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Sample records for anticipated organic conductors

  1. Organic Conductors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Jan Rud; Jacobsen, Claus S.; Rindorf, Grethe;

    1975-01-01

    2,3,6,7-Tetramethyl-1,4,5,8-tetraselenafulvalene reacts with 2,5-dimethyl-7,7′,8,8′-tetracyano-p-quinodi-methane to give a highly conducting organic solid.......2,3,6,7-Tetramethyl-1,4,5,8-tetraselenafulvalene reacts with 2,5-dimethyl-7,7′,8,8′-tetracyano-p-quinodi-methane to give a highly conducting organic solid....

  2. Focus on Organic Conductors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shinya Uji, Takehiko Mori and Toshihiro Takahashi

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Organic materials are usually thought of as electrical insulators. Progress in chemical synthesis, however, has brought us a rich variety of conducting organic materials, which can be classified into conducting polymers and molecular crystals. Researchers can realize highly conducting molecular crystals in charge-transfer complexes, where suitable combinations of organic electron donor or acceptor molecules with counter ions or other organic molecules provide charge carriers. By means of a kind of chemical doping, the charge-transfer complexes exhibit high electrical conductivity and, thanks to their highly crystalline nature, even superconductivity has been observed. This focus issue of Science and Technology of Advanced Materials is devoted to the research into such 'organic conductors'The first organic metal was (TTF(TCNQ, which was found in 1973 to have high conductivity at room temperature and a metal–insulator transition at low temperatures. The first organic superconductor was (TMTSF2PF6, whose superconductivity under high pressures was reported by J´erome in 1980. After these findings, the research on organic conductors exploded. Hundreds of organic conductors have been reported, among which more than one hundred exhibit superconductivity. Recently, a single-component organic conductor has been found with metallic conductivity down to low temperatures.In these organic conductors, in spite of their simple electronic structures, much new physics has arisen from the low dimensionality. Examples are charge and spin density waves, characteristic metal–insulator transitions, charge order, unconventional superconductivity, superconductor–insulator transitions, and zero-gap conductors with Dirac cones. The discovery of this new physics is undoubtedly derived from the development of many intriguing novel organic conductors. High quality single crystals are indispensable to the precise measurement of electronic states.This focus issue

  3. Conductive Mechanism of Organic Conductor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Organic conductor is a kind of organic compound which has special electronic and magnetic properties. The research of the organic compounds has received considerable attention because of their potential applications in many areas. The molecular conductive units are theoretically investigated as well as their energy gap and charge distribution. The relationship of conductivity and micro-mechanism is discussed.

  4. Recent progress in high-pressure studies on organic conductors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syuma Yasuzuka and Keizo Murata

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Recent high-pressure studies of organic conductors and superconductors are reviewed. The discovery of the highest Tc superconductivity among organics under high pressure has triggered the further progress of the high-pressure research. Owing to this finding, various organic conductors with the strong electron correlation were investigated under high pressures. This review includes the pressure techniques using the cubic anvil apparatus, as well as high-pressure studies of the organic conductors up to 10 GPa showing extraordinary temperature and pressure dependent transport phenomena.

  5. Organic Conductors: Evidence for Correlation Effects in Infrared Properties

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Claus Schelde; Johannsen, Ib; Bechgaard, Klaus

    1984-01-01

    The infrared conductivities of four organic conductors with partially filled one-electron bands are compared. The behavior ranges from near Drude type in the best metal to semiconductorlike in the moderate conductor. Electron-molecular-vibration coupling effects of varying degree are seen in all ...... materials. It is suggested that the combined effect of electron-electron interaction and electron-phonon interaction in producing 4kF charge-density waves is essential for interpreting the results....

  6. Anticipated regret and organ donor registration: a randomised controlled trial

    OpenAIRE

    O'Carroll, Ronan; Shepherd, Lee; Hayes, Peter; Ferguson, Eamonn

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To test whether simply asking people to rate the extent to which they anticipate feeling regret for not registering as an organ donor after death increases subsequent verified organ donor registration. Methods: 14,509 members of the general public (both registered and non-registered donors) were randomly allocated to 1 of 4 arms, each receiving different questionnaires. The no-questionnaire control (NQC) arm received a survey measuring demographics and whether or not they were...

  7. Organic conductors as novel ``molecular rulers`` for advanced manufacturing processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williams, J.M.

    1995-12-31

    Future advanced manufacturing equipment used in high technology programs will require ultra-high precision and associated machining tool operations that require placement accuracy of {approximately} 1--100 nm (1 nm = 10 {angstrom}). There is consensus among engineers that this equipment will be based on STM (Scanning Tunneling Microscope) technology. All such STM-based ``drivers`` must contain a metrology system that requires absolute length standards referenced to atomic spacings for calibration. Properly designed organic conductor substrate crystals have the potential to be molecular rulers for STM-based advanced manufacturing equipment. The major challenges in future organic conductor research aimed at STM metrology application are listed.

  8. Irradiation induced disorder in organic conductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present a brief survey of several recent experimental results concerning the transport properties of irradiated 1D. conductors, and we show that a reasonable knowledge of the mechanisms which account for the changes in the D.C. conductivity either at high or low temperatures has been obtained. These mechanisms are: firstly the 1-D blocking effects of defects and subsequent transverse fixed range phonon activated hopping of single electrons in the metallic regime, and secondly the charge density waves pinning either in the metallic or the insulating regime. As a conclusion we show that it is difficult in most of the cases to distinguish between disorded systems and intrinsic or so-called pure ones

  9. Superconductivity and Antiferromagnetism in Quasi-one-dimensional Organic Conductors

    OpenAIRE

    Dupuis, N.; Bourbonnais, C.; Nickel, J. C.

    2005-01-01

    We review the current understanding of superconductivity in the quasi-one-dimensional organic conductors of the Bechgaard and Fabre salt families. We discuss the interplay between superconductivity, antiferromagnetism, and charge-density-wave fluctuations. The connection to recent experimental observations supporting unconventional pairing and the possibility of a triplet-spin order parameter for the superconducting phase is also presented.

  10. Non-equilibrium and band tailing in organic conductors

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    A T Oza; P C Vinodkumar; R G Patel

    2003-03-01

    The concept of band tailing with focal point and width of the tail from IR absorption spectra of different organic conductors is found valid even for thermal and elastic changes. The experimental situations like change of solvents, method of preparation, applied pressure and pressure cycle apart from compositions is analyzed within the framework of tailing of states. Non-equilibrium due to coupling between applied energy and free electrons can be responsible for the exponential relaxation from non-equilibrium to equilibrium.

  11. Organic conductor/high-Tc superconductor bilayer structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Electrochemical techniques are exploited to fabricate conducive polymer/high-Tc superconductor bilayer structures. Scanning electron microscopy and electrochemical techniques are utilized to characterize the electrodeposition of polypyrrole layers grown onto YBa2Cu3O7-δ films. In such hybrid polymer/superconductor systems, it is found that when the polymer is oxidized to its conductive state, the transition temperature (Tc) and critical currents (Jc) of the underlying superconductor films are suppressed. Reversible modulation of the values of the transition temperatures of up to 50 K are noted for these structures. Upon reduction of the conductive polymer layer back to its non-conductive form, both Tc and Jc are found to return to values close to those acquired for the underivatized YBa2Cu3O7-δ films. Moreover, measurements as a function of temperature of the polymer/superconductor interface resistance show dramatic decrease in this value at Tc. Also, estimates of superconducting coherence lengths within the organic conductor samples suggest superconducting properties over macroscopically large distances within the organic materials can be expected. Collectively these results are consistent with the first observation of a conductive polymer proximity effect

  12. Magneto-optical studies of low-dimensional organic conductors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hitoshi Ohta, Motoi Kimata and Yugo Oshima

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Our periodic orbit resonance (POR results on quasi-two-dimensional (q2D, highly anisotropic q2D and quasi-one-dimensional (q1D organic conductors are reviewed together with our rotational cavity magneto-optical measurement system. Higher order POR up to seventh order has been observed in the q2D system (BEDT-TTF2Br(DIA, and the experimental conditions to observe POR and the cyclotron resonance (CR are discussed. Highly anisotropic q2D Fermi surface (FS in β''-(BEDT-TTF(TCNQ, which was considered to have q1D FS previously, is proposed by our POR measurements, and the possible interpretations of other experimental results of β''-(BEDT-TTF(TCNQ are discussed assuming the highly anisotropic q2D FS. Finally, detailed q1D FS of (DMET2I3, obtained from our POR results, is discussed in connection with the typical q1D system (TMTSF2ClO4.

  13. An Organic Mixed Ion–Electron Conductor for Power Electronics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Malti, Abdellah; Edberg, Jesper; Granberg, Hjalmar;

    2016-01-01

    A mixed ionic–electronic conductor based on nanofibrillated cellulose composited with poly(3,4-ethylene-dioxythio­phene):­poly(styrene-sulfonate) along with high boiling point solvents is demonstrated in bulky electrochemical devices. The high electronic and ionic conductivities of the resulting...

