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Sample records for anticoagulant antifungal anti-inflammatory

  1. Marine pharmacology in 2001--2002: marine compounds with anthelmintic, antibacterial, anticoagulant, antidiabetic, antifungal, anti-inflammatory, antimalarial, antiplatelet, antiprotozoal, antituberculosis, and antiviral activities; affecting the cardiovascular, immune and nervous systems and other miscellaneous mechanisms of action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayer, Alejandro M S; Hamann, Mark T

    2005-01-01

    During 2001--2002, research on the pharmacology of marine chemicals continued to be global in nature involving investigators from Argentina, Australia, Brazil, Canada, China, Denmark, France, Germany, India, Indonesia, Israel, Italy, Japan, Mexico, Netherlands, New Zealand, Pakistan, the Philippines, Russia, Singapore, Slovenia, South Africa, South Korea, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Thailand, United Kingdom, and the United States. This current article, a sequel to the authors' 1998, 1999 and 2000 marine pharmacology reviews, classifies 106 marine chemicals derived from a diverse group of marine animals, algae, fungi and bacteria, on the basis of peer-reviewed preclinical pharmacology. Anthelmintic, antibacterial, anticoagulant, antifungal, antimalarial, antiplatelet, antiprotozoal, antituberculosis or antiviral activities were reported for 56 marine chemicals. An additional 19 marine compounds were shown to have significant effects on the cardiovascular, immune and nervous system as well as to possess anti-inflammatory and antidiabetic effects. Finally, 31 marine compounds were reported to act on a variety of molecular targets and thus may potentially contribute to several pharmacological classes. Thus, during 2001--2002 pharmacological research with marine chemicals continued to contribute potentially novel chemical leads for the ongoing global search for therapeutic agents for the treatment of multiple disease categories.

  2. Antifungal and anti-inflammatory effects of Coptidis rhizome extract ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Coptidis rhizoma has been used as antibiotics in traditional Chinese medicine practice for many years. Here, we examined the effect of rhizoma Coptidis extract on the growth of C. albicans. Materials and Methods: The antifungal effects of Coptidis rhizoma extract was examined by time-kill assay, transmission ...

  3. Anti-inflammatory activity of Vismia guianensis (Aubl.) Pers. extracts and antifungal activity against Sporothrix schenckii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, A H; de Oliveira, G G; Carnevale Neto, F; Portuondo, D F; Batista-Duharte, A; Carlos, I Z

    2017-01-04

    Vismia guianensis (Aubl.) Pers. is traditionally used in North and Northeast of Brazil for the treatment of dermatomycoses. Since the strategy associating immunomodulators with antifungal drugs seems to be promissory to improve the treatment efficacy in fungal infections, we aimed to investigate the antifungal activity of V. guianensis ethanolic extract of leaves (VGL) and bark (VGB) against Sporothrix schenckii ATCC 16345 and their antinflammatory activities. The extracts were analyzed by HPLC-DAD-IT MS/MS for in situ identification of major compounds. Antifungal activity was evaluated in vitro (microdilution test) and in vivo using a murine model of S. schenckii infection. The production of TNF-α, IFN-γ, IL-4, IL-10 and IL-12 by measured by ELISA, as well as measured the production and inhibition of the NO after treatment with the plant extracts or itraconazole (ITR). Two O-glucosyl-flavonoids and 16 prenylated benzophenone derivatives already described for Vismia were detected. Both VGL and VGB showed significant antifungal activity either in in vitro assay of microdilution (MIC=3.9µg/mL) and in vivo model of infection with reduction of S. schenckii load in spleen. It was also observed a predominance of reduction in the production of NO and the proinflammatory cytokines evaluated except TNFα, but with stimulation of IL-10, as evidence of a potential anti-inflammatory effect associated. The results showed that both VGL and VGB have a significant antifungal against S. schenckii and an anti-inflammatory activity. These results can support the use of these extracts for alternative treatment of sporotrichosis. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Lemon grass (Cymbopogon citratus essential oil as a potent anti-inflammatory and antifungal drugs

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    Mohamed Nadjib Boukhatem

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Volatile oils obtained from lemon grass [Cymbopogon citratus (DC. Stapf, Poaceae family] are used in traditional medicine as remedies for the treatment of various diseases. Aims: In the present study, lemon grass essential oil (LGEO was evaluated for its in vivo topical and oral anti-inflammatory effects, and for its in vitro antifungal activity using both liquid and vapor phases. Methods: The chemical profile of LGEO as determined by gas chromatography–mass spectrometry analysis revealed two major components: geranial (42.2%, and neral (31.5%. The antifungal activity of LGEO was evaluated against several pathogenic yeasts and filamentous fungi using disc diffusion and vapor diffusion methods. Results: LGEO exhibited promising antifungal effect against Candida albicans, C. tropicalis, and Aspergillus niger, with different inhibition zone diameters (IZDs (35–90 mm. IZD increased with increasing oil volume. Significantly, higher anti-Candida activity was observed in the vapor phase. For the evaluation of the anti-inflammatory effect, LGEO (10 mg/kg, administered orally significantly reduced carrageenan-induced paw edema with a similar effect to that observed for oral diclofenac (50 mg/kg, which was used as the positive control. Oral administration of LGEO showed dose-dependent anti-inflammatory activity. In addition, topical application of LGEO in vivo resulted in a potent anti-inflammatory effect, as demonstrated by using the mouse model of croton oil-induced ear edema. To our knowledge, this is the first such report to be published. The topical application of LGEO at doses of 5 and 10 µL/ear significantly reduced acute ear edema induced by croton oil in 62.5 and 75% of the mice, respectively. In addition, histological analysis clearly confirmed that LGEO inhibits the skin inflammatory response in animal models. Conclusion: Results of the present study indicate that LGEO has a noteworthy potential for the development of drugs for

  5. Essential Oil of Common Sage (Salvia officinalis L.) from Jordan: Assessment of Safety in Mammalian Cells and Its Antifungal and Anti-Inflammatory Potential

    OpenAIRE

    M. S. Abu-Darwish; C. Cabral; I. V. Ferreira; M. J. Gonçalves; C. Cavaleiro; M. T. Cruz; T. H. Al-bdour; L. Salgueiro

    2013-01-01

    Salvia officinalis L. (Lamiaceae) is a Mediterranean species, naturalized in many countries. In Jordan, it is used in traditional medicine as antiseptic, antiscabies, antisyphilitic, and anti-inflammatory, being frequently used against skin diseases. This study aimed the assessment of the antifungal and anti-inflammatory potential of its essential oils, and their cytotoxicity on macrophages and keratinocytes. The oils were investigated by gas chromatography and gas chromatography-mass spectro...

  6. In vitro anti-inflammatory and anti-coagulant effects of antibiotics towards Platelet Activating Factor and thrombin

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    properties of antibiotics used in sepsis suggest that apart from their general actions, these drugs may present additional beneficial anti-inflammatory and anti-coagulant effects against the onset and establishment of sepsis by inhibiting the PAF/PAF-receptor and/or the thrombin/protease-activated-receptor-1 systems, and/or by reducing PAF-levels through both PAF-biosynthesis inhibition and PAF-catabolism induction. These promising in vitro results need to be further studied and confirmed by in vivo tests, in order to optimize the efficacy of antibiotic treatment in sepsis. PMID:21736752

  7. Essential Oil of Common Sage (Salvia officinalis L. from Jordan: Assessment of Safety in Mammalian Cells and Its Antifungal and Anti-Inflammatory Potential

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. S. Abu-Darwish

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Salvia officinalis L. (Lamiaceae is a Mediterranean species, naturalized in many countries. In Jordan, it is used in traditional medicine as antiseptic, antiscabies, antisyphilitic, and anti-inflammatory, being frequently used against skin diseases. This study aimed the assessment of the antifungal and anti-inflammatory potential of its essential oils, and their cytotoxicity on macrophages and keratinocytes. The oils were investigated by gas chromatography and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and the antifungal activity was evaluated against yeasts, dermatophyte and Aspergillus strains. Assessment of cell viability was made by the 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide assay and the in vitro anti-inflammatory potential was evaluated by measuring nitric oxide production using lipopolysaccharide-stimulated mouse macrophages. The main compounds of S. officinalis oils were 1,8-cineole (39.5–50.3% and camphor (8.8–25.0%. The oils revealed antifungal activity against dermatophyte strains and significantly inhibited NO production stimulated by LPS in macrophages, without affecting cell viability, in concentrations up to 0.64 μL/mL. This is the first report addressing the in vitro anti-inflammatory potential of S. officinalis oil. These findings demonstrated that bioactive concentrations of S. officinalis oils do not affect mammalian macrophages and keratinocytes viability making them suitable to be incorporated in skin care formulations for cosmetic and pharmaceutical purposes.

  8. Essential oil of common sage (Salvia officinalis L.) from Jordan: assessment of safety in mammalian cells and its antifungal and anti-inflammatory potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abu-Darwish, M S; Cabral, C; Ferreira, I V; Gonçalves, M J; Cavaleiro, C; Cruz, M T; Al-bdour, T H; Salgueiro, L

    2013-01-01

    Salvia officinalis L. (Lamiaceae) is a Mediterranean species, naturalized in many countries. In Jordan, it is used in traditional medicine as antiseptic, antiscabies, antisyphilitic, and anti-inflammatory, being frequently used against skin diseases. This study aimed the assessment of the antifungal and anti-inflammatory potential of its essential oils, and their cytotoxicity on macrophages and keratinocytes. The oils were investigated by gas chromatography and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and the antifungal activity was evaluated against yeasts, dermatophyte and Aspergillus strains. Assessment of cell viability was made by the 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide assay and the in vitro anti-inflammatory potential was evaluated by measuring nitric oxide production using lipopolysaccharide-stimulated mouse macrophages. The main compounds of S. officinalis oils were 1,8-cineole (39.5-50.3%) and camphor (8.8-25.0%). The oils revealed antifungal activity against dermatophyte strains and significantly inhibited NO production stimulated by LPS in macrophages, without affecting cell viability, in concentrations up to 0.64 μL/mL. This is the first report addressing the in vitro anti-inflammatory potential of S. officinalis oil. These findings demonstrated that bioactive concentrations of S. officinalis oils do not affect mammalian macrophages and keratinocytes viability making them suitable to be incorporated in skin care formulations for cosmetic and pharmaceutical purposes.

  9. Evaluation of analgesic, anti-inflammatory, anti-depressant and anti-coagulant properties of Lactuca sativa (CV. Grand Rapids) plant tissues and cell suspension in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ismail, Hammad; Mirza, Bushra

    2015-06-27

    Lactuca sativa (lettuce) has been traditionally used for relieving pain, inflammation, stomach problems including indigestion and lack of appetite. Moreover, the therapeutic significance of L. sativa includes its anticonvulsant, sedative-hypnotic and antioxidant properties. In the present study, the MC (methanol and chloroform; 1:1) and aqueous extracts of seed and leaf along with cell suspension exudate were prepared. These extracts were explored for their analgesic, anti-inflammatory, antidepressant and anticoagulant effects by hot plate analgesic assay; carrageenan induced hind paw edema test, forced swimming test and capillary method for blood clotting respectively in a rat model. The results were analyzed using one-way Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) followed by Turkey multiple comparison test. Interestingly, the extracts and the cell suspension exudate showed dual inhibition by reducing pain and inflammation. The results indicated that the aqueous extracts of leaf exhibited highest analgesic and anti-inflammatory activities followed by leaf MC, cell suspension exudate, seed aqueous and seed MC extracts. The current findings show that aqueous and MC extracts of seed have the least immobility time in the forced swimming test, which could act as an anti-depressant on the central nervous system. The leaf extracts and cell suspension exudate also expressed moderate anti-depressant activities. In anticoagulant assay, the coagulation time of aspirin (positive control) and MC extract of leaf was comparable, suggesting strong anti-coagulant effect. Additionally, no abnormal behavior or lethality was observed in any animal tested. Taken together, L. sativa can potentially act as a strong herbal drug due to its multiple pharmaceutical effects and is therefore of interest in drug discovery and development of formulations.

  10. Anti-Inflammatory and Anticoagulative Effects of Paeonol on LPS-Induced Acute Lung Injury in Rats

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    Pin-Kuei Fu

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Paeonol is an active component of Moutan Cortex Radicis and is widely used as an analgesic, antipyretic, and anti-inflammatory agent in traditional Chinese medicine. We wanted to determine the role of paeonol in treating adult respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS. We established an acute lung injury (ALI model in Sprague-Dawley rats, which was similar to ARDS in humans, using intratracheal administration of lipopolysaccharide (LPS. The intraperitoneal administration of paeonol successfully reduced histopathological scores and attenuated myeloperoxidase-reactive cells as an index of polymorphonuclear neutrophils infiltration and also reduces inducible nitric oxide synthase expression in the lung tissue, at 16 h after LPS administration. In addition, paeonol reduced proinflammatory cytokines in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid, including tumor-necrosis factor-α, interleukin-1β, interleukin-6, and plasminogen-activated inhibition factor-1. These results indicated that paeonol successfully attenuates inflammatory and coagulation reactions to protect against ALI.

  11. The effects of corticosteroids and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    a complication of excessive anticoagulation.2. Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, including aspirin. The NSAIDs produce their effects through a blockade of the conversion of arachidonic acid to prostaglandins by COX. Corticosteroids reduce the availability of arachidonic acid, contributing to the anti-inflammatory activity ...

  12. Marine Pharmacology in 2012–2013: Marine Compounds with Antibacterial, Antidiabetic, Antifungal, Anti-Inflammatory, Antiprotozoal, Antituberculosis, and Antiviral Activities; Affecting the Immune and Nervous Systems, and Other Miscellaneous Mechanisms of Action

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandro M. S. Mayer

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The peer-reviewed marine pharmacology literature from 2012 to 2013 was systematically reviewed, consistent with the 1998–2011 reviews of this series. Marine pharmacology research from 2012 to 2013, conducted by scientists from 42 countries in addition to the United States, reported findings on the preclinical pharmacology of 257 marine compounds. The preclinical pharmacology of compounds isolated from marine organisms revealed antibacterial, antifungal, antiprotozoal, antituberculosis, antiviral and anthelmitic pharmacological activities for 113 marine natural products. In addition, 75 marine compounds were reported to have antidiabetic and anti-inflammatory activities and affect the immune and nervous system. Finally, 69 marine compounds were shown to display miscellaneous mechanisms of action which could contribute to novel pharmacological classes. Thus, in 2012–2013, the preclinical marine natural product pharmacology pipeline provided novel pharmacology and lead compounds to the clinical marine pharmaceutical pipeline, and contributed significantly to potentially novel therapeutic approaches to several global disease categories.

  13. Mitodepressive, antioxidant, antifungal and anti-inflammatory effects of wild-growing Romanian native Arctium lappa L. (Asteraceae) and Veronica persica Poiret (Plantaginaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fierascu, Radu Claudiu; Georgiev, Milen I; Fierascu, Irina; Ungureanu, Camelia; Avramescu, Sorin Marius; Ortan, Alina; Georgescu, Mihaela Ioana; Sutan, Anca Nicoleta; Zanfirescu, Anca; Dinu-Pirvu, Cristina Elena; Velescu, Bruno Stefan; Anuta, Valentina

    2018-01-01

    The present study aims to evaluate the potential uses of hydroalcoholic extracts obtained from Romanian native wild-growing plants. The hydroalcoholic extracts were obtained from the burdock roots and respectively the aerial parts of birdeye speedwell. The extracts were characterised by HPLC (quantifying 13 compounds in the V. persica extract, 6 compounds in the A. lappa extract and confirming the presence of arctiin and arctigenin in the burdock extract). The antioxidant potential of the crude extracts was evaluated using two methods: the DPPH assay (79.91% for speedwell extract, 76.23% for burdock extract) and the phosphomolybdate method (296.5 mg/g ascorbic acid equivalents for burdock, 324.4 mg/g for speedwell). The crude extracts were found to be active against both fungal lines used (Aspergillus niger and Penicillium hirsutum), inhibition zones - 17.1 mm and 13.1 mm against P. hirsutum, respectively ca. 22 mm for both extracts against A. niger. The cytogenetic effects (assessed using the Allium cepa assay) revealed a series of chromosomal aberrations and nuclear aberrations induced in the meristematic root cells. The anti-inflammatory effect, estimated in two inflammation experimental models, showed a significant effect, especially for the speedwell extract. The results recommend the evaluated extracts as promising sources of biologically-active compounds. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Marine Pharmacology in 2009–2011: Marine Compounds with Antibacterial, Antidiabetic, Antifungal, Anti-Inflammatory, Antiprotozoal, Antituberculosis, and Antiviral Activities; Affecting the Immune and Nervous Systems, and other Miscellaneous Mechanisms of Action †

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayer, Alejandro M. S.; Rodríguez, Abimael D.; Taglialatela-Scafati, Orazio; Fusetani, Nobuhiro

    2013-01-01

    The peer-reviewed marine pharmacology literature from 2009 to 2011 is presented in this review, following the format used in the 1998–2008 reviews of this series. The pharmacology of structurally-characterized compounds isolated from marine animals, algae, fungi and bacteria is discussed in a comprehensive manner. Antibacterial, antifungal, antiprotozoal, antituberculosis, and antiviral pharmacological activities were reported for 102 marine natural products. Additionally, 60 marine compounds were observed to affect the immune and nervous system as well as possess antidiabetic and anti-inflammatory effects. Finally, 68 marine metabolites were shown to interact with a variety of receptors and molecular targets, and thus will probably contribute to multiple pharmacological classes upon further mechanism of action studies. Marine pharmacology during 2009–2011 remained a global enterprise, with researchers from 35 countries, and the United States, contributing to the preclinical pharmacology of 262 marine compounds which are part of the preclinical pharmaceutical pipeline. Continued pharmacological research with marine natural products will contribute to enhance the marine pharmaceutical clinical pipeline, which in 2013 consisted of 17 marine natural products, analogs or derivatives targeting a limited number of disease categories. PMID:23880931

  15. Anticoagulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... be hazardous. These medicines include most antibiotics, several pain medicines (e.g., non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs) and medications for acid reflux such as cimetidine (Tagamet). If you're taking warfarin and start a new prescription or over-the-counter medication, check with ...

  16. Glycosaminoglycan analogs as a novel anti-inflammatory strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Severin, India C.; Soares, Adriano; Hantson, Jennifer; Teixeira, Mauro; Sachs, Daniela; Valognes, Delphine; Scheer, Alexander; Schwarz, Matthias K.; Wells, Timothy N. C.; Proudfoot, Amanda E. I.; Shaw, Jeffrey

    2012-01-01

    Heparin, a glycosaminoglycan (GAG), has both anti-inflammatory and anti-coagulant properties. The clinical use of heparin against inflammation, however, has been limited by concerns about increased bleeding. While the anti-coagulant activity of heparin is well understood, its anti-inflammatory properties are less so. Heparin is known to bind to certain cytokines, including chemokines, small proteins which mediate inflammation through their control of leukocyte migration and activation. Molecules which can interrupt the chemokine-GAG interaction without inhibiting coagulation could therefore, represent a new class of anti-inflammatory agents. In the present study, two approaches were undertaken, both focusing on the heparin-chemokine relationship. In the first, a structure based strategy was used: after an initial screening of potential small molecule binders using protein NMR on a target chemokine, binding molecules were optimized through structure-based design. In the second approach, commercially available short oligosaccharides were polysulfated. In vitro, these molecules prevented chemokine-GAG binding and chemokine receptor activation without disrupting coagulation. However, in vivo, these compounds caused variable results in a murine peritoneal recruitment assay, with a general increase of cell recruitment. In more disease specific models, such as antigen-induced arthritis and delayed-type hypersensitivity, an overall decrease in inflammation was noted, suggesting that the primary anti-inflammatory effect may also involve factors beyond the chemokine system. PMID:23087686

  17. Antimicrobial, Antiparasitic, Anti-Inflammatory, and Cytotoxic Activities of Lopezia racemosa

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    Carla Cruz Paredes

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study investigates the potential benefits of the Mexican medicinal plant Lopezia racemosa (Onagraceae. Extracts and fractions from aerial parts of this plant were assessed to determine their antibacterial, antifungal, antiparasitic, anti-inflammatory and cytotoxic activities in vitro. Aerial parts of the plant were extracted with various solvents and fractionated accordingly. Extracts and fractions were tested against a panel of nine bacterial and four fungal species. The antiparasitic activity was tested against Leishmania donovani, whereas the anti-inflammatory activity of the compounds was determined by measuring the secretion of interleukin-6 from human-derived macrophages. The same macrophage cell line was used to investigate the cytotoxicity of the compounds. Various extracts and fractions showed antibacterial, antifungal, antiparasitic, and anti-inflammatory activities. The hexanic fraction HF 11-14b was the most interesting fraction with antimicrobial, and anti-inflammatory activities. The benefit of L. racemosa as a traditional medicinal plant was confirmed as shown by its antibacterial, antifungal and anti-inflammatory activities. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study reporting the biological activities of L. racemosa, including antiparasitic and anti-inflammatory activities.

  18. Antimicrobial, Antiparasitic, Anti-Inflammatory, and Cytotoxic Activities of Lopezia racemosa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz Paredes, Carla; Bolívar Balbás, Paulina; Juárez, Zaida Nelly; Sánchez Arreola, Eugenio; Hernández, Luis Ricardo

    2013-01-01

    The present study investigates the potential benefits of the Mexican medicinal plant Lopezia racemosa (Onagraceae). Extracts and fractions from aerial parts of this plant were assessed to determine their antibacterial, antifungal, antiparasitic, anti-inflammatory and cytotoxic activities in vitro. Aerial parts of the plant were extracted with various solvents and fractionated accordingly. Extracts and fractions were tested against a panel of nine bacterial and four fungal species. The antiparasitic activity was tested against Leishmania donovani, whereas the anti-inflammatory activity of the compounds was determined by measuring the secretion of interleukin-6 from human-derived macrophages. The same macrophage cell line was used to investigate the cytotoxicity of the compounds. Various extracts and fractions showed antibacterial, antifungal, antiparasitic, and anti-inflammatory activities. The hexanic fraction HF 11-14b was the most interesting fraction with antimicrobial, and anti-inflammatory activities. The benefit of L. racemosa as a traditional medicinal plant was confirmed as shown by its antibacterial, antifungal and anti-inflammatory activities. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study reporting the biological activities of L. racemosa, including antiparasitic and anti-inflammatory activities. PMID:23843731

  19. Anti-inflammatory and neuropharmacological activities of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Anti-inflammatory and neuropharmacological activities of Caesalpinia pulcherrima leaves. U Bose, V Bala, AK Shill, AA Rahman. Abstract. The crude methanolic extracts of leaves of Caesalpinia pulcherrima were evaluated for its anti-inflammatory and neuropharmacological activities. When given orally to rats at dose of ...

  20. Anti-inflammatory effects of exercise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Bente Klarlund

    2017-01-01

    . In addition, indirect anti-inflammatory effects of long-term exercise are mediated via improvements in body composition. CONCLUSION: Physical activity represents a natural, strong anti-inflammatory strategy with minor side effects and should be integrated in the management of patients with cardiometabolic......BACKGROUND: Persistent inflammation is involved in the pathogenesis of chronic diseases such as type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and cardiovascular disease (CVD). AIMS: The aim of this review was to provide the reader with an update of the mechanisms whereby exercise-induced cytokines may impact...... and IL-10 is provoked by exercise and exerts direct anti-inflammatory effects by an inhibition of TNF-α and by stimulating IL-1ra, thereby limiting IL-1β signalling. Moreover, muscle-derived IL-6 appears to have direct anti-inflammatory effects and serves as a mechanism to improve glucose tolerance...

  1. Prescription Nonsteroidal Anti-Inflammatory Medicines

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Inflammatory Medicines Share Print Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are medicines you can take for pain relief. ... well. Path to improved health How do prescription NSAIDs work? NSAIDs stop a certain kind of enzyme ...

  2. Anti-Inflammatory Iridoids of Botanical Origin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viljoen, A; Mncwangi, N; Vermaak, I

    2012-01-01

    Inflammation is a manifestation of a wide range of disorders which include; arthritis, atherosclerosis, Alzheimer’s disease, inflammatory bowel syndrome, physical injury and infection amongst many others. Common treatment modalities are usually non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) such as aspirin, paracetamol, indomethacin and ibuprofen as well as corticosteroids such as prednisone. These however, may be associated with a host of side effects due to non-selectivity for cyclooxygenase (COX) enzymes involved in inflammation and those with selectivity may be highly priced. Thus, there is a continuing search for safe and effective anti-inflammatory molecules from natural sources. Research has confirmed that iridoids exhibit promising anti-inflammatory activity which may be beneficial in the treatment of inflammation. Iridoids are secondary metabolites present in various plants, especially in species belonging to the Apocynaceae, Lamiaceae, Loganiaceae, Rubiaceae, Scrophulariaceae and Verbenaceae families. Many of these ethnobotanicals have an illustrious history of traditional use alluding to their use to treat inflammation. Although iridoids exhibit a wide range of pharmacological activities such as cardiovascular, hepatoprotection, hypoglycaemic, antimutagenic, antispasmodic, anti-tumour, antiviral, immunomodulation and purgative effects this review will acutely focus on their anti-inflammatory properties. The paper aims to present a summary for the most prominent iridoid-containing plants for which anti-inflammatory activity has been demonstrated in vitro and / or in vivo. PMID:22414102

  3. Anti-inflammatory mechanisms of sepsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shubin, Nicholas J; Monaghan, Sean F; Ayala, Alfred

    2011-01-01

    Over the past two decades, it has become well accepted that sepsis exhibits two, oftentimes concomitant, inflammatory stages; a pro-inflammatory phase, referred to as the systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS), and an anti-inflammatory phase, called the compensatory anti-inflammatory response syndrome (CARS). Considering that therapeutic interventions designed to attenuate the pro-inflammatory septic response have generally failed, much recent research has gone into understanding how and why septic patients display immunosuppressive characteristics, what the significance of septic immunosuppression may be and if there exists any therapeutic targets within the CARS. Herein, we describe the potential mechanisms of the immunosuppressive/CARS phase of sepsis by discussing what anti-inflammatory agents, receptors and cell populations are currently believed to contribute to CARS. Copyright © 2011 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  4. Tomato leaves methanol extract possesses anti- inflammatory ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    GREGORY

    2011-12-16

    Dec 16, 2011 ... demonstrated, the anti-inflammatory effect of tomato leaves and its associated molecular mechanisms have not yet been fully investigated. ... This mechanism is an immunological response following bacterial infection and is ... inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) that are mainly used in the treatment of pain and ...

  5. Chemical Characterization, Anti inflammatory and Analgesic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Chemical Characterization, Anti inflammatory and Analgesic Properties of Jatropha Multifida Root Bark. ... Phytochemical investigations reveal the presence of alkaloids, tannins, glycosides, saponins and flavonoids. The extract at a dose of 400 mg/kg significantly (P < 0.01) reduced paw thickness in rat compared to control.

  6. Anti-inflammatory responses of resveratrol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Samarjit; Das, Dipak K

    2007-09-01

    Resveratrol (trans-3,4',5-trihydroxystilbene), a natural polyphenolic, non-flavonoid antioxidant, is a phytoalexin found in many plants including grapes, nuts and berries. Recent studies have documented that resveratrol has various health benefits, such as cardiovascular and cancer preventive properties. However, the experimental basis for such health benefit is not fully understood. One of the possible mechanisms for its protective activities is by down regulation of the inflammatory responses. That includes the inhibition of synthesis and release of pro-inflammatory mediators, modifications of eicosanoid synthesis, inhibition of some activated immune cells, or inhibiting the enzymes, such as cyclooxygenase-1 (COX-1) or cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), which are responsible for the synthesis of pro-inflammatory mediators through the inhibitory effect of resveratrol on transcription factors like nuclear factor kappaB (NFkappaB) or activator protein-1 (AP-1). Being a phenolic compound, resveratrol certainly possesses a low bioavailability and most importantly, a rapid clearance from the plasma. Recent growing interest in varying protective nature of resveratrol may clinically also hold a respectable position as a better alternative for anti-inflammatory drugs. The purpose of this review is to provide evidence that resveratrol exhibits potent anti-inflammatory activity and also to explain the underling mechanism for both resveratrol- induced cardioprotective and anti-inflammatory properties. While it is true that the cardioprotective properties of resveratrol are likely attributable, at least in part, to its anti-inflammatory properties, the mechanisms discussed address foremost mechanisms for the anti-inflammatory activity which, in turn, is responsible for cardioprotection.

  7. Marine Pharmacology in 2000: Marine Compounds with Antibacterial, Anticoagulant, Antifungal, Anti-inflammatory, Antimalarial, Antiplatelet, Antituberculosis, and Antiviral Activities; Affecting the Cardiovascular, Immune, and Nervous Systems and Other Miscellaneous Mechanisms of Action

    OpenAIRE

    Mayer, Alejandro M. S.; Hamann, Mark T.

    2003-01-01

    During 2000 research on the pharmacology of marine chemicals involved investigators from Australia, Brazil, Canada, Egypt, France, Germany, India, Indonesia, Israel, Italy, Japan, the Netherlands, New Zealand, Phillipines, Singapore, Slovenia, South Korea, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, United Kingdom, and the United States. This current review, a sequel to the authors’ 1998 and 1999 reviews, classifies 68 peer-reviewed articles on the basis of the reported preclinical pharmacologic properties o...

  8. Natural products and anti-inflammatory activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Gaofeng; Wahlqvist, Mark L; He, Guoqing; Yang, Min; Li, Duo

    2006-01-01

    The aim of this review paper was to summarise some commonly available natural products and their anti-inflammatory activity. We have collected data from MEDLINE, Current Contents and scientific journals, which included 92 publications. There are numerous natural products detailed in this literature; however we have summarized a few of the most commonly available and potent ones. In this paper, the natural products with anti-inflammatory activity including curcumin, parthenolide, cucurbitacins, 1,8-cineole, pseudopterosins, lyprinol, bromelain, flavonoids, saponins, marine sponge natural products and Boswellia serrata gum resin were reviewed. Natural products play a significant role in human health in relation to the prevention and treatment of inflammatory conditions. Further studies are being conducted to investigate the mechanism of action, metabolism, safety and long term side effect of these natural products, as well as interactions between these natural products with food and drug components.

  9. Anti inflammatory effects of statin in COPD

    OpenAIRE

    Nasef Abdelsalam Rezk; Ahmad Elewa

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: Statins are now becoming recognized as powerful antiinflammatory agents that exert beneficial effects beyond low-density lipoprotein cholesterol reduction [1]. COPD patients receiving statins obtain a benefit from these therapeutic agents. Clearly, the best medical evidence for the association of statins with improved outcomes for COPD patients [2]. We aimed in this study to assess anti inflammatory effects of statin in COPD patients. Patients and methods: We studied 28...

  10. Anti-Inflammatory Effect of Allium ursinum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alina Elena PÂRVU

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to evaluate Allium ursinum leaves and flowers extract anti-inflammatory effect. Plant extract 1:1 (w:v was prepared from A. ursinum leaves by a modified Squibb repercolation method. The in vivo anti-inflammatory effects were evaluated on a rat turpentine oil-induced inflammation (i.m. 6 mL/kg BW. The animals were randomly assigned to nine groups (n=8: negative control, inflammation, A. ursinum flower extract (AUF, A. ursinum leaves extract (AUL, indomethacin (INDO (20 mg/kg BW, aminoguanidine (AG (50 mg/kg b.w./d i.p. as a selective NOS2 inhibitor, NG-nitro L-arginine methyl ester (NAME (5 mg/kg b.w./d i.p. as a nonselective NOS inhibitor, L-arginine (ARG (100 mg/kg b.w./d i.p., NO synthesis substrate, and Trolox (20 mg/kg b.w./d i.p as an antioxidant. At 24h from inflammation induction total oxidative status (TOS, oxidative stress index (OSI, nitric oxide (NOx and in vitro phagocytosis test were reduced and the total antioxidative reactivity (TAR was increased by the testes plant extracts. AUF had a better inhibitory effect than AUL. In conclusion, we provided evidence for the hypothesis that A. ursinum leaves and flowers extract exerts anti-inflammatory activity by inhibiting the phagocytosis through the reduction of the nitro-oxidative stress.

  11. Antimicrobial, Anti-Inflammatory, Antiparasitic, and Cytotoxic Activities of Laennecia confusa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María G. Martínez Ruiz

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The current paper investigated the potential benefit of the traditional Mexican medicinal plant Laennecia confusa (Cronquist G. L. Nesom (Asteraceae. Fractions from the hexane, chloroform, methanol, and aqueous extracts were analyzed for antibacterial, antifungal, anti-inflammatory, and antiparasitic activities. The antimicrobial activity of the extracts and fractions was assessed on bacterial and fungal strains, in addition to the protozoa Leishmania donovani, using a microdilution assay. The propensity of the plant's compounds to produce adverse effects on human health was also evaluated using propidium iodine to identify damage to human macrophages. The anti-inflammatory activity of the extracts and fractions was investigated by measuring the secretion of interleukin-6. Chemical analyses demonstrated the presence of flavonoids, cyanogenic and cardiotonic glycosides, saponins, sesquiterpene lactones, and triterpenes in the chloroform extract. A number of extracts and fractions show antibacterial activity. Of particular interest is antibacterial activity against Staphylococcus aureus and its relative methicillin-resistant strain, MRSA. Hexanic and chloroformic fractions also exhibit antifungal activity and two extracts and the fraction CE 2 antiparasitic activity against Leishmania donovani. All bioactive extracts and fractions assayed were also found to be cytotoxic to macrophages. In addition, the hexane and methane extracts show anti-inflammatory activity by suppressing the secretion of interleukine-6.

  12. Anti-inflammatory Nanomedicine for Cardiovascular Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shunsuke Katsuki

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Coronary artery disease, in the development of which inflammation mediated by innate immune cells plays a critical role, is one of the leading causes of death worldwide. The 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase inhibitors (statins are a widely used lipid-lowering drug that has lipid-independent vasculoprotective effects, such as improvement of endothelial dysfunction, antioxidant properties, and inhibitory effects on inflammation. Despite recent advances in lipid-lowering therapy, clinical trials of statins suggest that anti-inflammatory therapy beyond lipid-lowering therapy is indispensible to further reduce cardiovascular events. One possible therapeutic option to the residual risk is to directly intervene in the inflammatory process by utilizing a nanotechnology-based drug delivery system (nano-DDS. Various nano-sized materials are currently developed as DDS, including micelles, liposomes, polymeric nanoparticles, dendrimers, carbon nanotubes, and metallic nanoparticles. The application of nano-DDS to coronary artery disease is a feasible strategy since the inflammatory milieu enhances incorporation of nano-sized materials into mononuclear phagocytic system and permeability of target lesions, which confers nano-DDS on “passive-targeting” property. Recently, we have developed a polymeric nanoparticle-incorporating statin to maximize its anti-inflammatory property. This statin nanoparticle has been tested in various disease models, including plaque destabilization and rupture, myocardial ischemia-reperfusion injury, and ventricular remodeling after acute myocardial infarction, and its clinical application is in progress. In this review, we present current development of DDS and future perspective on the application of anti-inflammatory nanomedicine to treat life-threatening cardiovascular diseases.

  13. Anti-inflammatory activity of Lippia dulcis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez, S; Meckes, M; Pérez, C; Susunaga, A; Zavala, M A

    2005-10-31

    Lippia dulcis hexane and ethanol extracts were tested for its anti-inflammatory activity in several animal models. Hexane extract showed to be inactive, but the ethanol extract at doses of 400 mg/kg produced significant inhibition of carrageenan-induced paw oedema and reduced the weight of cotton pellet-induced granuloma, moreover, the topical application of 0.5 mg/ear of this extract inhibited the edema induced with TPA by 49.13%, an effect which is of less intensity than that produced by indomethacine at the same dose.

  14. Erdosteine: antitussive and anti-inflammatory effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dal Negro, Roberto W

    2008-01-01

    Erdosteine is a multifactorial drug currently used in COPD for its rheologic activity on bronchial secretions and its positive effects on bacterial adhesiveness. Erdosteine produces an active metabolite (Met 1) which was shown to produce antioxidant effects during the respiratory burst of human PMNs, due to the presence of an SH group. The substantial antitussive effects of erdosteine were first documented in clinical trials even though mucolytic agents are regarded as not consistently effective in ameliorating cough in patients with bronchitis, although they may be of benefit to this population in other ways. Actually, a mucolytic drug could exert antitussive effects if it also affects mucus consistency and enhances ciliary function. In the last decade, data from several studies on animal models pointed to the possible antitussive and anti-inflammatory properties of erdosteine and an indirect anti-inflammatory mechanism of action was suggested. Recently, data from some controlled versus placebo studies documented the antioxidant properties of erdosteine in humans and in current smokers with COPD. The mechanism of action was described as related to erdosteine's ability to inhibit some inflammatory mediators and some pro-inflammatory cytokines that are specifically involved in oxidative stress. As oxidative stress is also presumed to impair beta-adrenoceptor function and contribute to airway obstruction, specific controlled studies recently investigated the effect of antioxidant intervention on short-term airway response to salbutamol in nonreversible COPD, according to a double-blind design versus placebo and NAC. Only erdosteine consistently restored a significant short-term reversibility in COPD subjects, previously unresponsive to beta(2) adrenergics. This peculiar activity of erdosteine (to our knowledge never previously assessed) proved related to the ROS scavenging activity (which actually proved equal to that of N), and its significant inhibiting effect on

  15. Novel anti-inflammatory agents in COPD

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Loukides, Stelios; Bartziokas, Konstantinos; Vestbo, Jørgen

    2013-01-01

    Inflammation plays a central role in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). COPD related inflammation is less responsive to inhaled steroids compared to asthma. There are three major novel anti-inflammatory approaches to the management of COPD. The first approach is phosphodiesterase...... on these strategies exist at the moment. A third potential approach involves novel agents whose mechanism of action is closely related to COPD mechanisms and pathophysiology. Such novel treatments are of great interest since they may treat both COPD and co-morbidities. Several novel agents are currently under...

  16. Anti-inflammatory potential of silk sericin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aramwit, Pornanong; Towiwat, Pasarapa; Srichana, Teerapol

    2013-04-01

    Silk sericin was found to suppress the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines, which are related to the inflammatory reaction. The objectives of this study were to investigate the anti-inflammatory effect of sericin in vivo using the carrageenan-induced rat edema model and changes in the histology of tissues. The effects of sericin on the expression of COX-2 and iNOS were also evaluated. Sericin solutions at 0.004-0.080 mg/mL were applied topically to the top of the hind paw and carrageenan (1.0 mg) was injected subcutaneously to the plantar surface of the right hind paw. Our results indicated that sericin significantly reduced the inflammation in rats' paw compared with the negative control (water and acetone) and its effect at 0.080 mg/mL was only slightly lower than that of 1.0% w/v indomethacin. Similar numbers of polymorphonuclear and macrophage cells were found in rats' tissue treated with indomethacin and sericin solution, while the numbers were significantly higher in their absence. The gene expression results by RT-PCR showed that the COX-2 and iNOS genes were down-regulated in samples treated with sericin in a dose dependent manner. These data indicated that the anti-inflammatory properties of sericin may be partly attributable to the suppression of the COX-2 enzyme and nitric oxide production.

  17. Medicinal herbs as possible sources of anti-inflammatory products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreia Corciovă

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Plants constitute an inexhaustible source of bioactive compounds that can be valuable for research in the chemistry field of anti-inflammatory compounds. This review describes several plants from international and national flora that have been shown to have anti-inflammatory activity in various clinical trials. The paper includes: general aspects regarding the vegetal source, compounds responsible for anti-inflammatory activity, mechanism of action and clinical trials carried out with extracts or products containing standardized extracts.

  18. Anti-inflammatory and analgesic activities: Chemical constituents of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Anti-inflammatory and analgesic activities: Chemical constituents of essential oils of Ocimum gratissimum , Eucalyptus citriodora and Cymbopogon giganteus inhibited lipoxygenase L-1 and cyclooxygenase of PGHS.

  19. Review of Anti-Inflammatory Herbal Medicines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mona Ghasemian

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Medicinal plants and their secondary metabolites are progressively used in the treatment of diseases as a complementary medicine. Inflammation is a pathologic condition that includes a wide range of diseases such as rheumatic and immune-mediated conditions, diabetes, cardiovascular accident, and etcetera. We introduce some herbs which their anti-inflammatory effects have been evaluated in clinical and experimental studies. Curcuma longa, Zingiber officinale, Rosmarinus officinalis, Borago officinalis, evening primrose, and Devil’s claw are some of the introduced medicinal herbs in this review. Since the treatment of inflammation is not a one-dimensional remedy, this review tries to reach a multidimensional therapeutic approach to inflammation with the help of herbal medicine and modification in lifestyle.

  20. Bioassay guided isolation and identification of anti-inflammatory and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The present study describes the anti-inflammatory, anti-microbial activity and lipophilic profile with acute toxicological studies of Urtica dioica. Successive extraction of the leaves with organic solvents of increasing polarity and their screening for anti-inflammatory and anti-microbial activity was assessed. Hexane extract ...

  1. Analgesic and anti-inflammatory effects of Cyphostemma vogelii (Hook

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Rita

    2013-04-24

    Apr 24, 2013 ... Key words: Analgesic, anti-inflammatory, mice, Cyphostemma vogelii, nociception. ... steroidal anti- inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are considered the drugs of ..... 44-55. Hughes H, Lang M (1983). Control of pain in dogs and cats In: Kitchell. R, Erickson H (eds.) Animal pain. Baltimore Waverly press. pp. 207-.

  2. Anti-Inflammatory and Antioxidant Activities of Methanol Extracts and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Anti-Inflammatory and Antioxidant Activities of Methanol Extracts and Alkaloid Fractions of four Mexican Medicinal Plants of Solanaceae. ... equivalents/g of extract), the best antioxidant activity (94.80% inhibition of DPPH and 97.57% of ABTS) and the highest anti-inflammatory activity (81.93% inhibition of the inflammation).

  3. Anti-inflammatory and Analgesic Activities of Amorphophallus bulbifer

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To investigate the anti-inflammatory and analgesic activities of the Amorphophallus Bulbifer in Wistar rats and mice. Methods: The anti-inflammatory activity of the hydroalcohol extract of A. bulbifer whole plant at dose levels of 100 and 200 mg/kg p.o. in rats was determined with a plethysmograph paw volume ...

  4. Evaluation of analgesic and anti-inflammatory effects of ethanol ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was undertaken to investigate the leaf part of the plant for analgesic and anti-inflammatory. The ethanol extract of Ficus iteophylla leaves (100, 200, and 400mgkg-1, i.p) was evaluated for analgesic and anti-inflammatory activities. The analgesic effect was studied using acetic acid-induced abdominal constriction ...

  5. In vivo anti-inflammatory activity of Liquidambar formosana Hance ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To evaluate the anti-inflammatory activity of Liquidambar formosana Hance infructescence (Liquidambaris fructus, ELF) in vivo, and clarify its underlying mechanisms. Methods: The in vivo anti-inflammatory activity of ELF was examined by xylene-induced ear swelling test in mice as well as carrageenan-induced ...

  6. Analgesic and anti-inflammatory effects of Crinum asiaticum leaf ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study investigated the analgesic and anti-inflammatory effects of Crinum asiaticum (Amaryllidaceae) leaf ethanolic extract. Analgesic effect was investigated in acetic acid induced writhing model and formalin induced licking model in swiss albino mice. Anti-inflammatory effect was conducted in carrageenan-induced ...

  7. Anti-inflammatory studies of yam (Dioscorea esculenta) extract on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SERVER

    2007-08-20

    Aug 20, 2007 ... Anti-inflammatory studies of yam (Dioscorea esculenta) extract on wistar rats. J. O. Olayemi and E. O. Ajaiyeoba*. Department of Pharmacognosy, University of Ibadan, Ibadan, Nigeria. Accepted 4 July, 2007. The defatted methanol extract of Dioscorea esculenta tuber was evaluated for anti-inflammatory.

  8. Evaluation of anti-inflammatory, analgesic, and antipyretic effects of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study investigated the possible anti-inflammatory, analgesic, and antipyretic effects of ethanolic extract of Pedalium murex Linn. fruits in selected experimental animal models. Anti-inflammatory activity of Pedalium murex Linn., with doses of 200 mg/kg and 400 mg/kg, p.o., was evaluated by Lambda-carrageenan ...

  9. Investigation of the anti-inflammatory and anti- nociceptive activities ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PRECIOUS

    2009-06-15

    Jun 15, 2009 ... (1998) Antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory effects of Sambucus ebulus rhizome extract in rats. J. Ethnopharmacol. 61: 229-235. Barros IMC, Lopes LDG, Borges MOR, Borges ACR, Ribeiro MNS,. Freire SMF (2006). Anti-inflammatory and anti-nociceptive activities of Pluchea quitic (D.C) ethanolic extract.

  10. Synthesis and Anti-inflammatory Activity of Some Novel ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Synthesis and Anti-inflammatory Activity of Some Novel Trisubstituted Thiophene Analogues. ... Ethiopian Pharmaceutical Journal ... analogues (IVa-IVf) were designed, synthesized, characterized and evaluated for their anti-inflammatory activity in carrageenin-induced rat hind paw oedema model at 10 mg/kg dose.

  11. Assessment of anti-inflammatory potential of Sesbania bispinosa ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Aim and objectives: Leaf extracts and fractions of S. bispinosa were evaluated for anti-inflammatory activity in mice using acute and chronic anti-inflammatory models with aspirin as a reference drug. Materials and methods: Methanol, chloroform and hexane were used to prepare leaf extracts by soxhlet extraction method, ...

  12. Evaluation Of Analgesic And Anti-Inflammatory Activity Of Diospyros ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Evaluation Of Analgesic And Anti-Inflammatory Activity Of Diospyros Cordifolia Extract. S Das, PK Haldar, G Pramanik, SP Panda, S Bera. Abstract. In this study we evaluated the analgesic and anti- inflammatory activities of the methanol extract of stem bark of Diospyros cordifolia (MEDC) Roxb. The analgesic effects of the ...

  13. Anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory properties of Carica papaya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandey, Saurabh; Cabot, Peter J; Shaw, P Nicholas; Hewavitharana, Amitha K

    2016-07-01

    Chronic inflammation is linked with the generation and progression of various diseases such as cancer, diabetes and atherosclerosis, and anti-inflammatory drugs therefore have the potential to assist in the treatment of these conditions. Carica papaya is a tropical plant that is traditionally used in the treatment of various ailments including inflammatory conditions. A literature search was conducted by using the keywords "papaya", "anti-inflammatory and inflammation" and "immunomodulation and immune" along with cross-referencing. Both in vitro and in vivo investigation studies were included. This is a review of all studies published since 2000 on the anti-inflammatory activity of papaya extracts and their effects on various immune-inflammatory mediators. Studies on the anti-inflammatory activities of recognized phytochemicals present in papaya are also included. Although in vitro and in vivo studies have shown that papaya extracts and papaya-associated phytochemicals possess anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory properties, clinical studies are lacking.

  14. Anti-inflammatory activity of Taraxacum officinale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeon, Hye-Jin; Kang, Hyun-Jung; Jung, Hyun-Joo; Kang, Young-Sook; Lim, Chang-Jin; Kim, Young-Myeong; Park, Eun-Hee

    2008-01-04

    Taraxacum officinale has been widely used as a folkloric medicine for the treatment of diverse diseases. The dried plant was extracted with 70% ethanol to generate its ethanol extract (TEE). For some experiments, ethyl acetate (EA), n-butanol (BuOH) and aqueous (Aq) fractions were prepared in succession from TEE. TEE showed a scavenging activity in the 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) assay, a diminishing effect on intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) level, and an anti-angiogenic activity in the chicken chorioallantoic (CAM) assay. In the carrageenan-induced air pouch model, TEE inhibited production of exudate, and significantly diminished nitric oxide (NO) and leukocyte levels in the exudate. It also possessed an inhibitory effect on acetic acid-induced vascular permeability and caused a dose-dependent inhibition on acetic acid-induced abdominal writhing in mice. Suppressive effects of TEE on the production of NO and expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated macrophages were also assessed. Among the fractions, the n-butanol fraction (BuOH) was identified to be most effective in the CAM assay. Collectively, Taraxacum officinale contains anti-angiogenic, anti-inflammatory and anti-nociceptive activities through its inhibition of NO production and COX-2 expression and/or its antioxidative activity.

  15. Compensatory anti-inflammatory response syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adib-Conquy, Minou; Cavaillon, Jean-Marc

    2009-01-01

    The concept of 'Compensatory anti-inflammatory response syndrome' (CARS) was proposed in 1997 by Roger Bone (1941-1997) to qualify the consequences of the counter-regulatory mechanisms initiated to limit the overzealous inflammatory process in patients with infectious (sepsis) or non-infectious systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS). One major consequence of CARS is the modification of the immune status that could favour the enhanced susceptibility of intensive care patients to nosocomial infections. Indeed, most animal 'two-hit' models illustrate an enhanced sensitivity to infection after a first insult. However, this observation is highly dependent on the experimental procedure. Numerous functions of circulating leukocytes are altered in sepsis and SIRS patients, as well as in animal models of sepsis or SIRS. However, this is rather a reprogramming of circulating leukocytes, since there is not a global defect of the immune cells functions. Furthermore, within tissues, leukocytes are rather primed or activated than immunosuppressed. Thus, CARS may be considered as an adapted compartmentalized response with the aim to silence some acute proinflammatory genes, and to maintain the possible expression of certain genes involved in the anti-infectious process.

  16. Anti-inflammatory glucocorticoids: changing concepts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newton, Robert

    2014-02-05

    Despite being the most effective anti-inflammatory treatment for chronic inflammatory diseases, the mechanisms by which glucocorticoids (corticosteroids) effect repression of inflammatory gene expression remain incompletely understood. Direct interaction of the glucocorticoid receptor (NR3C1) with inflammatory transcription factors to repress transcriptional activity, i.e. transrepression, represents one mechanism of action. However, transcriptional activation, or transactivation, by NR3C1 also represents an important mechanism of glucocorticoid action. Glucocorticoids rapidly and profoundly increase expression of multiple genes, many with properties consistent with the repression of inflammatory gene expression. For example: the dual specificity phosphatase, DUSP1, reduces activation of mitogen-activated protein kinases; glucocorticoid-induced leucine zipper (TSC22D3) represses nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) and activator protein 1 (AP-1) transcriptional responses; inhibitor of κBα (NFKBIA) inhibits NF-κB; tristraprolin (ZFP36) destabilises and translationally represses inflammatory mRNAs; CDKN1C, a cell cycle regulator, may attenuate JUN N-terminal kinase signalling; and regulator of G-protein signalling 2 (RGS2), by reducing signalling from Gαq-linked G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs), is bronchoprotective. While glucocorticoid-dependent transrepression can co-exist with transactivation, transactivation may account for the greatest level and most potent repression of inflammatory genes. Equally, NR3C1 transactivation is enhanced by β2-adrenoceptor agonists and may explain the enhanced clinical efficacy of β2-adrenoceptor/glucocorticoid combination therapies in asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Finally, NR3C1 transactivation is reduced by inflammatory stimuli, including respiratory syncytial virus and human rhinovirus. This provides an explanation for glucocorticoid resistance. Continuing efforts to understand roles for glucocorticoid

  17. Anti-inflammatory Action of Green Tea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohishi, Tomokazu; Goto, Shingo; Monira, Pervin; Isemura, Mamoru; Nakamura, Yoriyuki

    2016-01-01

    Green tea has been shown to have beneficial effects against a variety of diseases such as cancer, obesity, diabetes, cardiovascular disease, and neurodegenerative diseases. Through cellular, animal, and human experiments, green tea and its major component, epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) have been demonstrated to have anti-inflammatory effects. Our previous findings have indicated that green tea and EGCG suppress the gene and/or protein expression of inflammatory cytokines and inflammation-related enzymes. Using bibliographic databases, particularly PubMed (provided by the http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed, US National Library of Medicine, National Institutes of Health, United States), we examined the potential usefulness of green tea/EGCG for the prevention and treatment of inflammatory diseases in human clinical and epidemiological studies. We also reviewed results from cellular and animal experiments and proposed action mechanisms. Most of the results from the human studies indicated the beneficial effects of green tea and tea catechins against inflammatory diseases. The cellular and animal studies also provided evidence for the favorable effects of green tea/EGCG. These results are compatible with our previous findings and can be largely explained by a mechanism wherein green tea/EGCG acts as an antioxidant to scavenge reactive oxygen species, leading to attenuation of nuclear factor-κB activity. Since green tea and EGCG have multiple targets and act in a pleiotropic manner, we may consider their usage to improve the quality of life in patients with inflammatory disease. Green tea and EGCG have beneficial health effects and no severe adverse effects; however, care should be taken to avoid overdosage, which may induce deleterious effects including hepatic injury. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  18. Anti-inflammatory properties of bioactive titanium metals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Bangcheng; Gan, Lu; Qu, Yang; Yue, Chongxia

    2010-09-01

    Anti-inflammatory properties of bioactive titanium metals prepared by anodic oxidation (AO-Ti) and alkali-heat (AH-Ti) treatments were studied by bacterial adhesion test and myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity assay methods. The bioactivities of the metals were also evaluated by apatite formation ability and osteoblasts culture experiments. Both metals could induce apatite formation and support osteoblasts proliferation. At the condition with normal incandescent light shine, both bioactive titanium metals had antibacterial adhesion properties compared with the titanium metal without treatment. The MPO activity assay proved that they both showed anti-inflammatory properties in vivo. The bioactive AO-Ti had better anti-inflammatory properties than the AH-Ti. It indicated that it is possible to optimize the anti-inflammatory properties of the bioactive titanium metals by different preparation methods. (c) 2010 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Anti-inflammatory activities of enzymatic (alcalase) hydrolysate of a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Anti-inflammatory activities of enzymatic (alcalase) hydrolysate of a whey protein concentrate. LB de Carvalho-Silva, MTB Pacheco, R Bertoldo, C de Carvalho Veloso, LC Teodoro, A Giusti-Paiva, PCB Lollo, R Soncini ...

  20. Anti-inflammatory agents in the treatment of bipolar depression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosenblat, Joshua D; Kakar, Ron; Berk, Michael

    2016-01-01

    the overall antidepressant effect of adjunctive anti-inflammatory agents in the treatment of bipolar depression. METHODS: Completed and ongoing clinical trials of anti-inflammatory agents for BD published prior to 15 May 15 2015 were identified through searching the PubMed, Embase, Psych......INFO, and Clinicaltrials.gov databases. Data from randomized controlled trials (RCTs) assessing the antidepressant effect of adjunctive mechanistically diverse anti-inflammatory agents were pooled to determine standard mean differences (SMDs) compared with standard therapy alone. RESULTS: Ten RCTs were identified...... for qualitative review. Eight RCTs (n = 312) assessing adjunctive nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (n = 53), omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n = 140), N-acetylcysteine (n = 76), and pioglitazone (n = 44) in the treatment of BD met the inclusion criteria for quantitative analysis. The overall effect size...

  1. Antinociceptive and anti-Inflammatory effects of the standardized oil ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Antinociceptive and anti-Inflammatory effects of the standardized oil of Indian Callistemon lanceolatus leaves in experimental animals. M Sudhakar, CV Rao, AL Rao, A Ramesh, N Srinivas, DB Raju, B Krishna Murthy ...

  2. anti-inflammatory and analgesic activities: chemical constituents of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    a

    *Corresponding author. E-mail: bedisag@yahoo.fr. ANTI-INFLAMMATORY AND ANALGESIC ACTIVITIES: CHEMICAL CONSTITUENTS OF ESSENTIAL OILS OF OCIMUM GRATISSIMUM,. EUCALYPTUS CITRIODORA AND CYMBOPOGON GIGANTEUS INHIBITED. LIPOXYGENASE L-1 AND CYCLOOXYGENASE OF ...

  3. Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs: adverse effects and their prevention.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vonkeman, Harald Erwin; van de Laar, Mart A F J

    2010-01-01

    Objectives: To discuss nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), their history, development, mode of action, toxicities, strategies for the prevention of toxicity, and future developments. - Methods: Medline search for articles published up to 2007, using the keywords acetylsalicylic acid,

  4. [Non steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and rheumatic diseases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cossermelli, W; Pastor, E H

    1995-01-01

    Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAID) comprise an important class of medicaments that reduced the symptoms of inflamation in rheumatic disease. This article emphasizes similarities and class characteristics of the NSAID, mechanisms of action, and drug-interactions.

  5. Anti-inflammatory and analgesic activities of Melanthera scandens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okokon, Jude E; Udoh, Anwanga E; Frank, Samuel G; Amazu, Louis U

    2012-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the anti-inflammatory and analgesic activities of leaf extract of Melanthera scandens (M. scandens). Methods The crude leaf extract (39–111 mg/kg) of M. scandens was investigated for anti-inflammatory and analgesic activities using various experimental models. The anti-inflammatory activity was investigated using carragenin, egg-albumin induced oedema models, while acetic acid, formalin-induced paw licking and thermal-induced pain models were used to evaluate the antinociceptive property. Results The extract caused a significant (P<0.05 – 0.001) dose-dependent reduction of inflammation and pains induced by different agents used. Conclusions The leaf extract possesses anti-inflammatory and analgesic effects which may be mediated through the phytochemical constituents of the plant. PMID:23569885

  6. Anti-inflammatory activity in selected Antarctic benthic organisms

    OpenAIRE

    Moles, Juan; Torrent, Anna; Alcaraz, M. José; Ruhí, Ramon; Avila, Conxita

    2014-01-01

    Antarctic benthos was prospected in search for anti-inflammatory activity in polar benthic invertebrates, in two different geographical areas: deep-bottoms of the Eastern Weddell Sea and shallow-waters of the South Shetland Islands. A total of 36 benthic algae and invertebrate species were selected to perform solubility tests in order to obtain extracts that were soluble at an innocuous ethanol concentration (0.2%) for cell culture, and further test them for anti-inflammatory activity. From t...

  7. In vivo anti-inflammatory activity of Liquidambar formosana Hance ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    serum decreased and the levels of anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10 increased (p < 0.01). In addition,. ELF treatment resulted in decrease of COX-2 (p < 0.01), iNOS (p < 0.01) and NF-κB p65 (p < 0.01) expressions in Wistar rats. Conclusion: The results reveal that ELF possesses significant anti-inflammatory effect in vivo.

