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Sample records for anticoagulant-susceptible norway rats

  1. Differential expression of cytochrome P450 genes between bromadiolone-resistant and anticoagulant-susceptible Norway rats:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Markussen, Mette Drude; Heiberg, Ann-Charlotte; Fredholm, Merete;

    2008-01-01

    Anticoagulant resistance in Norway rats (Rattus norvegicus) has been suggested to be due to mutations in the VKORC1 gene, encoding the target protein of anticoagulant rodenticides such as warfarin and bromadiolone. Other factors, e.g. pharmacokinetics, may however also contribute to resistance. W...

  2. Differential expression of cytochrome P450 genes between bromadiolone-resistant and anticoagulant-susceptible Norway rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Markussen, Mette Drude Kjær; Heiberg, Ann-Charlotte; Fredholm, Merete;

    2008-01-01

    Background: Anticoagulant resistance in Norway rats, Rattus norvegicus (Berk.), has been suggested to be conferred by mutations in the VKORC1 gene, encoding the target protein of anticoagulant rodenticides. Other factors, e.g. pharmacokinetics, may also contribute to resistance, however. To examine...

  3. Involvement of hepatic xenobiotic related genes in bromadiolone resistance in wild Norway rats, Rattus norvegicus (Berk.)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Markussen, Mette Drude; Heiberg, Ann-Charlotte; Alsbo, Carsten;

    2007-01-01

    To examine the role of xenobiotic relevant genes in bromadiolone resistance in wild Norway rats (Rattus norvegicus) we compared the constitutive liver gene expression and expression upon bromadiolone administration in bromadiolone resistant and anticoagulant susceptible female rats using a LNA mi...

  4. Vitamin K requirement in Danish anticoagulant-resistant Norway rats (Rattus norvegicus)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Markussen, Mette D.; Heiberg, Ann-Charlotte; Nielsen, Robert;

    2003-01-01

    Norway rats, Rattus norvegicus, Denmark, anticoagulant rodenticide resistance, vitamin K requirement......Norway rats, Rattus norvegicus, Denmark, anticoagulant rodenticide resistance, vitamin K requirement...

  5. Bromadiolone resistance does not respond to absence of anticoagulants in experimental populations of Norway rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heiberg, A.C.; Leirs, H.; Siegismund, Hans Redlef

    2003-01-01

    Resistance to anticoagulant rodenticides in Norway rats (Rattus norvegicus) is documented to be associated with pleiotropic effects, notably with an increased dietary vitamin K requirement. The aim of this study was to quantify these effects in small populations of Norway rat in Denmark and to se...

  6. A Two-Year Ecological Study of Norway Rats (Rattus norvegicus) in a Brazilian Urban Slum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panti-May, Jesús A; Carvalho-Pereira, Ticiana S A; Serrano, Soledad; Pedra, Gabriel G; Taylor, Josh; Pertile, Arsinoê C; Minter, Amanda; Airam, Vladimir; Carvalho, Mayara; Júnior, Nivison N; Rodrigues, Gorete; Reis, Mitermayer G; Ko, Albert I; Childs, James E; Begon, Mike; Costa, Federico

    2016-01-01

    The Norway or brown rat (Rattus norvegicus) is among the most ubiquitous of rodents. However, the lack of studies describing Norway rat populations from tropical areas have limited our understanding regarding their demography and seasonal dynamics. In this study, we describe seasonal pattern in the abundance, reproductive parameters, and morphometrics of Norway rat populations in Salvador, Brazil. Rodents were trapped over four seasonal trapping periods (2013-2014) from three valleys. A total of 802 Norway rats were trapped over the course of the study over 7653 trap-nights. Norway rat abundance was high, but there was no significant differences between seasons. The reproductive parameters (e.g. frequency of pregnant and lactating females) did not show statistical differences between seasons. Female rats collected in the rainy season were heavier and older than females from the dry season. Salvador rats had a high incidence of pregnancy and birth rate (estimated birth rate of 79 young per year) compared to previous studies. The information generated is critical for the understanding of the ecology of Norway rat, the main reservoir of Leptospira in Salvador. However, future studies examining the effect of rodent control programs aimed at reducing populations, and determining rates of recovery, will further clarify our understanding of population dynamics.

  7. A Two-Year Ecological Study of Norway Rats (Rattus norvegicus in a Brazilian Urban Slum.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesús A Panti-May

    Full Text Available The Norway or brown rat (Rattus norvegicus is among the most ubiquitous of rodents. However, the lack of studies describing Norway rat populations from tropical areas have limited our understanding regarding their demography and seasonal dynamics. In this study, we describe seasonal pattern in the abundance, reproductive parameters, and morphometrics of Norway rat populations in Salvador, Brazil. Rodents were trapped over four seasonal trapping periods (2013-2014 from three valleys. A total of 802 Norway rats were trapped over the course of the study over 7653 trap-nights. Norway rat abundance was high, but there was no significant differences between seasons. The reproductive parameters (e.g. frequency of pregnant and lactating females did not show statistical differences between seasons. Female rats collected in the rainy season were heavier and older than females from the dry season. Salvador rats had a high incidence of pregnancy and birth rate (estimated birth rate of 79 young per year compared to previous studies. The information generated is critical for the understanding of the ecology of Norway rat, the main reservoir of Leptospira in Salvador. However, future studies examining the effect of rodent control programs aimed at reducing populations, and determining rates of recovery, will further clarify our understanding of population dynamics.

  8. Reversible compensatory hypertrophy in transplanted brown Norway rat kidneys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Churchill, M; Churchill, P C; Schwartz, M; Bidani, A; McDonald, F

    1991-07-01

    Recently we described methods for optimizing the function of transplanted rat kidneys. In unilaterally nephrectomized recipients, one week after surgery, the left transplanted kidney was identical to the right native kidney with respect to wet weight and the clearances of inulin and para-aminohippuric acid (PAH). The goals of the present experiments were first, to extend the post-surgery period to three weeks (sufficient to allow hypertrophic changes), and second, to study function of transplanted hypertrophied kidneys. Genetically identical Brown Norway rats were used as donor and recipients. Three weeks after transplanting a normal kidney into a unilaterally-nephrectomized recipient, the transplanted kidney had a normal plasma flow and was identical to the contralateral native kidney with respect to wet weight and the clearances of inulin and PAH. Three weeks after transplanting a normal kidney into a bilaterally-nephrectomized recipient, the wet weight, inulin and PAH clearances, and plasma flow of the transplanted kidney were all higher than control, and not significantly different from those observed in unilaterally-nephrectomized control rats. Thus, transplanted and native kidneys exhibited the same degree of compensatory hypertrophy. Hypertrophied donor kidneys (that is, the donor rat had been unilaterally-nephrectomized three weeks previously) remained hypertrophied in bilaterally-nephrectomized recipients, but in unilaterally-nephrectomized recipients, they regressed towards normal (that is, the values of wet weight, inulin and PAH clearances and plasma flow were significantly less than those in rats with only one kidney) while the contralateral native kidney remained normal (values of wet weight and inulin and PAH clearances were not different from control).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  9. Genome sequence of the Brown Norway rat yields insights into mammalian evolution

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gibbs, RA; Weinstock, GM; Metzker, ML; Muzny, DM; Sodergren, EJ; Scherer, S; Scott, G; Steffen, D; Worley, KC; Burch, PE; Okwuonu, G; Hines, S; Lewis, L; DeRamo, C; Delgado, O; Dugan-Rocha, S; Miner, G; Morgan, M; Hawes, A; Gill, R; Holt, RA; Adams, MD; Amanatides, PG; Baden-Tillson, H; Barnstead, M; Chin, S; Evans, CA; Ferriera, S; Fosler, C; Glodek, A; Gu, ZP; Jennings, D; Kraft, CL; Nguyen, T; Pfannkoch, CM; Sitter, C; Sutton, GG; Venter, JC; Woodage, T; Smith, D; Lee, HM; Gustafson, E; Cahill, P; Kana, A; Doucette-Stamm, L; Weinstock, K; Fechtel, K; Weiss, RB; Dunn, DM; Green, ED; Blakesley, RW; Bouffard, GG; de Jong, J; Osoegawa, K; Zhu, BL; Marra, M; Schein, J; Bosdet, [No Value; Fjell, C; Jones, S; Krzywinski, M; Mathewson, C; Siddiqui, A; Wye, N; McPherson, J; Zhao, SY; Fraser, CM; Shetty, J; Shatsman, S; Geer, K; Chen, YX; Abramzon, S; Nierman, WC; Gibbs, RA; Weinstock, GM; Havlak, PH; Durbin, KJ; Egan, A; Ren, YR; Song, XZ; Li, BS; Qin, [No Value; Cawley, S; Weinstock, GM; Worley, KC; Cooney, AJ; Gibbs, RA; D'Souza, LM; Martin, K; Wu, JQ; Gonzalez-Garay, ML; Jackson, AR; Kalafus, KJ; McLeod, MP; Milosavljevic, A; Virk, D; Volkov, A; Wheeler, DA; Zhang, ZD; Bailey, JA; Eichler, EE; Tuzun, E; Birney, E; Mongin, E; Ureta-Vidal, A; Woodwark, C; Zdobnov, E; Bork, P; Suyama, M; Torrents, D; Alexandersson, M; Trask, BJ; Young, JM; Smith, D; Huang, H; Fechtel, K; Wang, HJ; Xing, HM; Weinstock, K; Gietzen, D; Schmidt, J; Stevens, K; Vitt, U; Wingrove, J; Camara, F; Schmidt, J; Stevens, K; Vitt, U; Wingrove, J; Camara, F; Alba, MM; Abril, JF; Guigo, R; Smit, A; Dubchak, [No Value; Rubin, EM; Couronne, O; Poliakov, A; Hubner, N; Ganten, D; Goesele, C; Hummel, O; Kreitler, T; Lee, YA; Monti, J; Schulz, H; Zimdahl, H; Himmelbauer, H; Lehrach, H; Jacob, HJ; Bromberg, S; Gullings-Handley, J; Jensen-Seaman, MI; Kwitek, AE; Lazar, J; Pasko, D; Tonellato, PJ; Twigger, S; Ponting, P; Duarte, JM; Rice, S; Goodstadt, L; Beatson, SA; Emes, RD; Winter, EE; Webber, C; Brandt, P; Nyakatura, G; Adetobi, M; Chiaromonte, F; Elnitski, L; Eswara, P; Hardison, RC; Hou, MM; Kolbe, D; Makova, K; Miller, W; Nekrutenko, A; Riemer, C; Schwartz, S; Taylor, J; Zhang, Y; Lindpaintner, K; Andrews, TD; Caccamo, M; Clamp, M; Clarke, L; Curwen, [No Value; Durbin, R; Eyras, E; Searle, SM; Cooper, GM; Batzoglou, S; Brudno, M; Sidow, A; Stone, EA; Venter, JC; Payseur, BA; Bourque, G; Lopez-Otin, C; Puente, XS; Chakrabarti, K; Chatterji, S; Dewey, C; Pachter, L; Bray, N; Yap, VB; Caspi, A; Tesler, G; Pevzner, PA; Haussler, D; Roskin, KM; Baertsch, R; Clawson, H; Furey, TS; Hinrichs, AS; Karolchik, D; Kent, WJ; Rosenbloom, KR; Trumbower, H; Weirauch, M; Cooper, DN; Stenson, PD; Ma, B; Brent, M; Arumugam, M; Shteynberg, D; Copley, RR; Taylor, MS; Riethman, H; Mudunuri, U; Peterson, J; Guyer, M; Felsenfeld, A; Old, S; Mockrin, S; Collins, F; Daniels, S.

    2004-01-01

    The laboratory rat (Rattus norvegicus) is an indispensable tool in experimental medicine and drug development, having made inestimable contributions to human health. We report here the genome sequence of the Brown Norway (BN) rat strain. The sequence represents a high-quality 'draft' covering over 9

  10. Ozone Induces Glucose Intolerance and Systemic Metabolic Effects in Young and Aged Brown Norway Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Air pollutants have been associated with increased diabetes in humans. We hypothesized that ozone could impair glucose homeostasis by altering insulin signaling and/or endoplasmic reticular (ER) stress in very young and aged rats. Brown Norway (BN) rats, 1,4, 12, and 24 months ol...

  11. METABOLIC RATE AS A FUNCTION OF AGE IN BROWN NORWAY AND LONG-EVANS RATS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown Norway (BN) rats are commonly used in aging studies but relatively little is known on their metabolism as it varies with age. In fact, there is considerable disagreement on the wholebody metabolism of aging rats with some studies indicating a decrease and others showing an...

  12. Genome sequence of the Brown Norway rat yields insights into mammalian evolution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gibbs, Richard A; Weinstock, George M; Metzker, Michael L;

    2004-01-01

    The laboratory rat (Rattus norvegicus) is an indispensable tool in experimental medicine and drug development, having made inestimable contributions to human health. We report here the genome sequence of the Brown Norway (BN) rat strain. The sequence represents a high-quality 'draft' covering ove...

  13. Hepatitis E virus in Norway rats (Rattus norvegicus captured around a pig farm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kanai Yuta

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Hepatitis E virus (HEV transmitted via the oral route through the consumption of contaminated water or uncooked or undercooked contaminated meat has been implicated in major outbreaks. Rats may play a critical role in HEV outbreaks, considering their negative effects on environmental hygiene and food sanitation. Although the serological evidence of HEV infection in wild rodents has been reported worldwide, the infectivity and propagation of HEV in wild rats remain unknown. To investigate if rats are a possible carrier of HEV, we studied wild Norway rats (Rattus norvegicus that were caught near a pig farm, where HEV was prevalent among the pigs. Methods We examined 56 Norway rats for HEV. RNA from internal organs was examined for RT-PCR and positive samples were sequenced. Positive tissue samples were incubated with A549 cell line to isolate HEV. Anti-HEV antibodies were detected by ELISA. Results Sixteen rats were seropositive, and the HEV RNA was detected in 10 of the 56 rats. Sequencing of the partial ORF1 gene from 7 samples resulted in partially sequenced HEV, belonging to genotype 3, which was genetically identical to the HEV prevalent in the swine from the source farm. The infectious HEVs were isolated from the Norway rats by using the human A549 cell line. Conclusions There was a relatively high prevalence (17.9% of the HEV genome in wild Norway rats. The virus was mainly detected in the liver and spleen. The results indicate that these animals might be possible carrier of swine HEV in endemic regions. The HEV contamination risk due to rats needs to be examined in human habitats.

  14. Molecular characterization of trimellitic anhydride-induced respiratory allergy in Brown Norway rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuper, C.F.; Heijne, W.H.; Dansen, M.; Verhoeckx, K.C.; Boorsma, A.; Radonjic, M.; Bruijntjes, J.; Stierum, R.; Muijser, H.; Arts, J.H.

    2008-01-01

    To contribute to the hazard identification of low molecular weight (LMW) respiratory allergens, respiratory allergy induced by trimellitic anhydride (TMA) was characterized by whole genome analysis of lung tissue and blood proteomics in Brown Norway rats. Dermal sensitization (50% and 25% w/v) with

  15. Inducible nitric oxide synthase after sensitization and allergen challenge of Brown Norway rat lung

    OpenAIRE

    Fang Liu, Shu; Haddad, El-Bdaoui; Adcock, Ian; Salmon, Michael; Koto, Hiro; Gilbey, Tom; Peter J. Barnes; Fan Chung, K

    1997-01-01

    We studied the effects of ovalbumin (OA) sensitization and challenge on inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) gene and protein expression in Brown-Norway rats in vivo.By use of Northern analysis, a 4.4-kb iNOS mRNA transcript was weakly observed in control rat lung but there was a 3 fold increase in lungs sensitized to OA alone (P

  16. Leptospira in breast tissue and milk of urban Norway rats (Rattus norvegicus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    DE Oliveira, D; Figueira, C P; Zhan, L; Pertile, A C; Pedra, G G; Gusmão, I M; Wunder, E A; Rodrigues, G; Ramos, E A G; Ko, A I; Childs, J E; Reis, M G; Costa, F

    2016-08-01

    Leptospirosis is a zoonosis caused by bacteria of the genus Leptospira. The disease is globally distributed and a major public health concern. The Norway rat (Rattus norvegicus) is the main reservoir of the pathogen in urban slums of developing and developed countries. The potential routes of intra-specific leptospire transmission in rats are largely unknown. Herein, we identified pathogenic Leptospira spp. in breast tissue and milk of naturally infected rats. We examined kidney, breast tissue and milk from 24 lactating rats for the presence of leptospires using immunofluorescence, immunohistochemistry, polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and scanning electronic microscopy. All 24 rats had evidence for Leptospira in the kidneys, indicating chronic carriage. The majority of kidney-positive rats had detectable leptospires in milk (18, 75%) and breast tissue (16, 67%), as evidenced by immunofluorescence assay and immunohistochemistry. Four (17%) milk samples and two (8%) breast tissue samples were positive by quantitative real-time PCR. Scanning electron microscopy confirmed the presence of leptospires in breast tissue. No major pathological changes in breast tissue were found. This study, for the first time, identified leptospires in the milk and breast tissue of wild Norway rats, suggesting the possibility of milk-borne transmission of leptospirosis to neonates. PMID:27019024

  17. The development and use of a test to identify resistance to the anticoagulant difenacoum in the Norway rat (Rattus norvegicus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redfern, R; Gill, J E

    1978-12-01

    Feeding tests were carried out in the laboratory to obtain basic data on the susceptibility of wild Norway rats to difenacoum. The results were used to derive a standard test procedure for the identification of difenacoum resistance in warfarin-susceptible and resistant rats. Details are given of tests on rats from suspected difenacoum-resistant infestations on farms. PMID:731023

  18. The simultaneous occurrence of human norovirus and hepatitis E virus in a Norway rat (Rattus norvegicus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolf, Sandro; Reetz, Jochen; Johne, Reimar; Heiberg, Ann-Charlotte; Petri, Samuel; Kanig, Hanna; Ulrich, Rainer G

    2013-07-01

    Wild rats can be reservoirs and vectors for several human pathogens. An initial RT-PCR screening of the intestinal contents of Norway rats trapped in the sewer system of Copenhagen, Denmark, for caliciviruses revealed the presence of a human norovirus in one of 11 rodents. Subsequent phylogenetic analysis of the ~4.0-kb 3'-terminus of the norovirus genome resulted in the identification of a recombinant GI.b/GI.6 strain. The simultaneous detection of hepatitis E virus-like particles in the feces of this rat by transmission electron microscopy was confirmed by RT-PCR and sequence determination, resulting in the identification of a novel rat hepatitis E virus. PMID:23443935

  19. No priming of the immune response in newborn Brown Norway rats dosed with ovalbumin in the mouth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Charlotte Bernhard; Pilegaard, Kirsten

    2003-01-01

    with ovalbumin and if this method could be used in an animal model for food allergy. Methods: Newborn Brown Norway rats were dosed with ovalbumin in the mouth (100 mug or 6 mg). As young adults, the animals were dosed by gavage for 35 days with 1 mg ovalbumin/day or once intraperitoneally with 100 mug. Control......E and IgG responses were decreased compared to the control groups, however, not always reaching statistical significance. A statistical significant decrease in the specific immune response was found in young adult rats dosed in the mouth as compared to by gavage. Conclusions: Dosing Brown Norway rats...

  20. Digested BLG can induce tolerance when co-administered with intact BLG in Brown Norway rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bøgh, Katrine Lindholm; Barkholt, Vibeke; Madsen, Charlotte Bernhard

    the human gastro-duodenal digestion process. Four different fractions of BLG-digest was made, based on sizes of peptides or aggregates hereof. Intact BLG and the four fractions of BLG-digesta were characterized by protein chemical analyses. Brown Norway (BN) rats were immunised i.p. three times without...... analysed for specific IgG and IgE responses and avidity of specific antibodies was measured. Results: Native BLG is relatively resistant to digestion. However, when first broken down to larger fragments these are rapidly digested to smaller peptides of sizes ≤ 4.5 kDa. The small peptides did aggregate...

  1. Development of chronic allograft rejection and arterial hypertension in Brown Norway rats after renal transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaskonen, T; Mervaala, E; Nevala, R; Soots, A; Krogerus, L; Lähteenmäki, T; Karppanen, H; Vapaatalo, H; Ahonen, J

    2000-01-01

    The cardiovascular and renal pathophysiology associated with chronic renal allograft rejection under triple drug immunosuppressive treatment was studied using a recently developed model (Brown Norway (BN) rats) in a 6-week experiment. Renal transplantation was performed to 10-week-old rats in a rat strain combination of Dark Agouti (DA) --> BN. The right kidney was removed from another group of BN rats (uninephrectomized). A triple drug treatment comprising cyclosporine (10 mg/kg subcutaneously, s.c.), azathioprine (2 mg/kg s.c.) and methylprednisolone (1.6 mg/kg s.c.) was given to each rat daily for 6 weeks. A control group underwent no operations nor drug treatment. After the transplantation, the systolic blood pressure in this group was increased from 116 +/- 2 to 166 +/- 2 mmHg, while in the uninephrectomized group the rise was from 115 +/- 4 to 146 +/- 4 mmHg, and no change was observed in the blood pressures of the control group. The vascular relaxation responses of mesenteric arterial rings in vitro to acetylcholine were inhibited in both the transplantation group and the uninephrectomized group as compared with the control group, but few significant differences were found in the contraction responses to noradrenaline and potassium chloride. Graft histology was examined after 6 weeks, quantified by using the chronic allograft damage index (CADI). Changes specific to a chronic rejection reaction were observed in the allografts (CADI mean 6.0) but no injuries were seen in the rats' own kidneys (CADI mean 1.2). Our findings show that allograft rejection in BN rats after renal transplantation is associated with the development of arterial hypertension. The combination of cyclosporine, methylprednisolone and azathioprine also rises blood pressure in uninephrectomized BN rats. The hypertensive effects of the drug treatment and graft rejection are associated with endothelial dysfunction.

  2. Expression profiling of the VKORC1 and Calumenin gene in a Danish strain of bromadiolone-resistant Norway rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Markussen, Mette Drude; Heiberg, Ann-Charlotte; Fredholm, Merete;

    2008-01-01

    Anticoagulant resistance in Norway rats (Rattus norvegicus) has been associated with two genes, VKORC1 and Calumenin, which encodes proteins essential to the vitamin K-dependent gamma-carboxylation system. Mutations in the VKORC1 gene are considered the genetic basis for anticoagulant resistance ...

  3. Retrieval of inedible objects by Norway rats after habituation of gnawing: resistance to satiation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, R J

    1995-04-01

    Retrieval of wooden blocks by Norway rats was tested after continuous exposure to these objects sufficient to reduce gnawing. In two experiments rats were first allowed to retrieve during restricted daily trials. Then they were exposed to blocks in their home cages, and at some point during exposure they were retested in the retrieval situation. In Experiment 1, further retrieval tests were given beginning the day after blocks were introduced in the cages. In Experiment 2, rats were exposed to blocks for 100 days before they were retested for retrieval. In both experiments, amount of retrieval was minimally affected by exposure, although gnawing was significantly depressed. This contrasts with earlier work, which showed that habituation of gnawing in the cage was followed by a significant decline in retrieval. The major qualitative difference between this and past work was that rats in the present experiments were allowed to retrieve the blocks before continuous exposure to them. The author concluded that retrieval experience may lead to persistence of retrieval despite a decline in incentive value of the objects retrieved, indicated by the decline in gnawing, and he discusses relations to other demonstrations of persistence in the absence of original motivational conditions-in particular, "resistance to satiation" effects. PMID:7790849

  4. Gnawing and retrieval of inedible objects by Norway rats: Motivational interactions and habituatory effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, R J

    1994-08-01

    The relation between gnawing and retrieval of inedible, partible objects (wooden blocks) by domestic Norway rats (Rattus norvegicus Berkenhout) was examined by manipulating the tendency to gnaw and testing subsequent retrieval. Experiments 1 and 2 established that rats gnaw wooden blocks but do not ingest them even during food deprivation, and that gnawing declines (habituates) over days for most rats. In Experiment 3, food deprivation produced a decrease in retrieval of blocks that was reversed under subsequent ad lib conditions. This result was confirmed in Experiment 4, which also demonstrated concommitant changes in gnawing and object retrieval as well as effects on component responses of the retrieval sequence. In Experiment 5, continuous exposure to blocks sufficient to reduce gnawing to a low level led to a decline in retrieval of these objects that was not reversed by discontinuing exposure. These results are consistent with the incentive-motivational account of retrieval preferences developed in earlier work, and some inferences are made about the kinds of processes that could mediate the effects of deprivation and habituation. PMID:24895981

  5. Ozone induces glucose intolerance and systemic metabolic effects in young and aged brown Norway rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bass, V. [Environmental Public Health Division, National Health and Environmental Effects Research Laboratory, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC (United States); Gordon, C.J.; Jarema, K.A.; MacPhail, R.C. [Toxicity Assessment Division, National Health and Environmental Effects Research Laboratory, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC (United States); Cascio, W.E. [Environmental Public Health Division, National Health and Environmental Effects Research Laboratory, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC (United States); Phillips, P.M. [Toxicity Assessment Division, National Health and Environmental Effects Research Laboratory, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC (United States); Ledbetter, A.D.; Schladweiler, M.C. [Environmental Public Health Division, National Health and Environmental Effects Research Laboratory, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC (United States); Andrews, D. [Research Cores Unit, National Health and Environmental Effects Research Laboratory, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC (United States); Miller, D. [Curriculum in Toxicology, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC (United States); Doerfler, D.L. [Research Cores Unit, National Health and Environmental Effects Research Laboratory, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC (United States); Kodavanti, U.P., E-mail: kodavanti.urmila@epa.gov [Environmental Public Health Division, National Health and Environmental Effects Research Laboratory, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC (United States)

    2013-12-15

    Air pollutants have been associated with increased diabetes in humans. We hypothesized that ozone would impair glucose homeostasis by altering insulin signaling and/or endoplasmic reticular (ER) stress in young and aged rats. One, 4, 12, and 24 month old Brown Norway (BN) rats were exposed to air or ozone, 0.25 or 1.0 ppm, 6 h/day for 2 days (acute) or 2 d/week for 13 weeks (subchronic). Additionally, 4 month old rats were exposed to air or 1.0 ppm ozone, 6 h/day for 1 or 2 days (time-course). Glucose tolerance tests (GTT) were performed immediately after exposure. Serum and tissue biomarkers were analyzed 18 h after final ozone for acute and subchronic studies, and immediately after each day of exposure in the time-course study. Age-related glucose intolerance and increases in metabolic biomarkers were apparent at baseline. Acute ozone caused hyperglycemia and glucose intolerance in rats of all ages. Ozone-induced glucose intolerance was reduced in rats exposed for 13 weeks. Acute, but not subchronic ozone increased α{sub 2}-macroglobulin, adiponectin and osteopontin. Time-course analysis indicated glucose intolerance at days 1 and 2 (2 > 1), and a recovery 18 h post ozone. Leptin increased day 1 and epinephrine at all times after ozone. Ozone tended to decrease phosphorylated insulin receptor substrate-1 in liver and adipose tissues. ER stress appeared to be the consequence of ozone induced acute metabolic impairment since transcriptional markers of ER stress increased only after 2 days of ozone. In conclusion, acute ozone exposure induces marked systemic metabolic impairments in BN rats of all ages, likely through sympathetic stimulation. - Highlights: • Air pollutants have been associated with increased diabetes in humans. • Acute ozone exposure produces profound metabolic alterations in rats. • Age influences metabolic risk factors in aging BN rats. • Acute metabolic effects are reversible and repeated exposure reduces these effects. • Ozone

  6. Effect of Aging and Obesity on Insulin Responsiveness and Glut-4 Glucose Transporter Content in Skeletal Muscle of Fischer 344 × Brown Norway Rats

    OpenAIRE

    Larkin, Lisa M.; Reynolds, Thomas H.; Supiano, Mark A.; Kahn, Barbara B.; Halter, Jeffrey B.

    2001-01-01

    This study investigated the metabolic changes with age in the Fischer 344 × Brown Norway rat and its suitability as an animal model of postmaturational insulin resistance. Specifically, we determined whether an age-associated decrease in glucose disposal is associated with diminished whole body insulin responsiveness and/or a decrease in glucose transporter (GLUT-4) protein and mRNA content in medial gastrocnemius muscle of male Fischer 344 × Brown Norway rats of ages 8, 18, and 28 months. Fa...

  7. Infections by Leptospira interrogans, Seoul Virus, and Bartonella spp. Among Norway Rats (Rattus norvegicus) from the Urban Slum Environment in Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Costa, Federico; Porter, Fleur Helena; Rodrigues, Gorete; Farias, Helena; de Faria, Marcus Tucunduva; Wunder, Elsio A.; Osikowicz, Lynn M.; Kosoy, Michael Y.; Reis, Mitermayer Galvão; Ko, Albert I; Childs, James E.

    2014-01-01

    Norway rats (Rattus norvegicus) are reservoir hosts for zoonotic pathogens that cause significant morbidity and mortality in humans. Studies evaluating the prevalence of zoonotic pathogens in tropical Norway rat populations are rare, and data on co-infection with multiple pathogens are nonexistent. Herein, we describe the prevalence of leptospiral carriage, Seoul virus (SEOV), and Bartonella spp. infection independently, in addition to the rates of co-infection among urban, slum-dwelling Norw...

  8. Impact of diet on ozone-induced pulmonary and systemic effects in female Brown Norway (BN) rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Impact of diet on ozone-induced pulmonary and systemic effects in female Brown Norway (BN) ratsV.L. Bass1, M.C. Schladweiler2, S. Snow5, C.J. Gordon4, K.A. Jarema4, P. Phillips4, A.D. Ledbetter2, D.B. Miller3, J.E. Richards2, U.P. Kodavanti2. 1. SPH, UNC, Chapel Hill2. EPHD, NHE...

  9. Ultrasonic vocalizations of female Norway rats (Rattus norvegicus) in response to social partners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Börner, Annegret; Hjemdahl, Rebecca; Götz, Thomas; Brown, Gillian R

    2016-02-01

    In many species of animals, male vocalizations function to attract mating partners and coordinate sexual interactions. Whereas male vocalizations have been well studied in several species, the function of female vocalizations in mating contexts is not fully understood. In Norway rats (Rattus norvegicus), both males and females produce ultrasonic vocalizations (USVs) during sexual encounters with opposite sex partners. The aim of this study was to test the hypothesis that female vocalizations play a role in sociosexual interactions by examining how rates of 50 kHz USV production vary in relation to the sex and gonadal status of the partner, and by examining whether the proportion of frequency modulated (FM) and constant frequency calls differs between these categories of social partner. The results showed that females produced a higher total number of 50 kHz USVs to intact males than castrated males, and produced similar numbers of calls to both categories of females. Females also produced a higher proportion of FM calls to male partners than to female partners, and spent more time in the vicinity of male than female partners, regardless of the partners' gonadal status. Female USVs therefore potentially provide a measure of sexual motivation and may function to promote female mate choice in this species with multimale mating and a high risk of infanticide. PMID:26689446

  10. Multiple Paternity in the Norway Rat, Rattus norvegicus, from Urban Slums in Salvador, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Federico; Richardson, Jonathan L; Dion, Kirstin; Mariani, Carol; Pertile, Arsinoe C; Burak, Mary K; Childs, James E; Ko, Albert I; Caccone, Adalgisa

    2016-03-01

    The Norway rat, Rattus norvegicus, is one of the most important pest species globally and the main reservoir of leptospires causing human leptospirosis in the urban slums of tropical regions. Rodent control is a frequent strategy in those settings to prevent the disease but rapid growth from residual populations and immigration limit the long-term effectiveness of interventions. To characterize the breeding ecology of R. norvegicus and provide needed information for the level of genetic mixing, which can help identify inter-connected eradication units, we estimated the occurrence of multiple paternity, distances between mothers and sires, and inbreeding in rats from urban slum habitat in Salvador, Brazil. We genotyped 9 pregnant females, their 66 offspring, and 371 males at 16 microsatellite loci. Multiple paternity was observed in 22% (2/9) of the study litters. Of the 12 sires that contributed to the 9 litters, we identified 5 (42%) of those sires among our genotyped males. Related males were captured in close proximity to pregnant females (the mean inter-parent trapping distance per litter was 70 m, ±58 m SD). Levels of relatedness between mother-sire pairs were higher than expected and significantly higher than relatedness between all females and non-sire males. Our findings indicate multiple paternity is common, inbreeding is apparent, and that mother-sire dyads occur in close proximity within the study area. This information is relevant to improve the spatial definition of the eradication units that may enhance the effectiveness of rodent management programs aimed at preventing human leptospirosis. High levels of inbreeding may also be a sign that eradication efforts are successful. PMID:26733693

  11. Multiple Paternity in the Norway Rat, Rattus norvegicus, from Urban Slums in Salvador, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Federico; Richardson, Jonathan L; Dion, Kirstin; Mariani, Carol; Pertile, Arsinoe C; Burak, Mary K; Childs, James E; Ko, Albert I; Caccone, Adalgisa

    2016-03-01

    The Norway rat, Rattus norvegicus, is one of the most important pest species globally and the main reservoir of leptospires causing human leptospirosis in the urban slums of tropical regions. Rodent control is a frequent strategy in those settings to prevent the disease but rapid growth from residual populations and immigration limit the long-term effectiveness of interventions. To characterize the breeding ecology of R. norvegicus and provide needed information for the level of genetic mixing, which can help identify inter-connected eradication units, we estimated the occurrence of multiple paternity, distances between mothers and sires, and inbreeding in rats from urban slum habitat in Salvador, Brazil. We genotyped 9 pregnant females, their 66 offspring, and 371 males at 16 microsatellite loci. Multiple paternity was observed in 22% (2/9) of the study litters. Of the 12 sires that contributed to the 9 litters, we identified 5 (42%) of those sires among our genotyped males. Related males were captured in close proximity to pregnant females (the mean inter-parent trapping distance per litter was 70 m, ±58 m SD). Levels of relatedness between mother-sire pairs were higher than expected and significantly higher than relatedness between all females and non-sire males. Our findings indicate multiple paternity is common, inbreeding is apparent, and that mother-sire dyads occur in close proximity within the study area. This information is relevant to improve the spatial definition of the eradication units that may enhance the effectiveness of rodent management programs aimed at preventing human leptospirosis. High levels of inbreeding may also be a sign that eradication efforts are successful.

  12. Development and characterization of an effective food allergy model in Brown Norway rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mar Abril-Gil

    Full Text Available Food allergy (FA is an adverse health effect produced by the exposure to a given food. Currently, there is no optimal animal model of FA for the screening of immunotherapies or for testing the allergenicity of new foods.The aim of the present study was to develop an effective and rapid model of FA in Brown Norway rats. In order to establish biomarkers of FA in rat, we compared the immune response and the anaphylactic shock obtained in this model with those achieved with only intraperitoneal immunization.Rats received an intraperitoneal injection of ovalbumin (OVA with alum and toxin from Bordetella pertussis, and 14 days later, OVA by oral route daily for three weeks (FA group. A group of rats receiving only the i.p. injection (IP group were also tested. Serum anti-OVA IgE, IgG1, IgG2a, IgG2b and IgA antibodies were quantified throughout the study. After an oral challenge, body temperature, intestinal permeability, motor activity, and mast cell protease II (RMCP-II levels were determined. At the end of the study, anti-OVA intestinal IgA, spleen cytokine production, lymphocyte composition of Peyer's patches and mesenteric lymph nodes, and gene expression in the small intestine were quantified.Serum OVA-specific IgG1, IgG2a and IgG2b concentrations rose with the i.p. immunization but were highly augmented after the oral OVA administration. Anti-OVA IgE increased twofold during the first week of oral OVA gavage. The anaphylaxis in both IP and FA groups decreased body temperature and motor activity, whereas intestinal permeability increased. Interestingly, the FA group showed a much higher RMCP II serum protein and intestinal mRNA expression.These results show both an effective and relatively rapid model of FA assessed by means of specific antibody titres and the high production of RMCP-II and its intestinal gene expression.

  13. Assessment of the Sensitizing Potential of Processed Peanut Proteins in Brown Norway Rats: Roasting Does Not Enhance Allergenicity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kroghsbo, Stine; Rigby, Neil M.; Johnson, Philip L F;

    2014-01-01

    the intraperitoneal route. Methods Sensitization potential of processed peanut products and Ara h 1 was examined in Brown Norway (BN) rats by oral administration of blanched or oil-roasted peanuts or peanut butter or by intraperitoneal immunization of purified native (N-), heated (H-) or heat glycated (G-)Ara h 1....... Levels of specific IgG and IgE were determined by ELISA and IgE functionality was examined by rat basophilic leukemia (RBL) cell assay. Results In rats dosed orally, roasted peanuts induced significant higher levels of specific IgE to NAra h 1 and 2 than blanched peanuts or peanut butter...... products induce functional specific IgE when dosed orally to BN rats. Roasted peanuts do not have a higher sensitizing capacity than blanched peanuts. In spite of this, extract from roasted peanuts is a superior elicitor of RBL cell degranulation irrespectively of the peanut product used for sensitization...

  14. Anticoagulant resistance in the United Kingdom and a new guideline for the management of resistant infestations of Norway rats (Rattus norvegicus Berk.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckle, Alan

    2013-03-01

    Anticoagulant resistance was first discovered in UK Norway rats (Rattus norvegicus Berk.) in 1958 and has been present ever since. The possible detrimental impact of resistance on effective rodent control was quickly recognised, and, for almost three decades, extensive research was conducted on the geographical distribution and severity of anticoagulant resistance in UK rats. Various schemes for the eradication of resistant rats were also implemented. At first, surveys showed resistance only to the first-generation anticoagulants, such as warfarin, chlorophacinone and coumatetralyl, but, later, resistance to the more potent second-generation anticoagulants, such as difenacoum and bromadiolone, was also discovered. Unlike some European countries, where only one or two resistance mutations occur, virtually all known rat resistance mutations occur in the United Kingdom, and five (Leu128Gln, Tyr139Ser, Tyr139Cys, Tyr139Phe and Leu120Gln) are known to have significant impacts on anticoagulant efficacy. Little is currently known of the geographical extent of anticoagulant resistance among Norway rats in the United Kingdom because no comprehensive survey has been conducted recently. At an operational level, anticoagulants generally retain their utility for Norway rat control, but it is impossible to control resistant rats in some areas because of restrictions on the use of the more potent resistance-breaking compounds. This paper reviews the development of resistance in Norway rats in the United Kingdom, outlines the present situation for resistance management and introduces a new resistance management guideline from the UK Rodenticide Resistance Action Group. PMID:22730379

  15. Characterization of the Immunogenicity and Allergenicity of Two Cow's Milk Hydrolysates – A Study in Brown Norway Rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bøgh, Katrine Lindholm; Barkholt, Vibeke; Madsen, Charlotte Bernhard

    2015-01-01

    characteristics of hydrolysates that contribute to allergenicity, in vivo models are valuable tools. In this study, we examine the immunogenicity and allergenicity of two hydrolysates in a Brown Norway (BN) rat model, using i.p. dosing, which allows for the use of small quantities. Intact BLG, hydrolysed BLG...... and a hydrolysed whey product suitable for use in extensively hydrolysed formulas were thoroughly characterized for protein chemical features and administered to BN rats by i.p. immunization with or without adjuvant. Sera were analysed for specific IgG and IgE for evaluation of sensitizing capacity, immunogenicity...... and antibody‐binding capacity. For evaluation of eliciting capacity a skin test was performed. The study showed that the hydrolysates had no residual allergenicity, lacking the capacity to sensitize and elicit reactions in the BN rats. Dosing with or without adjuvant induced a large difference...

  16. Systemic administration of the neurotensin NTS₁-receptor agonist PD149163 improves performance on a memory task in naturally deficient male brown Norway rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keiser, Ashley A; Matazel, Katelin S; Esser, Melissa K; Feifel, David; Prus, Adam J

    2014-12-01

    Agonists for the neurotensin NTS₁ receptor consistently exhibit antipsychotic effects in animal models without producing catalepsy, suggesting that NTS₁-receptor agonists may be a novel class of drugs to treat schizophrenia. Moreover, studies utilizing NTS₁ agonists have reported improvements in some aspects of cognitive functioning, including prepulse inhibition and learning procedures, which suggest an ability of NTS₁-receptor agonists to diminish neurocognitive deficits. The present study sought to assess both baseline delay-induced memory performance and the effects of NTS₁-receptor activation on learning and memory consolidation in male Long-Evans and Brown Norway rats using a delayed nonmatch-to-position task radial arm-maze task. In the absence of drugs, Brown Norway rats displayed a significant increase in spatial memory errors following 3-, 7-, and 24-hr delay, whereas Long-Evans rats exhibited an increase in spatial memory errors following only a 7-, and 24-hr delay. With Brown Norway rats, administration of PD149163 before or after an information trial significantly reduced errors during a retention trial after a 24 hr delay. Administration of the NTS(1/2)-receptor antagonist SR142948 prior to the information trial did not affect retention-trial errors. These data are consistent with previous findings that Brown Norway rats have natural cognitive deficits and that they may be useful for assessing putative antipsychotic drugs for cognitive efficacy. Moreover, the results of this study support previous findings suggesting that NTS₁-receptor agonists may improve some aspects of cognitive functioning.

  17. Characteristics of the Built Environment and the Presence of the Norway Rat in New York City: Results From a Neighborhood Rat Surveillance Program, 2008-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Sarah; Bragdon, Caroline; Olson, Carolyn; Merlino, Mario; Bonaparte, Sancia

    2016-06-01

    Characteristics of an urban setting such as New York City (NYC), including readily available putrescible waste and ample underground infrastructure, make it highly attractive to the Norway rat (Rattus norvegicus). To identify property and neighborhood characteristics associated with rat presence, recent inspectional results were analyzed from over 77,000 properties in the Bronx and Manhattan. Variables capturing the location and density of factors believed to promote rat populations were tested individually and in combination in models predicting rat activity. We found that property-specific characteristics typically associated with high garbage volume, including large numbers of residential units, public ownership, and open-space designation (parks, outdoor recreation, or vacant land) were the most important factors in explaining increased rat presence across neighborhoods in NYC. Interventions that involved improved garbage management and street sanitation within a designated area reduced the likelihood of finding rats, especially in medium- and high-poverty neighborhoods. Neighborhood characteristics, such as being near a railroad or subway line, having a school nearby, the presence of numerous restaurants, or having older infrastructure, also contributed to the increased likelihood of rats. Our results support the use of built environment data to target community-level interventions and capture emerging rat infestations. PMID:27348979

  18. Characteristics of the Built Environment and the Presence of the Norway Rat in New York City: Results From a Neighborhood Rat Surveillance Program, 2008-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Sarah; Bragdon, Caroline; Olson, Carolyn; Merlino, Mario; Bonaparte, Sancia

    2016-06-01

    Characteristics of an urban setting such as New York City (NYC), including readily available putrescible waste and ample underground infrastructure, make it highly attractive to the Norway rat (Rattus norvegicus). To identify property and neighborhood characteristics associated with rat presence, recent inspectional results were analyzed from over 77,000 properties in the Bronx and Manhattan. Variables capturing the location and density of factors believed to promote rat populations were tested individually and in combination in models predicting rat activity. We found that property-specific characteristics typically associated with high garbage volume, including large numbers of residential units, public ownership, and open-space designation (parks, outdoor recreation, or vacant land) were the most important factors in explaining increased rat presence across neighborhoods in NYC. Interventions that involved improved garbage management and street sanitation within a designated area reduced the likelihood of finding rats, especially in medium- and high-poverty neighborhoods. Neighborhood characteristics, such as being near a railroad or subway line, having a school nearby, the presence of numerous restaurants, or having older infrastructure, also contributed to the increased likelihood of rats. Our results support the use of built environment data to target community-level interventions and capture emerging rat infestations.

  19. Effect of High Fructose and High Fat Diets on Pulmonary Sensitivity, Motor Activity, and Body Composition of Brown Norway Rats Exposed to Ozone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diet-induced obesity has been suggested to lead to increased susceptibility to air pollutants such as ozone (03); however, there is little experimental evidence. Thirty day old male and female Brown Norway rats were fed a normal, high-fructose or high-fat diet for 12 weeks and th...

  20. Ecology of Leptospira interrogans in Norway rats (Rattus norvegicus in an inner-city neighborhood of Vancouver, Canada.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chelsea G Himsworth

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Leptospira interrogans is a bacterial zoonosis with a worldwide distribution for which rats (Rattus spp. are the primary reservoir in urban settings. In order to assess, monitor, and mitigate the risk to humans, it is important to understand the ecology of this pathogen in rats. The objective of this study was to characterize the ecology of L. interrogans in Norway rats (Rattus norvegicus in an impoverished inner-city neighborhood of Vancouver, Canada. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Trapping was performed in 43 city blocks, and one location within the adjacent port, over a 12 month period. Kidney samples were tested for the presence of L. interrogans using PCR and sequencing. A multivariable model was built to predict L. interrogans infection status in individual rats using season and morphometric data (e.g., weight, sex, maturity, condition, etc. as independent variables. Spatial analysis was undertaken to identify clusters of high and low L. interrogans prevalence. The prevalence of L. interrogans varied remarkably among blocks (0-66.7%, and spatial clusters of both high and low L. interrogans prevalence were identified. In the final cluster-controlled model, characteristics associated with L. interrogans-infection in rats included weight (OR = 1.14, 95% CI = 1.07-1.20, increased internal fat (OR = 2.12, 95% CI = 1.06-4.25, and number of bite wounds (OR = 1.20, 95% CI = 0.96-1.49. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Because L. interrogans prevalence varied with weight, body fat, and bite wounds, this study suggests that social structure and interactions among rats may influence transmission. The prevalence and distribution of L. interrogans in rats was also highly variable even over a short geographic distance. These factors should be considered in future risk management efforts.

  1. Patterns in Leptospira Shedding in Norway Rats (Rattus norvegicus from Brazilian Slum Communities at High Risk of Disease Transmission.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Federico Costa

    Full Text Available We address some critical but unknown parameters of individuals and populations of Norway rats (Rattus norvegicus that influence leptospiral infection, maintenance and spirochetal loads shed in urine, which contaminates the environment ultimately leading to human infection.Our study, conducted in Salvador, Brazil, established the average load of leptospires in positive kidneys to be 5.9 x 10(6 per mL (range 3.1-8.2 x10(6 genome equivalents (GEq, similar to the 6.1 x 10(6 per ml (range 2.2-9.4 x10(6 average obtained from paired urines, with a significant positive correlation (R2=0.78 between the two. Based on bivariate and multivariate modeling, we found with both kidney and urine samples that leptospiral loads increased with the age of rats (based on the index of body length to mass, MAT titer and the presence of wounding/scars, and varied with site of capture. Some associations were modified by sex but trends were apparent. Combining with data on the demographic properties and prevalence of leptospiral carriage in rat populations in Salvador, we estimated that daily leptospiral loads shed in the urine of a population of 82 individuals exceeded 9.1 x 10(10 leptospires.These factors directly influence the risk of leptospiral acquisition among humans and provide essential epidemiological information linking properties of rat populations with risk of human infection.

  2. The development of a blood clotting response test for discriminating between difenacoum-resistant and susceptible Norway rats (Rattus norvegicus, Berk.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gill, J E; Kerins, G M; Langton, S D; MacNicoll, A D

    1993-01-01

    1. A new test for identifying levels of difenacoum resistance in the Norway rat is described, based upon the differential physiological response to difenacoum administration. 2. This test is based on changes in blood clotting activity over 4 days, following administration of the rodenticide difenacoum in conjunction with menadione (vitamin K3). 3. The anticoagulant effect is reduced only in rats that are resistant or tolerant to difenacoum. 4. This test procedure is quicker than traditional feeding tests, and identifies the degree of resistance in both laboratory and wild rats that have difenacoum resistance genes. PMID:8097452

  3. Accumulation of chlorinated and brominated persistent toxic substances (PTS) and their relationship to testosterone suppression in Norway rats from Japan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takasuga, T.; Senthilkumar, K. [Shimadzu Techno-Research Inc. (Japan); Ishizuka, M.; Fujita, S. [Graduate School of Veterinary Medicine, Hokkaido Univ. (Japan); Tanikawa, R. [Inst. of Tech., Ikari Corp. (Japan)

    2004-09-15

    Contamination of chlorinated/brominated persistent toxic substances (PTS) such as polychlorinated, -dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), -dibenzofurans (PCDFs), -biphenyls (PCBs), - organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) {l_brace}e.g., aldrin, dieldrin, endrin, chlordane compounds [cis/transchlordane, cis/trans-nonachlor, oxychlordane, heptachlor, heptachlor epoxide], hexachlorobenzene (HCB), 2,2-bis(p-chlorophenyl)-1,1,1-trichloroethane (DDTs) and its metabolities [o,p/p,p'-DDD and DDE] and hexachlorocyclohexane (HCHs){r_brace} and -brominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) are considered to important class of chemicals due to persistence in nature, bioaccumulation potential and adverse health effects in wildlife and humans. Among South East Asian countries, Japan reported to contaminated with aforesaid chemicals with considerable amounts. There is no document reports contamination of PTS in wild animals, which in-habit near humans. Norway rat (NR) inhabits not only near human environment but also distributed worldwide. Especially, NR feeds on human waste and shelter in and around human environment and thus exposure of toxic contaminants in this animal considered to similar with those in humans. In addition, rats have unique physiology that match with humans (e.g., they have similar pathogens as humans have). Therefore, analysis of toxic contaminants in NR considered as indirect measure in humans. Considering those facts, in this study, we analyzed NR collected from urban area, rural area, waste dumping or land fill site and isolated remote island from Japan. Particularly several chlorinated and brominated organic contaminants such as PCDDs, PCDFs, PCBs, DDTs, HCHs, chlordane compounds, heptachlor, heptachlor epoxide, HCB, aldrin, dieldrin, endrin and PBDEs were analyzed in rat livers by isotope dilution technique using HRGC-HRMS. In addition, laboratory Wistar rats (WR) were used as control.

  4. Assessment of the sensitizing potential of processed peanut proteins in Brown Norway rats: roasting does not enhance allergenicity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stine Kroghsbo

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: IgE-binding of process-modified foods or proteins is the most common method for examination of how food processing affects allergenicity of food allergens. How processing affects sensitization capacity is generally studied by administration of purified food proteins or food extracts and not allergens present in their natural food matrix. OBJECTIVES: The aim was to investigate if thermal processing increases sensitization potential of whole peanuts via the oral route. In parallel, the effect of heating on sensitization potential of the major peanut allergen Ara h 1 was assessed via the intraperitoneal route. METHODS: Sensitization potential of processed peanut products and Ara h 1 was examined in Brown Norway (BN rats by oral administration of blanched or oil-roasted peanuts or peanut butter or by intraperitoneal immunization of purified native (N-, heated (H- or heat glycated (G-Ara h 1. Levels of specific IgG and IgE were determined by ELISA and IgE functionality was examined by rat basophilic leukemia (RBL cell assay. RESULTS: In rats dosed orally, roasted peanuts induced significant higher levels of specific IgE to NAra h 1 and 2 than blanched peanuts or peanut butter but with the lowest level of RBL degranulation. However, extract from roasted peanuts was found to be a superior elicitor of RBL degranulation. Process-modified Ara h 1 had similar sensitizing capacity as NAra h 1 but specific IgE reacted more readily with process-modified Ara h 1 than with native. CONCLUSIONS: Peanut products induce functional specific IgE when dosed orally to BN rats. Roasted peanuts do not have a higher sensitizing capacity than blanched peanuts. In spite of this, extract from roasted peanuts is a superior elicitor of RBL cell degranulation irrespectively of the peanut product used for sensitization. The results also suggest that new epitopes are formed or disclosed by heating Ara h 1 without glucose.

  5. Characterization of the Immunogenicity and Allergenicity of Two Cow's Milk Hydrolysates--A Study in Brown Norway Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bøgh, K L; Barkholt, V; Madsen, C B

    2015-05-01

    Hypoallergenic infant formulas based on hydrolysed milk proteins are used in the diet for cow's milk allergic infants. For a preclinical evaluation of the immunogenicity and allergenicity of new protein ingredients for such hypoallergenic infant formulas as well as for the investigation of which characteristics of hydrolysates that contribute to allergenicity, in vivo models are valuable tools. In this study, we examine the immunogenicity and allergenicity of two hydrolysates in a Brown Norway (BN) rat model, using i.p. dosing, which allows for the use of small quantities. Intact BLG, hydrolysed BLG and a hydrolysed whey product suitable for use in extensively hydrolysed formulas were thoroughly characterized for protein chemical features and administered to BN rats by i.p. immunization with or without adjuvant. Sera were analysed for specific IgG and IgE for evaluation of sensitizing capacity, immunogenicity and antibody-binding capacity. For evaluation of eliciting capacity a skin test was performed. The study showed that the hydrolysates had no residual allergenicity, lacking the capacity to sensitize and elicit reactions in the BN rats. Dosing with or without adjuvant induced a large difference in immunogenicity. Only antibodies from rats sensitized to intact BLG with adjuvant were able to bind the hydrolysates, and the whey-based hydrolysate only showed immunogenicity when dosed with adjuvant. This study showed that hydrolysates can be evaluated by an i.p. animal model, but that the choice of in vitro tests used for evaluation of antibody responses may greatly influence the result as well as may the use of adjuvant.

