% respectively where the standard drug metformin reduced 69.42% in dose of 150 mg/kg body weight. The extract MSOB showed significant 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl scavenging activity, total phenol content, total flavonoid content and reducing power capacity compared to standards. The IC50 values were found 300.34 μg/mL in 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radical scavenging assay where 40.31 μg/mL for ascorbic acid. The total phenol and flavonoid contents were 197.5 and 267.5 mg of gallic acid equivalent per gram, respectively. Conclusions: The present study indicates that the extract of Syzygium operculatum bark is the potential sources of natural antioxidant and possesses significant antidiabetic activities.

  13. A comparative study: Homoeopathic medicine and a medicinal plant withania somnifera for antidiabetic activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Navinder

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Homeopathy has a distinct air of science involves books of rules, complex procedures, a proprietary lingo. Secondly, the method of carefully listening to the patient, meticulously recording every symptom experienced, lots of details from the patient’s background, is bound to make practitioners feel important and a lot of patients feel good. Homoeopathy is widely used, but specific effects of homoeopathic remedies seem implausible. In the present work pre-clinical trials have been performed to show that the Homeopathic Formulations have some Pharmacological effect. In the present work, ethanol extract of withania somnifera shows significantly positive antidiabetic activity on rats when compared with Glibenclamide standard antidiabetic drug. Antidiabetic effect is thought to be due to increased hepatic metabolism, increased insulin release from pancreatic beta cells and/or insulin sparing effect. Homeopathic formulation of Potency Q, 30 and 200 shows significant pharmacological effect in animals (Rats and shows the Pre-clinical effects. It shows Homeopathic formulations is not mere Placebo but have some Pharmacological/Therapeutic effect.

  14. Alpha-Glucosidase Enzyme Biosensor for the Electrochemical Measurement of Antidiabetic Potential of Medicinal Plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohiuddin, M; Arbain, D; Islam, A K M Shafiqul; Ahmad, M S; Ahmad, M N

    2016-12-01

    A biosensor for measuring the antidiabetic potential of medicinal plants was developed by covalent immobilization of α-glucosidase (AG) enzyme onto amine-functionalized multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs-NH2). The immobilized enzyme was entrapped in freeze-thawed polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) together with p-nitrophenyl-α-D-glucopyranoside (PNPG) on the screen-printed carbon electrode at low pH to prevent the premature reaction between PNPG and AG enzyme. The enzymatic reaction within the biosensor is inhibited by bioactive compounds in the medicinal plant extracts. The capability of medicinal plants to inhibit the AG enzyme on the electrode correlates to the potential of the medicinal plants to inhibit the production of glucose from the carbohydrate in the human body. Thus, the inhibition indicates the antidiabetic potential of the medicinal plants. The performance of the biosensor was evaluated to measure the antidiabetic potential of three medicinal plants such as Tebengau (Ehretis laevis), Cemumar (Micromelum pubescens), and Kedondong (Spondias dulcis) and acarbose (commercial antidiabetic drug) via cyclic voltammetry, amperometry, and spectrophotometry. The cyclic voltammetry (CV) response for the inhibition of the AG enzyme activity by Tebengau plant extracts showed a linear relation in the range from 0.423-8.29 μA, and the inhibition detection limit was 0.253 μA. The biosensor exhibited good sensitivity (0.422 μA/mg Tebengau plant extracts) and rapid response (22 s). The biosensor retains approximately 82.16 % of its initial activity even after 30 days of storage at 4 °C. PMID:26887579

  15. Alpha-Glucosidase Enzyme Biosensor for the Electrochemical Measurement of Antidiabetic Potential of Medicinal Plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohiuddin, M.; Arbain, D.; Islam, A. K. M. Shafiqul; Ahmad, M. S.; Ahmad, M. N.

    2016-02-01

    A biosensor for measuring the antidiabetic potential of medicinal plants was developed by covalent immobilization of α-glucosidase (AG) enzyme onto amine-functionalized multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs-NH2). The immobilized enzyme was entrapped in freeze-thawed polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) together with p-nitrophenyl-α- d-glucopyranoside (PNPG) on the screen-printed carbon electrode at low pH to prevent the premature reaction between PNPG and AG enzyme. The enzymatic reaction within the biosensor is inhibited by bioactive compounds in the medicinal plant extracts. The capability of medicinal plants to inhibit the AG enzyme on the electrode correlates to the potential of the medicinal plants to inhibit the production of glucose from the carbohydrate in the human body. Thus, the inhibition indicates the antidiabetic potential of the medicinal plants. The performance of the biosensor was evaluated to measure the antidiabetic potential of three medicinal plants such as Tebengau ( Ehretis laevis), Cemumar ( Micromelum pubescens), and Kedondong ( Spondias dulcis) and acarbose (commercial antidiabetic drug) via cyclic voltammetry, amperometry, and spectrophotometry. The cyclic voltammetry (CV) response for the inhibition of the AG enzyme activity by Tebengau plant extracts showed a linear relation in the range from 0.423-8.29 μA, and the inhibition detection limit was 0.253 μA. The biosensor exhibited good sensitivity (0.422 μA/mg Tebengau plant extracts) and rapid response (22 s). The biosensor retains approximately 82.16 % of its initial activity even after 30 days of storage at 4 °C.

  16. Retrospective analysis of drug utilization, health care resource use, and costs associated with IFN therapy for adjuvant treatment of malignant melanoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Y

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available ≥Ying Zhang,1 Trong Kim Le,1 James W Shaw,2 Srividya Kotapati31Center for Observational Research and Data Sciences, Worldwide Health Economics and Outcomes Research, Bristol-Myers Squibb Research and Development, Hopewell, NJ, USA; 2Worldwide Health Economics and Outcomes Research, Bristol-Myers Squibb Research and Development, Princeton, NJ, USA; 3Worldwide Health Economics and Outcomes Research, Bristol-Myers Squibb Research and Development, Wallingford Center, CT, USABackground: This study examines real-world drug utilization patterns, health care resource use, and costs among patients receiving adjuvant treatment with IFN versus patients receiving no treatment ("observation" for malignant melanoma following surgery.Methods: A retrospective cohort study was conducted using administrative claims from Truven Health Analytics (MarketScan® to identify all adjuvant melanoma patients (aged ≥18 years diagnosed between June 2007 and June 2011 who had a lymph node dissection (ie, index surgery and were treated with IFN or subsequently observed. Health care resource use and costs of services were converted to 2012 US dollars and were evaluated and compared using multivariable regression.Results: Of 1,999 eligible subjects with melanoma surgery claims, 179 (9.0% were treated with IFN and 1,820 (91.0% were observed. The median duration (days and number of doses of IFN therapy were 73 and 36, respectively. Among IFN-treated patients, only 10.6% completed ≥80% of maintenance therapy. The total average cost for patients treated with IFN was US$60,755±$3,972 (n=179; significantly higher than for patients undergoing observation ($31,641±$2,471; P<0.0001. Similar trends were observed when evaluating total cost components, including melanoma-related and non-melanoma–related medical costs. Among the melanoma-related medical costs, outpatient services, including office visits and laboratory testing, represented between 33% and 53% of total costs and

  17. Characterization and comparison of sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 inhibitors: Part 2. Antidiabetic effects in type 2 diabetic mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tahara, Atsuo; Takasu, Toshiyuki; Yokono, Masanori; Imamura, Masakazu; Kurosaki, Eiji

    2016-07-01

    Previously we investigated the pharmacokinetic, pharmacodynamic, and pharmacologic properties of all six sodium-glucose cotransporter (SGLT) 2 inhibitors commercially available in Japan using normal and diabetic mice. We classified the SGLT2 inhibitors with respect to duration of action as either long-acting (ipragliflozin and dapagliflozin) or intermediate-acting (tofogliflozin, canagliflozin, empagliflozin, and luseogliflozin). In the present study, antidiabetic effects of repeated administration of these SGLT2 inhibitors in type 2 diabetic mice were investigated. When repeatedly administered for 4 weeks, all SGLT2 inhibitors significantly exhibited antihyperglycemic, antihyperinsulinemic, and pancreas-protective effects, as well as insulin resistance-improving effects. When compared at doses producing comparable reduction in hyperglycemia across all drugs, the antidiabetic effects of ipragliflozin and dapagliflozin were more potent than those of the other four drugs, but these differences among the six drugs were not statistically significant. Further, an oral glucose tolerance test performed after repeated administration demonstrated significant improvement in glucose tolerance only with ipragliflozin and dapagliflozin, implying improved insulin resistance and secretion. Taken together, these findings demonstrate that, although all SGLT2 inhibitors exert antidiabetic effects in type 2 diabetic mice, these pharmacologic effects might be slightly superior with the long-acting drugs, which are able to provide favorable blood glucose control throughout the day. PMID:27430987

  18. Review of antidiabetic mechanism of Metformin%二甲双胍降糖机制研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    潘小康

    2016-01-01

    [Summary] Metformin is the first‐line oral antidiabetic drug.However ,its antidiabetic mechanism is not well understood.The glucose‐lowering effect of Metformin has been attributed to increase insulin sensitivity and glucose disposal ,suppress hepatic gluconeogenesis and inhibit glucagon action.Metformin can decrease the glucose level by activating AMPK dependent/independent pathway ,but its antidiabetic effect is not limited to this.Here we reviewed antidiabetic mechanism of Metformin.%二甲双胍(M et )是临床一线口服降糖药物,但其降低血糖(BG )的机制还不完全清楚。M et降低BG主要通过增加IS、增加外周组织对葡萄糖(PG )的摄取、抑制肝脏糖异生和拮抗胰升血糖素的作用。Met可通过激活腺苷酸激活蛋白激酶(AMPK)降低BG ,同时,Met也能不依赖AMPK降低BG。本文就M et主要的降糖机制作一综述。

  19. Establishment of a novel cell model targeted on FGF-21 receptor for screening anti-diabetic drug candidates%筛选糖尿病候选药物FGF-21受体激动剂的新型细胞模型的建立

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高红梅; 王文飞; 张巧; 韩阳; 王琪; 任桂萍; 付云威; 李德山

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this project is to establish a fibroblast growth factor-21 (FGF-21) signaling pathway targeted cell model, for screening a class of FGF-21 receptor agonists as anti-diabetic candidates. FGF-21 requires β klotho transmembrane proteins as co-receptor for the activation of tyrosine kinase FGF receptor (FGFR) signaling, thereby activating a series of intracellular signaling pathways and regulating gene transcription for glucose metabolism. Firstly a recombinant plasmid expressing co-receptor β klotho and EGFP reporter genes was constructed. After introducing the recombinant plasmid into package cells, the cell culture supernatant was used to infect 3T3-L1 cells, which were then screened for stably expressing β klotho gene. Administration of FGF-21 increased the expression of GLUT1 and stimulated GLUT 1-mediated glucose uptake. This novel cell model can be conveniently used in high-throughput drug screening of FGF-21 or FGF-21 analogues.%建立以成纤维细胞生长因子-21(fibroblast growthfactor-21,FGF-21)信号通路为靶点的药物筛选细胞模型,用于筛选FGF-21受体激动剂类的新型治疗糖尿病药物.FGF-21的生理功能主要是通过细胞表面的FGFR及辅助受体βklotho传递信号,从而激活细胞内相关调控的一系列信号通路以及基因转录来实现的.本实验将βklotho基因构建到逆转录病毒表达载体pBMN-IRES-EGFP.将该载体导入包装细胞,收集病毒上清液并感染3T3-L1细胞,筛选到稳定表达βklotho细胞系.该细胞模型在FGF-21作用下可以促进细胞葡萄糖转运蛋白-1表达及转运水平升高,从而提高细胞糖吸收能力.构建该细胞系可以方便对FGF-21及类似药物进行高通量筛选,为糖尿病药物的研究提供了一种新方法.

  20. Screening of antidiabetic and antioxidant activities of medicinal plants

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Amal Bakr Shori

    2015-01-01

    Diabetes is a common metabolic disorder characterized by abnormaly increased plasma glucose levels. Postprandial hyperglycemia plays an essential role in development of type-2 diabetes. Inhibitors of carbohydrate-hydrolyzing enzymes (such as α-glucosidase and α-amylase) offer an effective strategy to regulate/prevent hyperglycemia by controling starch breakdown. Natural α-amylase and α-glucosidase inhibitors, as wel as antioxidants from plant-based sources, offer a source of dietary ingredients that affect human physiological function in order to treat diabetes. Several research studies have investigated the effectiveness of plant-based inhibitors of α-amylase and α-glucosidase, as wel as their antioxidant activity. The aim of this review is to summarize the antidiabetic and antioxidant properties of several medicinal plants around the world. Half inhibitory concentration (IC50,for enzyme suppression) and half effective concentration (EC50, for antioxidant activity) values of less than 500 μg/mL were deifned as the most potent plant-based inhibitors (in vitro) and are expected to provide interesting candidates for herbal treatment of diabetes, as foods, supplements, or reifned drugs.

  1. Antidiabetic activities of ethanolic extract and fraction of Anthocleista djalonensis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jude E Okokon

    2012-06-01

    Conclusions: These results suggest that the root extract/fractions of A. djalonensis possess antidiabetic effect on alloxan-induced diabetic rats and this justifies its use in ethnomedicine and can be exploited in the management of diabetes.

  2. Association between patients' beliefs and oral antidiabetic medication adherence in a Chinese type 2 diabetic population

    OpenAIRE

    WU, Ping

    2016-01-01

    Ping Wu,1 Naifeng Liu2 1Department of Clinical Pharmacy, School of Basic Medical Sciences and Clinical Pharmacy, China Pharmaceutical University, 2Institute of Cardiovascular Disease, Southeast University Medical School, Nanjing, People’s Republic of China Purpose: The objective of this study was to identify, using the theory of planned behavior (TPB), patients’ beliefs about taking oral antidiabetic drugs (OADs) as prescribed, and to measure the correlations between bel...

  3. Bromophenols from Marine Algae with Potential Anti-Diabetic Activities

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIN Xiukun; LIU Ming

    2012-01-01

    Marine algae contain various bromophenols with a variety of biological activities,including antimicrobial,anticancer,and anti-diabetic effects.Here,we briefly review the recent progress in researches on the biomaterials from marine algae,emphasizing the relationship between the structure and the potential anti-diabetic applications.Bromophenols from marine algae display their hyperglycemic effects by inhibiting the activities of protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B,α-glucosidase,as well as other mechanisms.

  4. Unexploited Antineoplastic Effects of Commercially Available Anti-Diabetic Drugs

    OpenAIRE

    Panagiota Papanagnou; Theodora Stivarou; Maria Tsironi

    2016-01-01

    The development of efficacious antitumor compounds with minimal toxicity is a hot research topic. Numerous cancer cell targeted agents are evaluated daily in laboratories for their antitumorigenicity at the pre-clinical level, but the process of their introduction into the market is costly and time-consuming. More importantly, even if these new antitumor agents manage to gain approval, clinicians have no former experience with them. Accruing evidence supports the idea that several medications...

  5. POTENTIAL APPLICATIONS OF SOS-GFP BIOSENSOR TO IN VITRO RAPID SCREENING OF CYTOTOXIC AND GENOTOXIC EFFECT OF ANTICANCER AND ANTIDIABETIC PHARMACIST RESIDUES IN SURFACE WATER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marzena Matejczyk

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Escherichia coli K-12 GFP-based bacterial biosensors allowed the detection of cytotoxic and genotoxic effect of anticancer drug– cyclophosphamide and antidiabetic drug – metformin in PBS buffer and surface water. Experimental data indicated that recA::gfpmut2 genetic system was sensitive to drugs and drugs mixture applied in experiment. RecA promoter was a good bioindicator in cytotoxic and genotoxic effect screening of cyclophosphamide, metformin and the mixture of the both drugs in PBS buffer and surface water. The results indicated that E. coli K-12 recA::gfp mut2 strain could be potentially useful for first-step screening of cytotoxic and genotoxic effect of anticancer and antidiabetic pharmacist residues in water. Next steps in research will include more experimental analysis to validate recA::gfpmut2 genetic system in E. coli K-12 on different anticancer drugs.

  6. Drug: D10261 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available D10261 Mixture, Drug Metformin hydrochloride - sitagliptin phosphate mixt; Janumet (TN) Metformin hydr...ochloride [DR:D00944], Sitagliptin phosphate hydrate [DR:D06645] Antidiabetic [DS:H00409]...SULINS A10BD Combinations of oral blood glucose lowering drugs A10BD07 Metformin and sitagliptin D10261 Metformin hydrochloride - sitagliptin phosphate mixt PubChem: 163312292 ...

  7. Drug: D01799 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available D01799 Drug Glyclopyramide (JAN/INN); Deamelin-S (TN) C11H14ClN3O3S 303.0444 303.7652 D01799.gif Antidiabeti...erapeutic category of drugs in Japan [BR:br08301] 3 Agents affecting metabolism 39 Other agents affecting metabolism 396 Antidiabetic

  8. Drug: D10264 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available of oral blood glucose lowering drugs A10BD11 Metformin and linagliptin D10264 Linagliptin - metformin hydrochloride mixt PubChem: 163312295 ... ...formin hydrochloride [DR:D00944] Antidiabetic [DS:H00409] ATC code: A10BD11 Anatomi...D10264 Mixture, Drug Linagliptin - metformin hydrochloride mixt; Jentaduet (TN) Linagliptin [DR:D09566], Met

  9. Development of polyherbal antidiabetic formulation encapsulated in the phospholipids vesicle system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinod Kumar Gauttam

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Multifactorial metabolic diseases, for instance diabetes develop several complications like hyperlipidemia, hepatic toxicity, immunodeficiency etc., Hence, instead of mono-drug therapy the management of the disease requires the combination of herbs. Marketed herbal drugs comprise of irrational combinations, which makes their quality control more difficult. Phytoconstituents, despite having excellent bioactivity in vitro demonstrate less or no in vivo actions due to their poor lipid solubility, resulting in high therapeutic dose regimen; phospholipids encapsulation can overcome this problem. Hence, present study was designed to develop a phospholipids encapsulated polyherbal anti-diabetic formulation. In the present study, polyherbal formulation comprises of lyophilized hydro-alcoholic (50% v/v extracts of Momordica charantia, Trigonella foenum-graecum and Withania somnifera 2:2:1, respectively, named HA, optimized based on oral glucose tolerance test model in normal Wistar rats. The optimized formulation (HA entrapped in the phosphatidylcholine and cholesterol (8:2 vesicle system is named HA lipids (HAL. The vesicles were characterized for shape, morphology, entrapment efficiency, polar-dispersity index and release profile in the gastric pH. The antidiabetic potential of HA, marketed polyherbal formulation (D-fit and HAL was compared in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rat model of 21 days study. The parameters evaluated were behavioral changes, body weight, serum glucose level, lipid profile and oxidative stress. The antidiabetic potential of HA (1000 mg/kg was at par with the D-fit (1000 mg/kg. However, the potential was enhanced by phospholipids encapsulation; as HAL (500 mg/kg has shown more significant (P < 0.05 potential in comparison to HA (1000 mg/kg and at par with metformin (500 mg/kg.

  10. ANTIDIABETIC AND HYPOLIPIDEMIC EFFECTS OF HIPPOCRATEA AFRICANA (HIPPOCRATEACEAE IN STREPTOZOTOCIN INDUCED DIABETIC RATS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JUDE E. OKOKON

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Evaluation of antidiabetic and hypolipidaemic activities of ethanolic root extract of Hippocratea africana (200,400 and 600mg/kg b.w.p.o were carried out in streptozotocin induced diabetic albino rats after a single dose (acute study and after prolonged treatment(chronic study. The activity of the extract was compared with that of referenced drug,glibenclamide (10mg/kg bw.p.o.The blood glucose level was measured by using a glucometer and the various lipids level were estimated using Randox diagnostic kits.Treatment of streptozotocin (STZ diabetic rats with the extract caused a significant (P<0.01 reduction in fasting Blood Glucose levels (BGL of the diabetic rats both in acute study and prolonged treatment (2 weeks. The activity of the extract was comparable to that of the reference drug, glibenclamide. H. africana treatment showed considerable lowering of serum total cholesterol, triglycerides, LDL cholesterol, VLDL cholesterol and an increase in HDL cholesterol in the treated diabetic group. These results suggest that the root extract of H. africana possesses antidiabetic and hypolipidaemic effect on streptozotocin induced diabetic rats and confirms its folkloric use in the management of diabetes.

  11. Antidiabetic Activity of Methanolic Extract of Polygonum glabrum Wild Leaves in Diabetic Rats

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    M. D. Faheemuddin

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available To evaluate the anti-diabetic activity of the Plant leaves of Polygonum glabrum in alloxan induced diabetic rats. Method: Diabetes was induced in Wistar rats using freshly prepared solution of Alloxan monohydrate (100 mg/kg b. wt. by Intraperitoneal route of drug administration. Methanolic extract of Polygonum glabrum (200, 400 mg/kg bwt/p.o was prepared freshly, administered to alloxan induced diabetic rats for 28 days. The standard drug glibenclamide (10 mg/kg of b. wt orally. Blood glucose levels was estimated on 0, 7th, 14th, 21st and 28th days, serum glucose level, lipid profile, and histopathological changes in pancreas were examined after 28 days. OGTT was performed by administration of 200 and 400 mg/kg b.w/p.o of methanolic extract of Polygonum glabrum and 10 mg/kg b.w /p.o of Glibenclamide to different groups respectively in normal rats. Results: significant(p<0.001 results were observed in the estimated parameters like reduction in blood glucose , Improved in regeneration of beta cells of langerhans of pancreas in rats by histopathological studies. Conclusion: The results were suggested that the whole plant extract of Polygonum glabrum having potent antidiabetic activity on alloxan induced diabetic rats.

  12. A BRIEF ON DIABETIC, AND ANTIDIABETIC PLANTS FOUND IN EASTERN UTTARPRADESH

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    MISHRA JHANSEE

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Traditional Medicines derived from medicinal plants are used by about 60% of the world’s population. This review focuses on Indian Herbal drugs and plants used in the treatment of diabetes, especially in India. Diabetes is an important human ailment afflicting many from various walks of life in different countries. In India it is proving to be a major health problem, especially in the urban areas. Though there are various approaches to reduce the ill effects of diabetes and its secondary complications, herbal formulations are preferred due to lesser side effects and low cost. A list of medicinal plants with proven antidiabetic and related beneficial effects and of herbal drugs used in treatment of diabetes is compiled. These include, Allium sativum, Eugenia jambolana, Momordica charantia Ocimum sanctum, Phyllanthus amarus, Pterocarpus marsupium, Tinospora cordifolia, Trigonella foenum graecum and Withania somnifera. One of the etiologic factors implicated in the development of diabetes and its complications is the damage induced by free radicals and hence an antidiabetic compound with antioxidant properties would be more beneficial. Therefore information on antioxidant effects of these medicinal plants is also included.

  13. Drug: D00271 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 01] 3 Agents affecting metabolism 39 Other agents affecting metabolism 396 Antidiabetic...propamide D00271 Chlorpropamide (JP16/USP/INN) USP drug classification [BR:br08302] Blood Glucose Regulators Antidiabetic...betic [DS:H00409] Therapeutic category: 3961 ATC code: A10BB02 The effects of the s...D00271 Drug Chlorpropamide (JP16/USP/INN); Diabinese (TN) C10H13ClN2O3S 276.0335 276.7398 D00271.gif Antidia

  14. Antidiabetic therapy in real practice: indicators for adherence and treatment cost

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Colombo GL

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Giorgio L Colombo,1,2 Elisa Rossi,4 Marisa De Rosa,4 Danilo Benedetto,3 Antonio V Gaddi31School of Pharmacy, Department of Drug Sciences, University of Pavia, Pavia, 2S.A.V.E. Studi Analisi Valutazioni Economiche, Milan, 3CINECA – Bologna; 4Centro Aterosclerosi GC Descovich, Dipartimento di Medicina Interna e dell'Invecchiamento, University of Bologna, Bologna, ItalyBackground: Type 2 diabetes has become a disease with a high economic and social impact. The ARNO Observatory is a clinical data warehouse consisting of a network of local health care units (ASL scattered throughout the Italian territory which collects data on health care consumption for about 10.5 million people. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the use of antidiabetic drugs with particular reference to type of treatment. The analyses were carried out on a sample of 169,375 patients treated with oral blood glucose-lowering drugs in 2008 from a total population of 4,040,624 health care beneficiaries at 12 local health care units in the ARNO Observatory.Methods: Patients were considered “on treatment with oral blood glucose-lowering drugs” if they had received at least one prescription of an antidiabetic drug (Anatomical Therapeutic Chemical code A10B during 2008. The patients were divided into three treatment groups, ie, monotherapy, fixed-combination drugs, and dual therapy. The following indicators were assessed: number of patients treated with an oral antidiabetic drug, mean number of hospitalizations, mean number of specialist examinations, and mean expenditure per treated patient. Adherence was assessed using the medication possession ratio indicator (MPR.Results: Patients treated with oral blood glucose-lowering drugs comprised 4.2% of the investigated population, and had an average age of 68.9 years. The mean annual number of hospitalizations was lower in the dual therapy group (298 versus 328 per 1000 patients in the sample, while the average number of

  15. Do geriatrics require dose titration for antidiabetic agents?

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    R Shastry

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate the antidiabetic drug dosage differences between geriatric and nongeriatric diabetics with reference to duration of disease and creatinine clearance (Crcl. Materials and Methods: Prospective study conducted for 6 months in a tertiary care hospital. Patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus were grouped into geriatric (age ≥60 years and nongeriatric (age <60 years. Patients′ demographic data, duration of diabetes, medication, and serum creatinine were recorded. Crcl was calculated using Cockcroft-Gault formula. Doses of sulfonylureas (SU were converted into equivalent doses, taking glibenclamide as standard. Univariate analysis was done for comparison of drug doses between groups. Result: A total of 320 geriatric and 157 nongeriatric diabetics completed the study. The duration of diabetes and Crcl adjusted dose reduction of glibenclamide (mean dose: Geriatrics 7.2±0.4 mg, nongeriatrics 9.6±0.7 mg; P=0.01 and gliclazide (mean dose: Geriatrics 85.5±11.5 mg, nongeriatrics 115.3±32.7 mg; P=0.42 was 25%, glimepiride (mean dose: Geriatrics 1.62±0.13 mg, nongeriatrics 2.1±0.18 mg; P=0.06 was 22%. Glipizide did not require dose reduction. Mean converted equivalent dose of sulfonylurea monotherapy was significantly lower in geriatrics than nongeriatrics (3.2±0.5 vs 6.4±1.02 mg; P=0.01 and showed 50% dose reduction. Mean dose of metformin was lower in geriatrics (901±32.2 mg vs 946.7±45.8 mg; P=0.45 and showed 5% reduction in dosage. There was no difference in the mean drug doses of thiazolidinediones and insulin between the groups. Conclusion: A substantial dose reduction of glibenclamide (25%, gliclazide (25%, glimepiride (22%, and metformin (5% in geriatrics compared to nongeriatrics was observed. Smaller dosage formulations like 0.75 mg glibenclamide, 0.5 mg glimepiride, 20 mg gliclazide, and 250 mg metformin may be of value in geriatric diabetic practice.

  16. Evaluation of the anti-diabetic properties ofMucuna pruriensseed extract

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Stephen O Majekodunmi; Ademola A Oyagbemi; Solomon Umukoro; Oluwatoyin A Odeku

    2011-01-01

    Objective:To explore the antidiabetic properties ofMucuna pruriens(M. pruriens).Methods:Diabetes was induced in Wistar rats by single intravenous injection of120 mg/kg of alloxan monohydrate and different doses of the extract were administered to diabetic rats. The blood glucose level was determined using a glucometer and results were compared with normal and untreated diabetic rats. The acute toxicity was also determined in albino mice.Results:Results showed that the administration of5, 10, 20, 30, 40, 50, and100 mg/kg of the crude ethanolic extract ofM. pruriens seeds to alloxan-induced diabetic rats (plasma glucose> 450mg/dL) resulted in18.6%, 24.9%, 30.8%, 41.4%, 49.7%, 53.1% and 55.4% reduction, respectively in blood glucose level of the diabetic rats after 8h of treatment while the administration of glibenclamide (5mg/kg/day) resulted in59.7% reduction. Chronic administration of the extract resulted in a significant dose dependent reduction in the blood glucose level (P<0.001). It also showed that the antidiabetic activity ofM. pruriens seeds resides in the methanolic and ethanolic fractions of the extract. Acute toxicity studies indicated that the extract was relatively safe at low doses, although some adverse reactions were observed at higher doses (8-32 mg/kg body weight), no death was recorded. Furthermore, oral administration ofM. pruriens seed extract also significantly reduced the weight loss associated with diabetes.Conclusions: The study clearly supports the traditional use ofM. pruriens for the treatment of diabetes and indicates that the plant could be a good source of potent antidiabetic drug.

  17. Potent Antidiabetic Activity and Metabolite Profiling of Melicope Lunu-ankenda Leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Zuaidy, Mizher Hezam; Hamid, Azizah Abdul; Ismail, Amin; Mohamed, Suhaila; Abdul Razis, Ahmad Faizal; Mumtaz, Muhammad Waseem; Salleh, Syafiq Zikri

    2016-05-01

    Diabetes mellitus is normally characterized by chronic hyperglycemia associated with disturbances in the fat, carbohydrate, and protein metabolism. There is an increasing trend of using natural products instead of synthetic agents as alternative therapy for disorders due to their fewer side effects. In this study, antidiabetic and antioxidant activities of different Melicope lunu-ankenda (ML) ethanolic extracts were evaluated using inhibition of α-glucosidase and 2,2-diphenyl-l-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radicals scavenging activity, respectively; whereas, proton nuclear magnetic resonance ((1) H NMR) and ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometric (UHPLC-MS/MS) techniques were used for metabolite profiling of ML leaf extracts at different concentrations of ethanol and water. Sixty percent of ethanolic ML extract showed highest inhibitory effect against α-glucosidase enzyme (IC50 of 37 μg/mL) and DPPH scavenging activity (IC50 of 48 μg/mL). Antidiabetic effect of ML extracts was also evaluated in vivo and it was found that the high doses (400 mg/Kg BW) of ML extract exhibited high suppression in fasting blood glucose level by 62.75%. The metabolites responsible for variation among ML samples with variable ethanolic levels have been evaluated successfully using (1) H-NMR-based metabolomics. The principal component analysis (PCA) and partial least squares(PLS) analysis scores depicted clear and distinct separations into 4 clusters representing the 4 ethanolic concentrations by PC1 and PC2, with an eigenvalue of 69.9%. Various (1) H-NMR chemical shifts related to the metabolites responsible for sample difference were also ascribed. The main bioactive compounds identified attributing toward the separation included: isorhamnetin, skimmianine, scopoletin, and melicarpinone. Hence, ML may be used as promising medicinal plant for the development of new functional foods, new generation antidiabetic drugs, as a single entity phytomedicine or in

  18. In vitro and in silico antidiabetic activity of pyran ester derivative isolated from Tragia cannabina

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Vaiyapuri Sivajothi; Shruthi Shirur Dakappa

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the in vitro antidiabetic effects of isolated 4-Oxo-4H-pyran-2,6-dicarboxylic acid bis-[6-methyl-heptyl] ester from the chloroform extract of root of Tragia cannabina (T. cannabina) and AMP kinase activation property of the isolated compound.Methods:chromatographed over silica gel 60-120 mesh of column length 100 cm and diameter 3 cm. Elution was carried out with solvents and solvent mixtures of increasing polarities. Then the chloroform extract was used for isolation. In vitro antidiabetic activity was performed with fertile eggs of White Leghorn chicks by induction of diabetes by streptozotocin.Results:The roots of T. cannabina were collected and extracted with ethanol [95% v/v] then formation of hydrogen bond and consuming less binding energy, which is good when compared to orientation of standard drug metformin. In in vitro antidiabetic evaluation by streptozotocin treated chick embryo the administration of isolated compound at a doses of 0.5 mg/egg and 1 mg/egg produced a significant reduction in the blood glucose levels in a dose dependant manner (P<0.01). The blood glucose level of diabetic control was (244.20±12.64) mg/dL, whereas it was (207.40±2.43) mg/dL (P<0.001) for isolated compound 0.5 mg/egg and 174.800±2.410 mg/dL (P<0.001) for 1 mg/ egg of the isolated compound.Conclusions:The significant glucose levels were reduced (P<0.01) after administration of the The isolated pyran ester binds very efficiently within the active pocket of AMPK with the pyran ester isolated from T. cannabina to streptozotocin treated chick embryo.

  19. Drugs and driving: a retrospective study of the analyses of blood and urine specimens submitted to the Lothian and Borders Police Forensic Laboratory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ledingham, D

    1999-09-01

    A comprehensive review of 75 samples of both blood and urine from 72 different drivers suspected of being impaired by drugs in the Lothian and Borders Police Force, Scotland area of jurisdiction, between 1st January 1995 and 2nd May 1997, was undertaken. The police reports, analytical results and criminal conviction records relating to each of the drivers were examined. This provided useful information concerning differences in laboratory procedures and produced a profile of the average drugged driver. The average age of the drivers was 23 years. Only two females were within the sample. Drugs were found in 65 cases (86.7%). Polydrug use was found in seven cases (9.3%). The drugs found, in order of frequency, were benzodiazepines (40%), cannabinoids (24%), alcohol (16%), methadone (12%), dihydrocodeine (9.3%), ecstacy (5.3%), amphetamine (2.7%), volatiles (1.3%) and morphine (1.3%). 90.3% of the drivers had previous convictions for criminal offences and 47.2% had convictions for drugs-related offences. Recommendations concerning police and medical training are discussed with particular reference to the Drug Recognition Expert program. PMID:15335481

  20. Comprehensive Evidence-Based Assessment and Prioritization of Potential Antidiabetic Medicinal Plants: A Case Study from Canadian Eastern James Bay Cree Traditional Medicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pierre S. Haddad

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Canadian Aboriginals, like others globally, suffer from disproportionately high rates of diabetes. A comprehensive evidence-based approach was therefore developed to study potential antidiabetic medicinal plants stemming from Canadian Aboriginal Traditional Medicine to provide culturally adapted complementary and alternative treatment options. Key elements of pathophysiology of diabetes and of related contemporary drug therapy are presented to highlight relevant cellular and molecular targets for medicinal plants. Potential antidiabetic plants were identified using a novel ethnobotanical method based on a set of diabetes symptoms. The most promising species were screened for primary (glucose-lowering and secondary (toxicity, drug interactions, complications antidiabetic activity by using a comprehensive platform of in vitro cell-based and cell-free bioassays. The most active species were studied further for their mechanism of action and their active principles identified though bioassay-guided fractionation. Biological activity of key species was confirmed in animal models of diabetes. These in vitro and in vivo findings are the basis for evidence-based prioritization of antidiabetic plants. In parallel, plants were also prioritized by Cree Elders and healers according to their Traditional Medicine paradigm. This case study highlights the convergence of modern science and Traditional Medicine while providing a model that can be adapted to other Aboriginal realities worldwide.

  1. Evaluation of Antidiabetic Prescriptions from Medical Reimbursement Applications at Banaras Hindu University Health Care Facility

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    Dev Priya

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Diabetes is on rapid increase in third world countries undergoing rapid transition in terms of development particularly in India, which is often being referred as Diabetic capital. It is a disease more prevalent at latter part of life of human beings when finances dwindle and social care gets neglected. The medication continues till the whole life on a regular basis. In present study, the objective has been to provide pharmacoeconomic medication to the diabetic pensioners in the backdrop as mentioned in above background.Methods: The data was collected at the medical reimbursement section of pensioners of the University. The data was examined to answer issues of therapeutic decisions in the light of the pharmacoeconomic considerations. In this paper essentially data on choice of prescriptions with the angle of pharmacoeconomic prudence were included. The dichotomy of specialist versus non specialist prescribers at the tertiary center (i.e. medical college hospital was compared. Effort was made to define merit of the prescription based on comprehensive considerations of patient profile, disease profile and therapeutic choice.Results: Total 72 prescriptions were analyzed for the study in which 475 drugs were prescribed to the patients.  Total antidiabetic drugs prescribed to the patients were 169. Out of 72 cases 39 were males and 33 were females with mean age 66.04 ± 5.80 (Mean ± SEM. The average number of drugs per prescription was 6.59 which was very high as per guidelines. Most commonly prescribed antidiabetic drug was Metformin (63.89% followed by Glimepiride (31.95%.Conclusion: This study reflects that there is need to make available the standard therapeutic optionat University Health Care Facility based upon pharmacoeconomic considerations.

  2. Isolation of Antidiabetic Principle from Fruit Rinds of Punica granatum

    OpenAIRE

    Vishal Jain; G. L. Viswanatha; Manohar, D.; Shivaprasad, H. N.

    2012-01-01

    Present study was aimed to isolate and evaluate the antidiabetic activity of phytoconstituents from fruit rinds of Punica granatum. With the above objectives Valoneic acid dilactone (VAD) was isolated from methanolic fruit rind extracts of Punica granatum (MEPG) and confirmed by 1H-NMR, 13C-NMR, and mass spectral data. Antidiabetic activity was evaluated by Aldose reductase, α -amylase and PTP1B inhibition assays in in vitro and Alloxan-induced diabetes in rats was used as an in vivo model. I...

  3. Antidiabetic activity of Rheum emodi in Alloxan induced diabetic rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radhika.R

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The present study was carried out to evaluate the antidiabetic effect of Rheum emodi rhizome extract and to study the activities of hexokinase, aldolase and phosphoglucoisomerase, and gluconeogenic enzymes such as glucose-6- phosphatase and fructose 1,6-diphosphatase in liver and kidney of normal and alloxan induced diabetic rats. Oral administration of 75 % ethanolic extract of R. emodi (250 mg/kg body weight for 30 days, resulted in decrease inthe activities of glucose-6-phosphatase, fructose-1,6-disphosphatase, aldolase and an increase in the activity of phosphoglucoisomerase and hexokinase in tissues. The study clearly shows that the R.emodi possesses antidiabetic activity.

  4. Off-patent generic medicines vs. off-patent brand medicines for six reference drugs: a retrospective claims data study from five local healthcare units in the Lombardy Region of Italy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giorgio L Colombo

    Full Text Available The scientific documentation supporting the potential clinical and economic benefits of a growing use of off-patent generic drugs in clinical practice seems to be limited in Italy as yet.We compared differences in outcomes between off-patent generic drugs and off-patent brand drugs in real clinical practice. The outcomes were: persistence and compliance with therapy, mortality, and other health resources consumption (hospitalizations, specialist examinations, other drugs and total costs. Retrospective analysis was carried out by using the administrative databases of five Local Healthcare Units (ASLs - Aziende Sanitarie Locali in the Lombardy Region of Italy. Data from the five ASLs were aggregated through a meta-analysis, which produced an estimate indicator of the mean or percentage difference between the two groups (branded vs. generic and their respective significance tests. The therapeutic areas and studied drugs were: diabetes: metformin - A10BA02; hypertension: amlodipine - C08CA01; dyslipidemia: simvastatin - C10AA01; psychiatry: sertraline - N06AB06; cardiology: propafenone - C01BC03; osteoporosis: alendronate - M05BA04.The 5 Local Healthcare Units (ASL represent a population of 3,847,004 inhabitants. The selected sample included 347,073 patients, or 9.02% of the total ASL population; 67% of the patients were treated with off-patent brand drugs. The average age was 68 years, with no difference between the two groups. After 34 months of observation, compliance and persistence were in favor to generic drugs in all therapeutic areas and statistically significant in the metformin, amlodipine, simvastatin, and sertraline groups. The clinical outcomes (hospitalizations, mortality, and other health costs show no statistically significant differences between off-patent generic vs. off-patent brand medicines.Off-patent generic drugs appear to be a therapy option of choice in Italy as well, based on clinical outcomes and economic consequences

  5. Antidiabetic and hypolipidemic activities of ethanolic leaf extract and fractions of Melanthera scandens

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Enomfon J Akpan; Jude E Okokon; Emem Offong

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the antidiabetic and hypolipidemic activities of ethanolic leaf extract and fraction of Melanthera scandens (M. scandens) in alloxan-induced diabetic rats. Methods:M. scandens leaf extract/fractions (37-111 mg/kg) were administered to alloxan-induced diabetic rats for 14 days and blood glucose levels (BGL) of the diabetic rats were monitored at intervals of 7 hours for acute study and 14 days for prolonged study. Lipid profiles of the treated diabetic rats were determined after the period of treatment. Results: Treatment of alloxan-induced diabetic rats with the extract/fractions caused a significant (P<0.001) reduction in fasting bloodglucose levels (BGL) of the diabetic rats both in acute study and prolonged treatment (2 weeks). The activities of the extract and fractions were more than that of the reference drug, glibenclamide. The extract/fractions exerted a significant reduction in the levels of serum total cholesterol, triglycerides, LDL and VLDL of extract with increases in HDL levels of the diabetic rats. Conclusions:These results suggest that the leaf extract/fractions of M. scandens possesses antidiabetic effect on alloxan induced diabetic rats and this justifies its use in ethno medicine and can be exploited in the management of diabetes.

  6. ANTIDIABETIC ACTIVITY OF AQUEOUS EXTRACT OF ROTULA AQUATICA LOUR. ROOTS IN STREPTOZOTOCIN-INDUCED DIABETIC RATS

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    Ashwini C.S.