  14. Increasing organ donation via anticipated regret (INORDAR: protocol for a randomised controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O'Carroll Ronan E

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Throughout the world there is an insufficient supply of donor organs to meet the demand for organ transplantations. This paper presents a protocol for a randomised controlled trial, testing whether a simple, theory-based anticipated regret manipulation leads to a significant increase in posthumous organ donor registrations. Methods We will use a between-groups, prospective randomised controlled design. A random sample of 14,520 members of the adult Scottish general public will be contacted via post. These participants will be randomly allocated into 1 of the 4 conditions. The no questionnaire control (NQC group will simply receive a letter and donor registration form. The questionnaire control (QC arm will receive a questionnaire measuring their emotions and non-cognitive affective attitudes towards organ donation. The theory of planned behavior (TPB group will complete the emotions and affective attitudes questionnaire plus additional items assessing their cognitive attitudes towards organ donation, perceived control over registration and how they think significant others view this action. Finally, the anticipated regret (AR group will complete the same indices as the TPB group, plus two additional anticipated regret items. These items will assess the extent to which the participant anticipates regret for not registering as an organ donor in the near future. The outcome variable will be NHS Blood and Transplant verified registrations as an organ donor within 6 months of receiving our postal intervention. Discussion This study will assess whether simply asking people to reflect on the extent to which they may anticipate regret for not registering as an organ donor increases organ donor registration 6 months later. If successful, this simple and easy to administer theory-based intervention has the potential to save lives and money for the NHS by reducing the number of people receiving treatments such as dialysis. This

  15. Magnetism and electronic transport in irradiated organic conductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quasi-one-dimensional conductors are metallic in a large temperature range. The electronic gas instability can drive a phase transition at low temperature. In one-dimensional conditions, precursor fluctuations grow in the high temperature regime and can give a collective current transport. Under irradiation the quasi-one-dimensional electrons are localized and the conductivity becomes typical of a phonon assisted tunneling between metallic particles. In this study we describe the magnetism of this localized electrons. This disorder reduces the interaction between electronic spins and phonons and favours the interaction between localized spins. But if the electronic gas is less one-dimensional, irradiation disorder can not localize electrons. Our conductivity measurements prove that the disorder first reduces the electronic relaxation before induces the above mentioned localization. Moreover the fluctuative conductivity is revealed by irradiation thanks to a discrepancy with respect to one-electron model. TTF-TCNQ and (TMTSF)2ClO4 are investigated in that way

  16. Spectroscopy of charge transfer complexes of four amino acids as organic two-dimensional conductors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Padhiyar, Ashvin; Patel, A J; Oza, A T [Department of Physics, Sardar Patel University, Vallabh Vidyanagar-388 120, Gujarat (India)

    2007-12-05

    It is found in this study that four amino acids, namely asparagine, arginine, histidine and glutamine form two-dimensional conducting systems which are charge transfer complexes (CTCs) with organic acceptors like TCNQ, TCNE, chloranil, DDQ, TNF and iodine. It is verified using optical absorption edges that these are 2d conductors like transition metal dichalcogenides obeying absorption functions different from 1d and 3d conductors. This 2d nature is related to the network of intermolecular H-bonding in these complexes, which leads to a global H-bonded network resulting in the absence of local deformation due to the relaxation of strain.

  17. Influence of an external stress of irradiation on conductivity of unidimensional organic conductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Irradiation experiments are a convenient way to study effect of defects on transitions of organic conductors: TTF-TCNQ, TSF-TCNQ and their hexamethyl derivative, in particular of a potential bound to a defect in the Peierls field. Defects were studied in the metallic state and deviation to the Matthiessen law were confirmed. Influence of a deformation on electrical conductivity of TTF-TCNQ is shown. Data acquisition is described

  18. Correlation versus surface effects in photoemission of quasi-1D organic conductors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Claessen, R.; Schwingenschlogl, U.; Sing, M.; Jacobsen, Claus Schelde; Dressel, M.

    2002-01-01

    The absence of spectral weight at the Fermi level in photoemission spectra of quasi-1D organic conductors has been interpreted as possible evidence for an unusual many-body state. We demonstrate that great care must be exercised to draw this conclusion exclusively on the basis of a pseudogap. A...... detailed surface characterization of the charge transfer salts (TMTSF)(2)PFt(6) and TTF-TCNQ shows that signatures of electronic correlations in the valence band spectra are strongly affected by surface effects and may even be completely obscured....

  19. Correlation versus surface effects in photoemission of quasi-1D organic conductors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Claessen, R.; Schwingenschlogl, U.; Sing, M.; Jacobsen, Claus Schelde; Dressel, M.

    2002-01-01

    The absence of spectral weight at the Fermi level in photoemission spectra of quasi-1D organic conductors has been interpreted as possible evidence for an unusual many-body state. We demonstrate that great care must be exercised to draw this conclusion exclusively on the basis of a pseudogap. A d...... detailed surface characterization of the charge transfer salts (TMTSF)(2)PFt(6) and TTF-TCNQ shows that signatures of electronic correlations in the valence band spectra are strongly affected by surface effects and may even be completely obscured....

  20. Next generation bioelectronics: Advances in fabrication coupled with clever chemistries enable the effective integration of biomaterials and organic conductors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul J. Molino

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Organic bioelectronics is making an enormous impact in the field of tissue engineering, providing not just biocompatible, but biofunctional conducting material platforms. For their true potential to be reached, it is critical to integrate organic conductors with other biopolymers in a targeted manner, allowing the development of devices and scaffold architectures capable of delivering a number of physical, chemical, and electrical stimuli. Herein, we provide an overview of the methods currently being employed to tailor organic conductors for bioapplications, with a focus on the development of fabrication techniques vital to the development of the next generation of intelligent bionic devices.

  1. Next generation bioelectronics: Advances in fabrication coupled with clever chemistries enable the effective integration of biomaterials and organic conductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molino, Paul J.; Wallace, Gordon G.

    2015-01-01

    Organic bioelectronics is making an enormous impact in the field of tissue engineering, providing not just biocompatible, but biofunctional conducting material platforms. For their true potential to be reached, it is critical to integrate organic conductors with other biopolymers in a targeted manner, allowing the development of devices and scaffold architectures capable of delivering a number of physical, chemical, and electrical stimuli. Herein, we provide an overview of the methods currently being employed to tailor organic conductors for bioapplications, with a focus on the development of fabrication techniques vital to the development of the next generation of intelligent bionic devices.

  2. Multidimensional Nature of Molecular Organic Conductors Revealed by Angular Magnetoresistance Oscillations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pashupati Dhakal, Harukazu Yoshino, Jeong-Il Oh, Koichi Kikuchi, Michael J. Naughton

    2012-09-01

    Angle-dependent magnetoresistance experiments on organic conductors exhibit a wide range of angular oscillations associated with the dimensionality and symmetry of the crystal structure and electron energy dispersion. In particular, characteristics associated with 1, 2, and 3-dimensional electronic motion are separately revealed when a sample is rotated through different crystal planes in a magnetic field. Originally discovered in the TMTSF-based conductors, these effects are particularly pronounced in the related system (DMET){sub 2}I{sub 3}. Here, experimental and computational results for magnetoresistance oscillations in this material, over a wide range of magnetic field orientations, are presented in such a manner as to uniquely highlight this multidimensional behavior. The calculations employ the Boltzmann transport equation that incorporates the system's triclinic crystal structure, which allows for accurate estimates of the transfer integrals along the crystallographic axes, verifying the 1D, 2D and 3D nature of (DMET){sub 2}I{sub 3}, as well as crossovers between dimensions in the electronic behavior.

  3. Synthesis and redox behavior of new ferrocene-π-extended-dithiafulvalenes: An approach for anticipated organic conductors

    OpenAIRE

    Abdelwareth A. O. Sarhan; Mohammed, Omar F.; Izumi, Taeko

    2009-01-01

    A number of new ferrocene-π-extended-dithiafulvalenes were successfully synthesized as new electron donor compounds. The chemical structures and electrochemical behaviors of these compounds were investigated using several spectroscopic methods. The synthesis of these compounds was achieved using the modified Wittig–Horner cross-coupling reaction using n-BuLi/THF at temperature varies from −78 °C to 0 °C. These new classes of bis(1,3-dithiafulvalene)ferrocenes have the 1,3-dithiole ring system...

  4. Photoinduced melting of charge order in quasi-two-dimensional organic conductors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tanaka, Yasuhiro; Yonemitsu, Kenji, E-mail: yasuhiro@ims.ac.j [Institute for Molecular Science, Okazaki, Aichi 444-8585 (Japan)

    2009-02-01

    Photoinduced melting of charge order in quasi-two-dimensional organic conductors alpha-(ET){sub 2}I{sub 3} (ET=BEDT-TTF) and theta-(ET){sub 2}RbZn(SCN){sub 4} is investigated theoretically. By solving the time-dependent Schroedinger equation numerically within the Hartree-Fock approximation for an extended Peierls-Hubbard model, we study the photoinduced dynamics in each compound. The obtained charge, spin and lattice dynamics are considered to reflect the different natures of charge ordered states in these systems. In particular, the melting of charge order needs more energy for theta-(ET){sub 2}RbZn(SCN){sub 4} than for alpha-(ET){sub 2}I{sub 3}, which is a consequence of large lattice distortion and the essential role of electron-phonon coupling in stabilizing the charge order in theta-(ET){sub 2}RbZn(SCN){sub 4}.

  5. 77Se-NMR study of quasi-one dimensional organic conductor (TMTSF)2X

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quasi-one dimensional organic conductor (TMTSF)2X with octahedral anions X = PF6, AsF6, and SbF6 have been studied by NMR measurements at the Se-sites which are substantially responsible for conductivity in this system. Close resemblances in the temperature dependence of the spin-lattice relaxation rate 1/T1 and the evolution of internal field in the SDW state were observed in the three measured compounds. The existence of the sub-phases in the SDW phase of all these compounds, which is evidenced by T1 but not from spectrum measurements, indicates that this is a common feature among (TMTSF)2X system with an incommensurate SDW wave number and is associated with dynamic property rather than static one.