  8. Radiation as anti-inflammatory agent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagaraju, S.

    2012-01-01

    Radiation is used for many disease treatments, recently works are being conducted on benefits of radiation for treating inflammatory diseases but clinical practices are limited. There are always risks involved with radiation. Risks could include, but are not limited to, potential late effects, even the induction of tumor formation as well as changes in normal tissues. Recently it has been reported in three randomized double blind studies using radiation for patients with painful degenerative joint diseases. All the three studies showed improvement in symptoms within months, suggesting the some with acute disease improve spontaneously. The treatment actually did not improve the architecture of the joint, yet it decreased painful symptoms. Pathologic evaluation weeks later showed disappearance of edema in the joint space with diminished inflammation and joint swelling. Thus it is postulated some therapeutic effects of radiotherapy for inflammatory diseases are due to the ability of radiation to inhibit cell proliferation. Sometimes inflammatory cells which affect the inflammatory joint space. This may have long-term consequences if it exists during critical periods. This may explain the effectiveness of radiotherapy in prevention of inflammatory disease. It is also noted that the effects of very low radiation doses of less than 500 rads on acute inflammation formations are most spectacular. Mitigation of pain, edema and erythema occurs so fast and after such low doses that it is inconceivable that cell death or inhibition of proliferation could play any role in this process. The optimal therapeutic effects of low dose irradiation occur in the very early stages of inflammation when vascular dilatation, edema formation and leukocyte invasion are beginning. There certainly can be adverse effects from radiation, yet it has to be noted that more than 1,60,000 people die annually of adverse effects of simple non-steroidal anti-inflammatory pills that are available in the

  9. Nonsteroidal Anti-inflammatory-Organometallic Anticancer Compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Păunescu, Emilia; McArthur, Sarah; Soudani, Mylène; Scopelliti, Rosario; Dyson, Paul J

    2016-02-15

    Compounds that combine metal-based drugs with covalently linked targeted organic agents have been shown, in some instances, to exhibit superior anticancer properties compared to the individual counterparts. Within this framework, we prepared a series of organometallic ruthenium(II)- and osmium(II)-p-cymene complexes modified with the nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) indomethacin and diclofenac. The NSAIDs are attached to the organometallic moieties via monodentate (pyridine/phosphine) or bidentate (bipyridine) ligands, affording piano-stool Ru(II) and Os(II) arene complexes of general formula [M(η(6)-p-cymene)Cl2(N)], where N is a pyridine-based ligand, {2-(2-(1-(4-chlorobenzoyl)-5-methoxy-2-methyl-1H-indol-3-yl)acetoxy)ethyl-3-(pyridin-3-yl)propanoate} or {2-(2-(2-((2,6-dichlorophenyl)amino)phenyl)acetoxy)ethyl-3-(pyridin-3-yl)propanoate}, [M(η(6)-p-cymene)Cl2(P)], where P is a phosphine ligand, {2-(2-(1-(4-chlorobenzoyl)-5-methoxy-2-methyl-1H-indol-3-yl)acetoxy)ethyl-4-(diphenylphosphanyl)benzoate} or {2-(2-(2-((2,6-dichlorophenyl)amino)phenyl)acetoxy)ethyl-4-(diphenylphosphanyl)benzoate, and [M(η(6)-p-cymene)Cl(N,N')][Cl], where N,N' is a bipyridine-based ligand, (4'-methyl-[2,2'-bipyridin]-4-yl)methyl-2-(1-(4-chlorobenzoyl)-5-methoxy-2-methyl-1H-indol-3-yl)acetate), (4'-methyl-[2,2'-bipyridin]-4-yl)methyl-2-(2-((2,6-dichlorophenyl)amino)phenyl)acetate), (bis(2-(2-(1-(4-chlorobenzoyl)-5-methoxy-2-methyl-1H-indol-3-yl)acetoxy)ethyl)[2,2'-bipyridine]-5,5'-dicarboxylate), or (bis(2-(2-(2-((2,6-dichlorophenyl)amino)phenyl)acetoxy)ethyl)[2,2'-bipyridine]-5,5'-dicarboxylate). The antiproliferative properties of the complexes were assessed in human ovarian cancer cells (A2780 and A2780cisR, the latter being resistant to cisplatin) and nontumorigenic human embryonic kidney (HEK-293) cells. Some of the complexes are considerably more cytotoxic than the original drugs and also display significant cancer cell selectivity.

  10. Dendrimer encapsulation enhances anti-inflammatory efficacy of silver nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xuelai; Hao, Wei; Lok, Chun-Nam; Wang, Yue Chun; Zhang, RuiZhong; Wong, Kenneth K Y

    2014-12-01

    Our previous studies revealed that silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) promoted wound healing in part through their anti-inflammatory actions. As recent reports also suggested anti-inflammatory effects of dendrimers, we therefore undertook this study using dendrimer as the delivery system for AgNP to explore any potential synergistic anti-inflammatory efficacy. Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) was added to cultured RAW264.7 and J774.1 cells to mimic in vitro inflammation condition, followed by the addition of either silver dendrimer nanocomposite (Ag-DNC), AgNPs, or dendrimer. The levels of inflammatory markers TNF-alpha and interleukin-6 were assessed using ELISA assay. Furthermore, in vivo effects such of Ag-DNC, AgNPs, or dendrimer were studied in a burn wound model in mice. Our results confirmed that both naked dendrimer and AgNPs had anti-inflammatory properties. In in vitro study, Ag-DNC was shown to have the best anti-inflammatory efficacy than AgNPs or dendrimer alone. In-vivo experiments also indicated that animals in the Ag-DNC group had the fastest healing time with the least inflammation. Our study would suggest that dendrimer could provide additional anti-inflammatory benefits and might be an excellent delivery system for silver nanoparticles for future clinical application. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. A Brief Perspective on Anti-inflammatory Effects of Thymol and Carvacrol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohsen Alizadeh

    2017-12-01

    plants especially Zataria multiflora and Satureja hortensis (Figure-1. These compounds are monoterpenoid phenols which are chemically very similar and only the position of their hydroxyl group differs (9. Several researches have documented that carvacrol exhibits various biological activities including but not limited to antioxidant, antimicrobial, antispasmodic, anti-inflammatory, analgesic, immunomodulatory and chemopreventive activities (10-12. Thymol had also beneficial properties including antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antiseptic, antibacterial, antifungal, antinociceptive, properties. Numerous investigations have been carried out on the properties of these compounds, among which we now refer to a number of them concerning their anti-inflammatory properties and to confirm this study (13-15. Many researches showed anti-inflammatory effects of carvacrol. Carvacrol could inhibit neutrophil elastase and production of E2, F1 and F2 prostaglandins. It also can inhibit cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2 activity (16-18. In addition to carvacrol, thymol showed anti-inflammatory effects through inhibition of human neutrophil elastase. Another study indicated that carvacrol and thymol, particularly carvacrol, play their anti-inflammatory roles via inhibited inflammatory edema and leukocyte migration (19.

  12. Lyprinol—Is It a Useful Anti-Inflammatory Agent?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheila A. Doggrell

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The New Zealand green lipped mussel preparation Lyprinol is available without a prescription from a supermarket, pharmacy or Web. The Food and Drug Administration have recently warned Lyprinol USA about their extravagant anti-inflammatory claims for Lyprinol appearing on the web. These claims are put to thorough review. Lyprinol does have anti-inflammatory mechanisms, and has anti-inflammatory effects in some animal models of inflammation. Lyprinol may have benefits in dogs with arthritis. There are design problems with the clinical trials of Lyprinol in humans as an anti-inflammatory agent in osteoarthritis and rheumatoid arthritis, making it difficult to give a definite answer to how effective Lyprinol is in these conditions, but any benefit is small. Lyprinol also has a small benefit in atopic allergy. As anti-inflammatory agents, there is little to choose between Lyprinol and fish oil. No adverse effects have been reported with Lyprinol. Thus, although it is difficult to conclude whether Lyprinol does much good, it can be concluded that Lyprinol probably does no major harm.

  13. Anti-inflammatory activity of root of Alpinia galanga willd

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asim Kumar Ghosh

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The objective of the study is to evaluate the acute and chronic anti-inflammatory activities of root extract of Alpinia galanga in rodents. Materials and Methods: The study was carried out using albino rats of either sex (150-200 g. An extract of the root of A. galanga was prepared using absolute alcohol and distillation in a Soxhlet apparatus. The acute anti-inflammatory effects of this extract were evaluated using carrageenan-, bradykinin-, and 5-HT-induced rat paw edema. The chronic anti-inflammatory effects were evaluated using formaldehyde-induced rat paw edema. Results and Analysis: Inhibition of inflammation was seen to be 32.22% in carrageenan-induced, 37.70% in 5-HT-induced, and 35.21% in bradykinin-induced anti-inflammatory models. In chronic inflammatory model, a progressive inhibition of 34.73% (3 rd day, 37.50% (5 th day, 38.83% (7 th day, 44.66% (9 th day, 49.59% (11 th day, and 55.75% (13 th day was observed with study compound. The efficacy was comparable with the standard drugs. Conclusion: It can be thus concluded that A. galanga has anti-inflammatory properties and probably acts by blocking histaminic and serotonin pathways. It may be an effective alternative to NASAIDs and corticosteroid in inflammatory disorders.

  14. Analgesic and Anti-Inflammatory Activity of Pinus roxburghii Sarg.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dhirender Kaushik

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The Chir Pine, Pinus roxburghii, named after William Roxburgh, is a pine native to the Himalaya. Pinus roxburghii Sarg. (Pinaceae is traditionally used for several medicinal purposes in India. As the oil of the plant is extensively used in number of herbal preparation for curing inflammatory disorders, the present study was undertaken to assess analgesic and anti-inflammatory activities of its bark extract. Dried and crushed leaves of Pinus roxburghii Sarg. were defatted with petroleum ether and then extracted with alcohol. The alcoholic extract at the doses of 100 mg/kg, 300 mg/kg, and 500 mg/kg body weight was subjected to evaluation of analgesic and anti-inflammatory activities in experimental animal models. Analgesic activity was evaluated by acetic acid-induced writhing and tail immersion tests in Swiss albino mice; acute and chronic anti-inflammatory activity was evaluated by carrageenan-induced paw oedema and cotton pellet granuloma in Wistar albino rats. Diclofenac sodium and indomethacin were employed as reference drugs for analgesic and anti-inflammatory studies, respectively. In the present study, the alcoholic bark extract of Pinus roxburghii Sarg. demonstrated significant analgesic and anti-inflammatory activities in the tested models.

  15. Anti-inflammatory management for tendon injuries - friends or foes?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chan Kai-Ming

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Acute and chronic tendon injuries are very common among athletes and in sedentary population. Most physicians prescribe anti-inflammatory managements to relieve the worst symptoms of swelling and pain, including non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, corticosteroids and physical therapies. However, experimental research shows that pro-inflammatory mediators such as prostaglandins may play important regulatory roles in tendon healing. Noticeably nearly all cases of chronic tendon injuries we treat as specialists have received non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs by their physician, suggesting that there might be a potential interaction in some of these cases turning a mild inflammatory tendon injury into chronic tendinopathy in predisposed individuals. We are aware of the fact that non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and corticosteroids may well have a positive effect on the pain control in the clinical situation whilst negatively affect the structural healing. It follows that a comprehensive evaluation of anti-inflammatory management for tendon injuries is needed and any such data would have profound clinical and health economic importance.

  16. Non-steroidal Anti-inflammatory Drugs Are Caspase Inhibitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Christina E; Soti, Subada; Jones, Torey A; Nakagawa, Akihisa; Xue, Ding; Yin, Hang

    2017-03-16

    Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are among the most commonly used drugs in the world. While the role of NSAIDs as cyclooxygenase (COX) inhibitors is well established, other targets may contribute to anti-inflammation. Here we report caspases as a new pharmacological target for NSAID family drugs such as ibuprofen, naproxen, and ketorolac at physiologic concentrations both in vitro and in vivo. We characterize caspase activity in both in vitro and in cell culture, and combine computational modeling and biophysical analysis to determine the mechanism of action. We observe that inhibition of caspase catalysis reduces cell death and the generation of pro-inflammatory cytokines. Further, NSAID inhibition of caspases is COX independent, representing a new anti-inflammatory mechanism. This finding expands upon existing NSAID anti-inflammatory behaviors, with implications for patient safety and next-generation drug design. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Anti-inflammatory Flavonoids Isolated from Passiflora foetida.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Thi Yen; To, Dao Cuong; Tran, Manh Hung; Lee, Joo Sang; Lee, Jeong Hyung; Kim, Jeong Ah; Woo, Mi Hee; Min, Byung Sun

    2015-06-01

    In this study, we evaluated the anti-inflammatory activity of the soluble ethyl acetate fraction and chemical components of the stem bark of Passiflora foetida (Passifloraceae). Ten flavonoids (1-10) were isolated by various chromatographic techniques, and their structures were determined based on spectroscopic analyses by using nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR). Luteolin (2) and chrysoeriol (3) showed the most potent inhibition of nitric oxide (NO) production in macrophage cell line, RAW264.7, with half maximal inhibitor concentration (IC50) values of 1.2 and 3.1 μM, respectively. These compounds suppressed lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced inducible NO synthase (iNOS) expression at the transcription level. Our research indicates that the stem bark of P. foetida has significant anti-inflammatory properties, suggesting that its flavonoids may have anti-inflammatory benefits.

  18. Analgesic and anti-inflammatory activities of Piper nigrum L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tasleem, Farhana; Azhar, Iqbal; Ali, Syed Nawazish; Perveen, Shaista; Mahmood, Zafar Alam

    2014-09-01

    To evaluate and compare the analgesic and anti-inflammatory activity of pure compound, piperine along with hexane and ethanol extracts of Piper nigrum L. fruit in mice and rats. The analgesic activity was determined by tail immersion method, analgesy-meter, hot plate and acetic acid induced writhing test. While the anti-inflammatory activity was evaluated by carrageenan-induced paw inflammation in rats. Piperine at a dose of 5 mg/kg and ethanol extract at a dose of 15 mg/kg after 120 min and hexane extract at a dose of 10 mg/kg after 60 min exhibited significant (PPiper nigrum L possesses potent analgesic and anti-inflammatory activities. Copyright © 2014 Hainan Medical College. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Kalanchosine dimalate, an anti-inflammatory salt from Kalanchoe brasiliensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Sônia Soares; de Souza, Maria de Lourdes Mendes; Ibrahim, Tereza; de Melo, Giany Oliveira; de Almeida, Ana Paula; Guette, Catherine; Férézou, Jean-Pierre; Koatz, Vera Lucia G

    2006-05-01

    This report describes the isolation and characterization of kalanchosine dimalate (KMC), an anti-inflammatory salt from the fresh juice of the aerial parts of Kalanchoe brasiliensis. KMC comprises the new metabolite kalanchosine (1) and malic acid (2) in a 1:2 stoichiometric ratio. Kalanchosine (1), 3,6-diamino-4,5-dihydroxyoctanedioic acid, is the first naturally occurring dimeric bis(gamma-hydroxy-beta-amino acid) and is at least partially responsible for the anti-inflammatory properties of K. brasiliensis.

  20. Antifungal activity of extracts and phenolic compounds from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-06-17

    Jun 17, 2009 ... (naringin, rutin, luteolin and kaempferol). The results of present study provide scientific basis for the use of the plant extract in the future development as antifungal, antibacterial, antioxidant and anti- inflammatory agent. Key words: Barringtonia racemosa, antifungal, HPLC, phenolic acids, flavonoids.

  1. Analgesic, anti-inflammatory and antipyretic effects of the ethanol ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The leaves of Acalypha wilkesiana are commonly used for the treatment of pain, fever and ulcer by traditional medical practitioners without any scientific data to evaluate ... Different sets of rats were used for the anti-ulcer, anti-inflammatory and antipyretic studies although animal grouping for extract administration were as in ...

  2. Analgesic and anti-inflammatory effects of Allium Ascalonicum ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The methanol and aqueous extract of Allium ascalonicom were investigated for analgesic and anti-inflammatory properties. Thermal and chemical models of pain assessment were used while albumin was used to induce inflammation. The extracts were administered at doses of 50, 100 and 200 mg/kg. The methanol extract ...

  3. Antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and anti-nociceptive properties of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The anti-inflammatory potential was investigated in egg-albumin and carrageenan induced paw edema models while the antinociceptive activity was determined using acetic acid induced writhing reflex and tail immersion tests at the doses of 50, 100 and 200 mg/kg. The negative control group (group A) received distilled ...

  4. Hemostatic, anti-inflammatory and antibacterial effects of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To study the hemostatic, anti-inflammatory and antibacterial effects of Sanqixiantao dressing. Methods: Sanqixiantao dressing was prepared by mixting with sanqixiiantao extract (8 %) with membrane-forming matrix (5:4:9:2 volume ratio of polyvinyl alcohol: Na CMC: gelatin: glycerol). Rats with local surface ...

  5. Antipyretic, analgesic, anti-inflammatory and cytotoxic effects of four ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... and 2-acetamido-5-sulfonamidobenzoic acid (AMSABA, 4) were synthesized and evaluated for their analgesic, antipyretic, anti-inflammatory and cytotoxic activities. HASBA, AASBA and AMASBA showed higher analgesic activity than aspirin (ASA) at 100 mg/kg dose, while AMSABA showed the least analgesic property.

  6. Non-Steroidal Anti Inflammatory Drugs Usage In Orthopaedics And ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Non steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs NSAIDs) are a group of heterogeneous compounds with nti inflammatory, analgesic and often times anti pyretic roperties. They are weak organic acids and are the most commonly used drugs in Orthopaedic/Trauma practice. hey provide mild to moderate pain relief.

  7. Investigations into the antioxidant and anti-inflammatory potentials of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was designed to investigate the antioxidant and anti-inflammatory potentials of the ethanolic extract and fractions of Citrus sinensis stem-bark, investigate and to evaluate the hepatoprotective potential of the most active fraction (EAF) of the ethanolic extract against acetaminophen-induced acute hepatic injury.

  8. Anti-inflammatory Activity of Methanoilc and Ethanolic Extracts of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ADOWIE PERE

    ABSTRACT: Aqueous ethanoic and methanolic extracts of Citrus Sinensis Peel were investigated for anti- inflammatory activity in carrageenan induced paw oedema in wistar rats, and compared to a positive control drug,. Indomethacin. These extracts were given(IP) in a concentration of 20, and 70mg/kg with extract with a ...

  9. Investigation of the anti-inflammatory and antinociceptive activities of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The anti-inflammatory and anti-nociceptive activities of the root extract of Elephantorrhiza elephantina (Burch.) Skeels (Fabaceae) were investigated using wistar rats. The extract was administered intraperitoneally (i.p) to rats at graded doses of 50, 100 and 200 mg/kg BWt. Carrageenan and. Histamine were injected into rat ...

  10. Acute toxicity studies, anti-inflammatory and analgesic activities of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Methanolic extracts of the stem bark of Enantia chlorantha and Nauclea latifolia were investigated in rats and mice for anti-inflammatory and analgesic activities. The activities of the extracts were tested on egg white-induced oedema, acetic acid-induced writhing and hot plate models. Methanolic extract of Nauclea latifolia ...

  11. ANTI-INFLAMMATORY EFFECT OF Myrtus nivellei Batt & Trab ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2015-01-15

    Jan 15, 2015 ... reduce significantly the paw edema with a comparable effect to that observed with Diclofenac. (positive control). This is the first report to demonstrate a significant anti-inflammatory activity of the methanolic extract prepared from Myrtus nivellei. Keywords: Anti-inflammatoy activity; Myrtus nivellei Batt & Trab; ...

  12. Possible mechanism of anti-inflammatory activity and safety profile ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Animals were grouped and treated with diclofenac, chlorpheniramine, and granisetron (reference anti-inflammatory agents), or aqueous and ethanolic extracts of Pistia stratiotes at doses of 30, 100, and 300 mg/kg orally. Control groups received distilled water. Paw thicknesses was measured at 30 or 60 min intervals for 2.5 ...

  13. Anti-inflammatory activity of Syzygium cumini seed

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SERVER

    2008-04-17

    Apr 17, 2008 ... The Syzygium cumini (Myrtaceae) is a popular traditional medicinal plant in India. This study was intended to evaluate the anti-inflammatory activity of ethyl acetate and methanol extracts of S. cumini seed in carrageenan induced paw oedema in wistar rats at the dose level of 200 and 400 mg/kg.

  14. In vitro anti-inflammatory and phytochemical properties of crude ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Baliospermum montanum (Muell – Arg) which belong to Euphorbiaceae family is a well known perennial herb in Indian medicine used to treat various disorders like asthma, bronchitis, purgative, anthelmintic, diuretic, diaphoretic, rubefacient and tonic. The anti-inflammatory activity of four different solvent extracts of B.

  15. Comparative anti-inflammatory properties of Capsaicin and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: The analgesic effect of capsaicin (the active ingredient in Capsicum frutescens Linn. [Solanaceae]) had been reported in several studies. Current research is being directed at producing analgesics, anti-inflammatory agents with better side effect profile. Objectives: To investigate if either the ethyl acetate extract ...

  16. Anti-inflammatory Activities of Extracts of Some Traditionally Used ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Hydroalcoholic extracts of some traditional medicinal plants used in Ethiopia for the treatment of skin diseases, were investigated for their anti-inflammatory activities in carrageenan-induced mouse paw oedema at doses of 300 mg/kg and 500 mg/kg body weight. The extracts were obtained from the leaves of Bidens pilosa ...

  17. Experimental evaluation of anti-inflammatory, antinociceptive and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Clove oil of Eugenia caryophyllata (Myrtaceae) is a light yellowish fluid obtained from dried flower buds. Clove oil is used traditionally to relieve toothache. Aim: The aim of the present work was to study the anti-inflammatory, antinociceptive and antipyretic potential of clove oil in mice. Methods: Analgesic activity ...

  18. Anti-inflammatory effect of Myrtus nivellei Batt & Trab (myrtaceae ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This work aims at evaluating the anti-inflammatory activity of an endemic species of the central sahara: Myrtus nivellei Batt & Trab. The methanolic extract of this plant was extracted by Soxhlet apparatus and concentrated under reduced pressure using a rotary evaporator. In the carrageenan-induced paw edema test, five ...

  19. Evaluation of anti-inflammatory and antinociceptive activity of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The anti-inflammatory and antinociceptive activities of Triphala recipe were studied in animal models. Triphala recipe (4 mg/ear) significantly exhibited an inhibitory effect on the ear edema formation induced by ethyl phenylpropiolateinduced, but not on the arachidonic acid -induced ear edema in rats. Furthermore, Triphala ...

  20. Anti-inflammatory Effects of Magnolia sieboldii Extract in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To investigate the effect of Magnolia sieboldii extract (MSE) on the production of pro- inflammatory cytokines by macrophage. Methods: The whole plant of M. sieboldii was extracted with methanol at room temperature. The in vitro anti-inflammatory activity of MSE was investigated on lipopolysaccharide ...

  1. anti-inflammatory activity of selected nigerian medicinal plants

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Extracts of nineteen plant species from an inventory of Nigerian medicinal plants were screened for activity in two in vitro anti-inflammatory model test systems, inhibition of prostaglandin biosynthesis and PAF-induced elastase release from neutrophilis. Anacardium occidentale and Acalipha hispida were active in both test ...

  2. Hemostatic, anti-inflammatory and antibacterial effects of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abstract. Purpose: To study the hemostatic, anti-inflammatory and antibacterial effects of Sanqixiantao dressing. Methods: ... Sanqixiantao extract significantly shortened blood clotting time in vitro (p < 0.01), and showed antibacterial activities against ..... application effect of different silver dressings in treatment of patients ...

  3. Phytochemical, Analgesic And Anti-Inflammatory Effects Of The ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Phytochemical screening was carried out on the ethylacetate portion of the ethanolic extract of the leaves of Pseudocedrella kotschyii and then evaluated for its analgesic (acetic acid-induced writhing) and anti-inflammatory (raw egg albumin-induced oedema) activities in mice and rats respectively. Phytochemical screening ...

  4. analgesic and anti-inflammatory activities of ethanolic extract of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2015-04-30

    Apr 30, 2015 ... The analgesic and anti-inflammatory activities of the ethanolic extract of Rheumatic Tea Formula ... Salix alba were studied in mice and rats using acetic acid induced writhing, hot plate method, ... albino mice, while the phytochemical screening showed the presence of alkaloids, tannins and glycosides.

  5. Phytochemical screening, safety evaluation, anti-inflammatory and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Thereafter anti-inflammatory and analgesic studies were conducted using standard tests such as carrageenan, histamine-induced-oedema, tail flick test and acetic acid writhing test. Phytochemical screening of the powdered material showed that tannin, flavonoid and reducing sugar were present while alkaloids, cardiac ...

  6. The Phytochemical Constituents, Analgesic and Anti-inflammatory ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The analgesic and anti-inflammatory effects of the methanolic extract of the leaves of Jatropha curcas were investigated in mice and rats respectively. The phytochemical screening of the extract was also carried out. The analgesic effect was determined by acetic acid – induced writhing test in mice. While the anti- ...

  7. Flavonoids, anti-inflammatory activity and cytotoxicity of Macfadyena ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    kaempferol, 7-O, 8-C diglucoside and vicenin II were isolated, while 6, methoxy, acacetin 7-O glucoside; and quercitrin were isolated from ethanol extract. These compounds were characterized and identified by their physicochemical and spectral data. The crude ethanol extract exhibited significant anti-inflammatory activity ...

  8. Anti-inflammatory effects of kaempferol, myricetin, fisetin and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To investigate the anti-inflammatory effects of kaempferol, myricetin, fisetin and ibuprofen in rat pups. Methods: The expression levels of cyclooxygenase (COX)-1, COX-2 and tumour necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) were determined by western blotting; the inhibition of these proteins by plant compounds was evaluated.

  9. Growth inhibitory, apoptotic and anti-inflammatory activities ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    mice. Collectively, these results suggest that CEMB is a very potent anti-tumour compound. [Ravanan P, Singh SK, Subba Rao GSR and Kondaiah P 2011 Growth inhibitory, apoptotic and anti-inflammatory activities displayed by a novel modified triterpenoid, cyano enone of methyl boswellates. J. Biosci. 36 297–307] DOI ...

  10. Phytochemical Analysis and Anti-Inflammatory activity of Methanol ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The present study investigated the phytochemistry and anti-inflammatory activity of methanolic root extract of Cryptolepis sanguinolenta against paw edema induced by egg albumin and carrageenan in rats. Phytochemical analysis and acute toxicity test (LD50) of the methanol extract was also carried out. Results show that ...

  11. Anti-inflammatory Effects of Magnolia sieboldii Extract in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To investigate the effect of Magnolia sieboldii extract (MSE) on the production of proinflammatory cytokines by macrophage. Methods: The whole plant of M. sieboldii was extracted with methanol at room temperature. The in vitro anti-inflammatory activity of MSE was investigated on lipopolysaccharide ...

  12. Anti-inflammatory effects of ginsenosides from Panax ginseng and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ginsenosides (G) are biologically active saponin compounds found inPanax ginseng. Although these compounds are reported to possess numerous biological activities, recent issues have arisen regarding their immunosuppressive and anti-inflammatory roles in inflammatory cells. This is because 1) inflammation, ...

  13. Anti-inflammatory of both Eucalyptus spp. and Pistascia lentiscus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Eucalyptus spp. and Pistascia lentiscus are among the Palestinian trees that are traditionally used in folkloric medicine in treating many diseases; leaves of which are thought to have anti-inflammatory, antibacterial and antioxidant effects. The goal of this study is to evaluate the in vitro inhibitory effect of ...

  14. Anti-inflammatory potential of native Australian herbs polyphenols

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Guo

    2014-01-01

    Anise myrtle, lemon myrtle and bay leaf selectively inhibited COX-2 and iNOS enzymes, while Tasmannia pepper leaf extract exhibited a pronounced inhibitory activity toward COX-1 and was the least effective inhibitor of iNOS. Anise myrtle and lemon myrtle are potentially more efficient anti-inflammatory agents than Tasmannia pepper leaf.

  15. TOPICAL ANTI-INFLAMMATORY ACTIVITY OF COSTUS AFER ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A bioactivity-monitored extraction and chromatographic fractionation of different morphological parts of Costus afer using the croton aldehyde-induced mouse ear oedema model resulted in the location of significant anti-inflammatory activity in the chloroform-soluble fraction (CSE, 64% oedema inhibition 50 mg/200μl, ...

  16. Evaluation of the anti-inflammatory Evaluation of the Anti ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The anti-inflammatory activity of the aqueous leaf extract of Pterocarpus santalinoides was evaluated using the carrageenan-induced paw oedema and leucocyte migration in rats, and croton oil-induced ear oedema in mice. The extract (50-100mg/kg) and indomethacin (10mg/kg) produced significant (p<0.05) inhibitions of ...

  17. Anti-inflammatory activity of some copper chelates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sorenson, J.R.J.

    1974-01-01

    With the observation that cupric acetate had anti-inflammatory activity in the foot edema model of inflammation, it was felt that copper may play a role as a component of the active metabolite of anti-inflammatory agents used clinically. To test this hypothesis, various Cu chelates were made and tested in the foot edema, cotton-wad granuloma and polyarthritis models of inflammation. A marked increase in anti-inflammatory activity has been observed for the Cu chelates of chelating agents that had no anti-inflammatory activity as well as those that have been used clinically. Since ulcers may be viewed as inflammatory processes and often associated with the arthritic disease syndrome, the Cu chelates were evaluated as anti-ulcer agents. These compounds were demonstrated to have anti-ulcer activity in the Shay as well as the corticoid and stress induced rat ulcer models. Mechanistic considerations relevant to lysosomal and digestive proteolytic enzyme inhibition, anti-cholinergic activity, prostaglandin synthesis and wound healing are discussed. 9 references, 3 figures, 3 tables.

  18. Anti-inflammatory activity of bark of Xeromphis spinosa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Biswa Nath Das

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The bark of Xeromphis spinosa extracted by a mixture of equal proportions of petroleum ether, ethyl acetate and methanol at an oral dose of 200 and 400 mg/kg body weight exhibited significant anti-inflammatory activity when compared with control.

  19. Antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory properties of a polyherbal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Furthermore, WAP (400 mg/kg) nether affected locomotory activity nor induced gastric lesion in mice. The results of this study revealed that extract of a polyherbal mixture containing the leaves and roots of Plumbago zeylinica and fruits of Capsicum frutescens possesses anti-noiceptive and anti-inflammatory activity.

  20. Cytotoxic, anti-inflammatory and antioxidant activities of four different ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To evaluate the cytotoxic, anti-inflammatory and antioxidant activities of four different solvent extracts obtained from the aerial parts of Galega officinalis L. Methods: The hexane, DCM, methanol and water extracts of G. officinalis were successively obtained by soxhlet extraction method. The cytotoxic activity of the ...

  1. Antinociceptive and Anti-Inflammatory Effects of Solvent Extracts of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Erah

    Solvent Extracts of Tagetes erectus Linn (Asteraceae). NV Shinde*, KG Kanase, ... Soxhlet extractor and refluxed continuously for 6 h. The solvent ... of the plant extract. Most of the so-called peripheral analgesics possess anti-inflammatory properties and, in some cases, also antipyretic activity besides analgesia. For many ...

  2. Analgesic and anti-inflammatory activities of ethanolic extract of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The analgesic and anti-inflammatory activities of the ethanolic extract of Rheumatic Tea Formula (RTF) a polyherbal tea consisting the leaves of Eucalyptus globulus, Albizia chevalieri and bark of Salix alba were studied in mice and rats using acetic acid induced writhing, hot plate method, formalin induced pain and ...

  3. Anti-inflammatory and Antinociceptive Effects of the Alcoholic Extract ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The alcoholic extract of Polygala arvensis (family Polygalaceae) was screened for antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory activities in experimental animals. The extract was administered for three consecutive days. Following an oral dose of 25 - 100 mg/kg, the extract exhibited graded dose response equivalent to 16.24% ...

  4. [Helicobacter pylori, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory agents and gastroduodenal changes].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teixeira, A V

    1995-09-01

    The author discusses the possible interactions between non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) and Helicobacter pylori (Hp) which may play an important role in the unleashing of gastroduodenal lesions. To our knowledge, AINEs have no influence on the prevalence of infection by Hp and the latter does not seem to influence the development and intensity of the lesions caused by NSAIDs.

  5. Anti-inflammatory and analgesic activity of water extract from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was done to evaluate the antiinflammatory and analgesic activities of the water extract of the plant in experimental animal models (anti-inflammatory action by carrageenan-induced rat paw edema, the analgesic activity by acetic acid-induced writhing response method. The water extract of I. asarifolia in doses of ...

  6. Anti-inflammatory, analgesic and antipyretic activities of the aqueous ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aqueous extract of Hippobromus pauciflorus (L.f) Radlk leaves at 50, 100 and 200 mg/kg body weight were evaluated for anti-inflammatory, analgesic and antipyretic activities in male rats. Antiinflammatory activity was studied by using carrageenan and histamine induced oedema right hind paw volume while the ...

  7. Evaluation of analgesic and anti-inflammatory activities of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Bovine mastitis is one of the most relevant and problematic diseases to treat and control in practice. Puxing Yinyang San (PYS) is a compound of herbs to treat bovine mastitis in China. This study was performed to evaluate the analgesic and anti-inflammatory activities of PYS in mice and rats. Materials and ...

  8. Synthesis, Analgesic, Anti-inflammatory and Antimicrobial Activities ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: Microbial infections often produce pain and inflammation. Chemotherapeutic, analgesic and anti-inflammatory drugs are prescribed simultaneously in normal practice. The compound possessing all three activities is not common.The purpose of the present study was to examine whether molecular modification ...

  9. Anti-inflammatory medicinal plants and the molecular mechanisms ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Medicinal plant and plant products have shown tremendous potentials and are used beneficially in the treatment of inflammation and in the management of diseases with significant inflammatory components. Many medicinal plants employed as anti-inflammatory and antiphlogistic remedies lack the ...

  10. Synthesis, Anti-inflammatory and Anti-nociceptive Evaluation of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The final products were purified on column chromatography, eluting with ... the reference drug. Results: The compounds were obtained in high yield (70 – 90 %) and purity. The anti-inflammatory results showed a poor activity for the compounds except o-palmitoylamino ..... causes an increase in the peritoneal fluid level of.

  11. Anti-Inflammatory Activity of Compounds Isolated from Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.M. Perez G.

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available This review shows over 300 compounds isolated and identified from plants that previously demonstrated anti-inflammatory activity. They have been classified in appropriate chemical groups and data are reported on their pharmacological effects, mechanisms of action, and other properties.

  12. Anti-inflammatory effect of Zanthoxylum bungeanum -cake ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ), a kind of traditional therapy of moxibustion, has been used in China since 340 B.C. However, its mechanism remains unclear. So, this study was attempted to reveal the anti-inflammatory effect of ZBCS-moxi on rheumatoid arthritis (RA) rats.

  13. Anti-inflammatory activity of Eucalyptus spp. and Pistascia lentiscus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Phenolic Acids of the Two Major Blueberry Species in the US Market and Their. Antioxidant and Anti-inflammatory Activities. Plant Food Hum Nutr. 70(1): 56-62. 11. Landau, S.; Muklada, H.; Markovics, A.; Azaizeh, H. (2014). Traditional Uses of Pistacia lentiscus in Veterinary and Human Medicine. In: Yaniv, Z.; Dudai, ...

  14. Anti-inflammatory activity of mycelial extracts from medicinal mushrooms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geng, Yan; Zhu, Shuiling; Lu, Zhenming; Xu, Hongyu; Shi, Jin-Song; Xu, Zheng-Hong

    2014-01-01

    Medicinal mushrooms have been essential components of traditional Chinese herbal medicines for thousands of years, and they protect against diverse health-related conditions. The components responsible for their anti-inflammatory activity have yet to be fully studied. This study investigates the anti-inflammatory activity of n-hexane, chloroform, ethyl acetate, and methanol extracts of mycelia in submerged culture from 5 commercially available medicinal mushrooms, namely Cephalosporium sinensis, Cordyceps mortierella, Hericium erinaceus, Ganoderma lucidum, and Armillaria mellea. MTT colorimetric assay was applied to measure the cytotoxic effects of different extracts. Their anti-inflammatory activities were evaluated via inhibition against production of lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced nitric oxide (NO) in murine macrophage-like cell line RAW264.7 cells. Of the 20 extracts, n-hexane, chloroform, ethyl acetate, and methanol extracts from C. sinensis, C. mortierella, and G. lucidum; chloroform extracts from H. erinaceus and A. mellea; and ethyl acetate extracts from A. mellea at nontoxic concentrations (effective inhibitor, with the lowest half maximal inhibitory concentration (64.09 ± 6.29 μg/mL) of the LPS-induced NO production. These results indicate that extracts from medicinal mushrooms exhibited anti-inflammatory activity that might be attributable to the inhibition of NO generation and can therefore be considered a useful therapeutic and preventive approach to various inflammation-related diseases.

  15. Essential Oil Composition and Anti-Inflammatory Activity of Salvia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: Sage, Salvia officinalis L (Lamiaceae), is widely cultivated medicinal plant for its economic importance and large content of bioactive components; therefore, in the present study, the active components (volatile compounds) and the anti-inflammatory effect of S. officinalis have been investigated. Methods: Salvia ...

  16. Anti-inflammatory activity of Ruta graveolens Linn on carrageenan ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Aqueous, ethanolic and methanolic extracts of Ruta graveolens were investigated for anti-inflammatory activity in carrageenan induced paw edema in wistar male rats, and compared to a positive control drug, Voveran. These extracts were given (ip) in a concentration of 20 and 50 mg/kg b.w. before carrageenan injection.

  17. Anti-inflammatory and acute toxicity evaluation of aqueous infusion ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Marrubium deserti de Noé, which is locally known as “Merriouet saharaui”, is widely used in Algeria as a traditional treatment of many ailments. In this study, the anti-inflammatory and acute toxicity of the aqueous infusion extract from aerial parts of Marrubium deserti were investigated. Meanwhile, acute oral ...

  18. Antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory properties of methanol fruit ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To investigate the anti-inflammatory and antinociceptive properties of crude methanol fruit extract of Quercus incana (QI), as well as its acute toxicity and phytochemical profile. Methods: Two animal models were used: Wistar rats for carrageenan-induced paw inflammation and Swiss albino mice for acetic ...

  19. Marine Diterpenoids as Potential Anti-Inflammatory Agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    González, Yisett; Torres-Mendoza, Daniel; Jones, Gillian E.; Fernandez, Patricia L.

    2015-01-01

    The inflammatory response is a highly regulated process, and its dysregulation can lead to the establishment of chronic inflammation and, in some cases, to death. Inflammation is the cause of several diseases, including rheumatoid arthritis, inflammatory bowel diseases, multiple sclerosis, and asthma. The search for agents inhibiting inflammation is a great challenge as the inflammatory response plays an important role in the defense of the host to infections. Marine invertebrates are exceptional sources of new natural products, and among those diterpenoids secondary metabolites exhibit notable anti-inflammatory properties. Novel anti-inflammatory diterpenoids, exclusively produced by marine organisms, have been identified and synthetic molecules based on those structures have been obtained. The anti-inflammatory activity of marine diterpenoids has been attributed to the inhibition of Nuclear Factor-κB activation and to the modulation of arachidonic acid metabolism. However, more research is necessary to describe the mechanisms of action of these secondary metabolites. This review is a compilation of marine diterpenoids, mainly isolated from corals, which have been described as potential anti-inflammatory molecules. PMID:26538822

  20. Antibacterial and Anti-Inflammatory Activities of Anacardium ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    displaying a significantly (P<0.05) higher activity compared to the leaves extract. The results of this study therefore justify the use of this plant in the treatment of inflammation and bacterial infections. Key words: Antibacterial, Anti inflammatory, Anacardium occidentale. INTRODUCTION. Medicinal plants represent a rich ...

  1. Antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and antinociceptive activities of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background of study: Plants used for traditional medicine contain a wide range of substances which can be used to treat various infectious diseases. Aim: The study evaluated the in vitro antioxidant, antinociceptive, and anti-inflammatory activities of the methanolic extract of Justicia secunda Vahl leaf. Methods: The acute ...

  2. Antinociceptive and Anti-Inflammatory Effects of Solvent Extracts of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: Traditionally, the leaves of Tagetes erectus L. are used in India for the alleviation of pain and inflammation. The objective of this study was to investigate the antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory activities of this plant material in an animal model. Methods: The chloroform, methanol and ether extracts of the leaves of ...

  3. Anti-inflammatory, anti-nociceptive and antipyretic potential of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Materials and Methods: Extracts of Terminalia citrina fruits were evaluated at doses of 200mg/kg, 400mg/kg and 600mg/kg in albino mice for preventive effect in inflammatory edema, peripheral pain sensation and pyrexia. Carrageenan induced paw edema method was utilized to evaluate anti-inflammatory activity.

  4. Anti-inflammatory, analgesic and antipyretic activities of the aqueous ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-05-18

    May 18, 2009 ... The results suggest a potential benefit of H. pauciflorus leaves in treating conditions associated with inflammation, pain and fever. These properties might be adduced to the presence of the phytoconstituents. Key words: Hippobromus pauciflorus, anti-inflammatory, analgesic, antipyretic, brewer's yeast, ...

  5. Antimicrobial and anti-inflammatory activities of the volatile oil ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Of the qualitative methods used for the control of the antimicrobial activity, the method of diffusion on filter paper discs proved to be the most efficient, the results correlating well with the MIC. Our studies have demonstrated the efficiency of the natural compounds' of T. majus L. in anti-inflammatory treatments in animals.

  6. Studies on the analgesic and anti-inflammatory activities of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The analgesic and anti-inflammatory effects of methanolic extracts of the brown seaweed Sargassum swartzii (Turner) C. Agardh (Phaeophyta) and green seaweed Ulva reticulata Forsskal (Chlorophyta) were examined. S. swartzii and U. reticulata extracts at the dose of 500 mg/kg body weight showed analgesic effects in ...

  7. Evaluation of acute toxicity and anti-inflammatory effects of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    It was further fractionated in sequence to n-hexane (BSH), chloroform (BSC) and methanol (BSM) soluble fractions. Acute toxicity was evaluated by oral administration of plant and hind paw induced-edema method in rats was used for the anti-inflammatory evaluation. Results: The BSE was found safe up to the dose level of ...

  8. Anti-Inflammatory Effect Of Some Common Nigerian Vegetables ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Methanol extracts of four common Nigerian vegetables; A.graveoleus, C.argentia, T. triangulare and T.occidentalis were investigated for anti-inflammatory activity in rats using carrageenan. Carrageenan-induced oedema in the sub-plantar hind paw of vegetable extracts treated rats was significantly inhibited. This finding ...

  9. Anti-inflammatory activity of Wigandia urens and Acalypha ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PRECIOUS

    2009-11-02

    Nov 2, 2009 ... Alexandre-Moreira MS, Piuvezam MR, Araujo CC, Thomas G (1999). Studies on the anti-inflammatory and analgesic activity of Curatella americana L. J. Ethnopharmacol. 67: 171-177. Argueta VA (1994). Atlas de las Plantas de la Medicina Tradicional. Mexicana II. Instituto Nacional Indigenista, México City ...

  10. Anti inflammatory and antipyretic activities of the methanol leaf ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Acacia ataxacantha (Leguminosae) has been reported to be used in traditional medicine for management of pain and inflammation. The present study was designed to evaluate the anti inflammatory and antipyretic activities of methanol leaf extract of Acacia ataxacantha in rats. The acute toxicity study was carried out using ...

  11. Anti-Inflammatory and Analgesic Activities of Nothospondias staudtii ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aqueous (AENS), methanolic (MENS) and chloroform (CENS) extracts of the leaves of Nothospondias staudtii Engl (Anacardianceae) were screened for analgesic and anti-inflammatory activities in mice and rats. Pain responses were studied in mice using the tail immersion and acetic acid induced writing while ...

  12. Topical anti-inflammatory activity of yacon leaf extracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rejane B. Oliveira

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Smallanthus sonchifolius (Poepp. H. Rob. , Asteraceae, known as yacon, is an herb that is traditionally used for the treatment of diabetes in folk medicine. However, recent studies have demonstrated that this plant has other interesting properties such as anti-microbial and anti-inflammatory actions. Thus, the purpose of this study was to evaluate the topical anti-inflammatory property of different extracts prepared from yacon leaves and analyze the role of different chemical classes in this activity. Three yacon leaf extracts were obtained: aqueous extract, where chlorogenic acid derivatives and sesquiterpene lactones were detected; leaf rinse extract, rich in sesquiterpene lactones; and polar extract, rich in chlorogenic acid derivatives. All the extracts exhibited anti-edematogenic activity in vivo (aqueous extract: 25.9% edema inhibition at 0.50 mg/ear; polar extract: 42.7% inhibition at 0.25 mg/ear; and leaf rinse extract: 44.1% inhibition at 0.25 mg/ear. The leaf rinse extract furnished the best results regarding neutrophil migration inhibition, and NO, TNF-α and PGE2 inhibition. These data indicate that both sesquiterpene lactones and chlorogenic acid derivatives contribute to the anti-inflammatory action, although sesquiterpene lactones seem to have more pronounced effects. In conclusion, yacon leaf extracts, particularly the sesquiterpene lactone-rich extract, has potential use as topical anti-inflammatory agent.

  13. Topical anti-inflammatory activity of yacon leaf extracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rejane B. Oliveira

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Smallanthus sonchifolius (Poepp. H. Rob. , Asteraceae, known as yacon, is an herb that is traditionally used for the treatment of diabetes in folk medicine. However, recent studies have demonstrated that this plant has other interesting properties such as anti-microbial and anti-inflammatory actions. Thus, the purpose of this study was to evaluate the topical anti-inflammatory property of different extracts prepared from yacon leaves and analyze the role of different chemical classes in this activity. Three yacon leaf extracts were obtained: aqueous extract, where chlorogenic acid derivatives and sesquiterpene lactones were detected; leaf rinse extract, rich in sesquiterpene lactones; and polar extract, rich in chlorogenic acid derivatives. All the extracts exhibited anti-edematogenic activity in vivo (aqueous extract: 25.9% edema inhibition at 0.50 mg/ear; polar extract: 42.7% inhibition at 0.25 mg/ear; and leaf rinse extract: 44.1% inhibition at 0.25 mg/ear. The leaf rinse extract furnished the best results regarding neutrophil migration inhibition, and NO, TNF-α and PGE2 inhibition. These data indicate that both sesquiterpene lactones and chlorogenic acid derivatives contribute to the anti-inflammatory action, although sesquiterpene lactones seem to have more pronounced effects. In conclusion, yacon leaf extracts, particularly the sesquiterpene lactone-rich extract, has potential use as topical anti-inflammatory agent.

  14. Anti-inflammatory effects of electronic signal treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odell, Robert H; Sorgnard, Richard E

    2008-01-01

    Inflammation often plays a key role in the perpetuation of pain. Chronic inflammatory conditions (e.g. osteoarthritis, immune system dysfunction, micro-circulatory disease, painful neuritis, and even heart disease) have increased as baby boomers age. Medicine's current anti-inflammatory choices are NSAIDs and steroids; the value in promoting cure and side effect risks of these medications are unclear and controversial, especially considering individual patient variations. Electricity has continuously been a powerful tool in medicine for thousands of years. All medical professionals are, to some degree, aware of electrotherapy; those who directly use electricity for treatment know of its anti-inflammatory effects. Electronic signal treatment (EST), as an extension of presently available technology, may reasonably have even more anti-inflammatory effects. EST is a digitally produced alternating current sinusoidal electronic signal with associated harmonics to produce theoretically reasonable and/or scientifically documented physiological effects when applied to the human body. These signals are produced by advanced electronics not possible even 10 to 15 years ago. The potential long-lasting anti-inflammatory effects of some electrical currents are based on basic physical and biochemical facts listed in the text below, namely that of stimulating and signaling effective and long-lasting anti-inflammatory effects in nerve and muscle cells. The safety of electrotherapeutic treatments in general and EST in particular has been established through extensive clinical use. The principles of physics have been largely de-emphasized in modern medicine in favor of chemistry. These electrical treatments, a familiar application of physics, thus represent powerful and appropriate elements of physicians' pain care armamentaria in the clinic and possibly for prescription for use at home to improve overall patient care and maintenance of quality of life via low-risk and potentially

  15. Antimicrobial and anti-inflammatory potential therapy for opportunistic microorganisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assaf, Areej M; Amro, Bassam I; Mashallah, Sundus; Haddadin, Randa N

    2016-05-31

    Methanolic extracts of six plants (Arbutus andrachne, Chrysanthemum coronarium, Inula viscosa, Origanum syriacum, Punica granatum, and Rosmarinus officinalis) used in traditional medicine for the treatment of bacterial and fungal infections were evaluated. The present study was conducted to evaluate the antimicrobial and anti-inflammatory activity of some medicinal plants in lowering the risk of opportunistic infections of the oral cavity caused by Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Candida albicans. Extracts were evaluated separately and in a mixture. The methanolic plant extracts were tested against three opportunistic microorganisms by determining the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC). They were also evaluated for their ability to suppress the release of the pro-inflammatory cytokine IL-6 while not suppressing the release of the anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10 from peripheral blood mononuclear cells using ELISA. All extracts showed both antimicrobial and anti-inflammatory activities. However, O. syriacum exhibited the highest antimicrobial activity for the three microorganisms among all of the tested extracts (MIC S. aureus: 1 mg/mL; P. aeruginosa: 2 mg/mL; and C. albicans: 1 mg/mL). The extracts inhibited the expression of the pro-inflammatory cytokine IL-6 with apparent dose-dependent responses while they attenuated the secretion of the anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10. The mixture of O. syriacum and R. officinalis showed an anti-inflammatory effect, with a synergistic antimicrobial effect. These findings support the idea that a diet rich in plants and herbs may contribute to the reduction of inflammation and microbial growth and may also be preventive against various infections, including those related to the oral cavity.

  16. Anti-inflammatory effects of Zea mays L. husk extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roh, Kyung-Baeg; Kim, Hyoyoung; Shin, Seungwoo; Kim, Young-Soo; Lee, Jung-A; Kim, Mi Ok; Jung, Eunsun; Lee, Jongsung; Park, Deokhoon

    2016-08-19

    Zea mays L. (Z. mays) has been used for human consumption in the various forms of meal, cooking oil, thickener in sauces and puddings, sweetener in processed food and beverage products, bio-disel. However, especially, in case of husk extract of Z. mays, little is known about its anti-inflammatory effects. Therefore, in this study, the anti-inflammatory effects of Z. mays husk extract (ZMHE) and its mechanisms of action were investigated. The husks of Z. Mays were harvested in kangwondo, Korea. To assess the anti-inflammatory activities of ZMHE, we examined effects of ZMHE on nitric oxide (NO) production, and release of soluble intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (sICAM-1) and eotaxin-1. The expression level of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) gene was also determined by Western blot and luciferase reporter assays. To determine its mechanisms of action, a luciferase reporter assay for nuclear factor kappa B (NF-kB) and activator protein-1 (AP-1) was introduced. ZMHE inhibited lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced production of NO in RAW264.7 cells. In addition, expression of iNOS gene was reduced, as confirmed by Western blot and luciferase reporter assays. Effects of ZMHE on the AP-1 and NF-kB promoters were examined to elucidate the mechanism of its anti-inflammatory activity. Activation of AP-1 and NF-kB promoters induced by LPS was significantly reduced by ZMHE treatment. In addition, LPS-induced production of sICAM-1 and IL-4-induced production of eotaxin-1 were all reduced by ZMHE. Our results indicate that ZMHE has anti-inflammatory effects by downregulating the expression of iNOS gene and its downregulation is mediated by inhibiting NF-kB and AP-1 signaling.

  17. Anti-inflammatory and cytotoxic activities of Bursera copallifera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Columba-Palomares, M F María C; Villareal, Dra María L; Acevedo Quiroz, M C Macdiel E; Marquina Bahena, M C Silvia; Álvarez Berber, Dra Laura P; Rodríguez-López, Dra Verónica

    2015-10-01

    The plant species Bursera copallifera (DC) bullock is used in traditional medicine to treat inflammation. The leaves of this plant can be prepared as an infusion to treat migraines, bronchitis, and dental pain. The purpose of this study was to determine the anti-inflammatory and cytotoxic activities of organic extracts from the stems, stem bark, and leaves of B. copallifera, which was selected based on the knowledge of its traditional use. We evaluated the ability of extracts to inhibit mouse ear inflammation in response to topical application of 12-O tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate. The extracts with anti-inflammatory activity were evaluated for their inhibition of pro-inflammatory enzymes. In addition, the in vitro cytotoxic activities of the organic extracts were evaluated using the sulforhodamine B assay. The hydroalcoholic extract of the stems (HAS) exhibited an anti-inflammatory activity of 54.3% (0.5 mg/ear), whereas the anti-inflammatory activity of the dichloromethane-methanol extract from the leaves (DMeL) was 55.4% at a dose of 0.1 mg/ear. Methanol extract from the leaves (MeL) showed the highest anti-inflammatory activity (IC50 = 4.4 μg/mL), hydroalcoholic extract of leaves, and DMeL also reduce the enzyme activity, (IC50 = 6.5 μg/mL, IC50 = 5.7 μg/mL), respectively, from stems HAS exhibit activity at the evaluated concentrations (IC50 =6.4 μg/mL). The hydroalcoholic extract of the stems exhibited the highest cytotoxic activity against a breast adenocarcinoma cell line (MCF7, IC50 = 0.90 μg/mL), whereas DMeL exhibited an IC50 value of 19.9 μg/mL. In conclusion, extracts from leaves and stems inhibited cyclooxygenase-1, which is the target enzyme for nonsteroidal anti inflammatory drugs, and some of these extracts demonstrated substantial antiproliferative effects against the MCF7 cell line. These results validate the traditional use of B. copallifera.

  18. Synthesis, Analgesic and Anti-inflammatory Activities of 3- Ethyl-2 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    inflammatory activities. Results: ... series, and compared well with the reference standard, diclofenac sodium, which exbited analgesic and anti-inflammatory activities of 62.04 ... and anti-inflammatory properties. The present work is an extension of ...

  19. In vivo Anti-Inflammatory Effect of Zapoteca portoricensis (Jacq) HM ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Conclusion: Zapoteca portoricensis possesses significant anti-inflammatory activity in acute inflammation in rats. The terpenoids and steroids present in the column fractions may be responsible for the activity. Keywords: Zapoteca portoricensis; Anti-inflammatory, Egg albumeninduced edema, Terpenoids; Steroids.

  20. Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug use and the risk of Parkinson's disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Manthripragada, Angelika D; Schernhammer, Eva S; Qiu, Jiaheng

    2011-01-01

    Experimental evidence supports a preventative role for non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) in Parkinson's disease (PD).......Experimental evidence supports a preventative role for non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) in Parkinson's disease (PD)....

  1. Anti-inflammatory properties of edible mushrooms: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muszyńska, Bożena; Grzywacz-Kisielewska, Agata; Kała, Katarzyna; Gdula-Argasińska, Joanna

    2018-03-15

    Mushrooms have been used extensively, owing to their nutritional and medicinal value, for thousands of years. Modern research confirms the therapeutic effect of traditionally used species. Inflammation is a natural response of the immune system to damaging factors, e.g. physical, chemical and pathogenic. Deficiencies of antioxidants, vitamins, and microelements, as well as physiological processes, such as aging, can affect the body's ability to resolve inflammation. Mushrooms are rich in anti-inflammatory components, such as polysaccharides, phenolic and indolic compounds, mycosteroids, fatty acids, carotenoids, vitamins, and biometals. Metabolites from mushrooms of the Basidiomycota taxon possess antioxidant, anticancer, and most significantly, anti-inflammatory properties. Recent reports indicate that edible mushroom extracts exhibit favourable therapeutic and health-promoting benefits, particularly in relation to diseases associated with inflammation. In all certainty, edible mushrooms can be referred to as a "superfood" and are recommended as a valuable constituent of the daily diet. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Isoflavones: Anti-Inflammatory Benefit and Possible Caveats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jie Yu

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Inflammation, a biological response of body tissues to harmful stimuli, is also known to be involved in a host of diseases, such as obesity, atherosclerosis, rheumatoid arthritis, and even cancer. Isoflavones are a class of flavonoids that exhibit antioxidant, anticancer, antimicrobial, and anti-inflammatory properties. Increasing evidence has highlighted the potential for isoflavones to prevent the chronic diseases in which inflammation plays a key role, though the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. Recently, some studies have raised concerns about isoflavones induced negative effects like carcinogenesis, thymic involution, and immunosuppression. Therefore, this review aims to summarize the anti-inflammatory effects of isoflavones, unravel the underlying mechanisms, and present the potential health risks.

  3. Nonsteroidal Anti-Inflammatory Drugs and Prostatic Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hitoshi Ishiguro

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Prostatic diseases are characterized by increased activity of cytokines, growth factors, and cyclooxygenases- (COX- 1 and 2. Activation of COX-1 and COX-2 results in increased levels of prostaglandins and the induction of angiogenic, antiapoptotic and inflammatory processes. Inhibition of COX enzymes by members of the widely used nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID class of drugs decreases prostaglandin production, and exerts a variety of anti-inflammatory, antipyretic, and antinociceptive effects. While numerous in vitro, in vivo, and clinical studies have shown that NSAIDs inhibit the risk and progression of prostatic diseases, the relationship between NSAIDs and such diseases remains controversial. Here we review the literature in this area, critically analyzing the benefits and caveats associated with the use of NSAIDs in the treatment of prostatic diseases.

  4. Anti-inflammatory and Antinociceptive Activity of Ouabain in Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danielle Ingrid Bezerra de Vasconcelos

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Ouabain, an inhibitor of the Na+/K+-ATPase pump, was identified as an endogenous substance of human plasma. Ouabain has been studied for its ability to interfere with various regulatory mechanisms. Despite the studies portraying the ability of ouabain to modulate the immune response, little is known about the effect of this substance on the inflammatory process. The aim of this work was to study the effects triggered by ouabain on inflammation and nociceptive models. Ouabain produced a reduction in the mouse paw edema induced by carrageenan, compound 48/80 and zymosan. This anti-inflammatory potential might be related to the inhibition of prostaglandin E2, bradykinin, and mast-cell degranulation but not to histamine. Ouabain also modulated the inflammation induced by concanavalin A by inhibiting cell migration. Besides that, ouabain presented antinociceptive activity. Taken these data together, this work demonstrated, for the first time, that ouabain presented in vivo analgesic and anti-inflammatory effects.

  5. Anti-inflammatory and analgesic activity of r.a.p . ( Radix Angelicae ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The objective of this paper was to study the anti-inflammatory and analgesic effects of Radix Angelicae Pubescentis (R.A.P) ethanol extracts. Three classic anti-inflammatory models and two analgesic models were used in this research. In anti-inflammatory tests, all the extracts have a certain inhibition on the acute ...