  6. Toluene effects on oxidative stress in brain regions of young-adult, middle-age, and senescent Brown Norway rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kodavanti, Prasada Rao S., E-mail: kodavanti.prasada@epa.gov [Neurotoxicology Branch, Toxicity Assessment Division, NHEERL, ORD, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC 27711 (United States); Royland, Joyce E. [Genetic and Cellular Toxicology Branch, Integrated Systems Toxicology Division, NHEERL, ORD, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC 27711 (United States); Richards, Judy E. [Research Core Unit, NHEERL, ORD, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC 27711 (United States); Besas, Jonathan; MacPhail, Robert C. [Neurotoxicology Branch, Toxicity Assessment Division, NHEERL, ORD, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC 27711 (United States)

    2011-11-15

    The influence of aging on susceptibility to environmental contaminants is not well understood. To extend knowledge in this area, we examined effects in rat brain of the volatile organic compound, toluene. The objective was to test whether oxidative stress (OS) plays a role in the adverse effects caused by toluene exposure, and if so, if effects are age-dependent. OS parameters were selected to measure the production of reactive oxygen species (NADPH Quinone oxidoreductase 1 (NQO1), NADH Ubiquinone reductase (UBIQ-RD)), antioxidant homeostasis (total antioxidant substances (TAS), superoxide dismutase (SOD), {gamma}-glutamylcysteine synthetase ({gamma}-GCS), glutathione transferase (GST), glutathione peroxidase (GPX), glutathione reductase (GRD)), and oxidative damage (total aconitase and protein carbonyls). In this study, Brown Norway rats (4, 12, and 24 months) were dosed orally with toluene (0, 0.65 or 1 g/kg) in corn oil. Four hours later, frontal cortex, cerebellum, striatum, and hippocampus were dissected, quick frozen on dry ice, and stored at - 80 Degree-Sign C until analysis. Some parameters of OS were found to increase with age in select brain regions. Toluene exposure also resulted in increased OS in select brain regions. For example, an increase in NQO1 activity was seen in frontal cortex and cerebellum of 4 and 12 month old rats following toluene exposure, but only in the hippocampus of 24 month old rats. Similarly, age and toluene effects on glutathione enzymes were varied and brain-region specific. Markers of oxidative damage reflected changes in oxidative stress. Total aconitase activity was increased by toluene in frontal cortex and cerebellum at 12 and 24 months, respectively. Protein carbonyls in both brain regions and in all age groups were increased by toluene, but step-down analyses indicated toluene effects were statistically significant only in 12 month old rats. These results indicate changes in OS parameters with age and toluene exposure

  7. Toluene effects on oxidative stress in brain regions of young-adult, middle-age, and senescent Brown Norway rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The influence of aging on susceptibility to environmental contaminants is not well understood. To extend knowledge in this area, we examined effects in rat brain of the volatile organic compound, toluene. The objective was to test whether oxidative stress (OS) plays a role in the adverse effects caused by toluene exposure, and if so, if effects are age-dependent. OS parameters were selected to measure the production of reactive oxygen species (NADPH Quinone oxidoreductase 1 (NQO1), NADH Ubiquinone reductase (UBIQ-RD)), antioxidant homeostasis (total antioxidant substances (TAS), superoxide dismutase (SOD), γ-glutamylcysteine synthetase (γ-GCS), glutathione transferase (GST), glutathione peroxidase (GPX), glutathione reductase (GRD)), and oxidative damage (total aconitase and protein carbonyls). In this study, Brown Norway rats (4, 12, and 24 months) were dosed orally with toluene (0, 0.65 or 1 g/kg) in corn oil. Four hours later, frontal cortex, cerebellum, striatum, and hippocampus were dissected, quick frozen on dry ice, and stored at − 80 °C until analysis. Some parameters of OS were found to increase with age in select brain regions. Toluene exposure also resulted in increased OS in select brain regions. For example, an increase in NQO1 activity was seen in frontal cortex and cerebellum of 4 and 12 month old rats following toluene exposure, but only in the hippocampus of 24 month old rats. Similarly, age and toluene effects on glutathione enzymes were varied and brain-region specific. Markers of oxidative damage reflected changes in oxidative stress. Total aconitase activity was increased by toluene in frontal cortex and cerebellum at 12 and 24 months, respectively. Protein carbonyls in both brain regions and in all age groups were increased by toluene, but step-down analyses indicated toluene effects were statistically significant only in 12 month old rats. These results indicate changes in OS parameters with age and toluene exposure resulted in oxidative

  8. Bis(tributyltin)oxide (TBTO) decreases the food allergic response against peanut and ovalbumin in Brown Norway rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Other factors than the allergen itself may be of importance in the development of food allergy. This report describes the influence of the immunosuppressive compound bis(tributyltin)oxide (TBTO), present in the food chain, on the development of food allergy to peanut or ovalbumin in Brown Norway (BN) rats. To study these effects BN rats were sensitized to either 1 or 10 mg peanut or ovalbumin by daily oral gavage and the TBTO-groups were fed a diet containing 80 mg TBTO per kg diet. Co-exposure to TBTO not only resulted in decreased general immunologic parameters such as weights of mesenteric lymph nodes and Peyer's patches, lymphocyte proliferation rates in splenocytes, but also on allergic parameters. In the peanut allergen-model TBTO decreased allergen-specific Th2 cytokine production by spleen cells, number of eosinophilic and basophilic granulocytes in the blood and production of mast cell protease II after oral food challenge. In the ovalbumin allergen-model TBTO decreased the number of eosinophilic and basophilic granulocytes, allergen-specific IgE and production of mast cell protease II after oral food challenge. The data imply that in the process of risk assessment of food allergy attention should be given to immunomodulating compounds present in the diet

  9. Effects of nebulized ketamine on allergen-induced airway hyperresponsiveness and inflammation in actively sensitized Brown-Norway rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qian Yan

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Since airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR and allergic inflammatory changes are regarded as the primary manifestations of asthma, the main goals of asthma treatment are to decrease inflammation and maximize bronchodilation. These goals can be achieved with aerosol therapy. Intravenous administration of the anesthetic, ketamine, has been shown to trigger bronchial smooth muscle relaxation. Furthermore, increasing evidence suggests that the anti-inflammatory properties of ketamine may protect against lung injury. However, ketamine inhalation might yield the same or better results at higher airway and lower ketamine plasma concentrations for the treatment of asthma. Here, we studied the effect of ketamine inhalation on bronchial hyperresponsiveness and airway inflammation in a Brown-Norway rat model of ovalbumin(OVA-induced allergic asthma. Animals were actively sensitized by subcutaneous injection of OVA and challenged by repeated intermittent (thrice weekly exposure to aerosolized OVA for two weeks. Before challenge, the sensitizened rats received inhalation of aerosol of phosphate-buffered saline (PBS or aerosol of ketamine or injection of ketamine respectivity. Airway reactivity to acetylcholine (Ach was measured in vivo, and various inflammatory markers, including Th2 cytokines in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF, as well as induciable nitric oxide synthase (iNOS and nitric oxide (NO in lungs were examined. Our results revealed that delivery of aerosolized ketamine using an ultrasonic nebulizer markedly suppressed allergen-mediated airway hyperreactivity, airway inflammation and airway inflammatory cell infiltration into the BALF, and significantly decreased the levels of interleukin-4 (IL-4 in the BALF and expression of iNOS and the concentration of NO in the inflamed airways from OVA-treated rats. These findings collectively indicate that nebulized ketamine attenuated many of the central components of inflammatory changes and AHR in

  10. Species specific behavioural patterns (digging and swimming and reaction to novel objects in wild type, Wistar, Sprague-Dawley and Brown Norway rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafał Stryjek

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The purpose of the present study was to analyse species-specific forms of behaviour (digging and swimming and response to novelty in laboratory rats and their wild type counterparts at a very early stage of laboratorization. Three behavioural phenomena were taken into account: burrowing, spontaneous swimming, and neophobic behaviour. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Wild-type rats and three strains of laboratory rats were involved in experiments: Warsaw-Wild-Captive-Pisula-Stryjek (WWCPS, Wistar, Sprague-Dawley, and Brown Norway rats were compared in spontaneous swimming test, while WWCPS and Wistar rats were studied in burrowing and neophobia experiments. Wild rats were found to be faster at building tunnels than Wistar rats and at constructing more complex burrow systems. The experiment on neophobia showed that Wistar rats exhibited less neophobic responses and were more often trapped. WWCPS rats showed highly neophobic behaviour and were rarely trapped in this experiment. The experiment on swimming showed that WWCPS rats showed more complex water tank related activity than their laboratory counterparts. They swam and explored under surface environment. CONCLUSIONS: The three experiments showed profound behavioural differences in quasi-natural forms of behaviour between wild type rats (WWCPS and three laboratory strains frequently used in behavioural studies.

  11. Carriage of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus by wild urban Norway rats (Rattus norvegicus.

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    Chelsea G Himsworth

    Full Text Available Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA is an important cause of multi-drug-resistant infections in people, particularly indigent populations. MRSA can be transmitted between people and domestic animals, but the potential for transmission between people and commensal pests, particularly rodents, had not been investigated. The objective of this study was to identify the presence and characterize the ecology of MRSA in rats (Rattus spp. from in an impoverished, inner-city neighborhood. Oropharyngeal swabs were collected from rats trapped in 33 city blocks and one location within the adjacent port. Bacterial culture was performed and MRSA isolates were characterized using a variety of methods, including whole-genome sequencing (WGS. The ecology of MRSA in rats was described using phylogenetic analysis, geospatial analysis, and generalized linear mixed models. MRSA was identified 22 of 637 (3.5% rats tested, although prevalence varied from 0 - 50% among blocks. Isolates belonged to 4 clusters according to WGS, with the largest cluster (n = 10 containing isolates that were genetically indistinguishable from community-acquired USA300 MRSA strains isolated from people within the study area. MRSA strains demonstrated both geographic clustering and dispersion. The odds of an individual rat carrying MRSA increased with increased body fat (OR = 2.53, 95% CI = 1.33-4.82, and in the winter (OR = 5.29, 95% CI = 1.04-26.85 and spring (OR = 5.50, 95% CI = 1.10-27.58 compared to the fall. The results show that urban rats carried the same MRSA lineages occurring in local human and/or animal populations, supporting recent transmission from external sources. MRSA carriage was influenced by season, most likely as a result of temporal variation in rat behavior and rat-human interactions.

  12. Effect of combined nitrogen dioxide and carbon nanoparticle exposure on lung function during ovalbumin sensitization in Brown Norway rat.

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    Skander Layachi

    Full Text Available The interaction of particulate and gaseous pollutants in their effects on the severity of allergic inflammation and airway responsiveness are not well understood. We assessed the effect of exposure to NO(2 in the presence or absence of repetitive treatment with carbon nanoparticle (CNP during allergen sensitization and challenges in Brown-Norway (BN rat, in order to assess their interactions on lung function and airway responses (AR to allergen and methacholine (MCH, end-expiratory lung volume (EELV, bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF cellular content, serum and BALF cytokine levels and histological changes. Animals were divided into the following groups (n = 6: Control; CNP (Degussa-FW2: 13 nm, 0.5 mg/kg instilled intratracheally ×3 at 7-day intervals; OVA: ovalbumin-sensitised; OVA+CNP: both sensitized and exposed to CNP. Rats were divided into equal groups exposed either to air or to NO(2, 10 ppm, 6 h/d, 5d/wk for 4 weeks. Exposure to NO(2, significantly enhanced lung inflammation and airway reactivity, with a significantly larger effect in animals sensitized to allergen, which was related to a higher expression of TH1 and TH2-type cytokines. Conversely, exposure to NO(2 in animals undergoing repeated tracheal instillation of CNP alone, increased BALF neutrophilia and enhanced the expression of TH1 cytokines: TNF-α and IFN-γ, but did not show an additive effect on airway reactivity in comparison to NO(2 alone. The exposure to NO(2 combined with CNP treatment and allergen sensitization however, unexpectedly resulted in a significant decrease in both airway reactivity to allergen and to methacholine, and a reduction in TH2-type cytokines compared to allergen sensitization alone. EELV was significantly reduced with sensitization, CNP treatment or both. These data suggest an immunomodulatory effect of repeated tracheal instillation of CNP on the proinflammatory effects of NO(2 exposure in sensitized BN rat. Furthermore, our findings suggest

  13. Host stress and immune responses during aerosol challenge of Brown Norway rats with Yersinia pestis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susan T Gater

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Inhalation exposure models are becoming the preferred method for the comparative study of respiratory infectious diseases due to their resemblance to the natural route of infection. To enable precise delivery of pathogen to the lower respiratory tract in a manner that imposes minimal biosafety risk, nose-only exposure systems have been developed. Early inhalation exposure technology for infectious disease research grew out of technology used in asthma research where predominantly the Collison nebulizer is used to generate an aerosol by beating a liquid sample against glass. Although infectious aerosol droplets of 1-5µm in size can be generated, the Collison often causes loss of viability. In this work, we evaluate a gentler method for aerosolization of living cells and describe the use of the Sparging Liquid Aerosol Generator (SLAG in a rat pneumonic plague model. The SLAG creates aerosols by continuous dripping of liquid sample on a porous metal disc. We show the generation of 0.5 to 1µm Y. pestis aerosol particles using the SLAG with spray factors typically ranging from 10-7 to 10-8 with no detectable loss of bacterial viability. Delivery of these infectious particles via nose-only exposure led to the rapid development of lethal pneumonic plague. Further, we evaluated the effect of restraint-stress imposed by the nose-only exposure chamber on early inflammatory responses and bacterial deposition. Elevated serum corticosterone which peaked at 2 hrs post-procedure indicated the animals experienced stress as a result of restraint in the nose-only chamber. However, we observed no correlation between elevated corticosterone and the amount of bacterial deposition or inflammation in the lungs. Together these data demonstrate the utility of the SLAG and the nose-only chamber for aerosol challenge of rodents by Y. pestis.

  14. Introgression of Brown Norway CYP4A genes on to the Dahl salt-sensitive background restores vascular function in SS-5(BN) consomic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lukaszewicz, Kathleen M; Falck, John R; Manthati, Vijaya L; Lombard, Julian H

    2013-03-01

    The present study tested the hypothesis that the Dahl SS (salt-sensitive) rat has vascular dysfunction due, in part, to the up-regulation of the CYP4A/20-HETE (cytochrome P450 ω-hydroxylase 4A)/20-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid) system. To assess the role of vascular 20-HETE, SS rats were compared with SS-5(BN) consomic rats, carrying CYP4A alleles on chromosome 5 from the normotensive BN (Brown Norway) introgressed on to the SS genetic background. Cerebral arteries from SS-5(BN) rats had less CYP4A protein than arteries from SS rats fed either NS (normal-salt, 0.4% NaCl) or HS (high-salt, 4.0% NaCl) diet. ACh (acetylcholine)-induced dilation of MCAs (middle cerebral arteries) from SS and SS-5(BN) rats was present in SS-5(BN) rats fed on either an NS or HS diet, but absent in SS rats. In SS rats fed on either diet, ACh-induced dilation was restored by acute treatment with the CYP4A inhibitor DDMS (N-methyl-sulfonyl-12,12-dibromododec-11-enamide) or the 20-HETE antagonist 20-HEDE [20-hydroxyeicosa-6(Z),15(Z)-dienoic acid]. The restored response to ACh in DDMS-treated SS rats was inhibited by L-NAME (N(G)nitro-L-arginine methyl ester) and unaffected by indomethacin or MS-PPOH [N-methylsulfonyl-6-(2-propargyloxyphenyl)hexanamide]. Vascular relaxation responses to the NO donor C(5)FeN(6)Na(2)O were intact in both SS and SS-5(BN) rats and unaffected by the acute addition of DDMS, indicating that the vascular dysfunction of the SS rat is due to a reduced bioavailability of NO instead of failure of the VSMCs (vascular smooth muscle cells) to respond to the vasodilator. Superoxide levels in cerebral arteries of SS-5(BN) rats [evaluated semi-quantitatively by DHE (dihydroethidium) fluorescence] were lower than those in the arteries of SS rats. These findings indicate that SS rats have an up-regulation of the CYP4A/20-HETE pathway resulting in elevated ROS (reactive oxygen species) and reduced NO bioavailability causing vascular dysfunction.

  15. Activation of GPR30 improves exercise capacity and skeletal muscle strength in senescent female Fischer344 × Brown Norway rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hao; Alencar, Allan; Lin, Marina; Sun, Xuming; Sudo, Roberto T; Zapata-Sudo, Gisele; Lowe, Dawn A; Groban, Leanne

    2016-06-17

    The molecular mechanisms of muscle weakness and sarcopenia in postmenopausal women are largely unknown. To determine the effect of a new estrogen receptor, GPR30, in the maintenance of exercise capacity and skeletal muscle function in females, the selective GPR30 agonist, G1 (100 μg/kg/day), or vehicle (V, soybean oil) was administered subcutaneously daily (n = 7 per group) to ovariectomized (OVX) 27-month-old Fischer 344 × Brown Norway (F344BN) female rats. Following 8 weeks of treatment, the exercise capacity (treadmill walk time to exhaustion) was reduced in OVX vs. sham rats (5.1 ± 1.4 vs. 11.0 ± 0.9 min, P exercise capacity (12.9 ± 1.2 min; P exercise capacity and skeletal muscle contractile function in old F344BN rats. The protective effects of GPR30 might be through its upregulation of heat shock proteins in skeletal muscle. PMID:27173878

  16. Development of a respiratory sensitization/elicitation protocol of toluene diisocyanate (TDI) in Brown Norway rats to derive an elicitation-based occupational exposure level

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Toluene diisocyanate (TDI) was unequivocally identified as asthmagens in BN-rats. • The elicitation response on BAL-PMN was threshold-dose dependent. • The elicitation of asthma-like responses follow a concentration × time-relationship. • The human-equivalent dose–response was duplicated in rats. • The derived occupational exposure level (OEL) matches current standards. - Abstract: Toluene diisocyanate (TDI), a known human asthmagen, was investigated in skin-sensitized Brown Norway rats for its concentration × time (C × t)-response relationship on elicitation-based endpoints. The major goal of study was to determine the elicitation inhalation threshold dose in sensitized, re-challenged Brown Norway rats, including the associated variables affecting the dosimetry of inhaled TDI-vapor in rats and as to how these differences can be translated to humans. Attempts were made to duplicate at least some traits of human asthma by using skin-sensitized rats which were subjected to single or multiple inhalation-escalation challenge exposures. Two types of dose-escalation protocols were used to determine the elicitation-threshold C × t; one used a variable C (Cvar) and constant t (tconst), the other a constant C (Cconst) and variable t (tvar). The selection of the ''minimal irritant'' C was based an ancillary pre-studies. Neutrophilic granulocytes (PMNs) in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BAL) were considered as the endpoint of choice to integrate the allergic pulmonary inflammation. These were supplemented by physiological measurements characterizing nocturnal asthma-like responses and increased nitric oxide in exhaled breath (eNO). The Cconst × tvar regimen yielded the most conclusive dose–response relationship as long C was high enough to overcome the scrubbing capacity of the upper airways. Based on ancillary pre-studies in naïve rats, the related human-equivalent respiratory tract irritant threshold concentration was

  17. PREVALENCE AND CHARACTERISTICS OF ESCHERICHIA COLI AND SALMONELLA SPP. IN THE FECES OF WILD URBAN NORWAY AND BLACK RATS (RATTUS NORVEGICUS AND RATTUS RATTUS) FROM AN INNER-CITY NEIGHBORHOOD OF VANCOUVER, CANADA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Himsworth, Chelsea G; Zabek, Erin; Desruisseau, Andrea; Parmley, E Jane; Reid-Smith, Richard; Jardine, Claire M; Tang, Patrick; Patrick, David M

    2015-07-01

    Although rat feces are widely suspected to be a source of pathogenic bacteria, few investigators have studied fecal pathogens in rats. We investigated the prevalence and characteristics of Escherichia coli and Salmonella spp. in Norway and black rats (Rattus norvegicus and Rattus rattus, respectively) from an urban neighborhood of Vancouver, Canada, collected September 2011-August 2012. Colon content was cultured for E. coli and Salmonella spp. and screened for the seven most-common enteropathogenic Shiga toxin-producing E. coli (STEC) serotypes by PCR. Isolates were tested for antimicrobial resistance and Salmonella isolates were serotyped. We detected E. coli in 397/633 (62.7%) urban rats. Forty-one of 397 (6.5%) E. coli isolates were resistant to ≥ 1 antimicrobial while 17 (4.3%) were multidrug resistant (including two isolates demonstrating extended-spectrum β-lactamase resistance). Ten of 633 (1.6%) urban rats were carrying STEC serotypes including O145, O103, O26, and O45. Norway rats were more likely to be carrying E. coli compared to black rats, and there was geographic clustering of specific resistance patterns and STEC serotypes. Salmonella spp. were detected in 3/633 (0.5%) rats including serotypes Derby, Indiana, and Enteritidis. In contrast to zoonotic pathogens for which rats are the natural reservoir (e.g., Leptospira interrogans, Rickettsia typhi, Seoul virus), rats likely acquired E. coli and Salmonella spp. from their environment. The ability of rats to be a 'sponge' for environmental pathogens has received little consideration, and the ecology and public health significance of these organisms in rats requires further investigation.

  18. Effect of high-fructose and high-fat diets on pulmonary sensitivity, motor activity, and body composition of brown Norway rats exposed to ozone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, C J; Phillips, P M; Johnstone, A F M; Beasley, T E; Ledbetter, A D; Schladweiler, M C; Snow, S J; Kodavanti, U P

    2016-04-01

    Diet-induced obesity has been suggested to lead to increased susceptibility to air pollutants such as ozone (O3); however, there is little experimental evidence. Thirty day old male and female Brown Norway rats were fed a normal, high-fructose or high-fat diet for 12 weeks and then exposed to O3 (acute - air or 0.8 ppm O3 for 5 h, or subacute - air or 0.8 ppm O3 for 5 h/d 1 d/week for 4 weeks). Body composition was measured non-invasively using NMR. Ventilatory parameters and exploratory behavior were measured after the third week of subacute exposure. Bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) and blood chemistry data were collected 18 h after acute O3 and 18 h after the fourth week of subacute O3. The diets led to increased body fat in male but not female rats. O3-induced changes in ventilatory function were either unaffected or improved with the fructose and fat diets. O3-induced reduction in exploratory behavior was attenuated with fructose and fat diets in males and partially in females. O3 led to a significant decrease in body fat of males fed control diet but not the fructose or fat diet. O3 led to significant increases in BALF eosinophils, increase in albumin, and reductions in macrophages. Female rats appeared to be more affected than males to O3 regardless of diet. Overall, treatment with high-fructose and high-fat diets attenuated some O3 induced effects on pulmonary function, behavior, and metabolism. Exacerbation of toxicity was observed less frequently. PMID:27092583

  19. Range Measurement and a Habitat Suitability Map for the Norway Rat in a Highly Developed Urban Environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oyedele, Dauda Taofik; Sah, Shahrul Anuar Mohd; Kairuddinand, Liyana; Wan Ibrahim, Wan Mohd Muhiyuddin

    2015-12-01

    Studies of habitat suitability (HS) are essential when animals' habitats have been altered or when animals migrate to a habitat different from their natural habitat. This study assessed HS and used an integrated geographic information system in the assessment of Rattus norvegicus in a highly developed urban environment. Using data from the Campbell market and the police quarters of George Town, Malaysia, home range (through the use of 100% Minimum Convex Polygon [MCP], 95% MCP and 95% Harmonic Mean [HM]) was estimated. Home range for male rats at Campbell market reached an asymptote, with a slight increase, at 96 radio fixes (home range = 133.52 m(2); core area = 29.39 m(2)). Female rats reached an asymptote at 62 radio fixes (home range = 13.38 m(2); core area = 9.17 m(2)). At Campbell market, male rats emerged at 1900 hours every day, whereas females emerged at 2000 hours; at police quarters, the most common time of emergence for males was 2000 hours and for females was 2200. Raster charts of R. norvegicus showed that rat hot spots can be grouped into 4 zones (market, shop houses, settlement and general places). The standardised raster chart isolated the market as the major rallying points of the rats (hot spots) by producing the highest rats frequencies of 255. All of the habitat suitability thresholds, including the built-up points, skip bins, water source and nature of the site explored in this study, produced a structural pattern (monotonic increase or decrease) of habitat suitability.

  20. Resistance to re-challenge in the Brown Norway rat model of vasculitis is not always complete and may reveal separate effector and regulatory populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinen, C S; Turner, D R; Oliveira, D B G

    2004-01-01

    Administration of mercuric chloride to Brown Norway rats results in T helper type 2 (Th2)- dominated autoimmunity characterized by high immunoglobulin E (IgE) concentrations, the production of multiple IgG autoantibodies, including those to glomerular basement membrane (GBM), arthritis and caecal vasculitis. After 14 days animals immunoregulate and auto-immunity resolves even if mercuric chloride injections are continued. In a third phase, if animals are re-challenged with mercuric chloride 6 weeks later, they show only attenuated autoimmunity with lower anti-GBM antibody concentrations and arthritis scores. Resistance to the induction of anti-GBM antibodies can also be achieved following an initial challenge with low-dose (one-tenth standard dose) mercuric chloride. We have now studied this resistant phase in more detail. We have shown, first, that following an initial full-dose mercuric chloride challenge, resistance also affects susceptibility to caecal vasculitis. Second, following an initial full-dose mercuric chloride challenge, the IgE response upon re-challenge is initially accelerated but subsequently enters a resistant phase and third, following an initial challenge with low-dose mercuric chloride, resistance is also seen to the induction of caecal vasculitis but is not seen in IgE serology (where results suggest competing effector and regulatory cell populations). Studying such regulatory phases in animal models of autoimmunity may be of benefit in the future in designing new therapies for human vasculitis. PMID:15379988

  1. A central role for the mast cell in early phase vasculitis in the Brown Norway rat model of vasculitis: a histological study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinen, Catherine S; Turner, David R; Oliveira, David B G

    2004-01-01

    Administration of mercuric chloride (HgCl2) to Brown Norway rats causes Th2-dominated autoimmunity with raised immunoglobulin E concentrations and gut vasculitis, both of which are T-cell dependent, peak at 14 days after starting HgCl2 and then spontaneously resolve. If animals are re-challenged with HgCl2 6 weeks after initial exposure, they are resistant to autoimmunity, developing only attenuated disease. Recently, a separate phase of early caecal vasculitis was described beginning 24 h after initiating HgCl2 and prior to caecal entry of T cells. Previous work suggested this early vasculitis was αβ T-cell independent and implied a role for mast cells. We further tested this hypothesis by performing a histological study during the first 93 h following HgCl2 challenge defining the precise relationship between gut mast cell degranulation and appearing caecal vasculitis. We also studied whether early caecal vasculitis enters a resistant phase upon re-challenge with HgCl2. We show a direct correlation between mast cell degranulation and early caecal vasculitis following initial HgCl2 challenge. We demonstrate resistance to re-challenge in this phase of injury, with results at re-challenge also showing a correlation between mast cell degranulation and early caecal injury. PMID:15255970

  2. Toluene effects on Oxidative Stress in Brain regions of Young-adult, Middleage,and Senescent Brown Norway Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    The influence of aging on susceptibility to environmental contaminants is not well understood. To extend knowledge in this area, we examined effects in rat brain of the volatile organic compound toluene. The objective was to test whether oxidative stress plays a role in the adver...

  3. Seoul virus suppresses NF-κB-mediated inflammatory responses of antigen presenting cells from Norway rats

    OpenAIRE

    Au, Rebecca Y.; Jedlicka, Anne E.; Li, Wei; Pekosz, Andrew; Klein, Sabra L.

    2010-01-01

    Hantavirus infection reduces antiviral defenses, increases regulatory responses, and causes persistent infection in rodent hosts. To address whether hantaviruses alter the maturation and functional activity of antigen presenting cells (APCs), rat bone marrow-derived dendritic cells (BMDCs) and macrophages (BMDMs) were generated and infected with Seoul virus (SEOV) or stimulated with TLR ligands. SEOV infected both DCs and macrophages, but copies of viral RNA, viral antigen, and infectious vir...

  4. A mixed methods approach to exploring the relationship between Norway rat (Rattus norvegicus abundance and features of the urban environment in an inner-city neighborhood of Vancouver, Canada.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chelsea G Himsworth

    Full Text Available Urban rats (Rattus spp. are among the most ubiquitous pest species in the world. Previous research has shown that rat abundance is largely determined by features of the environment; however, the specific urban environmental factors that influence rat population density within cities have yet to be clearly identified. Additionally, there are no well described tools or methodologies for conducting an in-depth evaluation of the relationship between urban rat abundance and the environment. In this study, we developed a systematic environmental observation tool using methods borrowed from the field of systematic social observation. This tool, which employed a combination of quantitative and qualitative methodologies, was then used to identify environmental factors associated with the relative abundance of Norway rats (Rattus norvegicus in an inner-city neighborhood of Vancouver, Canada. Using a multivariate zero-inflated negative binomial model, we found that a variety of factors, including specific land use, building condition, and amount of refuse, were related to rat presence and abundance. Qualitative data largely supported and further clarified observed statistical relationships, but also identified conflicting and unique situations not easily captured through quantitative methods. Overall, the tool helped us to better understand the relationship between features of the urban environment and relative rat abundance within our study area and may useful for studying environmental determinants of zoonotic disease prevalence/distribution among urban rat populations in the future.

  5. A mixed methods approach to exploring the relationship between Norway rat (Rattus norvegicus) abundance and features of the urban environment in an inner-city neighborhood of Vancouver, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Himsworth, Chelsea G; Parsons, Kirbee L; Feng, Alice Y T; Kerr, Thomas; Jardine, Claire M; Patrick, David M

    2014-01-01

    Urban rats (Rattus spp.) are among the most ubiquitous pest species in the world. Previous research has shown that rat abundance is largely determined by features of the environment; however, the specific urban environmental factors that influence rat population density within cities have yet to be clearly identified. Additionally, there are no well described tools or methodologies for conducting an in-depth evaluation of the relationship between urban rat abundance and the environment. In this study, we developed a systematic environmental observation tool using methods borrowed from the field of systematic social observation. This tool, which employed a combination of quantitative and qualitative methodologies, was then used to identify environmental factors associated with the relative abundance of Norway rats (Rattus norvegicus) in an inner-city neighborhood of Vancouver, Canada. Using a multivariate zero-inflated negative binomial model, we found that a variety of factors, including specific land use, building condition, and amount of refuse, were related to rat presence and abundance. Qualitative data largely supported and further clarified observed statistical relationships, but also identified conflicting and unique situations not easily captured through quantitative methods. Overall, the tool helped us to better understand the relationship between features of the urban environment and relative rat abundance within our study area and may useful for studying environmental determinants of zoonotic disease prevalence/distribution among urban rat populations in the future.

  6. Brown Norway rats, a putative schizophrenia model, show increased electroencephalographic activity at rest and decreased event-related potential amplitude, power, and coherence in the auditory sensory gating paradigm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomimatsu, Yoshiro; Hibino, Ryosuke; Ohta, Hiroyuki

    2015-08-01

    In recent schizophrenia clinical research, electroencephalographic (EEG) oscillatory activities induced by a sensory stimulus or behavioral tasks have gained considerable interest as functional and pathophysiological biomarkers. The Brown Norway (BN) rat is a putative schizophrenia model that shows naturally low sensorimotor gating and deficits in cognitive performance, although other phenotypes have not been studied. The present study aimed to investigate the neurophysiological features of BN rats, particularly EEG/event-related potential (ERP). EEG activity was recorded at rest and during the auditory sensory gating paradigm under an awake, freely moving condition. Frequency and ERP analysis were performed along with time-frequency analysis of evoked power and intertrial coherence. Compared with Wistar-Kyoto rats, a well-documented control line, BN rats showed increased EEG power at rest, particularly in the theta and gamma ranges. In ERP analysis, BN rats showed reduced N40-P20 amplitude but normal sensory gating. The rats also showed reduced evoked power and intertrial coherence against auditory stimuli. These results suggest that BN rats show features of EEG/ERP measures clinically relevant to schizophrenia and may provide additional opportunities for translational research.

  7. Oral administration of drugs with hypersensitivity potential induces germinal center hyperplasia in secondary lymphoid organ/tissue in Brown Norway rats, and this histological lesion is a promising candidate as a predictive biomarker for drug hypersensitivity occurrence in humans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tamura, Akitoshi, E-mail: akitoshi-tamura@ds-pharma.co.jp; Miyawaki, Izuru; Yamada, Toru; Kimura, Juki; Funabashi, Hitoshi

    2013-08-15

    It is important to evaluate the potential of drug hypersensitivity as well as other adverse effects during the preclinical stage of the drug development process, but validated methods are not available yet. In the present study we examined whether it would be possible to develop a new predictive model of drug hypersensitivity using Brown Norway (BN) rats. As representative drugs with hypersensitivity potential in humans, phenytoin (PHT), carbamazepine (CBZ), amoxicillin (AMX), and sulfamethoxazole (SMX) were orally administered to BN rats for 28 days to investigate their effects on these animals by examinations including observation of clinical signs, hematology, determination of serum IgE levels, histology, and flow cytometric analysis. Skin rashes were not observed in any animals treated with these drugs. Increases in the number of circulating inflammatory cells and serum IgE level did not necessarily occur in the animals treated with these drugs. However, histological examination revealed that germinal center hyperplasia was commonly induced in secondary lymphoid organs/tissues in the animals treated with these drugs. In cytometric analysis, changes in proportions of lymphocyte subsets were noted in the spleen of the animals treated with PHT or CBZ during the early period of administration. The results indicated that the potential of drug hypersensitivity was identified in BN rat by performing histological examination of secondary lymphoid organs/tissues. Data obtained herein suggested that drugs with hypersensitivity potential in humans gained immune reactivity in BN rat, and the germinal center hyperplasia induced by administration of these drugs may serve as a predictive biomarker for drug hypersensitivity occurrence. - Highlights: • We tested Brown Norway rats as a candidate model for predicting drug hypersensitivity. • The allergic drugs did not induce skin rash, whereas D-penicillamine did so in the rats. • Some of allergic drugs increased

  8. Oral administration of drugs with hypersensitivity potential induces germinal center hyperplasia in secondary lymphoid organ/tissue in Brown Norway rats, and this histological lesion is a promising candidate as a predictive biomarker for drug hypersensitivity occurrence in humans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It is important to evaluate the potential of drug hypersensitivity as well as other adverse effects during the preclinical stage of the drug development process, but validated methods are not available yet. In the present study we examined whether it would be possible to develop a new predictive model of drug hypersensitivity using Brown Norway (BN) rats. As representative drugs with hypersensitivity potential in humans, phenytoin (PHT), carbamazepine (CBZ), amoxicillin (AMX), and sulfamethoxazole (SMX) were orally administered to BN rats for 28 days to investigate their effects on these animals by examinations including observation of clinical signs, hematology, determination of serum IgE levels, histology, and flow cytometric analysis. Skin rashes were not observed in any animals treated with these drugs. Increases in the number of circulating inflammatory cells and serum IgE level did not necessarily occur in the animals treated with these drugs. However, histological examination revealed that germinal center hyperplasia was commonly induced in secondary lymphoid organs/tissues in the animals treated with these drugs. In cytometric analysis, changes in proportions of lymphocyte subsets were noted in the spleen of the animals treated with PHT or CBZ during the early period of administration. The results indicated that the potential of drug hypersensitivity was identified in BN rat by performing histological examination of secondary lymphoid organs/tissues. Data obtained herein suggested that drugs with hypersensitivity potential in humans gained immune reactivity in BN rat, and the germinal center hyperplasia induced by administration of these drugs may serve as a predictive biomarker for drug hypersensitivity occurrence. - Highlights: • We tested Brown Norway rats as a candidate model for predicting drug hypersensitivity. • The allergic drugs did not induce skin rash, whereas D-penicillamine did so in the rats. • Some of allergic drugs increased

  9. Robotics Research in Norway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.R. Hølpødt

    1984-07-01

    Full Text Available Except for some districts and industries, the population of industrial robots in Norway is low. Trallfa AS is definitely the largest producer of robots in Norway. Jonas Oglænd A/S formerly produced handling manipulators, but they are now produced abroad. New companies such as NORKYB are developing. In addition to Trallfa and Oglænd, the development of robot systems is done by different research institutes such as the Center for Industrial Research (SI, SINTEF and the Rogaland Research Center (RF. These institutes do research work both for the robot manufacturers and directly for end users.

  10. Speed enforcement in Norway

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elvik, Rune

    2015-01-01

    This paper probes the relationship between changes in the risk of apprehension for speeding in Norway and changes in the amount of speeding. The paper is based on a game-theoretic model of how the rate of violations and the amount of enforcement is determined by the interaction between drivers...

  11. Educational Assessment in Norway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tveit, Sverre

    2014-01-01

    Norway has seen major changes in the field of educational assessment over the past decade, following the 2001 '"PISA shock" that stimulated reform of the entire primary and secondary education systems: new outcome-based curricula with cross-disciplinary basic skills were accompanied by major revision of assessment regulations,…

  12. Effect of high-fructose and high-fat diets on pulmonary sensitivity, motor activity, and body composition of brown Norway rats exposed to ozone

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — pulmonary parameters, BALF biomarkers, body composition, motor activity data collected from rats exposed to ozone after high fructose or high fat diets. This...

  13. Norway: health system review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ringard, Ånen; Sagan, Anna; Sperre Saunes, Ingrid; Lindahl, Anne Karin

    2013-01-01

    Norways five million inhabitants are spread over nearly four hundred thousand square kilometres, making it one of the most sparsely populated countries in Europe. It has enjoyed several decades of high growth, following the start of oil production in early 1970s, and is now one of the richest countries per head in the world. Overall, Norways population enjoys good health status; life expectancy of 81.53 years is above the EU average of 80.14, and the gap between overall life expectancy and healthy life years is around half the of EU average. The health care system is semi decentralized. The responsibility for specialist care lies with the state (administered by four Regional Health Authorities) and the municipalities are responsible for primary care. Although health care expenditure is only 9.4% of Norways GDP (placing it on the 16th place in the WHO European region), given Norways very high value of GDP per capita, its health expenditure per head is higher than in most countries. Public sources account for over 85% of total health expenditure; the majority of private health financing comes from households out-of-pocket payments.The number of practitioners in most health personnel groups, including physicians and nurses, has been increasing in the last few decades and the number of health care personnel per 100 000 inhabitants is high compared to other EU countries. However, long waiting times for elective care continue to be a problem and are cause of dissatisfaction among the patients. The focus of health care reforms has seen shifts over the past four decades. During the 1970s the focus was on equality and increasing geographical access to health care services; during the 1980s reforms aimed at achieving cost containment and decentralizing health care services; during the 1990s the focus was on efficiency. Since the beginning of the millennium the emphasis has been given to structural changes in the delivery and organization of health care and to policies

  14. Omparative study on allergen assessment animal models in brown norway rat and guinea pig%BN大鼠与豚鼠用于药物致敏性评价的比较

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘婷; 梁爱华; 易艳; 李春英; 赵雍; 郝然; 曹春雨

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To compare the sensitivity of Brown Norway rats (BN) with Guinea pigs (GP) as allergen assessment animal models. Method: BN rats and GP were randomly assigned to 1 control group, 2 Bovine serum albumin group (BSA) . Respectively. Animals in BSA groups of BN rats and GPs were sensitized by intraperitoneal injection of 0.6% BSA 1 ml on day 1, 3, 5, respectively, and irritated by intravenous injection of 2.4 % BSA 1 ml on day7 and day 14 after the last sensitization, while the same volume of normal saline was given to control group on each time point mentioned above. The allergic reactions were scored within 1 h after each irritation treatment, and the sera of both BN rats and GPs were collected to detect IgE concentration by using ELISA. The sera were also applied for passive cutaneous anaphylaxis test (PCA test) in SD rats. Result: No obvious allergic reactions were observed in BSA group of GPs after each irritation treat, however, the score of allergic response in BSA group of BN rats was evidently higher than that in control group after first irritation. PCA test by using sera from BSA group of BN rats after both irritations showed the strong positive result characterized as large amount of subcutaneous effusions of Evans blue in SD rats, however, the sera from BSA group of GP were negative in PCA test. Serum IgE concentration did not increase after each irritation in BSA group of both BN rats and GP. Conclusion: BN rats were more sensitive than GPs on initiative systemic anaphylaxis test and passive cutaneous anaphylaxis test. Meanwhile, BN rats has an advantage in experimental treatment compared with Guinea pigs .%目的:比较豚鼠和BN大鼠过敏试验,以寻找用于致敏原检测的更为敏感的动物模型.方法:将白色豚鼠和BN大鼠(Brown Norway rat)分别随机分为2组:1正常对照组,2牛血清白蛋白组.牛血清白蛋白组于试验的1,3,5 d分别腹腔注射0.6%牛血清白蛋白以致敏,1 mL/次,共3次.对照组腹腔

  15. LNG imports from Norway

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper is organized as follows: The first section outlines Norway's petroleum reserves and relates reserves of natural gas to potential markets. Then the paper focuses on specific fields or areas that could be devoted partly or mainly to service the US natural gas market. Finally, some indications are given of costs involved in field development, liquefaction and transportation and some very preliminary conclusions are arrived upon

  16. Corporatism in Denmark and Norway

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simonsen, Mikkel Mailand

    2009-01-01

    The literature of corporatism tends to bypass most Scandinavian countries and ignore state-social partner relations not related to wage bargaining and income policy. This contribution attempts to overcome both these shortcomings. It concludes that corporatism is alive in Denmark and Norway. The s......, in Norway ‘peak-level' corporatism on wage setting remains stronger than in Denmark, whereas ‘meso-level' corporatism (corporatism in specific policy area) is stronger in Denmark than in Norway....

  17. Use of Monte Carlo simulations with a realistic rat phantom for examining the correlation between hematopoietic system response and red marrow absorbed dose in Brown Norway rats undergoing radionuclide therapy with 177Lu- and 90Y-BR96 mAbs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: Biokinetic and dosimetry studies in laboratory animals often precede clinical radionuclide therapies in humans. A reliable evaluation of therapeutic efficacy is essential and should be based on accurate dosimetry data from a realistic dosimetry model. The aim of this study was to develop an anatomically realistic dosimetry model for Brown Norway rats to calculate S factors for use in evaluating correlations between absorbed dose and biological effects in a preclinical therapy study. Methods: A realistic rat phantom (Roby) was used, which has some flexibility that allows for a redefinition of organ sizes. The phantom was modified to represent the anatomic geometry of a Brown Norway rat, which was used for Monte Carlo calculations of S factors. Kinetic data for radiolabeled BR96 monoclonal antibodies were used to calculate the absorbed dose. Biological data were gathered from an activity escalation study with 90Y- and 177Lu-labeled BR96 monoclonal antibodies, in which blood cell counts and bodyweight were examined up to 2 months follow-up after injection. Reductions in white blood cell and platelet counts and declines in bodyweight were quantified by four methods and compared to the calculated absorbed dose to the bone marrow or the total body. Results: A red marrow absorbed dose-dependent effect on hematological parameters was observed, which could be evaluated by a decrease in blood cell counts. The absorbed dose to the bone marrow, corresponding to the maximal tolerable activity that could safely be administered, was determined to 8.3 Gy for 177Lu and 12.5 Gy for 90Y. Conclusions: There was a clear correlation between the hematological effects, quantified with some of the studied parameters, and the calculated red marrow absorbed doses. The decline in body weight was stronger correlated to the total body absorbed dose, rather than the red marrow absorbed dose. Finally, when considering a constant activity concentration, the phantom weight, ranging from

  18. Charity ethical investment in Norway

    OpenAIRE

    Kreander, Niklas; Beattie, Vivien; McPhail, Ken

    2010-01-01

    The charity and voluntary sector in Norway is substantial (Sivesind, 2007). Yet we know of no academic research which focuses on charity ethical investment in Norway. We have examined charity ethical investment policies and how these policies relate to the aims of charitable organisations. We survey large Norwegian charities using a postal questionnaire and semi structured interviews. The findings show that few charities publish an ethical investment policy, and it is often lim...

  19. NORWAY: a nuclear demonstration project?

    CERN Multimedia

    Clery, Daniel

    2007-01-01

    "Egil Lillestøl is a man with a rather unusual mission: he wants his homeland of Norway to take the lead in developement of of a new form of nuclear power. Norway is Europe's largest petroleum exporter, from its North Sea oil and gas fields, and Lillestøl, a physicist at the University of Bergen, believes the country needs to do something about its carbon emissions.

  20. Passive houses in Norway

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Halse, Andreas

    2008-12-15

    The paper analyzes the introduction of passive houses in the Norwegian house market. Passive houses are houses with extremely low levels of energy consumption for heating, and have not yet been built in Norway, but have started to enter the market in Germany and some other countries. The construction sector is analyzed as a sectoral innovation system. The different elements of the innovation system are studied. This includes government agencies, producers, consumers, finance and education. The analysis shows that passive and low-energy houses are on the verge of market breakthrough. This can partly be explained by economic calculations, and partly by processes of learning and change in the institutional set-up of the sector. The construction sector is a sector characterized by low innovative intensity and little interaction between different agents. Those working to promote passive houses have to some extent managed to cope with these challenges. This has happened by breaking away from the traditional focus of Norwegian energy efficiency policies on technology and the economically rational agents, by instead focusing on knowledge and institutional change at the level of the producers. (Author)

  1. Longyearbyen, Svalbard, Norway

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    Longyearbyen is the administrative center of Svalbard and is located on Spitsbergen, the largest island of the Svalbard archipelago, part of the Kingdom of Norway. It is the world's northernmost town with over 1000 people. The settlement was founded in 1906 by John Longyear, owner of the Arctic Coal Company. Until the early 1990s the coal mining industry was the major employer of Longyearbyen. Near Longyearbyen, the Global Crop Diversity Trust administers the Svalbard Global Seed Vault, an Arctic safe capable of storing millions of crop seeds as a safeguard against natural and human disasters. Last week, the first deposit of 250,000 different species of crop seeds was made into the repository. The perspective view was created by draping a simulated natural color image over an ASTER-derived digital elevation model. The image was acquired July 12, 2003, and is located at 78.2 degrees north latitude, 15.6 degrees east longitude. The U.S. science team is located at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. The Terra mission is part of NASA's Science Mission Directorate.

  2. Nuclear emergency planning in Norway

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The nuclear emergency planning in Norway is forming a part of the Search and Rescue Service of the country. Due to the fact that Norway do not have any nucleat power reactor, the nuclear emergency planning has not been given high priority. The problems however are a part of the activity of the National Institute of Radiation Hygiene, and the emergency preparedness is at the present time to a large extent based on the availability of professional health physicists and their knowledge, rather than established practices

  3. 77 FR 58592 - Modified Norway Post Agreement

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-21

    ... Modified Norway Post Agreement AGENCY: Postal Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Commission is noticing a recently-filed Postal Service request to include a modified Norway Post Agreement... existing bilateral agreement for inbound competitive services with Posten Norge AS (Modified Norway...

  4. Sleipner mishap jolts booming Norway

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper reports on Norway's buoyant offshore industry that was stunned when the concrete substructure for Sleipner natural gas field's main production platform sank in the Grandsfjord off Stavanger late last month. The accident, a blow to Norway's gas sales program in Europe, came with offshore activity in the Norwegian North Sea moving into a new boom period. Currently, 10 oil and gas fields are under development, and several projects are on the drawing board. Aker Oil and Gas, a leading offshore firm, says the country's construction industry will be working at capacity for the next 4 years. Norwegian oil production has been hovering just below 2 million b/d since the beginning of this year, making Norway the North Sea's largest producer, a position formerly held by the U.K. Gas production averages about 3 bcfd. With European gas demand sharply increasing, Norway is under pressure to increase output from new fields in the mid to late 1990s. The Sleipner setback forces state owned Den norske stats oljeselskap AS (Statoil) to cast around for supplies. Sleipner was to have begun deliveries to a consortium of continental gas companies in October 1993. Statoil believes it can fill the gap from existing fields in Norwegian waters

  5. Sex Education in Multicultural Norway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartz, Tiffany

    2007-01-01

    Scandinavia has long been admired by American liberals and sex education advocates who cite comparable rates of adolescent sexuality, yet lower rates of teenage pregnancy, sexually transmitted diseases and abortion in Scandinavia. The United States has, however, two variables with which Scandinavia in general, and Norway in particular, has not…

  6. Saltfjellet-Svartisen Park, Norway

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-01-01

    The Arctic Circle cuts through the western coast of Norway and the Saltfjellet-Svartisen National Park. This area features many glacial fjords, alpine mountain formations with glacier tongues, as well as gently sloping mountain plateaus and forested lowland valleys. The largest city here is Mo I Rana, (just off the image to the east) with a population of 25,000 (26th most populous city in Norway). Once supported entirely by the town's steel mill, the area has developed into a tourist center. The image covers an area of 51 x 57 km, was acquired on August 23, 2006, and is located near 66.6 degrees north latitude, 13 degrees east longitude. The U.S. science team is located at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. The Terra mission is part of NASA's Science Mission Directorate.

  7. Notes from Visit to Norway and Germany

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DuanXiumin; ChangJiuqing

    2004-01-01

    At the invitation of Norway Moral Rearmament (MRA) and German Friedrich-Ebert Foundation (FES), CAFIU delegation headed by Mr. Zhu Dacheng, Vice-President of CAFIU visited Norway and Germany in the middle of May. As a member ofthe delegation,

  8. Statistical Yearbook of Norway 2012

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-07-01

    The Statistical Yearbook of Norway 2012 contains statistics on Norway and main figures for the Nordic countries and other countries selected from international statistics. The international over-views are integrated with the other tables and figures. The selection of tables in this edition is mostly the same as in the 2011 edition. The yearbook's 480 tables and figures present the main trends in official statistics in most areas of society. The list of tables and figures and an index at the back of the book provide easy access to relevant information. In addition, source information and Internet addresses below the tables make the yearbook a good starting point for those who are looking for more detailed statistics. The statistics are based on data gathered in statistical surveys and from administrative data, which, in cooperation with other public institutions, have been made available for statistical purposes. Some tables have been prepared in their entirety by other public institutions. The statistics follow approved principles, standards and classifications that are in line with international recommendations and guidelines. Content: 00. General subjects; 01. Environment; 02. Population; 03. Health and social conditions; 04. Education; 05. Personal economy and housing conditions; 06. Labour market; 07. Recreational, cultural and sporting activities; 08. Prices and indices; 09. National Economy and external trade; 10. Industrial activities; 11. Financial markets; 12. Public finances; Geographical survey.(eb)

  9. Nutrient imbalance in Norway spruce

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The studies presented in my thesis indicate that growing Norway spruce in monoculture does not constitute sustainable forest management in a high N and S deposition environment, such as in southern Sweden. The combination of N-induced high growth rates and leaching due to soil acidification causes soil reserves of nutrients to decrease. This will increase the risk of nutrient imbalance within the trees when nutrient demands are not met. The development of nutrient imbalance in Scania, southern Sweden, was shown as negative trends in needle and soil nutrient status from the mid-80s to the present in Norway spruce and Scots pine stands. This imbalance appears to be connected to high levels of N and S deposition. Clear negative effects on tree vitality were found when using a new branch development method. Today, growth and vitality seems to be limited by K, rather than N, in spruce stands older than 40 years. However, younger stands appear to be able to absorb the deposited N without negative effects on growth and vitality. When investigating effects of nutrient stress on tree vitality, indicators such as branch length and shoot multiplication rate, which include effects accumulated over several years, are suitable. Countermeasures are needed in order to maintain the forest production at a high level. Positive effects on tree nutrient status after vitality fertilization (N-free fertilization) was shown in two micronutrient deficient stands in south-central Sweden. In addition, tree vitality was positively affected after the application of a site-adapted fertilizer to the canopy. Site-adaption of fertilizers will most likely improve the possibilities of a positive response on tree growth and vitality in declining stands. In a survey of Norway spruce in mixtures with beech, birch, or oak compared to monocultures it was shown that spruce nutrient status was higher in mixtures with deciduous species than in monocultures. By using mixed-species stands the need for

  10. Nutrient imbalance in Norway spruce

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thelin, Gunnar

    2000-11-01

    The studies presented in my thesis indicate that growing Norway spruce in monoculture does not constitute sustainable forest management in a high N and S deposition environment, such as in southern Sweden. The combination of N-induced high growth rates and leaching due to soil acidification causes soil reserves of nutrients to decrease. This will increase the risk of nutrient imbalance within the trees when nutrient demands are not met. The development of nutrient imbalance in Scania, southern Sweden, was shown as negative trends in needle and soil nutrient status from the mid-80s to the present in Norway spruce and Scots pine stands. This imbalance appears to be connected to high levels of N and S deposition. Clear negative effects on tree vitality were found when using a new branch development method. Today, growth and vitality seems to be limited by K, rather than N, in spruce stands older than 40 years. However, younger stands appear to be able to absorb the deposited N without negative effects on growth and vitality. When investigating effects of nutrient stress on tree vitality, indicators such as branch length and shoot multiplication rate, which include effects accumulated over several years, are suitable. Countermeasures are needed in order to maintain the forest production at a high level. Positive effects on tree nutrient status after vitality fertilization (N-free fertilization) was shown in two micronutrient deficient stands in south-central Sweden. In addition, tree vitality was positively affected after the application of a site-adapted fertilizer to the canopy. Site-adaption of fertilizers will most likely improve the possibilities of a positive response on tree growth and vitality in declining stands. In a survey of Norway spruce in mixtures with beech, birch, or oak compared to monocultures it was shown that spruce nutrient status was higher in mixtures with deciduous species than in monocultures. By using mixed-species stands the need for

  11. Evaluation of Research in Engineering Science in Norway

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Van Brussel, Hendrik Van Brussel; Lindberg, Bengt; Cederwall, Klas;

    This report presents the conclusions of Panel 1: Construction engineering, Production and Operation. The Research Council of Norway (NFR) appointed three expert panels to evaluate Research in Engineering Science in Norway .......This report presents the conclusions of Panel 1: Construction engineering, Production and Operation. The Research Council of Norway (NFR) appointed three expert panels to evaluate Research in Engineering Science in Norway ....