  6. Transport Properties of the Organic Conductor (TMTSF)2BrO4: Evidence of Variable Range Hopping

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Kell; Jacobsen, Claus Schelde; Bechgaard, Klaus;

    1984-01-01

    A study of d.c. and microwave conductivity and thermoelectric power of the organic conductor (TMTSF)2BrO4 is presented. The transport properties are in qualitative agreement with charge transport via variable-range hopping among localized states. The localization is attributed to the anions, which...

  7. Spectroscopic signatures of spin-charge separation in the quasi-one-dimensional organic conductor TTF-TCNQ

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Claessen, R.; Sing, M.; Schwingenschlogl, U.; Blaha, P.; Dressel, M.; Jacobsen, Claus Schelde

    2002-01-01

    The electronic structure of the quasi-one-dimensional organic conductor TTF-TCNQ is studied by angle-resolved photoelectron spectroscopy (ARPES). The experimental spectra reveal significant discrepancies to band theory. We demonstrate that the measured dispersions can be consistently mapped onto...

  8. Next generation bioelectronics: Advances in fabrication coupled with clever chemistries enable the effective integration of biomaterials and organic conductors

    OpenAIRE

    Paul J. Molino; Gordon G. Wallace

    2015-01-01

    Organic bioelectronics is making an enormous impact in the field of tissue engineering, providing not just biocompatible, but biofunctional conducting material platforms. For their true potential to be reached, it is critical to integrate organic conductors with other biopolymers in a targeted manner, allowing the development of devices and scaffold architectures capable of delivering a number of physical, chemical, and electrical stimuli. Herein, we provide an overview of the methods current...

  9. Attractive mechanical properties of a lightweight highly sensitive bi layer thermistor: polycarbonate/organic molecular conductor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laukhina, E.; Lebedev, V.; Rovira, C.; Laukhin, V.; Veciana, J.

    2016-03-01

    The paper covers some of the basic mechanical characteristics of a recently developed bi layer thermistor: polycarbonate/(001) oriented layer of organic molecular conductor α’-(BEDT-TTF)2IxBr3-x, were BEDT-TTF=bis(ethylenedithio)tetrathiafulvalen. The nano and macro mechanical properties have been studied in order to use this flexible, low cost thermistor in sensing applications by proper way. The nano-mechanical properties of the temperature sensitive semiconducting layer of α’-(BEDT-TTF)2IxBr3-x were tested using nanoindentation method. The value of Young's modulus in direction being perpendicular to the layer plan was found as 9.0 ±1.4 GPa. The macro mechanical properties of the thermistor were studied using a 5848 MicroTester. The tensile tests showed that basic mechanical characteristics of the thermistor are close to those of polycarbonate films. This indicates a good mechanical strength of the developed sensor. Therefore, the thermistor can be used in technologies that need to be instrumented with highly robustness lightweight low cost temperature sensors. The paper also reports synthetic details on fabricating temperature sensing e-textile. As the temperature control is becoming more and more important in biomedical technologies like healthcare monitoring, this work strongly contributes on the ongoing research on engineering sensitive conducting materials for biomedical applications.

  10. Electronic and magnetic properties of organic conductors (DMET)2MBr4 (M=Fe, Ga)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    (DMET)2MBr4 (M=Fe, Ga) are isostructural organic conductors whose crystal structure consists of an alternate stacking of quasi one-dimensional chain-based donor layers and anion square lattices. The resistivity, ESR, magnetic susceptibility, magnetization, and magnetoresistance of these salts were investigated in order to clarify the correlation between the electronic structure and the magnetism. The electronic structures of both salts are metallic down to TMI - 40 K, below which a Mott insulating state is stabilized, accompanied by an SDW transition at TSDW - 25 K. The FeBr4 salt with Fe3+ (S=5/2) localized spins undergoes an antiferromagnetic transition at TN = 3.7 K. In the FeBr4 salt, the magnetization curves, which show field-direction-dependent anomalies in addition to a spin-flop transition, are demonstrated to have a participation of donor π-electron spins in the magnetization processes. The field dependence of the magnetoresistances below TN tracks faithfully that of the magnetization, where the donor π-electrons and Fe3+ d-electrons are responsible for the former and the latter, respectively. This clearly demonstrates the presence of the π-d interaction that plays an important role in the interplay between electron transport and magnetism. (author)

  11. High Field Magnetoresistance and Magnetic Torque in One-Dimensional Organic Conductor TPP[Fe(Pc)(CN)2]2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimata, M.; Satsukawa, H.; Takahide, Y.; Terashima, T.; Uji, S.; Matsuda, M.; Tajima, H.; Naito, T.; Inabe, T.

    2010-04-01

    Magnetoresistance (MR) and magnetic torque measurements are performed for a magnetic organic conductor TPP[Fe(Pc)(CN)2]2. The results suggest that the large negative MR is associated with a magnetic transition. This magnetic transition is considered as a metamagnetic transition of the localized Fe moments, and the MR effect is qualitatively explained by an analogy with the double exchange interaction system.

  12. Car 'organ-transplant': anticipating energy and environmental benefits of cleaner technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moura, Filipe; Viegas, Jose Manuel (CESUR/Inst. Superior Tecnico (Portugal))

    2009-07-01

    The transport sector faces multiple challenges including the accommodation of increasing fuel prices and environmental pressures. These hurdles become more important in road transport where cars hold a larger share of final energy consumption and emissions. Although not solved, the situation is improving in general and the question of accelerating the transition to new technologies is dominant, yet not sufficient. Technological turnover of car fleets is determined by the replacement of older vehicles by new models. Depending on the diffusion of new cars and driving forces for technological change, the total displacement of older technologies can last 10 to more than 40 years. Car Organ Transplant (COT) is explored here as a complementary alternative to conventional technological turnover of fleets by which potential benefits are delayed as obsolete technologies continue to pollute at preceding levels. COT corresponds to replacing obsolete powertrain and ancillary equipments with cleaner technologies. Consequently, car's service time is extended with upgraded and fully functional technologies. We analyzed lifecycle environmental and economic benefits of COT by comparing different car-ownership approaches over 20 years: keeping car, buying new car, buying remarketed-car; buying transplanted-car or transplanting own car. We concluded that COT is potentially attractive for owners while improving energy and environmental performance of automobility. Additionally, we estimated the pervasiveness of COT in the Portuguese car fleet and corresponding impacts. We concluded that COT potentially yields significant energy and environmental benefits for society. Barriers and implications of COT for the automotive industry were identified. Importantly, increased standardization, modularity-in-design and modularity-in-production are necessary. Lastly, new relationships between car makers and customers may arise like 'evolutionary car selling' by which planned COT

  13. Photoinduced melting and charge order in quarter-filled organic conductors: Itinerant electron systems with competing interactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yonemitsu, Kenji; Tanaka, Yasuhiro; Miyashita, Satoshi [Institute for Molecular Science, Okazaki 444-8585 (Japan); Maeshima, Nobuya, E-mail: kxy@ims.ac.j [Institute of Materials Science, University of Tsukuba, Tsukuba 305-8573 (Japan)

    2009-02-01

    Photoinduced charge dynamics in one- and two-dimensional organic conductors are studied theoretically in extended Peierls-Hubbard models. For quasi-one-dimensional (EDO-TTF){sub 2}PF{sub 6}, photoinduced change in the charge order pattern from (0110) to (1010) is accompanied by probe-energy-dependent oscillations of conductivity. This is caused by coexistence of charge order and delocalized electrons. For quasi-two-dimensional alpha-(BEDT-TTF){sub 2}I{sub 3} and theta-(BEDT-TTF){sub 2}RbZn(SCN){sub 4}, photoinduced melting of the horizontal-stripe charge order proceeds easier in the alpha-type salt than in the theta-type salt. This is because the charge order in the theta-type salt is more strongly stabilized by electron-phonon interactions.

  14. Comparison of conductor and dielectric inks in printed organic complementary transistors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Tse Nga; Mei, Ping; Whiting, Gregory L.; Schwartz, David E.; Abraham, Biby; Wu, Yiliang; Veres, Janos

    2014-10-01

    Two types of printable conductor and a bilayer gate dielectric are evaluated for use in all-additive, inkjetprinted complementary OTFTs. The Ag nanoparticle ink based on nonpolar alkyl amine surfactant or stabilizer enables good charge injection into p-channel devices, but this ink also leaves residual stabilizer that modifies the transistor backchannel and shifts the turn-on voltage to negative values. The Ag ink based on polar solvent requires dopant modification to improve charge injection to p-channel devices, but this ink allows the OTFT turn-on voltage to be close to 0 V. The reverse trend is observed for n-channel OTFTs. For gate insulator, a bilayer dielectric is demonstrated that combines the advantages of two types of insulator materials, in which a fluoropolymer reduces dipolar disorder at the semiconductor-dielectric interface, while a high-k PVDF terpolymer dielectric facilitates high gate capacitance. The dielectric is incorporated into an inverter and a three-stage ring oscillator, and the resulting circuits were demonstrated to operate at a supply voltage as low as 2 V, with bias stress levels comparable to circuits with other types of dielectrics.