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Rotula aquatica (Lour. family-Boraginaceae roots are used for the treatment of diabetes traditionally. The aim of the present study was undertaken to investigate the hypoglycaemic and antidiabetic effect of single and repeated oral administration of the aqueous extract in normal and streptozotocin induced diabetic rats respectively, serum lipid profile was also examined. The dose of 200, 300 and 500 mg/kg body weight p.o. of the aqueous extract were evaluated and the dose of 200 mg/kg was identified as the most effective which reduced blood glucose level upto 40.6% after 4 hr of administration in normal rats and a fall of 38% in blood glucose level within 1 hr during glucose tolerance test (GTT in mild diabetic rats which has almost similar effect as that of standard drug glibenclamide (3 mg/kg bw. Severe diabetic rats were treated daily with 200 mg/kg bw for 14 days and a significant reduction of 56% was observed in fasting blood glucose level respectively, urine sugar level was decreasing with increasing in body weight and total cholesterol (TC, low density lipoprotein (LDL, triglyceride (TG levels were decreased by 24, 59 and 41% respectively, in severely diabetic rats whereas, cardioprotective, high density lipoprotein (HDL was increased by 26%. The data showed that aqueous extract has a remarkable hypoglycaemic, antidiabetic and hypolipidemic effect.

  7. Antidiabetic and Cytotoxic Activities of Methanolic Extract of Tabernaemontana divaricata (L. Flowers

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    MD. MASUDUR RAHMAN

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The research work was designed to investigate the antidiabetic activity of the methanol extract of flowers of Tabernaemontana divaricata on alloxan indueced diabetic mouse model. The extract was given intraperitonially at a single dose of 200 mg/kg and 300 mg/kg body weight and the blood glucose levels were measured at 0, 1, 3, 5, 10 and 24 hours of the study period. The antihyperglycemic effect of the extract was compared with metformin, a standard drug. The dose of 300 mg/kg was found to be more effective dose to reduce maximum blood glucose level at 10th hour of the treatment period from 14.15± 0.42 to 8.81± 0.27 mg/dl whereas maximum result was obtained for metformin at the same time from 14.04±0.36 to 6.13±0.19 mg/dl. The extract was also subjected to Brine shrimp lethality bioassay. LC50 value of the extract was 84.03 μg/ml and for vincristin sulphate, it was 10.58 μg/ml. So, the present results suggest that Tabernaemontana divaricata possess antidiabetic activity in mice with alloxan induced diabetes and low cytotoxicity that may provide new molecules for the treatment of diabetes

  8. Pattern of pharmaceutical retailing of anti-diabetic products in Ibadan, Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Famuyiwa, O O

    1991-01-01

    Twenty-four pharmacists in the city of Ibadan were surveyed through a self-administered structured questionnaire as to the extent of their involvement in the pharmaceutical retailing of antidiabetic products and their cost. Oral hypoglycemic agents especially, chlorpropamide (Diabenese) and glibenclamide (Daonil) were the most readily available drugs being obtainable from 21 (87.5%) pharmacies. Insulin was stocked regularly by only 14 (58.3%) of the pharmacists and insulin syringes and needles could be obtained from only 10 (41.6%) of the pharmacies. Among materials for urine testing, clinistix strip was the most readily available and fully one-third of the pharmacies did not stock any such material. The prices of all the products were disturbingly high and between 1983 and 1986 when retail prices were re-assessed, the cost of some materials had escalated by as much as 400%. Scarcity of antidiabetic products and their high cost pose serious challenges for those involved in the care of diabetic patients in Nigeria. Some suggestions have been made as to what steps both the government and the pharmaceutical industry can take in ensuring the availability of these life sustaining products for the increasingly large Nigerian diabetic population. PMID:2069886

  9. A retrospective study on drug interaction for pediatric in-patients at Central Public Hospital Haji Adam Malik, Medan for the period of January-June 2012

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    Umi Chairani Manik

    2014-06-01

    Conclusion: The statistical data analysis results showed that there was a significant correlation between the amount of drugs and the number of diagnoses, while age and sex did not show any significant correlation. [Int J Basic Clin Pharmacol 2014; 3(3.000: 512-516

  10. Actions in response to drug safety signals arising from a spontaneous reporting system : Retrospective study in The Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rolfes, Leàn; Kolfschoten, Judith; van Hunsel, Florence; Kooijman, Michel; van Puijenbroek, Eugène

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: There is limited information on actions taken in response to drug safety signals originating from a spontaneous reporting system (SRS) in pharmacovigilance. In The Netherlands the Pharmacovigilance Centre Lareb is an independent organization that works in close collaboration with the Dut

  11. The Impact of Experiencing Adverse Drug Reactions on the Patient's Quality of Life : A Retrospective Cross-Sectional Study in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rolfes, Leàn; van Hunsel, Florence; Taxis, Katja; van Puijenbroek, Eugène

    2016-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: There is little information as to what extent adverse drug reactions (ADRs) influence patients' health-related quality of life (HR-QOL). From a pharmacovigilance perspective, capturing and making the best use of this information remains a challenge. The Netherlands Pharmacovigilance Ce

  12. 抗糖尿病新药(D-Ser2)Oxm拮抗淀粉样β蛋白细胞毒性的神经保护效应观察%Neuroprotective effects of a novel antidiabetic drug (D-Ser2)Oxm on amyloid β protein-induced cytotoxicity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩宇飞; H(O)LSCHER christian; 王昭君; 张军; 原丽; 仝嘉庆; 王丹丹; 武美娜; 祁金顺

    2016-01-01

    淀粉样β蛋白(amyloid β-protein,Aβ)在脑内的沉积及其神经毒性是阿尔茨海默病(Alzheimer's disease,AD)的主要原因之一,目前仍缺乏拮抗Aβ的有效药物.最新报道表明,一种新的抗糖尿病药物(D-Ser2)Oxm不仅可以改善2型糖尿病(T2DM)大鼠的血糖和胰岛素水平,也具有促进皮层和海马神经元及其突触发生的效应.然而,(D-Ser2)Oxm是否能拮抗AD时Aβ所致的细胞损伤仍缺乏实验依据.本研究在培养原代大鼠海马神经细胞基础上,通过细胞活性和早期凋亡测定、细胞内钙成像以及线粒体膜电位检测,研究了(D-Ser2)Oxm对Aβ1-42所致细胞毒性的拮抗效应.结果显示,与单独给予Aβ1-42处理的细胞相比,(D-Ser2)Oxm+ Aβ1-42处理组的细胞活力明显提高,而加入GLP-1受体抑制剂exendin(9-39)后,细胞活力则显著下降;(D-Ser2)Oxm可有效拮抗Aβ1-42导致的细胞凋亡,并使凋亡相关蛋白caspase3含量显著降低;(D-Ser2)Oxm处理还有效阻止了Aβ1-42引起的海马细胞内钙水平升高、线粒体膜电位去极化以及糖原合成酶激酶-3β (glycogen synthase kinase-3β,GSK-3β)(Y216)的活化.以上结果表明,(D-Ser2)Oxm可能是通过激动GLP-1受体对抗Aβ1-42的神经毒性,并且这种保护效应可能与细胞内钙稳态调节和线粒体膜电位稳定有关.%The accumulation and neurotoxicity of amyloid β protein (Aβ) in the brain is one of major pathological hallmarks of Alzheimer's disease (AD).The effective drugs against Aβ have been still deficient up to now.According to a most recent study,(D-Ser2) Oxm,a new antidiabetic drug,not only improves the disorders in plasma glucose and insulin in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) rats,but also exerts positive effects on hippocampal neurogenesis and synaptogenesis.However,it is still unclear whether (D-Ser2)Oxm can directly protect cultured neurons against Aβ1-42-induced cytotoxicity.In the present study,we investigated the neuroprotective

  13. Studies on the Antidiabetic Activities of Cordyceps militaris Extract in Diet-Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetic Sprague-Dawley Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuan Dong

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Due to substantial morbidity and high complications, diabetes mellitus is considered as the third “killer” in the world. A search for alternative antidiabetic drugs from herbs or fungi is highly demanded. Our present study aims to investigate the antidiabetic activities of Cordyceps militaris on diet-streptozotocin-induced type 2 diabetes mellitus in rats. Diabetic rats were orally administered with water extract or alcohol extract at 0.05 g/kg and 2 g/kg for 3 weeks, and then, the factors levels related to blood glucose, lipid, free radicals, and even nephropathy were determined. Pathological alterations on liver and kidney were examined. Data showed that, similar to metformin, Cordyceps militaris extracts displayed a significant reduction in blood glucose levels by promoting glucose metabolism and strongly suppressed total cholesterol and triglycerides concentration in serum. Cordyceps militaris extracts exhibit antioxidative effects indicated by normalized superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase levels. The inhibitory effects on blood urea nitrogen, creatinine, uric acid, and protein revealed the protection of Cordyceps militaris extracts against diabetic nephropathy, which was confirmed by pathological morphology reversion. Collectively, Cordyceps militaris extract, a safe pharmaceutical agent, presents excellent antidiabetic and antinephropathic activities and thus has great potential as a new source for diabetes treatment.

  14. Antidiabetic activity of aqueous root extract ofMerremia tridentata (L.) Hall. f. in streptozotocin-induced-diabetic rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Karuppusamy Arunachalam; Thangaraj Parimelazhagan

    2012-01-01

    Objective:To investigate the antidiabetic effect of aqueous extract ofMerremia tridentata (M. tridentata) root(MTRAE) in normal, glucose-loaded hyperglycemic and streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rats.Methods: Oral administration ofMTRAE at the doses of50, 100 and150 mg/kg was studied in normal, glucose-loaded andSTZ-diabetic rats. The three doses caused significant reduction in blood glucose levels in all the models.Results: The effect was more pronounced in100and150mg/kg than50 mg/kg.MTRAE also showed significant increase in serum insulin, body weight and glycogen content in liver and skeletal muscle ofSTZ-induced diabetic rats while there was significant reduction in the levels of serum triglyceride and total cholesterol.MTRAE also showed significant antilipidperoxidative effect in the pancreas ofSTZ-induced diabetic rats. The antidiabetic effect ofM. tridentata was compared with glibenclamide, a well known hypoglycemic drug.Conclusions:The results indicate that aqueous extract ofM. tridentata root possesses significant antidiabetic activity.

  15. Analyzing the Effect of Comorbidities and Drug Usage in Clopidogrel Unresponsive Patients

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    Eda Kılıç Çoban

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: OBJECTIVE: Clopidogrel is a widely used antiplatelet in vascular events. However multiple drug prescriptions increase the risk for drug-drug interactions. The purpose of the study is to rule out the factors leading to clopidogrel responsiveness including the comorbidities and drugs. METHODS: In this retrospective study, ischemic stroke patients who were being treated with clopidogrel for at least one year were eligible for enrollment.Clopidogrel resistance was measured with MEA. The comorbities and the medical treatment of the patients were noted. RESULTS: 92 patients were included the study. 49 % of them were male and the median age was 69,19±12,08. 44.6 % of the patients were unresponsive to clopidogrel. Hypertension, hyperlipidemia and diabetes mellitus were not associated with a decreased response to clopidogrel. Similarly, we did not observe any drug-drug interactions between clopidogrel and oral antidiabetics, insulin, antihypertensives, antilipidemics and proton pump inhibitors. Age and gender were also not associated with clopidogrel responsiveness. DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSION: CONCLUSION: Our study indicates that 45% of patients had a decrease response to clopidogrel. However we found no relation between clopidogrel resistance and the factors mentioned in previous studies. This could be attributed to other unknown factors leading to drug resistance.

  16. Drug: D10160 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available glinide calcium hydrate [DR:D01854], Voglibose [DR:D01665] Antidiabetic [DS:H00409] Therapeutic category: 39...betic agents 3969 Others D10160 Mitiglinide calcium hydrate - voglibose mixt PubChem: 135626878 ... ...69 Therapeutic category of drugs in Japan [BR:br08301] 3 Agents affecting metabolism 39 Other agents affecting metabolism 396 Antidia

  17. Drug: D02432 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available D02432 Drug Glicetanile sodium (USAN); Glydanile C23H24ClN4O4S. Na 510.1104 510.9688 D02432....gif Antidiabetic map07018 Sulfonamide derivatives - hypoglycemic agents CAS: 24428-71-5 PubChem: 7849490 LigandBox: D02432

  18. Drug: D04322 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available D04322 Drug Gliamilide (USAN/INN) C23H33N5O5S 491.2202 491.6036 D04322.gif Antidiab...etic CAS: 51876-98-3 PubChem: 47206249 LigandBox: D04322 NIKKAJI: J244.404F ATOM 34 1 C1y C 10.2559 -14.5307

  19. Drug: D04543 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available D04543 Drug Insulin human zinc, extended (USP) Antidiabetic insulin receptor agonis...sulin (human) [ATC:A10AB01 A10AC01 A10AD01 A10AE01 A10AF01] D04543 Insulin human zinc, extended (USP) PubChem: 47206389 ...

  20. Antidiabetic fallacy of Vernonia amygdalina (bitter leaves)in human diabetes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Azikiwe CCA; Amuzu LU; Unekwe PC; Nwosu PJC; Ezeani MC; Siminialayi MI; Obidiya SO; Arute JE

    2009-01-01

    Objective:Aim of present study is to scientifically,verify the antidiabetic activity/potency of Vernonia amyg-dalina in human diabetes.Methods:A search was made at Nnewi,South -East Nigeria for known diabetes who use Vernonia amygdalina either as their sole or supplementary antidiabetic.A total of ten volunteers compri-sing,eight females and two males were recruited.They were all of age range of 36-50 and average weight of 78 kg and suffering from non -insulin form of diabetes.The purpose of the study was explained to them and their consent obtained.They were asked not to take any other antidiabetic outside Vernonia amygdalina throughout the four weeks study period.There was however,no form of restrictions to their choice of diet or life style. They were requested to abstain from any drugs a week prior to commencement of study.Their prescriber′s dos-age range was followed and minimum daily dose of 210 mL (approximately 220 mg of dry extract)was adminis-tered in Week-1,followed by daily dose of 420 mL (440 mg)in Week-2.In Week-3 they received 630 mL (660 mg)daily dose and in Week-4,they received daily dose of 840 mL (880 mg).Their fasting blood sugar were estimated pre-crude drug administration and on weekly basis for the four week study period.Their weekly weights were measured to check for possible weight gain or loss.Results were subjected to statistical analysis and Students T-Test was used to calculate P-value.P-value ≤0.05 were considered significant.Results:It was observed that all the volunteers in the study group were taking Vernonia amygdalina only as supplementa-ry.Two volunteers dropped out of the study at the end of Week-3 leaving us with 8 in Week-4.There was no significant bodyweight change within the four week study.The starting mean fasting blood sugar which was 133.3 mg/dL(7.41 mmol /L)rose to 136.6 mg/dL(7.59 mmol /L)in Week-1,to 149.5 mg/dL(8.31 mmol /L)in Week-2 and to 166.5 mg/dL(9.30 mmol /L)in Week-3.Week-4 had us left with 8 volunteers

  1. Isolation of Antidiabetic Principle from Fruit Rinds of Punica granatum

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    Vishal Jain

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Present study was aimed to isolate and evaluate the antidiabetic activity of phytoconstituents from fruit rinds of Punica granatum. With the above objectives Valoneic acid dilactone (VAD was isolated from methanolic fruit rind extracts of Punica granatum (MEPG and confirmed by 1H-NMR, 13C-NMR, and mass spectral data. Antidiabetic activity was evaluated by Aldose reductase, α-amylase and PTP1B inhibition assays in in vitro and Alloxan-induced diabetes in rats was used as an in vivo model. In bioactivity studies, MEPG and VAD have showed potent antidiabetic activity in α-amylase, aldose reductase, and PTP1B inhibition assays with IC50 values of 1.02, 2.050, 26.25 μg/mL and 0.284, 0.788, 12.41 μg/mL, respectively. Furthermore, in alloxan-induced diabetes model MEPG (200 and 400 mg/kg, p.o. and VAD (10, 25, and 50 mg/kg, p.o. have showed significant and dose dependent antidiabetic activity by maintaining the blood glucose levels within the normal limits. Inline with the biochemical findings histopathology of MEPG (200 and 400 mg/kg, p.o., VAD (10, 25, and 50 mg/kg, p.o., and glibenclamide (10 mg/kg, p.o. treated animals showed significant protection against alloxan-induced pancreatic tissue damage. These findings suggest that MEPG and VAD possess significant antidiabetic activity in both in vitro and in vivo models.

  2. Antidiabetic treatment with gliptins: focus on cardiovascular effects and outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisman, Enrique Z; Tenenbaum, Alexander

    2015-01-01

    The traditional oral pharmacological therapy for type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) has been based on the prescription of metformin, a biguanide, as first line antihyperglycemic agent world over. It has been demonstrated that after 3 years of treatment, approximately 50% of diabetic patients could achieve acceptable glucose levels with monotherapy; but by 9 years this had declined to only 25%. Therefore, the implementation of a combined pharmacological therapy acting via different pathways becomes necessary, and its combination with a compound of the sulfonylurea group was along decades the most frequently employed prescription in routine clinical practice. Meglitinides, glitazones and alpha-glucosidase inhibitors were subsequently developed, but the five mentioned groups of oral antihyperglycemic agents are associated with variable degrees of undesirable or even severe cardiovascular events. The gliptins-also called dipeptidyl peptidase 4 (DPP4) inhibitors--are an additional group of antidiabetic compounds with increasing clinical use. We review the status of the gliptins with emphasis on their capabilities to positively or negatively affect the cardiovascular system, and their potential involvement in major adverse cardiovascular events (MACE). Alogliptin, anagliptin, linagliptin, saxagliptin, sitagliptin, teneligliptin and vildagliptin are the compounds currently in clinical use. Regardless differences in chemical structure and metabolic pathways, gliptins as a group exert favorable changes in experimental models. These changes, as an almost general rule, include improved endothelial function, reduction of inflammatory markers, oxidative stress ischemia/reperfusion injury and atherogenesis. In addition, increased adiponectin levels and modest decreases in lipidemia and blood pressure were reported. In clinical settings, several trials--notably the longer one, employing sitagliptin, with a mean follow-up period of 3 years--did not show an increased risk for ischemic

  3. Comparison of colistin monotherapy and non-colistin combinations in the treatment of multi-drug resistant Acinetobacter spp. bloodstream infections: A Multicenter retrospective analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilker Inanc Balkan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To compare the efficacy of colistin (COL monotherapy versus non-COL based combinations in the treatment of bloodstream infections (BSIs due to multidrug resistant Acinetobacter spp.(MDR-A . Materials and Methods: Retrospective data of 107 MDR-A BSI cases from 27 tertiary centers in Turkey were included. Primary End-Point: 14-day mortality. Secondary End-Points: Microbial eradication and clinical improvement. Results: Thirty-six patients in the COL monotherapy (CM group and 71 in the non-COL based combinations (NCC group were included in the study. Mean age was 59.98 ± 20 years (range: 18-89 and 50.5% were male. Median duration of follow-up was 40 days (range: 9-297. The 14-day survival rates were 52.8% in CM and 47.23% in NCC group (P = 0.36. Microbiological eradication was achieved in 69% of CM and 83% of NCC group (P = 0.13. Treatment failure was detected in 22.9% of cases in both CM and NCC groups. Univariate analysis revealed that mean age (P = 0.001, Charlson comorbidity index (P = 0.03, duration of hospital stay before MDR-A BSI (P = 0.04, Pitt bacteremia score (P = 0.043 and Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation II score (P = 0.05 were significant in terms of 14-day mortality. Advanced age (P = 0.01 and duration of hospital stay before MDR-A BSI (P = 0.04 were independently associated with 14-day mortality in multivariate analysis. Conclusion: No significant difference was detected between CM and non-COL based combinations in the treatment of MDR-A BSIs in terms of efficacy and 14-day mortality.

  4. Synthesis, Physico-Chemical and Antidiabetic Studies of Zinc Complex of Glimepiride, an Oral Hypoglycemic Agent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George Jacob

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The synthesis and characterization of Zinc complex with glimepiride (an oral antidiabetic drug has been studied. The conductometric titration using monovariation method indicates that complex is non-ionic and of ML2 type. Analytical data agrees with the molecular formula (C24H34N4O5S2 Zn. Structure of the complex was assigned as tetrahedral in which ligand molecules lies horizontally joining the central zinc atom. IR, NMR, Mass spectral and X-ray studies confirm the co-ordination of sulphonyloxygen on one side and enolic oxygen attached from other side with the metal ion. Tentative structure for complex was proposed on the basis of analytical data and Elemental analysis.

  5. Estimation of trace elements in some anti-diabetic medicinal plants using PIXE technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Naga Raju, G.J. [Swami Jnanananda Laboratories for Nuclear Research, Andhra University, Visakhapatnam-530 003, Andhra Pradesh (India); Sarita, P. [Swami Jnanananda Laboratories for Nuclear Research, Andhra University, Visakhapatnam-530 003, Andhra Pradesh (India); Ramana Murty, G.A.V. [Swami Jnanananda Laboratories for Nuclear Research, Andhra University, Visakhapatnam-530 003, Andhra Pradesh (India); Ravi Kumar, M. [Swami Jnanananda Laboratories for Nuclear Research, Andhra University, Visakhapatnam-530 003, Andhra Pradesh (India); Seetharami Reddy, B. [Swami Jnanananda Laboratories for Nuclear Research, Andhra University, Visakhapatnam-530 003, Andhra Pradesh (India); John Charles, M. [Swami Jnanananda Laboratories for Nuclear Research, Andhra University, Visakhapatnam-530 003, Andhra Pradesh (India); Lakshminarayana, S. [Swami Jnanananda Laboratories for Nuclear Research, Andhra University, Visakhapatnam-530 003, Andhra Pradesh (India); Seshi Reddy, T. [Swami Jnanananda Laboratories for Nuclear Research, Andhra University, Visakhapatnam-530 003, Andhra Pradesh (India); Reddy, S. Bhuloka [Swami Jnanananda Laboratories for Nuclear Research, Andhra University, Visakhapatnam-530 003, Andhra Pradesh (India)]. E-mail: sbr-r@yahoo.com; Vijayan, V. [Institute of Physics, Sachivalaya Marg, Bhubaneswar-751 005, Orissa (India)

    2006-08-15

    Trace elemental analysis was carried out in various parts of some anti-diabetic medicinal plants using PIXE technique. A 3 MeV proton beam was used to excite the samples. The elements Cl, K, Ca, Ti, Cr, Mn, Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn, Br, Rb and Sr were identified and their concentrations were estimated. The results of the present study provide justification for the usage of these medicinal plants in the treatment of diabetes mellitus (DM) since they are found to contain appreciable amounts of the elements K, Ca, Cr, Mn, Cu, and Zn, which are responsible for potentiating insulin action. Our results show that the analyzed medicinal plants can be considered as potential sources for providing a reasonable amount of the required elements other than diet to the patients of DM. Moreover, these results can be used to set new standards for prescribing the dosage of the herbal drugs prepared from these plant materials.

  6. Molecular interaction between glimepiride and Soluplus®-PEG 4000 hybrid based solid dispersions: Characterisation and anti-diabetic studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reginald-Opara, Joy Nneji; Attama, Anthony; Ofokansi, Kenneth; Umeyor, Chukwuebuka; Kenechukwu, Frankline

    2015-12-30

    The objective of this study was to evaluate a novel blend of polyvinyl caprolactam-polyvinyl acetate-polyethylene glycol 6000 grafted copolymer (Soluplus®) and polyethylene glycol (PEG) 4000 for solubility enhancement, physicochemical stability and anti-diabetic efficacy of the produced solid dispersions containing glimepiride, a biopharmaceutics classification system (BCS) class II sulphonylurea. Different batches of glimepiride solid dispersions (SD) were prepared by the solvent evaporation method using the individual polymers and blends of the polymers at different ratios. The Soluplus®-PEG 4000 (sol-PEG) hybrid polymer based glimepiride solid dispersions were characterized by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, micromeritics and dissolution studies. In vivo anti-diabetic activity was determined by measuring the changes in blood glucose concentrations in albino rats. The solid dispersions showed good flow properties and excellent practical yield. Drug content and release from the different formulations increased when Soluplus® was used as the main matrix polymer. The kinetics of drug release from all the solid dispersions followed first order. Solid state characterization confirmed the formation of amorphous glimepiride solid dispersions in the Sol-PEG hybrid polymer and no strong drug-polymer interaction was observed. The blood glucose reduction in albino rats by the Sol-PEG-Glim SDs was significantly (pglimepiride. PMID:26581773

  7. Analysis of warning letters issued by the US Food and Drug Administration to clinical investigators, institutional review boards and sponsors: a retrospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shetty, Yashashri C; Saiyed, Aafreen A

    2015-05-01

    The US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) issues warning letters to all research stakeholders if unacceptable deficiencies are found during site visits. Warning letters issued by the FDA between January 2011 and December 2012 to clinical investigators and institutional review boards (IRBs) were reviewed for various violation themes and compared to similar studies in the past. Warning letters issued to sponsors between January 2005 and December 2012 were analysed for the first time for a specific set of violations using descriptive statistics. Failure to protect subject safety and to report adverse events to IRBs was found to be significant compared to prior studies for clinical investigators, while failure to follow standard operating procedures and maintain documentation was noted as significant in warning letters to IRBs. Failure to maintain minutes of meeting and to follow written procedures for continuing review were new substantial violations in warning letters issued to IRBs. Forty-six warning letters were issued to sponsors, the most common violations being failure to follow a monitoring schedule (58.69%), failure to obtain investigator agreement (34.78%), failure to secure investigators' compliance (30.43%), and failure to maintain data records and ship documents to investigators (30.43%). Appropriate methods for handling clinical trial procedural violations should be developed and implemented worldwide.

  8. Ficus Deltoidea: A potential source for new oral antidiabetic agent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ficus deltoidea or locally known as Mas Cotek is one of the common medicinal plant used in Malaysia. Ethno botanical approaches showed that this plant possess antidiabetic property. Previous study had shown that F. deltoidea reduced hyperglycemia in type I diabetic rats at different prandial state. This study was done to elucidate the possible antihyperglycemic mechanisms of F. deltoidea. The results showed that F. deltoidea significantly stimulated insulin secretion from pancreatic β-cells with the highest magnitude of stimulation was 7.31-fold (p50 value was 4.15±0.25 mg/ml. Kinetic analysis of the enzyme activity revealed the F. deltoidea exhibited a mixed-type inhibition mechanism against sucrase activity. Such observations showed that F. deltoidea has the potential to be developed as new oral antidiabetic agent for the treatment of diabetes mellitus. (author)

  9. Hypoglycemic effect of plants used in Mexico as antidiabetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Román Ramos, R; Alarcón-Aguilar, F; Lara-Lemus, A; Flores-Saenz, J L

    1992-01-01

    The objective of this work is to investigate the hypoglycemic effect of 12 "antidiabetic" plants used in Mexico. The studies were performed using 27 healthy rabbits with the gastric administration of water, tolbutamide or decoction of the "antidiabetic" plant before the induction of temporary hyperglycemia by subcutaneous injection of 50% dextrose solution (4 ml/kg of weight) at the beginning of the experiment and after 60 min. Blood glucose was determined every 60 min for a period of 5 h. Tolbutamide and eight of the studied plants decreased significantly the hyperglycemia as compared with control test (water) (p Marrubium vulgare, Crataegus pubescens, Cynodon dactylon, Calea zacatechichi, Buddleia americana, Bauhinia divaricata and Coix lachryma. The decrease of hyperglycemia caused by Physalis phyladelphyca, Pavonia schiedeana and Eucaliptus globulus was not significant (p > 0.05). Urtica dioica increased glycemia slightly. PMID:1308793

  10. Evaluation of antidiabetic activity of plants used in Western Sudan

    OpenAIRE

    Maha Abdulrahman Alamin; Ahmed Ibrahim Yagi; Sakina Mohamed Yagi

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the traditional antidiabetic uses of some indigenous Sudanese plants on streptozotocin-induced diabetes rats. Methods: Diabetic rats were treated with a 400 mg/kg dose of aqueous extracts of five plant species orally for 2 h (acute) or 14 days (chronic). In acute model blood glucose levels were monitored at specific intervals. In the chronic model blood samples were collected from overnight fasted diabetic rats on day 15 to estimate blood glucose level. And the bo...

  11. Evaluation of Antidiabetic and Antihyperlipidemic Effects of Hydroalcoholic Extract of Leaves of Ocimum tenuiflorum (Lamiaceae and Prediction of Biological Activity of its Phytoconstituents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Subramani Parasuraman

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The aim was to evaluate the anti-diabetic and anti-hyperlipidemic effects of hydroalcoholic extract of leaves of Ocimum tenuiflorum (Lamiaceae and prediction of biological activities of its phytoconstituents using in vivo anti-diabetic model and in silico analysis respectively. Materials and Methods: The leaves of O. tenuiflorum were extracted with 60% ethanol, and the extract was used for further pharmacological screening. The acute toxicity of the extract was evaluated as per the guidelines set by the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development, revised draft guidelines 423. The oral anti-diabetic activity of the hydroalcoholic extract of O. tenuiflorum (125, 250 and 500 mg/kg was studied against streptozotocin (STZ (50 mg/kg; i.p. + nicotinamide (120 mg/kg; i.p. induced diabetes mellitus. The animals were treated with the investigational plant extract and standard drug (glibenclamide for 21 consecutive days and the effect of hydroalcoholic extract of O. tenuiflorum on blood glucose levels was measured at regular intervals. At the end of the study, blood samples were collected from all the animals for biochemical estimation, then the animals were sacrificed and the liver and kidney were collected for organ weight analysis. Prediction for pharmacological and toxicological properties of phytoconstituents of O. tenuiflorum was carried out using online web tools such as online pass prediction and lazar toxicity prediction. Results: The hydroalcoholic extract of O. tenuiflorum showed significant anti-diabetic and anti-hyperlipidemic activity at 250 and 500 mg/kg, and this effect was comparable with that of glibenclamide. Predicted biological activities of phytoconstituents of O. tenuiflorum showed presence of various pharmacological actions, which includes anti-diabetic and anti-hyperlipidemic activities. Prediction of toxicological properties of phytoconstituents of O. tenuiflorum did not show any major toxic effects

  12. Accounting for the mortality benefit of drug-eluting stents in percutaneous coronary intervention: a comparison of methods in a retrospective cohort study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McCulloch Charles E

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Drug-eluting stents (DES reduce rates of restenosis compared with bare metal stents (BMS. A number of observational studies have also found lower rates of mortality and non-fatal myocardial infarction with DES compared with BMS, findings not observed in randomized clinical trials. In order to explore reasons for this discrepancy, we compared outcomes after percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI with DES or BMS by multiple statistical methods. Methods We compared short-term rates of all-cause mortality and myocardial infarction for patients undergoing PCI with DES or BMS using propensity-score adjustment, propensity-score matching, and a stent-era comparison in a large, integrated health system between 1998 and 2007. For the propensity-score adjustment and stent era comparisons, we used multivariable logistic regression to assess the association of stent type with outcomes. We used McNemar's Chi-square test to compare outcomes for propensity-score matching. Results Between 1998 and 2007, 35,438 PCIs with stenting were performed among health plan members (53.9% DES and 46.1% BMS. After propensity-score adjustment, DES was associated with significantly lower rates of death at 30 days (OR 0.49, 95% CI 0.39 - 0.63, P P P Conclusions Although propensity-score methods suggested a mortality benefit with DES, consistent with prior observational studies, a stent era comparison failed to support this conclusion. Unobserved factors influencing stent selection in observational studies likely account for the observed mortality benefit of DES not seen in randomized clinical trials.

  13. Antidiabetic Properties of Germinated Brown Rice: A Systematic Review

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    Mustapha Umar Imam

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Diet is an important variable in the course of type 2 diabetes, which has generated interest in dietary options like germinated brown rice (GBR for effective management of the disease among rice-consuming populations. In vitro data and animal experiments show that GBR has potentials as a functional diet for managing this disease, and short-term clinical studies indicate encouraging results. Mechanisms for antidiabetic effects of GBR due to bioactive compounds like γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA, γ-oryzanol, dietary fibre, phenolics, vitamins, acylated steryl β-glucoside, and minerals include antihyperglycemia, low insulin index, antioxidative effect, antithrombosis, antihypertensive effect, hypocholesterolemia, and neuroprotective effects. The evidence so far suggests that there may be enormous benefits for diabetics in rice-consuming populations if white rice is replaced with GBR. However, long-term clinical studies are still needed to verify these findings on antidiabetic effects of GBR. Thus, we present a review on the antidiabetic properties of GBR from relevant preclinical and clinical studies, in order to provide detailed information on this subject for researchers to review the potential of GBR in combating this disease.

  14. Antidiabetic effect of Sida cordata in alloxan induced diabetic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Naseer Ali; Khan, Muhammad Rashid

    2014-01-01

    Medicinal plants are efficient ameliorator of oxidative stress associated with diabetes mellitus. In this study, ethyl acetate fraction (SCEE) of Sida cordata was investigated for scientific validation of its folk use in diabetes. Antidiabetic effect of SCEE was confirmed by antihyperglycemic activity in normal glucose loaded and diabetic glucose loaded animals as well as normal off feed animals. Confirmation of antidiabetic activity and toxicity ameliorative role of S. cordata was investigated in a chronic multiple dose treatment study of fifteen days. A single dose of alloxan (120 mg/kg) produced a decrease in insulin level, hyperglycemia, elevated total lipids, triglycerides, and cholesterol and decreased the high-density lipoproteins. Concurrent with these changes, there was an increase in the concentration of lipid peroxidation (TBARS), H2O2, and nitrite in pancreas, liver, and testis. This oxidative stress was related to a decrease in glutathione content (GSH) and antioxidant enzymes. Administration of SCEE for 15 days after diabetes induction ameliorated hyperglycemia, restored lipid profile, blunted the increase in TBARS, H2O2, and nitrite content, and stimulated the GSH production in the organs of alloxan-treated rats. We suggested that SCEE could be used as antidiabetic component in case of diabetes mellitus. This may be related to its antioxidative properties.

  15. High performance thin layer chromatography fingerprinting, phytochemical and physico-chemical studies of anti-diabetic herbal extracts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Itankar, Prakash R.; Sawant, Dattatray B.; Tauqeer, Mohd.; Charde, Sonal S.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Herbal medicines have gained increasing popularity in the last few decades, and this global resurgence of herbal medicines increases their commercial value. However, this increasing demand has resulted in a decline in their quality, primarily due to a lack of adequate regulations pertaining to herbal medicines. Aim: To develop an optimized methodology for the standardization of herbal raw materials. Materials and Methods: The present study has been designed to examine each of the five herbal anti-diabetic drugs, Gymnema sylvester R. Br., Pterocarpus marsupium Roxburgh., Enicostema littorale Blume., Syzygium cumini (L.) Skeels. and Emblica officinalis Gaertn. The in-house extracts and marketed extracts were evaluated using physicochemical parameters, preliminary phytochemical screening, quantification of polyphenols (Folin–Ciocalteu colorimetric method) and high performance thin layer chromatography (HPTLC) fingerprint profiling with reference to marker compounds in plant extracts. Results: All the plants mainly contain polyphenolic compounds and are quantified in the range of 3.6–21.72% w/w. E. officinalis contain the highest and E. littorale contain the lowest content of polyphenol among plant extracts analyzed. HPTLC fingerprinting showed that the in-house extracts were of better quality than marketed extracts. Conclusion: The results obtained from the study could be utilized for setting limits for the reference phytoconstituents (biomarker) for the quality control and quality assurance of these anti-diabetic drugs. PMID:27011722

  16. In Vitro anti-diabetic activity of aqueous extract of the medicinal plants Nigella sativa, Eugenia jambolana, Andrographis paniculata and Gymnema sylvestre

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    Arunachalam Sathiavelu

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: In vitro analysis of the anti-diabetic effect of aqueous extracts of the medicinal plants Nigella sativa, Eugenia jambolana, Andrographis paniculata, Gymnema sylvestre. Methods: Aqueous extracts of the plants were prepared by maceration. They were then tested for inhibition of alpha-amylase activity by DNSA colour reagent. They were tested for their ability to hinder diffusion of glucose across a dialysis membrane. Results: The aqueous extract of Nigella sativa showed maximum inhibition of alpha-amylase activity and a strong hindrance to diffusion of glucose across a dialysis membrane. Andrographis paniculata showed both a strong inhibition of alpha-amylase and a significant hindrance to the diffusion of glucose across the dialysis membrane. Gymnema sylvestre showed low inhibition of -amylase activity, but it showed maximum hindrance to the diffusion of glucose across the dialysis membrane. Nigella sativa was found to possess maximum anti-diabetic properties. Conclusions: The findings indicate that all the above plants possess antidiabetic properties too varying degrees. They can be used to develop natural drugs which may be used in lieu of commonly used strong allopathic drugs which possess a number of harmful side effects.

  17. Retrospective analysis of antihypertensive drugs used in our hospital during 2010 -2011%我院2010-2011年用抗高血压药的回顾分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张瑞雪; 李英男

    2012-01-01

    Objective; To analyze the application of antihypertensive drugs for providing a reference for the clinical treatment of hypertension. Methods; The applications of antihypertensive drugs in outpatient prescriptions at Tsinghua University Hospital during 2010 -2011 were retrospectively analyzed in terms of drug varieties, consumption quantity, consumption sum, DDDs, DDC and their synchronism. Results; The antihypertensive drugs in the hospital included CCB, ARB, ACEI, β-RB and diuretics. The consumption quantity of CCB, such as nifedip-ine controlled-release tablets and amlodipine besylate tablets, showed an upward tendency. Due to the obvious side effects, the consumption quantity of ACEI was decreasing. Both consumption quantity and DDDs of ARB were increasing rapidly due to its satisfactory effect. The prescription frequency and consumption quantity of the p-RB metoprolol tartrate and bisoprolol fumarate were increasing too. The application of diuretics was reasonable. Conclusion ; The varieties of antihypertensive drugs are relatively complete in Tsinghua University Hospital. The application and development trends are consistent with the guide for preventing hypertension in China and abroad, and also in line with the utilization tendency of antihypertensive drugs.%目的:对我院抗高血压药物的应用情况进行分析,为临床治疗高血压提供参考.方法:对清华大学医院2010 -2011年门诊处方中抗高血压药物的应用情况进行回顾性的调查分析,包括用药种类、销售金额、用药频度(DDDs)、限定日费用(DDC)及同步性.结果:我院的抗高血压药物以钙离子通道拮抗剂(CCB)、血管紧张素Ⅱ受体拮抗剂(ARB)、血管紧张素转换酶抑制剂(ACEI)、β-受体阻滞剂(β-RB)和利尿剂为主,其中CCB类药物以硝苯地平控释片、苯磺酸氨氯地平片为代表,其销售量呈上升趋势;ACEI类由于不良反应明显,其销量出现了下降;ARB类药物由于效果较好,其销

  18. Real-world hospital costs for nonchemotherapy drugs and nondrug care associated with platinum-based doublets in the first-line setting for advanced nonsquamous non-small-cell lung cancer in Chinese patients: a retrospective cohort study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen JH

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Jianhua Chen,1 Shengqi Wu,2 Chenping Hu,3 Yicheng Yang,4 Narayan Rajan,5 Yun Chen,4 Canjuan Yang,6 Jianfeng Li,6 Wendong Chen7 1Department of Medical Oncology, 2Department of Research and Education, Hunan Province Tumor Hospital, 3Department of Respiratory, Xiangya Hospital, Central South University, Changsha, Hunan, 4Lilly Suzhou Pharmaceutical Co., Ltd. Shanghai Branch, Shanghai, People's Republic of China; 5Global Health Outcomes Research, Eli Lilly and Co, Indianapolis, IN, USA; 6Division of Health Outcome Research, Normin Health Changsha Representative Office, Changsha, Hunan, People's Republic of China; 7Normin Health, Toronto, ON, Canada Objective: The objective of this study was to compare hospital costs per treatment cycle (HCTC for nonchemotherapy drugs and nondrug care associated with platinum-based doublets in the first-line setting for advanced nonsquamous non-small-cell lung cancer (AdvNS-NSCLC in Chinese patients. Methods: Patients receiving platinum-based doublets in the first-line setting for AdvNS-NSCLC from 2010 to 2012 in two Chinese tertiary hospitals were identified to create the retrospective study cohort. Propensity score methods were used to create matched treatment groups for head-to-head comparisons on HCTC between pemetrexed–platinum and other platinum-based doublets. Multiple linear regression analyses were performed to rank studied platinum-based doublets for their associations with the log10 scale of HCTC for nonchemotherapy drugs and nondrug care. Results: Propensity score methods created matched treatment groups for pemetrexed–platinum versus docetaxel–platinum (61 pairs, paclitaxel–platinum (39 pairs, gemcitabine–platinum (93 pairs, and vinorelbine–platinum (73 pairs, respectively. Even though the log10 scale of HCTC for nonchemotherapy drugs and nondrug care associated with pemetrexed–platinum was ranked lowest in all patients (coefficient –0.174, P=0.015, which included patients experiencing

  19. Resources of Anti-diabetic Plants in Hebei Province%河北省降血糖植物资源概述

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冯伟; 周晓芬; 刘振宇; 杨军芳

    2011-01-01

    通过查阅近年来降血糖中草药的研究成果,综述了河北省具有降血糖功能的植物资源(36科,73种),并对植物预防、延缓和治疗糖尿病进行了概述,为今后进一步研究与开发降血糖药物提供了一定的理论依据。%Recent Research reports of anti-diabetic medicinal herbs were studied. Plants with the effet of regulating blood sugar level (73 species in 36 families ), and plants which can prevent, delay or cure diabetes were reviewed in this paper, so as to provide theoretical basis for the future research and the development of anti-diabetic drugs.