  12. Energy Norway 2011; Energi Norge 2011

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-07-01

    Whereas in the beginning of 2011 was directed much attention to the record low rainfall and record high energy prices, the end of the year was characterized by quite different disturbances. Powerful storms in many parts of the country led to much debate about the security of supply. The whole year has Energy Norway worked to highlight the need for further network expansion both in Norway and to Norway. Renewable energy can only be used when it is transported to where it is needed. In 2011, the new players in the energy debate in partnership with the industry pointed to the significant challenges that slow licensing procedures for network and production facilities represent for society. Through the launch of A green thread Energy Norway sat focus on electricity as clean energy carrier and its unique role in a low carbon society. Read more about our work in the annual report.(eb)

  13. Radiological diagnostic examinations in Norway - 1983

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In 1983 the frequency of medical X-ray examinations in Norway has been reported to 641.3 examinations per 1000 inhabitants. Geographical variations are presented as well as the relative frequency of approximately 70 different examinations

  14. Heterobasidion root rot in Norway spruce

    OpenAIRE

    Thor, Magnus

    2005-01-01

    In spite of its biological and economic impact on Swedish forestry, root rot caused by Heterobasidion annosum (Fr.) Bref. sensu lato has received no or little attention in forest planning. This thesis summarizes and discusses two experiments involving prophylactic treatment of stumps, and three investigations on the modelling and simulation of root rot in coniferous stands with special emphasis on Norway spruce (Picea abies [L.] Karst.). In 14 previously unthinned stands of Norway spruce, the...

  15. Energy use in Norway: An international perspective

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Unander, F.F.; Alm, L.K.; Schipper, L.

    1997-06-01

    The report examines the evolution of the structure and intensity of energy use in the main sectors of the Norwegian economy such as manufacturing, residential sector, services, and transport. The development in Norway is contrasted and compared to that in nine other countries such as Denmark, Sweden, Finland, Germany, U.K., France, Italy, United States, and Japan. The results show that Norway per capita energy use (excluding energy use in petroleum production) in 1992, after USA and Finland, was the highest of the 10 OECD countries being studied. Together with Finland, Norway showed the strongest growth in energy use per capita from 1973 to 1992. Some of the increased energy use in Norway can be attributed to more energy intensive structure and higher activity levels in the Norwegian economy. If the effect from changes in these two factors is excluded by holding the activity and structure in each sector constant at its 1973-level and only vary sub-sectorial energy intensities, Norway is still the country with the least reduction in energy intensities over the period from 1973 to 1992. Important underlying reasons in the same period are caused by increased indoor comfort level and the availability of both low-cost hydro power and biomass resources partly sheltering Norway from the impact of higher oil prices. 12 refs., 47 figs., 3 tabs.

  16. Current status of toxoplasmosis in pregnancy in Norway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stray-Pedersen, B; Jenum, P

    1992-01-01

    The paper reports previous epidemiologic data obtained in Norway and describes briefly the design of a prospective study of primary toxoplasma infection which will be carried out among pregnant women in Norway in the period 1992-1994.

  17. American Studies in Norway: Past and Present

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ole O. Moen

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Norwegian “studies” of America started really more than a thousand years ago, when Leif Ericsson landed in Vinland, his name for that part of New Foundland where his party made quarters around the year A.D. 1000. However, it was not until 1825 that modern mass emigration from Norway to America started in earnest, when a small sailing vessel, the sloop Restaurationen, left the little village of Tysvær on the west coast of Norway, near Stavanger, for New York, carrying a load of 52 Quaker emigr...

  18. Mammography activity in Norway 1983 to 2008

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lynge, Elsebeth; Braaten, Tonje; Njor, Sisse H;

    2011-01-01

    In Norway, an organized screening mammography program, the Norwegian Breast Cancer Screening Program (NBCSP) started in four counties in 1996 and became nationwide in 2004. We collected data on pre-program screening activity, and in view of this activity we evaluated the potential impact of the p......In Norway, an organized screening mammography program, the Norwegian Breast Cancer Screening Program (NBCSP) started in four counties in 1996 and became nationwide in 2004. We collected data on pre-program screening activity, and in view of this activity we evaluated the potential impact...

  19. Inclusive Women's Organisations in Denmark and Norway?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pristed Nielsen, Helene; Thun, Cecilie

    2010-01-01

    The article demonstrates how majority women’s organizations in Denmark and Norway react differently to the challenge of collaborating with new groups of women in society. The question of collaboration with minority women’s organizations prompts existing majority organizations to navigate between ...

  20. Mid-Norway power study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2008-06-15

    This report documents the results of a four months study by Shell in relation to the request from the Petroleum and Energy Minister to evaluate the viability of developing a gas fired power plant in the Nyhamna area. The power plant sizes studied are 50, 200, 430 and 860 MW nominal output, both with and without a Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS) facilities and with an earliest start up of 2014. The power supply and demand balance is evaluated to investigate the case for building a power plant depending on demand development in the mid-Norway region. The report concludes that there is a deficit in the region which will probably be addressed through a combination of planned measures, including the planned 400 MW capacity transmission line (Oerskog to Fardal) and temporary power plants at Tjebegodden and Nyhamna together with an assumed new 2 TWh/yr capacity small hydro and wind power projects. However, a commercial sized power plant (400 MW or larger) could provide a more robust means of supply as well as provide the potential for further demand growth. The study has evaluated technical and commercial concepts for the different sized power plants with considerable experience drawn from Shell's earlier involvement in the Halten CO{sub 2} project. Order of magnitude cost estimates have been developed based on the current market outlook, for the power plant cases and the associated carbon capture facilities, including CO{sub 2} transportation pipeline and disposal wells. The carbon capture design has been based on state of the art amine technology. An economic model was developed specifically for this study for a power plant using a range of assumptions for gas, electricity and carbon credit prices. The model includes optimisation of income based on positive 'sparkspread'. The conclusion from the evaluations shows that there is a substantial gap between the likely economics and the economics that would be required for a commercial company to make an

  1. Energy consumption: energy consumption in mainland Norway

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Magnussen, Inger Helene; Killingland, Magnus; Spilde, Dag

    2012-07-25

    The purpose of this report is to describe trends in energy consumption in mainland Norway, with an emphasis on key trends within the largest consumer groups. We also explain common terms and concepts in the field of energy consumption. Finally, we look at forecasts for future energy consumption, produced by bodies outside NVE. Total final energy consumption in mainland Norway in 2009 was 207 TWh. The most important end-user groups are households, service industries, manufacturing industry and transport. In addition, the energy sector in mainland Norway consumed 15 TWh. Energy consumed in the energy sector is not considered as final consumption, as the energy is used to produce new energy products. The long-term trend in energy consumption in mainland Norway is that fuel in the transport sector and electricity for the energy sector increases, while energy consumption in other sectors flattens out. The main reason for an increased use of fuel in the transport sector is the rise in the number of motorised machinery and vehicles in mainland Norway. This has caused a rise in gasoline and diesel consumption of 75 per cent since 1976. The petroleum sector is the largest consumer of energy within the energy sector in mainland Norway, and electricity from onshore to platforms in the North Sea and to new shore side installations has led to a rise in electricity consumption from 1 TWh in 1995 to 5 TWh in 2009. The energy consumption in households showed flat trend from 1996 to 2009, after many years of growth. The main reasons are a warmer climate, higher energy prices, the use of heats pumps and more energy-efficient buildings. In the service industries, the growth in energy consumptions has slightly decreased since the late 1990s, for much the same reasons as for households. In manufacturing industries the energy consumption have flatten out mainly due to the closure of energy-intensive businesses and the establishment of new more energy-efficient businesses. Electricity is

  2. Productivity of Tax Offices in Norway

    OpenAIRE

    Finn R. Førsund; Edvardsen, Dag Fjeld; Sverre A.C. Kittelsen; Lindseth, Frode

    2009-01-01

    The performance of local tax offices of Norway is studied over a three-year period using Data Envelopment Efficiency analysis and calculating Malmquist productivity indices. One input, labour, is used, and six output categories of the main service activities carried out by tax offices are specified. A bootstrap approach recently developed for DEA models is applied to establish confidence intervals for the individual indices enabling an identification of units that have either significant prod...

  3. Happiness in Serbia and Norway:  

    OpenAIRE

    Jevtic, Tijana

    2010-01-01

    Happiness here is investigated by means of 12 young people from Serbia and Norway. The main instrument was interview with a short questionnaire. Happiness is in line with other studies found to be a complex human quality with a variety of meanings and numerous influences. These meanings can be divided into actual happiness (predominant positive feelings and satisfaction of life), ideal happiness (complete and lasting one), good fortune or luck, the pursuit of happiness, creation of happiness ...

  4. Viable Small Scale Farming in Norway

    OpenAIRE

    Heie, Knut

    2003-01-01

    Norway, on Europe's northern fringe, is characterised by small-scale farming. The choice of crops and their yields are limited by the Nordic climate. Farm policies promote decentralisation and a varied farm structure in order to secure rural settlement, food security, food safety, environmental quality and sustainability. Agriculture receives substantial public support, and domestic production is largely protected from foreign competition. The author has a smallholding of 5 ha farmland and 15...

  5. Visitors to Farm Tourism Enterprises in Norway

    OpenAIRE

    Blekesaune, Arild; Brandth, Berit; Haugen, Marit Synnøve

    2010-01-01

    In Norway, as in many other countries, rural and farm tourism is becoming an important activity for promoting the vitality and sustainability of rural communities. This paper focuses on the analysis of visitors to Norwegian farms, which offer various tourism activities and services. The countryside has increasingly become a place of consumption and recreation, and as such, farm tourism is part of the shift in the economic base of rural societies. Moreover, in building appreciation for the dis...

  6. Norway in a liberalized European energy market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The authors study the short-term effects of a comprehensive liberalization of the gas and power markets in Europe. The analysis is based on a statically applied general equilibrium model which gives an overall and consistent treatment of the energy markets in Europe. The model preserves the structural features in the production, transport and consumption of gas and electricity in Europe, as well as the new competitive situation arising from the liberalization. It is found that the liberalization leads to a strong fall in the price of electricity. The fall in price reflects increased competition and that idle capacity in the power sector is used to increase the production of electricity. In comparison with the real observations in 1996 (the basis year of the model) the price to the end-user is cut in half. The liberalization also leads to a fall in the price of gas. The price fall reflects in part increased competition, in part the fact that falling prise of electricity reduces the demand for gas. However, the price reduction (in per cent) is not as great as for electricity. The model is also used to study the effects in Norway of increased gas production when the gas is either used in increased gas power production in Norway, or is exported. The main conclusion is that (1) the total emission of carbon dioxide goes down in Western Europe, (2) the reduction is greatest if the gas is burned as gas power in Norway

  7. Economic assimilation of immigrants : a comparison between Norway and Canada

    OpenAIRE

    2007-01-01

    The economic assimilation of immigrants in Norway is analyzed in this thesis. Since Norway and Canada have different immigration policies, the economic assimilations of immigrants in these two countries are compared. Unlike Norway, Canada uses a “point system” to target economic and demographic growth which results in a large class of economic immigrants. The entry effect, the years effect, the cohort effect and the period effect, as defined in previous academic literature, are considered....

  8. Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexey Kondrashov

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We aimed to perform a chemical analysis of both Alibernet red wine and an alcohol-free Alibernet red wine extract (AWE and to investigate the effects of AWE on nitric oxide and reactive oxygen species production as well as blood pressure development in normotensive Wistar Kyoto (WKY and spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRs. Total antioxidant capacity together with total phenolic and selected mineral content was measured in wine and AWE. Young 6-week-old male WKY and SHR were treated with AWE (24,2 mg/kg/day for 3 weeks. Total NOS and SOD activities, eNOS and SOD1 protein expressions, and superoxide production were determined in the tissues. Both antioxidant capacity and phenolic content were significantly higher in AWE compared to wine. The AWE increased NOS activity in the left ventricle, aorta, and kidney of SHR, while it did not change NOS activity in WKY rats. Similarly, increased SOD activity in the plasma and left ventricle was observed in SHR only. There were no changes in eNOS and SOD1 expressions. In conclusion, phenolics and minerals included in AWE may contribute directly to increased NOS and SOD activities of SHR. Nevertheless, 3 weeks of AWE treatment failed to affect blood pressure of SHR.

  9. Natural gas in Norway - Possibilities and limitations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Norway is rich in gas resources. In recent years, gas sales from the Norwegian continental shelf have been in the order of 25 to 30 billion Sm3/yr and are expected to increase strongly the next 10 to 15 years. However, a scattered population, a difficult topography, long distances between large potential consumers and where the gas is brought ashore, make it difficult to utilize the gas commercially in this country. Moreover, the gas will have to compete with a highly developed hydro-electric network. This report evaluates possibilities and hindrances in the establishment of a home market for natural gas in Norway. The low population density implies that using gas for preheating of water, heating of rooms etc will not become important except, perhaps, locally, where gas may be available for other reasons. As a source of energy and raw material in many industrial processes, natural gas can become important in some coastal areas and in central parts of eastern Norway. Discussions are in progress on gas power stations for electricity production. This has aroused some controversy because of environmental problems, and for political acceptance gas power will have to replace coal power. As a fuel, gas may be of interest for domestic ferries and for busses. A lack of capital under financial risk and gas prices limit the market development. Although tax policy is presently favourable to gas power, the risk taken by private investors in converting to natural gas is increased by their not knowing for how long the gas will be exempt from environmental tax. 74 refs., 8 figs., 27 tabs

  10. Oxazolone (OXA) is a respiratory allergen in Brown Norway rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuper, C.F.; Radonjic, M.; Triel, J. van; Stierum, R.; Groot, R.J. de; Arts, J.H.E.

    2011-01-01

    Oxazolone (OXA) is a potent contact allergen in man, and it is used as a model Th1-allergen to test (Q)SAR's and screening assays for allergenic potential of chemicals. However, it elevates serum IgE levels and Thelper2 cytokines at relatively low doses in test animals, suggesting that it has also r

  11. Assessment of protein allergenicity studies in brown Norway rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Knippels, L.M.J.; Penninks, A.H.

    2002-01-01

    For the safety evaluation of genetically engineered crops, the potential allergenicity of the newly introduced protein(s) has become an important issue. There is, however, no universal and reliable test system for the evaluation of the allergic sensitizing ability of food proteins. Therefore, there

  12. SERUM BIOMARKERS OF AGING IN THE BROWN NORWAY RAT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serum biomarkers to identify susceptibility to disease in aged humans are well researched. On the other hand, our understanding of biomarkers in animal models of aging is limited. Hence, we applied a commercially available panel of 58 serum analytes to screen for possible biomark...

  13. Daylight and absenteeism--evidence from Norway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markussen, Simen; Røed, Knut

    2015-01-01

    Based on administrative register data from Norway, we examine the impact of hours of daylight on sick-leave absences among workers. Our preferred estimates imply that an additional hour of daylight increases the daily entry rate to absenteeism by 0.5 percent and the corresponding recovery rate by 0.8 percent, ceteris paribus. The overall relationship between absenteeism and daylight hours is negative. Absenteeism is also sensitive to weather conditions. Heavy snowfall raises the incidence of absence during the winter, while warm weather reduces the probability of returning to work during the summer. PMID:24529766

  14. Ultraviolet Monitoring in Norway on the WEB

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A measuring system for natural UV radiation has been established in Norway. The system consists of seven multiband radiometers, model GUV-541 from Biospherical Instruments Inc., organised in a network. The measured results, stored on a central server, are made public via an Internet service - http://uvnett.nrpa.no/, alternatively through a page http://uv.nrpa.no/ providing general UV information. The service includes information about the measured UV radiation on the specific sites expressed by the UV index and the dose in MED for any specific day, week or year since 1995 when the system started to operate. A description of the WEB site is presented. (author)

  15. Norway's ICT Accessibility Legislation, Methods and Indicators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rygg, Malin; Rømen, Dagfinn; Sterri, Brynhild Runa

    2016-01-01

    This paper gives an overview of the Norwegian legislation on Universal Design of information and communication technology (ICT) and how the Norwegian Authority for Universal Design of ICT works to enforce and achieve the goals behind the legislation. The Authority uses indicators to check websites for compliance with the regulations. This paper describes the rationale and intended use for the indicators and how they are used for both supervision and benchmarks as well as a way of gathering data to give an overview of the current state of Universal Design of websites in Norway. PMID:27534342

  16. China renewable energy in Africa and Norway

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2011-07-01

    This study assesses the potential for Norwegian engagement in Sino-African renewable energy development. The study analyzes Norwegian competitiveness and complementarities towards Chinese energy actors in the African market, and identifies respective strengths and weaknesses against the backdrop of the African market. The report identifies barriers and opportunities for Norwegian commercial and developmental engagement towards upscaling renewable energy in Africa that may also apply to other OECD countries. Finally, the report points to possibilities for Norway to support sustainable Sino-African renewable energy development.(auth)

  17. King Harald V and Queen Sonja of Norway visit CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    Maximilien Brice

    2006-01-01

    Norway's King Harald V and Queen Sonja take a tour of the ATLAS detector with CERN's Director-General Robert Aymar in April 2006. During their visit the royal party met with members of CERN's Norwegian community. A group of about 40 students greeted the royal motorcade with a belting rendition of 'The King's Song', Norway's royal anthem.

  18. 76 FR 166 - Fresh and Chilled Atlantic Salmon From Norway

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-03

    ... imports of fresh and chilled Atlantic salmon from Norway (56 FR 14920, 14921). Following five-year reviews... imports of fresh and chilled Atlantic salmon from Norway (71 FR 7512). The Commission is now conducting...), as most recently amended at 74 FR 2847 (January 16, 2009). \\1\\ \\1\\ No response to this request...

  19. [Medical publishing in Norway 1905-2005].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nylenna, Magne; Larsen, Øivind

    2005-06-01

    The nation-building process in Norway took mainly place before the Norwegian-Swedish union came to a close in 1905. This was not a dramatic change, though the end of the union did bring a lift to Norwegian national consciousness. In 1905 there were three general medical journals in Norway and approximately 1200 doctors. German was the most important language of international science, but most scientific publishing was done in Norwegian. After the Second World War, English became the dominating language of scientific communication. Twentieth-century medicine and medical publishing was an era of specialisation and internationalisation. Norwegian medicine has to a large extent been internationalised through Nordic cooperation, with the Nordic specialist journals being of particular importance. With increasing professionalism in research, international English-language journals have become the major channels of communication, though several Norwegian-language journals (on paper or on the internet) have been established and are of crucial importance to a national identity within medical specialties. In 2005 there is only one general medical journal in Norwegian, in a country with approximately 20,000 doctors. A national identity related to medical publishing is not given much attention, though national medicine is still closely tied in with national culture. Good clinical practice should be based on a firm knowledge of local society and local tradition. This is a challenge in contemporary medical publishing.

  20. Coordinating health care: lessons from Norway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trond Tjerbo

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective: What influences the coordination of care between general practitioners and hospitals? In this paper, general practitioner satisfaction with hospital—GP interaction is revealed, and related to several background variables. Method: A questionnaire was sent to all general practitioners in Norway (3388, asking their opinion on the interaction and coordination of health care in their district. A second questionnaire was sent to all the somatic hospitals in Norway (59 regarding formal routines and structures. The results were analysed using ordinary least squares regression. Results: General practitioners tend to be less satisfied with the coordination of care when their primary hospital is large and cost-effective with a high share of elderly patients. Together with the degree to which the general practitioner is involved in arenas where hospital physicians and general practitioners interact, these factors turned out to be good predictors of general practitioner satisfaction. Implication: To improve coordination between general practitioners and specialists, one should focus upon the structural traits within the hospitals in different regions as well as creating common arenas where the physicians can interact.

  1. Results of workplace drug testing in Norway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hilde Marie Erøy Lund

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Workplace drug testing is less common in Norway than in many other countries. During the period from 2000-2006, 13469 urine or blood samples from employees in the offshore industry, shipping companies and aviation industry were submitted to the Norwegian Institute of Public Health for drug testing. The samples were analysed for benzodiazepines, illicit drugs, muscle relaxants with sedating properties, opioids and z-hypnotics. In total, 2.9% of the samples were positive for one or more substances. During the study period the prevalence decreased for morphine (from 1.9% to 1.1% and increased for amphetamine (from 0.04% to 0.6%, clonazepam (from 0% to 0.1%, methamphetamine (from 0.04% to 0.6%, nitrazepam (from 0% to 0.4% and oxazepam (from 0.5% to 1.3% (p<0.05. There was no significant change in prevalence for the other substances included in the analytical programme. Illicit drugs were significantly associated with lower age (OR: 0.93, p<0.05. This study found low prevalence of drugs among employees in companies with workplace drug testing programmes in Norway.

  2. Total OH reactivity emissions from Norway spruce

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nölscher, Anke; Bourtsoukidis, Efstratios; Bonn, Boris; Kesselmeier, Jürgen; Lelieveld, Jos; Williams, Jonathan

    2013-04-01

    Forest emissions represent a strong potential sink for the main tropospheric oxidant, the hydroxyl radical (OH). In forested environments, the comparison of the directly determined overall sink of OH radicals, the total OH reactivity, and the individually measured OH sink compounds often exposes a significant gap. This "missing" OH reactivity can be high and influenced by both direct biogenic emissions and secondary photo-oxidation products. To investigate the source of the missing OH sinks in forests, total OH reactivity emission rates were determined for the first time from a Norway spruce (Picea abies) throughout spring, summer and autumn 2011. The total OH reactivity was measured inside a branch enclosure using the Comparative Reactivity Method (CRM) with a Proton Transfer Reaction-Mass Spectrometer (PTR-MS) as the detector. In parallel, separate volatile organic compounds (VOC) emission rates were monitored by a second PTR-MS, including the signal of isoprene, acetaldehyde, total monoterpenes and total sesquiterpenes. The comparison of known and PTR-MS detected OH sink compounds and the directly measured total OH reactivity emitted from Norway spruce revealed unmeasured and possibly unknown primary biogenic emissions. These were found to be highest in late summer during daytime coincident with highest temperatures and ozone levels.

  3. The European Gas and Oil Market: The Role of Norway

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The research question of this paper is related to the role of Norway in the European gas and oil market. This study aims to give a presentation of the energy policy in Norway and Norwegian participation at the European level. The first chapter will introduce Norwegian relations with Europe. For the purpose of my research, I will focus mainly on Norwegian energy policy in the second chapter, presenting Norway's oil industry in chapter 2.1.; Norwegian gas production in chapter 2.2.; and the Norwegian electrical power system in chapter 2.3. The sub-chapter 2.4. will analyse in detail the activity of the largest Norwegian oil and gas company, StatoilHydro. The third chapter will be dedicated to Norway's green energy policy (wind, sun and water), etc. The fourth chapter looks at the European perspective and will examine the European strategic gas and oil market in a globalized world. The fifth chapter will present Norway's participation in the European gas and oil market. Such strategic research must also include a look at the European Union's (EU) energy market development between Russia and Norway, which will be presented in chapter six. And finally, Norway's contribution to the development of an EU energy policy in fighting climate change will be emphasised in chapter seven. This research will analyse the following central issues: - Norwegian oil industry, - Norwegian gas production, - Norwegian electrical power system, - Norwegian challenges in the European gas and oil market. (author)

  4. Pregnancy outcome in Norway after Chernobyl

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pregnancy outcome has been studied in terms of legal abortions, early spontaneous abortions and total number of pregnancies (in an ad hoc study covering 6 counties) as well as various perinatal health problems (on the basis of routinely recorded data for epidemiological surveillance from the Medical Birth Registry of Norway). Apparently, no effects were observed in terms of an increased occurrence of legal abortions, while spontaneous abortions increased from 2.4% of all pregnancies during the last 12 months before the accident to 3% after the accident. At the same time, the total number of pregnancies somewhat decreased. Based on monthly measurements in each municipality of external and internal (food-based) doses, dose-response associations were assessed for a number of perinatal health problems. No associations were observed

  5. THE STATUS OF SYNTAXONOMY IN NORWAY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. FREMSTAD

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available

    In Norway syntaxonomical work started approximately at the same time in Central Europe. Nordhagen was the pioneer, making the basis for the classification of especially alpine communities, followed by Dahl and Gjaerevoll, also focusing on alpine vegetation. During the 1970-80’s a large number of syntaxonomical studies were made on a diversity of topics; most of these studies were never published. The rather species-poor flora and the difficulties of applying the concept of character species have caused Norwegian botanists to develop a classification system of their own, as a summary of present knowledge. The next step should be to rework a large number of relevès with numerical methods to form the basis of a national vegetation survey.

  6. The chiropractic profession in Norway 2011

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kvammen, O. C.; Leboeuf-Yde, C.

    2014-01-01

    : Response rates were 61% (Survey 1, N = 320) and 71% (Survey 2, N = 217). More than two-thirds of the chiropractors in Norway had been in practice for under a decade. Only one in four chiropractors worked in solo practice and the majority shared premises with at least one colleague, typically at least one...... techniques on most patients, with soft tissue techniques and exercise modalities being almost as common. More than 3/4 of the profession reported that their clinical practice was in accordance with available clinical guidelines and about one third were positive about participating in future clinical research...... seems to follow the modern trends in evidence-based practice by using X-rays more sparingly than previously, adhering to guidelines and being positive about research....

  7. Bio energy in Norway; Bioenergi i Noreg

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamnaberg, Haavard; Sidelnikova, Maria

    2011-07-01

    The main conclusion in this report is that it is possible to make available about 14 TWh bio energy in Norway than what is used today to a charge that is located less than ca. 30 oere / kWh. Almost all this potential come from the forest and requires an increase in output up to the net sustained yield. Further 5 TWh may be available in the form of biogas at a cost that is both higher and have greater uncertainty than the fixed bio energy. It is set up a cost curve based on this work, which is quoted here. This reflects only the technical costs, and does not regard wages, commissions, taxes or fees. The value of alternative uses of biomass are not considered. The cost curve must therefore not be mixed with a supply curve. (eb)

  8. Drugged drivers in Norway with benzodiazepine detections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skurtveit, Svetlana; Abotnes, Bjørg; Christophersen, Asbjørg S

    2002-01-24

    Norwegian drugged drivers with benzodiazepine (BZD) detections have been studied with regard to drug use pattern and rearrest rate. During 1995, 3343 drivers were apprehended by the police in Norway due to the suspicion of influence by drugs. Blood samples from all drivers were sent to the National Institute of Forensic Toxicology (NIFT). The samples were analysed using a standard program covering the most commonly abused drugs on the marked in Norway. BZDs, representing some of the most frequently detected drugs, were found in approximately 30% (n = 1051) of the cases, represented by 14% (n = 150) female and 86% (n = 901) male drivers. In 8% of the cases, one BZD only was detected, half of these cases with one BZD could reflect therapeutic use. One or more BZDs were combined with illegal drug(s) (73%), other prescribed drugs (10%), and/or alcohol (24%). 62% of the drivers with BZD detections, had earlier been arrested for the same offence, or six cases per rearrested driver. The frequency of earlier arrests were lower for female (34%) than for male (67%) drivers. Alcohol was most frequently found for those arrested for the first time before 1992, while BZD or illegal drugs were most frequently found for those with their first arrest during 1992-1995. Our study shows that apprehended drivers using BZD are mainly represented by drug abusers due to frequent multi-drug use, blood concentrations representing doses above therapeutic levels and high rearrest rate for the same offence. A treatment program or other reactions, are thus necessary in addition to fines, prison penalty and suspension of driving licence. PMID:11852205

  9. Ledra aurita (Linnaeus, 1758) (Hem., Cicadellidae) rediscovered in Norway

    OpenAIRE

    1998-01-01

    The remarkable leafhopper Ledra aurita (Linnaeus, 1758) has been rediscovered in Norway. Three specimens were captured at light at Ø, Hvaler: Asmaløy (EIS 12) in July-Aug. 1995. An unpublished record from AK, Frogn: Drøbak (EIS 28) from August 1949 is also presented. In Norway the species has previously only been recorded from Ø, Hvaler: Kirkøen (EIS 20) in last century and again in 1915. Biology and distribution are briefly discussed. Due to the sparse and local distribution in Norway, the s...

  10. Cesium fallout in Norway after the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Results of country-wide measurements of 137Cs and 134 Cs in soil samples in Norway after the Chernobyl accident are reported. The results clearly demonstrates that municipalities in the central part of southern Norway, Troendelag and the southern part of Nordland, have been rather heavily contaminated. The total fallout of 137Cs and 134Cs from the Chernobyl accident in Norway is estimated to 2300 TBq and 1200 TBq, respectively. This is approximately 6% of the cesium activity released from the reactor

  11. The diffusion of Norway spruce in the beechwoods of

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreatta G

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available During the last decades, in the previously coppiced beechwoods of "Dolomiti Bellunesi" National Park, an unprecedented diffusion of Norway spruce occurred; possible silvicultural options to cope with this new condition are outlined here.

  12. Direct maternal deaths in Norway 1976-1995

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersgaard, Alice Beate; Langhoff-Roos, J.; Oian, P.

    2008-01-01

    AIMS: To report direct maternal mortality ratio (MMR) in Norway between 1976 and 1995 including a description of the underlying complications in pregnancy, the causes of death and assessment of standard of care. METHODS: The maternal deaths were identified through the Cause of Death Registry......, Statistics Norway, and Medical Birth Registry of Norway. We requested copies of the hospital case records and the maternal death autopsies. The direct maternal deaths were classified on the basis underlying causes and assessed for substandard care according to the guidelines at the time of death...... and preventability provided optimal conditions and up to date guidelines. RESULTS: In the period 1976-1995 we identified 61 direct maternal deaths in Norway. The direct MMR was 5.5/100,000 births. Sufficient information was available for analysis in 51 of these cases. Six deaths occurred in early pregnancy. Among...

  13. Relating Cenozoic North Sea sediments to topography in southern Norway:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Anell, Ingrid Anna Margareta; Thybo, Hans; Stratford, Wanda Rose

    2010-01-01

    sources for progradational influx of clastic sediments from Scotland, the Shetland platform and, to a lesser degree, southwestern Norway. The Eocene sedimentation pattern was similar to the Palaeocene, with lower rates of accumulation associated with flooding and tectonic quiescence. Sediment influx from...... the Shetland platform continued throughout the Cenozoic while supply from southern Norway increased markedly around the Eocene–Oligocene, coeval with the greenhouse–icehouse transition. Mass balance calculations of sediment and eroded rock volumes suggest that while some topography along the western...... margin of Norway may be pre-Cenozoic, significant uplift of the main Paleic surface in southern Norway occurred around the early Oligocene. Sedimentation rates were almost ten-fold higher than the Cenozoic average in the Plio-Pleistocene, slightly higher than the global average. Mass balance calculations...

  14. Local unemployment and the earnings assimilation of immigrants in Norway

    OpenAIRE

    Barth, Erling; Bratsberg, Bernt; Raaum, Oddbjørn

    2002-01-01

    Labour market outcomes of immigrants and natives are affected differently by macroeconomic conditions. In particular, we show that earnings of immigrants in Norway from outside the OECD area are more sensitive to local labour market conditions than are earnings of natives. Failure to account for such differences may bias estimates when periods of rising or declining unemployment are important to identify assimilation effects on immigrant earnings. We show that this is the case for Norway: An ...

  15. Family and gender policies in Norway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arlung, Liera

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The NorSpaR project aims to analyse the main public policy initiatives by which Norway and Spain cope with the new social and economic challenges derived from the so-called New Social Risks (NSR. Although both countries present significant differences in their institutional settings (such as Spanish EU membership, or its belonging to diverse welfare regimes types (Norway is generally included in the Nordic regime, while Spain is part of the Mediterranean one, both countries share a common interest in addressing the aforementioned challenges while maintaining social cohesion. In the last decade, governments in both countries have tried to respond to those challenges by reforming their labour markets, adapting their unemployment schemes, as well as their gender, family and long-term care policies. The analysis covered in this project includes three areas of public policy addressing NSR. First, dependency is one of the most daunting challenges for post-industrial societies experiencing population ageing and with an increasing number of frail people in need of care. This situation is forcing governments to rethink their long-term care policies. Second, family and gender public programs need to respond to the growing difficulties of families in reconciling professional and family life. Third, in the transition to a post-industrial order, and in a context of mass unemployment, social protection systems have a renewed prominence. Along with the so-called passive policies offering financial support to the unemployed, active labour market policies are geared to put people back into work. In our analysis we try to find answers to the following questions: What are the challenges that each of these policies have been trying to address in recent years? How have these policies evolved? What kinds of reforms have been implemented, and which ones have been neglected? Have the policy goals and targets of welfare programs been modified in any significant way

  16. Water footprint of hydro power in Norway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engeland, Kolbjørn; Tallaksen, Lena; Haakon Bakken, Tor; Killingtveit, Ånund

    2015-04-01

    The IPCC Special Report on Renewable Energy (IPCC, 2012) assesses the potential for renewable energy sources to replace fossil-based fuels and benchmarks the technologies with respect to a set of criteria, including their water footprint measured as m3/MWh. While most of the renewable technologies show a typical range of 1-5 m3/MWh, the very sparse data on hydropower range from a minimum of 0.04 to a maximum of 209 m3/MWh. More recent studies on water footprint from hydropower indicate that the water consumption rates could go even far beyond the numbers published by IPCC (2012). The methodological approach behind these numbers are, however, criticized as it appears over-simplistic and several issues need to be defined and clarified in order to present the 'true picture' of the water footprint of hydropower. Despite this, the rather high numbers for hydropower may imply a reputational risk for the sector and also be a direct investment risk in new projects if hydropower is considered a "large-scale water consumer". Estimation of water footprint has two important components (i) definition of water footprint (including system boundaries), and (ii) estimation of evaporation, which is assumed to constitute the main water loss from hydropower. Here we will mainly address the second topic and have chosen to use a water footprint definition based on net evapotranspiration from reservoirs. Thus, we need estimates of evapotranspiration from the land surface prior to inundation and the evaporation from the reservoir after it has been filled up. The primary objective of the study is to estimate water footprint of hydropower in Norway and in particular to answer the following questions: (i) How does different environmental variables influence water footprint estimation in Norway?, and in particular (ii) What is the total/specific water footprint from Norwegian hydropower production? To answer these questions we tested how environmental variables like climate and vegetation

  17. Energy efficiency policies and measures in Norway

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosenberg, Eva

    2012-07-01

    This report represents the national case study of Norway for the IEE-project {sup M}onitoring of EU and national energy efficiency targets (ODYSSEE-MURE 2010)'. The Norwegian part of the project is co-funded by Enova. The report presents the recent energy efficiency trends in Norway on the basis of indicators extracted from the ODYSSEE database. The database contains information on energy use in a detailed level of the industry, transport, household and service sectors and other energy use. lt also contains information on energy drivers like heated square meters in the households and services sectors, transported passenger-km and ton-km of gods, value added, production index, production volumes etc. Final energy consumption has increased from 195 TWh in 1990 lo 229 TWh in 2010 The last ten years the energy consumption has varied between 212I Wh (2009) and 229 TWh (2010) with an annual average of 221TfUh. The sector using most energy is the industry, but the share has decreased from 40 % in 1990 to 31 % in 2010. From 1990 to 2010 the growth rate has been highest in the transport sector. Half of the energy end-use was electricity in 20,10, 42 % was fossil fuels and 6 % was biomass. The electricity use has an annual increase of 0.8 % since 1990, but the last decade the annual increase is reduced to 0.14 %. The consumption of oil products has decreased in stationary end-use (heating) and increased in the transport sector. In ODYSSEE, an aggregate bottom-up energy efficiency index, ODEX, is calculated. This energy efficiency index aggregates the trends in the detailed bottom-up indicators in one single indicator. This ODEX has improved by 26 o/o from 1990 to 2010 or by 1.3 o/o per year. This means that energy efficiency policies and measures implemented since 1990 have contributed to a decrease in the energy use of 2010 of approximately 59 TWh. (Author)

  18. NORADAPT. Community Adaptation and Vulnerability in Norway; NORADAPT. Community Adaptation and Vulnerability in Norway. Sluttrapport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oort, Bob van; Hovelsrud, Grete K.; Dannevig, Halvor; Bybraaten, Stine

    2012-10-15

    In NORADAPT, researchers from CICERO Center for Climate Research, Western Norway Research Institute, Eastern Norway Research Institute and the Norwegian Meteorological Institute worked in close cooperation with 8 selected municipalities, with the aim to help municipalities assess their vulnerability to climate change and develop adaptation strategies in collaboration with the research group. This report presents climate scenarios for all project municipalities and interprets the expected changes from the figures produced for each municipality. The report refers to socioeconomic scenarios which were developed as part of the project, describes progress throughout the project period and summarizes the main findings of the project through a summary of the final conference at Losby Gods 24-25 October 2011. The project has shown that municipalities are able to put climate change on the agenda, utilize scientific knowledge and implement adaptation measures, but that this depends on several factors, such as capacity, knowledge and involvement in local government, access to relevant knowledge and policy measures, and clear guidance and supervision from regional and national authorities. (Author)

  19. Carbon sequestration by young Norway spruce monoculture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pokorny, R.; Rajsnerova, P.; Kubásek, J.

    2012-04-01

    Many studies have been focused on allometry, wood-mass inventory, carbon (C) sequestration, and biomass expansion factors as the first step for the evaluation of C sinks of different plant ecosystems. To identify and quantify these terrestrial C sinks, and evaluate CO2 human-induced emissions on the other hand, information for C balance accounting (for impletion of commitment to Kyoto protocol) are currently highly needed. Temperate forest ecosystems have recently been identified as important C sink. Carbon sink might be associated with environmental changes (elevated [CO2], air temperature, N deposition etc.) and large areas of managed fast-growing young forests. Norway spruce (Pice abies L. Karst) is the dominant tree species (35%) in Central European forests. It covers 55 % of the total forested area in the Czech Republic, mostly at high altitudes. In this contribution we present C sequestration by young (30-35 year-old) Norway spruce monocultures in highland (650-700 m a.s.l., AT- mean annual temperature: 6.9 ° C; P- annual amount of precipitation: 700 mm; GL- growing season duration: 150 days) and mountain (850-900 m a.s.l.; AT of 5.5 ° C; P of 1300 mm; and GL of 120 days) areas and an effect of a different type of thinning. However, the similar stem diameter at the breast height and biomass proportions among above-ground tree organs were obtained in the both localities; the trees highly differ in their height, above-ground organ's biomass values and total above ground biomass, particularly in stem. On the total mean tree biomass needle, branch and stem biomass participated by 22 %, 24 % and 54 % in highland, and by 19 %, 23 % and 58 % in mountain area, respectively. Silvicultural management affects mainly structure, density, and tree species composition of the stand. Therefore, dendrometric parameters of a tree resulted from genotype, growth conditions and from management history as well. Low type of thinning (LT; common in highland) stimulates rather tree

  20. Temporal and Spatial Variations in the Twinning Rate in Norway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fellman, Johan

    2016-08-01

    Strong geographical variations have been noted in the twinning rate (TWR). In general, the rate is high among people of African origin, intermediate among Europeans, and low among most Asiatic populations. In Europe, there tends to be a south-north cline, with a progressive increase in the TWR from south to north and a minimum around the Basque provinces. The highest TWRs in Europe have been found among the Nordic populations. Furthermore, within larger populations, small isolated subpopulations have been identified to have extreme, mainly high, TWRs. In the study of the temporal variation of the TWR in Norway, we consider the period from 1900 to 2014. The regional variation of the TWR in Norway is analyzed for the different counties for two periods, 1916-1926 and 1960-1988. Heterogeneity between the regional TWRs in Norway during 1916-1926 was found, but the goodness of fit for the alternative spatial models was only slight. The optimal regression model for the TWR in Norway has the longitude and its square as regressors. According to this model, the spatial variation is distributed in a west-east direction. For 1960-1988, no significant regional variation was observed. One may expect that the environmental and genetic differences between the counties in Norway have disappeared and that the regional TWRs have converged towards a common low level. PMID:27339822

  1. Glacier area and length changes in Norway from repeat inventories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winsvold, S. H.; Andreassen, L. M.; Kienholz, C.

    2014-10-01

    In this study, we assess glacier area and length changes in mainland Norway from repeat Landsat TM/ETM+-derived inventories and digitized topographic maps. The multi-temporal glacier inventory consists of glacier outlines from three time ranges: 1947 to 1985 (GIn50), 1988 to 1997 (GI1990), and 1999 to 2006 (GI2000). For the northernmost regions, we include an additional inventory (GI1900) based on historic maps surveyed between 1895 and 1907. Area and length changes are assessed per glacier unit, 36 subregions, and for three main parts of Norway: southern, central, and northern. The results show a decrease in the glacierized area from 2994 km2 in GIn50 to 2668 km2 in GI2000 (total 2722 glacier units), corresponding to an area reduction of -326 km2, or -11% of the initial GIn50 area. The average length change for the full epoch (within GIn50 and GI2000) is -240 m. Overall, the comparison reveals both area and length reductions as general patterns, even though some glaciers have advanced. The three northernmost subregions show the highest retreat rates, whereas the central part of Norway shows the lowest change rates. Glacier area and length changes indicate that glaciers in maritime areas in southern Norway have retreated more than glaciers in the interior, and glaciers in the north have retreated more than southern glaciers. These observed spatial trends in glacier change are related to a combination of several factors such as glacier geometry, elevation, and continentality, especially in southern Norway.

  2. Symbols or results?. Norway`s contribution to global climate policy; Symboler eller resultater. Norges bidrag til global klimapolitikk

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haugland, Torleif; Lunde, Leiv; Vraalstad, Knut; Roland, Kjell

    1997-12-31

    The report is part of an evaluation of political climate challenges faced by Norway. The aim to stabilize CO{sub 2} emissions before the year 2000 is unrealistic. This is because (1) almost all electricity produced in Norway is hydropower, (2) more than half of the expected CO{sub 2} emissions up to 2020 comes from increased activities on the large and profitable petroleum deposits in the North Sea; these activities are hard to slow down, (3) substantial emission reductions in the process industry are expensive or impossible because of a lack of raw material without carbon, (4) reductions in the transport sector are impossible because of dispersed settlement, (5) strong economic growth and low unemployment imply increased energy consumption. All together this means that stabilizing the emissions in Norway costs more than in most of the OECD countries. The supposed gain in climate quality from measures in one country may ``leak`` out in the sense that the activities whose reduction caused the gain are moved a country that does not have an active climate policy and thus the global consequences may even be negative. Four examples are given: (1) Unlike most countries, Norway uses high-quality hydropower for heating. If Norway had instead used efficient petroleum fuels for heating and exported this electric energy to countries that generate electricity from inefficient carbon, then these countries would reduce the emission of CO{sub 2} by more than Norway would increase it. (2) Much of the emissions from the activities in the North Sea comes from electricity production in low-efficiency gas turbines. This emission could be eliminated by electricity supplied from land. But with today`s power balance in Norway, such electricity would be Danish carbon-generated. (3) CO{sub 2} tax on the energy intensive but efficient Norwegian process industry could move production to a country with more polluting production. (4) Reducing Norwegian gas export to Europe would decrease

  3. Permafrost Observatory Project: A Contribution to the Thermal State of Permafrost in Norway and Svalbard, TSP NORWAY

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christiansen, H.; Berthling, I.; Blikra, L.; Dehls, J.; Etzelmuller, B.; Farbrot, H.; Humlum, O.; Isaksen, K.; Juliussen, H.; Lauknes, T.; Midttomme, K.; Rønning, J.

    2007-12-01

    The Norwegian funded IPY project 'Permafrost Observatory Project: A Contribution to the Thermal State of Permafrost in Norway and Svalbard', (TSP NORWAY) is part of the TSP cluster. The main goal of TSP NORWAY is to measure and model the permafrost distribution in Norway and Svalbard, focussing on its thermal state, thickness and associated periglacial processes, including increased knowledge of the mountain permafrost distribution related to geohazard studies on rockslides. TSP NORWAY will contribute to IPY by providing a spatially distributed set of observations on the present status of permafrost temperatures and active layer thicknesses, and periglacial processes in Svalbard and Norway. Special focus is given to empirical and numerical modelling of permafrost distribution and thermal ground heat fluxes to address future climate variability on permafrost distribution and associated geomorphic activity. Permafrost distribution in the North Atlantic area is strongly climatically controlled, mainly by the North Atlantic Drift, providing much less permafrost than in any other high latitude terrestrial region on the Northern Hemisphere. Hopefully a first Nordic permafrost map will be based on Nordic permafrost collaboration during IPY. The TSP NORWAY project has established two permafrost observatories with intensive permafrost and periglacial monitoring sites in maritime and continental areas. One in Troms, northern Norway, which will be part of the north Scandinavian Permafrost Observatory extending into northernmost Sweden and Finland, and the Svalbard Nordenskiöld Land Permafrost Observatory also with both maritime and continental sites. The first Norwegian permafrost database, NORPERM, with all permafrost data from Norway and Svalbard, collected before and during IPY, has been established at the Norwegian Geological Survey. NORPERM shall contribute data as requested in the IPY data protocol and the TSP cluster to the international Global Terrestrial Network on

  4. NORPERM, the Norwegian Permafrost Database - a TSP NORWAY IPY legacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juliussen, H.; Christiansen, H. H.; Strand, G. S.; Iversen, S.; Midttømme, K.; Rønning, J. S.

    2010-10-01

    NORPERM, the Norwegian Permafrost Database, was developed at the Geological Survey of Norway during the International Polar Year (IPY) 2007-2009 as the main data legacy of the IPY research project Permafrost Observatory Project: A Contribution to the Thermal State of Permafrost in Norway and Svalbard (TSP NORWAY). Its structural and technical design is described in this paper along with the ground temperature data infrastructure in Norway and Svalbard, focussing on the TSP NORWAY permafrost observatory installations in the North Scandinavian Permafrost Observatory and Nordenskiöld Land Permafrost Observatory, being the primary data providers of NORPERM. Further developments of the database, possibly towards a regional database for the Nordic area, are also discussed. The purpose of NORPERM is to store ground temperature data safely and in a standard format for use in future research. The IPY data policy of open, free, full and timely release of IPY data is followed, and the borehole metadata description follows the Global Terrestrial Network for Permafrost (GTN-P) standard. NORPERM is purely a temperature database, and the data is stored in a relation database management system and made publically available online through a map-based graphical user interface. The datasets include temperature time series from various depths in boreholes and from the air, snow cover, ground-surface or upper ground layer recorded by miniature temperature data-loggers, and temperature profiles with depth in boreholes obtained by occasional manual logging. All the temperature data from the TSP NORWAY research project is included in the database, totalling 32 temperature time series from boreholes, 98 time series of micrometeorological temperature conditions, and 6 temperature depth profiles obtained by manual logging in boreholes. The database content will gradually increase as data from previous and future projects are added. Links to near real-time permafrost temperatures, obtained

  5. The Gothenburg Protocol: NOx emissions problematic for Norway

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Gothenburg Protocol concerns long-range air pollution and is a continuation of earlier protocols and agreements. Its recommendations are based on calculations of where the greatest possible health- and environmental impact is obtained per dollar invested. European countries have done much to reduce the emission of sulphur dioxide. Norway and most other countries, however, have difficulties reducing their emissions of nitrogen oxides. In Norway, the emission of sulphur dioxide must also be substantially reduced, as the tolerance limit for SO2 in nature is low. It is socio-economically profitable for Norway to conform to the Gothenburg Protocol. One of the largest environmental problems in Norway is acid rain and death of fish. Although it is difficult to calculate the exact values of fishing-lakes and of reduced health injuries when the emissions of harmful waste gases are reduced, the profit is very high. 90% of the SO2 pollution in Norway is long-range transported from abroad. Yet Norway must reduce the domestic emissions from 30 000 to 22 000 tonnes the next 10 years. Most of the present emission of SO2 in Norway comes from the production of metals. The reduction goal can be achieved by a combination of improving industrial processes, SO2 cleaning, and reducing the sulphur content of oil. In many European countries, the greatest problem is the increasing emission of NOx and formation of ozone at the ground, which is largely due to the rapidly increasing motor traffic. In Norway, most of the NOx emission comes from the coastal traffic and the fishing fleet, followed by the motor traffic, the petroleum industry and the processing industry. The most cost-effective NOx reductions can be obtained in the North Sea by installing low-NOx gas turbines. In ships, catalytic cleaning of NOx and engine improvements will contribute. On land, the goods traffic can be made more efficient. Most of the emission of ammonia comes from agriculture, where special measures are

  6. Surveying perceptions of landslide risk management in Norway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiu, Jessica Ka Yi; Eidsvig, Unni

    2016-04-01

    Enhanced precipitation due to climate change leads to increase in both frequency and intensity of landslides in Norway. A proactive approach to risk management is therefore required to significantly reduce the losses associated with landslides. Opinions and perceptions from practitioners on the performance of landslide risk management can provide insights on areas for improvement in the landslide risk management strategies in Norway. The Risk Management Index (RMI), proposed by Cardona et al. (2004), is a well-established method to measure perceptions of disaster management of selected actors holistically. The RMI is measured based on opinion questionnaires to technical staff, decision-makers, and stakeholders involved in all stages of risk reduction strategies. It is a composite index that considers a wide variety of strategies to manage risks, including structural and non-structural measures, acceptance strategies, disaster management, and risk transfer. The RMI method was modified to be implemented in landslide hazards and to fit with Norwegian conditions. An opinion survey was conducted in autumn 2015 to measure perceptions of landslide risk management in Norway. Perceptions were surveyed for two time periods: 2015 and 2050, and are based on national, county, and municipality levels. Based on the survey results, performance of landslide risk management at any administrative levels in Norway is perceived to improve from `significant' in 2015 to `significant' to `outstanding' in 2050. Knowledge and technology, climate, risk perceptions, and anthropogenic activities are mostly considered by respondents for their 2050 perceptions. Several aspects of landslide risk management in Norway can be improved. For example, landslide hazard evaluation and mapping should be prioritised in Norway. Upgrading, retrofitting, and reconstruction of assets may also be included in the landslide risk reduction strategies. In addition, there should be more focus on inter

  7. Radioactive fallout in Norway from the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Chernobyl accident had considerable consequences for Norway. Except for the areas in the former USSR, around Chernobyl some areas in Norway received fallout which gave the highest contamination levels. The natural and semi natural ecosystems will produce food products with high activity levels of radiocesium for several decennium. Cost-effective countermeasures were implemented, and they reduced the doses considerable, especially for critical groups. Doses received over the next 50 years will probably cause cancer in 500 persons. 63 refs., 5 figs., 6 tabs

  8. The third child: a comparison between West Germany and Norway

    OpenAIRE

    David Alich

    2006-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to provide insights into third-birth dynamics in West Germany and Norway. Since the third-birth propensity between both countries differs remarkably, we seek to address the following questions in this paper: What are the characteristics of mothers with two and three children? What are the differences in third-birth dynamics between Norway and West Germany, and how can they be explained? Which factors have a similar influence on Norwegian and West German two-child moth...

  9. Earnings assimilation of immigrants in Norway : a reappraisal

    OpenAIRE

    Longva, Pål; Raaum, Oddbjørn

    2000-01-01

    The relative earnings growth for immigrants in Norway is computed using data for all immigrants in Norway, in 1980 and 1990. We find that the earnings of OECD immigrants are comparable to those of natives at the time of entry and remain at the same level. Non-OECD immigrants earn considerably less than natives at the time of entry, but their relative earnings improve gradually over time. Also, we find that earnings of different immigrant cohorts converged from 1980 to 1990 and evidence that t...

  10. Monitoring of Agricultural Landscape in Norway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallin, H. G.; Engan, G.

    2012-07-01

    An overall societal aim is to ensure a sustainable use and management of agricultural landscapes. This requires continuous delivery of reliable and up-to-date information to decision-makers. To be able to deliver this information, a monitoring program for agricultural landscapes was initiated in Norway 13 years ago. The program documents and reports on land use / land cover changes from data captured through interpretation of true colour aerial photos using stereo instruments. The monitoring programme is based on a sample of 1000 squares of 1 × 1 km and the entire sample of squares is photographed over a five-year period. Each square is then mapped repeatedly every fifth year to record changes. Aerial photo interpretation is based on a custom classification system which is built up hierarchically, with three levels. The first level comprises seven land type classes: Agricultural land, Bare ground, Semi-natural open vegetation, Unforested wetland vegetation, Forest, Urban areas and Water. These land classes are further divided into 24 land types at level two, and approximately 100 land types at level 3. In addition to land type units we map both line elements like stone fences and point elements like buildings and solitary threes. By use of indicators that describe status and change focusing on themes of particular policy interest, we can report on whether policy aims are being fulfilled or not. Four indicator themes have been in focus hitherto: landscape spatial structure, biological diversity, cultural heritage and accessibility. Our data is stored in databases and most of the data quality check/structure process and analyses are now being made in open source software like PostGIS and PostSQL. To assess the accuracy of the photo-interpretation, ground truthing is carried out on 10 % of the squares. The results of this operation document the benefits of having access to photos of the same area from two different years. The program is designed first and foremost to

  11. Differences in Age-Related Alterations in Muscle Contraction Properties in Rat Tongue and Hindlimb

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connor, Nadine P.; Ota, Fumikazu; Nagai, Hiromi; Russell, John A.; Leverson, Glen

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: Because of differences in muscle architecture and biomechanics, the purpose of this study was to determine whether muscle contractile properties of rat hindlimb and tongue were differentially affected by aging. Method: Deep peroneal and hypoglossal nerves were stimulated in 6 young and 7 old Fischer 344-Brown Norway rats to allow…

  12. Zhu Dacheng, Vice-President of CAFIU Visit Norway and Germany

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    At the invitation of Norway Moral Rearmament (MRA) and Friedrich Ebert Stiftung(FES), CAFIU sent a delegation headed by Mr. Zhu Dacheng, Vice-President of CAFIU to visit Norway and Germany from May 17 to 27. During their visit in Norway, Zhu met with Mr. Inge Lonning, Deputy-Speaker of Parliament and

  13. 77 FR 12800 - Fresh and Chilled Atlantic Salmon From Norway: Revocation of Antidumping and Countervailing Duty...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-02

    ... Norway, 76 FR 166 (January 3, 2011). As a result of its reviews, the Department found that revocation of... Duty Order, 76 FR 70409 (November 14, 2011), and Fresh and Chilled Atlantic Salmon From Norway: Final... from Norway, 77 FR 10772 (February 23, 2012) and USITC Publication 4303 (February 2012), entitled...