  15. Theoretical study of the zero-gap organic conductor α-(BEDT-TTF2I3

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akito Kobayashi, Shinya Katayama and Yoshikazu Suzumura

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The quasi-two-dimensional molecular conductor α-(BEDT-TTF2I3 exhibits anomalous transport phenomena where the temperature dependence of resistivity is weak but the ratio of the Hall coefficient at 10 K to that at room temperature is of the order of 104. These puzzling phenomena were solved by predicting massless Dirac fermions, whose motions are described using the tilted Weyl equation with anisotropic velocity. α-(BEDT-TTF2I3 is a unique material among several materials with Dirac fermions, i.e. graphene, bismuth, and quantum wells such as HgTe, from the view-points of both the structure and electronic states described as follows. α-(BEDT-TTF2I3 has the layered structure with highly two-dimensional massless Dirac fermions. The anisotropic velocity and incommensurate momenta of the contact points, ±k0, originate from the inequivalency of the BEDT-TTF sites in the unit cell, where ±k0 moves in the first Brillouin zone with increasing pressure. The massless Dirac fermions exist in the presence of the charge disproportionation and are robust against the increase in pressure. The electron densities on those inequivalent BEDT-TTF sites exhibit anomalous momentum distributions, reflecting the angular dependences of the wave functions around the contact points. Those unique electronic properties affect the spatial oscillations of the electron densities in the vicinity of an impurity. A marked behavior of the Hall coefficient, where the sign of the Hall coefficient reverses sharply but continuously at low temperatures around 5 K, is investigated by treating the interband effects of the magnetic field exactly. It is shown that such behavior is possible by assuming the existence of the extremely small amount of electron doping. The enhancement of the orbital diamagnetism is also expected. The results of the present research shed light on a new aspect of Dirac fermion physics, i.e. the emergence of unique electronic properties owing to the structure

  16. Uniaxial strain effects on transport properties of a supramolecular organic conductor θ-(DIETS)2[Au(CN)4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pressure-controlled switching between an insulating state and a superconducting state has been successfully realized on a supramolecular organic conductor θ-(DIETS)2[Au(CN)4] [DIETS = diiodo(ethylenedithio)diselenadithiafulvalene]. Strong contact between iodine on the donor (DIETS) molecule and nitrogen on the anion [Au(CN)4] genetates characteristic uniaxial strain effects on transport properties. Under the ambient pressure, the present system undergoes a semiconductor-insulator transition at 226 K. The effect of strains parallel to the conduction plane (ab-plane) is very small. Even under uniaxial strains up to 20 kbar along the a- and b-axis directions, the transition is not suppressed. Surprisingly, however, the c-axis strain induces a superconducting state with Tc of 8.6 K at 10 kbar. Band parameter calculation and the conductivity anisotropy ratio suggest that an increase in the bandwidth W associated with a c-axis strain transforms the system to the metallic and superconducting states. In the metallic state under c-axis strain, the temperature (T) dependence of the Hall coefficient (RH) and the Hall angle (θH) is expressed as RH ∝ T-1 and cotθH ∝ T2. (author)

  17. Electronic properties close to Dirac cone in two-dimensional organic conductor α-(BEDT-TTF)2I3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katayama, S.; Kobayashi, A.; Suzumura, Y.

    2009-01-01

    A zero-gap state (ZGS) has been found in a bulk system of two-dimensional organic conductor, α-(BEDT-TTF)2I3 salt which consists of four sites of donor molecules in a unit cell. In the present paper, the characteristic of the ZGS is analyzed in detail and the electronic properties are examined in the vicinity of the Dirac point where the conduction and valence bands degenerate to form the zero-gap. The eigenvectors of the energy band have four components of respective sites, where two of them correspond to inequivalent sites and the other two correspond to equivalent sites. It is shown that the former exhibits an exotic momentum dependence around the contact point and the latter shows almost a constant dependence. The density of states of each site close to the Dirac point is calculated to demonstrate the temperature dependence of the local magnetic susceptibility and the local nuclear magnetic relaxation rate. Further, the robust property of the ZGS against the anion potential is also shown by using the second-order perturbation.

  18. Shubnikov-de Haas Effect and Angular-Dependent Magnetoresistance in Layered Organic Conductor β''-(ET)(TCNQ)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yasuzuka, Syuma; Uji, Shinya; Konoike, Takako; Terashima, Taichi; Graf, David; Choi, Eun Sang; Brooks, James S.; Yamamoto, Hiroshi M.; Kato, Reizo

    2016-08-01

    This paper reports the experimental results of the Shubnikov-de Haas (SdH) effect and angular-dependent magnetoresistance oscillation (AMRO) for the organic conductor β''-(ET)(TCNQ). We observed several two dimensional (2D) SdH frequencies, whose cross-sectional areas of the Fermi surfaces (FSs) correspond to only a few percent of the first Brillouin zone. Such small 2D FSs are not predicted by band-structure calculations, suggesting that these FS pockets are created by an imperfect nesting of FSs at low temperatures. It is found that the AMRO consists of a long-period oscillation and a short-period one. The long-period oscillation is associated with the Yamaji oscillation corresponding to the α orbit, whose shape and area are consistent with previous magneto-optical measurement. The short-period oscillation is not caused by peaks instead but dips. The dip structure is discussed in terms of the AMRO of a quasi-2D electron system with a periodic potential caused by the possible density-wave related to the ET layers or the 4kF charge-density-wave associated with the TCNQ layers.

  19. Electronic and magnetic properties of organic conductors (DMET) sub 2 MBr sub 4 (M=Fe, Ga)

    CERN Document Server

    Enomoto, K; Enoki, T; Yamaura, J I

    2003-01-01

    (DMET) sub 2 MBr sub 4 (M=Fe, Ga) are isostructural organic conductors whose crystal structure consists of an alternate stacking of quasi one-dimensional chain-based donor layers and anion square lattices. The resistivity, ESR, magnetic susceptibility, magnetization, and magnetoresistance of these salts were investigated in order to clarify the correlation between the electronic structure and the magnetism. The electronic structures of both salts are metallic down to T sub M sub I - 40 K, below which a Mott insulating state is stabilized, accompanied by an SDW transition at T sub S sub D sub W - 25 K. The FeBr sub 4 salt with Fe sup 3 sup + (S=5/2) localized spins undergoes an antiferromagnetic transition at T sub N = 3.7 K. In the FeBr sub 4 salt, the magnetization curves, which show field-direction-dependent anomalies in addition to a spin-flop transition, are demonstrated to have a participation of donor pi-electron spins in the magnetization processes. The field dependence of the magnetoresistances below ...

  20. Cells anticipate periodic events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakagaki, Toshiyuki

    2009-03-01

    We show that an amoeboid organism can anticipate the timing of periodic events. The plasmodium of the true slime mold Physarum polycephalum moves rapidly under favourable conditions, but stops moving when transferred to less-favourable conditions. Plasmodia exposed to unfavourable conditions, presented in three consecutive pulses at constant intervals, reduced their locomotive speed in response to each episode. When subsequently subjected to favourable conditions, the plasmodia spontaneously reduced their locomotive speed at the time point when the next unfavourable episode would have occurred. This implied anticipation of impending environmental change. After this behaviour had been evoked several times, the locomotion of the plasmodia returned to normal; however, the anticipatory response could subsequently be induced by a single unfavourable pulse, implying recall of the memorized periodicity. We explored the mechanisms underlying these behaviours from a dynamical systems perspective. Our results hint at the cellular origins of primitive intelligence and imply that simple dynamics might be sufficient to explain its emergence.

  1. Unveiling the microscopic nature of correlated organic conductors: the case of kappa-(BEDT-TTF)2Cu[N(CN)2]BrxCl1-x

    OpenAIRE

    Ferber, Johannes; Foyevtsova, Kateryna; Jeschke, Harald O.; Valenti, Roser

    2012-01-01

    A few organic conductors show a diversity of exciting properties like Mott insulating behaviour, spin liquid, antiferromagnetism, bad metal or unconventional superconductivity controlled by small changes in temperature, pressure or chemical substitution. While such a behaviour can be technologically relevant for functional switches, a full understanding of its microscopic origin is still lacking and poses a challenge in condensed matter physics since these phases may be a manifestation of ele...

  2. When do next-of-kin opt-in? Anticipated regret, affective attitudes and donating deceased family member's organs

    OpenAIRE

    Shepherd, Lee; O'Carroll, Ronan

    2014-01-01

    This research assessed whether affective factors promote and prevent family members from donating their loved one's organs. Participants (N = 191) imagined that a family member had died and that they had to decide whether or not to donate their organs and body parts for transplantation purposes. The least organs and body parts were donated when the deceased opposed donation. Moreover, participants who were not registered organ donors donated fewer organs than registered donors. This effect wa...

  3. High-frequency magneto-conductivity studies of low-dimensional organic conductors

    CERN Document Server

    Schrama, J M

    2000-01-01

    Chapter 5 I report two studies of the angle dependence of FTRs in the high-frequency magneto-conductivity. The FTRs in kappa-(BEDT-TTF) sub 2 Cu(NCS) sub 2 and alpha-(BEDT- TTF) sub 2 KHg(SCN) sub 4 show two previously unknown corrugations in the Q1D Fermi-surface sections of the two materials. The FTRs in alpha-(BEDT-TTF) sub 2 KHg(SCN) sub 4 are investigated both in the density-wave state and near its collapse into a high-temperature, high-field state. In Chapter 6 a study of the millimetre-wave properties of (TMTSF) sub 2 ClO sub 4 at low temperatures is described. Finally, in Chapter 7 I present a study of the angle dependence of the superconductor order parameter in kappa-(BEDT-TTF) sub 2 Cu(NCS) sub 2 with a new millimetre-wave technique. In this thesis I present experimental studies of the millimetre-wave magneto-conductivity of the organic charge-transfer salts kappa-(BEDT-TTF) sub 2 Cu(NCS) sub 2 , alpha-(BEDT-TTF sub 2 KHg(SCN) sub 4 and (TMTSF) sub 2 ClO sub 4. A rotating resonant cavity insert was...