  20. Molecular interaction between glimepiride and Soluplus®-PEG 4000 hybrid based solid dispersions: Characterisation and anti-diabetic studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reginald-Opara, Joy Nneji; Attama, Anthony; Ofokansi, Kenneth; Umeyor, Chukwuebuka; Kenechukwu, Frankline

    2015-12-30

    The objective of this study was to evaluate a novel blend of polyvinyl caprolactam-polyvinyl acetate-polyethylene glycol 6000 grafted copolymer (Soluplus®) and polyethylene glycol (PEG) 4000 for solubility enhancement, physicochemical stability and anti-diabetic efficacy of the produced solid dispersions containing glimepiride, a biopharmaceutics classification system (BCS) class II sulphonylurea. Different batches of glimepiride solid dispersions (SD) were prepared by the solvent evaporation method using the individual polymers and blends of the polymers at different ratios. The Soluplus®-PEG 4000 (sol-PEG) hybrid polymer based glimepiride solid dispersions were characterized by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, micromeritics and dissolution studies. In vivo anti-diabetic activity was determined by measuring the changes in blood glucose concentrations in albino rats. The solid dispersions showed good flow properties and excellent practical yield. Drug content and release from the different formulations increased when Soluplus® was used as the main matrix polymer. The kinetics of drug release from all the solid dispersions followed first order. Solid state characterization confirmed the formation of amorphous glimepiride solid dispersions in the Sol-PEG hybrid polymer and no strong drug-polymer interaction was observed. The blood glucose reduction in albino rats by the Sol-PEG-Glim SDs was significantly (p<0.05) higher and more sustained when compared with the plain drug sample and commercially available product. Optimized SD batches (SP1 and SP3) showed a reduction in blood glucose level from 100% to 9.81% and 8.97%, respectively, at Tmax of 3h. The Sol-PEG-Glim SD was found to be stable over a period of 6 months (at 40°C, 70% RH) with no significant changes in the drug content. Thus, the Sol-PEG polymeric hybrids represent a promising tool for enhanced delivery of glimepiride.

  1. Chrono pharmacotherapy: A pulsatile Drug Delivery

    OpenAIRE

    Huma Hameed; Arwa Khalid; Fazala Khalid; Rabeea Khan; Akhtar Rasul

    2015-01-01

    Chronopharmacotherapy refers to a treatment in which controlled drug delivery is achieved according to circadian rhythms of disease by enhancing therapeutic outcomes and minimizing side effects. Colon targeting has gained great importance not only for the treatment of local diseases such as Crohn’s disease, inflammatory bowel disease and ulcerative colitis but also very important in systemic delivery of proteins/peptides, antiasthmatic drugs, antidiabetic agents and antihypertensive drugs, wh...

  2. Antidiabetic Effects of Aqueous Infusions of Artemisia herba-alba and Ajuga iva in Alloxan-Induced Diabetic Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boudjelal, Amel; Siracusa, Laura; Henchiri, Cherifa; Sarri, Madani; Abderrahim, Benkhaled; Baali, Faiza; Ruberto, Giuseppe

    2015-06-01

    The aqueous infusions of the aerial parts of Artemisia herba-alba Asso and Ajuga iva Schreber, prepared in accordance with the traditional procedure used in the local folk medicine, have been analysed for their composition and content of phytochemical constituents and examined for their antidiabetic effectiveness in alloxan-induced diabetic rats. Oral administration of A. herba-alba and A. iva infusions was studied in normal and alloxan-induced diabetic rats, which were randomly divided into nine groups, each group consisting of six animals. The drug preparations (100, 200, and 300 mg/kg b. w.) of each plant were given orally to the rats of each group twice daily for 15 days. Compositional analysis of the aqueous infusions revealed the presence of several polyphenols as main components. A. herba-alba infusion was characterised by mono- and di-cinnamoylquinic acids, with 5-caffeoylquinic (chlorogenic) acid being the main compound, followed by 3,5-dicaffeoylquinic acid. Vicenin-2 (apigenin 6,8-di-C-glucoside) appeared to be the most abundant among flavonoids. On the other hand, A. iva showed the exclusive presence of flavonoids, with the flavanone naringin present in relatively high levels together with several apigenin (flavone) derivatives. Oral administration of 300 mg/kg b. w. of the aqueous infusions of A. herba-alba and A. iva exhibited a significant reduction in blood glucose content, showing a much more efficient antidiabetic activity compared to glibenclamide, the oral hypoglycaemic agent used as a positive control in this study. These results suggest that A. herba-alba and A. iva possess significant antidiabetic activity, as they were able to improve the biochemical damage in alloxan-induced diabetes in rats.

  3. Rediscovering medicinal plants' potential with OMICS: microsatellite survey in expressed sequence tags of eleven traditional plants with potent antidiabetic properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahu, Jagajjit; Sen, Priyabrata; Choudhury, Manabendra Dutta; Dehury, Budheswar; Barooah, Madhumita; Modi, Mahendra Kumar; Talukdar, Anupam Das

    2014-05-01

    Herbal medicines and traditionally used medicinal plants present an untapped potential for novel molecular target discovery using systems science and OMICS biotechnology driven strategies. Since up to 40% of the world's poor people have no access to government health services, traditional and folk medicines are often the only therapeutics available to them. In this vein, North East (NE) India is recognized for its rich bioresources. As part of the Indo-Burma hotspot, it is regarded as an epicenter of biodiversity for several plants having myriad traditional uses, including medicinal use. However, the improvement of these valuable bioresources through molecular breeding strategies, for example, using genic microsatellites or Simple Sequence Repeats (SSRs) or Expressed Sequence Tags (ESTs)-derived SSRs has not been fully utilized in large scale to date. In this study, we identified a total of 47,700 microsatellites from 109,609 ESTs of 11 medicinal plants (pineapple, papaya, noyontara, bitter orange, bermuda brass, ratalu, barbados nut, mango, mulberry, lotus, and guduchi) having proven antidiabetic properties. A total of 58,159 primer pairs were designed for the non-redundant 8060 SSR-positive ESTs and putative functions were assigned to 4483 unique contigs. Among the identified microsatellites, excluding mononucleotide repeats, di-/trinucleotides are predominant, among which repeat motifs of AG/CT and AAG/CTT were most abundant. Similarity search of SSR containing ESTs and antidiabetic gene sequences revealed 11 microsatellites linked to antidiabetic genes in five plants. GO term enrichment analysis revealed a total of 80 enriched GO terms widely distributed in 53 biological processes, 17 molecular functions, and 10 cellular components associated with the 11 markers. The present study therefore provides concrete insights into the frequency and distribution of SSRs in important medicinal resources. The microsatellite markers reported here markedly add to the genetic

  4. Determination of in vitro antidiabetic effects of Zingiber officinale Roscoe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naila Abdul Sattar

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Aqueous extracts of Zingiber officinale rhizomes were studied to evaluate their antidiabetic effects on protein glycation and on the diffusion of glucose in vitro in the present study. Zingiber officinale rhizome aqueous extract were examined at concentrations of 5, 10, 20 and 40 g/L. The antidiabetic effects were found to be dose-dependent. Antidiabetic potential of Zingiber officinale was mainly through inhibition of the glucose diffusion and to a limited extent by reducing the glycation. However, further studies are needed to determine in vitro effects of therapeutic potential by restraining postprandial glucose absorptions and plasma protein glycations in diabetic subjects.Extratos aquosos de rizomas Zingiber officinale foram estudados para avaliar os seus efeitos antidiabéticos em glicação de proteínas e sobre a difusão de glicose in vitro, no presente estudo. Extratos aquosos de Zingiber officinale foram examinados nas concentrações de 5, 10, 20 e 40 g extrato de planta/L. Os efeitos antidiabéticos observados eram dependentes da dose. O potencial antidiabético de Zingiber officinale se verificou, principalmente, através da inibição da difusão de glicose e, em menor extensão, através da redução da glicação. Estudos adicionais são necessários para elucidar se efeitos in vitro representam potencial terapêutico, restringindo a absorção de glicose pós-prandial e a glicação de proteínas plasmáticas em indivíduos diabéticos.

  5. ANTIDIABETIC ACTIVITY OF METHANOLIC EXTRACT OF MEMECYLON MALABARICUM (MELASTOMATACEAE LEAVES

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    M. Ramaiah

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Memecylon malabaricum cogn (Melastomataceae is an indigenous medicinal plant used in ethno medicine for the treatment of bacterial infections, inflammation and skin diseases including herpes, chickenpox. It’s also a root ecbolic. The methanolic extract of Memecylon malabaricum leaves is subjected to antidiabetic activity using experimental model of alloxan induced diabetes. The results showed that the methanolic extract significantly decrease the raised blood glucose level, comparable to reference standard, gliclazide. The results of this study explicate justification of the use of this plant in the treatment of diabetes.  

  6. Polyherbal preparation for anti-diabetic activity: A screening study

    OpenAIRE

    Noopur Srivastava; Gaurav Tiwari; Ruchi Tiwari

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To screen the Polyherbal preparation for anti-diabetic activity in rats. Materials and Methods: The blood glucose lowering activity of the Polyherbal preparation-I (1:1:1 of Wheat germ oil, Coriandrum sativum and Aloe vera) was studied in normal rats after oral administration at doses of 1.0 and 2.0 ml/kg and Polyherbal preparation-I, II (Wheat germ oil, fresh juice of C. sativum and Aloe vera in the ratio of 2:2:1), and III (Wheat germ oil, fresh juice of C. sativum and Aloe vera ...

  7. MEDICINAL PLANTS OF RAJASTHAN (INDIA WITH ANTIDIABETIC POTENTIAL

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    Batra Shikha

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Rajasthan has a rich heritage of traditional system of medicine and many medicinally useful plants are found growing wildly because of vast area and variety of agro-climatic conditions. These plants are being used for the treatment of many human ailments including diabetes. Plants that are specifically employed for the treatment of diabetes are Acacia nilotica, Acacia senegal, Aegle marmelos, Calotropis procera, Capparis deciduas, Cassia auriculata, Cassia sophera, Cayratia trifolia, Cyamopsis tetragonoloba, Dalbergia sisso, Gymnema sylvestre, Momordica charantia, Syzygium cumini, Withania somnifera. This article aims to provide a comprehensive review on the some plants of Rajasthan having antidiabetic potential.

  8. Antidiabetic effect of Chloroxylon swietenia bark extracts on streptozotocin induced diabetic rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Jayaprasad

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Diabetes has been increasing at an alarming rate around the world, and experts have relied on remedies from the utilization of ancient drugs that are essentially derived from plants. The present study aimed to evaluate the antidiabetic potential of Chloroxylon swietenia bark extracts on streptozotocin induced diabetic rats. Diabetes was induced in male albino Wistar rats by single intraperitoneal injection of streptozotocin (STZ (50 mg/kg b.w.. The diabetic rats were administered orally with C. swietenia bark (CSB methanolic (CSBMEt and aqueous (CSBAEt (250 mg/kg b.w. extracts and glibenclamide (600 µg/kg b.w. by intragastric intubation for 45 days. The result showed a heavy loss in weight, increase in blood glucose and glycosylated hemoglobin level, and decline in plasma insulin and total hemoglobin content. Furthermore, glucose-6-phosphatase and fructose-1,6-bis phosphatase were found to be increased whereas hexokinase and glycogen contents were decreased in STZ induced diabetic rats. CSBAEt, CSBMEt and glibenclamide treated diabetic rats showed moderate reduction in blood glucose and glycosylated hemoglobin levels; in addition, plasma insulin and hemoglobin levels were elevated. The altered activities of carbohydrate metabolizing enzymes and liver glycogen were improved remarkably. CSBMEt results were comparable to the standard drug glibenclamide. The present findings support the usage of the plant extracts for the traditional treatment of diabetes.

  9. Antidiabetic Activity of Benzopyrone Analogues in Nicotinamide-Streptozotocin Induced Type 2 Diabetes in Rats

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    Yogendra Nayak

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Benzopyrones are proven antidiabetic drug candidate in diabetic drug discovery. In this view novel synthetic benzopyrone analogues were selected for testing in experimental diabetes. Type 2 diabetes (T2D was induced in Wistar rats by streptozotocin (60 mg/kg, i.p. followed by nicotinamide (120 mg/kg i.p.. Rats having fasting blood glucose (FBG >200 mg/dL, 7 days after T2D-induction, are selected for the study. Test compounds and standard treatment were continued for 15 days. FBG, oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT, and insulin tolerance test (ITT were determined on 21st day after induction of T2D. Plasma lipids and serum insulin were estimated. Homeostatic model assessment (HOMA-IR was then calculated from serum insulin. Rats were sacrificed and pancreas was isolated for histopathological observations. Oxidative stress markers were estimated in liver homogenate. Quercetin, a natural product with benzopyrone ring, showed significant hypoglycemic activity comparable to glibenclamide. Treatment with test compounds lowered the FBG and insulin resistance was significant alleviated as determined by OGTT, HOMA-IR, and ITT. There was significant normalisation of liver antioxidant enzymes compared to diabetic rats indicating that all the synthesised benzopyrone analogues are beneficial in reducing oxidative stress and are on par with the standard quercetin and glibenclamide in experimental T2D.

  10. Anti-diabetic properties of Momordica charantia L. polysaccharide in alloxan-induced diabetic mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xin; Shan, Bin; Liao, Cai-Hu; Xie, Jian-Hua; Wen, Ping-Wei; Shi, Jia-Yi

    2015-11-01

    A water-soluble polysaccharide (MCP) was isolated from the fruits of Momordica charantia L., and the hypoglycemic effects of MCP were investigated in both normal healthy and alloxan-induced diabetic mice. MCP was orally administered once a day after 3 days of alloxan-induction at 100, 200 and 300mg/kg body weight for 28 day. Results showed that fasting blood glucose level (BGL) was significantly decreased, whereas the glucose tolerance was marked improvement in alloxan-induced diabetic mice, and loss in body weight was also prevented in diabetic mice compared to the diabetic control group. The dosage of 300mg/kg body weight exhibited the best effects. In addition, MCP did not exhibit any toxic symptoms in the limited toxicity evaluation in mice. The results suggest that MCP possess significantly dose-dependent anti-diabetic activity on alloxan-induced diabetic mice. Hence, MCP can be incorporated as a supplement in health-care food, drugs and/or combined with other hypoglycemic drugs. PMID:26318666

  11. Antidiabetic thiazolidinediones induce ductal differentiation but not apoptosis in pancreatic cancer cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Elisabetta Ceni; Tommaso Mello; Mirko Tarocchi; David W Crabb; Anna Caldini; Pietro Invernizzi; Calogero Surrenti; Stefano Milani; Andrea Galli

    2005-01-01

    AIM: Thiazolidinediones (TZD) are a new class of oral antidiabetic drugs that have been shown to inhibit growth of same epithelial cancer cells. Although TZD were found to be ligands for peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ), the mechanism by which TZD exert their anticancer effect is presently unclear. In this study,we analyzed the mechanism by which TZD inhibit growth of human pancreatic carcinoma cell lines in order to evaluate the potential therapeutic use of these drugs in pancreatic adenocarcinoma.METHODS: The effects of TZD in pancreatic cancer cells were assessed in anchorage-independent growth assay.Expression of PPARγ was measured by reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction and confirmed by Western blot analysis. PPARγ activity was evaluated by transient reporter gene assay. Flow cytometry and DNA fragmentationassay were used to determine the effect of TZD on cell cycle progression and apoptosis respectively. The effect of TZD on ductal differentiation markers was performed by Western blot.RESULTS: Exposure to TZD inhibited colony formation in a PPARγ-dependent manner. Growth inhibition was linked to G1 phase cell cycle arrest through induction of the ductal differentiation program without any increase of the apoptotic rate.CONCLUSION: TZD treatment in pancreatic cancer cells has potent inhibitory effects on growth by a PPAR-dependent induction of pacreatic ductal differentiation.

  12. 38例糖尿病足感染患者病原菌特点及药敏回顾分析%Retrospective Analysis of the Pathogenic Characteristics of 38 Cases with Diabetic Foot Infection and the Drug sensitivity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王彬

    2015-01-01

    目的:分析糖尿病足感染患者病原菌特点及药物敏感性。方法回顾性分析该院2013年1月—2014年6月间38例糖尿病足感染患者的临床资料。结果38例糖尿病足患者共培养出病原菌53株,其中31株革兰氏阴性菌,比例为58.49%,21株革兰氏阳性菌,比例为37.73%,1株真菌,比例为3.77%。结论治疗糖尿病足感染患者时需及时进行病原学检验,以提高诊断及治疗的针对性。%Objective To analyze the characteristics of pathogenic bacteria and drug sensitivity in patients with diabetic foot in-fection. Methods A retrospective analysis was conducted on the clinical data of 38 cases with diabetic foot infection from January 2013 to June 2014. Results A total of 53 strains of pathogenic bacteria were isolated from the specimens of 38 cases with diabetic foot, of which, there were 31 strains of gram-negative bacteria, accounting for 58.49%,21 strains of gram-positive bacteria, ac-counting for 37.73%, 1 strain of fungus, accounting for 3.77%. Conclusion Patients with diabetic foot infection need to undergo the etiological test timely in order to improve the pertinence of diagnosis and treatment.

  13. Medicinal plants of India with anti-diabetic potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grover, J K; Yadav, S; Vats, V

    2002-06-01

    Since ancient times, plants have been an exemplary source of medicine. Ayurveda and other Indian literature mention the use of plants in treatment of various human ailments. India has about 45000 plant species and among them, several thousands have been claimed to possess medicinal properties. Research conducted in last few decades on plants mentioned in ancient literature or used traditionally for diabetes have shown anti-diabetic property. The present paper reviews 45 such plants and their products (active, natural principles and crude extracts) that have been mentioned/used in the Indian traditional system of medicine and have shown experimental or clinical anti-diabetic activity. Indian plants which are most effective and the most commonly studied in relation to diabetes and their complications are: Allium cepa, Allium sativum, Aloe vera, Cajanus cajan, Coccinia indica, Caesalpinia bonducella, Ficus bengalenesis, Gymnema sylvestre, Momordica charantia, Ocimum sanctum, Pterocarpus marsupium, Swertia chirayita, Syzigium cumini, Tinospora cordifolia and Trigonella foenum graecum. Among these we have evaluated M. charantia, Eugenia jambolana, Mucuna pruriens, T. cordifolia, T. foenum graecum, O. sanctum, P. marsupium, Murraya koeingii and Brassica juncea. All plants have shown varying degree of hypoglycemic and anti-hyperglycemic activity. PMID:12020931

  14. Anti-Diabetic Effects of Madecassic Acid and Rotundic Acid

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    Yuan-Man Hsu

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Anti-diabetic effects of madecassic acid (MEA and rotundic acid (RA were examined. MEA or RA at 0.05% or 0.1% was supplied to diabetic mice for six weeks. The intake of MEA, not RA, dose-dependently lowered plasma glucose level and increased plasma insulin level. MEA, not RA, intake dose-dependently reduced plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 activity and fibrinogen level; as well as restored antithrombin-III and protein C activities in plasma of diabetic mice. MEA or RA intake decreased triglyceride and cholesterol levels in plasma and liver. Histological data agreed that MEA or RA intake lowered hepatic lipid droplets, determined by ORO stain. MEA intake dose-dependently declined reactive oxygen species (ROS and oxidized glutathione levels, increased glutathione content and maintained the activity of glutathione reductase and catalase in the heart and kidneys of diabetic mice. MEA intake dose-dependently reduced interleukin (IL-1β, IL-6, tumor necrosis factor-α and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 levels in the heart and kidneys of diabetic mice. RA intake at 0.1% declined cardiac and renal levels of these inflammatory factors. These data indicated that MEA improved glycemic control and hemostatic imbalance, lowered lipid accumulation, and attenuated oxidative and inflammatory stress in diabetic mice. Thus, madecassic acid could be considered as an anti-diabetic agent.

  15. A pharmacological appraisal of medicinal plants with antidiabetic potential

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    Vasim Khan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Diabetes mellitus is a complicated metabolic disorder that has gravely troubled the human health and quality of life. Conventional agents are being used to control diabetes along with lifestyle management. However, they are not entirely effective and no one has ever been reported to have fully recovered from diabetes. Numerous medicinal plants have been used for the management of diabetes mellitus in various traditional systems of medicine worldwide as they are a great source of biological constituents and many of them are known to be effective against diabetes. Medicinal plants with antihyperglycemic activities are being more desired, owing to lesser side-effects and low cost. This review focuses on the various plants that have been reported to be effective in diabetes. A record of various medicinal plants with their established antidiabetic and other health benefits has been reported. These include Allium sativa, Eugenia jambolana, Panax ginseng, Gymnema sylvestre, Momrodica charantia, Ocimum sanctum, Phyllanthus amarus, Pterocarpus marsupium, Trigonella foenum graecum and Tinospora cordifolia. All of them have shown a certain degree of antidiabetic activity by different mechanisms of action.

  16. Assessment of antidiabetic activity and acute toxicity of leaf extracts from Physalis peruviana L. in guinea-pig

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasali, Félicien Mushagalusa; Kadima, Justin Ntokamunda; Mpiana, Pius Tshimankinda; Ngbolua, Koto-te-Nyiwa; Tshibangu, Damien Sha-Tshibey

    2013-01-01

    Objective To verify the antidiabetic activity of leaf extracts from Physalis peruviana L. popularly used in the Eastern part of the Democratic Republic of the Congo and to point out the possible toxicity. Method Aqueous decoctions prepared from dried leaves powder were administrated to guinea pigs at the dose range of 100 mg/kg to 3.2 g/kg of body weight. The hypoglycemic activity was evaluated by glucose tolerance test, loading animals with glucose 4 g/kg and measuring blood glucose concentrations at various times. The effect was compared to the control and glibenclamide as antidiabetic reference drug. Acute toxicity was evaluated by recording mortality rate, changes on blood biomarkers and damage caused to vital organs. Results At a dose of 100 mg/kg, the aqueous extract induced a significant reduction of peak concentration at 30 min after glucose loading as compared with control or reference (PPhysalis peruviana L. present hypoglycemic activity in animal model, but at high doses the plant may cause severe intoxication.

  17. Assessment of antidiabetic activity and acute toxicity of leaf extracts from Physalis peruviana L. in guinea-pig

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Flicien Mushagalusa Kasali; Justin Ntokamunda Kadima; Pius Tshimankinda Mpiana; Koto-te-Nyiwa Ngbolua; Damien Sha-Tshibey Tshibangu

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To verify the antidiabetic activity of leaf extracts from Physalis peruviana L. popularly used in the Eastern part of the Democratic Republic of the Congo and to point out the possible toxicity.Method:pigs at the dose range of 100 mg/kg to 3.2 g/kg of body weight. The hypoglycemic activity was evaluated by glucose tolerance test, loading animals with glucose 4 g/kg and measuring blood glucose concentrations at various times. The effect was compared to the control and glibenclamide as antidiabetic reference drug. Acute toxicity was evaluated by recording mortality rate, changes on blood biomarkers and damage caused to vital organs.Results:At a dose of 100 mg/kg, the aqueous extract induced a significant reduction of peak Aqueous decoctions prepared from dried leaves powder were administrated to guinea concentration at 30 min after glucose loading as compared with control or reference (P<0.05). At doses greater than 400 mg, some alterations on blood, kidney and liver markers were observed. Upper 800 mg/kg, mortality was observed with LD50 estimated at about 1280 mg/kg. At the autopsy, vital organs were in haemorrhage and swelling state.Conclusion:The crude aqueous extracts from the leaves of Physalis peruviana L. present hypoglycemic activity in animal model, but at high doses the plant may cause severe intoxication.

  18. Anti-diabetic potential of chloroform extract of flowers of Calotropis gigantea: An in vitro and in vivo study

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    N K Choudhary

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The chloroform extract of Calotropis gigantea flowers was evaluated for anti-diabetic activity in alloxan-induced hyperglycemia in vivo and inhibition of α-amylase and α-glucosidase in vitro. It was also intended to establish correlation between the serum marker antioxidant enzymes and diabetes. Diabetes was induced by a single intraperitoneal injection of alloxan monohydrate freshly prepared in a dose of 150 mg/kg. Chloroform extract showing presence of flavonoids was administered orally at the doses of 100 and 200 mg/kg for 21 consecutive days. Fasting blood glucose level, glycosylated haemoglobin, blood glutathione, serum creatinine kinase, serum lactate dehydrogenase levels as well as final change in body weight were evaluated. In vitro inhibition of carbohydrate digestive enzymes (α-amylase and α-glucosidase was also determined. Experimental findings showed moderately significant anti-diabetic potential of extract in terms of reduction of fasting glucose level in diabetic rats. The extract was found statistically significant in maintaining the level of serum marker antioxidant enzymes. Overall, the effect of chloroform extract particularly 200 mg/kg was moderate as compared to that of standard drug glibenclamide.

  19. 7690例药品不良反应报告中ADR性别差异的回顾性分析%Retrospective analysis of gender differences in ADR of 7 690 cases of reported adverse drug reactions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙言才; 刘琳琳; 史天陆; 王崇薇; 张蕾; 苏丹; 姜玲

    2015-01-01

    Objective To understand certain basic characteristics of the presented gender factors during the occurrence of adverse drug reactions (ADR)in patients for the implementation of drug safety monitoring,and to provide a reference for clinical therapy. Methods National Adverse Drug Reaction Monitoring Center database of a hospital from January 2005 to December 2010 which reported 7 690 cases of ADR was collected. A retrospective analysis was performed on the 7 690 cases of ADR reports,and gender factors were analyzed and eval-uated in correlation with other indicators such as patient age,drug class,anterior drugs,drug dosage form,route of administration,involving system/ organ. Results In 7 690 cases of ADR reports,4,052 cases were male,accounting for 52. 69%,3,638 cases were female,ac-counting for 47. 31%,and the male to female ratio was 1. 11 ∶ 1. 4 years from 2007 to 2010 the proportion of males was higher than that of fe-males,and 2 years from 2005 to 2006,male lower than female. In people aged 0 to 20,over the age of 50 years,the number of ADR cases was more in male than in female,and in people aged 21 to 50,the number of ADR cases was more in female than in male. The number of ADR cases caused by drugs affecting the blood and blood-forming system,traditional Chinese medicine,vitamins,etc. ,was more in male than in female,and the number of ADR cases caused by drugs affecting allergy and immune function,cardiovascular system drugs,respirato-ry system drugs,etc. was more in female than in male. ADR cases caused by seven kinds of drugs such as oxaliplatin for injection,fluoroura-cil injection,dexamethasone sodium phosphate injection were more male than female. ADR cases caused by levofloxacin hydrochloride injec-tion,levofloxacin lactate and sodium chloride injection,injection of ceftriaxone sodium were more female than male. ADR cases caused by six kinds of formulations like application suspensions,oral solutions,powder,etc. appeared more in male than in female

  20. Antidiabetic and Antioxidant Effect of Methanol Extract of Artanema sesamoides in Streptatozocin-Induced Diabetic Rats

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    V T Selvan

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Summary: The methanol extract of Artanema sesamoides Benth (Scrophuilariaceae (MEAS was found to have potent antidiabetic activity that reduces blood sugar level in streptatozocin-(STZ induced diabetic rats. In this study, the acute and subacute (15 days anti hyperglycemic effect of the two different doses (200 and 400 mg/kg b.w.p.o of MEAS were investigated. Glybenclamide was used as a reference drug at a dose of 0.5mg/kg b.w. Fasting blood glucose level, serum insulin level, lipid profiles, and biomarkers enzymes were evaluated in normal and diabetic rats. While the liver glycogen level and kidney and liver anti oxidant system also were additionally evaluated. Supplementation of this extract by gavage significantly reduces the fasting blood glucose level. Moreover this supplementation significantly increases the glycogen level in liver (25.84 ± 1.52 as compare to diabetic control (12.31 ± 0.63 (P<0.001. Elevated serum glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase (SGOT, glutamate pyruvate transaminase (SGPT, and alkaline phosphatase (SALP were diminished significantly by the treatment of MEAS in respect to diabetic group. The antioxidant activity was studied in liver and kidney tissues by measuring malondialdehyde (MDA, reduced glutathione (GSH and catalase levels. In the MEAS treated groups, the HDL/LDL ratio was improved and cholesterol and triglycerides levels also decreased significantly.  Histopathological studies of pancreas, liver, and kidney in diabetic and extract treated groups substantiate the cytoprotective action of extract. All the above mentioned parameters were restored to the control level.   Industrial relevance: Herbal formulations are getting more importance in the treatment of diabetes, cancer and hepatic disorder because of the hazardous adverse effects of the current therapy. Especially diabetes can be controlled by Allopathic medicine as well as Herbal medicine. In case of Allopathic medicine, complete cure and tolerance are

  1. Metabolomics Study of Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus and the AntiDiabetic Effect of Berberine in Zucker Diabetic Fatty Rats Using Uplc-ESI-Hdms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Yu; Chen, Yi-Tao; Yang, Yuan-Xiao; Zhou, Xiao-Jie; Dai, Shi-Jie; Tong, Jun-Feng; Shou, Dan; Li, Changyu

    2016-05-01

    The present study aimed to evaluate the pathogenesis of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and the anti-diabetic effect of berberine in Zucker diabetic fatty (ZDF) rats. A urinary metabolomics analysis was performed with ultra-performance liquid chromatography/electrospray ionization synapt high-definition mass spectrometry. Pattern recognition approaches were integrated to discover differentiating metabolites. We identified 29 ions (13 in negative mode and 16 in positive mode) as 'differentiating metabolites' with this metabolomic approach. A functional pathway analysis revealed that the alterations were mainly associated with glyoxylate and dicarboxylate metabolism, pentose and glucuronate interconversions and sphingolipid metabolism. These results indicated that the dysfunctions of glycometabolism and lipometabolism are involved in the pathological process of T2DM. Berberine could decrease the serum levels of glycosylated hemoglobin, total cholesterol and triglyceride and increase the secretion of insulin. The urinary metabolomics analysis showed that berberine could reduce the concentrations of citric acid, tetrahydrocortisol, ribothymidine and sphinganine to a near-normal state. These results suggested that the anti-diabetic effect of berberine occurred mainly via its regulation of glycometabolism and lipometabolism and activation of adenosine 5'-monophosphate-activated protein kinase. Our work not only provides a better understanding of the anti-diabetic effect of berberine in ZDF rats but also supplies a useful database for further study in humans and for investigating the pharmacological actions of drugs. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:26888689

  2. 药物源性角膜病变临床特征和治疗回顾分析%Retrospective analysis of clinical features and management for drug-induced keratopathy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘艳红; 王婷; 史伟云; 李素霞

    2014-01-01

    变的治疗主要是停用原有药物,给予促进角膜修复的药物及抗炎治疗,同时治疗干眼症及睑板腺功能障碍等眼表问题.治疗周期为1~8周,角膜修复期间与SⅠt结果呈负相关(r=-0.835,P<0.01).结论 局部用药导致的角膜病变会影响角膜全层,临床医师应了解药物导致的眼部损害.药物源性角膜病变的早期诊断主要依靠病史及临床特征,采取综合的治疗措施是治疗的关键.%Background In recent years,incidence of drug-induced keratopathy is increasing highly.Druginduced keratopathy is lack of typical clinical features and offen confused with the primary disease.Therefore,summarizing and concluding the clinicals feature and standard treatments of drug-induced keratopathy are key problem need to be solved urgently for us.Objective This study was to retrospectively analyze the clinical features and therapeutic procedure of drug-induced keratopathy.Methods A retrospective case series analysis method was adopted.The clinical data of 36 eyes (31 patients) with drug-induced keratopathy were collected by Shandong Eye Hospital from 2008 to 2012,including eye disease history,medication history,medication dosage and duration.A series of relevant examinations were performed,including best corrected visual acuity (BCVA) before and 1 month after treatment,Schirmer test Ⅰ (S Ⅰ t),tear film break-up time (BUT),meibomian gland findings,the location of the keratopathy,the characteristics of keratophthy before and after fluorescein staining.The treating were given,including cessating of the original drugs,applying corneal repair promotion and anti-inflammatory drugs as well as the comprehensive treatment for meibomian gland embolization and dry eye,such as the hot packs and massage in the eyes with meibomian gland dysfunction and a tear dot embolization therapy in the eyes with S Ⅰ t < 5 mm and BUT<5 s.Paired t test and repeated measured one-way analysis of variance in SPSS 17

  3. A terapia multifamiliar no tratamento da dependência química: um estudo retrospectivo de seis anos Multi-family therapy and drug addiction: a six-year retrospective study

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    Susana M. Sastre Seadi

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUÇÃO: A inclusão de intervenções focadas na família, através da terapia unifamiliar, ou da terapia multifamiliar (TGMF vem crescendo como uma forma de enfrentar um problema tão grave e complexo como é a dependência química. OBJETIVOS: Investigar e avaliar fatores associados à adesão ao tratamento multifamiliar no tratamento de dependentes químicos hospitalizados. MÉTODO: A pesquisa é um estudo transversal retrospectivo, com uma amostra de 672 famílias participantes da TGMF durante o período de seis anos (de março 1997 a julho de 2003. Foi realizado um estudo dos fatores sociodemográficos como idade, sexo, tempo de uso da substância e quanto ao tipo de droga mais prevalente e investigada a associação entre o grau de parentesco do familiar participante do programa e a adesão ao tratamento multifamiliar. Foram pesquisados 672 prontuários de sujeitos que estiveram internados e ingressaram no programa de tratamento multifamiliar e os relatos das sessões descritos pelo terapeuta coordenador do grupo. RESULTADOS: Há associação entre a participação da família e adesão ao tratamento. A participação de dois ou mais familiares repercute na adesão. DISCUSSÃO: Os resultados sugerem que inclusão de um número maior de familiares poderá repercutir em uma maior adesão ao tratamento.INTRODUCTION: the systematic inclusion of interventions focused on the family through unifamily and/or through multi-family group therapy (MFGT has been growing as a way to face such a serious and complex problem as drug addiction. OBJECTIVE: To investigate and evaluate factors associated with the joining of drug addicted patients to a multi-family treatment. METHOD: the research is a cross-sectional retrospective study, with a sample of 672 families taking part in MFGT for six years (from March, 1997 to July, 2003. A study about sociodemographic factors such as age, gender, time and predominant type of substance used was made, which also

  4. Targeted proteins for diabetes drug design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doan Trang Nguyen, Ngoc; Thi Le, Ly

    2012-03-01

    Type 2 diabetes mellitus is a common metabolism disorder characterized by high glucose in the bloodstream, especially in the case of insulin resistance and relative insulin deficiency. Nowadays, it is very common in middle-aged people and involves such dangerous symptoms as increasing risk of stroke, obesity and heart failure. In Vietnam, besides the common treatment of insulin injection, some herbal medication is used but no unified optimum remedy for the disease yet exists and there is no production of antidiabetic drugs in the domestic market yet. In the development of nanomedicine at the present time, drug design is considered as an innovative tool for researchers to study the mechanisms of diseases at the molecular level. The aim of this article is to review some common protein targets involved in type 2 diabetes, offering a new idea for designing new drug candidates to produce antidiabetic drugs against type 2 diabetes for Vietnamese people.

  5. Retrospective US database analysis of drug utilization patterns, health care resource use, and costs associated with adjuvant interferon alfa-2b therapy for treatment of malignant melanoma following surgery

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    Krishna A

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Michelle D Hackshaw,1 Arun Krishna,2 David J Mauro31,2Global Health Outcomes, Merck, Sharpe and Dohme Corporation, Whitehouse Station, NJ, USA; 3Clinical Research, Merck Research Laboratories, Upper Gwynedd, PA, USABackground: The purpose of this study was to identify a real-world US population having undergone surgery for malignant melanoma and describe treatment patterns, health care resource utilization, and costs for patients who subsequently received interferon alfa-2b (IFN therapy or other standard of care chemotherapies.Methods: A retrospective cohort study was conducted using administrative claims from MarketScan® databases among melanoma patients diagnosed between 2004 and 2008 who had surgery and were subsequently treated with IFN or other chemotherapies. Health care resource utilization and costs of services (converted to 2009 dollars were evaluated. Cost refers to the amount paid to providers associated with the health service.Results: Of 18,075 subjects with melanoma surgery claims, 1525 (8.4% were treated with IFN and 1194 (6.6% with other chemotherapies. Median duration (days and number of doses of IFN therapy were 29 and 20, respectively. Approximately half of patients who received IFN discontinued therapy within or after the one-month induction phase. For IFN therapy patients, average total cost per patient for the last melanoma-related surgery prior to start of therapy, including costs of the surgery itself, pathology, anesthesia, and hospital care, was $2219. The average total cost per patient related to IFN therapy was $1188; this included costs for drug, office visits, blood work, and infusions. Other chemotherapy costs ranged from $146 to $2678.Conclusion: There is an unmet treatment need, considering that this study observed that melanoma patients on IFN therapy post-surgery do not complete the recommended one-year course of treatment which may compromise its full therapeutic benefits. Further study to investigate reasons

  6. Database on Antidiabetic indigenous plants of Tamil Nadhu, India

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    M.Uma Makheswari

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available An Ethnobotanical and Literature survey was conducted to collect information about medicinal plants used for the treatment of diabetics and associated complications by tribals people of Tamil Nadhu. Analysis of remedies obtained from different plant parts was performed. The indigenous knowledge of plants used for the treatment of diabetics was collected through questionnaire and personal interviews. A total of 46 plants used to treat diabetes have been documented. The investigation revealed that, leaf materials (37% followed by seeds (16% and fruits (14% were mostly used for the treatment of Diabetes. Anti-diabetic medicinal plants used by Tamil People have been listed along with plant parts used and its active chemical constituents.

  7. Polyherbal preparation for anti-diabetic activity: A screening study

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    Noopur Srivastava

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To screen the Polyherbal preparation for anti-diabetic activity in rats. Materials and Methods: The blood glucose lowering activity of the Polyherbal preparation-I (1:1:1 of Wheat germ oil, Coriandrum sativum and Aloe vera was studied in normal rats after oral administration at doses of 1.0 and 2.0 ml/kg and Polyherbal preparation-I, II (Wheat germ oil, fresh juice of C. sativum and Aloe vera in the ratio of 2:2:1, and III (Wheat germ oil, fresh juice of C. sativum and Aloe vera in the ratio of 1:2:2 on alloxan-induced diabetic rats, after oral administration at doses of 1.0 and 2.0 ml/kg. Blood samples were collected from the tail vein method at 0, 0.5, 1, 2, 4, 8, 12, and 24 h in normal rats and in diabetic rats at 0, 1, 3, 7, 15, and 30 days. Blood plasma glucose was estimated by the GOD/POD (glucose oxidase and peroxidase method. The data was compared statistically using the one-way ANOVA method followed by the Dunnett multiple component test. Statistical significance was set at P<0.05. Results: The Polyherbal preparation-I produced significant (P<0.05 reduction in the blood glucose level of normal rats and Polyherbal preparation-I, II, and III produced significant (P<0.01 reduction in the blood glucose level of diabetic rats during 30 days study and compared with that of control and Glibenclamide. Conclusion: The Polyherbal preparation-I showed a significant glucose lowering effect in normal rats and Polyherbal preparation-I, II, and III in diabetic rats. This preparation is going to be promising anti-diabetic preparation for masses; however, it requires further extensive studies in human beings.