  14. Polar Bears, Hot Coffee, Wireless Schools, and Much More: Teaching American Studies in Norway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potter, Lee Ann

    2010-01-01

    In this article, the author shares her experience and her observations as a Roving Scholar of American Studies in Norway through the Norway Fulbright Foundation grant. The author visited upper secondary schools all over Norway, teaching lessons to both students and teachers on topics related to U.S. history, government, culture, and geography. She…

  15. Ambient noise levels and detection threshold in Norway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demuth, Andrea; Ottemöller, Lars; Keers, Henk

    2016-07-01

    Ambient seismic noise is caused by a number of sources in specific frequency bands. The quantification of ambient noise makes it possible to evaluate station and network performance. We evaluate noise levels in Norway from the 2013 data set of the Norwegian National Seismic Network as well as two temporary deployments. Apart from the station performance, we studied the geographical and temporal variations, and developed a local noise model for Norway. The microseism peaks related to the ocean are significant in Norway. We, therefore, investigated the relationship between oceanic weather conditions and noise levels. We find a correlation of low-frequency noise (0.125-0.25 Hz) with wave heights up to 900 km offshore. High (2-10 Hz) and intermediate (0.5-5 Hz) frequency noise correlates only up to 450 km offshore with wave heights. From a geographic perspective, stations in southern Norway show lower noise levels for low frequencies due to a larger distance to the dominant noise sources in the North Atlantic. Finally, we studied the influence of high-frequency noise levels on earthquake detectability and found that a noise level increase of 10 dB decreases the detectability by 0.5 magnitude units. This method provides a practical way to consider noise variations in detection maps.

  16. [HIV infection, gonorrhea and syphilis from Thailand to Norway].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aavitsland, P; Nilsen, O

    1999-10-30

    Thailand, a popular tourist destination for Norwegians, is experiencing an increasing epidemic of HIV infection. We used the Norwegian surveillance system for communicable diseases to assess the connections between the Norwegian and Thai epidemics. Before 1999, 1,869 cases of HIV-infection had been reported in Norway. From 1993 to 1998, 1,334 cases of gonorrhoea and 62 cases of syphilis were reported. We studied cases with a Thai patient or source partner and cases acquired in Thailand. 56 (3%) of HIV-infection cases, 64 (5%) of gonorrhoea cases and two (3%) of syphilis cases were connected to Thailand. All the Norwegians who acquired HIV in Thailand were males, with a median age of 39. Eight of them were diagnosed in 1998 as compared to 16 during the previous ten-year period. 21 Thai women and seven males were diagnosed with HIV infection in Norway, eight in 1998 and 20 in the previous ten-year period. The Norwegian HIV epidemic is influenced by the Thai epidemic. Norwegian men are infected in Thailand during holidays. Thai women come with their Norwegian partner to Norway and later discover their HIV status. We recommend raising the awareness of the Thai epidemic among Norwegian tourists. Immigrants to Norway from highly endemic countries should be offered HIV counselling and testing. PMID:10592752

  17. Life satisfaction and competence of Bosnian refugees in Norway

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    VanSelm, K; Sam, DL; Van Oudenhoven, JP

    1997-01-01

    In this study the relative influence of age, gender, locus of control, preferred acculturation strategy, perceived majority members' attitude, and social support on life satisfaction and competence of Bosnian refugees was examined. Hundred and six Bosnians living temporarily in Norway completed a qu

  18. Framework conditions for entrepreneurship in Norway: are they adequate?

    OpenAIRE

    Tuft, Vibeke Holmvåg

    2009-01-01

    ABSTRACT This research investigates how four framework conditions for entrepreneurship in Norway can be improved. From interviews with the expert panel for framework conditions in the Global Entrepreneurship Monitor research project the framework conditions: Financial support, government policy, government programs and education and training are investigated. Using both a questionnaire and interviews with Norwegian experts on entrepreneurship, assessment of current status and areas for ...

  19. New Public Management in Educational Reform in Norway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solhaug, Trond

    2011-01-01

    The article focuses on the similarities and differences in using new public management (NPM) administrative arrangements in educational policy as they have been presented in the educational reform process carried out this millennium by two governments in Norway: the Centre-Conservative government and the current Red-Green coalition government.…

  20. Deregulating the pharmacy market: the case of Iceland and Norway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anell, Anders

    2005-12-01

    The pharmacy market in many European countries is characterised by individually owned pharmacies that operate under tight government control regarding barriers to entry, scope of activities and profit margins. Many countries are, however, in the process of introducing pro-competitive policies, including possibilities to own several pharmacies and competition based on price. In Iceland and Norway, restrictions to ownership and competition were relaxed in 1996 and 2001, respectively. In both countries, the new policies quickly led to horizontal integration and concentration of the market, and in Norway the merging pharmacy groups integrated vertically with wholesalers. By 2004, two pharmacy groups in Iceland and three pharmacy groups in Norway controlled 85 and 97% of the markets, respectively. In combination with remaining barriers to entry, this market concentration may call for additional pro-competitive interventions to prevent unfavourable developments. Such policies will simultaneously make it more difficult to uphold traditional social objectives related to pharmacy services. Experiences in both Iceland and Norway highlight the complexity of managing reforms that fundamentally influence competitive behaviour.

  1. The Bookshelf: Digitisation and Access to Copyright Items in Norway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skarstein, Vigdis Moe

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to provide an overview of the challenges faced in digitising copyright-protected books and other materials within the National Library of Norway. Design/methodology/approach: Following a description of Bokhylla, or The Bookshelf, the paper outlines the strategies adopted within the National Library of Norway…

  2. Preliminary palaeomagnetic results from the Fen carbonatite complex, S. Norway

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Poorter, R.P.E.

    1972-01-01

    Samples from a hematite carbonate rock of the Eocambrian-Lower Cambrian Fen carbonatite-alkaline rock complex in southern Norway, yield a stable NRM with a direction after magnetic cleaning of D = 205°, I = −56° (N = 19, (k = 138, α95 = 3°). This corresponds with a palaeomagnetic pole position at 63

  3. Radioactive fall-out in Norway after the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    During the fall-out from the atmosphere during the fifties and sixties, a system of local control of radioactive contamination of food was built up. (LORACON - LOcal RAdioactivity COntrol). The different Meat and Food Inspection Services were equipped with Geiger Mueller instruments. The system was in operation until late seventies. From 1977 there was no testing and calibration of the instruments. The development towards a reduction of the state of readiness was accelerated when the Norwegian Parliament decided that Norway should not establish any nuclear power plants (1979). Only the universities and special institutions as the National Institute of Radiation Hygiene and the Institute for Energy Technique were still able to analyse on radioactive isotopes. The confusion about how much radioactive fall-out from the Chernobyl reactor accident Norway received lasted for some weeks in Norway. Partially, this was due to the lack of instruments, but also many experts rejected the idea that an accident so far away might cause these amounts of fall-out consisted of Iodine and Cesium. The fall-out followed a very irregular pattern both nationally and locally with the mountain areas in Middle Norway most affected

  4. Freshwater and Alpine ecosystem response to Chernobyl fallout in Norway

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Environmental and agricultural research programmes were initiated in Norway in June 1986 following the Chernobyl accident. The main fallout in Norway occurred on 28 and 29 April and had an extremely patchy distribution between 60 and 66 deg. C N. In Lake Hoeysjoeen in the county of North Troendelag, high radioactivity was found in the sediment and in all levels of the food chains from vegetation to fish, including phytoplankton, zooplankton, bottom animals, brown trout and Arctic char. Food chains for both wild and domestic animals are studied in the Alpine areas of central Norway. High seasonal variation has been found in the radiocaesium load of reindeer. Such a variation is a result of the high radioactivity (up to more than 100 kBq/kg dry weight) in lichens, the only winter food for reindeer. Also there are indications of increased calf mortality and chromosomal aberrations in the blood cells of the reindeer in nutrient poor areas with heavy fallout. In mountain pastures where sheep and goats graze, a sharp increase in meat and goat milk radiocaesium occurred during the late pasture season in 1988. This was caused by the large number of mushrooms with high levels of radioactivity. Present research in Norway will have to be continued in order to develop further national and international co-operation among scientists and institutions with whom biologists had little or no contact previously. (author). 11 refs, 3 figs

  5. Students and the Governance of Higher Education in Norway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michelsen, Svein; Stensaker, Bjorn

    2011-01-01

    The article discusses the question of student participation in higher education governance at the national and the institutional levels in Norway. Two ideal-type perspectives on governance are developed in order to illuminate the Norwegian case: a democratic perspective and a market perspective. The article provides a brief overview of the…

  6. Eduation and Hints of the Agricultural University of Norway

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    QiuShifeng

    1999-01-01

    This paper introduces the education of the Agricultural University of Norway,including it's history,financial situation,living and learning conditions,setting up of departments and coursesa as well as teaching and learning methods,which may give us some thoughtful hints.

  7. 77 FR 10772 - Fresh and Chilled Atlantic Salmon From Norway

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-23

    ..., 2011 (76 FR 166) and determined on April 8, 2011 that it would conduct full reviews (76 FR 22422, April..., 2011 (76 FR 38698). The hearing was held in Washington, DC, on November 30, 2011, and all persons who... COMMISSION Fresh and Chilled Atlantic Salmon From Norway Determination On the basis of the record...

  8. Norway's Day-Care Initiative: A Municipal Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nemeth, Beate; Lokken, Gisle

    2012-01-01

    Norway is gearing up to provide places in day care centres for all children aged between one and six and the need for more facilities has therefore increased substantially in recent years. In Tromso, the municipality has become closely involved in child-care pedagogics and architecture; a design competition it launched has brought rewarding…

  9. The Public-Private Partnership in ECEC Provision in Norway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haug, Peder

    2014-01-01

    This article seeks to answer three central questions pertaining to public-private partnership in early childhood education and care (ECEC provision) in Norway: How has public-private partnership developed during the last four decades? How is public-private partnership understood in Norwegian ECEC policy? What seem to be the future challenges in…

  10. Topographical mineralogy of the Bamble sector, south Norway

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijland, T.G.; Zwaan, J.C.; Touret, L.

    1998-01-01

    The Bamble sector of southern Norway is a classic high grade metamorphic gneiss region, which provided specimens to many mineralogical collections all over the world. The topographical mineralogy of this area is described and reviewed. All minerals known to occur in the area are listed according to

  11. Forecast of useful energy for the TIMES-Norway model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A regional forecast of useful energy demand in seven Norwegian regions is calculated based on an earlier work with a national forecast. This forecast will be input to the energy system model TIMES-Norway and analyses will result in forecasts of energy use of different energy carriers with varying external conditions (not included in this report). The forecast presented here describes the methodology used and the resulting forecast of useful energy. lt is based on information of the long-term development of the economy by the Ministry of Finance, projections of population growths from Statistics Norway and several other studies. The definition of a forecast of useful energy demand is not absolute, but depends on the purpose. One has to be careful not to include parts that are a part of the energy system model, such as energy efficiency measures. In the forecast presented here the influence of new building regulations and the prohibition of production of incandescent light bulbs in EU etc. are included. Other energy efficiency measures such as energy management, heat pumps, tightening of leaks etc. are modelled as technologies to invest in and are included in the TIMES-Norway model. The elasticity between different energy carriers are handled by the TIMES-Norway model and some elasticity is also included as the possibility to invest in energy efficiency measures. The forecast results in an increase of the total useful energy from 2006 to 2050 by 18 o/o. The growth is expected to be highest in the regions South and East. The industry remains at a constant level in the base case and increased or reduced energy demand is analysed as different scenarios with the TIMES-Norway model. The most important driver is the population growth. Together with the assumptions made it results in increased useful energy demand in the household and service sectors of 25 o/o and 57 % respectively.(au)

  12. Forecast of useful energy for the TIMES-Norway model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosenberg, Eva

    2012-07-25

    A regional forecast of useful energy demand in seven Norwegian regions is calculated based on an earlier work with a national forecast. This forecast will be input to the energy system model TIMES-Norway and analyses will result in forecasts of energy use of different energy carriers with varying external conditions (not included in this report). The forecast presented here describes the methodology used and the resulting forecast of useful energy. lt is based on information of the long-term development of the economy by the Ministry of Finance, projections of population growths from Statistics Norway and several other studies. The definition of a forecast of useful energy demand is not absolute, but depends on the purpose. One has to be careful not to include parts that are a part of the energy system model, such as energy efficiency measures. In the forecast presented here the influence of new building regulations and the prohibition of production of incandescent light bulbs in EU etc. are included. Other energy efficiency measures such as energy management, heat pumps, tightening of leaks etc. are modelled as technologies to invest in and are included in the TIMES-Norway model. The elasticity between different energy carriers are handled by the TIMES-Norway model and some elasticity is also included as the possibility to invest in energy efficiency measures. The forecast results in an increase of the total useful energy from 2006 to 2050 by 18 o/o. The growth is expected to be highest in the regions South and East. The industry remains at a constant level in the base case and increased or reduced energy demand is analysed as different scenarios with the TIMES-Norway model. The most important driver is the population growth. Together with the assumptions made it results in increased useful energy demand in the household and service sectors of 25 o/o and 57 % respectively.(au)

  13. Thorium as an energy source. Opportunities for Norway

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Final Recommendations of the Thorium Report Committee: 1) No technology should be idolized or demonized. All carbon-dioxide (Co2) emission-free energy production technologies should be considered. The potential contribution of nuclear energy to a sustainable energy future should be recognized. 2) An investigation into the resources in the Fen Complex and other sites in Norway should be performed. It is essential to assess whether thorium in Norwegian rocks can be defined as an economical asset for the benefit of future generations. Furthermore, the application of new technologies for the extraction of thorium from the available mineral sources should be studied. 3) Testing of thorium fuel in the Halden Reactor should be encouraged, taking benefit of the well recognized nuclear fuel competence in Halden. 4) Norway should strengthen its participation in international collaborations by joining the EURATOM fission program and the GIF program on Generation IV reactors suitable for the use of thorium. 5) The development of an Accelerator Driven System (ADS) using thorium is not within the capability of Norway working alone. Joining the European effort in this field should be considered. Norwegian research groups should be encouraged to participate in relevant international projects, although these are currently focused on waste management. 6) Norway should bring its competence in waste management up to an international standard and collaboration with Sweden and Finland could be beneficial. 7) Norway should bring its competence with respect to dose assessment related to the thorium cycle up to an international standard. 8) Since the proliferation resistance of uranium-233 depends on the reactor and reprocessing technologies, this aspect will be of key concern should any thorium reactor be built in Norway. 9) Any new nuclear activities in Norway, e.g. thorium fuel cycles, would need strong international pooling of human resources, and in the case of thorium, a strong long

  14. Thorium as an energy source. Opportunities for Norway

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2008-01-15

    Final Recommendations of the Thorium Report Committee: 1) No technology should be idolized or demonized. All carbon-dioxide (Co2) emission-free energy production technologies should be considered. The potential contribution of nuclear energy to a sustainable energy future should be recognized. 2) An investigation into the resources in the Fen Complex and other sites in Norway should be performed. It is essential to assess whether thorium in Norwegian rocks can be defined as an economical asset for the benefit of future generations. Furthermore, the application of new technologies for the extraction of thorium from the available mineral sources should be studied. 3) Testing of thorium fuel in the Halden Reactor should be encouraged, taking benefit of the well recognized nuclear fuel competence in Halden. 4) Norway should strengthen its participation in international collaborations by joining the EURATOM fission program and the GIF program on Generation IV reactors suitable for the use of thorium. 5) The development of an Accelerator Driven System (ADS) using thorium is not within the capability of Norway working alone. Joining the European effort in this field should be considered. Norwegian research groups should be encouraged to participate in relevant international projects, although these are currently focused on waste management. 6) Norway should bring its competence in waste management up to an international standard and collaboration with Sweden and Finland could be beneficial. 7) Norway should bring its competence with respect to dose assessment related to the thorium cycle up to an international standard. 8) Since the proliferation resistance of uranium-233 depends on the reactor and reprocessing technologies, this aspect will be of key concern should any thorium reactor be built in Norway. 9) Any new nuclear activities in Norway, e.g. thorium fuel cycles, would need strong international pooling of human resources, and in the case of thorium, a strong long

  15. Neurological melioidosis in Norway presenting with a cerebral abscess

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liv Hesstvedt

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Neurological melioidosis is a rare condition, as less than 30 cases have been reported in the last 50 years. We present a case of neurological melioidosis, presenting with a cerebral abscess in a returning traveler from an endemic area. While traveling in Cambodia on holiday, the patient was admitted to local hospital for pneumonia. Her condition improved after antimicrobial treatment, and she returned to Norway when discharged. The patient had several contacts with the health care system after returning to Norway, due to recurrent fever and deterioration. Short-term antimicrobial treatment was given with temporary improvement in her condition. Eventually she developed stroke-like symptoms, and a cerebral abscess was found. Cultures from the abscess were positive for Burkholderia pseudomallei and the treatment was adjusted accordingly.

  16. New Realities of Political Communications in Iceland and Norway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Birgir Guðmundsson

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Political communication in Iceland and in the Nordic Countries has undergone dramatic changes in the last decades. The political process has had to adjust to a new media landscape and to novel media technology at the same time as the media themselves are faced with transformed political realities. This paper reports a qualitative study on the way in which political parties in Iceland and Norway deal with a twofold change in political communication: on the one hand the change that has occurred with increasing commercialisation and professionalization of the traditional media; on the other, the change brought about by the digital revolution, with an explosion of media-outlets, communication possibilities and fragmentation of the public sphere. Five general dimensions are found to characterize the new realities of political communication in Norway and Iceland. These are: agenda setting; targeting of special groups; internal communication; professionalization; and a holistic communication approach.

  17. Impacts of extreme weather events on transport infrastructure in Norway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frauenfelder, Regula; Solheim, Anders; Isaksen, Ketil; Romstad, Bård; Dyrrdal, Anita V.; Ekseth, Kristine H. H.; Gangstø Skaland, Reidun; Harbitz, Alf; Harbitz, Carl B.; Haugen, Jan E.; Hygen, Hans O.; Haakenstad, Hilde; Jaedicke, Christian; Jónsson, Árni; Klæboe, Ronny; Ludvigsen, Johanna; Meyer, Nele K.; Rauken, Trude; Sverdrup-Thygeson, Kjetil

    2016-04-01

    With the latest results on expected future increase in air temperature and precipitation changes reported by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), the climate robustness of important infrastructure is of raising concern in Norway, as well as in the rest of Europe. Economic consequences of natural disasters have increased considerably since 1950. In addition to the effect of demographic changes such as population growth, urbanization and more and more concentration of valuable assets, this increase is also related to an augmenting frequency of extreme events, such as storms, flooding, drought, and landslides. This change is also observable in Norway, where the increased frequency of strong precipitation has led to frequent flooding and landslide events during the last 20 years. A number of studies show that climate change causes an increase in both frequency and intensity of several types of extreme weather, especially when it comes to precipitation. Such extreme weather events greatly affect the transport infrastructure, with numerous and long closures of roads and railroads, in addition to damage and repair costs. Frequent closures of railroad and roads lead to delay or failure in delivery of goods, which again may lead to a loss of customers and/or - eventually - markets. Much of the Norwegian transport infrastructure is more than 50 years old and therefore not adequately dimensioned, even for present climatic conditions. In order to assess these problems and challenges posed to the Norwegian transport infrastructure from present-day and future extreme weather events, the project "Impacts of extreme weather events on infrastructure in Norway (InfraRisk)" was performed under the research Council of Norway program 'NORKLIMA', between 2009 and 2013. The main results of the project are: - Moderate to strong precipitation events have become more frequent and more intense in Norway over the last 50 years, and this trend continues throughout the 21st

  18. Securitzation and counterterrorism in Norway 2001-2011

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    This thesis analyses how the threat of terrorism is perceived and responded to in Norway. Based on an understanding of threats as socially constructed, its main theoretical pillar is the Copenhagen School’s theory of securitization, and a central objective is to apply this theory to the empirical case. The main research question is to what extent the issue of terrorism has been securitized in the Norwegian context, and the analysis centers on the discourse and practice of counterterrorism. A ...

  19. Urban and regional labour market mobility in Norway

    OpenAIRE

    Stambøl, Lasse Sigbjørn

    2005-01-01

    Across Europe the competitiveness of urban and regional labour markets becomes an increasingly important task for regional and sector policies. Efficient matching of local demand and supply of labour at different qualification levels is considered to be an important prerequisite both for economic growth and social cohesion in every region. This study contains the main results of a research project analysing the urban and regional labour market mobility in Norway. The main purpose of the study...

  20. The life with harmful algae in Norway - management

    OpenAIRE

    Dahl, Einar; Tangen, Karl

    1999-01-01

    Harmful phytoplankton is a part of the natural, marine flora. The need for management and mitigation of their occurrence and effects has raised with the increased use and utilization of the coastal waters. Besides fisheries, fish farming and harvesting/cultivation of bivalves are activities in Norway, which have experienced problems, including economic losses, due to harmful algae. Management tools for tackling such problems and minimize losses are proper site selection of aqua...

  1. CONSUMER ATTITUDES TOWARDS GENETICALLY MODIFIED FOODS IN NORWAY

    OpenAIRE

    Kristine M. Grimsrud; McCluskey, Jill J.; Maria L. Loureiro; Wahl, Thomas I.

    2002-01-01

    There is a lack of public acceptance of genetically modified (GM) food products in Europe. Using a dichotomous choice contingent valuation methodology, we find that willingness to accept (WTA) for GM food in Norway is positively affected (i.e. a greater discount is required) by higher levels of self-reported risk perceptions toward GM-food and preferences for domestically produced food. The estimation results show that self-reported knowledge about biotechnology increases WTA while higher lev...

  2. New Realities of Political Communications in Iceland and Norway

    OpenAIRE

    Birgir Guðmundsson

    2014-01-01

    Political communication in Iceland and in the Nordic Countries has undergone dramatic changes in the last decades. The political process has had to adjust to a new media landscape and to novel media technology at the same time as the media themselves are faced with transformed political realities. This paper reports a qualitative study on the way in which political parties in Iceland and Norway deal with a twofold change in political communication: on the one hand the change that has occurred...

  3. Green public procurement in practice — The case of Norway

    OpenAIRE

    Annik Magerholm Fet; Ottar Michelsen; Luitzen Boer

    2011-01-01

    Green procurement is seen both as a public strategy to promote sustainable products and as a business strategy to improve environmental performance of the supply chain and thus meet demands for more environmentally friendly products, including from public institutions. Green Public Procurement (GPP) is a part of the national strategy for sustainable development in Norway, and it has become a national policy through legislation and various initiatives from the government. In addition to the im...

  4. Pavement wear and airborne dust pollution in Norway

    OpenAIRE

    Snilsberg, Brynhild

    2008-01-01

    In several large cities in Norway the traffic volume is high. The use of studded tires and other friction enhancing measures during winter leads to significant pavement wear, which in turn leads to an increase in the amount of airborne particulate matter, often exceeding the limits set in the ambient air regulation. This represents a nuisance or health risk for people being exposed to the pollution. According to regulations set by the European Union particulate matter is measured and regulate...

  5. ["Look to Norway"--but for how long?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haug, Jon Birger; Raastad, Ragnhild; Berild, Dag

    2010-08-12

    Internationally, Norway receives positive attention mainly in the context of Winter Olympics or peace initiatives. However, an Associated Press article recently suggested that the Norwegian health care system had "found the Solution to Killer Superbug". Furthermore, Norway was proclaimed "The Most Infection Free Country in the World". What my be the reality behind such headlines, and how shall we as a nation maintain a favourable situation? Physicians in Scandinavian countries and the Netherlands have a long tradition for modest prescription of antibiotics, and are trained to use agents with a narrow antimicrobial spectre whenever possible. This is probably the main reason why these countries have had less antibiotic resistance than others. The number of antibiotics marketed in a country correlates positively with total drug consumption. Until 1992, Norwegian authorities could reject marketing of new compounds if national experts found no medical need for them. The foresight of senior colleagues has led to the number of marketed antibiotics in Norway, even today, being 10-fold lower than in some other European countries. The national surveillance programme, NORM, reports antimicrobial resistance in human pathogens on an annual basis. For example, national levels of MRSA and ESBL-producing Enterobacteriaceae are still very low whereas ampicillin and ciprofloxacin resistance in E coli and high- level gentamicin resistance in enterococci cause some concern. Norway has well-established epidemiological surveillance systems in the fields of microbiology and infectious diseases. Nevertheless, more knowledge is needed on how antibiotics are used in hospitals. Two national strategic plans (since 2003) have emphasized the explicit importance of antibiotic surveillance to counteract future antibiotic resistance problems. To fulfil national ambitions, there is an urgent need for economic grants to this field; the human resources are there and as eager to start as Olympic

  6. Labour market mobility among senior workers in Norway

    OpenAIRE

    Tobro, Anne Marte Lunde

    2015-01-01

    As many developed countries, Norway has a growing elderly population and need to administer some policy change to cover the cost of the increasing number of pension recipients. One of the solutions to this problem is to give workers incentive to stay in the workforce longer. This thesis analyse the senior workers labour market mobility by studying the probability of leaving the workforce and the probability for senior workers to conduct a job change. Understanding job-to-nonemployment and job...

  7. Poster: Dropping organic certification - effects on organic farming in Norway

    OpenAIRE

    Koesling, Matthias; Løes, Anne-Kristin; Flaten, Ola; Lien, Gudbrand

    2008-01-01

    Numerous studies have examined organic farmers’ characteristics, motives, attitudes and barriers related to the conversion from conventional to organic farming. Recent studies have also discussed the perceived problems and reasons stated by organic farmers for opting out of certified production. In Norway, farmers’ reasons for opting out of certified organic farming have so far just been explored on a regional level or limited to one production; most such analyses have not been published inte...

  8. ["Look to Norway"--but for how long?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haug, Jon Birger; Raastad, Ragnhild; Berild, Dag

    2010-08-12

    Internationally, Norway receives positive attention mainly in the context of Winter Olympics or peace initiatives. However, an Associated Press article recently suggested that the Norwegian health care system had "found the Solution to Killer Superbug". Furthermore, Norway was proclaimed "The Most Infection Free Country in the World". What my be the reality behind such headlines, and how shall we as a nation maintain a favourable situation? Physicians in Scandinavian countries and the Netherlands have a long tradition for modest prescription of antibiotics, and are trained to use agents with a narrow antimicrobial spectre whenever possible. This is probably the main reason why these countries have had less antibiotic resistance than others. The number of antibiotics marketed in a country correlates positively with total drug consumption. Until 1992, Norwegian authorities could reject marketing of new compounds if national experts found no medical need for them. The foresight of senior colleagues has led to the number of marketed antibiotics in Norway, even today, being 10-fold lower than in some other European countries. The national surveillance programme, NORM, reports antimicrobial resistance in human pathogens on an annual basis. For example, national levels of MRSA and ESBL-producing Enterobacteriaceae are still very low whereas ampicillin and ciprofloxacin resistance in E coli and high- level gentamicin resistance in enterococci cause some concern. Norway has well-established epidemiological surveillance systems in the fields of microbiology and infectious diseases. Nevertheless, more knowledge is needed on how antibiotics are used in hospitals. Two national strategic plans (since 2003) have emphasized the explicit importance of antibiotic surveillance to counteract future antibiotic resistance problems. To fulfil national ambitions, there is an urgent need for economic grants to this field; the human resources are there and as eager to start as Olympic

  9. Norway and the arctic: between multilateral governance and geopolitics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flikke, Geir

    2013-03-01

    The article analyzes Norwegian politics in the high north in light of multilateral institutions and new security challenges. The author maintains that Norway's politics is based on functional multilateral organizations and continuity and predictability in the UN framework. This can become more of a challenge if the competition for resource access hardens and the Arctic is defined as a strategically valuable area for one or more states.(Author)

  10. Impression of the NGOs in Norway and Germany

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GaoSumei; YanMoufeng

    2004-01-01

    At the invitation of the “Moral Re-armament” Norwegian Foundation and the Friedrich-Ebert Foundation of Germany, the delegation of the Chinese Association for International Understanding(CAFIU), headed by Vice-President, Mr. Zhu Dacheng,paid a visit to Norway and Germany from May 17 to 27. During the visit, we did some research on the state of NGOs in the two countries.

  11. GE Money Bank in Norway : competitor analysis in auto market

    OpenAIRE

    Gusarova, Anna

    2006-01-01

    In this Sivilokonom study the financial industry in Norway is analysed and a competitor analysis in AUTO market is performed for GE Money Bank. The industry analysis is based on the M. Porter’s Five Forces Framework, which includes the analysis of Suppliers, Buyers, Potential New Entrants, Product Substitutes and Rivalry. From this analysis it is concluded that the strongest force in the industry is Rivalry with fierce competition and numerous actors on the market. It is also clear that the b...

  12. Health care help seeking behaviour among prisoners in Norway

    OpenAIRE

    Nesset Merete; Rustad Åse-Bente; Kjelsberg Ellen; Almvik Roger; Bjørngaard Johan

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background Prisoners are associated with high health care needs compared with the general population. This study aims to investigate prisoners' use of health service. Methods A cross-sectional study of 29 prisons in central and southern parts of Norway. A questionnaire was distributed to 1, 454 prisoners (90% response rate). Multilevel analyses were employed to analyse help seeking behaviour among the prisoners. Results Help seeking was substantially associated with sleep problems an...

  13. Experiencing poverty. An interdisciplinary empirical study of poverty in Norway

    OpenAIRE

    Søiland, Hilde

    2016-01-01

    Academic works on poverty are often concerned with how to measure or define this complex phenomenon. This thesis instead adds to poverty research by focusing on experiences of poverty, exploring what poverty is through the stories of those living in economic deprivation in Norway. The Norwegian context is particularly interesting due to the exceptionally high average living standards which create an unusually large gap between the poor and “everyone else”. Qualitative, semi-structured intervi...

  14. Risk Assessment of Critical Communication Infrastructure in Railways in Norway

    OpenAIRE

    Johnsen, Stig O.; Veen, Mona

    2013-01-01

    This paper discusses the significant findings of a risk assessment of infrastructure used in emergency communication by railways in Norway. The initial risk assessment was performed in 2008 and we have reviewed the results in 2010, documenting mitigating actions and their effect. The development of safety and security culture has also been evaluated. The risk assessment was based on a socio-technical approach, which considers technical, organizational and human factors. Action research was us...

  15. Assimilation effects on infant mortality among immigrants in Norway

    OpenAIRE

    Jonas Minet Kinge; Tom Kornstad

    2013-01-01

    The wellbeing of children of immigrant mothers is of great concern worldwide. In this study, we investigate the relationship between infant mortality and maternal country of origin and whether or not this relationship varies with the number of years since maternal migration. We use an extensive dataset consisting of all births in Norway from 1992 to 2010 augmented by source country and other maternal characteristics. By measuring the source country infant mortality rate at the time the mother...

  16. Picturing politics: Female Political Leaders in France and Norway

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    This article explores images of high-level female politicians in France and Norway from 1980 to 2010, examining the ways in which they present themselves to the media and their subsequent reception by journalists. Women in French politics experience difficulties living up to a masculine heroic leadership ideal historically marked by drama, conquest, and seductiveness. In contrast, Norwegian female politicians have challenged the traditional leadership ethos of conspicuous modesty and low-key ...

  17. Do Immigrants Integrate Out of Poverty in Norway

    OpenAIRE

    Galloway, Taryn Ann

    2006-01-01

    Abstract: In light of the riots and unrest among immigrants in France during the fall of 2005, the question of how immigrants are faring with respect to a certain minimum in society is both a timely and pertinent question for a number of European countries. In Norway, the prevalence of poverty is alarmingly high among immigrants and stands in stark contrast to the very low poverty rates for the native Norwegian population. Thus, unless the high poverty rates in the immigrant po...

  18. Settlement and migration patterns among immigrants in Norway

    OpenAIRE

    Stambøl, Lasse Sigbjørn

    2014-01-01

    The immigration to Norway has increased strongly since the turn of the millennium and especially since the eastward EU-enlargements. The aim of the paper is to investigate the regional settlement and migration patterns of immigrants mostly recognized by their reason of immigration. The immigration has changed from a gender balance during the first years of the 2000 towards a clear male dominance after 2005, mostly due to increased labour immigration. The immigration has changed from a dominan...

  19. Assimilation Effects on Poverty Among Immigrants in Norway.

    OpenAIRE

    Galloway, Taryn Ann; Aaberge, Rolf

    2003-01-01

    This paper discusses the question of whether or not the high incidence of poverty among immigrants in Norway persists even after immigrants have been in the country for a long period, i.e. after they have had the opportunity to integrate and adapt their skills to the expectations in their new home. While similar to traditional studies of wage assimilation, a study of assimilation in relation to poverty propensity nevertheless measures something different than labor market assimilation, and th...

  20. Radon and lung cancer: an epidemiological study in Norway

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objectives and strategy of an epidemiological study on the effects of exposure to radon in Norwegian dwellings is presented. The study is a cooperation between the National Institute of Radiation Hygiene and the Norwegian Cancer Registry in Norway and the National Radiological Protection Board of the United Kingdom, with funding by the Norwegian Cancer Society. Measurements of radon are being made in 10,000 dwellings representing all Norwegian municipalities. The potential for detecting an effect of radon exposure by such a study in Norway is unique because: (1) Radon concentrations are high and there are large regional variations. (2) Data from the Norwegian Cancer Registry is of high quality: all cancers have been subject to compulsory reporting since 1955. These data can be broken down according to municipality, sex and age. (3) In 1964/1965 a large scale survey of smoking habits was carried out in Norway. These data can also be broken down according to municipality, sex and age, and by types of smoking and smoking rate. It is intended to examine the correlation between lung cancer incidence and geographical variation in radon levels after making allowance for smoking habits. Radon measurements were started in early 1987 and the results of the study are expected to be published in 1989. (author)

  1. River ice implications related to water power production in Norway

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Asvall, R.P. [Norwegian Water Resources and Energy Directorate, Oslo (Norway). Hydrology Dept.

    2009-07-01

    Nearly 99 per cent of the electricity produced in Norway is based on water power. While the period of large power development is over, the current focus lies in developing small hydroelectric power plants. A new market based energy law was implemented in Norway in 1991 to achieve more efficient use of electricity production by means of market forces. Since water regulation influences ice conditions in lakes and rivers, this paper focused on the implications of changes in ice conditions. In Norway, the expected changes in ice conditions are taken into account when issuing permits for water regulations and schemes for water discharge because some waterways are used as winter roads. Follow-up includes both close and long term observations and measurements. The impact of variable price on power was also discussed, with particular reference to ice conditions in cases where water discharge occurs on rivers. This paper summarized selected ice problems and how they have been handled. The paper also included a summary of anticipated climatic changes relevant to ice conditions.

  2. Domestication and diversification: a comparative analysis of the play fighting of the Brown Norway, Sprague-Dawley, and Wistar laboratory strains of (Rattus norvegicus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Himmler, Stephanie M; Modlinska, Klaudia; Stryjek, Rafal; Himmler, Brett T; Pisula, Wojciech; Pellis, Sergio M

    2014-08-01

    Laboratory strains of rats are a commonly used subject to study play behavior. Recent research has shown that play in one laboratory strain of rat (e.g., Long-Evans hooded) differs in a number of ways from its wild counterparts. These findings suggest that domestication affects some aspects of play behavior. However, there are multiple strains of laboratory rats, which have been domesticated through different lineages all derived from wild rats and it cannot be assumed that all domestic strains are identical in their play. Therefore, the aim of this study was to compare the play behavior of three other strains of laboratory rats (e.g., Wistar, Sprague-Dawley, and Brown Norway). All strains were similar to each other as they all engaged in high frequencies of play, tolerated similar interanimal distances before initiating playful defense and displayed similar acrobatic capacities, suggesting domestication produces some common changes in play and other factors that influence play. However, strains differed significantly from one another in the use of tactics that promote bodily contact during play. Indeed, in this regard, some strains were more similar to wild rats than others, suggesting that some domestication-induced changes are either unique or more prominent in some laboratory strains than others. Such a mosaic pattern of transformation not only offers the possibility of using strain differences to characterize the genetic factors contributing to different facets of play, but also cautions researchers from making rat-general conclusions from studies on any one strain. PMID:24749500

  3. Growth strategy of Norway spruce under air elevated [CO2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pokorny, R.; Urban, O.; Holisova, P.; Sprtova, M.; Sigut, L.; Slipkova, R.

    2012-04-01

    Plants will respond to globally increasing atmospheric CO2 concentration ([CO2]) by acclimation or adaptation at physiological and morphological levels. Considering the temporal onset, physiological responses may be categorized as short-term and morphological ones as long-term responses. The degree of plant growth responses, including cell division and cell expansion, is highly variable. It depends mainly on the specie's genetic predisposition, environment, mineral nutrition status, duration of CO2 enrichment, and/or synergetic effects of other stresses. Elevated [CO2] causes changes in tissue anatomy, quantity, size, shape and spatial orientation and can result in altered sink strength. Since, there are many experimental facilities for the investigation of elevated [CO2] effects on trees: i) closed systems or open top chambers (OTCs), ii) semi-open systems (for example glass domes with adjustable lamella windows - DAWs), and iii) free-air [CO2] enrichments (FACE); the results are still unsatisfactory due to: i) relatively short-term duration of experiments, ii) cultivation of young plants with different growth strategy comparing to old ones, iii) plant cultivation under artificial soil and weather conditions, and iv) in non-representative stand structure. In this contribution we are discussing the physiological and morphological responses of Norway spruce trees cultivated in DAWs during eight consecutive growing seasons in the context with other results from Norway spruce cultivation under air-elevated [CO2] conditions. On the level of physiological responses, we discuss the changes in the rate of CO2 assimilation, assimilation capacity, photorespiration, dark respiration, stomatal conductance, water potential and transpiration, and the sensitivity of these physiological processes to temperature. On the level of morphological responses, we discuss the changes in bud and growth phenology, needle and shoot morphology, architecture of crown and root system, wood

  4. The history of diplomatic relations between Romania and Norway during the interwar period

    OpenAIRE

    Ana-Maria Despa

    2011-01-01

    This article aims at reconstructing based on diplomatic archives’ records the history of diplomatic and consular relations between the two countries during the interwar period. The diplomatic bonds between the two countries date back already before Norway had obtained its sovereignty by dissolving the United Kingdom of Sweden and Norway in 1905. Eventually, Romania recognized the Norwegian independence and conducted diplomatic relations with Norway through its legation in Berlin. The first of...

  5. Bicultural Childhood. A Case Study with Greek and Greek-Norwegian Families in Norway

    OpenAIRE

    Liland, Irene Midtskog

    2015-01-01

    This study aims to explore Greek and Greek–Norwegian children’s experiences of migration and bicultural childhood. The period of fieldwork took place in different cities in Norway during the autumn of 2014. The methods employed are questionnaires, worksheets, mind-mapping activities and semi-structured interviews. The participants in the study were children born in Norway with one Greek-born and one Norwegian-born parent, immigrant children from Greece who had been living in Norway between on...

  6. Educational inequalities in acute myocardial infarction incidence in Norway: A nationwide cohort study

    OpenAIRE

    Jannicke Igland; Stein Emil Vollset; Nygård, Ottar K.; Gerhard Sulo; Marta Ebbing; Tell, Grethe S.

    2014-01-01

    Background Increasing differences in cardiovascular disease (CVD) mortality across levels of education have been reported in Norway. The aim of the study was to investigate educational inequalities in acute myocardial infarction (AMI) incidence and whether such inequalities have changed during the past decade using a nationwide longitudinal study design. Methods Data on 141 332 incident (first) AMIs in Norway during 2001–2009 were obtained through the Cardiovascular Disease in Norway...

  7. Infestation with Ixodes ricinus ticks on migrating passerine birds in Lithuania and Norway

    OpenAIRE

    Paulauskas, Algimantas; Rosef, Olav; Galdikaite, Egle; Radzijevskaja, Jana

    2009-01-01

    Ticks are known to carry several pathogenic agents of human diseases. To define the role of migrating birds as host and disseminators of ticks in Lithuania and Norway we analysed immature stage of ticks feeding on different passerine bird species. During April-May of 2006-2007 and August-September of 2008, migrating passerine birds were captured at ornithological stations in southern Norway and in Lithuania respectively. In Norway were investigated 152 passerine birds representing...

  8. Energy efficiency policies and measures in Norway 2006. Monitoring of energy efficiency in EU15 and Norway (Odyssee-Mure)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report represents the national case study of Norway for the EIE-project 'Monitoring of energy efficiency in EU-15 and Norway - ODYSSEE-MURE'. It presents the recent energy efficiency trends in Norway on the basis of indicators extracted from the ODYSSEE database. Total energy consumption (not including energy as feedstock) has increased from 192 TWh in 1990 to a present maximum of 219 TWh in 1999. From then it has been a slight decrease and in 2005 the final energy consumption was 215 TWh. Energy consumption in manufacturing industry has increased by 11 percent from 1990 to 2004, and in the period 1998-2004 it seems to be steadying at approximately 78 TWh. Final energy use in households has increased from 41 TWh in 1990 to a maximum of 46.6 TWh in 1996 and 2002. In 2005 44.1 TWh was used, which is almost the same as the consumption in 1994. It seems to be an interrupt in the increase of energy use in households, despite the growth of all common used drivers in this sector. Energy efficiency policies and measures implemented since 1990 have contributed to improve the efficiency by 10 percent, or 0.7 percent per year; this means that if these policies and measures would not have been implemented, the final energy consumption would have been 10 percent higher in 2004 (or approximately 19 TWh) (author) (ml)

  9. Bradykinin inhibits development of myocardial infarction through B2 receptor signalling by increment of regional blood flow around the ischaemic lesions in rats

    OpenAIRE

    Ito, Hiroshi; Hayashi, Izumi; Izumi, Tohru; Majima, Masataka

    2003-01-01

    To identify the roles of endogenous kinins in prevention of myocardial infarction (MI), we performed the permanent ligation of coronary artery in rats.The size of MI 12, 24, and 48 h after coronary ligation in kininogen-deficient Brown Norway Katholiek (BN-Ka) rats was significantly larger (49.7±0.2%, 49.6±2%, and 51.1±1%, respectively) than that of kinin-replete Brown Norway Kitasato (BN-Ki) rats (42±2%, 38.5±4%, and 41.5±1%).Hoe140, a bradykinin (BK) B2 receptor antagonist injected (1.0 mg ...

  10. Recent developments in spent fuel management in Norway - 59260

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spent Nuclear Fuel (SNF) in Norway has arisen from irradiation of fuel in the NORA, Jeep I and Jeep II reactors at Kjeller, and in the Heavy Boiling Water Reactor (HBWR) in Halden. In total there is some 16 tonnes of SNF, with 12 tons of aluminium-clad fuel, of which 10 tonnes is metallic uranium fuel and the remainder oxide (UO2). The portion of this fuel that is similar to commercial fuel (UO2 clad in Zircaloy) may be suitable for direct disposal on the Swedish model or in other repository designs. However, metallic uranium and/or fuels clad in aluminium are chemically reactive and there would be risks associated with direct disposal. Two committees were established by the Government of Norway in January 2009 to make recommendations for the interim storage and final disposal of spent fuel in Norway. The Technical Committee on Storage and Disposal of Metallic Uranium Fuel and Al-clad Fuels was formed with the mandate to recommend treatment (i.e. conditioning) options for metallic uranium fuel and aluminium-clad fuel to render them stable for long term storage and disposal. This committee, whose members were drawn from the nuclear industry, reported in January 2010, and recommended commercial reprocessing as the best option for these fuels. The Phase-2 committee, which in part based its work on the work of previous committees and on the report of the Technical Committee, had the mandate to find the most suitable technical solution and localisation for intermediate storage for spent nuclear fuel and long-lived waste. The membership of this committee was chosen to represent a broad cross section of stakeholders. The committee evaluated different solutions and their associated costs, and recommended one of the options. The committee's report published in early 2011. This paper summarises the conclusions of the two committees, and thereby illustrates the steps taken by one country to formulate a strategy for the long-term management of its SNF. (authors)

  11. Delphinella Shoot Blight on Abies lasiocarpa Provenances in Norway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Venche Talgø

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Delphinella shoot blight (Delphinella abietis attacks true firs (Abies spp. in Europe and North America. Especially subalpine fir (A. lasiocarpa, one of the main Christmas tree species in Norway, is prone to the disease. The fungus kills current year needles, and in severe cases entire shoots. Dead needles become covered with black fruiting bodies, both pycnidia and pseudothecia. Delphinella shoot blight has mainly been a problem in humid, coastal regions in the northwestern part of Southern Norway, but, probably due to higher precipitation in inland regions during recent years, heavy attacks were found in 2011 in a field trial with 76 provenances of subalpine fir in Southeastern Norway. However, the amount of precipitation seemed less important once the disease had established in the field. Significant differences in susceptibility between provenances were observed. In general, the more bluish the foliage was, the healthier the trees appeared. The analysis of provenance means indicated that, at least for the southern range, the disease ratings were correlated with foliage color. This study also includes isolation, identification, a pathogenicity test, a seed test and electron microscopy of the wax layer on the needles. The fungus was identified based on the morphology of spores and by sequencing the Internal Transcribed Spacer (ITS regions of the ribosomal DNA. Koch’s postulates were fulfilled. The fungus was found present on newly harvested seeds and may therefore spread via international seed trade. When comparing the wax layers on green and blue needles, those of the latter were significantly thicker, a factor that may be involved in disease resistance.

  12. Mercury-induced renal autoimmunity: changes in RT6+ T-lymphocytes of susceptible and resistant rats.

    OpenAIRE

    Kosuda, L L; Greiner, D. L.; Bigazzi, P E

    1993-01-01

    The repeated administration of mercury to rats of the Brown Norway (BN) inbred strain results in a self-limiting production of autoantibodies to renal antigens (e.g., laminin) and autoimmune glomerulonephritis. In contrast, rats of the Lewis (LEW) strain do not develop renal autoimmunity after mercury treatment. Suppressor T-cells and/or the idiotype-anti-idiotype network have been implicated in the control of autoimmunity in susceptible (BN) rats as well as the "resistant" state of nonsuscep...

  13. Comparative analyses of compulsory school curricula in Denmark and Norway

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Jens

    , experience or discover to an output oriented curriculum emphasizing on what students know, are able or can state. The attention has changed from content to students, from what the teacher teach to what the students learn. The study compares similarities and differences in the construction of the curricula...... the national curricula in Denmark (2009) and Norway (2006) have moved from more or less content driven curricula to standard driven curricula with standards expressed in competence terms. In other words the two countries have gone from an input oriented curriculum emphasizing on what students learn...

  14. Exhibit / Inhibit. Gjennomgang av OCA Office for Contemporary Art Norway

    OpenAIRE

    Røyseng, Sigrid; Haugsevje, Åsne Dahl

    2013-01-01

    Telemarksforsking har i samarbeid med Sigrid Røyseng, Handelshøyskolen BI, foretatt en gjennomgang av OCA - Office for Contemporary Art Norway på oppdrag fra Kulturdepartementet og Utenriksdepartementet. Gjennomgangen viser at selv om OCA har mange resultater å vise til, har organisasjonen store utfordringer på enkelte områder. OCA er en omstridt organisasjon som har fått mye omtale i media de siste årene. Uenighetene omkring OCA kretser i hovedsak rundt organisasjonens kunstfaglige profil...

  15. Geographies of superstition, myths, freedom: Ibsen and Northern Norway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenche Torrissen

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Ibsen visited Northern Norway only once in his lifetime and this was in the summer of 1891. Despite this fact, Ibsen was preoccupied with the North both as symbolic and geographical locations throughout his whole literary career. Why? This article will explore how the North is represented in Ibsen’s prose plays. It will assess whether Ibsen contributed to confirm already existing images of the North or whether he contributed to the construction of new images. The article will also explore how Ibsen used images of the North to construct meaning for contemporary audiences.

  16. Hydroelectric rent and precipitation variability: the case of Norway

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Norway is about to reorganize its electricity production sector from a predominantly administered one to one which is based on market prices and principles of efficiency. The objective of this paper is to model the energy sector and to measure the size of hydro rent before and after the reorganization. We construct a regionally diversified and integrated equilibrium model of production, transmission and distribution of hydroelectricity. Particular attention is paid to the role of precipitation variability for the size and regional variation of hydro rent. We consider alternative routes for assessing the size of hydro rent in a long-run perspective. (author)

  17. The family gap in pay : evidence from Norway

    OpenAIRE

    2006-01-01

    I will in this thesis examine the family gap in pay (i.e. differences in hourly pay between mothers and non-mothers) among Norwegian women. While women in general make up a substantial part of the workforce today, a large literature shows that women with children have lower hourly earnings than women without children even with same type of education and experience. Evidence of a family gap in pay has been found for the United States, the United Kingdom, Germany and also for Norway. Con...

  18. Transient thermal modeling of permafrost conditions in Southern Norway

    OpenAIRE

    Westermann, S.; T. V. Schuler; K. Gisnås; B. Etzelmüller

    2013-01-01

    Thermal modeling is a powerful tool to infer the temperature regime of the ground in permafrost areas. We present a transient permafrost model, CryoGrid 2, that calculates ground temperatures according to conductive heat transfer in the soil and in the snowpack. CryoGrid 2 is forced by operational air temperature and snow-depth products for potential permafrost areas in Southern Norway for the period 1958 to 2009 at 1 km2 spatial resolution. In total, an area of about 80 000 km2 is covered. T...

  19. Feasibility study. Solar energy in Norway; Mulighetsstudie. Solenergi i Norge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Halvorsen, Una; Bernhard, Peter; Salvesen, Fritjof; Bugge, Lars; Andresen, Inger; Simonsen, Ingeborg

    2011-07-01

    On behalf of Enova KanEnergi and SINTEF summarized the results of the project 'Feasibility study. Solar energy' in a report. The purpose of this report is to outline an overview of the potential for solar energy in Norway to be realized until 2020. This is a survey of the status of technology and associated costs related to energy production, as well as a description of the market conditions. This report is a contribution to Enova's ongoing strategy and development. (eb)

  20. Storage of Spent Nuclear Fuel in Norway: Status and Prospects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spent Nuclear Fuel (SNF) in Norway has arisen from irradiation of fuel in the JEEP I and JEEP II reactors at Kjeller, and in the Halden Boiling Water Reactor (HBWR) in Halden. In total there are some 16 tonnes of SNF, all of which is currently stored on-site, in either wet or dry storage facilities. The greater part of the SNF, 12 tonnes, consists of aluminium-clad fuel, of which 10 tonnes is metallic uranium fuel and the remainder oxide (UO2). Such fuel presents significant challenges with respect to long-term storage and disposal. Current policy is that existing spent fuel will, as far as possible considering its suitability for later direct disposal, be stored until final disposal is possible. Several committees have advised the Government of Norway on, among others, policy issues, storage methods and localisation of a storage facility. Both experts and stakeholders have participated in these committees. This paper presents an overview of the spent fuel in Norway and a description of current storage arrangements. The prospects for long-term storage are then described, including a summary of recommendations made to government, the reactions of various stakeholders to these recommendations, the current status, and the proposed next steps. A recommended policy is to construct a new storage facility for the fuel to be stored for a period of at least 50 years. In the meantime a national final disposal facility should be constructed and taken into operation. It has been recommended that the aluminium-clad fuel be reprocessed in an overseas commercial facility to produce a stable waste form for storage and disposal. This recommendation is controversial, and a decision has not yet been taken on whether to pursue this option. An analysis of available storage concepts for the more modern fuel types resulted in the recommendation to use dual-purpose casks. In addition, it was recommended to construct a future storage facility in a rock hall instead of a free

  1. China and renewable energy in Africa: Opportunities for Norway?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study assesses the potential for Norwegian engagement in Sino-African renewable energy development. The study analyzes Norwegian competitiveness and complementarities towards Chinese energy actors in the African market, and identifies respective strengths and weaknesses against the backdrop of the African market. The report identifies barriers and opportunities for Norwegian commercial and developmental engagement towards upscaling renewable energy in Africa that may also apply to other OECD countries. Finally, the report points to possibilities for Norway to support sustainable Sino-African renewable energy development. (au)

  2. Treatment outcome of new culture positive pulmonary tuberculosis in Norway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heldal Einar

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The key elements in tuberculosis (TB control are to cure the individual patient, interrupt transmission of TB to others and prevent the tubercle bacilli from becoming drug resistant. Incomplete treatment may result in excretion of bacteria that may also acquire drug resistance and cause increased morbidity and mortality. Treatment outcome results serves as a tool to control the quality of TB treatment provided by the health care system. The aims of this study were to evaluate the treatment outcome for new cases of culture positive pulmonary TB registered in Norway during the period 1996–2002 and to identify factors associated with non-successful treatment. Methods This was a register-based cohort study. Treatment outcome was assessed according to sex, birthplace, age group, isoniazid (INH susceptibility, mode of detection and treatment periods (1996–1997, 1998–1999 and 2000–2002. Logistic regression was also used to estimate the odds ratio for treatment success vs. non-success with 95% confidence interval (CI, taking the above variables into account. Results Among the 655 patients included, the total treatment success rate was 83% (95% CI 80%–86%. The success rates for those born in Norway and abroad were 79% (95% CI 74%–84% and 86% (95% CI 83%–89% respectively. There was no difference in success rates by sex and treatment periods. Twenty-two patients (3% defaulted treatment, 58 (9% died and 26 (4% transferred out. The default rate was higher among foreign-born and male patients, whereas almost all who died were born in Norway. The majority of the transferred out group left the country, but seven were expelled from the country. In the multivariate analysis, only high age and initial INH resistance remained as significant risk factors for non-successful treatment. Conclusion Although the TB treatment success rate in Norway has increased compared to previous studies and although it has reached a reasonable target

  3. Music and Grief: Norway After 22 July, 2011

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie Strand Skånland

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available In 2011, a terror attack by one of its own citizens shocked Norway and led to deep mourning in the population. Music played a vital part in the way people processed this national tragedy. By looking at the collective and individual musicking that took place in response to the terror attack, this article explores the role and importance of music in this particular context,particularly with regard to its abilities to contain, give resonance to, and express difficult emotions; create feelings of community; and contribute to the individual’s self-care and work toward recovery and the achievement of well-being.