  4. Semi-conducting plastics for disposable electronic devices - What are the organic semi-conductors arriving on the market?; Des plastiques semi-conducteurs pour l'electronique jetable. Qui sont les semi-conducteurs organiques qui arrivent sur le marche?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nueesch, F. A. [EMPA, Duebendorf (Switzerland)

    2010-07-01

    This is a popularization article that describes basic properties of semi-conductors and reports on the status of research and development of organic semi-conductors. In a first part, fundamentals of semi-conductors are recalled. Comparisons are made between inorganic and organic (i.e. based on carbon polymers) compounds. Indications are given on how semi-conducting polymers are obtained. Potential applications are listed: flexible organic solar cells, light emitting diodes, flexible organic displays, intelligent cards for ticketing, etc. Research on organic semi-conductors is of great interest for industry, worldwide, and several companies are widely investing in this area.

  5. The Hall effect in the organic conductor TTF–TCNQ: choice of geometry for accurate measurements of a highly anisotropic system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tafra, E; Čulo, M; Basletić, M;

    2012-01-01

    We have measured the Hall effect on recently synthesized single crystals of the quasi-one-dimensional organic conductor TTF–TCNQ (tetrathiafulvalene–tetracyanoquinodimethane), a well known charge transfer complex that has two kinds of conductive stacks: the donor (TTF) and the acceptor (TCNQ...... Hall effect measurements. Our results show, contrary to past belief, that the Hall coefficient does not depend on the geometry of measurements and that the Hall coefficient value is approximately zero in the high temperature region (T > 150 K), implying that there is no dominance of either the TTF or...... the TCNQ chain. At lower temperatures our measurements clearly prove that all three phase transitions of TTF–TCNQ could be identified from Hall effect measurements....

  6. Personal anticipated information need

    OpenAIRE

    Bruce, H

    2005-01-01

    Background. The role of personal information collections is a well known feature of personal information management. The World Wide Web has introduced to such collections ideas such as filing Web pages or noting their existence in 'Bookmarks' and 'Favourites'. Argument. It is suggested that personal information collections are created in anticipation of some future need for that information-personal, anticipated information need, which also underlies the design of formal information systems. ...

  7. Anticipation across disciplines

    CERN Document Server

    2016-01-01

    Never before was anticipation more relevant to the life and activity of humankind than it is today. “It is no overstatement to suggest that humanity’s future will be shaped by its capacity to anticipate….” (Research Agenda for the 21st Century, National Science Foundation). The sciences and the humanities can no longer risk explaining away the complexity and interactivity that lie at the foundation of life and living. The perspective of the world that anticipation opens justifies the descriptor “the post-Cartesian Revolution.” If anticipation is a valid research domain, what practical relevance can we await? Indeed, anticipation is more than just the latest catch-word in marketing the apps developed by the digital technology industry. Due to spectacular advances in the study of the living, anticipation can claim a legitimate place in current investigations and applications in the sciences and the humanities. Biology, genetics, medicine, as well as politics and cognitive, behavioral, and social sci...

  8. High Critical Current Coated Conductors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paranthaman, M. P.; Selvamanickam, V. (SuperPower, Inc.)

    2011-12-27

    One of the important critical needs that came out of the DOE’s coated conductor workshop was to develop a high throughput and economic deposition process for YBCO. Metal-organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD) technique, the most critical steps in high technical micro fabrications, has been widely employed in semiconductor industry for various thin film growth. SuperPower has demonstrated that (Y,Gd)BCO films can be deposited rapid with world record performance. In addition to high critical current density with increased film thickness, flux pinning properties of REBCO films needs to be improved to meet the DOE requirements for various electric-power equipments. We have shown that doping with Zr can result in BZO nanocolumns, but at substantially reduced deposition rate. The primary purpose of this subtask is to develop high current density MOCVD-REBCO coated conductors based on the ion-beam assisted (IBAD)-MgO deposition process. Another purpose of this subtask is to investigate HTS conductor design optimization (maximize Je) with emphasis on stability and protection issues, and ac loss for REBCO coated conductors.

  9. Photoconduction in CDW conductors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zaitsev-Zotov, S.V., E-mail: serzz@cplire.ru [Kotel' nikov IRE RAS, Mokhovaya 11, Bld. 7, 125009 Moscow (Russian Federation); Minakova, V.E.; Nasretdinova, V.F.; Zybtsev, S.G. [Kotel' nikov IRE RAS, Mokhovaya 11, Bld. 7, 125009 Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2012-06-01

    Photoconduction study of quasi-1D conductors allows to distinguish between the single-particle and collective linear conduction, investigate the effect of screening on collective transport and obtain interesting new details of the electronic energy structure of pure and doped CDW conductors. Here we present results of photoconduction study in quasi-1D conductors o-TaS{sub 3}, K{sub 0.3}MoO{sub 3}, and NbS{sub 3}(I).

  10. Amoebae Anticipate Periodic Events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saigusa, Tetsu; Tero, Atsushi; Nakagaki, Toshiyuki; Kuramoto, Yoshiki

    2008-01-01

    When plasmodia of the true slime mold Physarum were exposed to unfavorable conditions presented as three consecutive pulses at constant intervals, they reduced their locomotive speed in response to each episode. When the plasmodia were subsequently subjected to favorable conditions, they spontaneously reduced their locomotive speed at the time when the next unfavorable episode would have occurred. This implied the anticipation of impending environmental change. We explored the mechanisms underlying these types of behavior from a dynamical systems perspective.

  11. A lithium superionic conductor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamaya, Noriaki; Homma, Kenji; Yamakawa, Yuichiro; Hirayama, Masaaki; Kanno, Ryoji; Yonemura, Masao; Kamiyama, Takashi; Kato, Yuki; Hama, Shigenori; Kawamoto, Koji; Mitsui, Akio

    2011-09-01

    Batteries are a key technology in modern society. They are used to power electric and hybrid electric vehicles and to store wind and solar energy in smart grids. Electrochemical devices with high energy and power densities can currently be powered only by batteries with organic liquid electrolytes. However, such batteries require relatively stringent safety precautions, making large-scale systems very complicated and expensive. The application of solid electrolytes is currently limited because they attain practically useful conductivities (10(-2) S cm(-1)) only at 50-80 °C, which is one order of magnitude lower than those of organic liquid electrolytes. Here, we report a lithium superionic conductor, Li(10)GeP(2)S(12) that has a new three-dimensional framework structure. It exhibits an extremely high lithium ionic conductivity of 12 mS cm(-1) at room temperature. This represents the highest conductivity achieved in a solid electrolyte, exceeding even those of liquid organic electrolytes. This new solid-state battery electrolyte has many advantages in terms of device fabrication (facile shaping, patterning and integration), stability (non-volatile), safety (non-explosive) and excellent electrochemical properties (high conductivity and wide potential window). PMID:21804556

  12. The influence of spatial disorder of the ion distribution on the surface morphology in thin films of blend based organic mixed ionic-electronic conductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We report on investigations of the morphology of spin-coated thin films of an organic mixed ionic-electronic conductor consisting of the conjugated polymer methyl substituted ladder type poly(para- phenylene) (mLPPP) blended with a solid state electrolyte (Dicyclohexano18crown6 (DCH18C6), complexed with lithium trifluoromethanesulfonate (LiCF3SO3)). This blend system was successfully applied as active layer in light-emitting electrochemical cells (LECs). While thin films blends of the conjugated polymer and the pristine crown ether show a very smooth surface, the addition of LiCF3SO3 causes a pronounced surface roughening. Since such a distinct surface roughness can be the reason for a device failure mechanism that limits the device lifetime, this attitude is investigated by tapping mode atomic force microscopy (AFM). These studies are complemented with X-ray analysis by means of energy dispersive X-ray spectrometry (EDXS), in the scanning electron microscope (SEM), in order to get a better insight into the ion distribution within the blend layer and its influence on the surface roughness formed

  13. Uniaxial strain effects on transport properties of a supramolecular organic conductor theta-(DIETS) sub 2 [Au(CN) sub 4

    CERN Document Server

    Tajima, N; Kato, R; Nishio, Y; Kajita, K

    2003-01-01

    Pressure-controlled switching between an insulating state and a superconducting state has been successfully realized on a supramolecular organic conductor theta-(DIETS) sub 2 [Au(CN) sub 4] [DIETS = diiodo(ethylenedithio)diselenadithiafulvalene]. Strong contact between iodine on the donor (DIETS) molecule and nitrogen on the anion [Au(CN) sub 4] genetates characteristic uniaxial strain effects on transport properties. Under the ambient pressure, the present system undergoes a semiconductor-insulator transition at 226 K. The effect of strains parallel to the conduction plane (ab-plane) is very small. Even under uniaxial strains up to 20 kbar along the a- and b-axis directions, the transition is not suppressed. Surprisingly, however, the c-axis strain induces a superconducting state with T sub c of 8.6 K at 10 kbar. Band parameter calculation and the conductivity anisotropy ratio suggest that an increase in the bandwidth W associated with a c-axis strain transforms the system to the metallic and superconducting...