  8. PIXE analysis of some anti-diabetic medicinal plants in Nigeria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Diabetes mellitus, a metabolic disease characterized by high blood glucose levels (hyperglycemia) due to defects in insulin secretion, or action, or both. It is a dangerous disease leading to death of many people in the world. Some of the medicinal plants implicated in the herbal recipes for the treatment of diabetes in Nigeria have been reported1. Additional medicinal plants used for the treatment of diabetes in Nigeria are presented in this work. These medicinal plants are becoming increasingly important and relevant as herbal drugs due to their use as antioxidants, neutraceuticals, food additives and supplements in combating diabetes. Elemental compositions of these anti-diabetic medicinal plants were determined using PIXE technique. The 1.8 MV collimated proton beam from the 2.5 MV AN 2000 Van de Graaff accelerator at Instituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare (INFN), Laboratori Nazionali di Legnaro (LNL) Legnaro (Padova) Italy was employed for the work. The results show the presence of twenty two elements at various concentrations in the medicinal plants. The leaves of Murraya, P amarus, O. gratissimum, O.subscopodica, P pellucida and the whole plant of B. diffusa, B. pinnalum and C. occidenlalis could be taken as vegetables, food additives, neutraceuticals and supplements in the management of diabetes. [1] S.O. Olabanji, OR Omobuwajo, D. Ceccato, A.C. Adebajo, M.C. Buoso, G. Moschini. Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. Sect. B 266 (2008) 2387 - 2390. (author)

  9. Association between patients’ beliefs and oral antidiabetic medication adherence in a Chinese type 2 diabetic population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Ping; Liu, Naifeng

    2016-01-01

    Purpose The objective of this study was to identify, using the theory of planned behavior (TPB), patients’ beliefs about taking oral antidiabetic drugs (OADs) as prescribed, and to measure the correlations between beliefs and medication adherence. Patients and methods We performed a cross-sectional study of type 2 diabetic patients using structured questionnaires in a Chinese tertiary hospital. A total of 130 patients were enrolled to be interviewed about TPB variables (behavioral, normative, and control beliefs) relevant to medication adherence. Medication adherence was assessed using the eight-item Morisky Medication Adherence Scale (MMAS-8). Spearman’s rank correlation was used to assess the association between TPB and MMAS-8. Logistic regression analysis was performed to examine the relationship between different variables and MMAS-8, with statistical significance determined at PTPB is the only important determinant influencing OAD adherence among all the factors (P=0.011). Conclusion The results indicate that the TPB model could be used to examine adherence to OADs. One facilitating control belief, and most of the barrier control beliefs of TPB were related to medication adherence among Chinese type 2 diabetes inpatients. It will be helpful to understand patients’ self-medication and provide methods to develop instruments for identifying factors that influence OAD adherence. PMID:27390519

  10. Antidiabetic properties of ethanolic extract of Cnidoscolus aconitifolius on alloxan induced diabetes mellitus in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oyagbemi, A A; Odetola, A A; Azeez, O I

    2010-12-01

    This research was designed to investigate the antidiabetic properties of ethanolic extract of Cnidoscolus aconitifolius in alloxan-induced diabetes mellitus in Wistar male albino rats. Thirty male albino rats were used. Diabetes mellitus was induced in five of the six groups (B-F) by a single intra-peritoneal injection at the dose of 100mg/kg after normal fasting blood glucose had been determined. Group A served as the positive control while groups C-E received 100mg/kg, 500mg/kg and 1000mg/kg of Cnidoscolus aconitifolius extract respectively. Group B did not received any treatment while group F received chlorpropamide, a standard drug used in the treatment of diabetes mellitus. Blood glucose and body weights were monitored weekly for four weeks. Plasma lipids and electrolytes such as Total cholesterol, Triglyceride, Low Density Lipoproteins (LDL), High Density Lipoproteins (HDL), Creatinine and Blood Urea Nitrogen (BUN) were determined after four weeks of treatment with Cnidoscolus aconitifolius extract. The results show significant reduction (PCnidoscolus aconitifolius) when compared with diabetic control (Alloxan only) and other treatment groups. There was gradual increase in weight of all treatment groups compared with the diabetic control, which had progressive weight loss. Plasma cholesterol levels also significantly reduced (PCnidoscolus aconitifolius extract. From this study, Cnidoscolus aconitifolius extract was found to considerably reduce blood glucose and plasma cholesterol levels and progressively increase weight gain in diabetic treated rats confirming its traditional use for the treatment of diabetes. PMID:22416660

  11. PIXE analysis of some anti-diabetic medicinal plants in Nigeria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olabanji, S.O. [ICTP Fellow on sabbatical leave from Centre for Energy Research and Development, Obafemi Awolowo University, lIe-lfe (Nigeria); Omobuwajo, O.R.; Adebajo, A.C. [Department of Pharmacognosy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Obafemi Awolowo University, lIe-lfe (Nigeria); Ceccato, D. [Dipartmento di Fisica, Universita di Padova, Padova (Italy); Buoso, M.C.; Moschini, G., E-mail: skayode2002@yahoo.co.uk [lstituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare (INFN), Laboratori Nazionali di Legnaro (LNL), Padova (Italy)

    2013-07-01

    Full text: Diabetes mellitus, a metabolic disease characterized by high blood glucose levels (hyperglycemia) due to defects in insulin secretion, or action, or both. It is a dangerous disease leading to death of many people in the world. Some of the medicinal plants implicated in the herbal recipes for the treatment of diabetes in Nigeria have been reported{sup 1}. Additional medicinal plants used for the treatment of diabetes in Nigeria are presented in this work. These medicinal plants are becoming increasingly important and relevant as herbal drugs due to their use as antioxidants, neutraceuticals, food additives and supplements in combating diabetes. Elemental compositions of these anti-diabetic medicinal plants were determined using PIXE technique. The 1.8 MV collimated proton beam from the 2.5 MV AN 2000 Van de Graaff accelerator at Instituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare (INFN), Laboratori Nazionali di Legnaro (LNL) Legnaro (Padova) Italy was employed for the work. The results show the presence of twenty two elements at various concentrations in the medicinal plants. The leaves of Murraya, P amarus, O. gratissimum, O.subscopodica, P pellucida and the whole plant of B. diffusa, B. pinnalum and C. occidenlalis could be taken as vegetables, food additives, neutraceuticals and supplements in the management of diabetes. [1] S.O. Olabanji, OR Omobuwajo, D. Ceccato, A.C. Adebajo, M.C. Buoso, G. Moschini. Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. Sect. B 266 (2008) 2387 - 2390. (author)

  12. Evaluation of Antidiabetic Activity and Associated Toxicity of Artemisia afra Aqueous Extract in Wistar Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taofik O. Sunmonu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Artemisia afra Jacq. ex Willd. is a widely used medicinal plant in South Africa for the treatment of diabetes. This study aimed to evaluate the hypoglycemic activity and possible toxicity effect of aqueous leaf extract of the herb administered at different dosages for 15 days in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Administration of the extract at 50, 100, and 200 mg/kg body weight significantly (P<0.05 increased body weight, decreased blood glucose levels, increased glucose tolerance, and improved imbalance in lipid metabolism in diabetic rats. These are indications of antidiabetic property of A. afra with 200 mg/kg body weight of the extract showing the best hypoglycemic action by comparing favourably well with glibenclamide, a standard hypoglycemic drug. The extract at all dosages tested also restored liver function indices and haematological parameters to normal control levels in the diabetic rats, whereas the kidney function indices were only normalized in the diabetic animals administered with 50 mg/kg body weight of the extract. This investigation clearly showed that in addition to its hypoglycemic activity, A. afra may also protect the liver and blood against impairment due to diabetes. However, some kidney functions may be compromised at high dosages of the extract.

  13. From antidiabetic to antifungal: discovery of highly potent triazole-thiazolidinedione hybrids as novel antifungal agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Shanchao; Zhang, Yongqiang; He, Xiaomeng; Che, Xiaoying; Wang, Shengzheng; Liu, Yang; Jiang, Yan; Liu, Na; Dong, Guoqiang; Yao, Jianzhong; Miao, Zhenyuan; Wang, Yan; Zhang, Wannian; Sheng, Chunquan

    2014-12-01

    In an attempt to discover a new generation of triazole antifungal agents, a series of triazole-thiazolidinedione hybrids were designed and synthesized by molecular hybridization of the antifungal agent fluconazole and rosiglitazone (an antidiabetic). Most of the target compounds showed good to excellent inhibitory activity against a variety of clinically important fungal pathogens. In particular, compounds (Z)-5-(2,4-dichlorobenzylidene)-3-(2-(2,4-difluorophenyl)-2-hydroxy-3-(1H-1,2,4-triazol-1-yl)propyl)thiazolidine-2,4-dione) (15 c), (Z)-3-(2-(2,4-difluorophenyl)-2-hydroxy-3-(1H-1,2,4-triazol-1-yl)propyl)-5-(furan-3-ylmethylene)thiazolidine-2,4-dione (15 j), and (Z)-3-(2-(2,4-difluorophenyl)-2-hydroxy-3-(1H-1,2,4-triazol-1-yl)propyl)-5-(furan-3-ylmethylene)thiazolidine-2,4-dione (15 r) were highly active against Candida albicans, with MIC80 values in the range of 0.03-0.15 μM. Moreover, compounds 15 j and 15 r were found to be effective against four fluconazole-resistant clinical isolates; these two compounds are particularly promising antifungal leads for further optimization. Molecular docking studies revealed that the hydrogen bonding interactions between thiazolidinedione and CYP51 from C. albicans are important for antifungal activity. This study also demonstrates the effectiveness of molecular hybridization in antifungal drug discovery. PMID:25196996

  14. Antidiabetic Medicinal Plants Used by the Basotho Tribe of Eastern Free State: A Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balogun, Fatai Oladunni; Tshabalala, Natu Thomas; Ashafa, Anofi Omotayo Tom

    2016-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus (DM) belongs to the group of five leading important diseases causing death globally and remains a major health problem in Africa. A number of factors such as poverty, poor eating habit, and hormonal imbalance are responsible for the occurrence of the disease. It poses a major health challenge in Africa continent today and the prevalence continues to increase at an alarming rate. Various treatment options particularly the usage of herbs have been effective against diabetes because they have no adverse effects. Interestingly, South Africa, especially the Basotho tribe, is blessed with numerous medicinal plants whose usage in the treatment of DM has been effective since the conventional drugs are expensive and often unaffordable. The present study attempted to update the various scientific evidence on the twenty-three (23) plants originating from different parts of the world but widely used by the Sotho people in the management of DM. Asteraceae topped the list of sixteen (16) plant families and remained the most investigated according to this review. Although limited information was obtained on the antidiabetic activities of these plants, it is however anticipated that government parastatals and scientific communities will pay more attention to these plants in future research. PMID:27437404

  15. Modulation of the Antidiabetic Effect of Glimepiride by Diazepam in Diabetic Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W.R. Mohamed

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Anxiolytic drugs may influence glycemic control in diabetic subjects, so the present study was conducted to investigate the effect of glimepiride, a commonly used oral hypoglycemic, diazepam, a commonly used anxiolytic, and their combination in STZ-induced diabetic rats. Diabetes was induced by streptozotpcin (50 mg/kg i.p.. Rats were divided into 5 groups namely: normal control, diabetic control, glimepiride (10 mg/kg p.o., diazepam (5 mg/kg i.p. or combination of both glimepiride and diazepam, respectively. All groups received daily treatments for 2 weeks including the normal group which received 1% Tween 80. Diazepam significantly improved the effect of glimepiride on the levels of serum glucose, insulin, C-peptide and liver glycogen content. In addition, combination of diazepam with glimepiride significantly improved the effect of the latter on oxidative stress biomarkers including serum lipid peroxides, blood glutathione levels and blood superoxide dismutase activity of diabetic rats. In conclusion, the present study revealed that diazepam increased the antidiabetic and the antioxidant actions of glimepiride which may be of considerable value in the treatment of diabetes mellitus where both reduction of associated anxiety and tight glycemic control are needed.

  16. Quantitative analysis of metformin in antidiabetic tablets by laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Contreras, U.; Ornelas-Soto, N.; Meneses-Nava, M. A.; Barbosa-García, O.; López-de-Alba, P. L.; López-Martínez, L.

    2011-09-01

    Nowadays the production of counterfeit and low quality drugs affects human health and generates losses to pharmaceutical industries and tax revenue losses to government. Currently there are several methods for pharmaceutical product analysis; nevertheless, most of them depend on complex and time consuming steps such as sample preparation. In contrast to conventional methods, Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) is evaluated as a potential analytical technique for the rapid screening and quality control of anti-diabetic solid formulations. In this paper authors propose a simple method to analyze qualitatively and quantitatively Active Pharmaceutical Ingredients (APIs) such as Metformin hydrochloride. The authors used ten nanosecond duration pulses (FWHM) from a Nd:YAG laser produces the induced breakdown for the analysis. Light is collected and focused into a Cerny-Turner spectrograph and dispersed into an ICCD camera for its detection. We used atomic emissions from Chlorine atoms present only in APIs as analyte signal. The analysis was improved using Bromine as internal standard. Linear calibration curves from synthetic samples were prepared achieving linearity higher than 99%. Our results were compared with HPLC results and validation was performed by statistical methods. The validation analysis suggests that both methods have no significant differences i.e., the proposed method can be implemented for monitoring the pharmaceutical production process in-situ in real time or for inspection and recognition of authenticity.

  17. Bioactivity screening of microalgae for antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, anticancer, anti-diabetes and antibacterial activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiara eLauritano

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Marine microalgae are considered a potentially new and valuable source of biologically active molecules for applications in the food industry as well as in the pharmaceutical, nutraceutical and cosmetic sectors. They can be easily cultured, have short generation times and enable an environmentally-friendly approach to drug discovery by overcoming problems associated with the over-utilization of marine resources and the use of destructive collection practices. In this study, 21 diatoms, 7 dinoflagellates and 4 flagellate species were grown in three different culturing conditions and the corresponding extracts were tested for possible antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, anticancer, anti-diabetes, antibacterial and anti-biofilm activities. In addition, for two diatoms we also tested two different clones to disclose diversity in clone bioactivity. Six diatom species displayed specific anti-inflammatory, anticancer (blocking human melanoma cell proliferation and anti-biofilm (against the bacteria Staphylococcus epidermidis activities whereas, none of the other microalgae were bioactive against the conditions tested for. Furthermore, none of the 6 diatom species tested were toxic on normal human cells. Culturing conditions (i.e. nutrient starvation conditions greatly influenced bioactivity of the majority of the clones/species tested. This study denotes the potential of diatoms as sources of promising bioactives for the treatment of human pathologies.

  18. Effect of number and type of antidiabetes medications on adherence and glycemia of ambulatory type 2 diabetes patients in southwestern Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adisa R

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To determine the influence of number and type of antidiabetes medications on adherence and glycemia of ambulatory type 2 diabetes patients in southwestern Nigeria.Methods: A cross-sectional study using pre-tested structured questionnaire among 176 consented patients recruited from the endocrinology clinics of two teaching hospitals between November, 2010 and January, 2011; and a retrospective review of case notes of the cohort for details of prescribed medications and blood glucose values. Descriptive statistics were used to summarize the data. Tests of proportions were evaluated using Chi-square or Fisher’s exact test as appropriate. The differences in mean fasting blood glucose (FBG between and among categorical variables were compared using student t-test and ANOVA respectively, with p4 medications. Adherence was better among patients on >4 medications compared to those on ≤4 medications (p=0.05. However, patients on >4 medications were mostly older adults (>60 years of age, and they were in the majority (66.7% who had tertiary education compared to 33.3% of those on ≤4 medications who had tertiary education (p=0.02. Adherence rates to antidiabetes medications were in the ranking of oral antidiabetes medications (OAM alone (50.0% > insulin plus OAM (44.0% > insulin alone (41.7% with no significant difference (p=0.77. There was a significant difference in mean FBG among patients on >4 medications (172.1 ±61.1mg/dL versus (198.8 ±83.8mg/dL among those on ≤4 medications (p=0.02. Conclusion: Prescribing more than four medications is linked to improved adherence and glycemic outcome. However, age and educational background of patients are important factors that need to be considered when prescribing multiple medications for type 2 diabetes.

  19. Factors Associated with Utilization of Dipeptidyl-4 Inhibitors in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus: A Cross-Sectional Retrospective Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hasniza Zaman Huri

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Dipeptidyl-4 (DPP-4 inhibitors are oral antidiabetic agents recently introduced to Malaysia. Thus, limited data is available on their utilization patterns and factors associated with their use. This study aims to analyse the utilization patterns of DPP-4 inhibitors, factors that influenced the choice of agent, and the rationale for treatment with DPP-4 inhibitors in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. This retrospective study was conducted to address the utilization pattern of DPP-4 inhibitors and factors that influence choice in type 2 diabetes mellitus patients. 299 subjects taking either sitagliptin or vildagliptin from September 2008 to September 2012 were included in the study. Sitagliptin was more frequently prescribed than vildagliptin. Of the patients prescribed DPP-4 inhibitors, 95% received combinations of these and other agents, whereas only 5% were prescribed DPP-4 inhibitors as monotherapy. Factors affecting the utilization of DPP-4 inhibitors included age (P=0.049 and concomitant use of beta blockers (P=0.045 and aspirin (P=0.008. Early identification of factors associated with DPP-4 inhibitors is essential to enhance quality use of the drugs.

  20. Repurposing Drugs to Target the Diabetes Epidemic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Nigel; Zeng, Xiao-Yi; Osborne, Brenna; Rogers, Suzanne; Ye, Ji-Ming

    2016-05-01

    Despite major investment by pharmaceutical companies in conventional drug discovery pipelines, development of new drugs has failed to keep up with the increasing incidence of many diseases, including type 2 diabetes (T2D). Drug repurposing, where existing drugs are applied to a new indication, is gaining momentum as a successful approach to overcome the bottlenecks commonly encountered with conventional approaches. Repurposing takes advantage of available information on the molecular pharmacology of clinical agents to drastically shorten drug development timelines. This review discusses recent advances in the discovery of new antidiabetic agents using repurposing strategies. PMID:26900045

  1. Antidiabetic effect of an aqueous extract of Pomegranate (Punica granatum L. peels in normal and alloxan diabetic rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enas A. M. Khalil

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available Hypoglycaemic drugs are either too expensive or have undesirable side effects including hematological, coma and disturbances of liver and kidney. Limiting of diabetes without any side effects is still a challenge to the medical system. This leads to exert effort to search for effective, safer and less cost antidiabetic plants. This investigation aims to evaluate the role of Punica granatum powder peels extract in its human therapeutic dose on beta cell numbers blood glucose and plasma insulin levels in normal and alloxan diabetic rats for 4-weeks of treatment. The treatment revealed that pomegranate aqueous extract significant decreased blood glucose and increased insulin levels in normal and diabetic treated rats. Pancreas showed increased number of beta cells in normal and treated diabetic rats. In conclusion pomegranate peel aqueous extract can reduce blood sugar through regeneration of ß cells.

  2. Retrospective landscape analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fritzbøger, Bo

    2011-01-01

    On the basis of maps from the 18th and 19th centuries, a retrospective analysis was carried out of documentary settlement and landscape data extending back to the Middle Ages with the intention of identifying and dating general structural and dynamic features of the cultural landscape in a selected...

  3. Henry's Law: A Retrospective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenberg, Robert M.; Peticolas, Warner L.

    2004-01-01

    A retrospective view of Henry's law and its applicability in any specific system at a finite concentration is tested. It can be concluded that Henry's law is only a limiting law and is adequate at low mole fractions but is useful for practical purposes where high precision is not required.

  4. Antidiabetic claims of Tinospora cordifolia(Willd.)Miers:critical appraisal and role in therapy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Rohit; Sharma; Hetal; Amin; Galib; Pradeep; Kumar; Prajapati

    2015-01-01

    Currently,available conventional options for diabetes mellitus have certain limitations of their own,and options from medicinal plants with antihyperglycemic activities are being searched to meet the need.Antidiabetic properties of Tmospora cordifolia are highly appreciated in Ayurveda and even in recent modern researches.Several studies on its extracts(viz,immunemodulatory.anti-hyperglycemic.antioxidant,adaptogenic.hepatoprotective.hormone regulator etc.) and isolated phytoconstituents(like tinosporin,berberine.jatrorrhizine etc.) have reported that it is a preventive and curative antidiabetic herb,which are substantiated by clinical trials.Scattered information pertaining to antidiabetic potential of Tmospora is reported.Present review encompasses(i) in-depth information of reported antidiabetic activities of the plant in light of available experimental and clinical studies,and(ii) understanding on the possible mechanism of its action in combating the complex pathology of diabetes.

  5. Antidiabetic and hypolipidemic activities of ethanolic leaf extract and fractions of Melanthera scandens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enomfon J Akpan

    2012-07-01

    Conclusions: These results suggest that the leaf extract/fractions of M. scandens possesses antidiabetic effect on alloxan induced diabetic rats and this justifies its use in ethno medicine and can be exploited in the management of diabetes.

  6. Pharmacological investigations of the anti-diabetic effect of Cortex Moutan and its active component paeonol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, C H; Chan, C M; Chan, Y W; Lau, K M; Lau, T W; Lam, F C; Law, W T; Che, C T; Leung, P C; Fung, K P; Ho, Y Y; Lau, C B S

    2007-11-01

    Cortex Moutan (CM, root bark of Paeonia suffruticosa Andr.) is one of the common herbs found in anti-diabetic traditional Chinese medicine formulae. To study the potential anti-diabetic mechanisms of CM, four in vitro models (intestinal brush border membrane vesicles (BBMV), rat hepatoma cell line H4IIE, human skin fibroblasts cell line Hs68 and mouse adipocytes 3T3-L1) were used. CM showed significant in vitro anti-diabetic effects by inhibiting glucose uptake of BBMV and enhancing glucose uptake into Hs68 and 3T3-L1 cells. Using bioassay-guided fractionation, paeonol was confirmed to be one of the active constituents for inhibiting BBMV glucose uptake. With neonatal-streptozotocin diabetic rats, paeonol (200 and 400mg/kgbody wt.) was found to improve oral glucose tolerance in vivo. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report on the anti-diabetic effect of paeonol.

  7. A better anti-diabetic recombinant human fibroblast growth factor 21 (rhFGF21 modified with polyethylene glycol.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhifeng Huang

    Full Text Available As one of fibroblast growth factor (FGF family members, FGF21 has been extensively investigated for its potential as a drug candidate to combat metabolic diseases. In the present study, recombinant human FGF21 (rhFGF21 was modified with polyethylene glycol (PEGylation in order to increase its in vivo biostabilities and therapeutic potency. At N-terminal residue rhFGF21 was site-selectively PEGylated with mPEG20 kDa-butyraldehyde. The PEGylated rhFGF21 was purified to near homogeneity by Q Sepharose anion-exchange chromatography. The general structural and biochemical features as well as anti-diabetic effects of PEGylated rhFGF21 in a type 2 diabetic rat model were evaluated. By N-terminal sequencing and MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry, we confirmed that PEG molecule was conjugated only to the N-terminus of rhFGF21. The mono-PEGylated rhFGF21 retained the secondary structure, consistent with the native rhFGF21, but its biostabilities, including the resistance to physiological temperature and trypsinization, were significantly enhanced. The in vivo immunogenicity of PEGylated rhFGF21 was significantly decreased, and in vivo half-life time was significantly elongated. Compared to the native form, the PEGylated rhFGF21 had a similar capacity of stimulating glucose uptake in 3T3-L1 cells in vitro, but afforded a significantly long effect on reducing blood glucose and triglyceride levels in the type 2 diabetic animals. These results suggest that the PEGylated rhFGF21 is a better and more effective anti-diabetic drug candidate than the native rhFGF21 currently available. Therefore, the PEGylated rhFGF21 may be potentially applied in clinics to improve the metabolic syndrome for type 2 diabetic patients.

  8. Anti-diabetic activity of traditional Indian gold containing preparation: Shadguna Balijarita Makaradhwaja on streptozotocin induced diabetic rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khedekar, Sanjay; Rukkudin, Galib; Ravishankar, Basavaiah; Prajapati, Pradeepkumar

    2016-01-01

    Background: Makaradhwaja a gold containing mercurial preparation used for diabetes mellitus in indigenous system of medicine. It is a popular aphrodisiac and rejuvenator traditional medicine. It is prepared by using processed gold, mercury and sulfur in different ratios by applying intermittent heating pattern in Valuka Yantra. Objectives: The aim of the study was to evaluate anti-diabetic effect of Shadguna Balijarita Makaradhwaja (SBM) on streptozotocin (STZ) induced diabetic rats. Materials and Methods: Diabetes was induced to normal rats by injecting STZ in dose 40 mg/kg. Powdered SBM and dried extract of Tinospora cordifolia were mixed with honey and administered orally for 20 days at dose 2.63 mg/kg and 42.34 mg/kg body weight, respectively. The effects of treatment on body weight changes and blood glucose levels were quantified on day 1, 5, 10, 15 and 21 of the experiments. On the 21st day, animals were sacrificed and gross histopathological changes in liver, kidney and pancreas were illustrated. Blood sugar level, glyacated hemoglobin, blood urea, serum cholesterol, serum creatinine, serum triglyceride and serum protein were estimated with standard methods. The study was conducted in the year 2011. Results: Test drug observed significant decrease (P < 0.001) in glyacated hemoglobin level compared to diabetic control rats. Blood sugar level of test drug group shown a significant decrease (279.11 ± 57.95) compared with diabetic rats. Conclusion: The present study demonstrates that SBM and dried extract of T. cordifolia with honey significantly reduces the blood glucose level and shows anti-diabetic effect. PMID:27104037

  9. Discovery of a long-chain carbamoyl aminocarnitine derivative, a reversible carnitine palmitoyltransferase inhibitor with antiketotic and antidiabetic activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giannessi, Fabio; Pessotto, Pompeo; Tassoni, Emanuela; Chiodi, Piero; Conti, Roberto; De Angelis, Francesco; Dell'Uomo, Natalina; Catini, Roberto; Deias, Roberto; Tinti, Maria Ornella; Carminati, Paolo; Arduini, Arduino

    2003-01-16

    The synthesis and pharmacological activity of reversible CPT I inhibitors as potential antiketotic and antidiabetic drugs are reported. Such inhibitors constitute a series of enantiomerically pure aminocarnitine derivatives having the general formula (CH3)3N+CH2CH(ZR)CH2COO- (with Z = ureido, carbamate, sulfonamide, and sulfamide moieties; R = C7-C14 linear alkyl chains). A primary pharmacological screening based on the evaluation of CPT I activity in intact rat liver (L-CPT I) mitochondria revealed the best activity for the (R) forms of ureidic derivative 17 (ZR = NHCONHR, R = C14), sulfonamidic derivative 7 (ZR = NHSO2R, R = C12), and sulfamidic derivative 9 (ZR = NHSO2NHR, R = C11). The IC50 values are 1.1, 0.7, and 0.8 microM, respectively. For the carbamic derivative 11 (ZR = NHCOOR, R = C8), an IC50 of 9.5 microM was observed. In addition, an extraordinarily high selectivity toward the liver isoform with respect to the heart isoform (muscle-CPT I identical with M-CPT I) was found for the ureidic compound 17 (IC50(M-CPT I) vs IC50(L-CPTI) = 39.4), as well as for other ureidic or carbamic compounds. Diabetic db/db mice treated orally with 17 and 7 for 45 days at a dose of 50 mg/kg twice a day showed a good reduction of serum glucose levels with respect to the untreated db/db mice (p < 0.01). In addition, 17 showed antiketotic activity in normal fasted rats. 17 has been selected for development as a potential antiketotic and antidiabetic drug. PMID:12519067

  10. Glycated hemoglobin and antidiabetic strategies as risk factors for hepatocellular carcinoma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Valter; Donadon; Massimiliano; Balbi; Francesca; Valent; Angelo; Avogaro

    2010-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate the relationship between glycemic control [assessed by glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c)], antidiabetic therapies and the risk of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC).METHODS: We recruited 465 patients with HCC, 618 cases with liver cirrhosis and 490 controls with no liver disease. Among subjects with type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM2), the associations between the antidiabetic strategies and HbA1c level with HCC were determined through 2 series of multivariate logistic regression models using cirrhotic pa...

  11. ANTIDIABETIC ACTIVITY OF CICHORIUM INTYBUS L. SEEDS ON STZ-INDUCED DIABETIC RATS

    OpenAIRE

    Raad A Kaskoos

    2012-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus is a chronic disorder of metabolism caused by an absolute or relative lack of insulin. WHO recommends evaluation of the antidiabetic potential of more and more plants to find a tenable cure for the disease. The folkloric claim that Cichorium intybus seeds are very effective in diabetes and its manifestations prompted us to evaluate its antidiabetic potential. C. intybus L. (Asteraceae), popularly known as Kasini, was first introduced by Prophet Mohammed 1400 years ago. The p...

  12. Beliefs related to adherence to oral antidiabetic treatment according to the Theory of Planned Behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Fernanda Freire Jannuzzi; Roberta Cunha Matheus Rodrigues; Marilia Estevam Cornélio; Thaís Moreira São-João; Maria Cecília Bueno Jayme Gallani

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: to identify salient behavioral, normative, control and self-efficacy beliefs related to the behavior of adherence to oral antidiabetic agents, using the Theory of Planned Behavior. METHOD: cross-sectional, exploratory study with 17 diabetic patients in chronic use of oral antidiabetic medication and in outpatient follow-up. Individual interviews were recorded, transcribed and content-analyzed using pre-established categories. RESULTS: behavioral beliefs concerning advantages and di...

  13. Retrospective Analysis of Long-Term Adherence to and Persistence with DPP-4 Inhibitors in US Adults with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus

    OpenAIRE

    Farr, Amanda M; Sheehan, John J.; Curkendall, Suellen M; Smith, David M.; Johnston, Stephen S.; Kalsekar, Iftekhar

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) must remain adherent and persistent on antidiabetic medications to optimize clinical benefits. This analysis compared adherence and persistence among adults initiating dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitors (DPP-4is), sulfonylureas (SUs), and thiazolidinediones (TZDs) and between patients initiating saxagliptin or sitagliptin, two DPP-4is. Methods This retrospective cohort study utilized the US MarketScan® (Truven Health Analytics, Ann Arb...

  14. Real-world outcomes of US employees with type 2 diabetes mellitus treated with insulin glargine or neutral protamine Hagedorn insulin: a comparative retrospective database study

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Li; Wei, Wenhui; Miao, Raymond; Xie, Lin; Baser, Onur

    2013-01-01

    Objectives To compare real-world outcomes of initiating insulin glargine (GLA) versus neutral protamine Hagedorn (NPH) insulin among employees with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) who had both employer-sponsored health insurance and short-tem-disability coverages. Design Retrospective cohort study. Setting MarketScan Commercial Claims and Encounters/Health and Productivity Management Databases 2003–2009. Participants Adult employees with T2DM who were previously treated with oral antidiabetic...

  15. PIXE analysis of some Nigerian anti-diabetic medicinal plants (II)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diabetes mellitus, a metabolic disease characterized by high blood glucose levels (hyperglycemia) due to defects in insulin secretion, or action, or both, is a debilitating disease leading to other complications and death of many people in the world. Some of the medicinal plants implicated in the herbal recipes for the treatment of diabetes in Nigeria have been reported. Additional medicinal plants used for the treatment of diabetes in Nigeria are presented in this work. These medicinal plants are becoming increasingly important and relevant as herbal drugs due to their use as antioxidants, nutraceuticals, food additives and supplements in combating diabetes. Elemental compositions of these anti-diabetic medicinal plants were determined using PIXE technique. The 1.8 MV collimated proton beam from the 2.5 MV AN 2000 Van de Graaff accelerator at Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare (INFN), Laboratori Nazionali di Legnaro (LNL) Legnaro (Padova) Italy was employed for the work. The results show the detection of twenty-one elements which include Mg, P, Ca, K, Mn, Cu, Zn, S, Cr, Co, Ni and V that are implicated in the regulation of insulin and the control of the blood-sugar levels in the human body. The entire plant of Boerhavia diffusa, Securidaca longipedunculata stem, leaves of Peperomia pellucida, Macrosphyra longistyla, Olax subscorpioidea, Phyllanthus muerillanus, Jatropha gossypifolia, Cassia occidentalis, Phyllanthus amarus, and leaf and stem of Murraya koenigii, which have high concentrations of these elements could be recommended as vegetables, nutraceuticals, food additives, supplements and drugs in the control and management of diabetes, if toxicity profiles indicate that they are safe. However, significantly high contents of Al and Si in the entire plant of Bryophyllum pinnatum, and As, Cr, and Cu in Ocimum gratissimum leaf suggest that these plants should be avoided by diabetic patients to prevent complications

  16. PIXE analysis of some Nigerian anti-diabetic medicinal plants (II)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olabanji, S. O.; Adebajo, A. C.; Omobuwajo, O. R.; Ceccato, D.; Buoso, M. C.; Moschini, G.

    2014-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus, a metabolic disease characterized by high blood glucose levels (hyperglycemia) due to defects in insulin secretion, or action, or both, is a debilitating disease leading to other complications and death of many people in the world. Some of the medicinal plants implicated in the herbal recipes for the treatment of diabetes in Nigeria have been reported. Additional medicinal plants used for the treatment of diabetes in Nigeria are presented in this work. These medicinal plants are becoming increasingly important and relevant as herbal drugs due to their use as antioxidants, nutraceuticals, food additives and supplements in combating diabetes. Elemental compositions of these anti-diabetic medicinal plants were determined using PIXE technique. The 1.8 MV collimated proton beam from the 2.5 MV AN 2000 Van de Graaff accelerator at Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare (INFN), Laboratori Nazionali di Legnaro (LNL) Legnaro (Padova) Italy was employed for the work. The results show the detection of twenty-one elements which include Mg, P, Ca, K, Mn, Cu, Zn, S, Cr, Co, Ni and V that are implicated in the regulation of insulin and the control of the blood-sugar levels in the human body. The entire plant of Boerhavia diffusa, Securidaca longipedunculata stem, leaves of Peperomia pellucida, Macrosphyra longistyla, Olax subscorpioidea, Phyllanthus muerillanus, Jatropha gossypifolia, Cassia occidentalis, Phyllanthus amarus, and leaf and stem of Murraya koenigii, which have high concentrations of these elements could be recommended as vegetables, nutraceuticals, food additives, supplements and drugs in the control and management of diabetes, if toxicity profiles indicate that they are safe. However, significantly high contents of Al and Si in the entire plant of Bryophyllum pinnatum, and As, Cr, and Cu in Ocimum gratissimum leaf suggest that these plants should be avoided by diabetic patients to prevent complications.

  17. MEAD retrospective analysis report

    OpenAIRE

    Hasager, Charlotte Bay; CARSTENSEN J.; Frohn, L. M.; Gustafson, B.; Brandt, J.; Conley, D.; Geernaert, G.; Henriksen, P.; C. A. Skjøth; Johnsson, M.

    2003-01-01

    The retrospective analysis investigates links between atmospheric nitrogen deposition and algal bloom development in the Kattegat Sea from April to September 1989-1999. The analysis is based on atmospheric deposition model results from the ACDEP model,hydrodynamic deep-water flux results, phytoplankton abundance observations from Danish and Swedish marine monitoring stations and optical satellite data. Approximately 70 % of the atmospheric deposition consists of wet depostion of highly episod...

  18. Evaluation of the Antidiabetic and Antibacterial Activity of Cissus sicyoides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flavio Luis Beltrame

    2002-03-01

    Full Text Available In this work we investigated the antidiabetic and antibacterial effect of Cissus sicyoides (CS from Brazil. Diabetic rats that received water (A group or extracts from the aerial parts of the plant (Cs group during four weeks were employed. After this period, serum levels of glucose, cholesterol and triglycerides were measured. Glycemia was not affected by treatment with CS. However, there was an increased cholesterol and triglyceride level in Cs group. In addition, bioassay-guided fractionation of methanolic extract from aerial parts of CS was performed for isolation of antibacterial compounds.beta-Sitosterol and sitosterol-beta-D-glucopyranoside isolated showed antibacterial activity against Bacillus subtilis with minimal inhibitory concentrations (MICs of 50 mug/ml and 100 mug/ml, respectively. In spite of popular belief, CS did not show antidiabetic activity. However, two compounds isolated from aerial parts of the plant (beta-sitosterol and sitosterol-beta-D-glucopyranoside showed antibacterial activity.No presente trabalho foram investigados os efeitos antibacteriano e antidiabético da planta Cissus sicyoides (CS coletada no Brasil. Ratos diabéticos receberam água (grupo A ou extratos da parte aérea da planta (grupo CS durante 4 semanas. Após este período, os níveis séricos de glicose, colesterol e triglicerídeos dos ratos foram determinados. A glicemia não foi afetada pelo tratamento com CS. Entretanto, houve aumento nos níveis de colesterol e triglicerídeos nos ratos do grupo CS. Em adição, fracionamento bio-monitorado foi realizado para o isolamento de compostos com atividade antibacteriana. beta-Sitosterol e sitosterol-beta-D-glucopiranosídeo isolados mostram atividade antibacteriana contra Bacillus subtilis com concentrações mínimas inibitórias (MICs de 50 mig/ml e 100 mig/ml, respectivamente. Apesar da crença popular, CS não mostrou atividade antidiabética. Entretanto, dois compostos isolados da parte aérea da

  19. Glucose Supply and Insulin Demand Dynamics of Antidiabetic Agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monte, Scott V.; Schentag, Jerome J.; Adelman, Martin H.; Paladino, Joseph A.

    2010-01-01

    Background For microvascular outcomes, there is compelling historical and contemporary evidence for intensive blood glucose reduction in patients with either type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) or type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). There is also strong evidence to support macrovascular benefit with intensive blood glucose reduction in T1DM. Similar evidence remains elusive for T2DM. Because cardiovascular outcome trials utilizing conventional algorithms to attain intensive blood glucose reduction have not demonstrated superiority to less aggressive blood glucose reduction (Action to Control Cardiovascular Risk in Diabetes; Action in Diabetes and Vascular Disease: Preterax and Diamicron Modified Release Controlled Evaluation; and Veterans Affairs Diabetes Trial), it should be considered that the means by which the blood glucose is reduced may be as important as the actual blood glucose. Methods By identifying quantitative differences between antidiabetic agents on carbohydrate exposure (CE), hepatic glucose uptake (HGU), hepatic gluconeogenesis (GNG), insulin resistance (IR), peripheral glucose uptake (PGU), and peripheral insulin exposure (PIE), we created a pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic model to characterize the effect of the agents on the glucose supply and insulin demand dynamic. Glucose supply was defined as the cumulative percentage decrease in CE, increase in HGU, decrease in GNG, and decrease in IR, while insulin demand was defined as the cumulative percentage increase in PIE and PGU. With the glucose supply and insulin demand effects of each antidiabetic agent summated, the glucose supply (numerator) was divided by the insulin demand (denominator) to create a value representative of the glucose supply and insulin demand dynamic (SD ratio). Results Alpha-glucosidase inhibitors (1.25), metformin (2.20), and thiazolidinediones (TZDs; 1.25–1.32) demonstrate a greater effect on glucose supply (SD ratio >1), while secretagogues (0.69–0.81), basal insulins (0.77

  20. Development of In Vitro 3D TissueFlex® Islet Model for Diabetic Drug Efficacy Testing

    OpenAIRE

    Zhaohui Li; He Sun; Jianbin Zhang; Haijiao Zhang; Fanyu Meng; Zhanfeng Cui

    2013-01-01

    Increasing individuals diagnosed with type II diabetes pose a strong demand for the development of more effective anti-diabetic drugs. However, expensive, ethically controversial animal-based screening for anti-diabetic compounds is not always predictive of the human response. The use of in vitro cell-based models in research presents obviously ethical and cost advantages over in vivo models. This study was to develop an in vitro three-dimensional (3D) perfused culture model of islets (Islet ...

  1. Drug-drug interactions between rosuvastatin and oral antidiabetic drugs occurring at the level of oatp1b1s

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steeg, E. van de; Greupink, R.; Schreurs, M.; Nooijen, I.H.G.; Verhoeck, K.C.M.; Hanemaaijer, R.; Ripken, D.; Monshouwer, M.; Vlaming, M.L.H.; DeGroot, J.; Verwei, M.; Russel, F.G.M.; Huisman, M.T.; Wortelboer, H.M.

    2013-01-01

    Organic anion-transporting polypeptide 1B1 (OATP1B1) is an important hepatic uptake transporter, of which the polymorphic variant OATP1B1*15 (Asn130Asp and Val174Ala) has been associated with decreased transport activity. Rosuvastatin is an OATP1B1 substrate and often concomitantly prescribed with o

  2. Evaluation of antidiabetic and antioxidant properties of Brucea javanica seed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ablat, Abdulwali; Mohamad, Jamaludin; Awang, Khalijah; Shilpi, Jamil A; Arya, Aditya

    2014-01-01

    The ethanol extract of B. javanica seed was fractionated with solvents of different polarities and tested for antioxidant activities by several assays including DPPH radical scavenging activity, ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP), ferrous ion chelating activity (FCA), and nitric oxide radical scavenging activity (NORSA) along with their polyphenolic contents. Antidiabetic activity was evaluated both in vitro and in vivo using a glycogen phosphorylase α (GPα) inhibition assay and oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) in nondiabetic rats. The ethyl acetate fraction (EAF), rich in tannin, exhibited the strongest antioxidant activities to DPPH, FRAP, and NORSA, except for FCA. The EAF also exerted a dose-depended inhibition of GPα (IC50 = 0.75 mg/ml). Further evaluation of hypoglycemic effect on OGGT indicated that rats treated with EAF (125 mg/kg bw) showed a 39.91% decrease (P EAF was applied to polyamide column chromatography, and the resulting tannin-free fraction was tested for both GPα inhibition and antioxidant (DPPH only) activity. The GP α inhibitory activity was retained, while antioxidant activity was lost (4.6-fold) after tannin removal. These results concluded that the GPα inhibitory activity initially detected was primarily due to the compounds other than tannins, whereas antioxidant activity was mainly due to the tannins.

  3. Antidiabetic Indian plants: a good source of potent amylase inhibitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhat, Menakshi; Zinjarde, Smita S; Bhargava, Shobha Y; Kumar, Ameeta Ravi; Joshi, Bimba N

    2011-01-01

    Diabetes is known as a multifactorial disease. The treatment of diabetes (Type II) is complicated due to the inherent patho-physiological factors related to this disease. One of the complications of diabetes is post-prandial hyperglycemia (PPHG). Glucosidase inhibitors, particularly α-amylase inhibitors are a class of compounds that helps in managing PPHG. Six ethno-botanically known plants having antidiabetic property namely, Azadirachta indica Adr. Juss.; Murraya koenigii (L.) Sprengel; Ocimum tenuflorum (L.) (syn: Sanctum); Syzygium cumini (L.) Skeels (syn: Eugenia jambolana); Linum usitatissimum (L.) and Bougainvillea spectabilis were tested for their ability to inhibit glucosidase activity. The chloroform, methanol and aqueous extracts were prepared sequentially from either leaves or seeds of these plants. It was observed that the chloroform extract of O. tenuflorum; B. spectabilis; M. koenigii and S. cumini have significant α-amylase inhibitory property. Plants extracts were further tested against murine pancreatic, liver and small intestinal crude enzyme preparations for glucosidase inhibitory activity. The three extracts of O. tenuflorum and chloroform extract of M. koenigi showed good inhibition of murine pancreatic and intestinal glucosidases as compared with acarbose, a known glucosidase inhibitor. PMID:18955350

  4. Antidiabetic Indian Plants: A Good Source of Potent Amylase Inhibitors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Menakshi Bhat

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Diabetes is known as a multifactorial disease. The treatment of diabetes (Type II is complicated due to the inherent patho-physiological factors related to this disease. One of the complications of diabetes is post-prandial hyperglycemia (PPHG. Glucosidase inhibitors, particularly α-amylase inhibitors are a class of compounds that helps in managing PPHG. Six ethno-botanically known plants having antidiabetic property namely, Azadirachta indica Adr. Juss.; Murraya koenigii (L. Sprengel; Ocimum tenuflorum (L. (syn: Sanctum; Syzygium cumini (L. Skeels (syn: Eugenia jambolana; Linum usitatissimum (L. and Bougainvillea spectabilis were tested for their ability to inhibit glucosidase activity. The chloroform, methanol and aqueous extracts were prepared sequentially from either leaves or seeds of these plants. It was observed that the chloroform extract of O. tenuflorum; B. spectabilis; M. koenigii and S. cumini have significant α-amylase inhibitory property. Plants extracts were further tested against murine pancreatic, liver and small intestinal crude enzyme preparations for glucosidase inhibitory activity. The three extracts of O. tenuflorum and chloroform extract of M. koenigi showed good inhibition of murine pancreatic and intestinal glucosidases as compared with acarbose, a known glucosidase inhibitor.

