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Sample records for anticoincidence

  1. Anticoincidence scintillation counter

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN PhotoLab

    1966-01-01

    This anticoincidence scintillation counter will be mounted in a hydrogen target vessel to be used in a measurement of the .beta. parameter in the .LAMBDA0. decay. The geometry of the counter optimizes light collection in the central part where a scintillation disk of variable thickness can be fitted.

  2. Anti-Coincidence Detector For GLAST

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thompson, David

    2002-01-01

    The Gamma-ray Large Area Space Telescope (GLAST) is now being designed by a number of collaborating institutions. It will study the cosmic gamma radiation from 20 MeV to 300 GeV with high precision and sensitivity, greatly expanding on the important EGRET results. One of the key systems of the instrument, the Anticoincidence Detector (ACD), is designed to reject the majority of charged particles, which are the background for any gamma-ray experiment. The ACD of EGRET has suffered from the self-veto effect when the products of the high energy photon interactions in the instrument's calorimeter cause a veto signal in the anticoincidence detector (backsplash effect), resulting in the degradation of the efficiency for high energy (> 5 GeV) gamma rays. To avoid this effect, the ACD for GLAST is divided into many scintillating tiles with wave-shifting fiber readout. The design of this detector along with the beam test and simulation results are given in this paper

  3. Anti-Coincidence Detector For GLAST

    CERN Document Server

    Thompson, D

    2002-01-01

    The Gamma-ray Large Area Space Telescope (GLAST) is now being designed by a number of collaborating institutions. It will study the cosmic gamma radiation from 20 MeV to 300 GeV with high precision and sensitivity, greatly expanding on the important EGRET results. One of the key systems of the instrument, the Anticoincidence Detector (ACD), is designed to reject the majority of charged particles, which are the background for any gamma-ray experiment. The ACD of EGRET has suffered from the self-veto effect when the products of the high energy photon interactions in the instrument's calorimeter cause a veto signal in the anticoincidence detector (backsplash effect), resulting in the degradation of the efficiency for high energy (> 5 GeV) gamma rays. To avoid this effect, the ACD for GLAST is divided into many scintillating tiles with wave-shifting fiber readout. The design of this detector along with the beam test and simulation results are given in this paper.

  4. Mercuric Iodide Anticoincidence Shield for Gamma-Ray Spectrometer, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — We propose to utilize a new detector material, polycrystalline mercuric iodide, for background suppression by active anticoincidence shielding in gamma-ray...

  5. Mercuric Iodide Anticoincidence Shield for Gamma-Ray Spectrometer, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — We utilize a new detector material, polycrystalline mercuric iodide, for background suppression by active anticoincidence shielding in gamma-ray spectrometers. Two...

  6. Simplified slow anti-coincidence circuit for Compton suppression systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Al-Azmi, Darwish [Department of Applied Sciences, College of Technological Studies, Public Authority for Applied Education and Training, P.O. Box 42325, Shuwaikh 70654 (Kuwait)], E-mail: ds.alazmi@paaet.edu.kw

    2008-08-15

    Slow coincidence circuits for the anti-coincidence measurements have been considered for use in Compton suppression technique. The simplified version of the slow circuit has been found to be fast enough, satisfactory and allows an easy system setup, particularly with the advantage of the automatic threshold setting of the low-level discrimination. A well-type NaI detector as the main detector surrounded by plastic guard detector has been arranged to investigate the performance of the Compton suppression spectrometer using the simplified slow circuit. The system has been tested to observe the improvement in the energy spectra for medium to high-energy gamma-ray photons from terrestrial and environmental samples.

  7. Simplified slow anti-coincidence circuit for Compton suppression systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Azmi, Darwish

    2008-01-01

    Slow coincidence circuits for the anti-coincidence measurements have been considered for use in Compton suppression technique. The simplified version of the slow circuit has been found to be fast enough, satisfactory and allows an easy system setup, particularly with the advantage of the automatic threshold setting of the low-level discrimination. A well-type NaI detector as the main detector surrounded by plastic guard detector has been arranged to investigate the performance of the Compton suppression spectrometer using the simplified slow circuit. The system has been tested to observe the improvement in the energy spectra for medium to high-energy gamma-ray photons from terrestrial and environmental samples

  8. The Anti-Coincidence Detector for the GLAST Large Area Telescope

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moiseev, A.A.; Hartman, R.C.; Ormes, J.F.; Thompson, D.J.; Amato, M.J.; Johnson, T.E.; Segal, K.N.; Sheppard, D.A.

    2007-03-23

    This paper describes the design, fabrication and testing of the Anti-Coincidence Detector (ACD) for the Gamma-ray Large Area Space Telescope (GLAST) Large Area Telescope (LAT). The ACD is LAT's first-level defense against the charged cosmic ray background that outnumbers the gamma rays by 3-5 orders of magnitude. The ACD covers the top and 4 sides of the LAT tracking detector, requiring a total active area of {approx}8.3 square meters. The ACD detector utilizes plastic scintillator tiles with wave-length shifting fiber readout. In order to suppress self-veto by shower particles at high gamma-ray energies, the ACD is segmented into 89 tiles of different sizes. The overall ACD efficiency for detection of singly charged relativistic particles entering the tracking detector from the top or sides of the LAT exceeds the required 0.9997.

  9. The Cryogenic AntiCoincidence detector for ATHENA X-IFU: a program overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macculi, C.; Argan, A.; D'Andrea, M.; Lotti, S.; Laurenza, M.; Piro, L.; Biasotti, M.; Corsini, D.; Gatti, F.; Torrioli, G.; Fiorini, M.; Molendi, S.; Uslenghi, M.; Mineo, T.; Bulgarelli, A.; Fioretti, V.; Cavazzuti, E.

    2016-07-01

    The ATHENA observatory is the second large-class ESA mission, in the context of the Cosmic Vision 2015 - 2025, scheduled to be launched on 2028 at L2 orbit. One of the two on-board instruments is the X-IFU (X-ray Integral Field Unit): it is a TES-based kilo-pixels order array able to perform simultaneous high-grade energy spectroscopy (2.5 eV at 6 keV) and imaging over the 5 arcmin FoV. The X-IFU sensitivity is degraded by the particles background which is induced by primary protons of both solar and Cosmic Rays origin, and secondary electrons. The studies performed by Geant4 simulations depict a scenario where it is mandatory the use of reduction techniques that combine an active anticoincidence detector and a passive electron shielding to reduce the background expected in L2 orbit down to the goal level of 0.005 cts/cm2/s/keV, so enabling the characterization of faint or diffuse sources (e.g. WHIM or Galaxy cluster outskirts). From the detector point of view this is possible by adopting a Cryogenic AntiCoincidence (CryoAC) placed within a proper optimized environment surrounding the X-IFU TES array. It is a 4-pixels detector made of wide area Silicon absorbers sensed by Ir TESes, and put at a distance design of the CryoAC. Both the background studies and the detector development work is on-going to provide confident results about the expected residual background at the TES-array level, and the single pixel design to produce a detector for testing activity on 2016/2017. Here we will provide an overview of the CryoAC program, discussing some details about the background assessment having impact on the CryoAC design, the last single pixel characterization, the structural issues, followed by some programmatic aspects.

  10. A novel natural environment background model for Monte Carlo simulation and its application in the simulation of anticoincidence measurement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Sangang; Wang, Lei; Cheng, Yi; Tuo, Xianguo; Liu, Mingzhe; Yao, Fuliang; Leng, Fengqing; Cheng, Yuanyuan; Cai, Ting; Zhou, Yan

    2016-02-01

    This study proposes a novel natural environment background model by modeling brief environment conditions. It uses Geant4 program to simulate decays of (238)U, (232)Th, and (40)K in soil and obtains compositions of different-energy gamma rays in the natural environment background. The simulated gamma spectrum of the natural environment background agrees well with the experimental spectrum, particularly above 250 keV. The model is used in the simulation of anticoincidence measurement, indicating that the natural environment background can be decreased by approximately 88%, and the Compton attenuation factor is 2.22. The simulation of anticoincidence measurement can improve the minimum detectable activity (MDA) of the detection system. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. 68(Ge+Ga) activity standardization by 4πβ(LS)-γ(NaI(Tl)) anticoincidence counting measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, C J; da Cruz, P A L; Iwahara, A; de Oliveira, E M; Loureiro, J Dos S; Tauhata, L; da Silva, Ronaldo L; Poledna, R; Lopes, R T

    2018-04-01

    In this work, a 68 (Ge+Ga) solution has been standardized at the National Institute of Ionizing Radiation Metrology (LNMRI), in Brazil, in the frame of an international key comparison CCRI(II)-K2.Ge-68 piloted by National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST/USA). The 4πβ(LS)-γ(NaI(Tl)) anticoincidence method with live-time and extended dead-time was used and its result was validated by 4πβ(LS)-γ(NaI(Tl)) coincidence counting and liquid scintillation counting using the Triple to Double Coincidence Ratio (TDCR) method. The deviations of the activity concentration values of coincidence and TDCR measurements from the anticoincidence result were 1.7% and 0.63%, respectively, which were within experimental evaluated uncertainties at ~95% level of confidence (coverage factor k = 2). The combined relative standard uncertainties were 0.65%, 0.70% and 0.53% for anticoincidence, coincidence and TDCR methods, respectively. These values are consistent with the results reported by Cessna at the ICRM2017 conference. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  12. A novel natural environment background model for Monte Carlo simulation and its application in the simulation of anticoincidence measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Sangang; Wang, Lei; Cheng, Yi; Tuo, Xianguo; Liu, Mingzhe; Yao, Fuliang; Leng, Fengqing; Cheng, Yuanyuan; Cai, Ting; Zhou, Yan

    2016-01-01

    This study proposes a novel natural environment background model by modeling brief environment conditions. It uses Geant4 program to simulate decays of 238 U, 232 Th, and 40 K in soil and obtains compositions of different-energy gamma rays in the natural environment background. The simulated gamma spectrum of the natural environment background agrees well with the experimental spectrum, particularly above 250 keV. The model is used in the simulation of anticoincidence measurement, indicating that the natural environment background can be decreased by approximately 88%, and the Compton attenuation factor is 2.22. The simulation of anticoincidence measurement can improve the minimum detectable activity (MDA) of the detection system. - Highlights: • This study proposes a novel natural environment background model by simulating decays of 238 U, 232 Th, and 40 K in soil. • The simulated gamma spectrum of the natural environment background agrees well with the experimental spectrum, particularly above 250 keV. • The proposed environment background model is applied to study the properties of anticoincidence detector.

  13. Analysis of FDA in-house food reference materials with anticoincidence INAA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, D.L.; Cunningham, W.C.

    2013-01-01

    In-house reference material (IRM) cocoa powder (CCP) has been in use at US Food and Drug Administration laboratories for about 15 years. A single lot of commercial material was originally characterized for 32 elements by several laboratories and five techniques. A unique approach for basis weight determination based upon ambient relative humidity was developed for CCP, eliminating the need for dry weight determinations. The CCP Reference Sheet is updated by incorporating new results approximately every 5 years. The last update occurred in 2006. As part of an effort to revalidate and update values for CCP, anticoincidence instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) was used to determine mass fractions for 16 of the originally characterized elements, as well as to provide information on 16 other elements. Results were in very good agreement with 2006 Reference Sheet values. A new candidate IRM, fresh-frozen swordfish (FFSF) powder, was produced by adding inorganic As, Cd, Cr, Hg, Pb, Sb, and Se to liquid nitrogen-frozen commercial swordfish filets which were then homogenized. Portions of FFSF were analyzed by INAA to provide mass fraction and homogeneity information for As, Cd, Cr, Hg, Sb, and Se as well as for eight other elements occurring naturally in the material. Non-homogeneities were ≤2.5 % for As, Br, Cd, and Cs, and ≤1.8 % for Cr, Hg, Rb, Sb, and Se. Certified reference materials DORM-3 Fish Protein powder and fresh-frozen SRM 1947 Lake Michigan Fish Tissue were analyzed as controls. (author)

  14. Determination iodine in biological materials using instrumental neutron activation and anti-coincidence gamma-ray spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, W.H.; Chatt, A.

    1997-01-01

    Iodine is an element of interest in nutritional research. Its lower limit of safe and adequate daily dietary intake for adults varies between 150 and 200 micrograms per day. In the present study, an epithermal instrumental neutron activation analysis (EINAA) method in conjunction with anti-coincidence counting has been developed for the determination of ppb levels of iodine in individual food items. Typically 200-300 mg of a sample are irradiated for 10 or 20 minutes at the Dalhousie University SLOWPOKE-2 reactor in an epithermal flux of 1x10 11 n cm -2 s -1 , followed by 1 min decay and then counting for 30 min. The 443-keV gamma-ray of 128 I is used for measuring iodine content by anti-coincidence counting. The anti-coincidence spectrometer consists of a 25% HPGe detector surrounded by a 10''x10'' NaI(TI) annulus and a 3''x3'' NaI(TI) plug. This system has a peak-to-Compton ratio of about 650 to 1 for the 661.6-keV photopeak of 137 Cs. The Compton background resulting from the scattering of many gamma-rays of energies higher than 443 keV can be reduced by a factor of about 4 using anti-coincidence counting compared to conventional counting. The detection limit for iodine can be improved by a factor of 2 to 5 depending on the sample matrix, dead time, position of the annulus and counting geometry among several other factors.The lowest detection limit of 5 ppb can be achieved for low-salt foods. This limit is comparable to that obtained by a preconcentration NAA (PNAA) method. However, a detection limit of 20 ppb is more realistic for samples containing high amounts of Na, Cl and Al. The results obtained for many reference materials are in good agreement with the certified values and those reported by the PNAA method. Details of the methods and results will be reported

  15. Determination iodine in biological materials using instrumental neutron activation and anti-coincidence gamma-ray spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, W.H.; Chatt, A. [Dalhousie University, Halifax, Nova Scotia (Canada). Radiochemistry Research Laboratory

    1997-10-01

    Iodine is an element of interest in nutritional research. Its lower limit of safe and adequate daily dietary intake for adults varies between 150 and 200 micrograms per day. In the present study, an epithermal instrumental neutron activation analysis (EINAA) method in conjunction with anti-coincidence counting has been developed for the determination of ppb levels of iodine in individual food items. Typically 200-300 mg of a sample are irradiated for 10 or 20 minutes at the Dalhousie University SLOWPOKE-2 reactor in an epithermal flux of 1x10{sup 11} n cm{sup -2} s{sup -1}, followed by 1 min decay and then counting for 30 min. The 443-keV gamma-ray of {sup 128}I is used for measuring iodine content by anti-coincidence counting. The anti-coincidence spectrometer consists of a 25% HPGe detector surrounded by a 10``x10`` NaI(TI) annulus and a 3``x3`` NaI(TI) plug. This system has a peak-to-Compton ratio of about 650 to 1 for the 661.6-keV photopeak of {sup 137}Cs. The Compton background resulting from the scattering of many gamma-rays of energies higher than 443 keV can be reduced by a factor of about 4 using anti-coincidence counting compared to conventional counting. The detection limit for iodine can be improved by a factor of 2 to 5 depending on the sample matrix, dead time, position of the annulus and counting geometry among several other factors.The lowest detection limit of 5 ppb can be achieved for low-salt foods. This limit is comparable to that obtained by a preconcentration NAA (PNAA) method. However, a detection limit of 20 ppb is more realistic for samples containing high amounts of Na, Cl and Al. The results obtained for many reference materials are in good agreement with the certified values and those reported by the PNAA method. Details of the methods and results will be reported 6 refs., 2 tabs.

  16. On the determination of iridium in diverse geological samples employing HPGe-coincidence/NaI(Tl)-anticoincidence spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murali, A. V.; Parekh, P. P.; Cumming, J. B.

    1990-01-01

    This paper reports the Ir content of a variety of geological samples determined by the high-purity Ge-coincidence/NaI(Tl)-anticoincidence gamma-ray spectrometry (henceforth referred to as coincidence/anticoincidence technique) and by the conventional INAA. The advantages of this technique are: (1) the Ir content of the samples is obtained (ppm to a fraction of ppb ranges) not only by the 468.1 keV peak as in the conventional INAA but also by the 784.6 keV and 920.9 keV sum peaks, which gives more confidence in the values obtained; and (2) it is well suited for the samples with high Compton background for which it is difficult to measure the Ir content by the conventional INAA technique. The practical sensitivity of this technique depends on the sample matrix. Under present experimental conditions, it varied from 0.1 ng for Mn nodules and 0.004 ng for Libyan Desert Glass. Iridium values obtained on small (about 1 microg) olivine grains demonstrate the potential application of this new technique to microsamples. The principle and methodology of this new technique as well as its advantages and disadvantages over the conventional INAA are discussed.

  17. Standardization of {sup 67}Ga, {sup 51}Cr and {sup 55}Fe by live-timed anti-coincidence counting with extending dead time

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Carlos J. da [Laboratorio Nacional de Metrologia das Radiacoes Ionizantes (LNMRI), Instituto de Radioprotecao e Dosimetria (IRD), Comissao Nacional de Energia Nuclear - CNEN, Av. Salvador Allende, s/n0-Recreio, CEP 22780-160 Rio de Janeiro (Brazil) and Laboratorio de Instrumentacao Nuclear (LIN/PEN/COPPE/UFRJ), Caixa Postal 68590, CEP 21945-970 Rio de Janeiro (Brazil)], E-mail: Carlos@ird.gov.br; Iwahara, A.; Poledna, R.; Bernardes, E.M. de O; Prinzio, M.A.R.R. de [Laboratorio Nacional de Metrologia das Radiacoes Ionizantes (LNMRI), Instituto de Radioprotecao e Dosimetria (IRD), Comissao Nacional de Energia Nuclear - CNEN, Av. Salvador Allende, s/n0-Recreio, CEP 22780-160 Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Lopes, Ricardo T. [Laboratorio de Instrumentacao Nuclear (LIN/PEN/COPPE/UFRJ), Caixa Postal 68590, CEP 21945-970 Rio de Janeiro (Brazil)

    2008-02-15

    In this work, the activity standardization of {sup 51}Cr, {sup 55}Fe and {sup 67}Ga by live-timed anti-coincidence counting with extending dead time is described. The difficulties of the method, the uncertainties of the results of the measurements and the comparison of these results with others measurement methods are discussed.

  18. Standardization of (166m)Ho and 243Am/239Np by live-timed anti-coincidence counting with extending dead time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, C J; Loureiro, J S; Delgado, J U; Poledna, R; Moreira, D S; Iwahara, A; Tauhata, L; da Silva, R L; Lopes, R T

    2012-09-01

    The National Laboratory for Metrology of Ionizing Radiation (LNMRI)/Brazil acquired (166m)Ho and (243)Am/(239)Np solutions from commercial suppliers in order to realize primary standardization and therefore reducing the associated uncertainties. The method used in the standardization was the live-timed 4πβ(LS)-γ(ΝaI(Tl)) anticoincidence counting. The live-timed anticoincidence system is operated since 2006 in LNMRI and is composed of two MTR2 modules donated by Laboratoire National Henri Becquerel (LNE-LNHB)/France. The data acquisition system uses a homemade LabView program and an Excel file for calculus. These systems have been used for primary standardization at LNMRI for many radionuclides and recently took part in the (124)Sb and (177)Lu International Key Comparisons with good performance. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Main results of the standardization through anti-coincident from the Brazilian Laboratory for Metrology of Ionizing Radiations - LNMRI/IRD/CNEN-RJ in the last 8 years

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, Carlos J. da

    2014-01-01

    The LNMRI implemented in 2006 a system of time keeping in anticoincidence live in this time and dead time extensible today 18 radionuclides were standardized. To store the results of these primary standardization the LNMRI/IRD reference with ionization chamber were calibrated with these standards. In this work will be discussed the main operational difficulties and components of uncertainty and the main results. (author)

  20. The Design, Implementation, and Performance of the Astro-H SXS Calorimeter Array and Anti-Coincidence Detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilbourne, Caroline A.; Adams, Joseph S.; Brekosky, Regis P.; Chiao, Meng P.; Chervenak, James A.; Eckart, Megan E.; Figueroa-Feliciano, Enectali; Galeazzi, Masimilliano; Grein, Christoph; Jhabvala, Christine A.; hide

    2016-01-01

    The calorimeter array of the JAXA Astro-H (renamed Hitomi) Soft X-ray Spectrometer (SXS) was designed to provide unprecedented spectral resolution of spatially extended cosmic x-ray sources and of all cosmic x-ray sources in the Fe-K band around 6 keV, enabling essential plasma diagnostics. The SXS has a square array of 36 microcalorimeters at the focal plane. These calorimeters consist of ion-implanted silicon thermistors and HgTe thermalizing x-ray absorbers. These devices have demonstrated a resolution of better than 4.5 eV at 6 keV when operated at a heat-sink temperature of 50 mK. We will discuss the basic physical parameters of this array, including the array layout, thermal conductance of the link to the heat sink, resistance function, absorber details, and means of attaching the absorber to the thermistor-bearing element. We will also present the thermal characterization of the whole array, including thermal conductance and crosstalk measurements and the results of pulsing the frame temperature via alpha particles, heat pulses, and the environmental background. A silicon ionization detector is located behind the calorimeter array and serves to reject events due to cosmic rays. We will briefly describe this anti-coincidence detector and its performance.

  1. A novel approach to the determination of iridium via Ge-coincidence/NaI(Tl)-anticoincidence gamma-ray spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cumming, J.B.

    1988-01-01

    Iridium has proven to be a useful fingerprint of extraterrestrial material, and neutron activation analysis is the method of choice for its determination because of the high thermal cross section (910 b) of 191 Ir (37.3% natural abundance) and the favorable decay characteristics of the product nuclide. However, radiochemical separations are frequently required for the determination of iridium at low concentrations (in the ppb range). The present work describes a precise, nondestructive neutron-activation procedure that is capable of analyzing samples of both high (ppm) and low (ppb) Ir content. Advantage is taken of the fact that the principal gamma lines of 73.8-d 192 Ir are in various coincidences with one another. Instead of conventional gamma-gamma coincidence spectrometry with two Ge detectors, we utilize the 784.6- and 920.9- keV sum peaks which are generated when an iridium containing sample is placed in the well of a highly-efficient HPGe detector. The well-type detector is positioned centrally in a large annular NaI(Tl) detector which is operated in an anticoincidence mode. This improves the quality of the gamma spectra by suppressing the Compton backgrounds due to nuclides such as 60 Co by a factor of 4-6 in the regions of interest without affecting the intensities of the two sum peaks. The sensitivity of this method under our experimental conditions (20-mg sample irradiated at 1.5x10 14 n cm -2 s -1 for 5 min and counted 3-4 weeks after irradiation) is ≅ 5 ppb Ir in a relatively unfavorable matrix such as peridotite. (orig.)

  2. 134Cs activity standardization by 4πβ(LS)-γ(NaI-Tl) anticoincidence counting and submission to international reference system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, C J; da Cruz, Paulo A L; Iwahara, A; Loureiro, J Dos S; Gomes, R Dos S; Dos Santos, A R L; de Araújo, M T F; Poledna, R; da Silva, R L; Laranjeira, A da S

    2018-04-01

    From a commercial supplier a solution containing 134 Cs has been standardized at National Laboratory for Ionizing Radiation Metrology (LNMRI) for the first time using three Liquid scintillation based measurement. These measurement methods are 4πβ-γ live-timed anticoincidence counting, 4πβ-γ coincidence counting and 3 H-standard efficiency tracing with the CNET methods. The results obtained by anticoincidence counting was adopted as reference value and its combined uncertainty was 0.38%. The agreement of this reference value with coincidence counting and CNET methods were 0.39% and 0.34% respectively and were in consistency with each uncertainty method. The weighted mean results coincidence counting and CNET methods are also in close agreement 0.03% with anticoincidence counting method and meets the requirement of primary and national standard. This standardization was made in order to reduce the uncertainty in 134 Cs measurement in Brazil and also following a request made by Bureau International des Poids and Mesures for new submission to International Reference System. The LNMRI last submission was made in 1987. Therefore from a 134 Cs master solution a NIST ampoules was prepared and LNMRI/IRD submitted it to the International Reference System, Bureau International of Poids and Measures (SIR/BIPM). In this paper will be analyzed the LNMRI measurement and performance each measurement methods and also take into account the reference value of KCDB, we determined also the 134 Cs gamma emission probabilities of main energy. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  3. Standardization of {sup 241}Am, {sup 124}Sb and {sup 131}I by live-timed anti-coincidence counting with extending dead time

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Carlos J. da [Laboratorio Nacional de Metrologia das Radiacoes Ionizantes (LNMRI), Instituto de Radioprotecao e Dosimetria (IRD), Comissao Nacional de Energia Nuclear - CNEN, Av. Salvador Allende, s/n-Recreio, CEP 22780-160 Rio de Janeiro (Brazil) and Laboratorio de Instrumentacao Nuclear (LIN/PEN/COPPE/UFRJ), Caixa Postal 68590, CEP 21945-970 Rio de Janeiro (Brazil)], E-mail: Carlos@ird.gov.br; Iwahara, A.; Poledna, R.; Oliveira, E.M. de; Prinzio, M.A.R.R. de; Delgado, Jose U. [Laboratorio Nacional de Metrologia das Radiacoes Ionizantes (LNMRI), Instituto de Radioprotecao e Dosimetria (IRD), Comissao Nacional de Energia Nuclear - CNEN, Av. Salvador Allende, s/n-Recreio, CEP 22780-160 Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Lopes, Ricardo T. [Laboratorio de Instrumentacao Nuclear (LIN/PEN/COPPE/UFRJ), Caixa Postal 68590, CEP 21945-970 Rio de Janeiro (Brazil)

    2008-06-15

    The National Metrology Laboratory for Ionizing Radiation (LNMRI)/Brazil has implemented a live-timed anti-coincidence system with extending dead time to complement the existing systems in its Radionuclide Laboratory for activity measurements of radioactive sources. In this new system, the proportional counter has been replaced by a liquid-scintillation-counter for alpha and beta detection. In order to test the performance of the new system, radioactive solutions of {sup 131}I, {sup 124}Sb and {sup 241}Am have been standardized. In this work the measurement method, the results and the associated uncertainties are described and discussed.

  4. An efficient anticoincidence counter

    CERN Multimedia

    1977-01-01

    This scintillation counter (about 25 cm diameter) was prepared at CERN for an experiment at the Saclay 600 MeV electron linac studying molecular processes originated in liquid hydrogen by muons. The counter is meant to surround the target and detect charged particles emerging from the hydrogen. The experiment was a CERN-Saclay collaboration which used the linac so as to take advantage of the time structure of the electron beam(see CERN Courier Sep 1977 and J. Bardin et al. Phys. Lett. B104 (1981) 320)

  5. Standardization of {sup 153}Sm using anti-coincidence method; Padronizacao do {sup 153}Sm pelo metodo de anti-coincidencia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laranjeira, Adilson da Silva; Silva, Carlos J. da; Delgado, Jose Ubiratan; Cruz, Paulo A.L. da; Poledna, Roberto; Silva, Ronaldo L. da; Oliveira, Antonio E. de; Gomes, Regio S.; Veras, Eduardo V. de; Araujo, Miriam Taina Ferreira de, E-mail: adilson@ird.gov.br [Instituto de Radioprotecao e Dosimetria, (IRD/CNEN-RJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2014-07-01

    {sup 153}Sm was standardized at the Brazilian National Laboratory of Metrology of Ionizing Radiation to provide traceability for measurements in nuclear medicine services and manufacturers of radiopharmaceuticals in Brazil. {sup 153}Sm decays by emission β-γ to {sup 153}Eu, the gamma rays of higher-intensity are 69.7 keV (4.7%) and 103.2 keV (29.2%). The standardization was made by anticoincidence and CIEMAT/NIST methods with uncertainties combined (0.4% and 0.3%) and (0.5% and 0.4%), respectively. The difference between the standardized activities was 0.15%. The uncertainties are consistent with other publications. (author)

  6. Determination of trace elements in scallop and fish otolith by instrumental neutron activation analysis using anti-coincidence and coincidence counting methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzuki, Shogo; Okada, Yukiko; Hirai, Shoji

    2005-01-01

    Trace element concentrations in scallop reference material and fish otolith certified reference materials prepared at the National Institute for Environmental Studies (NIES) of Japan were determined by instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA). Nine aliquots of scallop sample (ca. 252∼507 mg) and five aliquots of fish otolith sample (ca. 502 ∼ 988 mg) and comparative standards were irradiated for a short time (10 s) at a thermal neutron flux of 1.5 x 10 12 n cm -2 s -1 (pneumatic transfer) and for a long time (6 h) at a thermal neutron flux of 3.7 x 10 12 n cm -2 s -1 (central thimble) in the Rikkyo University Research Reactor (100 kW). The irradiated samples were measured by conventional γ-ray spectrometry using a coaxial Ge detector, and by anti-coincidence and coincidence γ-ray spectrometry with a coaxial Ge detector and a well-type NaI (Tl) detector to determine as many trace elements as possible with high sensitivity. The concentrations of 34 elements of the NIES No.15 scallop reference material and 16 elements of the NIES No.22 fish otolith CRM were determined. Using the coincidence counting method to determine Se, Ba and Hf, the lower limit of the determination was improved by 2 times compared with the conventional counting method. (author)

  7. The Cryogenic Anti-Coincidence detector for ATHENA X-IFU: pulse analysis of the AC-S7 single pixel prototype

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Andrea, M.; Argan, A.; Lotti, S.; Macculi, C.; Piro, L.; Biasotti, M.; Corsini, D.; Gatti, F.; Torrioli, G.

    2016-07-01

    The ATHENA observatory is the second large-class mission in ESA Cosmic Vision 2015-2025, with a launch foreseen in 2028 towards the L2 orbit. The mission addresses the science theme "The Hot and Energetic Universe", by coupling a high-performance X-ray Telescope with two complementary focal-plane instruments. One of these is the X-ray Integral Field Unit (X-IFU): it is a TES based kilo-pixel order array able to provide spatially resolved high-resolution spectroscopy (2.5 eV at 6 keV) over a 5 arcmin FoV. The X-IFU sensitivity is degraded by the particles background expected at L2 orbit, which is induced by primary protons of both galactic and solar origin, and mostly by secondary electrons. To reduce the background level and enable the mission science goals, a Cryogenic Anticoincidence (CryoAC) detector is placed TESes. The CryoAC development schedule foresees by Q1 2017 the delivery of a Demonstration Model (DM) to the X-IFU FPA development team. The DM is a single-pixel detector that will address the final design of the CryoAC. It will verify some representative requirements at single-pixel level, especially the detector operation at 50 mK thermal bath and the threshold energy at 20 keV. To reach the final DM design we have developed and tested the AC-S7 prototype, with 1 cm2 absorber area sensed by 65 Ir TESes. Here we will discuss the pulse analysis of this detector, which has been illuminated by the 60 keV line from a 241Am source. First, we will present the analysis performed to investigate pulses timings and spectrum, and to disentangle the athermal component of the pulses from the thermal one. Furthermore, we will show the application to our dataset of an alternative method of pulse processing, based upon Principal Component Analysis (PCA). This kind of analysis allow us to recover better energy spectra than achievable with traditional methods, improving the evaluation of the detector threshold energy, a fundamental parameter characterizing the Cryo

  8. Implementation of a anti-coincidence system of 4{pi}NaI(Tl)-Cl and primary standardization of {sup 57}Co, {sup 124}Sb and {sup 241}Am; Implementacao de um sistema de anti-coincidencia 4{pi}NaI(Tl)-Cl e padronizacao primaria do {sup 57}Co, {sup 124}Sb e {sup 241}Am

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Carlos Jose da; Iwahara, Akira; Poledna, Roberto; Oliveira, Estela Maria de; Prinzio, Maria Antonieta de, E-mail: carlos@ird.gov.b [Instituto de Radioprotecao e Dosimetria (IRD/CNEN-RJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Lopes, Ricardo Tadeu [Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-Graduacao de Engenharia (LIN/COPPE/UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Lab. de Instrumentacao Nuclear

    2009-07-01

    The Radionuclide Metrology Laboratory of the IRD-Brazil, implemented a primary standardization system which utilizes the anti-coincidence technique with live time keeping. For testing the performance of these system it was made the standardization of the {sup 57}Co, {sup 124}Sb and {sup 241}Am. Encourages results were obtained not only the standardization of {sup 241}Am but also of the {sup 124}Sb whose reference value obtained by the LNMRI was utilized for the key comparison organized by the IAEA and EURAMET. The standard uncertainties were of 0.28%, 0.22% and 0.13% for the {sup 57}Co, {sup 124}Sb and {sup 241}Am, respectively

  9. Improved Stability of Mercuric Iodide Detectors for Anticoincidence Shields, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — We propose to utilize guard ring electrode structures and a new film growth technique to create improved polycrystalline mercuric iodide detectors for background...

  10. Low background Ge(Li) detector with anticoincidence Nal annulus (revised)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quam, W.; Houk, J.; Mohr, R.

    1976-02-01

    A low background gamma-ray counter intended for the assessment of environmental soil and vegetation samples is described. It can accept samples up to 350 grams and 225 cm 3 volume. The primary intent of this counter is the determination of U, Th, 40 K, and 137 Cs in soil samples obtained routinely during ARMS surveys throughout the country. To this end, careful calibrations traceable to the ERDA New Brunswick Laboratory and to the NBS have been made. Special attention was paid to volume source techniques in addition to the usual point source methods. Detectabilities (at 3 sigma), all in a 350-gram sample, are 0.03 ppm uranium, 0.09 ppm thorium, 30 pCi of potassium-40, and 3 pCi of cesium-137

  11. Design and applications of an anticoincidence shielded low background gamma-ray spectrometer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petri, H. [Forschungszentrum Juelich GmbH (Germany). Zentralabteilung fuer Chemische Analysen

    1997-03-01

    A low background gamma-ray spectrometer has been constructed for measuring artificial and natural radioative isotopes. The design of the spectrometer, its properties and the application to the determination of natural radioactivity of dental ceramics are described. (orig.)

  12. Gamma-ray bursts observed by the INTEGRAL-SPI anticoincidence shield: A study of individual pulses and temporal variability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ryde, F.; Borgonovo, L.; Larsson, S.

    2003-01-01

    self-similar in shape. There is also a weak tendency for the pulses with steep power-law decays to be more asymmetric. Third, the variability of the complex light-curves is studied by analyzing their power-density-spectra (PDS) and their RMS variability. The averaged PDS, of the whole sample......, is a power-law with index of 1.60+/-0.05 and a break between 1-2 Hz. Fourth, we also discuss the background and noise levels. We found that the background noise has a Gaussian distribution and its power is independent of frequency, i.e., it is white noise. However, it does not follow a Poisson statistic...

  13. Gamma-ray bursts observed by the INTEGRAL-SPI anticoincidence shield: A study of individual pulses and temporal variability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ryde, F.; Borgonovo, L.; Larsson, S.

    2003-01-01

    , is a power-law with index of 1.60+/-0.05 and a break between 1-2 Hz. Fourth, we also discuss the background and noise levels. We found that the background noise has a Gaussian distribution and its power is independent of frequency, i.e., it is white noise. However, it does not follow a Poisson statistic...

  14. Predicted performance of a PG-SPECT system using CZT primary detectors and secondary Compton-suppression anti-coincidence detectors under near-clinical settings for boron neutron capture therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hales, Brian; Katabuchi, Tatsuya; Igashira, Masayuki; Terada, Kazushi; Hayashizaki, Noriyosu; Kobayashi, Tooru

    2017-12-01

    A test version of a prompt-gamma single photon emission computed tomography (PG-SPECT) system for boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) using a CdZnTe (CZT) semiconductor detector with a secondary BGO anti-Compton suppression detector has been designed. A phantom with healthy tissue region of pure water, and 2 tumor regions of 5 wt% borated polyethylene was irradiated to a fluence of 1.3 × 109 n/cm2. The number of 478 keV foreground, background, and net counts were measured for each detector position and angle. Using only experimentally measured net counts, an image of the 478 keV production from the 10B(n , α) 7Li* reaction was reconstructed. Using Monte Carlo simulation and the experimentally measured background counts, the reliability of the system under clinically accurate parameters was extrapolated. After extrapolation, it was found that the value of the maximum-value pixel in the reconstructed 478 keV γ-ray production image overestimates the simulated production by an average of 9.2%, and that the standard deviation associated with the same value is 11.4%.