  6. Anti-inflammatory and Antinociceptive Effects of the Alcoholic Extract ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Anti-inflammatory and Antinociceptive Effects of the Alcoholic Extract of Indian Polygala arvensis in Experimental Animals. ... time in the hot plate method by 69.55% (p < 0.01) and 107.13% (p < 0.001) respectively as well as in analgesymeter-induced mechanical pain by 28.84% (p < 0.5) and 55.71% (p < 0.05) respectively.

  7. Original Research Article In vivo Anti-Inflammatory Effect of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Erah

    Acetylsalicylic acid. 100. 0.88 ± 0.09 (19.3) 0.35 ± 0.12 (64.7)*. 0.31 ± 0.08 (45.6) *. *P<0.05, **P<0.01, (n=5): significant compared to the vehicle treated group. Values in parenthesis represent percent inhibition of edema. respectively. The anti-inflammatory effect of the crude methanol extract, chloroform fractions and.

  8. Anti-inflammatory and analgesic effects of methanol extract of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr Olaleye

    studied using albumen-induced paw oedema and formalin-induced paw lick in rats as the anti-inflammatory test models; acetic acid-induced ..... meperidine, and brain stem stimulation in rats and cats. Pain. 4: 161-174. Fields H.L. (1987). Analgesic Drugs. In: Day W, ed. Pain. MacGraw- Hill, USA. p. 272. García M.D. ...

  9. Mechanisms of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs in cancer prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umar, Asad; Steele, Vernon E; Menter, David G; Hawk, Ernest T

    2016-02-01

    Various clinical and epidemiologic studies show that nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), including aspirin and cyclooxygenase inhibitors (COXIBs) help prevent cancer. Since eicosanoid metabolism is the main inhibitory targets of these drugs the resulting molecular and biological impact is generally accepted. As our knowledge base and technology progress we are learning that additional targets may be involved. This review attempts to summarize these new developments in the field. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  10. ANTI-INFLAMMATORY EFFECTS OF CHAMOMILE ESSENTIAL OIL IN MICE

    OpenAIRE

    Fabian, D.; Juhás, Š. (Štefan); Bukovska, A.; Bujňáková, D.; Grešáková, L.; Koppel, J.

    2011-01-01

    Essential oils are plant secondary metabolites with positive pharmacological properties, e.g. anti-oxidative, antimicrobial or immunomodulative, but they can have toxic and allergic effects as well. The aim of this study was to analyze anti-inflammatory effects of chamomile essential oil dietary administration in carrageenan paw oedema and trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid (TNBS) colitis. Mice received chamomile essential oil in three concentrations (5000, 2500 and 1250 ppm) in the standard roden...

  11. Hepatoprotective and anti-inflammatory activities of Plantago major L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Türel, Idris; Ozbek, Hanefi; Erten, Remzi; Oner, Ahmet Cihat; Cengiz, Nureddin; Yilmaz, Orhan

    2009-06-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate anti-inflammatory and hepatoprotective activities of Plantago major L. (PM). Anti-inflammatory activity: Control and reference groups were administered isotonic saline solution (ISS) and indomethacin, respectively. Plantago major groups were injected PM in doses of 5 mg/kg (PM-I), 10 mg/kg (PM-II), 20 mg/kg (PM-III) and 25 mg/kg (PM-IV). Before and three hours after the injections, the volume of right hind-paw of rats was measured using a plethysmometer. HEPATOPROTECTIVE ACTIVITY: The hepatotoxicity was induced by carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) administration. Control, CCl4 and reference groups received isotonic saline solution, CCl4 and silibinin, respectively. Plantago major groups received CCl4 (0.8 ml/kg) and PM in doses of 10, 20 and 25 mg/kg, respectively for seven days. Blood samples and liver were collected on the 8th day after the animals were killed. Plantago major had an anti-inflammatory effect matching to that of control group at doses of 20 and 25 mg/kg. It was found that reduction in the inflammation was 90.01% with indomethacin, 3.10% with PM-I, 41.56% with PM-II, 45.87% with PM-III and 49.76% with PM-IV. Median effective dose (ED50) value of PM was found to be 7.507 mg/kg. Plantago major (25 mg/kg) significantly reduced the serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) levels when compared to the CCl4 group. The histopathological findings showed a significant difference between the PM (25 mg/kg) and CCl4 groups. The results showed that PM had a considerable anti-inflammatory and hepatoprotective activities.

  12. Synthesis, in vitro anti-inflammatory activity and molecular docking ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    a mechanism of action for aspirin-like drugs Nature 231. 232. 2. Reitz D B and Isakson P C 1995 Cyclooxygenase-2 inhibitors Curr. Pharm. Design 1 211. 3. Gans K R, Galbraith W, Roman R J, Haber S B, Kerr J S,. Schmidt W K, Smith C, Hewes W E and Ackerman N R. 1990 Anti-inflammatory and safety profile of DuP 697,.

  13. Anti-inflammatory activity of traditional Chinese medicinal herbs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min-Hsiung Pan

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Accumulating epidemiological and clinical evidence shows that inflammation is an important risk factor for various human diseases. Thus, suppressing chronic inflammation has the potential to delay, prevent, and control various chronic diseases, including cerebrovascular, cardiovascular, joint, skin, pulmonary, blood, lymph, liver, pancreatic, and intestinal diseases. Various natural products from traditional Chinese medicine (TCM have been shown to safely suppress proinflammatory pathways and control inflammation-associated disease. In vivo and/or in vitro studies have demonstrated that anti-inflammatory effects of TCM occur by inhibition of the expression of master transcription factors (for example, nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB, pro-inflammatory cytokines (for example, tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α, chemokines (for example, chemokine (C-C motif ligand (CCL-24, intercellular adhesion molecule expression and pro-inflammatory mediators (for example, inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS and cyclooxygenase 2 (COX2. However, a handful of review articles have focused on the anti-inflammatory activities of TCM and explore their possible mechanisms of action. In this review, we summarize recent research attempting to identify the anti-inflammatory constituents of TCM and their molecular targets that may create new opportunities for innovation in modern pharmacology.

  14. Anti-Inflammatory Cembranoids from the Soft Coral Lobophytum crassum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuei-Hung Lai

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: Cembrane-type diterpenoids are among the most frequently encountered natural products from the soft corals of the genus Lobophytum. In the course of our investigation to identify anti-inflammatory constituents from a wild-type soft coral Lobophytum crassum, two new cembranoids, lobophyolide A (1 and B (2, along with five known compounds (3–7, were isolated. The structures of these natural products were identified using NMR and MS spectroscopic analyses. Compound 1 was found to possess the first identified α-epoxylactone group among all cembrane-type diterpenoids. The in vitro anti-inflammatory effect of compounds 1–5 was evaluated. The results showed that compounds 1–5 not only reduced IL-12 release, but also attenuated NO production in LPS-activated dendritic cells. Our data indicated that the isolated series of cembrane-type diterpenoids demonstrated interesting structural features and anti-inflammatory activity which could be further developed into therapeutic entities.

  15. Anti-inflammatory activity of polysaccharide from Pholiota nameko.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Haiping; Lu, Xiaoxiang; Zhang, Shuhai; Lu, Meijun; Liu, Hongmei

    2008-06-01

    Pholiota nameko polysaccharide (PNPS-1) has been isolated and purified by enzymatic hydrolysis, hot water extraction, ethanol precipitation, and ion-exchange and gel-filtration chromatography. The anti-inflammatory activity of PNPS-1 was evaluated in rodents using xylene-induced ear edema, egg albumin-, carrageenin-, and formaldehyde-induced paw edema, cotton pellet granuloma test, adhesion of peritoneal leukocytes in vitro, and ulcerogenic activity. The results showed that PNPS-1 (5 mg/ear) inhibited topical edema in the mouse ear and at 100, 200, and 400 mg/kg (intraperitoneally) it significantly suppressed the development of egg albumin-, carrageenin-, and formaldehyde-induced paw edema in the animals. PNPS-1 (100, 200, and 400 mg/kg, per oral) significantly inhibited the growth of granuloma tissues induced by subcutaneously implanted cotton pellets in rats by 10.96, 18.07, and 43.75%, respectively. PNPS-1 also inhibited spontaneous and phorbol-12-myristate-13-acetate-activated adhesion of peritoneal leukocytes in vitro. Further, both acute as well as chronic administration of PNPS-1 (100, 200, and 400 mg/kg, per oral) did not produce any gastric lesion in rats. In conclusion, these data indicated that PNPS-1 possesses significant anti-inflammatory activity suggesting its potential as an anti-inflammatory agent for use in the treatment of various inflammatory-related diseases.

  16. Anti-inflammatory activity in selected Antarctic benthic organisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan eMoles

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Antarctic benthos was prospected in search for anti-inflammatory activity in polar benthic invertebrates, in two different geographical areas: deep-bottoms of the Eastern Weddell Sea and shallow-waters of the South Shetland Islands. A total of 36 benthic algae and invertebrate species were selected to perform solubility tests in order to test them for anti-inflammatory activity. From these, ethanol extracts of ten species from five different phyla resulted suitable to be studied in cell macrophage cultures (RAW 264.7. Cytotoxicity (MTT method and production of inflammatory mediators (prostaglandin E2, leukotriene B4, interleukin-1 were determined at three extract concentrations (50, 125, 250 g/mL. Bioassays resulted in four different species showing anti-inflammatory activity corresponding to three sponges: Mycale (Oxymycale acerata, Isodictya erinacea, and I. toxophila; and one hemichordate: Cephalodiscus sp. These results show that Antarctic sessile invertebrates may have great value as a source of lead compounds with potential pharmaceutical applications.

  17. Structural characterization of anti-inflammatory Immunoglobulin G Fc proteins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Alysia A.; Giddens, John; Pincetic, Andrew; Lomino, Joseph V.; Ravetch, Jeffrey V.; Wang, Lai-Xi; Bjorkman, Pamela J.

    2014-01-01

    Immunoglobulin G (IgG) is a central mediator of host defense due to its ability to recognize and eliminate pathogens. The recognition and effector responses are encoded on distinct regions of IgGs. The diversity of the antigen recognition Fab domains accounts for IgG's ability to bind with high specificity to essentially any antigen. Recent studies have indicated that the Fc effector domain also displays considerable heterogeneity, accounting for its complex effector functions of inflammation, modulation and immune suppression. Therapeutic anti-tumor antibodies, for example, require the pro-inflammatory properties of the IgG Fc to eliminate tumor cells, while the anti-inflammatory activity of Intravenous Immunoglobulin G (IVIG) requires specific Fc glycans for activity. In particular, the anti-inflammatory activity of IVIG is ascribed to a small population of IgGs in which the Asn297-linked complex N-glycans attached to each Fc CH2 domain include terminal α2,6-linked sialic acids. We used chemoenzymatic glycoengineering to prepare fully di-sialylated IgG Fc and solved its crystal structure. Comparison of the structures of asialylated Fc, sialylated Fc, and F241A Fc, a mutant that displays increased glycan sialylation, suggests that increased conformational flexibility of the CH2 domain is associated with the switch from pro- to anti-inflammatory activity of the Fc. PMID:25036289

  18. UV filters, ingredients with a recognized anti-inflammatory effect.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Céline Couteau

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: To explain observed differences during SPF determination using either an in vivo or in vitro method, we hypothesized on the presence of ingredients having anti-inflammatory properties. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: To research our hypothesis, we studied the 21 UV filters both available on the market and authorized by European regulations and subjected these filters to the phorbol-myristate-acetate test using mice. We then catalogued the 13 filters demonstrating a significant anti-inflammatory effect with edema inhibition percentages of more than 70%. The filters are: diethylhexyl butamido triazone (92%, benzophenone-5 and titanium dioxide (90%, benzophenone-3 (83%, octocrylène and isoamyl p-methoxycinnamate (82%, PEG-25 PABA and homosalate (80%, octyl triazone and phenylbenzimidazole sulfonic acid (78%, octyl dimethyl PABA (75%, bis-ethylhexyloxyphenol methoxyphenyl triazine and diethylamino hydroxybenzoyl hexylbenzoate (70%. These filters were tested at various concentrations, including their maximum authorized dose. We detected a dose-response relationship. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The anti-inflammatory effect of a sunscreen ingredient may affect the in vivo SPF value.

  19. Anti-Inflammatory Activity and Composition of Senecio salignus Kunth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cuauhtemoc Pérez González

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the anti-inflammatory activity of Senecio salignus. This medicinal plant is often used in Mexico for the treatment of fever and rheumatism. Chloroform and methanol extracts of the plant were tested on 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate- (TPA- induced edema in mice ears. The methanol extract of the plant inhibited edema by 36±4.4% compared with the control, while the chloroform extract exhibited an even greater level of inhibition (64.1%. The chloroform extract was then fractionated, and the composition of the active fraction was determined by GC-MS. The anti-inflammatory activity of this fraction was then tested on TPA-induced ear edema in mice, and we found that the active fraction could inhibit edema by 46.9%. The anti-inflammatory effect of the fraction was also tested on carrageenan-induced paw edema in rats at doses of 100 mg/kg; a 58.9±2.8% reduction of the edema was observed 4 h after administration of carrageenan, and the effect was maintained for 5 h.

  20. Anti-inflammatory activity of electron-deficient organometallics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jingwen; Pitto-Barry, Anaïs; Shang, Lijun; Barry, Nicolas P E

    2017-11-01

    We report an evaluation of the cytotoxicity of a series of electron-deficient (16-electron) half-sandwich precious metal complexes of ruthenium, osmium and iridium ([Os/Ru( η 6 - p -cymene)(1,2-dicarba- closo -dodecarborane-1,2-dithiolato)] ( 1/2 ), [Ir( η 5 -pentamethylcyclopentadiene)(1,2-dicarba- closo -dodecarborane-1,2-dithiolato)] ( 3 ), [Os/Ru( η 6 - p -cymene)(benzene-1,2-dithiolato)] ( 4/5 ) and [Ir( η 5 -pentamethylcyclopentadiene)(benzene-1,2-dithiolato)] ( 6 )) towards RAW 264.7 murine macrophages and MRC-5 fibroblast cells. Complexes 3 and 6 were found to be non-cytotoxic. The anti-inflammatory activity of 1-6 was evaluated in both cell lines after nitric oxide (NO) production and inflammation response induced by bacterial endotoxin lipopolysaccharide (LPS) as the stimulus. All metal complexes were shown to exhibit dose-dependent inhibitory effects on LPS-induced NO production on both cell lines. Remarkably, the two iridium complexes 3 and 6 trigger a full anti-inflammatory response against LPS-induced NO production, which opens up new avenues for the development of non-cytotoxic anti-inflammatory drug candidates with distinct structures and solution chemistry from that of organic drugs, and as such with potential novel mechanisms of action.

  1. Anti-inflammatory effects of essential oils from Mangifera indica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, R M; Dutra, T S; Simionatto, E; Ré, N; Kassuya, C A L; Cardoso, C A L

    2017-03-16

    Mangifera indica is widely found in Brazil, and its leaves are used as an anti-inflammatory agent in folk medicine. The aim of this study is to perform composition analysis of essential oils from the M. indica varieties, espada (EOMIL1) and coração de boi (EOMIL2), and confirm their anti-inflammatory properties. Twenty-three volatile compounds were identified via gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) in two essential oils from the leaves. Paw edema and myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity were evaluated using the carrageenan-induced paw model, while leukocyte migration was analyzed using the pleurisy model. At oral doses of 100 and 300 mg/kg, the essential oils significantly reduced edema formation and the increase in MPO activity induced by carrageenan in rat paws. For a dose of 300 mg/kg EOMIL1, 62 ± 8% inhibition of edema was observed, while EOMIL2 led to 51 ± 7% inhibition of edema. At a dose of 100 mg/kg, the inhibition was 54 ± 9% for EOMIL1 and 37 ± 7% for EOMIL2. EOMIL1 and EOMIL2 significantly reduced MPO activity at doses of 100 mg/kg (47 ± 5 and 23 ± 8%, respectively) and 300 mg/kg (50 ± 9 and 31 ± 7%, respectively). In the pleurisy model, inhibitions were also observed for EOMIL1 and EOMIL2 in the leukocyte migration test. The results of the present study show that essential oils from M. indica differ in chemical composition and anti-inflammatory activity in rats.

  2. Fluridone as a new anti-inflammatory drug.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magnone, Mirko; Scarfì, Sonia; Sturla, Laura; Guida, Lucrezia; Cuzzocrea, Salvatore; Di Paola, Rosanna; Bruzzone, Santina; Salis, Annalisa; De Flora, Antonio; Zocchi, Elena

    2013-11-15

    Fluridone is a herbicide extensively utilized in agriculture for its documented safety in animals. Fluridone contains a 4(1H)-pyridone and a trifluoromethyl-benzene moiety, which are also present in molecules with analgesic and anti-inflammatory properties. The established absence of adverse effects of Fluridone on animals prompted us to investigate whether it could represent a new anti-inflammatory compound targeting human cells. In stimulated human monocytes, micromolar Fluridone inhibited cyclooxygenase-2 expression and the release of monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 and prostaglandin-E2, to a similar extent as Acetylsalicylic acid. Fluridone also inhibited the proliferation of aortic smooth muscle cells and reduced proliferation and cytokine release by human activated lymphocytes. The mechanism of Fluridone seems to rely on the dose-dependent inhibition of the nuclear translocation of nuclear factor-κB, a transcription factor playing a pivotal role in inflammation. Fluridone also inhibited the release from stimulated human monocytes of abscisic acid, a plant stress hormone recently discovered also in mammalian cells, where it stimulates pro-inflammatory responses. Interestingly, the mechanism of Fluridone's toxicity in plants relies on the inhibition of the enzyme phytoene desaturase, involved in the biosynthetic pathway of ß-carotene, the precursor of absciscic acid in plants. Finally, administration of Fluridone reduced peritoneal inflammation in Zymosan-treated mice. These results suggest that Fluridone could represent a new prototype of anti-inflammatory drug, also active on abscisic acid pro-inflammatory pathway. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Anti-inflammatory profile of paricalcitol in kidney transplant recipients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donate-Correa, Javier; Henríquez-Palop, Fernando; Martín-Núñez, Ernesto; Hernández-Carballo, Carolina; Ferri, Carla; Pérez-Delgado, Nayra; Muros-de-Fuentes, Mercedes; Mora-Fernández, Carmen; Navarro-González, Juan F

    Paricalcitol, a selective vitamin D receptor activator, is used to treat secondary hyperparathyroidism in kidney transplant patients. Experimental and clinical studies in non-transplant kidney disease patients have found this molecule to have anti-inflammatory properties. In this exploratory study, we evaluated the anti-inflammatory profile of paricalcitol in kidney-transplant recipients. Thirty one kidney transplant recipients with secondary hyperparathyroidism completed 3 months of treatment with oral paricalcitol (1μg/day). Serum concentrations and gene expression levels of inflammatory cytokines in peripheral blood mononuclear cells were analysed at the beginning and end of the study. Paricalcitol significantly decreased parathyroid hormone levels with no changes in calcium and phosphorous. It also reduced serum concentrations of interleukin (IL)-6 and tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) by 29% (P<0.05) and 9.5% (P<0.05) compared to baseline, respectively. Furthermore, gene expression levels of IL-6 and TNF-α in peripheral blood mononuclear cells decreased by 14.1% (P<0.001) and 34.1% (P<0.001), respectively. The ratios between pro-inflammatory cytokines (TNF-α and IL-6) and anti-inflammatory cytokines (IL-10), both regarding serum concentrations and gene expression, also experienced a significant reduction. Paricalcitol administration to kidney transplant recipients has been found to have beneficial effects on inflammation, which may be associated with potential clinical benefits. Copyright © 2017 Sociedad Española de Nefrología. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  4. Hypersensitivity to non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nissen, Christoffer V; Bindslev-Jensen, Carsten; Mørtz, Charlotte G

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are reported to be the second most common cause of drug hypersensitivity. In 2011, experts from the EAACI/ENDA group and GA(2)LEN proposed a new classification system for NSAID hypersensitivity. The aim of this study was to classify...... responders reacted to non-pyrazolone drugs. Only one patient could not be classified according to the EAACI/ENDA system. An overlap between respiratory and cutaneous symptoms was found in 15/39 (38%) of patients. CONCLUSIONS: All but one of our patients could be classified according to the EAACI...

  5. Isolation, Characterization and Anti-Inflammatory Property of Thevetia Peruviana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Thilagavathi

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Thevetia peruviana seeds contain glucosides of neriifolin, acetylneriifolin and thevetin. Seed oil distillates of Thevetia peruviana have been found to contain anti-bacterial activity. In the persent work, the fresh flowers of Thevetia peruviana was subjected to phytochemical studies. The results of the study showed that the flowers contain quercetin, kaempferol and quercetin-7-o-galactoside. The structure of the isolated compound was characterized by UV, 1H NMR and 13C NMR spectra. The anti-inflammatory character of the isolated compound was tested by in vitro method and the results of the study revealed that the isolated compound showed a biphasic property.

  6. Topical Nonsteroidal Anti-Inflammatory Drugs for Macular Edema

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Russo

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs are nowadays widely used in ophthalmology to reduce eye inflammation, pain, and cystoid macular edema associated with cataract surgery. Recently, new topical NSAIDs have been approved for topical ophthalmic use, allowing for greater drug penetration into the vitreous. Hence, new therapeutic effects can be achieved, such as reduction of exudation secondary to age-related macular degeneration or diabetic maculopathy. We provide an updated review on the clinical use of NSAIDs for retinal diseases, with a focus on the potential future applications.

  7. Topical nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs for macular edema.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russo, Andrea; Costagliola, Ciro; Delcassi, Luisa; Parmeggiani, Francesco; Romano, Mario R; Dell'Omo, Roberto; Semeraro, Francesco

    2013-01-01

    Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are nowadays widely used in ophthalmology to reduce eye inflammation, pain, and cystoid macular edema associated with cataract surgery. Recently, new topical NSAIDs have been approved for topical ophthalmic use, allowing for greater drug penetration into the vitreous. Hence, new therapeutic effects can be achieved, such as reduction of exudation secondary to age-related macular degeneration or diabetic maculopathy. We provide an updated review on the clinical use of NSAIDs for retinal diseases, with a focus on the potential future applications.

  8. Anti-inflammatory, anticoagulant and antioxidant effects of aqueous extracts from Moroccan thyme varieties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tarik Khouya

    2015-08-01

    Conclusions: All aqueous extracts possess considerable antioxidant activity and are rich in total polyphenol and flavonoid but they act differently in the process of inflammatory and coagulation studied. This study shows great variability of biological activities in thyme varieties.

  9. Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, antiplatelet medications and spinal axis anesthesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broadman, Lynn M

    2005-03-01

    Many individuals use cyclo-oxygenase inhibitors (COX-1 and COX-2 non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs) and antiplatelet medications on a regular basis. This is particularly true of the elderly, who are more prone to having osteoarthritis, rheumatoid arthritis, and cardiac disease. Some of these agents alter platelet function and may increase the risk of spinal/epidural hematoma formation if spinal axis anesthesia is utilized without following proper precautions. All anesthesiologists should be familiar with these agents and how they work. More importantly, they should be familiar with the established guidelines set forth by the American Society of Regional Anesthesia (ASRA) [Regional anesthesia in the anticoagulated patient-defining the risk (2002); Reg. Anes. Pain Med. 28 (2003)172], the German Society of Anesthesiology and Intensive Care Medicine (DGAI) [Anaesthesiol. Intensivmed. 38 (1997) 623], and the Spanish Consensus Forum [Rev. Esp. Anesthesiol. Reanim. 48 (2001) 270]. This article explains the mechanism of action of each of the medications which alter platelet function, defines the risks of hematoma formation should the medication be inadvertently continued into the perioperative period, and provides guidelines and recommendations on how to manage each class of drug prior to the placement of spinal/epidural blocks.

  10. Novel anti-inflammatory therapies for the treatment of atherosclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Razi; Spagnoli, Vincent; Tardif, Jean-Claude; L'Allier, Philippe L

    2015-06-01

    The underlying role of inflammation in atherosclerosis has been characterized. However, current treatment of coronary artery disease (CAD) predominantly consists of targeted reductions in serum lipoprotein levels rather than combating the deleterious effects of acute and chronic inflammation. Vascular inflammation acts by a number of different molecular and cellular pathways to contribute to atherogenesis. Over the last decades, both basic studies and clinical trials have provided evidence for the potential benefits of treatment of inflammation in CAD. During this period, development of pharmacotherapies directed towards inflammation in atherosclerosis has accelerated quickly. This review will highlight specific therapies targeting interleukin-1β (IL-1β), P-selectin and 5-lipoxygenase (5-LO). It will also aim to examine the anti-inflammatory effects of serpin administration, colchicine and intravenous HDL-directed treatment of CAD. We summarize the mechanistic rationale and evidence for these novel anti-inflammatory treatments at both the experimental and clinical levels. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Anti-inflammatory and analgesic potential of Caesalpinia ferrea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandrine Maria A. Lima

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Caesalpinia ferrea Mart. belongs to the family Fabaceae. Known as pau-ferro and jucá, it is used in folk medicine to treat diabetes, as antipyretic and antirheumatic. This study aimed to evaluate the anti-inflammatory and antinociceptive activities of the ethanol extract of the fruits of C. ferrea (EECf. In the evaluation of anti-inflammatory activity, EECf (50 mg/kg produced significantly inhibition of ear edema by 66.6% compared to control. Indomethacin (10 mg/kg showed inhibition of 83.9% compared to control. EECf (50 mg/kg inhibited of vascular permeability induced by acetic acid and was also able to reduce of cell migration to the peritoneal cavity induced by thioglycolate. In the writhing test induced by acid acetic, EECf (12.5, 25 and 50 mg/kg significantly reduced the number of contortions by 24.9, 46.9 and 74.2%, respectively. In the formalin test, EECf presented effects only in the second phase. The results provided experimental evidence for the effectiveness of the traditional use of C. ferrea in treating various diseases associated with inflammation and pain.

  12. Melatonin as an Anti-Inflammatory Agent Modulating Inflammasome Activation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaia Favero

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Inflammation may be defined as the innate response to harmful stimuli such as pathogens, injury, and metabolic stress; its ultimate function is to restore the physiological homeostatic state. The exact aetiology leading to the development of inflammation is not known, but a combination of genetic, epigenetic, and environmental factors seems to play an important role in the pathogenesis of many inflammation-related clinical conditions. Recent studies suggest that the pathogenesis of different inflammatory diseases also involves the inflammasomes, intracellular multiprotein complexes that mediate activation of inflammatory caspases thereby inducing the secretion of proinflammatory cytokines. Melatonin, an endogenous indoleamine, is considered an important multitasking molecule with fundamental clinical applications. It is involved in mood modulation, sexual behavior, vasomotor control, and immunomodulation and influences energy metabolism; moreover, it acts as an oncostatic and antiaging molecule. Melatonin is an important antioxidant and also a widespread anti-inflammatory molecule, modulating both pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines in different pathophysiological conditions. This review, first, gives an overview concerning the growing importance of melatonin in the inflammatory-mediated pathological conditions and, then, focuses on its roles and its protective effects against the activation of the inflammasomes and, in particular, of the NLRP3 inflammasome.

  13. Anti-inflammatory Elafin in human fetal membranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stalberg, Cecilia; Noda, Nathalia; Polettini, Jossimara; Jacobsson, Bo; Menon, Ramkumar

    2017-02-01

    Elafin is a low molecular weight protein with antileukoproteinase, anti-inflammatory, antibacterial and immunomodulating properties. The profile of Elafin in fetal membranes is not well characterized. This study determined the changes in Elafin expression and concentration in human fetal membrane from patients with preterm prelabor rupture of membranes (PPROM) and in vitro in response to intra-amniotic polymicrobial pathogens. Elafin messenger RNA (mRNA) expressions were studied in fetal membranes from PPROM, normal term as well as in normal term not in labor membranes in an organ explant system treated (24 h) with lipopolysaccharide (LPS), using quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) measured Elafin concentrations in culture supernatants from tissues treated with LPS and polybacterial combinations of heat-inactivated Mycoplasma hominis (MH), Ureaplasma urealyticum (UU) and Gardnerella vaginalis (GV). Elafin mRNA expression in fetal membranes from women with PPROM was significantly higher compared to women who delivered at term after normal pregnancy (5.09±3.50 vs. 11.71±2.21; Pmembranes showed a significantly increased Elafin m-RNA expression (Pmembranes also showed no changes in Elafin protein concentrations compared to untreated controls. Higher Elafin expression in PPROM fetal membranes suggests a host response to an inflammatory pathology. However, lack of Elafin response to LPS and polymicrobial treatment is indicative of the minimal anti-inflammatory impact of this molecule in fetal membranes.

  14. Chalcone Derivatives: Anti-inflammatory Potential and Molecular Targets Perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahapatra, Debarshi Kar; Bharti, Sanjay Kumar; Asati, Vivek

    2017-11-20

    Chalcone or (E)-1,3-diphenyl-2-propene-1-one scaffold has gained considerable scientific interest in medicinal chemistry owing to its simple chemistry, ease in synthesizing a variety of derivatives and exhibiting a broad range of promising pharmacological activities by modulating several molecular targets. A number of natural and (semi-) synthetic chalcone derivatives have demonstrated admirable anti-inflammatory activity due to their inhibitory potential against various therapeutic targets like Cyclooxygenase (COX), Lipooxygenase (LOX), Interleukins (IL), Prostaglandins (PGs), Nitric Oxide Synthase (NOS), Leukotriene D4 (LTD4), Nuclear Factor-κB (NF- κB), Intracellular Cell Adhesion Molecule-1 (ICAM-1), Vascular Cell Adhesion Molecule-1 (VCAM-1), Monocyte Chemoattractant Protein-1 (MCP-1) and TLR4/MD-2, etc. The chalcone scaffold with hydroxyl, methoxyl, carboxyl, prenyl group and/or heterocyclic ring substitution like thiophene/furan/indole showed promising anti-inflammatory activity. In this review, a comprehensive study (from the year 1991 to 2016) on multi-targets of inflammatory interest, related inflammation reactions and their treatment by chalcone-based inhibitors acting on various molecular targets entailed in inflammation, Structure-Activity Relationships (SARs), Mechanism of Actions (MOAs), and patents are highlighted. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  15. Analgesic, antipyretic and anti-inflammatory properties of Euphorbia hirta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanhers, M C; Fleurentin, J; Dorfman, P; Mortier, F; Pelt, J M

    1991-06-01

    Lyophilised aqueous extract of Euphorbia hirta L. (Euphorbiaceae) has been evaluated for analgesic, antipyretic and anti-inflammatory properties in mice and rats, in order to complete its activity profile, after the confirmation of the existence of a central depressant activity particularly expressed by a strong sedative effect, associated with anxiolytic effects. This study leads us to the conclusion that this plant extract exerts central analgesic properties. Such a dose-dependent action was obtained against chemical (writhing test) and thermic (hot plate test) stimuli, respectively, from the doses of 20 and 25 mg/kg and it was inhibited by a naloxone pretreatment, a specific morphinic antagonist compound. An antipyretic activity was obtained at the sedative doses of 100 and 400 mg/kg, on the yeast-induced hyperthermia. Finally, significant and dose-dependent anti-inflammatory effects were observed on an acute inflammatory process (carrageenan-induced edema test in rats) from the dose of 100 mg/kg. On the other hand, plant extract remained inactive on chronic processes such as Freund's adjuvant-induced rheumatoid arthritis, after a chronic treatment during fourteen days at the daily dose of 200 or 400 mg/kg; however, if inefficacy was observed on rat backpaws edema and on loss of weight, the aqueous extract reduced the inflammatory hyperalgia.

  16. Anti-inflammatory Cerebrosides from Cultivated Cordyceps militaris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiu, Ching-Peng; Liu, Shan-Chi; Tang, Chih-Hsin; Chan, You; El-Shazly, Mohamed; Lee, Chia-Lin; Du, Ying-Chi; Wu, Tung-Ying; Chang, Fang-Rong; Wu, Yang-Chang

    2016-02-24

    Cordyceps militaris (bei-chong-chaw, northern worm grass) is a precious and edible entomopathogenic fungus, which is widely used in traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) as a general booster for the nervous system, metabolism, and immunity. Saccharides, nucleosides, mannitol, and sterols were isolated from this fungus. The biological activity of C. militaris was attributed to the saccharide and nucleoside contents. In this study, the aqueous methanolic fraction of C. militaris fruiting bodies exhibited a significant anti-inflammatory activity. Bioactivity-guided fractionation of the active fraction led to the isolation of eight compounds, including one new and two known cerebrosides (ceramide derivatives), two nucleosides, and three sterols. Cordycerebroside A (1), the new cerebroside, along with soyacerebroside I (2) and glucocerebroside (3) inhibited the accumulation of pro-inflammatory iNOS protein and reduced the expression of COX-2 protein in LPS-stimulated RAW264.7 macrophages. This is the first study on the isolation of cerebrosides with anti-inflammatory activity from this TCM.

  17. Anti-inflammatory drugs and uterine cervical cancer cells: Antineoplastic effect of meclofenamic acid

    OpenAIRE

    SORIANO-HERNANDEZ, ALEJANDRO D.; MADRIGAL-PÉREZ, DANIELA; GALVAN-SALAZAR, HECTOR R.; MARTINEZ-FIERRO, MARGARITA L.; VALDEZ-VELAZQUEZ, LAURA L.; ESPINOZA-GÓMEZ, FRANCISCO; VAZQUEZ-VUELVAS, OSCAR F.; OLMEDO-BUENROSTRO, BERTHA A.; GUZMAN-ESQUIVEL, JOSE; RODRIGUEZ-SANCHEZ, IRAM P.; LARA-ESQUEDA, AGUSTIN; MONTES-GALINDO, DANIEL A.; DELGADO-ENCISO, IVAN

    2015-01-01

    Uterine cervical cancer (UCC) is one of the main causes of cancer-associated mortality in women. Inflammation has been identified as an important component of this neoplasia; in this context, anti-inflammatory drugs represent possible prophylactic and/or therapeutic alternatives that require further investigation. Anti-inflammatory drugs are common and each one may exhibit a different antineoplastic effect. As a result, the present study investigated different anti-inflammatory models of UCC ...

  18. Novel enzyme formulations for improved pharmacokinetic properties and anti-inflammatory efficacies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Lan; Yan, Shenglei; Zhang, Yonghong; Hu, Xueyuan; Guo, Qi; Yuan, Yuming; Zhang, Jingqing

    2018-02-15

    Anti-inflammatory enzymes promote the dissolution and excretion of sticky phlegm, clean the wound surface and accelerate drug diffusion to the lesion. They play important roles in treating different types of inflammation and pain. Currently, various formulations of anti-inflammatory enzymes are successfully prepared to improve the enzymatic characteristics, pharmacokinetic properties and anti-inflammatory efficacies. The work was performed by systematically searching all available literature. An overall summary of current research about various anti-inflammatory enzymes and their novel formulations is presented. The original and improved enzymatic characteristics, pharmacokinetic properties, action mechanisms, clinical information, storage and shelf life, treatment efficacies of anti-inflammatory enzymes and their different formulations are summarized. The influencing factors such as enzyme type, source, excipient, pharmaceutical technique, administration route and dosage are analyzed. The combined application of enzymes and other drugs are included in this paper. Anti-inflammatory enzymes were widely applied in treating different types of inflammation and diseases with accompanying edema. Their novel formulations increased enzymatic stabilities, improved pharmacokinetic properties, provided different administration routes, and enhanced anti-inflammatory efficacies of anti-inflammatory enzymes but decreased side effects and toxicity. Novel enzyme formulations improve and expand the usage of anti-inflammatory enzymes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Antioxidant and Anti-Inflammatory Activities of Barettin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trond Ø. Jørgensen

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we present novel bioactivity for barettin isolated from the marine sponge Geodia barretti. We found that barettin showed strong antioxidant activity in biochemical assays as well as in a lipid peroxidation cell assay. A de-brominated synthetic analogue of barettin did not show the same activity in the antioxidant cell assay, indicating that bromine is important for cellular activity. Barettin was also able to inhibit the secretion of the inflammatory cytokines IL-1β and TNFα from LPS-stimulated THP-1 cells. This combination of anti-inflammatory and antioxidant activities could indicate that barettin has an atheroprotective effect and may therefore be an interesting product to prevent development of atherosclerosis.

  20. Antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities of barettin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lind, Karianne F; Hansen, Espen; Østerud, Bjarne; Eilertsen, Karl-Erik; Bayer, Annette; Engqvist, Magnus; Leszczak, Kinga; Jørgensen, Trond Ø; Andersen, Jeanette H

    2013-07-22

    In this paper, we present novel bioactivity for barettin isolated from the marine sponge Geodia barretti. We found that barettin showed strong antioxidant activity in biochemical assays as well as in a lipid peroxidation cell assay. A de-brominated synthetic analogue of barettin did not show the same activity in the antioxidant cell assay, indicating that bromine is important for cellular activity. Barettin was also able to inhibit the secretion of the inflammatory cytokines IL-1β and TNFα from LPS-stimulated THP-1 cells. This combination of anti-inflammatory and antioxidant activities could indicate that barettin has an atheroprotective effect and may therefore be an interesting product to prevent development of atherosclerosis.

  1. [Antidiarrheal and anti-inflammatory effects of berberine].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, M F; Shen, Y Q

    1989-03-01

    Berberine sulfate (Ber) 40 and 80 mg/kg ig reduced the purging effects of castor oil or Cassia angustifolia leaf in mice, but did not affect the gastrointestinal transport function of Chinese ink in normal mice. Ber 60 mg/kg ig significantly inhibited the increased vascular permeability induced by ip 0.7% acetic acid in mice. Ber 20 and 50 mg/kg sc markedly inhibited the increased vascular permeability induced by histamine 100 micrograms/0.1 ml ic in rats. Ber 4 and 8 mg/kg sc produced obvious inhibition in the xylene-induced swelling of mouse ear. The anti-inflammatory effects were enhanced in a dose-dependent manner. It is suggested that the antidiarrheal effect of Ber is relative to its restriction against exudative inflammation to a certain extent.

  2. Pharmacological interactions of anti-inflammatory-analgesics in odontology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-Moreno, Gerardo; Guardia, Javier; Cutando, Antonio; Calvo-Guirado, José Luis

    2009-02-01

    In this second article we describe the more interesting pharmacological interactions in dental practice based on the prescription of analgesic narcotics, paracetamol and non-selective non-steroid anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAI) (which inhibit cyclooxigenase 1 -COX 1- and cyclooxigenase 2 -COX 2-) and selective NSAIs (COX 2 inhibitors). The importance of preventing the appearance of these pharmacological interactions is because these are medicaments prescribed daily in odontology for moderate pain treatment and inflammation in the oral cavity. Paracetamol can interact with warfarin and therefore care should be taken with chronic alcoholic patients. All NSAIs reduce renal blood flow and consequently are capable of reducing the efficacy of medicaments used for treating arterial hypertension, which act via a renal mechanism. Especial attention should be taken considering the risk of interaction between the antagonists of AT1 receptors of angiostensin II (ARAII) and the NSAIs.

  3. Anti-inflammatory and cytotoxic activities of five Veronica species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harput, U Sebnem; Saracoglu, Iclal; Inoue, Makoto; Ogihara, Yukio

    2002-04-01

    Biological activities of five Veronica species (Scrophulariaceae), V. cymbalaria, V. hederifolia, V. pectinata var. glandulosa, V. persica and V. polita were studied for their anti-inflammatory and cytotoxic activities. Their methanol extracts showed both the inhibitory activity of nitric oxide (NO) production in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated macrophages and cytotoxic activity against KB epidermoid carcinoma and B16 melanoma. When the methanol extracts were fractionated between water and chloroform, water fractions significantly inhibited NO production without any cytotoxicity, while chloroform fractions showed cytotoxicity dose-dependently. When the radical scavenging activity was determined using 2,2-diphenyl-1-picryl-hydrazyl (DPPH), water fractions of the five Veronica species scavenged free radicals effectively, suggesting that the inhibitory effect of this species on NO production was due to their radical scavenging activity. On the other hand, chloroform fractions of Veronica species except for V. cymbalaria showed similar cytotoxic activity against KB and B16 melanoma cells.

  4. Anti-inflammatory, Analgesic and Antiulcer properties of Porphyra vietnamensis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saurabh Bhatia

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Aim of the present work was to investigate the anti-inflammatory, analgesic and antiulcer effects of red seaweed Porphyra vietnamensis (P. vietnamenis. Materials and Methods: Aqueous (POR and alcoholic (PE fractions were successfully isolated from P. vietnamenis. Further biological investigations were performed using a classic test of paw edema induced by carrageenan, writhing induced by acetic acid, hot plate method and naproxen induced gastro-duodenal ulcer. Results: Among the fractions POR showed better activity.  POR and PE significantly (p < 0.05 reduced carrageenan induced paw edema in a dose dependent manner. In the writhing test POR significantly (p < 0.05 reduced abdominal writhes than PE.  In hot plate method POR showed better analgesic activity than PE. POR showed comparable ulcers reducing potential (p

  5. Anti-inflammatory treatment for carditis in acute rheumatic fever.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cilliers, Antoinette; Adler, Alma J; Saloojee, Haroon

    2015-05-28

    Rheumatic heart disease remains an important cause of acquired heart disease in developing countries. Although prevention of rheumatic fever and management of recurrences have been well established, optimal management of active rheumatic carditis remains unclear. This is an update of a review published in 2003, and previously updated in 2009 and 2012. To assess the effects, both harmful and beneficial, of anti-inflammatory agents such as aspirin, corticosteroids and other drugs in preventing or reducing further valvular damage in patients with acute rheumatic fever. We searched the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (2013, Issue 9 of 12), MEDLINE (Ovid, 1948 to 2013 October Week 1), EMBASE (Ovid, 1980 to 2013 Week 41) and Latin American Caribbean Health Sciences Literature (LILACS) (1982 to 17 October 2013). We last searched Index Medicus (1950 to April 2001) in 2001. We checked reference lists of identified studies and applied no language restrictions. Randomised controlled trials comparing anti-inflammatory agents (e.g. aspirin, steroids, immunoglobulins, pentoxifylline) versus placebo or controls, or comparing any of the anti-inflammatory agents versus one another, in adults and children with acute rheumatic fever diagnosed according to Jones, or modified Jones, criteria. The presence of cardiac disease one year after treatment was the major outcome criterion selected. Two review authors extracted data and assessed risk of bias using the methodology outlined in the Cochrane Handbook of Systematic Reviews of Interventions. Standard methodological procedures as expected by The Cochrane Collaboration were used. No new studies were included in this update. Eight randomised controlled trials involving 996 people were selected for inclusion in the review. Researchers compared several steroidal agents such as corticotrophin, cortisone, hydrocortisone, dexamethasone, prednisone and intravenous immunoglobulin versus aspirin, placebo or no treatment. Six

  6. Antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory kaempferol glycosides from Sedum dendroideum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Melo, Giany O; Malvar, David do C; Vanderlinde, Frederico A; Rocha, Fabio F; Pires, Priscila Andrade; Costa, Elson A; de Matos, Lécia G; Kaiser, Carlos R; Costa, Sônia S

    2009-07-15

    To identify the compounds responsible for the antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory effects previously described for Sedum dendroideum, through bioassay-guided fractionation procedures. Antinociceptive activity was evaluated through mouse acetic acid-induced writhing model. The anti-inflammatory activity was assessed through croton oil-induced mouse ear oedema and carrageenan-induced peritonitis. The Sedum dendroideum juice afforded seven known flavonoids identified with basis on NMR data. The oral administration of the major kaempferol glycosides kaempferitrin [1] (17.29 micromol/kg), kaempferol 3-O-beta-glucopyranoside-7-O-alpha-rhamnopyranoside [2] (16.82 micromol/kg), kaempferol 3-O-neohesperidoside-7-O-alpha-rhamnopyranoside [3] (13.50 micromol/kg) or alpha-rhamnoisorobin [5] (23.13 micromol/kg) inhibited by 47.3%, 25.7%, 60.2% and 58.0%, respectively, the acetic acid-induced nociception (indomethacin: 27.95 micromol/kg, p.o.; 68.9%). Flavonoids 1, 2, 3 or 5, at the same doses, reduced by 39.5%, 46.5%, 35.6% and 33.3%, respectively, the croton oil-induced oedema (dexamethasone: 5.09 micromol/kg, s.c.; 83.7%) and impaired leukocyte migration by 42.9%, 46.3%, 50.4% and 49.6%, respectively (dexamethasone: 5.09 micromol/kg, s.c.; 66.1%). Our findings show that the major kaempferol glycosides may account for the renowned medicinal use of Sedum dendroideum against pain and inflammatory troubles.

  7. Anti-Inflammatory Activity of Sanghuangporus sanghuang Mycelium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang-Ching Lin

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Acute lung injury (ALI is characterized by inflammation of the lung tissue and oxidative injury caused by excessive accumulation of reactive oxygen species. Studies have suggested that anti-inflammatory or antioxidant agents could be used for the treatment of ALI with a good outcome. Therefore, our study aimed to test whether the mycelium extract of Sanghuangporus sanghuang (SS-1, believed to exhibit antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties, could be used against the excessive inflammatory response associated with lipopolysaccharides (LPS-induced ALI in mice and to investigate its possible mechanism of action. The experimental results showed that the administration of SS-1 could inhibit LPS-induced inflammation. SS-1 could reduce the number of inflammatory cells, inhibit myeloperoxidase (MPO activity, regulate the TLR4/PI3K/Akt/mTOR pathway and the signal transduction of NF-κB and MAPK pathways in the lung tissue, and inhibit high mobility group box-1 protein 1 (HNGB1 activity in BALF. In addition, SS-1 could affect the synthesis of antioxidant enzymes Heme oxygenase 1 (HO-1 and Thioredoxin-1 (Trx-1 in the lung tissue and regulate signal transduction in the KRAB-associated protein-1 (KAP1/nuclear factor erythroid-2-related factor Nrf2/Kelch Like ECH associated Protein 1 (Keap1 pathway. Histological results showed that administration of SS-1 prior to induction could inhibit the large-scale LPS-induced neutrophil infiltration of the lung tissue. Therefore, based on all experimental results, we propose that SS-1 exhibits a protective effect against LPS-induced ALI in mice. The mycelium of S. sanghuang can potentially be used for the treatment or prevention of inflammation-related diseases.

  8. ANTIOXIDANT, ANTI-INFLAMMATORY ACTIVITY OF GEORGIAN LEGUMINOUS CROPS CULTURES.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chkhikvishvili, I; Mamniashvili, T; Gogia, N; Enukidze, M; Machavariani, M; Sanikidze, T

    2017-11-01

    The aim of the study was to identify the common in Georgia leguminous crops culture with pronounced antioxidant, anti-inflammatory activity. The primary evaluation of the antiinflammatory effects of beans was performed on the experimental models of MDCK and Jurkat cells model systems. Extracts of various varieties of legumes (Beans "Kidney", Meadow beans, Beans Shulavera, Batumian beans, Beans "Udelebi", green peas, peas Shulavera, lentils Lens Culinaris, Soy) were added to the intact or incubated under oxidative stress conditions Jurkat and MDCK cells. Cells' vitality was determined by MTT test. On the basis of analysis of the obtained results, we concluded that: - Meadow beans extract (low doses) revealed cytoprotective effect on the intact and incubated under oxidative stress conditions immune (Jurkat) and epithelial (MDCK) cells. High antioxidant, cytoprotective activity of this extract correlates with high polyphenols content in it. - The extract of Shulavera beans did affect the intact Jurkat and MDCK cells, but showed pronounced cytoprotective activity on these cells incubated under the oxidative stress conditions. High antioxidant, cytoprotective activity of this extract correlates with high content of polyphenols in it. - Low dose of lentils Lens Culinaris extracts revealed cytoprotective activity on the incubated under oxidative stress conditions MDCK cells, but was inactive in case of intact MDCK and incubated in different conditions immune Jurkat cells. The selective antioxidant activity of this extract is related with its other constituent components, but not polyphenols. - Despite high polyphenols content and high antioxidant activity in vivo, Batumian beans revealed moderate cytoprotective activity on intact and incubated under oxidative stress conditions Jurkat cells, suppressive activity on the intact MDCK cells and was inactive in relation to the incubated under oxidative stress conditions MDCK cells. Based on these findings, we can identify

  9. Anti-inflammatory and antioxidant effects of Croton celtidifolius bark.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nardi, G M; Felippi, R; DalBó, S; Siqueira-Junior, J M; Arruda, D C; Delle Monache, F; Timbola, A K; Pizzolatti, M G; Ckless, K; Ribeiro-do-valle, R M

    2003-03-01

    Croton celtidifolius Baill commonly known as "sangue-de-adave" is a tree found in the Atlantic Forest of south of Brazil, mainly in Santa Catarina. The bark and leaf infusions of this medicinal plant have been popularly used for the treatment of inflammatory diseases. In this study we evaluated the anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties of crude extract (CE), aqueous fraction (AqF), ethyl acetate fraction (EAF), butanolic fraction (BuF) and catechin, gallocatechin and sub-fractions, 19SF, 35SF and 63SF that contained a mixture of proanthocyanidins and were derived from the EAF fraction. The CE, AqF, EAF, BuF, catechin and sub-fractions 35SF and 63SF reduced paw edema induced by carrageenan. The CE, fractions, sub-fractions and isolated compounds showed antioxidant properties in vitro, all were able to scavenge superoxide anions at a concentration of 100 microg ml(-1). The EAF, catechin and gallocatechin were most effective in the deoxyribose assay, IC50 0.69 (0.44-1.06), 0.20 (0.11-0.39), 0.55 (0.28-1.08) microg x ml(-1) respectively. The CE and other fractions and sub-fractions inhibited deoxyribose degradation up to 1 microg x ml(-1). In the hydrophobic system only AqF did not show lipid peroxidation inhibition. The CE, other fractions, sub-fractions and isolated compounds inhibited lipidid peroxidation only at a concentration of 100 microg x ml(-1). In summary, this study demonstrates that Croton celtidifolius bark has significant anti-inflammatory and antioxidant activity.

  10. Evaluation of the analgesic and anti-inflammatory activity of fixed dose combination: Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs in experimental animals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amit Lahoti

    2014-01-01

    Conclusion: Combining paracetamol with ibuprofen enhances analgesic/anti-inflammatory activity over their individual component but potentiation of analgesic activity of diclofenac was not seen when paracetamol was added to it.

  11. In-vitro anti- inflammatory activity of aqueous extract of leaves of Plectranthus amboinicus (Lour.) Spreng.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravikumar, V R; Dhanamani, M; Sudhamani, T

    2009-04-01

    Aqueous extract of leaves of Plectranthus amboinicus (lour.) Spreng, which is traditionally used in the treatment of cough and cold was screened for its anti- inflammatory activity by HRBC membrane stabilisation model. Aqueous extract (500 mcg/ml) showed significant anti-inflammatory activity as compared to that of hydrocortisone sodium.

  12. Anti-inflammatory properties of a novel peptide interleukin 1 receptor antagonist

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klementiev, Boris; Li, Shizhong; Korshunova, Irina

    2014-01-01

    Interleukin 1 (IL-1) is implicated in neuroinflammation, an essential component of neurodegeneration. We evaluated the potential anti-inflammatory effect of a novel peptide antagonist of IL-1 signaling, Ilantide.......Interleukin 1 (IL-1) is implicated in neuroinflammation, an essential component of neurodegeneration. We evaluated the potential anti-inflammatory effect of a novel peptide antagonist of IL-1 signaling, Ilantide....

  13. Analgesic, anti-inflammatory and anti-ulcer activities of Sida acuta in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The analgesic, anti-inflammatory and anti-ulcer properties was also studied in mice and rats using the tail immersion, mouse ear oedema and acetylsalicylic acid induced ulceration models. The crude extracts exhibited significant (p< 0.001) analgesic and anti-inflammatory activities in mice as well as a marked protection ...

  14. Anti-inflammatory effect of interleukin-10 in rabbit immune complex-induced colitis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grool, TA; Van Dullemen, H; Meenan, J; Koster, F; ten Kate, F. J. W.; Lebeaut, A; Tytgat, GNJ; Van Deventer, SJH

    Background: Interleukin-10 (IL-10) is an anti-inflammatory cytokine that downregulates the secretion of pro-inflammatory cytokines and additionally induces the secretion of anti-inflammatory cytokines, thus possibly leading to reduction of chronic inflammation in inflammatory bowel disease. In this

  15. Evaluation of Analgesic and Anti-inflammatory Activities of the Root ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Evaluation of Analgesic and Anti-inflammatory Activities of the Root Extracts of Indigofera spicata F. in Mice. ... The results clearly demonstrate the analgesic and anti-inflammatory effects of the aqueous and 80% methanolic root extracts of the plant, providing evidence in part for the folkloric use of the plant. Keywords: ...

  16. Utilization of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs in patients ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs are widely prescribed worldwide. In Nigeria there is unrestricted access to these useful, yet potentially harmful drugs. We set out to assess the utilization of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs in outpatients attending clinics in a Teaching Hospital in Nigeria. Consecutive patients were ...

  17. DMPD: Molecular mechanisms of the anti-inflammatory functions of interferons. [Dynamic Macrophage Pathway CSML Database

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 18086388 Molecular mechanisms of the anti-inflammatory functions of interferons. Ko...varik P, Sauer I, Schaljo B. Immunobiology. 2007;212(9-10):895-901. Epub 2007 Nov 8. (.png) (.svg) (.html) (.csml) Show Molecular... mechanisms of the anti-inflammatory functions of interferons. PubmedID 18086388 Title Molecular

  18. In silico and in vivo anti-inflammatory studies of curcuminoids ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To determine the anti-inflammatory activity of curcuminoids in comparison with that of eugenol in silico, and to determine the anti-inflammatory activity of wound dressings made from zinc oxide powder and liquid turmeric extract with a high curcuminoid content. Methods: In silico studies were conducted, using ...

  19. Analgesic and anti-inflammatory activities of the saponins extract of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The saponins extract of Carissa edulis Vahl family Apocynaceae was investigated for analgesic and anti-inflammatory activities. The analgesic activity was studied using hot-plate and acetic acid-induced writhing tests in mice while the anti-inflammatory activity was studied using carrageenan-induced paw oedema test in ...

  20. Anti-inflammatory and Analgesic Effects of Aqueous Extract of Aloe ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... 57.59% and 68.06% inhibition respectively. The present study showed that the aqueous extract of Aloe barbadensis has anti-inflammatory and analgesic activities that could be mediated via modulators of pain and inflammation or through central activity. Keywords: Aloe barbadensis; anti-inflammatory; analgesic activity ...

  1. Anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidant activities of Secamone afzelii ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    . This study re-ports the anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties of S. afzelii. The anti-inflammatory activity was determined by the carrageenan-induced paw oedema method in 7 day old chicks and antioxi-dant property by the 2 ...

  2. Chemical composition and anti-inflammatory activity of the leaves of Byrsonima verbascifolia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Saldanha, Aline Aparecida; Carmo, Do Lucas Fernandes; Nascimento, Do Sara Batista; Matos, de Natália Alves; Carvalho Veloso, de Clarice; Castro, Ana Hortência Fonsêca; Vos, de Ric C.H.; Klein, André; Siqueira, de João Máximo; Carollo, Carlos Alexandre; Nascimento, Do Thalita Vieira; Toffoli-Kadri, Mônica Cristina; Soares, Adriana Cristina

    2016-01-01

    An ethnopharmacological survey indicates that the genus Byrsonima has some medicinal species that are commonly found in the Brazilian Cerrado and has been used as an anti-inflammatory and for gastroduodenal disorders. The aim of this study was to evaluate the anti-inflammatory and antioxidant

  3. Aspirin and its related non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Aspirin and its related non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. Aspirin or acetylsalicylic acid has been utilised by physicians for hundreds of years as an analgesic, anti-inflammatory and antipyretic (1). Derived from plant sources, such as the willow tree, it has the ability to induce apoptosis in cancer cells and stimulate.

  4. Anti-inflammatory drugs in the 21st century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rainsford, K D

    2007-01-01

    Historically, anti-inflammatory drugs had their origins in the serendipitous discovery of certain plants and their extracts being applied for the relief of pain, fever and inflammation. When salicylates were discovered in the mid-19th century to be the active components of Willow Spp., this enabled these compounds to be synthesized and from this, acetyl-salicylic acid or Aspirin was developed. Likewise, the chemical advances of the 19th-20th centuries lead to development of the non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), most of which were initially organic acids, but later non-acidic compounds were discovered. There were two periods of NSAID drug discovery post-World War 2, the period up to the 1970's which was the pre-prostaglandin period and thereafter up to the latter part of the last century in which their effects on prostaglandin production formed part of the screening in the drug-discovery process. Those drugs developed up to the 1980-late 90's were largely discovered empirically following screening for anti-inflammatory, analgesic and antipyretic activities in laboratory animal models. Some were successfully developed that showed low incidence of gastro-intestinal (GI) side effects (the principal adverse reaction seen with NSAIDs) than seen with their predecessors (e.g. aspirin, indomethacin, phenylbutazone); the GI reactions being detected and screened out in animal assays. In the 1990's an important discovery was made from elegant molecular and cellular biological studies that there are two cyclo-oxygenase (COX) enzyme systems controlling the production of prostanoids [prostaglandins (PGs) and thromboxane (TxA2)]; COX-1 that produces PGs and TxA2 that regulate gastrointestinal, renal, vascular and other physiological functions, and COX-2 that regulates production of PGs involved in inflammation, pain and fever. The stage was set in the 1990's for the discovery and development of drugs to selectively control COX-2 and spare the COX-1 that is central to

  5. Anti-inflammatory and antioxidant activity of Ficus carica Linn. leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, B; Mujeeb, M; Aeri, V; Mir, S R; Faiyazuddin, M; Shakeel, F

    2012-01-01

    Ficus carica Linn. (Moraceae) is commonly known as edible fig. The leaves, roots, fruits and latex of the plant are medicinally used in different diseases. The leaves are claimed to be effective in various inflammatory conditions like painful or swollen piles, insect sting and bites. However, there has been no report on anti-inflammatory and antioxidant activity of F. carica leaves. Therefore the aim of this study was to evaluate the anti-inflammatory and antioxidant activity of F. carica leaves. Our study validated the traditional claim with pharmacological data. Anti-inflammatory and antioxidant activity of the drug could be due to the presence of steroids and flavanoids, respectively, which are reported to be present in the drug. Furthermore, the anti-inflammatory activity of the drug could be due to its free radical scavenging activity. Further work is also required to isolate and characterise the active constituents responsible for the anti-inflammatory activities.