  5. Prevalence, Trends, and Patterns of Use of Antidiabetic Medications Among Pregnant Women, 2001–2007

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawrence, Jean M.; Andrade, Susan E.; Avalos, Lyndsay A.; Beaton, Sarah J.; Chiu, Vicki Y.; Davis, Robert L.; Dublin, Sascha; Pawloski, Pamala A.; Raebel, Marsha A.; Smith, David H.; Toh, Sengwee; Wang, Jean Q.; Kaplan, Sigal; Amini, Thushi; Hampp, Christian; Hammad, Tarek A.; Scott, Pamela E.; Cheetham, T. Craig

    2013-01-01

    Objective To describe the prevalence, trends, and patterns in use of antidiabetic medications to treat hyperglycemia and insulin resistance prior to and during pregnancy in a large U.S. cohort of insured pregnant women. Methods Pregnancies resulting in livebirths were identified (N=437,950) from 2001–2007 among 372,543 women 12–50 years of age at delivery from 10 health maintenance organizations participating in the Medication Exposure in Pregnancy Risk Evaluation Program. Information for these descriptive analyses, including all antidiabetic medications dispensed during this period, was extracted from electronic health records and infant birth certificates. Results Just over one percent (1.21%) of deliveries were to women dispensed antidiabetic medication(s) in the 120 days before pregnancy. Use of antidiabetic medications before pregnancy increased from 0.66% of deliveries in 2001 to 1.66% of deliveries in 2007 (p<0.001) due to a rise in metformin use. Most women using metformin before pregnancy had a diagnosis code for polycystic ovaries or female infertility (67.2%) while only 13.6% had a diagnosis code for diabetes. The use of antidiabetic medications during the second or third trimester of pregnancy increased from 2.8% of deliveries in 2001 to 3.6% in 2007 (p <0.001). Approximately two-thirds (68%) of women using metformin before pregnancy did not use any antidiabetic medications during pregnancy. Conclusions Antidiabetic medication use prior to and during pregnancy rose from 2001–2007, possibly due to increasing prevalence of gestational diabetes mellitus, type 1 and type 2 diabetes, and other conditions associated with insulin resistance. PMID:23262934

  6. Development of an antidiabetic formulation (ADJ6) and its inhibitory activity against α-amylase and α-glucosidase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duraiswamy, Anand; Shanmugasundaram, Devanand; Sasikumar, Changam Sheela; Cherian, Sanjay M; Cherian, Kotturathu Mammen

    2016-07-01

    There has recently been much advancement in the diagnosis, treatment, and research of metabolic disorders, especially diabetes. Current research around the world is focused on finding an alternative source of treatment from natural resources for diabetic management, apart from the available synthetic medicines. The present study is a preliminary study of a polyherbal formulation using edible natural resources and an assessment of its antidiabetic activity. The formulation was screened for its phytochemical constituents, total phenols, flavonoids, and vitamin C content. It was also analyzed for its inhibitory effect against the digestive enzymes α-amylase and α-glucosidase, compared with the standard drug acarbose. The formulation showed the presence of major constituents such as steroids, cardiac glycosides, phenols, flavonoids, and saponins. It also had a high level of phenols (340 ± 2.5 mg/g), flavonoids (235.4 ± 8.3 mg/g), and vitamin C (470.8 ± 16.6 mg/g), and showed a half-maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50) value of 0.41 ± 0.03 mg/mL and 0.51 ± 0.01 mg/mL for amylase and glucosidase, respectively. The results showed that ADJ6 had a significant inhibitory activity on α-amylase and α-glucosidase; however, its inhibitory activity was less than that of acarbose. The plants that are formulated in ADJ6 possess potent antidiabetic activity. Thus, we found that ADJ6 is a potent lead for effective diabetic management; however, an evaluation of the formulation must be illustrated using an in vivo model. PMID:27419082

  7. Evaluation of the antidiabetic and antioxidant properties of Morinda lucida stem bark extract in streptozotocin intoxicated rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domekouo, Ulrich L F; Longo, Frida; Tarkang, Protus A; Tchinda, Alembert T; Tsabang, Nole; Donfagsiteli, Nehemie T; Tamze, Victorine; Kamtchouing, Pierre; Agbor, Gabriel A

    2016-05-01

    The present research evaluated the antidiabetic and antioxidant properties of M. lucida stem bark (50 and 500mg/kg) and glibenclamide (25mg/kg, standard drug) in acute (Oral glucose tolerance test) and sub-acute (Streptozotocin 60mg/kg, i.p. diabetic model) administration. A group of healthy rats constituted the normal control. The sub-acute experiment lasted 28 days during which water, food intake and weight gain were measured and biochemical parameters analyzed in both plasma and erythrocytes at the end of the experiment. The chemical substances present in M. lucida bark extract were determined. In the Oral glucose tolerance test, the reduction of blood glucose level was statistically significant for both M. lucida extracts and glibenclamide. However, in the diabetic rats acute administration of 500mg/kg extract had better blood sugar lowering effect than glibenclamide, which was better than 50mg/kg extract. Streptozotocin diabetic animal model was characterized by a decrease in weight gain, erythrocyte SOD and CAT activities and an increase in water and food consumption, lipid peroxidation, cholesterol, triglycerides, plasma glucose, creatinine and urea concentrations, and transaminases activities. M. lucida extract and glibenclamide significantly prevented the alteration of these parameters, thus indicating a corrective effect on diabetes and its complications. This study justifies the traditional claim and provides a rationale for the use of M. lucida to treat diabetes. Its antioxidant properties may serve to curb oxidative stress and hence prevent the diabetic complications related to oxidative stress. Chemical substances, which may be accountable for the antidiabetic and antioxidant properties of M. lucida were detected in the aqueous extract of M. lucida bark. PMID:27166555

  8. In Vitro Antioxidant, Anti-Diabetes, Anti-Dementia, and Inflammation Inhibitory Effect of Trametes pubescens Fruiting Body Extracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyung Hoan Im

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Trametes pubescens, white rot fungus, has been used for folk medicine in Asian countries to treat ailments such as cancer and gastrointestinal diseases. This study was initiated to evaluate the in vitro antioxidant, anti-diabetes, anti-dementia, and anti-inflammatory activities of T. pubescens fruiting bodies. The 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl-hydrazyl (DPPH free radical scavenging activities of T. pubescens methanol (ME and hot water (HWE extracts (2.0 mg/mL were comparable to butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT, the positive control. However, the chelating effects of ME and HWE were significantly higher than that of BHT. The HWE (6 mg/mL also showed comparable reducing power to BHT. Eleven phenol compounds were detected by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC analysis. The α-amylase and α-glucosidase inhibitory activities of the ME and HWE of the mushroom were lower than Acarbose, the standard reference; however, the inhibitory effects of the mushroom extracts at 2.0 mg/mL were moderate. The acetylcholinesterase (AChE and butyrylcholinesterase (BChE inhibitory effects of ME and HWE were moderate and comparable with galanthamine, the standard drug to treat early stages of Alzheimer’s disease (AD. The ME had a neuroprotective effect against glutamate-induced PC-12 cell cytotoxicity at the concentration range of 2–40 μg/mL. The mushroom extracts also showed inflammation inhibitory activities such as production of nitric oxide (NO and expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS in lipopolysaccharide (LPS-induced murine macrophage-like cell lines (RAW 264.7 and significantly suppressed the carrageenan-induced rat paw-edema. Therefore, fruiting body extracts of T. pubescens demonstrated antioxidant related anti-diabetes, anti-dementia and anti-inflammatory activities.

  9. In Vitro Antioxidant, Anti-Diabetes, Anti-Dementia, and Inflammation Inhibitory Effect of Trametes pubescens Fruiting Body Extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Im, Kyung Hoan; Nguyen, Trung Kien; Choi, Jaehyuk; Lee, Tae Soo

    2016-01-01

    Trametes pubescens, white rot fungus, has been used for folk medicine in Asian countries to treat ailments such as cancer and gastrointestinal diseases. This study was initiated to evaluate the in vitro antioxidant, anti-diabetes, anti-dementia, and anti-inflammatory activities of T. pubescens fruiting bodies. The 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl-hydrazyl (DPPH) free radical scavenging activities of T. pubescens methanol (ME) and hot water (HWE) extracts (2.0 mg/mL) were comparable to butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT), the positive control. However, the chelating effects of ME and HWE were significantly higher than that of BHT. The HWE (6 mg/mL) also showed comparable reducing power to BHT. Eleven phenol compounds were detected by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) analysis. The α-amylase and α-glucosidase inhibitory activities of the ME and HWE of the mushroom were lower than Acarbose, the standard reference; however, the inhibitory effects of the mushroom extracts at 2.0 mg/mL were moderate. The acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and butyrylcholinesterase (BChE) inhibitory effects of ME and HWE were moderate and comparable with galanthamine, the standard drug to treat early stages of Alzheimer's disease (AD). The ME had a neuroprotective effect against glutamate-induced PC-12 cell cytotoxicity at the concentration range of 2-40 μg/mL. The mushroom extracts also showed inflammation inhibitory activities such as production of nitric oxide (NO) and expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced murine macrophage-like cell lines (RAW 264.7) and significantly suppressed the carrageenan-induced rat paw-edema. Therefore, fruiting body extracts of T. pubescens demonstrated antioxidant related anti-diabetes, anti-dementia and anti-inflammatory activities. PMID:27196881

  10. A cardiologic approach to non-insulin antidiabetic pharmacotherapy in patients with heart disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fisman Enrique Z

    2009-07-01

    . Summarizing the present information it can be stated that 1. Four out the five classical oral antidiabetic drug groups present proven or potential cardiac hazards; 2. These hazards are not mere 'side effects', but biochemical phenomena which are deeply rooted in the drugs' mechanism of action; 3. Current data indicate that the combined glibenclamide/metformin therapy seems to present special risk and should be avoided in the long-term management of T2DM with proven CAD; 4. Glitazones should be avoided in patients with overt heart failure; 5, The novel incretin mimetic drugs and DPP-4 inhibitors – while usually inadequate as monotherapy – appear to be satisfactory adjuvant drugs due to the lack of known undesirable cardiovascular effects; 6. Customized antihyperglycemic pharmacological approaches should be implemented for the achievement of optimal treatment of T2DM patients with heart disease. In this context, it should be carefully taken into consideration whether the leading clinical status is CAD or heart failure.

  11. Hipparcos: a Retrospective

    CERN Document Server

    Perryman, Michael

    2011-01-01

    The Hipparcos satellite was launched in 1989. It was the first, and remains to date the only, attempt at performing large-scale astrometric measurements from space. Hipparcos marked a fundamentally new approach to the field of astrometry, revolutionising our knowledge of the positions, distances, and space motions of the stars in the solar neighbourhood. In this retrospective, I look back at the processes which led to the mission's acceptance, provide a short summary of the underlying measurement principles and the experiment's scientific achievements, and a conclude with a brief summary of its principal legacy - the Gaia mission.

  12. Adverse Drug Reaction reports for cardiometabolic drugs from sub-Saharan Africa : a study in VigiBase

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berhe, Derbew Fikadu; Juhlin, Kristina; Star, Kristina; Beyene, Kidanemariam G. M.; Dheda, Mukesh; Haaijer-Ruskamp, Flora M.; Taxis, Katja; Mol, Peter G. M.

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Identifying key features of cardiometabolic ADR reports in sub Saharan Africa (SSA) compared with reports from the rest of the world (RoW). METHODS: Reports on suspected ADRs of cardiometabolic drugs (ATC: A10[antidiabetic], B01[antithrombotics] and C[cardiovascular]) were extracted from

  13. Patients’ beliefs about adherence to oral antidiabetic treatment: a qualitative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guénette L

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Line Guénette,1–3 Sophie Lauzier,1–3 Laurence Guillaumie,2–4 Gabriel Giguère,1 Jean-Pierre Grégoire,1–3 Jocelyne Moisan1–3 1Faculty of Pharmacy, Laval University, Quebec City, QC, Canada; 2Chair on Adherence to Treatments, Laval University, Quebec City, QC, Canada; 3CHU de Québec Research Center, Population Health and Optimal Practices Research Unit, Quebec City, QC, Canada; 4Faculty of Nursing, Laval University, Quebec City, QC, Canada Purpose: The purpose of this study was to elicit patients’ beliefs about taking their oral antidiabetic drugs (OADs as prescribed to inform the development of sound adherence-enhancing interventions.Methods: A qualitative study was performed. Adults with type 2 diabetes who had been taking an OAD for >3 months were solicited to participate in one of six focus groups. Discussions were facilitated using a structured guide designed to gather beliefs related to important constructs of the theory of planned behavior. Four coders using this theory as the theoretical framework analyzed the videotaped discussions.Results: Forty-five adults participated. The most frequently mentioned advantages for OAD-taking as prescribed were to avoid long-term complications and to control glycemia. Family members were perceived as positively influential. Carrying the OAD at all times, having the OAD in sight, and having a routine were important facilitating factors. Being away from home, not accepting the disease, and not having confidence in the physician’s prescription were major barriers to OAD-taking.Conclusion: This study elicited several beliefs regarding OAD-taking behavior. Awareness of these beliefs may help clinicians adjust their interventions in view of their patients’ beliefs. Moreover, this knowledge is crucial to the planning, development, and evaluation of interventions that aim to improve medication adherence. Keywords: type 2 diabetes, medication adherence, theory of planned behavior, focus groups

  14. Stevia rebaudiana loaded titanium oxide nanomaterials as an antidiabetic agent in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ariadna Langle

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Stevia rebaudiana (Bertoni Bertoni, Asteraceae, is a plant with hypoglycemic and antihyperlipidemic properties. S. rebaudiana (SrB has become a lead candidate for the treatment of the diabetes mellitus. However, chronic administrations of S. rebaudiana are required to cause the normoglycemic effect. Importantly, nanomaterials in general and titanium dioxide (TiO2 in particular have become effective tools for drug delivery. In this work, we obtained TiO2 nanomaterials with SrB at different concentrations (10, 20 and 30 µM by sol–gel method. After this nanomaterials were characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and transmission electron microscopy. Where it was demonstrated, the presence of the S. rebaudiana in TiO2 nanomaterials, which were observed as hemispherical agglomerated particles of different sizes. The nanomaterials were evaluated in male rats whose diabetes mellitus-phenotype was induced by alloxan (200 mg/kg, i.p.. The co-administration of TiO2-SrB (20 and 30 µM induced a significant and permanent decrease in the glucose concentration since 4 h, until 30 days post-administration. Likewise, the concentrations of insulin, glycosylated hemoglobin, cholesterol, and triacylglycerides showed a significant recovery to basal levels. The major finding of the study was that the TiO2-SrB (20 and 30 µM has a potent and prolonged activity antidiabetic. TiO2 can be considered like an appropriated vehicle in the continuous freeing of active substances to treat of diabetes mellitus.

  15. Hepatoprotective and antidiabetic effects of Pistacia lentiscus leaf and fruit extracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chafiaâ Mehenni

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Pistacia lentiscus (Anacardiaceae is commonly used in folk medicine to treat various diseases. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the hepatoprotective and antioxidant activities of extracts of P. lentiscus leaves (PL and fruits (PF against experimentally induced liver damage. Furthermore, characterization of extracts was attempted by a spectroscopic methodology (Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and high-performance liquid chromatography with diode array detection analysis. A hepatoprotective potential against paracetamol [165 mg/kg body weight (b.w.] toxicity was noticed in mice pretreated with the same dose of PL or PF extract (125 mg/kg b.w. or a combination of both (PL/PF 63/63 mg/kg b.w., as revealed by an analysis of biochemical parameters (alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, and alkaline phosphatase activities and total bilirubin. These results were confirmed by histological examination of the liver, which revealed significant protection against paracetamol-induced hepatic necrosis. Furthermore, PF extract exhibited a promising antidiabetic activity in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats, similar to the reference drug glibenclamide (0.91 g/L, a result confirmed by in vitro inhibition of α-amylase. We demonstrated that the leaf crude extract showed the best effect in all tested methods, compared to its fruit counterpart, probably due to the presence of higher amounts of phenolic compounds, as determined by phytochemical and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy analyses. Moreover, high-performance liquid chromatography with diode array detection led to the identification of six compounds for each part of the plant. Gallic acid, a characteristic compound of Pistacia species, was most abundant in leaves and fruits, while luteolin was detected for the first time in fruits. Obtained activities of P. lentiscus extracts may well be due, at least in part, to the presence of the above compounds.

  16. Evaluation of antidiabetic activity of plants used in Western Sudan

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Maha; Abdulrahman; Alamin; Ahmed; Ibrahim; Yagi; Sakina; Mohamed; Yagi

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the traditional antidiabetic uses of some indigenous Sudanese plants on streptozotocin-induced diabetes rats. Methods: Diabetic rats were treated with a 400 mg/kg dose of aqueous extracts of five plant species orally for 2 h(acute) or 14 days(chronic). In acute model blood glucose levels were monitored at specific intervals. In the chronic model blood samples were collected from overnight fasted diabetic rats on day 15 to estimate blood glucose level. And the body weight, serum lipid profile and activities of liver and kidney enzymes were measured. Histopathological observations of liver sections were also studied.Results: In the case of acute treatment, aqueous extracts of Tinospora bakis(T. bakis), Nauclea latifolia(N. latifolia) and Randia nilotica(R. nilotica) at 400 mg/kg significantly lowered(P < 0.05) blood glucose levels in diabetic rats whereas, chronic treatment of diabetic rats with 400 mg/kg of T. bakis, N. latifolia, R. nilotica and Mitragyna inremis proved to have significant(P < 0.05) antihyperglycemic effect and have the capacity to correct the metabolic disturbances associated with diabetes. Histopathological studies showed that the aqueous extracts of these four plants reinforced the healing of liver. However, Striga hermonthica aqueous extract did not exert any antihyperglycemic effect to diabetic rats. Conclusions: This study demonstrated that T. bakis, N. latifolia, R. nilotica and Mitragyna inremis have therapeutic value in diabetes and related complications and thus supporting the traditional uses of these plants in Sudanese traditional medicine.

  17. Rodent carcinogenicity with the thiazolidinedione antidiabetic agent troglitazone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herman, J R; Dethloff, L A; McGuire, E J; Parker, R F; Walsh, K M; Gough, A W; Masuda, H; de la Iglesia, F A

    2002-07-01

    Carcinogenic potential of the thiazolidinedione antidiabetic troglitazone was assessed in 104-week studies in mice and rats. Mice were given 50, 400, or 800 mg/kg, male rats 100, 400, or 800 mg/kg, and female rats 25, 50, or 200 mg/kg. Vehicle and placebo controls were included. Survival was significantly decreased in both sexes of both species at high doses, but was adequate for valid evaluation of carcinogenicity. Hypertrophy and hyperplasia of brown adipose tissue was observed in both species at all doses, and fatty change and hypocellularity of bone marrow was noted in mice at all doses and in female rats at 50 and 200 mg/kg. Hepatocellular vacuolation was observed in mice at 400 and 800 mg/kg, and centrilobular hepatocellular hypertrophy occurred in rats at > or = 200 mg/kg. Ventricular dilatation, myocardial fibrosis, and atrial myocyte karyomegaly in male rats at 400 and 800 mg/kg and female rats at all doses were morphologically similar to spontaneous lesions, but incidence and severity were increased compared with controls. In mice, the incidence of hemangiosarcoma was increased in females at 400 mg/kg and in both sexes at 800 mg/kg. The incidence of hepatocellular carcinoma was increased in female mice at 800 mg/kg. Troglitazone exposure [AUC((0-24))] at the lowest dose associated with increased tumor incidence in mice was 16 times human therapeutic exposure at 400 mg daily. No tumors of any type were increased in rats at exposures up to 47 times therapeutic exposure.

  18. Evaluation of Antidiabetic and Antioxidant Properties of Brucea javanica Seed

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    Abdulwali Ablat

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The ethanol extract of B. javanica seed was fractionated with solvents of different polarities and tested for antioxidant activities by several assays including DPPH radical scavenging activity, ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP, ferrous ion chelating activity (FCA, and nitric oxide radical scavenging activity (NORSA along with their polyphenolic contents. Antidiabetic activity was evaluated both in vitro and in vivo using a glycogen phosphorylase α (GPα inhibition assay and oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT in nondiabetic rats. The ethyl acetate fraction (EAF, rich in tannin, exhibited the strongest antioxidant activities to DPPH, FRAP, and NORSA, except for FCA. The EAF also exerted a dose-depended inhibition of GPα (IC50 = 0.75 mg/ml. Further evaluation of hypoglycemic effect on OGGT indicated that rats treated with EAF (125 mg/kg bw showed a 39.91% decrease (P < 0.05 in blood glucose levels at 30 min, and continuous fall (P < 0.05 of 28.89% and 20.29% was observed in the following hours (60 and 90 min compared to the normal control during OGTT. The EAF was applied to polyamide column chromatography, and the resulting tannin-free fraction was tested for both GPα inhibition and antioxidant (DPPH only activity. The GPα inhibitory activity was retained, while antioxidant activity was lost (4.6-fold after tannin removal. These results concluded that the GPα inhibitory activity initially detected was primarily due to the compounds other than tannins, whereas antioxidant activity was mainly due to the tannins.

  19. Understanding drug preferences, different perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mol, Peter G M; Arnardottir, Arna H; Straus, Sabine M J; de Graeff, Pieter A; Haaijer-Ruskamp, Flora M; Quik, Elise H; Krabbe, Paul F M; Denig, Petra

    2015-01-01

    Aims To compare the values regulators attach to different drug effects of oral antidiabetic drugs with those of doctors and patients. Methods We administered a ‘discrete choice’ survey to regulators, doctors and patients with type 2 diabetes in The Netherlands. Eighteen choice sets comparing two hypothetical oral antidiabetic drugs were constructed with varying drug effects on glycated haemoglobin, cardiovascular risk, bodyweight, duration of gastrointestinal complaints, frequency of hypoglycaemia and risk of bladder cancer. Responders were asked each time which drug they preferred. Results Fifty-two regulators, 175 doctors and 226 patients returned the survey. Multinomial conditional logit analyses showed that cardiovascular risk reduction was valued by regulators positively (odds ratio 1.98, 95% confidence interval 1.11–3.53), whereas drug choices were negatively affected by persistent gastrointestinal problems (odds ratio 0.24, 95% confidence interval 0.14–0.41) and cardiovascular risk increase (odds ratio 0.49, 95% confidence interval 0.27–0.87). Doctors and patients valued these effects in a similar manner to regulators. The values that doctors attached to large changes in glycated haemoglobin and that both doctors and patients attached to hypoglycaemia and weight gain also reached statistical significance. No group's drug choice was affected by a small absolute change in risk of bladder cancer when presented in the context of other drug effects. When comparing the groups, the value attached by regulators to less frequent hypoglycaemic episodes was significantly smaller than by patients (P = 0.044). Conclusions Regulators may value major benefits and risks of drugs for an individual diabetes patient mostly in the same way as doctors and patients, but differences may exist regarding the value of minor or short-term drug effects. PMID:25469876

  20. Anti-diabetic related health food properties of traditional rice (Oryza sativa L.) in Sri Lanka

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wanigasekara Daya Ratnasooriya; Muhammad Iqbal Choudhary; Kourosh Dalvandi

    2015-01-01

    Objective:To evaluate a range of anti-diabetic related properties and some consumer preferred physicochemical properties of selected Sri Lankan traditional rice varieties. Methods: Sudu Heeneti, Goda Heeneti, Masuran and Dik Wee varieties were used in this study. Anti-diabetic related properties of bran extracts of selected varieties were studied for methylglyoxal mediated protein glycation inhibition, acetyl and butyryl-cholinesterase inhibitionin vitro and anti-hyperglycemic activityin vivo. Further, selected varieties were studied for starch hydrolysis ratein vitro. Physicochemical properties including grain color, size, shape, crude protein, crude fat, ash, dietary fiber and total carbohydrate contents were studied. Results: Brans of selected varieties had significant (P Conclusions: It is concluded that selected varieties could be promoted as physicochemically sound rices with a range of anti-diabetic related properties in the management of diabetes and its complications.

  1. Assessment of the antidiabetic potential of Cassia grandis using an in vivo model

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    Sandesh R Lodha

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The aqueous and ethanolic extracts of C. grandis (Family: Leguminosae were evaluated for antidiabetic activity by a glucose tolerance test, in normal rats and alloxan-induced diabetic rats. The aqueous and ethanolic extracts showed that they significantly lowered the blood glucose levels to normal in the glucose tolerance test. In alloxan-induced diabetic rats the maximum reduction in blood glucose was observed after three hours, at a dose level of 150 mg/kg of body weight. The percentage of protection given by the aqueous and ethanolic extracts was 32.72 and 46.42%, respectively. In the long-term treatment of alloxan-induced diabetic rats, the degree of protection was determined by measuring the blood glucose, cholesterol, and triglycerides on the tenth day. Both the extracts showed a significant antidiabetic activity comparable to that of glibenclamide. These results showed that the Cassia grandis possessed significant antidiabetic activity.

  2. The retrospective gambler's fallacy

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    Daniel M. Oppenheimer

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available The gambler's fallacy (Tune, 1964 refers to the belief that a streak is more likely to end than chance would dictate. In three studies, participants exhibited a extit{retrospective gambler's fallacy} (RGF in which an event that seems rare appears to come from a longer sequence than an event that seems more common. Study 1 demonstrates this bias for streaks, while Study 2 does so with single rare events and shows that the appearance of rarity is more important than actual rarity. Study 3 extends these findings from abstract gambling domains into real world domains to demonstrate the generalizability of the effects. The RGF follows from the law of small numbers (Tversky and Kahneman, 1971 and has many applications, from perceptions of the social world to philosophical debates about the existence of multiple universes.

  3. Antidiabetic Action of Bezafibrate in a Large Observational Database

    OpenAIRE

    Flory, James H.; Ellenberg, Susan; Szapary, Philippe O.; Strom, Brian L; Hennessy, Sean

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE The purpose of this study was to test the hypothesis that bezafibrate, an approved fibrate, can prevent or delay type 2 diabetes. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS This was a retrospective cohort study using data from routine medical practice in the U.K., as captured by the General Practice Research Database (GPRD). Individuals chronically exposed to bezafibrate were compared with individuals chronically exposed to other fibrates. Hazard ratios (HRs) for incident type 2 diabetes were calc...

  4. Hyperbranched poly(esteramides) as solubility enhancers for poorly water-soluble drug glimepiride

    OpenAIRE

    Reven, Sebastjan; Grdadolnik, Jože; Žagar, Ema; Kristl, Julijana

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this work was to study the feasibility of using hyperbranched polymers with highly branched structure and a large number of functional groups as solubilization enhancers for poorly water-soluble drugs. Antidiabetic drug glimepiride was used as a model drug and commercially available hyperbranched poly(esteramide)s as drug carriers. The results of in vitro dissolution studies showed significantly enhanced aqueous-solubility of glimepiride in the form of solid dispersions with hyperb...

  5. Anti-diabetic effect of methanolic leaf extract of Pongamia pinnata on streptozotocin induced diabetic rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Selvaraju Kavipriya; Narayanaswamy Tamilselvan; Thirunavukkarasu Thirumalai; Gangaipillai Arumugam

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To study the anti-diabetic effect of methanolic leaf extract of Pongamia pinnata (P. pinnata) on streptozotocin induced diabetic rats.Methods:Anti-diabetic activity of P. pinnata leaf extract at dosage of 500 mg/kg and 1 g/kg body weight was evaluated.Results:The levels of glucose, triglycerides, total cholesterol and serum glutamic pyruvic transaminase were significantly increased in streptozotocin induced diabetic rats when compared to that of the normal rats. After supplemented with plant extract, significant lower blood glucose level was recorded.Conclusions:The methanolic leaf extract of P. pinnata has been potent anti-diabetic effect in male albino rats.

  6. Synthesis and biological activity of trans-tiliroside derivatives as potent anti-diabetic agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Yujin; Zhang, Yanjun; Liu, Yi; Chu, Hongwan; Duan, Hongquan

    2010-12-10

    A set of novel trans-tiliroside derivatives were synthesized. The structures of the derivatives were identified by their IR, 1H-NMR, and MS spectra analysis. Their anti-diabetic activities were evaluated on the insulin resistant (IR) HepG2 cell model. As a result, compounds 7a, 7c, 7h, and trans-tiliroside exhibited significant glucose consumption-enhancing effects in IR-HepG2 cells compared with the positive control (metformin). This research provides useful clues for further design and discovery of anti-diabetic agents.

  7. Synthesis and Biological Activity of trans-Tiliroside Derivatives as Potent Anti-Diabetic Agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi Liu

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available A set of novel trans-tiliroside derivatives were synthesized. The structures of the derivatives were identified by their IR, 1H-NMR, and MS spectra analysis. Their anti-diabetic activities were evaluated on the insulin resistant (IR HepG2 cell model. As a result, compounds 7a, 7c, 7h, and trans-tiliroside exhibited significant glucose consumption-enhancing effects in IR-HepG2 cells compared with the positive control (metformin. This research provides useful clues for further design and discovery of anti-diabetic agents.

  8. Compositional Studies: Antioxidant and Antidiabetic Activities of Capparis decidua (Forsk. Edgew

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    Muhammad Zia-Ul-Haq

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Capparis decidua is one of the traditional remedies used for various medicinal treatments in Pakistan. This study presents the determination of proximate composition, amino acids, fatty acids, tocopherols, sterols, glucosinolate and phenolic content in extracts obtained from different aerial parts of C. decidua, as well as their antidiabetic and antioxidant activity. All examined extracts were prominently rich in phenolics and glucosinates, and they showed potent antidiabetic and antihemolytic activity. The present study could be helpful in developing medicinal preparations for the treatment of diabetes and related symptoms.

  9. Antidiabetic Activity of Vinca rosea Extracts in Alloxan-Induced Diabetic Rats

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    Mohammed Fazil Ahmed

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study was carried out to evaluate the antidiabetic activity of Vinca rosea methanolic whole plant extracts in alloxan induced diabetic rats for 14 days. The methanolic whole plant extract at high dose (500 mg/kg exhibited significant anti-hyperglycemic activity than whole plant extract at low dose (300 mg/kg in diabetic rats. The methanolic extracts also showed improvement in parameters like body weight and lipid profile as well as regeneration of β-cells of pancreas in diabetic rats. Histopathological studies reinforce the healing of pancreas, by methanolic Vinca rosea extracts, as a possible mechanism of their antidiabetic activity.

  10. Antidiabetic Activity of Cocor Bebek Leaves (Kalanchoe pinnata Lam.Pers.) Ethanolic Extract from Various Areas

    OpenAIRE

    Indah Dwiatmi Dewiyanti; Euis Filailla; Megawati; Tri Yuliani

    2012-01-01

    Antidiabetic activity of Cocor Bebek leaves (Kalanchoe pinnata Lam.Pers.) ethanolic extract from Bogor city, kabupaten Bogor and south of Tangerang city has been studied. The study was conducted in vitro using α glucosidase inhibitor method. The results of the study showed that IC50 of the extract from Bogor city, kabupaten Bogor, and Tangerang Selatan city is 40.94 ppm, 33.58 ppm and 16.12 ppm respectively. Meanwhile, IC50 of quersetin which has antidiabetic activity is 10.22 ppm. The res...

  11. Antidiabetic activity of aqueous extract of Eucalyptus citriodorahook. in alloxan induced diabetic rats

    OpenAIRE

    Arjun Patra; Shivesh Jha; Sahu, Alakh N.

    2009-01-01

    The present study was undertaken to study the antidiabetic activity of the aqueous extract of Eucalyptus citriodora Hook. leaf in alloxan-induced diabetic rats. The activity of the extract was studied on glucose loaded and alloxan-induced diabetic rats. In both the tests, the extract has shown significant and considerable antidiabetic effect in a dose dependent manner. On oral administration of the extract at a dose of 500 mg/kg of body weight, the reduction of blood glucose level was 22.9% a...

  12. Chronic antidiabetic sulfonylureas in vivo: reversible effects on mouse pancreatic beta-cells.

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    Maria Sara Remedi

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Pancreatic beta-cell ATP-sensitive potassium (K ATP channels are critical links between nutrient metabolism and insulin secretion. In humans, reduced or absent beta-cell K ATP channel activity resulting from loss-of-function K ATP mutations induces insulin hypersecretion. Mice with reduced K ATP channel activity also demonstrate hyperinsulinism, but mice with complete loss of K ATP channels (K ATP knockout mice show an unexpected insulin undersecretory phenotype. Therefore we have proposed an "inverse U" hypothesis to explain the response to enhanced excitability, in which excessive hyperexcitability drives beta-cells to insulin secretory failure without cell death. Many patients with type 2 diabetes treated with antidiabetic sulfonylureas (which inhibit K ATP activity and thereby enhance insulin secretion show long-term insulin secretory failure, which we further suggest might reflect a similar progression. METHODS AND FINDINGS: To test the above hypotheses, and to mechanistically investigate the consequences of prolonged hyperexcitability in vivo, we used a novel approach of implanting mice with slow-release sulfonylurea (glibenclamide pellets, to chronically inhibit beta-cell K ATP channels. Glibenclamide-implanted wild-type mice became progressively and consistently diabetic, with significantly (p < 0.05 reduced insulin secretion in response to glucose. After 1 wk of treatment, these mice were as glucose intolerant as adult K ATP knockout mice, and reduction of secretory capacity in freshly isolated islets from implanted animals was as significant (p < 0.05 as those from K ATP knockout animals. However, secretory capacity was fully restored in islets from sulfonylurea-treated mice within hours of drug washout and in vivo within 1 mo after glibenclamide treatment was terminated. Pancreatic immunostaining showed normal islet size and alpha-/beta-cell distribution within the islet, and TUNEL staining showed no evidence of apoptosis

  13. Association between patients' beliefs and oral antidiabetic medication adherence in a Chinese type 2 diabetic population

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    Wu P

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Ping Wu,1 Naifeng Liu2 1Department of Clinical Pharmacy, School of Basic Medical Sciences and Clinical Pharmacy, China Pharmaceutical University, 2Institute of Cardiovascular Disease, Southeast University Medical School, Nanjing, People’s Republic of China Purpose: The objective of this study was to identify, using the theory of planned behavior (TPB, patients’ beliefs about taking oral antidiabetic drugs (OADs as prescribed, and to measure the correlations between beliefs and medication adherence.Patients and methods: We performed a cross-sectional study of type 2 diabetic patients using structured questionnaires in a Chinese tertiary hospital. A total of 130 patients were enrolled to be interviewed about TPB variables (behavioral, normative, and control beliefs relevant to medication adherence. Medication adherence was assessed using the eight-item Morisky Medication Adherence Scale (MMAS-8. Spearman’s rank correlation was used to assess the association between TPB and MMAS-8. Logistic regression analysis was performed to examine the relationship between different variables and MMAS-8, with statistical significance determined at P<0.05.Results: From 130 eligible Chinese patients with an average age of 60.6 years and a male proportion of 50.8%, a nonsignificant relationship between behavioral, normative, and the most facilitating control beliefs and OAD adherence was found in our study. Having the OADs on hand (P=0.037 was the only facilitating control belief associated with adherence behavior. Being away from home or eating out (P=0.000, not accepting the disease (P=0.000, ignorance of life-long drug adherence (P=0.038, being busy (P=0.001, or poor memory (P=0.008 were control belief barriers found to be correlated with poor adherence. TPB is the only important determinant influencing OAD adherence among all the factors (P=0.011.Conclusion: The results indicate that the TPB model could be used to examine adherence to OADs. One

  14. In vitro antidiabetic and inhibitory potential of turmeric (Curcuma longa L) rhizome against cellular and LDL oxidation and angiotensin converting enzyme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lekshmi, P C; Arimboor, Ranjith; Nisha, V M; Menon, A Nirmala; Raghu, K G

    2014-12-01

    Turmeric (Curcuma longa L) rhizome extracts were evaluated for their antidiabetic, antihypertensive and antioxidant potentials. α-Glucosidase (0.4 μg/mL) and α-amylase (0.4 μg/mL) inhibitory potential of turmeric ethyl acetate extract was significantly higher than those of the reference drug acarbose (17.1 μg/mL and 290.6 μg/mL respectively). Protein glycation inhibitory potential of ethyl acetate extract was 800 times higher than that of ascorbic acid. High potential of ethyl acetate extract to scavenge free radicals and to reduce LDL oxidation and cellular oxidative stress was also revealed. The positive correlation obtained between the free radical scavenging capacity of the extracts and their antiglycation potential further confirmed the role of antioxidants in controlling glycation reactions. Ethyl acetate extract was also found as effective in reducing hypertension by inhibiting angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE). Antidiabetic, ACE inhibitory and antioxidant capacities of the extracts were in the order of their curcumin contents.

  15. Antidiabetic and Antinephritic Activities of Aqueous Extract of Cordyceps militaris Fruit Body in Diet-Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetic Sprague Dawley Rats

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    Chungang Liu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Cordyceps militaris has long been used as a crude drug and folk tonic food in East Asia. The present study aims to evaluate the antidiabetic and antinephritic effects of the aqueous extract of the Cordyceps militaris fruit body (CM in diet-streptozotocin- (STZ- induced diabetic rats. During four weeks of continuous oral administration of CM at doses of 0.5, 1.0, and 2.0 g/kg and metformin at 100 mg/kg, the fasting blood glucose and bodyweight of each rat were monitored. Hypoglycemic effects of CM on diabetic rats were indicated by decreases in plasma glucose, food and water intake, and urine output. The hypolipidemic activity of CM was confirmed by the normalization of total cholesterol, triglycerides, and low- and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol in diabetic rats. Inhibitory effects on albuminuria, creatinine, urea nitrogen, and n-acetyl-β-d-glucosaminidase verified CM’s renal protective activity in diabetic rats. Furthermore, CM exerted beneficial modulation of inflammatory factors and oxidative enzymes. Compared with untreated diabetic rats, CM decreased the expression of phosphor-AKT and phosphor-GSK-3β in the kidneys. Altogether, via attenuating oxidative stress, CM displayed antidiabetic and antinephritic activities in diet-STZ-induced diabetic rats.

  16. Antidiabetic and Antinephritic Activities of Aqueous Extract of Cordyceps militaris Fruit Body in Diet-Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetic Sprague Dawley Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chungang; Song, Jingjing; Teng, Meiyu; Zheng, Xiaoyi; Li, Xiangmei; Tian, Yue; Pan, Minlian; Li, Yuhuan; Lee, Robert J; Wang, Di

    2016-01-01

    Cordyceps militaris has long been used as a crude drug and folk tonic food in East Asia. The present study aims to evaluate the antidiabetic and antinephritic effects of the aqueous extract of the Cordyceps militaris fruit body (CM) in diet-streptozotocin- (STZ-) induced diabetic rats. During four weeks of continuous oral administration of CM at doses of 0.5, 1.0, and 2.0 g/kg and metformin at 100 mg/kg, the fasting blood glucose and bodyweight of each rat were monitored. Hypoglycemic effects of CM on diabetic rats were indicated by decreases in plasma glucose, food and water intake, and urine output. The hypolipidemic activity of CM was confirmed by the normalization of total cholesterol, triglycerides, and low- and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol in diabetic rats. Inhibitory effects on albuminuria, creatinine, urea nitrogen, and n-acetyl-β-d-glucosaminidase verified CM's renal protective activity in diabetic rats. Furthermore, CM exerted beneficial modulation of inflammatory factors and oxidative enzymes. Compared with untreated diabetic rats, CM decreased the expression of phosphor-AKT and phosphor-GSK-3β in the kidneys. Altogether, via attenuating oxidative stress, CM displayed antidiabetic and antinephritic activities in diet-STZ-induced diabetic rats. PMID:27274781

  17. Anti-Diabetic Activities of Jiaotaiwan in db/db Mice by Augmentation of AMPK Protein Activity and Upregulation of GLUT4 Expression

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    Na Hu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Jiaotaiwan (JTW, which is composed of Coptis chinensis (CC and cinnamon (CIN, is one of the most well-known traditional Chinese medicines. In this study, we investigated the antidiabetic effects and mechanism of JTW in db/db mice. Results showed that JTW significantly decreased the level of fasting blood glucose and improved glucose and insulin tolerance better than CC or CIN alone. JTW also effectively protected the pancreatic islet shape, augmented the activation of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK in the liver, and increased the expression of glucose transporter 4 (GLUT4 protein in skeletal muscle and white fat. AMPK and GLUT4 contributed to glucose metabolism regulation and had an essential function in the development of diabetes mellitus (DM. Therefore, the mechanisms of JTW may be related to suppressing gluconeogenesis by activating AMPK in the liver and affecting glucose uptake in surrounding tissues through the upregulation of GLUT4 protein expression. These findings provided a new insight into the antidiabetic clinical applications of JTW and demonstrated the potential of JTW as a new drug candidate for DM treatment.