  15. Clinical application of the three-dimensional reconstruction of spiral CT pneumocolon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu Shenping; Li Ziping; Xu Dasheng; Lin Erjian; Lin Peizhang; Xu Qiaolan

    2000-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the clinical role of the 3 types of reconstruction of the spiral CT pneumocolon in the diagnosis of colon lesions. Methods: Three types of reconstruction with spiral CT pneumocolon including air cast imaging (ACI), CT virtual endoscopy (CTVE), and multiple planner reconstruction (MPR) in 34 patients with colorectal cancer or polyps were correlated with surgical pathology respectively. Results: Among the 34 patients, 30 was colorectal cancer and 6 was polyps (2 of which in the proximal lumen of 2 colon cancer). (1) Comparison between the 3 types of the spiral CT pneumocolon reconstruction and pathology in colorectal cancer. 1) ACI: tumor patterns: coincide (n =22), anti-coincide (n = 8); tumor extension: coincide (n = 24), anti-coincide (n = 6); tumor size: coincide (n = 28), anti-coincide (n = 2). 2) CTVE: tumor patterns: coincide (n = 26), anti-coincide (n = 4); tumor extension: coincide (n = 25), anti-coincide ( n 5); tumor size: coincide (n = 23), anti-coincide (n = 7). 3) MPR: tumor patterns: coincide (n = 24), anti-coincide (n = 6); tumor extension: coincide (n = 30), anti-coincide (n = 0); tumor size: coincide (n = 26), anti-coincide (n = 4). (2) Comparison between the 3 types of the spiral CT pneumocolon reconstruction and pathology in colorectal polyps: the lesions were displayed in 4 (ACI) and in 6 (CTVE and MPR). Conclusion: (1) For the diagnosis of colorectal cancers: CTVE was the best means to display the tumor patterns, MPR most correct to judge the tumor extension, and ACI most suitable to measure the tumor size. (2) For the diagnosis of colorectal polyps, ACI can be used for oriented diagnosis, CTVE can well display the intra-luminal three-dimensional structure and can be used for characteristic diagnosis, MPR can be used for differential diagnosis

  16. Design of a hybrid gas proportional counter with CdTe guard counters for 14C dating system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, L.; Takahashi, H.; Hinamoto, N.; Nakazawa, M.; Yoshida, K.

    2002-01-01

    Nowadays uniform, low-cost and large-size compound semiconductor detectors are available up to several square centimeters. We are trying to combine this technology with conventional gas detectors to upgrade an anticoincidence type proportional counter, Oeschger-type thin wall counter of 2.2 l, used for a 14 C dating facility at the University of Tokyo. In order to increase the ratio of the signal to the background for smaller quantity of samples less than 1 g, an effective approach is to minimize the detector volume at higher gas pressure. However, the anticoincidence function suffers from such a small volume. Therefore we designed a new active wall gas counter of 0.13 l counting volume using CdTe compound semiconductor detectors as the wall of the gas proportional counter to perform anticoincidence. Simulation study showed that at noise thresholds less than 70 keV, the wall counters can reject above 99.8% of events arising from outer gamma rays. Measured noise levels of CdTe detectors were smaller than 24 keV which is low enough for 99.8% anticoincidence efficiency. The experiment showed an anticoincidence efficiency for outer gamma rays from 70% to 80%, similar to that of the old 14 C counter. The lost anticoincidence efficiency results from the area of 21.74% which was not covered with CdTe due to two holes for the path of the center anode wire and slots between every two sides of CdTe detectors

  17. New proportional counter for in vivo detection of traces of plutonium in the lungs; Nouveau compteur proportionnel destine a la detection in vivo de traces de plutonium dans les poumons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morucci, J. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires de Saclay, 91 - Gif-sur-Yvette (France)

    1966-07-01

    Development of a multi-wire proportional counter having a uniform response over 250 cm{sup 2} thanks to corrections made for boundary effects, and having a low background per sq. cm. due to the use of two identical counters set in anti-coincidence in the same enclosure is described. (author) [French] Etude et mise au point d'un compteur proportionnel multifils de reponse utile homogene sur une surface de 250 cm{sup 2} grace a la correction des effets de bords et de faible mouvement propre par cm{sup 2} grace a deux compteurs identiques montes en anticoincidence dans la meme enceinte. (auteur)

  18. A novel approach for modelling the cluster detector and the SPI ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    purity germanium (HPGe) detectors surrounded by an active anticoincidence shield of bismuth germanate [1]. The cluster detector is a similar composite detector, .... these amplitudes and substituting the values of No and Nc, the counts corresponding to the absorbed events (after the fourth interaction) are given by. N = No + ...

  19. Measurement of low radioactivity in underground laboratories by means of many-dimensional spectrometry; Messung geringer Radioaktivitaet in Untertagelaboratorien mit Hilfe mehrdimensionaler Spektrometrie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Niese, Siegfried

    2008-01-15

    In this contribution beside the possibilities for the measurements in underground laboratories also the application of the many-dimensional spectrometry is considered, under which coincidence, anticoincidence, and time-resolving spectrometric are to be understood. Very extensively the interaction of cosmic radiation with matter is considered.

  20. Search for High-energy Neutrinos from Binary Neutron Star Merger GW170817 with ANTARES, IceCube, and the Pierre Auger Observatory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Albert, A.; Andre, M.; Anghinolfi, M.; Ardid, M.; Aubert, J. -J.; Aublin, J.; Avgitas, T.; Baret, B.; Barrios-Marti, J.; Basa, S.; Belhorma, B.; Bertin, V.; Biagi, S.; Bormuth, R.; Bourret, S.; Bouwhuis, M. C.; Branzas, H.; Bruijn, R.; Brunner, J.; Busto, J.; Capone, A.; Caramete, L.; Carr, J.; Celli, S.; El Moursli, R. Cherkaoui; Chiarusi, T.; Circella, M.; Coelho, J. A. B.; Coleiro, A.; Coniglione, R.; Costantini, H.; Coyle, P.; Creusot, A.; Diaz, A. F.; Deschamps, A.; De Bonis, G.; Distefano, C.; Di Palma, I.; Domi, A.; Donzaud, C.; Dornic, D.; Drouhin, D.; Eberl, T.; El Bojaddaini, I.; El Khayati, N.; Elsaesser, D.; Enzenhofer, A.; Ettahiri, A.; Fassi, F.; Felis, I.; Fusco, L. A.; Gay, P.; Giordano, V.; Glotin, H.; Gregoire, T.; Ruiz, R. Gracia; Graf, K.; Hallmann, S.; van Haren, H.; Heijboer, A. J.; Hello, Y.; Hernandez-Rey, J. J.; Hoessl, J.; Hofestaedt, J.; Illuminati, G.; James, C. W.; de Jong, M.; Jongen, M.; Kadler, M.; Kalekin, O.; Katz, U.; Kiessling, D.; Kouchner, A.; Kreter, M.; Kreykenbohm, I.; Kulikovskiy, V.; Lachaud, C.; Lahmann, R.; Lefevre, D.; Leonora, E.; Lotze, M.; Loucatos, S.; Marcelin, M.; Margiotta, A.; Marinelli, A.; Martinez-Mora, J. A.; Mele, R.; Melis, K.; Michael, T.; Migliozzi, P.; Moussa, A.; Navas, S.; Nezri, E.; Organokov, M.; Pavalas, G. E.; Pellegrino, C.; Perrina, C.; Piattelli, P.; Popa, V.; Pradier, T.; Quinn, L.; Racca, C.; Riccobene, G.; Sanchez-Losa, A.; Saldana, M.; Salvadori, I.; Samtleben, D. F. E.; Sanguineti, M.; Sapienza, P.; Schussler, F.; Sieger, C.; Spurio, M.; Stolarczyk, Th.; Taiuti, M.; Tayalati, Y.; Trovato, A.; Turpin, D.; Tonnis, C.; Vallage, B.; Van Elewyck, V.; Versari, F.; Vivolo, D.; Vizzoca, A.; Wilms, J.; Zornoza, J. D.; Zuniga, J.; Aartsen, M. G.; Ackermann, M.; Adams, J.; Aguilar, J. A.; Ahlers, M.; Ahrens, M.; Al Samarai, I.; Altmann, D.; Andeen, K.; Anderson, T.; Ansseau, I.; Anton, G.; Arguelles, C.; Auffenberg, J.; Axani, S.; Bagherpour, H.; Bai, X.; Barron, J. P.; Barwick, S. W.; Baum, V.; Bay, R.; Beatty, J. J.; Tjus, J. Becker; Becker, K. H.; BenZvi, S.; Berley, D.; Bernardini, E.; Besson, D. Z.; Binder, G.; Bindig, D.; Blaufuss, E.; Blot, S.; Bohm, C.; Boerner, M.; Bos, F.; Bose, D.; Boeser, S.; Botner, O.; Bourbeau, E.; Bourbeau, J.; Bradascio, F.; Braun, J.; Brayeur, L.; Brenzke, M.; Bretz, H. -P.; Bron, S.; Brostean-Kaiser, J.; Burgman, A.; Carver, T.; Casey, J.; Casier, M.; Cheung, E.; Chirkin, D.; Christov, A.; Clark, K.; Classen, L.; Coenders, S.; Collin, G. H.; Conrad, J. M.; Cowen, D. F.; Cross, R.; Day, M.; de Andre, J. P. A. M.; De Clercq, C.; DeLaunay, J. J.; Dembinski, H.; De Ridder, S.; Desiati, P.; de Vries, K. D.; de Wasseige, G.; de With, M.; DeYoung, T.; Diaz-Velez, J. C.; di Lorenzo, V.; Dujmovic, H.; Dumm, J. P.; Dunkman, M.; Dvorak, E.; Eberhardt, B.; Ehrhardt, T.; Eichmann, B.; Eller, P.; Evenson, P. A.; Fahey, S.; Fazel, A. R.; Felde, J.; Filimonov, K.; Finley, C.; Flis, S.; Franckowiak, A.; Friedman, E.; Fuchs, T.; Gaisser, T. K.; Gallagher, J.; Gerhardt, L.; Ghorbani, K.; Giang, W.; Glauch, T.; Glsenkamp, T.; Goldschmidt, A.; Gonzalez, J. G.; Grant, D.; Griffith, Z.; Haack, C.; Hallgren, A.; Halzen, F.; Hanson, K.; Hebecker, D.; Heereman, D.; Helbing, K.; Hellauer, R.; Hickford, S.; Hignight, J.; Hill, G. C.; Hoffman, K. D.; Hoffmann, R.; Hokanson-Fasig, B.; Hoshina, K.; Huang, F.; Huber, M.; Hultqvist, K.; Huennefeld, M.; In, S.; Ishihara, A.; Jacobi, E.; Japaridze, G. S.; Jeong, M.; Jero, K.; Jones, B. J. P.; Kalaczynski, P.; Kang, W.; Kappes, A.; Karg, T.; Karle, A.; Katz, U.; Kauer, M.; Keivani, A.; Kelley, J. L.; Kheirandish, A.; Kim, J.; Kim, M.; Kintscher, T.; Kiryluk, J.; Kittler, T.; Klein, S. R.; Kohnen, G.; Koirala, R.; Kolanoski, H.; Kopke, L.; Kopper, C.; Kopper, S.; Koschinsky, J. P.; Koskinen, D. J.; Kowalski, M.; Krings, K.; Kroll, M.; Kruckl, G.; Kunnen, J.; Kunwar, S.; Kurahashi, N.; Kuwabara, T.; Kyriacou, A.; Labare, M.; Lanfranchi, J. L.; Larson, M. J.; Lauber, F.; Lesiak-Bzdak, M.; Leuermann, M.; Liu, Q. R.; Lu, L.; Lunemann, J.; Luszczak, W.; Madsen, J.; Maggi, G.; Mahn, K. B. M.; Mancina, S.; Maruyama, R.; Mase, K.; Maunu, R.; McNally, F.; Meagher, K.; Medici, M.; Meier, M.; Menne, T.; Merino, G.; Meures, T.; Miarecki, S.; Micallef, J.; Momente, G.; Montaruli, T.; Moore, R. W.; Moulai, M.; Nahnhauer, R.; Nakarmi, P.; Naumann, U.; Neer, G.; Niederhausen, H.; Nowicki, S. C.; Nygren, D. R.; Pollmann, A. Obertacke; Olivas, A.; O'Murchadha, A.; Palczewski, T.; Pandya, H.; Pankova, D. V.; Peiffer, P.; Pepper, J. A.; de Los Heros, C. Perez; Pieloth, D.; Pinat, E.; Plum, M.; Pranav, D.; Price, P. B.; Przybylski, G. T.; Raab, C.; Raedel, L.; Rameez, M.; Rawlins, K.; Rea, I. C.; Reimann, R.; Relethford, B.; Relich, M.; Resconi, E.; Rhode, W.; Richman, M.; Robertson, S.; Rongen, M.; Rott, C.; Ruhe, T.; Ryckbosch, D.; Rysewyk, D.; Saelzer, T.; Herrera, S. E. Sanchez; Sandrock, A.; Sandroos, J.; Santander, M.; Sarkar, S.; Sarkar, S.; Satalecka, K.; Schlunder, P.; Schmidt, T.; Schneider, A.; Schoenen, S.; Schoeneberg, S.; Schumacher, L.; Seckel, D.; Seunarine, S.; Soedingrekso, J.; Soldin, D.; Song, M.; Spiczak, G. M.; Spiering, C.; Stachurska, J.; Stamatikos, M.; Stanev, T.; Stasik, A.; Stettner, J.; Steuer, A.; Stezelberger, T.; Stokstad, R. G.; Stossl, A.; Strotjohann, N. L.; Stuttard, T.; Sullivan, G. W.; Sutherland, M.; Taboada, I.; Tatar, J.; Tenholt, F.; Ter-Antonyan, S.; Terliuk, A.; Tesic, G.; Tilav, S.; Toale, P. A.; Tobin, M. N.; Toscano, S.; Tosi, D.; Tselengidou, M.; Tung, C. F.; Turcati, A.; Turley, C. F.; Ty, B.; Unger, E.; Usner, M.; Vandenbroucke, J.; Van Driessche, W.; van Eijndhoven, N.; Vanheule, S.; van Santen, J.; Vehring, M.; Vogel, E.; Vraeghe, M.; Walck, C.; Wallace, A.; Wallraff, M.; Wandler, F. D.; Wandkowsky, N.; Waza, A.; Weaver, C.; Weiss, M. J.; Wendt, C.; Werthebach, J.; Westerhoff, S.; Whelan, B. J.; Wiebe, K.; Wiebusch, C. H.; Wille, L.; Williams, D. R.; Wills, L.; Wolf, M.; Wood, J.; Wood, T. R.; Woolsey, E.; Woschnagg, K.; Xu, D. L.; Xu, X. W.; Xu, Y.; Yanez, J. P.; Yodh, G.; Yoshida, S.; Yuan, T.; Zoll, M.; Aab, A.; Abreu, P.; Aglietta, M.; Albuquerque, I. F. M.; Albury, J. M.; Allekotte, I.; Almela, A.; Alvarez Castillo, J.; Alvarez-Muniz, J.; Anastasi, G. A.; Anchordoqui, L.; Andrada, B.; Andringa, S.; Aramo, C.; Arsene, N.; Asorey, H.; Assis, P.; Avila, G.; Badescu, A. M.; Balaceanu, A.; Barbato, F.; Barreira Luz, R. J.; Beatty, J. J.; Becker, K. H.; Bellido, J. A.; Berat, C.; Bertaina, M. E.; Bertou, X.; Biermann, P. L.; Biteau, J.; Blaess, S. G.; Blanco, A.; Blazek, J.; Bleve, C.; Bohacova, M.; Bonifazi, C.; Borodai, N.; Botti, A. M.; Brack, J.; Brancus, I.; Bretz, T.; Bridgeman, A.; Briechle, F. L.; Buchholz, P.; Bueno, A.; Buitink, S.; Buscemi, M.; Caballero-Mora, K. S.; Caccianiga, L.; Cancio, A.; Canfora, F.; Caruso, R.; Castellina, A.; Catalani, F.; Cataldi, G.; Cazon, L.; Chavez, A. G.; Chinellato, J. A.; Chudoba, J.; Clay, R. W.; Cobos Cerutti, A. C.; Colalillo, R.; Coleman, A.; Collica, L.; Coluccia, M. R.; Conceicao, R.; Consolati, G.; Contreras, F.; Cooper, M. J.; Coutu, S.; Covault, C. E.; Cronin, J.; D'Amico, S.; Daniel, B.; Dasso, S.; Daumiller, K.; Dawson, B. R.; Day, J. A.; de Almeida, R. M.; de Jong, S. J.; De Mauro, G.; de Mello Neto, J. R. T.; De Mitri, I.; de Oliveira, J.; de Souza, V.; Debatin, J.; Deligny, O.; Diaz Castro, M. L.; Diogo, F.; Dobrigkeit, C.; D'Olivo, J. C.; Dorosti, Q.; dos Anjos, R. C.; Dova, M. T.; Dundovic, A.; Ebr, J.; Engel, R.; Erdmann, M.; Erfani, M.; Escobar, C. O.; Espadanal, J.; Etchegoyen, A.; Falcke, H.; Farmer, J.; Farrar, G.; Fauth, A. C.; Fazzini, N.; Feldbusch, F.; Fenu, F.; Fick, B.; Figueira, J. M.; Filipcic, A.; Freire, M. M.; Fujii, T.; Fuster, A.; Gaior, R.; Garcia, B.; Gate, F.; Gemmeke, H.; Gherghel-Lascu, A.; Ghia, P. L.; Giaccari, U.; Giammarchi, M.; Giller, M.; Glas, D.; Glaser, C.; Golup, G.; Gomez Berisso, M.; Gomez Vitale, P. F.; Gonzalez, N.; Gorgi, A.; Gottowik, M.; Grillo, A. F.; Grubb, T. D.; Guarino, F.; Guedes, G. P.; Halliday, R.; Hampel, M. R.; Hansen, P.; Harari, D.; Harrison, T. A.; Harvey, V. M.; Haungs, A.; Hebbeker, T.; Heck, D.; Heimann, P.; Herve, A. E.; Hill, G. C.; Hojvat, C.; Holt, E.; Homola, P.; Horandel, J. R.; Horvath, P.; Hrabovsky, M.; Huege, T.; Hulsman, J.; Insolia, A.; Isar, P. G.; Jandt, I.; Johnsen, J. A.; Josebachuili, M.; Jurysek, J.; Kaeaepae, A.; Kampert, K. H.; Keilhauer, B.; Kemmerich, N.; Kemp, J.; Kieckhafer, R. M.; Klages, H. O.; Kleifges, M.; Kleinfeller, J.; Krause, R.; Krohm, N.; Kuempel, D.; Mezek, G. Kukec; Kunka, N.; Awad, A. Kuotb; Lago, B. L.; LaHurd, D.; Lang, R. G.; Lauscher, M.; Legumina, R.; Leigui de Oliveira, M. A.; Letessier-Selvon, A.; Lhenry-Yvon, I.; Link, K.; Lo Presti, D.; Lopes, L.; Lopez, R.; Lopez Casado, A.; Lorek, R.; Luce, Q.; Lucero, A.; Malacari, M.; Mallamaci, M.; Mandat, D.; Mantsch, P.; Mariazzi, A. G.; Maris, I. C.; Marsella, G.; Martello, D.; Martinez, H.; Martinez Bravo, O.; Masias Meza, J. J.; Mathes, H. J.; Mathys, S.; Matthews, J.; Matthiae, G.; Mayotte, E.; Mazur, P. O.; Medina, C.; Medina-Tanco, G.; Melo, D.; Menshikov, A.; Merenda, K. -D.; Michal, S.; Micheletti, M. I.; Middendorf, L.; Miramonti, L.; Mitrica, B.; Mockler, D.; Mollerach, S.; Montanet, F.; Morello, C.; Morlino, G.; Mostafa, M.; Mueller, A. L.; Mueller, G.; Muller, M. A.; Mueller, S.; Mussa, R.; Naranjo, I.; Nellen, L.; Nguyen, P. 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N.; Isac, J. -M.; Isi, M.; Iyer, B. R.; Izumi, K.; Jacqmin, T.; Jani, K.; Jaranowski, P.; Jawahar, S.; Jimenez-Forteza, F.; Johnson, W. W.; Jones, D. I.; Jones, R.; Jonker, R. J. G.; Ju, L.; Junker, J.; Kalaghatgi, C. V.; Kalogera, V.; Kamai, B.; Kandhasamy, S.; Kang, G.; Kanner, J. B.; Kapadia, S. J.; Karki, S.; Karvinen, K. S.; Kasprzack, M.; Katolik, M.; Katsavounidis, E.; Katzman, W.; Kaufer, S.; Kawabe, K.; Kefelian, F.; Keitel, D.; Kemball, A. J.; Kennedy, R.; Kent, C.; Key, J. S.; Khalili, F. Y.; Khan, I.; Khan, S.; Khan, Z.; Khazanov, E. A.; Kijbunchoo, N.; Kim, Chunglee; Kim, J. C.; Kim, K.; Kim, W.; Kim, W. S.; Kim, Y. -M.; Kimbrell, S. J.; King, E. J.; King, P. J.; Kinley-Hanlon, M.; Kirchhoff, R.; Kissel, J. S.; Kleybolte, L.; Klimenko, S.; Knowles, T. D.; Koch, P.; Koehlenbeck, S. M.; Koley, S.; Kondrashov, V.; Kontos, A.; Korobko, M.; Korth, W. Z.; Kowalska, I.; Kozak, D. 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G.; Scott, J.; Scott, S. M.; Seidel, E.; Sellers, D.; Sengupta, A. S.; Sentenac, D.; Sequino, V.; Sergeev, A.; Shaddock, D. A.; Shaffer, T. J.; Shah, A. A.; Shahriar, M. S.; Shaner, M. B.; Shao, L.; Shapiro, B.; Shawhan, P.; Sheperd, A.; Shoemaker, D. H.; Shoemaker, D. M.; Siellez, K.; Siemens, X.; Sieniawska, M.; Sigg, D.; Silva, A. D.; Singer, L. P.; Singh, A.; Singhal, A.; Sintes, A. M.; Slagmolen, B. J. J.; Smith, B.; Smith, R. J. E.; Smith, R. J. E.; Somala, S.; Son, E. J.; Sonnenberg, J. A.; Sorazu, B.; Sorrentino, F.; Souradeep, T.; Spencer, A. P.; Srivastava, A. K.; Staats, K.; Staley, A.; Steinke, M.; Steinlechner, J.; Steinlechner, S.; Steinmeyer, D.; Stevenson, S. P.; Stone, R.; Stops, D. J.; Strain, K. A.; Stratta, G.; Strigin, S. E.; Strunk, A.; Sturani, R.; Stuver, A. L.; Summerscales, T. Z.; Sun, L.; Sunil, S.; Suresh, J.; Sutton, P. J.; Swinkels, B. L.; Szczepanczyk, M. J.; Tacca, M.; Tait, S. C.; Talbot, C.; Talukder, D.; Tanner, D. B.; Tapai, M.; Taracchini, A.; Tasson, J. D.; Taylor, J. A.; Taylor, R.; Tewari, S. V.; Theeg, T.; Thies, F.; Thomas, E. G.; Thomas, M.; Thomas, P.; Thorne, K. A.; Thrane, E.; Tiwari, S.; Tiwari, V.; Tokmakov, K. V.; Toland, K.; Tonelli, M.; Tornasi, Z.; Torres-Forne, A.; Torrie, C. I.; Toyra, D.; Travasso, F.; Traylor, G.; Trinastic, J.; Tringali, M. C.; Trozzo, L.; Tsang, K. W.; Tse, M.; Tso, R.; Tsukada, L.; Tsuna, D.; Tuyenbayev, D.; Ueno, K.; Ugolini, D.; Unnikrishnan, C. S.; Urban, A. L.; Usman, S. A.; Vahlbruch, H.; Vajente, G.; Valdes, G.; van Bakel, N.; van Beuzekom, M.; van den Brand, J. F. J.; Van Den Broeck, C.; Vander-Hyde, D. C.; van der Schaaf, L.; van Heijningen, J. V.; van Veggel, A. A.; Vardaro, M.; Varma, V.; Vass, S.; Vasuth, M.; Vecchio, A.; Vedovato, G.; Veitch, J.; Veitch, P. J.; Venkateswara, K.; Venugopalan, G.; Verkindt, D.; Vetrano, F.; Vicere, A.; Viets, A. D.; Vinciguerra, S.; Vine, D. J.; Vinet, J. -Y.; Vitale, S.; Vo, T.; Vocca, H.; Vorvick, C.; Vyatchanin, S. P.; Wade, A. R.; Wade, L. E.; Wade, M.; Walet, R.; Walker, M.; Wallace, L.; Walsh, S.; Wang, G.; Wang, H.; Wang, J. Z.; Wang, W. H.; Wang, Y. F.; Ward, R. L.; Warner, J.; Was, M.; Watchi, J.; Weaver, B.; Wei, L. -W.; Weinert, M.; Weinstein, A. J.; Weiss, R.; Wen, L.; Wessel, E. K.; Wessels, P.; Westerweck, J.; Westphal, T.; Wette, K.; Whelan, J. T.; Whiting, B. F.; Whittle, C.; Wilken, D.; Williams, D.; Williams, R. D.; Williamson, A. R.; Willis, J. L.; Willke, B.; Wimmer, M. H.; Winkler, W.; Wipf, C. C.; Wittel, H.; Woan, G.; Woehler, J.; Wofford, J.; Wong, K. W. K.; Worden, J.; Wright, J. L.; Wu, D. S.; Wysocki, D. M.; Xiao, S.; Yamamoto, H.; Yancey, C. C.; Yang, L.; Yap, M. J.; Yazback, M.; Yu, Hang; Yu, Haocun; Yvert, M.; Zadrozny, A.; Zanolin, M.; Zelenova, T.; Zendri, J. -P.; Zevin, M.; Zhang, L.; Zhang, M.; Zhang, T.; Zhang, Y. -H.; Zhao, C.; Zhou, M.; Zhou, Z.; Zhu, S. J.; Zhu, X. J.; Zucker, M. E.; Zweizig, J.

    2017-01-01

    The Advanced LIGO and Advanced Virgo observatories recently discovered gravitational waves from a binary neutron star inspiral. A short gamma-ray burst (GRB) that followed the merger of this binary was also recorded by the Fermi Gamma-ray Burst Monitor (Fermi-GBM), and the Anti-Coincidence Shield

  1. Search for High-energy Neutrinos from Binary Neutron Star Merger GW170817 with ANTARES, IceCube, and the Pierre Auger Observatory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Albert, A.; van Haren, H.; ANTARES collaboration; IceCube Collaboration; Pierre Auger Collaboration; Ligo Scientific Collaboration; Virgo Collaboration

    2017-01-01

    The Advanced LIGO and Advanced Virgo observatories recently discovered gravitational waves from a binaryneutron star inspiral. A short gamma-ray burst (GRB) that followed the merger of this binary was also recorded bythe Fermi Gamma-ray Burst Monitor (Fermi-GBM), and the Anti-Coincidence Shield for

  2. The e-ASTROGAM mission: Exploring the extreme Universe with gamma rays in the MeV – GeV range

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    De Angelis, A.; Tatischeff, V.; Tavani, M.

    2017-01-01

    e-ASTROGAM (‘enhanced ASTROGAM’) is a breakthrough Observatory space mission, with a detector composed by a Silicon tracker, a calorimeter, and an anticoincidence system, dedicated to the study of the non-thermal Universe in the photon energy range from 0.3 MeV to 3 GeV – the lower energy limit can...

  3. Gravitational Waves and Gamma-Rays from a Binary Neutron Star Merger: GW170817 and GRB 170817A

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abbott, B. P.; Abbott, R.; Abbott, T. D.; Acernese, F.; Ackley, K.; Adams, C.; Adams, T.; Addesso, P.; Adhikari, R. X.; Adya, V. B.; Affeldt, C.; Afrough, M.; Agarwal, B.; Agathos, M.; Agatsuma, K.; Aggarwal, N.; Aguiar, O. D.; Aiello, L.; Ain, A.; Ajith, P.; Allen, B.; Allen, G.; Allocca, A.; Aloy, M. A.; Altin, P. A.; Amato, A.; Ananyeva, A.; Anderson, S. B.; Anderson, W. G.; Angelova, S. V.; Antier, S.; Appert, S.; Arai, K.; Araya, M. C.; Areeda, J. S.; Arnaud, N.; Arun, K. G.; Ascenzi, S.; Ashton, G.; Ast, M.; Aston, S. M.; Astone, P.; Atallah, D. V.; Aufmuth, P.; Aulbert, C.; AultONeal, K.; Austin, C.; Avila-Alvarez, A.; Babak, S.; Bacon, P.; Bader, M. K. M.; Bae, S.; Baker, P. T.; Baldaccini, F.; Ballardin, G.; Ballmer, S. W.; Banagiri, S.; Barayoga, J. C.; Barclay, S. E.; Barish, B. C.; Barker, D.; Barkett, K.; Barone, F.; Barr, B.; Barsotti, L.; Barsuglia, M.; Barta, D.; Bartlett, J.; Bartos, I.; Bassiri, R.; Basti, A.; Batch, J. C.; Bawaj, M.; Bayley, J. C.; Bazzan, M.; Becsy, B.; Beer, C.; Bejger, M.; Belahcene, I.; Bell, A. S.; Berger, B. K.; Bergmann, G.; Bero, J. J.; Berry, C. P. L.; Bersanetti, D.; Bertolini, A.; Betzwieser, J.; Bhagwat, S.; Bhandare, R.; Bilenko, I. A.; Billingsley, G.; Billman, C. R.; Birch, J.; Birney, R.; Birnholtz, O.; Biscans, S.; Biscoveanu, S.; Bisht, A.; Bitossi, M.; Biwer, C.; Bizouard, M. A.; Blackburn, J. K.; Blackman, J.; Blair, C. D.; Blair, D. G.; Blair, R. M.; Bloemen, S.; Bock, O.; Bode, N.; Boer, M.; Bogaert, G.; Bohe, A.; Bondu, F.; Bonilla, E.; Bonnand, R.; Boom, B. A.; Bork, R.; Boschi, V.; Bose, S.; Bossie, K.; Bouffanais, Y.; Bozzi, A.; Bradaschia, C.; Brady, P. R.; Branchesi, M.; Brau, J. E.; Briant, T.; Brillet, A.; Brinkmann, M.; Brisson, V.; Brockill, P.; Broida, J. E.; Brooks, A. F.; Brown, D. A.; Brown, D. D.; Brunett, S.; Buchanan, C. C.; Buikema, A.; Bulik, T.; Bulten, H. J.; Buonanno, A.; Buskulic, D.; Buy, C.; Byer, R. L.; Cabero, M.; Cadonati, L.; Cagnoli, G.; Cahillane, C.; Bustillo, J. Calderon; Callister, T. A.; Calloni, E.; Camp, J. B.; Canepa, M.; Canizares, P.; Cannon, K. C.; Cao, H.; Cao, J.; Capano, C. D.; Capocasa, E.; Carbognani, F.; Caride, S.; Carney, M. F.; Diaz, J. Casanueva; Casentini, C.; Caudill, S.; Cavaglia, M.; Cavalier, F.; Cavalieri, R.; Cella, G.; Cepeda, C. B.; Cerda-Duran, P.; Cerretani, G.; Cesarini, E.; Chamberlin, S. J.; Chan, M.; Chao, S.; Charlton, P.; Chase, E.; Chassande-Mottin, E.; Chatterjee, D.; Chatziioannou, K.; Cheeseboro, B. D.; Chen, H. Y.; Chen, X.; Chen, Y.; Cheng, H. -P.; Chia, H.; Chincarini, A.; Chiummo, A.; Chmiel, T.; Cho, H. S.; Cho, M.; Chow, J. H.; Christensen, N.; Chu, Q.; Chua, A. J. K.; Chua, S.; Chung, A. K. W.; Chung, S.; Ciani, G.; Ciolfi, R.; Cirelli, C. E.; Cirone, A.; Clara, F.; Clark, J. A.; Clearwater, P.; Cleva, F.; Cocchieri, C.; Coccia, E.; Cohadon, P. -F.; Cohen, D.; Colla, A.; Collette, C. G.; Cominsky, L. R.; Constancio, M., Jr.; Conti, L.; Cooper, S. J.; Corban, P.; Corbitt, T. R.; Cordero-Carrion, I.; Corley, K. R.; Cornish, N.; Corsi, A.; Cortese, S.; Costa, C. A.; Coughlin, M. W.; Coughlin, S. B.; Coulon, J. -P.; Countryman, S. T.; Couvares, P.; Covas, P. B.; Cowan, E. E.; Coward, D. M.; Cowart, M. J.; Coyne, D. C.; Coyne, R.; Creighton, J. D. E.; Creighton, T. D.; Cripe, J.; Crowder, S. G.; Cullen, T. J.; Cumming, A.; Cunningham, L.; Cuoco, E.; Dal Canton, T.; Dalya, G.; Danilishin, S. L.; D'Antonio, S.; Danzmann, K.; Dasgupta, A.; Costa, C. F. Da Silva; Dattilo, V.; Dave, I.; Davier, M.; Davis, D.; Daw, E. J.; Day, B.; De, S.; Debra, D.; Degallaix, J.; De laurentis, M.; Deleglise, S.; Del Pozzo, W.; Demos, N.; Denker, T.; Dent, T.; De Pietri, R.; Dergachev, V.; De Rosa, R.; DeRosa, R. T.; De Rossi, C.; DeSalvo, R.; de Varona, O.; Devenson, J.; Dhurandhar, S.; Diaz, M. C.; Di Fiore, L.; Di Giovanni, M.; Di Girolamo, T.; Di Lieto, A.; Di Pace, S.; Di Palma, I.; Di Renzo, F.; Doctor, Z.; Dolique, V.; Donovan, F.; Dooley, K. L.; Doravari, S.; Dorrington, I.; Douglas, R.; Alvarez, M. Dovale; Downes, T. P.; Drago, M.; Dreissigacker, C.; Driggers, J. C.; Du, Z.; Ducrot, M.; Dupej, P.; Dwyer, S. E.; Edo, T. B.; Edwards, M. C.; Effler, A.; Eggenstein, H. -B.; Ehrens, P.; Eichholz, J.; Eikenberry, S. S.; Eisenstein, R. A.; Essick, R. C.; Estevez, D.; Etienne, Z. B.; Etzel, T.; Evans, M.; Evans, T. M.; Factourovich, M.; Fafone, V.; Fair, H.; Fairhurst, S.; Fan, X.; Farinon, S.; Farr, B.; Farr, W. M.; Fauchon-Jones, E. J.; Favata, M.; Fays, M.; Fee, C.; Fehrmann, H.; Feicht, J.; Fejer, M. M.; Fernandez-Galiana, A.; Ferrante, I.; Ferreira, E. C.; Ferrini, F.; Fidecaro, F.; Finstad, D.; Fiori, I.; Fiorucci, D.; Fishbach, M.; Fisher, R. P.; Fitz-Axen, M.; Flaminio, R.; Fletcher, M.; Fong, H.; Font, J. A.; Forsyth, P. W. F.; Forsyth, S. S.; Fournier, J. -D.; Frasca, S.; Frasconi, F.; Frei, Z.; Freise, A.; Frey, R.; Frey, V.; Fries, E. M.; Fritschel, P.; Frolov, V. V.; Fulda, P.; Fyffe, M.; Gabbard, H.; Gadre, B. U.; Gaebel, S. M.; Gair, J. R.; Gammaitoni, L.; Ganija, M. R.; Gaonkar, S. G.; Garcia-Quiros, C.; Garufi, F.; Gateley, B.; Gaudio, S.; Gaur, G.; Gayathri, V.; Gehrels, N.; Gemme, G.; Genin, E.; Gennai, A.; George, D.; George, J.; Gergely, L.; Germain, V.; Ghonge, S.; Ghosh, Abhirup; Ghosh, Archisman; Ghosh, S.; Giaime, J. A.; Giardina, K. D.; Giazotto, A.; Gill, K.; Glover, L.; Goetz, E.; Goetz, R.; Gomes, S.; Goncharov, B.; Gonzalez, G.; Castro, J. M. Gonzalez; Gopakumar, A.; Gorodetsky, M. L.; Gossan, S. E.; Gosselin, M.; Gouaty, R.; Grado, A.; Graef, C.; Granata, M.; Grant, A.; Gras, S.; Gray, C.; Greco, G.; Green, A. C.; Gretarsson, E. M.; Groot, P.; Grote, H.; Grunewald, S.; Gruning, P.; Guidi, G. M.; Guo, X.; Gupta, A.; Gupta, M. K.; Gushwa, K. E.; Gustafson, E. K.; Gustafson, R.; Halim, O.; Hall, B. R.; Hall, E. D.; Hamilton, E. Z.; Hammond, G.; Haney, M.; Hanke, M. M.; Hanks, J.; Hanna, C.; Hannam, M. D.; Hannuksela, O. A.; Hanson, J.; Hardwick, T.; Harms, J.; Harry, G. M.; Harry, I. W.; Hart, M. J.; Haster, C. -J.; Haughian, K.; Healy, J.; Heidmann, A.; Heintze, M. C.; Heitmann, H.; Hello, P.; Hemming, G.; Hendry, M.; Heng, I. S.; Hennig, J.; Heptonstall, A. W.; Heurs, M.; Hild, S.; Hinderer, T.; Hoak, D.; Hofman, D.; Holt, K.; Holz, D. E.; Hopkins, P.; Horst, C.; Hough, J.; Houston, E. A.; Howell, E. J.; Hreibi, A.; Hu, Y. M.; Huerta, E. A.; Huet, D.; Hughey, B.; Husa, S.; Huttner, S. H.; Huynh-Dinh, T.; Indik, N.; Inta, R.; Intini, G.; Isa, H. N.; Isac, J. -M.; Isi, M.; Iyer, B. R.; Izumi, K.; Jacqmin, T.; Jani, K.; Jaranowski, P.; Jawahar, S.; Jimenez-Forteza, F.; Johnson, W. W.; Johnson-McDaniel, N. K.; Jones, D. I.; Jones, R.; Jonker, R. J. G.; Ju, L.; Junker, J.; Kalaghatgi, C. V.; Kalogera, V.; Kamai, B.; Kandhasamy, S.; Kang, G.; Kanner, J. B.; Kapadia, S. 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W.; Lee, K.; Lehmann, J.; Lenon, A.; Leonardi, M.; Leroy, N.; Letendre, N.; Levin, Y.; Li, T. G. F.; Linker, S. D.; Littenberg, T. B.; Liu, J.; Lo, R. K. L.; Lockerbie, N. A.; London, L. T.; Lord, J. E.; Lorenzini, M.; Loriette, V.; Lormand, M.; Losurdo, G.; Lough, J. D.; Lousto, C. O.; Lovelace, G.; Lueck, H.; Lumaca, D.; Lundgren, A. P.; Lynch, R.; Ma, Y.; Macas, R.; Macfoy, S.; Machenschalk, B.; MacInnis, M.; Macleod, D. M.; Hernandez, I. Magana; Magana-Sandoval, F.; Zertuche, L. Magana; Magee, R. M.; Majorana, E.; Maksimovic, I.; Man, N.; Mandic, V.; Mangano, V.; Mansell, G. L.; Manske, M.; Mantovani, M.; Marchesoni, F.; Marion, F.; Marka, S.; Marka, Z.; Markakis, C.; Markosyan, A. S.; Markowitz, A.; Maros, E.; Marquina, A.; Martelli, F.; Martellini, L.; Martin, I. W.; Martin, R. M.; Martynov, D. V.; Mason, K.; Massera, E.; Masserot, A.; Massinger, T. J.; Masso-Reid, M.; Mastrogiovanni, S.; Matas, A.; Matichard, F.; Matone, L.; Mavalvala, N.; Mazumder, N.; McCarthy, R.; McClelland, D. E.; McCormick, S.; McCuller, L.; McGuire, S. C.; McIntyre, G.; McIver, J.; McManus, D. J.; McNeill, L.; Mcrae, T.; McWilliams, S. T.; Meacher, D.; Meadors, G. D.; Mehmet, M.; Meidam, J.; Mejuto-Villa, E.; Melatos, A.; Mendell, G.; Mercer, R. A.; Merilh, E. L.; Merzougui, M.; Meshkov, S.; Messenger, C.; Messick, C.; Metzdorff, R.; Meyers, P. M.; Miao, H.; Michel, C.; Middleton, H.; Mikhailov, E. E.; Milano, L.; Miller, A. L.; Miller, B. B.; Miller, J.; Millhouse, M.; Milovich-Goff, M. C.; Minazzoli, O.; Minenkov, Y.; Ming, J.; Mishra, C.; Mitra, S.; Mitrofanov, V. P.; Mitselmakher, G.; Mittleman, R.; Moffa, D.; Moggi, A.; Mogushi, K.; Mohan, M.; Mohapatra, S. R. P.; Montani, M.; Moore, C. J.; Moraru, D.; Moreno, G.; Morriss, S. R.; Mours, B.; Mow-Lowry, C. M.; Mueller, G.; Muir, A. 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B.; Shao, L.; Shapiro, B.; Shawhan, P.; Sheperd, A.; Shoemaker, D. H.; Shoemaker, D. M.; Siellez, K.; Siemens, X.; Sieniawska, M.; Sigg, D.; Silva, A. D.; Singer, L. P.; Singh, A.; Singhal, A.; Sintes, A. M.; Slagmolen, B. J. J.; Smith, B.; Smith, R. J. E.; Smith, R. J. E.; Somala, S.; Son, E. J.; Sonnenberg, J. A.; Sorazu, B.; Sorrentino, F.; Souradeep, T.; Spencer, A. P.; Srivastava, A. K.; Staats, K.; Staley, A.; Steinke, M.; Steinlechner, J.; Steinlechner, S.; Steinmeyer, D.; Stevenson, S. P.; Stone, R.; Stops, D. J.; Strain, K. A.; Stratta, G.; Strigin, S. E.; Strunk, A.; Sturani, R.; Stuver, A. L.; Summerscales, T. Z.; Sun, L.; Sunil, S.; Suresh, J.; Sutton, P. J.; Swinkels, B. L.; Szczepanczyk, M. J.; Tacca, M.; Tait, S. C.; Talbot, C.; Talukder, D.; Tanner, D. B.; Tapai, M.; Taracchini, A.; Tasson, J. D.; Taylor, J. A.; Taylor, R.; Tewari, S. V.; Theeg, T.; Thies, F.; Thomas, E. G.; Thomas, M.; Thomas, P.; Thorne, K. A.; Thorne, K. S.; Thrane, E.; Tiwari, S.; Tiwari, V.; Tokmakov, K. V.; Toland, K.; Tonelli, M.; Tornasi, Z.; Torres-Forne, A.; Torrie, C. I.; Toyra, D.; Travasso, F.; Traylor, G.; Trinastic, J.; Tringali, M. C.; Trozzo, L.; Tsang, K. W.; Tse, M.; Tso, R.; Tsukada, L.; Tsuna, D.; Tuyenbayev, D.; Ueno, K.; Ugolini, D.; Unnikrishnan, C. S.; Urban, A. L.; Usman, S. A.; Vahlbruch, H.; Vajente, G.; Valdes, G.; van Bakel, N.; van Beuzekom, M.; Van den Brand, J. F. J.; Van den Broeck, C.; Vander-Hyde, D. C.; Van der Schaaf, L.; van Heijningen, J. V.; van Veggel, A. A.; Vardaro, M.; Varma, V.; Vass, S.; Vasuth, M.; Vecchio, A.; Vedovato, G.; Veitch, J.; Veitch, P. J.; Venkateswara, K.; Venugopalan, G.; Verkindt, D.; Vetrano, F.; Vicere, A.; Viets, A. D.; Vinciguerra, S.; Vine, D. J.; Vinet, J. -Y.; Vitale, S.; Vo, T.; Vocca, H.; Vorvick, C.; Vyatchanin, S. P.; Wade, A. R.; Wade, L. E.; Wade, M.; Walet, R.; Walker, M.; Wallace, L.; Walsh, S.; Wang, G.; Wang, H.; Wang, J. Z.; Wang, W. H.; Wang, Y. F.; Ward, R. L.; Warner, J.; Was, M.; Watchi, J.; Weaver, B.; Wei, L. -W.; Weinert, M.; Weinstein, A. J.; Weiss, R.; Wen, L.; Wessel, E. K.; Wessels, P.; Westerweck, J.; Westphal, T.; Wette, K.; Whelan, J. T.; Whitcomb, S. E.; Whiting, B. F.; Whittle, C.; Wilken, D.; Williams, D.; Williams, R. D.; Williamson, A. R.; Willis, J. L.; Willke, B.; Wimmer, M. H.; Winkler, W.; Wipf, C. C.; Wittel, H.; Woan, G.; Woehler, J.; Wofford, J.; Wong, K. W. K.; Worden, J.; Wright, J. L.; Wu, D. S.; Wysocki, D. M.; Xiao, S.; Yamamoto, H.; Yancey, C. C.; Yang, L.; Yap, M. J.; Yazback, M.; Yu, Hang; Yu, Haocun; Yvert, M.; Zadrozny, A.; Zanolin, M.; Zelenova, T.; Zendri, J. -P.; Zevin, M.; Zhang, L.; Zhang, M.; Zhang, T.; Zhang, Y. -H.; Zhao, C.; Zhou, M.; Zhou, Z.; Zhu, S. J.; Zhu, X. J.; Zimmerman, A. B.; Zucker, M. E.; Zweizig, J.; Burns, E.; Veres, P.; Kocevski, D.; Racusin, J.; Goldstein, A.; Connaughton, V.; Briggs, M. S.; Blackburn, L.; Hamburg, R.; Hui, C. M.; von Kienlin, A.; McEnery, J.; Preece, R. D.; Wilson-Hodge, C. A.; Bissaldi, E.; Cleveland, W. H.; Gibby, M. H.; Giles, M. M.; Kippen, R. M.; McBreen, S.; Meegan, C. A.; Paciesas, W. S.; Poolakkil, S.; Roberts, O. J.; Stanbro, M.; Savchenko, V.; Ferrigno, C.; Kuulkers, E.; Bazzano, A.; Bozzo, E.; Brandt, S.; Chenevez, J.; Courvoisier, T. J. -L.; Diehl, R.; Domingo, A.; Hanlon, L.; Jourdain, E.; Laurent, P.; Lebrun, F.; Lutovinov, A.; Mereghetti, S.; Natalucci, L.; Rodi, J.; Roques, J. -P.; Sunyaev, R.; Ubertini, P.