  14. Possible quantum Hall effect in a magnetic-field-induced phase transition in the quasi-one-dimensional CDW organic conductor, HMTSF–TCNQ

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murata, Keizo, E-mail: muratak@sci.osaka-cu.ac.jp [Graduate School of Science Osaka City University, Sumiyoshi-ku, Osaka 558-8585 (Japan); Fukumoto, Yuhei; Yokogawa, Keiichi [Graduate School of Science Osaka City University, Sumiyoshi-ku, Osaka 558-8585 (Japan); Kang, Woun [Ewha Womans University, 11-1, Daehyun-Dong, Seoul 120-750 (Korea, Republic of); Takaoka, Ryo; Tada, Ryota; Hirayama, H. [Graduate School of Science Osaka City University, Sumiyoshi-ku, Osaka 558-8585 (Japan); Brooks, James S.; Graf, David [National High Magnetic Field Laboratory, Florida State University, Tallahassee, FL 32306-4005 (United States); Yoshino, Harukazu [Graduate School of Science Osaka City University, Sumiyoshi-ku, Osaka 558-8585 (Japan); Sasaki, Takahiko [Institute for Materials Research, Tohoku University, Katahira 2-1-1, Aoba-ku, Sendai 980-8577 (Japan); Kato, Reizo [Riken, 2-1, Hirosawa, Wako, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan)

    2015-03-01

    We have studied the angular dependence of magnetoresistance and Hall effect of the CDW organic conductor, HMTSF–TCNQ in order to see whether a magnetic-field-induced phase exists in the charge density wave (CDW) system, similarly to the magnetic-field-induced SDW phases in (TMTSF){sub 2}X. The anomaly in magnetoresistance was observed only around the pressure where the CDW is almost suppressed, i.e. around 0.8–1.1 GPa, but neither at low pressures (0 and 0.5 GPa) nor at high pressure above 2 GPa. This behavior is quite similar to that of (TMTSF){sub 2}X. At 1.1 GPa anomalies were found at fields of 0.2 T and 10 T. We speculate that at 1.1 GPa the field-induced phase is located between 0.2 T and 10 T, where 1D Fermi surface sheet and 2D Fermi-surface pocket are present. The R{sub xy} shows plateau structure and R{sub xx} was very small in the same region, suggestive of quantum Hall effect.

  15. Collective modes in a system with two spin-density waves: The Ribault phase of quasi-one-dimensional organic conductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dupuis, N.; Yakovenko, Victor M.

    2000-05-01

    We study the long-wavelength collective modes in the magnetic-field-induced spin-density-wave (FISDW) phases experimentally observed in organic conductors of the Bechgaard salts family, focusing on phases that exhibit a sign reversal of the quantum Hall effect (Ribault anomaly). We have recently proposed that two SDW's coexist in the Ribault phase, as a result of umklapp processes. When the latter are strong enough, the two SDW's become circularly polarized (helicoidal SDW's). In this paper, we study the collective modes that result from the presence of two SDW's. We find two Goldstone modes, an out-of-phase sliding mode and an in-phase spin-wave mode, and two gapped modes. The sliding Goldstone mode carries only a fraction of the total optical spectral weight, which is determined by the ratio of the amplitude of the two SDW's. In the helicoidal phase, all the spectral weight is pushed up above the SDW gap. We also point out similarities with phase modes in two-band, bilayer, or d+id' superconductors. We expect our conclusions to hold for generic two-SDW systems.

  16. Anomalous photo-induced response by double-pulse excitation in the organic conductor (EDO-TTF){sub 2}PF{sub 6}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Onda, Ken [Department of Environmental Chemistry and Engineering, Tokyo Institute of Technology, 4259 Nagatsuta, Midori-ku, Yokohama 226-8502 (Japan); Ogihara, Sho; Ishikawa, Tadahiko; Okimoto, Yoichi [Department of Materials Science, Tokyo Institute of Technology, 2-12-1 O-okayama, Meguro-ku, Tokyo 152-8551 Japan (Japan); Shao, Xiangfeng; Koshihara, Shin-ya [Non-equilibrium Dynamics Project, ERATO, Japan Science and Technology Agency, c/o KEK, 1-1 Oho, Tsukuba, Ibaraki, 305-0801 (Japan); Nakano, Yoshiaki [Institute for Integrated Cell-Material Sciences (iCeMS), Kyoto University, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto 606-8501 (Japan); Yamochi, Hideki [Research Center for Low Temperature and Materials Sciences, Kyoto University, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto 606-8502 (Japan); Saito, Gunzi, E-mail: konda@chemenv.titech.ac.j [Research Institute, Meijo University, Tempaku-ku, Nagoya 468-8502 (Japan)

    2009-02-01

    We measured ultrafast reflectivity changes induced by double-pulse excitation in the organic conductor (EDO-TTF){sub 2}PF{sub 6}. Using double-pulse excitation with a relatively high intensity, the sign of reflectivity change became reversed at around 0.8 ps and subsequently the reflectivity change reverted to that of the normal photo-induced state after about 1 ps. Using a optically phase-locked double-pulse with low intensity, we found that the temporal profile excited by an in-phase double-pulse differs from that by an out-of-phase double-pulse despite the time difference between the double-pulses being only 1.31 fs. This was true even when there is almost no overlap between each pulse in the double-pulse. These results indicate that the photo-response in this material to double-pulse excitation differs greatly from the linear sum of the responses to single pulses.

  17. Thunderclouds and Lightning Conductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, P. F.

    1973-01-01

    Discusses the historical background of the development of lightning conductors, describes the nature of thunderclouds and the lightning flash, and provides a calculation of the electric field under a thundercloud. Also discussed are point discharge currents and the attraction theory of the lightning conductor. (JR)

  18. Study on the competition between density waves, singlet, and triplet pairing superconductivity in an organic conductor (TMTSF)2PF6

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We study the effect of the dimerization of molecules and the effect of magnetic field on the phase competition in quasi-one-dimensional organic superconductors (TMTSF)2X by applying the random phase approximation method. We conclude the following: (i) Due to the decrease of the dimerization, which corresponds to applying the pressure and cooling, spin and charge density wave states are suppressed and give way to a superconducting state. (ii) Applying the magnetic field favors the spin triplet f-wave pairing with spins parallel to the magnetic field due to the cooperation between the magnetic field and the long range off-site interactions

  19. Model construction and superconductivity analysis of organic conductors β-(BDA-TTP)2MF6 (M = P, As, Sb and Ta) based on first-principles band calculation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aizawa, H.; Kuroki, K.; Yasuzuka, S.; Yamada, J.

    2012-11-01

    We perform a first-principles band calculation for a group of quasi-two-dimensional organic conductors β-(BDA-TTP)2MF6 (M = P, As, Sb and Ta). The ab-initio calculation shows that the density of states is correlated with the bandwidth of the singly occupied (highest) molecular orbital, while it is not necessarily correlated with the unit-cell volume. The direction of the major axis of the cross section of the Fermi surface lies in the Γ-B-direction, which differs from that obtained by the extended Hückel calculation. Then, we construct a tight-binding model which accurately reproduces the ab-initio band structure. The obtained transfer energies give a smaller dimerization than in the extended Hückel band. As to the difference in the anisotropy of the Fermi surface, the transfer energies along the inter-stacking direction are smaller than those obtained in the extended Hückel calculation. Assuming spin-fluctuation-mediated superconductivity, we apply random phase approximation to a two-band Hubbard model. This two-band Hubbard model is composed of the tight-binding model derived from the first-principles band structure and an on-site (intra-molecule) repulsive interaction taken as a variable parameter. The obtained superconducting gap changes sign four times along the Fermi surface like in a d-wave gap, and the nodal direction is different from that obtained in the extended Hückel model. Anion dependence of Tc is qualitatively consistent with the experimental observation.

  20. Growth and Characterization of Doped CeO2 Buffers on Ni-W Substrates for Coated Conductors Using Metal Organic Deposition Method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Yao; ZHOU Lian; YU Zeming; LI Chengshan; LI Jinshan; JIN Lihu; LU Yafen

    2012-01-01

    CeO2 and Ce0 8Mo2O2-d films (M =Mn,Y,Gd,Sin,Nd and La) with (001) preferred orientation have been prepared on biaxially textured Ni-W substrates by metal organic decomposition (MOD) method.The factors influencing the formation of cracks on the surface of these CeO2 and doped CeO2 films on Ni-W substrates were explored by X-ray diffraction (XRD),scanning electron microscopy (SEM) analysis,atomic force microscopy (AFM) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC).The results indicate that many factors,such as the change of the ionic radii of doping cations,the transformation of crystal structure and the formation of oxygen vacancies in lattices at high annealing temperature,may be related to the formation of cracks on the surface of these films.However,the crack formation shows no dependence on the crystal lattice mismatch degree of the films with Ni-W substrates.Moreover,the suppression of surface cracks is related to the change of intrinsic elasticity of CeO2 film with doping of cations with a larger radius.SEM and AFM investigations of Ce08Mo2O2-d(M =Y,Gd,Sm,Nd and La) films reveal the dense,smooth and crack-free microstructure,and their lattice parameters match well with that of YBCO,illuminating that they are potentially suitable to be as buffer layer,especially as cap layer in multi-layer architecture of buffer layer for coated conductors.

  1. Anticipated backward stochastic differential equations

    OpenAIRE

    Peng, Shige; Yang, Zhe

    2009-01-01

    In this paper we discuss new types of differential equations which we call anticipated backward stochastic differential equations (anticipated BSDEs). In these equations the generator includes not only the values of solutions of the present but also the future. We show that these anticipated BSDEs have unique solutions, a comparison theorem for their solutions, and a duality between them and stochastic differential delay equations.

  2. Palatable Meal Anticipation in Mice

    OpenAIRE

    Patton, Danica; Mistlberger, Ralph; Hsu, Cynthia; Steele, Andrew

    2010-01-01

    The ability to sense time and anticipate events is a critical skill in nature. Most efforts to understand the neural and molecular mechanisms of anticipatory behavior in rodents rely on daily restricted food access, which induces a robust increase of locomotor activity in anticipation of daily meal time. Interestingly, rats also show increased activity in anticipation of a daily palatable meal even when they have an ample food supply, suggesting a role for brain reward systems in anticipatory...