  18. Antidiabetic Activity of Pterospermum acerifolium Flowers and Glucose Uptake Potential of Bioactive Fraction in L6 Muscle Cell Lines with Its HPLC Fingerprint

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paramaguru, Rathinavelusamy; Sasmal, Dinakar

    2014-01-01

    The present study was designed to estimate the detailed antidiabetic activity of Pterospermum acerifolium (L.) Willd flowers. In vitro alpha amylase inhibition study was carried out on 50% ethanol extract of flowers (PAFEE) and its various fractions. The active ethyl acetate fraction (PAFEF) was subfractionated into three subfractions (PAFE1, PAFE2, and PAFE3) and subjected to acute toxicity studies followed by antidiabetic screening in vivo by streptozotocin-nicotinamide induced type II diabetes. Diabetic animals treated with PAFE2 (30 mg/kg) reduced the levels of fasting blood glucose, significantly (P < 0.001) compared to that of diabetic control animals. Histological studies on drug treated groups did not show remarkable positive changes in β-cells. PAFE2 showed 32.6 ± 1.93% glucose uptake over control and, in the presence of PI3K inhibitor wortmannin, declined to 13.7 ± 2.51%. HPLC analysis of PAFE2 reveals the presence of quercetin and apigenin as major constituents and both are inhibiting the glycogen phosphorylase enzyme in molecular modelling studies. The study evidenced strongly that the probable glucose lowering mechanism of action of active subfraction PAFE2 is by increasing the glucose uptake in peripheral tissues and by inhibition of gluconeogenesis. PMID:25401101

  19. Anti-diabetic effect of a combination of andrographolide-enriched extract of Andrographis paniculata (Burm f.) Nees and asiaticoside-enriched extract of Centella asiatica L. in high fructose-fat fed rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nugroho, Agung Endro; Lindawati, Novena Yety; Herlyanti, Kyky; Widyastuti, Lina; Pramono, Suwidjiyo

    2013-12-01

    Traditionally, a combination of medicinal plants is commonly used for lowering blood glucose in diabetic patients in order to provide additional benefits of the single drug. A. paniculata and C. asiatica are two traditional medicines form South Asian and Southeast Asain countries consumed by people for treating daibates mellitus and its complications. Hyperglycemia in the rats was stimulated by high fructose-fat diet that consists of 36% fructose, 15% lard, and 5% egg yolks in 0.36 g/200 g body weight for 70 days. The rats were orally administered with the combination of andrographolide-enriched extract of A. paniculata (AEEAP) leaves and asiaticoside-enriched extract of C. asiatica (AEECA) herbs from day 70 for 7 days. Antidiabetic activity was evaluated by estimating mainly the blood glucose levels and other parameters such as HDL, LDL, cholesterol and triglyceride. The results showed that combination at the ratio of 70:30 exhibited a promosing antidiabetic effect in high-fat-fructose-fed rat, and exhibited sinergistic effects on blood cholesterol and HDL levels. It can be concluded that its antidiabetic effect was better than that of single treatment of AEEAP or AEECA. That combination was also potential to develop as a blood glucose-lowering agent for diabetic patients.

  20. Anti-diabetic effects of rice hull smoke extract in alloxan-induced diabetic mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    We investigated the protective effect of a liquid rice hull smoke extract (RHSE) against diabetes in alloxan-induced diabetic mice. Anti-diabetic effects of RHSE were evaluated in both the rat insulinoma-1 cell line (INS-1) and diabetic ICR mice induced by inraperitoneal (ip) injection of alloxan. ...

  1. Antidiabetic and antidiarrhoeal potentials of ethanolic extracts of aerial parts of Cynodon dactylon Pers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Md.Saidur; Rahman; Rasheda; Akter; Santosh; Mazumdar; Faridul; Islam; Nusrat; Jahan; Mouri; Nemai; Chandra; Nandi; Abu; Syeed

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To explore the antidiabetic and the antidiarrhoeal effects of ethanolic extracts of Cynodon dactylon Pers. aerial parts(EECA) in Wistar rats.Methods: To assess the antidiabetic activity of EECA, oral glucose tolerance test(OGTT) model and alloxan induced diabetic test(AIDT) model were performed. The EECA was used at the doses of 2 g/kg, 1 g/kg and 500 mg/kg body weight in OGTT model and 1.5 g/kg was used for AIDT model. Castor oil-induced diarrhoeal model and gastrointestinal motility test with barium sulphate milk model were performed for evaluating the antidiarrhoeal effects at doses of 1 g/kg, 750 mg/kg respectively.Results: The dose 2 g/kg in OGTT and 1.5 g/kg in AIDT model blood glucose levels decreased significantly(P < 0.01) in Wistar rats that showed antidiabetic effect of EECA. After administration of EECA at the dose of 1 g/kg, the extract showed significant(P < 0.05) antidiarrhoeal activity in castor oil-induced diarrhoeal model. The results were also significant(P < 0.01) in barium sulphate milk model for the same dose by using above mentioned animals.Conclusions: It is concluded that EECA contains both antidiabetic and the antidiarrhoeal properties.

  2. Prescribing of Antidiabetic Medicines before, during and after Pregnancy : A Study in Seven European Regions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Charlton, Rachel A; Klungsøyr, Kari; Neville, Amanda J; Jordan, Sue; Pierini, Anna; Jong-van den Berg, de Lolkje; Bos, H Jens; Puccini, Aurora; Engeland, Anders; Gini, Rosa; Davies, Gareth; Thayer, Daniel; Hansen, Anne V; Morgan, Margery; Wang, Hao; McGrogan, Anita; Nybo Andersen, Anne-Marie; Dolk, Helen; Garne, Ester

    2016-01-01

    AIM: To explore antidiabetic medicine prescribing to women before, during and after pregnancy in different regions of Europe. METHODS: A common protocol was implemented across seven databases in Denmark, Norway, The Netherlands, Italy (Emilia Romagna/Tuscany), Wales and the rest of the UK. Women wit

  3. Rosmarinic acid content in antidiabetic aqueous extract of Ocimum canum Sims grown in Ghana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosmarinic acid (RA) is an important polyphenol that is found in a variety of herbs including Ocimum canum sims (locally called eme or akokobesa in Ghana). Aqueous extracts from the leaves of O.canum are used as an antidiabetic herbal medicine in Ghana. Interestingly, rosmarinic acid content and p...

  4. Rosmarinic acid content in antidiabetic aqueous extract from ocimum canum sims in Ghana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosmarinic acid (RA) is an important polyphenol that is found in a variety of herbs including Ocimum canum sims (locally called eme or akokobesa in Ghana). Aqueous extracts from the leaves of O. canum are used as an antidiabetic herbal medicine in Ghana. Analytical TLC was used to examine the compos...

  5. Evaluation of antidiabetic antihyperlipidemic and pancreatic regeneration, potential of aerial parts of Clitoria ternatea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prashant R. Verma

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to investigate the pancreatic regeneration potential of of diferent fractions of the ethanol extract Clitoria ternateaL., Fabaceae. The antidiabetic and antihyperlipidemic potential was evaluated in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats and correlated with its in vivoand in vitro antioxidant activity. The extract and its fractions were initially screened for acute and sub-chronic antidiabetic activity in the dose range of 100200 mg/kg. The most potent extract and fractions were further evaluated for pancreatic β-cells regeneration activity along with antioxidant and antihyperlipidemic activity. The polyphenolic, flavonoid and flavanone contents were assessed and correlated with its antidiabetic activity. The most significant pancreatic regeneration activity, antidiabetic and antihyperlipidemic activity and was shown by ethanol extract and butanol soluble fraction at a dose level of 200 mg/kg, while rutin was found to be least potent. In conclusion, pancreatic regeneration studies of ethanol extract treated rats show nesidioblastosis. It is also suggested that the factors causing regeneration are present within the pancreas. The newly generated islets may have formed from the ductal precursor cells and reduced oxidative stress helps in restoration of β-cell function.

  6. Possible antidiabetic and antihyperlipidaemic effect of fermented Parkia biglobosa (JACQ) extract in alloxan-induced diabetic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odetola, A A; Akinloye, O; Egunjobi, C; Adekunle, W A; Ayoola, A O

    2006-09-01

    1. The hypoglycaemic effect of fermented seeds of Parkia biglobosa (PB; African locust bean), a natural nutritional condiment that features frequently in some African diets as a spice, was investigated in the present study in alloxan-induced diabetic rats. Its effect was compared with that of glibenclamide (Daonil; Sanofi-Aventis, Paris, France), a reference antidiabetic drug. The effects of PB on lipid profiles were also examined. 2. In order to assess the hypoglycaemic and hypolipidaemic effects of aqueous and methanolic extracts of PB on experimental animals, fasting plasma glucose (FPG), total cholesterol, triglyceride, high-density lipoprotein (HDL) and low-density lipoprotein (LDL) were determined. In addition, the weight of each animal was determined to assess any possible weight gain or loss in the experimental animals (diabetic rats treated with Daonil (group C), the aqueous extract of PB (group D) or the methanolic extract of PB (group E)) compared with control groups (non-diabetic (group A) and non-treated diabetic (group B)). 3. A single dose of 120 mg/kg, i.v., alloxan administered to rats resulted in significant increases in the FPG (P < 0.001) of test animals compared with controls. However, dietary supplementation with PB (6 g/kg extract for 4 weeks administered orally using an intragastric tube) ameliorated the alloxan-induced diabetes in a manner comparable with that of the reference antidiabetic drug glibenclamide. Aqueous and methanolic extracts of PB (6% w/w) elicited 69.2% and 64.4% reductions, respectively, in FPG compared with 70.4% in 0.01 mg/150 g glibenclamide-treated rats. 4. Although animals treated with the aqueous extract of PB gained weight in manner similar to normal controls, animals given the methanolic extract and glibenclamide lost weight in manner similar to non-treated diabetic rats. In addition, high levels of HDL and low LDL were observed in animals treated with the aqueous extract of PB, a pattern similar to that seen in

  7. A stewardship intervention program for safe medication management and use of antidiabetic drugs

    OpenAIRE

    Zhao RY; He XW; Shan YM; Zhu LL; Zhou Q

    2015-01-01

    Rui-yi Zhao,1 Xiao-wen He,1 Yan-min Shan,1 Ling-ling Zhu,2 Quan Zhou3 1Clinical Nurse Specialist Section, Division of Nursing, 2Geriatric VIP Care Ward, Division of Nursing, 3Department of Pharmacy, Second Affiliated Hospital, School of Medicine, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, Zhejiang Province, People’s Republic of China Background: Diabetes patients are complex due to considerations of polypharmacy, multimorbidities, medication adherence, dietary habits, health literacy, socioec...

  8. The antidiabetic drug metformin inhibits gastric cancer cell proliferation in vitro and in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kato, Kiyohito; Gong, Jian; Iwama, Hisakazu; Kitanaka, Akira; Tani, Joji; Miyoshi, Hisaaki; Nomura, Kei; Mimura, Shima; Kobayashi, Mitsuyoshi; Aritomo, Yuuichi; Kobara, Hideyuki; Mori, Hirohito; Himoto, Takashi; Okano, Keiichi; Suzuki, Yasuyuki; Murao, Koji; Masaki, Tsutomu

    2012-03-01

    Recent studies suggest that metformin, which is commonly used as an oral anti-hyperglycemic agent of the biguanide family, may reduce cancer risk and improve prognosis, but the mechanisms by which metformin affects various cancers, including gastric cancer, remains unknown. The goal of the present study was to evaluate the effects of metformin on human gastric cancer cell proliferation in vitro and in vivo and to study microRNAs (miRNA) associated with antitumor effect of metformin. We used MKN1, MKN45, and MKN74 human gastric cancer cell lines to study the effects of metformin on human gastric cancer cells. Athymic nude mice bearing xenograft tumors were treated with or without metformin. Tumor growth was recorded after 4 weeks, and the expression of cell-cycle-related proteins was determined. In addition, we used miRNA array tips to explore the differences among miRNAs in MKN74 cells bearing xenograft tumors treated with or without metformin in vitro and in vivo. Metformin inhibited the proliferation of MKN1, MKN45, and MKN74 in vitro. Metformin blocked the cell cycle in G(0)-G(1)in vitro and in vivo. This blockade was accompanied by a strong decrease of G(1) cyclins, especially in cyclin D1, cyclin-dependent kinase (Cdk) 4, Cdk6 and by a decrease in retinoblastoma protein (Rb) phosphorylation. In addition, metformin reduced the phosphorylation of epidermal growth factor receptor and insulin-like growth factor-1 receptor in vitro and in vivo. The miRNA expression was markedly altered with the treatment of metformin in vitro and in vivo. Various miRNAs altered by metformin also may contribute to tumor growth in vitro and in vivo. PMID:22222629

  9. Effect of the anti-diabetic drug metformin in hepatocellular carcinoma in vitro and in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyoshi, Hisaaki; Kato, Kiyohito; Iwama, Hisakazu; Maeda, Emiko; Sakamoto, Teppei; Fujita, Koji; Toyota, Yuka; Tani, Joji; Nomura, Takako; Mimura, Shima; Kobayashi, Mitsuyoshi; Morishita, Asahiro; Kobara, Hideki; Mori, Hirohito; Yoneyama, Hirohito; Deguchi, Akihiro; Himoto, Takashi; Kurokohchi, Kazutaka; Okano, Keiichi; Suzuki, Yasuyuki; Murao, Koji; Masaki, Tsutomu

    2014-07-01

    Metformin is a commonly used oral anti-hyperglycemic agent of the biguanide family. Recent studies suggest that metformin may reduce cancer risk and improve prognosis. However, the antitumor mechanism of metformin in several types of cancers, including hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), has not been elucidated. The goal of the present study was to evaluate the effects of metformin on HCC cell proliferation in vitro and in vivo, and to study microRNAs (miRNAs) associated with the antitumor effect of metformin in vitro. We used the cell lines Alex, HLE and Huh7, and normal hepatocytes to study the effects of metformin on human HCC cells. In an in vivo study, athymic nude mice bearing xenograft tumors were treated with metformin or left untreated. Tumor growth was recorded after 4 weeks, and the expression of cell cycle-related proteins was determined. Metformin inhibited the proliferation of Alex, HLE and Huh7 cells in vitro and in vivo. Metformin blocked the cell cycle in G0/G1 in vitro and in vivo. This blockade was accompanied by a strong decrease of G1 cyclins, especially cyclin D1, cyclin E and cyclin-dependent kinase 4 (Cdk4). In addition, microRNA (miRNA) expression was markedly altered by the treatment with metformin in vitro and in vivo. In addition, various miRNAs induced by metformin also may contribute to the suppression of tumor growth. Our results demonstrate that metformin inhibits the growth of HCC, possibly by inducing G1 cell cycle arrest through the alteration of microRNAs. PMID:24806290

  10. Emerging nitrogenous disinfection byproducts: Transformation of the antidiabetic drug metformin during chlorine disinfection of water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armbruster, Dominic; Happel, Oliver; Scheurer, Marco; Harms, Klaus; Schmidt, Torsten C; Brauch, Heinz-Jürgen

    2015-08-01

    As an environmental contaminant of anthropogenic origin metformin is present in the high ng/L- up to the low μg/L-range in most surface waters. Residues of metformin may lead to the formation of disinfection by-products during chlorine disinfection, when these waters are used for drinking water production. Investigations on the underlying chemical processes occurring during treatment of metformin with sodium hypochlorite in aqueous medium led to the discovery of two hitherto unknown transformation products. Both substances were isolated and characterized by HPLC-DAD, GC-MS, HPLC-ESI-TOF, (1)H-NMR and single-crystal X-ray structure determination. The immediate major chlorination product is a cyclic dehydro-1,2,4-triazole-derivate of intense yellow color (Y; C4H6ClN5). It is a solid chlorimine of limited stability. Rapid formation was observed between 10 °C and 30 °C, as well as between pH 3 and pH 11, in both ultrapure and tap water, even at trace quantities of reactants (ng/L-range for metformin, mg/L-range for free chlorine). While Y is degraded within a few hours to days in the presence of light, elevated temperature, organic solvents and matrix constituents within tap water, a secondary degradation product was discovered, which is stable and colorless (C; C4H6ClN3). This chloroorganic nitrile has a low photolysis rate in ambient day light, while being resistant to heat and not readily degraded in the presence of organic solvents or in the tap water matrix. In addition, the formation of ammonia, dimethylamine and N,N-dimethylguanidine was verified by cation exchange chromatography.

  11. Evaluation for antidiabetic activity in selected medicinal plants used in Malaysian traditional medicine for the treatment of diabetes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aqueous extracts of three medicinal plants used in Malaysian traditional medicine for the treatment of diabetes were investigated. The nuts of Areca cathecu, leaves of Lagerstroemia speciosa and Ficus deltoidea were each extracted by boiling in distilled water. The aqueous extracts were filtered and the filtrates were then spray dried. Their biological evaluation was conducted to determine their blood glucose lowering effect in normoglycaemic and alloxan-induced diabetic rats. Commercially available antidiabetic drug, glybenclamide was used as positive control. Toxicity of the extracts was carried out using the brine shrimp lethality assay and in vivo acute toxicity test in rats. Aqueous extracts of all the plants studied showed significant reduction in blood glucose level up to 50% in rats over a period of 3 to 4 weeks. The largest reduction in blood glucose levels was exhibited by the aqueous extracts of the Lagestroemia speciosa, followed by the Ficus deltoidea and Areca cathecu. There was no evidence of toxicity of the extracts against the brine shrimp (up to 4,000 μg/ml) and in rats (up to 0.2% body weight). (Author)

  12. Antidiabetic activity of methanolic bark extract ofAlbizia odoratissima Benth. in alloxan induced diabetic albino mice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dinesh Kumar; Sunil Kumar; Sonia Kohli; Renu Arya; Jyoti Gupta

    2011-01-01

    Objective:To evaluate the antidiabetic potential of methanolic extract ofAlbizia odoratissima Benth. bark in alloxan induced diabetic mice.Methods: Group-Ⅰ (normal control) mice received only basal diet without any treatment. In Group-Ⅱ (Diabetic control) mice, diabetes was induced by alloxan (150 mg/kgi.p.) and received only Tween80, 5% v/v in normal saline. Group-Ⅲ and Group-Ⅳ mice received metformin (10 mg/kg) and gliclazide (10 mg/kg) as standard drugs. Group-Ⅴ and Ⅵ mice received methanolic bark extract ofAlbizia odoratissima at doses of250 and500 mg/kg body weightp.o., respectively.Results: The results of the study indicates thatAlbizia odoratissima bark extract significantly (P<0.01) reduced the blood sugar level. The bark extract also significantly reduced the levels of serum cholesterol, triglycerides, serum glutamic-oxaloacetic transaminase, serum glutamic-pyruvic transaminase, alkaline phosphatase and decreases level of total proteins in alloxan induced diabetic mice.Conclusions:Methanolic extract ofAlbizia odoratissima has protective effects on the protection of vital tissues (pancreas, kidney, liver, heart and spleen), thereby reducing the causation of diabetes in experimental animals.

  13. Accelerator-based analytical technique in the study of some anti-diabetic medicinal plants of Nigeria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olabanji, S.O. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare (INFN), Laboratori Nazionali di Legnaro (LNL), I-35020 Legnaro, Padova (Italy)], E-mail: skayode2002@yahoo.co.uk; Omobuwajo, O.R. [Department of Pharmacognosy, Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile-Ife (Nigeria); Ceccato, D. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare (INFN), Laboratori Nazionali di Legnaro (LNL), I-35020 Legnaro, Padova (Italy); Dipartmento di Fisica, Universita di Padova, Padova (Italy); Adebajo, A.C. [Department of Pharmacognosy, Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile-Ife (Nigeria); Buoso, M.C. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare (INFN), Laboratori Nazionali di Legnaro (LNL), I-35020 Legnaro, Padova (Italy); Moschini, G. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare (INFN), Laboratori Nazionali di Legnaro (LNL), I-35020 Legnaro, Padova (Italy); Dipartmento di Fisica, Universita di Padova, Padova (Italy)

    2008-05-15

    Diabetes mellitus, a clinical syndrome characterized by hyperglycemia due to deficiency of insulin, is a disease involving the endocrine pancreas and causes considerable morbidity and mortality in the world. In Nigeria, many plants, especially those implicated in herbal recipes for the treatment of diabetes, have not been screened for their elemental constituents while information on phytochemistry of some of them is not available. There is therefore the need to document these constituents as some of these plants are becoming increasingly important as herbal drugs or food additives. The accelerator-based technique PIXE, using the 1.8 MeV collimated proton beam from the 2.5 MV AN 2000 Van de Graaff accelerator at INFN, LNL, Legnaro (Padova) Italy, was employed in the determination of the elemental constituents of these anti-diabetic medicinal plants. Leaves of Gardenia ternifolia, Caesalpina pulcherrima, Solemostenon monostachys, whole plant of Momordica charantia and leaf and stem bark of Hunteria umbellata could be taken as vegetables, neutraceuticals, food additives and supplements in the management of diabetes. However, Hexabolus monopetalus root should be used under prescription.

  14. Antidiabetic Effects of Add-On Gynostemma pentaphyllum Extract Therapy with Sulfonylureas in Type 2 Diabetic Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. T. T. Huyen

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims. To investigate the antidiabetic effect of the traditional Vietnamese herb Gynostemma pentaphyllum (GP together with sulfonylurea (SU in 25 drug-naïve type 2 diabetic patients. Methods. After 4-week treatment with gliclazide (SU, 30 mg daily, all patients were randomly assigned into 2 groups to add on GP extract or placebo extract, 6 g daily, during eight weeks. Results. After 4-week SU treatment, fasting plasma glucose (FPG and HbA1C decreased significantly (P<0.001. FPG was further reduced after add-on therapy with 2.9 ± 1.7 and 0.9 ± 0.6 mmol/L in the GP and placebo groups, respectively (P<0.001. Therapy with GP extract also reduced 30- and 120-minute oral glucose tolerance test postload values. HbA1C levels decreased approximately 2% units in the GP group compared to 0.7% unit in the placebo group (P<0.001. Conclusion. GP extract in addition to SU offers an alternative to addition of other oral medication to treat type 2 diabetic patients.

  15. Accelerator-based analytical technique in the study of some anti-diabetic medicinal plants of Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olabanji, S. O.; Omobuwajo, O. R.; Ceccato, D.; Adebajo, A. C.; Buoso, M. C.; Moschini, G.

    2008-05-01

    Diabetes mellitus, a clinical syndrome characterized by hyperglycemia due to deficiency of insulin, is a disease involving the endocrine pancreas and causes considerable morbidity and mortality in the world. In Nigeria, many plants, especially those implicated in herbal recipes for the treatment of diabetes, have not been screened for their elemental constituents while information on phytochemistry of some of them is not available. There is therefore the need to document these constituents as some of these plants are becoming increasingly important as herbal drugs or food additives. The accelerator-based technique PIXE, using the 1.8 MeV collimated proton beam from the 2.5 MV AN 2000 Van de Graaff accelerator at INFN, LNL, Legnaro (Padova) Italy, was employed in the determination of the elemental constituents of these anti-diabetic medicinal plants. Leaves of Gardenia ternifolia, Caesalpina pulcherrima, Solemostenon monostachys, whole plant of Momordica charantia and leaf and stem bark of Hunteria umbellata could be taken as vegetables, neutraceuticals, food additives and supplements in the management of diabetes. However, Hexabolus monopetalus root should be used under prescription.

  16. Antidiabetic and Synergistic Effects of Anthocyanin Fraction from Berberis integerrima Fruit on Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetic Rats Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahra Sabahi

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Diabetes mellitus is a complex endocrine disorder. There is a serious attempt to identify antidiabetic compounds from natural sources to use with other drugs for reduction of diabetes complications. Present study is based on the investigation of antihyperglycemic effect of anthocyanin fraction of Berberis integerrima Bunge (AFBI fruits on some physiological parameters (glucose level, glycogen content, and body weight in normal and streptozotocin-induced (STZ-induced diabetic rats and evaluation of synergic effect of this fraction with metformin and glibenclamide. Male Sprague dawley rats were divided into nine groups: healthy control group, diabetic control group, diabetic groups treated with anthocyanin fraction (200, 400 and 1000 mg/kg, respectively; diabetic groups treated with glibenclamide and metformin separately, diabetic groups treated with glibenclamide + anthocyanin fraction (1000 mg/kg, metformin + anthocyanin fraction (1000 mg/kg. Treatment of diabetic rats with AFBI (400, 1000mg/kg significantly decreased blood glucose as compared with control. Moreover, AFBI (400, 1000mg/kg significantly increased liver glycogen and body weight compared to control. Nevertheless, there were no synergistic effects between anthocyanin fraction and metformin or glibenclamide on blood glucose, liver glycogen, and body weight. The results of this study indicate that AFBI possesses hypoglycemic effects and may be considered for evaluation in future diabetes clinical studies.

  17. Formulation and development of self-microemulsifying drug delivery system of pioglitazone hydrochloride

    OpenAIRE

    Jyotsana R. Madan; Bandavane Sudarshan; Vinod S. Kadam; Dua Kamal

    2014-01-01

    Self-microemulsifying drug delivery system (SMEDDS) is a promising system for the Biopharmaceutics Classification System (BCS) class II drugs. The current research aimed to improve the dissolution of poorly water-soluble antidiabetic drug pioglitazone HCl by formulating it in SMEDDS. Liquid SMEDDS of pioglitazone HCl were formulated with Capmul MCM C8 and oleic acid as oil phase, Cremophor RH 40 and Tween 80 as surfactant phase, and Transcutol P as cosurfactant phase after screening various v...

  18. Reactivity-activity relationships of oral anti-diabetic vanadium complexes in gastrointestinal media: an X-ray absorption spectroscopic study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levina, Aviva; McLeod, Andrew I; Kremer, Lauren E; Aitken, Jade B; Glover, Christopher J; Johannessen, Bernt; Lay, Peter A

    2014-10-01

    The reactions of oral V(V/IV) anti-diabetic drugs within the gastrointestinal environment (particularly in the presence of food) are a crucial factor that affects their biological activities, but to date these have been poorly understood. In order to build up reactivity-activity relationships, the first detailed study of the reactivities of typical V-based anti-diabetics, Na3V(V)O4 (A), [V(IV)O(OH2)5](SO4) (B), [V(IV)O(ma)2] (C, ma = maltolato(-)) and (NH4)[V(V)(O)2(dipic)] (D, dipic = pyridine-2,5-dicarboxylato(2-)) with simulated gastrointestinal (GI) media in the presence or absence of food components has been performed by the use of XANES (X-ray absorption near edge structure) spectroscopy. Changes in speciation under conditions that simulate interactions in the GI tract have been discerned using correlations of XANES parameters that were based on a library of model V(V), V(IV), and V(III) complexes for preliminary assessment of the oxidation states and coordination numbers. More detailed speciation analyses were performed using multiple linear regression fits of XANES from the model complexes to XANES obtained from the reaction products from interactions with the GI media. Compounds B and D were relatively stable in the gastric environment (pH ∼ 2) in the absence of food, while C was mostly dissociated, and A was converted to [V10O28](6-). Sequential gastric and intestinal digestion in the absence of food converted A, B and D to poorly absorbed tetrahedral vanadates, while C formed five- or six-coordinate V(V) species where the maltolato ligands were likely to be partially retained. XANES obtained from gastric digestion of A-D in the presence of typical food components converged to that of a mixture of V(IV)-aqua, V(IV)-amino acid and V(III)-aqua complexes. Subsequent intestinal digestion led predominantly to V(IV) complexes that were assigned as citrato or complexes with 2-hydroxyacidato donor groups from other organic compounds, including certain

  19. Reactivity-activity relationships of oral anti-diabetic vanadium complexes in gastrointestinal media: an X-ray absorption spectroscopic study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levina, Aviva; McLeod, Andrew I; Kremer, Lauren E; Aitken, Jade B; Glover, Christopher J; Johannessen, Bernt; Lay, Peter A

    2014-10-01

    The reactions of oral V(V/IV) anti-diabetic drugs within the gastrointestinal environment (particularly in the presence of food) are a crucial factor that affects their biological activities, but to date these have been poorly understood. In order to build up reactivity-activity relationships, the first detailed study of the reactivities of typical V-based anti-diabetics, Na3V(V)O4 (A), [V(IV)O(OH2)5](SO4) (B), [V(IV)O(ma)2] (C, ma = maltolato(-)) and (NH4)[V(V)(O)2(dipic)] (D, dipic = pyridine-2,5-dicarboxylato(2-)) with simulated gastrointestinal (GI) media in the presence or absence of food components has been performed by the use of XANES (X-ray absorption near edge structure) spectroscopy. Changes in speciation under conditions that simulate interactions in the GI tract have been discerned using correlations of XANES parameters that were based on a library of model V(V), V(IV), and V(III) complexes for preliminary assessment of the oxidation states and coordination numbers. More detailed speciation analyses were performed using multiple linear regression fits of XANES from the model complexes to XANES obtained from the reaction products from interactions with the GI media. Compounds B and D were relatively stable in the gastric environment (pH ∼ 2) in the absence of food, while C was mostly dissociated, and A was converted to [V10O28](6-). Sequential gastric and intestinal digestion in the absence of food converted A, B and D to poorly absorbed tetrahedral vanadates, while C formed five- or six-coordinate V(V) species where the maltolato ligands were likely to be partially retained. XANES obtained from gastric digestion of A-D in the presence of typical food components converged to that of a mixture of V(IV)-aqua, V(IV)-amino acid and V(III)-aqua complexes. Subsequent intestinal digestion led predominantly to V(IV) complexes that were assigned as citrato or complexes with 2-hydroxyacidato donor groups from other organic compounds, including certain

  20. A retrospective study on HIV transmission among HIV-positive male drug users and their spouses in Guangxi%广西男性HIV阳性吸毒者配偶间传播回顾性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱秋映; 朱金辉; 郑文彬; 唐帅

    2013-01-01

    目的 了解广西男性HIV阳性吸毒者与其配偶间HIV传播及影响因素,为预防艾滋病经配偶间传播的防治策略提供科学依据.方法 对调查地区HIV阳性已婚吸毒男性的配偶进行问卷调查,收集人口学特征、艾滋病相关知识、吸毒及性行为等信息,并采血进行HIV、梅毒和生殖器疱疹病毒(HSV-2)抗体检测.结果 调查382名HIV阳性吸毒者男性的配偶,81.4%已知丈夫感染HIV.艾滋病知识知晓率为80.9%; 32.7%有吸毒行为,其中59.7%与丈夫共针吸毒;目前每月与丈夫性行为中,每次使用安全套比例为59.9%;被告知丈夫感染HIV的调查对象每月同房次数和从不使用安全套的频率均比告知前有所下降(P<0.01).HIV、HSV-2、梅毒抗体阳性检出率分别为52.0%、57.5%、9.4%.结论 广西男性HIV阳性吸毒者的配偶HIV阳性率高,应加强该人群的干预,尽量早发现感染者并促使感染者主动及时告知配偶,以采取有效防治措施,减少艾滋病经配偶间传播.%OBJECTIVE To determine HIV transmission among HIV-positive male drug users and their spouses as well as its impact factors in Guangxi,and provide the scientific evidences for strategy planning of HIV/AIDS prevention between spouses transmission.METHODS Conducted questionnaire survey and serological testing among the spouses of HIV-positive male drug users in the study area,collected the information of social demography,HIV related knowledge awareness,drugs abuse,sexual behavior and the infection status of HIV,syphilis and genital herpes virus (HSV-2).RESULTS A total of 382 subjects participated in the survey,81.4% had known the positive HIV status of their husbands; the HIV related knowledge awareness rate was 80.9% ; 32.7% had drug abuse,59.7% of which shared needles with their husbands; 59.9% used condoms every time while having sex with their husbands; the monthly frequency of sexual intercourse and the rate of nonused

  1. Efficacy and Safety of Biphasic Insulin Aspart 30/70 in Type 2 Diabetes Suboptimally Controlled on Oral Antidiabetic Therapy in Korea: A Multicenter, Open-Label, Single-Arm Study

    OpenAIRE

    Kee-Ho Song; Jung Min Kim; Jung-Hyun Noh; Yongsoo Park; Hyun-Shik Son; Kyong Wan Min; Kyung Soo Ko

    2013-01-01

    Background The purpose of this study was to evaluate change in glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c), side effects, and quality of life (QOL) after a 16-week treatment period with Biphasic insulin aspart 30/70 (BIasp30) in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) who had been suboptimally controlled with oral antidiabetic drugs (OADs). Methods The study consisted of a 4-week titration period when concurrent OAD(s) were replaced with BIasp30 and followed by a 12-week maintenance period. All pat...

  2. Histological changes and antidiabetic activities of Icacina trichantha tuber extract in beta–cells of alloxan induced diabetic rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Onakpa Michael Monday

    2013-08-01

    Conclusions: I. trichantha tuber extracts posses antidiabetic activities as well as improve liver and renal profile and total lipids levels. I. trichantha tuber extracts also have favourable effects to inhibit the histopathological changes of the pancreas in alloxan induced diabetes.

  3. Intensification of insulin therapy in patients with type 2 diabetes: a retrospective, non- interventional cohort study of patients treated with insulin glargine or biphasic human insulin in daily clinical practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background The aim of this study is to compare the efficacy of intensification of insulin treatment with insulin glargine and biphasic human insulin in patients with type 2 diabetes on concomitant therapy with oral antidiabetic drugs (OAD) in daily clinical practice. Methods A retrospective multicentre parallel two-arm study included 301 patients with type 2 diabetes already on treatment with biphasic human insulin twice daily (bd) in combination with OAD. Data were collected retrospectively from 142 patients who had been switched from biphasic human insulin to insulin glargine in a period of 6–12 months prior to their inclusion (active group) and compared to data collected retrospectively from 159 patients who continued treatment with biphasic human insulin bd for the same time period (control group). Our primary objective was to examine the efficacy of the two treatments, assessed as change in HbA1c. Secondary objectives were to examine for changes in fasting blood glucose (FBG), body weight, treatment with OAD or fast-acting insulin and safety, by assessing the frequency and severity of hypoglycaemic episodes. Results At the end of the study there was a significant reduction in HbA1c in both arms. The least squares (LS) mean [(95% confidence intervals (CI)] reduction in HbA1c was -1.13 (-0.96 to -1.30)% in the active and -0.59 (-0.41to -0.77)% in the control group [LS mean treatment difference 0.53 (0.31-0.76)%, p < 0.001]. Similarly, fasting blood glucose declined significantly in both arms. The LS mean decline in FBG was -47.02 (-37.89 to -56.14) mg/dl in the active and -19.73 (-11.57 to -27.89) mg/dl in the control group [LS mean treatment difference 27.85 (15.74-39.95) mg/dl, p < 0.001]. No significant difference in hypoglycaemic episodes and in body weight was found. In the active group, more patients received rapid-acting pre-meal insulin and used insulin secretagogues drugs. Conclusions Glargine alone or in combination with fast acting insulin

  4. Effects of oral glucose-lowering drugs on long term outcomes in patients with diabetes mellitus following myocardial infarction not treated with emergent percutaneous coronary intervention - a retrospective nationwide cohort study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jørgensen Casper H

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The optimum oral pharmacological treatment of diabetes mellitus to reduce cardiovascular disease and mortality following myocardial infarction has not been established. We therefore set out to investigate the association between individual oral glucose-lowering drugs and cardiovascular outcomes following myocardial infarction in patients with diabetes mellitus not treated with emergent percutaneous coronary intervention. Materials and methods All patients aged 30 years or older receiving glucose-lowering drugs (GLDs and admitted with myocardial infarction (MI not treated with emergent percutaneous coronary intervention in Denmark during 1997-2006 were identified by individual-level linkage of nationwide registries of hospitalizations and drug dispensing from pharmacies. Multivariable Cox regression models adjusted for age, sex, calendar year, comorbidity, and concomitant pharmacotherapy were used to assess differences in the composite endpoint of non-fatal MI and cardiovascular mortality between individual GLDs, using metformin monotherapy as reference. Results The study comprised 9876 users of GLDs admitted with MI. The mean age was 72.3 years and 56.5% of patients were men. A total of 3649 received sulfonylureas and 711 received metformin at admission. The average length of follow-up was 2.2 (SD 2.6 years. A total of 6,171 patients experienced the composite study endpoint. The sulfonylureas glibenclamide, glimepiride, glipizide, and tolbutamide were associated with increased risk of cardiovascular mortality and/or nonfatal MI with hazard ratios [HRs] of 1.31 (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.17-1.46, 1.19 (1.06-1.32, 1.25 (1.11-1.42, and 1.18 (1.03-1.34, respectively, compared with metformin. Gliclazide was the only sulfonylurea not associated with increased risk compared with metformin (HR 1.03 [0.88-1.22]. Conclusions In patients with diabetes mellitus admitted with MI not treated with emergent percutaneous coronary

  5. Antidiabetic and antihiperlipidemic effect of Andrographis paniculata (Burm. f.) Nees and andrographolide in high-fructose-fat-fed rats

    OpenAIRE

    Agung Endro Nugroho; Mohamad Andrie; Ni Kadek Warditiani; Eka Siswanto; Suwidjiyo Pramono; Endang Lukitaningsih

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: Andrographis paniculata (Burm. f.) Nees originates from India and grows widely in many areas in Southeast Asian countries. Andrographis paniculata (Burm. f.) Nees has shown an antidiabetic effect in type 1 DM rats. The present study investigates the purified extract of the plant and its active compound andrographolide for antidiabetic and antihyperlipidemic effects in high-fructose-fat-fed rats, a model of type 2 DM rats. Materials and Methods: Hyperglycemia in rats was induce...

  6. Antidiabetic Evaluation of Momordica charantia L Fruit Extracts

    OpenAIRE

    Tahira, S; Hussain, F

    2014-01-01

    To investigate hypoglycaemic, hypolipidaemic and pancreatic beta cell regeneration activities of Momordica charantia L fruits (MC). Alloxan-induced diabetic rabbits were treated with methanolic and ethanolic MC extract. Effects of plant extracts and the drug glibenclamide on serum glucose, lipid profile and pancreatic beta cell were determined after two weeks of treatment. Serum glucose and lipid profiles were assayed by kit methods. Pancreatic tissue histopathology was performed to study pan...

  7. Antidiabetic and antioxidant effects and phytochemicals of mulberry fruit (Morus alba L.) polyphenol enhanced extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yihai; Xiang, Limin; Wang, Chunhua; Tang, Chao; He, Xiangjiu

    2013-01-01

    The antidiabetic and antioxidant activities of the ethyl acetate-soluble extract (MFE) of mulberry fruit (Morus alba L.) were investigated. In vitro, MFE showed potent α-glucosidase inhibitory activity and radical-scavenging activities against DPPH and superoxide anion radicals. In vivo, MFE could significantly decrease fasting blood glucose (FBG) and glycosylated serum protein (GSP), and increase antioxidant enzymatic activities (SOD, CAT, GSH-Px) in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic mice. Bioactivity-guided fractionation of the MFE led to the isolation of 25 phenolic compounds, and their structures were identified on the basis of MS and NMR data. All the 25 compounds were isolated from mulberry fruit for the first time. Also, the α-glucosidase inhibitory activity and antioxidant activity of the phenolics were evaluated. Potent α-glucosidase inhibitory and radical-scavenging activities of these phenolics suggested that they may be partially responsible for the antidiabetic and antioxidant activities of mulberry fruit.

  8. Antidiabetic and antioxidant effects and phytochemicals of mulberry fruit (Morus alba L. polyphenol enhanced extract.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yihai Wang

    Full Text Available The antidiabetic and antioxidant activities of the ethyl acetate-soluble extract (MFE of mulberry fruit (Morus alba L. were investigated. In vitro, MFE showed potent α-glucosidase inhibitory activity and radical-scavenging activities against DPPH and superoxide anion radicals. In vivo, MFE could significantly decrease fasting blood glucose (FBG and glycosylated serum protein (GSP, and increase antioxidant enzymatic activities (SOD, CAT, GSH-Px in streptozotocin (STZ-induced diabetic mice. Bioactivity-guided fractionation of the MFE led to the isolation of 25 phenolic compounds, and their structures were identified on the basis of MS and NMR data. All the 25 compounds were isolated from mulberry fruit for the first time. Also, the α-glucosidase inhibitory activity and antioxidant activity of the phenolics were evaluated. Potent α-glucosidase inhibitory and radical-scavenging activities of these phenolics suggested that they may be partially responsible for the antidiabetic and antioxidant activities of mulberry fruit.