    2017-01-01

    On 2017 August 17, the gravitational-wave event GW170817 was observed by the Advanced LIGO and Virgo detectors, and the gamma-ray burst (GRB) GRB 170817A was observed independently by the Fermi Gamma-ray Burst Monitor, and the Anti-Coincidence Shield for the Spectrometer for the International

  4. Comprehensive measurements in 4 π geometry for radio-active samples having a low β-activity (1962)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Colomer, J.; Valentin, M.

    1961-01-01

    The realisation is described of a comprehensive measurement system having low background noise and, as well as a lead-wall protection, an electronic protection made up of a plastic scintillator placed in anticoincidence with the 4 π counter used for making the measurements. The apparatus is described and its performance discussed. (authors) [fr

  5. Progress on detection of radioactivity by airborne equipment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stead, Frank W.

    1949-01-01

    Coincidence and anti-coincidence counting rate meters and also an air conductivity meter have been installed in a transport plane to measure gamma radiation from ground sources. Materials containing 0.01 percent uranium can be detected at 500 feet and at an airspeed of 150 miles per hour.

  6. Sealed drift tube cosmic ray veto counters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rios, R., E-mail: rrios@lanl.go [Idaho State University, Pocatello, ID 83209 (United States); Tatar, E. [Idaho State University, Pocatello, ID 83209 (United States); Bacon, J.D.; Bowles, T.J.; Hill, R.; Green, J.A.; Hogan, G.E.; Ito, T.M.; Makela, M.; Morris, C.L.; Mortenson, R.; Pasukanics, F.E.; Ramsey, J.; Saunders, A.; Seestrom, S.J.; Sondheim, W.E.; Teasdale, W. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM 87544 (United States); Saltus, M. [Sloan Enterprises, NC (United States); Back, H.O.; Cottrell, C.R. [North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC 27695 (United States)

    2011-05-01

    We describe a simple drift tube counter that has been used as a cosmic ray veto for the UCNA experiment, a first-ever measurement of the neutron beta-asymmetry using ultra-cold neutrons. These detectors provide an inexpensive alternative to more conventional scintillation detectors for large area cosmic ray anticoincidence detectors.

  7. Digital system provides superregulation of nanosecond amplifier-discriminator circuit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forges, K. G.

    1966-01-01

    Feedback system employing a digital logic comparator to detect and correct amplifier drift provides stable gain characteristics for nanosecond amplifiers used in counting applications. Additional anticoincidence logic enables application of the regulation circuit to the amplifier and discriminator while they are mounted in an operable circuit.

  8. Measurement of low radioactivity in underground laboratories by means of many-dimensional spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niese, Siegfried

    2008-01-01

    In this contribution beside the possibilities for the measurements in underground laboratories also the application of the many-dimensional spectrometry is considered, under which coincidence, anticoincidence, and time-resolving spectrometric are to be understood. Very extensively the interaction of cosmic radiation with matter is considered

  9. Enhanced detection of terrestrial gamma-ray flashes by AGILE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marisaldi, M; Argan, A; Ursi, A; Gjesteland, T; Fuschino, F; Labanti, C; Galli, M; Tavani, M; Pittori, C; Verrecchia, F; D'Amico, F; Østgaard, N; Mereghetti, S; Campana, R; Cattaneo, P W; Bulgarelli, A; Colafrancesco, S; Dietrich, S; Longo, F; Gianotti, F; Giommi, P; Rappoldi, A; Trifoglio, M; Trois, A

    2015-11-16

    At the end of March 2015 the onboard software configuration of the Astrorivelatore Gamma a Immagini Leggero (AGILE) satellite was modified in order to disable the veto signal of the anticoincidence shield for the minicalorimeter instrument. The motivation for such a change was the understanding that the dead time induced by the anticoincidence prevented the detection of a large fraction of Terrestrial Gamma-Ray Flashes (TGFs). The configuration change was highly successful resulting in an increase of one order of magnitude in TGF detection rate. As expected, the largest fraction of the new events has short duration (<100 μs), and part of them has simultaneous association with lightning sferics detected by the World Wide Lightning Location Network. The new configuration provides the largest TGF detection rate surface density (TGFs/km 2 /yr) to date, opening prospects for improved correlation studies with lightning and atmospheric parameters on short spatial and temporal scales along the equatorial region.

  10. A low background gamma ray spectrometer with anticosmic shielding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nguyen Quoc Hung; Vo Hong Hai; Tran Kim Tuyet; Ho Lai Tuan

    2016-01-01

    The article describes a gamma ray spectrometer protected by a lead shield (Model 747E Canberra lead shield) and an active shield made of an 80 cm x 80 cm x 3 cm plastic scintillator plate in anticoincidence on top of the lead shield. The detector used as low background gamma-spectrometer is a high purity Germanium crystal of model GC2018 Canberra. The background count rate currently achieved (30-2400 keV) is 1.27 cps without anticoincidence. The level of background suppression obtained from the active protection is 0.80 overall and about 0.43 for the 511 keV gamma line. The gamma ray spectrometer is installed and operated in the Nuclear Laboratory, Department of Nuclear Physics, University of Science, Ho Chi Minh City Vietnam National University. (author)

  11. Primary standardization of a {sup 177}Lu solution; Padronizacao primaria de uma solucao de {sup 177}Lu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iwahara, Akira; Silva, Carlos Jose da; Tauhata, Luiz; Oliveira, Estela Maria de, E-mail: iwahara@ird.gov.b, E-mail: carlos@ird.gov.b, E-mail: tauhata@ird.gov.b, E-mail: estela@ird.gov.b [Instituto de Radioprotecao e Dosimetria (IRD/CNEN-RJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Rezende, Eduarda Alexandre, E-mail: eduarda@ird.gov.b [Centro Federal de Educacao Tecnologica de Quimica (CEFET), Nilopolis, RJ (Brazil)

    2009-07-01

    For the purpose to make available reliable standards of {sup 177}Lu to the users and producers, a radionuclide solution was standardized using the primary methods of coincidence 4{pi}{beta}(PC)-{gamma}(NaI(Tl)) and of 4{pi}{beta}(LS)-{gamma}(NaI(Tl)). The results presented a convergence in the range of evaluated uncertainties. The standard uncertainties were of the 0.50 and 0.74% for the anticoincidence and coincidence respectively

  12. Advanced technical developments in support of scientific experiments in space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamport, J. E.

    1972-01-01

    A technique was developed for preparing solid state, lithium-drifted silicon detectors. Hollow cylindrical detectors were built and tested for possible use as anticoincidence shields to replace conventional plastic scintillators and photomultipliers. A fission cell was developed for the Pioneer F/G instruments and the IMP I subsystem. An electron current detector was developed for Jovian belt measurements of electron flux. A number of circuits and semiconductor devices was also developed.

  13. The possibilities of constructing a very big Cherenkov detector with usage of a light spectrum shifters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akimov, Yu.K.

    1980-01-01

    A version of Cherenkov detector (V approximately 10 4 tonns) for nuclear instability searches and for neutrino investigations is suggested. The detector has a 4π-anticoincidence screen and is characterized by a relatively uniform sensitivity at a moderate number of photomultipliers. For light collecting the wavelength shifters are used which absorb blue light and reemit it in the green light. Wavelength shifters provide almost a one-order increase of light collecting. Detector possibilities are discussed [ru

  14. Feasibility study of SPECT system for online dosimetry imaging in boron neutron capture therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hales, B; Katabuchi, T; Hayashizaki, N; Terada, K; Igashira, M; Kobayashi, T

    2014-06-01

    A single collimator version of a proposed PG-SPECT system was manufactured and experimentally tested. Combining this experimental data with Monte Carlo simulation, the viability of Ge and CdTe semiconductors detectors was calculated. It was determined that the best detector of the ones compared would be a CdTe detector of 2-3mm, aided by the benefit of adding a Compton-suppression anti-coincidence timing detector. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Instrumental neutron activation analysis for coal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzuki, Shohgo; Okada, Yukiko; Hirai, Shoji

    1985-01-01

    Various methods of neutron irradiation and of gamma-ray spectrometry were used in order to improve the detection sensitivity. Gamma-ray spactra of irradiated samples were collected by four methods, namely, spectrometry using a coaxial Ge(Li) detector, anticoincidence and coincidence counting spectrometries using a coaxial Ge(Li) detector and a well-type NaI(Tl) detector, and low energy photon spectrometry using a planer Ge detector (LEPS). Gamma-ray spectra obtained were analyzed by a peak-fitting procedure using a minicomputer system (GAMA system). Concentration of 35 elements (Na, Mg, Al, Cl, K, Ca, Sc, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Zn, As, Br, Rb, Sr, Zr, Mo, Sb, Cs, Ba, La, Ce, Sm, Eu, Tb, Dy, Hf, Ta, W, Th and U) were determined by the combination of no-filter irradiation and spectrometry using a coaxial Ge(Li) detector that is conventionaly widely used. Concentrations of other 19 elements were determined by other combinations of irradiation and spectrometry. Mercury concentration was determined by the combination of no-filter irradiation and anticoincidence counting spectrometry. Concentrations of 7 elements (Cu, Nd, Gd, Ho, Tm, Yb and Lu) were determined by the combination of no-filter irradiation and LEPS. Concentrations of 3 elements (In, Ga and Ag) were determined by the combination of cadmium-filter irradiation and spectrometry using a coaxial Ge(Li) detector. Concentrations of 5 elements (Pr, Cd, Au, Te and Sn) were determined by the combination of cadmium-filter irradiation and anticoincidence counting spectrometry. Selenium concentration was determined by the combination of cadmium-filter irradiation and coincidence counting spectrometry. Silicon concentration was determined by the combination of boron-filter irradiation and spectrometry using a coaxial Ge(Li) detector. Iodine concentration was determined by the combination of boron-filter irradiation and anticoincidence counting spectrometry. (J.P.N.)

  16. Digital gamma-gamma coincidence HPGe system for environmental analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Markovic, Nikola; Roos, Per; Nielsen, Sven Poul

    2017-01-01

    The performance of a new gamma-gamma coincidence spectrometer system for environmental samples analysis at the Center for Nuclear Technologies of the Technical University of Denmark (DTU) is reported. Nutech Coincidence Low Energy Germanium Sandwich (NUCLeGeS) system consists of two HPGe detector...... in a surface laboratory with a digital acquisition system used to collect the data in time-stamped list mode with 10. ns time resolution. The spectrometer is used in both anticoincidence and coincidence modes....

  17. Sensitivity of LDEF foil analyses using ultra-low background germanium vs. large NaI(Tl) multidimensional spectrometers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reeves, J.H.; Arthur, R.J.; Brodzinski, R.L.

    1992-06-01

    Cobalt foils and stainless steel samples were analyzed for induced 6O Co activity with both an ultra-low background germanium gamma-ray spectrometer and with a large NaI(Tl) multidimensional spectrometer, both of which use electronic anticoincidence shielding to reduce background counts resulting from cosmic rays. Aluminum samples were analyzed for 22 Na. The results, in addition to the relative sensitivities and precisions afforded by the two methods, are presented

  18. Measurement of Total Reaction Cross-sections with Heavy Ions at the SC

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    The aim of this experiment is the measurement of heavy ion total reaction cross-sections in the energy range 40-86 MeV/A with the anti-coincidence beam attenuation technique. A system of 19 @DE scintillation detectors together with a time-of-flight measurement is used for detection of the residual beam. The results will complete measurements at the Grenoble cyclotron and post accelerator over the energy range 10-40 MeV/A.

  19. Gamma-ray background induced in a double Ge (Li) spectrometer at ballon altitudes in the hemisphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bui-Van, N.A.; Braga, J.; Jardim, J.O.D.; Vedrenne, G.

    1986-02-01

    A double coaxil Ge(li) spetrometer has been flown for the first time in December, from the Southern Hemisphere and the induced background at ceiling in the diodes was studied. During the flight, different anti-coincidence modes were operated to estimate the gamma-ray lines. The results of 511 Kev line show that the fluxes detected by the upper diode are in good agreement with previous measurements, and indicate a probable contamination of the lower diode. (Author) [pt

  20. Standardization of 57Co using different methods of LNMRI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rezende, E.A.; Lopes, R.T.; Silva, C.J. da; Poledna, R.; Silva, R.L. da; Tauhata, L.

    2015-01-01

    The activity of a 57 Co solution was determined using four LNMRI different measurement methods. The solution was standardized by live-timed anti-coincidence method and sum-peak method. The efficiency curve and standard-sample comparison methods were also used in this comparison. The results and their measurement uncertainties demonstrating the equivalence of these methods. As an additional contribution, the gamma emission probabilities of 57 Co were also determined. (author)

  1. New developments in low-level gas counting of tritium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Povinec, P.; Szarka, J.; Usacev, S.; Chudy, M.

    1977-01-01

    The design is described of a proportional counter for low-level counting of soft radiation. The body of the counter is made of a stainless steel pipe 123 mm in dia and 250 mm in length. The outer cathode of the multiple anode ring counter is formed by a stainless steel pipe and the inner cathode is made of molybdenum plated gold wires 1OO μm in dia. The ring anticoincidence counter contains 40 wire anodes 50 μm in diameter. The sensitive volume of the ring counter is 0.7 l. Teflon and plexiglas are used as insulation materials for the counter. The diagram is presented of the decision-making logical digital unit and a block diagram is presented of the pulse shape discrimination system connected to the described counter. The total background of the counter in lead shielding is 3.2O cps. Using internal anticoincidence the background of the counter is reduced to O.35 cps. The final background using concurrent internal and external anticoincidence is 1.O cpm. (J.B.)

  2. Pulse-width discriminators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Budyashov, Yu.G.; Grebenyuk, V.M.; Zinov, V.G.

    1978-01-01

    A pulse duration discriminator is described which is intended for processing signals from multilayer scintillators. The basic elements of the scintillator are: an input gate, a current generator, an integrating capacitor, a Schmidt trigger and an anticoincidence circuit. The basic circuit of the discriminator and its time diagrams explaining its operating are given. The discriminator is based on microcircuits. Pulse duration discrimination threshold changes continuously from 20 to 100 ns, while its amplitude threshold changes within 20 to 100 mV. The temperature instability of discrimination thresholds (both in pulse width and in amplitude) is better than 0.1 per cent/deg C

  3. Development Status of the Mechanically Pumped Two-Phase CO2 Cooling Loop for the AMS-2 TTCS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delil, A. A. M.; Woering, A. A.; Verlaat, B.

    2003-01-01

    The Alpha Magnetic Spectrometer AMS is an international experiment, led by Nobel Prize laureate Samuel Ting (MIT), searching for anti-matter, dark matter and lost matter. It is a particle detector for high-energy cosmic rays, consisting the sub-detectors: (Silicon) Tracker, Time of Flight (ToF) system, Veto Counters, Transition Radiation Detector (TRD), Synchrotron Radiation Detector (SRD), Ring Imaging Cherenkov Counter (RICH), Anti-Coincidence Counter, and Electromagnetic Calorimeter. The demonstration experiment AMS-1 has successfully flown in June '98 on the Space Shuttle Discovery (STS91). The paper focuses on TTCS issues.

  4. Critical evaluation of the Laboratory of Radionuclide Metrology results of the Institute of Radiation Protection and Dosimetry - IRD in the international key comparisons of activity measurement of radioactive solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iwahara, A.; Tauhata, L.; Silva, C.J. da

    2014-01-01

    The Radionuclide Metrology Laboratory (LMR) of LNMRI/IRD has been participating since 1984, in international key-comparisons of activity measurement of radioactive sources organized by BIPM and the Regional Metrology Organizations as EURAMET and APMP. The measured quantity is the activity of a radioactive solution, in becquerel (Bq), containing the radionuclide involved and the of measurement methods used are 4αβ-γ coincidence/anticoincidence, coincidence sum-peak and liquid scintillation. In this paper a summary of the methods used and a performance analysis of the results obtained are presented. (author)

  5. Determination of Potassium in Feldspars by Beta Counting Using a GM Multicounter System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bøtter-Jensen, Lars; Mejdahl, V.

    1985-01-01

    A gas flow multicounter system developed at Riso National Laboratory for low-level beta counting applications was adopted for measuring potassium in feldspars extracted from archaeological and geological materials, in connection with TL dating work. A guard counter reduces the background by using...... a anticoincidence technique. Calibration was accomplished by measuring KCl and a feldspar standard. A potassium content of 1% yields a net beta count rate (background subtracted) of about 40 c.p.h.; the background is around 15 c.p.h. The precision in repeated measurements is better than 2% and the estimated...

  6. Signal processing for fast luminosity monitor of BEPC II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Tao; Wang Yonggang; Li Kai; Yan Tianxin

    2008-01-01

    In order to meet the requirement of the fast luminosity monitor system of Beijing electron-positron collider (BEPC II), a high-speed bunch-by-bunch luminosity signal processing and displaying system was designed. The techniques such as fast signal amplification, discrimination, long-distance signal transmission, anti-coincidence event judgment, counting for each bunch and ping-pang storage were involved effectively. The preliminary test result shows that the system can process and display the luminosity signals for bunches with 4 ns separation. (authors)

  7. The nuclear radiation monitor for the Spacelab/Shuttle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fishman, G. J.

    1978-01-01

    A 5 inch by 5 inch diameter sodium iodide scintillation crystal, viewed by a 5 inch photomultiplier was designed to be mounted near the center of the shuttle payload bay to quantitatively measure the neutron and gamma ray environment during the second Spacelab mission. The expected energy resolution is 8% FWHM at 662 keV. The detector will operate in an energy range from 0.1 to 20 MeV. A charged anticoincidence shield consisting of a 1 cm thick plastic scintillator viewed by three 2 inch photomultiplier tubes, covers the crystal detector which has nearly omnidirectional response.

  8. Digital gamma-gamma coincidence HPGe system for environmental analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marković, Nikola; Roos, Per; Nielsen, Sven Poul

    2017-08-01

    The performance of a new gamma-gamma coincidence spectrometer system for environmental samples analysis at the Center for Nuclear Technologies of the Technical University of Denmark (DTU) is reported. Nutech Coincidence Low Energy Germanium Sandwich (NUCLeGeS) system consists of two HPGe detectors in a surface laboratory with a digital acquisition system used to collect the data in time-stamped list mode with 10ns time resolution. The spectrometer is used in both anticoincidence and coincidence modes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Gravitational Waves and Gamma-Rays from a Binary Neutron Star Merger: GW170817 and GRB 170817A

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abbott, B. P.; Abbott, R.; Abbott, T. D.

    2017-01-01

    On 2017 August 17, the gravitational-wave event GW170817 was observed by the Advanced LIGO and Virgo detectors, and the gamma-ray burst (GRB) GRB 170817A was observed independently by the Fermi Gamma-ray Burst Monitor, and the Anti-Coincidence Shield for the Spectrometer for the International Gamma....... Finally, we predict a joint detection rate for the Fermi Gamma-ray Burst Monitor and the Advanced LIGO and Virgo detectors of 0.1–1.4 per year during the 2018–2019 observing run and 0.3–1.7 per year at design sensitivity....

  10. SOI Pixel Sensor for Gamma-Ray Imaging

    OpenAIRE

    Shimazoe, Kenji; Atiqah, Fairuz; Yoshihara, Yuri; Koyama, Akihiko; Takahashi, Hiroyuki; Orita, Tadashi; Kamada, Kei; Takeda, Ayaki; Tsuru, Takeshi; Arai, Yasuo

    2015-01-01

    SOI (Silicon-On-Insulator) pixel sensor is promising technology for developing the high position resolution detector by integrating the small pixels and circuits in the monolithic way. The event driven (trigger mode) SOI based pixel sensor has also been developed for the application of X-ray astronomy with the purpose of reducing the noise using anti-coincidence event. This trigger mode SOI pixel sensor working with in the rate of kilo Hz is also a promising scatter detector for advanced Comp...

  11. Radioactivity of fish in the Hungarian reach of the river Danube

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kurtacs, E.

    1982-01-01

    In connection with the Hungarian nuclear power program a series of measurements was initiated to detect radionuclides in fishes of Danube river at two sampling points near the station region. The beta activity of samples was counted with anticoincidence shielded low background Tesla NZ-602 type apparatus. The radioactivity of samples was measured after simple physical or radiochemical preparation. The results show no significant difference according either to sampling sites of seasons. Activity concentrations of 90 Sr and 137 Cs of natural or global fallout origin are low and hardly differ from values obtained earlier by other researchers. (author)

  12. Strontium-90 in the western Gulf of Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Payton, P.H.; Hild, S.B.; Oertti, C.U.; Suttle, A.D. Jr.

    1977-01-01

    The results of measurements of 90 Sr in water, coral, hermit crabs and molluscs from the western Gulf of Mexico and in fresh water molluscs from Canyon Lake, Texas are reported. Preparation of samples for measurement in the anticoincidence mode in a lead shielded flow proportional counter is described. The measured value of 0.095 +- 0.003 pCi/litre for Gulf water is in accord with literature values. Concentration factors for 90 Sr are apparently 1 for coral. The activity incorporated into shells normalized to calcium content, decreases from Galveston to Campeche Bay. (U.K.)

  13. Standardization of 59Fe 4πβ(LS)-γcoincidence counting with digital sampling method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agusbudiman, A.; Lee, K. B.; Lee, J. M.; Park, T. S.

    2014-01-01

    The radionuclide 59Fe decays with a half-life of 44.494(12) days, by several beta minus emission to the ground state and to four excited states of 59 Co, mainly to the 1099 keV and 1291 keV (Bé et al., 2004). The activity of 59 Fe was measured by 4 πβ(LS)-γ coincidence counting method with digital sampling technique. A gamma spectrometry analysis was also conducted to check the impurities of the source. As comparison, the activity were also measured by using the 4πβ(PC)-γ coincidence counting system and 4πβ (LS)-γ anti-coincidence method. The radionuclide 59Fe has been standardized using the 4πβ(LS)-γcoincidence counting with digital sampling method. The result was in a good agreement with the result from 4πβ(PC)-γ coincidence counting and the 4πβ(LS)-γ anti-coincidence method

  14. PULSE HEIGHT ANALYZER

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnstone, C.W.

    1958-01-21

    An anticoincidence device is described for a pair of adjacent channels of a multi-channel pulse height analyzer for preventing the lower channel from generating a count pulse in response to an input pulse when the input pulse has sufficient magnitude to reach the upper level channel. The anticoincidence circuit comprises a window amplifier, upper and lower level discriminators, and a biased-off amplifier. The output of the window amplifier is coupled to the inputs of the discriminators, the output of the upper level discriminator is connected to the resistance end of a series R-C network, the output of the lower level discriminator is coupled to the capacitance end of the R-C network, and the grid of the biased-off amplifier is coupled to the junction of the R-C network. In operation each discriminator produces a negative pulse output when the input pulse traverses its voltage setting. As a result of the connections to the R-C network, a trigger pulse will be sent to the biased-off amplifier when the incoming pulse level is sufficient to trigger only the lower level discriminator.

  15. High sensitivity isotope analysis with a 252Cf--235U fueled subcritical multiplier and low background photon detector systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wogman, N.A.; Rieck, H.G. Jr.; Laul, J.C.; MacMurdo, K.W.

    1976-09-01

    A 252 Cf activation analysis facility has been developed for routine multielement analysis of a wide variety of solid and liquid samples. The facility contains six sources of 252 Cf totaling slightly over 100 mg. These sources are placed in a 93 percent 235 U-enriched uranium core which is subcritical with a K effective of 0.985 (multiplication factor of 66). The system produces a thermal flux on the order of 10 +1 neutrons per square centimeter per second. A pneumatic rabbit system permits automatic irradiation, decay, and counting regimes to be performed unattended on the samples. The activated isotopes are analyzed through their photon emissions with state-of-the-art intrinsic Ge detectors, Ge(Li) detectors, and NaI(Tl) multidimensional gamma ray spectrometers. High efficiency (25 percent), low background, anticoincidence shielded Ge(Li) gamma ray detector systems have been constructed to provide the lowest possible background, yet maintain a peak to Compton ratio of greater than 1000 to 1. The multidimensional gamma ray spectrometer systems are composed of 23 cm diameter x 20 cm thick NaI(Tl) crystals surrounded by NaI(Tl) anticoincidence shields. The detection limits for over 65 elements have been determined for this system. Over 40 elements are detectable at the 1 part per million level at a precision of +-10 percent

  16. Calibration of a telescope for gamma spectroscopy using a new configuration of two Ge(Li) diodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bui-Van, N.A.; Jardim, J.O.D.; Braga, J.; Jardim, M.V.A.; Martin, I.M.; Vedrenne, G.

    1983-01-01

    It was developed a telescope to measure gamma-rays in the energy interval 10-1500 KeV, using two Ge(Li) diodes of 40 cm 3 each, coaxially mounted in the same cryostat and an anticoincidence Nal(Tl) shielding system. This new configuration allows a much better signal to noise ratio due to the lower diode operating in anticoincidence with the upper one; besides that, one has a high energy resolution (ΔE 241 , Na 22 and Eu 152 are described. From the analysis of the data obtained in the sum coincidence mode, a minimum detectable flux at 511 KeV is estimated to be -3 fotons cm -2 s -1 , with a statistical significance of 3σ for 10 hours of observing time at 3 mb of residual atmosphere. This is about the minimum line flux emitted by the Galactic Center. The measurement of the flux at this line would confirm the time variability observed by Riegler and collaborators using data obtained through HEAO-3 satellite. (Author) [pt

  17. A counter system for natural C14 measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oona, H.; Fan, C.Y.

    1977-01-01

    Two proportional counters made of plastic scintillator were constructed for measuring the C14 contents in dated tree rings. One is for background and the other for specimen. CH 4 at 1 atm pressure was used as the counter gas; each counter has an active volume approximately 5.5 l. The wall, being a scintillator, serves as a 4π anti-coincidence shell for rejection of natural radioactivity in the material housing the proportional counter and penetrating cosmic ray muons. The outputs of the proportional counters which are in anticoincidence with the scintillation counter were recorded in a pulse height analyzer. After background subtraction, it yields the beta-decay spectrum of carbon-14 in the methane filled proportional counter. Simultaneously, the outputs which are in coincidence with the scintillation counter were also recorded as a monitor of the operational characteristics of the detector systems. The problems inherent with pulse height analyzers and the use of scintillators are discussed and evaluated. (Auth.)

  18. Calibrating instrument of plane sources of alpha and beta

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Hongquan

    1988-12-01

    The instrument is standard instrument for measuring emissivity of plane sources of alpha and beta under 2π geometry in radionuclide metrologic technique. It is composed of box-type detector and truck-type NIM (made in China) to make up integral equipment. Its detector is composed of multivire proportion counter with electrostatic screen of zero potential and unique anticoincidence multiwire proportion counter in lead chamber. The characteristics of the instrument are as follows: Low background (α≤ 0.006 C · P · M/cm 2 , β≤ 0.03 C · P · M/cm 2 ), low work voltage, low noise, high detective efficiency (>99%), large sensitive area (150 x 100 mm), less dead time, possessing micro accidental anticoincidences, better property of high voltage plateau and discriminating. It has fulfiled the requirements of standard which possesses wide rang (50 C · M · M ∼ 10 6 C · P · M), high precision (± 5 ∼ 6% for 50 C · P · M ∼ 220 C · P · M, ≤ ± 0.6% for 200 C · P · M ∼ 10 6 C · P · M); besides, have solved the problem of instability which usualy occurs in same kind of equipments for measuring a sources with less face conductivity

  19. Study of the background on a ZnS(Ag) alpha counter with a plastic veto detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ardid, M.; Ferrero, J.L.; Herrero, A.