  4. China and renewable energy in Africa: Opportunities for Norway?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2011-12-15

    This study assesses the potential for Norwegian engagement in Sino-African renewable energy development. The study analyzes Norwegian competitiveness and complementarities towards Chinese energy actors in the African market, and identifies respective strengths and weaknesses against the backdrop of the African market. The report identifies barriers and opportunities for Norwegian commercial and developmental engagement towards upscaling renewable energy in Africa that may also apply to other OECD countries. Finally, the report points to possibilities for Norway to support sustainable Sino-African renewable energy development. (au)

  5. The 33rd International Geological Congress in Norway,2008

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Anders Solhelm; Sylvi Haldorsen

    2007-01-01

    @@ Introduction The 33rd International Geological Congress is organised jointly by the Nordic countries and held in Oslo,Norway,August 6-14,2008.This "Geoscience World Congress 2008" will run up to 40 parallel science sessions,poster sessions,an extensive exhibition,short-courses,workshops,and business meetings,as well as more than 50 exciting pre-and post Congress excursions.The excursions include all the Nordic countries,as well as Greenland,Svalbard,the Faeroes,Russia and Ukraine.

  6. Immigrant adolescents in out-of-home care in Norway

    OpenAIRE

    Demaerschalk, Evelien

    2013-01-01

    In Norway, first generation immigrant adolescents are overrepresented in out-of-home care by Child Welfare Services (CWS). More than Norwegians, immigrant adolescents themselves take the initiative to contact CWS. In this, immigrant girls seek more CWS help than boys. In this paper, a light is shone upon the lives of immigrants who were once in out-of-home care. The studies presented point to a large impact of migration and family breakdown. Many depict a chaotic family situation with a singl...

  7. Social inequalities in mental health in Norway: possible explanatory factors

    OpenAIRE

    Dalgard Odd

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Background It is well known that there is a social gradient in mental health, the prevalence of mental disorders stepwise increasing by lower social status. The reason for this, however, is not clear, and the purpose of the present study was to explore possible mediating factors between social status and mental health. Methods The study has a cross-sectional design, and was based on a nationwide survey in Oslo, Norway, counting 12 310 people in the age of 30–60 years. Immigrants from...

  8. The Palestinian Diaspora in Norway : united by history, divided by politics?

    OpenAIRE

    Soltveit, Joakim Hope

    2014-01-01

    The thesis's main concern is the relationship between Palestinian politics and the Palestinian diaspora in Norway. What is the effect of Palestinian politics within the diaspora, what role does the Palestinian political parties have and who is the Palestinian diaspora in Norway? These are questions which are being answered in the thesis.

  9. CPAFFC President Chen Haosu and His Party Visit Norway and Estonia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    <正>ACPAFFC delegation led by its president Chen Haosu paid a goodwill visit to Norway and Estonia from April 15 to 24. The visit was made at the invitation of the Norway-China Association (NCA)and the Estonia-China Friendship Association (ECFA).

  10. The New National Curriculum in Norway: A Change in the Role of the Principals?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Germeten, Sidsel

    2011-01-01

    This article presents perspectives on how principals in schools in northern Norway value the school reform "The Knowledge Promotion" and the new National Curriculum (LK06). It is based on a survey of all primary schools in the region of Finnmark and interviews with five of these principals one year later. The region of Finnmark in Norway is in the…

  11. Treatment and storage of radioactive wastes at Institute for Energy Technology, Kjeller, Norway and a short survey of non-radioactive hazardous wastes in Norway

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The treatment and storage of low-level and intermediate-level radioactive wastes in Norway is described. A survey of non-radioactive hazardous wastes and planned processing methods for their treatment in Norway is given. It seems that processing methods developed for radioactive wastes to a greater extent could be adopted to hazardous wastes, and that an increased interdisciplinary waste cooperation could be a positive contribution to the solution of the hazardous waste problems

  12. Transnational spaces of care: migrant nurses in Norway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isaksen, Lise Widding

    2012-01-01

    This article argues that international nurse recruitment from Latvia to Norway is not a win–win situation. The gains and losses of nurse migration are unevenly distributed between sender and receiver countries. On the basis of empirical research and interviews with Latvian nurses and families they left behind, this article argues that nurse migration transforms families and communities and that national health services now become global workplaces. Some decades ago feminist research pointed to the fact that the welfare state was based on a male breadwinner family and women’s unpaid production of care work at home. Today this production of unpaid care is “outsourced” from richer to poorer countries and is related to an emergence of transnational spaces of care. International nurse recruitment and global nurse care chains in Norway increasingly provide the labor that prevents the new adult worker model and gender equality politics from being disrupted in times where families are overloaded with elder care loads. PMID:22611573

  13. Genetic characterization of trh positive Vibrio spp. isolated from Norway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anette eBauer Ellingsen

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The thermostable direct hemolysin (TDH and/or TDH-related hemolysin (TRH genes are carried by most virulent Vibrio parahaemolyticus serovars. In Norway, trh+ V. parahaemolyticus constitute 4.4% and 4.5 % of the total number of V. parahaemolyticus isolated from blue mussel (Mytilus edulis and water, respectively. The trh gene is located in a region close to the gene cluster for urease production (ure. This region was characterized in V. parahaemolyticus strain TH3996 and it was found that a nickel transport operon (nik was located between the first gene (ureR and the rest of the ure cluster genes. The organization of the trh-ureR-nik-ure gene cluster in the Norwegian trh+ isolates was unknown. In this study, we explore the gene organization within the trh-ureR-nik-ure cluster for these isolates. PCR analyses revealed that the genes within the trh-ureR-nik-ure gene cluster of Norwegian trh+ isolates were organized in a similar fashion as reported previously for TH33996. Additionally, the phylogenetic relationship among these trh+ isolates was investigated using Multilocus Sequence Typing (MLST. Analysis by MLST or ureR-trh sequences generated two different phylogenetic trees for the same strains analyzed, suggesting that ureR-trh genes have been acquired at different times in Norwegian V. parahaemolyticus isolates. MLST results revealed that some pathogenic and non-pathogenic V. parahaemolyticus isolates in Norway appear to be highly genetically related.

  14. Mitochondrial DNA variation in the Viking age population of Norway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krzewińska, Maja; Bjørnstad, Gro; Skoglund, Pontus; Olason, Pall Isolfur; Bill, Jan; Götherström, Anders; Hagelberg, Erika

    2015-01-19

    The medieval Norsemen or Vikings had an important biological and cultural impact on many parts of Europe through raids, colonization and trade, from about AD 793 to 1066. To help understand the genetic affinities of the ancient Norsemen, and their genetic contribution to the gene pool of other Europeans, we analysed DNA markers in Late Iron Age skeletal remains from Norway. DNA was extracted from 80 individuals, and mitochondrial DNA polymorphisms were detected by next-generation sequencing. The sequences of 45 ancient Norwegians were verified as genuine through the identification of damage patterns characteristic of ancient DNA. The ancient Norwegians were genetically similar to previously analysed ancient Icelanders, and to present-day Shetland and Orkney Islanders, Norwegians, Swedes, Scots, English, German and French. The Viking Age population had higher frequencies of K*, U*, V* and I* haplogroups than their modern counterparts, but a lower proportion of T* and H* haplogroups. Three individuals carried haplotypes that are rare in Norway today (U5b1b1, Hg A* and an uncommon variant of H*). Our combined analyses indicate that Norse women were important agents in the overseas expansion and settlement of the Vikings, and that women from the Orkneys and Western Isles contributed to the colonization of Iceland.

  15. Population doses from naturally occurring radiation in Norway

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The main purpose of this work was to study the radiological consequences of the introduction of building materials with high concentrations of radioactivity and to analyse the impact of a reduction of the ventilation rates in houses on the population dose from inhalation of natural airborne radioactivity. The general problems of radioactivity in building materials are discussed. Measurements of radioactivity in building materials from different parts of the country are reported, together with theoretical calculations of the gamma doses in houses. These calculations are compared with experimental results and earlier measurements of the indoor gamma radiation in Norway. Measurements of the outdoor gamma radiation in different parts of Norway are presented. These results are used together with earlier measurements of the gamma radiation inside houses to calculate the average, and variations of population dose from this radiation. An experimental study on the radon concentrations inside different types of dwellings, and a discussion of the respiratory dose received by the inhalation of radon daughters is presented. Some factors that may have influence upon the radon concentrations are also discussed. A method for measurement of radon and thoron daughters in air is discussed. The possible radiological effects of an increased radon concentration in houses are discussed. (Auth.)

  16. Surveillance of abused drugs in forensic autopsy cases in Norway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svetlana V. Konstantinova-Larsen

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available High drug related mortality has been registered in Norway. Although comparison between countries relies on a standard international coding system of diseases, different practices in verifying cause of death and applying codes could lead to variation. The comparison gives no information on drug findings or drug patterns underlying the cause of deaths. To evaluate deaths involving illicit drugs in Norway, we examined drug patterns in 2735 forensically examined post-mortem samples collected from 15-64 year-old individuals from 2000 to 2009. There were four times as many men as women among the deceased illicit drug users, and the majority were in the age group 25-44 years. The number of deceased showing signs of illicit drug use has gradually declined during the study period. The decline was found among younger individuals, while a larger proportion of the deceased were above 45 years of age in 2009, compared to 2000. Cases positive for heroin, ethanol, ecstasy and flunitrazepam were fewer in 2009, while the prevalence of amphetamine, cannabis, methadone and other opioids has increased. The prevalence of methamphetamine has increased ten fold, and the prevalence of benzodiazepines doubled. Thus, the drug pattern and age of the deceased has changed markedly during the last 10 years. Heroin and ethanol use has partly been substituted by use of amphetamines, cannabis, benzodiazepines and other opioids. This change could possibly be explained by the prolonged survival of drug users on substitution treatment and by the reduced toxicity of consumed drugs.

  17. Interaction between temperature, precipitation and snow cover trends in Norway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizzi, Jonathan; Brox Nilsen, Irene; Stagge, James Howard; Gisnås, Kjersti; Merete Tallaksen, Lena

    2016-04-01

    Northern latitudes are experiencing faster warming than other regions, partly due to the snow--albedo feedback. A reduction in snow cover, which has a strong positive feedback on the energy balance, leads to a lowering of the albedo and thus, an amplification of the warming signal. Norway, in particular, can be considered a "cold climate laboratory" with large gradients in geography and climate that allows studying the effect of changing temperature and precipitation on snow in highly varying regions. Previous research showed that during last decades there has been an increase in air temperature for the entire country and a concurrent reduction in the land surface area covered by snow. However, these studies also demonstrate the sensitivity of the trend analysis to the period of record, to the start and end of the period, and to the presence of extreme years. In this study, we analyse several variables and their spatial and temporal variability across Norway, including mean, minimum and maximum daily temperature, daily precipitation, snow covered area and total snow water equivalent. Climate data is retrieved from seNorge (http://www.senorge.no), an operationally gridded dataset for Norway with a resolution of 1 km2. Analysis primarily focused on three overlapping 30-year periods (i.e., 1961-1990, 1971-2000, 1981-2010), but also tested trend sensitivity by varying period lengths. For each climate variable the Theil-Sen trend was calculated for each 30-year period along with the difference between 30-year mean values. In addition, indices specific to each variable were calculated (e.g. the number of days with a shift from negative to positive temperature values). The analysis was performed for the whole of Norway as well as for separate climatological regions previously defined based on temperature, precipitation and elevation. Results confirm a significant increase in mean daily temperatures and accelerating warming trends, especially during winter and spring

  18. Energy efficiency policies and measures in Norway: monitoring of energy efficiency in EU27, Norway and Croatia (ODYSSEE-MURE)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosenberg, Eva

    2009-09-15

    This report represents the national case study of Norway for the EIE-project 'Monitoring of Energy Demand Trends and Energy Efficiency in the EU - ODYSSEE-MURE'. It presents the recent energy efficiency trends in Norway on the basis of indicators extracted from the ODYSSEE database. Total energy consumption (not including energy as feedstock) has increased from 16.6 M toe (195 TWh) in 1990 to 19.2 M toe (226 TWh) in 2007 and has been relatively constant the last ten years. Energy consumption in manufacturing industry has increased by 10 % from 1990 to 2007, but is lower in 2007 than in 1998. Final energy use in households has increased from 3515 k toe (41 TWh) in 1990 to 3826 (45 TWh) in 2007. The climate corrected energy use has been at approximately 4000 k toe since the mid 1990s. It seems to be an interrupt in the increase of energy use in households, despite the growth of all common used drivers in this sector. Energy efficiency policies and measures implemented since 1990 have contributed to improve the efficiency by 13 %, or 0.7 % per year; this means that if these policies and measures would not have been implemented, the final energy consumption would have been 13 % higher in 2007 (or approximately 1.9 M toe or 22 TWh). (Author)

  19. Urban population genetics of slum-dwelling rats (Rattus norvegicus) in Salvador, Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Kajdacsi, Brittney; Costa, Federico; Hyseni, Chaz; Porter, Fleur; Brown, Julia; Rodrigues, Gorete; Farias, Helena; Reis, Mitermeyer G.; Childs, James E; Ko, Albert I; Caccone, Adalgisa

    2013-01-01

    Throughout the developing world, urban centers with sprawling slum settlements are rapidly expanding and invading previously forested ecosystems. Slum communities are characterized by untended refuse, open sewers, and overgrown vegetation, which promote rodent infestation. Norway rats (Rattus norvegicus), are reservoirs for epidemic transmission of many zoonotic pathogens of public health importance. Understanding the population ecology of R. norvegicus is essential to formulate effective rod...

  20. A New CRB1 Rat Mutation Links Müller Glial Cells to Retinal Telangiectasia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhao, Min; Andrieu-Soler, Charlotte; Kowalczuk, Laura; Paz Cortés, María; Berdugo, Marianne; Dernigoghossian, Marilyn; Halili, Francisco; Jeanny, Jean-Claude; Goldenberg, Brigitte; Savoldelli, Michèle; El Sanharawi, Mohamed; Naud, Marie-Christine; van Ijcken, Wilfred; Pescini-Gobert, Rosanna; Martinet, Danielle; Maass, Alejandro; Wijnholds, J.; Crisanti, Patricia; Rivolta, Carlo; Behar-Cohen, Francine

    2015-01-01

    We have identified and characterized a spontaneous Brown Norway from Janvier rat strain (BN-J) presenting a progressive retinal degeneration associated with early retinal telangiectasia, neuronal alterations, and loss of retinal Müller glial cells resembling human macular telangiectasia type 2 (MacT

  1. A new CRB1 rat mutation links Müller glial cells to retinal telangiectasia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. Zhao (Min); C. Andrieu-Soler (Charlotte); L. Kowalczuk (Laura); M.P. Cortés (María Paz); M. Berdugo (Marianne); M. Dernigoghossian (Marilyn); F. Halili (Francisco); J.-C. Jeanny (Jean-Claude); B. Goldenberg (Brigitte); M. Savoldelli (Michèle); M. El Sanharawi (Mohamed); M.-C. Naud (Marie-Christine); W.F.J. van IJcken (Wilfred); R. Pescini-Gobert (Rosanna); D. Martinet (Danielle); A. Maass (Alejandro); J. Wijnholds (Jan); P. Crisanti (Patricia); C. Rivolta (Carlo); F. Behar-Cohen (Francine)

    2015-01-01

    textabstractWe have identified and characterized a spontaneous Brown Norway from Janvier rat strain (BN-J) presenting a progressive retinal degeneration associated with early retinal telangiectasia, neuronal alterations, and loss of retinal Müller glial cells resembling human macular telangiectasia

  2. Age-related changes in body composition in laboratory rats: Strain and gender comparisons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long Evans (LE), Sprague Dawley (SD), Fischer 344 (F344), and Brown Norway (BN) rats are all commonly used as laboratory research subjects. These strains have been studied under many conditions, but few studies have measured changes in body composition as the animals age. Underst...

  3. Integrated database for rapid mass movements in Norway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Jaedicke

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Rapid gravitational slope mass movements include all kinds of short term relocation of geological material, snow or ice. Traditionally, information about such events is collected separately in different databases covering selected geographical regions and types of movement. In Norway the terrain is susceptible to all types of rapid gravitational slope mass movements ranging from single rocks hitting roads and houses to large snow avalanches and rock slides where entire mountainsides collapse into fjords creating flood waves and endangering large areas. In addition, quick clay slides occur in desalinated marine sediments in South Eastern and Mid Norway. For the authorities and inhabitants of endangered areas, the type of threat is of minor importance and mitigation measures have to consider several types of rapid mass movements simultaneously.

    An integrated national database for all types of rapid mass movements built around individual events has been established. Only three data entries are mandatory: time, location and type of movement. The remaining optional parameters enable recording of detailed information about the terrain, materials involved and damages caused. Pictures, movies and other documentation can be uploaded into the database. A web-based graphical user interface has been developed allowing new events to be entered, as well as editing and querying for all events. An integration of the database into a GIS system is currently under development.

    Datasets from various national sources like the road authorities and the Geological Survey of Norway were imported into the database. Today, the database contains 33 000 rapid mass movement events from the last five hundred years covering the entire country. A first analysis of the data shows that the most frequent type of recorded rapid mass movement is rock slides and snow avalanches followed by debris slides in third place. Most events are recorded in the steep fjord

  4. Connections between winter snowpack and subsequent spring floods in Norway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlichting, Lena; Engeland, Kolbjørn; Holmqvist, Erik; Bache Stranden, Heidi

    2016-04-01

    In Norway many inland and mountainous catchments have a hydrological regime where snow accumulates during winter. The runoff is delayed until the snow melts during spring. These processes are important for flood forecasting and water resource management, such as operation of hydropower reservoirs. It is commonly assumed that spring flood volume and peak linked to antecedent conditions such as winter snowpack, i.e. a large winter snowpack results in a high spring flood. The aims of this study are (i) to identify for which catchments a high correlation between snow water equivalent (SWE) at the end of the snow accumulation season and the subsequent spring flood, and (ii) establish regression models for these catchments to be used for seasonal flood forecasting. Daily runoff data from 43 distributed catchments all over Norway, each with at least 50 years of observations and a flood regime which is significantly influenced by snowmelt, were used. For each of these catchments we extracted SWE, precipitation and temperature on daily resolution from the on gridded data of Senorge.no. A peak-over-threshold approach was used to select independent flood events above the 90-th percentile. Maximum discharge, duration and volume were calculated for each event. The contribution of rain and snowmelt to each flood was additionally determined, based on snowmelt, precipitation and temperature data. The spring flood was defined as the first flood event that occurs after the date of maximum SWE, and the snowmelt contribution of at least 70%. The contribution of rain to a spring flood is independent of maximum SWE, resulting in a weaker correlation between maximum SWE and spring flood size. We therefore scaled the flood with the percentage of snow contribution to the flood event in order to adjust for the contribution from rain. The correlations between SWE and the spring flood were higher for scaled spring floods than for the unscaled ones. The results show for half of the stations a

  5. Genetic susceptibility to hypertension-induced renal damage in the rat. Evidence based on kidney-specific genome transfer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Churchill, P C; Churchill, M C; Bidani, A K; Griffin, K A; Picken, M; Pravenec, M; Kren, V; St Lezin, E; Wang, J M; Wang, N; Kurtz, T W

    1997-09-15

    To test the hypothesis that genetic factors can determine susceptibility to hypertension-induced renal damage, we derived an experimental animal model in which two genetically different yet histocompatible kidneys are chronically and simultaneously exposed to the same blood pressure profile and metabolic environment within the same host. Kidneys from normotensive Brown Norway rats were transplanted into unilaterally nephrectomized spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR-RT1.N strain) that harbor the major histocompatibility complex of the Brown Norway strain. 25 d after the induction of severe hypertension with deoxycorticosterone acetate and salt, proteinuria, impaired glomerular filtration rate, and extensive vascular and glomerular injury were observed in the Brown Norway donor kidneys, but not in the SHR-RT1.N kidneys. Control experiments demonstrated that the strain differences in kidney damage could not be attributed to effects of transplantation-induced renal injury, immunologic rejection phenomena, or preexisting strain differences in blood pressure. These studies (a) demonstrate that the kidney of the normotensive Brown Norway rat is inherently much more susceptible to hypertension-induced damage than is the kidney of the spontaneously hypertensive rat, and (b) establish the feasibility of using organ-specific genome transplants to map genes expressed in the kidney that determine susceptibility to hypertension-induced renal injury in the rat.

  6. Mycoplasma canis and urogenital disease in dogs in Norway

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    L'Abee-Lund, T.M.; Heiene, R.; Friis, N.F.;

    2003-01-01

    Mycoplasmas identified as Mycoplasma canis were isolated from nine dogs with clinical signs of urogenital disease in Norway over a period of 20 months. Some of the dogs had been treated unsuccessfully with antibiotics, and three were euthanased as a result of severe persistent disease. Seven...... of the dogs had a urinary tract infection, one had chronic purulent epididymitis and one had chronic prostatitis. Overt haematuria was frequently observed among the dogs with cystitis. M canis was isolated in pure culture from seven of the dogs and in mixed culture from the other two. In three cases...... the mycoplasma was cultivated only from urinary sediment, and it was typically obtained in smaller numbers than would be considered indicative of a urinary tract infection. In contrast with most mycoplasmas, the M canis isolated from all the dogs grew on ordinary blood agar plates used for routine...

  7. Norway's Zeepipe project means more gas for Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper reports that construction of the Zeepipe Gas Pipeline Project is well under way, and will soon provide Europe with a secure supply of clean-burning natural gas. The new pipeline system will provide another outlet for the large reserves contained in the Norwegian sector of the North Sea. Zeepipe Phase 1 consists of a 500-mile, 40-in. pipeline from the Sleipner Field to a landfall at Zeebrugge, Belgium, and a 24-mile, 30-in. pipeline connecting the Statpipe to the Zeepipe system at the Sleipner Platform. Statoil's project organization for the Zeepipe project is also responsible for design and construction of a 142-mile, 20-in. condensate pipeline from Sleiper to Karsto, Norway, crossing the abyss of the Norwegian Trench on its route

  8. Routine health check-ups of unemployed in Norway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ytterdahl, T

    1999-01-01

    In 1994 all the 273 long-term unemployed in the municipality Lillesand, Norway were invited to participate in a proactive health care program. 229 were included in the program, consisting of a medical examination by a general practitioner, councelling, personal support and referrals. The job-loss aroused lots of negative emotions, mostly defensive feelings and resignations, which are likely to reduce self-esteem and coping ability. The prevalence of somatoform symptoms and anxiety was twice as high as in the normal population, and for depression the prevalence was three times higher. 24% of the unemployed were referred to further examination. Invitation to a health examination may be the ticket of entry for revealing some of the concealed morbidity among long-term unemployed. Health check-ups of unemployed will probably be very cost-effective PMID:10197474

  9. Steps towards the institutionalisation of feminism in Norway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandra COLUMBAN

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The present article discusses important issues related to the institutionalisation of feminism in Norway, by providing a case study on the country’s first feminist magazine, Sirene. The first part of the article focuses on the political and historical context which favoured the emergence of the magazine, and insists on a series of legal measures taken in the twentieth century – suffrage rights, equal payment, political representation, etc. – which provided the institutional framework for the women’s movement. The more comprehensive second part of the article focuses on Sirene itself: it analyses the magazine’s structure and key concepts, its political agenda, its aims, but also thebranch of feminism to which Sirene adheres. The article concludes that the magazine represented an influential alternative to the mainstream press of the time, and contributed greatly to achieving the goals of women’s liberation movement.

  10. Strategy for the reduction of radon exposure in Norway

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2010-05-15

    Elevated indoor radon concentrations are a more extensive problem in Norway than in many other countries. It has been estimated that indoor radon causes approximately 300 deaths from lung cancer each year in Norway. On average, avoiding lung cancer increases life expectancy by 14 to 18 years. Radon is a radioactive noble gas formed continually is a decay product from uranium. Uranium is a natural constituent existing in varying concentrations in bedrock, minerals and soils. For this reason, both the soil air and groundwater contain radon. Radon in buildings normally originates from the soil air in the underlying ground. Indoor air pressure is often low, so that radon-containing air from the surrounding ground gets sucked in through cracks in the building foundations. Elevated indoor radon concentrations can be due to household water drawn from groundwater wells, and radon gas can also be emitted from building materials such as certain types of stone or concrete containing high levels of natural radioactivity. Norway, Sweden and Finland are among the the countries in the world with the highest average indoor radon concentrations. Geological conditions and the cool climate pose a big challenge, but the radon problem can be solved in a cost-effective way. Radon is the most common cause of lung cancer after active smoking. At a radon concentration of 100 Bq/m3, which is not far from the estimated average for Norwegian housing, the risks of dying of radon-induced lung cancer before the age of 75 are 0.1 % for non-smokers and 2 % for smokers, respectively. Many buildings in Norway have radon levels that exceed this. The most important health impact of radon exposure is the increased risk of lung cancer. This increase in risk is assumed to be linear in relation to radon concentration (i.e., the risk is 10 times higher at 1000 Bq/m3 compared to 100 Bq/m3). The risk also increases linearly with exposure time, i.e. there is a tenfold greater risk of contracting lung cancer

  11. Health care help seeking behaviour among prisoners in Norway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nesset Merete

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Prisoners are associated with high health care needs compared with the general population. This study aims to investigate prisoners' use of health service. Methods A cross-sectional study of 29 prisons in central and southern parts of Norway. A questionnaire was distributed to 1, 454 prisoners (90% response rate. Multilevel analyses were employed to analyse help seeking behaviour among the prisoners. Results Help seeking was substantially associated with sleep problems and drug problems. There was also a tendency for closed prisons as well as high staffing levels of healthcare professionals to be associated with elevated health care use. Conclusions This study suggests that sleep problems and drug use are most frequently associated with health service use. The differences in health care use between prisons suggest that the implementation of prison health care standards should be addressed.

  12. Fertility and Public Policies - Evidence from Norway and Finland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2004-05-01

    Full Text Available The relatively high and rising fertility rates of Nordic countries in the late 1980s and early 1990s sparked a renewed research interest in the possible pronatalistic effects of generous family policy programs. Several studies have addressed this issue, but few have tried to model policy effects explicitly. The existing evidence so far is mainly from Sweden, where policy indicators have been incorporated in economic fertility models that also control for female wages. This paper complements previous Swedish analyses with evidence from Norway and Finland. The results corroborate earlier findings of a negative effect of female wages. There are also indications of a positive policy impact, as maternity leave extensions are estimated to raise birth rates, although mainly higher parity births and mainly in Finland.

  13. Teaching interprofessional teamwork in medical and nursing education in Norway

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aase, Ingunn; Aase, Karina; Dieckmann, Peter

    2013-01-01

    of interprofessional teamwork in all nursing and medical education in Norway. The study programs issued by the 32 educational institutions were subject to content analysis, distilling the ambitions and goals for teaching interprofessional teamwork. Study program coordinators were approached and asked to what degree......The notions of interprofessional education and interprofessional teamwork have attained widespread acceptance, partly because lack of teamwork has been tentatively linked to adverse incidents in healthcare. By analyzing data from 32 educational institutions, this study identifies the status...... interprofessional teamwork was actually introduced in lecturing and clinical training. Results indicate that the medical and nursing schools clearly aspire to teach interprofessional teamwork and that this has largely been achieved when it comes to theoretical teaching. Although three of the four medical programs...

  14. CAS course on advanced accelerator physics in Trondheim, Norway

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Accelerator School

    2013-01-01

    The CERN Accelerator School (CAS) and the Norwegian University of Science and Technology (NTNU) recently organised a course on advanced accelerator physics. The course was held in Trondheim, Norway, from 18 to 29 August 2013. Accommodation and lectures were at the Hotel Britannia and practical courses were held at the university.   The course's format included lectures in the mornings and practical courses in the afternoons. The lecture programme consisted of 32 lectures supplemented by discussion sessions, private study and tutorials. The practical courses provided "hands-on" experience in three topics: RF measurement techniques, beam instrumentation and diagnostics, and optics design and corrections. Participants selected one of the three courses and followed the chosen topic throughout the course. The programme concluded with seminars and a poster session.  70 students representing 21 nationalities were selected from over 90 applicants, with most participa...

  15. Acid precipitation--a new study from Norway

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bell, J.N.B.

    1981-07-16

    Public concern over acid rain has nowhere been more evident than in Norway, where in the mountainous regions of the south, an accelerating decline in fish stocks has led to the extinction of fish populations in an area over 13,000 km/sup 2/, with severe problems over another 20,000 km/sup 2/. This has stimulated the establishment of a major Norwegian interdisciplinary research program into the biological effects of acid precipitation, which has recently terminated after 8 years. The numerous reports published on the findings of the project have now been summarized in ''Acid precipitation - effects on forest and fish'', by Overrein, Seip, and Tollan. This summary report is briefly discussed and reviewed. (JMT)

  16. Transient thermal modeling of permafrost conditions in Southern Norway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Westermann

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Thermal modeling is a powerful tool to infer the temperature regime of the ground in permafrost areas. We present a transient permafrost model, CryoGrid 2, that calculates ground temperatures according to conductive heat transfer in the soil and in the snowpack. CryoGrid 2 is forced by operational air temperature and snow-depth products for potential permafrost areas in Southern Norway for the period 1958 to 2009 at 1 km2 spatial resolution. In total, an area of about 80 000 km2 is covered. The model results are validated against borehole temperatures, permafrost probability maps from "bottom temperature of snow" measurements and inventories of landforms indicative of permafrost occurrence. The validation demonstrates that CryoGrid 2 can reproduce the observed lower permafrost limit to within 100 m at all validation sites, while the agreement between simulated and measured borehole temperatures is within 1 K for most sites. The number of grid cells with simulated permafrost does not change significantly between the 1960s and 1990s. In the 2000s, a significant reduction of about 40% of the area with average 2 m ground temperatures below 0 °C is found, which mostly corresponds to degrading permafrost with still negative temperatures in deeper ground layers. The thermal conductivity of the snow is the largest source of uncertainty in CryoGrid 2, strongly affecting the simulated permafrost area. Finally, the prospects of employing CryoGrid 2 as an operational soil-temperature product for Norway are discussed.

  17. Crustal structure beneath southern Norway imaged by magnetotellurics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cherevatova, M.; Smirnov, M.; Korja, T.; Kaikkonen, P.; Pedersen, L. B.; Hübert, J.; Kamm, J.; Kalscheuer, T.

    2014-07-01

    We use data from two magnetotelluric profiles, ToSca10 and ToSca'09, over the Scandinavian Mountains to study the crustal structure in southern Norway. The profiles cross the major tectonic structures of the Caledonian orogen as well as the western margin of the Precambrian Baltica. Dimensionality and strike analyses indicate generally 3-D behavior of the data. However, the majority of the used data distinguishes a preferable strike direction, which is supported by the geology of the region. Hence, we employ 2-D inversion and choose to invert the determinant of the impedance tensor to mitigate 3-D effects in the data on our 2-D models. Magnetotelluric data from both profiles are inverted using a damped least squares solution based on a singular value decomposition. We improved the solution by defining the inverse model covariance matrix through gradient or Laplacian smoothing operators. The two-dimensional inversion models of the ToSca'09 and ToSca'10 field data from southern Norway derived from the damped least squares scheme with the Laplacian inverse model covariance matrix are presented. Resistive rocks, extending to the surface, image the autochthonous Southwest Scandinavian Domain and the allochthonous Western Gneiss Region. Near-surface conductors, which are located between the resistive Caledonian nappes and Precambrian basement, delineate highly conductive shallow-sea sediments, so called alum shales. They exhibit a decollement along which the Caledonian nappes were overthrust. A deeper, upper to mid-crustal conducting layer in the Southwest Scandinavian Domain may depict the remnants of closed ocean basins formed during the accretions and collisions of various Sveconorwegian terranes. In ToSca'10, the Caledonian nappes, the conducting alum shales and the deeper conductor are terminated in the west by the Faltungsgraben shear complex which represents a crustal scale boundary between the Western Gneiss Region in the west and the Southwest Scandinavian

  18. The building network energy statistics 2004[Norway]; Bygningsnettverkets energistatistikk 2004

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-07-01

    The energy statistics for 2004 is the 8th in a row from the building network. The report presents analysis and statistics for various building energy use and technical installations. There are 1907 building objects included in the statistics situated in 254 of the counties in the country. In all this includes 9.3 mill. square meters heated area. Out of this 2.5 % residences is mainly constituted of department buildings. The rest is non-residential buildings in total 7.6 % of the entire building mass in Norway. The total energy consumption in the selection in 2004 is approx. 2.4 TWh. The climate in Norway in 2004 was the 6th warmest since the measurements started for 138 years ago. The report includes energy gradient figures and energy use from various climatic zones. The report shows the energy consumption distributed on various building types, variations in the energy consumption depending on the type of heating system, cooling, building sizes, ages and other factors. Figures for the energy consumption related to building function are included. Approx. 60 % of the buildings is new since the last yearly report. Those that were included in the 2003 report show a reduction in the temperature corrected specific energy consumption of 4.7 % from 2003 to 2004. The oil consumption has been reduced the most. Several building types have reduced the oil consumption with 50% and the total reduction is about 11 mill. litres of oil. The reasons are partly a switch to electric heating systems and partly a general reduction of the energy consumption. The report also includes statistics regarding technical conditions in the buildings such as heating system types, energy carriers, cooling, ventilation, energy flexibility, utilization and other factors. (tk)

  19. [Waterborne outbreaks in Norway 2003 - 2012].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guzman-Herrador, Bernardo; Blasio, Birgitte Freiesleben de; Lund, Vidar; MacDonald, Emily; Vold, Line; Wahl, Erik; Nygård, Karin

    2016-04-01

    BACKGROUND We describe the status of waterborne outbreaks notified in Norway and discuss this in the context of outbreaks recorded in previous years, to gain a better understanding of their development in Norway in recent years.MATERIAL AND METHOD We have collected information on all outbreaks notified to the Norwegian Institute of Public Health via the surveillance system for communicable diseases in the ten-year period from 2003 - 2012 for which drinking water was given as the suspected cause.RESULTS Altogether 28 waterborne outbreaks with a total of 8 060 persons reported as ill were notified in the period. The majority of outbreaks resulted in fewer than 100 cases of illness. There were two outbreaks with more than 1 000 cases of illness: an oubreak of campylobacteriosis in Røros and an oubreak of giardiasis in Bergen. In more than half of the outbreaks, water was supplied from public water distribution systems (16/28 outbreaks, 57 %). In addition, a large proportion was linked to individual households with their own water supply (12/28 outbreaks, 43 %).INTERPRETATION Most of the outbreaks in the ten-year period were linked to public water distribution systems, while almost half were linked to non-disinfected water supplies to individual households. Although most of the outbreaks were small, two extensive outbreaks were also registered in the period, resulting in more than one thousand cases of illness. This underscores the need for good contingency planning and surveillance, so that suspicion of waterborne outbreaks is rapidly notified to the responsible authorities, and the importance of good protection of water sources, as well as proper maintenance of water treatment plants and distribution systems. PMID:27094662

  20. ["Now I am humble. Indeed." From Germany to Norway in 1934].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hem, E; Børdahl, P E

    2000-12-10

    A huge refugee problem arose when the Nazis came to power in Germany in 1933. The most acute stages were just after 1933 and from the summer of 1938. This refugee drama involved all the western countries, including Norway. This paper describes the fate of the German gynaecologist Hans Saenger (1884-1943), professor in Munich, who in 1933 was dispelled by the Nazis because of his Jewish descent. He fled to Norway in 1934 and settled in Fredrikstad. However, the attitude in Norway to refugees in general and Jews in particular was hostile, mainly because of fear of unemployment. Prejudice and xenophobia were of importance, also in the medical profession. PMID:11215938

  1. Variable Number of Tandem Repeats (VNTR) analysis of Flavobacterium psychrophilum from salmonids in Chile and Norway

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Apablaza, Patricia; Brevik, Oyvind J.; Mjos, Svein;

    2015-01-01

    isolates of this bacterium could play an important role in the development of good management strategies. The aim of this study was to identify genetic markers for discrimination between isolates. A selection of eight VNTRs from 53 F. psychrophilum isolates from Norway, Chile, Denmark and Scotland were...... compared to those from Norway, which suggests a more homogenous reservoir in Norway. Transgenerational transmission of F. psychrophilum from other countries, exporting salmon embryos to Chile, may explain the differences in diversity. The same transmission mechanisms could also explain the wide...

  2. The image of Norway as tourist destination presented in the Russian travel blogs

    OpenAIRE

    Klimova, Ekaterina

    2015-01-01

    destination image, international tourism, Norway as a tourist destination, Russian tourists, Russian tourists in Scandinavia, formation of destination image, destination brand, blogs, travel blogs, Russian tourist market, Russian blogosphere, content analysis, qualitative method, NVIVO, tourism and literature

  3. France and Norway. The unfulfilled Troll agreement; Frankrike og Norge. Den uoppfylte Trollavtalen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grenier, Samuel

    1997-12-31

    The present reports starts by presenting Norway as an oil and gas producer and an exporting country and France as an importing country. It describes the relations between France and Norway during the Troll gas negotiations and then goes on to describe the compensation policy adopted by the French authorities during these negotiations. The main aim of the report is to discover whether France`s requests of 1986 have actually been realised. In order to do this, it first analyses the position occupied by French petroleum companies in Norwegian offshore sectors and secondly seeks to account for the evolution of trade exchanges between France and Norway. It will be seen that new investments in the production fields and in transportation systems have been realised most of the time by Norwegian firms as from 1986 and that France`s trade deficit towards Norway has not levelled off as from the time of the Troll deal. 18 figs., 40 tabs., 24 refs

  4. [Graduates from Tromsø--do they stay in Northern Norway? Geographic origin determines selection of professional practice location in Northern Norway].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tollan, A; Magnus, J H

    1993-01-10

    The impact of the Medical School, University of Tromsø on the distribution of physicians in rural areas in North Norway was evaluated by means of a mailed questionnaire. The survey covered eleven graduation classes (417 physicians), and the response rate was 84.2%. The establishment of a new medical school in North Norway has clearly had beneficial effects: A total of 56.1% of the graduates stay on as doctors in these areas. Among those who also grew up in the northern parts of Norway, the proportion is 82.0%, compared with graduates who grew up in the southern parts where the proportion is 37.7%. The results clearly demonstrate that one of the main objectives of the Medical School at the University of Tromsø, to educate physicians who prefer to work in these areas, has been achieved.

  5. Consequence assessment of large rock slope failures in Norway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oppikofer, Thierry; Hermanns, Reginald L.; Horton, Pascal; Sandøy, Gro; Roberts, Nicholas J.; Jaboyedoff, Michel; Böhme, Martina; Yugsi Molina, Freddy X.

    2014-05-01

    Steep glacially carved valleys and fjords in Norway are prone to many landslide types, including large rockslides, rockfalls, and debris flows. Large rockslides and their secondary effects (rockslide-triggered displacement waves, inundation behind landslide dams and outburst floods from failure of landslide dams) pose a significant hazard to the population living in the valleys and along the fjords shoreline. The Geological Survey of Norway performs systematic mapping of unstable rock slopes in Norway and has detected more than 230 unstable slopes with significant postglacial deformation. This large number necessitates prioritisation of follow-up activities, such as more detailed investigations, periodic displacement measurements, continuous monitoring and early-warning systems. Prioritisation is achieved through a hazard and risk classification system, which has been developed by a panel of international and Norwegian experts (www.ngu.no/en-gb/hm/Publications/Reports/2012/2012-029). The risk classification system combines a qualitative hazard assessment with a consequences assessment focusing on potential life losses. The hazard assessment is based on a series of nine geomorphological, engineering geological and structural criteria, as well as displacement rates, past events and other signs of activity. We present a method for consequence assessment comprising four main steps: 1. computation of the volume of the unstable rock slope; 2. run-out assessment based on the volume-dependent angle of reach (Fahrböschung) or detailed numerical run-out modelling; 3. assessment of possible displacement wave propagation and run-up based on empirical relations or modelling in 2D or 3D; and 4. estimation of the number of persons exposed to rock avalanches or displacement waves. Volume computation of an unstable rock slope is based on the sloping local base level technique, which uses a digital elevation model to create a second-order curved surface between the mapped extent of

  6. Potential factors influencing adoption of a service oriented architecture : experiences from specialist healthcare in Norway

    OpenAIRE

    Gupta, Jon

    2008-01-01

    Specialist healthcare in Norway is an important part of the medical care ”value chain” financed by the Norwegian government through the Ministry of Health and Care Services. The specialist healthcare sector in Norway is facing increasing challenges amongst others relating to; national reporting, frequent organizational and process changes, budget cuts, collaboration across organizational borders and judicial issues related to accessing sensitive information. Previous researc...

  7. Possibilities and limitations of vegetative propagation in breeding and mass propagation of Norway spruce

    OpenAIRE

    Högberg, Karl-Anders

    2003-01-01

    The use of vegetative mass propagation in practical forestry with Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) Karst.) is limited at present, although its potential to deliver high genetic gains is obvious. The objective of this thesis was to study possibilities and limitations of vegetative propagation when applied in different parts of a breeding/mass propagation system for Norway spruce. Two vegetative propagation methods were studied: somatic embryogenesis and cutting propagation. Somatic embryogenesi...

  8. The English Language Revolution : An Investigation of the Status of English in Norway

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    This thesis investigates the status of English in Norway. English is an emerging world language that is increasingly being used as a lingua franca. New technology provides opportunities for contact with English, both exposure and communication. I investigated the relationship of 107 Norwegian secondary school pupils with English through a questionnaire. I hypothesized that English is no longer a foreign language in Norway, and found that English is neither a typical foreign language nor a typ...

  9. Antibacterial Drugs Prescribed for Dogs and Cats in Sweden and Norway 1990–1998

    OpenAIRE

    Greko C; Grave K; Odensvik K

    2001-01-01

    The usage of veterinary antibacterial drugs in dogs and cats in Sweden and Norway for the period 1990–1998 was investigated by use of drug wholesalers' statistics. Additionally, usage of human antibacterial drugs in these species in Sweden was investigated by use of prescription data for the period 1996–1998. On average, more than 50% of the prescribed veterinary antibacterials in Sweden were beta-lactam antibiotics. In Norway, about 75% of the preparations prescribed for dogs and cats conta...

  10. Multi-scale variability of winds in the complex topography of southwestern Norway

    OpenAIRE

    Jonassen, Marius O.; Ólafsson, Haraldur; Reuder, Joachim; Olseth, Jan A.

    2012-01-01

    Multi-scale variability of winds in the complex terrain of southwestern Norway is investigated using up to 20 yr of observations from nine automatic weather stations and reanalysis data. Significant differences between the large- and local-scale winds are found. These differences are mainly governed by the large-scale topography of Southern Norway. Winds from the southeast and statically stable flow from the northwest are found to be significantly reduced at the ground level due to large-scal...

  11. Beaver Management in Norway - A Review of Recent Literature and Current Problems

    OpenAIRE

    Parker, Howard; Rosell, Frank

    2012-01-01

    Beginning with the total protection of the beaver (Castor fiber) in Norway in 1845, beaver management has undergone numerous changes as population development, resource exploitation goals and management objectives have evolved. Presently, new beaver management by-laws are being developed. This report briefly summarizes the historical development of beaver management in Norway, reviews the recent literature of particular relevance for the development new by-laws and makes recommendations for t...

  12. Implications of the North Atlantic Oscillation for a UK–Norway renewable power system

    OpenAIRE

    Ely, Caroline R.; Brayshaw, David J; Methven, John; Cox, James; Pearce, Oliver

    2013-01-01

    UK wind-power capacity is increasing and new transmission links are proposed with Norway, where hydropower dominates the electricity mix. Weather affects both these renewable resources and the demand for electricity. The dominant large-scale pattern of Euro-Atlantic atmospheric variability is the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO), associated with positive correlations in wind, temperature and precipitation over northern Europe. The NAO's effect on wind-power and demand in the UK and Norway is ...

  13. Is Norway immune to Dutch Disease? CGE Estimates of Sustainable Wage Growth and De-industrialisation

    OpenAIRE

    Holmøy, Erling; Heide, Kim Massey

    2005-01-01

    Norway's petroleum wealth has become considerably more liquid and thereby visible to the public since the mid 1990s. In the policy debate transformation of wealth is often confused with ordinary income. Such a misconception may have contributed to de-industrialisation through real appreciation beyond what is sustainable in a long run perspective. Since re-industrialisation is typically considered difficult, it is important to estimate a norm for sustainable wage growth. In Norway ...

  14. Expanding Chinese Language Education : A Case Study of Students from Upper-Secondary Schools in Norway

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of the study is to illustrate the situation of Chinese language study at upper-secondary schools in Norway in the context of globalization and overseas Chinese language promotion. It explores the underlying principles for teaching Chinese in Norway, the initiatives that government and schools have taken to facilitate the development of Chinese language teaching in upper secondary schools, as well as the educational experience students have in terms of Chinese language learning at ...

  15. Fungal inoculation and methyl jasmonate application induce highly variable terpene accumulation in Norway spruce

    OpenAIRE

    Zhao, Tao; Krokene, Paal; Björklund, Niklas; Erbilgin, Nadir; Christiansen, Erik; Långström, Bo; Solheim, Halvor; Borg-Karlson, Anna-Karin

    2012-01-01

    Knowledge about tree chemical defense is vital for developing practical methods to maintain healthy forests. With the aims of characterizing the defensive chemical induction in Norway spruce Picea abies and demonstrating its ecological function to spruce bark beetle Ips typographus, we measured the terpenoid content in the bark of mature Norway spruce trees inoculated with Ceratocystis polonica, or treated with methyl jasmonate (MeJA), and investigated the colonization and pheromone emission ...

  16. STATE OBLIGATION TO PROTECT : Unaccompanied children seeking asylum and the risk of human trafficking in Norway

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    This thesis examines the Norwegian State obligations to protect unaccompanied children against human trafficking under international human rights law. The purpose with this study is to show that trafficking of children happens in Norway and to discuss whether more measures must be taken to provide a better protection for these children. The conclusion of this study is that the Norwegian Government should implement additional measures to provide better protection. Only, this way can Norway ...

  17. Different sex ratios of children born to Indian and Pakistani immigrants in Norway.

    OpenAIRE

    Brekke Torkel; Pripp Are; Singh Narpinder; Stray-Pedersen Babill

    2010-01-01

    Background A low female-to-male ratio has been observed in different Asian countries, but this phenomenon has not been well studied among immigrants living in Western societies. In this study, we investigated whether a low female-to-male ratio exists among Indian and Pakistani immigrants living in Norway. In particular, we investigated whether the determination of sex via ultrasound examination, a common obstetric procedure that has been used in Norway since the early 1980 ...

  18. Substance abuse in pregnant women. Experiences from a special child welfare clinic in Norway

    OpenAIRE

    Rosvold Elin; Lindbæk Morten; Hjerkinn Bjørg

    2007-01-01

    Background Substance abuse during pregnancy may harm the foetus and can cause neonatal abstinence syndrome. Exposure to alcohol and other substances can influence the child for the rest of its life. A special child welfare clinic was set up in 1994 in Kristiansand, Norway, targeting pregnant women with substance abuse problems in the county of Vest-Agder. Pregnancy is not an indication for opioid replacement therapy in Norway, and one of the clinic's aims was to support the...

  19. Antifungal properties of Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) Karst.) seedling homogenates

    OpenAIRE

    Grzegorz Kozłowski; Jean P. Métraux

    2014-01-01

    The presence of antimicrobials in root, hypocotyl and cotyledon homogenates of Norway spruce was studied using in vitro assays with soil-borne pathogens. For the studies presented here Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) Karst.) as a typical host and forest tree and Pythium as a typical soil-bome pathogen were used. The highly virulent species Pythium ultimum and the less virulent species Pythium irregulare were chosen for all experiments. They are both the causal agents of damping-off disease, w...

  20. The Role of Environmental Civil Liability in Regulation of Marine Oil Pollution in Norway

    OpenAIRE

    2008-01-01

    Awareness of domestic and international environmental issues has long been high in Norway. As far as marine oil pollution is concerned, Norway is exposed to coastal water pollution arising from such strategically important sectors as the petroleum industry and oil transportation. This paper is an attempt to make a positive economic analysis of environmental civil liability for marine oil pollution in these two sectors. In the theoretical part of this paper (section 2) the standard model o...

  1. Forum for fire protection and safety in power plants[Norway

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-07-01

    The conference contains 16 presentations on topics in the fields of fire protection and safety in plants in Western Norway, reorganization and reconstruction of power systems and plants in Norway, various aspects of risk and vulnerability analysis, technological aspects of plant management and construction and problems and risks with particularly transformers. Some views on challenges of the fire departments and the new Norwegian regulations for electrical power supply systems are included. One presentation deals with challenges for Icelandic power production plants.

  2. International corporations and profit shifting in Norway : under the post 2006 tax regime

    OpenAIRE

    Waardal, Bjarte

    2013-01-01

    Previous studies have found clear differences in profitability between Norwegian and multinational firms operating in Norway under the dual income tax systems prior to 2006. It is corporations that only operate in Norway that is found to be the most profitable, which suggests profit shifting by international firms. One problem with these studies is that none of them account for the fact that in some circumstances, it would be preferable for owners who also are employed in the same corporation...

  3. A system of national indicators for academic libraries in Norway - tools for evaluation?

    OpenAIRE

    Landøy, Ane

    2012-01-01

    Presented at IFLA Pre-Conference Library's Efficiency, Impact and Outcomes in Turku, Finland, August 8. and 9. 2012. Objective: The objective of this paper is to show what challenges academic libraries in Norway face, when it comes to evaluation of efficiency, impact and outcomes with indicators as tools for management and decision-making. Background: Part of the paper is based on a study of approimately 75 leaders of academic libraries in Norway, and on a report from testing of national i...

  4. Effects of History and Culture on Attitudes toward Special Education: A Comparison of Finland and Norway

    OpenAIRE

    Marjatta Takala; Rune Sarromaa Hausstätter

    2012-01-01

    This paper discusses the role of special education in Finland and Norway. There are major differences in how special education is understood in these countries. The different perspective that Finland and Norway have on the concept of inclusion is also striking. The PISA test results show that the Finnish school is performing well, partly because of flexible part-time special education; the early intervention strategy also plays a role in this success. These aspects are making Finnish schools ...

  5. Benzodiazepine use in COPD: empirical evidence from Norway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Halvorsen T

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Thomas Halvorsen,1 Pål E Martinussen21SINTEF Technology and Society, Department for Health Research, 2Department of Sociology and Political Science, Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Trondheim, NorwayBackground: The common comorbidities associated with COPD include, among others, anxiety, depression, and insomnia, for which the typical treatment involves the use of benzodiazepines (BZD. However, these medicines should be used with extra caution among COPD patients, since treatment with traditional BZD may compromise respiratory function. Aims: This study investigated the use of BZD among persons suffering from COPD by analyzing three relevant indicators: 1 the sum of defined daily doses (DDD; 2 the number of prescribers involved; and 3 the number of different types of BZD used. Data and methods: The study builds on a linkage of national prescription data and patient–administrative data, which includes all Norwegian drug prescriptions to persons hospitalized with a COPD diagnosis during 2009, amounting to a total of 5,380 observations. Regression techniques were used to identify the patients and the clinical characteristics associated with BZD use. Results: Of the 5,380 COPD patients treated in hospital during 2009, 3,707 (69% were dispensed BZD during the following 12 months. Moreover, they were dispensed on average 197.08 DDD, had 1.22 prescribers, and used 0.98 types of BZD during the year. Women are more likely to use BZD for all levels of BZD use. Overnight planned care not only increases the risk of BZD use (DDD, but also the number of prescribers and the types of BZD in use.Conclusion: In light of the high levels of BZD prescription found in this study, especially among women, it is recommended that general practitioners, hospital specialists, and others treating COPD patients should aim to acquire a complete picture of their patients’ BZD medication before more is prescribed in order to keep the use to a minimum

  6. Debris flow early warning systems in Norway: organization and tools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleivane, I.; Colleuille, H.; Haugen, L. E.; Alve Glad, P.; Devoli, G.