  9. Screening and design of anti-diabetic compounds sourced from the leaves of neem (Azadirachta indica).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jalil, Asma; Ashfaq, Usman Ali; Shahzadi, Samar; Rasul, Ijaz; Rehman, Shahid-Ur; Shah, Masaud; Javed, Muhammad Rizwan; Masoud, Muhammad Shareef

    2013-01-01

    Diabetes Mellitus is affecting people of all age groups worldwide. Many synthetic medicines available for type 2 diabetes mellitus in the market. However, there is a strong requirement for the development of better anti-diabetes compounds sourced especially from natural sources like medicinal plants. The extracts from the leaves of neem (Azadirachta indica) is traditionally known to have anti-diabetes properties. Therefore, there is an increased interest to identify potential compounds identified from neem leaf extracts showing predicted binding property with the known diabetes mellitus type 2 protein enzyme target phosphoenol-pyruvate carboxykinase(PEPCK). The structure data for compounds found in the leaf extract of neem was screened against PEPCK using molecular docking simulation and screening techniques. Results show that the compound 3-Deacetyl-3-cinnamoyl-azadirachtin possesses best binding properties with PEPCK. This observation finds application for further consideration in in vitro and in vivo validation. PMID:24497731

  10. ANTI-DIABETIC ACTIVITY OF ROOTS OF QUERCUS INFECTORIA OLIVIER IN ALLOXAN INDUCED DIABETIC RATS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Saini * and S.M. Patil

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The methanolic extract of roots of Quercus infectoria Olivier at a dose of 250 mg/kg and 500 mg/kg body weight respectively was tested for anti-diabetic activity in Alloxan-induced hyperglycaemic rats. The blood glucose levels were measured at 0, 2h, 4h and 6h after the treatment. The methanolic extract reduced the blood glucose Alloxan- induced diabetic rats from 285.52 to 206.57mg/dl, 6h after oral administration of extract (P<0.01. The antidiabetic activity of methanolic extract of Quercus infectoria Olivier was compared with glibenclamide, an oral hypoglycaemic agent (3mg/kg.

  11. Novel Piperine Derivatives with Antidiabetic Effect as PPAR-γ Agonists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kharbanda, Chetna; Alam, Mohammad Sarwar; Hamid, Hinna; Javed, Kalim; Bano, Sameena; Ali, Yakub; Dhulap, Abhijeet; Alam, Perwez; Pasha, M A Qadar

    2016-09-01

    Piperine is an alkaloid responsible for the pungency of black pepper. In this study, piperine isolated from Piper nigrum L. was hydrolyzed under basic condition to obtain piperic acid and was used as precursor to carry out the synthesis of twenty piperine derivatives containing benzothiazole moiety. All the benzothiazole derivatives were evaluated for their antidiabetic potential by OGT test followed by assessment of active derivatives on STZ-induced diabetic model. It was observed that nine of twenty novel piperine analogues (5b, 6a-h), showed significantly higher antidiabetic activity in comparison with rosiglitazone (standard). Furthermore, these active derivatives were evaluated for their action as PPAR-γ agonists demonstrating their mechanism of action. The effects on body weight, lipid peroxidation, and hepatotoxicity after administration with active derivatives were also studied to further establish these derivatives as lead molecules for treatment of diabetes with lesser side-effects. PMID:27037532

  12. Antidiabetic activity of Adina cordifolia (Roxb) leaves in alloxan induced diabetic rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Prashant Chaudhary; Bharat Goel; Ashoke Kumar Ghosh

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the antidiabetic activity of hydro-alcoholic extract of Adina cordifolia (Roxb.) leaves (HAEACL) in alloxan induced diabetic rats at 250 and 500 mg/kg doses. Methods:Glibenclamide (10 mg/kg, s.c.) was used as the standard which produced a significant reduction in blood glucose levels. The blood glucose levels of experimental animals were determined at 0, 2, 4 and 6 h after treatment with the plant extract by using glu-oxidase peroxidise reactive strips and glucometer. Results: Treatment with HAEACL at 500 mg/kg dose decreased the blood glucose level significantly. However, the lower doses (250 mg/kg) of HAEACL produced a little decrease in blood glucose level. It showed that there was a dose dependent decrease in blood glucose level in the alloxan induced diabetic rats as compared to the control group. Conclusions: The present study shows that HAEACL possessed significant antidiabetic activity.

  13. Antidiabetic activity of Pseudarthria viscida aqueous root extract in neonatal streptozotocin-induced NIDDM rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajendran Kuppusamy

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The antidiabetic activity of the aqueous root extract of Pseudarthria viscida (L. Wight & Arn., Fabaceae, was investigated in normal and neonatal streptozotocin (n2-STZ-induced non insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM rats and compared with glibenclamide as a reference standard. Two different doses (250 and 500 mg/kg of the extract were administered to normal and experimental diabetic rats for 21 days. Fasting blood glucose levels, serum lipid profiles and changes in body weight were evaluated in normal and diabetic rats while serum insulin, glycated hemoglobin, urea, creatinine, magnesium, protein, albumin and glycogen, glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase (GOT, glutamate pyruvate transaminase (GPT, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH levels in kidney and liver were evaluated additionally in diabetic rats. Treatment with extract at both dose levels was found to exhibit antidiabetic activity, with the higher dose showing more significant activity.

  14. Evaluation of antidiabetic and related actions of some Indian medicinal plants in diabetic rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Raju N Patil; Ravindra Y Patil; Bharati Ahirwar; Dheeraj Ahirwar

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate antidiabetic activity of chloroform extracts of Acacia arabica bark,Benincasa hispida fruit, Tinispora cordifolia stem, Ocimum sanctum areal parts and Jatropha curcus leaves. Methods: The chloroform extracts of Acacia arabica bark, Benincasa hispida fruit, Tinospora cordifolia stem, aerial part of Ocimum sanctum and Jatropha curcus leaves were evaluated at different doses (250 and 500 mg/kg body weight.) for antidiabetic potentials in alloxan induced diabetic albino rats. The extracts were administered for two weeks in different groups whereas tolbutamide (80 mg/kg body weight) was used as reference standard throughout study. Results: The result of present study showed test compounds significantly decreases elevated level of serum glucose and also caused to reverse the cholesterol, triglyceride, HDL and LDL values when compared to untreated diabetic rats. Conclusions: Our finding indicates that different test extracts were able to ameliorate the derangements in lipid metabolism caused by diabetes mellitus in alloxan induced diabetic rats towards normal level.

  15. 中药注射剂不良反应103例回顾性分析%An retrospective analysis of adverse drug reaction in 103 cases of traditional Chinese medicine injection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    易智勇

    2014-01-01

    目的:探讨中药注射剂不良反应( ADR)发生的规律及特点,为安全合理使用中药注射剂提供参考。方法对安徽省淮南新华医疗集团新华医院2010年1月至2013年12月663例ADR报告进行归纳整理,其中103例中药注射剂ADR报告,按患者年龄、性别、给药途径、报告来源、评价、临床表现、ADR涉及系统/器官等方面进行统计、分析。结果103例ADR报告中,共涉及26种药品,均为静脉给药方式,有90例(87.37%)发生在用药30 min 以内,男女性别比例为60:43,60岁以上老年患者 ADR 发生率最高(54.37%),以皮肤及附件损害为主(35例,33.98%),灯盏花素ADR例数最多(15例,14.56%)。结论应坚持开展中药注射剂ADR监测与上市后再评价,规范、合理使用中药注射剂,保障用药安全。%Objective To understand the rules and characteristics of adverse drug reaction ( ADR) in Xinhua Hospital of Xinhua Medical Group ( Huainan City Anhui Province )′s traditional Chinese medicine ( TCM) injection ca-ses,and to provide reference for rational and safety usage of TCM injection .Methods Reorganization was preformed on 663 cases of ADR report from January 2010 to November 2013 in this hospital .We selected 103 cases of TCM in-jection′s ADR reports,and made statistics and analysis according to patients′age,sex,drug source,report source,eval-uation,clinical features,system and organ ADR involved,etc.Results 103 cases of ADR reports involved in 26 kinds of drugs.All of them were vein medication .87.37%of the above cases were happened in 30 minutes with gender ratio of 60:43.54.36%were old patients over 60 with the highest incidence rate .33.98%were skin and appendages dis-orders.14.56%were Breviscapine ADR reports which was the most one .Conclusion It must insist on monitoring ADR of TCM injection and re-evaluation of market products ,to use TCM injection normative and rational ,and

  16. 淋菌对β-内酰胺类抗菌药物的药敏试验结果回顾性分析%Drug susceptibility tests of neisseria gonorrhoeae to β-lactams antibiotics:a retrospective analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘明章; 沈翠芬; 吴原; 张晓祥; 王翔

    2011-01-01

    目的 了解淋菌对β-内酰胺类抗菌药物的敏感性,为淋病的防治提供科学依据.方法 回顾性分析纸片扩散法检测86株淋菌对6种β-内酞胺类抗菌药物的药敏试验结果,产色头孢硝噻吩法检测β-内酰胺酶.结果 质粒介导的产青霉素酶淋菌阳性菌株30株,占34.88%;淋菌对青霉素、头孢呋辛、头孢噻肟、头孢他啶、头孢曲松、头孢吡肟的敏感率分别为8.14%,75.58%,90.70%,93.02%,86.05%,94.19%;青霉素的药物敏感性显著低于头孢呋辛,差异有统计学意义(X2=80.36,P<0.01);头孢呋辛的药物敏感性比头孢曲松的药物敏感性低,差异无统计学意义,但是头孢呋辛有5株耐药菌株;头孢噻肟、头孢他啶、头孢曲松、头孢吡肟的敏感率,差异无统计学意义.结论 第三、四代头孢菌素可作为治疗淋菌感染的一线药物.%OBJECTIVE To investigate the β-lactams susceptibility of Neisseria gonorrhoeae and provide scientific basis for the treatment and prevention of gonorrhea. METHODS A retrospective survey was conducted. β-lactams susceptibility tests were tested by Disk diffusion, and βlactamase was determined by nitrocefin. RESULTS Plasmid mediated penicillinase producing Neisseria gonorrhoeae(PPNG) were 30 straines(34. 88 %). Susceptive rates of penicillin, cefuroxime, cefotaxime, ceftazidime, ceftriaxone and cefepime were 8. 14%, 75. 58%, 90.70%, 93. 02%, 86. 05% and 94. 19%, respectively. The sensitivity of penicillin was lower than that of cefuroxime with significant difference(x2 =80.36, P<0. 001). The sensitivity of cefuroxime was lower than that of ceftriaxone without significant difference (x2 =3.04, P = 0. 08), while there were 5 resistant strains for cefuroxine. There was no significant difference (x2=4.08,P= 2. 53) among the sensitivities of cefotaxime, ceftazidime, ceftriaxone and cefepime. CONCLUSION The third generation of cephalosporins such as cefotaxime, ceftazidime, ceftriaxone and the

  17. Alpha-Glucosidase Enzyme Biosensor for the Electrochemical Measurement of Antidiabetic Potential of Medicinal Plants

    OpenAIRE

    Mohiuddin, M.; D. Arbain; Islam, A. K. M. Shafiqul; M. S. Ahmad; Ahmad, M.N.

    2016-01-01

    A biosensor for measuring the antidiabetic potential of medicinal plants was developed by covalent immobilization of α-glucosidase (AG) enzyme onto amine-functionalized multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs-NH2). The immobilized enzyme was entrapped in freeze-thawed polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) together with p-nitrophenyl-α-d-glucopyranoside (PNPG) on the screen-printed carbon electrode at low pH to prevent the premature reaction between PNPG and AG enzyme. The enzymatic reaction within the biosen...

  18. Blood Pressure and Cardiovascular Effects of New and Emerging Antidiabetic Agents

    OpenAIRE

    Balfour, Pelbreton C.; Rodriguez, Carlos J.; Ferdinand, Keith C.

    2014-01-01

    Despite remarkable declines in US cardiovascular disease morbidity and mortality over the last several decades, the prevalence of risk factors such as type 2 diabetes and hypertension remains high, associated with increasing obesity rates. Although optimal glycemic control remains a primary focus to decrease the disease burden, the FDA has issued guidance recommendations for documenting cardiovascular disease-related safety with research trials on new antidiabetic agents with more demanding r...

  19. Antidiabetic and antioxidant activities ofNypa fruticans Wurmb. vinegar sample from Malaysia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Nor Adlin Yusoff; Mun Fei Yam; Hooi Kheng Beh; Khairul Niza Abdul Razak; Tri Widyawati; Roziahanim Mahmud; Mariam Ahmad; Mohd Zaini Asmawi

    2015-01-01

    Objective:To study the antidiabetic and antioxidant activities of nipa palm vinegar (NPV) used in traditional Malay medicine for treating diabetes.Methods:NPV was extracted using liquid-liquid extraction method and the obtained samples were subjected to antidiabetic studies using normal and streptozotocin-induced diabetic rat models whereas antidoxidant activities were investigated viain vitroantioxidant tests namely 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl and 2,2’-azinobis-3-ethylbenzothiozoline-6-sulfonic acid free radicals scavenging activities and the reducing power assay.Results:Single administration of NPV and its extracts were not effective in both normal and diabetic rats. In intraperitoneal glucose tolerance test, NPV and its aqueous extract showed significant blood glucose lowering effect. In the sub-acute study, compared with the diabetic control, aqueous extract of NPV showed the most notable blood glucose lowering effect (56.6%) and a significant improvement in serum insulin levels (79.8%, P<0.05). To assess NPV’s antioxidant activity, threein vitro antioxidant tests were employed:2,2-diphenyl-1-picryhydrazyl and 2,2’-azinobis-3-ethylbenzothiozoline-6-sulfonic acid free radical-scavenging assays, and the reducing power assay. Ethyl acetate extract had the greatest antioxidant potential and content of phenolic and flavonoid compounds. A linear positive correlation between the antioxidant parameters was observed. Chemical profiling analysis of aqueous extract of NPV revealed the presence of acetic acid (35.25%), the main active constituent which significantly contributed to the observed antidiabetic activity.Conclusions:Aqueous extract of NPV possesses antihyperglycaemic activities comparable to the metformin, while the ethyl acetate extract precipitated significant antioxidant effects attributable to its high phenolic content. These findings suggest that antioxidant compounds of NPV do not contribute much towards the overall observed antidiabetic effect.

  20. Modulating gut microbiota as an anti-diabetic mechanism of berberine

    OpenAIRE

    Han, Junling; Lin, Huiling; HUANG, Weiping

    2011-01-01

    Summary Berberine, one of the main constituents of a Chinese traditional herb used to treat bacterial diarrhea, has an effect of lowering glucose, which has been recently confirmed by many studies. However, the mechanism of berberine’s antidiabetic effect has not yet been well explained. Recent evidence suggests that the gut microbiota composition is associated with obesity and type 2 diabetes, which are closely associated with a low-grade inflammatory state. The protective effect against dia...

  1. Enhancement of Sodium Caprate on Intestine Absorption and Antidiabetic Action of Berberine

    OpenAIRE

    Lv, Xiao-Yan; Li, Jing; Zhang, Ming; Wang, Chun-Mei; Fan, Zheng; Wang, Chun-Yan; Li CHEN

    2010-01-01

    Berberine, a plant alkaloid used in traditional Chinese medicine, has a wide spectrum of pharmacological actions, but the poor bioavailability limits its clinical use. The present aim was to observe the effects of sodium caprate on the intestinal absorption and antidiabetic action of berberine. The in situ, in vitro, and in vivo models were used to observe the effect of sodium caprate on the intestinal absorption of berberine. Intestinal mucosa morphology was measured to evaluate the toxic ef...

  2. ANTIDIABETIC AND ANTIHYPERLIPIDAEMIC EFFECT OF HYDRO-ALCOHOLIC EXTRACT OF CALENDULA OFFICINALIS

    OpenAIRE

    Chakraborthy G.S; Arora R; Majee C

    2011-01-01

    Calendula officinalis, belonging to the family of Asteraceae, commonly known as English Marigold or Pot Marigold is an aromatic herb which is used in Traditional System of Medicine. It is mainly used because of its various biological activities to treat diseases like analgesic, antidiabetic and anti-inflammatory. It is also used for ingastro-intestinal, gynecological, eye disease, skin injuries and in some cases of burn. The plant is rich in many pharmaceutical active ingredients like Caroten...

  3. Antidiabetic effect of Ethanol extract of Syzygium jambolanum seed (In-Vitro)

    OpenAIRE

    Sumiran Kumar Sinha; Imran Ahmad; Gayathri M

    2013-01-01

    Plant Syzygium Jambolanum is a well known Indian folklore medicine for treatment of diabetes mellitus. They have also reported to possesses anti-bacterial and anti-inflammatory activities .The in-vitro study was undertaken to investigate and confirm antidiabetic activity of the ethanol extract of the seeds using yeast model and to determine α- amylase inhibition. Percentage increase in glucose uptake by yeast was seen by varying; extract concentration and time. At high extract concentration y...

  4. Antidiabetic activity of Pseudarthria viscida aqueous root extract in neonatal streptozotocin-induced NIDDM rats

    OpenAIRE

    Rajendran Kuppusamy; Annie Shirwaikar; Kishore G. Sam; Srinivasan K. Kaitheri

    2012-01-01

    The antidiabetic activity of the aqueous root extract of Pseudarthria viscida (L.) Wight & Arn., Fabaceae, was investigated in normal and neonatal streptozotocin (n2-STZ)-induced non insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM) rats and compared with glibenclamide as a reference standard. Two different doses (250 and 500 mg/kg) of the extract were administered to normal and experimental diabetic rats for 21 days. Fasting blood glucose levels, serum lipid profiles and changes in body weight wer...

  5. Antidiabetic and Antioxidant Properties of Alkaloids from Catharanthus roseus (L.) G. Don

    OpenAIRE

    Won Fen Wong; Shiau-Chuen Cheah; Mohd Rais Mustafa; Mohammadjavad Paydar; Aditya Arya; Soon Huat Tiong; Chung Yeng Looi; Khalijah Awang; Hazrina Hazni

    2013-01-01

    Catharanthus roseus (L.) G. Don is a herbal plant traditionally used by local populations in India, South Africa, China and Malaysia to treat diabetes. The present study reports the in vitro antioxidant and antidiabetic activities of the major alkaloids isolated from Catharanthus roseus (L.) G. Don leaves extract. Four alkaloids—vindoline I, vindolidine II, vindolicine III and vindolinine IV—were isolated and identified from the dichloromethane extract (DE) of this plant’s leaves. DE and comp...

  6. Antidiabetic effects of Momordica charantia (bitter melon) and its medicinal potency

    OpenAIRE

    Joseph, Baby; Jini, D

    2013-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus is among the most common disorder in developed and developing countries, and the disease is increasing rapidly in most parts of the world. It has been estimated that up to one-third of patients with diabetes mellitus use some form of complementary and alternative medicine. One plant that has received the most attention for its anti-diabetic properties is bitter melon, Momordica charantia (M. charantia), commonly referred to as bitter gourd, karela and balsam pear. Its fruit ...

  7. Antidiabetic and antioxidant activities of Nypa fruticans Wurmb. vinegar sample from Malaysia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Nor; Adlin; Yusoff; Mun; Fei; Yam; Hooi; Kheng; Beh; Khairul; Niza; Abdul; Razak; Tri; Widyawati; Roziahanim; Mahmud; Mariam; Ahmad; Mohd; Zaini; Asmawi

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To study the antidiabetic and antioxidant activities of nipa palm vinegar(NPV) used in traditional Malay medicine for treating diabetes. Methods: NPV was extracted using liquid-liquid extraction method and the obtained samples were subjected to antidiabetic studies using normal and streptozotocin-induced diabetic rat models whereas antidoxidant activities were investigated via in vitro antioxidant tests namely 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl and 2,2’-azinobis-3-ethylbenzothiozoline-6-sulfonic acid free radicals scavenging activities and the reducing power assay. Results: Single administration of NPV and its extracts were not effective in both normal and diabetic rats. In intraperitoneal glucose tolerance test, NPV and its aqueous extract showed significant blood glucose lowering effect. In the sub-acute study, compared with the diabetic control, aqueous extract of NPV showed the most notable blood glucose lowering effect(56.6%) and a significant improvement in serum insulin levels(79.8%, P<0.05). To assess NPV’s antioxidant activity, three in vitro antioxidant tests were employed: 2,2-diphenyl-1-picryhydrazyl and 2,2’-azinobis-3-ethylbenzothiozoline-6-sulfonic acid free radical-scavenging assays, and the reducing power assay. Ethyl acetate extract had the greatest antioxidant potential and content of phenolic and flavonoid compounds. A linear positive correlation between the antioxidant parameters was observed. Chemical profiling analysis of aqueous extract of NPV revealed the presence of acetic acid(35.25%), the main active constituent which significantly contributed to the observed antidiabetic activity. Conclusions: Aqueous extract of NPV possesses antihyperglycaemic activities comparable to the metformin, while the ethyl acetate extract precipitated significant antioxidant effects attributable to its high phenolic content. These findings suggest that antioxidant compounds of NPV do not contribute much towards the overall observed antidiabetic

  8. A Database of Antidiabetic Plant Species of Family Asteraceae, Euphorbiaceae, Fabaceae, Lamiaceae and Moraceae

    OpenAIRE

    Tanu Sharma; M C Sidhu

    2013-01-01

    Plants are playing a great role in the fulfillment of day to day needs and are an integral component of the health care systems. Present review is concerned with the compilation of information related to antidiabetic activity of medicinal plants belonging to families Asteraceae, Euphorbiaceae, Fabaceae, Lamiaceae and Moraceae from the available literature. A detailed account of 88 plant species has been collected. This information is useful in different areas of research especially for the ph...

  9. ANTIGLYCATION, ANTIOXIDANT AND ANTIDIABETIC ACTIVITY OF MATURE STRAWBERRY (FRAGARIA x ANANASSA) FRUITS

    OpenAIRE

    Pallavi Mandave; Sandhya Rani; Aniket Kuvalekar; Prabhakar Ranjekar

    2013-01-01

    A comprehensive in vitro study involving antiglycation, antioxidant and anti-diabetic assays was carried out in mature fruits of strawberry. The effect of aqueous extract of mature strawberry fruits on glycation of guanosine with glucose and fructose with or without oxidizing entities like reactive oxygen species was analyzed. Spectral studies showed that glycation and/or fructation of guanosine was significantly inhibited by aqueous extract of strawberry. The UV absorbance of the glycation r...

  10. ANTI-DIABETIC EFFECT OF MORUS ALBA ON RABBIT AS ANIMAL MODEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laddha G. P.

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available A study of ancient literature indicates that diabetes was fairly well known and well conceived as an entity in India. The nature has provided abundant plant wealth for all the living creatures, which possess medicinal virtues. Therefore, there is a necessity to explore their uses and to conduct Pharmacognostic and pharmacological studies to ascertain their therapeutic properties. In fact, nowadays diabetes is a global problem. Hence, the present study aims to open new avenues for the improvement of medicinal uses of Morus alba. for the area for diabetes. Another important objective of such study is to bring the anti-diabetic medicinal plants sector on a firm scientific footing, raise awareness and add value to the resource. Dried petroleum ether (60-80°C extracts of leaves of Morus alba. were subjected for hypoglycemic activity in New Zealand rabbits (1.5-3.5 kg. Blood sugar level was determined using digital glucometer. The oral administration of leaf extracts at doses of 200 mg/ kg− lead to a significant blood glucose reduction. This laid the foundation to study the active compounds of such anti-diabetic plants that are responsible for the hypoglycemic activities. It also proves the traditional claim of Kachh region with regard to Morus Alba for its anti-diabetic activity.

  11. Enhancement of sodium caprate on intestine absorption and antidiabetic action of berberine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lv, Xiao-Yan; Li, Jing; Zhang, Ming; Wang, Chun-Mei; Fan, Zheng; Wang, Chun-Yan; Chen, Li

    2010-03-01

    Berberine, a plant alkaloid used in traditional Chinese medicine, has a wide spectrum of pharmacological actions, but the poor bioavailability limits its clinical use. The present aim was to observe the effects of sodium caprate on the intestinal absorption and antidiabetic action of berberine. The in situ, in vitro, and in vivo models were used to observe the effect of sodium caprate on the intestinal absorption of berberine. Intestinal mucosa morphology was measured to evaluate the toxic effect of sodium caprate. Diabetic model was used to evaluate antidiabetic effect of berberine coadministered with sodium caprate. The results showed that the absorption of berberine in the small intestine was poor and that sodium caprate could significantly improve the poor absorption of berberine in the small intestine. Sodium caprate stimulated mucosal-to-serosal transport of berberine; the enhancement ratios were 2.08, 1.49, and 3.49 in the duodenum, jejunum, and ileum, respectively. After coadministration, the area under the plasma concentration-time curve of berberine was increased 28% than that in the absence of sodium caprate. Furthermore, both berberine and coadministration with sodium caprate orally could significantly decrease fasting blood glucose and improve glucose tolerance in diabetic rats (P effect of coadministration group was remarkably stronger, and the areas under the glucose curves was decreased 22.5%, compared with berberine treatment group (P berberine in intestine and enhance its antidiabetic effect without any serious mucosal damage.

  12. Synthesis, characterization and in vitro anti-diabetic activity of catechin grafted inulin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jun; Lu, Jian-feng; Kan, Juan; Wen, Xiao-yuan; Jin, Chang-hai

    2014-03-01

    In this study, a novel biological macromolecule with strong in vitro anti-diabetic activity was developed by grafting catechin onto inulin via a free radical mediated method. The characterization, α-glucosidase and α-amylase inhibitory activities of catechin grafted inulin (catechin-g-inulin) were investigated. Results showed that the grafting ratio of catechin-g-inulin was 124.8 mg CAE/g. UV-vis spectrum of catechin-g-inulin exhibited a new band at 280 nm, attributing to B ring of catechin moiety. FT-IR spectrum of catechin-g-inulin showed new absorption bands between 1540 and 1418 cm(-1), attributing to CC stretching vibration of catechin moiety. (1)H NMR spectrum of catechin-g-inulin preserved all the characteristic proton signals of inulin and partial signals of catechin. These all confirmed the successful grafting copolymerization. Conjugation probably occurred between OH of inulin (C-6) and H-6/H-8 of catechin (A ring). Catechin-g-inulin also exhibited increased thermal stability and crystallinity as compared to inulin. Moreover, in vitro anti-diabetic assays showed the α-glucosidase inhibitory activity decreased in the order of catechin-g-inulin>catechin>acarbose>inulin, and α-amylase inhibitory activity decreased in the order of catechin-g-inulin>acarbose>catechin>inulin. These indicated the potential of catechin-g-inulin in the development of a novel effective anti-diabetic agent.

  13. Berberine enhances antidiabetic effects and attenuates untoward effects of canagliflozin in streptozotocin-induced diabetic mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Cai-Ming; Jiang, Xin; Ouyang, Xiao-Xi; Zhang, Ya-Ou; Xie, Wei-Dong

    2016-07-01

    The present study aimed at determining whether berberine can enhance the antidiabetic effects and alleviate the adverse effects of canagliflozin in diabetes mellitus. Streptozotocin-induced diabetic mice were introduced, and the combined effects of berberine and canagliflozin on glucose metabolism and kidney functions were investigated. Our results showed that berberine combined with canagliflozin (BC) increased reduction of fasting and postprandial blood glucose, diet, and water intake compared with berberine or canagliflozin alone. Interestingly, BC showed greater decrease in blood urea nitrogen and creatinine levels and lower total urine glucose excretion than canagliflozin alone. In addition, BC showed increased phosphorylated 5' AMP-activated protein kinase (pAMPK) expression and decreased tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFα) levels in kidneys, compared with berberine or canagliflozin alone. These results indicated that BC was a stronger antidiabetic than berberine or canagliflozin alone with less negative side effects on the kidneys in the diabetic mice. The antidiabetic effect was likely to be mediated by synergically promoting the expression of pAMPK and reducing the expression of TNFα in kidneys. The present study represented the first report that canagliflozin combined with berberine was a promising treatment for diabetes mellitus. The exact underlying mechanisms of action should be investigated in future studies. PMID:27507202

  14. Antidiabetic activity and chemical constituents of the aerial parts of Heracleum dissectum Ledeb.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hailong; Su, Yaping; Wang, Xinrui; Mi, Jie; Huo, Yayu; Wang, Zhigang; Liu, Ying; Gao, Yang

    2017-01-01

    Heracleum dissectum Ledeb. has long been used as a wild edible vegetable by local people in China. The purpose of this study is to investigate the antidiabetic potential of aerial part of H. dissectum methanol extract (HdME) and the chemical constituents. Ten compounds including eight coumarins were isolated and four of them were found from H. dissectum for the first time. HdME potently inhibited the elevation of plasma glucose after its oral administration to glucose-loaded mice, and its petroleum ether (PE) fraction exerted the greatest inhibitory activities. Meanwhile, HdME (125 and 250mg/kg) also significantly decreased the blood glucose level in STZ-induced diabetic mice, but had no effect in normoglycemic mice. Additionally, HdME showed weak inhibitory effects on α-glucosidase activity and DPPH free radicals scavenging. In conclusion, HdME has antidiabetic action and PE fraction is the active part where coumarins possibly play an important role in antidiabetic activity. PMID:27507512

  15. Antidiabetic Properties, Bioactive Constituents, and Other Therapeutic Effects of Scoparia dulcis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pamunuwa, Geethi; Karunaratne, D Nedra; Waisundara, Viduranga Y

    2016-01-01

    This review discusses the antidiabetic activities of Scoparia dulcis as well as its antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties in relation to the diabetes and its complications. Ethnomedical applications of the herb have been identified as treatment for jaundice, stomach problems, skin disease, fever, and kidney stones, reproductory issues, and piles. Evidence has been demonstrated through scientific studies as to the antidiabetic effects of crude extracts of S. dulcis as well as its bioactive constituents. The primary mechanisms of action of antidiabetic activity of the plant and its bioactive constituents are through α-glucosidase inhibition, curbing of PPAR-γ and increased secretion of insulin. Scoparic acid A, scoparic acid D, scutellarein, apigenin, luteolin, coixol, and glutinol are some of the compounds which have been identified as responsible for these mechanisms of action. S. dulcis has also been shown to exhibit analgesic, antimalarial, hepatoprotective, sedative, hypnotic, antiulcer, antisickling, and antimicrobial activities. Given this evidence, it may be concluded that S. dulcis could be promoted among the masses as an alternative and complementary therapy for diabetes, provided further scientific studies on the toxicological and pharmacological aspects are carried out through either in vivo or clinical means. PMID:27594892

  16. Antidiabetic Properties, Bioactive Constituents, and Other Therapeutic Effects of Scoparia dulcis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geethi Pamunuwa

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This review discusses the antidiabetic activities of Scoparia dulcis as well as its antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties in relation to the diabetes and its complications. Ethnomedical applications of the herb have been identified as treatment for jaundice, stomach problems, skin disease, fever, and kidney stones, reproductory issues, and piles. Evidence has been demonstrated through scientific studies as to the antidiabetic effects of crude extracts of S. dulcis as well as its bioactive constituents. The primary mechanisms of action of antidiabetic activity of the plant and its bioactive constituents are through α-glucosidase inhibition, curbing of PPAR-γ and increased secretion of insulin. Scoparic acid A, scoparic acid D, scutellarein, apigenin, luteolin, coixol, and glutinol are some of the compounds which have been identified as responsible for these mechanisms of action. S. dulcis has also been shown to exhibit analgesic, antimalarial, hepatoprotective, sedative, hypnotic, antiulcer, antisickling, and antimicrobial activities. Given this evidence, it may be concluded that S. dulcis could be promoted among the masses as an alternative and complementary therapy for diabetes, provided further scientific studies on the toxicological and pharmacological aspects are carried out through either in vivo or clinical means.

  17. Drug: D00593 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available s affecting metabolism 396 Antidiabetic agents 3961 Sulfonylureas D00593 Glimepiride (JP16/USP/INN) Anatomic...Blood Glucose Regulators Antidiabetic Agents Glimepiride D00593 Glimepiride (JP16/USP/INN) Target-based clas

  18. Drug: D10159 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available (TN); Oseni (TN); Incresync (TN) Alogliptin benzoate [DR:D06553], Pioglitazone hydrochloride [DR:D00945] Antidiabetic...R:br08301] 3 Agents affecting metabolism 39 Other agents affecting metabolism 396 Antidiabetic

  19. Drug: D09848 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available (TN) Pioglitazone hydrochloride [DR:D00945], Glimepiride [DR:D00593] Antidiabetic [DS:H00409] Therapeutic c...n Japan [BR:br08301] 3 Agents affecting metabolism 39 Other agents affecting metabolism 396 Antidiabetic

  20. New inhibitors of glycogen phosphorylase as potential antidiabetic agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Somsák, L; Czifrák, K; Tóth, M; Bokor, E; Chrysina, E D; Alexacou, K-M; Hayes, J M; Tiraidis, C; Lazoura, E; Leonidas, D D; Zographos, S E; Oikonomakos, N G

    2008-01-01

    The protein glycogen phosphorylase has been linked to type 2 diabetes, indicating the importance of this target to human health. Hence, the search for potent and selective inhibitors of this enzyme, which may lead to antihyperglycaemic drugs, has received particular attention. Glycogen phosphorylase is a typical allosteric protein with five different ligand binding sites, thus offering multiple opportunities for modulation of enzyme activity. The present survey is focused on recent new molecules, potential inhibitors of the enzyme. The biological activity can be modified by these molecules through direct binding, allosteric effects or other structural changes. Progress in our understanding of the mechanism of action of these inhibitors has been made by the determination of high-resolution enzyme inhibitor structures (both muscle and liver). The knowledge of the three-dimensional structures of protein-ligand complexes allows analysis of how the ligands interact with the target and has the potential to facilitate structure-based drug design. In this review, the synthesis, structure determination and computational studies of the most recent inhibitors of glycogen phosphorylase at the different binding sites are presented and analyzed. PMID:19075645

  1. Clinical outcomes in low risk coronary artery disease patients treated with different limus-based drug-eluting stents--a nationwide retrospective cohort study using insurance claims database.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chao-Lun Lai

    Full Text Available The clinical outcomes of different limus-based drug-eluting stents (DES in a real-world setting have not been well defined. The aim of this study was to investigate the clinical outcomes of three different limus-based DES, namely sirolimus-eluting stent (SES, Endeavor zotarolimus-eluting stent (E-ZES and everolimus-eluting stent (EES, using a national insurance claims database. We identified all patients who received implantation of single SES, E-ZES or EES between January 1, 2007 and December 31, 2009 from the National Health Insurance claims database, Taiwan. Follow-up was through December 31, 2011 for all selected clinical outcomes. The primary end-point was all-cause mortality. Secondary end-points included acute coronary events, heart failure needing hospitalization, and cerebrovascular disease. Cox regression model adjusting for baseline characteristics was used to compare the relative risks of different outcomes among the three different limus-based DES. Totally, 6584 patients were evaluated (n=2142 for SES, n=3445 for E-ZES, and n=997 for EES. After adjusting for baseline characteristics, we found no statistically significant difference in the risk of all-cause mortality in three DES groups (adjusted hazard ratio [HR]: 1.14, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.94-1.38, p=0.20 in E-ZES group compared with SES group; adjusted HR: 0.77, 95% CI: 0.54-1.10, p=0.15 in EES group compared with SES group. Similarly, we found no difference in the three stent groups in risks of acute coronary events, heart failure needing hospitalization, and cerebrovascular disease. In conclusion, we observed no difference in all-cause mortality, acute coronary events, heart failure needing hospitalization, and cerebrovascular disease in patients treated with SES, E-ZES, and EES in a real-world population-based setting in Taiwan.

  2. Medication adherence in patients with diabetes mellitus: does physician drug dispensing enhance quality of care? Evidence from a large health claims database in Switzerland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huber, Carola A; Reich, Oliver

    2016-01-01

    Background The drug-dispensing channel is a scarcely explored determinant of medication adherence, which is considered as a key indicator for the quality of care among patients with diabetes mellitus. In this study, we investigated the difference in adherence between diabetes patients who obtained their medication directly from a prescribing physician (physician dispensing [PD]) or via a pharmacy. Methods A retrospective cohort study was conducted using a large health care claims database from 2011 to 2014. Patients with diabetes of all ages and receiving at least one oral antidiabetic drug (OAD) prescription were included. We calculated patients’ individual adherence to OADs defined as the proportion of days covered (PDC), which was measured over 1 year after patient identification. Good adherence was defined as PDC ≥80%. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was performed to assess the relationship between the PDC and the dispensing channel (PD, pharmacy). Results We identified a total of 10,430 patients prescribed drugs by a dispensing physician and 16,292 patients receiving drugs from a pharmacy. Medication adherence was poor in both patient groups: ~40% of the study population attained good adherence to OADs. We found no significant impact of PD on the adherence level in diabetes patients. Covariates associated significantly with good adherence were older age groups, male sex, occurrence of comorbidity and combined diabetes drug therapy. Conclusion In conclusion, adherence to antihyperglycemic medication is suboptimal among patients with diabetes. The results of this study provide evidence that the dispensing channel does not have an impact on adherence in Switzerland. Certainly, medication adherence needs to be improved in both supply settings. Physicians as well as pharmacists are encouraged to develop and implement useful tools to increase patients’ adherence behavior. PMID:27695299

  3. Medication adherence in patients with diabetes mellitus: does physician drug dispensing enhance quality of care? Evidence from a large health claims database in Switzerland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huber, Carola A; Reich, Oliver

    2016-01-01

    Background The drug-dispensing channel is a scarcely explored determinant of medication adherence, which is considered as a key indicator for the quality of care among patients with diabetes mellitus. In this study, we investigated the difference in adherence between diabetes patients who obtained their medication directly from a prescribing physician (physician dispensing [PD]) or via a pharmacy. Methods A retrospective cohort study was conducted using a large health care claims database from 2011 to 2014. Patients with diabetes of all ages and receiving at least one oral antidiabetic drug (OAD) prescription were included. We calculated patients’ individual adherence to OADs defined as the proportion of days covered (PDC), which was measured over 1 year after patient identification. Good adherence was defined as PDC ≥80%. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was performed to assess the relationship between the PDC and the dispensing channel (PD, pharmacy). Results We identified a total of 10,430 patients prescribed drugs by a dispensing physician and 16,292 patients receiving drugs from a pharmacy. Medication adherence was poor in both patient groups: ~40% of the study population attained good adherence to OADs. We found no significant impact of PD on the adherence level in diabetes patients. Covariates associated significantly with good adherence were older age groups, male sex, occurrence of comorbidity and combined diabetes drug therapy. Conclusion In conclusion, adherence to antihyperglycemic medication is suboptimal among patients with diabetes. The results of this study provide evidence that the dispensing channel does not have an impact on adherence in Switzerland. Certainly, medication adherence needs to be improved in both supply settings. Physicians as well as pharmacists are encouraged to develop and implement useful tools to increase patients’ adherence behavior.

  4. Identification of plant extracts with potential antidiabetic properties

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Kathrine B.; Minet, Ariane; Svenstrup, Henrik;

    2009-01-01

    , and their use is associated with several side effects. Partial PPARgamma agonists appear to be associated with fewer side effects but may still confer the desired insulin sensitizing action. Extracts from common medicinal/food plants were tested in a screening platform comprising a series of bioassays......Thiazolidinediones (TZDs) are insulin sensitizing drugs used to treat type 2 diabetes. The primary target of the TZDs is the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) gamma, a key regulator of adipogenesis and glucose homeostasis. Currently prescribed TZDs are full PPARgamma agonists......, including tests for PPARgamma, alpha and delta transactivation, adipocyte differentiation and insulin-stimulated glucose uptake, allowing identification of plants containing potentially interesting PPAR agonists. Twenty-two plant extracts out of 133 were found to increase insulin-stimulated glucose uptake...

  5. Morin: A Promising Natural Drug.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caselli, Anna; Cirri, Paolo; Santi, Alice; Paoli, Paolo

    2016-01-01

    Morin is a natural polyphenol, originally isolated from members of the Moraceae family that can be extracted from leaves, fruits, stems and branches of numerous plants. Several evidence have demonstrated that Morin could have a beneficial effect on several human diseases. In fact, Morin exerts antioxidant, antidiabetic, anti-inflammatory, antitumoral, antihypertensive, antibacterial, hypouricemic, and neuroprotective effects, by modulating the activity of many enzymes. In some cases, Morin shows a systemic protective action, reducing negative side effects of several drugs, without interfering with their functions. In addition, in vitro and in vivo studies demonstrated that Morin exhibits very low toxicity levels and its chronic administration is well tolerated. All these findings suggest that Morin could be used, either alone or in combination with other drugs, to prevent many human pathologies.