  3. Anticipated affect and behavioral choice.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R. Richard; J. van der Pligt; N.K. de Vries

    1996-01-01

    Most research on the impact of affect on attitudes and behavior emphasizes the effect of past and present affective reactions. In this article we focus on anticipated, postbehavioral, affective reactions. The influence of anticipated affective reactions on a number of behaviors was investigated in t

  4. Transparent electronic conductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper discusses how coatings that are both transparent and electrically conducting are important components of most electro-optic devices. These transparent conductors are typically doped, substoichiometric films of oxides of tin, indium, cadmium and zinc. They exhibit high transparency through the visible region out into the near infrared and are good infrared reflectors beyond about 2 microns. Their electrical conductivity can be as high as 5 x 105 Sm-1. Indium tin oxide (ITO) is the transparent conductor most widely used in liquid crystal and electrochromic devices. Transmittance for a 1500 angstrom coating of ITO is about 87% (Illuminant A; photopic detector) with a sheet resistance as low as 12 ohms/square (specific resistivity being 1.8 x 10-6 ohm.m). The concentration of tin dopant in ITO is typically 5 to 10 mole %

  5. The CMS conductor

    CERN Document Server

    Blau, Bertrand; Curé, B; Folch, R; Hervé, A; Horváth, I L; Kircher, F; Musenich, R; Neuenschwander, J; Riboni, P; Seeber, B; Tavares, S; Sgobba, Stefano; Smith, R P

    2002-01-01

    The Compact Muon Solenoid (CMS) is one of the general-purpose detectors to be provided for the LHC project at CERN. The design field of the CMS superconducting magnet is 4 T, the magnetic length is 12.5 m and the free bore is 6 m. The magnetic field is achieved by means of a four-layer superconducting solenoid. The stored magnetic energy is 2.7 GJ at nominal current of 20 kA (at 4.5 K operating temperature). The coil is wound from a high purity aluminum- stabilized Rutherford type conductor. Unlike other existing Al- stabilized thin solenoids, the structural integrity of the CMS coil is ensured both by the Al-alloy reinforcement welded to the conductor and an external support cylinder. The flat NbTi cable is embedded in high purity aluminum by a continuous co-extrusion process. (7 refs).

  6. Physics of superionic conductors

    CERN Document Server

    1979-01-01

    Superionic conductors are solids whose ionic conductivities approach, and in some cases exceed, those of molten salts and electrolyte solutions. This implies an un­ usual state of matter in which some atoms have nearly liquidlike mobility while others retain their regular crystalline arrangement. This liquid-solid duality has much appeal to condensed matter physicists, and the coincident development of powerful new methods for studying disordered solids and interest in superionic conductors for technical applications has resulted in a new surge of activity in this venerable field. It is the purpose of this book to summarize the current re­ search in the physics of superionic conduction. with special emphasis on those aspects which set these materials apart from other solids. The volume is aimed to­ wards the materials community and will, we expect, stimulate further research on these potentially useful substances. The usual characterization of the superionic phase lists high ionic conductivity; low activat...

  7. The CMS conductor

    CERN Document Server

    Horváth, I L; Marti, H P; Neuenschwander, J; Smith, R P; Fabbricatore, P; Musenich, R; Calvo, A; Campi, D; Curé, B; Desirelli, Alberto; Favre, G; Riboni, P L; Sgobba, Stefano; Tardy, T; Sequeira-Lopes-Tavares, S

    2000-01-01

    The Compact Muon Solenoid (CMS) is one of the experiments, which are being designed in the framework of the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) project at CERN, the design field of the CMS magnet is 4 T, the magnetic length is 13 m and the aperture is 6 m. This high magnetic field is achieved by means of a 4 layer, 5 modules superconducting coil. The coil is wound from an Al-stabilized Rutherford type conductor. The nominal current of the magnet is 20 kA at 4.5 K. In the CMS coil the structural function is ensured, unlike in other existing Al-stabilized thin solenoids, both by the Al-alloy reinforced conductor and the external former. In this paper the retained manufacturing process of the 50-km long reinforced conductor is described. In general the Rutherford type cable is surrounded by high purity aluminium in a continuous co-extrusion process to produce the Insert. Thereafter the reinforcement is joined by Electron Beam Welding to the pure Al of the insert, before being machined to the final dimensions. During the...

  8. Oxygen ion conductors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen J Skinner

    2003-03-01

    A very interesting subgroup of this class of materials are the oxides that display oxygen ion conductivity. As well as the intrinsic interest in these materials, there has been a continued drive for their development because of the promise of important technological devices such as the solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC, oxygen separation membranes, and membranes for the conversion of methane to syngas1. All of these devices offer the potential of enormous commercial and ecological benefits provided suitable high performance materials can be developed. In this article we will review the materials currently under development for application in such devices with particular reference to some of the newly discovered oxide ion conductors.

  9. Solid state proton conductors properties and applications in fuel cells

    CERN Document Server

    Knauth, Philippe

    2012-01-01

    Proton conduction can be found in many different solid materials, from organic polymers at room temperature to inorganic oxides at high temperature. Solid state proton conductors are of central interest for many technological innovations, including hydrogen and humidity sensors, membranes for water electrolyzers and, most importantly, for high-efficiency electrochemical energy conversion in fuel cells. Focusing on fundamentals and physico-chemical properties of solid state proton conductors, topics covered include: Morphology and Structure of Solid Acids Diffusion in Soli

  10. Cyclotron resonance and De Haas-Van Alphen effect in (BEDT-TTF) sub 8 Hg sub 4 Cl sub 1 sub 2 (C sub 6 H sub 5 Cl) sub 2 organic conductor

    CERN Document Server

    Voskobojnikov, I B; Samarin, N A; Cluchanko, N E; Lyubovskaya, R N; Moshchalkov, V V

    2002-01-01

    Within 0.33-1.44 K temperature range at B <= 50 T magnetic field values one measured the De Haas-Van Alphen effect for (BEDT-TTF) sub 8 Hg sub 4 Cl sub 1 sub 2 (C sub 6 H sub 5 Cl) sub 2 organic quasi-two-dimensional conductor. Analysis of quantum oscillations with regard to data on cyclotron resonance derived for 40-120 GHz frequency interval enabled to determine that a complex spectrum of quantum oscillations was formed by alpha approx 256 T and beta approx 670-610 T fundamental frequencies as well as, by combination and multiple frequencies. It is shown that nature of temperature rearrangement of oscillation spectrum may be interpreted in terms of model taking account of occurrence of magnetic phase transition at T sub c approx 0.9 K and proximity of a fundamental frequency with m* = 1.48m sub 0 efficient mass to the spin dumping condition

  11. 33 CFR 183.425 - Conductors: General.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Conductors: General. (a) Each conductor must be insulated, stranded copper. (b) Except for intermittent... equipment; electronic circuits having a current flow of less than one ampere; conductors which are...

  12. Interacting with a Virtual Conductor

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bos, P.; Reidsma, D.; Ruttkay, Z.M.; Nijholt, A.; Harper, R.; Rauterberg, M.; Combetto, M.

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents a virtual embodied agent that can conduct musicians in a live performance. The virtual conductor conducts music specified by a MIDI file and uses input from a microphone to react to the tempo of the musicians. The current implementation of the virtual conductor can interact with

  13. GMR of stranded multizone conductors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Y.; Fortin, S.; Ma, J.; Dawalibi, F.P. [Safe Engineering Services and Technologies Ltd., Montreal, PQ (Canada)

    2008-07-01

    This paper presented a newly developed method for the computation of the geometric mean radius (GMR) of stranded conductors of circular cross-section consisting of several zones with distinct electrical properties. The method also accounts for frequency dependence or skin effects. Examples of the use of this method were presented, and were found to be in good agreement with published data. This method can be used to provide more accurate estimates of the GMR for composite conductors made of strands of different size and properties, and also to better calculate the impedance of those conductors at higher frequencies. The conductor can consist of several concentric tubular zones, each containing one or more concentric layers of identical strands. The radius, resistivity and permeability of the strands can be different for each zone. The study considered the effect of the non-uniform current distribution inside the conductor. 4 refs., 3 tabs., 3 figs.

  14. PREFACE: International Symposium on Molecular Conductors: Novel Functions of Molecular Conductors under Extreme Conditions (ISMC 2008)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Toshihiro; Suzumura, Yoshikazu

    2008-02-01

    The International Symposium on Molecular Conductors 2008 (ISMC2008) was held as the second international symposium of the project entitled `Novel Functions of Molecular Conductors under Extreme Conditions', which was supported by the Grant-in-aid for Scientific Research on Priority Areas from the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology in Japan. The project lasted from September 2003 to March 2008, and was completed by this symposium held at Okazaki Conference Center, Institute for Molecular Science, Okazaki, Japan (23-25 July 2008), which about 100 scientists attended. During the symposium, five project teams gave summary talks and exciting talks were given on the topics developed recently not only by the members of the project but also by other scientists including invited speakers from abroad, who are doing active research on molecular conductors. It is expected that papers presented in the symposium will give valuable hints for the next step in the research of this field. Therefore the organizers of this symposium decided to publish this proceedings in order to demonstrate these activities, not only for the local community of the project, but also for the broad society of international scientists who are interested in molecular conductors. The editors, who are also the organizers of this symposium, believe that this proceedings provides a significant and relevant contribution to the field of molecular conductors since it is the first time we have published such a proceedings as an electronic journal. We note that all papers published in this volume of Journal of Physics: Conference Series have been peer reviewed by expert referees. Editors made every effort to satisfy the criterion of a proceedings journal published by IOP Publishing. Toshihiro Takahashi and Yoshikazu Suzumura Editors: Toshihiro Takahashi (Gakushuin University) (Chairman) Kazushi Kanoda (University of Tokyo) Seiichi Kagoshima (University of Tokyo) Takehiko Mori (Tokyo

  15. Special Report: Solid Ionic Conductors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shriver, Duward F.; Farrington, Gregory C.