    2012-04-01

    In Norway, shallow slides and debris flows occur as a combination of high-intensity precipitation, snowmelt, high groundwater level and saturated soil. Many events have occurred in the last decades and are often associated with (or related to) floods events, especially in the Southern of Norway, causing significant damages to roads, railway lines, buildings, and other infrastructures (i.e November 2000; August 2003; September 2005; November 2005; Mai 2008; June and Desember 2011). Since 1989 the Norwegian Water Resources and Energy Directorate (NVE) has had an operational 24 hour flood forecasting system for the entire country. From 2009 NVE is also responsible to assist regions and municipalities in the prevention of disasters posed by landslides and snow avalanches. Besides assisting the municipalities through implementation of digital landslides inventories, susceptibility and hazard mapping, areal planning, preparation of guidelines, realization of mitigation measures and helping during emergencies, NVE is developing a regional scale debris flow warning system that use hydrological models that are already available in the flood warning systems. It is well known that the application of rainfall thresholds is not sufficient to evaluate the hazard for debris flows and shallow slides, and soil moisture conditions play a crucial role in the triggering conditions. The information on simulated soil and groundwater conditions and water supply (rain and snowmelt) based on weather forecast, have proved to be useful variables that indicate the potential occurrence of debris flows and shallow slides. Forecasts of runoff and freezing-thawing are also valuable information. The early warning system is using real-time measurements (Discharge; Groundwater level; Soil water content and soil temperature; Snow water equivalent; Meteorological data) and model simulations (a spatially distributed version of the HBV-model and an adapted version of 1-D soil water and energy balance

  7. Multiple pregnancies among women engaged in agriculture in Norway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petter Kristensen

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available  Background. Methods.  Results.  !30 years, and were more likely to undergo invitro fertilization (IVF. Combined grain farming and seaso nal late blight warnings did not influence theprevalence of DZ pregnancies. Unexpectedly, the same climate variable, in combination with horticulture,was negatively associated with DZ pregnancies (PR 0.3; 95% confidence interval 0.1–0.7.Conclusion.  Active Norwegian farmers seem to have a somewhat higher natural occurrence of DZ pregnanciesthan mothers in non-farming sectors of the agricultural population. After the late 1970s this situationwas reversed, mainly because the latter group consisted of more older first-time mothers, and probablywith a higher need of assisted fertility treatment. Interpretations are difficult concerning the inverse relationbetween DZ pregnancy and climatic conditions in horticulture.We identified 2,131 (11.2 per 1,000 multiple pregnancies, 1,322 (6.9 were classified as DZ. Theprevalence of DZ pregnancies was declining until the late 1970s, and increased thereafter. The agriculturalpopulation of Norway is heterogeneous along two dimensions, with a difference between farmers and nonfarmers(mainly engaged in forestry, and a difference according to degree of maternal work input on thefarm holding. Farmers, in particular active farmers, had more DZ pregnancies than non-farmers early in thestudy period; this ratio was reversed late in the study period. Non-farmers had a much higher temporalincrease in the proportion of first-time mothers who were By record linkage of national registers in Norway, we identified 246,043 farm holders andspouses born between 1925 and 1971 in agricultural censuses and the population register. In this population,190,258 pregnancies were recorded in the Medical Birth Registry 1967-91. The prevalences ofmultiple pregnancy, subdivided in DZ and monozygotic (MZ pregnancies, were examined in strata ofseveral determinants. Exposure, defined as the

  8. Immunoglobulin V-H-gene usage of autoantibodies in mercuric chloride-induced membranous glomerulopathy in the rat

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dammers, PM; Bun, JCAM; Bellon, B; Kroese, FGM; Aten, J; Bos, NA

    2001-01-01

    Brown-Norway (BN) and Dorus Zadel Black (DZB) rats develop a T-cell-dependent membranous glomerulopathy (MGP) with high proteinuria and antiglomerular basement membrane (GBM) autoreactive antibodies (Abs), upon exposure to mercuric chloride (HgCl2). Laminin is an important autoantigenic target of th

  9. The prevalence of Leptospira sp in sewer rats (Rattus norvegicus)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krøigaard, Louise; Villumsen, Steen; Markussen, Mette Drude;

    The Norway rat (Rattus norvegicus) is the main reservoir of one of the most disease inducing species of Leptospira, L. icterohaemorrhagiae. In Denmark there are only a few yearly registered cases of L. icterohaemorrhagiae derived leptospirosis in man, but in general the disease is believed to much...

  10. The Chernobyl accident - did it affect pregnancy outcomes in Norway?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The outcome of pregnancies in the county of Soer-Troendelag in Norway, during the 27 months preceding and 21 months after the Chernobyl accident has been analysed on the basis of time of conception. The analysis showed a significant decrease in the number of conceptions during the three months immediately after the accident (April - June 1986). This finding can be interpreted to mean fewer ''planned'' conceptions. The Chernobyl accident did not seem to have had any impact on the proportion of conceptions ending as spontaneous abortions or ectopic pregnancies. There was a significant drop in the proportion of pregnancies ending as induced abortions during the year after the accident compared with the year before. However, due to some variation during this year, it is difficult to draw any definite conclusions concerning the impact of the accident on induced abortions in this county. The proportion of pregnancies ending as births increased significantly during the year after the Chernobyl accident compared with the year before. 22 refs., 1 tab

  11. Co-benefit and co-control studies in Norway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bjarne Sivertsen

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available In both developing and industrialized countries, abatement of air pollution and mitigation of climate change have generally been treated separately. Co-benefits of air quality and climate change related policies are often addressed on national or supra-national level, to document that costs of policies are acceptable, especially when ancillary benefits are considered. On local or regional level, the focus until now has been mainly on air quality management, not considering benefits for climate change mitigation. Today’s air quality management requires integrated and coordinated measures where urban air quality planning includes also greenhouse gas (GHG emissions and climate change issues. The tools available for investigating scenarios for reducing local impacts and health effect improvements can also be used to investigate cost effective actions aimed at reducing GHG emissions. This approach would lead to identification of strategies that consider co-benefits of climate and local air quality measures, and would both improve the health of people and give climate benefits at best possible costs. Approaches based on an existing air quality management tool, prepared for co-benefit studies in Norway as well as plans for co-control projects in China are presented in this paper. These approaches have the potential to focus on issues not included in traditional air pollution abatement studies.

  12. A proposed new framework for valorization of geoheritage in Norway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahl, Rolv; Bergengren, Anna; Heldal, Tom

    2015-04-01

    The geological history of Norway is a complex one, . The exploitation of geological resources of different kinds has always provided the backbone of the Norwegian community. Nevertheless, the perception of geology and the geological processes that created the landscape is little appreciated, compared to bio-diversity and cultural heritage. Some geological localities play an important role in our perception and scientific understanding of the landscape. Other localities are, or could be, important tourist destinations. Other localities can in turn be important for geoscience education on all levels, whereas other plays a major role in the understanding of geodiversity and geoheritage and should be protected as natural monuments. A database based on old registrations has been compiled and a web mapping server is recently launched based on old and new registrations. However, no systematical classification and identification of important sites has been done for the last thirty years. We are now calling for a crowdsourcing process in the geological community in order to validate and valorize the registrations, as well as defining new points and areas of interest. Furthermore, we are developing a valorization system for these localities. The framework for this system is based on studies from inventories in other countries, as well as suggestions from ProGeo. The aim is to raise awareness of important sites, and how they are treated and utilized for scientific, or educational purposes, as tourist destinations or heritage sites. Our presentation will focus on the development of the framework and its implications.

  13. Death and Bereavement on the Internet in Sweden and Norway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anders Gustavsson

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Memorial websites on the Internet constitute a new form for expressing grief and for remembering deceased relatives and friends. In my sample of memorial websites, I have studied those that are open to the public. Such memorial sites have had an explosive development during the 2000s. The messages become a virtual, social meeting place by giving mourners an opportunity to express themselves and avoid remaining alone with their grief. In this study the all-inclusive issue has been how mourners express their emotions and concepts of belief regarding the deceased person. The question focused upon is the belief in something posthumously supernatural. Memorial sites on the Internet are also set up for dead pets. The boundary between humans and animals as spiritual beings is discussed in the study. In Norway the vision is primarily directed backwards, relating to traditions, and in Sweden forwards, in the direction of changes. In Sweden there is a greater tendency to adopt innovations and to leave the long-standing. This study can, in addition, play a part in the contemporary discussion about greater outspokenness concerning death, compared to the prevalent silence and taboos of the 1900s.

  14. Environmental considerations in physical planning in Norway and Poland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Naess, P.; Saglie, I.L.; Glowacki, W.; Dunin-Woyseth, H.

    1997-12-31

    As a part of an agreement on environmental cooperation between Norway and Eastern Europe, a comparative case study was carried out of environmental considerations in physical planning since 1968 in the Norwegian municipality of Sandefjord and the Polish municipality of Myslenice. This report discusses the final results. Land use planning is surprisingly similar in the two countries. In both, the plans emphasize the protection of farmland and scarce biotopes as well as sewage management. In Myslenice, a major concern has been cultural heritage and cultural landscapes while in Sandefjord attention was paid more to natural areas for outdoor recreation. In both cases there has been little focus on energy conservation and the concept of sustainable development has hardly been discussed. The plans have been considerably influenced by national environmental policies. The type of political system, capitalism vs. state socialism, has indirectly influenced the amount of construction and hence the pace of conversion of undeveloped land, but does not appear to have had much impact on the environmental content of the plans. The emphasis laid on various environmental issues in part reflects the actual local challenges, but also cross-national cultural differences and the fact that during the period the environmental agenda has been widened in both municipalities, most clearly seen in the case of Sandefjord. The plans seem to have been considerably influenced by professional ideals, knowledge and methods common among planners across national boundaries. 52 refs., 1 figure, 2 tabs.

  15. Crustal structure off Norway, 62° to 70° north

    Science.gov (United States)

    Planke, Sverre; Skogseid, Jakob; Eldholm, Olav

    1991-04-01

    Extensive geophysical surveys have been undertaken on the volcanic passive continental margin offshore Norway between 62° and 70°N during the last 25 years. Three main margin segments have been identified, the Lofoten-Vesteralen Margin, the Vøring Margin and the Møre Margin. The main features of the margins are prominent marginal highs, including seaward dipping reflector sequences and an up to 22 km thick volcanic and transitional crust, prominent escarpments (the Vøring Plateau Escarpment and the Faeroe-Shetland Escarpment), and up to 12 km deep post-Jurassic sedimentary basins east of the escarpments. Velocity-depth solutions from about 250 sonobuoys, expanding spread profiles and refraction profiles have been compiled and contoured. Isovelocity horizon contour maps and velocity transects outline a crust which broadly thickens from an oceanic crust with a normal oceanic-type velocity structure to a ca. 35 km thick continental crust with a continental velocity structure, beneath the Norwegian coast. Anomalous features include local crustal thickening below the Møre and Vering marginal highs, and high-velocity bodies in the lower crust in the extension of the Precambrian Lofoten-Vesterålen archipelago. The free-air SEASAT-derived gravity anomalies show a good correlation with the high-velocity bodies, and show prominent NE-trending highs from the Rockall Plateau/Porcupine Plateau region, over the Møre, Vøring and Lofoten-Vesterålen margins, to the southwestern Barents Sea.

  16. Climatology of aerosol optical properties in Northern Norway and Svalbard

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y.-C. Chen

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available We present comparisons between estimates of the aerosol optical thickness and the Ångström exponent in Northern Norway and Svalbard based on data from AERONET stations at Andenes (69° N, 16° E, 379 m altitude and Hornsund (77° N, 15° E, 10 m altitude for the period 2008–2010. The three-year annual mean values for the aerosol optical thickness at 500 nm τ(500 at Andenes and Hornsund were 0.11 and 0.10, respectively. At Hornsund, there was less variation of the monthly mean value of τ(500 than at Andenes. The annual mean values of the Ångström exponent α at Andenes and Hornsund were 1.18 and 1.37, respectively. At Andenes and Hornsund α was found to be larger than 1.0 in 68% and 93% of the observations, respectively, indicating that fine-mode particles were dominating at both sites. Both sites had a similar seasonal variation of the aerosol size distribution although one site is in an Arctic area while the other site is in a sub-arctic area.

  17. Eruption age of the Sverrefjellet volcano, Spitsbergen Island, Norway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allan H. Treiman

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Sverrefjellet is a Pleistocene-age basaltic volcanic construct on north-western Spitsbergen Island (Svalbard Archipelago, Norway. Published ages for the Sverrefjellet eruption range between 6000 years and ca. 1 million years before present. The age of eruption is dated here as 1.05±0.07 (1σ My, consistent with Ar–Ar isochron and plateau ages of several analysed samples. Radiogenic Ar represents a small proportion of the released Ar, <15% in nearly all samples. Non-radiogenic Ar components include air, excess 40Ar (seen as inverse isochron intercept values >40Ar/36Ar = 295.5, low-temperature alterations (Ar release at low temperature, with high Cl/K, carbonates and zeolites (Ar release at intermediate temperature and xenolithic material (Ar release at high temperature, high Ca/K. The effects of the largely non-radiogenic argon sources are also seen in the total-gas Ar–Ar “ages”, which range from 1.3 to 10.3 My, significantly larger than the inferred eruption age. It is likely that total-gas Ar–Ar “ages” and whole-rock K–Ar “ages” of similar basalts also exceed their true eruption ages.To access the supplementary material to this article please see Supplementary files under Article Tools online.

  18. Can Collaboration Provide Integrated Services for Prisoners in Norway?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gunnar Vold Hansen

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In this article, my contention is that Norway's criminal justice policy is increasingly based on principles taken from positive criminology. This means that the correctional service places strong emphasis on establishing collaboration with the local authorities (the municipalities in order to offer convicted persons integrated services, both during and after serving their sentences. I also point out that positive criminology's principle of viewing convicted persons as unique individuals with individual problems and resources – problems to which there are rarely clear-cut solutions – means that these problems are perceived as 'wicked problems'. A recommended approach to 'wicked problems' is to establish collaboration between the different service providers involved. The article describes the experiences gained from a pilot project that entailed offering a training programme to convicted persons with substance abuse problems. One of the goals of the project was to link the programme to an offer of integrated services after the sentence had been served. The experiences described in semi-structured interviews with 16 convicted persons, seven correctional service employees and three local authority employees was that it was difficult to put in place such an integrated service package. On this basis, I discuss the reasons why it was so difficult to achieve the desired collaboration, and I outline some proposals for how these challenges can be resolved in future.

  19. Seasonal Development of Microbial Activity in Soils of Northern Norway

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    M. B(O)LTER; N. SOETHE; R. HORN; C. UHLIG

    2005-01-01

    Seasonal development of soil microbial activity and bacterial biomass in sub-polar regions was investigated to determine the impacts of biotic and abiotic factors, such as organic matter content, temperature and moisture. The study was performed during spring thaw from three cultivated meadows and two non-cultivated forest sites near Alta, in northern Norway. Samples from all five sites showed increasing respiration rates directly after the spring thaw with soil respiration activity best related to soil organic matter content. However, distributions of bacterial biomass showed fewer similarities to these two parameters. This could be explained by variations of litter exploitation through the biomass. Microbial activity started immediately after the thaw while root growth had a longer time lag. An influence of root development on soil microbes was proposed for sites where microorganisms and roots had a tight relationship caused by a more intensive root structure. Also a reduction of microbial activity due to soil compaction in the samples from a wheel track could not be observed under laboratory conditions. New methodological approaches of differential staining for live and dead organisms were applied in order to follow changes within the microbial community. Under laboratory conditions freeze and thaw cycles showed a damaging influence on parts of the soil bacteria. Additionally, different patterns for active vs.non-active bacteria were noticeable after freeze-thaw cycles.

  20. Fresh-stem bending of silver fir and Norway spruce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lundström, Tor; Stoffel, Markus; Stöckli, Veronika

    2008-03-01

    The bending and growth characteristics of large fresh stems from four silver fir (Abies alba Mill.) and three Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) Karst.) trees were studied. Twenty logs taken from different stem heights were subjected to four-point bending tests. From the bending test records, we calculated stress-strain curves, which accounted for detailed log taper, shear deformation and self weight. From these curves we determined, among other parameters, the modulus of elasticity (MOE), the modulus of rupture (MOR) and the work absorbed in bending (W). No significant differences were found between species for the wood properties examined. Values of MOE, MOR and W generally decreased with stem height, with MOR in the range of 43 to 59 MPa and MOE ranging from 10.6 to 15.6 GPa. These MOE values are twice or more those reported for stems of young Sitka spruce (Picea sitchensis (Bong.) Carr.) trees. Based on the radial growth properties measured in discs from the logs, we calculated predicted values of MOE and MOR for the stem cross section. The predictions of MOE were precise, whereas those of MOR were approximate because of a complex combination of different failure mechanisms. Methods to test and calculate MOE, MOR and W for the stems of living trees are discussed with the aim of improving analyses of tree biomechanics and assessments of forest stability protection.

  1. Maternal Health Coping Strategies of Migrant Women in Norway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viken, Berit; Lyberg, Anne

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the study was to explore the maternal health coping strategies of migrant women in Norway. The ethnic and cultural background of the Norwegian population have become increasingly diverse. A challenge in practice is to adjust maternal health services to migrant women's specific needs. Previous studies have revealed that migrant women have difficulty achieving safe pregnancies and childbirths. Data were obtained by means of 17 semistructured interviews with women from South America, Europe, the Middle East, Asia, and Africa. Qualitative content analysis was employed. One overall theme is as follows: keeping original traditions while at the same time being willing to integrate into Norwegian society, and four themes emerged as follows: balancing their sense of belongingness; seeking information and support from healthcare professionals; being open to new opportunities and focusing on feeling safe in the new country. The results were interpreted in the light of Bronfenbrenner's ecological model. To provide quality care, healthcare professionals should focus on the development of migrant women's capabilities. Adaptation of maternal health services for culturally diverse migrant women also requires a culturally sensitive approach on the part of healthcare professionals. PMID:25866676

  2. PETROMAKS - Examples from petroleum research in Norway 2008

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2009-01-15

    PETROMAKS is the umbrella for most of the petroleum-oriented research supported by the Research Council of Norway. The programme covers both long-term basic research and applied research, resulting in the development of new competence as well as innovation.This is the largest single programme run by the RCN. Insofar as possible, the programme will implement the strategy drawn up by the Norwegian petroleum industry's strategic body OG21 (Oil and Gas in the 21st Century). Large-scale programmes are an important tool at the Research Council towards realisation of prioritised central research policy. They shall provide enhanced knowledge in the long-term national sense, with an eye towards stimulated innovation and increased added-value or generate knowledge that contribute to solving prioritised social challenges. Content of the pamphlet: PETROMAKS - A Large-scale Programme for optimal management of petroleum resources; At the bottom of the sea; Robots at Alnabru; Seismic giant founded on research and innovation; Supplying electricity under water; The researcher who never gave up; Infrared eyes keeping watch in the north; Company on the offensive with research as its weapon; Long-term oil research produced new exploration technology; PETROMAKS - Summary of 2008. (AG)

  3. The drying of wood chips with surplus heat in Norway

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nordhagen, E. [Norwegian Forest and Landscape Inst., As (Norway). Dept. of Forest Resources, Forest Operations and Economics

    2010-07-01

    The study evaluated a wood chip drying procedure that used surplus heat from 2 hydroelectric power plants in western Norway. The wood was chipped and then loaded into the dryer using a tractor-trailer and a container. Warm air from the plants was funnelled into the dryer from perforated floors in the plants and an electric fan. Trials of the procedure were conducted to determine the drying capacity of the trailer and container. The study showed that the temperature and the moisture content of the wood chips varied over the course of the drying period. The chips located at the bottom dried first. The moisture content in the chip ranged between 66.1 to 52.1 before drying and between 9.6 and 6.9 per cent after drying. No substantial difference in moisture content between wood chips located at the top and bottom of the piles was noted. The net calorific values of the wood chips ranged from 1340 to 2170 kWh per tonne before drying, and between 4710 to 4860 after drying. The study showed that the cheapest option for the production of wood chips is natural drying and chipping at the roadside.

  4. Organophosphorous flame retardants in biota from Svalbard, Norway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hallanger, Ingeborg G; Sagerup, Kjetil; Evenset, Anita; Kovacs, Kit M; Leonards, Pim; Fuglei, Eva; Routti, Heli; Aars, Jon; Strøm, Hallvard; Lydersen, Christian; Gabrielsen, Geir Wing

    2015-12-15

    Eight arctic species, including fish, birds and mammals, from diverse habitats (marine and terrestrial) within the Svalbard Archipelago, Norway, were screened for 14 organophosphorus flame retardant (PFR) compounds. Ten PFRs were detected: tris(2-chloroethyl)phosphate (TCEP), tris(2-chloroisopropyl)phosphate (TCIPP), tris(1,3-dichloro-2-propyl)phosphate (TDCIPP), triphenyl phosphate (TPHP); 2-ethylhexyl diphenyl phosphate (EHDPP); tris(2-butoxyethyl)phosphate (TBOEP); tritolyl phosphate (TCrP); triisobutyl phosphate (TIBP); tris(2-ethylhexyl)phosphate (TEHP); and butyl diphenyl phosphate (DPhBP). The greatest number of different PFR compounds, and the highest detection frequency were measured in capelin (Mallotus villotus), and the lowest in Brünnich's guillemot (Uria lomvia). The highest concentrations of ΣPFR, as well as the highest concentration of a single PFR compound, TBOEP, were measured in arctic fox (Vulpes lagopus). The presence of PFR compounds in arctic biota indicates that these compounds can undergo long-range transport and are, to some degree, persistent and bioaccumulated. The potential for biomagnification from fish to higher trophic levels seems to be limited. PMID:26453403

  5. Maternal Health Coping Strategies of Migrant Women in Norway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berit Viken

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to explore the maternal health coping strategies of migrant women in Norway. The ethnic and cultural background of the Norwegian population have become increasingly diverse. A challenge in practice is to adjust maternal health services to migrant women’s specific needs. Previous studies have revealed that migrant women have difficulty achieving safe pregnancies and childbirths. Data were obtained by means of 17 semistructured interviews with women from South America, Europe, the Middle East, Asia, and Africa. Qualitative content analysis was employed. One overall theme is as follows: keeping original traditions while at the same time being willing to integrate into Norwegian society, and four themes emerged as follows: balancing their sense of belongingness; seeking information and support from healthcare professionals; being open to new opportunities and focusing on feeling safe in the new country. The results were interpreted in the light of Bronfenbrenner’s ecological model. To provide quality care, healthcare professionals should focus on the development of migrant women’s capabilities. Adaptation of maternal health services for culturally diverse migrant women also requires a culturally sensitive approach on the part of healthcare professionals.

  6. Food advertising towards children and young people in Norway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bugge, Annechen Bahr

    2016-03-01

    Despite the fact that no studies have been carried out to map the amount of unhealthy food advertising aimed at Norwegian children and adolescents, it is still widely held belief that this type of advertising is disproportionately common. As a consequence, one of the issues high on the agenda in Norway in the 2000s was the possibility of imposing restrictions on advertising for unhealthy foods to children. The purpose of this study is to contribute with a research-based foundation for implementing this health initiative by mapping food marketing in media channels widely used by children and adolescents. In sum, the study shows that the food industry spends a lot of resources to influence young consumers' eating and drinking habits. Compared with studies from USA, UK and Australia, however, there are, strong indications that there is significantly less unhealthy food advertising in Scandinavian countries. Similar to a previous Swedish study, this study shows that Norwegian children and young people were exposed to little advertising for unhealthy food products through media channels such as TV, the Internet, magazines, comics and cinemas. The study also supports critical remarks from some researchers that the extensive use of the international discourse as a political argument and recommendation for Norwegian conditions is not accurate. For the future it may be beneficial to look more closely at the relationship between advertising and health policy, and how this relationship can be further developed to improve children and young people's diet. PMID:26689892

  7. Use of hormonal contraceptives among immigrant and native women in Norway: data from the Norwegian Prescription Database

    OpenAIRE

    Omland, Gry; Ruths, Sabine; Díaz, Esperanza

    2014-01-01

    Objective To examine the use of hormonal contraceptives among immigrant and native women in Norway. Design Nationwide registry-based study based on merged data from the Norwegian Prescription Database, the Norwegian Population Registry, the Regular General Practitioner Database and the Medical Birth Registry. Setting Norway. Sample All women born abroad to two foreign-born parents (immigrants), or born in Norway to two Norwegian-born parents (natives) aged 16–45 years, who live...

  8. Wild reindeer in Norway – population ecology, management and harvest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eigil Reimers

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Wild reindeer in Norway, presently (winter 2005-06 numbering some 25 000 animals, are found in 23 more or less separated areas in the mountainous southern part of the country (see map in appendix. All herds are hunted and management is organized in close cooperation between owner organizations and state agencies. I will provide a historical review of the wild reindeer management and research in Norway and conclude with the present situation. We identify 3 types of wild reindeer on basis of their origin: (1 the original wild reindeer with minor influence from previous domestic reindeer herding activities (Snøhetta, Rondane and Sølenkletten, (2 wild reindeer with some influx of animals from past domestic reindeer herding in the area (Nordfjella, Hardangervidda, Setesdal-Ryfylke and (3 feral reindeer with a domesticated origin (reindeer released or escaped from past reindeer husbandry units; Forolhogna, Ottadalen North and Ottadalen South, Norefjell-Reinsjøfjell and several smaller areas. In Norway, genetic origin (wild or domesticated, body size and reproductive performance of reindeer differ among areas. Feral reindeer have higher body weights and enjoy higher reproductive rates than their originally wild counterparts. These differences may partially be explained by differences in food quality and availability among the populations. However, there is a growing suspicion that other explanatory factors are also involved. Wild reindeer are more vigilant and show longer fright and flight distances than feral reindeer. Number of animals harvested was 4817, or ca. 20% of the total population in 2005, but varies between 40% in feral reindeer areas to below 20% in some of the "wild" reindeer areas. Causal factors behind this variation include differences in age at maturation, postnatal calf mortality and herd structure. The Norwegian Institute for nature research (NINA in cooperation with the Directorate for nature management (DN allocate considerable

  9. Rats, cities, people, and pathogens: a systematic review and narrative synthesis of literature regarding the ecology of rat-associated zoonoses in urban centers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Himsworth, Chelsea G; Parsons, Kirbee L; Jardine, Claire; Patrick, David M

    2013-06-01

    Urban Norway and black rats (Rattus norvegicus and Rattus rattus) are the source of a number of pathogens responsible for significant human morbidity and mortality in cities around the world. These pathogens include zoonotic bacteria (Leptospira interrogans, Yersina pestis, Rickettsia typhi, Bartonella spp., Streptobacillus moniliformis), viruses (Seoul hantavirus), and parasites (Angiostrongylus cantonensis). A more complete understanding of the ecology of these pathogens in people and rats is critical for determining the public health risks associated with urban rats and for developing strategies to monitor and mitigate those risks. Although the ecology of rat-associated zoonoses is complex, due to the multiple ways in which rats, people, pathogens, vectors, and the environment may interact, common determinants of human disease can still be identified. This review summarizes the ecology of zoonoses associated with urban rats with a view to identifying similarities, critical differences, and avenues for further study.

  10. Vitamin K supplementation does not prevent bone loss in ovariectomized Norway rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Despite plausible biological mechanisms, the differential abilities of phylloquinone (PK) and menaquinones (MKn) to prevent bone loss remain controversial. The objective of the current study was to compare the effects of PK, menaquinone-4 (MK-4) and menaquinone-7(MK-7) on the rate of bone loss in o...

  11. NEUROTOXICITY OF CARBARYL IN THE AGING BROWN NORWAY RAT: EFFECTS ON CORE TEMPERATURE AND MOTOR ACTIVITY.

    Science.gov (United States)

    The US EPA is pursuing a variety of research efforts to assess the susceptibility of the aged to neurotoxicants. The BN strain is a popular animal model for aging studies but there is a need for improved methods of monitoring their physiological responses to neurotoxicants over t...

  12. Age- and Brain Region-Specific Differences in Mitochondrial Bioenergetics in Brown Norway Rats

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Differences in various mitochondrial bioenergetics parameters in different brain regions in different age groups. This dataset is associated with the following...

  13. Immunological Interactive Effects between Pollen Grains and Their Cytoplasmic Granules on Brown Norway Rats

    OpenAIRE

    Abou Chakra, Oussama; Jean-Pierre, Sutra; Rogerieux, Françoise; Peltre, Gabriel; Sénéchal, Hélène; Lacroix, Ghislaine

    2009-01-01

    BackgroundGrass pollen is one of the most important aeroallergen vectors in Europe. Under some meteorological factors, pollen grains can release pollen cytoplasmic granules (PCGs). PCGs induce allergic responses. Several studies have shown that during a period of thunderstorms the number of patients with asthma increases because of higher airborne concentrations of PCGs.ObjectiveThe aims of the study were to assess the allergenicity of interactive effects between pollen and PCGs and to compar...

  14. Age-and Brain Region-Specific Differences in Mitochondrial Bioenergetics in Brown Norway Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitochondria are central regulators of energy homeostasis and play a pivotal role in mechanisms of cellular senescence. The objective of the present study was to evaluate mitochondrial bio­-energetic parameters in five brain regions [brainstem (BS), frontal cortex (FC), cereb...

  15. TOXICITY PATHWAY ANALYSIS IN AGING BROWN NORWAY RAT BRAIN FOLLOWING ACUTE TOLUENE EXPOSURE

    Science.gov (United States)

    The influence of aging on susceptibility to environmental stressors is poorly understood. To investigate the contribution of different life stages on response to toxicants, we examined the effects of acute exposure by oral gavage of the volatile organic solvent toluene (0.00, 0.3...

  16. Mitochondrial bioenergetics in young, adult, middle-age and senescent brown Norway rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitochondria are central regulators of energy homeostasis and may play a pivotal role in mechanisms of cellular senescence and age-related neurodegenerative and metabolic disorders. However, mitochondrial bioenergetic parameters have not been systematically evaluated under identi...

  17. Field trials of second-generation anticoagulants against difenacoum-resistant Norway rat populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greaves, J H; Shepherd, D S; Quy, R

    1982-10-01

    Trials of rodenticidal baits containing 50 p.p.m. difenacoum, 50 p.p.m. bromadiolone or 20 p.p.m. brodifacoum were carried out on farmsteads against populations of Rattus norvegicus containing difenacoum-resistant individuals. Six difenacoum treatments failed in 14--42 days of baiting. Two treatments with bromadiolone succeeded in 23 and 33 days, but four further treatments lasting 35--56 days failed to eradicate the populations. Brodifacoum gave virtually complete control of six populations in 21--73 days and of the ten residual populations left behind by the other two compounds, after baiting for a further 11--85 days. The performance of both bromadiolone and brodifacoum was well below that reported by previous investigators, indicating the possibility of low-grade resistance to these compounds in the difenacoum-resistant strain. PMID:7130704

  18. Field trials of second-generation anticoagulants against difenacoum-resistant Norway rat populations.

    OpenAIRE

    Greaves, J. H.; Shepherd, D. S.; Quy, R.

    1982-01-01

    Trials of rodenticidal baits containing 50 p.p.m. difenacoum, 50 p.p.m. bromadiolone or 20 p.p.m. brodifacoum were carried out on farmsteads against populations of Rattus norvegicus containing difenacoum-resistant individuals. Six difenacoum treatments failed in 14--42 days of baiting. Two treatments with bromadiolone succeeded in 23 and 33 days, but four further treatments lasting 35--56 days failed to eradicate the populations. Brodifacoum gave virtually complete control of six populations ...

  19. Age-related behavioral effects of methomyI in Brown Norway rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Methomyl is a cholinesterase-inhibiting carbamate pesticide that is used in the field on cotton and a variety of fruits and vegetables. Concerns have been raised generally about age-related differences in susceptibility to cholinesterase-inhibiting pesticides, especially for chil...

  20. EFFECTS OF TOLUENE ON BRAIN OXIDATIVE STRESS PARAMETERS IN AGING BROWN NORWAY RATS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aging-related susceptibility to environmental chemicals is poorly understood. Oxidative stress (OS) appears to play an important role in susceptibility and disease in old age. The objectives of this study, therefore, were to test whether OS is a potential toxicity pathway for tol...

  1. Carbaryl neurotoxicity across the life-span of the Brown-Norway rat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demographics show that the proportion of older adults is increasing every year. While there has been considerable attention paid to potential sensitivity of the young to environmental chemicals, there is much less known about the relative vulnerability of the aged. Differences in...

  2. Serum biomarkers in young adult and aged Brown Norway (BN) rats following episodic (weekly) ozone exposure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozone (03) is an air pollutant that is associated with cardiovascular and respiratory diseases. Older adults are considered to be particularly susceptible to oxidant air pollutants such as 03. Serum biomarkers are being sought that would lead to better predictions of susceptibili...

  3. CARBARYL EFFECTS ON OXIDATIVE STRESS IN BRAIN REGIONS OF ADOLESCENT AND SENESCENT BROWN NORWAY RATS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oxidative stress (OS) plays an important role in susceptibility and disease in old age. Understanding age-related susceptibility is crucial in assessing the human health risks of chemicals. Growing evidence implicates as in carbamate toxicity in addition to cholinesterase-inhibit...

  4. Pulmonary Toxicity of Instilled Silver Nanoparticles: Influence of Size, Coating and Rat Strain

    OpenAIRE

    Seiffert, Joanna; Hussain, Farhana; Wiegman, Coen; Li, Feng; Bey, Leo; Baker, Warren; Porter, Alexandra; Ryan, Mary P.; Chang, Yan; Gow, Andrew; Zhang, Junfeng; Zhu, Jie; Tetley, Terry D.; Chung, Kian Fan

    2015-01-01

    Particle size and surface chemistry are potential determinants of silver nanoparticle (AgNP) respiratory toxicity that may also depend on the lung inflammatory state. We compared the effects of intratracheally-administered AgNPs (20nm and 110nm; polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) and citrate-capped; 0.1 mg/Kg) in Brown-Norway (BN) and Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats. In BN rats, there was both a neutrophilic and eosinophilic response, while in SD rats, there was a neutrophilic response at day 1, greatest fo...

  5. Leptin receptor interacts with rat chromosome 1 to regulate renal disease traits

    OpenAIRE

    Warden, Craig H.; Gularte-Mérida, Rodrigo; Fisler, Janis S; Hansen, Susan; Shibata, Noreene; Le, Anh; Medrano, Juan F.; Stern, Judith S.

    2012-01-01

    Linkage mapping in a backcross of {Brown Norway [BN/Crl (BN)] × ZUC-Lepr faSte (ZUC)} × ZUC identified a male-specific quantitative trait locus (QTL) for urinary albumin excretion (UAE) on rat chromosome 1. A homozygous ZUC.BN-(D1Rat42-D1Rat90)/Ste congenic was produced containing BN donor alleles from 135 to 276 Mb from chromosome 1 on the ZUC background. We observed threefold higher urinary albumin-to-creatinine ratios (ACR) in 15-wk-old Zucker background strain males than in same sex an...

  6. Ethical questions in landslide management and risk reduction in Norway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taurisano, A.; Lyche, E.; Thakur, V.; Wiig, T.; Øvrelid, K.; Devoli, G.

    2012-04-01

    The loss of lives caused by landslides in Norway is smaller than in other countries due to the low population density in exposed areas. However, annual economic losses from damage to properties and infrastructures are vast. Yet nationally coordinated efforts to manage and reduce landslide and snow avalanche risk are a recent challenge, having started only in the last decade. Since 2009, this has been a task of the Norwegian Water Resources and Energy Directorate (NVE) under the Ministry of Petroleum and Energy. Ongoing work includes collection of landslide data, production of susceptibility and hazard maps, planning of mitigation measures along with monitoring and early warning systems, assistance to areal planning, providing expertise in emergencies and disseminating information to the public. These activities are realized in collaboration with the Norwegian Geological Survey (NGU), the Meteorological Institute, the Road and Railway authorities, universities and private consultant companies. As the total need for risk mitigating initiatives is by far larger than the annual budget, priority assessment is crucial. This brings about a number of ethical questions. 1. Susceptibility maps have been produced for the whole country and provide a first indication of areas with potential landslide or snow avalanche hazard, i.e. areas where special attention and expert assessments are needed before development. Areas where no potential hazard is shown can in practice be developed without further studies, which call for relatively conservative susceptibility maps. However, conservative maps are problematic as they too often increase both cost and duration of building projects beyond the reasonable. 2. Areas where hazard maps or risk mitigation initiatives will be funded are chosen by means of cost-benefits analyses which are often uncertain. How to estimate the benefits if the real probability for damage can only be judged on a very subjective level but not really calculated

  7. Liberalization of the natural gas market in Norway

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    During the last few years, the gas market in Norway has been subject to an impressive amount of regulatory reform. Such reform was driven by the necessity to liberalise and internationalise this market in relation to state participation, the abolition of centralised gas sales, and the implementation of the gas directive. The part privatisation of Statoil (in excess of 18%) has been an important step in enabling this company to transform into an international player, managed in alignment with private investors' requirements for cost effectiveness. In addition, the transfer from Statoil to Petoro of management responsibilities regarding the Norwegian state's direct economic interests in exploration and production activities enables a clearer division between private and public interests. Regardless of these changes, the ownership interests and influence of Statoil in the oil and gas industry remain considerable. The abolition of centralised gas sales has led to an obligation for all gas producers to sell their equity gas on an individual basis. This has created a foundation for more competition on the supply side. In order to be able to compete, most of the existing gas sales agreements have had to be renegotiated, the process of which is by now almost complete. A prerequisite for further competition is that more uncontracted gas will be produced. A number of further competition restraints relating to the transport of gas can now be dealt with through the application of a set of new rules, which form the implementation of the gas directive. These rules, together with the harmonised ownership structure of all main gas export pipelines (Gassled), can contribute to the effective utilisation of the upstream gas infrastructure, through independent operatorship (Gassco) and non-discriminatory access. In order for the rules to serve this purpose in practice, it will be necessary for Gassco to develop into a pro-active and visibly independent operator

  8. Nursing during World War II: Finnmark County, Northern Norway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ingrid Immonen

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. This study is part the project “Nursing in Borderland – Finnmark 1939–1950” within nursing history that sheds light on nursing and health care during World War II in Finnmark County, Northern Norway. The study focuses on challenges in nursing care that arose during the war because of war activities in the Barents area. This article focuses on challenges caused by shortage of supplies. The aim of the project is to widen the understanding of development within health care and living conditions in the area. Study design. This is a historical study using narratives, government documents and literature. Methods. Interviews with nurses and persons active in health care during World War II constitute the main data of the research. Thematic issues that arise from interviews are analysed.Primary and secondary written sources are used in analysing the topics.Because of war activities, deportation and burning of the county, archives were partly destroyed. Central archives can contribute with annual reports, whereas local archives are fragmentary. There are a number of reports written soon after the War, as well as a number of biographical books of newer date. Results. Challenges caused by war, which appear in the interviews, are: 1 shortage of supplies, 2 increased workload, 3 multicultural society, 4 ethical dilemmas, 5 deportation of the population. In this paper, focus is on challenges caused by shortage of supplies. Conclusions. Both institutions, personnel and patients were marked by the war. This has to be taken in consideration in health care today.

  9. The EISCAT_3D Project in Norway: E3DN

    Science.gov (United States)

    La Hoz, C.; Oksavik, K.

    2013-12-01

    EISCAT_3D (E3D) is a project to build the next generation of incoherent scatter radars endowed with 3-dimensional scalar and vector capabilities that will replace the current EISCAT radars in Northern Scandinavia. One active (transmitting) site in Norway and four passive (receiving) sites in the Nordic countries will provide 3-D vector imaging capabilities by rapid scanning and multi-beam forming. The unprecedented flexibility of the solid-state transmitter with high duty-cycle, arbitrary wave-forming and polarisation and its pulsed power of 10 MW will provide unrivalled experimental capabilities to investigate the highly non-stationary and non-homogeneous state of the polar upper atmosphere. Aperture Synthesis Imaging Radar (ASIR) will to endow E3D with imaging capabilities in 3-dimensions that includes sub-beam resolution. Complemented by pulse compression, it will provide 3-dimensional images of certain types of incoherent scatter radar targets resolved to about 100 metres at 100 km range, depending on the signal-to-noise ratio. The Norwegian scientific programme is inspired by the pioneer polar scientist Kristian Birkeland (picture) and includes pressing questions on polar upper atmospheric research, among others: (Q1) How to proceed beyond the present simplistic, static, stationary and homogeneous analysis of upper atmospheric and ionospheric processes? (Q2) How does space weather affect ionospheric processes and how to support modelling and space weather services? (Q3) How to advance fundamental plasma physics by employing the ionosphere as a natural plasma physics laboratory? (Q4) How does the influx of extraterrestrial material interact with the upper atmosphere and where does the material originate from? (Q5) How does solar activity couple from geospace into the lower atmosphere and climate system, and does this energy change the wave forcing of geospace from below? Kristian Birkeland, Norwegian scientist and pioneer in polar and auroral research.

  10. Rabies in the arctic fox population, Svalbard, Norway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mørk, Torill; Bohlin, Jon; Fuglei, Eva; Åsbakk, Kjetil; Tryland, Morten

    2011-10-01

    Arctic foxes, 620 that were trapped and 22 found dead on Svalbard, Norway (1996-2004), as well as 10 foxes trapped in Nenets, North-West Russia (1999), were tested for rabies virus antigen in brain tissue by standard direct fluorescent antibody test. Rabies antigen was found in two foxes from Svalbard and in three from Russia. Blood samples from 515 of the fox carcasses were screened for rabies antibodies with negative result. Our results, together with a previous screening (1980-1989, n=817) indicate that the prevalence of rabies in Svalbard has remained low or that the virus has not been enzootic in the arctic fox population since the first reported outbreak in 1980. Brain tissues from four arctic foxes (one from Svalbard, three from Russia) in which rabies virus antigen was detected were further analyzed by reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction direct amplicon sequencing and phylogenetic analysis. Sequences were compared to corresponding sequences from rabies virus isolates from other arctic regions. The Svalbard isolate and two of the Russian isolates were identical (310 nucleotides), whereas the third Russian isolate differed in six nucleotide positions. However, when translated into amino acid sequences, none of these substitutions produced changes in the amino acid sequence. These findings suggest that the spread of rabies virus to Svalbard was likely due to migration of arctic foxes over sea ice from Russia to Svalbard. Furthermore, when compared to other Arctic rabies virus isolates, a high degree of homology was found, suggesting a high contact rate between arctic fox populations from different arctic regions. The high degree of homology also indicates that other, and more variable, regions of the genome than this part of the nucleoprotein gene should be used to distinguish Arctic rabies virus isolates for epidemiologic purposes.

  11. Social inequalities in mental health in Norway: possible explanatory factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dalgard Odd

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background It is well known that there is a social gradient in mental health, the prevalence of mental disorders stepwise increasing by lower social status. The reason for this, however, is not clear, and the purpose of the present study was to explore possible mediating factors between social status and mental health. Methods The study has a cross-sectional design, and was based on a nationwide survey in Oslo, Norway, counting 12 310 people in the age of 30–60 years. Immigrants from non-western countries were excluded. Socio-demographic data were gathered from existing registers, whereas data on health, psychosocial variables and life style were gathered by structured interview. As indicator of mental health was used a 10-items version of Hopkins Symptom Checklist, measuring psychological distress. Measures of general self-efficacy and sense of powerlessness was used as indicators of control of own life situation. Results A strong social gradient in mental health was found, the prevalence of psychological distress increasing by decreasing social status. Psychosocial factors, including self-efficacy, sense of powerlessness, control of work, social support and negative life events, in particular economic problems, as well as life style factors (physical exercise, BMI, smoking and somatic health, likewise showed a social gradient, all risk factors increasing by decreasing social status. When adjusting for the risk factors in multivariate statistical analyses, the social gradient in mental health was eliminated. Low self-efficacy and sense of powerlessness emerged as important explanatory factors, alongside with poor social support, economic problems, smoking and somatic disorder. Conclusion Both individual characteristics, supposedly linked to the personality, like low self-efficacy, and factors related to the actual life situation, like economic problems and a feeling of powerlessness, contribute to the social gradient in mental health

  12. Questionnaire-Related Deferrals in Regular Blood Donors in Norway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Håkon Reikvam

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Voluntary donation is a key issue in transfusion medicine. To ensure the safety of blood transfusions, careful donor selection is important. Although new approaches to blood safety have dramatically reduced the risks for infectious contamination of blood components, the quality and the availability of blood components depend on the willingness to donate and the reliability of the information given by the donors about their own health, including risk behavior. As donors who are deferred by the blood bank will be less motivated to return for donation, it is important to reduce the number of deferrals. The aims of the present study were to investigate the reasons for deferral of registered donors coming to the blood bank for donation, in order to identify areas of importance for donor education—as these deferrals potentially could be avoided by better donor comprehension. Deferral related to testing of donors is not included in this study as these deferrals are dependent on laboratory results and cannot be indentified by questionnaire or interview. Data were collected from all blood donors in a period for 18 months who came for blood donation at a large university hospital in Norway. 1 163 of the 29 787 regular donors, who showed up for donation, were deferred (3.9%. The main reasons were intercurrent illness (n=182 (15.6%, skin ulcers (n=170 (14.6%, and risk behaviour (n=127 (10.9%. In a community, intercurrent illnesses, skin ulcers, and potential risk behavior are the most frequent reasons for deferral of regular donors. Strategized effort on donor education is needed, as “failure to donate” reduces donor motivation.

  13. Proportion cured models applied to 23 cancer sites in Norway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cvancarova, Milada; Aagnes, Bjarte; Fosså, Sophie D; Lambert, Paul C; Møller, Bjørn; Bray, Freddie

    2013-04-01

    Statistical cure is reached when a group of patients has the same mortality as cancer-free individuals. Cure models predict the cured proportion and the median survival of fatal cases. Cure models have seldom been applied and tested systematically across all major cancer sites. Incidence and follow-up data on 23 cancer sites recorded at the Cancer Registry of Norway 1963-2007 were obtained. Mixture cure models were fitted to obtain trends and up-to-date estimates (based on period approach) assuming cured and uncured groups exist. The model converged for cancers of the mouth and pharynx, oesophagus, stomach, colon, rectum, liver, gallbladder, pancreas, lung and trachea, ovary, kidney, bladder, CNS, non-Hodgkin lymphoma (only for males) and leukemia. The proportion of cured patients increased 1963-2002 for both sexes, with the largest changes (in percent) seen for leukemia (46.4 and 46.7) and CNS (35.9, 42.0), males given first. Median survival time for the uncured cases increased for colon and rectal cancer, and there was a three- fold increase in median survival time for patients with fatal ovarian cancers. Cancers of bladder and CNS had the highest up-to-date proportion cured (in percent), 67.4 and 64.0, respectively, pancreas and liver were amongst the lowest (5.7 and 9.9, respectively). Cure models are useful when monitoring progress in cancer care, but must be applied and interpreted with caution. The absolute estimates of the cure proportion are speculative and should not be calculated where cure is not medically anticipated. PMID:22927104

  14. Large gravitational rock slope deformation in Romsdalen Valley (Western Norway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aline Saintot

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Large gravitational rock slope deformation affects Precambrian gneisses at four localities of the Romsdalen valley of Western Norway. At each locality, detailed studies have allowed to determine the mechanism of deformation and to assess the degree of susceptibility for failure. 1 Svarttinden is a 4.3 Mm³ translational rockslide. Its single basal detachment developed along a foliation-parallel cataclastic fault. Although a rockslide occurred along the same detachment and the deposits reached the edge of the plateau, no displacement of the current instability is detected. 2 At Flatmark distinct 2-25 Mm³ blocks detached from the edge of the plateau by an opening along the steep foliation. The collapse of the blocks is explained by a complex mechanism of sliding and toppling. No displacement is actually detected on the instabilities. 3 At Børa blocks located at the edge of the plateau deformed by the same mechanism as at Flatmark. They have a maximum volume of 0.5 Mm3 and displacement rates of 0.2-2 cm/year. The deformation at Børa has affected a large part of the plateau and the entire deformed volume would be of 50-200 Mm³ but it is currently inactive. 4 A wedge failure at the edge of Mannen plateau is inferred to allow the 4-5 cm/year downward displacement of a 2-3.5 Mm³ instability. The high susceptibility of failure led to a permanent monitoring of the site since 2009.

  15. Metal Contamination of the Natural Environment in Norway from Long Range Atmospheric Transport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steinnes, E. [Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry (Norway)], E-mail: eiliv.steinnes@chembio.ntnu.no

    2001-05-15

    Long range atmospheric transport is the most important source of contamination to the natural environment in Norway with many heavy metals. Investigations based on aerosol studies, bulk deposition measurements and moss analysis show that airborne transport from other parts of Europe is the major mode for supply of vanadium, zinc, arsenic, selenium, molybdenum, cadmium, tin,antimony, tellurium, thallium, lead, and bismuth, whereas metals such as chromium, nickel, and copper are mainly derived from point sources within Norway and in northwestern Russia close to the Norwegian border. Elements associated with long range transport show substantial enrichment in the humus horizon of natural soils in southern Norway, sometimes to levels suspected to cause effects on soil microbial processes. E.g. lead concentration values of 150-200 ppm are observed in the most contaminated areas in the south as compared to about 5 ppm in the far north. Elements such as lead and cadmium also show enrichment in some terrestrial food chains. These elements also show considerably elevated levels over background concentrations in the water and sediment of small lakes in the southern part of the country. Retrospective studies based on ombrogenous peatcores indicate that long range transport has been a significant source of heavy metal contamination in southern Norway for the last couple of centuries. The deposition of most heavy metals in Norway has been considerably reduced over the last 20 yr, with the exception of contributions in the north from Russian smelters.

  16. Economic consequences of the Chernobyl accident in Norway in 1986 and 1987

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the accident consequence assessment (ACA) area there is extensive cooperation between the Nordic countries (Denmark, Finland, Norway, and Sweden), performed within the Nordic Safety Program, and partially funded by the Nordic Council of Ministers, via the Nordic Liaison Committee for Atomic Energy. One of the 17 projects in the ACA-related program area is concerned with the economic consequences of the Chernobyl accident in Finland, Norway, and Sweden. This paper is limited to describing conditions in Norway. There are areas in Norway where the Chernobyl fallout is >100 kBq/m2, and the total amount of radiocesium deposited over Norway is estimated by the National Institute for Radiation Hygiene to be 6% of the radiocesium released from the reactor. The areas where ground concentrations are highest are mostly in sparsely populated mountain areas. These areas are, however, important in connection with several nutritional pathways, notably, sheep, goats, reindeer, and freshwater fish. The purpose of this paper is to summarize information on mitigating actions and economic consequences of the deposited radioactive materials to Norwegian agriculture in the 1986-87 and 1987-88 slaughtering periods

  17. Population dynamics of Strongylocentrotus droebachiensis in kelpforests and barren grounds in Norway

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fagerli, Camilla W.; Gran Stadniczeñko, Sandra; Pedersen, Morten Foldager;

    2015-01-01

    A northward trend of declining abundance of sea urchins (Strongylocentrotus droebachiensis) and increasing kelp recovery along the coast of Norway has provided an opportunity to explore whether the decline of sea urchins can be explained by systematic variations in demographic or fitness-related ......A northward trend of declining abundance of sea urchins (Strongylocentrotus droebachiensis) and increasing kelp recovery along the coast of Norway has provided an opportunity to explore whether the decline of sea urchins can be explained by systematic variations in demographic or fitness......-related traits. The population density of sea urchins in mid-Norway (65°70′N) close to the boundary between barren grounds and recently recovered kelp forests was only 26 % of that on barren grounds in northern Norway (70°70′N). Populations were dominated by young (2–4 years) individuals and age-specific numbers...... decreased nearly exponentially with age. The variation in most demographic variables was high among replicate sampling sites and test size. Mean age and growth rates did not differ consistently among sites in mid- and northern Norway nor between barren ground and kelp sites. In contrast, mortality rates...

  18. Hydrological Dynamics In High Mountain Catchment Areas of Central Norway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Löffler, Jörg; Rößler, Ole

    Large-scaled landscape structure is regarded as a mosaic of ecotopes where process dynamics of water and energy fluxes are analysed due to its effects on ecosystem functioning. The investigations have been carried out in the continental most Vågå/Oppland high mountains in central Norway since 1994 (LÖFFLER &WUNDRAM 1999, 2000, 2001). Additionally, comparable investigations started in 2000 dealing with the oceanic high mountain landscapes on same latitudes (LÖFFLER et al. 2001). The theoretical and methodological framework of the project is given by the Landscape-Ecological Complex Analysis (MOSIMANN 1984, 1985) and its variations due to technical and principle methodical challenges in this high mountain landscape (KÖHLER et al. 1994, LÖFFLER 1998). The aim of the project is to characterize high mountain ecosystem structure, functioning and dynamics within small catchment areas, that are chosen in two different altitudinal belts each in the eastern continental and the western oceanic region of central Norway. In the frame of this research project hydrological and meteorological measurements on ground water, percolation and soil moisture dynamics as well as on evaporation, air humidity and air-, surface- and soil-temperatures have been conducted. On the basis of large-scaled landscape-ecological mappings (LÖFFLER 1997) one basic meteorological station and several major data logger run stations have been installed in representative sites of each two catchment areas in the low and mid alpine belts of the investigation regions ( JUNGet al. 1997, LÖFFLER &WUNDRAM 1997). Moreover, spatial differentiations of groundwater level, soil moisture and temperature profiles have been investigated by means of hand held measurements at different times of the day, during different climatic situations and different seasons. Daily and annual air-, surface- and soil-temperature dynamics are demonstrated by means of thermoisopleth-diagrams for different types of ecotopes of the

  19. The climate regime: Results, causes and the role of Norway; Klimaregimet : Resultater, aarsaker og Norges rolle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andresen, Steinar

    2001-07-01

    About a decade after the Climate Convention, little has been achieved to solve this problem. It is stressed, however, that our knowledge of the problem has increased and today few serious actors would deny the existence of the problem. National and international institutions to deal with it are being established. The main reason why the problem remains unsolved is that it is so much more difficult than most other environmental problems. The political will and ability to handle it has been limited. In the countries that do have reduced emissions, this is mostly not due to climate considerations. Norway is quite representative for many OECD countries. Although they were high in the beginning, ambitions have been reduced over time and are characterized by economical pragmatism rather than high environmental ideals. Norway has implemented more measures than many comparable nations, but this does not substantially reduce the emission of climate gases from the oil- and gas-producing nation Norway.