  6. Evaluation of the anti-inflammatory activities of Quillaja saponaria Mol. saponin extract in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarkhel, Sumana

    2016-01-01

    Quillaja saponaria bark contains a high percentage of triterpene saponins and has been used for centuries as antiinflammatory and analgesic agent in Chilean folk medicine. In the Present study the anti-inflammatory activities of the aqueous extract of commercially partially purified saponin from Quillaja saponari a Mol. in in vivo animal models. Aqueous extract of the plant material was prepared by cold maceration. The anti-inflammatory activity of a commercial Quillaja saponaria Mol. (QS) saponin extract was investigated by carragenan induced mice paw edema model for acute inflammation (Winter, 1962) [16]. The anti-inflammatory activity was evaluated by carragenan in paw edema model in swiss albino mice (18-20 g). The anti-inflammatory activity was found to be dose dependent in carragenan induced paw edema. QS was found to significantly ( p  Quillaja saponaria saponins (QS) possess significant anti-inflammatory activity.

  7. Brazilian medicinal plants with corroborated anti-inflammatory activities: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro, Victor Pena; Arruda, Caroline; Abd El-Salam, Mohamed; Bastos, Jairo Kenupp

    2018-12-01

    Inflammatory disorders are common in modern life, and medicinal plants provide an interesting source for new compounds bearing anti-inflammatory properties. In this regard, Brazilian medicinal plants are considered to be a promising supply of such compounds due to their great biodiversity. To undertake a review on Brazilian medicinal plants with corroborated anti-inflammatory activities by selecting data from the literature reporting the efficacy of plants used in folk medicine as anti-inflammatory, including the mechanisms of action of their extracts and isolated compounds. A search in the literature was undertaken by using the following Web tools: Web of Science, SciFinder, Pub-Med and Science Direct. The terms 'anti-inflammatory' and 'Brazilian medicinal plants' were used as keywords in search engine. Tropicos and Reflora websites were used to verify the origin of the plants, and only the native plants of Brazil were included in this review. The publications reporting the use of well-accepted scientific protocols to corroborate the anti-inflammatory activities of Brazilian medicinal plants with anti-inflammatory potential were considered. We selected 70 Brazilian medicinal plants with anti-inflammatory activity. The plants were grouped according to their anti-inflammatory mechanisms of action. The main mechanisms involved inflammatory mediators, such as interleukins (ILs), nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB), prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), cyclooxygenase (COX) and reactive oxygen species (ROS). The collected data on Brazilian medicinal plants, in the form of crude extract and/or isolated compounds, showed significant anti-inflammatory activities involving different mechanisms of action, indicating Brazilian plants as an important source of anti-inflammatory compounds.

  8. Topical anti-inflammatory agents for seborrhoeic dermatitis of the face or scalp.

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    Kastarinen, Helena; Oksanen, Tuija; Okokon, Enembe O; Kiviniemi, Vesa V; Airola, Kristiina; Jyrkkä, Johanna; Oravilahti, Tuomas; Rannanheimo, Piia K; Verbeek, Jos H

    2014-05-19

    Seborrhoeic dermatitis is a chronic inflammatory skin disorder affecting primarily the skin of the scalp, face, chest, and intertriginous areas, causing scaling and redness of the skin. Current treatment options include antifungal, anti-inflammatory, and keratolytic agents, as well as phototherapy. To assess the effects of topical pharmacological interventions with established anti-inflammatory action for seborrhoeic dermatitis occurring in adolescents and adults. We searched the following databases up to September 2013: the Cochrane Skin Group Specialised Register, CENTRAL in The Cochrane Library (2013, Issue 9), MEDLINE (from 1946), Embase (from 1974), LILACS (from 1982), and the GREAT database. We searched five trials databases and checked the reference lists of included studies for further references to relevant randomised controlled trials (RCTs). We included RCTs in adults or adolescents (> 16 years) with diagnosed seborrhoeic dermatitis of the scalp or face, comparing topical anti-inflammatory treatments (steroids, calcineurin inhibitors, and lithium salts) with other treatments. Pairs of authors independently assessed eligibility for inclusion, extracted data, and evaluated the risk of bias. We performed meta-analyses if feasible. We included 36 RCTs (2706 participants), of which 31 examined topical steroids; seven, calcineurin inhibitors; and three, lithium salts. The comparative interventions included placebo, azoles, calcipotriol, a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory compound, and zinc, as well as different anti-inflammatory treatments compared against each other. Our outcomes of interest were total clearance of symptoms, erythema, scaling or pruritus scores, and adverse effects. The risk of bias in studies was most frequently classified as unclear, due to unclear reporting of methods.Steroid treatment resulted in total clearance more often than placebo in short-term trials (four weeks or less) (relative risk (RR) 3.76, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.22 to

  9. Anti-inflammatory properties of desipramine and fluoxetine

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    Portet Karine

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Antidepressants are heavily prescribed drugs and have been shown to affect inflammatory signals. We examined whether these have anti-inflammatory properties in animal models of septic shock and allergic asthma. We also analysed whether antidepressants act directly on peripheral cell types that participate in the inflammatory response in these diseases. Methods The antidepressants desipramine and fluoxetine were compared in vivo to the glucocorticoid prednisolone, an anti-inflammatory drug of reference. In a murine model of lipopolysaccharides (LPS-induced septic shock, animals received the drugs either before or after injection of LPS. Circulating levels of tumour necrosis factor (TNF-α and mortality rate were measured. In ovalbumin-sensitized rats, the effect of drug treatment on lung inflammation was assessed by counting leukocytes in bronchoalveolar lavages. Bronchial hyperreactivity was measured using barometric plethysmography. In vitro production of TNF-α and Regulated upon Activation, Normal T cell Expressed and presumably Secreted (RANTES from activated monocytes and lung epithelial cells, respectively, was analysed by immunoassays. Reporter gene assays were used to measure the effect of antidepressants on the activity of nuclear factor-κB and activator protein-1 which are involved in the control of TNF-α and RANTES expression. Results In the septic shock model, all three drugs given preventively markedly decreased circulating levels of TNF-α and mortality (50% mortality in fluoxetine treated group, 30% in desipramine and prednisolone treated groups versus 90% in controls. In the curative trial, antidepressants had no statistically significant effect, while prednisolone still decreased mortality (60% mortality versus 95% in controls. In ovalbumin-sensitized rats, the three drugs decreased lung inflammation, albeit to different degrees. Prednisolone and fluoxetine reduced the number of macrophages, lymphocytes

  10. Non-steroidal Anti-inflammatory Drugs in Raptors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oaks, J. Lindsay; Meteyer, Carol U.; Miller, R. Eric; Fowler, Murray E.

    2012-01-01

    The use of analgesia has become standard, and appropriate, practice in avian medicine. As in mammals, pain control in avian patients is usually accomplished with opioids and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) used singly or in combination for a multimodal approach. Despite their usefulness, widespread use, and relative safety in clinical use, few controlled studies in birds have been conducted on efficacy, safety, and dosing. The guidelines for the use of NSAIDs in raptors and other birds have mainly been empirical. More recently, NSAIDs in free-living raptors have emerged as a major conservation issue with the discovery that diclofenac sodium was responsible for the population crash of three species of Gyps vultures in southern Asia. In this context, residues of veterinary NSAIDs in domestic animals are now considered environmental contaminants that can be significantly toxic to vultures and possibly other avian scavengers. Ironically, the disaster with Asian vultures has led to a considerable body of research on NSAIDs in raptors to the benefit of clinicians who now have scientific information available to help assess dosing, safety, toxicity, and pharmacokinetics of NSAIDs in their raptor patients.

  11. Anti-inflammatory, Analgesic and Antiulcer properties of Porphyra vietnamensis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhatia, Saurabh; Sharma, Kiran; Sharma, Ajay; Nagpal, Kalpana; Bera, Tanmoy

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: Aim of the present work was to investigate the anti-inflammatory, analgesic and antiulcer effects of red seaweed Porphyra vietnamensis (P. vietnamenis). Materials and Methods: Aqueous (POR) and alcoholic (PE) fractions were successfully isolated from P. vietnamenis. Further biological investigations were performed using a classic test of paw edema induced by carrageenan, writhing induced by acetic acid, hot plate method and naproxen induced gastro-duodenal ulcer. Results: Among the fractions POR showed better activity. POR and PE significantly (p < 0.05) reduced carrageenan induced paw edema in a dose dependent manner. In the writhing test POR significantly (p < 0.05) reduced abdominal writhes than PE. In hot plate method POR showed better analgesic activity than PE. POR showed comparable ulcers reducing potential (p<0.01) to that of omeprazole, and has more ulcer reducing potential then PE. Conclusions: The results of this study demonstrated that P. vietnamenis aqueous fraction possesses biological activity that is close to the standards taken for the treatment of peripheral painful or/and inflammatory and ulcer conditions. PMID:25767759

  12. Anti-Inflammatory Dimethylfumarate: A Potential New Therapy for Asthma?

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    Petra Seidel

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Asthma is a chronic inflammatory disease of the airways, which results from the deregulated interaction of inflammatory cells and tissue forming cells. Beside the derangement of the epithelial cell layer, the most prominent tissue pathology of the asthmatic lung is the hypertrophy and hyperplasia of the airway smooth muscle cell (ASMC bundles, which actively contributes to airway inflammation and remodeling. ASMCs of asthma patients secrete proinflammatory chemokines CXCL10, CCL11, and RANTES which attract immune cells into the airways and may thereby initiate inflammation. None of the available asthma drugs cures the disease—only symptoms are controlled. Dimethylfumarate (DMF is used as an anti-inflammatory drug in psoriasis and showed promising results in phase III clinical studies in multiple sclerosis patients. In regard to asthma therapy, DMF has been anecdotally reported to reduce asthma symptoms in patients with psoriasis and asthma. Here we discuss the potential use of DMF as a novel therapy in asthma on the basis of in vitro studies of its inhibitory effect on ASMC proliferation and cytokine secretion in ASMCs.

  13. Nucleic acid-binding polymers as anti-inflammatory agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jaewoo; Sohn, Jang Wook; Zhang, Ying; Leong, Kam W.; Pisetsky, David; Sullenger, Bruce A.

    2011-01-01

    Dead and dying cells release nucleic acids. These extracellular RNAs and DNAs can be taken up by inflammatory cells and activate multiple nucleic acid-sensing toll-like receptors (TLR3, 7, 8, and 9). The inappropriate activation of these TLRs can engender a variety of inflammatory and autoimmune diseases. The redundancy of the TLR family encouraged us to seek materials that can neutralize the proinflammatory effects of any nucleic acid regardless of its sequence, structure or chemistry. Herein we demonstrate that certain nucleic acid-binding polymers can inhibit activation of all nucleic acid-sensing TLRs irrespective of whether they recognize ssRNA, dsRNA or hypomethylated DNA. Furthermore, systemic administration of such polymers can prevent fatal liver injury engendered by proinflammatory nucleic acids in an acute toxic shock model in mice. Therefore these polymers represent a novel class of anti-inflammatory agent that can act as molecular scavengers to neutralize the proinflammatory effects of various nucleic acids. PMID:21844380

  14. Nonsteroidal Anti-Inflammatory Drugs and Risk of Melanoma

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    Joanne M. Jeter

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Because nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs inhibit tumor growth in vitro, we investigated the association between NSAIDs and melanoma to determine if there was epidemiologic evidence of a chemopreventive effect from these medications. Three hundred twenty-seven subjects with incident melanoma and 119 melanoma-free controls completed a structured interview assessing melanoma risk factors. The unadjusted odds ratio (OR for use of nonaspirin NSAIDs was 0.58 (95% CI 0.31–1.11, in a comparison of subjects with melanoma to controls. After adjustment for melanoma risk factors, the OR was 0.71 (95% CI 0.23–2.02. Aspirin users had an unadjusted OR of 0.85 (95% CI 0.45–1.69 and an adjusted OR of 1.45 (95% CI 0.44–4.74. In this pilot study, we found no evidence of a significant association between analgesic use and melanoma risk when potential confounders are assessed. Based on conflicting reports in the literature, meta-analysis may be appropriate.

  15. The neuroimmune basis of anti-inflammatory acupuncture.

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    Kavoussi, Ben; Ross, B Evan

    2007-09-01

    This review article presents the evidence that the antiinflammatory actions of acupuncture are mediated via the reflexive central inhibition of the innate immune system. Both laboratory and clinical evidence have recently shown the existence of a negative feedback loop between the autonomic nervous system and the innate immunity. There is also experimental evidence that the electrical stimulation of the vagus nerve inhibits macrophage activation and the production of TNF, IL-1beta , IL-6, IL-18, and other proinflammatory cytokines. It is therefore conceivable that along with hypnosis, meditation, prayer, guided imagery, biofeedback, and the placebo effect, the systemic anti-inflammatory actions of traditional and electro-acupuncture are directly or indirectly mediated by the efferent vagus nerve activation and inflammatory macrophage deactivation. In view of this common physiological mediation, assessing the clinical efficacy of a specific acupuncture regimen using conventional double-blind placebo-controlled trials inherently lacks objectivity due to (1) the uncertainty of ancient rules for needle placement, (2) the diffuse noxious inhibitory control triggered by control-needling at irrelevant points, (3) the possibility of a dose-response relationship between stimulation and effects, and (4) the possibility of inadequate blinding using an inert sham procedure. A more objective assessment of its efficacy could perhaps consist of measuring its effects on the surrogate markers of autonomic tone and inflammation. The use of acupuncture as an adjunct therapy to conventional medical treatment for a number of chronic inflammatory and autoimmune diseases seems plausible and should be validated by confirming its cholinergicity.

  16. Anti-inflammatory polysaccharides of Azadirachta indica seed tegument

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    Lívia de Paulo Pereira

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Azadirachta indica A. Juss., Meliaceae, or Indian neem is a plant used to treat inûammatory disorders. Total polysaccharide (TPL and FI (fractioned by ion exchange chromatography from the seed tegument of A. indica were evaluated in models of acute inflammation (paw edema/peritonitis using Wistar rats. Paw edema (measured by hydroplethysmometry was induced s.c. by Λ-carrageenan (300 µg, histamine (100 µg, serotonin (20 µg, compound 48/80 (10 µg, prostaglandin (PGE2 30 µg or L-arginine (15 µg. Peritonitis (analyzed for leukocyte counts/protein dosage was induced i.p. by carrageenan (500 mg or N-formyl-methionyl-leucyl-phenylalanine (fMLP 50 ng. Animals were treated i.v. with TPL (1 mg/kg or FI (0.01, 0.1, 1 mg/kg 30 min before stimuli. FI toxicity (at 0.1 mg/kg, i.v. for seven days was analyzed by the variation of body/organ mass and hematological/biochemical parameters. TPL extraction yielded 1.3%; FI, presenting high carbohydrate and low protein content, at 0.1 mg/kg inhibited paw edema induced by carrageenan (77%, serotonin (54%, PGE2 (69% and nitric oxide (73%, and the peritonitis elicited by carrageenan (48% or fMLP (67%, being well tolerated by animals. FI exhibited potent anti-inflammatory activity, revealing to be important active component in traditionally prepared remedies to treat inflammatory states.

  17. Design and development of Unani anti-inflammatory cream.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fatima, Sana; Zaman, Roohi; Haider, Nafis; Shamsi, Shariq; Alam, Anzar

    Inflammation is the symptom of many diseases like rheumatoid arthritis and osteoarthritis. Many side effects are associated with the Non-Steroidal Anti-inflammatory Drugs (NSAIDs) used as conventional treatment for these conditions. In Unani, there are large number of single and compound drugs for inflammatory conditions. One dosage form of Unani system of medicine is named as Zimad in which paste is formed by mixing powder in oil, water, herbal extract. Zimadat is prepared just before application and used in many disease conditions as resolving, styptic, astringent, and antiseptic. As the pre-application procedure is difficult and also complicated for patients, hence, the present study attempted to modify the form of Zimad into cream. Various batches of cream of Zimad Mohallil were prepared by using extracts of the formulation and by adding additives. Various physicochemical parameters of prepared cream were carried and compared with market cream. The optimized cream of Zimad Mohallil (F 4 ) was selected after preliminary tests and evaluated further. The optimized cream showed good results in physicochemical parameters equivalent to market sample. Zimad Mohallil was converted into convenient cream form by adding minimum additives and benefits could be achieved without any hassle and cumbersome work, which is encountered in crude or paste form. The optimized cream was equivalent to standard market cream. Copyright © 2017 Transdisciplinary University, Bangalore and World Ayurveda Foundation. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Inflammation, cytokines and anti-inflammatory therapies in heart failure.

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    Tabet, J Y; Lopes, M E; Champagne, S; Su, J B; Merlet, P; Hittinger, L

    2002-03-01

    Both experimental and clinical studies have shown a role for inflammation in the pathogenesis of heart failure. This seems related to an imbalance between pro-inflammatory and anti-inflammatory cytokines. Certain categories in patients with dilated cardiomyopathy have shown the presence of humoral and cellular immunity activation suggesting a possible relation between myocarditis and dilated cardiomyopathy. Recent studies suggest a link between the circulating levels of cytokines (TNF alpha IL-1 et IL-6), the clinical status and prognostic. However, the mechanisms connecting heart failure and cytokine activation are unclear and the sites of cytokines production remain controversial. In the clinical setting, specific measurements of cytokines are not available. As tests of inflammation, erythrocyte sedimentation rate and C-reactive protein concentration appear to have interesting pronostic values. Current conventional therapy i.e. ACE inhibitors, type I angiotensin II antagonist and beta-blockers have shown some anti-cytokine properties. Recently, immunosuppressive therapies have shown their ability to improve symptoms and LV ejection in selected patients with dilated cardiomyopathy and clear sign of myocardium inflammation. Specific anti-cytokine therapy have been developed and showed interesting results in preliminary clinical studies. However large clinical trials testing this new therapy have been stoppel prematurely because of deterious effects.

  19. Anti-inflammatory effects of glaucocalyxin B in microglia cells

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    Ping Gan

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Over-activated microglia is involved in various kinds of neurodegenerative process including Parkinson, Alzheimer and HIV dementia. Suppression of microglial over activation has emerged as a novel strategy for treatment of neuroinflammation-based neurodegeneration. In the current study, anti-inflammatory and neuroprotective effects of the ent-kauranoid diterpenoids, which were isolated from the aerial parts of Rabdosia japonica (Burm. f. var. glaucocalyx (Maxim. Hara, were investigated in cultured microglia cells. Glaucocalyxin B (GLB, one of five ent-kauranoid diterpenoids, significantly decreased the generation of nitric oxide (NO, tumor necrosis factor (TNF-α, interleukin (IL-1β, cyclooxygenase (COX-2 and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS in the lipopolysaccharide (LPS-activated microglia cells. In addition, GLB inhibited activation of nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB, p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK and generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS in LPS-activated microglia cells. Furthermore, GLB strongly induced the expression of heme oxygenase (HO-1 in BV-2 microglia cells. Finally, GLB exhibited neuroprotective effect by preventing over-activated microglia induced neurotoxicity in a microglia/neuron co-culture model. Taken together, the present study demonstrated that the GLB possesses anti-nueroinflammatory activity, and might serve as a potential therapeutic agent for treating neuroinflammatory diseases.

  20. Anti-inflammatory polymer electrodes for glial scar treatment

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    Maria eAsplund

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Conducting polymer films offer a convenient route for the functionalization of implantable microelectrodes without compromising their performance as excellent recording units. A micron thick coating, deposited on the surface of a regular metallic electrode, can elute anti-inflammatory drugs for the treatment of glial scarring as well as growth factors for the support of surrounding neurons. Electroactivation of the polymer drives the release of the substance and should ideally provide a reliable method for controlling quantity and timing of release. Driving signals in the form of a constant potential, a slow redox sweep or a fast pulse are all represented in literature. Few studies present such release in vivo from actual recording and stimulating microelectronic devices. It is essential to bridge the gap between studies based on release in vitro, and the intended application, which would mean release into living and highly delicate tissue. In the biological setting, signals are limited both by available electronics and by the biological safety. Driving signals must not be harmful to tissue and also not activate the tissue in an uncontrolled manner. This review aims at shedding more light on how to select appropriate driving parameters for the polymer electrodes for the in vivo setting. It brings together information regarding activation thresholds for neurons, as well as injury thresholds, and puts this into context with what is known about efficient driving of release from conducting polymer films.

  1. Anti-inflammatory properties of drugs from saffron crocus.

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    Poma, Anna; Fontecchio, Gabriella; Carlucci, Giuseppe; Chichiriccò, Giuseppe

    2012-01-01

    The medicinal uses of saffron (Crocus sativus Linnaeus) have a long history beginning in Asian countries since the Late Bronze Age. Recent studies have validated its potential to lower the risk of several diseases. Some metabolites derived from saffron stigmas exert numerous therapeutic effects due to hypolipidemic, antitussive, antioxidant, antidiabetic activities and many others. Water and ethanol extracts of Crocus sativus L. are cardioprotective and counteract neurodegenerative disorders. Many of these medicinal properties of saffron can be attributed to a number of its compounds such as crocetin, crocins and other substances having strong antioxidant and radical scavenger properties against a variety of radical oxygen species and pro-inflammatory cytokines. Botany, worldwide spreading of cultivars, biochemical pathways, active constituents and chemical detection methods are reviewed. Therapeutic uses of saffron principles with particular regard to those exhibiting antioxidant and thus anti-inflammatory features are discussed. To date, very few adverse health effects of saffron have been demonstrated. At high doses (more than 5 g/die day), it should be avoided in pregnancy owing to its uterine stimulation activity.

  2. Endoscopical appearances of nonsteroidal anti inflammatory drug (NSAID- enteropathy

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    Marcellus Simadibrata

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Non Steroidal Anti Inflammatory Drugs (NSAID have been associated with a sudden and sustained rise in the incidence of gastrointestinal ulcer complications. The aim of the study was to reveal the endoscopical abnormalities found in the duodenum & proximal jejunum due to NSAID. Thirty eight patients taking NSAID for their arthritis or rheumatism were included in this study. Gastro-duodeno-jejunoscopy was done with Olympus PCF-10. The endoscopical appearances of NSAID entero gastropathy were evaluated with a scoring system. The NSAID-entero-gastropathy appearances were endoscopically seen as hyperemia, erosion and ulcer. From all patient recruited, 7.9% complaint of diarrhea and 71.1% complaint of dyspepsia. Endoscopically, in the duodenal bulb we found 79% cases of hyperemia, 39.5% cases of erosion and 7.9% cases of ulcer. In the second part (descending part of the duodenum we found 28.9% cases of hyperemia, 15.8% cases of erosion and 2.6% case of ulcer. In the jejunum, we found 7.9% cases of hyperemia, 2.6% case of erosion and no ulcer. It is concluded that the most frequent abnormal endoscopical appearances in NSAID- enteropathy was hyperemia. The most frequent site of NSAID-enteropathy abnormal findings was in the duodenal bulb. (Med J Indones 2005; 14: 225-9Keywords: NSAID-enteropathy, endoscopical appearances.

  3. Anti-inflammatory effects of polyphenols in arthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliviero, Francesca; Scanu, Anna; Zamudio-Cuevas, Yessica; Punzi, Leonardo; Spinella, Paolo

    2018-03-01

    Polyphenols have been extensively investigated with regard to their antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and immunomodulant properties in many inflammatory chronic conditions. The aim of this review is to summarise how these compounds can modulate the inflammatory pathways which characterise the most prevalent arthropathies including osteoarthritis, rheumatoid arthritis and crystal-induced arthritis. Among polyphenols, epigallocatechin gallate, carnosol, hydroxytyrosol, curcumin, resveratrol, kaempferol and genistein have been the most widely investigated in arthritis. The most important results of the studies outlined in this article show how polyphenolic compounds are able to inhibit the expression and the release of a number of pro-inflammatory mediators and proteolytic enzymes, the activity of different transcriptional factors and the production of reactive oxygen species in vitro. Studies on animal models of rheumatoid arthritis, osteoarthritis and gout show interesting results in terms of reduced tissue damage, restored cartilage homeostasis, and decreased levels of uric acid, respectively. Despite the multiple protective effects of polyphenols, there are no dietary recommendations for patients affected by rheumatic diseases. Future studies, including intervention trials, should be conducted to determine the relevance of polyphenols consumption or supplementation in arthritis. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  4. DMPD: Mechanisms for the anti-inflammatory effects of adiponectin in macrophages. [Dynamic Macrophage Pathway CSML Database

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 18336664 Mechanisms for the anti-inflammatory effects of adiponectin in macrophages...(.html) (.csml) Show Mechanisms for the anti-inflammatory effects of adiponectin in macrophages. PubmedID 18336664 Title Mechanism

  5. Anti-inflammatory activity of the topical preparation of Valeriana wallichii and Achyranthes aspera leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khuda, Fazli; Iqbal, Zafar; Khan, Ayub; Zakiullah; Nasir, Fazli; Shah, Yasar

    2013-05-01

    In vivo and in vitro screening of anti inflammatory activity of Valeriana wallichii and Achyranthes aspera leaves crude extract was performed, using standardized procedures. Methanolic crude extract topical formulation (cream) of Valeriana wallichii and Achyranthes aspera leaves (Family Valerianaceae and Amaranthaceae respectively), were screened for their anti-inflammatory activity, through "Carrageenan induced hind paw edema" test, for their effect on the acute and chronic phase inflammation models in male Wistar rats. Methanolic extract and its fractions were also evaluated for their in vitro anti-inflammatory activity using lipoxygenase inhibition assay. Leaves of Valeriana wallichii showed significant (PValeriana wallichii also showed considerable (IC 50=73 ± 0.36) in vitro anti-inflammatory activity as compared to standard (6.11 ± 0.02). Similarly Achyranthes aspera leaves showed relatively weak (p>0.05) in vivo anti-inflammatory activity. However, its activity was comparable with that of standard at 10% concentration after 5 hrs of carrageenan injection. This activity was present in ethyl acetate fraction during in vitro screening (IC 50=76 ± 0.14) as compared to that of standard (IC 50=6.11 ± 0.02). The combined in vitro and in vivo Anti-inflammatory screening shows that the ethyl acetate fraction of the crude extract of Valeriana wallichii and Achyranthes aspera can be used for the isolation of new Anti-inflammatory lead compounds.

  6. Anti-inflammatory effects of phytochemicals from fruits, vegetables, and food legumes: A review.

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    Zhu, Fengmei; Du, Bin; Xu, Baojun

    2017-06-12

    Inflammation is the first biological response of the immune system to infection, injury or irritation. Evidence suggests that the anti-inflammatory effect is mediated through the regulation of various inflammatory cytokines, such as nitric oxide, interleukins, tumor necrosis factor alpha-α, interferon gamma-γ as well as noncytokine mediator, prostaglandin E 2 . Fruits, vegetables, and food legumes contain high levels of phytochemicals that show anti-inflammatory effect, but their mechanisms of actions have not been completely identified. The aim of this paper was to summarize the recent investigations and findings regarding in vitro and animal model studies on the anti-inflammatory effects of fruits, vegetables, and food legumes. Specific cytokines released for specific type of physiological event might shed some light on the specific use of each source of phytochemicals that can benefit to counter the inflammatory response. As natural modulators of proinflammatory gene expressions, phytochemical from fruits, vegetables, and food legumes could be incorporated into novel bioactive anti-inflammatory formulations of various nutraceuticals and pharmaceuticals. Finally, these phytochemicals are discussed as the natural promotion strategy for the improvement of human health status. The phenolics and triterpenoids in fruits and vegetables showed higher anti-inflammatory activity than other compounds. In food legumes, lectins and peptides had anti-inflammatory activity in most cases. However, there are lack of human study data on the anti-inflammatory activity of phytochemicals from fruits, vegetables, and food legumes.

  7. Evaluation of the anti-inflammatory activities of Quillaja saponaria Mol. saponin extract in mice

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    Sumana Sarkhel

    Full Text Available Objective: Quillaja saponaria bark contains a high percentage of triterpene saponins and has been used for centuries as antiinflammatory and analgesic agent in Chilean folk medicine.In the Present study the anti-inflammatory activities of the aqueous extract of commercially partially purified saponin from Quillaja saponaria Mol. in in vivo animal models. Methods & materials:: Aqueous extract of the plant material was prepared by cold maceration. The anti-inflammatory activity of a commercial Quillaja saponaria Mol. (QS saponin extract was investigated by carragenan induced mice paw edema model for acute inflammation (Winter, 1962 [16]. Results: The anti-inflammatory activity was evaluated by carragenan in paw edema model in swiss albino mice (18–20 g. The anti-inflammatory activity was found to be dose dependent in carragenan induced paw edema. QS was found to significantly (p < 0.05 reduce the carragenan induced mice paw edema (38.59%; 20 mg/kg bw as compared to carragenan control. The percentage inhibition of standard anti-inflammatory drug indomethacin was (55%; 10 mg/kg, bw. Conclusion: The results of the present study demonstrate that the aqueous extract of Quillaja saponaria saponins (QS possess significant anti-inflammatory activity. Keywords: Anti-inflammatory activity, Aqueous extract, Paw edema

  8. Assessment of anti-inflammatory potential of Sesbania bispinosa Linn. leaf extracts and fractions by acute and

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    Ganesh D. Boddawar

    2016-09-01

    Conclusion: The results of the present study suggest that leaves of S. bispinosa possess significant level of anti-inflammatory activity and ethyl acetate fraction may be further explored as an anti-inflammatory remedy as it was found to possess higher anti-inflammatory activity among all extracts and fractions as demonstrated in both acute and chronic models.

  9. DMPD: Anti-inflammatory actions of PPAR ligands: new insights on cellular andmolecular mechanisms. [Dynamic Macrophage Pathway CSML Database

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 17981503 Anti-inflammatory actions of PPAR ligands: new insights on cellular andmolecula...) (.html) (.csml) Show Anti-inflammatory actions of PPAR ligands: new insights on cellular andmolecular mech...ecular mechanisms. Authors Straus DS, Glass CK. Publication Trends Immunol. 2007 De...anisms. PubmedID 17981503 Title Anti-inflammatory actions of PPAR ligands: new insights on cellular andmol

  10. Evaluation of anti-inflammatory, analgesic and antipyretic activities of Thymus serphyllum Linn. in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alamger; Mazhar, Uzma; Mushtaq, Muhammad Naveed; Khan, Hafeez Ullah; Maheen, Safirah; Malik, Muhammad Nasir Hayat; Ahmad, Taseer; Latif, Fouzia; Tabassum, Nazia; Khan, Abdul Qayyum; Ahsan, Haseeb; Khan, Wasim; Javed, Ibrahim; Ali, Haider

    2015-01-01

    The present study was conducted to evaluate the analgesic, anti-inflammatory and antipyretic activities of Thymus serphyllum Linn. in mice. Anti-inflammatory activity was evaluated by carrageenan and egg albumin induced paw edema in mice, while analgesic activity was assessed using formalin induced paw licking and acetic acid induced abdominal writhing in mice. For determination of antipyretic activity, pyrexia was induced by subcutaneous injection of 20% yeast. All the extracts produced significant anti-inflammatory effect however, ether extract produced maximum effect 34% inhibition (p Thymus serphyllum in traditional medicine for inflammation accompanied by pain and fever.

  11. Design, synthesis, antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory activities of novel piroxicam analogues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Miranda, Amanda Silva; Bispo Júnior, Walfrido; da Silva, Yolanda Karla Cupertino; Alexandre-Moreira, Magna Suzana; Castro, Rosane de Paula; Sabino, José Ricardo; Lião, Luciano Morais; Lima, Lídia Moreira; Barreiro, Eliezer J

    2012-11-28

    In this paper we report the design, synthesis, antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory activities of a series of benzothiazine N-acylhydrazones 14a–h, planned by structural modification of piroxicam (1), a non steroidal anti-inflammatory drug. Among the synthesized analogues, compounds 14f (LASSBio-1637) and 14g (LASSBio-1639) were identified as novel antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory prototypes, active by oral administration, acting by a mechanism of action that seems to be different from that of piroxicam, since they were inactive as an inhibitor of cyclooxygenase (COX-1 and COX-2) at concentrations of 10 mM.

  12. Design, Synthesis, Antinociceptive and Anti-Inflammatory Activities of Novel Piroxicam Analogues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliezer J. Barreiro

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we report the design, synthesis, antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory activities of a series of benzothiazine N-acylhydrazones 14a–h, planned by structural modification of piroxicam (1, a non steroidal anti-inflammatory drug. Among the synthesized analogues, compounds 14f (LASSBio-1637 and 14g (LASSBio-1639 were identified as novel antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory prototypes, active by oral administration, acting by a mechanism of action that seems to be different from that of piroxicam, since they were inactive as an inhibitor of cyclooxygenase (COX-1 and COX-2 at concentrations of 10 mM.

  13. Polysaccharide Constituents of Three Types of Sea Urchin Shells and Their Anti-Inflammatory Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiao, Heng; Shang, Xiaohui; Dong, Qi; Wang, Shuang; Liu, Xiaoyu; Zheng, Heng; Lu, Xiaoling

    2015-01-01

    As a source of potent anti-inflammatory traditional medicines, the quantitative chromatographic fingerprints of sea urchin shell polysaccharides were well established via pre-column derivatization high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) analysis. Based on the quantitative results, the content of fucose and glucose could be used as preliminary distinguishing indicators among three sea urchin shell species. Besides, the anti-inflammatory activities of the polysaccharides from sea urchin shells and their gonads were also determined. The gonad polysaccharide of Anthocidaris crassispina showed the most potent anti-inflammatory activity among all samples tested. PMID:26389925

  14. TO STUDY OF ANTI-INFLAMMATORY EFFECT OF CALCIUM CHANNEL BLOCKERS IN RAT PAW EDEMA MODEL

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    Anil Kumar

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION The process of inflammation is one of the most fundamental responses of the vascularised living tissue to local injury.1 Inflammation is a universal host defense process involving a complex network of cell-cell, cell-mediator & tissue interactions.2 AIM AND OBJECTIVES To study of anti-inflammatory effect of calcium channel blockers in rat paw edema model. MATERIALS AND METHODS To evaluate the anti-inflammatory effect with different doses of calcium channel blockers nifedipine, verapamil and standard drug ibuprofen in experimentally induced acute model of inflammation in male Wister rat. Inter drug comparison of anti-inflammatory efficacy of nifedipine, verapamil with standard drug ibuprofen in rats. Divide the animals into 3 groups each comprising at least six rats. Control group inject saline, standard group inject ibuprofen 20 mg/kg. test group inject (nifedipine & verapamil subcutaneously. After 30 min inject 0.1ml 1% (w/v Carrageenin in the plantar region of the left paw of all rats. The left hind paw was measured plethysmograph, immediately (zero hour and 4 hours after the sub plantar injection of Carrageenin. The difference between zero hour volume and the paw volume recorded at the end of 4 hrs. Indicated the actual volume. RESULT The statistical test ANOVA is applied to inter drug comparison. It is found that drug. Nifedipine 1mg/kg (86% has more efficacy significantly as compared to standard drug Ibuprofen 20mg/kg (55%, and drug Verapamil 1mg/kg (71% for its anti-inflammatory action. (F value is 94.27 >tab F 5.82 so this method is statistically highly significant. CONCLUSION Thus it was found that nifedipine has better anti-inflammatory efficacy as compared to ibuprofen, verapamil in various experimental anti-inflammatory models. The various experimental anti-inflammatory models were rat paw edema method. The calcium channel blockers included were nifedipine, verapamil and standard drug ibuprofen. Nifedipine has anti-inflammatory

  15. Polysaccharide Constituents of Three Types of Sea Urchin Shells and Their Anti-Inflammatory Activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiao, Heng; Shang, Xiaohui; Dong, Qi; Wang, Shuang; Liu, Xiaoyu; Zheng, Heng; Lu, Xiaoling

    2015-09-16

    As a source of potent anti-inflammatory traditional medicines, the quantitative chromatographic fingerprints of sea urchin shell polysaccharides were well established via pre-column derivatization high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) analysis. Based on the quantitative results, the content of fucose and glucose could be used as preliminary distinguishing indicators among three sea urchin shell species. Besides, the anti-inflammatory activities of the polysaccharides from sea urchin shells and their gonads were also determined. The gonad polysaccharide of Anthocidaris crassispina showed the most potent anti-inflammatory activity among all samples tested.

  16. Oral nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs for fibromyalgia in adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derry, Sheena; Wiffen, Philip J; Häuser, Winfried; Mücke, Martin; Tölle, Thomas Rudolf; Bell, Rae F; Moore, R Andrew

    2017-03-27

    Oral nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are widely used in the treatment of pain in fibromyalgia, despite being considered not to be effective. To assess the analgesic efficacy, tolerability (drop-out due to adverse events), and safety (serious adverse events) of oral nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs for fibromyalgia in adults. We searched CENTRAL, MEDLINE, and Embase for randomised controlled trials from inception to January 2017. We also searched the reference lists of retrieved studies and reviews, and online clinical trial registries. We included randomised, double-blind trials of two weeks' duration or longer, comparing any oral NSAID with placebo or another active treatment for relief of pain in fibromyalgia, with subjective pain assessment by the participant. Two review authors independently extracted data and assessed trial quality and potential bias. Primary outcomes were participants with substantial pain relief (at least 50% pain relief over baseline or very much improved on Patient Global Impression of Change scale (PGIC)) or moderate pain relief (at least 30% pain relief over baseline or much or very much improved on PGIC), serious adverse events, and withdrawals due to adverse events; secondary outcomes were adverse events, withdrawals due to lack of efficacy, and outcomes relating to sleep, fatigue, and quality of life. Where pooled analysis was possible, we used dichotomous data to calculate risk difference (RD) and number needed to treat for an additional beneficial outcome (NNT), using standard methods. We assessed the quality of the evidence using GRADE and created a 'Summary of findings' table. Our searches identified six randomised, double-blind studies involving 292 participants in suitably characterised fibromyalgia. The mean age of participants was between 39 and 50 years, and 89% to 100% were women. The initial pain intensity was around 7/10 on a 0 to 10 pain scale, indicating severe pain. NSAIDs tested were etoricoxib 90 mg

  17. Anticoagulant Resistance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heiberg, Ann-Charlotte

    Although sewer rat control is carried out in more than 80 % of all Danish municipalities, with usage of large amounts of anticoagulant rodenticides, knowledge on anticoagulant resistance among rats living in the sewers is limited. As rat problems in urban areas are believed to be related to sewer...... problems (70-90 % in UK and DK) unawareness of resistance amongst these populations of Brown rats may constitute a future control problem and knowledge on this issue has become crucial. Rats were captured in sewers from seven different locations in the suburban area of Copenhagen. Locations was chosen...... to represent different sewer rat management strategies i) no anticoagulants for approx. 20 years ii) no anticoagulants for the last 5 years and iii) continuous control for many years. Animals were tested for resistance to bromadiolone by Blood-Clotting Response test, as bromadiolone is the most frequently used...

  18. Variation of Anti-inflammatory Cytokines in Relationship with Menopause

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    Dan MIHU

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Aim. The aim of this study was to assess serum levels of the key anti-inflammatory cytokines in women of reproductive age and in pre and postmenopausal women. Material and Method. 175 women were enrolled and were divided into 5 groups (1 – Fertile women; 2 – Pre- and perimenopausal women; 3 – Postmenopausal women; 4 – Surgically-induced menopause; 5 – Chronic inflammation. Multiplex cytokine kits were used to evaluate serum levels of interleukin-4, -10 and -13. We determined the serum levels of follicle stimulating hormone, of luteinizing hormone, 17β-estradiol, progesterone, dehydroepiandrosterone and dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate using sandwich ELISA. Results. IL-4, IL-10 and IL-17 present a statistically significant decrease (p=0.00, p=0.00, respectively p=0.0053 in women with natural or surgically induced menopause (groups 3 and 4, compared with fertile women and premenopausal women (Groups 1, 2 and 5. Serum levels of IL-4 and IL-10 are significantly higher in fertile patients with associated chronic inflammatory diseases (133.5±1.314 pg/ml, respectively 6.406±13.47 pg/ml than in fertile patients without chronic inflammatory diseases or premenopausal women (84.67±1.22 pg/ml, respectively 0.627±0.714. Conclusions. IL-4 and IL-10, together with IL-17, show significantly lower serum values in patients with natural or surgically induced menopause compared with patients of childbearing age or in premenopause. IL-4 and IL-10 show significantly higher serum values for patients of childbearing age presenting chronic inflammatory pathology compared with patients of childbearing age without chronic inflammatory pathology or premenopausal patients.

  19. Non-Steroidal Anti-Inflammatory Drugs (NSAIDs) Induced Dyspepsia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yap, Paul Ray-Yee; Goh, Khean-Lee

    2015-01-01

    Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are the most prescribed group of drugs in the world. They are used primarily for pain relief in chronic inflammatory joint disease and act by inhibiting enzymes COX1 and COX2 and ultimately preventing the production of active prostanoids which are required for the innate inflammatory pathway. The use of NSAIDs have been associated with the development of gastrointestinal (GI) symptoms ranging from simple dyspepsia to life threatening GI bleeds and perforations. The definition of dyspepsia has evolved over the years and this has hampered accurate studies on the prevalence of dyspepsia as different studies used varying criteria to define dyspepsia. It is now known that NSAIDs significantly increase the risk of dyspepsia.The risk of developing peptic ulcer disease vary with specific NSAIDs and dosages but there is no correlation between the symptoms of dyspepsia and underlying peptic ulcers. The pathogenesis of dyspepsia with NSAIDs is not completely understood. Peptic ulceration alone is not able to account for the majority of dyspepsia symptoms encountered by NSAIDs users. Erosive oesophagitis secondary to NSAIDs may be contributing factor to the prevalence of dyspepsia in NSAIDs users. Altered gut permeability and changes in gastric mechanosensory function due to NSAIDs may also be a contributory factor. Management of NSAID induced dyspepsia is involves a multipronged approach. Drug avoidance if possible would be ideal. Other options include using the lowest effective dose, changing to an NSAIDs with a safer GI risk profile, avoiding concurrent use with other NSAIDs or if the patient has a previous history of peptic ulcer disease, and co-prescribing with anti-secretory medications such as proton pump inhibitors. Eradication of Helicobacter pylori has a protective role against developing peptic ulcers and may also improve symptoms of NSAIDs induced dyspepsia.

  20. Inflammatory and anti-inflammatory effects of soybean agglutinin

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    Benjamin C.F.

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available Soybean agglutinin (SBA lectin, a protein present in raw soybean meals, can bind to and be extensively endocytosed by intestinal epithelial cells, being nutritionally toxic for most animals. In the present study we show that SBA (5-200 µg/cavity injected into different cavities of rats induced a typical inflammatory response characterized by dose-dependent exudation and neutrophil migration 4 h after injection. This effect was blocked by pretreatment with glucocorticoid (0.5 mg/kg or by co-injection of N-acetyl-galactosamine (100 x [M] lectin, but not of other sugars (100 x [M] lectin, suggesting an inflammatory response related to the lectin activity. Neutrophil accumulation was not dependent on a direct effect of SBA on the macrophage population since the effect was not altered when the number of peritoneal cells was increased or decreased in vivo. On the other hand, SBA showed chemotactic activity for human neutrophils in vitro. A slight increase in mononuclear cells was observed 48 h after ip injection of SBA. Phenotypic analysis of these cells showed an increase in the CD4+/CD8- lymphocyte population that returned to control levels after 15 days, suggesting the development of an immune response. SBA-stimulated macrophages presented an increase in the expression of CD11/CD18 surface molecules and showed some characteristics of activated cells. After intravenous administration, SBA increased the number of circulating neutrophils and inhibited in a dose-dependent manner the neutrophil migration induced by ip injection of carrageenan into peritoneal cavities. The co-injection of N-acetyl-galactosamine or mannose, but not glucose or fucose, inhibited these effects. The data indicate that soybean lectin is able to induce a local inflammatory reaction but has an anti-inflammatory effect when present in circulating blood

  1. The Epidemiology of Nonsteroidal Anti-Inflammatory Drugs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jerry Tenenbaum

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID use has increased dramatically in the past two decades. A large proportion of the elderly population (more than 65 years of age holds a current or recent NSAID prescription, accounting for approximately 90% of all NSAID prescriptions. Despite studies that advise finding alternatives for NSAIDs for the management of osteoarthritis, physicians often prescribe NSAIDs first for such common musculoskeletal conditions. Despite being identified as risk factors for gastrointestinal complications, the simultaneous use of two NSAIDs and the coadministration of NSAIDs with corticosteroids and with coumadin continue to occur. The point prevalence of NSAID-induced ulcers is 10% to 30%, and 15% to 35% of all peptic ulcer complications are caused by NSAIDs. The increased risk of gastrointestinal complications when NSAIDs are used is 3% to 5%. This risk increases with other identified risk factors (eg, older age, previous gastrointestinal history, comorbid diseases and poor health. Gastrointestinal causes of hospitalization (eg, gastrointestinal hemorrhage and perforation and death have increased in parallel to increased NSAID use. ‘Antiulcer’ agents are prescribed twice as often in NSAID users, and the economic impact (eg, diagnostic tests and hospitalization is that about one-third of the arthritis budget has been dedicated to deal with gastrointestinal side effects of NSAIDs. Misoprostol and omeprazole have been shown to be cytoprotective for the gastroduodenal mucosa when NSAIDs are used, and misoprostol has been shown to reduce the risk of gastroduodenal ulcer complications. Economic evaluations have suggested that these agents are a cost effective means of dealing with such NSAID-associated problems. Although no NSAID is totally safe, a number of studies have demonstrated that NSAIDs may be ranked according to relative gastrointestinal toxicity. The role of Helicobacter pylori in NSAID-associated problems

  2. Aptamers Against Pro- and Anti-Inflammatory Cytokines: A Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boshtam, Maryam; Asgary, Seddigheh; Kouhpayeh, Shirin; Shariati, Laleh; Khanahmad, Hossein

    2017-02-01

    Inflammatory disorders result from continuous inflammation in injured sites. Many molecules are involved in this process; the inhibition of which could prevent the inflammation. Chemokines are a group of these biological mediators which are categorized into pro-, anti-, and pro-/anti-inflammatory. Thus, targeting these essential molecules can be an effective way for prevention and control of inflammatory diseases. Various therapeutic agents have been developed for primary and secondary prevention of these disorders, but each of them has its own limitations. Aptamers, as novel therapeutic agents, are a new generation of drugs which could replace other medications even antibodies. Aptamer can bind to its target molecule to trap it and prohibit its function. Among large group of inflammatory cytokines, only 11 aptamers have been selected either against cytokines or their related receptors. These cytokines include interleukin (IL)-2, IL-6, IL-10, IL-11, IL-17, IL-32, TGF-β, TNF-α, IFN-γ, CCL2, and IP-10. Most of the isolated aptamers are against pro-inflammatory or dual function cytokines, and it seems that they could be used for diagnosis, prevention, and treatment of the related inflammatory diseases. Most of the aptamers have been tested in vitro, but so far, none of them has been approved for in vivo use. Given a vast number of inflammatory cytokines, more aptamers against this group of biological molecules will be selected in the near future. The available aptamers will also be tested in clinical trials. Therefore, a significant improvement is expected for the prevention and control of inflammatory disorders.

  3. Anti-Inflammatory Effects of Thyme Essential Oil in Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Š. Juhas

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Plant essential oils are plant secondary metabolites possessing various pharmacological properties, primarily anti-oxidative, antimicrobial or immunomodulatory ones. The aim of this work was to study the effects of thyme essential oil dietary administration in murine DTH/ CHS reaction, carrageenan paw oedema and TNBS colitis. Thyme essential oil was added to the murine diet at three concentrations (5000, 2500 and 1250 ppm and fed to Balb/c mice. The extent of ear swelling in DTH/CHS reaction and paw oedema induced by carrageenan application was measured using the Mitutoyo thickness gauge. In the model of TNBS colitis we evaluated the changes in body weight, the colon weight : body weight ratio, bacterial translocation to mesenteric lymph nodes, and macroscopical and histological scores. IL-1β and IL-6 messenger RNA expression in colonic samples of one experimental group were assessed using quantitative real-time reverse transcriptase PCR. Dietary supplementation with 5000 ppm of thyme essential oil significantly decreased paw oedema and ear swelling. This thyme essential oil concentration caused a significant inhibition of total mRNA IL-1β expression in the mouse colon, and markedly decreased the macroscopic and microscopic scores of colitis. On the other hand, the 1250 ppm of thyme essential oil in diet increased ear oedema induced by oxazolone application in mice. Our study indicates that thyme essential oil is able to affect murine experimental inflammatory models depending on the concentration used. It is concluded that the anti-inflammatory effects of thyme essential oil should be interpreted with a caution due to its contradictory, dose-related effects.

  4. Anti-inflammatory profile of paricalcitol in kidney transplant recipients

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    Javier Donate-Correa

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Background and objectives: Paricalcitol, a selective vitamin D receptor activator, is used to treat secondary hyperparathyroidism in kidney transplant patients. Experimental and clinical studies in non-transplant kidney disease patients have found this molecule to have anti-inflammatory properties. In this exploratory study, we evaluated the anti-inflammatory profile of paricalcitol in kidney-transplant recipients. Methods: Thirty one kidney transplant recipients with secondary hyperparathyroidism completed 3 months of treatment with oral paricalcitol (1 μg/day. Serum concentrations and gene expression levels of inflammatory cytokines in peripheral blood mononuclear cells were analysed at the beginning and end of the study. Results: Paricalcitol significantly decreased parathyroid hormone levels with no changes in calcium and phosphorous. It also reduced serum concentrations of interleukin (IL-6 and tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α by 29% (p < 0.05 and 9.5% (p < 0.05 compared to baseline, respectively. Furthermore, gene expression levels of IL-6 and TNF-α in peripheral blood mononuclear cells decreased by 14.1% (p < 0.001 and 34.1% (p < 0.001, respectively. The ratios between pro-inflammatory cytokines (TNF-α and IL-6 and anti-inflammatory cytokines (IL-10, both regarding serum concentrations and gene expression, also experienced a significant reduction. Conclusions: Paricalcitol administration to kidney transplant recipients has been found to have beneficial effects on inflammation, which may be associated with potential clinical benefits. Resumen: Antecedentes y objetivos: El paricalcitol, un activador selectivo del receptor de la vitamina D, se utiliza en el tratamiento del hiperparatiroidismo secundario en el receptor de trasplante renal. Estudios tanto clínicos como experimentales realizados en pacientes renales no trasplantados muestran propiedades antiinflamatorias para esta molécula. En

  5. Effects of alpha-mangostin on the expression of anti-inflammatory genes in U937 cells

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    Liu Szu-Hsiu

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background α-Mangostin (α-MG is a main constituent of the fruit hull of the mangosteen. Previous studies have shown that α-MG has pharmacological activities such as antioxidant, antitumor, anti-inflammatory, antiallergic, antibacterial, antifungal and antiviral effects. This study aims to investigate the anti-inflammatory molecular action of α-MG on gene expression profiles. Methods U937 and EL4 cells were treated with different concentrations of α-MG in the presence of 0.1 ng/mL lipopolysaccharide (LPS for 4 h. The anti-inflammatory effects of α-MG were measured by the levels of tumor necrosis factor (TNF-α and interleukin (IL-4 in cell culture media, which were determined with enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay kits. The gene expression profiles of all samples were analyzed with a whole human genome microarray, Illumina BeadChip WG-6 version 3, containing 48804 probes. The protein levels were determined by Western blotting analyses. Results α-MG decreased the LPS induction of the inflammatory cytokines TNF-α (P = 0.038 and IL-4 (P = 0.04. α-MG decreased the gene expressions in oncostatin M signaling via mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK pathways, including extracellular signal-regulated kinases (P = 0.016, c-Jun N-terminal kinase (P = 0.01 , and p38 (P = 0.008. α-MG treatment of U937 cells reduced the phosphorylation of MAPK kinase 3 / MAPK kinase 6 (P = 0.0441, MAPK-activated protein kinase-2 (P = 0.0453, signal transducers and activators of transcription-1 (STAT1 (P = 0.0012, c-Fos (P = 0.04, c-Jun (P = 0.019 and Ets-like molecule 1 (Elk-1 (P = 0.038. Conclusion This study demonstrates that α-MG attenuates LPS-mediated activation of MAPK, STAT1, c-Fos, c-Jun and EIK-1, inhibiting TNF-α and IL-4 production in U937 cells.

  6. Phenolic composition, anitproliferative and anti-inflammatory properties of conventional and organic cinnamon and peppermint

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conventional and organic cinnamon and peppermint were investigated for their phenolic profile, antiproliferative, anti-inflammatory, and antioxidant properties. Accelerated solvent extraction (ASE) with 75% acetone was a better method than Soxhlet and overnight extraction for phenolic content and a...

  7. [Screening of anti-inflammatory and analgesic activities in marines macroalgae from Mediterranean Sea].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatter Riahi, R; Tarhouni, S; Kharrat, R

    2011-01-01

    Methanolic extracts of 13 seaweeds collected from the Mediterranean sea (Tunisian, Moroccan and Greek coasts) from different classes (Chlorophycae, Pheopbycae and Rhodophycae) are testedfor their analgesic and antiinflammatory effects. These activities were estimated in vivo, respectively by writhing test and carrageenan test. Nine species among 13 tested seaweeds showed an important analgesic activity. On the other hand only 5 seaweeds showed a significant anti-inflammatory activity (Cystoseira barbata and Sargassum vulgare) had endowed with the double analgesic and anti-inflammatory activity. The red algae Geliduim sesquipedale have only anti-inflammatory activity and the other one endowed only with an analgesic activity (Enteromorpha compressa, Chaetomorpha linum, Cystoseira ericoidies, Sacchoriza bulbosa et Corralina officinalis). The simultaneous or individual presence of the analgesic and\\or anti-inflammatory activities of the various extracts can find its application in the therapeutic domain.

  8. Analgesic and anti-inflammatory activity of root bark of Grewia asiatica Linn. in rodents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Udaybhan Singh Paviaya

    2013-01-01

    Conclusions: The present study indicates that root bark of G. asiatica exhibits peripheral and central analgesic effect and anti-inflammatory activity, which may be attributed to the various phytochemicals present in root bark of G. asiatica.

  9. Cell-based screening assay for anti-inflammatory activity of bioactive compounds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meijer, Kees; Vonk, Roel J.; Priebe, Marion G.; Roelofsen, Han

    2015-01-01

    Excess dietary intake may induce metabolic inflammation which is associated with insulin resistance and cardiovascular disease. Recent evidence indicates that dietary bioactive compounds may diminish metabolic inflammation. To identify anti-inflammatory bioactives, we developed a screening assay

  10. Antispasmodic and anti-inflammatory activity of Carrageenan from Hypnea musciformis Wulfen

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Solimabi; Das, B.

    Pharmacological studies on K-carrageenan extracted from Hypnea musciformis have shown that it antagonizes histamine-induced spasm in guineapig ielum and possesses anti-inflammatory activity against rat hind paw oedema induced by commercial...

  11. Guava pomace: a new source of anti-inflammatory and analgesic bioactives

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Guava pomace is an example of the processing waste generated after the manufacturing process from the juice industry that could be a source of bioactives. Thus, the present investigation was carried out in order to evaluate the anti-inflammatory and antinociceptive potential and determinate the main phenolic compounds of a guava pomace extract (GPE). Methods The anti-inflammatory activity was evaluated by carrageenan, dextran, serotonin, histamine-induced paw edema and neutrophils migration in the peritoneal cavity models. Acetic acid-induced abdominal writhing and formalin test were performed to investigate the antinociceptive effects. In addition, the content of total phenolic and of individual phenolic compounds was determined by GC/MS. Results GPE showed anti-inflammatory activity by carrageenan, dextran, serotonin, histamine-induced paw edema and neutrophils migration in the peritoneal cavity models (p guava pomace could be an interesting source of anti-inflammatory and analgesic substances. PMID:24063346

  12. Treating Gulf War Illness with Novel Anti-Inflammatories: A Screening of Botantical Microglia Modulators

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-10-01

    SUBJECT TERMS Gulf War Illness, botanical, anti-inflammatory, biomarker, microglia, improvement, treatment 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: 17...Younger, J.W. (2016, October) Diagnostic overlap of Gulf War Illness, Myalgic Encephalomyelitis/ Chronic Fatigue syndrome, and Fibromyalgia in

  13. Brine Shrimp Cytotoxicity, Anti-inflammatory and Analgesic Properties of Woodfordia fruticosa Kurz Flowers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baravalia, Yogesh; Vaghasiya, Yogeshkumar; Chanda, Sumitra

    2012-01-01

    The present study was designed to assess the cytotoxicity, anti-inflammatory and analgesic properties of methanol extract of Woodfordia fruticosa flowers. Cytotoxic activity of methanol extract of Woodfordia fruticosa flowers was tested using Artemia salina (Brine shrimp) bioassay. Two doses (400 and 600 mg/Kg) were evaluated for the anti-inflammatory activity against the carrageenan, histamine, dextran, serotonin and formaldehyde-induced rat paw edema, cotton pellet-induced granuloma and formaldehyde-induced analgesia in rats. In cytotoxicity study, extract caused 73% mortality of Brine shrimp larvae after 24 h at a concentration of 1000 μg/mL. The results of the anti-inflammatory study showed that the extract produced significant (p Woodfordia fruticosa flowers have weak cytotoxic and potent anti-inflammatory compounds and justifies the traditional uses for the treatment of inflammatory conditions.

  14. Effects of phytochemicals on in vitro anti-inflammatory activity of Bifidobacterium adolescentis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawabata, Kyuichi; Kato, Yuri; Sakano, Taiken; Baba, Nobuyuki; Hagiwara, Kota; Tamura, Akira; Baba, Seigo; Natsume, Midori; Ohigashi, Hajime

    2015-01-01

    Probiotics have been shown to improve the condition of not only the human gastrointestinal tract but also the entire body. We found that quercetin enhances the anti-inflammatory activity of Bifidobacterium adolescentis, which is abundant in human intestines. Here, we assessed whether certain phytochemicals could enhance the anti-inflammatory activity of B. adolescentis. Bifidobacteria were anaerobically cultured with phytochemicals for 3 h, and the anti-inflammatory activity of the supernatants was estimated by testing their ability to inhibit nitric oxide (NO) production by lipopolysaccharide-stimulated RAW264 macrophages. Of the 55 phytochemicals tested, phloretin, (+)-taxifolin, and (-)-epigallocatechin gallate as well as quercetin-3-O-glucoside and quercetin-4'-O-glucoside were similar to quercetin in promoting NO suppression by B. adolescentis. In addition, the phytochemicals excluding quercetin increased the concentrations of lactic and acetic acids in the co-culture supernatants. These results suggest that some phytochemicals may activate the anti-inflammatory function of B. adolescentis.