    2006-01-01

    Alpha counters based on the scintillation of ZnS(Ag) have been used widely to measure total alpha activity in environmental samples. The main difficulties for this kind of detectors consist of having a reasonable low background, i.e., around 10 -3 counts/s. It is assumed that the background comes from natural sources (mainly radon) and there is no contribution from cosmic, beta or gamma rays since the efficiency for these sources is extremely low. However, the study of the background using a thin plastic veto detector shows that the cosmic ray contribution to the alpha background is about 5-50%, whereas the estimated gamma contribution is below 10%. Therefore, this anti-coincidence set-up can be useful to know and select the optimum conditions for operation, reducing significantly the background due to these sources, and, consistently, needing less time for the measurements

  20. The digital ASIC for the digital front end electronics of the SPI astrophysics gamma-ray experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lafond, E.; Mur, M.; Schanne, S.

    1998-01-01

    The SPI spectrometer is one of the gamma-ray astronomy instruments that will be installed on the ESA INTEGRAL satellite, intended to be launched in 2001 by the European Space Agency. The Digital Front-End Electronics sub-system (DFEE) is in charge of the real time data processing of the various measurements produced by the Germanium (Ge) detectors and the Bismuth Germanate (BGO) anti-coincidence shield. The central processing unit of the DFEE is implemented in a digital ASIC circuit, which provides the real time association of the various time signals, acquires the associated energy measurements, and classifies the various types of physics events. The paper gives the system constraints of the DFEE, the architecture of the ASIC circuit, the technology requirements, and the strategy for test and integration. Emphasis is given to the high level language development and simulation, the automatic circuit synthesis approach, and the performance estimation

  1. Determination of selected elements in red, brown and green seaweed species for monitoring pollution in the coastal environment of Ghana

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Serfor-Armah, Y.; Ghana Atomic Energy Commission, Legon-Accra; Ghana University, Legon-Accra; Carboo, D.; Akuamoah, R.K.; Chatt, A.

    2006-01-01

    The concentrations of 23 elements, namely Al, As, Br, Ca, Cd, Cl, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Hf, Hg, I, K, La, Mg, Mn, Na, Ni, Sc, Sm, V, and Zn, in seven Rhodophyta (red), three Phaeophyta (brown) and five Chlorophyta (green) seaweed species from different areas along the coast of Ghana were determined using instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA). These species can be potentially used as biomonitors. The INAA method involved irradiations using thermal and epithermal neutrons at the Dalhousie University SLOWPOKE-2 Reactor (DUSR) facility followed by conventional and anti-coincidence γ-ray spectrometry. The precision in terms of relative standard deviation was within ±4%. The accuracy of the methods was evaluated by analyzing four reference materials. Our results were within ±3% of the certified or information values in all cases. (author)

  2. The transition radiation detector of the PAMELA space mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ambriola, M.; Bellotti, R.; Cafagna, F.; Circella, M.; de Marzo, C.; Giglietto, N.; Marangelli, B.; Mirizzi, N.; Romita, M.; Spinelli, P.

    2004-04-01

    PAMELA space mission objective is to flight a satellite-borne magnetic spectrometer built to fulfill the primary scientific goals of detecting antiparticles (antiprotons and positrons) and to measure spectra of particles in cosmic rays. The PAMELA telescope is composed of: a silicon tracker housed in a permanent magnet, a time-of-flight and an anticoincidence system both made of plastic scintillators, a silicon imaging calorimeter, a neutron detector and a Transition Radiation Detector (TRD). The TRD is composed of nine sensitive layers of straw tubes working in proportional mode for a total of 1024 channels. Each layer is interleaved with a radiator plane made of carbon fibers. The TRD characteristics will be described along with its performances studied at both CERN-PS and CERN-SPS facilities, using electrons, pions, muons and protons of different momenta.

  3. The transition radiation detector of the PAMELA space mission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ambriola, M.; Bellotti, R.; Cafagna, F.; Circella, M.; De Marzo, C.; Giglietto, N.; Marangelli, B.; Mirizzi, N.; Romita, M.; Spinelli, P.

    2004-01-01

    PAMELA space mission objective is to flight a satellite-borne magnetic spectrometer built to fulfill the primary scientific goals of detecting antiparticles (antiprotons and positrons) and to measure spectra of particles in cosmic rays. The PAMELA telescope is composed of: a silicon tracker housed in a permanent magnet, a time-of-flight and an anticoincidence system both made of plastic scintillators, a silicon imaging calorimeter, a neutron detector and a Transition Radiation Detector (TRD). The TRD is composed of nine sensitive layers of straw tubes working in proportional mode for a total of 1024 channels. Each layer is interleaved with a radiator plane made of carbon fibers. The TRD characteristics will be described along with its performances studied at both CERN-PS and CERN-SPS facilities, using electrons, pions, muons and protons of different momenta

  4. PAMELA Space Mission: The Transition Radiation Detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ambriola, M.; Bellotti, R.; Cafagna, F.; Circella, M.; De Marzo, C.; Giglietto, N.; Marangelli, B.; Mirizzi, N.; Romita, M.; Spinelli, P.

    2003-07-01

    PAMELA telescope is a satellite-b orne magnetic spectrometer built to fulfill the primary scientific objectives of detecting antiparticles (antiprotons and positrons) in the cosmic rays, and to measure spectra of particles in cosmic rays. The PAMELA telescope is currently under integration and is composed of: a silicon tracker housed in a permanent magnet, a time of flight and an anticoincidence system both made of plastic scintillators, a silicon imaging calorimeter, a neutron detector and a Transition Radiation Detector (TRD). The TRD detector is composed of 9 sensitive layers of straw tubes working in proportional mode for a total of 1024 channels. Each layer is interleaved with a radiator plane made of carbon fibers. The TRD detector characteristics will be described along with its performance studied exposing the detector to particle beams of electrons, pions, muons and protons of different momenta at both CERN-PS and CERN-SPS facilities.

  5. The concentration of active and inactive strontium in some Danube river samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koshutich, K.; Lulich, S.

    1985-01-01

    The following fish species were investigated: Barbus barbus, Acipencer ruthenus, Abramis brama, Stizostedion lucioperca, Silurus glanis, Cyprinus caprio. The samples were collected during 1981. The inactive strontium in the water residue (after evaporation), sediment and fishes ewrw determined by nondestructive neutron activation analysis by using gamma couting system consisted of a 40 cm 3 Ge(Li) semiconductor rystal attached to a 4096-channel pulsehight analyser. The standard solution contained 5x10 -5 g of strontium per 100 lambda. Radioactive strontium was measured after several separation procedures. 90 SrCO 3 in equilibrium with its daughter 90 Y was detected in the β-low-level counting anticoincident system with gas-flow detector. The results confirmed the literature data that the sediment concentrations of the total strontium and the active 90 Sr are several times greater than those in water

  6. Cosmic Ray Nuclei in the Fermi-LAT ACD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, David; Hays, E. A.; Brandt, T. J.

    2014-01-01

    The Anti-Coincidence Detector (ACD) of the Fermi Large Area Telescope (LAT) serves to identify charged particles, which cross the LAT at a rate orders of magnitude higher than that of the gamma-ray signal. We have developed a method that uses cosmic-ray nuclei, Z > 3, as a calibration source to improve charge resolution of the light deposit measurement in the ACD at high light levels. Improving the charge resolution of the ACD gives the LAT an additional tool for cosmic-ray nuclei charge discrimination and therefore enhances the LAT's capability for analysis of cosmic-ray nuclei. In this analysis, we are able to distinguish eight cosmic-ray nuclei: boron, carbon, nitrogen, oxygen, neon, magnesium, silicon and iron in the LAT ACD's data. We present the results of our method, and demonstrate improved charge resolution for cosmic-ray nuclei in the ACD.

  7. Non Relational Models for the Management of Large Amount of Astronomical Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. L. Martino

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this paper is the comparison between two different database typologies: the relational and the nonrelational architecture, in the context of the applications related to the use and distribution of astronomical data. The specific context is focused to problems quite different from those related to administrative and managerial environments within which were developed the leading technologies on which are based the modern systems of massive storage of data. The data provided by astronomical instrumentation are usually filtered out by the front-end system (trigger, anticoincidence, DSP etc., so they do not require special controls of congruence. Moreover, the related storage systems must be able to ensure an easy growth, minimizing human systemistic interventions and automating the related actions. The use of a non-relational architecture (NoSQL, offers great advantages during the insertion of informations within a data base, while the response speed of the queries is mainly tied to their type and complexity.

  8. A round periodization monitoring of gamma rays in the environment around Daya Bay Nuclear Power Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Su Qiong; Song Haiqing

    1992-12-01

    The materials of environmental background radiations around a NPP (nuclear power Plant) to be constructed is an important part in the environment effect evaluation report before its operation. The sampling and preparation of samples of air dust and rain water, measuring equipment and analytical method of gamma radionuclides, and a discussion on obtained results in the second round investigation of the two investigations are presented. Comparing with the first round investigation, the sampling places are expanded and improved, especially, a complete and satisfactory data are obtained due to the combination of anti-coincidence shield/anti-Compton HPGe ultra-low γ spectrometer and common HPGe spectrometer. These provides more systematic material to the environmental science research

  9. Establishment of Ultra-low Background Gamma Spectrometer System in KURT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Wan No; Kim, Kyung Su; Choi, Geun Sik; Kang, Mun Ja

    2010-06-01

    An ultra-low background gamma spectrometer at underground laboratory using hybrid Compton suppression and anti-coincidence method is developed. The designed ultra-low background gamma spectrometer is composed of HPGe detector, NaI scintillation detectors for Compton suppression, and plastic scintillation sensors as a guard detector for the background reduction, and electronic circuits for signal processing. Influence of radon radionuclide is studied in order to test performance of the designed system. The background increase problem of radon will be solved by ventilation and injection of pure nitrogen gas. Using this setup system, measurement of small sample is performed without the chemical preprocessing The results of measurement were compared with those results with conventional alpha spectrometer and two results were similar from within uncertainty range

  10. Reduction of beta-interference in gamma-spectrometric measurements of neutron-irradiated geological material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garmann, L.B.

    1986-01-01

    The analytical technique for INAA, when applied to geological materials, is improved by introducing an electromagnetic field between sample and detector. This field lowers the bremsstrahlung background intensity in the gamma-spectrum by reducing the number of beta-particles reaching the detector. Thus precision, accuracy and lower detection limit are improved. The technique was used on alkalisyenite and on meteoritic material, rocks containing high quantities of sodium and iron, respectively. After neutron irradiation, the induced nuclides sup(24)Na and sup(59)Fe are responsible for high bremsstrahlung interference, which under normal analyitical conditions would mask any x-ray or gamma-ray peaks of interest. The technique is easily applied to multielement analysis of geological and biological materials. It can be combined with sophisticated spectrum-treating techniques such as spectrum stripping and spectrum smoothing, or coincidence-anticoincidence circuits. (author)

  11. Light-output response of the plastic scintillator for the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) Radiation Assessment Detector (RAD)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, C.; Boehm, E.; Kortmann, O.; Boettcher, S.; Wimmer-Schweingruber, R. F.; Burmeister, S.; Ehresmann, B.; Hassler, D. M.; Zeitlin, C.; Posner, A.; Neal, K.; Rafkin, S.; Weigle, E.; Reitz, G.

    2008-12-01

    The Radiation Assessment Detector (RAD) onboard NASA's Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) rover mission has been designed to detect a wide range of particle types (charged and neutral) and energies on the Mars surface. The BC432m plastic scintillator coupled to PIN photodiodes has been used as a neutron detector as well as an anticoincidence shield for the RAD instrument. We present an experimental study of the non-linear light-output response of the BC432m for protons and neutrons beams. The experimental results have been compared to the parametric formula based on the theoretical work of Birks and Chou. Furthermore, a comparison between the quenching effect found in the BC432m and in other inorganic scintillators (CsI:Tl) used in the RAD instrument has been performed.

  12. Monte Carlo Simulations of Background Spectra in Integral Imager Detectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armstrong, T. W.; Colborn, B. L.; Dietz, K. L.; Ramsey, B. D.; Weisskopf, M. C.

    1998-01-01

    Predictions of the expected gamma-ray backgrounds in the ISGRI (CdTe) and PiCsIT (Csl) detectors on INTEGRAL due to cosmic-ray interactions and the diffuse gamma-ray background have been made using a coupled set of Monte Carlo radiation transport codes (HETC, FLUKA, EGS4, and MORSE) and a detailed, 3-D mass model of the spacecraft and detector assemblies. The simulations include both the prompt background component from induced hadronic and electromagnetic cascades and the delayed component due to emissions from induced radioactivity. Background spectra have been obtained with and without the use of active (BGO) shielding and charged particle rejection to evaluate the effectiveness of anticoincidence counting on background rejection.

  13. Some possibilities for decreasing the background of liquid scintillation beta-ray counter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Punning, J.M.; Rajamae, R.

    1977-01-01

    The components of the background were observed caused by inherent noise and optical feedback of photomultipliers. A liquid scintillation beta counter for measuring the natural activity of 14 C was designed. The selection of suitable anticoincidence shields for the counter consisting of 15 Geiger-Mueller counters made possible the reduction of the background level caused by hard cosmic radiation to 0.2 cpm, the background caused by Cherenkov radiation and by the 40 K isotope in the windows of the photomultipliers to 0.4 cpm and the background caused by radioactive impurities in the construction materials of the detector and by unidentified sources to 4.3 cpm. (J.B.)

  14. A bismuth germanate-shielded mercuric iodide X-ray detector for space applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vallerga, J. V.; Ricker, G. R.; Schnepple, W. S.; Ortale, C.

    1982-01-01

    The development of HgI2 for solid state X-ray detector applications over the past decade was carried out in connection with the ability of the crystal to operate as a detector at room temperature. In order to achieve the lowest background possible for HgI2 detectors in a space-like environment (balloon and/or satellite altitudes), attention was given to the design of a shielding system which actively vetoes nonaperture events such as gamma rays and charged particles that can mimic signal X-rays by partial deposition of energy in the main detector. The detector system consists of two HgI2 detectors mounted back to back and operated in anticoincidence. The two detectors are placed inside a bismuth germanate scintillating shield along with two hybrid charge-sensitive preamps. Monte Carlo simulations of detector performance are discussed.

  15. An in-beam Compton-suppressed Ge spectrometer for nondestructive neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zaghloul, R.; Abd El-Haleam, A.; Mostafa, M.; Gantner, E.; Ache, H.J.

    1993-04-01

    A high-efficiency compton background suppressed gamma-ray spectrometer by anti-coincidence counting with a NaI(Tl)-shield around a central HPGe-detector for in-beam prompt gamma-ray neutron activation analysis (AC-PGNAA) using a Cf-252 neutron source has been designed and built to provide simultaneous anti-coincidence spectrometry of natural, industrial and environmental samples. The spectrometer consists of a high-purity germanium detector as the main detector and a large volume cylindrical NaI(Tl) detector as a guard detector. The assembly has the ability to measure instantaneously, simultaneously and nondestructively bulk samples up to about 50 cm 3 . Major constituent elements in several rocks and minerals such as H, B, N, Na, Mg, Al, Si, Cl, K, Ca, P, S, Ti, Fe, Sm, Nd, Mn and Gd can be determined, while oxygen cannot be measured due to its small capture cross section (0.27 mb). Several important minor and trace elements such as B, Cd and Hg beside the low residual activity, rare earths and short-lived isotopes could be detected. The sensitivity of the AC-PGNAA technique is limited by the available neutron flux at the target matrix and the neutron absorption cross section of the elements of interest. PGNAA has the advantage to estimate the constituent elements which are difficult to be measured through the delayed gamm-ray measurements such as B, Bi, C, H, P, Tl, Be, Cl and S in industrial and reference materials and those elements which are transformed into other stable isotopes when undergoing neutron capture. The design of the spectrometer assembly, its properties and performance are described

  16. Cross talk experiment with two-element CdTe detector and collimator for BNCT-SPECT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manabe, Masanobu; Ohya, Ryosuke; Saraue, Nobuhide; Sato, Fuminobu; Murata, Isao [Osaka University, Osaka (Japan)

    2016-12-15

    Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) is a new radiation therapy. In BNCT, there exists some very critical problems that should be solved. One of the severest problems is that the treatment effect cannot be known during BNCT in real time. We are now developing a SPECT (single photon emission computed tomography) system (BNCT-SPECT), with a cadmium telluride (CdTe) semiconductor detector. BNCT-SPECT can obtain the BNCT treatment effect by measuring 478 keV gamma-rays emitted from the excited state of 7Li nucleus created by 10B(n,α) 7Li reaction. In the previous studies, we investigated the feasibility of the BNCT-SPECT system. As a result, the S/N ratio did not meet the criterion of S/N >1 because deterioration of the S/N ratio occurred caused by the influence of Compton scattering especially due to capture gamma-rays of hydrogen. We thus produced an arrayed detector with two CdTe crystals to test cross talk phenomenon and to examine an anti-coincidence detection possibility. For more precise analysis for the anti-coincidence detection, we designed and made a collimator having a similar performance to the real BNCT-SPECT. We carried out experiments with the collimator to examine the effect of cross talk of scattering gamma-rays between CdTe elements more practically. As a result of measurement the coincidence events were successfully extracted. We are now planning to carry out evaluation of coincidence rate from the measurement and comparison of it with the numerical calculations.

  17. Gamma-telescopes Fermi/LAT and GAMMA-400 Trigger Systems Event Recognizing Methods Comparison

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arkhangelskaja, I. V.; Murchenko, A. E.; Chasovikov, E. N.; Arkhangelskiy, A. I.; Kheymits, M. D.

    Usually instruments for high-energy γ-quanta registration consists of converter (where γ-quanta produced pairs) and calorimeter for particles energy measurements surrounded by anticoincidence shield used to events identification (whether incident particle was charged or neutral). The influence of pair formation by γ-quanta in shield and the backsplash (moved in the opposite direction particles created due high energy γ-rays interact with calorimeter) should be taken into account. It leads to decrease both effective area and registration efficiency at E>10 GeV. In the presented article the event recognizing methods used in Fermi/LAT trigger system is considered in comparison with the ones applied in counting and triggers signals formation system of gamma-telescope GAMMA-400. The GAMMA-400 (Gamma Astronomical Multifunctional Modular Apparatus) will be the new high-apogee space γ-observatory. The GAMMA-400 consist of converter-tracker based on silicon-strip coordinate detectors interleaved with tungsten foils, imaging calorimeter make of 2 layers of double (x, y) silicon strip coordinate detectors interleaved with planes of CsI(Tl) crystals and the electromagnetic calorimeter CC2 consists only of CsI(Tl) crystals. Several plastics detections systems used as anticoincidence shield, for particles energy and moving direction estimations. The main differences of GAMMA-400 constructions from Fermi/LAT one are using the time-of-flight system with base of 50 cm and double layer structure of plastic detectors provides more effective particles direction definition and backsplash rejection. Also two calorimeters in GAMMA-400 composed the total absorbtion spectrometer with total thickness ∼ 25 X0 or ∼1.2 λ0 for vertical incident particles registration and 54 X0 or 2.5 λ0 for laterally incident ones (where λ0 is nuclear interaction length). It provides energy resolution 1-2% for 10 GeV-3.0×103 GeV events while the Fermi/LAT energy resolution does not reach such a

  18. Performance of a prototype CdZnTe detector module for hard x-ray astrophysics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slavis, Kimberly R.; Dowkontt, Paul F.; Duttweiler, Fred; Epstein, John W.; Hink, Paul L.; Huszar, George L.; Kalemci, Emrah; Leblanc, Philippe C.; Matteson, James L.; Pelling, Michael R.; Rothschild, Richard E.; Stephan, Edwin A.; Tumer, Tumay O.; Visser, Gerald J.

    2000-12-01

    Our collaboration is characterizing a prototype detector module designed for high energy X-ray astrophysics research covering the 20 - 250 keV energy range. The module consists of a three dimensional position sensitive CdZnTe detector, 25 mm X 25 mm X 2 mm, with 1 mm pitch crossed strip electrodes, an interleaved steering electrode, and an Application Specific Integrated Circuit (ASIC) for individual electrode readout. The newly developed readout system is compact, lightweight, has low power consumption and will lead to reduced system electronic noise. The detector is surrounded by a plastic anti-coincidence system for charged particles, and passive shielding that has been optimized based on results from two previous balloon flights. The first balloon flight test of the new detector module is scheduled for Fall 2000. In addition to our continuing balloon studies, we are investigating proton radiation damage effects and present preliminary results. After proton irradiation, the energy resolution is not significantly degraded, calibration photopeaks are down shifted by less than 10% in energy, and the depth of interaction dependence is nearly eliminated.

  19. The DAMPE experiment: 2 year in orbit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gargano, Fabio; DAMPE Collaboration

    2017-12-01

    The DArk Matter Particle Explorer (DAMPE) is a space mission within the strategic framework of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, resulting from a collaboration of Chinese, Italian, and Swiss institutions, and is a new addition to the growing number of particle detectors in space. It was successfully launched in December 2015 and has commenced nominal science operations since shortly after launch. Lending technologies from its predecessors such as AMS and Fermi-LAT, it features a powerful segmented electromagnetic calorimeter which thanks to its 31 radiation lengths enables the study of charged cosmic rays in the energy domain of up to 100 TeV and gamma rays of up to 10 TeV. The calorimeter is complemented with a silicon-tungsten tracker converter which yields a comparable angular resolution as current space-borne pair-conversion gamma-ray detectors. In addition, the detector features a top anti-coincidence shield made of segmented silicon plastic scintillators and a boron-doped plastic scintillator on the bottom of the instrument to detect delayed neutrons arising from cosmic ray protons showering in the calorimeter. An overview of the mission and a summary of the latest results in the domain of charged cosmic rays, gamma rays and heavy ions will be presented.

  20. Techniques to distinguish between electron and photon induced events using segmented germanium detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kroeninger, K.

    2007-06-05

    Two techniques to distinguish between electron and photon induced events in germanium detectors were studied: (1) anti-coincidence requirements between the segments of segmented germanium detectors and (2) the analysis of the time structure of the detector response. An 18-fold segmented germanium prototype detector for the GERDA neutrinoless double beta-decay experiment was characterized. The rejection of photon induced events was measured for the strongest lines in {sup 60}Co, {sup 152}Eu and {sup 228}Th. An accompanying Monte Carlo simulation was performed and the results were compared to data. An overall agreement with deviations of the order of 5-10% was obtained. The expected background index of the GERDA experiment was estimated. The sensitivity of the GERDA experiment was determined. Special statistical tools were developed to correctly treat the small number of events expected. The GERDA experiment uses a cryogenic liquid as the operational medium for the germanium detectors. It was shown that germanium detectors can be reliably operated through several cooling cycles. (orig.)

  1. LArGe. A liquid argon scintillation veto for GERDA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heisel, Mark

    2011-01-01

    LArGe is a GERDA low-background test facility to study novel background suppression methods in a low-background environment, for possible applications in the GERDA experiment. GERDA searches for the neutrinoless double-beta decay in 76 Ge, by operating naked germanium detectors submersed into 65 m 3 of liquid argon. Similarly, LArGe runs Ge-detectors in 1 m 3 (1.4 tons) of liquid argon, which in addition is instrumented with photomultipliers to detect argon scintillation light. The light is used in anti-coincidence with the germanium detectors, to effectively suppress background events that deposit energy in the liquid argon. This work adresses the design, construction, and commissioning of LArGe. The background suppression efficiency has been studied in combination with a pulse shape discrimination (PSD) technique for various sources, which represent characteristic backgrounds to GERDA. Suppression factors of a few times 10 3 have been achieved. First background data of LArGe (without PSD) yield a background index of (0.12-4.6).10 -2 cts/(keV.kg.y) (90% c.l.), which is at the level of the Gerda phase I design goal. Furthermore, for the first time we measure the natural 42 Ar abundance (in parallel to Gerda), and have indication for the 2νββ-decay in natural germanium. (orig.)

  2. Positron emission intensities in the decay of 64Cu, 76Br and 124I

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qaim, S.M.; Bisinger, T.; Hilgers, K.; Nayak, D.; Coenen, H.H.

    2007-01-01

    The relatively long-lived positron emitters 64 Cu (t 1/2 = 12.7 h), 76 Br (t 1/2 = 16.2 h) and 124 I (t 1/2 = 4.18 d) are finding increasing applications in positron emission tomography (PET). For precise determination of their positron emission intensities, each radionuclide was prepared via a charged particle induced reaction in a ''no-carrier-added'' form and with high radionuclidic purity. It was then subjected to γ-ray and X-ray spectroscopy as well as to anticoincidence beta and γγ-coincidence counting. The positron emission intensities measured were: 64 Cu (17.8 ± 0.4)%, 76 Br (58.2 ± 1.9)% and 124 I (22.0 ± 0.5)%. The intensity of the weak 1346 keV γ-ray emitted in the decay of 64 Cu was determined as (0.54 ± 0.03)%. Some implications of the precisely determined nuclear data are discussed. (orig.)

  3. Characterization of a tagged $\\gamma$-ray beam line at the DAFNE Beam Test Facility

    CERN Document Server

    Cattaneo, P W; Boffelli, F; Bulgarelli, A; Buonomo, B; Chen, A W; D’Ammando, F; FoggettA, L; Froysland, T; Fuschino, F; Galli, M; Gianotti, F; Giuliani, A; Longo, F; Marisaldi, M; Mazzitelli, G; Pellizzoni, A; Prest, M; Pucella, G; Quintieri, L; Rappoldi, A; Tavani, M; Trifoglio, M; Trois, A; Valente, P; Vallazza, E; Vercellone, S; Zambra, A; Barbiellini, G; Caraveo, P; Cocco, V; Costa, E; De Paris, G; Del Monte, E; Di Cocco, G; Donnarumma, I; Evangelista, Y; Feroci, M; Ferrari, A; Fiorini, M; Labanti, C; Lapshov, I; Lazzarotto, F; Lipari, P; Mastropietro, M; Mereghetti, S; Morelli, E; Moretti, E; Morselli, A; Pacciani, L; Perotti, F; Piano, G; Picozza, P; Pilia, M; Porrovecchio, G; Rapisarda, M; Rubini, A; Sabatini, S; Soffitta, P; Striani, E; Vittorini, V; Zanello, D; Colafrancesco, S; Giommi, P; Pittori, C; Santolamazza, P; Verrecchia, F; Salotti, L

    2012-01-01

    At the core of the AGILE scientific instrument, designed to operate on a satellite, there is the Gamma Ray Imaging Detector (GRID) consisting of a Silicon Tracker (ST), a Cesium Iodide Mini-Calorimeter and an Anti-Coincidence system of plastic scintillator bars. The ST needs an on-ground calibration with a γ-ray beam to validate the simulation used to calculate the energy response function and the effective area versus the energy and the direction of the γ rays. A tagged γ-ray beam line was designed at the Beam Test Facility (BTF) of the INFN Laboratori Nazionali of Frascati (LNF), based on an electron beam generating γ-rays through bremsstrahlung in a position-sensitive target. The γ-ray energy is deduced by difference with the post-bremsstrahlung electron energy [1] and [2]. The electron energy is measured by a spectrometer consisting of a dipole magnet and an array of position sensitive silicon strip detectors, the Photon Tagging System (PTS). The use of the combined BTF-PTS system as tagged photon be...

  4. A Germanium Detector with Optimized Compton Veto for High Sensitivity at Low Energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Friedrich, S

    2011-11-30

    We have built a prototype germanium detector with a Compton veto that is optimized for high sensitivity in the low-energy range around {approx}100 keV. It is specifically designed to address the problem to directly detect plutonium gamma emissions in spent nuclear fuel by non-destructive assay. This is not possible with current detectors due to the large low-energy background of Compton-scattered high-energy radiation from the fission products, whose gamma flux is at least 6 to 7 orders of magnitude higher than the Pu signal. Our instrument is designed to assess the feasibility to selectively suppress the background in the low-energy region around {approx}100 keV with the strongest Pu X-ray and gamma emissions lines. It employs a thin Ge detector with a large Compton veto directly behind it to suppress the background from forward-scattered radiation by anti-coincidence vetoing. This report summarizes the design considerations and the performance of the instrument.

  5. Gamma scanner conceptual design report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swinth, K.L.

    1979-11-01

    The Fuels and Materials Examination Facility (FMEF) will include several stations for the nondestructive examination of irradiated fuels. One of these stations will be the gamma scanner which will be employed to detect gamma radiation from the irradiated fuel pins. The conceptual design of the gamma scan station is described. The gamma scanner will use a Standard Exam Stage (SES) as a positioner and transport mechanism for the fuel pins which it will obtain from a magazine. A pin guide mechanism mounted on the face of the collimator will assure that the fuel pins remain in front of the collimator during scanning. The collimator has remotely adjustable tungsten slits and can be manually rotated to align the slit at various angles. A shielded detector cart located in the operating corridor holds an intrinsic germanium detector and associated sodium-iodide anticoincidence detector. The electronics associated with the counting system consist of standard NIM modules to process the detector signals and a stand-alone multichannel analyzer (MCA) for counting data accumulation. Data from the MCA are bussed to the station computer for analysis and storage on magnetic tape. The station computer controls the collimator, the MCA, a source positioner and the SES through CAMAC-based interface hardware. Most of the electronic hardware is commercially available but some interfaces will require development. Conceptual drawings are included for mechanical hardware that must be designed and fabricated

  6. Search for High-energy Neutrinos from Binary Neutron Star Merger GW170817 with ANTARES, IceCube, and the Pierre Auger Observatory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albert, A.; André, M.; Anghinolfi, M.; Ardid, M.; Aubert, J.-J.; Aublin, J.; Avgitas, T.; Baret, B.; Barrios-Martí, J.; Basa, S.; Belhorma, B.; Bertin, V.; Biagi, S.; Bormuth, R.; Bourret, S.; Bouwhuis, M. C.; Brânzaş, H.; Bruijn, R.; Brunner, J.; Busto, J.; Capone, A.; Caramete, L.; Carr, J.; Celli, S.; Cherkaoui El Moursli, R.; Chiarusi, T.; Circella, M.; Coelho, J. A. B.; Coleiro, A.; Coniglione, R.; Costantini, H.; Coyle, P.; Creusot, A.; Díaz, A. F.; Deschamps, A.; De Bonis, G.; Distefano, C.; Di Palma, I.; Domi, A.; Donzaud, C.; Dornic, D.; Drouhin, D.; Eberl, T.; El Bojaddaini, I.; El Khayati, N.; Elsässer, D.; Enzenhöfer, A.; Ettahiri, A.; Fassi, F.; Felis, I.; Fusco, L. A.; Gay, P.; Giordano, V.; Glotin, H.; Grégoire, T.; Ruiz, R. Gracia; Graf, K.; Hallmann, S.; van Haren, H.; Heijboer, A. J.; Hello, Y.; Hernández-Rey, J. J.; Hößl, J.; Hofestädt, J.; Illuminati, G.; James, C. W.; de Jong, M.; Jongen, M.; Kadler, M.; Kalekin, O.; Katz, U.; Kießling, D.; Kouchner, A.; Kreter, M.; Kreykenbohm, I.; Kulikovskiy, V.; Lachaud, C.; Lahmann, R.; Lefèvre, D.; Leonora, E.; Lotze, M.; Loucatos, S.; Marcelin, M.; Margiotta, A.; Marinelli, A.; Martínez-Mora, J. A.; Mele, R.; Melis, K.; Michael, T.; Migliozzi, P.; Moussa, A.; Navas, S.; Nezri, E.; Organokov, M.; Păvălaş, G. E.; Pellegrino, C.; Perrina, C.; Piattelli, P.; Popa, V.; Pradier, T.; Quinn, L.; Racca, C.; Riccobene, G.; Sánchez-Losa, A.; Saldaña, M.; Salvadori, I.; Samtleben, D. F. E.; Sanguineti, M.; Sapienza, P.; Schüssler, F.; Sieger, C.; Spurio, M.; Stolarczyk, Th.; Taiuti, M.; Tayalati, Y.; Trovato, A.; Turpin, D.; Tönnis, C.; Vallage, B.; Van Elewyck, V.; Versari, F.; Vivolo, D.; Vizzoca, A.; Wilms, J.; Zornoza, J. D.; Zúñiga, J.; ANTARES Collaboration; Aartsen, M. G.; Ackermann, M.; Adams, J.; Aguilar, J. A.; Ahlers, M.; Ahrens, M.; Samarai, I. Al; Altmann, D.; Andeen, K.; Anderson, T.; Ansseau, I.; Anton, G.; Argüelles, C.; Auffenberg, J.; Axani, S.; Bagherpour, H.; Bai, X.; Barron, J. P.; Barwick, S. W.; Baum, V.; Bay, R.; Beatty, J. J.; Becker Tjus, J.; Becker, K.-H.; BenZvi, S.; Berley, D.; Bernardini, E.; Besson, D. Z.; Binder, G.; Bindig, D.; Blaufuss, E.; Blot, S.; Bohm, C.; Börner, M.; Bos, F.; Bose, D.; Böser, S.; Botner, O.; Bourbeau, E.; Bourbeau, J.; Bradascio, F.; Braun, J.; Brayeur, L.; Brenzke, M.; Bretz, H.-P.; Bron, S.; Brostean-Kaiser, J.; Burgman, A.; Carver, T.; Casey, J.; Casier, M.; Cheung, E.; Chirkin, D.; Christov, A.; Clark, K.; Classen, L.; Coenders, S.; Collin, G. H.; Conrad, J. M.; Cowen, D. F.; Cross, R.; Day, M.; de André, J. P. A. M.; De Clercq, C.; DeLaunay, J. J.; Dembinski, H.; De Ridder, S.; Desiati, P.; de Vries, K. D.; de Wasseige, G.; de With, M.; DeYoung, T.; Díaz-Vélez, J. C.; di Lorenzo, V.; Dujmovic, H.; Dumm, J. P.; Dunkman, M.; Dvorak, E.; Eberhardt, B.; Ehrhardt, T.; Eichmann, B.; Eller, P.; Evenson, P. A.; Fahey, S.; Fazely, A. R.; Felde, J.; Filimonov, K.; Finley, C.; Flis, S.; Franckowiak, A.; Friedman, E.; Fuchs, T.; Gaisser, T. K.; Gallagher, J.; Gerhardt, L.; Ghorbani, K.; Giang, W.; Glauch, T.; Glüsenkamp, T.; Goldschmidt, A.; Gonzalez, J. G.; Grant, D.; Griffith, Z.; Haack, C.; Hallgren, A.; Halzen, F.; Hanson, K.; Hebecker, D.; Heereman, D.; Helbing, K.; Hellauer, R.; Hickford, S.; Hignight, J.; Hill, G. C.; Hoffman, K. D.; Hoffmann, R.; Hokanson-Fasig, B.; Hoshina, K.; Huang, F.; Huber, M.; Hultqvist, K.; Hünnefeld, M.; In, S.; Ishihara, A.; Jacobi, E.; Japaridze, G. S.; Jeong, M.; Jero, K.; Jones, B. J. P.; Kalaczynski, P.; Kang, W.; Kappes, A.; Karg, T.; Karle, A.; Katz, U.; Kauer, M.; Keivani, A.; Kelley, J. L.; Kheirandish, A.; Kim, J.; Kim, M.; Kintscher, T.; Kiryluk, J.; Kittler, T.; Klein, S. R.; Kohnen, G.; Koirala, R.; Kolanoski, H.; Köpke, L.; Kopper, C.; Kopper, S.; Koschinsky, J. P.; Koskinen, D. J.; Kowalski, M.; Krings, K.; Kroll, M.; Krückl, G.; Kunnen, J.; Kunwar, S.; Kurahashi, N.; Kuwabara, T.; Kyriacou, A.; Labare, M.; Lanfranchi, J. L.; Larson, M. J.; Lauber, F.; Lesiak-Bzdak, M.; Leuermann, M.; Liu, Q. R.; Lu, L.; Lünemann, J.; Luszczak, W.; Madsen, J.; Maggi, G.; Mahn, K. B. M.; Mancina, S.; Maruyama, R.; Mase, K.; Maunu, R.; McNally, F.; Meagher, K.; Medici, M.; Meier, M.; Menne, T.; Merino, G.; Meures, T.; Miarecki, S.; Micallef, J.; Momenté, G.; Montaruli, T.; Moore, R. W.; Moulai, M.; Nahnhauer, R.; Nakarmi, P.; Naumann, U.; Neer, G.; Niederhausen, H.; Nowicki, S. C.; Nygren, D. R.; Obertacke Pollmann, A.; Olivas, A.; O’Murchadha, A.; Palczewski, T.; Pandya, H.; Pankova, D. V.; Peiffer, P.; Pepper, J. A.; Pérez de los Heros, C.; Pieloth, D.; Pinat, E.; Plum, M.; Pranav, D.; Price, P. B.; Przybylski, G. T.; Raab, C.; Rädel, L.; Rameez, M.; Rawlins, K.; Rea, I. C.; Reimann, R.; Relethford, B.; Relich, M.; Resconi, E.; Rhode, W.