  20. Large-scale wind power integration in Norway and impact on damping in the Nordic grid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagstrøm, Espen; Norheim, Ian; Uhlen, Kjetil

    2005-07-01

    The Nordic energy market is in need of new power generation capacity. Norway is today in shortage of electrical energy, and the hydropower-based system must rely on importing electrical power from its neighbours in a normal year of hydro inflow. One solution to this problem is to invest in new generation capacity, e.g. by integrating more wind power into the Norwegian grid. The Norwegian government has announced that 1000 MW of wind power will be installed in Norway by 2010, corresponding to an eventual energy production of approximately 3 TWh year-1. This article investigates the impact of wind power integration in Norway on the damping of interarea mode oscillations in the Nordic grid. The impact on the interarea mode oscillations is tested for various types of generators. Results from computer analyses of a simplified yet realistic equivalent of the Nordic power system are used to compute the interarea mode oscillations. Copyright

  1. Energy efficiency in Norway (1997). Cross Country Comparison on Energy Efficiency Indicators - Phase 5

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alm, Leif Kristian

    2000-02-01

    This is the national report for Norway in phase 5 of the SAVE project 'Cross country comparison of energy efficiency indicators'. The report deals with energy use and energy efficiency in Norway the last 20 years, with a special emphasis on the period after 1990. A detailed sector analysis has been done, applying Laspeyres indices to attribute changes in energy use to either activity, structure or intensity (efficiency). Aggregating sectors, we have found a total efficiency improvement of maximum 7-8 TWH from 1990 to 1997. This corresponds to a saving of 0.5% per year. In the same period, final energy use per Gross Domestic Product (GDP) was reduced by approx 2.4% per year. Thereby most of the reduction in final energy intensity can not be attributed to increased energy efficiency. Almost all data are taken from official Norwegian statistics (Statistics Norway). (author)

  2. Energy efficiency in Norway (1996). Cross Country Comparison on Energy Efficiency Indicators, Phase 4

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alm, Leif Kristian

    1998-12-01

    This is the national report for Norway in phase 4 of the SAVE project 'Cross country comparison of energy efficiency indicators'. The report deals with energy use and energy efficiency in Norway the last 20 years, with a special emphasis on the period after 1990. Final energy use per Gross Domestic Product (GDP) was reduced by approx 2.3% per year from 1990 to 1996. Doing detailed sector analysis we are applying Laspeyres indices to attribute changes in energy use to either activity, structure or intensity. Calculating an aggregate intensity index from the sector intensities gives an average intensity reduction of 0.4% per year. Thereby most of the reduction in final energy per unit GDP are due to structural changes, and not technical improvements. Almost all data are taken from official Norwegian statistics (Statistics Norway). (author)

  3. Cross-National Investigation of Health Indicators among Sexual Minorities in Norway and the United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryan J. Watson

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available A cross-national study of young adult sexual minorities was conducted in order to explore the associations between sexual orientation and measures of depression, suicidality, and substance use. Two nationally representative data sets were explored from the United States (N = 14,335 and Norway (N = 2423. Results indicated that sexual minorities experienced multiple health disparities (depression, suicidality, and substance use compared to their heterosexual counterparts. We found similar patterns of depression, suicidality, and substance use for sexual minorities in both the United States and Norway. The highest odds of substance use were among heterosexual-identified Norwegian youth who reported same-sex sexual activity, and the highest odds of suicidality were found for bisexual young adults in Norway. These findings have implications for how we consider culture and social policy as barriers and/or opportunities for sexual minorities.

  4. The labor market regimes of Denmark and Norway – One Nordic model?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gooderham, Paul; Navrbjerg, Steen Erik; Olsen, Karen M.;

    2014-01-01

    The literature on the Danish and Norwegian labor market systems emphasizes the commonalities of the two systems. We challenge this perception by investigating how employers in multinational companies in Denmark and Norway communicate with employees on staffing changes. We argue that the development...... of ‘flexicurity’ in Denmark grants Danish employers considerably greater latitude in engaging in staffing changes than its Nordic counterpart, Norway. Institutional theory leads us to suppose that large firms located in the Danish setting will be less likely to engage in employer–employee communication...... than their foreign-owned counterparts. We supplement institutional theory with an actor perspective in order to take into account the role of labor unions. Our analysis is based on a survey of 203 firms in Norway and Denmark which are either indigenous multinational companies or the subsidiaries...

  5. Diurnal Variation In Behaviour Of Pink-Footed Geese (Anser Brachyrhynchus) During Spring Migration In Trøndelag, Norway

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chudzińska, Magda Ewa; Madsen, Jesper; Nabe-Nielsen, Jacob

    During spring migration, Pink-footed Geese Anser brachyrhynchus stop in mid Norway to refuel before their onward flight to the Svalbard breeding grounds. In mid Norway, geese feed on pastures, stubble as well as newly sown grain fields. The aim of the paper is to describe diurnal variations in th...

  6. Comparative analysis of lifestyle orientations and travel motivations of Japanese and Anglo-American inbound package tourists in Norway

    OpenAIRE

    Krupiczojc, Bartosz; Hatouchyts, Kseniya

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this thesis is to compare lifestyle orientations and travel motivations between different nationality groups of inbound package tourists in Norway. Specifically, the present study delineates differences in lifestyle orientations and travel motivations between Anglo- American and Japanese tourists, who participated in the package tour Norway in a Nutshell. Additionally, this study examines the relationships between lifestyle orientations and travel motivations. ...

  7. The impact of psychosocial and organizational working conditions on the mental health of female cleaning personnel in Norway

    OpenAIRE

    Sandanger Inger; Nygård Jan F; Gamperiene Migle; Wærsted Morten; Bruusgaard Dag

    2006-01-01

    Background This study examined the association between psychosocial and organizational work conditions and mental health among women employed in the cleaning profession in Norway. Methods Self-report questionnaires were mailed to 661 cleaning staff personnel from seven cleaning organizations in seven different cities across Norway. The response rate was 64%, of which 374 (88%) respondents were women. ...

  8. Two Paths to Inequality in Educational Outcomes: Family Background and Educational Selection in the United States and Norway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reisel, Liza

    2011-01-01

    The United States and Norway represent two distinctively different attempts to equalize educational opportunity. Whereas the United States has focused on expansion and the proliferation of lower-tier open-access institutions, Norway has emphasized institutional streamlining and the equalization of living conditions. At the same time, the two…

  9. 76 FR 20312 - Fresh and Chilled Atlantic Salmon From Norway: Extension of Time Limits for Preliminary and Final...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-12

    ... from Norway, pursuant to section 751(c) of the Tariff Act of 1930, as amended (the Act). See Initiation of Five-Year (``Sunset'') Review, 76 FR 89 (January 3, 2011). Within the deadline specified in 19 CFR... International Trade Administration Fresh and Chilled Atlantic Salmon From Norway: Extension of Time Limits...

  10. Beneath the Surface of Accountability: Answerability, Responsibility and Capacity-Building in Recent Education Reforms in Norway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatch, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    Recent educational reforms in Norway include national tests and monitoring mechanisms to see if key outcomes are being achieved. At the same time, Norway has not established the follow-up mechanisms like high-stakes incentives and rewards that are characteristic of accountability policies in some other countries. As a consequence, one could argue…

  11. NORPERM, the Norwegian Permafrost Database – a TSP NORWAY IPY legacy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Juliussen

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available NORPERM, the Norwegian Permafrost Database, was developed at the Geological Survey of Norway during the International Polar Year (IPY 2007-2009 as the main data legacy of the IPY research project Permafrost Observatory Project: A Contribution to the Thermal State of Permafrost in Norway and Svalbard (TSP NORWAY. Its structural and technical design is described in this paper along with the ground temperature data infrastructure in Norway and Svalbard, focussing on the TSP NORWAY permafrost observatory installations in the North Scandinavian Permafrost Observatory and Nordenskiöld Land Permafrost Observatory, being the primary data providers of NORPERM. Further developments of the database, possibly towards a regional database for the Nordic area, are also discussed.

    The purpose of NORPERM is to store ground temperature data safely and in a standard format for use in future research. The IPY data policy of open, free, full and timely release of IPY data is followed, and the borehole metadata description follows the Global Terrestrial Network for Permafrost (GTN-P standard. NORPERM is purely a temperature database, and the data is stored in a relation database management system and made publically available online through a map-based graphical user interface. The datasets include temperature time series from various depths in boreholes and from the air, snow cover, ground-surface or upper ground layer recorded by miniature temperature data-loggers, and temperature profiles with depth in boreholes obtained by occasional manual logging. All the temperature data from the TSP NORWAY research project is included in the database, totalling 32 temperature time series from boreholes, 98 time series of micrometeorological temperature conditions, and 6 temperature depth profiles obtained by manual logging in boreholes. The database content will gradually increase as data from previous and future projects are added. Links to

  12. NORPERM, the Norwegian Permafrost Database – a TSP NORWAY IPY legacy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Juliussen

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available NORPERM – The Norwegian Permafrost Database was developed at the Geological Survey of Norway during the International Polar Year (IPY 2007–2009 as the main data legacy of the IPY research project Permafrost Observatory Project: A Contribution to the Thermal State of Permafrost in Norway and Svalbard (TSP NORWAY. This paper describes the structural and technical design of NORPERM. NORPERM follows the IPY data policy of open, free, full and timely release of IPY data, and the borehole metadata description follows the Global Terrestrial Network for Permafrost (GTN-P standard. The ground temperature data infrastructure in Norway and Svalbard is also presented, focussing on the TSP NORWAY permafrost observatory installations in the North Scandinavian Permafrost Observatory and Nordenskiöld Land Permafrost Observatory, as the data providers for NORPERM. Further developments of the database, possibly towards a regional database for the Nordic area, are also discussed.

    The purpose of NORPERM is to store ground temperature data safely and in a standard format for use in future research. NORPERM stores temperature time series from various depths in boreholes and from the air, snow cover, ground-surface or upper ground layer recorded by miniature temperature data-loggers, and temperature profiles with depth in boreholes obtained by occasional manual logging. It contains all the temperature data from the TSP NORWAY research project, totalling 32 boreholes and 98 sites with miniature temperature data-loggers for continuous monitoring of micrometeorological conditions, and 6 temperature depth profiles obtained by manual borehole logging. The amount of data in the database will gradually increase as data from older, previous projects are added. NORPERM also provides links to near real-time permafrost temperatures obtained by GSM data transfer.

  13. Determination of the terpene flux from orange species and Norway spruce by relaxed eddy accumulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, C.S.; Hummelshøj, P.; Jensen, N.O.;

    2000-01-01

    Terpene fluxes from a Norway spruce (Picea abies) forest and an orange orchard (Citrus clementii and Citrus sinensis) were measured by relaxed eddy accumulation (REA) during summer 1997. alpha-pinene and beta-pinene were the most abundant terpenes emitted from Norway spruce and constituted...... the weight of the dry biomass. The five terpenes which were detected in all samples at the orange orchard were limonene, sabinene, alpha-pinene, trans-ocimene and beta-pinene with an average Aux of 126.3 ng m(-2) s(-1). Cis-ocimene, linalool and myrcene were occasionally detected but no systematic upward...

  14. Consequences in Norway after a hypothetical accident at Sellafield - Predicted impacts on the environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report describes the possible environmental consequences for Norway due to a hypothetical accident at the Sellafield complex in the UK. The scenario considered involves an explosion and fire at the B215 facility resulting in a 1 % release of the total HAL (Highly Active liquor) inventory of radioactive waste with a subsequent air transport and deposition in Norway. Air transport modelling is based on real meteorological data from October 2008 with wind direction towards Norway and heavy precipitation. This weather is considered to be quite representative as typical seasonal weather. Based on this weather scenario, the estimated fallout in Norway will be ∼ 17 P Bq of caesium-137 which is 7 times higher than the fallout from the Chernobyl accident. The modelled radioactive contamination is linked with data on transfer to the food chain and statistics on production and hunting to assess the consequences for foodstuffs. The investigation has been limited to the terrestrial environment, focussing on wild berries, fungi, and animals grazing unimproved pastures (i.e. various types of game, reindeer, sheep and goats). The predicted consequences are severe - especially in connection to sheep and goat production. Up to 80 % of the lambs in Norway could be exceeding the food intervention levels for radiocaesium the first years after the fallout, with 30-40 % likely to be above for many years. There will, consequently, be a need for extensive countermeasures in large areas for years or even decades involving several hundred thousand animals each year. Large consequences are also expected for reindeer husbandry - the first year in particular due to the time of fallout which is just prior to winter slaughter. The consequences will be most sever for reindeer herding in middle and southern parts of Norway, but problems may reach as far north as Finnmark where we find the majority of Norwegian reindeer production. The consequences for game will mostly depend on the regional

  15. Root uptake of lead by Norway spruce grown on Pb-210 spiked soils

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hovmand, M.F.; Nielsen, Sven Poul; Johnsen, I.

    2009-01-01

    The root uptake of lead (Pb) by trees and the transfer of Pb by leaf litter deposition to the forest floor were investigated through a pot experiment with Norway spruce. Natural Pb and radio isotopic lead (210Pb) were determined in needles and twigs and in the pot soil spiked with 210Pb. Calculat......The root uptake of lead (Pb) by trees and the transfer of Pb by leaf litter deposition to the forest floor were investigated through a pot experiment with Norway spruce. Natural Pb and radio isotopic lead (210Pb) were determined in needles and twigs and in the pot soil spiked with 210Pb...

  16. Residual animal fat and fish for biodiesel production. Potentials in Norway

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andersen, Otto; Weinbach, Jan-Erik [Western Norway Research Institute (WNRI), P. Box 163, 6851 Sogndal (Norway)

    2010-08-15

    The potential for biodiesel production based on utilization of residual animal fat and fish in Norway is estimated. This is based on a study of the amounts of residual fat that is possible to recover from grease traps in Bergen. Additional data from Trondheim and Oslo facilitated up-scaling to estimating national potential for utilizing this residue stream for biodiesel production. This is supplemented with data on residues from slaughterhouses and poultry, as well as the fishing industry. The results indicate that Norway has the potential for producing large amounts of biodiesel from these residue sources. (author)

  17. Pre-school multilingualism : experiences from a national project in Norway

    OpenAIRE

    Sundelin, Marit

    2011-01-01

    I will refer to a national project in Norway; initiated by NAFO, the National Center of Multicultural Education. In the period of 2007-2010 I was supervisor for 20 pre-schools in 5 different municipalities in the county of Troms, Norway. These pre-schools all had bilingual immigrant children, and were interested in learning more about both cultural diversity and multilingualism. This presentation will point out some of the development that took place in the staff of these pre-schools, and als...

  18. Management of bladder dysfunction and satisfaction of life after spinal cord injury in Norway

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hagen, Ellen Merete; Rekand, Tiina

    2013-01-01

    Background: There is limited knowledge about bladder dysfunction and bladder management in persons with spinal cord injury (SCI) after discharge from the hospital in Norway. The impact of bladder dysfunction on satisfaction of life has been rarely explored.Setting: Community-based survey from...... at the Spinal Cord Units were thoroughly followed by persons who had used catheters more than 5 years. Use of incontinence pads were associated with reduced satisfaction of life.Conclusions: The most common method of management of bladder dysfunction is clean intermittent catheterization in Norway...

  19. Molecular epidemiology of salmonid alphavirus (SAV subtype 3 in Norway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jansen Mona D

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Pancreas disease (PD is a viral fish disease which in recent years has significantly affected Norwegian salmonid aquaculture. In Norway, the aetiological agent salmonid alphavirus (SAV has been found to be represented by the subtype 3 only. SAV subtype 3 has in previous analyses been found to show a lower genetic divergence than the subtypes found to cause PD in Ireland and Scotland. The aim of this study was to evaluate the nucleotide (nt and amino acid divergence and the phylogenetic relationship of 33 recent SAV subtype 3 sequences. The samples from which the sequences were obtained originated from both PD endemic and non-endemic regions in an attempt to investigate agent origin/spread. Multiple samples throughout the seawater production phase from several salmonid populations were included to investigate genetic variation during an outbreak. The analyses were mainly based on partial sequences from the E2 gene. For some samples, additional partial 6 K and nsP3 gene sequences were available. Results The nucleotide divergence for all gene fragments ranged from total identity (0.0% divergence to 0.45% (1103 nt fragment of E2, 1.11% (451 nt fragment of E2, 0.94% (6 K and 0.28% (nsP3. This low nucleotide divergence corresponded well to previous reports on SAV 3 sequences; however the observed divergence for the short E2 fragment was higher than that previously reported. When compared to SAVH20/03 (AY604235, amino acid substitutions were detected in all assessed gene fragments however the in vivo significance of these on for example disease outbreak mortality could not be concluded on. The phylogenetic tree based on the 451 nt E2 fragment showed that the sequences divided into two clusters with low genetic divergence, representing only a single SAV subtype. Conclusions The analysed sequences represented two clusters of a single SAV subtype; however some of the observed sequence divergence was higher than that previously reported

  20. Mapping geomorphology, groundwater bodies and springs in Simadal, Norway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Austbø, I. L.; Øvrevik Skoglund, R.; Soldal, O. L.

    2015-12-01

    Simadal in Hardanger (Norway) is a narrow valley, famous for the waterfalls Rembedalsfossen and Skjykjedalsfossen which are regulated by Sima hydropower plant. Since the basin has been regulated between 1973-1979 the catchment area was reduced from 146km² to 35 km². There are currently plans for further expansion by also incorporating Skykjedalsvatnet, the last major remaining lake in the basin of Simaelva. In Simadal there are known to be large amounts of ground water, a greater understanding of how the groundwater interacts the river water is desirable in terms of water flow, residence time and water chemistry. Throughout the autumn of 2013 and winter of 2014 loggers were placed at various measuring points to log temperature and water levels. This included six loggers that measure temperature and pressure, as well as three loggers that measure only temperature. The goal with these loggers was to locate springs and monitor water level changes over a one-year period. In order to further investigate the water quality of the different measurement points, monthly water samples as well as pH-, and conductivity measurements were conducted. The water samples were analyzed for major ions as well as metal ions. The latter was based on earlier reported high copper levels. Flow measurements have been made in the upper and lower parts of Simadal during dry periods. The work has also included the accomplishment of Quaternary mapping; analysis of aerial photography; and using GPR. Our main concern has been to map the water resources in Simadal by registering groundwater and springs in sediments and rock faces. Furthermore, it has been desirable to draw lines to a larger regional knowledge based water management. It seems to be important to maintain a certain minimum of water of good quality, both for the ecology of the river in general, but perhaps especially considering the sustainable sea trout populations found in Simaelva today. Previous chemical, hydrogeological and fish

  1. Crustal structure of the Nordland region, northern Norway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maystrenko, Yuriy P.; Olesen, Odleiv; Gernigon, Laurent; Gradmann, Sofie

    2016-04-01

    To understand the major structural features of the sedimentary cover and crystalline crust within the Nordland County area of Norway, a data-based 3D structural model has been constructed in the framework of the Neonor2 project, "Neotectonics in Nordland - implications for petroleum exploration". The 3D structural model covers the Lofoten Ridge, the Ribban and Vestfjorden basins and adjacent areas of the Norwegian mainland. The model also covers the northern part of the adjacent Vøring Basin. At the regional scale, the 3D model includes the rifted margin which is located at the transition from the exposed crystalline rocks of the Fennoscandian Shield in the east to the Cenozoic oceanic domain of the Norwegian-Greenland Sea in the west. During the construction of the 3D structural model, all recently published and/or released data have been compiled in order to set the initial model. This initial 3D model has been validated by a 3D density modelling in order to obtain a gravity-consistent 3D structural model of the entire study area. The 3D density modelling has been carried out by using the IGMAS plus software (the Interactive Gravity and Magnetic Application System). During the 3D density modelling, densities have been assigned as constant values for the crystalline rocks. In contrast, densities of sedimentary rocks have been set to be depth-dependent in order to reflect the compaction of sedimentary rocks with depth. According to the results of the 3D density modeling, the crystalline crust of the investigated region consists of several layers with different densities. The deepest crustal layer is the high-density lower crust which corresponds to the high-velocity lower crustal layer. The regional-scale gravity response associated with the positions of the Moho and lithosphere-asthenosphere boundary is one of the key factors for performing a proper 3D density model of the study area. At the regional scale, the Moho and lithosphere-asthenosphere boundary are

  2. Teacher education in Norway and Finland compared : what can Norway learn from the Fininnish teacher education about curriculum, recruitment and attitude to globalization?

    OpenAIRE

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this thesis is to investigate if Norway can learn from the Finnish teacher education system, with focus on curriculum, recruitment and attitude to globalization. The study compares the teacher education systems in the two countries. The research is based on qualitative research approach, with content analysis of documents and literature. To explain globalizations influence on the two countries teacher education systems, central concepts in globalization and reform theory are pr...

  3. National Library of Norway's new database of 22 manuscript maps concerning the Swedish King Charles XII's campaign in Norway in 1716 and 1718

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benedicte Gamborg Brisa

    2003-03-01

    Full Text Available The National Library of Norway is planning to digitise approximately 1,500 manuscript maps. Two years ago we started working on a pilot project, and for this purpose we chose 22 maps small enough to be photographed in one piece. We made slides 6 x 7 cm in size, converted the slides into PhotoCDs and used four different resolutions on JPEG-files. To avoid large file sizes, we had to divide the version with the biggest resolution into four pieces. The preliminary work was done in Photoshop, the database on the web is made in Oracle. You can click on the map to zoom. Norwegians and probably Swedes during the Great Northern War drew the 22 maps when the Swedish King Charles XII in 1716 and 1718 unsuccessfully attempted to conquer Norway. The database is now accessible on the National Library of Norway's web site. The database is in Norwegian, but we are working on an English version as well. The maps are searchable on different topics, countries, counties, geographical names, shelfmarks or a combination of these. We are planning to expand the database to other manuscript maps later. This is the reason why it is possible to search for obvious subjects as Charles XII and the Great Northern War.

  4. Pursuing sustainable development in Norway: the challenge of living up to Brundtland at home

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lafferty, William M.; Knudsen, Jørgen; Larsen, Olav Mosvold

    2007-01-01

    With the Norwegian Prime Minister, Gro Harlem Brundtland, as chair of the World Commission on Environment and Development, Norway became an early mover in politics for sustainable development (SD). The pursuit of SD goals has been expressed in several national policy documents, though it was not unt

  5. The incidence of hip fractures in Norway -accuracy of the national Norwegian patient registry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høiberg, Mikkel; Gram, Jeppe; Hermann, Pernille;

    2014-01-01

    Background: Hip fractures incur the greatest medical costs of any fracture. Valid epidemiological data are important to monitor for time-dependent changes. In Norway, hip fractures are registered in the Norwegian Patient Registry (NPR), but no published national validation exists. The aim...

  6. Issues and Problems in the Organization of Children's Sport: A Case Study of Norway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skirstad, Berit; Waddington, Ivan; Safvenbom, Reidar

    2012-01-01

    The focus of this article is on the organization of children's sport in Norway. More specifically, the paper sets out to examine (i) the changing pattern of relationships, and in particular the changing balance of conflict and cooperation, between the several organizations with responsibility for children's sport, and (ii) how sport for children…

  7. Perceived outcomes of public libraries in Finland, Norway and the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P. Vakkari; S. Aabø; R. Audunson; F. Huysmans; M. Oomes

    2014-01-01

    Purpose - The purpose of this paper is to compare the perceived benefits of public libraries and their structure in the major areas of life between Finland, Norway and the Netherlands. Design/methodology/approach - The data were based on representative samples of Finnish, Norwegian and Dutch adult l

  8. Geochemistry of high-temperature granulitic supracrustals from Rogaland, SW Norway

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bol, L.C.G.M.

    1990-01-01

    Were the granulite-facies metamorphic supracrustals of the Faurefjell Metasediment Formation in Rogaland, SW Norway, chemically open or closed systems? In order to assess differential element mobilities in response to pre-, syn- and post-metamorphic fluid fluxes through this formation, the mineralog

  9. An outline of the bibliometric indicator used for performancebased funding of research institutions in Norway

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schneider, Jesper Wiborg

    2009-01-01

    This article outlines and discusses the bibliometric indicator used for performance-based funding of research institutions in Norway. It is argued that the indicator is novel and innovative as compared to the indicators used in other funding models. It compares institutions based on all...

  10. Sedimentation and chronology of heavy metal pollution in Oslo harbor, Norway

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lepland, Aivo; Andersen, Thorbjørn Joest; Lepland, Aave;

    2010-01-01

    Stratigraphic profiles of Cu, Cd and Hg in ten sediment cores from the Oslo harbor, Norway, combined with results of radiometric dating demonstrate that pollution by these metals peaked between 1940 and 1970. Dating results indicate that Hg discharges peaked between 1940 and 1950, Cd reached maxi...

  11. Policy Making Processes with Respect to Teacher Education in Finland and Norway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afdal, Hilde Wagsas

    2013-01-01

    This article examines policy making processes in the area of teacher education (TE) in Finland and Norway. Particular attention is given to the roles different actors play in these processes and the potential effects of their involvement on the TE programs in the two countries. Contemporary policy processes are analyzed through a set of interviews…

  12. Visit by the Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Trondheim, Norway

    CERN Multimedia

    Guillaume, Jeanneret

    2014-01-01

    NTNU Pro-Rector Johan E. Hustad and CERN Director for Research and Computing Sergio Bertolucci signed an agreement between NTNU and CERN for the establishment of the a new Business Incubation Centre of CERN technology to be established in Trondheim, Norway. An agreement to strengthen the collaboration on student created spin-offs was also signed.

  13. Metamorphism of siliceous dolomites in the high-grade Precambrian of Rogaland, SW Norway

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sauter, P.C.C.

    1983-01-01

    In the Precambrian granulite facies terrain of Rogaland, SW Norway, some small occurrences of marbles are present. They are mainly exposed at three locations A, Band C, at increasing distance from the anorthositic and monzonitic intrusions. The Precambrian basement in Rogaland has undergone several

  14. Educational Equity in Spain and Norway: A Comparative Analysis of Two OECD Country Notes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haugen, Cecilie Ronning

    2011-01-01

    This article undertakes a comparative study of the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development's (OECD) thematic reviews on "equity in education" for Spain and Norway. The author investigates whether there may be a similar orientation to equity expressed in the two reviews and discusses how social stratification may occur within the…

  15. Bridging the Gap between Science and Practice: The Effective Nationwide Transport of MST Programs in Norway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogden, Terje; Christensen, Bernadette; Sheidow, Ashli J.; Holth, Per

    2008-01-01

    The successful nationwide transport and evaluation of Multisystemic Therapy (MST) programs in Norway is described. This description is provided within the context of the nation's movement towards the adoption of evidence-based practices (EBPs) during the past decade, the conduct of a multisite randomized clinical trial to examine the effectiveness…

  16. Great Expectations: Perspectives on Cochlear Implantation of Deaf Children in Norway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simonsen, Eva; Kristoffersen, Ann-Elise; Hyde, Mervyn B.; Hjulstad, Oddvar

    2009-01-01

    The authors describe the use of cochlear implants with deaf children in Norway and examine how this intervention has raised new expectations and some tensions concerning the future of education for deaf students. They report on two studies of communication within school learning environments of young children with implants in Norwegian preschools…

  17. Multifunctional Agriculture in Policy and Practice? A Comparative Analysis of Norway and Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bjorkhaug, Hilde; Richards, Carol Ann

    2008-01-01

    Ideals of productivist agriculture in the Western world have faded as the unintended consequences of intensive agriculture and pastoralism have contributed to rural decline and environmental problems. In Norway and Australia, there has been an increasing acceptance of the equal importance of social and environmental sustainability as well as…

  18. People's opinion of climate policy. Popular support for climate policy alternatives in Norway

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marino, Sjoevaag Marit; Bjoerge, Nils Erik; Ericson, Torgeir; Garnaasjordet, Per Arild; Karlsen, Haakon T.; Randers; Joergen; Rees, Daniel

    2012-07-01

    How can we evaluate whether national climate policies are sufficient? Which moral principles should be the basis of our policy efforts? The answers to these questions are central to the development of any climate policy framework, but not always made explicit in daily political discourse. In this article we seek to redress this imbalance through a survey of popular opinion in Norway.(Author)

  19. First report of 'Candidatus Liberibacter solanacearum' associated with psyllid-affected carrots in Norway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrot (Daucus carota) plants with symptoms resembling those associated with the carrot psyllid Trioza apicalis and the bacterium “Candidatus Liberibacter solanacearum” were observed in 70-80% of commercial fields and experimental plots in southeastern Norway from late July to mid-September 2011; al...

  20. Elaphomyces virgatosporus in NW Norway - the northernmost records of a rare truffle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Læssøe, Thomas; Jordal, John Bjarne; Borgergren Nielsen, Jan Gert;

    2009-01-01

    The first Norwegian records of Elaphomyces virgatosporus Hollós are reported from two sites in Western Norway (Møre og Romsdal County) in 2008. All material was collected underneath old Corylus avellana in ancient, previously coppiced stands in dark, light soil with sparse herbaceous ground cover...

  1. Dyslexia: Group Screening among 15-16-Year-Olds in Oslo, Norway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, K.; Tonnessen, F. E.; Tambs, K.; Thoresen, M.; Bjertness, E.

    2009-01-01

    In 15-16 year olds from Oslo, Norway, we investigated the occurrence of self-reported dyslexia and reading/writing difficulties (RWD), and we measured dyslexic symptoms using the "Duvan" dyslexia screening test. The prevalence of self-reported dyslexia was 8.2%, while 10.4% reported severe or moderate RWD. The group of self-reported dyslexics…

  2. Non-predation natural mortality of Norway pout ( Trisopterus esmarkii ) in the North Sea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sparholt, H.; Larsen, L.I.; Nielsen, J. Rasmus

    2002-01-01

    Based on age disaggregated data on catch rates in bottom trawl surveys, commercial catches, and the number consumed by the North Sea piscivorous predators, new estimates of non-predation natural mortality, M1, are obtained for Norway pout [Trisopterus esmarkii (Nilsson)]. Simple log catch ratio...

  3. Elite Female Business Students in China and Norway: Job-Related Values and Preferences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nordhaug, Odd; Gooderham, Paul; Zhang, Xian; Liu, Yali; Birkelund, Gunn Elisabeth

    2010-01-01

    The focus of this paper is on the work-related values, preferences, and future expectations among female students at two elite business schools in China and Norway. The paper argues that while gender theory predicts no significant differences between these two groups, both cultural and economic development theory imply fundamental differences. The…

  4. Historical mineral collections in the silver mining town of Kongsberg, Norway

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nordrum, F.S.; Berg, B.I.

    2004-01-01

    The discovery of native silver deposits at Kongsberg, Norway, in 1623 created interest for silver specimens and mineral collecting, also among mining officers. Large collections were donated by J. Hiort, M.T. Brünnich and J. Esmark to the Mining Academy at Kongsberg. The Academy’s collections were i

  5. Mr Bjørn Haugstad, State Secretary, Ministry of Education and Research, Norway

    CERN Multimedia

    Maximilien Brice

    2003-01-01

    Photos 01,02: Mr Bjørn Haugstad, State Secretary, Ministry of Education and Research, Norway signing the guest book; standing, Dr Carlo Wyss Photo 03: Luncheon in honour of Mr Bjørn Haugstad, State Secretary, Ministry of Education and Research, Norway, April 2003. Around the table, from left to right: State Secretary Haugstad (standing); Prof. Cecilia Jarlskog, Adviser to the Director-General for Member State Relations; Mr Morten Knutsen, CERN staff - Purchase; Mr Jens Vigen, CERN staff, Library and Norwegian Contact; Prof. Steinar Stapnes, Prof. Univ. of Oslo and Physicist in the ATLAS experiment (in profile), Dr Carlo Wyss, Director for Accelerators (standing), Dr Leif Westgaard, Senior Adviser, Research Council of Norway, CERN Delegate. Photo 04: Luncheon in honour of Mr Bjørn Haugstad, State Secretary, Ministry of Education and Research, Norway, April 2003. Around the table, from left to right: State Secretary Haugstad (standing); Mr Jens Vigen, CERN staff, Library and Norwegian Contact; Prof. Steinar ...

  6. The promotion of electrified vehicles in the municipal car fleet in Norway

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Egeland, Helene

    2012-07-01

    To target the transport sector is of vital in order to reduce the total greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions in Europe. Through Norway's membership in the European Economic Area Treaty (EEA), Norway has committed itself to reach this target through amongst other things taking measures within the transport sector by promoting an increased use of electric vehicles (EVs). Limited attention has so far been paid to the public sectors vehicle fleet in general, and to the municipal car fleet in particular. The current report provides both a general mapping of the policy instruments promoting EVs in Norway, as well focusing on the barriers and drivers promoting increased use of EVs in the municipal car fleet in particular. The analysis has shown that the framework in Norway supporting GPP is well developed concerning guidelines, laws as well as plans. However, the outcome of a framework concerning integration of environmental concerns in practice is very dependent on political motivation and will. Consequently, this will form the local political approach towards GPP within the transport sector.(Author)

  7. Some Aspects of Early School Leaving in Sweden, Denmark, Norway and Finland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cederberg, Margareta; Hartsmar, Nanny

    2013-01-01

    This article describes early school leaving in Sweden, Denmark, Norway and Finland, using examples to show a complex representation of early school leaving and its consequences for young people's subsequent access to the labour market. We show how measures taken by governments and school authorities in the respective countries have resulted…

  8. Socializing Relations in the Everyday Lives of Children: Comparing Domestic Texts from Norway and China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waerdahl, Randi; Haldar, Marit

    2013-01-01

    The text material analysed in this article consists of 20 teddy-diaries that circulated between the families of 6-year-old children in Beijing, China and in Oslo, Norway. The circulation process makes teddy-diaries highly normatively saturated domestic stories from families with 6-year-old children. A quantitative analysis of these texts inspired…

  9. Oral health in a life-course : birth-cohorts from 1929 to 2006 in Norway

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Holst, D; Schuller, A A

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The purpose of the work was to study the influence of the oral health environment at age 10, of adolescent and adulthood dental behaviours and of social status on oral health of three birth-cohorts in 1983 and two of the three birth-cohorts in 2006 in Norway. METHODS: The material compri

  10. Brazils Role in environmental governance: Analysis of possibilities for increased Brazil-Norway cooperation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Valberg, Anna Helene

    2011-07-01

    This report examines the role played by Brazil in connection with certain international negotiations, such as the climate negotiations and the CBD. It identifies the driving factors that have influenced environmental politics and standards in Brazil, and take note of conflicts that must be discussed when Norway is seeking expanded cooperation with Brazil. In line with the mandate, FNI identifies areas of particular interest for further collaboration between the two countries, and recommend directions for supplementary Norwegian policy-making in light of a broadened scope for Norway-Brazil interaction. In recent years, the Norwegian government has initiated an extensive process aimed at reducing emissions from deforestation and forest degradation (REDD). This is the most obvious shared environmental scope between Norway and Brazil. However, given the large body of literature that already exists on this field, this report will concentrate instead on issues more on the outskirts of the REDD discourse, such as biodiversity conservation, biofuel efficiency and challenges concerning hydropower, all of which threaten to impact negatively on the Amazonian areas. In our recommendations, we cite tangible examples to illustrate issues where we believe lessons learnt in Norway may have applicability to Brazil.(auth)

  11. The history of diplomatic relations between Romania and Norway during the interwar period

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana-Maria Despa

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available This article aims at reconstructing based on diplomatic archives’ records the history of diplomatic and consular relations between the two countries during the interwar period. The diplomatic bonds between the two countries date back already before Norway had obtained its sovereignty by dissolving the United Kingdom of Sweden and Norway in 1905. Eventually, Romania recognized the Norwegian independence and conducted diplomatic relations with Norway through its legation in Berlin. The first official legation in Norway was established in 1917 by Grigore Bilciurescu’s appointment as chargé d’affaires in Christiania (Oslo. On the other hand, the first Norwegian diplomat who resided in Bucharest was Terje Knudtzon in 1935. During most of the interwar period the diplomatic relations between the two countries were conducted through envoys residing in other European capitals. The article fits into the category of historical evidence works and since it has adopted a chronological approach, it does not raise, more than is necessary, the prospect of a theoretical interpretation of these relations.

  12. Economic consequences of the Chernobyl accident in Norway in the decade 1986-1995

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Although the distance from Chernobyl to Norway is about 2000 km, it is estimated that 3-5% of the radiocesium released from Chernobyl was deposited upon Norwegian territory. This was caused by an unfortunate (for Norway) and unusual combination of large initial thermal lift of the plume (which kept the materials airborne), wind direction (which brought the plume across Scandinavia), and precipitation (which led to strong deposition in parts of Norway and Sweden). The areas in which deposition took place in Norway to a large extent comprise natural environments (mountain plains and forest) which are important in an agricultural context. In 1986, large amounts of mutton, reindeer meat and goat's cheese exceeded the limits for radiocesium content set by the authorities. Some non-destructive countermeasures were implemented, but much of the meat was condemned. By the following year the authorities had implemented a large programme of countermeasures, and thereby managed drastically to reduce the amount of discarded food. In the present report, the cost of these countermeasures, as well as the cost of discarded foodstuff, is summarized for each of the ten years since the accident. Although ten years have passed, all the countermeasures are still required, even though there has been some decline in the size of the areas and the number of animals involved. (Copyright (c) 1998 Elsevier Science B.V., Amsterdam. All rights reserved.)

  13. Liquid Ice Surfers--The Construction of Surfer Identities in Norway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langseth, Tommy

    2012-01-01

    Surfing is getting increasingly popular in Norway as well as other countries that have a coastline with rideable waves. As surfing gains in popularity, however, the boundaries of the surfing subculture become increasingly guarded. Through ethnography and qualitative interviews, this study examines identity construction on an individual and group…

  14. The Within-Job Motherhood Wage Penalty in Norway, 1979-1996

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petersen, Trond; Penner, Andrew M.; Hogsnes, Geir

    2010-01-01

    The motherhood wage penalty is a substantial obstacle to progress in gender equality at work. Using matched employer-employee data from Norway (1979-1996, N = 236,857 individuals, N = 1,027,462 individual-years), a country with public policies that promote combining family and career, we investigate (a) whether the penalty arises from differential…

  15. Professional Development for Professional Learners: Teachers' Experiences in Norway, Germany and England

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czerniawski, Gerry

    2013-01-01

    Proposals made by the European Commission in 2007 led to the Education Council adopting, for the first time, a European agenda for improving the quality of teaching and teacher education. This article reports on a small-scale longitudinal interview-based study with teachers in England, Norway and Germany demonstrating that while opportunities for…

  16. Deposition history of brominated flame retardant compounds in an ice core from Holtedahlfonna, Svalbard, Norway

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hermanson, M.H.; Isaksson, E.; Forsström, S.; Teixeira, C.; Muir, D.C.G.; Pohjola, V.A.; van de Wal, R.S.W.

    2010-01-01

    Brominated flame retardants (BFRs) have been found in Arctic wildlife, lake sediment, and air. To identify the atmospheric BFR deposition history on Svalbard, Norway, we analyzed 19 BFRs, including hexabromocyclododecane (HBCD), 1,2-bis(2,4,6-tribromophenoxy)ethane (BTBPE), decabromodiphenyl ethane

  17. Muslim Girls' Experiences in Physical Education in Norway: What Role Does Religiosity Play?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walseth, Kristin

    2015-01-01

    Recent years have seen an increase in scholarly attention to minority pupils and their experience of physical education (PE). UK research identifies specific challenges related to Muslim pupils' participation in PE. In Norway, little research has been undertaken on Muslim pupils' experiences in PE, something this paper hopes to redress…

  18. Obesity and Minority--Changing Meanings of Big Bodies among Young Pakistani Obesity Patients in Norway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wathne, Kjetil; Mburu, Christina Brux; Middelthon, Anne-Lise

    2015-01-01

    Globally, paediatric obesity causes widespread concern, and the role of ethnicity is an important focus. Investigating how culture can mediate health-related behaviour through ideas about bodies, food and physical activity, while addressing a notion that the Pakistani community in Norway is particularly conservative and slow to change, this…

  19. Annex 1: 1998 review of energy efficiency policy in EU countries and Norway

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-07-01

    This document makes a status for the year 1998 of the energy efficiency policies implemented in the European Union member states and Norway (residential, transport and industrial sectors, institutional changes, measures and programmes, budget, utilities, pricing, efficiency standards, voluntary agreements, investment subsidies, taxation and tax exemptions). (J.S.)

  20. Post-accession migration in construction and trade union responses in Denmark, Norway and the UK

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eldring, Line; Fitzgerald, Ian; Arnholtz, Jens

    2012-01-01

    The article compares trade union responses in Denmark, Norway and the UK to the arrival of construction workers from the new EU member states. Organizing has been seen as a crucial means to avoid low-wage competition and social dumping. We analyse how the unions developed strategies for recruiting...

  1. Allocation of Fishing Harvest Rights in Iceland and Norway - the Development since 1990

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helgi Grétarsson

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Unlike most western countries, marine fisheries in Iceland and Norway is still of some national significance. For more than two decades now, the two countries have managed their fisheries with complicated quota systems. The main rules of these two systems are explained in the article. However, the main purpose of the article is to describe how harvest rights in the two countries have been allocated since 1990. In both countries the principle of grandfathering the harvest rights has prevailed, i.e., the initial allocation has protected the professional interest of those that have already participated in the fisheries. Despite this, rules on the matter have not been engraved in stone since they have been dynamic and contingent on various amendments by the legislature and government. Basic rules on allocation have been stipulated in acts in Iceland, while in Norway they have mostly been based on regulations. Since harvest rights are transferable in Iceland, this, in principle, should make the harvest rights better protected than in Norway. However, when the matter is scrutinized, it becomes clear that the Icelandic parliament has in fact reallocated harvest rights on a recurrent basis. In Norway, rules on allocation of harvest rights have been relatively stable. This can be partly explained by the fact that the most important stakeholders in the Norwegian fisheries have in practice had important say on how the harvest rights have been allocated.

  2. Music Teacher Educators' Visions of Music Teacher Preparation in Finland, Norway and Sweden

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorgersen, Cecilia Ferm; Johansen, Geir; Juntunen, Marja-Leena

    2016-01-01

    In this study we investigated the visions of 12 music teacher educators who teach pedagogical courses called instrumental pedagogy and classroom music pedagogy in three music academies in Finland, Norway and Sweden. The data were collected through individual, semi-structured qualitative interviews. Drawing on Hammerness' concept of "teachers'…

  3. Research in Norway revives radiation debate; Norsk forskning skaber liv i straalingsdebat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trong, Maj Dang

    2004-07-01

    The discussion about the possible health hazard of electromagnetic fields from high-voltage power lines and other electric installations flares up at regular intervals. Research in Norway shows that there is a connection between magnetic fields from high-voltage lines and the risk of women developing breast cancer. This result is quite unexpected.

  4. Distribution of Heterobasidion genets on a Norway spruce site: Case study in National park 'Kopaonik'

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keča Nenad

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Heterobasidion annosum s.l. causes great economic loss in coniferous forests worldwide. Recent studies showed that three European Heterobasdion species are present in forest ecosystems in Serbia. Aim of this study was to find which Heterobasidion species are present in studied Norway spruce stand (National Park 'Kopaonik', to identify Heterobasidion genets, and present distribution of genets.

  5. Consequences in Norway after a hypothetical accident at Sellafield - Predicted impacts on the environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report deals with the environmental consequences in Norway after a hypothetical accident at Sellafield. The investigation is limited to the terrestrial environment, and focus on animals grazing natural pastures, plus wild berries and fungi. Only 137Cs is considered. The predicted consequences are severe - in particular for mutton and goat milk production. (Author)

  6. Home Country National Intelligence and Self-Employment Rates among Immigrants in Norway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinogradov, Evgueni; Kolvereid, Lars

    2010-01-01

    The level of self-employment varies significantly among immigrants from different countries of origin. The objective of this research is to examine the relationship between home-country national intelligence and self-employment rates among first generation immigrants in Norway. Empirical secondary data on self-employment among immigrants from 117…

  7. Attitudes towards English in Norway: A Corpus-Based Study of Attitudinal Expressions in Newspaper Discourse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graedler, Anne-Line

    2014-01-01

    This article explores some dimensions of how the role of the English language in Norway has been discursively constructed in newspapers during recent years, based on the analysis of data from the five-year period 2008-2012. The analysis is conducted using a specialised corpus containing 3,743 newspaper articles which were subjected to corpus-based…

  8. Experiences of Childhood Sexual Abuse among Visually Impaired Adults in Norway: Prevalence and Characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kvam, Marit Hoem

    2005-01-01

    This study compared the prevalence of childhood sexual abuse among visually impaired children and sighted children in Norway. Visually impaired women and men aged 18-65 who lost their sight before age 18 reported sexual abuse with contact before age 18 more often than did the sighted group, and the abuse of the visually impaired children was more…

  9. Student Performance in Teacher Education in Norway: The Impact of Student, Institutional and Structural Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wikan, Gerd; Bugge, Liv Susanne

    2014-01-01

    Many education systems face a challenge in recruiting graduates as teachers. This is also the situation in Norway and the newest estimates tell us that we will lack 9000 teachers in 2020. The situation is made even worse by the high number of dropouts and low performance rates in teacher education. There are many factors which have an impact on…

  10. Sea Kayaking Incidents in Norway 2000-2014: An Issue of Bad Weather or Poor Judgement?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aadland, Eivind; Noer, Gunnar; Vikene, Odd Lennart

    2016-01-01

    The aims of this study were to analyse recreational sea kayaking and touring incidents in Norway with a specific focus on wind conditions and to elaborate on practical implications for the prevention of future incidents. We included 49 incidents reported by the media between 2000 and 2014. Incidents occurred in various wind conditions, but most…

  11. Motivation to Provide Help to Older Parents in Norway, Spain, and Israel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katz, Ruth; Gur-Yaish, Nurit; Lowenstein, Ariela

    2010-01-01

    We explore from a cross-national perspective three motivations in adult children to provide help to older parents: affectual solidarity, parental need for care, and filial norms. The sample is 1,055 adult children from Norway, Spain, and Israel, countries selected because they represent different family cultures and welfare regimes. Affectual…

  12. Reviews of National Policies for Education: Improving Lower Secondary Schools in Norway, 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    OECD Publishing (NJ3), 2011

    2011-01-01

    The report aims to help education authorities in Norway and other OECD (Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development) countries to understand the importance of lower secondary education and to find approaches to strengthen this key education level. It provides an overview of the structure of lower secondary education and the main…

  13. Governmental Steering, Reform and the Institutionalization of Student Interest in Higher Education in Norway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stensaker, Bjørn; Michelsen, Svein

    2012-01-01

    The article addresses the relationship between changes in the higher education landscape concerning its structure and governance, and the organization of student interest representation at the institutional and national level. Based on a historical analysis of the development of higher education in Norway, the article identifies close links…

  14. Play in the Kindergarten: The Case of Norway, Sweden, New Zealand and Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Synodi, Evanthia

    2010-01-01

    This paper discusses the kindergarten curricula of Norway, Sweden, Japan and New Zealand in terms of whether they recommend or suggest teachers unify play and pedagogy by employing a pedagogy of play. These countries were selected because, while they have to provide for children's right to play, they cover different geographical and cultural parts…

  15. Killer whale presence in relation to naval sonar activity and prey abundance in northern Norway

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuningas, S.; Kvadsheim, P.H.; Lam, F.P.A.; Miller, P.J.O.

    2013-01-01

    In this study, retrospective data on naval sonar activity and prey abundance were correlated with killer whale sightings within a fjord basin in northern Norway. In addition, passive acoustic and visual marine mammal surveys were conducted before, during, and after a specific navy exercise in 2006.

  16. User Experiences With Editorial Control in Online Comments Sections After the 2011 Terror Attacks in Norway

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Løvlie, Anders Sundnes; Ihlebæk, Karoline Andrea; Larsson, Anders Olof

    2016-01-01

    This article investigates user experiences with editorial control of online comments sections in online newspapers, in light of the public backlash against online comments after the 2011 terror attacks in Norway. We analyse data from a quantitative survey (N=3470) among users of four newspaper...

  17. Consequences in Norway after a hypothetical accident at Sellafield - Predicted impacts on the environment.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thoerring, H.; Liland, A.

    2010-12-15

    This report deals with the environmental consequences in Norway after a hypothetical accident at Sellafield. The investigation is limited to the terrestrial environment, and focus on animals grazing natural pastures, plus wild berries and fungi. Only 137Cs is considered. The predicted consequences are severe, in particular for mutton and goat milk production. (Author)

  18. Social Pedagogy and Bullying in Schools: The Views of University Students in England, Greece and Norway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kyriacou, Chris; Mylonakou-Keke, Iro; Stephens, Paul

    2016-01-01

    This study explores the extent to which a social pedagogic perspective is evident in the views of bullying in schools held by a sample of university students in England, Greece and Norway studying in the area of the education, care and welfare of children. A total of 469 university students completed a questionnaire in which they were asked to…

  19. Family Income Dynamics, Early Childhood Education and Care, and Early Child Behavior Problems in Norway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zachrisson, Henrik D.; Dearing, Eric

    2015-01-01

    The sociopolitical context of Norway includes low poverty rates and universal access to subsidized and regulated Early Childhood Education and Care (ECEC). In this context, the association between family income dynamics and changes in early child behavior problems was investigated, as well as whether high-quality ECEC buffers children from the…

  20. The Core of Special Teacher Education: A Comparison of Finland and Norway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hausstatter, Rune Sarromaa; Takala, Marjatta

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, the situation of special teacher education in Finland and Norway has been analysed from three perspectives: how the curricula of special teacher education differ between and within the countries; whether inclusion is included in special teacher education; and how the special teacher education curricula reflect the national…

  1. Promouvoir le francais: Norvege, Chine, Israel (Promoting French: Norway, China, Israel).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grenet, Jean-Jack

    1994-01-01

    Strategies for promoting French and French language instruction are described. In Norway, a French popular music promotion has been launched cooperatively by record producers in both countries; a Chinese program links like organizations in the two countries; and in Israel, an initiative focuses on French song. (MSE)

  2. Improvements of soil quality for increased food production in Norway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Øygarden, Lillian; Klakegg, Ove; Børresen, Trond; Krogstad, Tore; Kjersti Uhlen, Anne

    2016-04-01

    Since the 1990ties, agricultural land in use in Norway has diminished and yields per hectare for cereals and forages have stagnated. An expert panel appointed to advice on how to increase Norwegian grain production emphasizes low profitability and poor soil quality as limiting factors. A White Paper from the Norwegian Government, Report No.9 (2011-2012), stated that the main goal for the agricultural sector is to increase food production proportional to the expected increase in population (20 % by 2030) in order to maintain self-sufficiency at the present level. This is the background for the interdisciplinary project AGROPRO "Agronomy for increased food production - Challenges and solutions" (2013 - 2017)" financed by the Norwegian research council. A mail goal is seeking possibilities for improvements in agronomic practices for increased and sustainable food production and to identify drivers and challenges for their implementation. Are the key to higher yields hidden in the soil? The paper present an overview of the research activities in the project and some results of the improvements of soil quality to minimize yield gap in cereal and forage production. Detailed new soil maps provide soil information on field scale of soil quality and the suitability for growing different crops like cereal production or vegetables. The detailed soil information is also beeing used for development and adaptation of the planning tool «Terranimo» to reduce risk of soil compaction.The farmer get available soil information for each field, provide information about the maschinery in use- tractors and equipment, tyres, pressure. The decision tool evaluate when the soil is suitable for tillage, calculate the risk of compaction for dry, moist and wet soil. New research data for compaction on Norwegian clay and silt soil are included. Climate change with wetter conditions gives challenges for growing cereals. The project is testing genetic variation in cereals for tolerance to water

  3. Ability for self-care in urban living older people in southern Norway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sundsli K

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Kari Sundsli1,2, Ulrika Söderhamn2, Geir Arild Espnes1,3, Olle Söderhamn21Department of Social Work and Health Science, Faculty of Social Sciences and Technology Management, NTNU, Trondheim, Norway; 2Centre for Caring Research – Southern Norway, Faculty of Health and Sport Sciences, University of Agder, Grimstad, Norway; 3Research Centre for Health Promotion and Resources HiST-NTNU, Department of Social Work and Health Science, Faculty of Social Sciences and Technology Management, NTNU, Trondheim, NorwayBackground: The number of older people living in urban environments throughout the world will increase in the coming years. There is a trend in most European countries towards improved health among older people, and increased life expectancy for both women and men. Norway has experienced less increase in life expectancy than some other European countries, and it is therefore important to investigate older urban Norwegian people's health and ways of living in a self-care environment, with special regard to health promotion.Aim: The aim of this study was to describe self-care ability among home-dwelling older (65+ years individuals living in urban areas in southern Norway in relation to general living conditions, sense of coherence (SOC, screened nutritional state, physical activity, perceived self-reported health, mental health, and perceived life situation.Methods: In 2010, a randomized sample of 1044 men and women aged 65+ years who were living in urban areas in southern Norway answered a postal questionnaire consisting of five instruments, some background variables, and 17 health-related questions. Univariate and multivariate statistical methods were used in the analyses of the data.Results: The mean age of the participants was 74.8 years (SD = 7.1. Eighty-three percent of the participants had higher abilities to care for themselves. Self-care agency, perceived good health, being active, being frequently active, good mental health, not

  4. Sensitivity of rock slope stability in relation to thermal regime - examples from Norway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myhra, K. S.; Etzelmuller, B.; Blikra, L. H.