  15. Anti-inflammatory activity of the hexane extract of Byrsonima crassifolia seeds in experimental animal models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muniz Ramirez, Alethia; Flores Cotera, Luis B; Perez Gutierrez, Rosa Martha

    2013-01-01

    Byrsonima crassifolia is a tropical tree, commonly known as nance and distributed widely in Mexico and Central and South America. Since pre- Hispanic times, the seeds of the fruits have been used in folklore medicine as an anti-inflammatory; however, currently no researchers have examined its potential pharmacological properties in scientific studies. This study investigated the anti-inflammatory activity of extracts obtained with the solvents n-hexane, chloroform, and methanol from seeds of B crassifolia. The research team induced edemas in Wistar rats with 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol (TPA), formaldehyde, carrageenan, and histamine to study the anti-inflammatory activity of the three organic extracts of seeds from B crassifolia. The team also used the cotton-pellet granuloma method to induce edemas in Wistar rats and study the inhibitory effect of the three extracts from B crassifolia. Finally, the team examined the participation of the nitric oxide (NO) system in the anti-inflammatory activity of the hexane extract of nance seeds (NS), diclorofenac, and L-NAME as well as the effects of L-arginine and D-arginine on the antiinflammatory actions of the compounds. This research was conducted in the Laboratory of Research of Natural Products, School of Chemical Engineering, National Polytechnic Institute (IPNESIQIE) and Department of Biotechnology and Bioengineering, Cinvestav-IPN, Av. IPN 2508, Col. San Pedro Zacatenco, Mexico D.F., CP 07360, Mexico. The research team measured the edema that the solvents caused, either in the ears of rats for tetradecanoylphorbol or in the paws for formaldehyde, carrageenan, and histamine. To study the antiproliferative effects of the extracts after implantation of the cotton-pellet granuloma, the team determined the wet and dry weights of the pellets, after drying at 70°C for 1 hour in the second case. To study the participation of the NO system in the anti-inflammatory activity of the hexane extract of NS, diclofenac, and L

  16. Screening of Ficus religiosa leaves fractions for analgesic and anti-inflammatory activities

    OpenAIRE

    Gulecha, Vishal; Sivakumar, T; Upaganlawar, Aman; Mahajan, Manoj; Upasani, Chandrashekhar

    2011-01-01

    Objective : To evaluate the different fractions of dried leaves of Ficus religiosa Linn for analgesic and anti-inflammatory activity using different models of pain and inflammation Materials and Methods : The analgesic activity of F. religiosa carried out using acetic acid-induced writhing in mice and tail flick test in rats. The anti-inflammatory activity was evaluated using carrageenan-induced rat paw edema and cotton pellet-granuloma formation in rats. Five different fractions (FRI, FR...

  17. A Novel Pleiotropic Anti-Inflammatory Drug to Reduce ARDS Incidence

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-07-01

    Page 1 AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-16-1-0288 TITLE: A Novel Pleiotropic Anti-Inflammatory Drug to Reduce ARDS Incidence PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Gary...Pleiotropic Anti-Inflammatory Drug to Reduce ARDS Incidence 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) Gary...N0224 is effective for trauma and/or sepsis. 15. SUBJECT TERMS Hemorrhagic shock, acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), TRB-N0224 to prevent ARDS

  18. Brine Shrimp Cytotoxicity, Anti-inflammatory and Analgesic Properties of Woodfordia fruticosa Kurz Flowers

    OpenAIRE

    Baravalia, Yogesh; Vaghasiya, Yogeshkumar; Chanda, Sumitra

    2012-01-01

    The present study was designed to assess the cytotoxicity, anti-inflammatory and analgesic properties of methanol extract of Woodfordia fruticosa flowers. Cytotoxic activity of methanol extract of Woodfordia fruticosa flowers was tested using Artemia salina (Brine shrimp) bioassay. Two doses (400 and 600 mg/Kg) were evaluated for the anti-inflammatory activity against the carrageenan, histamine, dextran, serotonin and formaldehyde-induced rat paw edema, cotton pellet-induced granuloma and for...

  19. Anti-nociceptive and anti-inflammatory effects of the methanolic extract of Opuntia humifusa stem

    OpenAIRE

    Bhesh Raj Sharma; Chul Min Park; Jong Choi; Dong Young Rhyu

    2017-01-01

    Objective: Opuntia humifusa (O. humifusa) Raf. has been used for the prevention and treatment of rheumatoid arthritis, inflammation, and cancer. Our study was designed to unveil the anti-nociceptive and anti-inflammatory effects of the methanolic extract of O. humifusa Raf stem (OHS). Materials and Methods: The anti-nociceptive effect was measured by hot plate, acetic acid-induced writhing, and tail flick assays in mice and rats. Moreover, the anti-inflammatory effect was measured by vascular...

  20. Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs in clinical and experimental epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radu, Beatrice Mihaela; Epureanu, Florin Bogdan; Radu, Mihai; Fabene, Paolo Francesco; Bertini, Giuseppe

    2017-03-01

    Current antiepileptic drugs have limited efficacy and provide little or no benefits in 30% of the patients. Given that a role for brain inflammation in epilepsy has been repeatedly reported in recent years, the potential of anti-inflammatory drugs should be explored in depth, as they may provide new therapeutical approaches in preventing or reducing epileptogenesis. Here, we review preclinical (both in vivo and in vitro) and clinical epilepsy studies in which nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), i.e. cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) selective inhibitors (COXIBs) and nonselective NSAIDs, were used for seizure control. The effects of NSAIDs are reviewed in animal models of both chemical (pilocarpine, kainic acid, pentylenetetrazol, or carbachol administration) and electrical (tetanic hippocampal stimulation, electroshock) seizure induction. In the pilocarpine model, NSAIDs are neuroprotective, reduce mossy fiber sprouting or diminish P-glycoprotein upregulation, but only rarely protect against seizures. While neuroprotective effects have also been observed in the kainic acid model, NSAIDs tend in general to worsen seizure activity. Effects of COXIB administration in the pentylenetetrazol-induced seizures model are variable, alternating from protection against seizures to null effects or even increased incidence of convulsions. Moreover, NSAIDs tested in the tetanic hippocampal stimulation model diminished the seizure-associated P-glycoprotein upregulation, but were not very effective in seizure control. NSAIDs efficacy in experimental in vivo epilepsy studies may be influenced by multiple factors, including the timing of administration (before or after status epilepticus induction), the animal model of epilepsy or some of the signaling pathways involved in cyclooxygenase induction (e.g. prostaglandins and their receptors). On the other hand, the few clinical studies on the use of NSAIDs in neurological pathologies accompanied/characterized by seizures indicate that

  1. Pharmacoeconomics of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wynne, H A; Campbell, M

    1993-02-01

    Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are widely used for the relief of the symptoms of osteoarthritis (OA), rheumatoid arthritis (RA), sprains and strains, sports injuries and menstrual disorders, and have a small role in the management of patent ductus arteriosus in the neonate. In patients with RA, symptom relief through use of NSAIDs is firmly established, although it remains unclear whether they influence the course and outcome of the disease. For the average patient with RA taking NSAIDs, the attributable risk of hospitalisation with gastrointestinal problems related to NSAIDs is 1.3 to 1.6% annually and risk of death is 0.15%. Associations of therapy with risk are greatest with age, corticosteroid use and previous NSAID-related gastrointestinal adverse effects, and less marked with disability and high NSAID dose. These are important data in attempting to balance risk of therapy with clinical efficacy in an individual patient, and assessing the cost-effectiveness of prophylaxis. Although half of all NSAID consumption is for control of pain associated with degenerative conditions, their superiority over simple analgesics in osteoarthritis is poorly documented. This finding supports the use of the simple analgesic paracetamol (acetaminophen) as the preferred therapy of osteoarthritis, especially when its lower cost and low incidence of adverse effects are taken into consideration. Consistent differences in clinical effectiveness of individual NSAIDs have not been demonstrated, although unpredictable interpatient variation in response to individual agents is of considerable clinical importance, and a more expensive NSAID may prove cost effective for some patients. Cost effectiveness can be improved by a self-adjusted dosage regime which also leads to lower overall drug consumption. The adverse gastrointestinal effects of these drugs account for about 30% of the overall cost of arthritis treatment, and although studies to date have been too limited to

  2. Mechanisms of action underlying the anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory effects of propolis: a brief review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcio A. R. Araujo

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Many biological properties have been attributed to various types of propolis, including anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial, antioxidant, antitumor, wound healing, and immunomodulatory activities. This article reviewed studies published that investigated the anti-inflammatory activity of propolis of different origins and/or its isolated components, focusing on the mechanisms of action underlying this activity and also addressing some aspects of immunomodulatory effects. The search was performed of the following databases: PubMed, Science Direct, HighWire Press, Scielo, Google Academics, Research Gate and ISI Web of Knowledgement. The anti-inflammatory activity was associated with propolis or compounds such as polyphenols (flavonoids, phenolic acids and their esters, terpenoids, steroids and amino acids. CAPE is the most studied compounds. The main mechanisms underlying the anti-inflammatory activity of propolis included the inhibition of cyclooxygenase and consequent inhibition of prostaglandin biosynthesis, free radical scavenging, inhibition of nitric oxide synthesis, reduction in the concentration of inflammatory cytokines and immunosuppressive activity. Propolis was found to exert an anti-inflammatory activity in vivo and in vitro models of acute and chronic inflammation and others studies, indicating its promising potential as anti-inflammatory agent of natural origin and as a source of chemical compounds for the development of new drugs.

  3. Mechanisms of action underlying the anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory effects of propolis: a brief review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcio A. R. Araujo

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Many biological properties have been attributed to various types of propolis, including anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial, antioxidant, antitumor, wound healing, and immunomodulatory activities. This article reviewed studies published that investigated the anti-inflammatory activity of propolis of different origins and/or its isolated components, focusing on the mechanisms of action underlying this activity and also addressing some aspects of immunomodulatory effects. The search was performed of the following databases: PubMed, Science Direct, HighWire Press, Scielo, Google Academics, Research Gate and ISI Web of Knowledgement. The anti-inflammatory activity was associated with propolis or compounds such as polyphenols (flavonoids, phenolic acids and their esters, terpenoids, steroids and amino acids. CAPE is the most studied compounds. The main mechanisms underlying the anti-inflammatory activity of propolis included the inhibition of cyclooxygenase and consequent inhibition of prostaglandin biosynthesis, free radical scavenging, inhibition of nitric oxide synthesis, reduction in the concentration of inflammatory cytokines and immunosuppressive activity. Propolis was found to exert an anti-inflammatory activity in vivo and in vitro models of acute and chronic inflammation and others studies, indicating its promising potential as anti-inflammatory agent of natural origin and as a source of chemical compounds for the development of new drugs.

  4. Antimicrobial and anti-inflammatory activities, wound-healing effectiveness and chemical characterization of the latex of Jatropha neopauciflora Pax.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernandez-Hernandez, A B; Alarcon-Aguilar, F J; Almanza-Perez, J C; Nieto-Yañez, O; Olivares-Sanchez, J M; Duran-Diaz, A; Rodriguez-Monroy, M A; Canales-Martinez, M M

    2017-05-23

    Jatropha neopauciflora Pax is an endemic species to Mexico, and its latex is used in traditional medicine to treat mouth infections when there are loose teeth and to heal wounds. In this research, we evaluated the antimicrobial activity, wound healing efficacy and chemical characterization of J. neopauciflora latex in a murine model. The antibacterial activity was determined using Gram positive and negative strains, the antifungal activity was determined using yeast and filamentous fungi, and the wound healing efficacy of the latex was determined using the tensiometric method. The anti-inflammatory activity was evaluated using the plantar oedema model in rats, administering the latex orally and topically. Cytotoxic activity was determined in vitro in two different cell lines. Antioxidant capacity, total phenolics, total flavonoids, reducing carbohydrates and latex proteins were quantified. The latex analysis was performed by High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC). Finally, molecular exclusion chromatography was performed. The latex demonstrated antibacterial activity. The most sensitive strains were Gram positive bacteria, particularly S. aureus (MIC=2mg/mL), and the latex had bacteriostatic activity. The latex did not show antifungal activity. The latex demonstrated a wound-healing efficacy, even the positive control (Recoveron). The orally administered latex demonstrated the best anti-inflammatory activity and was not toxic to either of the 2 cell lines. The latex had a high antioxidant capacity (SA 50 =5.4µg/mL), directly related to the total phenolic (6.9mg GAE/mL) and flavonoid (12.53µg QE/mL) concentration. The carbohydrate concentration was 18.52µg/mL, and fructose was the most abundantly expressed carbohydrate in the latex (14.63µg/mL, 79.03%). Additionally, the latex contained proteins (7.62µg/mL) in its chemical constitution. As secondary metabolites, the HPLC analysis indicated the presence of phenols and flavonoids. The J. neopauciflora

  5. Novel antioxidant and anti-inflammatory peptides from the Siamese crocodile (Crocodylus siamensis) hemoglobin hydrolysate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lueangsakulthai, Jiraporn; Phosri, Santi; Theansungnoen, Tinnakorn; Jangpromma, Nisachon; Temsiripong, Theeranan; Mckendrick, John E; Khunkitti, Watcharee; Klaynongsruang, Sompong

    2017-11-22

    Novel antioxidant and anti-inflammatory peptides were isolated from hydrolysates of Siamese crocodile (Crocodylus siamensis) hemoglobin. C. siamensis hemoglobin hydrolysates (CHHs) were obtained by pepsin digestion at different incubation times (2, 4, 6, and 8 H) at 37 °C and subjected to antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activity assessment. CHH obtained by 2-H hydrolysis (2H-CHH) showed the highest anti-inflammatory activity with respect to decreasing nitric oxide (NO) production, whereas the strongest antioxidant activity was found for 6-H hydrolysis (6H-CHH) against nitric oxide radicals. To evaluate the anti-inflammatory and antioxidant activity of individual peptide components, 2H-CHH and 6H-CHH were purified by semipreparative HPLC. Peptide fraction P57 isolated from 6H-CHH was found to exhibit the highest nitric oxide radical inhibition activity (32.0%). Moreover, purification of 2H-CHH yielded peptide fraction P16, which displayed a high efficacy in decreasing NO production of macrophage RAW 264.7 cells (83.2%) and significantly reduced proinflammatory cytokines and inflammatory mediators interleukin-6 (IL-6), interleukin-1 beta (IL-1β), and prostaglandin-E2 (PGE 2 ) production to about 2.0, 0.3, and 1.9 ng/mL, respectively. Using LTQ orbitrap XL mass spectrometry, active peptide sequences were identified as antioxidant KIYFPHF (KF7), anti-inflammatory SAFNPHEKQ (SQ9), and IIHNEKVQAHGKKVL (IL15). Additionally, CHHs simulated gastric and intestinal in vitro digestion positively contributed to antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activity. Taken collectively, the results of this work demonstrate that CHHs contain several peptides with anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties, which may prove valuable as treatment or supplement against diseases associated with inflammation and oxidative stress. © 2017 International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  6. Andrographolide acts as an anti-inflammatory agent in LPS-stimulated RAW264.7 macrophages by inhibiting STAT3-mediated suppression of the NF-κB pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Ko-Chen; Chang, Hen-Hong; Chung, Ying-Hui; Lee, Tzung-Yan

    2011-06-01

    Inflammation is involved in numerous diseases, such as chronic inflammatory disease and cancer. Many plant products exhibit useful biological activities, including antifungal, antibacterial, and anti-inflammatory actions. However, our understanding of the anti-inflammatory effects of andrographolide is limited. We use lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated macrophages as a model of inflammation to investigate the anti-inflammatory effects of andrographolide, which contains polyphenolic structures. We found that andrographolide exhibited a potent anti-inflammatory effect. In this study, we investigated the inhibitory effects of andrographolide on the induction of nitric oxide synthase (NOS) and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) as well as their respective downstream products, NO and PGE2, in RAW264.7 cells treated with LPS. Treatment with andrographolide also reduced nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) and activation protein-1 (AP-1) DNA-binding activity. Western blot analysis showed that andrographolide significantly inhibited the phosphorylation of signal transducer and activator of transcription-3 (STAT3) and the protein expression of CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein δ (C/EBPδ). We also found that andrographolide suppressed LPS-induced suppressor of cytokine signalling 1 and 3 (SOCS1 and 3) mRNA expression, which, in turn, inhibited apoptosis signalling and mitochondria membrane potential activation. Our results demonstrate that andrographolide downregulates inflammatory iNOS and COX-2 gene expression by inhibiting the activation of NF-κB and STAT3 by interfering with the expression of SOCS1 and SOCS3 signalling. Therefore, andrographolide exerts a potent anti-inflammatory effect and could potentially be developed as a useful agent for the chemoprevention of cancer or inflammatory diseases. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Review of anti-inflammatory, immune-modulatory and wound healing properties of molluscs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Tarek B; Liu, Lei; Kotiw, Michael; Benkendorff, Kirsten

    2018-01-10

    This review focuses on traditional and contemporary anti-inflammatory uses of mollusc-derived products summarising all the in vitro, in vivo and human clinical trials that have tested the anti-inflammatory activity of molluscan natural products. Inflammatory conditions, burns and wounds have been an ongoing concern for human health since the early era of civilisation. Many texts from ancient medicine have recorded the symptoms, signs and treatments for these conditions. Natural treatments are well-documented in traditional European medicine, Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM), Siddha and ancient Mediterranean and African traditional medicine and include a surprisingly large number of molluscan species. An extensive review of the Materia Medica and scientific literature was undertaken using key word searches for "mollusc" and "anti-inflammatory" or "immunomodulatory" or "wound healing". Molluscs have been used in ethnomedicine by many traditional cultures to treat different aspects of inflammatory conditions. We found 104 different anti-inflammatory preparations from a variety of molluscan species, of which 70 were from the well-documented Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM). This traditional use of molluscs has driven the testing for inflammatory activity in extracts from some species in the phylum Mollusca, with 20 in vitro studies, 40 in vivo animal studies and 14 human clinical trials performed to substantiate the anti-inflammatory and wound healing activity of molluscs. Some of these studies have led to the approval of mollusc-derived products to be used as over-the-counter (OTC) nutraceuticals, like Lyprinol® and Biolane™ from the New Zealand green lipped mussel Perna canaliculus. Natural products provide important leads for the development of pharmaceuticals, including anti-inflammatory agents. Only a small proportion of the molluscan traditional medicines have been tested to confirm their anti-inflammatory activity and most screening studies have tested

  8. Anti-Inflammatory Properties and Chemical Characterization of the Essential Oils of Four Citrus Species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amorim, Jorge Luis; Simas, Daniel Luiz Reis; Pinheiro, Mariana Martins Gomes; Moreno, Daniela Sales Alviano; Alviano, Celuta Sales; da Silva, Antonio Jorge Ribeiro; Fernandes, Patricia Dias

    2016-01-01

    Citrus fruits have potential health-promoting properties and their essential oils have long been used in several applications. Due to biological effects described to some citrus species in this study our objectives were to analyze and compare the phytochemical composition and evaluate the anti-inflammatory effect of essential oils (EO) obtained from four different Citrus species. Mice were treated with EO obtained from C. limon, C. latifolia, C. aurantifolia or C. limonia (10 to 100 mg/kg, p.o.) and their anti-inflammatory effects were evaluated in chemical induced inflammation (formalin-induced licking response) and carrageenan-induced inflammation in the subcutaneous air pouch model. A possible antinociceptive effect was evaluated in the hot plate model. Phytochemical analyses indicated the presence of geranial, limonene, γ-terpinene and others. EOs from C. limon, C. aurantifolia and C. limonia exhibited anti-inflammatory effects by reducing cell migration, cytokine production and protein extravasation induced by carrageenan. These effects were also obtained with similar amounts of pure limonene. It was also observed that C. aurantifolia induced myelotoxicity in mice. Anti-inflammatory effect of C. limon and C. limonia is probably due to their large quantities of limonene, while the myelotoxicity observed with C. aurantifolia is most likely due to the high concentration of citral. Our results indicate that these EOs from C. limon, C. aurantifolia and C. limonia have a significant anti-inflammatory effect; however, care should be taken with C. aurantifolia.

  9. Anti-Inflammatory Properties and Chemical Characterization of the Essential Oils of Four Citrus Species.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Luis Amorim

    Full Text Available Citrus fruits have potential health-promoting properties and their essential oils have long been used in several applications. Due to biological effects described to some citrus species in this study our objectives were to analyze and compare the phytochemical composition and evaluate the anti-inflammatory effect of essential oils (EO obtained from four different Citrus species. Mice were treated with EO obtained from C. limon, C. latifolia, C. aurantifolia or C. limonia (10 to 100 mg/kg, p.o. and their anti-inflammatory effects were evaluated in chemical induced inflammation (formalin-induced licking response and carrageenan-induced inflammation in the subcutaneous air pouch model. A possible antinociceptive effect was evaluated in the hot plate model. Phytochemical analyses indicated the presence of geranial, limonene, γ-terpinene and others. EOs from C. limon, C. aurantifolia and C. limonia exhibited anti-inflammatory effects by reducing cell migration, cytokine production and protein extravasation induced by carrageenan. These effects were also obtained with similar amounts of pure limonene. It was also observed that C. aurantifolia induced myelotoxicity in mice. Anti-inflammatory effect of C. limon and C. limonia is probably due to their large quantities of limonene, while the myelotoxicity observed with C. aurantifolia is most likely due to the high concentration of citral. Our results indicate that these EOs from C. limon, C. aurantifolia and C. limonia have a significant anti-inflammatory effect; however, care should be taken with C. aurantifolia.

  10. Anti-inflammatory activity of leaf extract and fractions of Bursera simaruba (L.) Sarg (Burseraceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noguera, B; Díaz, E; García, M V; Feliciano, A San; López-Perez, J L; Israel, A

    2004-05-01

    Seeking for new medicinal compounds in plants used in traditional medicine, which grow in Venezuela, we investigated the anti-inflammatory activity of the leaf hexane extract (HE) and several fractions obtained from sp. Bursera simaruba (L.) Sarg. (Indio desnudo) using carrageenan-induced paw edema inflammation. Oral administration of leaf HE as well I (91-100) fraction, and compounds VIII 25-26 and VIII 29, inhibited the carrageenan-induced paw edema with different capacity and time course, over a period of 7h. The anti-inflammatory effect was comparable to that of the reference drug phenylbutazone (80 mg/kg, p.o.). Included in fraction I (91-100), Vitamin E was identified as one of its components and compound VIII 29 was identified as a methyl-beta-peltatin A. The comparison of the anti-inflammatory activity of VIII 29 fraction with the corresponding standard of methyl-beta-peltatin A, suggest that this compound could be one of the active principles involved in the anti-inflammatory activity of Bursera simaruba (L.) Sarg. leave. Our results contribute to the pharmacological support of the use of Bursera simaruba (L.) Sarg. as anti-inflammatory in the ethnomedicinal practice. Copyright 2004 Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  11. Antioxidant, Anti-Inflammatory, and Analgesic Activities of Agrimonia eupatoria L. Infusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Telmo N. Santos

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Agrimony (Agrimonia eupatoria L. (Ae is used in traditional medicine to treat inflammatory and oxidative related diseases. Therefore, this study focuses on the anti-inflammatory and analgesic potential of Ae infusion (AeI. Phenolic compounds characterization was achieved by HPLC-PDA-ESI/MSn. To evaluate antioxidant potential, 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH, superoxide anion, hydroxyl radical, and SNAP assays were used. In vitro anti-inflammatory activity of AeI was investigated in LPS-stimulated macrophages by measuring the NO production. In vivo anti-inflammatory activity was validated using the mouse carrageenan-induced paw edema model. Peripheral and central analgesic potential was evaluated using the acetic acid-induced writhing and hot-plate tests, respectively, as well as the formalin assay to assess both activities. The safety profile was disclosed in vitro and in vivo, using MTT and hematoxylin assays, respectively. Vitexin, quercetin O-galloyl-hexoside, and kaempferol O-acetyl-hexosyl-rhamnoside were referred to in this species for the first time. AeI and mainly AePF (Ae polyphenolic fraction showed a significant antiradical activity against all tested radicals. Both AeI and AePF decreased NO levels in vitro, AePF being more active than AeI. In vivo anti-inflammatory and analgesic activities were verified for both samples at concentrations devoid of toxicity. Agrimony infusion and, mainly, AePF are potential sources of antiradical and anti-inflammatory polyphenols.

  12. Anti-inflammatory and Antihistaminic Study of a Unani Eye Drop Formulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Latif Abdul

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The Unani eye drop is an ophthalmic formulation prepared for its beneficial effects in the inflammatory and allergic conditions of the eyes. In the present study, the Unani eye drop formulation was prepared and investigated for its anti-inflammatory and antihistaminic activity, using in vivo and in vitro experimental models respectively. The Unani eye drop formulation exhibited significant anti-inflammatory activity in turpentine liniment-induced ocular inflammation in rabbits. The preparation also showed antihistaminic activity in isolated guinea-pig ileum. The anti-inflammatory and antihistaminic activity of eye drop may be due to presence of active ingredients in the formulation. Although there are many drugs in Unani repository which are mentioned in classical books or used in Unani clinical practice effectively in treatment of eye diseases by various Unani physicians. Inspite of the availability of vast literature, there is a dearth of commercial Unani ocular preparations. So, keeping this in mind, the eye drop formulation was prepared and its anti-inflammatory and antihistaminic activity was carried out in animal models. Thus, in view of the importance of alternative anti-inflammatory and anti- allergic drugs, it becomes imperative to bring these indigenous drugs to the front foot and evaluate their activities.

  13. Evaluation of anti-inflammatory activity of Pseudananas macrodontes (Morr.) Harms (Bromeliaceae) fruit extract in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Errasti, María E; Caffini, Néstor O; Pelzer, Lilian E; Rotelli, Alejandra E

    2013-01-01

    Several species of the family Bromeliaceae are characterized by the production of proteases in unusual amounts, especially in fruits. Bromelain, an extract rich in cysteine endopeptidases obtained from Ananas comosus L., and a few other proteases have been used as anti-inflammatory agents for some years, but bromelain is still mainly being used as alternative and/or complementary therapy to the treatment with glucocorticoids, nonsteroidal antirheumatics, and immunomodulators. In this study, the anti-inflammatory action of a partially purified extract from Pseudananas macrodontes (Morr.) Harms fruits (PPE(Pm)) is presented, whose main components are cysteine endopeptidases. The effect of PPE(Pm) was assessed in carrageenan-induced and serotonin-induced rat paw edema, as well as in the cotton pellet granuloma model. Doses with equal proteolytic activity of PPE(Pm) and bromelain produced significantly similar anti-inflammatory responses in the acute inflammatory models assayed, supporting the hypothesis that proteolytic activity could be responsible for the anti-inflammatory action. On the contrary, comparable anti-inflammatory effects of PPE(Pm) and bromelain in the chronic inflammatory assay required a much lower proteolytic activity content of PPE(Pm), which could be due to a differential affinity for the protein target involved in this process.

  14. Analgesic and anti-inflammatory properties of the fruits of Vernonia anthelmintica (L Willd.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alok Pandey

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluation of analgesic and anti-inflammatory properties of the fruits of Vernonia anthelmintica (L Willd. (V. anthelmintica. Method: Hot plate method in mice, acetic acid induced writhing response in mice, tail immersion test and carrageenan-induced paw edema in rats and cotton pellet induced granuloma in rats method were used for screening analgesic and anti-inflammatory properties of the fruit of V. anthelmintica (family: Asteraceae. Results: The result of the study showed that the ethanolic extract of V. anthelmintica (100 and 200 mg/kg body weight, p.o. fruits possed peripheral and central analgesic activity in animal model. The V. anthelmintica fruits extract showed in vivo anti-inflammatory activity on acute and chronic anti-inflammatory activity models in rats. Conclusions: On the basis of result it can be concluded that saponins, steroids, tannins and flavonoids are the major constituents that are present in the fruits of V. anthelmintica which may be responsible for its analgesic and anti-inflammatory activity.

  15. Pro- and Anti-Inflammatory Cytokines Release in Mice Injected with Crotalus durissus terrificus Venom

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    A. Hernández Cruz

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The effects of Crotalus durissus terrificus venom (Cdt were analyzed with respect to the susceptibility and the inflammatory mediators in an experimental model of severe envenomation. BALB/c female mice injected intraperitoneally presented sensibility to Cdt, with changes in specific signs, blood biochemical and inflammatory mediators. The venom induced reduction of glucose and urea levels and an increment of creatinine levels in serum from mice. Significant differences were observed in the time-course of mediator levels in sera from mice injected with Cdt. The maximum levels of IL-6, NO, IL-5, TNF, IL-4 and IL-10 were observed 15 min, 30 min, 1, 2 and 4 hours post-injection, respectively. No difference was observed for levels of IFN-γ. Taken together, these data indicate that the envenomation by Cdt is regulated both pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokine responses at time-dependent manner. In serum from mice injected with Cdt at the two first hours revealed of pro-inflammatory dominance. However, with an increment of time an increase of anti-inflammatory cytokines was observed and the balance toward to anti-inflammatory dominance. In conclusion, the observation that Cdt affects the production of pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines provides further evidence for the role played by Cdt in modulating pro/anti-inflammatory cytokine balance.

  16. LED enhances anti-inflammatory effect ofluteolin (3',4',5,7-tetrahydroxyflavone) in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Shengnuo; Habib, Ahsan; Liu, Jun; Tan, Jun

    2018-01-01

    Neuroinflammation is a complex pathological process usually results from abnormal microglial activation, thus, intervention in a microglial stimulation pathway could be a promising approach for the treatment of neurodegenerative diseases. Luteolin is an important bioflavonoid possesses anti-inflammatory properties, which is widely studied over these years. Light emitting diode (LED) therapy is reported to be a potential therapeutic strategy for many diseases including neurodegenerative diseases. However, little is known about the anti-inflammatory effect of LED therapy on activated microglial cells, even less is known whether there is a synergistic anti-inflammatory effect exist in LED and luteolin therapy. In this study, we aimed to confirm the anti-inflammatory effect of luteolin and LED combination therapy in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated BV2 microglial cells. We showed that luteolin inhibited LPS-induced cytotoxicity, tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFα) and interleukin-6 (IL-6) production through modulation of p38 and extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) signaling in BV2 cells. In addition, LED therapy enhanced the anti-inflammatory effect of luteolin. These results suggest that a synergistic effect between luteolin and LED could be a new effective therapy in relieving neuroinflammation.

  17. Antioxidant and Anti-Inflammatory Activities in Extracts from Minke Whale (Balaenoptera acutorostrata) Blubber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walquist, Mari Johannessen; Stormo, Svein Kristian; Jensen, Ida-Johanne; Østerud, Bjarne; Eilertsen, Karl-Erik

    2017-01-01

    Intake of long-chain omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-n3-PUFA) is commonly recognized to reduce cardiovascular disease (CVD). In previous studies, cold-pressed whale oil (CWO) and cod liver oil (CLO) were given as a dietary supplement to healthy volunteers. Even though CWO contains less than half the amount of LC-n3-PUFA of CLO, CWO supplement resulted in beneficial effects on anti-inflammatory and CVD risk markers compared to CLO. In the present study, we prepared virtually lipid-free extracts from CWO and CLO and evaluated the antioxidative capacity (AOC) and anti-inflammatory effects. Oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) and ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) assays were used to test the AOC, and the results indicated high levels of antioxidants present in all extracts. The anti-inflammatory effects of the extracts were tested with lipopolysaccharide- (LPS-) treated THP-1 cells, measuring its ability to reduce cytokine and chemokine secretion. Several CWO extracts displayed anti-inflammatory activity, and a butyl alcohol extract of CWO most effectively reduced TNF- α (50%, p < 0.05) and MCP-1 (85%, p < 0.001) secretion. This extract maintained a stable effect of reducing MCP-1 secretion (60%, p < 0.05) even after long-term storage. In conclusion, CWO has antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities that may act in addition to its well-known LC-n3-PUFA effects.

  18. Antioxidant and Anti-Inflammatory Activities in Extracts from Minke Whale (Balaenoptera acutorostrata Blubber

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mari Johannessen Walquist

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Intake of long-chain omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-n3-PUFA is commonly recognized to reduce cardiovascular disease (CVD. In previous studies, cold-pressed whale oil (CWO and cod liver oil (CLO were given as a dietary supplement to healthy volunteers. Even though CWO contains less than half the amount of LC-n3-PUFA of CLO, CWO supplement resulted in beneficial effects on anti-inflammatory and CVD risk markers compared to CLO. In the present study, we prepared virtually lipid-free extracts from CWO and CLO and evaluated the antioxidative capacity (AOC and anti-inflammatory effects. Oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC and ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP assays were used to test the AOC, and the results indicated high levels of antioxidants present in all extracts. The anti-inflammatory effects of the extracts were tested with lipopolysaccharide- (LPS- treated THP-1 cells, measuring its ability to reduce cytokine and chemokine secretion. Several CWO extracts displayed anti-inflammatory activity, and a butyl alcohol extract of CWO most effectively reduced TNF-α (50%, p<0.05 and MCP-1 (85%, p<0.001 secretion. This extract maintained a stable effect of reducing MCP-1 secretion (60%, p<0.05 even after long-term storage. In conclusion, CWO has antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities that may act in addition to its well-known LC-n3-PUFA effects.

  19. Evaluation of anti-inflammatory activity of some Libyan medicinal plants in experimental animals

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    Nahar Lutfun

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Ballota pseudodictamnus (L. Benth. (Lamiaceae, Salvia fruticosa Mill. (Lamiaceae and Thapsia garganica L. (Apiaceae are three well-known medicinal plants from the Libyan flora, which have long been used for the treatment of inflammations. The aim of the present study was to investigate, for the first time, the anti-inflammatory property of the methanol (MeOH extracts of the aerial parts of these plants. Shade-dried and ground aerial parts of B. pseudodictamnus, S. fruticosa and T. garganica were Soxhlet-extracted with MeOH. The extracts were concentrated by evaporation under reduced pressure at 40°C. The anti-inflammatory activity of the extracts was evaluated using the carrageenan-induced mice paw edema model. The administration of the extracts at a dose of 500 mg/kg body weight produced statistically significant inhibition (p < 0.05 of edema within 3 h of carrageenan administration. The results demonstrated significant anti-inflammatory properties of the test extracts. Among the extracts, the S. fruticosa extract exhibited the most significant inhibition of inflammation after 3 h (62.1%. Thus, S. fruticosa could be a potential source for the discovery and development of newer anti-inflammatory ‘leads’ for drug development. The anti-inflammatory activity of B. pseudodictamnus and S. fruticosa could be assumed to be related to high levels of phenolic compounds, e.g., flavonoids, present in these plants.

  20. Antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory effects of olive oil (Olea europeae L.) in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eidi, Akram; Moghadam-kia, Sara; Moghadam, Jalal Zarringhalam; Eidi, Maryam; Rezazadeh, Shamsali

    2012-03-01

    Olive [Olea europaea L. (Oleaceae)] is a long-lived evergreen tree that is widespread in different parts of the world. Olive oil has been reported to relieve pain; however, there is still insufficient data in the literature on the subject. Thus, it is considered worthwhile investigating the antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory effects of olive oil in adult male Balb/C mice. The antinociceptive effects were studied using formalin, hot plate and writhing tests. The acute anti-inflammatory effects of olive oil in mice were studied using xylene ear edema test. Olive oil (1, 5 and 10 ml/kg body wt.) was injected intraperitoneally. Intact animals served as controls. Our results showed that the olive oil only decreased the second phase of formalin-induced pain. In the hot plate test, olive oil did not raise the pain threshold over the 60 min duration of the test. Olive oil exhibited antinociceptive activity against writhing-induced pain by acetic acid. In the xylene ear edema test, olive oil showed significant anti-inflammatory activity in the mice. The present data indicated that olive oil has antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory effects in mice but further investigation of these effects is required to elucidate the mechanism(s) involved in analgesic and anti-inflammatory effects of Olea europaea oil.

  1. Chemical composition and anti-inflammatory activity of the leaves of Byrsonima verbascifolia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saldanha, Aline Aparecida; do Carmo, Lucas Fernandes; do Nascimento, Sara Batista; de Matos, Natália Alves; de Carvalho Veloso, Clarice; Castro, Ana Hortência Fonsêca; De Vos, Ric C H; Klein, André; de Siqueira, João Máximo; Carollo, Carlos Alexandre; do Nascimento, Thalita Vieira; Toffoli-Kadri, Mônica Cristina; Soares, Adriana Cristina

    2016-10-01

    An ethnopharmacological survey indicates that the genus Byrsonima has some medicinal species that are commonly found in the Brazilian Cerrado and has been used as an anti-inflammatory and for gastroduodenal disorders. The aim of this study was to evaluate the anti-inflammatory and antioxidant activity along with qualitative chemical characterization of the methanolic extract of the leaves of Byrsonima verbascifolia (BvME) obtained by exhaustive percolation. The data from the chemical analyses by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry led to tentative identification of 42 compounds belonging to proanthocyanidins, galloyl quinic acid derivatives, flavonoids, and triterpene glycoside derivatives. BvME contain flavonoids and show an antioxidative activity. The methanolic extract administered intraperitoneally at doses of 50, 100, or 300 mg/kg showed a significant reduction in paw edema and modulated the neutrophil influx in a mouse model. Furthermore, the anti-edematogenic activity of the extract provided in smaller doses (12.5 and 25 mg/kg) was also demonstrated in a mouse paw edema model. The extract inhibited NO production by macrophages induced by lipopolysaccharide. We presume that the anti-inflammatory effects of BvME are due to a combination of compounds present in B. verbascifolia, including catechins (procyanidins), flavonoids, and triterpene glycosides and that these anti-inflammatory actions should be mediated, at least partly, through the inhibition of NO production. This study supports and validates the ethnopharmacological uses of B. verbascifolia as an anti-inflammatory.

  2. Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs for sciatica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasmussen-Barr, Eva; Held, Ulrike; Grooten, Wilhelmus Ja; Roelofs, Pepijn Ddm; Koes, Bart W; van Tulder, Maurits W; Wertli, Maria M

    2016-10-15

    Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are one of the most frequently prescribed drugs for the treatment of sciatica. A previous Cochrane review on the efficacy of NSAIDs summarised findings for acute and chronic low back pain (LBP) and sciatica. This is an update of the original review (2008) focusing on people suffering from sciatica. To determine the efficacy of NSAIDs in pain reduction, overall improvement, and reported side effects in people with sciatica. We performed electronic searches up to 24 June 2015 in the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), MEDLINE, EMBASE, PubMed, and two trials registers. We searched reference lists of included studies and relevant reviews on the topics for additional trials. We included randomised controlled trials (double-blind, single-blind, and open-label) that assessed the efficacy of NSAIDs in sciatica. We included all trials that compared NSAIDs to placebo, to other NSAIDs, or to other medication. Additional interventions were allowed if there was a clear contrast for the treatment with NSAIDs in the trial. Three review authors independently assessed the risk of bias and extracted the data. Where feasible we calculated pooled results using Review Manager 5.3. We reported pain relief outcomes using mean difference (MD) with 95% confidence intervals (95% CI). We used risk ratios (RR) with 95% CI to report global improvement of treatment, adverse effects, and additional medication. We performed a meta-analysis if possible. We assessed level of evidence using the GRADE approach. We used standard methodological procedures recommended by The Cochrane Collaboration. We included 10 trials reported in 9 publications (N = 1651). Only one trial out of 10 was assessed at low risk of bias. Five trials used the currently recommended daily dose for the drug, and two trials used lower daily doses available over the counter. Three trials investigated NSAIDs no longer approved for human use. The follow-up duration

  3. Simple Synthesis of Modafinil Derivatives and Their Anti-inflammatory Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mankil Jung

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Simple synthesis of modafinil derivatives and their biological activity are described. The key synthetic strategies involve substitution and coupling reactions. We determined the anti-inflammatory effects of modafinil derivatives in cultured BV2 cells by measuring the inhibition of nitrite production and expression of iNOS and COX-2 after LPS stimulation. It was found that for sulfide analogues introduction of aliphatic groups on the amide part (compounds 11ad resulted in lower anti-inflammatory activity compared with cyclic or aromatic moieties (compounds 11ek. However, for the sulfoxide analogues, introduction of aliphatic moieties (compounds 12ad showed higher anti-inflammatory activity than cyclic or aromatic fragments (compounds 12ek in BV-2 microglia cells.

  4. Anti-inflammatory activity of the apolar extract from the seaweed Galaxaura marginata (Rhodophyta, Nemaliales

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    E. Rozas

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The red seaweed Galaxaura marginata (Ellis & Solander Lamouroux, well known by the antibacterial activity of its polar extract and the cytotoxic activity of its oxygenated desmosterol, showed anti-inflammatory action in its apolar fraction. Topical anti-inflammatory activity was observed in samples collected at São Sebastião channel, northern littoral of São Paulo State, Brazil. The apolar extract and its fractions obtained through Thin-Layer Chromatography (TLC reduced the topical inflammation produced by croton oil in mouse ear. Such data indicated that the apolar extract from the marine red alga G. marginata displayed anti-inflammatory activity (since 1mg/ear extract reduced 95±0.5% inflammation, which could be the result of the synergic activity of the four fractions present in the apolar extract.

  5. Anti-inflammatory activity of the leaf extacts of Gendarussa vulgaris Nees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saleem, T K Mohamed; Azeem, A K; Dilip, C; Sankar, C; Prasanth, N V; Duraisami, R

    2011-04-01

    To evaluate the anti-inflammatory property of the leaf exacts of Gendarussa vulgaris (G. vulgaris) Nees. G. vulgaris Nees of the family Apocynaceae is a medium sized tree grown in semishade or no shade and is common in the Ernad and Nilambur taluks of Kerala.Various parts of this plant have been used in the treatment of ulcers, sores, inflammation, dyspepsia, healing of wounds, etc. The present study aimed at the evaluation of anti-inflammatory property of the aqueous and alcoholic extracts of the leaves by both in vitro and in vivo methods. In vitro method was estimated by human red blood cell membrane stabilisation (HRBC) method and in vivo method was estimated on the carrageenan induced paw oedima. Both the methods showed significant anti-inflammatory property of the different extracts tested. The alcoholic extract at a concentration of 300 mg/mL showed potent activity on comparing with the standard drug diclofenac sodium.

  6. Synthesis and biological evaluation of curcumin derivatives containing NSAIDs for their anti-inflammatory activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Wenfeng; Li, Yonlian; Yue, Yuan; Zhang, Kun; Chen, Qian; Wang, Huaqian; Lu, Yujing; Huang, Mou-Tuan; Zheng, Xi; Du, Zhiyun

    2015-08-01

    Oral administration of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) was frequently associated with serious adverse effects. Inspired by curcumin-a naturally traditional Chinese medicine, a series of curcumin derivatives containing NSAIDs, used for transdermal application, were synthesized and screened for their anti-inflammatory activities in vitro and in vivo. Compared with curcumin and parent NSAID (salicylic acid and salsalate), topical application of A11 and B13 onto mouse ear edema, prior to TPA treatment markedly suppressed the expression of IL-1β, IL-6 and TNF-α, respectively. Mechanistically, A11 and B13 blocked the phosphorylation of IκBα and suppressed the activation of p65 and IκBα. It was found that A11 and B13 may be potent anti-inflammatory agents for the treatment of inflammatory diseases. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Evaluation of marine brown algae Sargassum ilicifolium extract for analgesic and anti-inflammatory activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simpi, Chandraraj C.; Nagathan, Channabasappa V.; Karajgi, Santosh R.; Kalyane, Navanath V.

    2013-01-01

    Background: The methanolic extract of Sargassum ilicifolium (Pheophyceae) was used to evaluate its analgesic and anti-inflammatory activity in the present study. Materials and Methods: Analgesic activity was tested using Acetic acid writhing method and Eddy hot plate method in Male albino mice and Wister rats respectively at a dose level of 1, 10, 50, 100mg/kg p.o. At the same dose, its anti-inflammatory activity was also tested using Carrageenan induced rat paw edema method Result Acetic acid writhing test and Eddy's hot plate episodes were significantly and dose dependently reduced. Carrageenan (a standard inflammatory agent) induced paw edema in rats was significantly reduced after intraperitonal administration of methanolic extract. Results: showed dose dependant significant activity in comparison with standard and control. Conclusion: Methanolic extracts of the brown seaweeds Sargassum ilicifolium have potent analgesic and anti-inflammatory activity at moderate doses. PMID:23900805

  8. Anti-Inflammatory Effects of GLP-1-Based Therapies beyond Glucose Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Young-Sun; Jun, Hee-Sook

    2016-01-01

    Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) is an incretin hormone mainly secreted from intestinal L cells in response to nutrient ingestion. GLP-1 has beneficial effects for glucose homeostasis by stimulating insulin secretion from pancreatic beta-cells, delaying gastric emptying, decreasing plasma glucagon, reducing food intake, and stimulating glucose disposal. Therefore, GLP-1-based therapies such as GLP-1 receptor agonists and inhibitors of dipeptidyl peptidase-4, which is a GLP-1 inactivating enzyme, have been developed for treatment of type 2 diabetes. In addition to glucose-lowering effects, emerging data suggests that GLP-1-based therapies also show anti-inflammatory effects in chronic inflammatory diseases including type 1 and 2 diabetes, atherosclerosis, neurodegenerative disorders, nonalcoholic steatohepatitis, diabetic nephropathy, asthma, and psoriasis. This review outlines the anti-inflammatory actions of GLP-1-based therapies on diseases associated with chronic inflammation in vivo and in vitro, and their molecular mechanisms of anti-inflammatory action. PMID:27110066

  9. Evaluation of antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory activity of hydromethanol extract of Cocos nucifera L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naskar, Sagar; Mazumder, U K; Pramanik, G; Saha, P; Haldar, P K; Gupta, M

    2013-02-01

    Cocos nucifera L. (family: arecaceae) is generally straight unbranched plant, traditionally cultivated for its fruit (coconut) in home gardens. In the present study, anti-inflammatory and antinociceptive (analgesic) activity of hydromethanol extract of Cocos nucifera L. (HECN) was evaluated in animal models. HECN showed significant (p < 0.05) and dosedependent anti-inflammatory activity in carrageenan induced paw oedema models of inflammation and the result was comparable with the standard drug diclofenac. In addition, the extract also showed highly significant (p < 0.01) antinociceptive activity. HECN treated group showed increase in the reaction time in hot plate method and decrease the writhing induced by acetic acid in mice when compared with control group animal. The anti-inflammatory and antinociceptive activity observed in the present study could be attributed largely to the presence of its antioxidant phytoconstituents such as flavonoid, saponin and polyphenols.

  10. Antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory activities of a pomegranate (Punica granatum L.) extract rich in ellagitannins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Trujano, María Eva; Pellicer, Francisco; Mena, Pedro; Moreno, Diego A; García-Viguera, Cristina

    2015-01-01

    Pomegranate (Punica granatum L.) has been used for centuries for the treatment of inflammatory diseases. However, there is a lack of comprehensive information focused on the properties of a certain pomegranate (poly)phenolic profile to cure pain and gastric injury induced by anti-inflammatory drugs. This study investigated the systemic effects of different doses of a HPLC-characterized pomegranate extract on the formalin-induced nociceptive behavior in mice. The effect of the extract against gastric injury caused by non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and ethanol was also assessed. Pomegranate reduced nociception in both phases of the formalin test, suggesting central and peripheral activities to inhibit nociception. Indomethacin-induced gastric injury was not produced in the presence of pomegranate, which also protected against ethanol-induced gastric lesions. The present results reinforce the benefits of pomegranate (poly)phenolics in the treatment of pain as well as their anti-inflammatory properties.

  11. Anti-inflammatory, analgesic, and antipyretic activities of virgin coconut oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Intahphuak, S; Khonsung, P; Panthong, A

    2010-02-01

    This study investigated some pharmacological properties of virgin coconut oil (VCO), the natural pure oil from coconut [Cocos nucifera Linn (Palmae)] milk, which was prepared without using chemical or high-heat treatment. The anti-inflammatory, analgesic, and antipyretic effects of VCO were assessed. In acute inflammatory models, VCO showed moderate anti-inflammatory effects on ethyl phenylpropiolate-induced ear edema in rats, and carrageenin- and arachidonic acid-induced paw edema. VCO exhibited an inhibitory effect on chronic inflammation by reducing the transudative weight, granuloma formation, and serum alkaline phosphatase activity. VCO also showed a moderate analgesic effect on the acetic acid-induced writhing response as well as an antipyretic effect in yeast-induced hyperthermia. The results obtained suggest anti-inflammatory, analgesic, and antipyretic properties of VCO.

  12. Neuro-immune interactions via the cholinergic anti-inflammatory pathway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallowitsch-Puerta, Margot; Pavlov, Valentin A.

    2010-01-01

    The overproduction of TNF and other cytokines can cause the pathophysiology of numerous diseases. Controlling cytokine synthesis and release is critical for preventing unrestrained inflammation and maintaining health. Recent studies identified an efferent vagus nerve-based mechanism termed “the cholinergic anti-inflammatory pathway” that controls cytokine production and inflammation. Here we review current advances related to the role of this pathway in neuro-immune interactions that prevent excessive inflammation. Experimental evidence indicates that vagus nerve cholinergic anti-inflammatory signaling requires alpha7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors expressed on non-neuronal cytokine producing cells. Alpha7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor agonists inhibit cytokine release and protect animals in a variety of experimental lethal inflammatory models. Knowledge related to the cholinergic anti-inflammatory pathway can be exploited in therapeutic approaches directed towards counteracting abnormal chronic and hyper-activated inflammatory responses. PMID:17289087

  13. The anti-inflammatory and immunosuppressive effects of glucocorticoids, recent developments and mechanistic insights

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coutinho, Agnes E.; Chapman, Karen E.

    2011-01-01

    Since the discovery of glucocorticoids in the 1940s and the recognition of their anti-inflammatory effects, they have been amongst the most widely used and effective treatments to control inflammatory and autoimmune diseases. However, their clinical efficacy is compromised by the metabolic effects of long-term treatment, which include osteoporosis, hypertension, dyslipidaemia and insulin resistance/type 2 diabetes mellitus. In recent years, a great deal of effort has been invested in identifying compounds that separate the beneficial anti-inflammatory effects from the adverse metabolic effects of glucocorticoids, with limited effect. It is clear that for these efforts to be effective, a greater understanding is required of the mechanisms by which glucocorticoids exert their anti-inflammatory and immunosuppressive actions. Recent research is shedding new light on some of these mechanisms and has produced some surprising new findings. Some of these recent developments are reviewed here. PMID:20398732

  14. Anti-nociceptive and anti-inflammatory effects of some Jordanian medicinal plant extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atta, A H; Alkofahi, A

    1998-03-01

    The anti-nociceptive effect of ethanolic extract of 11 traditionally used Jordanian plants was studied by using the acetic acid-induced writhing and hot-plate test in mice. The anti-inflammatory effect of these plants was determined by xylene-induced ear oedema in mice and cotton pellet granuloma test in rats. Mentha piperita, Cinnamomum zeylanicum, Apium graveolens, Eucalyptus camaldulentis, and Ruta graveolens possess an anti-nociceptive effect against both acetic acid-induced writhing and hot plate-induced thermal stimulation. M. piperita, Jasminum officinale, Commiphora molmol, and Beta vulgaris possess an anti-inflammatory effect against acute (xylene-induced ear oedema) and chronic (cotton-pellet granuloma) inflammation. The anti-nociceptive and anti-inflammatory effects were dose dependent. These data affirm the traditional use of some of these plants for painful and inflammatory conditions.

  15. The patterns of toxicity and management of acute nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID overdose

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hunter L

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Laura J Hunter, David M Wood, Paul I DarganClinical Toxicology, Guy’s and St Thomas’ NHS Foundation Trust, London, UKAbstract: The nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs are widely used for their analgesic, anti-inflammatory and antipyretic actions. They are commonly taken in overdose in many areas of the world. The majority of patients with acute NSAID overdose will remain asymptomatic or develop minor self-limiting gastrointestinal symptoms. However, serious clinical sequelae have been reported in patients with acute NSAID overdose and these include convulsions, metabolic acidosis, coma and acute renal failure. There appear to be some differences between the NSAIDs in terms of the relative risk of these complications; in particular mefenamic acid is most commonly associated with convulsions. The management of these serious clinical features is largely supportive and there are no specific antidotes for acute NSAID toxicity.Keywords: nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAID, ibuprofen, toxicity, poisoning, overdose, management

  16. Inflammation in Depression and the Potential for Anti-Inflammatory Treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kohler, Ole; Krogh, Jesper; Mors, Ole

    2016-01-01

    Accumulating evidence supports an association between depression and inflammatory processes, a connection that seems to be bidirectional. Clinical trials have indicated antidepressant treatment effects for anti-inflammatory agents, both as add-on treatment and as monotherapy. In particular......, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) and cytokine-inhibitors have shown antidepressant treatment effects compared to placebo, but also statins, poly-unsaturated fatty acids, pioglitazone, minocycline, modafinil, and corticosteroids may yield antidepressant treatment effects. However, the complexity...... of the inflammatory cascade, limited clinical evidence, and the risk for side effects stress cautiousness before clinical application. Thus, despite proof-of-concept studies of anti-inflammatory treatment effects in depression, important challenges remain to be investigated. Within this paper, we review...

  17. Optimization on Extraction Engineering of the Anti - inflammatory Bioactive Materials from Ainsliaea Fragrans Champ

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    Yang Jie

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Ainsliaea fragrans Champ.(A.fragrans is a traditional Chinese herbal, phenolic compounds was the major anti - inflammatory bioactive constituents. To improve the bioavailability and enhanced the curative effect of A.fragrans, the anti - inflammatory effect of phenolic acids and the “non-active” group of control vectors constitute a new biomedical material, which is of great significance to the treatment of diseases inflammation. Hence, in this thesis, regarding the total phenolic acid transfer rate as the indicator, L9(34 orthogonal design was used to optimize the extraction process of total Phenolic acid from A.fragrans by reflux extraction method on solvent dosage, extraction times and extraction time.The optimal extraction technology was as follows: 15 times of water volume, reflux extraction 3 times, extraction time 60 min. The result of pharmacological activity indicated anti-inflammatory effect: 95% ethanol extraction > water extraction > 30% ethanol extraction > 60% ethanol extraction.

  18. Nutraceutical potential of Byrsonima cydoniifolia fruits based on chemical composition, anti-inflammatory, and antihyperalgesic activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Vanessa Samúdio Dos; Nascimento, Thalita Vieira; Felipe, Josyelen Lousada; Boaretto, Amanda Galdi; Damasceno-Junior, Geraldo Alves; Silva, Denise Brentan; Toffoli-Kadri, Mônica Cristina; Carollo, Carlos Alexandre

    2017-12-15

    In recent years, the fruits of native Brazilian plant species with anti-inflammatory property have gained prominence due to their properties comparable to traditional medicines. This study aimed to chemically characterize and evaluate the anti-inflammatory and antihyperalgesic activity of Byrsonima cydoniifolia fruit, which is widely used to manufacture ice cream and jellies. Our results revealed that the fruit exhibits flavonoid derivatives and stilbenes, as trans-piceatannol and resveratrol, as main secondary metabolites. In mice, the hydroethanolic extract of fruit reduced the edema, migration of polymorphonuclear leukocytes into the peritoneal cavity, as well as abdominal writhings. The results demonstrated, for the first time, the presence of stilbenoids in the Byrsonima genus and the anti-inflammatory and antihyperalgesic effect of Byrsonima cydoniifolia fruits, supporting its potential as a nutraceutical food. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Anti-nociceptive and anti-inflammatory effects of the methanolic extract of Opuntia humifusa stem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Bhesh Raj; Park, Chul Min; Choi, Jong Won; Rhyu, Dong Young

    2017-01-01

    Objective: Opuntia humifusa (O. humifusa) Raf. has been used for the prevention and treatment of rheumatoid arthritis, inflammation, and cancer. Our study was designed to unveil the anti-nociceptive and anti-inflammatory effects of the methanolic extract of O. humifusa Raf stem (OHS). Materials and Methods: The anti-nociceptive effect was measured by hot plate, acetic acid-induced writhing, and tail flick assays in mice and rats. Moreover, the anti-inflammatory effect was measured by vascular permeability and carrageenan and serotonin-induced paw edema tests in rats. Furthermore, anti-inflammatory effect was also measured using macrophage-like LPS-induced RAW 264.7 cells. Results: OHS extract inhibited acetic acid-induced writhing (pdiseases. PMID:28884086

  20. Anti-nociceptive and anti-inflammatory effects of the methanolic extract ofOpuntia humifusastem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Bhesh Raj; Park, Chul Min; Choi, Jong Won; Rhyu, Dong Young

    2017-01-01

    Opuntia humifusa ( O. humifusa ) Raf. has been used for the prevention and treatment of rheumatoid arthritis, inflammation, and cancer. Our study was designed to unveil the anti-nociceptive and anti-inflammatory effects of the methanolic extract of O. humifusa Raf stem (OHS). The anti-nociceptive effect was measured by hot plate, acetic acid-induced writhing, and tail flick assays in mice and rats. Moreover, the anti-inflammatory effect was measured by vascular permeability and carrageenan and serotonin-induced paw edema tests in rats. Furthermore, anti-inflammatory effect was also measured using macrophage-like LPS-induced RAW 264.7 cells. OHS extract inhibited acetic acid-induced writhing (pdiseases.

  1. ANTI-INFLAMMATORY AND ANALGESIC ACTIVITIES OF AVOCADO SEED (Persea americana Mill.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caecilia Desi Kristanti

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this research is to evaluate the anti-inflammatory and analgesic activities of infusion and methanolic extract from avocado seeds. The anti-inflammatory activity was determined using carrageenan-induced paw edema in mice. The analgesic activity was assessed using acetic acid stimuli to induce peripheral pain in mice. Results of this research showed that both all level doses of infusion and methanolic extract of avocado seeds have a significant reduction on the mice paw edema. All level doses of methanolic extract of avocado seeds have a significant reduction on the number of abdominal writhes induced by acetic acid, but only the lowest dose of infusion showed a significant reduction. Our findings suggest that avocado seeds contains potential anti-inflammatory and analgesic compounds which support its traditional use. Further phytochemical studies are required to determine the active compounds are actually responsible for such properties.