    2017-12-01

    The Advanced LIGO and Advanced Virgo observatories recently discovered gravitational waves from a binary neutron star inspiral. A short gamma-ray burst (GRB) that followed the merger of this binary was also recorded by the Fermi Gamma-ray Burst Monitor (Fermi-GBM), and the Anti-Coincidence Shield for the Spectrometer for the International Gamma-Ray Astrophysics Laboratory (INTEGRAL), indicating particle acceleration by the source. The precise location of the event was determined by optical detections of emission following the merger. We searched for high-energy neutrinos from the merger in the GeV–EeV energy range using the ANTARES, IceCube, and Pierre Auger Observatories. No neutrinos directionally coincident with the source were detected within ±500 s around the merger time. Additionally, no MeV neutrino burst signal was detected coincident with the merger. We further carried out an extended search in the direction of the source for high-energy neutrinos within the 14 day period following the merger, but found no evidence of emission. We used these results to probe dissipation mechanisms in relativistic outflows driven by the binary neutron star merger. The non-detection is consistent with model predictions of short GRBs observed at a large off-axis angle.

  7. Observation of cosmic ray hadrons at the top of the Sierra Negra volcano in Mexico with the SciCRT prototype

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ortiz, E.; Valdés-Galicia, J. F.; Matsubara, Y.; Nagai, Y.; Hurtado, A.; Musalem, O.; García, R.; Anzorena, M. A.; González, L. X.; Itow, Y.; Sako, T.; Lopez, D.; Sasai, Y.; Munakata, K.; Kato, C.; Kozai, M.; Shibata, S.; Takamaru, H.; Kojima, H.; Watanabe, K.; Tsuchiya, H.; Koi, T.

    2016-11-01

    In this work we report the flux of protons and neutral emission measured at the top of the Sierra Negra volcano at 4600 m.a.s.l. (575 g/cm2), in Eastern Mexico. As an example of the capability of the mini-SciCR as a cosmic ray detector we present the Forbush decrease recorded on March 7, 2012. These data were obtained with a cosmic ray detector prototype called mini-SciCR that was operating from October 2010 to July 2012. Our main aims were to measure the hadronic component flux of the secondary cosmic ray and to show the appropriate performance of all system of the detector. To separate the signals of protons from other charged particles we obtained the energy deposition pattern when they cross the detector using a Monte Carlo simulation, and to separate the signals of neutral emission we used an anticoincidence system between the edge bars and the internal bars of the detector. The mini-SciCR is a prototype of a new cosmic ray detector called SciBar Cosmic Ray Telescope (SciCRT) installed in the same place, which is in the process of calibration. The SciCRT will work mainly as a Solar Neutron and Muon Telescope, it is designed to achieve: (1) larger effective area than the current Solar Neutron Telescope, (2) higher energy resolution to determine the energy spectrum of solar neutrons, (3) lower energy threshold, and (4) higher particle identification ability.

  8. Study of mixed programming gamma spectrum acquisition method based on MSP430F4618

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Yuezhong; Tang Bin; Zhang Zhongliang; Xie Xiaolin

    2012-01-01

    In order to reduce the hand-held gamma spectrometer measurements dead time and to complete the low-voltage and low-power design, the spectrum signal acquisition circuit is constituted by the ultra-low power microcontroller MSP430F4618 and its external signal conditioning circuit, anti-coincidence circuit interface and its on-chip sample hold and A/D converter. C language programming and assembly one have been used together. The sample hold and A/D conversion and spectrum acquisition programming is accomplished by assembly language, and the system monitoring and task scheduler designing is accomplished by C language programming. The handhold gamma spectrometer power supply, which just uses two No.5 rechargeable batteries, is designed by high-efficiency DC-DC circuit. The prototype gamma spectrometer is developed by the method, and its testing shows that the implementation of spectrum acquisition time is shorten by twice to 3 times, that is, the dead measurement can be reduced; and the machine operating current does not exceed 150 mA. By using two 2400 mAh No.5 rechargeable battery, the machine can work continuously more than 10 hours, and it can meet the application requirements. (authors)

  9. Development and Testing of the AMEGO Silicon Tracker System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffin, Sean; Amego Team

    2018-01-01

    The All-sky Medium Energy Gamma-ray Observatory (AMEGO) is a probe-class mission in consideration for the 2020 decadal review designed to operate at energies from ˜ 200 keV to > 10 GeV. Operating a detector in this energy regime is challenging due to the crossover in the interaction cross-section for Compton scattering and pair production. AMEGO is made of four major subsystems: a plastic anticoincidence detector for rejecting cosmic-ray events, a silicon tracker for measuring the energies of Compton scattered electrons and pair-production products, a CZT calorimeter for measuring the energy and location of Compton scattered photons, and a CsI calorimeter for measuring the energy of the pair-production products at high energies. The tracker comprises layers of dual-sided silicon strip detectors which provide energy and localization information for Compton scattering and pair-production events. A prototype tracker system is under development at GSFC; in this contribution we provide details on the verification, packaging, and testing of the prototype tracker, as well as present plans for the development of the front-end electronics, beam tests, and a balloon flight.

  10. Development and verification of signal processing system of avalanche photo diode for the active shields onboard ASTRO-H

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ohno, M., E-mail: ohno@hep01.hepl.hiroshima-u.ac.jp [Department of Physical Sciences, Hiroshima University, Hiroshima 739-8526 (Japan); Kawano, T.; Edahiro, I.; Shirakawa, H.; Ohashi, N.; Okada, C.; Habata, S.; Katsuta, J.; Tanaka, Y.; Takahashi, H.; Mizuno, T.; Fukazawa, Y. [Department of Physical Sciences, Hiroshima University, Hiroshima 739-8526 (Japan); Murakami, H.; Kobayashi, S.; Miyake, K.; Ono, K.; Kato, Y.; Furuta, Y.; Murota, Y.; Okuda, K. [Department of Physics, University of Tokyo, Tokyo 113-0033 (Japan); and others

    2016-09-21

    The hard X-ray Imager and Soft Gamma-ray Detector onboard ASTRO-H demonstrate high sensitivity to hard X-ray (5–80 keV) and soft gamma-rays (60–600 keV), respectively. To reduce the background, both instruments are actively shielded by large, thick Bismuth Germanate scintillators. We have developed the signal processing system of the avalanche photodiode in the BGO active shields and have demonstrated its effectiveness after assembly in the flight model of the HXI/SGD sensor and after integration into the satellite. The energy threshold achieved is about 150 keV and anti-coincidence efficiency for cosmic-ray events is almost 100%. Installed in the BGO active shield, the developed signal processing system successfully reduces the room background level of the main detector. - Highlights: • A detail of development of signal processing system for ASTRO-H is presented. • Digital filer with FPGA instead of discrete analog circuit is applied. • Expected performance is verified after integration of the satellite.

  11. A NIM (Nuclear Instrumentation Module) system conjugated with optional input for pHEMT amplifier for beta and gamma spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Konrad, Barbara; Lüdke, Everton

    2014-01-01

    This work presents a high speed NIM module (Nuclear Instrumentation Module) to detect radiation, gamma and muons, as part of a system for natural radiation monitoring and of extraterrestrial origin. The subsystem developed consists of a preamplifier and an integrated SCA (Single Channel Analyzer), including power supplies of ± 12 and ± 24V with derivations of +3.6 and ± 5V. The single channel analyzer board, consisting of discrete logic components, operating in window modes, normal and integral. The pulse shaping block is made up of two voltage comparators working at 120 MHz with a response time > 60 ns and a logic anticoincidence system. The preamplifier promotes a noise reduction and introduces the impedance matching between the output of anode / diode photomultiplier tubes (PMTs) and subsequent equipment, providing an input impedance of 1MΩ and output impedance of 40 to 140Ω. The shaper amplifier is non-inverting and has variable input capacitance of 1000 pF. The upper and lower thresholds of the SCA are adjustable from 0 to ± 10V, and the equipment is compatible with various types of detectors, like PMTs coupled to sodium iodide crystals. For use with liquid scintillators and photodiodes with crystals (CsI: Tl) is proposed to include a preamplifier circuit pHEMT (pseudomorphic High Electron Mobility Transistor) integrated. Yet, the system presents the possibility of applications for various purposes of gamma spectroscopy and automatic detection of events producing of beta particles

  12. A very sensitive LSC procedure to determine Ni-63 in environmental samples, steel and concrete

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scheuerer, C.; Schupfner, R.; Schuettelkopf, H.

    1995-01-01

    This procedure to determine Ni-63 contributes to a safe and economically reasonable decommissioning of nuclear power plants. Co-60, Fe-55 and Ni-63 are the most abundant long-lived radionuclides associated with contaminated piping, hardware and concrete for a period of several decades of years after shutdown. Samples are carefully ashed leached, or dissolved by suitable mixtures of acids. The analysis starts with the absorption Ni 2+ on the chelating resin CHELEX 100. The next purification steps include an anionic exchange column and a precipitation as Ni-dimethyl-glyoxime, which is extracted into chloroform. After reextraction with sulfuric acid the solution containing Ni 2+ is mixed with a scintillation cocktail and counted in an anticoincidence shielded LSC. The decontamination factors are determined for all important artificially and naturally occurring radionuclides ranging form above 10 4 to 10 9 . The chemical yield adopts a value of (95±5)%. Up to maximum sample amounts of 0.4 g steel, 5 g concrete and about 100 g of environmental samples the detection limits are about 5 mBq per sample or 12 mBq/g steel, 1 mBq/g concrete and 0.05 mBq/g environmental sample at a counting time of 1000 minutes. (author) 16 refs.; 2 figs.; 2 tabs

  13. A fast and very sensitive LSC procedure to determine Fe-55 in steel and concrete

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koenig, W.; Schupfner, R.; Schuettelkopf, H.

    1995-01-01

    This procedure determining Fe-55 contributes to a safe and economically reasonable decommissioning of nuclear power plants. Co-60, Fe-55 and Ni-63 are the most abundant, long-lived radionuclides associated with contaminated piping, hardware, and concrete for several decades of years after shutdown. The analysis of Fe takes about three hours until the measurement with an anticoincidence shielded LSC Quantulus 1220 starts. The decontamination factors are ranging from greater than 10 5 to 10 9 for all important naturally and artificially occurring radionuclides except Sb. The chemical yield stays constant at a value of about 92% up to 0.1 g stable Fe in steel, concrete or other material. The detection limits (confidence level 95%) reach values of 8 mBq per sample or about 60 mBq/g steel and 1.5 mBq/g concrete at a counting time of 1000 minutes. Four to eight analyses are performed by one technician during eight hours. (author) 16 refs.; 2 figs.; 4 tabs

  14. Université de Genève | Séminaire de physique corpusculaire | 8 May

    CERN Multimedia

    2013-01-01

    The PAMELA mission: more than six years of Cosmic Rays investigation, Dr Francesco Cafagna, Bari University and INFN.   Wednesday 8 May, 11:15 am Science III, Auditoire 1S081 30, quai Ernest-Ansermet, 1211 Genève 4 Abstract: The PAMELA mission major scientific objective is the measurements of Cosmic Rays energy spectra, with special focus on the antiparticles, i.e. antiprotons and positrons, ones. The PAMELA apparatus is a satellite borne magnetic spectrometer and comprises a time-of-flight system, a silicon-microstrip magnetic spectrometer, a silicon-tungsten electromagnetic calorimeter, an anticoincidence system, and shower tail catcher scintillator. It has been more than six years that the PAMELA mission is taking data in space, on board of the russian satellite Resurs-DK. Important results have been obtained on the positron and antiproton abundance and spectra. Moreover new results have been obtained on the composition of the charged cosmic radiation that challenge our current und...

  15. Fluctuation effects in radiative capture to unstable final states: A test via the 89Y(rvec p,γ) reaction at Ep = 19.6 MeV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parker, W.E.; Chadwick, M.; Dietrich, F.S.

    1994-11-01

    The authors have developed an extended direct-semidirect (DSD) model for fast-nucleon capture to single-particle configurations that subsequently damp into the compound nucleus or (at sufficiently high excitation energies) escape into the continuum. The inclusion of final-state fluctuation effects is an important feature of this model. To test the model they have measured the spectra of gamma rays from approximately 10 MeV to the endpoint in the 89 Y(rvec P,γ) reaction with 19.6 MeV polarized protons from the TUNL tandem accelerator. Gamma spectra were measured with a pair of 25.4 cm x 25.4 cm anticoincidence-shielded NaI detectors at angles of 30 degree, 55 degree, 90 degree 125 degree and 150 degree with respect to the incident beam. The spectra show significant analyzing powers and forward peaking of the angular distributions. These features allow for the discrimination between compound processes and direct processes. Analyzing powers and fore-aft asymmetries were observed for gamma energies below those associated with direct-semidirect transitions to known bound final states. They have also performed Hauser-Feshbach calculations of the statistical component of the gamma emission, which dominates below approximately 15--16 MeV. The extended DSD model reproduces the spectral shapes and analyzing powers above this energy quite well. There is no evidence in the present reaction that additional mechanisms, such as multistep compound or multistep direct emission, are required

  16. An ultralow background germanium gamma-ray spectrometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reeves, R.H.; Brodzinski, R.L.; Hensley, W.K.; Ryge, P.

    1984-01-01

    The monitoring of minimum detectable activity is becoming increasingly important as environmental concerns and regulations require more sensitive measurement of the radioactivity levels in the workplace and the home. In measuring this activity, however, the background becomes one of the limiting factors. Anticoincidence systems utilizing both NaI(T1) and plastic scintillators have proven effective in reducing some components of the background, but radiocontaminants in the various regions of these systems have limited their effectiveness, and their cost is often prohibitive. In order to obtain a genuinely low background detector system, all components must be free of detectable radioactivity, and the cosmic ray produced contribution must be significantly reduced. Current efforts by the authors to measure the double beta decay of Germanium 76 as predicted by Grand Unified Theories have resulted in the development of a high resolution germanium diode gamma spectrometer with an exceptionally low background. This paper describes the development of this system, outlines the configuration and operation of its preamplifier, linear amplifier, analog-to-digital converter, 4096-channel analyzer, shielding consisting of lead-sandwiched plastic scintillators wrapped in cadmium foil, photomultiplier, and its pulse generator and discriminator, and then discusses how the system can be utilized to significantly reduce the background in high resolution photon spectrometers at only moderate cost

  17. A preliminary investigation of radiation level and some radionuclides in imported food and food products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sinakhom, F.; Mongkolphantha, S.

    1980-04-01

    A preliminary study of gross beta activity and content of some long-lived radionuclides associated with fission products in various types of imported food and food-products was carried out. Food samples were purchased monthly during 1976-1977 from general well-known supermarkets and local grocery stores up to a total of 89 samples. The gamma spectrum of long-lived radionuclides was searched using a 128 channel analyzer coupled with 3'' x 3'' NaI (T1) crystal detector. Two radionuclides were frequently found to be present in these food samples, viz. potassium-40 and cesium-137 and their concentrations were subsequently determined. The limits of detection under the conditions used for potassium-40 and cesium-137 were 0.04 and 0.03 pCi/g-wet weight, respectively. Samples were dry-ashed and counted for gross beta activity utilizing a low background anti-coincidence G.M. counter. The content of strontium-90 was also investigated concurrently by solvent extraction technique employing tri-n-butyl phosphate as an extractant. Results of the study are tabulated. (author)

  18. Characterization of the ^{163}Ho Electron Capture Spectrum: A Step Towards the Electron Neutrino Mass Determination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranitzsch, P C-O; Hassel, C; Wegner, M; Hengstler, D; Kempf, S; Fleischmann, A; Enss, C; Gastaldo, L; Herlert, A; Johnston, K

    2017-09-22

    The isotope ^{163}Ho is in many ways the best candidate to perform experiments to investigate the value of the electron neutrino mass. It undergoes an electron capture process to ^{163}Dy with an energy available to the decay, Q_{EC}, of about 2.8 keV. According to the present knowledge, this is the lowest Q_{EC} value for such transitions. Here we discuss a newly obtained spectrum of ^{163}Ho, taken by cryogenic metallic magnetic calorimeters with ^{163}Ho implanted in the absorbers and operated in anticoincident mode for background reduction. For the first time, the atomic deexcitation of the ^{163}Dy daughter atom following the capture of electrons from the 5s shell in ^{163}Ho, the OI line, was observed with a calorimetric measurement. The peak energy is determined to be 48 eV. In addition, a precise determination of the energy available for the decay Q_{EC}=(2.858±0.010_{stat}±0.05_{syst})  keV was obtained by analyzing the intensities of the lines in the spectrum. This value is in good agreement with the measurement of the mass difference between ^{163}Ho and ^{163}Dy obtained by Penning-trap mass spectrometry, demonstrating the reliability of the calorimetric technique.

  19. Development of an experimental set-up for the measurement of neutron-induced fission and capture cross sections of highly radioactive fissile nuclei

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Companis Iulia

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The measurement of neutron-capture cross sections of many actinides is complicated by the difficulty in separating capture γ-rays from the large fission-fragment prompt γ-ray background. For example, current estimates of the capture cross section of 233U show large discrepancies, with differences of more than 20%. To improve the accuracy of data, a new experimental set-up for the simultaneous measurement of the neutron-induced capture and fission cross sections was designed, assembled and optimized. The measurements will be performed at the GEel LINear Accelerator (GELINA neutron time-of-flight facility in Belgium, where neutron cross sections can be measured over a wide energy range with high energy resolution. The fission detector consists of a dedicated multi-plate high-efficiency ionization chamber (IC. The γ-rays produced in capture reaction are detected by an array of C6D6 scintillators. Fission γ–rays are distinguished from capture γ–rays by the anticoincidence signals from the IC and the C6D6 detectors. For the undetected fission events a correction has to be applied based on the efficiency of the IC that should be high and known with a high accuracy. The performance of the IC during dedicated test experiments is presented, focusing on the determination of the detection efficiency.

  20. LArGe. A liquid argon scintillation veto for GERDA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heisel, Mark

    2011-04-13

    LArGe is a GERDA low-background test facility to study novel background suppression methods in a low-background environment, for possible applications in the GERDA experiment. GERDA searches for the neutrinoless double-beta decay in {sup 76}Ge, by operating naked germanium detectors submersed into 65 m{sup 3} of liquid argon. Similarly, LArGe runs Ge-detectors in 1 m{sup 3} (1.4 tons) of liquid argon, which in addition is instrumented with photomultipliers to detect argon scintillation light. The light is used in anti-coincidence with the germanium detectors, to effectively suppress background events that deposit energy in the liquid argon. This work adresses the design, construction, and commissioning of LArGe. The background suppression efficiency has been studied in combination with a pulse shape discrimination (PSD) technique for various sources, which represent characteristic backgrounds to GERDA. Suppression factors of a few times 10{sup 3} have been achieved. First background data of LArGe (without PSD) yield a background index of (0.12-4.6).10{sup -2} cts/(keV.kg.y) (90% c.l.), which is at the level of the Gerda phase I design goal. Furthermore, for the first time we measure the natural {sup 42}Ar abundance (in parallel to Gerda), and have indication for the 2{nu}{beta}{beta}-decay in natural germanium. (orig.)

  1. Detection capabilities. Some historical footnotes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Currie, L.A.

    2017-01-01

    Part I Summary of relevant topics from 1923 to present-including: Currie (Anal Chem 40:586-593, 1968) detection concepts and capabilities; International detection and uncertainty standards; Failure of classical 14 C dating and birth of new scientific disciplines; Exploratory nuclear data analysis of 85 Kr monitors found coincident with the collapse of the Iron Curtain (1989); Faulty statistics proved responsible for mistaken assertions that Currie's LC yields excessive false positives; Low-level counting and AMS for atmospheric 37 Ar and µmolar fossil/biomass carbon in the environment; Erroneous assumption that our low-level background is a Poisson Process, linked to ∼8 % spurious anticoincidence events. Part II. Exact treatment of bivariate Poisson data-solved in 1930s by Przyborowski and Wilenski, Krakow University, for detecting extreme trace amounts of a malicious contaminant (dodder) in high purity seed standards. We adapted their treatment to detection capabilities in ultra-low-level nuclear counting. The timing of their work had great historical significance, marking the start of World War II, with the invasion of Poland (1939). (author)

  2. arXiv Science with e-ASTROGAM (A space mission for MeV-GeV gamma-ray astrophysics)

    CERN Document Server

    De Angelis, A.; Grenier, I.A.; McEnery, J.; Mallamaci, M.; Tavani, M.; Oberlack, U.; Hanlon, L.; Walter, R.; Argan, A.; Von Ballmoos, P.; Bulgarelli, A.; Bykov, A.; Hernanz, M.; Kanbach, G.; Kuvvetli, I.; Pearce, M.; Zdziarski, A.; Conrad, J.; Ghisellini, G.; Harding, A.; Isern, J.; Leising, M.; Longo, F.; Madejski, G.; Martinez, M.; Mazziotta, M.N.; Paredes, J.M.; Pohl, M.; Rando, R.; Razzano, M.; Ackermann, M.; Addazi, A.; Ajello, M.; Albertus, C.; Álvarez, J.M.; Ambrosi, G.; Antón-Castillo, S.; Antonelli, L.A.; Babic, A.; Baibussinov, B.; Balbo, M.; Baldini, L.; Balman, S.; Bambi, C.; Barres de Almeida, U.; Barrio, J.A.; Bartels, R.; Bastieri, D.; Bednarek, W.; Bernard, D.; Bernardini, E.; Bernasconi, T.; Biland, A.; Bissaldi, E.; Bonvicini, V.; Bosch-Ramon, V.; Bottacini, E.; Bozhilov, V.; Bretz, T.; Branchesi, M.; Brdar, V.; Bringmann, T.; Brogna, A.; Budtz-Jørgensen, C.; Busetto, G.; Buson, S.; Busso, M.; Camera, S.; Campana, R.; Caraveo, P.; Cardillo, M.; Carlson, P.; Celestin, S.; Cermeño, M.; C Cheung, C.; Churazov, E.; Ciprini, S.; Coc, A.; Coleiro, A.; Collmar, W.; Coppi, P.; Curado da Silva, R.; Cutini, S.; De Lotto, B.; de Martino, D.; De Rosa, A.; Delgado, L.; Diehl, R.; Dietrich, S.; Dolgov, A.D.; Domínguez, A.; Dominis Prester, D.; Donnarumma, I.; Dorner, D.; Doro, M.; Fabrizio, M.; Fioretti, V.; Foffano, L.; Fornengo, N.; Foschini, L.; Franceschini, A.; Franckowiak, A.; Funk, S.; Fuschino, F.; Gaggero, D.; Galanti, G.; Gargano, F.; Gasparrini, D.; Gehrz, R.; Giammaria, P.; Giglietto, N.; Giommi, P.; Giordano, F.; Ghirlanda, G.; Godinovic, N.; Gouiffés, C.; Grove, J.E.; Hamadache, C.; Hartmann, D.H.; Hayashida, M.; Hryczuk, A.; Jean, P.; Johnson, T.; José, J.; Kaufmann, S.; Kiener, J.; Knödlseder, J.; Kole, M.; Kopp, J.; Kozhuharov, V.; Labanti, C.; Lalkovski, S.; Laurent, P.; Limousin, O.; Lindfors, E.; Liu, J.; Lombardi, S.; Loparco, F.; López Moya, M.; Lott, B.; Lubrano, P.; Malyshev, D.; Mankuzhiyil, N.; Mannheim, K.; Marcianò, A.; Marcote, B.; Mariotti, M.; Marisaldi, M.; McBreen, S.; Mereghetti, S.; Merle, A.; Mignani, R.; Minervini, G.; Moiseev, A.; Morselli, A.; Nakazawa, K.; Nava, L.; Nieto, D.; Orio, M.; Orlando, E.; Orleanski, P.; Paiano, S.; Paoletti, R.; Papitto, A.; Patricelli, B.; Pérez-García, M.Á.; Persic, M.; Piano, G.; Pichel, A.; Pimenta, M.; Pittori, C.; Porter, T.; Poutanen, J.; Prandini, E.; Prantzos, N.; Produit, N.; Rainó, S.; Raklev, A.; Regis, M.; Reichardt, I.; Rico, J.; Rodriguez Fernandez, G.; Roncadelli, M.; Roso, L.; Rovero, A.; Ruffini, R.; Sala, G.; Sánchez-Conde, M.A.; Santangelo, A.; Saz Parkinson, P.; Sbarrato, T.; Shearer, A.; Shellard, R.; Short, K.; Siegert, T.; Spinelli, P.; Stamerra, A.; Starrfield, S.; Strong, A.; Strümke, I.; Tavecchio, F.; Taverna, R.; Terzić, T.; Thompson, D.J.; Tibolla, O.; Turolla, R.; Ulyanov, A.; Ursi, A.; Vacchi, A.; Van den Abeele, J.; Vankova-Kirilovai, G.; Verrecchia, F.; Vincent, P.; Wang, X.; Weniger, C.; Wu, X.; Zaharijaš, G.; Zampieri, L.; Zane, S.; Zimmer, S.; Zoglauer, A.

    e-ASTROGAM (enhanced ASTROGAM) is a breakthrough Observatory space mission, with a detector composed by a Silicon tracker, a calorimeter, and an anticoincidence system, dedicated to the study of the non-thermal Universe in the photon energy range from 0.3 MeV to 3 GeV - the lower energy limit can be pushed to energies as low as 150 keV for the tracker, and to 30 keV for calorimetric detection. The mission is based on an advanced space-proven detector technology, with unprecedented sensitivity, angular and energy resolution, combined with polarimetric capability. Thanks to its performance in the MeV-GeV domain, substantially improving its predecessors, e-ASTROGAM will open a new window on the non-thermal Universe, making pioneering observations of the most powerful Galactic and extragalactic sources, elucidating the nature of their relativistic outflows and their effects on the surroundings. With a line sensitivity in the MeV energy range one to two orders of magnitude better than previous generation instrumen...

  3. A dual purpose Compton suppression spectrometer

    CERN Document Server

    Parus, J; Raab, W; Donohue, D

    2003-01-01

    A gamma-ray spectrometer with a passive and an active shield is described. It consists of a HPGe coaxial detector of 42% efficiency and 4 NaI(Tl) detectors. The energy output pulses of the Ge detector are delivered into the 3 spectrometry chains giving the normal, anti- and coincidence spectra. From the spectra of a number of sup 1 sup 3 sup 7 Cs and sup 6 sup 0 Co sources a Compton suppression factor, SF and a Compton reduction factor, RF, as the parameters characterizing the system performance, were calculated as a function of energy and source activity and compared with those given in literature. The natural background is reduced about 8 times in the anticoincidence mode of operation, compared to the normal spectrum which results in decreasing the detection limits for non-coincident gamma-rays up to a factor of 3. In the presence of other gamma-ray activities, in the range from 5 to 11 kBq, non- and coincident, the detection limits can be decreased for some nuclides by a factor of 3 to 5.7.

  4. Observational techniques of gamma rays astronomy in low energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Costa, J.M. da.

    1982-02-01

    Due to the absorption of great part of the gamma-ray spectrum of cosmic origin, by the earth's atmosphere at heights above 20Km, gamma-ray astronomy achieved its full development only after the advent of the space age. Ballons and satellites are the space vehicles which have been used to transport gamma-ray telescopes to observational heights in the atmosphere, or out of it. The results of these experiments can determine the sources, the energy spectra and the intensities of the cosmic gamma-rays, and provide other important information of astrophysical interest. The detection of gamma-rays of cosmic origin is very difficult. The observational techniques used in gamma-ray astronomy are dependent on the energy range of the gamma-rays which one desires to detect. The most common telescopes of low energy gamma-ray astronomy (50KeV - 20MeV) use NaI(Tl) scintillators, or germanium diodes, as principal detectors, surrounded by an active shield (anticoincidence) of organic or inorganic scintillators. (Author) [pt

  5. UNIVERSITE DE GENEVE

    CERN Multimedia

    2007-01-01

    Ecole de physique - Département de physique nucléaire et corspusculaire 24, Quai Ernest-Ansermet
1211 GENEVE 4
Tél: (022) 379 62 73 - Fax: (022) 379 69 92 Wednesday 3rd October 2007 PARTICLE PHYSICS SEMINAR at 17:00 - Stückelberg Auditorium The first year in orbit of the PAMELA space experiment by Dr Silvio Orsi, INFN Roma Tor Vergata The satellite-borne PAMELA experiment is designed to study charged particles in the cosmic radiation with a particular focus on antiparticles. PAMELA is mounted on the Resurs DK1 satellite that was launched from the Baikonur cosmodrome in Kazakhstan on June 15th 2006 and has a lifetime of at least 3 years. The PAMELA apparatus comprises a time-of-flight system, a magnetic spectrometer, a silicon-tungsten electromagnetic calorimeter, an anticoincidence system, a shower tail catcher scintillator and a neutron detector. PAMELA is performing indirect dark matter search through a detailed study of the positron and antiproton spectra (50Me...

  6. A NIM (Nuclear Instrumentation Module) system conjugated with optional input for pHEMT amplifier for beta and gamma spectroscopy; Um sistema de modulos NIM conjugados com entrada opcional por amplificador pHEMT para espectroscopia beta e gama

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Konrad, Barbara; Lüdke, Everton, E-mail: barbarakonradmev@gmail.com, E-mail: eludke@smail.ufsm.br [Universidade Federal de Santa Maria (LAE/UFSM), RS (Brazil). Lab. de Astrofisica e Eletronica

    2014-07-01

    This work presents a high speed NIM module (Nuclear Instrumentation Module) to detect radiation, gamma and muons, as part of a system for natural radiation monitoring and of extraterrestrial origin. The subsystem developed consists of a preamplifier and an integrated SCA (Single Channel Analyzer), including power supplies of ± 12 and ± 24V with derivations of +3.6 and ± 5V. The single channel analyzer board, consisting of discrete logic components, operating in window modes, normal and integral. The pulse shaping block is made up of two voltage comparators working at 120 MHz with a response time > 60 ns and a logic anticoincidence system. The preamplifier promotes a noise reduction and introduces the impedance matching between the output of anode / diode photomultiplier tubes (PMTs) and subsequent equipment, providing an input impedance of 1MΩ and output impedance of 40 to 140Ω. The shaper amplifier is non-inverting and has variable input capacitance of 1000 pF. The upper and lower thresholds of the SCA are adjustable from 0 to ± 10V, and the equipment is compatible with various types of detectors, like PMTs coupled to sodium iodide crystals. For use with liquid scintillators and photodiodes with crystals (CsI: Tl) is proposed to include a preamplifier circuit pHEMT (pseudomorphic High Electron Mobility Transistor) integrated. Yet, the system presents the possibility of applications for various purposes of gamma spectroscopy and automatic detection of events producing of beta particles.

  7. The first demonstration of the concept of “narrow-FOV Si/CdTe semiconductor Compton camera”

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ichinohe, Yuto, E-mail: ichinohe@astro.isas.jaxa.jp [Institute of Space and Astronautical Science, Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency, 3-1-1 Yoshinodai, Chuo, Sagamihara, Kanagawa 252-5210 (Japan); University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo, Tokyo 113-0033 (Japan); Uchida, Yuusuke; Watanabe, Shin [Institute of Space and Astronautical Science, Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency, 3-1-1 Yoshinodai, Chuo, Sagamihara, Kanagawa 252-5210 (Japan); University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo, Tokyo 113-0033 (Japan); Edahiro, Ikumi [Hiroshima University, 1-3-1 Kagamiyama, Higashi-Hiroshima, Hiroshima 739-8526 (Japan); Hayashi, Katsuhiro [Institute of Space and Astronautical Science, Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency, 3-1-1 Yoshinodai, Chuo, Sagamihara, Kanagawa 252-5210 (Japan); Kawano, Takafumi; Ohno, Masanori [Hiroshima University, 1-3-1 Kagamiyama, Higashi-Hiroshima, Hiroshima 739-8526 (Japan); Ohta, Masayuki [Institute of Space and Astronautical Science, Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency, 3-1-1 Yoshinodai, Chuo, Sagamihara, Kanagawa 252-5210 (Japan); Takeda, Shin' ichiro [Okinawa Institute of Science and Technology Graduate University, 1919-1 Tancha, Onna-son, Okinawa 904-0495 (Japan); Fukazawa, Yasushi [Hiroshima University, 1-3-1 Kagamiyama, Higashi-Hiroshima, Hiroshima 739-8526 (Japan); Katsuragawa, Miho [Institute of Space and Astronautical Science, Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency, 3-1-1 Yoshinodai, Chuo, Sagamihara, Kanagawa 252-5210 (Japan); University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo, Tokyo 113-0033 (Japan); Nakazawa, Kazuhiro [University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo, Tokyo 113-0033 (Japan); Odaka, Hirokazu [Institute of Space and Astronautical Science, Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency, 3-1-1 Yoshinodai, Chuo, Sagamihara, Kanagawa 252-5210 (Japan); Tajima, Hiroyasu [Solar-Terrestrial Environment Laboratory, Nagoya University, Furo-cho, Chikusa, Nagoya, Aichi 464-8601 (Japan); Takahashi, Hiromitsu [Hiroshima University, 1-3-1 Kagamiyama, Higashi-Hiroshima, Hiroshima 739-8526 (Japan); and others

    2016-01-11

    The Soft Gamma-ray Detector (SGD), to be deployed on board the ASTRO-H satellite, has been developed to provide the highest sensitivity observations of celestial sources in the energy band of 60–600 keV by employing a detector concept which uses a Compton camera whose field-of-view is restricted by a BGO shield to a few degree (narrow-FOV Compton camera). In this concept, the background from outside the FOV can be heavily suppressed by constraining the incident direction of the gamma ray reconstructed by the Compton camera to be consistent with the narrow FOV. We, for the first time, demonstrate the validity of the concept using background data taken during the thermal vacuum test and the low-temperature environment test of the flight model of SGD on ground. We show that the measured background level is suppressed to less than 10% by combining the event rejection using the anti-coincidence trigger of the active BGO shield and by using Compton event reconstruction techniques. More than 75% of the signals from the field-of-view are retained against the background rejection, which clearly demonstrates the improvement of signal-to-noise ratio. The estimated effective area of 22.8 cm{sup 2} meets the mission requirement even though not all of the operational parameters of the instrument have been fully optimized yet.

  8. Application of air proportional counters to a tritium-in-air monitor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aoyama, Takahiko; Sugiura, Hiroki; Watanabe, Tamaki

    1987-03-01

    A tritium-in-air monitor using air proportional counters as a detector has been devised. The detector consists of two layers of identical multiwire counters, and it operates without using any counting gas other than sampled air. The background due to internal α-rays was eliminated by pulse-height discrimination, and that due to external, penetrating γ-rays and cosmic rays was evaluated from the coincidence counting rate of the two counters. The counting rate by tritium β-rays was obtained from the anticoincidence counting rate Na by subtracting the product of the coincidence counting rate Nc and a constant ratio k = Na/ Nc for the background. The ratio k was verified to be independent of the intensity, energy and incident direction of the γ-rays, though it varied with pressure and humidity of the sampled air. A detection efficiency of about 14% was obtained for tritium β-rays, and a detection limit of less than 1 pCi/cm 3 was obtained with a normal background level and a counting time of 30 s.

  9. SETI OBSERVATIONS OF EXOPLANETS WITH THE ALLEN TELESCOPE ARRAY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harp, G. R.; Richards, Jon; Tarter, Jill C.; Dreher, John; Jordan, Jane; Shostak, Seth; Smolek, Ken; Kilsdonk, Tom; Wilcox, Bethany R.; Wimberly, M. K. R.; Ross, John; Barott, W. C.; Ackermann, R. F.; Blair, Samantha [SETI Institute, Mountain View, CA 94043 (United States)

    2016-12-01

    We report radio SETI observations on a large number of known exoplanets and other nearby star systems using the Allen Telescope Array (ATA). Observations were made over about 19000 hr from 2009 May to 2015 December. This search focused on narrowband radio signals from a set totaling 9293 stars, including 2015 exoplanet stars and Kepler objects of interest and an additional 65 whose planets may be close to their habitable zones. The ATA observations were made using multiple synthesized beams and an anticoincidence filter to help identify terrestrial radio interference. Stars were observed over frequencies from 1 to 9 GHz in multiple bands that avoid strong terrestrial communication frequencies. Data were processed in near-real time for narrowband (0.7–100 Hz) continuous and pulsed signals with transmitter/receiver relative accelerations from −0.3 to 0.3 m s{sup −2}. A total of 1.9 × 10{sup 8} unique signals requiring immediate follow-up were detected in observations covering more than 8 × 10{sup 6} star-MHz. We detected no persistent signals from extraterrestrial technology exceeding our frequency-dependent sensitivity threshold of 180–310 × 10{sup −26} W m{sup −2}.