  6. The effect of sitagliptin on cardiovascular risk profile in Korean patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus: a retrospective cohort study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shin S

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Sooyoung Shin,1 Hyunah Kim2 1College of Pharmacy, Ajou University, Suwon, 2College of Pharmacy, Sookmyung Women’s University, Seoul, Republic of Korea Background: A 2013 postmarketing study suggested a possible link between saxagliptin use and hospital admission for heart failure. Cardiovascular (CV effects of sitagliptin, the most commonly prescribed antidiabetic in the same class as saxagliptin, have not been evaluated much in Asian patients with type 2 diabetes. This study sought to ascertain the CV safety of sitagliptin in Korean patients. Methods: A retrospective cohort study of 4,860 patients who were classified into the sitagliptin and metformin groups was conducted using electronic patient data retrieved from a major tertiary care medical center in Korea. Primary composite end points included CV death, myocardial infarction, and ischemic stroke. Secondary composite end points included the aforementioned individual primary outcomes plus hospitalization due to unstable angina, heart failure, or coronary revascularization. A Cox proportional-hazards model was used to compare CV risk associated with drug exposure. Results: Following propensity score (PS matching in a 1:2 ratio, 1,620 patients in the sitagliptin group and 3,240 patients in the metformin group were identified for cohort entry. The PS-matched hazard ratio (HR and 95% confidence interval (CI for sitagliptin relative to metformin were, respectively, 0.831 and 0.536–1.289 (P=0.408 for primary end point and 1.140 and 0.958–1.356 (P=0.139 for secondary end point. Heart failure hospitalization rates did not differ significantly between the two groups, with the PS-matched HR of 0.762 and 95% CI of 0.389–1.495 (P=0.430. When only those patients at high risk of ischemic heart disease were included for analysis, no excess CV risk was observed with sitagliptin compared with metformin. Overall, there were no substantial between-group differences in rates of adverse events, such as

  7. Drug: D07080 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 303.3993 D07080.gif Antidiabetic [DS:H00409] Therapeutic category: 3969 ATC code: A10BH02 dipeptidyl-peptid...ase 4 (DPP4) inhibitor [HSA:1803] [KO:K01278] hsa04974(1803) Protein digestion and absorption map07051 Antidiabetic...etabolism 39 Other agents affecting metabolism 396 Antidiabetic agents 3969 Others D07080 Vildagliptin (JAN/

  8. Drug: D06645 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 278] hsa04974(1803) Protein digestion and absorption Transporter: ABCB1 [HSA:5243], SLC22A8 [HSA:9376] map07051 Antidiabetic... agents affecting metabolism 396 Antidiabetic agents 3969 Others D06645 Sitaglipt...08302] Blood Glucose Regulators Antidiabetic Agents Sitagliptin D06645 Sitagliptin phosphate hydrate (JAN);

  9. Comparative study of antidiabetic activity of Cajanus cajan and Tamarindus indica in alloxan-induced diabetic mice with a reference to in vitro antioxidant activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laizuman Nahar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Oxidative stress not only develops complications in diabetic (type 1 and type 2 but also contributes to beta cell destruction in type 2 diabetes in insulin resistance hyperglycemia. Glucose control plays an important role in the pro-oxidant/antioxidant balance. Some antidiabetic agents may by themselves have antioxidant properties independently of their role on glucose control. Objective: The present investigation draws a comparison of the protective antioxidant activity, total phenol content and the antihyperglycemic activity of the methanolic extract of Cajanus cajan root (MCC and Tamarindus indica seeds (MTI. Materials and Methods: Antidiabetic potentials of the plant extracts were evaluated in alloxan-induced diabetic Swiss albino mice. The plant extracts at the doses of 200 and 400 mg/kg body weight was orally administered for glucose tolerance test during 1-hour study and hypoglycemic effect during 5-day study period in comparison with reference drug Metformin HCl (50 mg/kg. In vitro antioxidant potential of MCC and MTI was investigated by using 1, 1- diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH free radical scavenging activity at 517 nm. Total phenolic content, total antioxidant capacity and reducing power activity was also assayed. Results: There was a significant decrease in fasting serum glucose level (P < 0.001, reduction in blood glucose level (P < 0.001 in 5-days study, observed in the alloxan-induced diabetic mice. The reduction efficacy of blood glucose level of both the extracts is proportional to their dose but MCC is more potent than MTI. Antioxidant study and quantification of phenolic compound of both the extracts revealed that they have high antioxidant capacity. Conclusion: These studies showed that MCC and MTI have both hypoglycemic and antioxidant potential but MCC is more potent than MTI. The present study suggests that both MCC and MTI could be used in managing oxidative stress.

  10. GC-MS analysis and screening of antidiabetic, antioxidant and hypolipidemic potential of Cinnamomum tamala oil in streptozotocin induced diabetes mellitus in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kumar Suresh

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Aim of the study This study was made to investigate the antidiabetic, antioxidant and hypolipidemic potential of Cinnamomum tamala, (Buch.-Ham. Nees & Eberm (Tejpat oil (CTO in streptozotocin (STZ induced diabetes in rats along with evaluation of chemical constituents. Materials and methods The GC-MS (Gas chromatography–mass spectrometry analysis of the oil showed 31 constituents of which cinnamaldehyde was found the major component (44.898%. CTO and cinnamaldehyde was orally administered to diabetic rats to study its effect in both acute and chronic antihyperglycemic models. The body weight, oral glucose tolerance test and biochemical parameters viz. glucose level, insulin level, liver glycogen content, glycosylated hemoglobin, total plasma cholesterol, triglyceride and antioxidant parameters were estimated for all treated groups and compared against diabetic control group. Results CTO (100 mg/kg and 200 mg/kg, cinnamaldehyde (20 mg/kg and glibenclamide (0.6 mg/kg in respective groups of diabetic animals administered for 28 days reduced the blood glucose level in streptozotocin induced diabetic rats. There was significant increase in body weight, liver glycogen content, plasma insulin level and decrease in the blood glucose, glycosylated hemoglobin and total plasma cholesterol in test groups as compared to control group. The results of CTO and cinnamaldehyde were found comparable with standard drug glibenclamide. In vitro antioxidant studies on CTO using various models showed significant antioxidant activity. In vivo antioxidant studies on STZ induced diabetic rats revealed decreased malondialdehyde (MDA and increased reduced glutathione (GSH. Conclusion Thus the investigation results that CTO has significant antidiabetic, antioxidant and hypolipidemic activity.

  11. Oral lichen planus - retrospective study of 563 Croatian patients

    OpenAIRE

    Budimir, Vice; Richter, Ivica; Andabak-Rogulj, Ana; Vucicevic Boras, Vanja; Budimir, Jozo; Brailo, Vlaho

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: To investigate the epidemiological and clinical characteristics of oral lichen planus (OLP) in a group of Croatian patients seen between 2006 and 2012. Study D esign: A group of 563 patients with a diagnosis of OLP was retrospectively reviewed in our clinic. Data regarding age, gender, medical history, drugs, smoking, alcohol, chief complaint, clinical type, localization, his - tology, treatment and malignant transformation were registered. Results: Of the ...

  12. Anti-diabetic and anti-cholesterolemic activity of methanol extracts of three species ofAmaranthus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Girija K; Lakshman K; Udaya Chandrika; Sabhya Sachi Ghosh; Divya T

    2011-01-01

    Objective:To investigate the anti-diabetic and anti-cholesterolemic activity of methanol extracts of leaves ofAmaranthus caudatus,Amaranthus spinosus andAmaranthus viridis in normal and streptozotocin (STZ) induced diabetic rats.Methods:In this study, the anti-diabetic and anti-cholesterolemic activity of methanol extracts of leaves of all three plants was evaluated by using normal andSTZ induced diabetic rats at a dose of200 mg/kg and400 mg/kg p.o.daily for21days. Blood glucose levels and body weight were monitored at specific intervals, and different biochemical parameters, serum cholesterol, serum triglyceride, high density lipoprotein, low density lipoprotein and very low density lipoprotein were also assessed in the experimental animals. Histology of pancreas was performed.Results:It was found that all the three plants at 400 mg/kg dose showed significant anti-diabetic and anti-cholesterolemic activity (P<0.01), while at200 mg/kg dose less significant anti-diabetic activity (P<0.05) was observed.Conclusions:Methanol extracts ofAmaranthus caudatus,Amaranthus spinosus andAmaranthus viridis showed significant anti-diabetic and anti-cholesterolemic activity, which provides the scientific proof for their traditional claims.

  13. Assessing the effect of treatment duration on the association between anti-diabetic medication and cancer risk.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna But

    Full Text Available Most studies that have evaluated the association between anti-diabetic medication and cancer risk have suffered from methodological drawbacks. To avoid time-related biases, we evaluated the effect of treatment duration on the cancer risk among naive users of anti-diabetic medication as compared to non-users. In addition, we addressed the influence of common risk factors such as smoking and BMI. The study population comprised 23,394 participants of FINRISK surveys. Data on cancer and anti-diabetic medication were linked with the study cohorts. We applied Lexis tabulation to the data and analyzed split records by using Poisson regression. Changes in cancer incidence in relation to treatment duration were examined by modeling the rate ratio (RR. After a median follow-up of 9 years, 53 cancer cases among users of anti-diabetic medication and 1,028 among non-users were diagnosed. No significant difference in cancer risk between users and non-users was observed after adjustment. The RR for all medication regardless of its duration was 1.01 [95% CI 0.75-1.33], and 1.37 [0.94-1.94] for period of 1-4 years. The results were similar for metformin, sulfonylurea, and insulin. This study demonstrates that evaluation of the variation in cancer risk in relation to treatment duration is of particular importance for enhancing the accuracy of conclusions on the link between exposure to anti-diabetic medication and cancer risk.

  14. Preparation and characterization of superporous hydrogels as gastroretentive drug delivery system for rosiglitazone maleate

    OpenAIRE

    N. Vishal Gupta; Shivakumar, H. G.

    2010-01-01

    Background and the purpose of the study Many drugs which have narrow therapeutic window and are absorbed mainly in stomach have been developed as gastroretentive delivery system. Rosiglitazone maleate, an anti-diabetic, is highly unstable at basic pH and is extensively absorbed from the stomach. Hence there is a need to develop a gastroretentive system. In this study a superporous hydrogel was developed as a gastroretentive drug delivery system. Methods Chitosan/poly(vinyl alcohol) interpenet...

  15. Preparation and characterization of superporous hydrogels as gastroretentive drug delivery system for rosiglitazone maleate

    OpenAIRE

    N. Vishal Gupta; Shivakumar, H. G.

    2010-01-01

    "n  "nBackground and the purpose of the study: Many drugs which have narrow therapeutic window and are absorbed mainly in stomach have been developed as gastroretentive delivery system. Rosiglitazone maleate, an anti-diabetic, is highly unstable at basic pH and is extensively absorbed from the stomach. Hence there is a need to develop a gastroretentive system. In this study a superporous hydrogel was developed as a gastroretentive drug delivery system. "nMethods: Chito...

  16. Retrospect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weaver, Anthony

    1971-01-01

    A collection of essays on education printed in The New Era during the 1920-1930 era and written by: Beatrice Ensor, A. S. Neill, G. Bernard Shaw, Adolphe Ferriere, C. G. Jung, Martin Buber, Alfred Adler, Harold Rugg, Ovide Decroly, and Paul Langevin. (SE)

  17. Seasonal variation for the antidiabetic activity ofLoranthus micranthus methanol extract

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Patience Ogoamaka Osadebe; Edwin Ogechukwu Omeje; Philip Felix Uzor; Ernest Kenechukwu David; Damian Chiedozie Obiorah

    2010-01-01

    Objective:To determine the season in which the Eastern Nigeria mistletoe,Loranthus micranthus, parasitic onPersea americana possesses optimum antidiabetic activity and to determine the seasonal variation in the constituents.Methods: The antidiabetic activities of the aqueous methanol extracts of the leaves of Eastern Nigeria mistletoe,Loranthus micranthus, harvested in two seasons of the year, the onset of rainy season (April) and the peak of rainy season (July) were compared. The tests were carried out on six (6) groups (A-F) of alloxan-induced diabetic rats. Groups A and B received 200 mg/kg and 400 mg/kg of the April sample extracts respectively while groups C and D received same doses of the July sample extracts. Group E and F which were the positive and negative controls received 10 mg/kg of glibenclamide and 2 ml/kg of 3% tween 20 respectively. The blood glucose levels of the animals were monitored hourly with a glucometer for six hours. The phytochemical analysis of the plant extracts were also carried out by standard procedures.Results: The results showed that group A and B exhibited significant (P0.05) FBS reduction (15.9%) while group D exhibited highly significant (P<0.01) reduction (47.5%) with the maximum reduction occurring after 6 hours. The phytochemical analysis of the crude methanol extracts revealed the presence of carbohydrates, glycosides, saponins, tannins, flavonoids, steroids, terpenoids, acidic compounds, resins and oils. These were present in different proportions in both seasons.Conclusions: This study shows that there is a seasonal, dose-dependent variation in the chemical compositionviz-a-viz the antidiabetic activity of the plant under study. This activity is highest at the peak of the rainy season.

  18. ANTIDIABETIC AND HYPOLIPIDEMIC ACTIVITY OF GYMNEMA SYLVESTRE IN DEXAMETHASONE INDUCED INSULIN RESISTANCE IN ALBINO RATS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hemanth Kumar V, Nagendra Nayak IM , Shobha V Huilgol, Saeed M Yendigeri , Narendar K

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Gymnema sylvestre plant was widely used for medicinal purpose. The plant leaves were traditionally used to treat diabetes. Aim: To determine the antidiabetic and hypolipidemic activity of Gymnema sylvestre in dexamethasone induced insulin resistance in Albino rats. Objectives: The present study was undertaken to evaluate antidiabetic and hypolipidemic activity of Gymnema sylvestre leaf aqueous extract against dexamethasone induced insulin resistance in Albino rats. Materials and Methods: Animals were divided into five groups. Normal control and diabetic control group received gum acacia (2% orally for 12days, and normal saline (i.p., dexamethasone (8mg/kg/i.p. from day 7- day12 respectively. Two test groups (Gymnema sylvestre leaf aqueous extract 2 and 4gm/kg/p.o./12days and standard control received metformin (2gm/kg/p.o./12 days. The two test groups, standard control group received dexamethasone (8mg/kg/i.p from day 7- day 12 respectively. The antidiabetic and hypolipidemic activity was estimated by measuring serum glucose, insulin, lipid levels and histopathological evaluation of liver tissue. Results were analyzed by using one way ANOVA followed by Scheffe’s multiple comparison test. Results: Treatment with aqueous extract of Gymnema sylvestre (2 and 4gm/kg/p.o significantly (p<0.01 altered the elevated glucose, lipid, insulin levels and also improved the histopathology of liver in dexamethasone induced insulin resistance rats. Conclusion: Treatment with aqueous extract of Gymnema sylvestre improved the altered glucose, insulin and lipid profile in insulin resistance rats.

  19. ANTIDIABETIC ACTIVITY OF CICHORIUM INTYBUS L. SEEDS ON STZ-INDUCED DIABETIC RATS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raad A. Kaskoos

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Diabetes mellitus is a chronic disorder of metabolism caused by an absolute or relative lack of insulin. WHO recommends evaluation of the antidiabetic potential of more and more plants to find a tenable cure for the disease. The folkloric claim that Cichorium intybus seeds are very effective in diabetes and its manifestations prompted us to evaluate its antidiabetic potential. C. intybus L. (Asteraceae, popularly known as Kasini, was first introduced by Prophet Mohammed 1400 years ago. The present study investigated the effect of a single oral administration of aqueous extract of C. intybus seeds on glucose levels in normal, normal hyperglycemic and STZ-induced diabetic rats at 100 mg/kg, 200 mg/kg and 500 mg/kg doses. A moderate dose-dependent antihyperglycaemic activity in STZ-induced diabetic rats was observed. For chronic studies 500 mg/kg was administered for 21 days and its effect on blood-glucose, serum insulin and lipid profile was estimated during the study. The results indicate that the continued administration of C. intybus extract produced a sustained antihyperglycaemic effect in STZ-induced diabetic rats. The insulin levels did not increase significantly. This indicated that the extract did not induce any regeneration of pancreatic b-cells. Thus the possible mechanism may either be increase in glucose utilization in the periphery or decrease in endogenous glucose production in the liver. It also decreased the levels of circulating lipids and lowered the atherogenic index. Thus, our study lends support to the claim for antidiabetic effect of C. intybus by pharmacological experimentation.

  20. Anti-diabetic related health food properties of traditional rice (Oryza sativa L. in Sri Lanka

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walimuni Kanchana Subhashini Mendis Abeysekera

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate a range of anti-diabetic related properties and some consumer preferred physicochemical properties of selected Sri Lankan traditional rice varieties. Methods: Sudu Heeneti, Goda Heeneti, Masuran and Dik Wee varieties were used in this study. Anti-diabetic related properties of bran extracts of selected varieties were studied for methylglyoxal mediated protein glycation inhibition, acetyl and butyryl-cholinesterase inhibition in vitro and anti-hyperglycemic activity in vivo. Further, selected varieties were studied for starch hydrolysis rate in vitro. Physicochemical properties including grain color, size, shape, crude protein, crude fat, ash, dietary fiber and total carbohydrate contents were studied. Results: Brans of selected varieties had significant (P < 0.05 and dose dependent methylglyoxal mediated protein glycation inhibition [IC50: (174.77 ± 6.65 to (342.87 ± 0.43 µg/mL] and acetyl [(IC50: (37.00 ± 0.68 to (291.00 ± 3.54 µg/mL] and butyryl-cholinesterase [IC50: (18.50 ± 0.60 to (96.60 ± 0.56 µg/mL] inhibitory activities. Further, Sudu Heeneti, Masuran and Dik Wee had low starch digestion rate (52.40 ± 1.44 to 53.76 ± 1.19 indicating that these varieties may be low glycemic index rices. Brans of Masuran tested in rat model showed anti-hyperglycemic activity. Physicochemical properties studied showed that selected varieties were red in color and grain size and shape were mostly medium and bold respectively. Moisture, crude protein, crude fat, ash and total carbohydrate contents varied significantly (P < 0.05 among the varieties. Conclusions: It is concluded that selected varieties could be promoted as physicochemically sound rices with a range of anti-diabetic related properties in the management of diabetes and its complications.

  1. Antidiabetic principles ofLoranthus micranthus Linn. parasitic onPersea americana

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Patience Ogoamaka Osadebe; Edwin Ogechukwu Omeje; Sylvester Chukwuemeka Nworu; Charles Okechukwu Esimone; Philip Felix Uzor; Ernest kenechukwu David; John Uchechukwu Uzoma

    2010-01-01

    Objective:To explore antidiabetic principles of the Eastern Nigeria mistletoe,Loranthus micranthus Linn. parasitic on Persea Americana.Methods:The weakly acidic fraction of the aqueous methanol extract of the leaves ofLoranthus micranthus (Linn.) was isolated and tested for its antidiabetic activities. The isolation of the weakly acidic fraction was carried out following established physico-chemical based procedures. Furthermore, alloxan-induced diabetic rats were treated intraperitoneally (ip) with250 mg/kg and400 mg/kg of the weakly acidic fraction, glibenclamide10mg/kg (positive control) and 2 mg/kg of3 % v/v tween20 (negative control). The sugar levels of the treated and untreated animals were determined by withdrawing the blood at regular intervals and testing them with an automated glucometer. The phytochemical analysis of the acidic fraction was carried out using standard procedures. Chromatographic techniques were employed in the subsequent isolation and purification of the constituents of the weakly acidic fraction.Results:It was shown that the maximum effect of the weakly acidic fraction was obtained at24 hours after administration and was found to be statistically comparable with that of the positive control. The phytochemical analysis revealed the presence of steroids, terpenoids, alkaloids, flavonoids, glycosides, carbohydrates, saponins, and acidic compounds in the crude extract and carbohydrates, flavonoids, terpenoids and oil in the weakly acidic fraction. Further purification of the weakly acidic fraction of the methanol extract using thin layer chromatography shows that toluene : methanol : diethyl amine (3:1:1) and chloroform: methanol: diethyl amine (9:1:1) are the best solvent system for the isolation of the various components of the weakly acidic fraction of the crude methanol extract ofLoranthus micranthus.Conclusions:The present study has led to the conclusion that the weakly acidic fraction of the plant under study has the potent

  2. The Optimal Extraction Parameters and Anti-Diabetic Activity of Flavonoids from Ipomoea Batatas Leaf

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Fenglin; Li, Qingwang; Gao, Dawei; Peng, Yong

    2009-01-01

    Extraction parameters of flavonoids from Ipomoea batatas leaf (FIBL) and anti-diabetic activity of FIBL on alloxan induced diabetic mice were studied. The optimal extraction parameters of FIBL were obtained by single factor test and orthogonal test, as follows: ethanol concentration 60 %, ratio of solvent to raw material 30, extraction temperature 75 ° and extraction time 1.5 h, while extraction yield of FIBL was 5.94 %. FIBL treatment (50, 100, and 150 mg/ kg body weight) for 28 days resulte...

  3. ANTI-DIABETIC ACTIVITY OF ROOTS OF QUERCUS INFECTORIA OLIVIER IN ALLOXAN INDUCED DIABETIC RATS

    OpenAIRE

    R. Saini * and S.M. Patil

    2012-01-01

    The methanolic extract of roots of Quercus infectoria Olivier at a dose of 250 mg/kg and 500 mg/kg body weight respectively was tested for anti-diabetic activity in Alloxan-induced hyperglycaemic rats. The blood glucose levels were measured at 0, 2h, 4h and 6h after the treatment. The methanolic extract reduced the blood glucose Alloxan- induced diabetic rats from 285.52 to 206.57mg/dl, 6h after oral administration of extract (P

  4. Antidiabetic activity of 3-hydroxyflavone analogues in high fructose fed insulin resistant rats

    OpenAIRE

    Nayak, Yogendra; Venkatachalam, H.; Daroji, Vijay Kumar; Mathew, Geetha; Jayashree, B. S.; Unnikrishnan, M. K.

    2014-01-01

    Synthetic 3-hydroxyflavone analogues (JY-1, JY-2, JY-3, JY-4), were tested for antidiabetic activity in high-fructose-diet-fed (66 %, for 6 weeks) insulin-resistant Wistar rats (FD-fed rats). The fasting blood glucose, insulin, creatinine and AGEs were decreased to near normal upon treatment with test compounds. Insulin resistance markers such as HOMA-IR, K-ITT, plasma triglycerides, lipids, endogenous antioxidant defense and glycogen were restored in FD-fed rats after treatment with 3-hydrox...

  5. Retrospective analysis of 8 years of efavirenz drug monotoring data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roelofs, R.; Roelofsen, M.W.E.E.; Touw, D.J.

    2010-01-01

    Introduction: Efavirenz (EFV) is a NNRTI frequently used in HAART. Therapy with EFV is monitored using TDM and clinical observation. Standard starting dose for EFV is 1 dd 600 mg. This should result in a plasma level in the range of 1-4 mg/l. Plasma levels above 4 mg/l are associated with a higher r

  6. 番石榴叶杂源萜类中抗糖尿病活性成分的虚拟筛选%Virtual Screening of Anti-Diabetes Active Components in Meroterpenoids from Psidium guajava Leaves

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘美凤; 谷灵灵; 蒋利荣; 周惠

    2012-01-01

    来源于番石榴叶的杂源萜类物质对治疗糖尿病的相关靶标有良好的抑制活性,这说明番石榴叶杂源萜类物质中可能含有降糖活性强的成分.因此,文中利用13个二醛杂源萜类化合物作为配体,分析了该类化合物与治疗糖尿病相关的PTP1B、PPARγ、PPARα、α-淀粉酶、α-葡萄糖苷酶的酶/受体分子对接情况,进行相应的虚拟筛选.结果显示:杂源萜类化合物与α-淀粉酶、α-葡萄糖苷酶无对接位点,但与PTP1B、PPARγ、PPARα有对接位点;蛋白和配体间的作用是通过弱非共价键力的相互作用而实现的,如疏水作用、π键和氢键;Euglobal Iia、Euglobal Ib、Euglobal Ic(首次从桉叶中分离得到)与PTP1B、PPARγ、PPARα的结合活性均较高,可为降糖药物的设计和结构修饰提供有用的信息.%The meroterpenoids from Psidium guajava leaves may contain some components with high anti-diabetes activity because they possess high inhibitory activity to the anti-diabetes targets. In this investigation, by using PTPIB, PPARγ, PPARa, α-amylase and α-glycosidase as anti-diabetes targets and 13 dialdehyde meroterpenoid compounds as ligands, the molecular docking conditions between the ligands and the targets were analyzed, thus implementing the corresponding virtual screening. The results show that the meroterpenoids have docking sites with PTPIB, PPARγ and PPARα, but not with a-amylase and a-glycosidase; and that the weak non-covalent interactions, namely hydrophobic interaction, π bonding and hydrogen bonding, all play an important role in the binding of ligands to proteins. In addition, Euglobal Iia, Euglobal Ib and Euglobal Ic firstly extracted from eucalyptus leaves have better affinity to PTPIB, PPARγ and PPARα, which provides some useful information for the design and structural modification of anti-diabetic drugs.

  7. Medicinal chemistry of the anti-diabetic effects of momordica charantia: active constituents and modes of actions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Jaipaul; Cumming, Emmanuel; Manoharan, Gunasekar; Kalasz, Huba; Adeghate, Ernest

    2011-01-01

    chemistry and use(s) of M. charantia and its various extracts and compounds, their biochemical properties and how they act as anti-diabetic (hypoglycemic) drugs and the various mechanisms by which they exert their beneficial effects in controlling and treating DM. PMID:21966327

  8. Antidiabetic and Hypolipidemic effect of methanol extract of Lippia nodiflora L. in streptozotocin induced diabetic rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Rangachari Balamurugan; Savarimuthu Ignacimuthu

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To assess the antidiabetic and hypolipidemic properties of Lippia nodiflora (L. nodiflora).Methods:Acute toxicity test was done to check the toxicity of L. nodiflora methanol extract and oral glucose tolerance test was performed in normal rats. L. nodiflora methanol extract at three dose levels was administerd orally to streptozotocin (STZ) (40mg/kg bw) induced diabetic rats for 15 days. The various parameters were studied including body weight, fasting blood glucose levels, plasma insulin, lipid profile, glycogen content, glycoslylated hemoglobin (HbA1c) and serum marker enzyme levels in normal, treated and diabetic rats. Histochemical analysis of pancreas was also carried out in normal, treated and diabetic rats. Results: The treatment group with the extract at three dose levels showed a significant increase in the liver, muscle glycogen and serum insulin level and a significant decrease in fasting blood glucose, glycosylated hemoglobin levels and serum marker enzyme levels. The total cholesterol and serum triglycerides levels were also significantly reduced and the high density lipoprotein level was significantly increased upon treatment with the L. nodiflora methanol extract. Histochemical study of pancreas also confirmed the biochemical findings. Acute toxicity studies revealed the non-toxic nature of the L. nodiflora methanol extract. Conclusions: The results of the experiments presented here suggest that methanol extract of L. nodiflora exerts significant antidiabetic and hypolipidaemic effect in STZ-induced diabetic rats.

  9. Antidiabetic Activity of Zinc Oxide and Silver Nanoparticles on Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetic Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Alkaladi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The use of nanoparticles in medicine is an attractive proposition. In the present study, zinc oxide and silver nanoparticles were evaluated for their antidiabetic activity. Fifty male albino rats with weight 120 ± 20 and age 6 months were used. Animals were grouped as follows: control; did not receive any type of treatment, diabetic; received a single intraperitoneal dose of streptozotocin (100 mg/kg, diabetic + zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnONPs, received single daily oral dose of 10 mg/kg ZnONPs in suspension, diabetic + silver nanoparticles (SNPs; received a single daily oral dose of SNP of 10 mg/kg in suspension and diabetic + insulin; received a single subcutaneous dose of 0.6 units/50 g body weight. Zinc oxide and silver nanoparticles induce a significant reduced blood glucose, higher serum insulin, higher glucokinase activity higher expression level of insulin, insulin receptor, GLUT-2 and glucokinase genes in diabetic rats treated with zinc oxide, silver nanoparticles and insulin. In conclusion, zinc oxide and sliver nanoparticles act as potent antidiabetic agents.

  10. Invitro Antidiabetic Activities of Agar, Agarosa, and Agaropectin from Gracilaria gigas Seaweed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hardoko

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Some types of seaweed are reported to have antidiabet activity in vivo or in vitro, but the activity antidiabet fractions of polysaccharides from seaweed has not been widely reported. Gracilaria gigas is one type of red seaweed that can produce agar and it has two factions, namely agarose and agaropectin. The aim of this study was to obtain an agar extract, agarose fraction, agaropektin fraction of Gracilaria gigas and to determine the α-glucosidase inhibitory activity of extracts and the fractions. Extraction of agar that used an ethanol solution, and to fractionate agarose and agaropektin used dimetilsulfoxide solution. The results showed that the fraction of the agarose having lower sulfate content (0.28% compared with agar (5.91% and agaropektin (6.07%. Types of samples (agar, agarose, and agaropektin and sample doses significantly in inhibiting α-glucosidase enzyme activity. Agarose fraction has IC50 value against α-glucosidase lowest (96.86 ± 4.61 ppm, followed by the extract agar (116.63 ± 5.61 ppm, then the fraction agaropektin (158.34 ± 1.77 ppm.

  11. Evaluation of Antidiabetic and Antihyperlipidemic Effects of Peganum harmala Seeds in Diabetic Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komeili, Gholamreza; Hashemi, Mohammad; Bameri-Niafar, Mohsen

    2016-01-01

    The present study was carried out to investigate the antidiabetic and antihyperlipidemic properties of hydroalcoholic extract of Peganum harmala in streptozotocin-induced diabetic male rats. In an experimental study, 64 normal Wistar albino male rats (200–230 g) were randomly divided into 8 groups. Control and diabetic rats were treated with normal saline and three different doses (30, 60, and 120 mg/kg) of hydroalcoholic extract of Peganum harmala seeds for 4 weeks orally. At the end of treatment, blood samples were taken and glucose, triglycerides, total cholesterol, LDL-c, HDL-c, malondialdehyde (MDA), total antioxidant capacity (TCA), ALT, AST, GGT, bilirubin, and glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1C) were determined. STZ-induced diabetic rats showed significant changes in the values of glucose, triglycerides, total cholesterol, LDL-c, MDA, TAC, ALT, AST, GGT, bilirubin, and HbA1C in comparison with normal rats. Administration of the extract to diabetic rats resulted in a remarkable decrease in glucose, lipid profiles, MDA, ALT, AST, GGT, bilirubin, and HbA1C levels and increase in TAC relative to diabetic group. The results of this study indicated that hydroalcoholic extract of Peganum harmala seeds possesses antidiabetic and hypolipidemic activities and could be useful in treatment of diabetes. PMID:27190643

  12. ANTIDIABETIC AND ANTIHYPERLIPIDAEMIC EFFECT OF POLYGALA JAVANA DC ON ALLOXAN INDUCED DIABETIC RATS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alagammal M

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The ethanol extract of Polygala javana whole plant (Family: Polygalaceae was investigated for it antidiabetic and antihyperlipidaemic effect in Wistar Albino rats. Diabetes was induced in albino rats by administration of alloxan monohydrate (150mg/kg, i.p. The ethanol extracts of Polygala javana at a dose of 100 and 200mg/kg of body weight were administered at single dose per day to diabetes induced rats for a period of 14 days. The effect of ethanol extract of Polygala javana whole plant extract on blood glucose, serum insulin, urea, creatinine, glycosylated haemoglobin, serum lipid profile [total cholesterol (TR, triglycerides (TG, low density lipoprotein – cholesterol (LDL-C, very low density lipoprotein – cholesterol (VLDL-C, high density lipoprotein – cholesterol (HDL-C and phospholipid (PL] serum protein, albumin, globulin, serum enzymes [serum glutamate pyruvate transaminases (SGPT, and serum glutamate oxaloacetate transaminases (SGOT, and alkaline phosphatase (ALP], were measured in the diabetic rats. The ethanol extract of Polygala javana whole plant elicited significant reductions of blood glucose (P<0.05, lipid parameters except HDL-C, serum enzymes and significantly increased HDL-C. The extracts also caused significant increase in serum insulin (P<0.05 in the diabetic rats. From the above results, it is concluded that ethanol extract of Polygala javana possesses significant antidiabetic and antihyperlipidaemic effects in alloxan induced diabetic rats.

  13. Antidiabetic activity of zinc oxide and silver nanoparticles on streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alkaladi, Ali; Abdelazim, Aaser Mohamed; Afifi, Mohamed

    2014-01-01

    The use of nanoparticles in medicine is an attractive proposition. In the present study, zinc oxide and silver nanoparticles were evaluated for their antidiabetic activity. Fifty male albino rats with weight 120 ± 20 and age 6 months were used. Animals were grouped as follows: control; did not receive any type of treatment, diabetic; received a single intraperitoneal dose of streptozotocin (100 mg/kg), diabetic + zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnONPs), received single daily oral dose of 10 mg/kg ZnONPs in suspension, diabetic + silver nanoparticles (SNPs); received a single daily oral dose of SNP of 10 mg/kg in suspension and diabetic + insulin; received a single subcutaneous dose of 0.6 units/50 g body weight. Zinc oxide and silver nanoparticles induce a significant reduced blood glucose, higher serum insulin, higher glucokinase activity higher expression level of insulin, insulin receptor, GLUT-2 and glucokinase genes in diabetic rats treated with zinc oxide, silver nanoparticles and insulin. In conclusion, zinc oxide and sliver nanoparticles act as potent antidiabetic agents. PMID:24477262

  14. Oligosaccharides Might Contribute to the Antidiabetic Effect of Honey: A Review of the Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohd S. Ab Wahab

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Evidence shows that honey improves glycemic control in diabetes mellitus. Besides its hypoglycemic effect, studies indicate that honey ameliorates lipid abnormalities in rats and humans with diabetes. The majority of these studies do not examine the mechanisms by which honey ameliorates glycemic and/or lipid derangements. The gut microbiota is now recognized for its ability to increase energy harvest from the diet and alter lipid metabolism of the host. Recently available data implicate a causal role of these gut microbes in the pathophysiology of obesity, insulin resistance, and diabetes mellitus. In this review, we present some of the latest findings linking gut microbiota to pathogenesis of obesity, insulin resistance, and diabetes mellitus. The review also underlines data that demonstrate the beneficial effects of oligosaccharides on various abnormalities commonly associated with these disorders. Based on the similarities of some of these findings with those of honey, together with the evidence that honey contains oligosaccharides, we hypothesize that oligosaccharides present in honey might contribute to the antidiabetic and other health-related beneficial effects of honey. We anticipate that the possibility of oligosaccharides in honey contributing to the antidiabetic and other health-related effects of honey will stimulate a renewed research interest in this field.

  15. Anti-Diabetic Potential of Noni: The Yin and the Yang.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nerurkar, Pratibha V; Hwang, Phoebe W; Saksa, Erik

    2015-01-01

    Escalating trends of chronic diseases such as type-2 diabetes (T2D) have sparked a renewed interest in complementary and alternative medicine, including herbal products. Morinda citrifolia (noni) has been used for centuries by Pacific Islanders to treat various ailments. Commercial noni fruit juice has been marketed as a dietary supplement since 1996. In 2003, the European Commission approved Tahitian noni juice as a novel food by the Health and Consumer Protection Directorate General. Among noni's several health benefits, others and we have demonstrated the anti-diabetic effects of fermented noni fruit juice in animal models. Unfortunately, noni's exciting journey from Polynesian medicine to the research bench does not reach its final destination of successful clinical outcomes when translated into commercial products. Noni products are perceived to be safe due to their "natural" origin. However, inadequate evidence regarding bioactive compounds, molecular targets, mechanism of action, pharmacokinetics, long-term safety, effective dosages, and/or unanticipated side effects are major roadblocks to successful translation "from bench side to bedside". In this review we summarize the anti-diabetic potential of noni, differences between traditional and modern use of noni, along with beneficial clinical studies of noni products and challenges in clinical translation of noni's health benefits.

  16. Anti-Diabetic Potential of Noni: The Yin and the Yang

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pratibha V. Nerurkar

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Escalating trends of chronic diseases such as type-2 diabetes (T2D have sparked a renewed interest in complementary and alternative medicine, including herbal products. Morinda citrifolia (noni has been used for centuries by Pacific Islanders to treat various ailments. Commercial noni fruit juice has been marketed as a dietary supplement since 1996. In 2003, the European Commission approved Tahitian noni juice as a novel food by the Health and Consumer Protection Directorate General. Among noni’s several health benefits, others and we have demonstrated the anti-diabetic effects of fermented noni fruit juice in animal models. Unfortunately, noni’s exciting journey from Polynesian medicine to the research bench does not reach its final destination of successful clinical outcomes when translated into commercial products. Noni products are perceived to be safe due to their “natural” origin. However, inadequate evidence regarding bioactive compounds, molecular targets, mechanism of action, pharmacokinetics, long-term safety, effective dosages, and/or unanticipated side effects are major roadblocks to successful translation “from bench side to bedside”. In this review we summarize the anti-diabetic potential of noni, differences between traditional and modern use of noni, along with beneficial clinical studies of noni products and challenges in clinical translation of noni’s health benefits.

  17. Antioxidant and antidiabetic activities of 11 herbal plants from Hyrcania region, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hossein Dehghan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical scavenging, α-amylase and α-glucosidase inhibition activities, and total phenolic contents of n-hexane, ethyl acetate, and methanol extracts of various parts of Allium paradoxum, Buxus hyrcana, Convolvulus persicus, Eryngium caucasicum, Heracleum persicum, Pimpinella affinis, Parrotia persica, Primula heterochroma, Pyrus boissieriana, Ruscus hyrcanus, and Smilax excelsa were investigated. These plants, which mostly serve as food flavoring, were collected from Hyrcania region, Sari, Iran. Some extracts of H. persicum, S. excels, P. boissieriana, P. persica, and P. heterochroma exhibited significant antidiabetic activities in α-amylase and α-glucosidase assays, more effective than acarbose (concentrations that cause 50% inhibition = 75.7 μg/mL and 6.1 μg/mL against α-amylase and α-glucosidase, respectively. Also, C. persicus, P. boissieriana, and P. heterochroma showed strong antioxidant activities, compared with butylated hydroxytoluene (concentration that causes 50% inhibition = 16.7 μg/mL. In conclusion, this study can recommend these plants as good candidates for further investigations to find potent antidiabetic natural products or probable lead compounds. Statistical analysis showed significant correlation between the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl scavenging activity and total phenolic contents (r = 0.711, p < 0.001.

  18. Antidiabetic and Hypolipidemic Activity of Monochoria Vaginalis Presl. On Alloxan Induced Diabetic Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chinna RR

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The Antidiabetic activity of Monochoria vaginalis presl. (Family: pontederiaceae was investigated inAlloxan induced diabetic albino rats. The Monochoria vaginalis prel plant has been reported for itsanalgesic activity, nephrotoxic, antioxidant activities and nutritive values, paniya tribe of India used theleaves for diabetes15 but there are no scientific data is available regarding the effect on the blood glucoselevels. So we have made an attempt to use hydroalcoholic extract of Monochoria vaginalis presl leaf(HAEMV for studying anti-diabetic activity. The dried leaves of Monochoria vaginalis presl. weresubjected to extraction by continuous hot percolation using water and ethanol (50 : 50 as solvent andwere subjected to standardization using pharmacognostical and phytochemical screening. Dose selectionwas made on the basis of acute oral toxicity study (200 mg/kg body weight as per OECD and CPCSEAguidelines. Oral administration of extracts of Monochoria vaginalis presl (200mg/kg, 400mg/kg for 14days resulted in a significant reduction in blood glucose levels. The extract also prevented body weightloss in diabetic rats.

  19. Compositional analysis and in vivo anti-diabetic activity of wild Algerian Marrubium vulgare L. infusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boudjelal, Amel; Henchiri, Cherifa; Siracusa, Laura; Sari, Madani; Ruberto, Giuseppe

    2012-03-01

    Marrubium vulgare (Lamiaceae) is a plant traditionally used for the treatment of diabetes in Algeria. Compositional analysis of the aqueous infusion revealed the presence of fifteen metabolites, all belonging to the class of polyphenols. Particularly, seven flavonoids have been detected, together with 5-caffeoylquinic (chlorogenic) acid in small amounts; the extract is dominated by the presence of a series of complex molecules, characterized as verbascoside (acteoside) derivatives. Concerning the anti-diabetic effectiveness a series of in vivo experiments were carried out on albinos Wistar rats. Diabetes was induced in the animals by intra-peritoneal injection of alloxane; they were treated twice a day with aqueous extract from aerial part infusion (100, 200 and 300 mg/kg body weight) and glibenclamide (5mg/kg body weight) for 15 days. Oral administration of 200 and 300 mg/kg body weight of aqueous extract the Marrubium vulgare induced an significant effect antidiabetic and antihyperlipidemic (dose-dependent effect). A decrease in blood glucose by 50% for the dose 100 mg/kg and more than 60% for doses 200 and 300 mg/kg, as well as a significant lowering of total lipids, triglycerides, and total cholesterol levels in treated animals, compared with diabetic controls group (p<0.001), have been observed. Glibenclamide was used as reference and showed similar effects. PMID:22100836

  20. Antidiabetic effect of Merremia emarginata Burm. F. in streptozotocin induced diabetic rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    G Rajiv Gandhi; P Sasikumar

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the antidiabetic property of Merremia emarginata (M. emarginata) Burm. F. plant in streptozotocin induced diabetic rats. Methods: The dose dependent effects of 28 days oral treatment with methanol extract (100, 200 and 400 mg/kg) from the plant of M. emarginata on blood glucose level, body weight, insulin, total hemoglobin, glycosylated haemoglobin (HbA1C), total protein, serum urea, serum creatinine and carbohydrate metabolizing enzymes were evaluated in streptozotocin induced diabetic rats. Histology of pancreas was also studied. Results: A significant decrease in blood glucose, serum urea and serum creatinine and significant increase in body weight, insulin and protein level were observed in diabetic rats treated with M. emarginata. Treatment with M. emarginata resulted in a significant reduction of HbA1C and an increase in total hemoglobin level. The activities of carbohydrate metabolizing enzymes such as hexokinase were significantly increased whereas glucose-6-phosphatase, fructose-1, 6-bisphosphatase were significantly decreased by the administration ofM. emarginata in diabetic rats. Histology of diabetic rats treated with M. emarginata showed the pancreatic β-cells regeneration. Conclusions: These findings suggest that M. emarginata has potent antidiabetic activity in streptozotocin induced diabetic rats.