  2. In vivo anti-inflammatory effect of Rosa canina L. extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lattanzio, Francesca; Greco, Emanuela; Carretta, Donatella; Cervellati, Rinaldo; Govoni, Paolo; Speroni, Ester

    2011-09-01

    Rosa canina L. is a medicinal plant largely used in traditional folk medicine. Several compounds from rose hip extracts were reported to display in vitro anti-inflammatory activities. The in vivo effects of Rosa canina extracts are still poorly investigated. In the present study the anti-inflammatory and the gastroprotective effects of a hydroalcoholic crude extract of Rosa canina fruits were tested in rat. The anti-inflammatory activity of the extract was tested on the carrageenin-induced rat paw edema assay. The gastroprotective effect was investigated on the ethanol-induced gastric damage model. The in vitro antioxidant activity of this extract was also quantified using the Briggs-Rauscher oscillating reaction, the Trolox Equivalent Antioxidant Capacity method, and the Total Phenolic Content. Data show that the Rosa canina extract inhibits the development of carrageenin-induced edema; the anti-inflammatory power is similar to that of indomethacin. The antiedema effect was more significant using a higher dose of the extract. The total score expressing gastric damage was lower in Rosa canina pre-treated stomachs with respect to unpre-treated ones, although the antiulcerogenic effectiveness was not statistically significant. The antiulcerogenic effectiveness was not statistically detectable, even if the total score expressing gastric damage was lower in Rosa canina stomachs from pre-treated rats with respect to unpre-treated ones. Chemical analysis revealed that the extract owns a good antioxidant activity that may also contribute to the anti-inflammatory effects observed in vivo. Altogether, the present data demonstrate the anti-inflammatory property of Rosa canina suggesting its potential role as adjuvant therapeutic tool for the management of inflammatory-related diseases. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Anti-Inflammatory Effects of Intra-Articular Hyaluronic Acid: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altman, Roy; Bedi, Asheesh; Manjoo, Ajay; Niazi, Faizan; Shaw, Peter; Mease, Philip

    2018-02-01

    Objective Osteoarthritis (OA) is one of the leading causes of disability in the adult population. Common nonoperative treatment options include nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), intra-articular corticosteroids, and intra-articular injections of hyaluronic acid (HA). HA is found intrinsically within the knee joint providing viscoelastic properties to the synovial fluid. HA therapy provides anti-inflammatory relief through a number of different pathways, including the suppression of pro-inflammatory cytokines and chemokines. Methods We conducted a systematic review to summarize the published literature on the anti-inflammatory properties of hyaluronic acid in osteoarthritis. Included articles were categorized based on the primary anti-inflammatory responses described within them, by the immediate cell surface receptor protein assessed within the article, or based on the primary theme of the article. Key findings aimed to describe the macromolecules and inflammatory-mediated responses associated with the cell transmembrane receptors. Results Forty-eight articles were included in this systematic review that focused on the general anti-inflammatory effects of HA in knee OA, mediated through receptor-binding relationships with cluster determinant 44 (CD44), toll-like receptor 2 (TLR-2) and 4 (TLR-4), intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1), and layilin (LAYN) cell surface receptors. Higher molecular weight HA (HMWHA) promotes anti-inflammatory responses, whereas short HA oligosaccharides produce inflammatory reactions. Conclusions Intra-articular HA is a viable therapeutic option in treating knee OA and suppressing inflammatory responses. HMWHA is effective in suppressing the key macromolecules that elicit the inflammatory response by short HA oligosaccharides.

  4. Differential ability of proinflammatory and anti-inflammatory macrophages to perform macropinocytosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redka, Dar'ya S; Gütschow, Michael; Grinstein, Sergio; Canton, Johnathan

    2018-01-01

    Macropinocytosis mediates the uptake of antigens and of nutrients that dictate the regulation of cell growth by mechanistic target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1). Because these functions differ in proinflammatory and anti-inflammatory macrophages, we compared the macropinocytic ability of two extreme polarization states. We found that anti-inflammatory macrophages perform vigorous macropinocytosis constitutively, while proinflammatory cells are virtually inactive. The total cellular content of Rho-family GTPases was higher in anti-inflammatory cells, but this disparity failed to account for the differential macropinocytic activity. Instead, reduced activity of Rac/RhoG was responsible for the deficient macropinocytosis of proinflammatory macrophages, as suggested by the stimulatory effects of heterologously expressed guanine nucleotide-exchange factors or of constitutively active (but not wild-type) forms of these GTPases. Similarly, differences in the activation state of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PtdIns3K) correlated with the macropinocytic activity of pro- and anti-inflammatory macrophages. Differences in PtdIns3K and Rho-GTPase activity were attributable to the activity of calcium-sensing receptors (CaSRs), which appear to be functional only in anti-inflammatory cells. However, agonists of PtdIns3K, including cytokines, chemokines, and LPS, induced macropinocytosis in proinflammatory cells. Our findings revealed a striking difference in the macropinocytic ability of pro- and anti-inflammatory macrophages that correlates with their antigen-presenting and metabolic activity. © 2018 Redka et al. This article is distributed by The American Society for Cell Biology under license from the author(s). Two months after publication it is available to the public under an Attribution–Noncommercial–Share Alike 3.0 Unported Creative Commons License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0).

  5. Analgesic and anti-inflammatory activities of a water extract of Trachelospermum jasminoides (Apocynaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheu, Ming-Jyh; Chou, Pei-Yu; Cheng, Hsu-Chen; Wu, Chieh-Hsi; Huang, Guan-Jhong; Wang, Bor-Sen; Chen, Jwo-Sheng; Chien, Yi-Chung; Huang, Ming-Hsing

    2009-11-12

    This study investigated the analgesic and anti-inflammatory effects of a water extract of Trachelospermum jasminoides (WET) in ICR mice. In HPLC analysis, the fingerprint chromatogram of WET was established. Acetic acid-induced writhing response and formalin-induced pain were examined the analgesics effects of WET. WET on lambda-Carrageenan(carr)-induced paw edema was performed. We investigate the anti-inflammatory mechanism of WET via studies of the activities of glutathione peroxidase (GPx), glutathione reductase (GRx) in the liver and the levels of malondialdehyde (MDA) and nitrite oxide (NO) in the edema paw. Serum NO and TNF-alpha were also measured. The fingerprint chromatogram of WET was established through HPLC analysis, and implies that WET contains the active ingredient gallic acid, chlorgenic acid, caffeic acid, taxifolin, isoquercitrin and quercetin. WET significantly inhibited the numbers of acetic acid-induced writhing responses and the formalin-induced pain in the late phase. In the anti-inflammatory test, WET inhibited the development of paw edema induced by carr. WET decreased the paw edema at the third, fourth and fifth hour after carr administration, and increased the activities of SOD, GPx and GRx in the liver tissue and decreased the MDA level in the edema paw at the third hour after carr injection. WET decreased the level of NO in edematous paw tissue and in serum level, and diminished the level of serum TNF-alpha at the fifth hour after carr injection. These results demonstrated that WET is an effective anti-inflammatory agent in carr-induced inflammation. WET probably exerts anti-inflammatory effects by suppressing TNF-alpha and NO. The anti-inflammatory mechanism of WET might be related to the decrease in the level of MDA in the edema paw via increasing the activities of SOD, GPx and GRx in the liver.

  6. Anti-allergic, anti-pruritic, and anti-inflammatory activities of Centella asiatica extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, Mathew; Joseph, Lincy; Ramaswamy

    2009-07-03

    This study investigated antipruritic and anti-inflammatory effect of Centella asiatica extract in rats and anti-allergic in vitro using sheep (Capra hircus) serum method and compound 48/80 induced mast cell degranulation method, compared with standard drug ketotifen fumarate. In rats, extract of Centella asiatica administered orally was examined for anti-pruritic study and chlorpheniramine maleate was used as standard drug while carageenan paw induced inflammatory method was used for the antiinfammatory study. The results show that the extracts of Centella asiatica exhibited antiallergic, anti-pruritic and anti-inflammatory activities.

  7. COMPARATIVE STUDY OF ANTI-INFLAMMATORY ACTIVITY OF ROSUVASTATIN WITH THAT OF ASPIRIN IN ALBINO RATS

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    Mohammed Abdul Majeed

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Statins are HMG-CoA (3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-coenzyme A reductase inhibitors well known for their hypolipidemic action. More recently, there has been an increased interest in pleiotropic effects of statins like anti-inflammatory action that occurs independent of their lipid lowering effect. Statins exert anti-inflammatory action by preventing the isoprenylation of Rho proteins, a family of small G proteins and subsequent disruption of their functions. Hence, the present study was planned to compare the anti-inflammatory effect of rosuvastatin with that of aspirin on acute inflammation, so that it could be utilised in acute inflammatory conditions as an adjuvant or as a monotherapy avoiding adverse effects of commonly used antiinflammatory agents like NSAIDS (nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. The aim of the study is to compare anti-inflammatory effect of rosuvastatin with that of aspirin on carrageenan-induced inflammation in albino rats. MATERIALS AND METHODS 18 adult albino rats weighing between 100-150 g of either sex were divided into 3 groups. Control, Standard and test receiving oral normal saline (2 mL/kg, aspirin (100 mg/kg and rosuvastatin (5 mg/kg drug solutions, respectively. Acute inflammation model of carrageenan-induced paw oedema was used as tool. An hour after the administration of the drugs to each group, paw oedema was induced with intradermal injection of 0.1 mL of carrageenan (1% into the plantar surface of the right hind paw of each rat. Volume of inflamed paw was determined using a plethysmometer immediately and also at 30, 60, 120 and 180 minutes after injection. Finally, mean paw volumes at different time intervals were calculated and percentage inhibition of paw oedema with standard and test drugs were determined. RESULTS Data was analysed using by Analysis of Variance (ANOVA. Results showed that rosuvastatin has statistically significant (P<0.05 anti-inflammatory action reflected by percentage

  8. Exploration of the Anti-Inflammatory Drug Space Through Network Pharmacology: Applications for Drug Repurposing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Anda-Jáuregui, Guillermo; Guo, Kai; McGregor, Brett A; Hur, Junguk

    2018-01-01

    The quintessential biological response to disease is inflammation. It is a driver and an important element in a wide range of pathological states. Pharmacological management of inflammation is therefore central in the clinical setting. Anti-inflammatory drugs modulate specific molecules involved in the inflammatory response; these drugs are traditionally classified as steroidal and non-steroidal drugs. However, the effects of these drugs are rarely limited to their canonical targets, affecting other molecules and altering biological functions with system-wide effects that can lead to the emergence of secondary therapeutic applications or adverse drug reactions (ADRs). In this study, relationships among anti-inflammatory drugs, functional pathways, and ADRs were explored through network models. We integrated structural drug information, experimental anti-inflammatory drug perturbation gene expression profiles obtained from the Connectivity Map and Library of Integrated Network-Based Cellular Signatures, functional pathways in the Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) and Reactome databases, as well as adverse reaction information from the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) Adverse Event Reporting System (FAERS). The network models comprise nodes representing anti-inflammatory drugs, functional pathways, and adverse effects. We identified structural and gene perturbation similarities linking anti-inflammatory drugs. Functional pathways were connected to drugs by implementing Gene Set Enrichment Analysis (GSEA). Drugs and adverse effects were connected based on the proportional reporting ratio (PRR) of an adverse effect in response to a given drug. Through these network models, relationships among anti-inflammatory drugs, their functional effects at the pathway level, and their adverse effects were explored. These networks comprise 70 different anti-inflammatory drugs, 462 functional pathways, and 1,175 ADRs. Network-based properties, such as degree

  9. Development of anti-inflammatory drugs - the research and development process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knowles, Richard Graham

    2014-01-01

    The research and development process for novel drugs to treat inflammatory diseases is described, and several current issues and debates relevant to this are raised: the decline in productivity, attrition, challenges and trends in developing anti-inflammatory drugs, the poor clinical predictivity of experimental models of inflammatory diseases, heterogeneity within inflammatory diseases, 'improving on the Beatles' in treating inflammation, and the relationships between big pharma and biotechs. The pharmaceutical research and development community is responding to these challenges in multiple ways which it is hoped will lead to the discovery and development of a new generation of anti-inflammatory medicines. © 2013 Nordic Pharmacological Society. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Evaluation of In Vitro Anti-inflammatory Activity of Azomethines of Aryl Oxazoles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Niraimathi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Ability to inhibit erythrocyte hemolysis is often used as a characteristic of the membrane stabilising action of chemical compounds. Azomethines of aryl oxazoles were evaluated for anti-inflammatory by in vitro hemolytic membrane stabilising study. The effect of inflammation condition was studied on erythrocyte exposed to hypotonic solution. In this in vitro method the membrane stabilising action leads to anti-inflammatory activity and was compared with that produced by diclofenac sodium as the reference standard. Results of the evaluation indicate that the synthesised compounds found to exhibit membrane stabilising activity.

  11. Lichens as a source of chemical compounds with anti-inflammatory activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Studzińska-Sroka Elżbieta

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Symptoms of inflammation accompany a number of diseases. In order to mitigate them, folk medicine has used a variety of medicinal substances, including herbs and mushrooms. Lichens are less known organisms, containing specific secondary metabolites with interesting biological properties. One of their biological actions is the anti-inflammatory activity that has been confirmed by in vitro and animal studies. It has been proven that compounds and extracts from lichens inhibit the enzymes involved in the inflammatory process. The following paper is a review of research on the little-known anti-inflammatory properties of lichens.

  12. Synthesis, Characterization & Screening for Anti-Inflammatory & Analgesic Activity of Quinoline Derivatives Bearing Azetidinones Scaffolds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Sujeet Kumar; Mishra, Ashutosh

    2016-01-01

    Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDS) are clinically used as anti-inflammatory, analgesic and antipyretic agents but they have the drawbacks such as gastric irritation and gastric ulceration. Recently, quinoline derivatives have shown significant anti-inflammatory and less ulcerogenic activity. The present study deals with the synthesis and pharmacological assessment of a series of novel quinoline derivatives bearing azetidinones scaffolds as anti-inflammatory and analgesic agents. A series of newer 3-chloro-1-(substituted)-4-(tetrazolo [1,5-a]quinolin-4- yl)azetidin-2-one derivatives (6a-l) was synthesized starting with acetanilide (1). Initially, acetanilide (1) was allowed to react with Vilsmeier-Haack reagent (DMF + POCl3) to form 2- chloro-3-formyl quinoline (2). The 2-chloro-3-formyl quinoline (2) was further treated with p-toluenesulphonic acid and sodium azide which yielded Tetrazolo [1,5-1] quinoline-4- carbaldehyde (3). The reaction of formyl group with various substituted amines (4a-l) formed corresponding Schiff base intermediates (5a-l), which were further allowed to react with chloroacetyl chloride to produce 3-chloro-1-(substituted)-4-(tetrazolo [1,5-a]quinolin-4-yl) azetidin-2-one derivatives (6a-l). The structure of the final analogues (6a-l) has been confirmed on the basis of elemental analysis, IR, 1H NMR, 13C NMR and mass spectra. All the synthesized compounds were evaluated for their anti-inflammatory and analgesic activities by using carrageenan induced rat paw model and Eddy's hot plate method respectively. All the values of elemental analysis, IR, 1H NMR, 13C NMR and mass spectra were found to be prominent. The anti-inflammatory activity test revealed that 3-chloro-1-(4-methoxyphenyl)- 4-(tetrazolo[1,5-a] quinolin-4-yl)azetidin-2-one (6b), 3-chloro-1-(2-methoxyphenyl)- 4-(tetrazolo[1,5-a]quinolin-4-yl)azetidin-2-one (6a) exhibited significant anti-inflammatory and analgesic activity as compared to control group. The results of the

  13. Analgesic and Anti-inflammatory Activity of Teucrium chamaedrys Leaves Aqueous Extract in Male Rats

    OpenAIRE

    Ali Pourmotabbed; Amir Farshchi; Golbarg Ghiasi; Peyman Malek Khatabi

    2010-01-01

    Objective(s)Current study was undertaken to investigate the analgesic and anti-inflammatory effects of the aqueous extract of Teucrium chamaedrys in mice and rats. Materials and MethodsFor evaluating of analgesic and anti-inflammatory activity, we used the carrageenan- and dextran-induced paw oedema, acetic acid-induced writhing, tail flick and formalin pain tests.ResultsThe extract of T. chamaedrys (50–200 mg/kg) and acetylsalicylic acid (100 mg/kg) produced a significant (P< 0.01) inhibitio...

  14. Exploration of the Anti-Inflammatory Drug Space Through Network Pharmacology: Applications for Drug Repurposing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guillermo de Anda-Jáuregui

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The quintessential biological response to disease is inflammation. It is a driver and an important element in a wide range of pathological states. Pharmacological management of inflammation is therefore central in the clinical setting. Anti-inflammatory drugs modulate specific molecules involved in the inflammatory response; these drugs are traditionally classified as steroidal and non-steroidal drugs. However, the effects of these drugs are rarely limited to their canonical targets, affecting other molecules and altering biological functions with system-wide effects that can lead to the emergence of secondary therapeutic applications or adverse drug reactions (ADRs. In this study, relationships among anti-inflammatory drugs, functional pathways, and ADRs were explored through network models. We integrated structural drug information, experimental anti-inflammatory drug perturbation gene expression profiles obtained from the Connectivity Map and Library of Integrated Network-Based Cellular Signatures, functional pathways in the Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG and Reactome databases, as well as adverse reaction information from the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA Adverse Event Reporting System (FAERS. The network models comprise nodes representing anti-inflammatory drugs, functional pathways, and adverse effects. We identified structural and gene perturbation similarities linking anti-inflammatory drugs. Functional pathways were connected to drugs by implementing Gene Set Enrichment Analysis (GSEA. Drugs and adverse effects were connected based on the proportional reporting ratio (PRR of an adverse effect in response to a given drug. Through these network models, relationships among anti-inflammatory drugs, their functional effects at the pathway level, and their adverse effects were explored. These networks comprise 70 different anti-inflammatory drugs, 462 functional pathways, and 1,175 ADRs. Network-based properties, such

  15. Gastrointestinal Complications Depending on the Selectivity of Non-Steroidal Anti-Inflammatory Drug

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G.V. Dzyak

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the problem of gastrointestinal complications during administration of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, commonly used to treat a range of conditions, particularly rheumatic diseases. The results of own researches, which served to define the characteristics of changes in the state of gastric secretory function in patients receiving non-selective and selective anti-inflammatory agent and their comparative analysis, are provided. The data obtained demonstrated a certain contribution to the understanding of the mechanism of development of complications from the gastrointestinal tract when taken drugs of above group.

  16. Low anticoagulant heparin targets multiple sites of inflammation, suppresses heparin-induced thrombocytopenia, and inhibits interaction of RAGE with its ligands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, Narayanam V; Argyle, Brian; Xu, Xiaoyu; Reynolds, Paul R; Walenga, Jeanine M; Prechel, Margaret; Prestwich, Glenn D; MacArthur, Robert B; Walters, Bradford B; Hoidal, John R; Kennedy, Thomas P

    2010-07-01

    While heparin has been used almost exclusively as a blood anticoagulant, important literature demonstrates that it also has broad anti-inflammatory activity. Herein, using low anti-coagulant 2-O,3-O-desulfated heparin (ODSH), we demonstrate that most of the anti-inflammatory pharmacology of heparin is unrelated to anticoagulant activity. ODSH has low affinity for anti-thrombin III, low anti-Xa, and anti-IIa anticoagulant activities and does not activate Hageman factor (factor XII). Unlike heparin, ODSH does not interact with heparin-platelet factor-4 antibodies present in patients with heparin-induced thrombocytopenia and even suppresses platelet activation in the presence of activating concentrations of heparin. Like heparin, ODSH inhibits complement activation, binding to the leukocyte adhesion molecule P-selectin, and the leukocyte cationic granular proteins azurocidin, human leukocyte elastase, and cathepsin G. In addition, ODSH and heparin disrupt Mac-1 (CD11b/CD18)-mediated leukocyte adhesion to the receptor for advanced glycation end products (RAGE) and inhibit ligation of RAGE by its many proinflammatory ligands, including the advanced glycation end-product carboxymethyl lysine-bovine serum albumin, the nuclear protein high mobility group box protein-1 (HMGB-1), and S100 calgranulins. In mice, ODSH is more effective than heparin in reducing selectin-mediated lung metastasis from melanoma and inhibits RAGE-mediated airway inflammation from intratracheal HMGB-1. In humans, 50% inhibitory concentrations of ODSH for these anti-inflammatory activities can be achieved in the blood without anticoagulation. These results demonstrate that the anticoagulant activity of heparin is distinct from its anti-inflammatory actions and indicate that 2-O and 3-O sulfate groups can be removed to reduce anticoagulant activity of heparin without impairing its anti-inflammatory pharmacology.

  17. Antimicrobial and anti-inflammatory effects of Cecropin A(1-8)-Magainin2(1-12) hybrid peptide analog p5 against Malassezia furfur infection in human keratinocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryu, Sunhyo; Choi, Soon-Yong; Acharya, Samudra; Chun, Young-Jin; Gurley, Catherine; Park, Yoonkyung; Armstrong, Cheryl A; Song, Peter I; Kim, Beom-Joon

    2011-08-01

    The lipophilic fungus Malassezia furfur (M. furfur) is a commensal microbe associated with several chronic diseases such as pityriasis versicolor, folliculitis, and seborrheic dermatitis. Because M. furfur-related diseases are difficult to treat and require prolonged use of medications, the treatment for M. furfur-related skin diseases is supposed to gain control over M. furfur growth and the inflammation associated with it, as well as to prevent secondary infections. In this study, we investigated the antifungal and anti-inflammatory effects of cecropin A(1-8)-magainin 2(1-12) hybrid peptide analog P5 on M. furfur. The minimal inhibitory concentration of P5 against M. furfur was 0.39 μM, making it 3-4 times more potent than commonly used antifungal agents such as ketoconazole (1.5 μM) or itraconazole (1.14 μM). P5 efficiently inhibited the expression of IL-8 and Toll-like receptor 2 in M. furfur-infected human keratinocytes without eukaryotic cytotoxicity at its fungicidal concentration. Moreover, P5 significantly downregulated NF-κB activation and intracellular calcium fluctuation, which are closely related with enhanced responses of keratinocyte inflammation induced by M. furfur infection. Taken together, these observations suggest P5 may be a potential therapeutic agent for M. furfur-associated human skin diseases because of its distinct antifungal and anti-inflammatory action.

  18. Anti-Inflammatory molecular mechanisms of Bo-Ye-Niu- Pi-Xiao ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Yomi

    2012-01-24

    Jan 24, 2012 ... and iNOS by amentoflavone and quercetin in A549 human lung adenocarcinoma cell line. PLEFA, 66: 485-492. Chan MM, Hunag HI, Fenton MR, Fong D (1998). In vivo inhibition of nitric oxide synthase gene expression by curcumin, a cancer preventive natural product with anti-inflammatory properties.

  19. Analgesic and anti-inflammatory activities of the water extract from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: In ayurvedic and Thai traditional medicine, the fruit of T. chebula is useful in arthritic disorders, inflammation, tumor, pains, chronic and recurrent fever. The study investigated the analgesic and anti-inflammatory activities in animal models. Materials and methods: The water extract of T. chebula fruit was ...

  20. Drug Targets for Cardiovascular-Safe Anti-Inflammatory: In Silico Rational Drug Studies.

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    Sajad Shahbazi

    Full Text Available Cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2 plays an important role in memory consolidation and synaptic activity, the most fundamental functions of the brain. It converts arachidonic acid to prostaglandin endoperoxide H2. In contrast, if over-expressed, it causes inflammation in response to cytokine, pro-inflammatory molecule, and growth factor. Anti-inflammatory agents, by allosteric or competitive inhibition of COX-2, alleviate the symptoms of inflammation. Coxib family drugs, particularly celecoxib, are the most famous anti-inflammatory agents available in the market showing significant inhibitory effect on COX-2 activity. Due to high cardiovascular risk of this drug group, recent researches are focused on the investigation of new safer drugs for anti-inflammatory diseases. Natural compounds, particularly, phytochemicals are found to be good candidates for drug designing and discovery. In the present study, we performed in silico studies to quantitatively scrutinize the molecular interaction of curcumin and its structural analogs with COX-2, COX-1, FXa and integrin αIIbβIII to investigate their therapeutic potential as a cardiovascular-safe anti-inflammatory medicine (CVSAIM. The results of both ADMET and docking study indicated that out of all the 39 compounds studied, caffeic acid had remarkable interaction with proteins involved in inflammatory response. It was also found to inhibit the proteins that are involved in thrombosis, thereby, having the potential to be developed as therapeutic agent.

  1. Anti-Inflammatory Activity of Babassu Oil and Development of a Microemulsion System for Topical Delivery

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    Mysrayn Y. F. A. Reis

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Babassu oil extraction is the main income source in nut breakers communities in northeast of Brazil. Among these communities, babassu oil is used for cooking but also medically to treat skin wounds and inflammation, and vulvovaginitis. This study aimed to evaluate the anti-inflammatory activity of babassu oil and develop a microemulsion system with babassu oil for topical delivery. Topical anti-inflammatory activity was evaluated in mice ear edema using PMA, arachidonic acid, ethyl phenylpropiolate, phenol, and capsaicin as phlogistic agents. A microemulsion system was successfully developed using a Span® 80/Kolliphor® EL ratio of 6 : 4 as the surfactant system (S, propylene glycol and water (3 : 1 as the aqueous phase (A, and babassu oil as the oil phase (O, and analyzed through conductivity, SAXS, DSC, TEM, and rheological assays. Babassu oil and lauric acid showed anti-inflammatory activity in mice ear edema, through inhibition of eicosanoid pathway and bioactive amines. The developed formulation (39% A, 12.2% O, and 48.8% S was classified as a bicontinuous to o/w transition microemulsion that showed a Newtonian profile. The topical anti-inflammatory activity of microemulsified babassu oil was markedly increased. A new delivery system of babassu microemulsion droplet clusters was designed to enhance the therapeutic efficacy of vegetable oil.

  2. A study of the anti-inflammatory effects of the ethyl acetate fraction of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... In this study, the anti-inflammatory effects of the ethyl acetate fraction of the methanol extract of FF (FFE) were assessed by measuring NO and PGE2 production by and intracellular ROS and protein levels of iNOS and COX-2 in RAW 264.7 cells. Results: FFE inhibited COX-2 expression in LPS-stimulated RAW 264.7 cells.

  3. Biological activities (anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidant) of fractions ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Bryophytes like other lower plants (non-vascular plants) are not traditionally employed for therapeutic purposes. Hence this study evaluated the in vitro anti-oxidant potentials and anti-inflammatory activities of the fractions and methanolic extract of Moss (Philonotis hastata, Duby) with a view to studying its ...

  4. Evaluation of anti-inflammatory activity of chloroform extract of Bryonia laciniosa in experimental animal models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Malaya; Mazumdar, Upal Kanti; Sivakumar, Thangavel; Vamsi, Madgulav Laxmi Mohan; Karki, Subhas Somalingappa; Sambathkumar, Ramanathan; Manikandan, Laxmanan

    2003-09-01

    The anti-inflammatory effect of the leaves of Bryonia laciniosa was evaluated using carrageenan, dextran, histamine, serotonin induced rat paw oedema and cotton pellet induced granuloma (chronic) models in rats. In mice, carrageenan peritonitis test was performed for the extract by oral administration. The chloroform extract of Bryonia laciniosa (CEBL) exhibited significant anti-inflammatory effect at the dose 50, 100 and 200 mg/kg. Maximum inhibition (52.4%) was noted at the dose of 200 mg/kg after 3 h of drug treatment in carrageenan induced paw oedema, whereas the indomethacin (standard drug) produced 62.1% of inhibition. The extract exhibited significant anti-inflammatory activity in dextran induced paw oedema in a dose dependent manner. The extract also exhibited significant inhibition on the hind paw oedema in rats caused by histamine and serotonin respectively. In the chronic model (cotton pellet induced granuloma) the CEBL (200 mg/kg) and standard drug showed decreased formation of granuloma tissue by 50.1 and 57.3% (p<0.001) respectively. The extract also inhibited peritoneal leukocyte migration in mice. Thus, the present study revealed that the chloroform extract of Bryonia laciniosa exhibited significant anti-inflammatory activity in the tested models.

  5. Evaluation of Caesalpinia bonduc seed coat extract for anti-inflammatory and analgesic activity

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    Dayanand M Kannur

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present work, Caesalpinia bonduc seed coat extract (CBSCE has been evaluated for anti-inflammatory and analgesic activity C. bonduc seeds have been attributed with anti-inflammatory and analgesic properties in the folklore medicine. Here in our study, we have tried to carry out the systematic evaluation of the seed coat extract of C. bonduc to substantiate these claims. C. bonduc seed coat was extracted with 95% ethanol and concentrated; further, the extract was screened for anti-inflammatory and analgesic activity. The studies were carried using Carrageenan-induced Paw Edema, Egg albumin-induced paw edema, Eddy′s Hot Plate Test, Tail Immersion Method so as to prove acclaimed properties. The data was analyzed statistically by Students′ ′t′ test. The results indicate that seed coat extract has the ability to decrease the induced inflammation at varied doses in Carrageenan model as well as in the Egg albumin model in rats. The antinociceptive results indicate that the extract has the ability to increase the pain threshold of the animals and reduce the pain factor, thereby inducing analgesia. Thus, it can be concluded that CBSCE posses analgesic and anti-inflammatory activity.

  6. The pro-fibrotic and anti-inflammatory foam cell macrophage paradox

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thomas, Anita C.; Eijgelaar, Wouter J.; Daemen, Mat J. A. P.; Newby, Andrew C.

    2015-01-01

    The formation of foamy macrophages by sequestering extracellular modified lipids is a key event in atherosclerosis. However, there is controversy about the effects of lipid loading on macrophage phenotype, with in vitro evidence suggesting either pro-or anti-inflammatory consequences. To investigate

  7. Assessment of topical non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs in animal models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiramatsu, Y; Akita, S; Salamin, P A; Maier, R

    1990-10-01

    Four commercial gel preparations of topical anti-inflammatory agents have been assessed in six animal models commonly used to determine the biological activity of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory agents for systemic administration. Only UV-induced erythema of the skin, adjuvant induced arthritis and the measurement of vascular permeability proved suitable for differentiation of the potency of the four topical agents. Carrageenin-induced paw oedema, the cotton pellet test and the assessment of the pain threshold according to Randall and Selitto were of little value. The effects of the gel preparation of diclofenac (CAS 15307-86-5) diethylammonium (Voltaren Emulgel) were comparable to two preparations containing 1% and 5% active ingredient, respectively. Gel 4 showed low overall activity. The experiments demonstrated that some of the models used for the assessment of anti-inflammatory agent for systemic administration proved suitable for the testing of topical preparations and that percutaneous absorption was insufficient to elicit anti-inflammatory effect in the animals at sites remote from the site of application.

  8. Phytochemical Analysis by HPLC–HRESI-MS and Anti-Inflammatory Activity of Tabernaemontana catharinensis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Ivan Marques

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Tabernaemontana catharinensis (Apocynaceae has been popularly used by folk medicine because of its anti-inflammatory, analgesic, and antiophidic properties. This study aims to analyze the flavonoids composition of the hydroethanolic extract and of the ethyl acetate (EtOAc and butanol (BuOH fractions of T. catharinensis leaves, as well as to evaluate their anti-inflammatory activity using in vivo models. The phytochemical profile, determined by High-Performance Liquid Chromatography–High-Resolution Electrospray Ionization-Mass Spectrometry (HPLC–HRESI-MS, showed the presence of flavonoids mainly having an isorhamnetin nucleus. The anti-inflammatory activity was evaluated in carrageenan-induced paw edema (pre- and post-treatment with oral administration of a T. catharinensis hydroethanolic extract (50, 100, and 150 mg/kg and of organic fractions (50 mg/kg. The extract and fractions showed antiedematogenic activity by decreasing myeloperoxidase (MPO production. In the zymosan-air-pouch model, the extract and fractions inhibited leukocyte migration and significantly decreased the levels of various proteins, such as MPO, interleukin (IL-1β, and tumor necrosis factor (TNF-α. The cytotoxicity was evaluated by the 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT assay, which revealed no cytotoxicity of the extract and the fractions. These results suggest that the hydroethanolic extract and organic fractions of T. catharinensis leaves have sufficient anti-inflammatory activity to support the popular use of this plant in the treatment of inflammatory disorders.

  9. Assessment Of Pattern Of Non-steroidal Anti-Inflammatory Drugs ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are commonly used in the treatment of pains. Self-medication is a common practice all over the world. Unwanted effects from use of this class of medication could pose health challenges. This study evaluated the prevalence and pattern of inappropriate use of NSAIDs among ...

  10. Negative effect of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs on the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ciprofloxacin, a second generation fluoroquinolone is often co-administered with non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) in life threatening situations in which Staphylococcus aureus infections are accompanied with pain and inflammation. This study was carried out to investigate possible in vitro interactions in co ...

  11. Effectiveness of various non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To study the effectiveness of various nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) in patients with vertebral fractures. Methods: A total of 78 patients (17 males and 61 females) with a mean age of 69.5 years were included. The major inclusion criterion was an osteoporotic vertebral fracture between T7 and L3.

  12. In vivo anti-inflammatory effects of taraxasterol against animal models

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Traditional Chinese medicine Taraxacum officinale has been widely used to treat various inflammatory diseases. Taraxasterol is one of the main active components isolated from Taraxacum officinale. Recently, we have demonstrated that taraxasterol has the in vitro anti-inflammatory effects. This study aims to ...

  13. Evaluation of the anti-inflammatory properties of the hexane extract ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Maj Obaseki

    2016-08-26

    Aug 26, 2016 ... the extract were further assessed by employing the formaldehyde induced arthritis animal model assay. The extract was ... Key words: Hydrocotyle bonariensis, anti-inflammatory, phytochemicals, protein denaturation, membrane stabilization .... Drugs (NSAIDs) for two weeks prior to the experiment and.

  14. Analgesic and Anti-Inflammatory Activities of an Ethanol Extract of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Samuel Olaleye

    veterinary medicine. It is also used in the treatment of joint and stomach pains. It equally reliefs insect stings. (Okokon, 2005 personal communication). Nwafor et al., (2006), investigated the acute toxicity potential of the leaf extract in rats, however, no anti-inflammatory or analgesic effect of the leaf has been reported earlier.

  15. p38 Mapk signal pathway involved in anti-inflammatory effect of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In conclusion, CSS and SLBZS might work as a significant anti-inflammatory effect on hepatocyte of NASH by inhibiting the activation of TLR4, p-p38 MAPK and p38 MAPK involved in p38 MAPK signal pathway. Conclusion: To some extent, CSS and SLBZS may be a potential alternative and complementary medicine to ...

  16. Anti-Inflammatory and Anti-Nociceptive Effects of Ethanolic Extract of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The ethanolic stembark extract of M .africana (30-90 mg/kg) was investigated for pharmacological properties against egg white albumin - induced inflammation, Chemical as well as thermal- induced pain as well as yeast induced pyresis in rats. The extract demonstrated a dose – dependent anti- inflammatory ...

  17. Anti-inflammatory and anti-nociceptive effects of ethanolic extract of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The ethanolic leaf extract of Setaria megaphylla (100-300 mg/kg) was investigated for pharmacological properties against egg white albumin - induced inflammation, Chemical as well as thermal- induced pain. The extract demonstrated a dose – dependent anti- inflammatory and antinociceptive activities. These activities ...

  18. Anti-nociceptive and anti-inflammatory properties of the ethanolic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Anti-nociceptive and anti-inflammatory properties of the ethanolic extract of Lagenaria breviflora whole fruit in rat and mice. ... Its effect was comparable especially at 200mg/kg body weight to those of diclofenac, indomethacin and ibuprofen. It could be suggested from the findings of this experiment that the extract may be ...

  19. COMPARISON OF ANTI-INFLAMMATORY ACTIVITY OF NIGELLA SATIVA AND DICLOFENAC SODIUM IN ALBINO RATS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bashir, Muhammad Usman; Qureshi, Hamid Javaid; Saleem, Tahira

    2015-01-01

    Nigella sativa or "Kalonji" is a naturally occurring plant in Pakistan and other countries which possesses a wide range of medicinal properties, the anti-inflammatory property being one of these. Diclofenac sodium is a commonly used anti-inflammatory drug. The purpose of this study was to compare the anti-inflammatory effect of ethanolic extract of Nigella sativa seeds with that of diclofenac sodium in albino rats. This laboratory randomized controlled trial (RCT) was conducted in the Physiology Department, Services Institute of Medical Sciences (SIMS), Lahore. The study was carried out on 90 male albino rats. Five percent formalin in a dose of 50 µl was injected into sub-plantar surface of right hind paw of each rat to produce inflammation. The rats were randomly divided into three groups of thirty each. Group A was given normal saline (control); group B was given Nigella sativa seed extract; and group C received diclofenac sodium, as a reference drug. Increase in paw diameter, and total and differential leukocyte counts were measured as markers of inflammation. Nigella sativa seeds extract caused significant (pdiclofenac sodium; however, the extract was comparatively less potent than diclofenac sodium. The extract had no significant effect (p>0.05) on the total or differential leukocyte counts. Our results suggest that ethanolic extract of Nigella sativa seeds possesses potent anti-inflammatory effect, in albino rats however, this effect is comparatively less but prolonged than that produced by diclofenac sodium.

  20. Anti-Inflammatory and Antiarthritic Activity of Anthraquinone Derivatives in Rodents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ajay D. Kshirsagar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Aloe emodin is isolated compound of aloe vera which is used traditionally as an anti-inflammatory agent. In vitro pharmacokinetic data suggest that glucuronosyl or sulfated forms of aloe emodin may provide some limitations in its absorption capacity. Aloe emodin was reported to have in vitro anti-inflammatory activity due to inhibition of inducible nitric oxide (iNO and prostaglandin E2, via its action on murine macrophages. However, present work evidenced that molecular docking of aloe emodin modulates the anti-inflammatory activity, as well as expression of COX-2 (cyclooxygenase-2 in rodent. The AEC (4,5-dihydroxy-9,10-dioxo-9,10-dihydroanthracene-2 carboxylic acid was synthesized using aloe emodin as starting material. The study was planned for evaluation of possible anti-inflammatory and antiarthritic activity in carrageenan rat induced paw oedema and complete Freund’s adjuvant induced arthritis in rats. The AE (aloe emodin and AEC significantly P<0.001 reduced carrageenan induced paw edema at 50 and 75 mg/kg. Complete Freund’s adjuvant induced arthritis model showed significant P<0.001 decrease in injected and noninjected paw volume, arthritic score. AE and AEC showed significant effect on various biochemical, antioxidant, and hematological parameters. Diclofenac sodium 10 mg/kg showed significant P<0.001 inhibition in inflammation and arthritis.

  1. Phytol: A chlorophyll component with anti-inflammatory and metabolic properties

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olofsson, Peter; Hultqvist, Malin; Hellgren, Lars I.

    2014-01-01

    The naturally occurring dipterpene molecule Phytol is an alcohol that can be extracted from the chlorophyll of green plants. Phytol has been studied for decades and has been suggested to have both metabolic properties as well as potent anti-inflammatory effects. Phytol represents a molecule deriv...

  2. In Vivo Anti-inflammatory and Antinociceptive Activities of Extracts of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    It was observed that the 80% methanol extracts of both plants could significantly lower carrageenan-induced paw oedema at doses of 200 mg/kg, p.o. Among the solvent fractions, the acetone, chloroform and methanol fractions of S. nilotica exhibited anti-inflammatory activity, the strongest being that of the acetone fraction.

  3. Ankle sprain: the effects of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Struijs, Peter A. A.; Kerkhoffs, Gino M. M. J.

    2015-01-01

    Injury of the lateral ligament complex of the ankle joint occurs in about one in 10,000 people per day, accounting for a quarter of all sports injuries. We conducted a systematic overview, aiming to answer the following clinical question: What are the effects of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs

  4. Antimicrobial activity of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) as the name implies are compounds of nonsteroidal origin, with the capability of inhibiting/reducing inflammatory response associated with tissue injury which could be as a result of physical trauma, noxious chemicals or microorganisms. There is however reason to ...

  5. Review of the safety of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are one of the most common classes of medication used worldwide, and as the ageing population increases, the prevalence of painful arthritic conditions parallels this, resulting in the increased use of NSAIDs. Selective and nonselective cyclo-oxygenase inhibitors should be ...

  6. The anti-inflammatory and analgesic properties of prosopis chilenses in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abodola, M A; Lutfi, M F; Bakhiet, A O; Mohamed, A H

    2015-07-01

    Prosopis chilensis is used locally in Sudan for inflammatory conditions of joints; however, literature lacks scientific evidence for anti-inflammatory effect of this plant. To evaluate anti-inflammatory and analgesic effects of prosopis chilenses. Edema inhibition percent (EI %) and hot plate method were used to evaluate anti-inflammatory and analgesic effects of Prosopis chilenses in Wistar albino rats. Anti-inflammatory and analgesic effects of Prosopis chilenses were compared to indomethacin and acetylsalicylic acid respectively. Ethanolic extract of prosopis chilensis at a dose of 200 and 100mg/kg body weight achieved peak EI% (EI% = 96.1%) and (EI% = 94.4%) three and four hours after oral dosing respectively. The maximum EI% for indomethacin was 97.0% and was recorded after 4 hours following oral administration of the drug at a dose of 5 mg/kg body weight. Prosopis chilensis extracts at doses of 100 and 200 mg/kg body weight significantly increased the rats' response time to hot plate compared to acetylsalicylic acid at a dose rate of 100mg/kg body weight (Pprosopis chilenses. Relevance of these effects to prosopis chilenses phy-to-constituents was discussed.

  7. Anti-Inflammatory Activity of Babassu Oil and Development of a Microemulsion System for Topical Delivery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reis, Mysrayn Y. F. A.; dos Santos, Simone M.; Silva, Danielle R.; Navarro, Daniela M. A. Ferraz; Santos, Geanne K. N.; Hallwass, Fernando; Bianchi, Otávio; Silva, Alexandre G.; Melo, Janaína V.; Machado, Giovanna; Saraiva, Karina L. A.

    2017-01-01

    Babassu oil extraction is the main income source in nut breakers communities in northeast of Brazil. Among these communities, babassu oil is used for cooking but also medically to treat skin wounds and inflammation, and vulvovaginitis. This study aimed to evaluate the anti-inflammatory activity of babassu oil and develop a microemulsion system with babassu oil for topical delivery. Topical anti-inflammatory activity was evaluated in mice ear edema using PMA, arachidonic acid, ethyl phenylpropiolate, phenol, and capsaicin as phlogistic agents. A microemulsion system was successfully developed using a Span® 80/Kolliphor® EL ratio of 6 : 4 as the surfactant system (S), propylene glycol and water (3 : 1) as the aqueous phase (A), and babassu oil as the oil phase (O), and analyzed through conductivity, SAXS, DSC, TEM, and rheological assays. Babassu oil and lauric acid showed anti-inflammatory activity in mice ear edema, through inhibition of eicosanoid pathway and bioactive amines. The developed formulation (39% A, 12.2% O, and 48.8% S) was classified as a bicontinuous to o/w transition microemulsion that showed a Newtonian profile. The topical anti-inflammatory activity of microemulsified babassu oil was markedly increased. A new delivery system of babassu microemulsion droplet clusters was designed to enhance the therapeutic efficacy of vegetable oil. PMID:29430254

  8. Chemical constituents and anti-inflammatory activities of Maqian (Zanthoxylum myriacanthum var. pubescens) bark extracts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Huan-li; Gan, Xiao-qing; Fan, Qing-fei; Yang, Jing-jing; Zhang, Ping; Hu, Hua-bin; Song, Qi-shi

    2017-01-01

    In this study, 44 compounds in the petroleum ether extract of Maqian (Zanthoxylum myriacanthum var. pubescens) bark, a traditional Dai herbal medicine, were identified by GC-MS. Major components included 3(2H)-benzofuranone, asarinin and (dimethoxymethyl)-3-methoxy-benzene. A total of 18 compounds were isolated from the ethyl acetate extracts of Maqian bark by column chromatography and identified by chemical and spectral analyses. Rhoifoline B, zanthoxyline dimethoxy derivative, N-nortidine, nitidine, decarine are the major alkaloids. Both the petroleum ether and ethyl acetate extracts showed significant inhibition on NO production, which imply anti-inflammatory activity, in lipopolysaccharide-induced RAW 264.7 cells without cell toxicity. Decarine is the major anti-inflammatory constituent with NO IC50 values of 48.43 μM on RAW264.7 cells. The petroleum ether extract, the ethyl acetate extract and decarine showed anti-inflammatory activities through inhibiting TNF-α and IL-1β production in lipopolysaccharide-stimulated THP-1 cells without cell toxicity too. Decarine showed anti-inflammatory activity on human colon cells by reducing IL-6 and IL-8 production in TNF-α+IL-1β-induced Caco-2 cells. These results support the use of Maqian bark as a remedy for enteritis and colitis recorded by Dai medicine in China, and elucidate the major pharmacological compounds in Maqian bark. PMID:28383530

  9. AP-1/IRF-3 Targeted Anti-Inflammatory Activity of Andrographolide Isolated from Andrographis paniculata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ting Shen

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Andrographolide (AG is an abundant component of plants of the genus Andrographis and has a number of beneficial properties including neuroprotective, anticancer, anti-inflammatory, and antidiabetic effects. Despite numerous pharmacological studies, the precise mechanism of AG is still ambiguous. Thus, in the present study, we investigated the molecular mechanisms of AG and its target proteins as they pertain to anti-inflammatory responses. AG suppressed the production of nitric oxide (NO and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2, as well as the mRNA abundance of inducible NO synthase (iNOS, tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α, cyclooxygenase (COX-2, and interferon-beta (IFN-β in a dose-dependent manner in both lipopolysaccharide- (LPS- activated RAW264.7 cells and peritoneal macrophages. AG also substantially ameliorated the symptoms of LPS-induced hepatitis and EtOH/HCl-induced gastritis in mice. Based on the results of luciferase reporter gene assays, kinase assays, and measurement of nuclear levels of transcription factors, the anti-inflammatory effects of AG were found to be clearly mediated by inhibition of both (1 extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK/activator protein (AP-1 and (2 IκB kinase ε (IKKε/interferon regulatory factor (IRF-3 pathways. In conclusion, we detected a novel molecular signaling pathway by which AG can suppress inflammatory responses. Thus, AG is a promising anti-inflammatory drug with two pharmacological targets.

  10. Transgenic Mice Overexpressing Vitamin D Receptor (VDR) Show Anti-Inflammatory Effects in Lung Tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishii, Masaki; Yamaguchi, Yasuhiro; Isumi, Kyoko; Ogawa, Sumito; Akishita, Masahiro

    2017-12-01

    Vitamin D insufficiency is increasingly recognized as a prevalent problem worldwide, especially in patients with a chronic lung disease. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a type of chronic inflammatory lung disease. Previous clinical studies have shown that COPD leads to low vitamin D levels, which further increase the severity of COPD. Vitamin D homeostasis represents one of the most important factors that potentially determine the severity of COPD. Nonetheless, the mechanisms underlying the anti-inflammatory effects of vitamin D receptor (VDR) in lung tissues are still unclear. To investigate the anti-inflammatory effects of VDR, we generated transgenic mice that show lung-specific VDR overexpression under the control of the surfactant protein C promoter (TG mice). The TG mice were used to study the expression patterns of proinflammatory cytokines using real-time polymerase chain reaction and immunohistochemistry. The TG mice had lower levels of T helper 1 (Th1)-related cytokines than wild-type (WT) mice did. No significant differences in the expression of Th2 cytokines were observed between TG and WT mice. This study is the first to achieve lung-specific overexpression of VDR in TG mice: an interesting animal model useful for studying the relation between airway cell inflammation and vitamin D signaling. VDR expression is an important factor that influences anti-inflammatory responses in lung tissues. Our results show the crucial role of VDR in anti-inflammatory effects in lungs; these data are potentially useful for the treatment or prevention of COPD.

  11. Do nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs decrease the risk for Alzheimer's disease?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, K; Launer, L J; Ott, A

    1995-01-01

    Based on reports that the use of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) may reduce the risk for Alzheimer's disease (AD), we studied the cross-sectional relation between NSAID use and the risk for AD in a population-based study of disease and disability in older people. After controlling...

  12. Analgesic and anti-inflammatory activity of root bark of Grewia asiatica Linn. in rodents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paviaya, Udaybhan Singh; Kumar, Parveen; Wanjari, Manish M; Thenmozhi, S; Balakrishnan, B R

    2013-01-01

    Grewia asiatica Linn. (Family: Tiliaceae), called Phalsa in Hindi is an Indian medicinal plant used for a variety of therapeutic and nutritional uses. The root bark of the plant is traditionally used in rheumatism (painful chronic inflammatory condition). The present study demonstrates the analgesic and anti-inflammatory activity of root bark of G. asiatica in rodents. The methanolic extract of Grewia asiatica (MEGA) and aqueous extract of Grewia asiatica (AEGA) of the bark were prepared and subjected to phytochemical tests and pharmacological screening for analgesic and anti-inflammatory effect in rodents. Analgesic effect was studied using acetic acid-induced writhing in mice and hot plate analgesia in rats while anti-inflammatory activity was investigated using carrageenan-induced paw oedema in rats. The MEGA or AEGA was administered orally in doses of 200 and 400 mg/kg/day of body weight. Data were analysed by one-way analysis of variance followed by Dunnett's test. The extracts showed a significant inhibition of writhing response and increase in hot plate reaction time and also caused a decrease in paw oedema. The effects were comparable with the standard drugs used. The present study indicates that root bark of G. asiatica exhibits peripheral and central analgesic effect and anti-inflammatory activity, which may be attributed to the various phytochemicals present in root bark of G. asiatica.

  13. Analgesic and anti-inflammatory activities of the n-butanol fraction of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    BF) using standard procedures. The median lethal dose (LD50) of the fraction was determined using Lorke's method and the analgesic effect was evaluated using acetic acid-induced writhing test in mice, while the anti-inflammatory activity was ...

  14. Theacrine, a purine alkaloid with anti-inflammatory and analgesic activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yuanyuan; Yang, Xiaorong; Zheng, Xinqiang; Li, Jing; Ye, Chuangxing; Song, Xiaohong

    2010-09-01

    The anti-inflammatory and analgesic effects of theacrine (1, 3, 7, 9-tetramethyluric acid), a purine alkaloid which is abundantly present in Camellia kucha, were investigated. Xylene-induced ear edema, acetic acid-induced vascular permeability and lambda-carrageenan-induced paw edema were used to investigate anti-inflammatory activity, and acetic acid-induced writhing and hot-plate tests were used to determine analgesic effect. Oral administration of theacrine (8-32 mg/kg) induced dose-related anti-inflammatory and analgesic effects. On the other hand, oral caffeine administration (8-32 mg/kg) did not show an inhibitory effect on the inhibition of inflammatory response or cause analgesia. Additionally, the result of the acute toxicity test showed that the LD(50) of theacrine was 810.6 mg/kg (769.5-858.0mg/kg). The data obtained suggest theacrine possessed analgesic and anti-inflammatory activities. Crown Copyright (c) 2010. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Smoking, caffeine, and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs in families with Parkinson disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hancock, Dana B; Martin, Eden R; Stajich, Jeffrey M; Jewett, Rita; Stacy, Mark A; Scott, Burton L; Vance, Jeffery M; Scott, William K

    2007-04-01

    To assess associations between Parkinson disease (PD) and putatively protective factors-smoking, caffeine (coffee, tea, and soft drinks), and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (aspirin, ibuprofen, and naproxen). Family-based case-control study. Academic medical center clinic. A total of 356 case subjects and 317 family controls who self-reported environmental exposures. Associations between PD and environmental measures (history, status, dosage, duration, and intensity) of smoking, coffee, caffeine, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, and non-aspirin nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs were examined using generalized estimating equations with an independent correlation matrix while controlling for age and sex. Individuals with PD were significantly less likely to report ever smoking (odds ratio = 0.56; 95% confidence interval, 0.41-0.78). Additional measures of smoking revealed significant inverse associations with PD (Pcoffee drinking was inversely associated with PD (test for trend P = .05). Increasing dosage (trend P = .009) and intensity (trend P = .01) of total caffeine consumption were also inversely associated, with high dosage presenting a significant inverse association for PD (odds ratio = 0.58; 95% confidence interval, 0.34-0.99). There were no significant associations between nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and PD. Inverse associations of smoking and caffeine were corroborated using families with PD, thus emphasizing smoking and caffeine as important covariates to consider in genetic studies of PD.

  16. In vitro anti-inflammatory and anticancer activities of extracts of Acalypha alopecuroidea (Euphorbiaceae)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Madlener, S.; Svačinová, Jana; Kitner, Miloslav; Kopecký, Jiří; Eytner, R.; Lackner, A.; Vo, T. P. N.; Frisch, R.; Grusch, M.; De Martin, R.; Doležal, Karel; Strnad, Miroslav; Krupitza, G.

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 35, č. 4 (2009), s. 881-891 ISSN 1019-6439 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50380511; CEZ:AV0Z50200510 Keywords : Acalypha alopecuroidea * cancer * anti-inflammatory activity Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 2.447, year: 2009

  17. Endogenous stress proteins as targets for anti-inflammatory T cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wieten, L.

    2009-01-01

    Stress proteins such as heat shock proteins (Hsp) are important controllers of both cellular and immune homeostasis. Enhanced Hsp expression can be observed in virtually every inflammatory condition and has been proposed by us and others to lead to local activation of Hsp-specific anti-inflammatory

  18. Systematic review of anti-inflammatory agents for the management of oral mucositis in cancer patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nicolatou-Galitis, Ourania; Sarri, Triantafyllia; Bowen, Joanne; Di Palma, Mario; Kouloulias, Vassilios E.; Niscola, Pasquale; Riesenbeck, Dorothea; Stokman, Monique; Tissing, Wim; Yeoh, Eric; Elad, Sharon; Lalla, Rajesh V.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose The aim of this project was to review the available literature and define clinical practice guidelines for the use of anti-inflammatory agents for the prevention and treatment of oral mucositis in cancer patients. Materials and methods A systematic review was conducted by the Mucositis Study

  19. Toxic effects of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory agents in rats ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The toxicosis of some non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, piroxicam, indomethacin, phenylbutazone, and aspirin, which occasionally are locally used in Nigeria as rodenticides have been evaluated in rats using changes in the serum biochemical and haematological parameters as indices of toxicity. In the study, no ...

  20. Effects of dietary anticarcinogens and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs on rat gastrointestinal UDP-glucuronosyltransferases.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Logt, E.M.J. van der; Roelofs, H.M.J.; Lieshout, E.M.M. van; Nagengast, F.M.; Peters, W.H.M.

    2004-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Dietary compounds or nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) may reduce cancer rates. Elevation of phase II detoxification enzymes might be one of the mechanisms leading to cancer prevention. We investigated the effects of dietary anticarcinogens and NSAIDs on rat gastrointestinal

  1. Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs for chronic low back pain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    W.T.M. Enthoven (Wendy); P.D.D.M. Roelofs (Pepijn); R.A. Deyo (Richard); M.W. van Tulder (Maurits); B.W. Koes (Bart)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractBackground: Chronic back pain is an important health problem. Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are widely used to treat people with low back pain, especially people with acute back pain. Short term NSAID use is also recommended for pain relief in people with chronic back

  2. The cholinergic anti-inflammatory pathway regulates the host response during septic peritonitis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Westerloo, David J.; Giebelen, Ilona A. J.; Florquin, Sandrine; Daalhuisen, Joost; Bruno, Marco J.; de Vos, Alex F.; Tracey, Kevin J.; van der Poll, Tom

    2005-01-01

    Background. The nervous system, through the vagus nerve, can down-regulate inflammation in vivo by decreasing the release of tumor necrosis factor-a by endotoxin-stimulated macrophages. This anti-inflammatory effect is mediated by an interaction between acetylcholine, the principal neurotransmitter

  3. The role of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs in colorectal cancer prevention

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Giardiello, F. M.; Offerhaus, G. J.; DuBois, R. N.

    1995-01-01

    Colorectal cancer is the second leading cause of cancer death in the U.S.A. Recent research suggests that nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are effective in the prevention of colorectal neoplasia. This review summarises the results of research in animals and humans of these compounds in

  4. Anti-inflammatory activities of eleven Centaurea species occurring in the Carpathian Basin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Csupor, Dezső; Widowitz, Ute; Blazsó, Gábor; Laczkó-Zöld, Eszter; Tatsimo, Joel S N; Balogh, Agnes; Boros, Klára; Dankó, Balázs; Bauer, Rudolf; Hohmann, Judit

    2013-04-01

    Our study aimed at the identification of anti-inflammatory activities of different fractions of C. sadleriana extract after per os administration in rats, the identification of the active compounds of the plant and the investigation of the in vitro anti-inflammatory activities of Centaurea species native to or cultivated in the Carpathian Basin. The aerial parts of Centaurea sadleriana Janka have been used in Hungarian folk medicine to treat the wounds of sheep. Methanol extract of C. sadleriana was fractioned by solvent-solvent partitioning. The n-hexane fraction was further fractionated and the anti-inflammatory activities of certain subfractions were confirmed in vivo in rats. The n-hexane and chloroform fraction of the methanol extract of C. sadleriana exhibited remarkable COX-1 and COX-2 inhibiting effects in vitro. Chromatographic separation of the fractions led to the identification of the active subfractions and 11 compounds (α-linolenic acid, γ-linolenic acid, stigmasterol, β-sitosterol, campesterol, vanillin, pectolinarigenin, salvigenin, hispidulin, chrysoeriol and apigenin). The in vitro screening for anti-inflammatory activities of further Centaurea species occurring in the Carpathian Basin (C. adjarica, C. bracteata, C. cataonica, C. cynaroides, C. dealbata, C. indurata, C. macrocephala, C. melitensis, C. nigrescens, C. ruthenica) revealed considerable COX-1 and COX-2 inhibitory activities. Because C. sadleriana is an endangered species native only to the Carpathian Basin, the investigation of more prevalent species is reasonable. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  5. Improved dissolution and anti-inflammatory effect of ibuprofen by solid dispersion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Liyuan; Dang, Qifeng; Liu, Chengsheng; Chen, Jun; Song, Lei; Chen, Xiguang

    2012-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to improve the dissolution rate and anti-inflammatory effect of ibuprofen by a solid dispersion (SD) method. Initial screening was developed based on drug solubility in carriers in the liquid state to select a suitable water-soluble carrier system for the preparation of SDs. The dissolution of ibuprofen in urea was higher than in PEG4000 or mannitol. Thus, urea was selected as the carrier for the preparation of SDs. SDs were characterized in terms of dissolution, differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. Solid dispersion-based (SDBT) and conventional (CT) tablets were prepared by the wet granulation method. The anti-inflammatory effect of SDBT was evaluated using the mouse ear edema test with xylene. In vitro release results indicated that the ibuprofen dissolution rate was improved by the SD. SD characterization results suggested that ibuprofen partly precipitates in crystalline and amorphous forms after SD preparation and that ibuprofen and urea do not interact. SDBT displayed more significant anti-inflammatory effects than CT. The dissolution rate and anti-inflammatory effect of ibuprofen were significantly enhanced by the ibuprofen-urea SD.