  10. System Design and Implementation of the Detector Assembly of the Astro-H Soft X-Ray Spectrometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiao, M. P.; Adams, J.; Goodwin, P.; Hobson, C.W.; Kelley, R. L.; Kilbourne, C. A.; McCammom, D.; McGuinness, D. S.; Moseley, S. J.; Porter, F. S.; hide

    2016-01-01

    The soft x-ray spectrometer (SXS) onboard Astro-H presents to the science community unprecedented capability (less than 7 eV at 6 keV) for high-resolution spectral measurements in the range of 0.5-12 keV to study extended celestial sources. At the heart of this SXS is the x-ray calorimeter spectrometer (XCS) where detectors (calorimeter array and anticoincidence detector) operate at 50 mK, the bias circuit operates at nominal 1.3 K, and the first stage amplifiers operateat 130 K, all within a nominal 20 cm envelope. The design of the detector assembly in this XCS originates from the Astro-E x-ray spectrometer (XRS) and lessons learned from Astro-E and Suzaku. After the production of our engineering model, additional changes were made in order to improve our flight assembly process for better reliability and overall performance. In this poster, we present the final design and implementation of the flight detector assembly, show comparison of parameters and performance to Suzakus XRS, and list susceptibilities to other subsystems as well as our lessons learned.

  11. Ground Calibration of the Astro-H (Hitomi) Soft X-Ray Spectrometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eckart, M. E.; Adams, J. S.; Boyce, K. R.; Brown, G. V.; Chiao, Meng P.; Fujimoto, R. J.; Haas, D.; Den Herder, J. W.; Ishisaki, Y.; Kelley, R. L.; hide

    2016-01-01

    The Astro-H (Hitomi) Soft X-ray Spectrometer (SXS) was a pioneering imaging x-ray spectrometer with 5 eV energy resolution at 6 keV. The instrument used a microcalorimeter array at the focus of a high-throughput soft x-ray telescope to enable high-resolution non-dispersive spectroscopy in the soft x-ray waveband (0.3-12 keV). We present the suite of ground calibration measurements acquired from 2012-2015, including characterization of the detector system, anti-coincidence detector, optical blocking filters, and filter-wheel filters. The calibration of the 36-pixel silicon thermistor microcalorimeter array includes parameterizations of the energy gain scale and line spread function for each event grade over a range of instrument operating conditions, as well as quantum efficiency measurements. The x-ray transmission of the set of five Al/polyimide thin-film optical blocking filters mounted inside the SXS dewar has been modeled based on measurements at synchrotron beamlines, including with high spectral resolution at the C, N, O, and Al K-edges. In addition, we present the x-ray transmission of the dewar gate valve and of the filters mounted on the SXS filter wheel (external to the dewar), including beryllium, polyimide, and neutral density filters.

  12. An Ultra-High Pressure Proportional Counter for Hard X-Ray Astronomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Zongnan

    1992-01-01

    This thesis describes the successful development of ultra-high pressure proportional counters for balloon -borne hard X-ray astronomy. The proportional counters were filled with argon/xenon at pressures up to {~}30atm. The properties of proportional counters filled at such pressures have been studied by the author in the laboratory. The spatial response of these counters to X-rays and charged particles, and the energy response to X-rays up to 1MeV have been analysed. Gas gain measurements using the charge collection technique and analysis of the subsequent data show that simple extrapolation from low pressures cannot explain the observed behaviour (e.g. the mobility of positive ions and quenching efficiency) of these counters at high pressures. A hard X-ray telescope consisting of 32 such proportional counters filled at ultra-high pressures is being constructed, details of which are described. The sensitivity of this telescope for both continuum and narrow-line spectra is superb compared to contemporary balloon-and satellite-borne hard X-ray detectors. Together with an imaging phoswich Anger camera, it is scheduled for launch from Alice Springs in November 1992. An anticoincidence system for an X-ray detector, consisting of a combined passive and active shield, has been designed and constructed by the author, and flown on a balloon. The active shield, made of a plastic scintillator, has resulted in an additional reduction of 25% in the background registered at balloon altitudes.

  13. Primary radioactivity standardization and gamma intensities determination of {sup 124}Sb

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iwahara, A. [Laboratorio Nacional de Metrologia das Radiacoes Ionizantes (LNMRI)/Instituto de Radioprotecao e Dosimetria (IRD)/Comissao Nacional de Energia Nuclear - CNEN, Av. Salvador Allende, s/no, Recreio, CEP 22780-160, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil)], E-mail: iwahara@ird.gov.br; Delgado, J.U.; Poledna, R.; Silva, C.J. da; Almeida, M.C.M. de; Silva, R.L. da [Laboratorio Nacional de Metrologia das Radiacoes Ionizantes (LNMRI)/Instituto de Radioprotecao e Dosimetria (IRD)/Comissao Nacional de Energia Nuclear - CNEN, Av. Salvador Allende, s/no, Recreio, CEP 22780-160, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil)

    2009-04-21

    A solution containing {sup 124}Sb was primarily standardized by the 4{pi}{beta}-{gamma} coincidence and anticoincidence extrapolation methods in the frame of the EUROMET 907 international comparison organized by Laboratoire National Henri Bequerel (LNHB)/France, in 2007. The main purposes of this exercise are the improvement in the uncertainties on the gamma-ray emission intensities and they clarify the discrepancies verified among the intensity values for many weak gamma rays reported in the literature. In this work the results of the activity obtained were used to determine the absolute and relative gamma-ray intensities using a planar and coaxial HPGe detectors calibrated by {sup 152}Eu and {sup 116m}Ho multi-gamma standard sources covering the energy range from 20 to 1408 keV. Additionally the half-life of {sup 124}Sb was determined following the decay of a solution of {sup 124}Sb contained in a glass ampoule over a period of three half-lives using two 4{pi}{gamma} ionization chambers.

  14. Absolute disintegration rate and 320 keV {gamma}-ray emission probability of {sup 51}Cr

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Almeida, M.C.M. de [Laboratorio Nacional de Metrologia das Radiacoes Ionizantes /Instituto de Radioprotecao e Dosimetria (LNMRI/ IRD), Avenida Salvador Allende, s/no. Recreio-Rio de Janeiro, CEP 22780-160 (Brazil)], E-mail: candida@ird.gov.br; Iwahara, A.; Poledna, R.; Silva, C.J. da; Delgado, J.U. [Laboratorio Nacional de Metrologia das Radiacoes Ionizantes /Instituto de Radioprotecao e Dosimetria (LNMRI/ IRD), Avenida Salvador Allende, s/no. Recreio-Rio de Janeiro, CEP 22780-160 (Brazil)

    2007-09-21

    This work describes the procedures for determining absolutely the {sup 51}Cr disintegration rate by using the 4{pi}{beta}-{gamma} coincidence and anti-coincidence counting and the sum-peak methods. A 4''x4''-NaI(Tl) scintillation detector was used in the {gamma}- channel of the 4{pi}{beta}-{gamma} coincidence system for {gamma}-ray counting. In the {beta}-channel, a 4{pi} gas flow proportional counter was used for counting of characteristic X-rays and Auger electrons originating from the electron capture events of the {sup 51}Cr decay scheme. Gamma spectrometry measurements by high-pure planar and coaxial germanium detectors were performed in the sum-peak method and in the determination of the 320 keV {gamma}-emission probability of {sup 51}Cr. This latter determined value agrees with the recent values found in the literature, confirming the reliability of the three methods used in this work for the disintegration rate measurements.

  15. Characterization of the 163Ho Electron Capture Spectrum: A Step Towards the Electron Neutrino Mass Determination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranitzsch, P. C.-O.; Hassel, C.; Wegner, M.; Hengstler, D.; Kempf, S.; Fleischmann, A.; Enss, C.; Gastaldo, L.; Herlert, A.; Johnston, K.

    2017-09-01

    The isotope 163Ho is in many ways the best candidate to perform experiments to investigate the value of the electron neutrino mass. It undergoes an electron capture process to 163Dy with an energy available to the decay, QEC, of about 2.8 keV. According to the present knowledge, this is the lowest QEC value for such transitions. Here we discuss a newly obtained spectrum of 163Ho, taken by cryogenic metallic magnetic calorimeters with 163Ho implanted in the absorbers and operated in anticoincident mode for background reduction. For the first time, the atomic deexcitation of the 163Dy daughter atom following the capture of electrons from the 5 s shell in 163Ho, the OI line, was observed with a calorimetric measurement. The peak energy is determined to be 48 eV. In addition, a precise determination of the energy available for the decay QEC=(2.858 ±0.01 0stat±0.0 5syst) keV was obtained by analyzing the intensities of the lines in the spectrum. This value is in good agreement with the measurement of the mass difference between 163Ho and 163Dy obtained by Penning-trap mass spectrometry, demonstrating the reliability of the calorimetric technique.

  16. The Science and First Results of the PAMELA Space Mission

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2008-01-01

    On the 15th of June 2006 the PAMELA satellite-borne experiment was launched from the Baikonur cosmodrome and it is collecting data since July 2006. The core of the instrument is a silicon-microstrip magnetic spectrometer combined with a time-of-flight system, a silicon-tungsten electromagnetic calorimeter, a shower tail catcher scintillator, a neutron detector and an anticoincidence system. This telescope allows precision studies of the charged cosmic radiation to be conducted over a wide energy range (100 MeV - 100's GeV) with high statistics. The primary scientific goal is the measurement of the antiproton and positron energy spectra in order to search for exotic sources, such as dark matter particle annihilations. PAMELA is also searching for primordial antinuclei (anti-helium) and performing precise measurements of light nuclei and their isotopes for testing cosmic-ray propagation models. Other objectives are the monitoring of the solar activity, the detection of solar flares and the study of the solar...

  17. Results of an international comparison of activity measurements of68Ge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cessna, J T; Fitzgerald, R; Zimmerman, B E; Laureano-Pérez, L; Bergeron, D E; van Wyngaardt, F; Smith, M; Jackson, T; Howe, B; da Silva, C J; Iwahara, A; da Cruz, P A L; Zhang, M; Liu, H; Liang, J; Fréchou, C; Bobin, C; Cassette, P; Kossert, K; Nähle, O; Marganiec-Gałązka, J; Joseph, L; Ravindra, A; Kulkarni, D N; Yunoki, A; Sato, Y; Lee, K B; Lee, J M; Agung; Dziel, T; Listkowska, A; Tymiński, Z; Sahagia, M; Antohe, A; Ioan, M-R; Luca, A; Krivosek, M; Ometakova, J; Javornik, A; Zalesakova, M; García-Toraño Martinez, E; Roteta, M; Mejuto, M; Nedjadi, Y; Juget, F; Yuan, M-C; Yeh, C Y; Yeltepe, E; Dirican, A; Keightley, J; Pearce, A

    2018-04-01

    An international key comparison, identifier CCRI(II)-K2.Ge-68, has been performed. The National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) served as the pilot laboratory, distributing aliquots of a 68 Ge/ 68 Ga solution. Results for the activity concentration, C A , of 68 Ge at a reference date of 12h00 UTC 14 November 2014 were submitted by 17 laboratories, encompassing many variants of coincidence methods and liquid-scintillation counting methods. The first use of 4π(Cherenkov)β-γ coincidence and anticoincidence methods in an international comparison is reported. One participant reported results by secondary methods only. Two results, both utilizing pure liquid-scintillation methods, were identified as outliers. Evaluation using the Power-Moderated Mean method results in a proposed Comparison Reference Value (CRV) of 621.7(11)kBqg -1 , based on 14 results. The degrees of equivalence and their associated uncertainties are evaluated for each participant. Several participants submitted 3.6mL ampoules to the BIPM to link the comparison to the International Reference System (SIR) which may lead to the evaluation of a Key Comparison Reference Value and associated degrees of equivalence. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  18. Conceptual design of the SMART dosimeter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Erik B.; Vogel, Sam; Frank, Rebecca; Stoddard, Graham; Vera, Alonzo; Alexander, David; Christian, James

    2017-08-01

    Active dosimeters for astronauts and space weather monitors are critical tools for mitigating radiation induced health issues or system failure on capital equipment. Commercial spaceflight, deep space flight, and satellites require smarter, smaller, and lower power dosimeters. There are a number of instruments with flight heritage, yet as identified in NASA's roadmaps, these technologies do not lend themselves to a viable solution for active dosimetry for an astronaut, particularly for deep space missions. For future missions, nano- and micro-satellites will require compact instruments that will accurately assess the radiation hazard without consuming major resources on the spacecraft. RMD has developed the methods for growing an advanced scintillation material called phenylcarbazole, which provides pulse shape discrimination between protons and electrons. When used in combination with an anti-coincidence detector system, an assessment of the dose from charged ions and neutral particles can be determined. This is valuable as damage on a system (such as silicon or tissue) is dependent on the particle species. Using this crystal with readout electronics developed in partnership with COSMIAC at the University of New Mexico, the design of the Small Mixed field Autonomous Radiation Tracker (SMART) Dosimeter consists of a low-power analog to digital conversion scheme with low-power digital signal processing algorithms, which are to be implemented within a compact system on a chip, such as the Xilinx Zynq series. A review of the conceptual design is presented.

  19. A new system of gamma-ray spectrometry for activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murata, Y.; Hirai, S.; Okamoto, M.; Kakihana, H.

    1977-01-01

    A new system of γ-ray spectrometry GAMA has been designed and constructed. This system performs a precise, quick and automatic activation analysis using the TRIGA-II Research Reactor as a neutron source. The main components are detector system consisted of a high resolution Ge(Li) detector settled in a shielding cabinet and a well-type NaI(Tl) scintillation counter for anti-Compton measurement, and data acquisition and spectra analysis system performed independently by two mini computer. The system has operated for atmospheric aerosols as an example of activation analysis. Through the programs, the GAMA system can output the spectrum itself, the peak energies, their intensities and the nuclides corresponding to each energy within +-ΔE energy unit. Corrections are in progress to use more reliable nuclear data, establish preciser γ-ray mesuring methods and construct a new system selecting one nuclide to one peak energy by utilizing simultaneous measurement with an anti-coincidence method and half-life measurement and so on. (T.G.)

  20. Shielding of cosmic-ray-induced background in CCD detectors for X-ray astronomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfeffermann, Elmar; Friedrich, Peter; Freyberg, Michael; Kettenring, Günther; Krämer, Ludwig; Meidinger, Norbert; Predehl, Peter; Strüder, Lothar

    2004-09-01

    An active anticoincidence detector system for background reduction cannot be integrated in CCD detectors for X-ray astronomy. The background rate within an integration-readout interval would result in an unacceptable dead time of about 50% or more. Events of minimum ionizing particles can be discriminated in CCD detectors due to their high energy deposit and their image pattern. Events of X-rays or charged particles within the accepted energy band originating from cosmic ray interaction with the material surrounding the CCD cannot be distinguished from valid cosmic X-ray events and therefore contribute to the background noise. Graded-Z shielding is an efficient method to shift the energy of the locally produced X-rays to low energies. At low energies low-Z shielding material can be used, which rather produces Auger electrons than fluorescent X-rays. Low energy electrons can be stopped in the passivation layer of the CCD. Due to the low operating temperature of the CCD (~170 K) the shielding material has to have a similar thermal expansion coefficient as silicon. With regard to future X-ray missions the properties of several shielding materials like aluminium oxide, aluminium nitride, silicon nitride and boron carbide were investigated in more detail. The results are presented.

  1. Multidirectional Cosmic Ray Ion Detector for Deep Space CubeSats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wrbanek, John D.; Wrbanek, Susan Y.

    2016-01-01

    Understanding the nature of anisotropy of solar energetic protons (SEPs) and galactic cosmic ray (GCR) fluxes in the interplanetary medium is crucial in characterizing time-dependent radiation exposure in interplanetary space for future exploration missions. NASA Glenn Research Center has proposed a CubeSat-based instrument to study solar and cosmic ray ions in lunar orbit or deep space. The objective of Solar Proton Anisotropy and Galactic cosmic ray High Energy Transport Instrument (SPAGHETI) is to provide multi-directional ion data to further understand anisotropies in SEP and GCR flux. The instrument is to be developed using large area detectors fabricated from high density, high purity silicon carbide (SiC) to measure linear energy transfer (LET) of ions. Stacks of these LET detectors are arranged in a CubeSat at orthogonal directions to provide multidirectional measurements. The low-noise, thermally-stable nature of silicon carbide and its radiation tolerance allows the multidirectional array of detector stacks to be packed in a 6U CubeSat without active cooling. A concept involving additional coincidence/anticoincidence detectors and a high energy Cherenkov detector is possible to further expand ion energy range and sensitivity.

  2. Application of a background-compensated Geiger-Mueller counter to a survey meter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mori, C.; Kumanomido, H.; Watanabe, T.

    1984-01-01

    A background-compensated Geiger-Mueller counter was used as a probe for a GM survey meter to obtain a net count rate of β-rays from a radioactive source in a quick survey. Although a background counting ratio between the two parts in the counter, front and rear, varied somewhat depending on the incident direction of background γ-rays, it was possible to compensate the background counts by subtracting a part of the rear counts, which were background counts, from the front counts, which contained β-ray counts and background counts. Undesirable small pulses generated during the recovering time after a full Geiger discharge were eliminated by an anticoincidence gating method. The survey meter with this counter and a differential ratemeter is useful for obtaining a net count rate of β-rays emitted from a surface radioactive-contamination or from a source being put near the window of the counter with nearly the same accuracy in half the measuring time as compared with conventional GM counters. (orig.)

  3. Spectrum of atmospheric gamma rays to 10 MeV at lambda = 40 deg. [as function of altitude

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, L. E.; Schwartz, D. A.; Ling, J. C.

    1973-01-01

    Results of measurements of the differential counting rate spectra due to atmospheric gamma rays as a function of altitude to 3.6 g/sq cm over Texas. Two gain settings and a 128-channel pulse height analyzer were used to cover the range from 0.2 to 10 MeV. The detector was a 7.6 x 7.6 cm NaI crystal, which was surrounded on five sides by a 2-cm-thick plastic anticoincidence shield for charged particle rejection. The system had a nearly isotropic response to photons above 0.2 MeV. The spectrum at ceiling appeared as a steep continuum with a power-law index of about 1.4. The only obvious feature was the 0.51-MeV positron annihilation line. The spectral shape was independent for depths less than 20 g/sq cm, the absolute intensity varying in proportion to the intensity of the cosmic ray secondary charged particles. Also, at depths less than 30 g/sq cm the observed flux variation with altitude can be described in terms of an empirical depth-dependent source function.

  4. Assessment of backgrounds of the ANAIS experiment for dark matter direct detection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amare, J.; Cebrian, S.; Garcia, E.; Olivan, M.A.; Ortigoza, Y.; Ortiz de Solorzano, A.; Puimedon, J.; Sarsa, M.L.; Villar, J.A.; Villar, P. [Universidad de Zaragoza, Laboratorio de Fisica Nuclear y Astroparticulas, Zaragoza (Spain); Laboratorio Subterraneo de Canfranc, Huesca (Spain); Cuesta, C. [Universidad de Zaragoza, Laboratorio de Fisica Nuclear y Astroparticulas, Zaragoza (Spain); Laboratorio Subterraneo de Canfranc, Huesca (Spain); University of Washington, Department of Physics, Center for Experimental Nuclear Physics and Astrophysics, Seattle, WA (United States); Martinez, M. [Universidad de Zaragoza, Laboratorio de Fisica Nuclear y Astroparticulas, Zaragoza (Spain); Laboratorio Subterraneo de Canfranc, Huesca (Spain); Universita di Roma La Sapienza, Rome (Italy)

    2016-08-15

    A large effort has been carried out to characterize the background of sodium iodide crystals within the Annual modulation with NaI Scintillators (ANAIS) project. In this paper, the background models developed for three 12.5 kg NaI(Tl) scintillators produced by Alpha Spectra Inc. and operated at the Canfranc Underground Laboratory are presented together with an evaluation of the background prospects for the full experiment. Measured spectra from threshold to high energy in different conditions are well described by the models based on quantified activities. At the region of interest, crystal bulk contamination is the dominant background source. Contributions from {sup 210}Pb, {sup 40}K, {sup 22}Na and {sup 3}H are the most relevant. Those from {sup 40}K and {sup 22}Na could be efficiently suppressed thanks to anticoincidence operation in a crystals matrix or inside a liquid scintillator veto (LSV), while that from {sup 210}Pb has been reduced by improving crystal production methods and {sup 3}H production could be reduced by shielding against cosmic rays during production. Assuming the activities of the last characterized detector, for nine crystals with a total mass of 112.5 kg the expected background rate is 2.5 counts/(keV kg day) in the region from 1 to 4 keV, which could be reduced at 1.4 counts/(keV kg day) by using a LSV. (orig.)

  5. Fission-product energy release for times following thermal-neutron fission of 235U between 2 and 14000 seconds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dickens, J.K.; Emery, J.F.; Love, T.A.; McConnell, J.W.; Northcutt, K.J.; Peelle, R.W.; Weaver, H.

    1977-10-01

    Fission-product decay energy-releases rates were measured for thermal-neutron fission of 235 U. Samples of mass 1 to 10 μg were irradiated for 1 to 100 sec by use of the fast pneumatic-tube facility at the Oak Ridge Research Reactor. The resulting beta- and gamma-ray emissions were counted for times-after-fission between 2 and 14,000 seconds. The data were obtained for beta and gamma rays separately as spectral distributions, N(E/sub γ/) vs E/sub γ/ and N(E/sub beta/) vs E/sub β/. For the gamma-ray data the spectra were obtained by using a NaI detector, while for the beta-ray data the spectra were obtained by using an NE-110 detector with an anticoincidence mantle. The raw data were unfolded to provide spectral distributions of modest resolution. These were integrated over E/sub γ/ and E/sub β/ to provide total yield and energy integrals as a function of time after fission. Results are low compared to the present 1973 ANS Decay-heat standard. A complete description of the experimental apparatus and data-reduction techniques is presented. The final integral data are given in tabular and graphical form and are compared with published data. 41 figures, 13 tables

  6. The PAMELA experiment on satellite and its capability in cosmic rays measurements

    CERN Document Server

    Adriani, O; Barbarino, G C; Barbier, L M; Bartalucci, S; Bazilevskaja, G; Bellotti, R; Bertazzoni, S; Bidoli, V; Boezio, M; Bogomolov, E A; Bonechi, L; Bonvicini, V; Boscherini, M; Bravar, U; Cafagna, F; Campana, D; Carlson, Per J; Casolino, M; Castellano, M; Castellini, G; Christian, E R; Ciacio, F; Circella, M; D'Alessandro, R; De Marzo, C N; De Pascale, M P; Finetti, N; Furano, G; Gabbanini, A; Galper, A M; Giglietto, N; Grandi, M; Grigorieva, A; Guarino, F; Hof, M; Koldashov, S V; Korotkov, M G; Krizmanic, J F; Krutkov, S; Lund, J; Marangelli, B; Marino, L; Menn, W; Mikhailov, V V; Mirizzi, N; Mitchell, J W; Mocchiutti, E; Moiseev, A A; Morselli, A; Mukhametshin, R; Ormes, J F; Osteria, G; Ozerov, J V; Papini, P; Pearce, M; Perego, A; Piccardi, S; Picozza, P; Ricci, M; Salsano, A; Schiavon, Paolo; Scian, G; Simon, M; Sparvoli, R; Spataro, B; Spillantini, P; Spinelli, P; Stephens, S A; Stochaj, S J; Stozhkov, Yu I; Straulino, S; Streitmatter, R E; Taccetti, F; Tesi, M; Vacchi, A; Vannuccini, E; Vasiljev, G; Vignoli, V; Voronov, S A; Yurkin, Y; Zampa, G; Zampa, N

    2002-01-01

    The PAMELA equipment will be assembled in 2001 and installed on board the Russian satellite Resurs. PAMELA is conceived mainly to study the antiproton and positron fluxes in cosmic rays up to high energy (190 GeV for p-bar and 270 GeV for e sup +) and to search antinuclei, up to 30 GeV/n, with a sensitivity of 10 sup - sup 7 in the He-bar/He ratio. The PAMELA telescope consists of: a magnetic spectrometer made up of a permanent magnet system equipped with double sided microstrip silicon detectors; a transition radiation detector made up of active layers of proportional straw tubes interleaved with carbon fibre radiators; and a silicon-tungsten imaging calorimeter made up of layers of tungsten absorbers and silicon detector planes. A time-of-flight system and anti-coincidence counters complete the PAMELA equipment. In the past years, tests have been done on each subdetector of PAMELA; the main results are presented and their implications on the anti-particles identification capability in cosmic rays are discus...

  7. Developing fine-pixel CdTe detectors for the next generation of high-resolution hard x-ray telescopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christe, Steven

    -based detector system through the (1) design, manufacture, and test of front-end electronics instrument boards and (2) calibration of the detectors to assess their performance and (3) vibration and environmental testing. By the end of this program, multiple detector assemblies will be built and characterized, and can be used as part of future instruments. We propose to augment the existing effort with the development of an anti-coincidence shield for these HEXITEC-based detector assemblies to maximize sensitivity. Designing the anti-coincidence shield is enabled by the addition of a new team member, Wayne Baumgartner, who has recently and fortuitously joined the existing effort. Dr. Baumgartner has valuable and relevant past experience with a similar shield systems developed for NuSTAR and the InFOCμS x-ray telescope. We are asking for a modest amount of additional funding in this proposal year, as it coincides with a key time in the characterization and environmental testing of the detector assemblies. Characterization and environmental testing of the bare assemblies is already funded under the current effort. The addition of this active shield will allow for a more complete detector module vibration and environment test at the end of the existing development program so that this project results in a detector system with a demonstrated TRL of 6: "System/subsystem model or prototype demonstration in a relevant environment."

  8. Design, characterization and optimization of various β γ measurement systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schroettner, T.

    2010-01-01

    at varying transit speed. The detector-characterization results are used to simulate the signal for various speed and off axis distance. The simulation has been used to develop and test new algorithms for speed dependent data processing of the count rate signal. The SNR and the minimum detectable activity (MDA) have been calculated as function of the integration time to obtain their optima. The algorithms are experimentally validated by using a high speed source transport system to simulate a passing source. The third paper 'Long term comparison of methods to sustain energy calibration in low level gamma-ray spectroscopy and investigation of possible sources for drift' (Schroettner and Kindl, 2010) investigates various sources for drift of energy calibration of HPGe detectors. A long term comparison of different methods for energy calibration (source injection method and pulser method) shows pros and cons and presents a new concept to monitor and sustain energy calibration of gamma spectroscopic measurement systems. The fourth paper 'A high resolution, multi parameter, β-γ coincidence μ-γ anticoincidence system for radioxenon measurement' (Schroettner at al., submitted on 30.1. 2010 to NIM A) describes a novel high resolution multi parameter measurement system combining β-γ coincidence and μ-γ anticoincidence. The system is indented for measurement of radioxenon samples and calibration of radioxenon spikes. A HPGe detector for photons and a silicon surface barrier (SSB) detector for electrons are combined to measure coincident γ/x-ray and β/conversion electron radiation. The data acquisition in list mode allows changing, checking and optimizing all time windows for (anti-) coincidence off line during data processing and analysis. The system has been designed to be operated also in α-γ coincidence mode which can be applied to nuclear safeguard (forensics). (author) [de

  9. Brane-world extra dimensions in light of GW170817

    Science.gov (United States)

    Visinelli, Luca; Bolis, Nadia; Vagnozzi, Sunny

    2018-03-01

    The search for extra dimensions is a challenging endeavor to probe physics beyond the Standard Model. The joint detection of gravitational waves (GW) and electromagnetic (EM) signals from the merging of a binary system of compact objects like neutron stars can help constrain the geometry of extra dimensions beyond our 3 +1 spacetime ones. A theoretically well-motivated possibility is that our observable Universe is a 3 +1 -dimensional hypersurface, or brane, embedded in a higher 4 +1 -dimensional anti-de Sitter (AdS5 ) spacetime, in which gravity is the only force which propagates through the infinite bulk space, while other forces are confined to the brane. In these types of brane-world models, GW and EM signals between two points on the brane would, in general, travel different paths. This would result in a time lag between the detection of GW and EM signals emitted simultaneously from the same source. We consider the recent near-simultaneous detection of the GW event GW170817 from the LIGO/Virgo collaboration, and its EM counterpart, the short gamma-ray burst GRB170817A detected by the Fermi Gamma-ray Burst Monitor and the International Gamma-Ray Astrophysics Laboratory Anti-Coincidence Shield spectrometer. Assuming the standard Λ -cold dark matter scenario and performing a likelihood analysis which takes into account astrophysical uncertainties associated to the measured time lag, we set an upper limit of ℓ≲0.535 Mpc at 68% confidence level on the AdS5 radius of curvature ℓ. Although the bound is not competitive with current Solar System constraints, it is the first time that data from a multimessenger GW-EM measurement is used to constrain extra-dimensional models. Thus, our work provides a proof of principle for the possibility of using multimessenger astronomy for probing the geometry of our space-time.

  10. The e-ASTROGAM mission. Exploring the extreme Universe with gamma rays in the MeV - GeV range

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Angelis, A.; Tatischeff, V.; Tavani, M.; Oberlack, U.; Grenier, I.; Hanlon, L.; Walter, R.; Argan, A.; von Ballmoos, P.; Bulgarelli, A.; Donnarumma, I.; Hernanz, M.; Kuvvetli, I.; Pearce, M.; Zdziarski, A.; Aboudan, A.; Ajello, M.; Ambrosi, G.; Bernard, D.; Bernardini, E.; Bonvicini, V.; Brogna, A.; Branchesi, M.; Budtz-Jorgensen, C.; Bykov, A.; Campana, R.; Cardillo, M.; Coppi, P.; De Martino, D.; Diehl, R.; Doro, M.; Fioretti, V.; Funk, S.; Ghisellini, G.; Grove, E.; Hamadache, C.; Hartmann, D. H.; Hayashida, M.; Isern, J.; Kanbach, G.; Kiener, J.; Knödlseder, J.; Labanti, C.; Laurent, P.; Limousin, O.; Longo, F.; Mannheim, K.; Marisaldi, M.; Martinez, M.; Mazziotta, M. N.; McEnery, J.; Mereghetti, S.; Minervini, G.; Moiseev, A.; Morselli, A.; Nakazawa, K.; Orleanski, P.; Paredes, J. M.; Patricelli, B.; Peyré, J.; Piano, G.; Pohl, M.; Ramarijaona, H.; Rando, R.; Reichardt, I.; Roncadelli, M.; Silva, R.; Tavecchio, F.; Thompson, D. J.; Turolla, R.; Ulyanov, A.; Vacchi, A.; Wu, X.; Zoglauer, A.

    2017-10-01

    e-ASTROGAM (`enhanced ASTROGAM') is a breakthrough Observatory space mission, with a detector composed by a Silicon tracker, a calorimeter, and an anticoincidence system, dedicated to the study of the non-thermal Universe in the photon energy range from 0.3 MeV to 3 GeV - the lower energy limit can be pushed to energies as low as 150 keV, albeit with rapidly degrading angular resolution, for the tracker, and to 30 keV for calorimetric detection. The mission is based on an advanced space-proven detector technology, with unprecedented sensitivity, angular and energy resolution, combined with polarimetric capability. Thanks to its performance in the MeV-GeV domain, substantially improving its predecessors, e-ASTROGAM will open a new window on the non-thermal Universe, making pioneering observations of the most powerful Galactic and extragalactic sources, elucidating the nature of their relativistic outflows and their effects on the surroundings. With a line sensitivity in the MeV energy range one to two orders of magnitude better than previous generation instruments, e-ASTROGAM will determine the origin of key isotopes fundamental for the understanding of supernova explosion and the chemical evolution of our Galaxy. The mission will provide unique data of significant interest to a broad astronomical community, complementary to powerful observatories such as LIGO-Virgo-GEO600-KAGRA, SKA, ALMA, E-ELT, TMT, LSST, JWST, Athena, CTA, IceCube, KM3NeT, and the promise of eLISA.

  11. About the distribution of delays in G.M counters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Picard, E.; Rogozinski, A.

    1954-01-01

    We measure, with an oscillograph method the global time that pass between the time that a particle in a determined region of the studied counter and the answer of the amplifier associated to the counter. This delay is composed of the latency time T l and the T q delay, that result from the rise time finished of the impulse and whose value depends of the sensitivity threshold of the amplifier. The selection of (cosmic) particles generating discharge in the studied counter is obtained thanks to a telescope of two meters in coincidence whose opening is limited by a group of four counters in anti-coincidence with the first. The meter is arranged so that the median plan of the telescope crosses to a variable distance d of his axial thread. The measures have been done for different securities of the distance d and of the over-voltage V s applied to the counter. The results show that the statistical distribution of the delays is more spread especially when d is bigger and V s more reduced. The average values of the observed delays vary of 7.10 -8 s for d = 0 and V s es = 200 V, to 90.10 -8 s for d = 1,9 cm and V s = 50 V. The mobility of an free electron within the gaseous mixture filling the counter under a pressure of 10 cm.Hg was found equal: (2,1 ±0,2).10 4 cm 2 .s -1 .V -1 . (author) [fr

  12. Some case studies of skewed (and other ab-normal) data distributions arising in low-level environmental research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Currie, L.A.

    2001-01-01

    Three general classes of skewed data distributions have been encountered in research on background radiation, chemical and radiochemical blanks, and low levels of 85 Kr and 14 C in the atmosphere and the cryosphere. The first class of skewed data can be considered to be theoretically, or fundamentally skewed. It is typified by the exponential distribution of inter-arrival times for nuclear counting events for a Poisson process. As part of a study of the nature of low-level (anti-coincidence) Geiger- Mueller counter background radiation, tests were performed on the Poisson distribution of counts, the uniform distribution of arrival times, and the exponential distribution of inter-arrival times. The real laboratory system, of course, failed the (inter-arrival time) test - for very interesting reasons, linked to the physics of the measurement process. The second, computationally skewed, class relates to skewness induced by non-linear transformations. It is illustrated by non-linear concentration estimates from inverse calibration, and bivariate blank corrections for low-level 14 C- 12 C aerosol data that led to highly asymmetric uncertainty intervals for the biomass carbon contribution to urban ''soot''. The third, environmentally skewed, data class relates to a universal problem for the detection of excursions above blank or baseline levels: namely, the widespread occurrence of ab-normal distributions of environmental and laboratory blanks. This is illustrated by the search for fundamental factors that lurk behind skewed frequency distributions of sulfur laboratory blanks and 85 Kr environmental baselines, and the application of robust statistical procedures for reliable detection decisions in the face of skewed isotopic carbon procedural blanks with few degrees of freedom. (orig.)

  13. In-flight performance of the soft x-ray spectrometer detector system on Astro-H

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porter, Frederick S.; Boyce, Kevin R.; Chiao, Meng P.; Eckart, Megan E.; Fujimoto, Ryuichi; Ishisaki, Yoshitaka; Kilbourne, Caroline Anne; Leutenegger, Maurice A.; McCammon, Daniel; Mitsuda, Kazuhisa; Sato, Kosuke; Seta, Hiromi; Sawada, Makoto; Sneiderman, Gary A.; Szymkowiak, Andrew E.; Takei, Yoh; Tashiro, Makoto S.; Tsujimoto, Masahiro; Watanabe, Tomomi; Yamada, Shinya

    2018-01-01

    The soft x-ray spectrometer (SXS) instrument was launched aboard the Astro-H (Hitomi) observatory on February 17, 2016. The SXS is based on a high-sensitivity x-ray calorimeter detector system that has been successfully deployed in many ground and suborbital spectrometers. The instrument was to provide essential diagnostics for nearly every class of x-ray emitting objects from the atmosphere of Jupiter to the outskirts of galaxy clusters, without degradation for spatially extended objects. The SXS detector system consisted of a 36-pixel cryogenic microcalorimeter array operated at a heat sink temperature of 50 mK. In preflight testing, the detector system demonstrated a resolving power of better than 1300 at 6 keV with a simultaneous bandpass from below 0.3 keV to above 12 keV with a timing precision better than 100 μs. In addition, a solid-state anticoincidence detector was placed directly behind the detector array for background suppression. The detector error budget included the measured interference from the SXS cooling system and the spacecraft. Additional margin for on-orbit gain stability and on-orbit spacecraft interference were also included predicting an on-orbit performance that meets or exceeds the 7-eV FWHM at 6-keV requirement. The actual on-orbit spectral resolution was better than 5 eV FWHM at 6 keV, easily satisfying the instrument requirement. Here, we discuss the actual on-orbit performance of the SXS detector system and compare this to performance in preflight testing and the on-orbit predictions. We will also discuss the on-orbit gain stability, additional on-orbit interference, and measurements of the on-orbit background.