    2014-12-01

    The steep topography in western and northern parts of Norway includes large unstable rock faces terminating into narrow fjords and lakes. The large number of such unstable faces lists rock slope failures as one of the bigger hazard threats in Norway. Successive studies have revealed presence of permafrost in Norway and a number of the unstable rock slope faces are located in mountain permafrost regions. It is known that thawing permafrost influences the rock-mechanical interplay in the bedrock and can hence play a role in the early stage of destabilization in rock walls. At present, both borehole measurements and several modelling studies for Norwegian mountains clearly indicate increasing ground temperatures during the last decades. As a first step in this study, a numerical study of the sensitivity of permafrost to climatic changes was performed for a number of sites along a latitudinal transect in Norway. Together with the thermal condition, lithology, structure and inclination are important conditions for the force regime in rock walls. In this study, the nature of temperature dependence on rock wall stability has been investigated through numerical modelling and the sensitivity of different factors related to these conditions has been evaluated in terms of stability, including the thermal regime. The focus has been on the initial conditions that are important for typical Norwegian rock wall sites and in particular for the sites where the simulations of the permafrost sensitivity have been performed. The analysis was applied for the Nordnes mountain in northern Norway, which is continuously surveyed due to the possible danger if large rock falls may hit the fjord water body generating tsunamis.

  5. Evaluation of satellite soil moisture products over Norway using ground-based observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griesfeller, A.; Lahoz, W. A.; Jeu, R. A. M. de; Dorigo, W.; Haugen, L. E.; Svendby, T. M.; Wagner, W.

    2016-03-01

    In this study we evaluate satellite soil moisture products from the advanced SCATterometer (ASCAT) and the Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer - Earth Observing System (AMSR-E) over Norway using ground-based observations from the Norwegian water resources and energy directorate. The ASCAT data are produced using the change detection approach of Wagner et al. (1999), and the AMSR-E data are produced using the VUA-NASA algorithm (Owe et al., 2001, 2008). Although satellite and ground-based soil moisture data for Norway have been available for several years, hitherto, such an evaluation has not been performed. This is partly because satellite measurements of soil moisture over Norway are complicated owing to the presence of snow, ice, water bodies, orography, rocks, and a very high coastline-to-area ratio. This work extends the European areas over which satellite soil moisture is validated to the Nordic regions. Owing to the challenging conditions for soil moisture measurements over Norway, the work described in this paper provides a stringent test of the capabilities of satellite sensors to measure soil moisture remotely. We show that the satellite and in situ data agree well, with averaged correlation (R) values of 0.72 and 0.68 for ASCAT descending and ascending data vs in situ data, and 0.64 and 0.52 for AMSR-E descending and ascending data vs in situ data for the summer/autumn season (1 June-15 October), over a period of 3 years (2009-2011). This level of agreement indicates that, generally, the ASCAT and AMSR-E soil moisture products over Norway have high quality, and would be useful for various applications, including land surface monitoring, weather forecasting, hydrological modelling, and climate studies. The increasing emphasis on coupled approaches to study the earth system, including the interactions between the land surface and the atmosphere, will benefit from the availability of validated and improved soil moisture satellite datasets, including those

  6. Landslide response signatures from storm Desmond (UK)/Synne (Norway), December 2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dijkstra, Tom; Freeborough, Katy; Reeves, Helen; Nykjaer, Boje Soren; Sund, Monica; Devoli, Graziella; Banks, Vanessa

    2016-04-01

    Great Britain (GB) and coastal Norway share a common humid maritime climate and annually receive precipitation in the form of cyclonic low-pressure systems or as extra-tropical storms that travel across the Atlantic. Extreme meteorological events capable of triggering floods and landslides are becoming more frequent, with both GB and Norway being affected by a sequence of record-breaking precipitation events in the past decade. On the 5th and 6th of December 2015, storms Desmond/Synne struck northern GB and southwestern Norway with record-breaking rainfall; >340 mm in 24-hour in Cumbria (or 200% of long term average) and daily accumulations in Norway in excess of 140 mm and 236 mm/48hr. Landscape responses to hydro-meteorological stress are non-uniform and the result of a complex interaction of processes. Therefore, event-specific analysis provides an important tool to further our understanding, particularly to enhance the quality of daily landslide hazard assessments (DLHA) issued by the Norwegian Water Resources and Energy Directorate (NVE) and the British Geological Survey (BGS). The application of precipitation thresholds provides a useful first approximation for landslide triggering. However, antecedent conditioning of slopes and the spatial variability of precipitation signatures are important factors in determining the location of landslides. Given the magnitude of storms Desmond/Synne a much larger population of landslides was expected to occur. Within one month of the events occurring some 25 events are recorded in GB and circa 30 events in Norway. In GB most of these events are relatively small scale, dominated by translational slides and flows and about 80% of cases reported to occur along transport infrastructure. In Norway, roughly equal numbers of debris flows, shallow slides, rock falls, slush flows and snow avalanches are recorded in close proximity to infrastructure. As the media largely focused on simultaneous severe consequences of extensive

  7. Death, Dying and Bereavement in Norway and Sweden in Recent Times

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anders Gustavsson

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available One of my research projects examines pictorial symbols and epitaphs on gravestones in Norway and Sweden. The focus has been on the 1990s and the 2000s. The choice of this period is motivated by the fact that new national burial laws were adopted in both countries in the early 1990s. These laws provided the next of kin with the possibility of choosing memorial symbols and inscriptions more freely than had previously been the case. To judge from the data under study, individual symbols have gained popularity, especially in Sweden, while Norway has been more faithful to earlier traditions of a collective character; moreover, secular motifs are more manifest on the gravestones in Sweden than in Norway. Another research project analyses memorial websites on the Internet related to persons who have died in recent years. The all-inclusive issue in these studies concerns mourners’ expressions of their emotions and beliefs regarding the deceased person’s afterlife, that is, beliefs in after-death existence. Belief in the deceased being somewhere in heaven is common. Belief in angels is also a popular concept in memorial websites. Moreover, in Sweden, this includes deceased pets as well. The previously strictly observed distinction between humans and pets has become indiscernible in Sweden. Norwegian practice, however, remains critical towards this type of “humanlike characterization”. In Norway, memorial websites for the deceased are generally associated with more traditional Christian concepts than are similar sites in Sweden. By contrast, in Sweden, one observes a kind of diffuse religiosity reminiscent of New Age ways of thinking, according to which the individual plays the central role, and glorification of afterlife existence prevails. Secularization, that is, a decline in the influence of traditional forms of religious experience, is conspicuously more prominent in Sweden. Within the project on memorial websites, I have performed a special

  8. Typological classification and the existing condition of artificially established sycamore maple and Norway maple stands in the protective forest belt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milošević Rajko

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The study results on the typological classification of the artificially established sycamore maple and Norway maple stands included in the shelterbelt along the „Belgrade-Zagreb“ highway are presented. The environmental conditions of the sycamore and Norway maple plantation have been typologically defined in specific typological entitities at the ecological level (ecological units. In this context, the specific site conditions were characterised and defined as: a Forest of common oak (Tilio-Quercetum crassiusculae typicum on leached chernozem, b Forest of common oak (Tilio-Quercetum crassiusculae typicum on moderately deep to deep calcareous chernozem, c Forest of common oak (Tilio-Quercetum crassiusculae typicum on shallow to moderately deep calcareous chernozem. The inter-relationship between sycamore maple and Norway maple regarding the ecological and coenological optimum differs within the above ecological units. The diversity reflects the sycamore and Norway maple bioecology and the site typology of the particular ecological units.

  9. Sustainable Norway - can Norwegians become self-sufficient with ecologically grown food? How can we achieve fair food prices?

    OpenAIRE

    Løes, Anne-Kristin

    1995-01-01

    A calculation and estimation of the total agricultural production in Norway with organic management, and which changes in diet are required to feed the Norwegian 4,5 mill population by domestic organic food.

  10. Genes unlinked to the leptin receptor influence urinary albumin excretion in obese Zucker rats

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Kyoungmi; Warden, Craig H.; Griffey, Stephen M; Vilches-Moure, Jose G.; Hansen, Susan; Cuppen, Edwin; Nijman, Isaäc J; Chiu, Sally; Stern, Judith S.

    2010-01-01

    We have previously shown that 90% of outbred obese Zucker Leprfa/fa rats die prematurely of renal disease. Thus, renal disease in obese Zucker Leprfa/fa rats may be caused by the LEPR mutation on chromosome 5, by the obesity, or it may be influenced by Zucker susceptibility alleles of genes on other chromosomes. We have searched for susceptibility genes on other chromosomes using urinary albumin excretion (UAE) as an early indicator of altered renal function in a backcross of (Brown Norway × ...

  11. Taste or Waste: An Analysis of Barriers to Reducing Household Food Waste among Young Adults in Fredrikstad, Norway

    OpenAIRE

    Jenssen, Elisabeth Riise

    2016-01-01

    This thesis sets out to investigate the factors that challenge a reduction of food waste within households of young adults in Norway. Food wastage is one of the biggest barriers to ensuring a sustainable food system, with massive implications for the environment, food security and economy. In Norway, national mappings reveal that young adults are the least concerned about food waste, and have also reduced their levels of food waste less than other age groups. By examining the factors challeng...

  12. The journey of a newcomer : a perspective of newcomers facing an international company in Norway and the Norwegian society

    OpenAIRE

    Buene, Nina Birgitte Gunnarsrud

    2011-01-01

    Key Concepts: Integration, diversity management, integrity, culture, globalization, family values, short-term integration, long-term integration Background: The ongoing globalization has brought workers tighter in what seems to be a new global working environment. Statistics Norway assumes that Norway will consist of 1,7 million people originating from immigration in 2060. Problem: The many newcomers are expected to bring their own cultural values, as well as experiences, when facing ...

  13. Being a nurse leader in bedside nursing in hospital and community care contexts in Norway and Sweden

    OpenAIRE

    Athlin, Elsy; Hov, Reidun; Petzäll, Kerstin; Hedelin, Birgitta

    2014-01-01

    Background: The changes of health care that have been going on the latest decades have affected nurse leaders’ role in bedside nursing in hospitals and community care in Norway and Sweden as in many other countries. Aim: This study aimed at describing nurse leaders’ working situation, role experience and role performance in bedside nursing in hospital and community care contexts in Norway and Sweden. Methods: Twenty-four nurse leaders in three hospitals and ten nursing homes/sheltered a...

  14. The Social cost of government spending in an economy with large tax distortions. A CGE decomposition for Norway

    OpenAIRE

    Holmøy, Erling; Strøm, Birger

    2004-01-01

    Abstract: We use a CGE model to estimate the social cost of a marginal increase in public expenditure in Norway. Norway exemplifies an economy with high taxes. Distortionary taxes imply wedges between the market prices and the corresponding shadow prices. The shadow prices are unobservable, which is the rationale for using a CGE model to estimate the social cost of government consumption. The social cost is decomposed into a direct resource cost and the cost of public funds. Th...

  15. Social identity management and integration amongst indigenous African refugee minorities in Norway : the case of Kvæfjord kommune

    OpenAIRE

    Marambanyika, Ocean

    2008-01-01

    This thesis principally deals with issues of social identity management and integration amongst African refugee minorities in Norway. Employing an analytical strategy, the thesis explores varying complex and inter-related situations faced by indigenous African refugees in Norway and how these situations presents challenges in social identity management by the refugees. This piece of work specifically focuses on analyzing how the refugees in question employ social identity management variables...

  16. Trophic garnishes: cat-rat interactions in an urban environment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gregory E Glass

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Community interactions can produce complex dynamics with counterintuitive responses. Synanthropic community members are of increasing practical interest for their effects on biodiversity and public health. Most studies incorporating introduced species have been performed on islands where they may pose a risk to the native fauna. Few have examined their interactions in urban environments where they represent the majority of species. We characterized house cat (Felis catus predation on wild Norway rats (Rattus norvegicus, and its population effects in an urban area as a model system. Three aspects of predation likely to influence population dynamics were examined; the stratum of the prey population killed by predators, the intensity of the predation, and the size of the predator population. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Predation pressure was estimated from the sizes of the rat and cat populations, and the characteristics of rats killed in 20 alleys. Short and long term responses of rat population to perturbations were examined by removal trapping. Perturbations removed an average of 56% of the rats/alley but had no negative long-term impact on the size of the rat population (49.6+/-12.5 rats/alley and 123.8+/-42.2 rats/alley over two years. The sizes of the cat population during two years (3.5 animals/alley and 2.7 animals/alley also were unaffected by rat population perturbations. Predation by cats occurred in 9/20 alleys. Predated rats were predominantly juveniles and significantly smaller (144.6 g+/-17.8 g than the trapped rats (385.0 g+/-135.6 g. Cats rarely preyed on the larger, older portion of the rat population. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The rat population appears resilient to perturbation from even substantial population reduction using targeted removal. In this area there is a relatively low population density of cats and they only occasionally prey on the rat population. This occasional predation primarily removes the

  17. Use of lithium in the adult populations of Denmark, Norway and Sweden

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bramness, Jørgen G; Ringbäck Weitoft, Gunilla; Hallas, Jesper

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Lithium is an important drug in the treatment of bipolar disorder. Earlier epidemiological studies of lithium use have depended on sales statistics, clinical surveys or population surveys. The national prescription databases in Denmark, Norway and Sweden may help provide more reliable...... measures and data were collected for adults aged 18-69 at the time of prescription. RESULTS: Norway and Sweden had higher sales and more prevalent use than Denmark. In all three countries, more female than males were treated and the prevalence of use increased linearly with age. In all, 0.17, 0.21, and 0...... use prescription databases in all three Scandinavian countries to describe in detail the epidemiology of a drug's use. The analysis revealed subtle differences in the clinical use of lithium that cannot be explained by differences in the epidemiology of bipolar disorder....

  18. Colon cancer trends in Norway and Denmark by socio-economic group

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lynge, Elsebeth; Martinsen, Jan Ivar; Larsen, Inger Kristin;

    2015-01-01

    AIMS: Norway has experienced an unprecedented rapid and so far unexplained increase in colon cancer incidence. Norwegian rates passed Danish rates for men in 1985 and for women in 1990. This study aimed to unravel clues to the development in colon cancer incidence by investigating changes over time...... in incidence by socio-economic group. METHODS: Persons participating in the 1970 censuses in Norway and Denmark were aged 55-75 years in 1971-1980 (called pre-crossing period) and in 1991-2000 (called post-crossing period), respectively. Country, sex, age and socio-economic group-specific colon cancer...... incidence rates. Percent change in the average rate from the pre- to the post-crossing period. RESULTS: In the pre-crossing period, Norwegian male managers/administrators had the highest colon cancer incidence, but the largest increase in incidence from the pre-to the post-crossing period was seen...

  19. The Variability of Cytoplasmic DNA Haplotypes of Norway Spruce in the Provenance Trials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. E. Padutov

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available A genetic analysis of mitochondrial (mtDNA and chloroplast (cpDNA genomes of 27 climatypes of Norway spruce was conducted in the provenance (Cherikov forestry district, Republic of Belarus. It was found that the analyzed climatypes presented boreal and carpathian mtDNA haplotypes. The first of them is found in all regions of growth climatypes (Priuralsky, Northwest, Central, Baltic, Byelorussian, Southwest, the second – only in Belarusian and Southwest regions. It is shown that polymorphism cpDNA significantly higher in comparison with the mtDNA. For a number of alleles of loci cpDNA the clinal variation was found in the frequency of their occurrence. It was revealed that some cpDNA haplotypes, as haplotypes mtDNA, of Norway spruce can be represented as in all regions of the investigated part of the range as on certain of its territories.

  20. The content of cytokinins in Norway spruce needles at the OTC site - preliminary results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doumas, P.; Daoudi, E.H.; Gautrat, M.P.; Schwartzenberg, K. v.; Bonnet-Massimbert, M. [Centre de Recherche d`Orleans, Station d`Amelioration des Arbres Forestiers, 45 - Ardon (France)

    1997-12-01

    The relationship of air pollution factors to observed forest decline can be investigated from different viewpoints incorporating physiological and biochemical changes. A hormone imbalance can be the result of growth disturbances, as a direct or indirect effect of air pollution. To prove this hypothesis, within an air pollution exclusion experiment in Open Top Chambers at the Edelmannshof site, the variations in the content of different cytokinins were analyzed in Norway spruce needles at various times during annual growth. The first approach adapted the cytokinin extraction and purification method, which is classically used in the laboratory. A second approach presented a one-year time course of the cytokinin content in one-year-old Norway spruce needles. (orig./MG)

  1. Forecasting future oil production in Norway and the UK: a general improved methodology

    CERN Document Server

    Fievet, Lucas; Cauwels, Peter; Sornette, Didier

    2014-01-01

    We present a new Monte-Carlo methodology to forecast the crude oil production of Norway and the U.K. based on a two-step process, (i) the nonlinear extrapolation of the current/past performances of individual oil fields and (ii) a stochastic model of the frequency of future oil field discoveries. Compared with the standard methodology that tends to underestimate remaining oil reserves, our method gives a better description of future oil production, as validated by our back-tests starting in 2008. Specifically, we predict remaining reserves extractable until 2030 to be 188 +/- 10 million barrels for Norway and 98 +/- 10 million barrels for the UK, which are respectively 45% and 66% above the predictions using the standard methodology.

  2. Development of new concepts for escape windows to minimise cod catches in Norway lobster fisheries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Niels; Frandsen, Rikke; Holst, René;

    2010-01-01

    particularly on moving the window further back, gaining more stability in the codend to avoid loss of Norway lobster through the window, making a relatively narrow section where the window is located, and testing larger mesh sizes in the window. We designed a four panel sorting section—the sorting box......—where a 300 mm window is placed at the top section at about 3–6 m from the codline. Acoustic release technology was used to avoid catch loss during gear retrieval. Sea trials were conducted in the Skagerrak and Kattegat from a commercial trawler. The sorting box yielded a high reduction of the cod catch......Gear selectivity with regard to cod (Gadus morhua) needs to be improved in the Kattegat and Skagerrak Norway lobster (Nephrops norvegicus) fishery. One way to achieve this goal is to improve the selectivity of an escape window (henceforth window) in the gear. Our gear development focused...

  3. An Outbreak of Salmonella Typhimurium infections in Denmark, Norway and Sweden, 2008

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bruun, T; Sørensen, Gitte; Forshell, L P;

    2009-01-01

    countries. In Denmark, a total of 37 cases were identified, and multiple findings of the outbreak strain in pork and pigs within the same supply chain led to the identification of pork in various forms as the source. In Norway, ten cases were identified, and the outbreak investigation quickly indicated meat...... bought in Sweden as the probable source and the Swedish authorities were alerted. Investigations in Sweden identified four human cases and two isolates from minced meat with the distinct profile. Subsequent trace-back of the meat showed that it most likely originated from Denmark. Through international...... alert from Norway on 19 December, it became clear that the Danish and Norwegian outbreak strains were identical and, later on, that the source of the outbreaks in all three countries could be traced back to Danish pork. MLVA was instrumental in linking the outbreaks in the different countries...

  4. Suicide and social integration. A pilot study of the integration levels in Norway and Denmark.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bille-Brahe, U

    1987-01-01

    A model for comparison of levels of social integration in each of the Nordic countries was developed from Durkheim's theories and then tested on Norwegian and Danish data to determine whether the difference in the frequency of suicide between Norway and Denmark could be "explained" by a corresponding difference in degree of social integration. The results confirmed Durkheim's theory in that the general level of social integration was found to be considerably lower in Denmark than in Norway. Danish middleaged women, whose rate of suicide is more than three times that of their Norwegian counterparts, were especially poorly integrated by comparison. Furthermore, the level of integration among young Norwegian men was found to be in marked decline and their suicide rate on the increase. The necessity of testing and refining the method is stressed. PMID:3481191

  5. Mapping Norway - A Method to Register and Survey the Status of Accessibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bögelsack, Kathrin; Michaelis, Sven

    2016-01-01

    The Norwegian mapping authority has developed an APP and a standard method for mapping accessibility for people with limited or no walking abilities, the blind and the partially sighted in urban and recreational areas. We choose an object-orientated approach where points, lines and polygons represents objects in the environment. All data are stored in a geospatial database, so they can be presented as web map and analysed using GIS software. To this day, more than 160 municipalities are mapped using that method. The aim of this project is to establish a national standard for mapping and to provide a geodatabase that shows the status of accessibility throughout Norway. The data provide a useful tool for national statistics, local planning authorities and private users. First results show that accessibility is low and Norway still faces many challenges to meet the government's goals for Universal Design. PMID:27534365

  6. Morphological parameters of the norway maple small undergrowthin forests of the Novgorod-Sivers’k Polissia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. G. Skliar

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The size characteristics of the Norway maple small undergrowth in different association groups of the forests of Novgorod-Sivers’k Polissia are аnalyzed. As the trophicity of soil increases the values of static metric and dynamic morphoparameters of the undergrowth upsurge. And on the contrary, the values reduced with the growth of the forest overstory density and the projective cover of the herb-shrub layer. It is shown that in different plant communities the Norway maple undergrowth is characterised by specific morphological structure. The communal habitat of the group of Querceta convallariosa associations conforms with the parameters of ecocoenotical optimum, which conditions are most favourable for successful growth of the maple young generation.

  7. Maps of critical loads and exceedance for sulfur and nitrogen to forest soils in Norway

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frogner, T.; Wright, R.F.; Cosby, B.J.; Esser, J.M.

    1994-12-31

    This report uses the dynamic MAGIC (Model of Acidification of Groundwater in Catchments) model to calculate critical loads of sulfur and nitrogen for forest soils in Norway. Inputs include soil survey data, atmospheric deposition data, forest productivity data, and surface water chemistry. Two scenarios for future sulfur deposition are used with two scenarios of nitrogen retention in catchments. The magnitude and patterns of calculated nitrogen critical loads and exceedance differ substantially depending on the scenario chosen for sulfur deposition and nitrogen retention. In the worst case, critical loads for N are low and exceeded in southernmost Norway. In the best case, critical loads for N are high and not exceeded. More information on the processes controlling N retention in forested ecosystems is of utmost importance for the specification of nitrogen critical loads. 25 refs., 14 figs., 1 table

  8. Hooked on a New Technology: The Automation Pioneers in Post-War Norway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stig Kvaal

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the initial activities in servo engineering in Norway originating in the early 1950s based on contacts at the Massachusets Institute of Technology. The activities were initiated by a small group of servo enthusiasts who, through the Feedback Control Committee in the research council, managed to coordinate national activities and establish strong research groups in Trondheim, Bergen and Oslo. After the initial phase of establishing the research groups, there was a continuous strong focus on connections with industry and industrial applications. In the mid-1960s the committee was strengthened and became the Automation and Data Processing Committee. The initial group of automation pioneers have left a lasting impact on the academic and industrial fields of servo engineering and automation in Norway.

  9. From commitment to compliance? Norway's international human rights obligations and practice towards asylum seekers

    OpenAIRE

    Hermansen, Tonje Falstad

    2015-01-01

    This dissertation examines what international human rights obligations Norway has towards asylum seekers through international treaties and conventions and its compliance with these obligations. The study applies case study methodology and through four cases it lays out some of the disputes between the Norwegian government and asylum authorities, and human rights advocates such as NGOs and lawyers. The theoretical framework for the dissertation is compliance theory which focuses on how states...

  10. Salmonid and Macroinvertebrate Responses to River Restoration Measures in the Channelized River Bognelv, Northern Norway.

    OpenAIRE

    Sødal, Kirsten Marie

    2014-01-01

    Running-water ecosystems are among the most damaged of all types of ecosystems, as humans have heavily exploited them over long periods. The pressure to restore degraded streams and rivers has increased worldwide, as the negative consequences of the degradation have become more evident. Bognelv, a river in Alta municipality, Northern Norway, was channelized between 1930 and 1990, and the salmonid fish populations were heavily reduced. Bognelv has been partly restored through several measures ...

  11. Governance in Primary and Lower Secondary Education. Comparing Norway, Sweden and England

    OpenAIRE

    Helgøy, Ingrid; Homme, Anne Dåsvatn

    2004-01-01

    In this paper we discuss changes in regulation and governance in primary and lower secondary education in Norway, Sweden and England. During the last ten–fifteen years the three countries have implemented reforms, which seem to imply new governing principles and tools. The paper aims to examine important reforms in the three countries and start developing an analytical framework for further exploration. Firstly, we classify the policy changes taken place in the three countries,...

  12. Long Range Transport of Air Pollution Into Norway - A Transfer Function Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eivind Damsleth

    1984-07-01

    Full Text Available The daily and monthly concentration of sulphate in the air at Birkcnes in the southern part of Norway is analysed within an intervention analysis and transfer function framework. As input to the model we use the prevailing wind direction. It is shown that when the wind comes mainly from the South, that is from Central Europe and England, this gives a significant increase in the sulphate concentration, while a northern wind leads to a decrease.

  13. Changes In The Heating Degree-days In Norway Due Toglobal Warming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skaugen, T. E.; Tveito, O. E.; Hanssen-Bauer, I.

    A continuous spatial representation of temperature improves the possibility topro- duce maps of temperature-dependent variables. A temperature scenario for the period 2021-2050 is obtained for Norway from the Max-Planck-Institute? AOGCM, GSDIO ECHAM4/OPEC 3. This is done by an ?empirical downscaling method? which in- volves the use of empirical links between large-scale fields and local variables to de- duce estimates of the local variables. The analysis is obtained at forty-six sites in Norway. Spatial representation of the anomalies of temperature in the scenario period compared to the normal period (1961-1990) is obtained with the use of spatial interpo- lation in a GIS. The temperature scenario indicates that we will have a warmer climate in Norway in the future, especially during the winter season. The heating degree-days (HDD) is defined as the accumulated Celsius degrees be- tween the daily mean temperature and a threshold temperature. For Scandinavian countries, this threshold temperature is 17 Celsius degrees. The HDD is found to be a good estimate of accumulated cold. It is therefore a useful index for heating energy consumption within the heating season, and thus to power production planning. As a consequence of the increasing temperatures, the length of the heating season and the HDD within this season will decrease in Norway in the future. The calculations of the heating season and the HDD is estimated at grid level with the use of a GIS. The spatial representation of the heating season and the HDD can then easily be plotted. Local information of the variables being analysed can be withdrawn from the spatial grid in a GIS. The variable is prepared for further spatial analysis. It may also be used as an input to decision making systems.

  14. The impact of second home tourism on local economic development in rural areas in Norway

    OpenAIRE

    Velvin, Jan; Kvikstad, Tor Martin; Drag, Eivind; Krogh, Erling

    2013-01-01

    Abstract: Over recent decades, rural–urban migration and a decrease in wealth have been major challenges faced by European rural areas. Maintaining urban and rural settlements throughout the country has been an important aim of Norwegian regional politics. This paper assesses the impact of second home tourism on local economic development in rural municipalities in Norway. The study is based on data collected as part of an ongoing research project initiated in 2002. Havin...

  15. Understanding resistance to change in different national context : a comparative study between China and Norway

    OpenAIRE

    Yang, Yonglian

    2014-01-01

    This thesis has objective of finding out how the phenomenon of resistance to change manifest differently in China and Norway. Research probes the national context of these two countries in terms of culture, political-economic framework and corporate governance mechanism. Taking the national paradigms as departure point, analysis focuses on their influence on ordinary people’s attitude and behavior towards change, to be specific, why employees choose to oppose change, how the...

  16. Insect assemblages in Norway spruce [Picea abies (L.) Karst.] stumps in the Eastern Sudetes

    OpenAIRE

    Skrzecz, Iwona; Bulka, Maria

    2010-01-01

    The aim of the study was to determine the species composition of insect assemblages colonising stumps of Picea abies (L.) Karst. in mountain conditions. Investigations were carried out in the Eastern Sudetes (south –western Poland) in forest stands situated at 600– 700 m above sea level. The observations were conducted on stumps left behind after felling 70– 90 years old Norway spruces. The analysed stumps were colonised by insects from 21 families of 3 orders: Coleopt...

  17. Recovery from acidification of lakes in Finland, Norway and Sweden 1990?1999

    OpenAIRE

    Skjelkvåle, B. L.; Mannio, J.; A. Wilander; Andersen, T.

    2001-01-01

    Sulphate deposition has decreased by about 60% in the Nordic countries since the early 1980s. Nitrogen deposition has been roughly constant during the past 20 years, with only a minor decrease in the late 1990s. The resulting changes in the chemistry of small lakes have been followed by national monitoring programmes initiated in the 1980s in Finland (163 lakes), Norway (100 lakes) and Sweden (81 lakes). These lakes are partly a subset from the survey of 5690 lakes in the...

  18. Communal proactive coping strategies among Tamil refugees in Norway: A case study in a naturalistic setting

    OpenAIRE

    Guribye, Eugene; Sandal, Gro Mjeldheim; Oppedal, Brit

    2011-01-01

    Background: An exclusive focus on individual or family coping strategies may be inadequate for people whose major point of concern may be collective healing on a more communal level. Methods: To our knowledge, the current study is the first to make use of ethnographic fieldwork methods to investigate this type of coping as a process in a natural setting over time. Participant observation was employed within a Tamil NGO in Norway between August 2006 and December 2008. Results: T...

  19. Communal proactive coping strategies among Tamil refugees in Norway: A case study in a naturalistic setting

    OpenAIRE

    Guribye Eugene; Sandal Gro; Oppedal Brit

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background An exclusive focus on individual or family coping strategies may be inadequate for people whose major point of concern may be collective healing on a more communal level. Methods To our knowledge, the current study is the first to make use of ethnographic fieldwork methods to investigate this type of coping as a process in a natural setting over time. Participant observation was employed within a Tamil NGO in Norway between August 2006 and December 2008. Results Tamil refu...

  20. Communal proactive coping strategies among Tamil refugees in Norway: A case study in a naturalistic setting

    OpenAIRE

    Guribye, Eugene; Sandal, Gro Mjeldheim; Oppedal, Brit

    2011-01-01

    Background An exclusive focus on individual or family coping strategies may be inadequate for people whose major point of concern may be collective healing on a more communal level. Methods To our knowledge, the current study is the first to make use of ethnographic fieldwork methods to investigate this type of coping as a process in a natural setting over time. Participant observation was employed within a Tamil NGO in Norway between August 2006 and December 2008. Results Tamil refugees in N...

  1. Imagining energy futures: Sociotechnical imaginaries of the future Smart Grid in Norway

    OpenAIRE

    Ballo, Ingrid Foss

    2015-01-01

    A future “Smart Grid” is increasingly being embraced in energy policies as a promising energy scenario for the future, with the introduction of “smart” electricity meters being seen as the first step. In Norway, this process is happening without much public debate. Discussions of complexity and uncertainty related to the future Smart Grid are mainly taking place within a network of actors with recognized expertise. Based on empirical data from interviews and documentary analysis, this paper d...

  2. The Variability of Cytoplasmic DNA Haplotypes of Norway Spruce in the Provenance Trials

    OpenAIRE

    V. E. Padutov; A. I. Sidor; D. I. Kagan; O. A. Kovalevich; S. N. Veras

    2014-01-01

    A genetic analysis of mitochondrial (mtDNA) and chloroplast (cpDNA) genomes of 27 climatypes of Norway spruce was conducted in the provenance (Cherikov forestry district, Republic of Belarus). It was found that the analyzed climatypes presented boreal and carpathian mtDNA haplotypes. The first of them is found in all regions of growth climatypes (Priuralsky, Northwest, Central, Baltic, Byelorussian, Southwest), the second – only in Belarusian and Southwest regions. It is shown that polymorph...

  3. Modelling the effects of personality traits on ridership : The case of high speed rail in Norway

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    A large-scale study of possibilities for and social benefits of high speed rail (HSR) in Norway has recently been conducted. Following this, the subject of HSR has been frequently debated in Norwegian media. An important part of the cost-benefit analyses for HSR is the predicted ridership. Discrete choice modeling is the conventional method for estimating the mode choice probabilities used in these forecasts. Historically, the covariates taken into account in such models are attribute values ...

  4. Vocational Didactics: Core Assumptions and Approaches from Denmark, Germany, Norway, Spain and Sweden

    OpenAIRE

    Gessler, Michael; Moreno Herrera, Lázaro

    2015-01-01

    The design of vocational didactics has to meet special requirements. Six core assumptions are identified: outcome orientation, cultural-historical embedding, horizontal structure, vertical structure, temporal structure, and the changing nature of work. Different approaches and discussions from school-based systems (Spain and Sweden) and dual systems (Denmark, Germany and Norway) are presented in this special issue. From an inside or national perspective, the solutions show a high cultural-his...

  5. Norway. Vikings are cultivating their markets; Norvege. Les vikings cultivent leurs marches

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Erceville, H. d`

    1997-12-31

    The norwegian petroleum and para-petroleum companies (Kvaerner, Borealis, Borregaard, etc.) are actively prospecting new markets in the Arabic Peninsula and in Asia: a hydraulic power plant project in Malaysia, submarine cables (Alcatel Norway) in Indonesia, paper mills in Malaysia, refrigerating unit plant in China, liquid gas tanker ships for the Emirates, petrochemistry plants in Abu Dhabi, lignite production plants in South Africa, gas service stations in Poland

  6. Food and feeding habits of young saithe, Pollachius virens (L.), on the coast of western Norway

    OpenAIRE

    Nedreaas, Kjell Harald

    1987-01-01

    The stomach contents of young saithe (both I- and II-group, but mainly II-group) from two areas, denoted A and B, on the western coast of Norway have been analysed. When these juvenile saithe become two or more often three years old, they migrate from the coastal shallows to the North Sea. Nutrition may be an important factor governing or influencing this migration. In area A, the saithe had preyed almost exclusively upon plankton in the pelagic environment. The appendicularian...

  7. From Sputnik to PISA Shock - New Technology and Educational Reform in Norway and Sweden

    OpenAIRE

    Haugsbakk, Geir

    2013-01-01

    The article offers a comparative perspective on how educational policy is influenced by two key phenomena that sent something akin to shockwaves through the Western world, and that in both cases highlighted basic deficiencies within the school system. The case of Norway and Sweden in particular, as well as the role of new technology, is examined. One striking feature is that the patterns of reaction and the measures taken following these shock-generating experiences display a relative similar...

  8. Greenland sharks (Somniosus microcephalus) scavenge offal from minke (Balaenoptera acutorostrata) whaling operations in Svalbard (Norway)

    OpenAIRE

    Leclerc, Lisa-Marie; Lydersen, Christian; Haug, Tore; Kevin A Glover; Fisk, Aaron T.; Kovacs, Kit M.

    2011-01-01

    Minke whale (Balaenoptera acutorostrata) tissue (mainly blubber) was found in the gastrointestinal tracks of Greenland sharks (Somniosus microcephalus) collected in Kongsfjorden, Svalbard, Norway. In order to determine whether the sharks were actively hunting the whales, finding naturally dead whales or consuming offal from whaling, we checked the genetic identity of the whale tissue found in the sharks against the DNA register for minke whales taken in Norwegian whaling operations. All of th...

  9. Negotiating Autonomy: girls and parental authority in multi-ethnic Norway. GARP10

    OpenAIRE

    Liden, Hilde

    2003-01-01

    Gender, equality and autonomy are key concepts in the discourse on multi-ethnicity in Norway, highlighting intergenerational relationships and processes of cultural continuity and change. In policy documents and in the media, debate on the integration of the relationship between parents and children has become the focal point, particularly with regard to how they practice autonomy and authority. The practices of ethnic minorities are compared with those of the ethnic majority, which are used ...

  10. Survey-based Indicators of Regional Labour Markets and Interregional Migration in Norway

    OpenAIRE

    Carlsen, Fredrik; Johansen, Kåre

    2002-01-01

    A rich set of regional labour market variables is utilised to explain interregional migration in Norway. In particular, regional indicators of labour market pressure are computed from survey data in which respondents are asked to evaluate local job prospects in their resident municipality and the surroundings. Mean satisfaction with local job prospects reported by respondents in a region and related survey-based indicators have a positive and significant impact on net inmigration to the regio...

  11. The occurrence of biomineralisation products in four lichen species growing on sandstone in western Norway

    OpenAIRE

    Bjelland, Torbjørg; Sæbø, Linda; Thorseth, Ingunn Hindenes

    2002-01-01

    High performance thin-layer chromatography/thin-layer chromatography, X-ray diffraction, and scanning electron microscopy analysis of thallus and lichen-rock interface samples, were undertaken to characterize biomineralization products in Fuscidea cyathoides, Ochrolechia tartarea, Ophioparma ventosa, and Pertusaria coralline, growing on sandstone in western Norway. Whewellite (monohydrate form of Ca oxalate) was found in the thallus of all species, but not in any of the weathering rinds benea...

  12. Breeding system, insect flower visitation, and floral traits of two alpine cerastium species in Norway

    OpenAIRE

    Totland, Ørjan; Schulte-Herbriiggen, Björn

    1999-01-01

    The pollination and reproductive ecology of Saxifraga stellaris was investigated in alpine southwest Norway. A breeding system analysis, with performance of controlled crosses, revealed that S. stellaris is self-compatible and that reproductive success after cross- and self-pollination is equal. Relative autodeposition efficiency (i.e. mean seed:ovule ratio in caged, nonmanipulated plants relative to mean seed:ovule ratio of control plants) was, however, low (0.29), suggesting that S. stellar...

  13. Test and simulation of drain-back solar DHW system from SolarNor AS, Norway

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin Qin

    1997-12-31

    A drain-back solar DHW system from SolarNor AS, Norway was built and tested in laboratory`s test facility. A detailed simulation model have been developed for predicting the annually performance of the system. The simulation model was modified by means of comparison of the simulation results with the measurements. By using this simulation model the yearly thermal performance of the system have been investigated with the Danish Test Reference Year as the input weather data. (EG)

  14. Monitoring of radioactivity in Norway. Annual report 1994; Overvaaking av radioaktivitet i Norge. Aarsrapport 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berg, T.C.

    1995-07-01

    A nation-wide network of 29 monitoring stations for continuous registration of radioactivity in the air has been established in Norway. Via the telecommunication network, collected data are dayly automatically transmitted to the Norwegian institute for air research (NILU). High radiation levels trigger an alarm for immediate transmission. The monitoring system and experiences in connection with its operation are described. Results from measurements in 1994 are presented. 32 figs.

  15. Measurement of radioactivity in Norway. Annual report 1991; Maaling av radioaktivitet i Norge; Aarsrapport 1991

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berg, T.C.

    1992-11-01

    A nation-wide network of 20 monitoring stations for continuous registration of radioactivity in the air has been established in Norway. Via the telecommunication network collected data are dayly automatically transmitted to the Norwegian Institute for Air Research (NILU). High radiation levels trigger an alarm for immediate transmission. The monitoring system and experiences in connection with its operation are described, and results from measurements in 1991 are presented. No unnormal radioactivity has been recorded in the period. 24 figs.

  16. Comparison of solid waste management between Oslo (Norway) and Lahore (Pakistan)

    OpenAIRE

    Hafeez, Muhammad Shahzad

    2014-01-01

    The research is devised on two themes as; describe and compare solid waste management practices in Lahore (Pakistan) and Oslo (Norway). Solid Waste Management (SWM) is an important technique in the present times which works on the philosophy of Reuse, Reduce and Recycle and helps in containment of various environmental problems. In the developing countries waste contamination has become an important problem. My prime motive to select Lahore was due to the nature of environmenta...

  17. Social integration of Congolese refugees in a town in Southern Norway

    OpenAIRE

    Kabuya, Kamitanji

    2008-01-01

    Social integration of refugees is a concept that connotes ideas of enjoying the opportunities, rights and services available to the citizens of the refugees’ new community. This thesis examines the problems and process of social integration of Congolese refugees in one of the southern towns of Norway. This research mainly aimed at finding out whether Congolese refugees are socially well-integrated; and establishing factors that contribute to their integration or lack of it. Based on the ex...

  18. Adult education and work life : a comparative study of Norway and Japan

    OpenAIRE

    2008-01-01

    The main problem of this paper is the interaction between adult education and work life and the expression of it in two different countries. The globalization process is indicating that problems and issues are getting a common international degree. But the importance and influence of national context reveals the different levels of challenges and solutions. The topic is described from a comparative perspective presenting two countries, Norway and Japan. The chosen theoretical frame includes a...

  19. Intensive care nurses’ encounters with multicultural families in Norway: An exploratory study

    OpenAIRE

    Høye, Sevald; Severinsson, Elisabeth

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this study was to explore nurses’ perceptions of their encounters with multicultural families in intensive care units in Norwegian hospitals. Immigrants from non-Western countries make up 6.1% of the population in Norway. When a person suffers an acute and critical illness the person's family may experience crises. Nurses’ previous experiences of caring for culturally diverse patients and families is challenging due to linguistic differences, and contextual factors. Family members ...

  20. Biodiversity of types of ectomycorrhizae in a norway spruce stands on Pokljuka

    OpenAIRE

    Vilhar, Urša; Smolej, Igor; TROŠT SEDEJ, TADEJA; Kutnar, Lado; Kraigher, Hojka

    2004-01-01

    Types of ectomycorrhizae were studied in soil cores from a young regeneration center in an autochthonous Norway spruce stand on Pokljuka (Triglav National Park, 1200 m.a.s.l.). Soil cores of equal volume (274 ml, 0 - 18 cm deep) weretaken from 33 sampling plots. In the samples all the roots were counted and types of ectomycorrhizae briefly characterized. From these data diversity indices (species diversity (d) and Shannon- Weaver index of diversity (H)) were calculated. Interactions among myc...

  1. 3-DIMENSIONAL GEOLOGICAL MAPPING AND MODELING ACTIVITIES AT THE GEOLOGICAL SURVEY OF NORWAY

    OpenAIRE

    A. Jarna; A. Bang-Kittilsen; Haase, C.; Henderson, I. H. C.; Høgaas, F.; Iversen, S. (Svein); Seither, A.

    2015-01-01

    Geology and all geological structures are three-dimensional in space. Geology can be easily shown as four-dimensional when time is considered. Therefore GIS, databases, and 3D visualization software are common tools used by geoscientists to view, analyse, create models, interpret and communicate geological data. The NGU (Geological Survey of Norway) is the national institution for the study of bedrock, mineral resources, surficial deposits and groundwater and marine geology. The interest in 3...

  2. Different Atmospheric Methane-Oxidizing Communities in European Beech and Norway Spruce Soils▿ †

    OpenAIRE

    Degelmann, Daniela M.; Borken, Werner; Drake, Harold L; Kolb, Steffen

    2010-01-01

    Norway spruce (Picea abies) forests exhibit lower annual atmospheric methane consumption rates than do European beech (Fagus sylvatica) forests. In the current study, pmoA (encoding a subunit of membrane-bound CH4 monooxygenase) genes from three temperate forest ecosystems with both beech and spruce stands were analyzed to assess the potential effect of tree species on methanotrophic communities. A pmoA sequence difference of 7% at the derived protein level correlated with the species-level d...

  3. Energy shortage in Norway: Research and Development projects; FoU-prosjekter tar tak i utfordringene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haaland, Hans Otto

    2003-07-01

    Research and development projects, and model calculations, have long since demonstrated that the point of intersection between domestic supply and the consumption of electric power was reached a few years ago. According to prognoses for the demand for electric power in Norway, a worst-case dry year situation may produce a shortage of 15 TWh in 2005 and 20 TWh in 2010. The article deals with the proposed remedial actions and the relevant research and development programmes.

  4. 北欧峡湾之国--挪威%Norway: A Land of Fiords in Scandinavia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李志斐

    2005-01-01

    @@ 挪威(Norway),在英语中意指"通往北方之路",因为古代的日耳曼人主要的通商航路中有一条是沿斯堪的纳维亚半岛海岸北上,叫北航路,即北方之路.时间一久就演变成了挪威这个国家的名字.

  5. From field to table? The marketing of organic products in Norway

    OpenAIRE

    Jervell, A.M.; Borgen, S.O.; Flaten, O

    2004-01-01

    While 3 percent of the fields in Norway are grown organically in the advent of the 21st century, only a small share of the resulting products reaches the consumers as organic food. A number of factors can explain the relative lack of success of organic products through the value chain. Lack of differentiation from conventional foods may discourage consumers. Extra costs limit the interest of processors and retailers. The political decisions and subsidies are directed at production, and have ...

  6. Water and ion movement through a minicatchment at Risdalsheia, Norway (RAIN project)

    OpenAIRE

    Hauhs, M.

    1988-01-01

    At Risdalsheia (Southernmost Norway) the relation between flow paths and streamwater chemistry through a small headwater catchment was investigated. The importance of these pathways for the interaction between soil solution and runoff chemistry was investigated by a tracer experiment with LiBr. The experiment was designed using all available information about ion transport at EGIL-catchment in a simple model that predicted the breakthrough curve for a given tracer input. The unique facility o...

  7. Prevalence and diversity of Babesia spp. in questing Ixodes ricinus ticks from Norway

    OpenAIRE

    Øines Øivind; Radzijevskaja Jana; Paulauskas Algimantas; Rosef Olav

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Ixodes ricinus ticks transmit Babesia species to vertebrate hosts. Using molecular tools we were able to detect the presence of this piroplasmid in its vector. The aims of this study were to investigate the prevalence and identity of Babesia species in questing ticks collected in various areas of Norway. Methods DNA from questing l. ricinus ticks were examined with a realtime PCR for the presence of Babesia. Positive samples of tick DNA were identified to species using PCR...

  8. Educational inequalities in acute myocardial infarction incidence in Norway: a nationwide cohort study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jannicke Igland

    Full Text Available Increasing differences in cardiovascular disease (CVD mortality across levels of education have been reported in Norway. The aim of the study was to investigate educational inequalities in acute myocardial infarction (AMI incidence and whether such inequalities have changed during the past decade using a nationwide longitudinal study design.Data on 141 332 incident (first AMIs in Norway during 2001-2009 were obtained through the Cardiovascular Disease in Norway (CVDNOR project. Educational inequalities in AMI incidence were assessed in terms of age-standardised incidence rates stratified on educational level, incidence rate ratios (IRR, relative index of inequality (RII and slope index of inequality (SII. All calculations were conducted in four gender and age strata: Men and women aged 35-69 and 70-94 years.AMI Incidence rates decreased during 2001-2009 for all educational levels except in women aged 35-69 among whom only those with basic education had a significant decrease. In all gender and age groups; those with the highest educational level had the lowest rates. The strongest relative difference was found among women aged 35-69, with IRR (95% CI for basic versus tertiary education 3.04 (2.85-3.24 and RII (95% CI equal to 4.36 (4.03-4.71. The relative differences did not change during 2001-2009 in any of the four gender and age groups, but absolute inequalities measured as SII decreased among the oldest men and women.There are substantial educational inequalities in AMI incidence in Norway, especially for women aged 35-69. Relative inequalities did not change from 2001 to 2009.

  9. A generalized Critical Success Factor Process Model for Managing Offshore Development Projects in Norway

    OpenAIRE

    Dyrhaug, Qinli

    2002-01-01

    Managing offshore development projects in Norway is no doubt a challenging task because such projects often involve large capital investments with risks under dynamic and complex environments. Project managers play a critical role for project success. This study concentrates on project core team level of management.The study focuses on one major task of project managers: top-down identification, communication and monitoring of management focuses in order to lead an organization towards the sa...

  10. Early outreach to survivors of the shootings in Norway on the 22nd of July 2011

    OpenAIRE

    Dyb, Grete; Jensen, Tine; Glad, Kristin Alve; Nygaard, Egil; Thoresen, Siri

    2014-01-01

    Background: Under-treatment and unmet needs among survivors have been documented years after terror attacks. Improved early and proactive outreach strategies, including targeted interventions for individuals in need, are required. After the terrorist attacks in Norway on 22 July 2011, a national, proactive outreach strategy was developed and implemented to help those who were directly affected.Objective: The aims of this study were threefold: (1) to investigate whether the survivors at the is...

  11. Organic dairy farming in Norway in relation to the ‘conventionalisation’ debate

    OpenAIRE

    Flaten, Ola; Lien, Gudbrand

    2006-01-01

    The new organic farmers may differ from their more established colleagues, which may have implications for the development of the organic farming sector and its distinctiveness vis-à-vis conventional production practices. The aim of this study was to explore organic farmers’ characteristics, farming goals and conversion motives, grouped by year of conversion (three groups). A survey was undertaken among organic dairy farmers in Norway. The newcomers (converted in 2000 or later) were younger a...

  12. Migration of Indian health professionals to selected European nations : the case of Denmark, Netherlands, Norway, Sweden

    OpenAIRE

    Bhattacharjee, Ayona

    2013-01-01

    CARIM-India: Developing a knowledge base for policymaking on India-EU migration India’s comparative advantage in health care is due to a large resource pool and competence in English. Indian migration to the US, UK or Australia has been widely studied, but not much attention has been given to the Scandinavian countries. This paper fills the gap by analysing recent trends and prospects for Indian health professionals in Denmark, Netherlands, Norway and Sweden. It combines available data sou...

  13. The impact of crowdfunding on Musicians’ business : findings from Denmark, Norway and Sweden

    OpenAIRE

    Pastonesi, Rocco

    2013-01-01

    This work explores the linkages between the current boom of crowdfunding and the music industry. By building on the theoretical contributions of value networks and disruptive innovations, this dissertation aims at analyzing the impact of reward-based crowdfunding on musicians’ businesses in Denmark, Norway and Sweden. With a simple and convenient service, crowdfunding has the potential to benefit especially those musicians that don’t find the support of record labels and ...

  14. Joint Monitoring Programme (JMP). Overview of analytical methods employed by JMP in Norway 1981-1987

    OpenAIRE

    Green, N.

    1988-01-01

    Brief descriptions are given of the analytical methods employed by Norway under the Joint Monitoring Programme (JMP) and in cooperation with the International Council for the exploration of the Sea (ICES). Methods concern determination of trace metals and chlorinated hydrocarbons in sea water, sea bed sediment and marine organisms. Included are the detection limits, analytical laborator- ies, and references to the intercalibration exercises that applied to samples collected 1981-86.

  15. Environmental impact of refillable vs. non-refillable plastic beverage bottles in Norway

    OpenAIRE

    Bø, Eirill; Hammervoll, Trond; Tvedt, Kjetil

    2013-01-01

    This research compares the environmental impact, in terms of greenhouse gas emissions, of using refillable polyethylene terephthalate (REF–PET) and non–refillable polyethylene terephthalate (NR–PET) bottles in the Norwegian soft drink and carbonated water market. A Microsoft Excel spread sheet was developed in close cooperation with Coca–Cola, Mack, Telemark Springwater, and three of the main food wholesalers in Norway: NorgesGruppen, Coop, and Rema. While academic writers have criticised suc...

  16. Numerical simulation of upwelling currents in pockmarks, and data from the Inner Oslofjord, Norway

    OpenAIRE

    Hammer, Ø; Webb, K. E.; Depreiter, D.

    2009-01-01

    The deflection of oceanic or tidal currents into pockmarks has been studied by both general three-dimensional computational fluid dynamics simulations and acoustic measurements in a number of pockmarks in the Inner Oslofjord, Norway. The modeling demonstrates upstream convergence of flow lines, followed by upwelling over the pockmark. This upwelling is an effect of deflected regional currents, not of expulsion of fluids or gas from the seafloor, and is sufficiently strong to prevent the settl...

  17. Cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma in norway 1963–2011: increasing incidence and stable mortality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The incidence of cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) is rapidly increasing in white populations, causing high morbidity and health-care costs. Few studies, however, have described the trends for SCC, as population-based data with a long follow-up are limited. In Norway we have this opportunity and we aimed to describe SCC incidence, mortality and survival rates, according to sex, age, stage, primary anatomical location, and geographical region, for the period 1963–2011, for estimation of future health-care needs. Data were retrieved from the Cancer Registry of Norway. Age-adjusted SCC incidence and mortality rates and 5-year relative survival (in percent) were calculated for 5-year calendar periods. A joinpoint regression model identified the annual percentage change (APC) in rates over the 50-year period. The age-adjusted incidence rate increased ninefold in females and sixfold in males from 1963 to 2011, with APCs of 5.6% (95% confidence interval, CI 4.5, 7.3) and 3.3% (95% CI 1.3, 5.3) in females and males, respectively. SCC incidence rose in all age groups, anatomical locations (except ears in females), and geographical regions, though restricted to localized tumors. Most striking increase was seen in the age group 70–79, in face and head locations and among residents in southern Norway. SCC mortality and survival rates remained relatively stable. Our findings underline an increasing need for SCC treatment in Norway, especially considering the aging population. The findings also call for the creation of particular guidelines for primary prevention of SCC

  18. The Polish worker in Norway : emerging patterns of migration, employment and incorporation after EU's eastern enlargement

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    In 2004, Poland’s accession to the EU triggered what is now considered to be the largest migration flow to Norway in history. In the next seven to eight years, well over a hundred thousand Polish workers were recruited to work in construction, manufacturing, low-skilled services and agriculture. This thesis explores the ways in which Polish migrant workers have adapted to and become incorporated into Norwegian society during these initial years of an emerging migration system. The main resear...

  19. Turkish-Norwegian codeswitching : evidence from intermediate and second generation Turkish immigrants in Norway

    OpenAIRE

    2000-01-01

    Codeswitching is briefly defined as the use of two or more languages, dialects, etc. within the same flow of discourse. This study describes and analyses a data set of Turkish/Norwegian codeswitching in an immigrant language contact setting. One of its aims is to apply the Matrix Language Frame model (Myers Scotton 1993 and subsequent publications) on the data collected from five intermediate and three second generation Turks living in Norway. The dissertation focuses on switching between Tur...

  20. A comparison of the labour market integration of immigrants and refugees in Canada and Norway

    OpenAIRE

    Aalandslid, Vebjørn

    2009-01-01

    According to the OECD (2008), Canada’s immigrants score among the highest in the industrialised world when it comes to employment rates. Measured by employment rate Canada ranked 3rd (only surpassed by Portugal and Switzerland) among foreign-born, whereas Norway ranked 22nd and together with the other Nordic countries lagged behind the OECD-average with 10 percentage points. These numbers and subsequent rankings, based on aggregate figures, hide variations by country of birt...