  6. Analgesic and Anti-Inflammatory Activities of Methanol Extract of Cissus repens in Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ching-Wen Chang

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate possible analgesic and anti-inflammatory mechanisms of the CRMeOH. Analgesic effect was evaluated in two models including acetic acid-induced writhing response and formalin-induced paw licking. The anti-inflammatory effect was evaluated by λ-carrageenan-induced mouse paw edema and histopathologic analyses. The results showed that CRMeOH (500 mg/kg decreased writhing response in the acetic acid assay and licking time in the formalin test. CRMeOH (100 and 500 mg/kg significantly decreased edema paw volume at 4th to 5th hours after λ-carrageenan had been injected. Histopathologically, CRMeOH abated the level of tissue destruction and swelling of the edema paws. These results were indicated that anti-inflammatory mechanism of CRMeOH may be due to declined levels of NO and MDA in the edema paw through increasing the activities of SOD, GPx, and GRd in the liver. Additionally, CRMeOH also decreased IL-1β, IL-6, NFκB, TNF-α, COX-2, and iNOS levels. The contents of two active ingredients, ursolic acid and lupeol, were quantitatively determined. This paper demonstrated possible mechanisms for the analgesic and anti-inflammatory effects of CRMeOH and provided evidence for the classical treatment of Cissus repens in inflammatory diseases.

  7. Tryptophan end-tagging for promoted lipopolysaccharide interactions and anti-inflammatory effects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Singh, Shalini; Datta, Aritreyee; Schmidtchen, Artur

    2017-01-01

    The objective of the present study is the investigation of possibilities for boosting peptide anti-inflammatory effects by tryptophan end-tagging, including identification of underlying mechanisms for this. In doing so, effects of tryptophan end-tagging of KYE21 (KYEITTIHNLFRKLTHRLFRR), a peptide...

  8. Evaluation of the anti-inflammatory activity of extract of Abrus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The anti-inflammatory activity of the extract of Abrus precatorius was investigated. Inflammatory response was induced by topical application of croton oil dissolved in suitable vehicle on the rat ear. After 6 hrs, cutting out the ear quantified the response. The cut ear was weighed and the increase in weight relative to controls ...

  9. A glycoprotein with anti-inflammatory properties secreted by an Aspergillus nidulans modified strain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. C. F. Queiroz

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Total RNA from lipopolysaccharide (LPS-stimulated rat macrophages used to treat protoplasts from an Aspergillus nidulans strain originated the RT2 regenerated strain, whose culture supernatant showed anti-inflammatory activity in Wistar rats. The protein fraction presenting such anti-inflammatory activity was purified and biochemically identified. The screening of the fraction responsible for such anti-inflammatory property was performed by evaluating the inhibition of carrageenan-induced paw edema in male Swiss mice. Biochemical analyses of the anti-inflammatory protein used chromatography, carbohydrates quantification of the protein sample, amino acids content analysis and sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE. Total sugar quantification revealed 32% glycosylation of the protein fraction. Amino acid analysis of such fraction showed a peculiar pattern presenting 29% valine. SDS-PAGE revealed that the protein sample is pure and its molecular weight is about 40kDa. Intravenous injection of the isolated substance into mice significantly inhibited carrageenan-induced paw edema. The isolated glycoprotein decreased carrageenan-induced paw edema in a prostaglandin-dependent phase, suggesting an inhibitory effect of the isolated glycoprotein on prostaglandin synthesis.

  10. Anti-nociceptive and anti-inflammatory properties of the leaf extracts ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Anti-nociceptive and anti-inflammatory properties of the leaf extracts of Hedranthera barteri in rats and mice. SA Onasanwo, RA Elegbe. Abstract. Hedranthera barteri, HB (Apocynaceae) is a shrub in the closed-forest in some parts of West Africa and used among the natives for inflammatory pain relief. This study was carried ...

  11. In vivo anti-nociceptive and anti-inflammatory activities of Lippia alba

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    Sagnik Haldar

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory activities of Lippia alba (Mill. N.E. Brown (Verbenaceae leaves. Methods: Soxhlet extraction method was used to obtain extracts using petroleum ether extracts (PELA; chloroform extracts (CELA; ethanol extracts (EELA and aqueous extract (AELA. Antinociceptive activity was assessed on rats by tail flick latency using tail immersion method and anti-inflammatory activity was estimated by carrageenan induced paw edema method. PELA, CELA and AELA at a dose of 500 mg /kg.b.wt. and EELA at a dose of 460 mg /kg.b.wt were administered orally. Result: Competing to control AELA was found to have a higher range of anti-nociceptive activity and showing maximum (79.66% response at 60 min, where as CELA and EELA were found to have a maximum range of anti-inflammatory activity and CELA exhibit maximum (19.5% response at 240 min. Conclusion: The results suggest that the extracts of Lippia alba possess ant-inociceptive and anti-inflammatory activities, and its help to authenticates the use of the plant in the traditional treatment of ailments associated with pain and inflammation.

  12. Anti-Nociceptive And Anti-Inflammatory Effects Of A Nigerian ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PHT anti-inflammatory effect was elucidated to be significantly (p<0.05) mediated via histaminergic, serotonergic, bradykinin and prostaglandin inhibition. PHT was also shown to be more protective than acetylsalicylic acid (ASA) in the castor oil- induced diarrhea model, which suggests the involvement of other mechanisms.

  13. Anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory effects of rice bran and green tea ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To investigate the anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidant properties of an enzyme bath of Oryza sativa (rice bran) and Camellia sinensis O. Kuntz (green tea) fermented with Bacillus subtilis (OCB). Methods: The anti-oxidant effects of OCB were assessed by 2,2-Diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) assay and flow ...

  14. Anti-inflammatory and antinociceptive activities of Solenostemon monostachyus aerial part extract in mice

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    Jude Fiom Okokon

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Solenostemon monostachyus is used in traditional medicine for the treatment of various ailments such as ulcer, hypertension, pains and inflammatory diseases. Evaluation of anti-inflammatory and analgesic activities of S. monostachyus aerial parts was carried out to ascertain its uses in traditional medicine. Materials and Methods: The aerial parts of S. monostachyus was cold extracted by soaking the dried powdered material in ethanol. The aerial parts crude extract (75 –225 mg/kg of  S. monostachyus was investigated for analgesic and anti-inflammatory activities using various experimental models; acetic acid, formalin and thermal- induced pains models for analgesic study and carrageenin, egg albumin and xylene – induced edema models for anti-inflammatory investigation. Results: The extract caused a significant (pConclusion: The anti-inflammatory and analgesic effects of this plant may in part be mediated through the chemical constituents of the plant and the results of the analgesic action suggest central and peripheral mechanisms. The findings of this work confirm the ethno medical use of this plant to treat inflammatory conditions.

  15. In vitro anti-inflammatory and free radical scavenging activities of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The antiinflammatory potential was carried out using inhibition of protein denaturation of egg albumin as a model of anti-inflammatory capacity. Results: Both the crude methanolic extract and saponins showed inhibition of DPPH, ABTS and NO2 scavenging activity. However, the free radical scavenging activity of isolated ...

  16. Analgesic and Anti-inflammatory Profile of n-Hexane Fraction of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To evaluate the analgesic and anti-inflammatory activities of n-hexane extract of the whole plant of Viola betonicifolia Sm, family: Violaceace. Methods: The n-hexane fraction of Viola betonicifolia (VBHF) was tested for its analgesic and antiinflammatory activities (carrageenan-induced and histamine-induced ...

  17. Anti-inflammatory and analgesic effects of Careya arborea stem bark ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The present study was carried out to evaluate the anti-inflammatory and analgesic activities of methanol extract of Careya arborea (MECA). The effects of MECA on the acute and chronic phases of inflammation were studied in carrageenan, dextran and mediators (histamine and serotonin) induced paw oedema and cotton ...

  18. Synthesis, Analgesic and Anti-inflammatory Activities of 3- Ethyl-2 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    4(3H)-ones and evaluate them for their analgesic and anti-inflammatory activities. Methods: The compounds, 3-ethyl-2-substituted amino-quinazolin-4(3H)-ones, were synthesized by reacting the amino group of 3-ethyl-2-hydrazino ...

  19. Analgesic and anti-inflammatory effects of kaviiron (a Garcinia kola ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Kolaviron is a defatted ethanol extract from the seeds of Garcinia Kola. In the present study, the analgesic and anti-inflammatory properties of Kolaviron is investigated using both thermal and chemical models of pain assessment in mice and rats. Varying doses of Kolaviron were given 30 minutes prior to the induction of ...

  20. Phytochemical Composition, Anti-inflammatory, and Antiproliferative Activity of Whole Wheat Flour

    Science.gov (United States)

    Five wheat cultivars (Macon, Louise, WestBred 936, Alpowa, and Blanca Grande) were evaluated for phenolics composition, carotenoid, and tocopherol composition, anti-inflammatory activity, and antiproliferative activity against HT-29 cells. Total ferulic acid ranged from 451.7-731.3 µg/g , with the ...

  1. In vitro anti-inflammatory and xanthine oxidase inhibitory activity of Tephrosia purpurea shoot extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nile, Shivraj H; Khobragade, Chandrahasy N

    2011-10-01

    The methanolic extract of Tephrosia purpurea (Leguminosae) shoots was evaluated in-vitro for its anti-inflammatory and xanthine oxidase inhibitory activity. Anti-inflammatory activity was measured by the Diene-conjugate, HET-CAM and beta-glucuronidase methods. The enzyme inhibitory activity was tested against isolated cow milk xanthine oxidase. The average anti-inflammatory activity of T. purpurea shoot extract in the concentration range of 1-2 microg/mL in the reacting system revealed significant anti-inflammatory activities, which, as recorded by the Diene-conjugate, HET-CAM and beta-glucuronidase assay methods, were 45.4, 10.5, and 70.5%, respectively. Screening of the xanthine oxidase inhibitory activity of the extract in terms of kinetic parameters revealed a mixed type of inhibition, wherein the Km and Vmax values in the presence of 25 to 100 microg/mL shoot extract was 0.20 mM/mL and 0.035, 0.026, 0.023 and 0.020 microg/min, while, for the positive control, the Km and Vmax values were 0.21 mM/mL and 0.043 microg/min, respectively. These findings suggest that T. purpurea shoot extract may possess constituents with good medicinal properties that could be exploited to treat the diseases associated with oxidative stress, xanthine oxidase enzyme activity and inflammation.

  2. Anti-inflammatory Effect of Sodium Valproate on Carrageenan-Induced Paw Edema in Male Rat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    mj Khoshnood

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available ABESTRACT: Introduction & objective: Inflammation is a body defensive response to the endogenous and exogenous stimulators such as chemical, radiation, trauma and invasive microorganism, which result pain and tissue necrosis. There are many natural and synthetic drugs for treatment of inflammation and lot of them are under investigation. Sodium valporate is an antiepileptic drug used particularly in the treatment of primary generalized seizure notably absence, myocolonic seizure, acute manic phase of bipolar disorder and prophylaxis of migraine. The previous observations showed sodium valporate increases level of gamma amino butyric acid (GABA in the central and peripheral nervous system. In acute inflammation, GABA showed a significant attenuation of paw edema and nociception. The aim of this study was evaluation of anti-inflammatory effect of sodium valporate. Materials & Methods: In order to evaluated the anti-inflammatory and antiexudative of sodium valporate doses of 200,400 and 600 mg/kg were investigated on rat paw edema that induced by carrageenan. In addition, the plasma leakage in the inflamed tissue was evaluated by application of trypan blue as intravenous injection. Dexamethason was used as positive control. Results: Results showed sodium valporate doses of 400 and 600 mg/kg decreased inflammatory and exudative effect as compared to control group. Conclusion: Although the anti-inflammatory mechanisms of this drug were not evident but we can say sodium valporate in addition to already proved effects has anti-inflammatory effect.

  3. Do anti-inflammatory drugs worsen odontogenic cervico-facial cellulitis?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicot, R; Hippy, C; Hochart, C; Wiss, A; Brygo, A; Gautier, S; Caron, J; Ferri, J; Raoul, G

    2014-11-01

    The aim of this prospective study was to determine the influence of anti-inflammatory drugs on the severity of odontogenic cellulitis in patients admitted to our hospital emergency unit. The study was made from April 30 to October 31 2006. The clinical and pharmacological data was prospectively collected at admission, during hospitalization, and during systematic follow-up. We first studied the whole population and then compared the 2 groups: patients having received anti-inflammatory drugs before admission or not. Two hundred and sixty-seven patients were included. The only severity criterion significantly different between the 2 groups was spreading of cervical lymphangitis (P=0.028). None of the 4 studied parameters was identified as a risk factor for spreading of cervical lymphangitis in multivariate analysis: anti-inflammatory use (OR=5.99, 95%CI [0.71-50.88]), alcohol abuse (OR=4.00, 95%CI [0.66-24.12]), dental hygiene (OR=1.53, 95%CI [0.36-6.56]), and tobacco use (OR=0.27, 95%CI [0.57-1.28]). The use of anti-inflammatory drugs during the initial phase of an odontogenic infection was not related to the severity of infection. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  4. Anti-inflammatory and analgesic activity of the methanol extract of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The anti-inflammatory activity of the stem extract of this plant was assessed using carrageenan-induced paw oedema and histamine-induced paw oedema. The analgesic effect was determined using the acetic acid writhing method as well as formalin test. The extract at 100 and 200 mgkg-1 body weight reduced significantly ...

  5. Anti-inflammatory Activity of Matricaria recutita L. against Acute and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    We investigated the effects of Matricaria recutita L. (MR) in acute and chronic inflammatory conditions. The anti-inflammatory activity of Matricaria recutita was studied against carrageenan induced hind paw, arachidonic acid, acetic acid and complete Freund's adjuvant (CFA)-induced arthritis in rats. The methanol extract of ...

  6. The anti-inflammatory potential of neuropeptide FF in vitro and in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Yu-Long; Zhang, Xiao-Yuan; Sun, Tao; He, Ning; Li, Jing-Yi; Zhuang, Yan; Zeng, Qian; Yu, Jing; Fang, Quan; Wang, Rui

    2013-09-01

    Neuropeptide FF (NPFF) has many functions in regulating various biological processes. However, little attention has been focused on the anti-inflammatory effect of this peptide. In the present study, the in vitro anti-inflammatory activity of NPFF in both primary peritoneal macrophages and RAW 264.7 macrophages was investigated. Our data showed that NPFF suppressed the nitric oxide (NO) production of macrophages in the inflammation process. RF9, a reported antagonist of NPFF receptors, completely blocked the NPFF-induced NO suppression, suggesting a NPFF receptors-mediated pathway is mainly involved. Down-regulation of the nitric oxide synthases significantly inhibited the NPFF-induced NO reduction, indicating the involvement of nitric oxide synthases. However, the nitric oxide synthases were not the only route by which NPFF modulated the NO levels of macrophages. Pharmacological antagonists of the NF-κB signal pathway also completely suppressed the NPFF-induced NO decline. Moreover, we also observed that NPFF is capable of blocking the LPS-induced nuclear translocation of p65 in macrophages, implying the involvement of the NF-κB signal pathway. Finally, we observed that NPFF markedly attenuated the carrageenan-induced mouse paw edema, indicating that NPFF is capable of exerting anti-inflammatory potency in vivo. Collectively, our findings reveal the potential role of NPFF in the anti-inflammatory field both in vitro and in vivo, which will be helpful for the further exploitation of NPFF utility therapeutically. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  7. Anti-Inflammatory and Antibothropic Properties of Jatropha Elliptica, a Plant from Brazilian Cerrado Biome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sára Costa Ferreira-Rodrigues

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The aim of this study was to evaluate the antibothropic and anti-inflammatory properties of J. elliptica. Methods: Phytochemical screening and thin-layer chromatography (TLC assays were performed on J. elliptica hydroalcoholic extract (TE in order to observe its main constituents. The antibothropic activity of TE was evaluated by the in vitro neuromuscular blockade caused by Bothrops jararacussu venom (Bjssu, in a mouse phrenic nerve-diaphragm model (PND. A quantitative histological study was carried out to observe a possible protection of TE against the venom myotoxicity. The anti-inflammatory activity was also evaluated in two models, Bjssu-induced paw edema, and carrageenan-induced neutrophils migration in the peritoneal cavity. Results: TLC analysis revealed several compounds in TE, such as saponins, alkaloids, and phenolic constituents. TE was able to neutralize the blockade and the myotoxicity induced by venom, when it was pre-incubated for 30 min with venom. In addition, it showed anti-inflammatory activity, inducing less neutrophils migration and reducing paw edema. Conclusion: J. elliptica showed both antibothropic and anti-inflammatory properties.

  8. General unknown screening, antioxidant and anti-inflammatory potential of Dendrobium macrostachyum Lindl.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nimisha Pulikkal Sukumaran

    2016-01-01

    Conclusions: The results showed a relatively high concentration of phenolics, high scavenger activity and high anti-inflammatory activity of the stem extract compared to the leaf extract. The results indicate that the plant can be a potential source of bioactive compounds.

  9. Helicobacter pylori and risk of ulcer bleeding among users of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aalykke, C; Lauritsen, Jens; Hallas, J

    1999-01-01

    Peptic ulcer complications related to use of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are among the most common serious adverse drug reactions. Whether Helicobacter pylori infection potentiates this gastrointestinal toxicity of NSAIDs is still unresolved. In this study, we investigated...... the role of H. pylori as a cause of bleeding peptic ulcer among NSAID users....

  10. [The possible suppression of Alzheimer's disease by nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jong, D. de; Jansen, R.W.M.M.; Verbeek, M.M.; Kremer, H.P.H.

    2002-01-01

    Ever since inflammatory mediators were detected in and around amyloid plaques in the brain of patients with Alzheimer's disease, there has been great interest in the inflammatory hypothesis and the possibility of treating Alzheimer's disease with anti-inflammatory drugs. Various epidemiological

  11. Osteoarthritis guidelines: a progressive role for topical nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanos SP

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Steven P Stanos Rehabilitation Institute of Chicago, Center for Pain Management, Chicago, IL, USA Abstract: Current treatment guidelines for the treatment of chronic pain associated with osteoarthritis reflect the collective clinical knowledge of international experts in weighing the benefits of pharmacologic therapy options while striving to minimize the negative effects associated with them. Consideration of disease progression, pattern of flares, level of functional impairment or disability, response to treatment, coexisting conditions such as cardiovascular disease or gastrointestinal disorders, and concomitant prescription medication use should be considered when creating a therapeutic plan for a patient with osteoarthritis. Although topical nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs historically have not been prevalent in many of the guidelines for osteoarthritis treatment, recent evidence-based medicine and new guidelines now support their use as a viable option for the clinician seeking alternatives to typical oral formulations. This article provides a qualitative review of these treatment guidelines and the emerging role of topical nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs as a therapy option for patients with localized symptoms of osteoarthritis who may be at risk for oral nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug-related serious adverse events. Keywords: osteoarthritis, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, guidelines, topical analgesics, diclofenac

  12. PBOSPECTS FOR CLINICAL APPLICATION OF THE CURRENT ANTI-INFLAMMATORY DRUG MELOXICAM (AMELOTEX

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M S Eliseev

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents data on the effectiveness, safety, tolerance, major mechanisms of action, and prospects for clinically using meloxicam, a current selective nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug, against cyclooxygenase-2. It describes the advantages of meloxicam for injections, which begins acting promptly and shows an adequate long analgesic effect.

  13. The Pattern of Sale and Use of Non-Steroidal Anti-Inflammatory ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: The widespread use of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAID) has meant that the adverse effects of these relatively safe drugs have become increasingly prevalent. This work examines the pattern of sale and use of NSAIDs as to call for caution in cases of misuse that may lead to renal, gastrointestinal and ...

  14. Analgesic and Anti-Inflammatory Activities of Resveratrol through Classic Models in Mice and Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guangxi Wang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Inflammation and pain are closely related to humans’ and animals’ health. Resveratrol (RSV is a natural compound with various biological activities. The current study is aimed to evaluate the analgesic and anti-inflammatory activities of RSV in vivo. Materials and Methods. The analgesic effects were assessed by the acetic acid-induced writhing and hot plate tests. The anti-inflammatory effects were determined using the xylene-induced mouse ear oedema, the acetic acid-induced rat pleurisy, and carrageenan-induced rat synovitis tests, respectively. Results. The analgesic results showed that RSV could significantly inhibit the number of writhes and improve the time and pain threshold of mice standing on hot plate. The anti-inflammatory results showed that RSV could inhibit the ear oedema of mice. In acetic acid-induced pleurisy test, RSV could significantly inhibit the WBC and pleurisy exudates, could decrease the production of NO, and elevate the activity of SOD in serum. In carrageenan-induced synovitis test, RSV could reduce the content of MDA and elevate the T-SOD activity in serum; RSV could inhibit the expressions of TP, PGE2, NO, and MDA. Conclusion. Shortly, these results indicated that RSV had potent analgesic and anti-inflammatory activities and could be a potential new drug candidate for the treatment of inflammation and pain.

  15. Anti-Inflammatory and Immunomodulatory Mechanism of Tanshinone IIA for Atherosclerosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhuo Chen

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Tanshinone IIA (Tan II A is widely used in the treatment of cardiovascular diseases as an active component of Salvia miltiorrhiza Bunge. It has been demonstrated to have pleiotropic effects for atherosclerosis. From the anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory mechanism perspective, this paper reviewed major progresses of Tan IIA in antiatherosclerosis research, including immune cells, antigens, cytokines, and cell signaling pathways.

  16. Anti-inflammatory Effects of apo-9′-Fucoxanthinone from the Brown Alga, Sargassum Muticum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eun-Jin Yang

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Background:The marine environment is a unique source of bioactive natural products, of which Sargassum muticum (Yendo Fensholt is an important brown algae distributed in Jeju Island, Korea. S. muticum is a traditional Korean food stuff and has pharmacological functions including anti-inflammatory effects. However, the active ingredients from S. muticum have not been characterized.Methods:Bioguided fractionation of the ethanolic extract of S. muticum, collected from Jeju island, led to the isolation of a norisoprenoid. Its structure was determined by analysis of the spectroscopic data. In vitro anti-inflammatory activity and mechanisms of action of this compound were examined using lipopolysaccharide (LPS-stimulated RAW 264.7 cells through ELISA assays and Western blot analysis.Results:Apo-9′-fucoxanthinone, belonging to the norisoprenoid family were identified. Apo-9′-fucoxanthinone effectively suppressed LPS-induced nitric oxide (NO and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2 production. This compound also exerted their anti-inflammatory actions by down-regulating of NF-κB activation via suppression of IκB-α in macrophages.Conclusions:This is the first report describing effective anti-inflammatory activity for apo-9’-fucoxanthinone′-fucoxanthnone isolated from S. muticum. Apo-9′-fucoxanthinone may be a good candidate for delaying the progression of human inflammatory diseases and warrants further studies.

  17. Mechanical Activation of Adipose Tissue and Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells: Novel Anti-Inflammatory Properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carelli, Stephana; Colli, Mattia; Vinci, Valeriano; Caviggioli, Fabio; Klinger, Marco; Gorio, Alfredo

    2018-01-16

    The adipose tissue is a source of inflammatory proteins, such as TNF, IL-6, and CXCL8. Most of their production occurs in macrophages that act as scavengers of dying adipocytes. The application of an orbital mechanical force for 6-10 min at 97 g to the adipose tissue, lipoaspirated and treated according to Coleman procedures, abolishes the expression of TNF-α and stimulates the expression of the anti-inflammatory protein TNF-stimulated gene-6 (TSG-6). This protein had protective and anti-inflammatory effects when applied to animal models of rheumatic diseases. We examined biopsy, lipoaspirate, and mechanically activated fat and observed that in addition to the increased TSG-6, Sox2, Nanog, and Oct4 were also strongly augmented by mechanical activation, suggesting an effect on stromal cell stemness. Human adipose tissue-derived mesenchymal stem cells (hADSCs), produced from activated fat, grow and differentiate normally with proper cell surface markers and chromosomal integrity, but their anti-inflammatory action is far superior compared to those mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) obtained from lipoaspirate. The expression and release of inflammatory cytokines from THP-1 cells was totally abolished in mechanically activated adipose tissue-derived hADSCs. In conclusion, we report that the orbital shaking of adipose tissue enhances its anti-inflammatory properties, and derived MSCs maintain such enhanced activity.

  18. Assessment of Anti- Inflammatory effect of sea urchin Echinometra mathaei From the Persian Gulf

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Solmaz Soleimani

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: sea urchins belonging to phylum echinoderms of marine invertebrates them found to possess excellent. Inflammation can be considered a set of complex processes that many body systems including the immune and nervous system are involved. The aim of the present research was undertaken to study the anti- inflammatory activity of different extracts, coelomic fluid and pigments shells and spines of sea urchin of Echinodermata mathaei. Material and method: Isolation of different tissues extracts (spine, shell, gonad and aristotol lantern sea urchin by three solvents (n- hexan, ethyl acetate, methanol. Isolation coelomic fluid by buffered mode and pigments shell and spine by HCl of sea urchin evaluation antioxidant (DPPH radical scavenging and anti- inflammatory activity investigated through inhibition albumin serum denaturation. Resuts: According to the results of the study, the spine- methanoli and coelomic fluid (CF had the highest activity in the DPPH radical scavenging and aristotol lantern- ethyl acetate and pigment shell highest activity in the anti- inflammatory methods. Significant differences were observed at P<0.05. Conclusion: The result of this research indicated that sea urchin of E.mathaei due to the high antioxidant activity, have anti- inflammatory activities too.

  19. Evaluation of the Antioxidant, Anti-Inflammatory, and Anticancer Activities of Euphorbia hirta Ethanolic Extract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neelesh Sharma

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluated the chemical composition, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and anticancer activities of a Euphorbia hirta L. extract. The antioxidant activities of whole E. hirta ethanol extract were determined by electron spin resonance spectrophotometric analysis of 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl-hydrazyl (DPPH, hydroxyl, and alkyl radical levels and by using an online high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC-2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid assay. The E. hirta ethanol extract (0.5 mg/mL exhibited DPPH-scavenging activity of 61.19% ± 0.22%, while the positive control (0.5 mg/mL ascorbic acid had 100% ± 0.22% activity. The concentration of the extract required to trap 50% of DPPH (IC50 was 0.205 mg/mL. Online HPLC analysis of the extract also showed strong antioxidant activity. The anti-inflammatory activity of the E. hirta extract was assessed in lipopolysaccharide-induced RAW 264.7 macrophages. The anti-inflammatory activity was highest in the presence of 200 µg/mL E. hirta extract, and nitric oxide production was decreased significantly (p < 0.05. The extract also showed selective anticancer activity at a concentration of 100 µg/mL (p < 0.05. These results indicated that E. hirta may warrant further investigation for the development of antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and anticancer herbal medications.

  20. Evaluation of the antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and anticancer activities of Euphorbia hirta ethanolic extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Neelesh; Samarakoon, Kalpa W; Gyawali, Rajendra; Park, Yang-Ho; Lee, Sung-Jin; Oh, Sung Jong; Lee, Tae-Hoon; Jeong, Dong Kee

    2014-09-15

    This study evaluated the chemical composition, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and anticancer activities of a Euphorbia hirta L. extract. The antioxidant activities of whole E. hirta ethanol extract were determined by electron spin resonance spectrophotometric analysis of 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl-hydrazyl (DPPH), hydroxyl, and alkyl radical levels and by using an online high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC)-2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) assay. The E. hirta ethanol extract (0.5 mg/mL) exhibited DPPH-scavenging activity of 61.19% ± 0.22%, while the positive control (0.5 mg/mL ascorbic acid) had 100% ± 0.22% activity. The concentration of the extract required to trap 50% of DPPH (IC50) was 0.205 mg/mL. Online HPLC analysis of the extract also showed strong antioxidant activity. The anti-inflammatory activity of the E. hirta extract was assessed in lipopolysaccharide-induced RAW 264.7 macrophages. The anti-inflammatory activity was highest in the presence of 200 µg/mL E. hirta extract, and nitric oxide production was decreased significantly (p hirta may warrant further investigation for the development of antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and anticancer herbal medications.

  1. Analgesic, Anti-Inflammatory and Anticancer Activities of Extra Virgin Olive Oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Myriam Fezai

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. In folk medicine, extra virgin olive oil (EVOO is used as a remedy for a variety of diseases. This study investigates the in vivo antinociceptive, anti-inflammatory, and anti-cancer effects of EVOO on mice and rats. Materials and Methods. In this experimental study, using the acetic acid-induced writhing and formalin tests in mice, the analgesic effect of EVOO was evaluated. Acetylsalicylic acid and morphine were used as standard drugs, respectively. The anti-inflammatory activity was investigated by means of the carrageenan-induced paw edema model in rats using acetylsalicylic acid and dexamethasone as standard drugs. Last, the xenograft model in athymic mice was used to evaluate the anticancer effect in vivo. Results. EVOO significantly decreased acetic acid-induced abdominal writhes and reduces acute and inflammatory pain in the two phases of the formalin test. It has also a better effect than Dexamethasone in the anti-inflammatory test. Finally, the intraperitoneal administration of EVOO affects the growth of HCT 116 tumours xenografted in athymic mice. Conclusion. EVOO has a significant analgesic, anti-inflammatory, and anticancer properties. However, further detailed studies are required to determine the active component responsible for these effects and mechanism pathway.

  2. Anti-inflammatory effects of nicotine in obesity and ulcerative colitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kirchgessner Annette

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Cigarette smoke is a major risk factor for a number of diseases including lung cancer and respiratory infections. Paradoxically, it also contains nicotine, an anti-inflammatory alkaloid. There is increasing evidence that smokers have a lower incidence of some inflammatory diseases, including ulcerative colitis, and the protective effect involves the activation of a cholinergic anti-inflammatory pathway that requires the α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (α7nAChR on immune cells. Obesity is characterized by chronic low-grade inflammation, which contributes to insulin resistance. Nicotine significantly improves glucose homeostasis and insulin sensitivity in genetically obese and diet-induced obese mice, which is associated with suppressed adipose tissue inflammation. Inflammation that results in disruption of the epithelial barrier is a hallmark of inflammatory bowel disease, and nicotine is protective in ulcerative colitis. This article summarizes current evidence for the anti-inflammatory effects of nicotine in obesity and ulcerative colitis. Selective agonists for the α7nAChR could represent a promising pharmacological strategy for the treatment of inflammation in obesity and ulcerative colitis. Nevertheless, we should keep in mind that the anti-inflammatory effects of nicotine could be mediated via the expression of several nAChRs on a particular target cell.

  3. Topical anti-inflammatory activity of quillaic acid from Quillaja saponaria Mol. and some derivatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Díaz, Maité; Delporte, Carla; Cartagena, Carlos; Cassels, Bruce K; González, Patricia; Silva, Ximena; León, Fredy; Wessjohann, Ludger A

    2011-05-01

    Quillaic acid is the major aglycone of the widely studied saponins of the Chilean indigenous tree Quillaja saponaria Mol. The industrial availability of quillaja saponins and the extensive functionalization of this triterpenoid provide unique opportunities for structural modification and pose a challenge from the standpoint of selectivity in regard to one or the other secondary alcohol group, the aldehyde, and the carboxylic acid functions. The anti-inflammatory activity of this sapogenin has not been studied previously and it has never been used to obtain potential anti-inflammatory derivatives. A series of quillaic acid derivatives were prepared and subjected to topical assays for the inhibition of inflammation induced by arachidonic acid or phorbol ester. Quillaic acid exhibited strong topical anti-inflammatory activity in both models. Most of its derivatives were less potent, but the hydrazone 8 showed similar potency to quillaic acid in the TPA assay. The structural modifications performed and the biological results suggest that the aldehyde and carboxyl groups are relevant to the anti-inflammatory activity in these models. © 2011 The Authors. JPP © 2011 Royal Pharmaceutical Society.

  4. Itaconate is an anti-inflammatory metabolite that activates Nrf2 via alkylation of KEAP1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mills, Evanna L; Ryan, Dylan G; Prag, Hiran A; Dikovskaya, Dina; Menon, Deepthi; Zaslona, Zbigniew; Jedrychowski, Mark P; Costa, Ana S H; Higgins, Maureen; Hams, Emily; Szpyt, John; Runtsch, Marah C; King, Martin S; McGouran, Joanna F; Fischer, Roman; Kessler, Benedikt M; McGettrick, Anne F; Hughes, Mark M; Carroll, Richard G; Booty, Lee M; Knatko, Elena V; Meakin, Paul J; Ashford, Michael L J; Modis, Louise K; Brunori, Gino; Sévin, Daniel C; Fallon, Padraic G; Caldwell, Stuart T; Kunji, Edmund R S; Chouchani, Edward T; Frezza, Christian; Dinkova-Kostova, Albena T; Hartley, Richard C; Murphy, Michael P; O'Neill, Luke A

    2018-03-28

    The endogenous metabolite itaconate has recently emerged as a regulator of macrophage function, but its precise mechanism of action remains poorly understood. Here we show that itaconate is required for the activation of the anti-inflammatory transcription factor Nrf2 (also known as NFE2L2) by lipopolysaccharide in mouse and human macrophages. We find that itaconate directly modifies proteins via alkylation of cysteine residues. Itaconate alkylates cysteine residues 151, 257, 288, 273 and 297 on the protein KEAP1, enabling Nrf2 to increase the expression of downstream genes with anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory capacities. The activation of Nrf2 is required for the anti-inflammatory action of itaconate. We describe the use of a new cell-permeable itaconate derivative, 4-octyl itaconate, which is protective against lipopolysaccharide-induced lethality in vivo and decreases cytokine production. We show that type I interferons boost the expression of Irg1 (also known as Acod1) and itaconate production. Furthermore, we find that itaconate production limits the type I interferon response, indicating a negative feedback loop that involves interferons and itaconate. Our findings demonstrate that itaconate is a crucial anti-inflammatory metabolite that acts via Nrf2 to limit inflammation and modulate type I interferons.

  5. Anti-allergic, anti-pruritic, and anti-inflammatory activities of Centella ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study investigated antipruritic and anti-inflammatory effect of Centella asiatica extract in rats and anti-allergic in vitro using sheep (Capra hircus) serum method and compound 48/80 induced mast cell degranulation method, compared with standard drug ketotifen fumarate. In rats, extract of Centella asiatica administered ...

  6. In vivo and in vitro immunomodulatory and anti-inflammatory effects ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... in LPS-stimulated RAW 264.7 macrophages in a dose-dependent manner without exerting cytotoxicity. Conclusion: These results of this study indicate that TFA have potential immunostimulatory and anti-inflammatory effects. Key words: Total flavonoids of Astragalus (TFA), Immunomodulation, Anti-inflammation, In vivo, ...

  7. Topical anti-inflammatory activity of Salvia officinalis L. leaves: the relevance of ursolic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baricevic, D; Sosa, S; Della Loggia, R; Tubaro, A; Simonovska, B; Krasna, A; Zupancic, A

    2001-05-01

    Salvia officinalis L. leaves, obtained from four plant populations of different origin, were investigated for their topical anti-inflammatory properties. The n-hexane and the chloroform extracts dose-dependently inhibited the Croton oil-induced ear oedema in mice, the chloroform extracts being the most active. By contrast, the methanol extracts showed a very low effect and the essential oil was inactive. Chemical and pharmacological investigation of the most potent chloroform extract, issued from an autochthonous sage population grown in the submediterranean climatic region of Slovenia, revealed ursolic acid as the main component involved in its anti-inflammatory activity. The anti-inflammatory effect of ursolic acid (ID50 = 0.14 microMoles/cm2) was two fold more potent than that of indomethacin (ID50 = 0.26 microMoles/cm2), which was used as a reference non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID). The content of ursolic acid in sage and sage-based remedies for the topical treatment of inflammatory diseases is proposed as a parameter for quality control purposes.

  8. Evaluation of the anti-inflammatory properties of the hexane extract ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Maj Obaseki

    2016-08-26

    Aug 26, 2016 ... (malondialdehyde) concentration during carrageenan- induced acute inflammation. The study thus suggested that phytol attenuates the inflammatory response by inhibiting neutrophil migration which is partly done by the reduction in IL-1β and TNF-α levels. The anti- inflammatory mechanism of falcarinol is ...

  9. Anti-inflammatory, anti-hyperalgesic, antiplatelet and antiulcer activities of Byrsonima japurensis A. Juss. (Malpighiaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guilhon-Simplicio, Fernanda; Pinheiro, Carlos Cleomir de Souza; Conrado, Gabrielly Galdino; Barbosa, Gleyce Dos Santos; Santos, Pierre Alexandre Dos; Pereira, Maria de Meneses; Lima, Emerson Silva

    2012-03-27

    Decoctions or infusions of the stem bark of Byrsonima japurensis A. Juss. (Malpighiaceae) are widely used as an anti-inflammatory drug in folk medicine of Amazonas State (Brazil). To evaluate the pharmacological potential of an aqueous extract of the stem bark of Byrsonima japurensis (BJEA) to scientifically verify of its traditional use. Anti-inflammatory, antihyperalgesic and antiulcer activities were evaluated in Wistar rats, a Hippocratic screening was performed in Swiss mice to evaluate the toxic effects, and antiplatelet evaluation was performed in human platelet rich plasma assay. Additionally, antioxidant activity was evaluated by superoxide radical scavenging method and β-carotene bleaching test. Anti-inflammatory, antihyperalgesic and gastroprotective activities were observed in rats treated orally with different doses of BJEA. While signals of toxicity were observed in the mice treated with a very high dose of extract (5000mg/kg), no death occurred. BJEA also showed expressive antiplatelet and antioxidant activities in vitro. According to our results, it was concluded that stem bark of Byrsonima japurensis has significant and safe anti-inflammatory activity, which is closely related with their potent antioxidant activity, supporting the folk medicinal use of this species. Crown Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Anti-inflammatory and analgesic activities of the aqueous extract of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Carrageenan and histamine-induced rat paw oedema were conducted to evaluate anti-inflammatory activity, while acetic acid-induced writhing test was conducted to assess the analgesic activity of the plant. The extract was administered intraperitoneally (i.p) to rats at graded doses of 50, 100, 200 mg/kg body weight (BWt).

  11. Neutrophilia and an Anti-Inflammatory Drug as Markers of Inflammation in Delayed Muscle Soreness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Lucille L.; And Others

    This study reexamined the concept that delayed muscle soreness (DMS) is a form of inflammatory pain. This was accomplished by having 32 male volunteers perform exercise known to induce DMS and then assess the total and differential white blood cell changes. In addition, an anti-inflammatory drug, idomethacin, was administered to determine whether…

  12. Synthesis and anti-inflammatory activity of e-3-Arylidene flavanones ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A set of six E-3Arylidene flavanones were synthesized by simple base catalysed condensation of appropriate aryl aldehydes and 2'4'-dihydroxy acetophenone. Screening of the anti-inflammatory activity was by carageenan induced paw edema method.Only four of the synthesized flavanones were found to exhibit ...

  13. Pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines in post-infarction left ventricular remodeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zarrouk-Mahjoub, S; Zaghdoudi, M; Amira, Z; Chebi, H; Khabouchi, N; Finsterer, J; Mechmeche, R; Ghazouani, E

    2016-10-15

    Acute myocardial infarction (MI) leads to molecular, structural, geometric and functional changes in the heart during a process known as ventricular remodeling. Myocardial infarction is followed by an inflammatory response in which pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines play a crucial role, particularly in left ventricular remodeling. This study aimed at evaluating serum concentrations of interleukin-8 (IL8), tumor-necrosis-factor-alpha (TNFα) and interleukin-10 (IL10), pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines, and at correlating them with left ventricular remodeling as assessed by echocardiographic parameters. In a case-control study 30 MI patients were compared with 30 healthy controls. Serum concentrations of IL8, TNFα and IL10 were measured on day 2 and day 30 post-MI by chemiluminescence immunoassay and correlated with echocardiographic parameters. There was an increase of IL8, and TNFα together with a decrease of IL10 at both time points. IL8 was negatively correlated with the left ventricular end-diastolic diameter (LVEDD) and positively with left ventricular systolic volume. IL10 was negatively correlated with LVEDD and left atrial volume 30days post-MI. The increase of pro-inflammatory cytokines TNFα and IL8 was accompanied by decreased anti-inflammatory IL10. This imbalance between pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines might contribute to the progression of left ventricular remodeling and may lead to heart failure. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Antioxidant and intestinal anti-inflammatory effects of plant-derived coumarin derivatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witaicenis, Aline; Seito, Leonardo Noboru; da Silveira Chagas, Alexandre; de Almeida, Luiz Domingues; Luchini, Ana Carolina; Rodrigues-Orsi, Patrícia; Cestari, Silvia Helena; Di Stasi, Luiz Claudio

    2014-02-15

    Coumarins, also known as benzopyrones, are plant-derived products with several pharmacological properties, including antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities. Based on the wide distribution of coumarin derivatives in plant-based foods and beverages in the human diet, our objective was to evaluate both the antioxidant and intestinal anti-inflammatory activities of six coumarin derivatives of plant origin (scopoletin, scoparone, fraxetin, 4-methyl-umbeliferone, esculin and daphnetin) to verify if potential intestinal anti-inflammatory activity was related to antioxidant properties. Intestinal inflammation was induced by intracolonic instillation of TNBS in rats. The animals were treated with coumarins by oral route. The animals were killed 48 h after colitis induction. The colonic segments were obtained after laparotomy and macroscopic and biochemical parameters (determination of glutathione level and myeloperoxidase and alkaline phosphatase activities) were evaluated. The antioxidant properties of these coumarins were examined by lipid peroxidation and DPPH assays. Treatment with esculin, scoparone and daphnetin produced the best protective effects. All coumarin derivatives showed antioxidant activity in the DPPH assay, while daphnetin and fraxetin also showed antioxidant activity by inhibiting lipid peroxidation. Coumarins, except 4-methyl-umbeliferone, also showed antioxidant activity through the counteraction of glutathione levels or through the inhibition of myeloperoxidase activity. The intestinal anti-inflammatory activity of coumarin derivatives were related to their antioxidant properties, suggesting that consumption of coumarins and/or foods rich in coumarin derivatives, particularly daphnetin, esculin and scoparone, could prevent intestinal inflammatory disease. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  15. The anti-inflammatory and anti-nociceptive activities of Patrinia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study explores the anti-inflammatory and anti-nociceptive activities of Patrinia villosa, a Chinese medicinal plant, and to explore its effects on the proinflammatory cytokines of the rats with pelvic inflammation model. The animals were randomly divided into Patrinia villosa group (PV group), dexamethasone group (DEX ...

  16. Anti-inflammatory effect of Allium hookeri on carrageenan-induced air pouch mouse model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jung-Eun; Park, Kyung-Mok; Lee, Soon-Young; Seo, Ji-Hye; Yoon, In-Soo; Bae, Chun-Sik; Yoo, Jin-Cheol; Bang, Mi-Ae; Cho, Seung-Sik; Park, Dae-Hun

    2017-01-01

    Inflammation is a commonly observed immune reaction, and rheumatoid arthritis is a particularly severe inflammatory disease. In this study, we used an air pouch mouse model to evaluate the anti-inflammatory potential of Allium hookeri, which has both been used as a culinary material and a traditional medicine in south-eastern Asia for many years. Allium hookeri suppressed typical symptoms of inflammation, such as condensation of the air pouch membrane, and inhibited the expression of several inducible proinflammatory cytokines such as IL-1β, IL-6, IL-13, and TNF-α. In order to determine the molecules modulating the inflammatory effect of carrageenan treatment, the components in Allium hookeri were analyzed by GC-MS, and linoleic acid, which have anti-inflammatory effect, was detected. From the results, we concluded that the anti-inflammatory effect of Allium hookeri might be attributed to linoleic acid, which could be promising candidates for anti-inflammatory drugs that have no adverse effects.

  17. Use of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and nutritional ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background. The use of medications by football players in many populations is known to be high. Data on African players are scarce. Objective. To determine the magnitude of use of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) and nutritional supplements by Zimbabwean football players. Methods. We conducted a ...

  18. A possible anti-inflammatory mechanism of ethyl acetate extracts of Teucrium stocksianum Bioss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukarram Shah, Syed Muhammad

    2015-08-29

    Teucrium stocksianum (T. stocksianum) is one of the important members of the genus Teucrium which contains numerous biologically active compounds. Traditionally, it is used for the treatment of fever, pain, as expectorant and blood purifier. Researchers are trying to discover plants origin, novel and safe remedies for the management of various ailments. The present study was aimed to determine the possible anti-inflammatory mechanism of ethyl acetate extract of T. stocksianum. Preliminary, the ethanolic extract and sub-fractions were screened for anti-inflammatory potential at doses of 100, 200 and 300 mg/kg (i.p) body weight, using carrageenan induced paw edema test in mice. In-order to determine the possible mechanism of anti-inflammatory effect, the ethyl acetate fraction was ascertained with different phlogistic agents like histamine, bradykinin, prostaglandins E2 and arachedonic acid via paw edema test in mice. The ethanolic extract and sub-fractions of T. stocksianum displayed marked to moderate anti-inflammatory activity in a carrageenan induced paw edema test in mice. Among the sub-fractions, ethyl acetate fraction (EAF) demonstrated excellent (66%) anti-inflammatory action at the highest tested dose (300 mg/kg) that reached to the maximum value at 3rd hour after carrageenan injection and remained significant (***P<0.001) till 5th hour of test sample administration. EAF revealed moderate effect against the paw edema induced by histamine (31.048%) while non-significant results (18.148%) were observed against the edema induced by bradykinin. The extract demonstrated significant (66.23-73.076%) anti-inflammatory potential against the edematogenic effect of prostaglandin E2. Moreover, the extract also significantly inhibited (51.33%) the paw edema induced by arachedonic acid. Our results suggest that the EAF has dual action and produced the anti-inflammatory effect by blocking both pathways of arachedonic acid metabolites (cyclooxygenase and lipoxygenase). Thus

  19. Postoperative use of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs in patients with anastomotic leakage requiring reoperation after colorectal resection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klein, Mads; Gögenur, Ismail; Rosenberg, Jacob

    2012-01-01

    To evaluate the effect of postoperative use of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) on anastomotic leakage requiring reoperation after colorectal resection.......To evaluate the effect of postoperative use of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) on anastomotic leakage requiring reoperation after colorectal resection....

  20. Epobis is a Nonerythropoietic and Neuroprotective Agonist of the Erythropoietin Receptor with Anti-Inflammatory and Memory Enhancing Effects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dmytriyeva, Oksana; Pankratova, Stanislava; Korshunova, Irina

    2016-01-01

    The cytokine erythropoietin (EPO) stimulates proliferation and differentiation of erythroid progenitor cells. Moreover, EPO has neuroprotective, anti-inflammatory, and antioxidative effects, but the use of EPO as a neuroprotective agent is hampered by its erythropoietic activity. We have recently....... These data reveal Epobis to be a nonerythropoietic and neuroprotective EPO receptor agonist with anti-inflammatory and memory enhancing properties....

  1. DMPD: Molecular aspects of anti-inflammatory action of G-CSF. [Dynamic Macrophage Pathway CSML Database

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 12005202 Molecular aspects of anti-inflammatory action of G-CSF. Boneberg EM, Hartu...ng T. Inflamm Res. 2002 Mar;51(3):119-28. (.png) (.svg) (.html) (.csml) Show Molecular aspects of anti-infla...mmatory action of G-CSF. PubmedID 12005202 Title Molecular aspects of anti-inflammatory action of G-CSF. Aut

  2. Repositioning drugs for inflammatory disease – fishing for new anti-inflammatory agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher J. Hall

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Inflammation is an important and appropriate host response to infection or injury. However, dysregulation of this response, with resulting persistent or inappropriate inflammation, underlies a broad range of pathological processes, from inflammatory dermatoses to type 2 diabetes and cancer. As such, identifying new drugs to suppress inflammation is an area of intense interest. Despite notable successes, there still exists an unmet need for new effective therapeutic approaches to treat inflammation. Traditional drug discovery, including structure-based drug design, have largely fallen short of satisfying this unmet need. With faster development times and reduced safety and pharmacokinetic uncertainty, drug repositioning – the process of finding new uses for existing drugs – is emerging as an alternative strategy to traditional drug design that promises an improved risk-reward trade-off. Using a zebrafish in vivo neutrophil migration assay, we undertook a drug repositioning screen to identify unknown anti-inflammatory activities for known drugs. By interrogating a library of 1280 approved drugs for their ability to suppress the recruitment of neutrophils to tail fin injury, we identified a number of drugs with significant anti-inflammatory activity that have not previously been characterized as general anti-inflammatories. Importantly, we reveal that the ten most potent repositioned drugs from our zebrafish screen displayed conserved anti-inflammatory activity in a mouse model of skin inflammation (atopic dermatitis. This study provides compelling evidence that exploiting the zebrafish as an in vivo drug repositioning platform holds promise as a strategy to reveal new anti-inflammatory activities for existing drugs.

  3. Analgesic and anti-inflammatory effects of honey: the involvement of autonomic receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owoyele, Bamidele Victor; Oladejo, Rasheed Olajiire; Ajomale, Kayode; Ahmed, Rasheedat Omotayo; Mustapha, Abdulrasheed

    2014-03-01

    The use of honey for therapeutic purposes is on the increase and many studies have shown that honey has the ability to influence biological systems including pain transmission. Therefore, this study was designed to investigate the analgesic and anti-inflammatory effects of honey and the effects of concurrent administration of autonomic nervous system blocking drugs. Studies on analgesic activities was carried out using hotplate and formalin-induced paw licking models while the anti-inflammatory activity was by the carrageenan paw oedema method. Animals were distributed into six groups consisting of five animals each. They were administered saline, honey (600 mg/kg), indomethacin (5 mg/kg), autonomic blockers (3 μg/kg of tamsulosin, 20 mg/kg (intraperitoneally) of propranolol, 2 ml/kg of atropine or 10 mg/kg (intra muscularly) of hexamethonium) or honey (200 and 600 mg/kg) with one of the blockers. The results showed that honey reduced pain perception especially inflammatory pain and the administration of tamsulosin and propranolol spared the effect of honey. Hexamethonium also spared the effects of honey at the early and late phases of the test while atropine only inhibited the early phase of the test. However, atropine and hexamethonium spared the anti-inflammatory effects of honey but tamsulosin abolished the effects while propranolol only abolished the anti-inflammatory effects at the peak of the inflammation. The results suggest the involvement of autonomic receptors in the anti-nociceptive and anti-inflammatory effects of honey although the level of involvement depends on the different types of the receptors.

  4. Anti-inflammatory pro-resolving derivatives of omega-3 and omega-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jerzy Z. Nowak

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Inflammation is a physiological defense reaction of living tissues to injury or infection. An array of mediators, including those derived from omega-6 (ω6 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs, such as arachidonic acid (AA e.g. prostaglandins and leukotrienes, promote the inflammatory response. Acute inflammation has several programmed fates, including complete resolution or progression to chronic inflammation, scarring, and eventual loss of tissue function. Studies on AA-derived proinflammatory mediators led to the discovery of AA-derived anti-inflammatory and pro-resolving compounds. These include lipoxins, originating from AA, and resolvins, originating from the omega-3 PUFAs eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA as well as the omega-6 PUFA docosapentaenoic acid (DPA-ω6. DHA is also a substrate for other anti-inflammatory mediators, i.e. neuroprotectin and maresin. Because of their role in the final phase of acute inflammation, i.e. the resolution of inflammation, the above anti-inflammatory mediators were named pro-resolving mediators. They are formed in cooperating cells present in the region of inflammation in a process called transcellular biosynthesis with the aid of specific lipoxygenases (LOX and cyclooxygenases (COX. Pro-resolving anti-inflammatory mediators exert their biological activities in a receptor-dependent manner in the resolution phase of inflammation. Of their various biological effects, the most important include inhibition of leukocyte mobilization and traffic through endothelial or epithelial layers, suppression of proinflammatory cytokine release by different cells present in inflamed tissue, and stimulation of the phagocytic activity of monocytes/macrophages. This article surveys the current knowledge on inflammation and the role of the pro-resolving and anti-inflammatory potential of lipid-derived agonistic mediators.

  5. A novel macrolide solithromycin exerts superior anti-inflammatory effect via NF-κB inhibition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Yoshiki; Wada, Hiroo; Rossios, Christos; Takagi, Dai; Higaki, Manabu; Mikura, Shin'ichiro; Goto, Hajime; Barnes, Peter J; Ito, Kazuhiro

    2013-04-01

    Macrolides are reported to reduce exacerbation of chronic inflammatory respiratory disease, such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), and also show anti-inflammatory effects in vitro and in vivo. However the anti-inflammatory efficacies of current macrolides are relatively weak. Here we found that a novel macrolide/fluoroketolide solithromycin (CEM-101) showed superior anti-inflammatory effects to macrolides in current clinical use. The effects of solithromycin (SOL) on lipopolysaccharide-induced TNFα (tumor necrosis factor α) and/or CXCL8 (C-X-C motif chemokine ligand 8; interleukin-8) release, phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate-induced MMP9 (matrix metalloproteinase 9) activity and NF-κB (nuclear factor-κB) activity under conditions of oxidative stress have been evaluated and compared with the effects of erythromycin, clarithromycin, azithromycin, and telithromycin in macrophage-like PMA-differentiated U937 cells and peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) obtained from COPD patients. We also examined effect of SOL on cigarette smoke-induced airway inflammation in mice. SOL exerted superior inhibitory effects on TNFα/CXCL8 production and MMP9 activity in monocytic U937 cells. In addition, SOL suppressed TNFα release and MMP9 activity in PBMC from COPD patients at 10 µM, which is 10 times more potent than the other macrolides tested. Activated NF-κB by oxidative stress was completely reversed by SOL. SOL also inhibited cigarette smoke-induced neutrophilia and pro-MMP9 production in vivo, although erythromycin did not inhibit them. Thus, SOL showed better anti-inflammatory profiles compared with macrolides currently used in the clinic and may be a promising anti-inflammatory and antimicrobial macrolide for the treatment of COPD in future.

  6. Anti-inflammatory and antinociceptive effects of the stem bark of Byrsonima intermedia A. Juss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orlandi, Lidiane; Vilela, Fabiana C; Santa-Cecília, Flávia V; Dias, Danielle F; Alves-da-Silva, Geraldo; Giusti-Paiva, Alexandre

    2011-10-11

    Byrsonima intermedia A. Juss. is popularly known as "murici pequeno" and is native to the Brazilian Cerrado. This species has been used as an antimicrobial, anti-hemorrhagic, anti-diarrheal and anti-inflammatory. Nevertheless, scientific information regarding Byrsonima intermedia is limited; there are no reports related to its possible anti inflammatory and antinociceptive effects. This study employed in vivo inflammatory and nociceptive models to evaluate the scientific basis for the traditional use of Byrsonima intermedia. Carrageenan-induced paw edema, peritonitis and fibrovascular tissue growth induced by s.c. cotton pellet implantation tests were used to investigate the anti-inflammatory activity of Byrsonima intermedia aqueous extract (BiAE) in rats. Mechanical nociceptive paw, formalin and hot plate tests were used to evaluate the antinociceptive activity in mice. High-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), phytochemistry screening and determination of total phenolics and flavonoids were used to determine the chemical profile of the BiAE. BiAE at test doses of 30-300 mg/kg p.o. clearly demonstrated anti-inflammatory effects by reduced carrageenan-induced paw edema, by inhibited leukocyte recruitment into the peritoneal cavity and, in the model of chronic inflammation, by using the cotton pellet-induced fibrovascular tissue growth in rats. The extracts at test doses of 30-300 mg/kg p.o. clearly demonstrated antinociceptive activity in all tests. Administration of the opioid receptor antagonist naloxone completely inhibited the antinociceptive effect induced by BiAE (100 mg/kg). BiAE markedly exhibits anti-inflammatory action in rats and antinociceptive activity in mice. Thus, it may be useful in the treatment of inflammatory hyperalgesic disorders, which supports previous claims of its traditional use. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Recombinant human tissue factor pathway inhibitor exerts anticoagulant, anti-inflammatory and antimicrobial effects in murine pneumococcal pneumonia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Boogaard, F. E.; Brands, X.; Schultz, M. J.; Levi, M. [=Marcel M.; Roelofs, J. J. T. H.; van 't Veer, C.; van der Poll, T.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Streptococcus (S.) pneumoniae is the most common causative pathogen in community-acquired pneumonia and a major cause of sepsis. Recombinant human tissue factor pathway inhibitor (rh-TFPI) attenuates sepsis-induced coagulation and has been evaluated in clinical trials involving patients

  8. [Anti-inflammatory, analgesic and anti-pyretic activities of a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug, etofenamate, in experimental animals].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, H; Motoyoshi, S; Imazu, C; Ishii, K; Yokoyama, Y; Seto, Y; Kadokawa, T; Shimizu, M

    1982-08-01

    Anti-inflammatory, analgesic, and anti-pyretic activities of orally administered etofenamate, the diethylene glycol ester of flufenamic acid, were investigated in experimental animals. Against acetic acid-induced vascular permeability in mice and ultra-violet light-induced erythema in guinea pigs, etofenamate produced a dose related inhibition at doses of 40--320 mg/kg and 5--20 mg/kg, respectively. In rats, felt-pellet-induced granuloma formation and adjuvant-induced arthritis were significantly inhibited by repeated administration of etofenamate at doses of 20 mg/kg/day for 5 days and 40 mg/kg/day for 21 days, respectively. Etofenamate showed an inhibitory activity on the squeak response caused by flexing and extending the silver nitrate-induced arthritic joint in rats; and it produced a dose related anti-writhing activity at doses of 50--300 mg/kg and 10--80 mg/kg in mice and rats, respectively, in the acetic acid-induced writhing test. Etofenamate showed a significant anti-pyretic activity at doses of 0.2 mg/kg or more. These potencies of etofenamate were 0.5 to 1.6 times those of flufenamic acid. In particular, the anti-erythema, anti-arthritis, and anti-pyretic activities of etofenamate were approximately equivalent to or superior to those of flufenamic acid. From these results, it was suggested that etofenamate given orally, like other non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, showed anti-inflammatory, analgesic, and anti-pyretic activities in experimental animals.