  14. A study of {sup 11} Be an {sup 11} Li halo nuclei by core breakup reactions; Etude des noyaux a halo de {sup 11} Be et {sup 11} Li par reactions de cassure du coeur

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grevy, S. [Institut de Physique Nucleaire, CNRS - IN2P3 Universite Paris Sud, 91406 Orsay Cedex (France)

    1997-12-31

    The study of light nuclei with large neutron excess are very useful for the understanding of nuclear matter far from stability. The nuclear halo phenomenon has been observed for the first time for Z < 10 nuclei in 80`s: halo nuclei consist of a `stable` core (neutron separation energy of about a few MeV) and one or two neutrons with a very low separation energy of about a few hundred keV. Their wave functions can extent from the core at distances larger than the main range of nuclear force. These halo nuclei have been studied by dissociation reactions in which the neutron from the halo is detected in coincidence with the core. It has been shown that the extraction of the halo wave function is strongly influenced by (i) the reaction mechanism itself (ii) final state interactions. In the present work core breakup reactions are used in which the halo neutron is detected in anticoincidence with the core to study the {sup 11} Be and {sup 11} Li halo nuclei. In this channel, the neutron is supposed not to participate to the reaction and then, when detected, to carry out the same properties as in the halo nucleus. The deduced widths of the neutron momentum distributions are different from the one extracted from the core distributions and with the more recent theoretical models. From these studies, it is also stressed that the properties of the core are essential to understand the halo phenomenon. In particular, the correlation between the core vibrations and the halo neutron are able to explain the emergence of the halo in {sup 11} Be. (author). 78 refs.

  15. NASA Tech Briefs, October 2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    Topics covered include: Light-Driven Polymeric Bimorph Actuators; Guaranteeing Failsafe Operation of Extended-Scene Shack-Hartmann Wavefront Sensor Algorithm; Cloud Water Content Sensor for Sounding Balloons and Small UAVs; Pixelized Device Control Actuators for Large Adaptive Optics; T-Slide Linear Actuators; G4FET Implementations of Some Logic Circuits; Electrically Variable or Programmable Nonvolatile Capacitors; System for Automated Calibration of Vector Modulators; Complementary Paired G4FETs as Voltage-Controlled NDR Device; Three MMIC Amplifiers for the 120-to-200 GHz Frequency Band; Low-Noise MMIC Amplifiers for 120 to 180 GHz; Using Ozone To Clean and Passivate Oxygen-Handling Hardware; Metal Standards for Waveguide Characterization of Materials; Two-Piece Screens for Decontaminating Granular Material; Mercuric Iodide Anticoincidence Shield for Gamma-Ray Spectrometer; Improved Method of Design for Folding Inflatable Shells; Ultra-Large Solar Sail; Cooperative Three-Robot System for Traversing Steep Slopes; Assemblies of Conformal Tanks; Microfluidic Pumps Containing Teflon[Trademark] AF Diaphragms; Transparent Conveyor of Dielectric Liquids or Particles; Multi-Cone Model for Estimating GPS Ionospheric Delays; High-Sensitivity GaN Microchemical Sensors; On the Divergence of the Velocity Vector in Real-Gas Flow; Progress Toward a Compact, Highly Stable Ion Clock; Instruments for Imaging from Far to Near; Reflectors Made from Membranes Stretched Between Beams; Integrated Risk and Knowledge Management Program -- IRKM-P; LDPC Codes with Minimum Distance Proportional to Block Size; Constructing LDPC Codes from Loop-Free Encoding Modules; MMICs with Radial Probe Transitions to Waveguides; Tests of Low-Noise MMIC Amplifier Module at 290 to 340 GHz; and Extending Newtonian Dynamics to Include Stochastic Processes.

  16. Quantitative Compton suppression spectrometry at elevated counting rates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Westphal, G.P.; Joestl, K.; Schroeder, P.; Lauster, R.; Hausch, E.

    1999-01-01

    For quantitative Compton suppression spectrometry the decrease of coincidence efficiency with counting rate should be made negligible to avoid a virtual increase of relative peak areas of coincident isomeric transitions with counting rate. To that aim, a separate amplifier and discriminator has been used for each of the eight segments of the active shield of a new well-type Compton suppression spectrometer, together with an optimized, minimum dead-time design of the anticoincidence logic circuitry. Chance coincidence losses in the Compton suppression spectrometer are corrected instrumentally by comparing the chance coincidence rate to the counting rate of the germanium detector in a pulse-counting Busy circuit (G.P. Westphal, J. Rad. Chem. 179 (1994) 55) which is combined with the spectrometer's LFC counting loss correction system. The normally not observable chance coincidence rate is reconstructed from the rates of germanium detector and scintillation detector in an auxiliary coincidence unit, after the destruction of true coincidence by delaying one of the coincidence partners. Quantitative system response has been tested in two-source measurements with a fixed reference source of 60 Co of 14 kc/s, and various samples of 137 Cs, up to aggregate counting rates of 180 kc/s for the well-type detector, and more than 1400 kc/s for the BGO shield. In these measurements, the net peak areas of the 1173.3 keV line of 60 Co remained constant at typical values of 37 000 with and 95 000 without Compton suppression, with maximum deviations from the average of less than 1.5%

  17. Neutron capture resonances in 56Fe and 58Fe in the energy range from 10 to 100 keV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaeppeler, F.; Wisshak, K.; Hong, L.D.

    1982-11-01

    The neutron capture cross section of 56 Fe and 58 Fe has been measured in the energy range from 10 to 250 keV relative to the gold standard. A pulsed 3 MV Van de Graaff accelerator and the 7 Li(p, n) reaction served as a neutron source. Capture gamma rays were detected by two C 6 D 6 detectors, which were operated in coincidence and anticoincidence mode. Two-dimensional data acquisition allowed to apply the pulse height weighting technique off-line. The samples were located at a flight path of 60 cm. The total time resolution was 1.2 ns thus allowing for an energy resolution of 2 ns/m. The experimental set-up was optimized with respect to low background and low neutron sensitivity. The additional flight path of 4 cm from the sample to the detector was sufficient to discriminate capture of sample scattered neutrons by the additional time of flight. In this way reliable results were obtained even for the strong s-wave resonances of both isotopes. The experimental capture yield was analyzed with the FANAC code. The energy resolution allowed to extract resonance parameters in the energy range from 10 to 100 keV. The individual systematic uncertainties of the experimental method are discussed in detail. They were found to range between 5 and 10% while the statistical uncertainty is 3-5% for most of the resonances. A comparison to the results of other authors exhibits in case of 56 Fe systematic differences of 7-11%. For 58 Fe the present results differ up to 50% from the only other measurement for this isotope. (orig.) [de

  18. Results of a neutrino oscillation experiment performed at a meson factory beam-stop

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mitchell, J.W.

    1989-04-01

    This document describes a neutrino oscillation experiment performed at the Los Alamos Meson Physics Facility. The oscillation mode searched for is /bar /nu///sub μ/ → /bar /nu///sub e/. The first chapter is a review of the known properties of the neutrino and a description of the phenomenon of neutrino oscillation. Previous experimental limits on this unobserved phenomenon are also given. The second chapter describes the experimental apparatus used by the E645 experiment to detect neutrinos produced in the LAMPF beam stop. The salient features of the detector are its large mass (20 tons of CH 2 ), its fine segmentation (to allow good particle tracking), good energy resolution, its recording of the history both before and after tracks appear in the detector, an active cosmic-ray anticoincidence shield, and 2000 gm/cm 2 of passive cosmic-ray shielding. It is located 26.8 m from the neutrino source, which has a mean neutrino energy of 40 MeV. The third chapter details the reduction of the 1.3 million event data sample to a 49 event sample of neutrino candidates. Principle backgrounds are Michel electrons from stopping cosmic-ray muons and protons from np elastic scattering by cosmic-ray neutrons. The fourth chapter explains how background levels from neutrino-nuclear scattering are predicted. The result of a maximum-likelihood analysis reveals no evidence for oscillation. 90% confidence levels are set at δm 2 = .10 eV 2 for large mixing and sin 2 (2θ) = .014 for large δm 2 . 82 refs., 18 figs., 55 tabs

  19. Delayed beta- and gamma-ray production due to thermal-neutron fission of /sup 235/U, spectral distributions for times after fission between 2 and 14,000 sec: tabular and graphical data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dickens, J K; Love, T A; McConnell, J W; Emery, J F; Northcutt, K J; Peelle, R W; Weaver, H

    1978-06-12

    Fission-product decay energy-release rates were measured for thermal-neutron fission of /sup 235/U. Samples of mass 1 to 10 ..mu..g were irradiated for 1 to 100 s by using the fast pneumatic-tube facility at the Oak Ridge Research Reactor. The resulting beta- and gamma-ray emissions were counted for times-after-fission between 2 and 14,000 s. The data were obtained for beta and gamma rays separately as spectral distributions, N(E/sub ..gamma../) vs E/sub ..gamma../ and N(E/sub ..beta../) vs E/sub ..beta../. For the gamma-ray data the spectra were obtained with a NaI detector, while for the beta-ray data the spectra were obtained by using an NE-110 detector with an anticoincidence mantle. The raw data were unfolded to provide spectral distributions of moderate resolution. These distributions are given in graphical and tabular form as differential cross-section values of d sigma/dE/fission for gamma-ray energy intervals ranging from 10 keV for E/sub ..gamma../ less than 0.18 MeV to 100 keV for E/sub ..gamma../ greater than 6.8 MeV, and beta-ray energy intervals ranging from 20 keV for E/sub ..beta../ less than 0.25 MeV to 160 keV for E/sub ..beta../ greater than 6.4 MeV. Counting-time intervals range from 1 s for times-after-fission (t/sub w/) less than 6 s to 4000 s for t/sub w/ equals 10/sup 4/ s. The graphical representations also include calculated spectra using summation methods and the ENDF/B-IV fission yield and decay scheme data base. 92 figures, 87 tables.

  20. In-Flight Performance of the Soft X-Ray Spectrometer Detector System on ASTRO-H

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porter, Frederick S.; Boyce, Kevin R.; Chiao, Meng P.; Eckart, Megan E.; Fujimoto, Ryuichi; Ishisaki, Yoshitaka; Kelley, Richard L.; Kilbourne, Carolina A.; Leutenegger, Maurice A.; McCammon, Dan; hide

    2016-01-01

    The SXS instrument was launched aboard the Astro-H observatory on February 17, 2016. The SXS spectrometer is based on a high sensitivity x-ray calorimeter detector system that has been successfully deployed in many ground and sub-orbital spectrometers. The instrument was to provide essential diagnostics for nearly every class of x-ray emitting objects from the atmosphere of Jupiter to the outskirts of galaxy clusters, without degradation for spatially extended objects. The SXS detector system consisted of a 36-pixel cryogenic microcalorimeter array operated at a heat sink temperature of 50 mK. In pre-flight testing, the detector system demonstrated a resolving power of better than 1300 at 6 keV with a simultaneous band-pass from below 0.3 keV to above 12 keV with a timing precision better than 100 microsecond. In addition, a solid-state anti-coincidence detector was placed directly behind the detector array for background suppression. The detector error budget included the measured interference from the SXS cooling system and the spacecraft. Additional margin for on-orbit gain-stability, and on-orbit spacecraft interference were also included predicting an on-orbit performance that meets or exceeds the 7 eV FWHM at 6 keV requirement. The actual on-orbit spectral resolution was better than 5 eV FWHM at 6 keV, easily satisfying the instrument requirement. Here we discuss the actual on-orbit performance of the SXS detector system and compare this to performance in pre-flight testing and the on-orbit predictions. We will also discuss the on-orbit gain stability, additional on-orbit interference, and measurements of the on-orbit background.

  1. Gravitational Waves and Gamma-Rays from a Binary Neutron Star Merger: GW170817 and GRB 170817A

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbott, B. P.; Abbott, R.; Abbott, T. D.; Acernese, F.; Ackley, K.; Adams, C.; Adams, T.; Addesso, P.; Adhikari, R. X.; Adya, V. B.; Affeldt, C.; Afrough, M.; Agarwal, B.; Agathos, M.; Agatsuma, K.; Aggarwal, N.; Aguiar, O. D.; Aiello, L.; Ain, A.; Ajith, P.; Allen, B.; Allen, G.; Allocca, A.; Aloy, M. A.; Altin, P. A.; Amato, A.; Ananyeva, A.; Anderson, S. B.; Anderson, W. G.; Angelova, S. V.; Antier, S.; Appert, S.; Arai, K.; Araya, M. C.; Areeda, J. S.; Arnaud, N.; Arun, K. G.; Ascenzi, S.; Ashton, G.; Ast, M.; Aston, S. M.; Astone, P.; Atallah, D. V.; Aufmuth, P.; Aulbert, C.; AultONeal, K.; Austin, C.; Avila-Alvarez, A.; Babak, S.; Bacon, P.; Bader, M. K. M.; Bae, S.; Baker, P. T.; Baldaccini, F.; Ballardin, G.; Ballmer, S. W.; Banagiri, S.; Barayoga, J. C.; Barclay, S. E.; Barish, B. C.; Barker, D.; Barkett, K.; Barone, F.; Barr, B.; Barsotti, L.; Barsuglia, M.; Barta, D.; Bartlett, J.; Bartos, I.; Bassiri, R.; Basti, A.; Batch, J. C.; Bawaj, M.; Bayley, J. C.; Bazzan, M.; Bécsy, B.; Beer, C.; Bejger, M.; Belahcene, I.; Bell, A. S.; Berger, B. K.; Bergmann, G.; Bero, J. J.; Berry, C. P. L.; Bersanetti, D.; Bertolini, A.; Betzwieser, J.; Bhagwat, S.; Bhandare, R.; Bilenko, I. A.; Billingsley, G.; Billman, C. R.; Birch, J.; Birney, R.; Birnholtz, O.; Biscans, S.; Biscoveanu, S.; Bisht, A.; Bitossi, M.; Biwer, C.; Bizouard, M. A.; Blackburn, J. K.; Blackman, J.; Blair, C. D.; Blair, D. G.; Blair, R. M.; Bloemen, S.; Bock, O.; Bode, N.; Boer, M.; Bogaert, G.; Bohe, A.; Bondu, F.; Bonilla, E.; Bonnand, R.; Boom, B. A.; Bork, R.; Boschi, V.; Bose, S.; Bossie, K.; Bouffanais, Y.; Bozzi, A.; Bradaschia, C.; Brady, P. R.; Branchesi, M.; Brau, J. E.; Briant, T.; Brillet, A.; Brinkmann, M.; Brisson, V.; Brockill, P.; Broida, J. E.; Brooks, A. F.; Brown, D. A.; Brown, D. D.; Brunett, S.; Buchanan, C. C.; Buikema, A.; Bulik, T.; Bulten, H. J.; Buonanno, A.; Buskulic, D.; Buy, C.; Byer, R. L.; Cabero, M.; Cadonati, L.; Cagnoli, G.; Cahillane, C.; Calderón Bustillo, J.; Callister, T. A.; Calloni, E.; Camp, J. B.; Canepa, M.; Canizares, P.; Cannon, K. C.; Cao, H.; Cao, J.; Capano, C. D.; Capocasa, E.; Carbognani, F.; Caride, S.; Carney, M. F.; Casanueva Diaz, J.; Casentini, C.; Caudill, S.; Cavaglià, M.; Cavalier, F.; Cavalieri, R.; Cella, G.; Cepeda, C. B.; Cerdá-Durán, P.; Cerretani, G.; Cesarini, E.; Chamberlin, S. J.; Chan, M.; Chao, S.; Charlton, P.; Chase, E.; Chassande-Mottin, E.; Chatterjee, D.; Chatziioannou, K.; Cheeseboro, B. D.; Chen, H. Y.; Chen, X.; Chen, Y.; Cheng, H.-P.; Chia, H.; Chincarini, A.; Chiummo, A.; Chmiel, T.; Cho, H. S.; Cho, M.; Chow, J. H.; Christensen, N.; Chu, Q.; Chua, A. J. K.; Chua, S.; Chung, A. K. W.; Chung, S.; Ciani, G.; Ciolfi, R.; Cirelli, C. E.; Cirone, A.; Clara, F.; Clark, J. A.; Clearwater, P.; Cleva, F.; Cocchieri, C.; Coccia, E.; Cohadon, P.-F.; Cohen, D.; Colla, A.; Collette, C. G.; Cominsky, L. R.; Constancio, M., Jr.; Conti, L.; Cooper, S. J.; Corban, P.; Corbitt, T. R.; Cordero-Carrión, I.; Corley, K. R.; Cornish, N.; Corsi, A.; Cortese, S.; Costa, C. A.; Coughlin, M. W.; Coughlin, S. B.; Coulon, J.-P.; Countryman, S. T.; Couvares, P.; Covas, P. B.; Cowan, E. E.; Coward, D. M.; Cowart, M. J.; Coyne, D. C.; Coyne, R.; Creighton, J. D. E.; Creighton, T. D.; Cripe, J.; Crowder, S. G.; Cullen, T. J.; Cumming, A.; Cunningham, L.; Cuoco, E.; Dal Canton, T.; Dálya, G.; Danilishin, S. L.; D'Antonio, S.; Danzmann, K.; Dasgupta, A.; Da Silva Costa, C. F.; Dattilo, V.; Dave, I.; Davier, M.; Davis, D.; Daw, E. J.; Day, B.; De, S.; DeBra, D.; Degallaix, J.; De Laurentis, M.; Deléglise, S.; Del Pozzo, W.; Demos, N.; Denker, T.; Dent, T.; De Pietri, R.; Dergachev, V.; De Rosa, R.; DeRosa, R. T.; De Rossi, C.; DeSalvo, R.; de Varona, O.; Devenson, J.; Dhurandhar, S.; Díaz, M. C.; Di Fiore, L.; Di Giovanni, M.; Di Girolamo, T.; Di Lieto, A.; Di Pace, S.; Di Palma, I.; Di Renzo, F.; Doctor, Z.; Dolique, V.; Donovan, F.; Dooley, K. L.; Doravari, S.; Dorrington, I.; Douglas, R.; Dovale Álvarez, M.; Downes, T. P.; Drago, M.; Dreissigacker, C.; Driggers, J. C.; Du, Z.; Ducrot, M.; Dupej, P.; Dwyer, S. E.; Edo, T. B.; Edwards, M. C.; Effler, A.; Eggenstein, H.-B.; Ehrens, P.; Eichholz, J.; Eikenberry, S. S.; Eisenstein, R. A.; Essick, R. C.; Estevez, D.; Etienne, Z. B.; Etzel, T.; Evans, M.; Evans, T. M.; Factourovich, M.; Fafone, V.; Fair, H.; Fairhurst, S.; Fan, X.; Farinon, S.; Farr, B.; Farr, W. M.; Fauchon-Jones, E. J.; Favata, M.; Fays, M.; Fee, C.; Fehrmann, H.; Feicht, J.; Fejer, M. M.; Fernandez-Galiana, A.; Ferrante, I.; Ferreira, E. C.; Ferrini, F.; Fidecaro, F.; Finstad, D.; Fiori, I.; Fiorucci, D.; Fishbach, M.; Fisher, R. P.; Fitz-Axen, M.; Flaminio, R.; Fletcher, M.; Fong, H.; Font, J. A.; Forsyth, P. W. F.; Forsyth, S. S.; Fournier, J.-D.; Frasca, S.; Frasconi, F.; Frei, Z.; Freise, A.; Frey, R.; Frey, V.; Fries, E. M.; Fritschel, P.; Frolov, V. V.; Fulda, P.; Fyffe, M.; Gabbard, H.; Gadre, B. U.; Gaebel, S. M.; Gair, J. R.; Gammaitoni, L.; Ganija, M. R.; Gaonkar, S. G.; Garcia-Quiros, C.; Garufi, F.; Gateley, B.; Gaudio, S.; Gaur, G.; Gayathri, V.; Gehrels, N.; Gemme, G.; Genin, E.; Gennai, A.; George, D.; George, J.; Gergely, L.; Germain, V.; Ghonge, S.; Ghosh, Abhirup; Ghosh, Archisman; Ghosh, S.; Giaime, J. A.; Giardina, K. D.; Giazotto, A.; Gill, K.; Glover, L.; Goetz, E.; Goetz, R.; Gomes, S.; Goncharov, B.; González, G.; Gonzalez Castro, J. M.; Gopakumar, A.; Gorodetsky, M. L.; Gossan, S. E.; Gosselin, M.; Gouaty, R.; Grado, A.; Graef, C.; Granata, M.; Grant, A.; Gras, S.; Gray, C.; Greco, G.; Green, A. C.; Gretarsson, E. M.; Groot, P.; Grote, H.; Grunewald, S.; Gruning, P.; Guidi, G. M.; Guo, X.; Gupta, A.; Gupta, M. K.; Gushwa, K. E.; Gustafson, E. K.; Gustafson, R.; Halim, O.; Hall, B. R.; Hall, E. D.; Hamilton, E. Z.; Hammond, G.; Haney, M.; Hanke, M. M.; Hanks, J.; Hanna, C.; Hannam, M. D.; Hannuksela, O. A.; Hanson, J.; Hardwick, T.; Harms, J.; Harry, G. M.; Harry, I. W.; Hart, M. J.; Haster, C.-J.; Haughian, K.; Healy, J.; Heidmann, A.; Heintze, M. C.; Heitmann, H.; Hello, P.; Hemming, G.; Hendry, M.; Heng, I. S.; Hennig, J.; Heptonstall, A. W.; Heurs, M.; Hild, S.; Hinderer, T.; Hoak, D.; Hofman, D.; Holt, K.; Holz, D. E.; Hopkins, P.; Horst, C.; Hough, J.; Houston, E. A.; Howell, E. J.; Hreibi, A.; Hu, Y. M.; Huerta, E. A.; Huet, D.; Hughey, B.; Husa, S.; Huttner, S. H.; Huynh-Dinh, T.; Indik, N.; Inta, R.; Intini, G.; Isa, H. N.; Isac, J.-M.; Isi, M.; Iyer, B. R.; Izumi, K.; Jacqmin, T.; Jani, K.; Jaranowski, P.; Jawahar, S.; Jiménez-Forteza, F.; Johnson, W. W.; Johnson-McDaniel, N. K.; Jones, D. I.; Jones, R.; Jonker, R. J. G.; Ju, L.; Junker, J.; Kalaghatgi, C. V.; Kalogera, V.; Kamai, B.; Kandhasamy, S.; Kang, G.; Kanner, J. B.; Kapadia, S. J.; Karki, S.; Karvinen, K. S.; Kasprzack, M.; Kastaun, W.; Katolik, M.; Katsavounidis, E.; Katzman, W.; Kaufer, S.; Kawabe, K.; Kéfélian, F.; Keitel, D.; Kemball, A. J.; Kennedy, R.; Kent, C.; Key, J. S.; Khalili, F. Y.; Khan, I.; Khan, S.; Khan, Z.; Khazanov, E. A.; Kijbunchoo, N.; Kim, Chunglee; Kim, J. C.; Kim, K.; Kim, W.; Kim, W. S.; Kim, Y.-M.; Kimbrell, S. J.; King, E. J.; King, P. J.; Kinley-Hanlon, M.; Kirchhoff, R.; Kissel, J. S.; Kleybolte, L.; Klimenko, S.; Knowles, T. D.; Koch, P.; Koehlenbeck, S. M.; Koley, S.; Kondrashov, V.; Kontos, A.; Korobko, M.; Korth, W. Z.; Kowalska, I.; Kozak, D. B.; Krämer, C.; Kringel, V.; Krishnan, B.; Królak, A.; Kuehn, G.; Kumar, P.; Kumar, R.; Kumar, S.; Kuo, L.; Kutynia, A.; Kwang, S.; Lackey, B. D.; Lai, K. H.; Landry, M.; Lang, R. N.; Lange, J.; Lantz, B.; Lanza, R. K.; Lartaux-Vollard, A.; Lasky, P. D.; Laxen, M.; Lazzarini, A.; Lazzaro, C.; Leaci, P.; Leavey, S.; Lee, C. H.; Lee, H. K.; Lee, H. M.; Lee, H. W.; Lee, K.; Lehmann, J.; Lenon, A.; Leonardi, M.; Leroy, N.; Letendre, N.; Levin, Y.; Li, T. G. F.; Linker, S. D.; Littenberg, T. B.; Liu, J.; Lo, R. K. L.; Lockerbie, N. A.; London, L. T.; Lord, J. E.; Lorenzini, M.; Loriette, V.; Lormand, M.; Losurdo, G.; Lough, J. D.; Lousto, C. O.; Lovelace, G.; Lück, H.; Lumaca, D.; Lundgren, A. P.; Lynch, R.; Ma, Y.; Macas, R.; Macfoy, S.; Machenschalk, B.; MacInnis, M.; Macleod, D. M.; Magaña Hernandez, I.; Magaña-Sandoval, F.; Magaña Zertuche, L.; Magee, R. M.; Majorana, E.; Maksimovic, I.; Man, N.; Mandic, V.; Mangano, V.; Mansell, G. L.; Manske, M.; Mantovani, M.; Marchesoni, F.; Marion, F.; Márka, S.; Márka, Z.; Markakis, C.; Markosyan, A. S.; Markowitz, A.; Maros, E.; Marquina, A.; Martelli, F.; Martellini, L.; Martin, I. W.; Martin, R. M.; Martynov, D. V.; Mason, K.; Massera, E.; Masserot, A.; Massinger, T. J.; Masso-Reid, M.; Mastrogiovanni, S.; Matas, A.; Matichard, F.; Matone, L.; Mavalvala, N.; Mazumder, N.; McCarthy, R.; McClelland, D. E.; McCormick, S.; McCuller, L.; McGuire, S. C.; McIntyre, G.; McIver, J.; McManus, D. J.; McNeill, L.; McRae, T.; McWilliams, S. T.; Meacher, D.; Meadors, G. D.; Mehmet, M.; Meidam, J.; Mejuto-Villa, E.; Melatos, A.; Mendell, G.; Mercer, R. A.; Merilh, E. L.; Merzougui, M.; Meshkov, S.; Messenger, C.; Messick, C.; Metzdorff, R.; Meyers, P. M.; Miao, H.; Michel, C.; Middleton, H.; Mikhailov, E. E.; Milano, L.; Miller, A. L.; Miller, B. B.; Miller, J.; Millhouse, M.; Milovich-Goff, M. C.; Minazzoli, O.; Minenkov, Y.; Ming, J.; Mishra, C.; Mitra, S.; Mitrofanov, V. P.; Mitselmakher, G.; Mittleman, R.; Moffa, D.; Moggi, A.; Mogushi, K.; Mohan, M.; Mohapatra, S. R. P.; Montani, M.; Moore, C. J.; Moraru, D.; Moreno, G.; Morriss, S. R.; Mours, B.; Mow-Lowry, C. M.; Mueller, G.; Muir, A. W.; Mukherjee, Arunava; Mukherjee, D.; Mukherjee, S.; Mukund, N.; Mullavey, A.; Munch, J.; Muñiz, E. A.; Muratore, M.; Murray, P. G.; Napier, K.; Nardecchia, I.; Naticchioni, L.; Nayak, R. K.; Neilson, J.; Nelemans, G.; Nelson, T. J. N.; Nery, M.; Neunzert, A.; Nevin, L.; Newport, J. M.; Newton, G.; Ng, K. K. Y.; Nguyen, T. T.; Nichols, D.; Nielsen, A. B.; Nissanke, S.; Nitz, A.; Noack, A.; Nocera, F.; Nolting, D.; North, C.; Nuttall, L. K.; Oberling, J.; O'Dea, G. D.; Ogin, G. H.; Oh, J. J.; Oh, S. H.; Ohme, F.; Okada, M. A.; Oliver, M.; Oppermann, P.; Oram, Richard J.; O'Reilly, B.; Ormiston, R.; Ortega, L. F.; O'Shaughnessy, R.; Ossokine, S.; Ottaway, D. J.; Overmier, H.; Owen, B. J.; Pace, A. E.; Page, J.; Page, M. A.; Pai, A.; Pai, S. A.; Palamos, J. R.; Palashov, O.; Palomba, C.; Pal-Singh, A.; Pan, Howard; Pan, Huang-Wei; Pang, B.; Pang, P. T. H.; Pankow, C.; Pannarale, F.; Pant, B. C.; Paoletti, F.; Paoli, A.; Papa, M. A.; Parida, A.; Parker, W.; Pascucci, D.; Pasqualetti, A.; Passaquieti, R.; Passuello, D.; Patil, M.; Patricelli, B.; Pearlstone, B. L.; Pedraza, M.; Pedurand, R.; Pekowsky, L.; Pele, A.; Penn, S.; Perez, C. J.; Perreca, A.; Perri, L. M.; Pfeiffer, H. P.; Phelps, M.; Piccinni, O. J.; Pichot, M.; Piergiovanni, F.; Pierro, V.; Pillant, G.; Pinard, L.; Pinto, I. M.; Pirello, M.; Pitkin, M.; Poe, M.; Poggiani, R.; Popolizio, P.; Porter, E. K.; Post, A.; Powell, J.; Prasad, J.; Pratt, J. W. W.; Pratten, G.; Predoi, V.; Prestegard, T.; Prijatelj, M.; Principe, M.; Privitera, S.; Prodi, G. A.; Prokhorov, L. G.; Puncken, O.; Punturo, M.; Puppo, P.; Pürrer, M.; Qi, H.; Quetschke, V.; Quintero, E. A.; Quitzow-James, R.; Raab, F. J.; Rabeling, D. S.; Radkins, H.; Raffai, P.; Raja, S.; Rajan, C.; Rajbhandari, B.; Rakhmanov, M.; Ramirez, K. E.; Ramos-Buades, A.; Rapagnani, P.; Raymond, V.; Razzano, M.; Read, J.; Regimbau, T.; Rei, L.; Reid, S.; Reitze, D. H.; Ren, W.; Reyes, S. D.; Ricci, F.; Ricker, P. M.; Rieger, S.; Riles, K.; Rizzo, M.; Robertson, N. A.; Robie, R.; Robinet, F.; Rocchi, A.; Rolland, L.; Rollins, J. G.; Roma, V. J.; Romano, R.; Romel, C. L.; Romie, J. H.; Rosińska, D.; Ross, M. P.; Rowan, S.; Rüdiger, A.; Ruggi, P.; Rutins, G.; Ryan, K.; Sachdev, S.; Sadecki, T.; Sadeghian, L.; Sakellariadou, M.; Salconi, L.; Saleem, M.; Salemi, F.; Samajdar, A.; Sammut, L.; Sampson, L. M.; Sanchez, E. J.; Sanchez, L. E.; Sanchis-Gual, N.; Sandberg, V.; Sanders, J. R.; Sassolas, B.; Sathyaprakash, B. S.; Saulson, P. R.; Sauter, O.; Savage, R. L.; Sawadsky, A.; Schale, P.; Scheel, M.; Scheuer, J.; Schmidt, J.; Schmidt, P.; Schnabel, R.; Schofield, R. M. S.; Schönbeck, A.; Schreiber, E.; Schuette, D.; Schulte, B. W.; Schutz, B. F.; Schwalbe, S. G.; Scott, J.; Scott, S. M.; Seidel, E.; Sellers, D.; Sengupta, A. S.; Sentenac, D.; Sequino, V.; Sergeev, A.; Shaddock, D. A.; Shaffer, T. J.; Shah, A. A.; Shahriar, M. S.; Shaner, M. B.; Shao, L.; Shapiro, B.; Shawhan, P.; Sheperd, A.; Shoemaker, D. H.; Shoemaker, D. M.; Siellez, K.; Siemens, X.; Sieniawska, M.; Sigg, D.; Silva, A. D.; Singer, L. P.; Singh, A.; Singhal, A.; Sintes, A. M.; Slagmolen, B. J. J.; Smith, B.; Smith, J. R.; Smith, R. J. E.; Somala, S.; Son, E. J.; Sonnenberg, J. A.; Sorazu, B.; Sorrentino, F.; Souradeep, T.; Spencer, A. P.; Srivastava, A. K.; Staats, K.; Staley, A.; Steinke, M.; Steinlechner, J.; Steinlechner, S.; Steinmeyer, D.; Stevenson, S. P.; Stone, R.; Stops, D. J.; Strain, K. A.; Stratta, G.; Strigin, S. E.; Strunk, A.; Sturani, R.; Stuver, A. L.; Summerscales, T. Z.; Sun, L.; Sunil, S.; Suresh, J.; Sutton, P. J.; Swinkels, B. L.; Szczepańczyk, M. J.; Tacca, M.; Tait, S. C.; Talbot, C.; Talukder, D.; Tanner, D. B.; Tápai, M.; Taracchini, A.; Tasson, J. D.; Taylor, J. A.; Taylor, R.; Tewari, S. V.; Theeg, T.; Thies, F.; Thomas, E. G.; Thomas, M.; Thomas, P.; Thorne, K. A.; Thorne, K. S.; Thrane, E.; Tiwari, S.; Tiwari, V.; Tokmakov, K. V.; Toland, K.; Tonelli, M.; Tornasi, Z.; Torres-Forné, A.; Torrie, C. I.; Töyrä, D.; Travasso, F.; Traylor, G.; Trinastic, J.; Tringali, M. C.; Trozzo, L.; Tsang, K. W.; Tse, M.; Tso, R.; Tsukada, L.; Tsuna, D.; Tuyenbayev, D.; Ueno, K.; Ugolini, D.; Unnikrishnan, C. S.; Urban, A. L.; Usman, S. A.; Vahlbruch, H.; Vajente, G.; Valdes, G.; van Bakel, N.; van Beuzekom, M.; van den Brand, J. F. J.; Van Den Broeck, C.; Vander-Hyde, D. C.; van der Schaaf, L.; van Heijningen, J. V.; van Veggel, A. A.; Vardaro, M.; Varma, V.; Vass, S.; Vasúth, M.; Vecchio, A.; Vedovato, G.; Veitch, J.; Veitch, P. J.; Venkateswara, K.; Venugopalan, G.; Verkindt, D.; Vetrano, F.; Viceré, A.; Viets, A. D.; Vinciguerra, S.; Vine, D. J.; Vinet, J.-Y.; Vitale, S.; Vo, T.; Vocca, H.; Vorvick, C.; Vyatchanin, S. P.; Wade, A. R.; Wade, L. E.; Wade, M.; Walet, R.; Walker, M.; Wallace, L.; Walsh, S.; Wang, G.; Wang, H.; Wang, J. Z.; Wang, W. H.; Wang, Y. F.; Ward, R. L.; Warner, J.; Was, M.; Watchi, J.; Weaver, B.; Wei, L.-W.; Weinert, M.; Weinstein, A. J.; Weiss, R.; Wen, L.; Wessel, E. K.; Weßels, P.; Westerweck, J.; Westphal, T.; Wette, K.; Whelan, J. T.; Whitcomb, S. E.; Whiting, B. F.; Whittle, C.; Wilken, D.; Williams, D.; Williams, R. D.; Williamson, A. R.; Willis, J. L.; Willke, B.; Wimmer, M. H.; Winkler, W.; Wipf, C. C.; Wittel, H.; Woan, G.; Woehler, J.; Wofford, J.; Wong, K. W. K.; Worden, J.; Wright, J. L.; Wu, D. S.; Wysocki, D. M.; Xiao, S.; Yamamoto, H.; Yancey, C. C.; Yang, L.; Yap, M. J.; Yazback, M.; Yu, Hang; Yu, Haocun; Yvert, M.; Zadrożny, A.; Zanolin, M.; Zelenova, T.; Zendri, J.-P.; Zevin, M.; Zhang, L.; Zhang, M.; Zhang, T.; Zhang, Y.-H.; Zhao, C.; Zhou, M.; Zhou, Z.; Zhu, S. J.; Zhu, X. J.; Zimmerman, A. B.; Zucker, M. E.; Zweizig, J.; (LIGO Scientific Collaboration; Virgo Collaboration; Burns, E.; Veres, P.; Kocevski, D.; Racusin, J.; Goldstein, A.; Connaughton, V.; Briggs, M. S.; Blackburn, L.; Hamburg, R.; Hui, C. M.; von Kienlin, A.; McEnery, J.; Preece, R. D.; Wilson-Hodge, C. A.; Bissaldi, E.; Cleveland, W. H.; Gibby, M. H.; Giles, M. M.; Kippen, R. M.; McBreen, S.; Meegan, C. A.; Paciesas, W. S.; Poolakkil, S.; Roberts, O. J.; Stanbro, M.; Gamma-ray Burst Monitor, (Fermi; Savchenko, V.; Ferrigno, C.; Kuulkers, E.; Bazzano, A.; Bozzo, E.; Brandt, S.; Chenevez, J.; Courvoisier, T. J.-L.; Diehl, R.; Domingo, A.; Hanlon, L.; Jourdain, E.; Laurent, P.; Lebrun, F.; Lutovinov, A.; Mereghetti, S.; Natalucci, L.; Rodi, J.; Roques, J.-P.; Sunyaev, R.; Ubertini, P.; (INTEGRAL

    2017-10-01

    On 2017 August 17, the gravitational-wave event GW170817 was observed by the Advanced LIGO and Virgo detectors, and the gamma-ray burst (GRB) GRB 170817A was observed independently by the Fermi Gamma-ray Burst Monitor, and the Anti-Coincidence Shield for the Spectrometer for the International Gamma-Ray Astrophysics Laboratory. The probability of the near-simultaneous temporal and spatial observation of GRB 170817A and GW170817 occurring by chance is 5.0× {10}-8. We therefore confirm binary neutron star mergers as a progenitor of short GRBs. The association of GW170817 and GRB 170817A provides new insight into fundamental physics and the origin of short GRBs. We use the observed time delay of (+1.74+/- 0.05) {{s}} between GRB 170817A and GW170817 to: (I) constrain the difference between the speed of gravity and the speed of light to be between -3× {10}-15 and +7× {10}-16 times the speed of light, (II) place new bounds on the violation of Lorentz invariance, (III) present a new test of the equivalence principle by constraining the Shapiro delay between gravitational and electromagnetic radiation. We also use the time delay to constrain the size and bulk Lorentz factor of the region emitting the gamma-rays. GRB 170817A is the closest short GRB with a known distance, but is between 2 and 6 orders of magnitude less energetic than other bursts with measured redshift. A new generation of gamma-ray detectors, and subthreshold searches in existing detectors, will be essential to detect similar short bursts at greater distances. Finally, we predict a joint detection rate for the Fermi Gamma-ray Burst Monitor and the Advanced LIGO and Virgo detectors of 0.1-1.4 per year during the 2018-2019 observing run and 0.3-1.7 per year at design sensitivity.

  2. Large-Area Balloon-Borne Polarized Gamma Ray Observer (PoGO)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blanford, R.

    2005-04-06

    We are developing a new balloon-borne instrument (PoGO), to measure polarization of soft gamma rays (25-200 keV) using asymmetry in azimuth angle distribution of Compton scattering. PoGO will detect 10% polarization in 100mCrab sources in a 6-8 hour observation and bring a new dimension to studies on gamma ray emission/transportation mechanism in pulsars, AGNs, black hole binaries, and neutron star surface. The concept is an adaptation to polarization measurements of well-type phoswich counter technology used in balloon-borne experiments (Welcome-1) and AstroE2 Hard X-ray Detector. PoGO consists of close-packed array of 397 hexagonal well-type phoswich counters. Each unit is composed of a long thin tube (well) of slow plastic scintillator, a solid rod of fast plastic scintillator, and a short BGO at the base. A photomultiplier coupled to the end of the BGO detects light from all 3 scintillators. The rods with decay times < 10 ns, are used as the active elements; while the wells and BGOs, with decay times {approx}250 ns are used as active anti-coincidence. The fast and slow signals are separated out electronically. When gamma rays entering the field-of-view (fwhm {approx} 3deg{sup 2}) strike a fast scintillator, some are Compton scattered. A fraction of the scattered photons are absorbed in another rod (or undergo a second scatter). A valid event requires one clean fast signal of pulse-height compatible with photo-absorption (> 20keV) and one or more compatible with Compton scattering (< 10keV). Studies based on EGS4 (with polarization features) and Geant4 predict excellent background rejection and high sensitivity.

  3. Pulse shapes and surface effects in segmented germanium detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lenz, Daniel

    2010-03-24

    It is well established that at least two neutrinos are massive. The absolute neutrino mass scale and the neutrino hierarchy are still unknown. In addition, it is not known whether the neutrino is a Dirac or a Majorana particle. The GERmanium Detector Array (GERDA) will be used to search for neutrinoless double beta decay of {sup 76}Ge. The discovery of this decay could help to answer the open questions. In the GERDA experiment, germanium detectors enriched in the isotope {sup 76}Ge are used as source and detector at the same time. The experiment is planned in two phases. In the first, phase existing detectors are deployed. In the second phase, additional detectors will be added. These detectors can be segmented. A low background index around the Q value of the decay is important to maximize the sensitivity of the experiment. This can be achieved through anti-coincidences between segments and through pulse shape analysis. The background index due to radioactive decays in the detector strings and the detectors themselves was estimated, using Monte Carlo simulations for a nominal GERDA Phase II array with 18-fold segmented germanium detectors. A pulse shape simulation package was developed for segmented high-purity germanium detectors. The pulse shape simulation was validated with data taken with an 19-fold segmented high-purity germanium detector. The main part of the detector is 18-fold segmented, 6-fold in the azimuthal angle and 3-fold in the height. A 19th segment of 5mm thickness was created on the top surface of the detector. The detector was characterized and events with energy deposited in the top segment were studied in detail. It was found that the metalization close to the end of the detector is very important with respect to the length of the of the pulses observed. In addition indications for n-type and p-type surface channels were found. (orig.)

  4. Study of the cross-section of the reaction D + D → 4He + γ with incident energies below 6 MeV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Degre, A.

    1969-01-01

    The measurement of the cross-section of the reaction D(d,γ) 4 He has been made for getting some information concerning the nuclear structure of 4 He and the existence of the d+d final state in the photo-decay of 4 He. The E1 transition is forbidden because of the selection rules of the isobaric spin which makes this reaction a useful tool for looking for a 2 + , T=0 state. In the reaction D(d,γ) 4 He, the photon is produced in an electrical quadrupolar transition which makes us expect a very low value for the cross-section, certainly in the magnitude order of 0.01 micro-barn (10 -32 cm 2 ) and a very important background noise (chiefly from cosmic origin). The measurement of this cross-section requires a dedicated efficient equipment. The incident deuteron beam is produced by a 5.5 MeV Van de Graaff accelerator, the beam intensity is about 1 μA and we use a gaseous deuterium target. The gamma detector is based on NaI(Tl) crystal combined with an XP-1031 photomultiplier. The NaI(Tl) crystal is surrounded by a scintillating plastic allowing the detection of anti-coincidence events and as a consequence the reduction of the cosmic background. We have measured the value of the differential cross-section at different angles: 0, 45, 90 and 135 degrees (Center of mass frame) for an incident energy of 3.64 MeV. We have added our results to others previously published in the literature, we see that they are complementary and as a whole show the non-existence of fine structure in the excitation curve

  5. Design and construction of 5 kV HV and TAC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dang Lanh; Tran Tuan Anh; Vu Xuan Cach; Truong Van Dat; Nguyen An Son

    2007-01-01

    Energy spectroscopy system and Time spectroscopy one are the typical systems that used generally in nuclear physics. The measurement of time intervals plays an important role in basic nuclear physics research as well as in applications that involve the timing of events. Decay scheme and lifetime studies, coincidence experiments, single-photon counting, and positron annihilation studies are some of the experimental areas that require good timing capabilities. Most timing experiments involve either a precision measurement of the elapsed time between two events or the isolation of true coincidence events from a background of noncoincident data. The basic unit of most elapsed time measurement system is a time-to-amplitude converter (TAC). The instrument convert the time interval between a start pulse and a stop pulse into an output pulse with an amplitude precisely proportional to the time interval. Besides, an energy spectroscopy system can be either one detector or two detectors. The basic unit of the system furnishes an output high voltage for detector is the bias voltage unit (BV). Advancement in functional electronics design is a continuing study at NRI, Dalat. Obviously, the design and construction of the two aforementioned instruments is needed in the sub-project. Specifications of HV unit: Output high voltage range: 0-5 kV, Polarity: positive or negative, Output current: 1 mA, Linearity at output: ±1.2% for full range, Voltage stability < ±0.2%/h variation in output voltage with constant temperature and load and constant input voltages, Noise < 20 mV peak-peak from 50 Hz to 50 MHz. Basic characteristics of TAC unit: Single start-stop operation, time range is from 100 ns to 2 μs, DC-coupled to prevent counrate distortion, Coincidence or anti-coincidence gating, Biased amplifier to expand a region of interest, Output with variable delay and positive polarity for MCA compatibility. (author)

  6. Results from the AMS01 1998 Shuttle Flight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steuer, Manfred

    2003-04-01

    The Alpha Magnetic Spectrometer (AMS) was flown in June 1998 on the space shuttle Discovery during flight STS-91 in a 51.77° orbit at altitudes between 320 and 390 km. The major detector elements were a permanent magnet with an analyzing power B * L2 of 0.14 Tm2, a six layer, double sided silicon tracker, time of flight hodoscopes, an aerogel threshold Cerenkov counter and anti-coincidence counters. A total of 2.86 × 106 helium nuclei were observed in the rigidity range 1 to 140 GeV. No antihelium nuclei were detected at any rigidity. The upper limit on the flux ratio of antihelium to helium was determined as 1.1 × 10-6. Below the geomagnetic cutoff a second helium spectrum is observed and more than 90% of the helium was identified as 3He. The primary proton spectrum in the kinetic energy range 0.2 to 200 GeV was measured at an altitude of 380 km and is parameterized by a power law above 10 GeV. Below the geomagnetic cutoff a substantial secondary spectrum was observed. It is concentrated at equatorial latitudes with a flux of around 70 per (m2 × s × sr). The lepton spectra in the kinetic energy ranges 0.2 to 40 GeV for electrons and 0.2 to 3 GeV for positrons were measured at altitudes near 380 km. Two distinct spectra were observed, a higher energy spectrum and a substantial secondary spectrum with positrons much more abundant than electrons. Tracing leptons from the second spectra shows that most of these travel for an extended period of time in the geomagnetic field and that the positrons and electrons originate from two complementary geographic regions. The 10 day test flight of the AMS detector has shown its viability for an extended period of several years of data taking at the International Space Station (ISS). Currently the detector is undergoing several upgrades, the most prominent one being the replacement of the permanent by a superconducting magnet, thus greatly extending the sensitive region of the experiment. The addition of transition radiation

  7. Studies of seaweeds as indicators of toxic element pollution in Ghana using neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Serfor-Armah, Y.

    2006-11-01

    The concentrations of 25 elements namely: AI, As, Br, Ca, Cd, CI, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Hf, Hg, I, K, La, Mg, Mn, Na, Ni, Sb, Sc, Sm, Sr, V and Zn in seven Rhodophyta (red), three Phaeophyta (brown) and five Chlorophyta (green) seaweed species from different areas along the coast of Ghana were determined by instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) and preconcentration NAA (PNAA). These species potentially could be used as biomonitors and bioremoval agents. The irradiations using thermal and epithermal neutrons were done using the Ghana Research Reactor-I (GHARR-I) facility at Ghana Atomic Energy Commission, Kwabenya and the Dalhousie University SLOWPOKE-2 Reactor (DUSR) facilities. Counting was done using both the conventional and anti-coincidence γ ray spectrometry. The PNAA method was developed for the simultaneous extraction of Cd, Cr, Hg, and Zn, as well as Sb and V individually from the seaweed samples. The PNAA method involved the use of a mixture of PAN and TAN chelating agents and PONPE-20 surfactant in cloud point extraction (CPE). The parameters affecting the CPE have been optimized. The recoveries under the optimum conditions of pH 3.7 for V, 6.4 for Sb, 8.6 for Cd, Cr, Hg, and Zn, [PAN/TAN] of 1x10 - 4M, [PONPE-20] of 0.1% (m/v), ionic strength 0.05 M KN 0 3, and a temperature of 41 0 C were generally >96%. The mean detection limits for Cd, Cr, Hg, Sb, V and Zn were 6.0, 3.6, 1.2, 2.8, 1.51 and 2.6 ng/g respectively. The CPE method developed was also used successfully to speciate As(III) and As(V) from the Sargassum vulgare, the seaweed. The maximum extraction of As(III) occurred at a pH of 6.7 and that of As(V) at pH of 3.8. The results indicated that As(III) and As(V) formed only 6.27% of the total arsenic concentration, while the other species of arsenic constitute 93.73%. The precision and accuracy of the INAA and PNAA methods developed were evaluated. Schewart control charts were constructed for internal quality assessment purposes. The results

  8. internal radiation dose assessment due to ionizing radio contaminants in some local foodstuffs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    AbdElKader, F.M.

    1996-01-01

    Over the last 30 years, radioactivity has been monitored in foodstuffs in Egypt. The present work deals with the radioactivity monitored during two years (1990 - 1992) at eight major Egyptian governorates. Sampled food items were selected to cover most foodstuffs eaten by egyptian population according to their habits. The daily food consumption by egyptian population and the constituents of such consumption were estimated according to published international data and knowledge of the different feeding habits of the egyptians. About 1200 samples were collected from the markets of the main city of each governorate and prepared for counting according to the egyptian kitchen habits. The counting systems used in determination and indentification of radionuclides were : a 3 inch HPGe detector attached to 800 channel MCA and PC and a 3 inch phoswich detector attached to an anticoincidence circuit for low beta / gamma counting. The gamma spectroscopy system was calibrated using isotopic solution mixture while the low beta counting system was calibrated using H CI. Counting time for the first system was 20 - 72 hours and for the second system was half to one hour. The main radionuclides identified in foodstuffs were Cs - 137 and K - 40 . The radioactivity concentration of Cs - 137 was found to be in the range between 1.0 Bq / Kg for macaroni and 3.5 Bq / Kg for nile beans. The K - 40 concentration range between 19 Bq / Kg for macaroni to 363 Bq / Kg for nile beans. The population weighted values in case of Cs - 137 was found as 3.56 Bq /d and for K - 40 was 188 Bq /d. The resulted effective dose due to food intake was found be 16 . 4 U Sv /a for Cs-137 and 354 μSv / a for K -40 . This value for Cs - 137 is found in the exemption limit while that of K -40 is twice the published value. This may depend on the egyptian feeding habit which depends mainly on wheat (bread) and nile beans which are very rich in potassium.The resulted collective dose was found to be : 21323 person

  9. Liquid argon as active shielding and coolant for bare germanium detectors. A novel background suppression method for the GERDA 0{nu}{beta}{beta} experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peiffer, J.P.

    2007-07-25

    Two of the most important open questions in particle physics are whether neutrinos are their own anti-particles (Majorana particles) as required by most extensions of the StandardModel and the absolute values of the neutrino masses. The neutrinoless double beta (0{nu}{beta}{beta}) decay, which can be investigated using {sup 76}Ge (a double beta isotope), is the most sensitive probe for these properties. There is a claim for an evidence for the 0{nu}{beta}{beta} decay in the Heidelberg-Moscow (HdM) {sup 76}Ge experiment by a part of the HdM collaboration. The new {sup 76}Ge experiment Gerda aims to check this claim within one year with 15 kg.y of statistics in Phase I at a background level of {<=}10{sup -2} events/(kg.keV.y) and to go to higher sensitivity with 100 kg.y of statistics in Phase II at a background level of {<=}10{sup -3} events/(kg.keV.y). In Gerda bare germanium semiconductor detectors (enriched in {sup 76}Ge) will be operated in liquid argon (LAr). LAr serves as cryogenic coolant and as high purity shielding against external background. To reach the background level for Phase II, new methods are required to suppress the cosmogenic background of the diodes. The background from cosmogenically produced {sup 60}Co is expected to be {proportional_to}2.5.10{sup -3} events/(kg.keV.y). LAr scintillates in UV ({lambda}=128 nm) and a novel concept is to use this scintillation light as anti-coincidence signal for background suppression. In this work the efficiency of such a LAr scintillation veto was investigated for the first time. In a setup with 19 kg active LAr mass a suppression of a factor 3 has been achieved for {sup 60}Co and a factor 17 for {sup 232}Th around Q{sub {beta}}{sub {beta}} = 2039 keV. This suppression will further increase for a one ton active volume (factor O(100) for {sup 232}Th and {sup 60}Co). LAr scintillation can also be used as a powerful tool for background diagnostics. For this purpose a new, very stable and robust wavelength

  10. Beam-on imaging of short-lived positron emitters during proton therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buitenhuis, H. J. T.; Diblen, F.; Brzezinski, K. W.; Brandenburg, S.; Dendooven, P.

    2017-06-01

    In vivo dose delivery verification in proton therapy can be performed by positron emission tomography (PET) of the positron-emitting nuclei produced by the proton beam in the patient. A PET scanner installed in the treatment position of a proton therapy facility that takes data with the beam on will see very short-lived nuclides as well as longer-lived nuclides. The most important short-lived nuclide for proton therapy is 12N (Dendooven et al 2015 Phys. Med. Biol. 60 8923-47), which has a half-life of 11 ms. The results of a proof-of-principle experiment of beam-on PET imaging of short-lived 12N nuclei are presented. The Philips Digital Photon Counting Module TEK PET system was used, which is based on LYSO scintillators mounted on digital SiPM photosensors. A 90 MeV proton beam from the cyclotron at KVI-CART was used to investigate the energy and time spectra of PET coincidences during beam-on. Events coinciding with proton bunches, such as prompt gamma rays, were removed from the data via an anti-coincidence filter with the cyclotron RF. The resulting energy spectrum allowed good identification of the 511 keV PET counts during beam-on. A method was developed to subtract the long-lived background from the 12N image by introducing a beam-off period into the cyclotron beam time structure. We measured 2D images and 1D profiles of the 12N distribution. A range shift of 5 mm was measured as 6  ±  3 mm using the 12N profile. A larger, more efficient, PET system with a higher data throughput capability will allow beam-on 12N PET imaging of single spots in the distal layer of an irradiation with an increased signal-to-background ratio and thus better accuracy. A simulation shows that a large dual panel scanner, which images a single spot directly after it is delivered, can measure a 5 mm range shift with millimeter accuracy: 5.5  ±  1.1 mm for 1  ×  108 protons and 5.2  ±  0.5 mm for 5  ×  108 protons. This makes

  11. A Study of Nuclear Recoil Backgrounds in Dark Matter Detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Westerdale, Shawn S. [Princeton Univ., NJ (United States)

    2016-01-01

    Despite the great success of the Standard Model of particle physics, a preponderance of astrophysical evidence suggests that it cannot explain most of the matter in the universe. This so-called dark matter has eluded direct detection, though many theoretical extensions to the Standard Model predict the existence of particles with a mass on the $1-1000$ GeV scale that interact only via the weak nuclear force. Particles in this class are referred to as Weakly Interacting Massive Particles (WIMPs), and their high masses and low scattering cross sections make them viable dark matter candidates. The rarity of WIMP-nucleus interactions makes them challenging to detect: any background can mask the signal they produce. Background rejection is therefore a major problem in dark matter detection. Many experiments greatly reduce their backgrounds by employing techniques to reject electron recoils. However, nuclear recoil backgrounds, which produce signals similar to what we expect from WIMPs, remain problematic. There are two primary sources of such backgrounds: surface backgrounds and neutron recoils. Surface backgrounds result from radioactivity on the inner surfaces of the detector sending recoiling nuclei into the detector. These backgrounds can be removed with fiducial cuts, at some cost to the experiment's exposure. In this dissertation we briefly discuss a novel technique for rejecting these events based on signals they make in the wavelength shifter coating on the inner surfaces of some detectors. Neutron recoils result from neutrons scattering from nuclei in the detector. These backgrounds may produce a signal identical to what we expect from WIMPs and are extensively discussed here. We additionally present a new tool for calculating ($\\alpha$, n)yields in various materials. We introduce the concept of a neutron veto system designed to shield against, measure, and provide an anti-coincidence veto signal for background neutrons. We discuss the research and

  12. The Large Area Telescope on the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope Mission

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Atwood, W.B.; /UC, Santa Cruz; Abdo, Aous A.; /Naval Research Lab, Wash., D.C.; Ackermann, M.; /Stanford U., HEPL /KIPAC, Menlo Park /Stanford U., Phys. Dept.; Anderson, B. /UC, Santa Cruz; Axelsson, M.; /Stockholm U.; Baldini, L.; /INFN, Pisa; Ballet, J.; /DAPNIA, Saclay; Band, D.L.; /NASA, Goddard /NASA, Goddard; Barbiellini, Guido; /INFN, Trieste /Trieste U.; Bartelt, J.; /Stanford U., HEPL /KIPAC, Menlo Park /Stanford U., Phys. Dept.; Bastieri, Denis; /INFN, Padua /Padua U.; Baughman, B.M.; /Ohio State U.; Bechtol, K.; /Stanford U., HEPL /KIPAC, Menlo Park /Stanford U., Phys. Dept.; Bederede, D.; /DAPNIA, Saclay; Bellardi, F.; /INFN, Pisa; Bellazzini, R.; /INFN, Pisa; Berenji, B.; /Stanford U., HEPL /KIPAC, Menlo Park /Stanford U., Phys. Dept.; Bignami, G.F.; /Pavia U.; Bisello, D.; /INFN, Padua /Padua U.; Bissaldi, E.; /Garching, Max Planck Inst., MPE; Blandford, R.D.; /Stanford U., HEPL /KIPAC, Menlo Park /Stanford U., Phys. Dept. /Stanford U., HEPL /KIPAC, Menlo Park /Stanford U., Phys. Dept. /Stanford U., HEPL /KIPAC, Menlo Park /Stanford U., Phys. Dept. /INFN, Perugia /Perugia U. /NASA, Goddard /Stanford U., HEPL /KIPAC, Menlo Park /Stanford U., Phys. Dept. /Stanford U., HEPL /KIPAC, Menlo Park /Stanford U., Phys. Dept. /INFN, Pisa /INFN, Pisa /Bari U. /INFN, Bari /Ecole Polytechnique /Washington U., Seattle /INFN, Padua /Padua U. /Bari U. /INFN, Bari /Stanford U., HEPL /KIPAC, Menlo Park /Stanford U., Phys. Dept. /IASF, Milan /IASF, Milan /Kalmar U. /Royal Inst. Tech., Stockholm /DAPNIA, Saclay /ASI, Rome /INFN, Pisa /INFN, Perugia /Perugia U. /Stanford U., HEPL /KIPAC, Menlo Park /Stanford U., Phys. Dept. /George Mason U. /Naval Research Lab, Wash., D.C. /NASA, Goddard /Stanford U., HEPL /KIPAC, Menlo Park /Stanford U., Phys. Dept. /DAPNIA, Saclay /NASA, Goddard /INFN, Perugia /Perugia U. /Stanford U., HEPL /KIPAC, Menlo Park /Stanford U., Phys. Dept. /Montpellier U. /Stanford U., HEPL /KIPAC, Menlo Park /Stanford U., Phys. Dept.; /more authors..

    2009-05-15

    The Large Area Telescope (Fermi/LAT, hereafter LAT), the primary instrument on the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope (Fermi) mission, is an imaging, wide field-of-view (FoV), high-energy {gamma}-ray telescope, covering the energy range from below 20 MeV to more than 300 GeV. The LAT was built by an international collaboration with contributions from space agencies, high-energy particle physics institutes, and universities in France, Italy, Japan, Sweden, and the United States. This paper describes the LAT, its preflight expected performance, and summarizes the key science objectives that will be addressed. On-orbit performance will be presented in detail in a subsequent paper. The LAT is a pair-conversion telescope with a precision tracker and calorimeter, each consisting of a 4 x 4 array of 16 modules, a segmented anticoincidence detector that covers the tracker array, and a programmable trigger and data acquisition system. Each tracker module has a vertical stack of 18 (x, y) tracking planes, including two layers (x and y) of single-sided silicon strip detectors and high-Z converter material (tungsten) per tray. Every calorimeter module has 96 CsI(Tl) crystals, arranged in an eight-layer hodoscopic configuration with a total depth of 8.6 radiation lengths, giving both longitudinal and transverse information about the energy deposition pattern. The calorimeter's depth and segmentation enable the high-energy reach of the LAT and contribute significantly to background rejection. The aspect ratio of the tracker (height/width) is 0.4, allowing a large FoV (2.4 sr) and ensuring that most pair-conversion showers initiated in the tracker will pass into the calorimeter for energy measurement. Data obtained with the LAT are intended to (1) permit rapid notification of high-energy {gamma}-ray bursts and transients and facilitate monitoring of variable sources, (2) yield an extensive catalog of several thousand high-energy sources obtained from an all-sky survey, (3

  13. Compton suppression naa in the analysis of food and beverages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmed, Y.A.; Ewa, I.O.B.; Umar, I.M.; Funtua, I.I.; Lanberger, S.; O'kelly, D.J.; Braisted, J.D.

    2009-01-01

    Applicability and performance of Compton suppression method in the analysis of food and beverages was re-established in this study. Using ''1''3''7Cs and ''6''0Co point sources Compton Suppression Factors (SF), Compton Reduction Factors (RF), Peak-to-Compton ratio (P/C), Compton Plateau (C p l), and Compton Edge (C e ) were determined for each of the two sources. The natural background reduction factors in the anticoincidence mode compared to the normal mode were evaluated. The reported R.F. values of the various Compton spectrometers for ''6''0Co source at energy 50-210 keV (backscattering region), 600 keV (Compton edge corresponding to 1173.2 keV gamma-ray) and 1110 keV (Compton edge corresponding to 1332.5 keV gamma-ray) were compared with that of the present work. Similarly the S.F. values of the spectrometers for ''1''3''7Cs source were compared at the backscattered energy region (S.F. b = 191-210 keV), Compton Plateau (S.F. p l = 350-370 keV), and Compton Edge (S.F. e = 471-470 keV) and all were found to follow a similar trend. We also compared peak reduction ratios for the two cobalt energies (1173.2 and 1332.5) with the ones reported in literature and two results agree well. Applicability of the method to food and beverages was put to test for twenty one major, minor, and trace elements (Ba, Sr, I, Br, Cu, V, Mg, Na, Cl, Mn, Ca, Sn,K, Cd, Zn, As, Sb, Ni, Cs, Fe, and Co) commonly found in food, milk, tea and tobacco. The elements were assayed using five National Institute for Standards and Technology (NIST) certified reference materials (Non-fat powdered milk, Apple leaves, Tomato leaves, and Citrus leaves). The results obtained shows good agreement with NIST certified values, indicating that the method is suitable for simultaneous determination of micro-nutrients, macro-nutrients and heavy elements in food and beverages without undue interference problems

  14. Development of a phoswich detector for neutron dose rate measurements in the Earth's atmosphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doensdorf, Esther Miriam

    2014-01-01

    The Earth is constantly exposed to a stream of energetic particles from outer space. Through the interaction of this radiation with the Earth's magnetosphere and atmosphere a complex radiation field is formed which varies with the location inside the Earth's atmosphere. This radiation field consists of charged and uncharged particles leading to the constant exposure of human beings to radiation. As this ionizing radiation can be harmful for humans, it is necessary to perform dose rate measurements in different altitudes in the Earth's atmosphere. Due to their higher biological effectiveness the exposure to neutrons is more harmful than the exposure to γ-rays and charged particles, which is why the determination of neutron dose rates is the focus of this work. In this work the prototype of a Phoswich detector called PING (Phoswich Instrument for Neutrons and Gammas) is developed to determine dose rates caused by neutrons in the Earth's atmosphere and to distinguish these from γ-rays. The instrument is composed of two different scintillators optically coupled to each other and read out by one common photomultiplier tube. The scintillator package consists of an inner plastic scintillator made of the material BC-412 and a surrounding anti-coincidence made of sodium doped caesium iodide (CsI(Na)). In this work the instrument is calibrated, tested and flown and a procedure for a pulse shape analysis for this instrument is developed. With this analysis it is possible to distinguish pulses from the plastic scintillator and pulses from the CsI(Na). The pulses from the plastic scintillator are mainly due to the interaction of neutrons but there is an energy-dependent contribution of γ-rays to these events. Measurements performed on board an airplane show that the dose rates measured with the developed detector are in the same order of magnitude as results of other instruments. During measurements on board stratospheric balloons the altitude dependence of count rates and

  15. Studies of seaweeds as an indicators of toxic element pollution in Ghana using neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Serfor-Armah, Y.

    2006-01-01

    The concentrations of 25 elements namely: AI, As, Br, Ca, Cd, CI, Co, Cu, Fe, Hf, Hg, I, K, La, Mg, Mn, Na, Ni, Sb, Sc, Sm, Sr, V and Zn in seven Rhodophyta (red), three Phaeophyta (brown) and five Chlorophyta (green) seaweed species from different areas along the coast of Ghana were determined by instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) and preconcentration NAA (PNAA). These species potentially could be used as biomonitors and bioremoval agents. The irradiations using thermal and epithermal neutrons were done using the Ghana Research Reactor-1 (GHARR-I) facility at Ghana Atomic Energy Commission, Kwabenya and the Dalhousie University SLOWPOKE-2 Reactor (DUSR) facilities. Counting was done using both the conventional and anti-coincidence γ- ray spectrometry. The PNAA method was developed for the simultaneous extraction of Cd, Cr, Hg, and Zn, as well as Sb and V individually from the seaweed samples. The PNAA method involved the use of a mixture of PAN and TAN chelating agents and PONPE-20 surfactant in cloud point extraction (CPE). The parameters affecting the CPE have been optimized. The recoveries under the optimum conditions of pH 3.7 for V, 6.4 for Sb, 8.6 for Cd, Cr, Hg, and Zn, (PAN/TAN) of 1 x l0 -4 M. (PONPE-20) of 0.1 % (m/v), ionic strength 0.05 M KN0 3 , and a temperature of 41°C were generally >96%. The mean detection limits for Cd, Cr, Hg, Sb, V and Zn were 6.0, 3.6, 1.2, 2.8, 1.51 and 2.6 ng/g respectively. The CPE method developed was also used successfully to speciate As(lIl) and As(V) from the Sargassum vulgare the seaweed. The maximum extraction of As(lII) occurred at a pH of 6.7 and that of As(V) at pH of 3.8. The results indicated that As(III) and As(V) formed only 6.27% of the total arsenic concentration, while the other species of arsenic constitute 93.73%. The precision and accuracy of the INAA and PNAA methods developed were evaluated. Schewart control charts were constructed for internal quality assessment purposes. The results

  16. Science Flight Program of the Nuclear Compton Telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boggs, Steven

    This is the lead proposal for this program. We are proposing a 5-year program to perform the scientific flight program of the Nuclear Compton Telescope (NCT), consisting of a series of three (3) scientific balloon flights. NCT is a balloon-borne, wide-field telescope designed to survey the gamma-ray sky (0.2-5 MeV), performing high-resolution spectroscopy, wide-field imaging, and polarization measurements. NCT has been rebuilt as a ULDB payload under the current 2-year APRA grant. (In that proposal we stated our goal was to return at this point to propose the scientific flight program.) The NCT rebuild/upgrade is on budget and schedule to achieve flight-ready status in Fall 2013. Science: NCT will map the Galactic positron annihilation emission, shedding more light on the mysterious concentration of this emission uncovered by INTEGRAL. NCT will survey Galactic nucleosynthesis and the role of supernova and other stellar populations in the creation and evolution of the elements. NCT will map 26-Al and positron annihilation with unprecedented sensitivity and uniform exposure, perform the first mapping of 60-Fe, search for young, hidden supernova remnants through 44-Ti emission, and enable a host of other nuclear astrophysics studies. NCT will also study compact objects (in our Galaxy and AGN) and GRBs, providing novel measurements of polarization as well as detailed spectra and light curves. Design: NCT is an array of germanium gamma-ray detectors configured in a compact, wide-field Compton telescope configuration. The array is shielded on the sides and bottom by an active anticoincidence shield but is open to the 25% of the sky above for imaging, spectroscopy, and polarization measurements. The instrument is mounted on a zenith-pointed gondola, sweeping out ~50% of the sky each day. This instrument builds off the Compton telescope technique pioneered by COMPTEL on the Compton Gamma Ray Observatory. However, by utilizing modern germanium semiconductor strip detectors

  17. CsI Calorimeter for a Compton-Pair Telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grove, Eric J.

    We propose to build and test a hodoscopic CsI(Tl) scintillating-crystal calorimeter for a medium-energy γ-ray Compton and pair telescope. The design and technical approach for this calorimeter relies deeply on heritage from the Fermi LAT CsI Calorimeter, but it dramatically improves the low-energy performance of that design by reading out the scintillation light with silicon photomultipliers (SiPMs), making the technology developed for Fermi applicable in the Compton regime. While such a hodoscopic calorimeter is useful for an entire class of medium-energy γ-ray telescope designs, we propose to build it explicitly to support beam tests and balloon flight of the Proto-ComPair telescope, the development and construction of which was funded in a four-year APRA program beginning in 2015 ("ComPair: Steps to a Medium Energy γ-ray Mission" with PI J. McEnery of GSFC). That award did not include funding for its CsI calorimeter subsystem, and this proposal is intended to cover that gap. ComPair is a MIDEX-class instrument concept to perform a high-sensitivity survey of the γ-ray sky from 0.5 MeV to 500 MeV. ComPair is designed to provide a dramatic increase in sensitivity relative to previous instruments in this energy range (predominantly INTEGRAL/SPI and Compton COMPTEL), with the same transformative sensitivity increase - and corresponding scientific return- that the Fermi Large Area Telescope provided relative to Compton EGRET. To enable transformative science over a broad range of MeV energies and with a wide field of view, ComPair is a combined Compton telescope and pair telescope employing a silicon-strip tracker (for Compton scattering and pair conversion and tracking) and a solid-state CdZnTe calorimeter (for Compton absorption) and CsI calorimeter (for pair calorimetry), surrounded by a plastic scintillator anti-coincidence detector. Under the current proposal, we will complete the detailed design, assembly, and test of the CsI calorimeter for the risk

  18. Developments in gamma-ray spectrometry: systems, software, and methods-II. 3. Low-Energy Gamma-Ray Spectrometry Using a Compton-Suppressed Telescope Detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sigg, R.A.; DiPrete, D.P.

    2001-01-01

    the new detector system has an ambient background count rate in the 30- to 600-keV region that is only 1/20 that of an earlier large area, low-energy photon spectrometer. For low-activity samples, whose counting backgrounds are dominated by natural background, minimum detectable activities are improved by a factor of ∼4. This improvement is attributable to a combination of factors including fabrication from low-background materials, cryostat geometry, passive and active shielding, and a lower ambient background location. Measurements using the newer system with and without gating reveal that most of this background reduction can be credited to active vetoing provided by guard detectors. Further improvements are anticipated as a nitrogen purge capability (to exclude radon from the shield) is implemented. An earlier paper (Ref. 2) described radiochemical separations and counting for 129 I, a long-lived fission product of interest at SRS because of the site's processing of spent nuclear fuels. While such radiochemical separations are necessary for many low-level analyses of 129 I, some low-density samples contain sufficient activity to allow 129 I analysis without chemistry if Compton-scattered interferences from other radionuclides are removed electronically. Tests on such a sample show that the sodium iodide and rear germanium anti-coincident guard detectors suppress the Compton continuum in the region near 129 I's 39-keV peak by a factor of ∼4. Interfering activities in the sample included 60 Co, 152 Eu, 154 Eu, and 241 Am. The Compton-suppression ratio is a function of gamma-ray energy; it improves as gamma ray energy increases until the best suppression (a factor of ∼10 for the sample discussed) is achieved at ∼1 MeV. (authors)

  19. In-orbit background of X-ray microcalorimeters and its effects on observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lotti, S.; Cea, D.; Macculi, C.; Mineo, T.; Natalucci, L.; Perinati, E.; Piro, L.; Federici, M.; Martino, B.

    2014-09-01

    microcalorimeters in the L2 orbit, and thus the particle background levels were calculated by means of Monte Carlo simulations: we considered the original design configuration and an improved configuration aimed to reduce the unrejected background, and tested them in the L2 orbit and in the low Earth orbit, comparing the results with experimental data reported by other X-ray instruments. For the diffuse component, we used the background levels measured from a 1 sr region representative of typical high galactic latitude pointings and analyzed the variations expected with the different orbital conditions. To show the results obtainable with the improved configuration we simulated the observation of a faint, high-redshift, point source (F[ 0.5 - 10 keV ] ~ 6.4 × 10-16 erg cm-2 s-1, z = 3.7), and of a hot galaxy cluster at R200 (Sb [ 0.5-2 keV ] = 8.61 × 10-16 erg cm-2 s-1 arcmin-2, T = 6.6 keV). Results: First we confirm that implementing an active cryogenic anticoincidence reduces the particle background by an order of magnitude and brings it close to the required level. The implementation and test of several design solutions can reduce the particle background level by a further factor of 6 with respect to the original configuration. The residual background is dominated by secondary particles, and this component can be decreased by design solutions such as passive shielding with appropriate materials. The best background level achievable in the L2 orbit with the implementation of ad-hoc passive shielding for secondary particles is similar to that measured in the more favorable LEO environment without the passive shielding, allowing us to exploit the advantages of the L2 orbit. We define a reference model for the diffuse background and collect all the available information on its variation with epoch and pointing direction. With this background level the ATHENA mission with the X-IFU instrument is able to detect ~4100 new obscured AGNs with F> 6.4 × 10-16 erg cm-2 s-1 during three