  9. Indirect role of beta2-adrenergic receptors in the mechanism of anti-inflammatory action of NSAIDS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suleyman, H; Halici, Z; Cadirci, E; Hacimuftuoglu, A; Bilen, H

    2008-12-01

    In this study we investigated both intact and adrenalectomized rats to determine whether or not the anti-inflammatory effects of indomethacin, diclofenac sodium, ibuprofen, nimesulide, tenoxicam and aspirin (IDINTA) are related to adrenal gland hormones in carrageenan-induced inflammation model of rats. Also, we investigated the anti-inflammatory action mechanism of hormones (adrenalin, cortisol) which perform a role in the anti-inflammatory effect of IDINTAon the adrenergic receptors. he results show that IDINTA produces significant anti-inflammatory effects in intact rats (ID(50): 9.82, 10.81, 95.21, 75.23, 8.21 and 61.84 mg/kg), but insignificant effects in adrenalectomized rats (ID(50): 152.97, 188.17, 1275.0, 433.67, 188.16 and 1028.17 mg/kg). In addition, adrenalin and prednisolone caused anti-inflammatory effect rates of 78.3% and 95.7% respectively in adrenalectomized rats. The anti-inflammatory effects of adrenalin and prednisolone did not change when prazosin (alpha(1)-receptor blocker), yohimbine (alpha(2)a2-receptor blocker) and phenoxybenzamine (alpha(2)- and alpha(2)-receptor blocker) were given to rat groups; however, in adrenalectomized rats administered with propranolol (a non-selective blocker of beta(1) and beta(2)-receptors) the anti-inflammatory effect of adrenalin was lost, and that of prednisolone decreased to 36.2%. It was also found that metoprolol (a selective blocker of beta(1)-receptors) did not alter the anti-inflammatory effects of the drugs. As a result, it was shown that anti-inflammatory effects of IDINTA are related to adrenalin and cortisol (corticosterone in rats). It was also determined for the first time that adrenalin (totally) and prednisolone (partially) triggered anti-inflammatory effects via the beta(2)-receptors but not via the alpha(1), alpha(2) and beta(1)-receptors.

  10. Anti-inflammatory and Analgesic Effects ofPolygonum orientaleL. Extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gou, Kai-Jun; Zeng, Rui; Dong, Yan; Hu, Qi-Qi; Hu, Huang-Wan-Yin; Maffucci, Katherine G; Dou, Qi-Ling; Yang, Qing-Bo; Qin, Xu-Hua; Qu, Yan

    2017-01-01

    Background and Purpose: Polygonum orientale L. (family: Polygonaceae), named Hongcao in China, is a Traditional Chinese Medicinal and has long been used for rheumatic arthralgia and rheumatoid arthritis. However, no pharmacological and mechanism study to confirm these clinic effects have been published. In this investigation, the anti-inflammatory, analgesic effects and representative active ingredient compounds of P. orientale have been studied. Methods: Dried small pieces of the stems and leaves of P. orientale were decocted with water and partitioned successively to obtain ethyl acetate and ethyl ether extract of P. orientale (POEa and POEe). Chemical compositions of them were analyzed by UPLC-Q-Exactive HRMS. Anti-inflammatory and analgesic effects of POEa and POEe were evaluated using xylene induced ear edema, carrageenan induced paw edema, Freunds' complete adjuvant induced arthritis, and formaldehyde induced pain in rat. Their mechanisms of anti-inflammatory and analgesic effects were also studied via assays of TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-6, and PGE2 in serum. Results: UPLC-Q-Exactive HRMS analysis showed that POEa and POEe mainly contained flavonoids including orientin, isoorientin, vitexin, luteolin, and quercetin. Furthermore, anti-inflammatory effects of POEa and POEe were evident in xylene induced ear edema. The paw edema in Freund's complete adjuvant and carrageenan were significantly ( P < 0.05, 0.01) inhibited by POEa (5, 7.5 g/kg). POEe (7.5 g/kg) was significantly ( P < 0.05, 0.01) inhibited Freunds' complete adjuvant induced paw edema and cotton pellet induced granuloma formation. Similarly, POEe significantly ( P < 0.05, 0.01) inhibited the pain sensation in acetic acid induced writhing test. POEa (5, 7.5 g/kg) significantly ( P < 0.05, 0.01) inhibited formaldehyde induced pain in both phases. POEa (7.5 g/kg) markedly ( P < 0.05) prolonged the latency period of hot plate test after 30 and 60 min. The concentrations of TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-6, and PGE2 were

  11. Anti-inflammatory and Analgesic Effects of Polygonum orientale L. Extracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kai-Jun Gou

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Background and Purpose:Polygonum orientale L. (family: Polygonaceae, named Hongcao in China, is a Traditional Chinese Medicinal and has long been used for rheumatic arthralgia and rheumatoid arthritis. However, no pharmacological and mechanism study to confirm these clinic effects have been published. In this investigation, the anti-inflammatory, analgesic effects and representative active ingredient compounds of P. orientale have been studied.Methods: Dried small pieces of the stems and leaves of P. orientale were decocted with water and partitioned successively to obtain ethyl acetate and ethyl ether extract of P. orientale (POEa and POEe. Chemical compositions of them were analyzed by UPLC-Q-Exactive HRMS. Anti-inflammatory and analgesic effects of POEa and POEe were evaluated using xylene induced ear edema, carrageenan induced paw edema, Freunds’ complete adjuvant induced arthritis, and formaldehyde induced pain in rat. Their mechanisms of anti-inflammatory and analgesic effects were also studied via assays of TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-6, and PGE2 in serum.Results: UPLC-Q-Exactive HRMS analysis showed that POEa and POEe mainly contained flavonoids including orientin, isoorientin, vitexin, luteolin, and quercetin. Furthermore, anti-inflammatory effects of POEa and POEe were evident in xylene induced ear edema. The paw edema in Freund’s complete adjuvant and carrageenan were significantly (P < 0.05, 0.01 inhibited by POEa (5, 7.5 g/kg. POEe (7.5 g/kg was significantly (P < 0.05, 0.01 inhibited Freunds’ complete adjuvant induced paw edema and cotton pellet induced granuloma formation. Similarly, POEe significantly (P < 0.05, 0.01 inhibited the pain sensation in acetic acid induced writhing test. POEa (5, 7.5 g/kg significantly (P < 0.05, 0.01 inhibited formaldehyde induced pain in both phases. POEa (7.5 g/kg markedly (P < 0.05 prolonged the latency period of hot plate test after 30 and 60 min. The concentrations of TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-6, and PGE2

  12. Anti-inflammatory activity of hydroalcoholic extracts of Lavandula dentata L. and Lavandula stoechas L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Algieri, Francesca; Rodriguez-Nogales, Alba; Vezza, Teresa; Garrido-Mesa, Jose; Garrido-Mesa, Natividad; Utrilla, M Pilar; González-Tejero, M Reyes; Casares-Porcel, Manuel; Molero-Mesa, Joaquin; Del Mar Contreras, Maria; Segura-Carretero, Antonio; Pérez-Palacio, José; Diaz, Caridad; Vergara, Noemí; Vicente, Francisca; Rodriguez-Cabezas, M Elena; Galvez, Julio

    2016-08-22

    Plants from genus Lavandula have been used as anti-inflammatory drugs in Mediterranean traditional medicine. Nowadays, there is a growing interest for complementary medicine, including herbal remedies, to treat inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). To test the anti-inflammatory properties of Lavandula dentata and Lavandula stoechas extracts in two inflammatory experimental models: TNBS model of rat colitis and the carrageenan-induced paw edema in mice, in order to mimic the intestinal conditions and the extra-intestinal manifestations of human IBD, respectively. The extracts were characterized through the qualitative HPLC analysis. Then, they were assayed in vitro and in vivo. In vitro studies were performed in BMDMs and CMT-93 epithelial cells with different concentrations of the extracts (ranging from 0.1 to 100µg/ml). The extracts were tested in vivo in the TNBS model of rat colitis (10 and 25mg/kg) and in the carrageenan-induced paw edema in mice (10, 25 and 100mg/kg). L. dentata and L. stoechas extracts displayed immunomodulatory properties in vitro down-regulating different mediators of inflammation like cytokines and nitric oxide. They also showed anti-inflammatory effects in the TNBS model of colitis as evidenced by reduced myeloperoxidase activity and increased total glutathione content, indicating a decrease of neutrophil infiltration and an improvement of the oxidative state. Besides, both extracts modulated the expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines and chemokines, and ameliorated the altered epithelial barrier function. They also displayed anti-inflammatory effects in the carrageenan-induced paw edema in mice, since a significant reduction of the paw thickness was observed. This was associated with a down-regulation of the expression of different inducible enzymes like MMP-9, iNOS and COX-2 and pro-inflammatory cytokines, all involved in the maintenance of the inflammatory condition. L. dentata and L. stoechas extracts showed intestinal anti-inflammatory

  13. Action of β-endorphin and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, and the possible effects of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs on β-endorphin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luan, Yuan-Hang; Wang, Di; Yu, Qi; Chai, Xiao-Qing

    2017-02-01

    This study aimed to review research on the effects of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) on β-endorphin. NSAIDs are commonly used as anti-inflammatory and analgesic drugs. They are well known for inducing peripheral analgesia by inhibiting cyclooxygenase (COX). However, an increasing number of studies have shown that NSAIDs have an analgesic effect not only in the periphery but also at the center. It means that a central analgesic mechanism of the action of NSAIDs exists besides the peripheral mechanism, and the central mechanism likely involves β-endorphin. β-Endorphin is one of the most prominent endogenous peptides, existing in the hypophysis cerebri and hypothalamus. It plays an irreplaceable role in the central and peripheral analgesia in the human body mainly through three mechanisms including three parts, the spinal cord, the supraspinal cord, and peripheries. β-Endorphin plays an important role in the development of hyperalgesia. However, the specific signal transduction pathways between prostaglandin E 2 or NSAIDs and β-endorphin are still not quite clear. Whether NSAIDs can lead to the increased content of β-endorphin in all patients after any operation needs further investigation. Further studies should determine the optimal dose when NSAIDs and opioid drugs are used together, and also explore the existence of one NSAID that has the potential to replace the traditional opioid drugs and can achieve adequate analgesia. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Analgesic, anti-inflammatory and anti-pyretic activities of Thymus linearis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qadir, Muhammad Imran; Parveen, Amna; Abbas, Khizar; Ali, Muhammad

    2016-03-01

    The present study was aimed to investigate the antipyretic, analgesic and anti-inflammatory activity of aqueous methanolic and n-hexane extract of Thymus linearis. For measuring analgesic activity, writhing test, hot plate method and formalin test were performed and abdominal writhing was induced by intra-peritoneal injection of 0.2 ml of 3% acetic acid. While in formalin test, pain was experimentally induced by injecting 25 μl of 2.5% formalin in left hind paw. In hot plate method, pain was induced thermally by keeping the animals on a hot plate with temperature of about 51°C. Anti-inflammatory activity was assessed by carrageenan induced mice paw edema. For determination of antipyretic activity, pyrexia was induced by subcutaneous injection of 15% yeast. The results showed that both the extracts had significant analgesic activity (pThymus linearis may be used against pain, pyrexia and inflammation.

  15. Screening of the topical anti-inflammatory activity of some Central American plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sosa, S; Balick, M J; Arvigo, R; Esposito, R G; Pizza, C; Altinier, G; Tubaro, Aurelia

    2002-07-01

    Hexane, chloroform and methanol extracts of seven herbal drugs used in the folk medicine of Central America against skin disorders (Aristolochia trilobata leaves and bark, Bursera simaruba bark, Hamelia patens leaves, Piper amalago leaves, and Syngonium podophyllum leaves and bark) were evaluated for their topical anti-inflammatory activity against the Croton oil-induced ear oedema in mice. Most of the extracts induced a dose-dependent oedema reduction. The chloroform extract of almost all the drugs exhibited interesting activities with ID(50) values ranging between 108 and 498 micro g/cm(2), comparable to that of indomethacin (93 micro g/cm(2)). Therefore, the tested plants are promising sources of principles with high anti-inflammatory activity.

  16. Use of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs among healthy people and specific cerebrovascular safety

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fosbøl, Emil L; Olsen, Anne-Marie Schjerning; Olesen, Jonas Bjerring

    2014-01-01

    stroke). RESULTS: We selected 1,028,437 healthy individuals (median age 39 years). At least one nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug was claimed by 44·7% of the study population, and the drugs were generally used for a short period of time and in low doses. High-dose ibuprofen and diclofenac were...... associated with increased risk of ischemic stroke [hazard ratio 2·15 (95% confidence interval 1·66-2·79) and 2·37 (confidence interval 1·99-2·81), respectively]. Diclofenac was also associated with increased risk of hemorrhagic stroke and so was naproxen [hazard ratio 2·15 (confidence interval 1......·35-3·42)]. CONCLUSIONS: In healthy individuals, use of commonly available nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs such as ibuprofen, diclofenac, and naproxen was associated with increased risk of stroke....

  17. [A novel class of anti-inflammatory and analgesic drugs--NO-donating NSAIDs].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yi-hua; Ji, Hui; Peng, Si-xun

    2007-04-01

    Traditional non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) and COX-2 selective inhibitors are among the most widely used drugs. However, their significant side effects in gastrointestinal and cardiovascular systems limited the use of these drugs. Recently, research and development of NO-donating NSAIDs (NO-NSAIDs) have become one of the most important strategies to reduce these side effects. NO-NSAIDs may exert a broad range of positive effects in terms of NO-mediated gastrointestinal and cardiovascular safety as well as comparable or increased anti-inflammatory, analgesic properties relative to NSAIDs. This review briefly deals with chemistry of NO-NSAIDs, more details are focused on biological significance, mechanism of action, and therapeutic potential of this novel class of drugs.

  18. Anti-inflammatory and angiogenic activity of polysaccharide extract obtained from Tibetan kefir.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prado, Maria Rosa Machado; Boller, Christian; Zibetti, Rosiane Guetter Mello; de Souza, Daiany; Pedroso, Luciana Lopes; Soccol, Carlos Ricardo

    2016-11-01

    The search for new bioactive molecules is a driving force for research pharmaceutical industries, especially those molecules obtained from fermentation. The molecules possessing angiogenic and anti-inflammatory attributes have attracted attention and are the focus of this study. Angiogenic activity from kefir polysaccharide extract, via chorioallantoic membrane assay, exhibited a pro-angiogenic effect compared with vascular endothelial factor (pro-angiogenic) and hydrocortisone (anti-angiogenic) activity as standards with an EC50 of 192ng/mL. In terms of anti-inflammatory activity determined via hyaluronidase enzyme assay, kefir polysaccharide extract inhibited the enzyme with a minimal activity of 2.08mg/mL and a maximum activity of 2.57mg/mL. For pharmaceutical purposes, kefir polysaccharide extract is considered to be safe because it does not inhibit VERO cells in cytotoxicity assays. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Anti-Inflammatory Activity of Citrus bergamia Derivatives: Where Do We Stand?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadia Ferlazzo

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Inflammatory diseases affect a large portion of the worldwide population, and chronic inflammation is a major risk factor for several dangerous pathologies. To limit the side effects of both synthetic and biological anti-inflammatory drugs, the use of herbal medicines, nutraceuticals and food supplements has increased tremendously as alternative and/or complementary medicine to treat several pathologies, including inflammation. During the last decades, the biological properties of Citrus bergamia (bergamot derivatives have obtained important scientific achievements, and it has been suggested their use in a context of a multitarget pharmacological strategy. Here, we present an overview of the anti-inflammatory properties of bergamot extracts that could represent the scientific basis for develop novel and alternative strategies to improve health status and attenuate inflammatory conditions.

  20. Gelatin-carboxymethyl tamarind gum biocomposites: In vitro characterization & anti-inflammatory pharmacodynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jana, Sougata; Banerjee, Abhisek; Sen, Kalyan Kumar; Maiti, Sabyasachi

    2016-12-01

    In this study, gelatin and carboxymethyl tamarind gum (CTG) were chemically cross-linked to control the delivery of aceclofenac from their interpenetrating network (IPNs). Infrared spectra, thermal and X-ray data supported that drug and polymer was compatible in the composite hydrogels. Irregularly shaped IPN microstructures were seen under field emission scanning electron microscope (FE-SEM). IPN system was capable of entrapping about 96% of the drug fed. CTG in IPN structures suppressed the drug release rate in HCl solution (pH1.2); however extended the same in phosphate buffer solution (pH6.8). The drug release was controlled by polymer chain relaxation/swelling and simple diffusion in vitro. The anti-inflammatory activity of drug-loaded biocomposites lasted over 7h in albino rats, thus suggesting their potential as an anti-inflammatory therapeutics. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  1. Antioxidant and Anti-Inflammatory Properties of Longan (Dimocarpus longan Lour. Pericarp

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guan-Jhong Huang

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This study examined the antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities of the water extract of longan pericarp (WLP. The results showed that WLP exhibited radical scavenging, reducing activity and liposome protection activity. In addition, WLP also inhibited lipopolysaccharide (LPS-induced nitric oxide (NO production in macrophages. Further, administration of WLP, in the range of 100–400 mg/kg, showed a concentration-dependent inhibition on paw edema development following carrageenan (Carr treatment in mice. The anti-inflammatory effects of WLP may be related to NO and tumor necrosis factor (TNF-α suppression and associated with the increase in the activities of antioxidant enzymes, including catalase, superoxide dismutase, and glutathione peroxidase. Overall, the results showed that WLP might serve as a natural antioxidant and inflammatory inhibitor.

  2. Antioxidant, Antinociceptive, and Anti-Inflammatory Effects of Carotenoids Extracted from Dried Pepper (Capsicum annuum L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández-Ortega, Marcela; Ortiz-Moreno, Alicia; Hernández-Navarro, María Dolores; Chamorro-Cevallos, Germán; Dorantes-Alvarez, Lidia; Necoechea-Mondragón, Hugo

    2012-01-01

    Carotenoids extracted from dried peppers were evaluated for their antioxidant, analgesic, and anti-inflammatory activities. Peppers had a substantial carotenoid content: guajillo 3406 ± 4 μg/g, pasilla 2933 ± 1 μg/g, and ancho 1437 ± 6 μg/g of sample in dry weight basis. A complex mixture of carotenoids was discovered in each pepper extract. The TLC analysis revealed the presence of chlorophylls in the pigment extract from pasilla and ancho peppers. Guajillo pepper carotenoid extracts exhibited good antioxidant activity and had the best scavenging capacity for the DPPH+ cation (24.2%). They also exhibited significant peripheral analgesic activity at 5, 20, and 80 mg/kg and induced central analgesia at 80 mg/kg. The results suggest that the carotenoids in dried guajillo peppers have significant analgesic and anti-inflammatory benefits and could be useful for pain and inflammation relief. PMID:23091348

  3. Isolation and anti-inflammatory activity of Bakuchiol from Ulmus davidiana var. japonica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Sang Yoon; Lee, Sanghyun; Choi, Won-Hee; Lee, Yeonmi; Jo, Youn Ock; Ha, Tae-Youl

    2010-08-01

    The bark of the root and stem of Ulmus davidiana var. japonica has been used as a traditional Korean medicine to treat inflammatory disorders. This plant reportedly exhibits antioxidant, anticancer, and anti-inflammatory effects. A search for biologically active compounds in U. davidiana var. japonica extracts yielded bakuchiol, which we structurally identified on the basis of spectral data, including two-dimensional nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy and distortionless enhancement by polarization transfer. In our study, bakuchiol (50 microM) inhibited lipopolysaccharide-induced nitric oxide and prostaglandin E(2) production in RAW 264.7 macrophages by 53.7% and 84.2%, respectively. These results suggested that bakuchiol is one of the potent anti-inflammatory components of U. davidiana var. japonica.

  4. Anti-inflammatory effects of isoketocharbroic acid from brown alga, Sargassum micracanthum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ham, Young Min; Yoon, Weon-Jong; Lee, Wook Jae; Kim, Sang-Cheol; Baik, Jong Seok; Kim, Jin Hwa; Lee, Geun Soo; Lee, Nam Ho; Hyun, Chang-Gu

    2015-01-01

    During our on-going screening program designed to isolate natural compounds from marine environments, we isolated isoketochabrolic acid (IKCA) from Sargassum micracanthum, an important brown algae distributed in Jeju Island, Korea. Furthermore, we evaluated the inhibitory effects of IKCA on nitric oxide (NO) production in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-triggered macrophages. IKCA strongly inhibited NO production, with an IC50 value of 58.31 μM. Subsequent studies demonstrated that IKCA potently and concentration-dependently reduced prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), interleukin (IL)-1β, and IL-6 cytokine production. In conclusion, to the best of our knowledge, this is the first study to show that IKCA isolated from S. micracanthum has a potent anti-inflammatory activity. Therefore, IKCA might be useful as an anti-inflammatory health supplement or functional cosmetics. PMID:26600756

  5. Anti-inflammatory effects of isoketocharbroic acid from brown alga, Sargassum micracanthum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ham, Young Min; Yoon, Weon-Jong; Lee, Wook Jae; Kim, Sang-Cheol; Baik, Jong Seok; Kim, Jin Hwa; Lee, Geun Soo; Lee, Nam Ho; Hyun, Chang-Gu

    2015-01-01

    During our on-going screening program designed to isolate natural compounds from marine environments, we isolated isoketochabrolic acid (IKCA) from Sargassum micracanthum, an important brown algae distributed in Jeju Island, Korea. Furthermore, we evaluated the inhibitory effects of IKCA on nitric oxide (NO) production in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-triggered macrophages. IKCA strongly inhibited NO production, with an IC50 value of 58.31 μM. Subsequent studies demonstrated that IKCA potently and concentration-dependently reduced prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), interleukin (IL)-1β, and IL-6 cytokine production. In conclusion, to the best of our knowledge, this is the first study to show that IKCA isolated from S. micracanthum has a potent anti-inflammatory activity. Therefore, IKCA might be useful as an anti-inflammatory health supplement or functional cosmetics.

  6. Topical ketorolac has no antinociceptive or anti-inflammatory effect in thermal injury

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møiniche, S; Pedersen, J L; Kehlet, H

    1994-01-01

    This study investigated the antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory effect of a topical non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug in human thermal injury. Twelve healthy unmedicated volunteers had identical burn injuries produced on the medial side of both calves with a 49 degrees C 15 x 25 mm thermode....... Ketorolac gel or placebo were randomly applied on the right or left calf 1.5 h before burn injury, immediately after burn injury and 6 and 12 h later in a double-blind trial where every subject served as his own control. Heat pain detection thresholds (HPDT), head pain tolerance (HPT), mechanical pain...... detection thresholds (MPDT) and the intensity of burn-induced erythema (erythema index, EI) were assessed in the area of the thermal injury, and areas of hyperalgesia to pin prick were determined outside the injury before and 3, 6 and 24 h after the burn injury. Burn injury led to a decrease in HPDT, HPT...

  7. Anti-inflammatory, antibacterial and analgesic potential of cocos nucifera linn.: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dua, Kamal; Sheshala, Ravi; Ling, Teck Ying; Hui Ling, Shiau; Gorajana, Adinarayana

    2013-01-01

    At present, approximately 25%of drugs in modern pharmacopoeia are derived from plant sources (phytomedicines) that can be developed for the treatment of diseases and disorders. Many other drugs are synthetic analogues built on the prototype compounds isolated from plants. Cocos nucifera Linn. (Arecaceae), which is commonly known as coconut, is a plant possessing a lot of potential as an ingredient in traditional medicines for the treatment of metabolic disorders and particularly as an anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial and analgesic agent. This review emphasizes on the recent literature and research findings that highlight the significant biological activities of C. nucifera Linn. such as its anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial and analgesic properties. This review can help researchers keen on exploiting the therapeutic potential of C. nucifera Linn. which may motivate them to further explore their commercial viability.

  8. Alpha-1 antitrypsin: a potent anti-inflammatory and potential novel therapeutic agent.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Bergin, David A

    2012-04-01

    Alpha-1 antitrypsin (AAT) has long been thought of as an important anti-protease in the lung where it is known to decrease the destructive effects of major proteases such as neutrophil elastase. In recent years, the perception of this protein in this simple one dimensional capacity as an anti-protease has evolved and it is now recognised that AAT has significant anti-inflammatory properties affecting a wide range of inflammatory cells, leading to its potential therapeutic use in a number of important diseases. This present review aims to discuss the described anti-inflammatory actions of AAT in modulating key immune cell functions, delineate known signalling pathways and specifically to identify the models of disease in which AAT has been shown to be effective as a therapy.

  9. A comparison of the anti-inflammatory properties of intranasal corticosteroids and antihistamines in allergic rhinitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howarth, P H

    2000-01-01

    Allergic rhinitis manifests itself clinically due to the local release of mediators from activated cells within the nasal mucosa. Treatment strategies aim either to reduce the effects of these mediators on the sensory neural and vascular end organs, or to reduce the tissue accumulation of the activated cells that generate them. Corticosteroids intervene at a number of steps in the inflammatory pathway, and, by reducing the release of cytokines and chemokines, inhibit cell recruitment and activation. These effects are evident both in vivo and in vitro. While antihistamines also have some anti-inflammatory effects in vitro, these require higher concentrations than with corticosteroids and are not consistently reproduced in vivo. In addition, although antihistamines and corticosteroids might appear to have complementary mechanisms of action, clinical trials suggest that their co-administration does not confer any additional long-term benefits compared with that achieved with corticosteroids alone. Topical corticosteroids are therefore the preferred anti-inflammatory therapy for persistent allergic rhinitis.

  10. The Effect of Opioids, Alcohol, and Nonsteroidal Anti-inflammatory Drugs on Fracture Union.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richards, Christopher J; Graf, Kenneth W; Mashru, Rakesh P

    2017-10-01

    The estimated rate of fracture nonunion is between 5% and 10%, adding significant cost to the health care system. The cause of fracture nonunion is multifactorial, including the severity of the injury, patient factors resulting in aberrancies in the biology of fracture, and the side effects of pain control modalities. Minimizing surgeon-controlled factors causing nonunion is important to reduce the cost of health care and improve patient outcomes. Opioids, alcohol, and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs have been implicated as risk factors for fracture nonunion. Current literature was reviewed to examine the effects of opioids, alcohol, and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs on fracture union. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Analgesic and anti-inflammatory effects of Cheiloclinium cognatum root barks

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    Elson A. Costa

    Full Text Available Cheiloclinium cognatum (Hippocrateaceae has been used in folk medicine to treat fever and edema. In this paper, we report the anti-inflammatory and analgesic activities of the crude dichloromethane extract (DECc from C. cognatum root barks collected in Auguste de Saint Hilaire wood at Universidade Federal de Goiás. Doses of 0.1, 0.3 and 1.0 g/kg caused a dose-dependent inhibition of croton oil-induced ear edema in mice equivalent to 21, 30 and 51%, respectively. There was a significant increase in analgesic-meter-induced tail flick test equivalent to 105, 189 and 200% of increase tail flick reaction time. These results allowed to suggest that C. cognatum could be a source of new compounds which anti-inflammatory and analgesic activities.

  12. Redox-dependent anti-inflammatory signaling actions of unsaturated fatty acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delmastro-Greenwood, Meghan; Freeman, Bruce A; Wendell, Stacy Gelhaus

    2014-01-01

    Unsaturated fatty acids are metabolized to reactive products that can act as pro- or anti-inflammatory signaling mediators. Electrophilic fatty acid species, including nitro- and oxo-containing fatty acids, display salutary anti-inflammatory and metabolic actions. Electrophilicity can be conferred by both enzymatic and oxidative reactions, via the homolytic addition of nitrogen dioxide to a double bond or via the formation of α,β-unsaturated carbonyl and epoxide substituents. The endogenous formation of electrophilic fatty acids is significant and influenced by diet, metabolic, and inflammatory reactions. Transcriptional regulatory proteins and enzymes can sense the redox status of the surrounding environment upon electrophilic fatty acid adduction of functionally significant, nucleophilic cysteines. Through this covalent and often reversible posttranslational modification, gene expression and metabolic responses are induced. At low concentrations, the pleiotropic signaling actions that are regulated by these protein targets suggest that some classes of electrophilic lipids may be useful for treating metabolic and inflammatory diseases.

  13. Cardiovascular disease event rates in patients with severe psoriasis treated with systemic anti-inflammatory drugs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahlehoff, O; Skov, L; Gislason, G

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Psoriasis is a chronic inflammatory disorder associated with cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Systemic anti-inflammatory drugs, including biological agents, are widely used in the treatment of patients with moderate to severe psoriasis and may attenuate the risk of cardiovascular...... disease events. We therefore examined the rate of cardiovascular disease events in patients with severe psoriasis treated with systemic anti-inflammatory drugs. DESIGN, SETTING AND PARTICIPANTS: Individual-level linkage of nationwide administrative databases was used to assess the event rates associated...... with biological agents and 799 treated with methotrexate, were identified. Incidence rates per 1000 patient-years and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for the composite endpoint were 6.0 (95% CI 2.7-13.4), 17.3 (95% CI 12.3-24.3) and 44.5 (95% CI 34.6-57.0) for patients treated with biological agents, methotrexate...

  14. Cardiovascular outcomes and systemic anti-inflammatory drugs in patients with severe psoriasis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahlehoff, O; Skov, L; Gislason, Gunnar

    2015-01-01

    .34-0.83) was associated with reduced risk of the composite endpoint and a comparable but non-significant protective effect was observed with biological drugs (HR 0.58; CI 0.30-1.10), whereas no protective effect was apparent with cyclosporine (HR 1.06; CI 0.26-4.27) and retinoids (HR 1.80; CI 1.03-2.96). Tumour necrosis......BACKGROUND: Psoriasis is a common disease and is associated with cardiovascular diseases. Systemic anti-inflammatory drugs may reduce risk of cardiovascular events. We therefore examined the rate of cardiovascular events, i.e. cardiovascular death, myocardial infarction and stroke, in patients...... with severe psoriasis treated with systemic anti-inflammatory drugs. METHODS: Individual-level linkage of administrative registries was used to perform a longitudinal nationwide cohort study. Time-dependent multivariable adjusted Cox regression was used to estimate hazard ratios (HRs) with 95% confidence...

  15. Assessment of Anti-inflammatory Activity of Taxus Baccata Linn. Bark Extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutta, Satyajit; Mariappan, G; Sarkar, Dipankar; Sarkar, Piyali

    2010-01-01

    Taxus baccata (L) known as Sthauneyaka in Sanskrit(1) has wide range of biological activities including analgesic, anti-malarial, anti-rheumatic, sedative, anti-spasmodic, aphrodisiac and anti-asthmatic. In the present study, the dried and powdered bark of Taxus baccata (L) was extracted with 95% ethanol and ether at room temperature and screened for their anti--inflammatory activity by Carrageenan-induced paw edema method in rat. 95% ethanol extract exhibits potent anti-inflammatory activity at 200mg/kg four hours after administration in comparison with ether extract, as well reference standard, Aspirin. The observed pharmacological activities provide a scientific basis for the folklore use of the plant in treating acute inflammation.

  16. Antioxidant, Antinociceptive, and Anti-Inflammatory Effects of Carotenoids Extracted from Dried Pepper (Capsicum annuum L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcela Hernández-Ortega

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Carotenoids extracted from dried peppers were evaluated for their antioxidant, analgesic, and anti-inflammatory activities. Peppers had a substantial carotenoid content: guajillo 3406±4 μg/g, pasilla 2933±1 μg/g, and ancho 1437±6 μg/g of sample in dry weight basis. A complex mixture of carotenoids was discovered in each pepper extract. The TLC analysis revealed the presence of chlorophylls in the pigment extract from pasilla and ancho peppers. Guajillo pepper carotenoid extracts exhibited good antioxidant activity and had the best scavenging capacity for the DPPH+ cation (24.2%. They also exhibited significant peripheral analgesic activity at 5, 20, and 80 mg/kg and induced central analgesia at 80 mg/kg. The results suggest that the carotenoids in dried guajillo peppers have significant analgesic and anti-inflammatory benefits and could be useful for pain and inflammation relief.

  17. Anti-inflammatory activity of some novel alpha-amino naphthalene derivatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Shalabh; Srivastava, Virendra Kishore; Kumar, Ashok

    2003-01-01

    alpha-Acetylamino naphthalene (1) was reacted with different aromatic aldehydes and with primary or secondary amines to give alpha-aminonaphthylsubstitutedaryl chalkones (2-5) and alpha-(substituted aminoethyl)-amidonaphthalenes (14-25), respectively. These substituted chalkones were treated with hydrazinehydrate and hydroxylamine hydrochloride to give 1-acetyl-5-substitutedaryl-3-(alpha-aminonaphthyl)-2-pyrazolines (6-9) and alpha-(2-substitutedaryl-isoxazolin-4-yl)-aminonaphthalenes (10-13), respectively. Their chemical structures were confirmed by IR and 1H-NMR spectral data and elemental analysis. Studies of the anti-inflammatory and ulcerogenic activities and acute toxicity of these newly synthesized compounds were performed in vivo and compared with the standard drug, phenylbutazone (CAS 50-33-9). Some of these compounds showed potent anti-inflammatory activity and less ulcerogenic effects than phenylbutazone.

  18. Exercise as an anti-inflammatory therapy for rheumatic diseases—myokine regulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Benatti, Fabiana B; Pedersen, Bente K

    2015-01-01

    and the development of a network of chronic diseases, thus establishing a 'vicious cycle' of chronic inflammation. During the past two decades, advances in research have shed light on the role of exercise as a therapy for rheumatic diseases. One of the most important of these advances is the discovery that skeletal...... muscle communicates with other organs by secreting proteins called myokines. Some myokines are thought to induce anti-inflammatory responses with each bout of exercise and mediate long-term exercise-induced improvements in cardiovascular risk factors, having an indirect anti-inflammatory effect....... Therefore, contrary to fears that physical activity might aggravate inflammatory pathways, exercise is now believed to be a potential treatment for patients with rheumatic diseases. In this Review, we discuss how exercise disrupts the vicious cycle of chronic inflammation directly, after each bout...

  19. Anti-inflammatory treatment of meconium aspiration syndrome: benefits and risks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mokra, Daniela; Mokry, Juraj; Tonhajzerova, Ingrid

    2013-06-01

    Meconium aspiration syndrome (MAS) is a major cause of respiratory insufficiency in the term and post-term newborns. There are several pathomechanisms participating in this disorder, particularly the airway obstruction, surfactant dysfunction, inflammation, lung edema, pulmonary vasoconstriction and bronchoconstriction. Inflammatory changes resulting from meconium aspiration cause severe impairment of lung parenchyma and surfactant, and influence the reactivity of both vascular and airway smooth muscle. Therefore, anti-inflammatory drugs may be of benefit in the management of MAS. This article reviews the pharmacological actions and side effects of various anti-inflammatory drugs used up to now in the experimental models of MAS and in the treatment of newborns with meconium aspiration. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  20. Effects of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory meloxicam on stomach, kidney, and liver of rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burukoglu, Dilek; Baycu, Cengiz; Taplamacioglu, Fulya; Sahin, Erhan; Bektur, Ezgi

    2016-06-01

    Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory (NSAI) drugs are the most commonly used group of drugs today. Increase in the use of standard NSAI for treating pain and inflammation was restricted by the fact that these drugs were proven to possibly cause gastrointestinal and renal toxicity. Meloxicam is a NSAI that has anti-inflammatory, analgesic, and antipyretic effects. This study aims to investigate the effects of meloxicam on stomach, kidney, and liver of rats under light microscopy level. Based on the light microscopic observations, mononuclear cell infiltration and pseudolobular formation was established in liver samples of animals in the experimental group. Metaplasia in surface and glandular epithelia and atrophy were observed in stomach samples. Glomerular stasis-related hypertrophy and focal interstitial nephritis were found in kidneys. It was concluded in this study that meloxicam might cause hepatotoxicity, nephrotoxicity, and gastric metaplasia in rats at a used dose and duration. © The Author(s) 2014.

  1. Anti-inflammatory effects of hyaluronan in arthritis therapy: Not just for viscosity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kayo Masuko

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Kayo Masuko1, Minako Murata2, Kazuo Yudoh2, Tomohiro Kato1, Hiroshi Nakamura31Department of Biochemistry; 2Institute of Medical Science, St. Marianna University School of Medicine, Kawasaki-shi, Kanagawa, Japan; 3Department of Joint Disease and Rheumatism, Nippon Medical School, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo, JapanAbstract: Hyaluronic acid (HA has been widely used for viscosupplementation of diseased or aged articular joints. However, recent investigations have revealed the active anti-inflammatory or chondroprotective effect of HA, suggesting its potential role in attenuation of joint damage. In particular, interactions between HA and other inflammatory mediators are attracting interest. This review summarizes several aspects of recent investigations of the anti-inflammatory effects of HA in arthritis.Keywords: hyaluronan, inflammation, chondroprotection

  2. Two Cases on Anti-inflammatory Effect of Scolopendrid Herbal-Acupuncture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Won Jae-Kyun

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective : This study was designed to investigate the anti-inflammatory effect of Scolopendrid Herbal-Acupuncture. Methods : Scolopendrid Herbal-Acupuncture was administered one time on everyday and A-shi points were selected. Except Scolopendrid Herbal-Acupuncture administration, other therapies (conventional body acupuncture, physical therapy and so on were not performed at all. We evaluated the patient through Visual Analogue Scale(VAS and Digital Infrared Thermal Imaging(DITI. Results : After 2 or 3 times of treatment, the patient showed that clinical symptoms and VAS were lessened and there was a change of temperature in DITI. Conclusions : According to the results, Scolopendrid Herbal-Acupuncture may have anti-inflammatory effects. But further studies are required to prove the exact effect.

  3. Synthesis, Antimicrobial and Anti-inflammatory Activity of Some New Benzoxazinone and Quinazolinone Candidates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Hashash, Maher Abd El-Aziz; Azab, Mohammad Emad; Faty, Rasha Abd El-Aziz; Amr, Abd El-Galil Elsyed

    2016-01-01

    Benzoxazinones and quinazolinones have a wide spectrum of biological activity. In this paper we focused on studying the antimicrobial and anti-inflammatory activities of some newly synthesized benzoxazinone and quinazolinone derivatives. Thus we prepared 2-[α-benzoylaminostyryl]-6,8-dibromo-3,1-benzoxazin-4(H)-one 2 which underwent a reaction with primary and secondary amines, and hydrazine hydrate to give compounds 3, 4 and 5, respectively. Treatment of 2 with hydroxylamine hydrochloride, formamide and/or NaN3/AcOH afforded compounds 7, 8, 11 and 12, respectively. Also, compound 2 reacted with maleic anhydride, aromatic hydrocarbons and/or active methylene compounds to produce compounds 13, 15a-c and 16, respectively. Most of the newly synthesized compounds showed significant antimicrobial and anti-inflammatory activities comparable to ampicillin, mycostatine and indomethacin positive controls.

  4. Effect of Anti-inflammatory Treatment on Depression, Depressive Symptoms, and Adverse Effects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Köhler, Karl Ole; Benros, Michael E; Nordentoft, Merete

    2014-01-01

    -controlled trials assessing the efficacy and adverse effects of pharmacologic anti-inflammatory treatment in adults with depressive symptoms, including those who fulfilled the criteria for depression. DATA EXTRACTION AND SYNTHESIS: Data were extracted by 2 independent reviewers. Pooled standard mean difference (SMD...... investigated cytokine inhibitors (n=2,004). The pooled effect estimate suggested that anti-inflammatory treatment reduced depressive symptoms (SMD, -0.34; 95% CI, -0.57 to -0.11; I2=90%) compared with placebo. This effect was observed in studies including patients with depression (SMD, -0.54; 95% CI, -1.......08 to -0.01; I2=68%) and depressive symptoms (SMD, -0.27; 95% CI, -0.53 to -0.01; I2=68%). The heterogeneity of the studies was not explained by differences in inclusion of clinical depression vs depressive symptoms or use of NSAIDs vs cytokine inhibitors. Subanalyses emphasized the antidepressant...

  5. In Vivo Potential Anti-Inflammatory Activity of Melissa officinalis L. Essential Oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bounihi, Amina; Hajjaj, Ghizlane; Cherrah, Yahia; Zellou, Amina

    2013-01-01

    Melissa officinalis L. (Lamiaceae) had been reported in traditional Moroccan medicine to exhibit calming, antispasmodic, and strengthening heart effects. Therefore, this study is aimed at determining the anti-inflammatory activities of M. officinalis L. leaves. The effect of the essential oil of the leaves of this plant was investigated for anti-inflammatory properties by using carrageenan and experimental trauma-induced hind paw edema in rats. The essential oil extracted from leaves by hydrodistillation was characterized by means of gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). M. officinalis contained Nerol (30.44%), Citral (27.03%), Isopulegol (22.02%), Caryophyllene (2.29%), Caryophyllene oxide (1.24%), and Citronella (1.06%). Anti-inflammatory properties of oral administration of essential oil at the doses of 200, 400 mg/kg p.o., respectively, showed significant reduction and inhibition of edema with 61.76% and 70.58%, respectively, (P < 0.001) induced by carrageenan at 6 h when compared with control and standard drug (Indomethacin). On experimental trauma, M. officinalis L. essential oil showed pronounced reduction and inhibition of edema induced by carrageenan at 6 h at 200 and 400 mg/kg with 91.66% and 94.44%, respectively (P < 0.001). We can conclude that the essential oil of M. officinalis L. possesses potential anti-inflammatory activities, supporting the traditional application of this plant in treating various diseases associated with inflammation and pain. PMID:24381585

  6. Anti-inflammatory and wound healing potential of cashew apple juice (Anacardium occidentale L.) in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silveira Vasconcelos, Mirele; Gomes-Rochette, Neuza F; de Oliveira, Maria Liduína M; Nunes-Pinheiro, Diana Célia S; Tomé, Adriana R; Maia de Sousa, Francisco Yuri; Pinheiro, Francisco Geraldo M; Moura, Carlos Farley H; Miranda, Maria Raquel A; Mota, Erika Freitas; de Melo, Dirce Fernandes

    2015-12-01

    Cashew apple is a tropical pseudofruit consumed as juice due to its excellent nutritional and sensory properties. In spite of being well known for its important antioxidant properties, the cashew apple has not been thoroughly investigated for its therapeutic potential. Thereby, this study evaluated the antioxidant capacity, anti-inflammatory, and wound-healing activities of cashew apple juice. Juices from ripe and immature cashew apples were analyzed for antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and wound-healing properties. Those were evaluated in murine models of xylene-induced ear edema and wound excision. Swiss mice were treated with cashew juice by gavage. Edema thickness was measured and skin lesions were analyzed by planimetry and histology. Both antioxidant content and total antioxidant activity were higher in ripe cashew apple juice (RCAJ) than in unripe cashew apple juice (UNCAJ). The UNCAJ presented the main anti-inflammatory activity by a significant inhibition of ear edema (66.5%) when compared to RCAJ (10%). Moreover, UNCAJ also showed the best result for wound contraction (86.31%) compared to RCAJ (67.54%). Despite of higher antioxidant capacity, RCAJ did not promote better anti-inflammatory, and healing responses, which may be explained by the fact that treatment increased antioxidants level leading to a redox "imbalance" turning down the inflammatory response modulation exerted by reactive oxygen species (ROS). The results suggest that UNCAJ presents a greater therapeutic activity due to a synergistic effect of its phytochemical components, which improve the immunological mechanisms as well as an optimal balance between ROS and antioxidants leading to a better wound healing process. © 2015 by the Society for Experimental Biology and Medicine.

  7. Phytochemical composition, anti-inflammatory activity and cytotoxic effects of essential oils from three Pinus spp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basholli-Salihu, Mimoza; Schuster, Roswitha; Hajdari, Avni; Mulla, Dafina; Viernstein, Helmut; Mustafa, Behxhet; Mueller, Monika

    2017-12-01

    Inflammation and cell differentiation lead to a number of severe diseases. In the recent years, various studies focused on the anti-inflammatory and anticancer activity of essential oils (EOs) of numerous plants, including different Pinus species. The phytochemical composition, anti-inflammatory and cytotoxic activity of EOs from needles and twigs of Pinus heldreichii Christ (Pinaceae) and P. peuce Griseb., and from needles, twigs and cones of P. mugo Turra were determined. For separation and identification of the EOs, gas chromatography/flame ion detector (GC/FID) and GC/mass spectrometry were performed. The amount of secreted IL-6 in a lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated macrophage model was quantified (concentration of oils: 0.0001-0.2%, 3 h incubation). Cytotoxicity on the cancer cell lines HeLa, CaCo-2 and MCF-7 were determined using a MTT (Thiazolyl Blue Tetrazolium Bromide) assay (concentration of oils: 0.001-0.1%, 24 h incubation). The most prominent members in the oils include: δ-3-carene, α-pinene and linalool-acetate (P. mugo); α-pinene, β-phellandrene and β-pinene (P. peuce); limonene, α-pinene and (E)-caryophyllene (P. heldreichii). EOs showed significant cytotoxic effects on cancer cell lines (IC 50 0.007 to >0.1%), with a reduction in cell viability with up to 90% at a concentration of 0.1%, and anti-inflammatory activity (IC 50 0.0008-0.02%) with a reduction of IL-6 secretion with up to 60% at a concentration of 0.01%. The EOs of needles and twigs from P. peuce and P. heldreichii as well as of needles, twigs and cones of P. mugo can be considered as promising agents for anticancer and anti-inflammatory drugs.

  8. In ova angiogenesis analgesic and anti inflammatory potency of Aerva monsoniae (Amaranthaceae

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    Sandhya S

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate the wound healing potency of aqueous extract of Aerva monsoniae (A. monsoniae by in vitro method using fertilized eggs, in vivo analgesic and anti inflammatory activity in rodents and the anti bacterial activity on the bacterial strains that infect the wound. Methods: The whole plant of A. monsoniae was extracted with water and then subjected to preliminary chemical screening. It was then evaluated for in ova angiogenesis on fertilized white leg horn eggs using the concentrations of 200-600 毺 g/mL. The analgesic activity was evaluated in mice using the dose 100 and 250 mg/kg. The anti inflammatory activity was evaluated in rats using the dose 250 mg/kg and 500 mg/kg. In both the parameters water was used as the control and diclofenac was used the standard. The anti bacterial activity on Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aerugenosa was performed. Results: The phytochemical screening revealed the presence of tannins, flavonoids and saponins. The in ova angiogenesis revealed a dose dependent activity which proves the wound healing claim of the plant as more number of blood capillaries were formed at the site of the drug. The plant proved to be a potent analgesic and anti inflammatory agent at doses 1 00 mg/kg and 250 mg/kg. The anti bacterial activity was present but at higher doses. Conclusions: The parameters studied in the present investigation proved that the plant is a potent wound healer. Further in vivo wound healing studies on animal model is desired. As the extract showed potent analgesic, anti inflammatory and anti bacterial properties, it can be considered that when formulated into suitable formulation, and it can reduce the pain, inflammation and infections related to wound very well.

  9. Comparison of anti-inflammatory activity of nigella sativa and diclofenac sodium in albino rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bashir, M.U.; Qureshi, H.J.; Saleem, T.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Nigella sativa or Kalonji is a naturally occurring plant in Pakistan and other countries which possesses a wide range of medicinal properties, the anti-inflammatory property being one of these. Diclofenac sodium is a commonly used anti-inflammatory drug. The purpose of this study was to compare the anti-inflammatory effect of ethanolic extract of Nigella sativa seeds with that of diclofenac sodium in albino rats. Method: This laboratory randomized controlled trial (RCT) was conducted in the Physiology Department, Services Institute of Medical Sciences (SIMS), Lahore. The study was carried out on 90 male albino rats. Five percent formalin in a dose of 50 meu was injected into sub-plantar surface of right hind paw of each rat to produce inflammation. The rats were randomly divided into three groups of thirty each. Group A was given normal saline (control); group B was given Nigella sativa seed extract; and group C received diclofenac sodium, as a reference drug. Increase in paw diameter, and total and differential leukocyte counts were measured as markers of inflammation. Results: Nigella sativa seeds extract caused significant (p<0.05) reduction in the paw inflammatory response in albino rats. The effect was longer in duration than the effect caused by diclofenac sodium; however, the extract was comparatively less potent than diclofenac sodium. The extract had no significant effect (p>0.05) on the total or differential leukocyte counts. Conclusion: Our results suggest that ethanolic extract of Nigella sativa seeds possesses potent anti-inflammatory effect, in albino rats however, this effect is comparatively less but prolonged than that produced by diclofenac sodium. (author)

  10. What does a study of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug sales statistics give the Russian Federation?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viktoriya Georgievna Barskova

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper analyzes the data obtained by Pharmexpert on the sales of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs in the Russian Federation. Ibuprofen, ketorolac, diclofenac, and nimesulide are sales leaders. Possible reasons for the popularity of a number of medications and whether it is expedient to use intramuscular formulations are considered. The WHO data on indi-cations for and contraindications to the use of injectable dosage form are given.

  11. Neurostimulation of the cholinergic anti-inflammatory pathway ameliorates disease in rat collagen-induced arthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levine, Yaakov A; Koopman, Frieda A; Faltys, Michael; Caravaca, April; Bendele, Alison; Zitnik, Ralph; Vervoordeldonk, Margriet J; Tak, Paul Peter

    2014-01-01

    The inflammatory reflex is a physiological mechanism through which the nervous system maintains immunologic homeostasis by modulating innate and adaptive immunity. We postulated that the reflex might be harnessed therapeutically to reduce pathological levels of inflammation in rheumatoid arthritis by activating its prototypical efferent arm, termed the cholinergic anti-inflammatory pathway. To explore this, we determined whether electrical neurostimulation of the cholinergic anti-inflammatory pathway reduced disease severity in the collagen-induced arthritis model. Rats implanted with vagus nerve cuff electrodes had collagen-induced arthritis induced and were followed for 15 days. Animals underwent active or sham electrical stimulation once daily from day 9 through the conclusion of the study. Joint swelling, histology, and levels of cytokines and bone metabolism mediators were assessed. Compared with sham treatment, active neurostimulation of the cholinergic anti-inflammatory pathway resulted in a 52% reduction in ankle diameter (p = 0.02), a 57% reduction in ankle diameter (area under curve; p = 0.02) and 46% reduction overall histological arthritis score (p = 0.01) with significant improvements in inflammation, pannus formation, cartilage destruction, and bone erosion (p = 0.02), accompanied by numerical reductions in systemic cytokine levels, not reaching statistical significance. Bone erosion improvement was associated with a decrease in serum levels of receptor activator of NF-κB ligand (RANKL) from 132±13 to 6±2 pg/mL (mean±SEM, p = 0.01). The severity of collagen-induced arthritis is reduced by neurostimulation of the cholinergic anti-inflammatory pathway delivered using an implanted electrical vagus nerve stimulation cuff electrode, and supports the rationale for testing this approach in human inflammatory disorders.

  12. Neurostimulation of the cholinergic anti-inflammatory pathway ameliorates disease in rat collagen-induced arthritis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yaakov A Levine

    Full Text Available The inflammatory reflex is a physiological mechanism through which the nervous system maintains immunologic homeostasis by modulating innate and adaptive immunity. We postulated that the reflex might be harnessed therapeutically to reduce pathological levels of inflammation in rheumatoid arthritis by activating its prototypical efferent arm, termed the cholinergic anti-inflammatory pathway. To explore this, we determined whether electrical neurostimulation of the cholinergic anti-inflammatory pathway reduced disease severity in the collagen-induced arthritis model.Rats implanted with vagus nerve cuff electrodes had collagen-induced arthritis induced and were followed for 15 days. Animals underwent active or sham electrical stimulation once daily from day 9 through the conclusion of the study. Joint swelling, histology, and levels of cytokines and bone metabolism mediators were assessed.Compared with sham treatment, active neurostimulation of the cholinergic anti-inflammatory pathway resulted in a 52% reduction in ankle diameter (p = 0.02, a 57% reduction in ankle diameter (area under curve; p = 0.02 and 46% reduction overall histological arthritis score (p = 0.01 with significant improvements in inflammation, pannus formation, cartilage destruction, and bone erosion (p = 0.02, accompanied by numerical reductions in systemic cytokine levels, not reaching statistical significance. Bone erosion improvement was associated with a decrease in serum levels of receptor activator of NF-κB ligand (RANKL from 132±13 to 6±2 pg/mL (mean±SEM, p = 0.01.The severity of collagen-induced arthritis is reduced by neurostimulation of the cholinergic anti-inflammatory pathway delivered using an implanted electrical vagus nerve stimulation cuff electrode, and supports the rationale for testing this approach in human inflammatory disorders.

  13. [A short history of anti-rheumatic therapy. III. Non steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasero, G; Marson, P

    2010-01-01

    The chemical advances of the 20th century led to the synthesis of non steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), beginning from phenylbutazone and indomethacin and continuing with other new drugs, including ibuprofen, diclofenac, naproxen, piroxicam and, more recently, the highly selective COX-2 inhibitors (coxibs). This progress derived from the discovery of the mechanism of action of these drugs: the inhibition of synthesis of prostaglandins due to the cycloxigenase enzyme system, according to the experimental contributions of John R. Vane.

  14. Anti-Inflammatory and Immunoregulatory Functions of Artemisinin and Its Derivatives

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    Chenchen Shi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Artemisinin and its derivatives are widely used in the world as the first-line antimalarial drug. Recently, growing evidences reveal that artemisinin and its derivatives also possess potent anti-inflammatory and immunoregulatory properties. Meanwhile, researchers around the world are still exploring the unknown bioactivities of artemisinin derivatives. In this review, we provide a comprehensive discussion on recent advances of artemisinin derivatives affecting inflammation and autoimmunity, the underlying molecular mechanisms, and also drug development of artemisinins beyond antimalarial functions.

  15. Non-Steroidal Anti-Inflammatory Drugs: An Overview of Cardiovascular Risks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mart A.F.J. van de Laar

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available While aspirin may offer protection, other non-aspirin non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs can cause serious cardiovascular side effects and complications. This has led to a general "black box" warning for cardiovascular adverse events for NSAIDs. This review explores the different mechanisms underlying the protective effects of aspirin, the NSAID associated renovascular effects causing hypertension, edema and heart failure, the cardiovascular effects causing myocardial infarction and stroke, and the possible deleterious interaction between NSAIDs and aspirin.

  16. Biologically active components of a Papua New Guinea analgesic and anti-inflammatory lichen preparation

    OpenAIRE

    Bugni, Tim S.; Andjelic, Cynthia D.; Pole, Ann R.; Rai, Prem; Ireland, Chris M.; Barrows, Louis R.

    2009-01-01

    A traditional preparation of Parmotrema saccatilobum (Taylor) Hale (Family: Parmeliaceae) is being considered for inclusion into the PNG national drug formulary by the Ministry of Health Taskforce on Traditional Medicines. The lichen preparation is traditionally used in the Milne Bay province of Papua New Guinea for analgesic and anti-inflammatory activities. A hexane extract of Parmotrema saccatilobum yielded the principle components atranorin and chloroatranorin. Atranorin and chloroatranor...

  17. Kaempferol and Kaempferol Rhamnosides with Depigmenting and Anti-Inflammatory Properties

    OpenAIRE

    Rho, Ho Sik; Ghimeray, Amal Kumar; Yoo, Dae Sung; Ahn, Soo Mi; Kwon, Sun Sang; Lee, Keun Ha; Cho, Dong Ha; Cho, Jae Youl

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this study was to examine the biological activity of kaempferol and its rhamnosides. We isolated kaempferol (1), a-rhamnoisorobin (2), afzelin (3), and kaempferitrin (4) as pure compounds by far-infrared (FIR) irradiation of kenaf (Hibiscus cannabinus L.) leaves. The depigmenting and anti-inflammatory activity of the compounds was evaluated by analyzing their structure-activity relationships. The order of the inhibitory activity with regard to depigmentation and nitric oxide ...

  18. Anti-inflammatory Effects of Thiazolidinediones in Human Airway Smooth Muscle Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Ming; Flynt, Lesley; Ghosh, Sanjukta; Mellema, Matt; Banerjee, Audreesh; Williams, Erin; Panettieri, Reynold A.; Shore, Stephanie A.

    2011-01-01

    Airway smooth muscle (ASM) cells have been reported to contribute to the inflammation of asthma. Because the thiazolidinediones (TZDs) exert anti-inflammatory effects, we examined the effects of troglitazone and rosiglitazone on the release of inflammatory moieties from cultured human ASM cells. Troglitazone dose-dependently reduced the IL-1β–induced release of IL-6 and vascular endothelial growth factor, the TNF-α–induced release of eotaxin and regulated on activation, normal T expressed and secreted (RANTES), and the IL-4–induced release of eotaxin. Rosiglitazone also inhibited the TNF-α–stimulated release of RANTES. Although TZDs are known to activate peroxisome proliferator–activated receptor-γ (PPARγ), these anti-inflammatory effects were not affected by a specific PPARγ inhibitor (GW 9662) or by the knockdown of PPARγ using short hairpin RNA. Troglitazone and rosiglitazone each caused the activation of adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK), as detected by Western blotting using a phospho-AMPK antibody. The anti-inflammatory effects of TZDs were largely mimicked by the AMPK activators, 5-amino-4-imidazolecarboxamide ribose (AICAR) and metformin. However, the AMPK inhibitors, Ara A and Compound C, were not effective in preventing the anti-inflammatory effects of troglitazone or rosiglitzone, suggesting that the effects of these TZDs are likely not mediated through the activation of AMPK. These data indicate that TZDs inhibit the release of a variety of inflammatory mediators from human ASM cells, suggesting that they may be useful in the treatment of asthma, and the data also indicate that the effects of TZDs are not mediated by PPARγ or AMPK. PMID:20870897

  19. The Anti-Inflammatory properties of interleukin 18 binding protein in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study pointed out that IL-18BPa has additional anti-inflammatory property through downregulating the expression of IFN-ã and IL-12, at the same time, upregulating the expression of IL-4 and IL-10. Both IFN-ã and IL-12 could upregulated the mRNA and protein levels of IL-18BPa in both the normal and RA subjects.

  20. Therapies aimed at the gut microbiota and inflammation: antibiotics, prebiotics, probiotics, synbiotics, anti-inflammatory therapies.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Quigley, Eamonn M M

    2011-03-01

    Several recent observations have raised the possibility that disturbances in the gut microbiota and\\/or a low-grade inflammatory state may contribute to symptomatology and the etiology of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). Consequent on these hypotheses, several therapeutic categories have found their way into the armamentarium of those who care for IBS sufferers. These agents include probiotics, prebiotics, antibiotics, and anti-inflammatory agents.