    1985-01-01

    Solid ionic conductors are unusual materials that may find valuable applications in devices ranging from high-energy density batteries to lasers. The nature of these materials and their potential uses are discussed. (JN)

  16. Chiral Fermi liquids and a new version of the quantum Hall effect observed in organic conductors at very high magnetic fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present evidence for a new form of quantum Hall effect (QHE) in organic molecular metals, in which the chemical potential is pinned to quasi-one-dimensional states between sharp quasi-two-dimensional Landau levels over finite regions of magnetic field. A dramatic change in the behaviour of the resistivity component ρzz occurs when the QHE is observed, suggesting the presence of a chiral Fermi liquid at the sample edges

  17. Graphene, a promising transparent conductor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan K. Wassei

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available New electronic devices such as touch screens, flexible displays, printable electronics, solid-state lighting and thin film photovoltaics have led to a rapidly growing market for flexible transparent conductors. Standard indium tin oxide films are unlikely to satisfy future needs due to losses in conductivity on bending and the escalating cost of indium which is in limited supply. Recent advances in the synthesis and characterization of graphene indicate that it may be suitable for many electronic applications including as a transparent conductor. Graphene hybrids with, for example, carbon nanotubes, may prove to be especially interesting.

  18. Ultrafast THz response of photo-induced insulator to metal transition in charge ordered organic conductor alpha-(BEDT-TTF){sub 2}I{sub 3}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakaya, H; Takahashi, Y [Department of Physics, Tohoku University, Sendai 980-8578 (Japan); Yamamoto, K; Yakushi, K [Institute for Molecular Science, Okazaki, 444-8585 (Japan); Saito, S [Institute of Information and Communications Technology, Kobe, 651-2492 (Japan); Iwai, S, E-mail: s.iwai@sspp.phys.tohoku.ac.j

    2009-02-01

    Photo-induced insulator to metal transition in a two-dimensional charge-ordered (CO) organic salt alpha-(ET){sub 2}I{sub 3} (ET: [bis(ethylenedithio)]tetrathiafulvalene) was investigated using near-IR-pump and terahertz(THz)-probe spectroscopy. Electronic properties and electron-phonon (e-p) coupling of the photo-induced metallic state were discussed based on the excitation intensity and temperature dependences of transient absorption spectrum. Long-lived (ca. ns) induced absorption with large spectral weight at < 5 meV is detected for strong excitation at T{approx}T{sub CO} (T{sub CO}=135 K), which is attributable to the photo-induced macroscopic metallic state. On the other hand, short-lived transient absorption, reflecting generation of the microscopic metallic state, shows relatively small spectral weight for <5 meV at 20 K<

  19. Roles of humidity and heat treatment temperatures on YBa2Cu3O7-x coated conductors by trifluoroacetic acid-metal organic deposition process

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Seok-Hern JANG; Jun-Hyung LIM; Chang-Min LEE; Eui-Cheol PARK; Soo-Min HWANG; Jun-Hyuk CHOI; Jong-Hyun SHIM; Jin-Hyun PARK; Won KIM; Jinho JOO

    2009-01-01

    YBa2Cu3O7-x(YBCO) films were fabricated on an LAO substrate using the trifluoroacetic acid-metal organic deposition (TFA-MOD) method and the effects of the humidity and heat treatment temperatures on the microstructure, degree of texture and critical properties of the films were evaluated. In order to understand the combined effects of the humidity and the calcining and firing temperatures on critical properties, heat-treatment was performed at various temperatures with the other processing variables fixed. The films were calcined at 400-430 ℃ and fired at 750-800 ℃ in a 0-12.1% humidified Ar-O2 atmosphere. The texture was determined by pole-figure analysis. The amount of the BaF2 phase was effectively reduced and a sharp and strong biaxial texture was formed under a humidified atmosphere, which led to increased critical properties. In addition, the microstructure varied significantly with firing temperature but changed little with calcining temperature. The highest IC of 40 A/cm-width, which corresponds to JC value of 1.8 MA/cm2, was obtained for the films fired at 775 ℃ (in 12.1% humidity) after calcining at 400-430 ℃. It is likely that the highest IC value is due to the formation of a more pure YBCO phase, c-axis grains, and a denser microstructure.

  20. Interacting with a Virtual Conductor

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bos, P.

    2007-01-01

    The task of conducting human musicians in a live performance by a computer has not yet been addressed extensively before. A few attempts exist at letting a computer perform this task, but there is no interactive virtual conductor who can conduct human musicians and can interact with these musicians.

  1. Flat conductor cable design, manufacture, and installation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angele, W.; Hankins, J. D.

    1973-01-01

    Pertinent information for hardware selection, design, manufacture, and quality control necessary for flat conductor cable interconnecting harness application is presented. Comparisons are made between round wire cable and flat conductor cable. The flat conductor cable interconnecting harness systems show major cost, weight, and space savings, plus increased system performance and reliability. The design application section includes electrical characteristics, harness design and development, and a full treatise on EMC considerations. Manufacturing and quality control sections pertain primarily to the developed conductor-contact connector system and special flat conductor cable to round wire cable transitions.

  2. Role for Genetic Anticipation in Lynch Syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nilbert, Mef; Timshel, Susanne; Bernstein, Inge; Larsen, Klaus

    2009-01-01

    PURPOSE: Anticipation (ie, an earlier age at onset in successive generations) is linked to repeat expansion in neurodegenerative syndromes, whereas its role in hereditary cancer is unclear. We assessed anticipation in Lynch syndrome (hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer [HNPCC]), in which DN...

  3. Pulse Propagation on close conductors

    CERN Document Server

    Dieckmann, A

    2001-01-01

    The propagation and reflection of arbitrarily shaped pulses on non-dispersive parallel conductors of finite length with user defined cross section is simulated employing the discretized telegraph equation. The geometry of the system of conductors and the presence of dielectric material determine the capacities and inductances that enter the calculation. The values of these parameters are found using an iterative Laplace equation solving procedure and confirmed for certain calculable geometries including the line charge inside a box. The evolving pulses and the resulting crosstalk can be plotted at any instant and - in the Mathematica notebook version of this report - be looked at in an animation. As an example a differential pair of microstrips as used in the ATLAS vertex detector is analysed.

  4. Graphene, a promising transparent conductor

    OpenAIRE

    Wassei, Jonathan K.; Kaner, Richard B.

    2010-01-01

    New electronic devices such as touch screens, flexible displays, printable electronics, solid-state lighting and thin film photovoltaics have led to a rapidly growing market for flexible transparent conductors. Standard indium tin oxide films are unlikely to satisfy future needs due to losses in conductivity on bending and the escalating cost of indium which is in limited supply. Recent advances in the synthesis and characterization of graphene indicate that it may be suitable for many electr...

  5. Joints for large superconducting conductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Large fusion magnets call for high-current conductors (up to 60 kA). This has been achieved by the cable-in-conduit conductor concept. The connection of these conductors has to take into account several demanding boundary conditions: a large number of strands (around 1000), a low resistance at high current (1-2 nΩ), low losses in pulsed field operation, Nb3Sn heat treatment, helium tightness control, limited available space. A conceptual design was developed by the CEA, based on the connection of two separate twin boxes clamped together, according to the lap-joint concept. These boxes are machined out of an explosive bonding plate (jacket material/copper), and the electrical connection is achieved by tin-lead soldering of the facing copper soles. After qualification of the explosive bond and validation of the joint concept in the laboratory, the technology was transferred to the industry within the framework of the manufacture of the ITER Toroidal Field Model Coil (TFMC). In addition, three full-size joint samples (FSJS), relevant to different jacket materials and joining techniques, were manufactured by the industry and successfully tested in the SULTAN facility at CRPP, Villigen. The paper reports on the results of the laboratory tests, describes the transfer of technology to industry, and lastly presents some typical experimental results

  6. Temperature limited heater utilizing non-ferromagnetic conductor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vinegar; Harold J. (Bellaire, TX), Harris; Christopher Kelvin (Houston, TX)

    2012-07-17

    A heater is described. The heater includes a ferromagnetic conductor and an electrical conductor electrically coupled to the ferromagnetic conductor. The ferromagnetic conductor is positioned relative to the electrical conductor such that an electromagnetic field produced by time-varying current flow in the ferromagnetic conductor confines a majority of the flow of the electrical current to the electrical conductor at temperatures below or near a selected temperature.

  7. Adaptive and Rational Anticipations in Risk Management Systems and Economy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubois, Daniel M.; Holmberg, Stig C.

    2010-11-01

    The global financial crisis of year 2009 is explained as a result of uncoordinated risk management decisions in business firms and economic organisations. The underlying reason for this can be found in the current financial system. As the financial market has lost much of its direct coupling to the concrete economy it provides misleading information to economic decision makers at all levels. Hence, the financial system has moved from a state of moderate and slow cyclical fluctuations into a state of fast and chaotic ones. Those misleading decisions can further be described, but not explained, by help of adaptive and rational expectations from macroeconomic theory. In this context, AE, the Adaptive Expectations are related to weak passive Exo-anticipation, and RE, the Rational expectations can be related to a strong, active and design oriented anticipation. The shortcomings of conventional cures, which builds on a reactive paradigm, have already been demonstrated in economic literature and are here further underlined by help of Ashby's "Law of Requisite Variety", Weaver's distinction between systems of "Disorganized Complexity" and those of "Organized Complexity", and Klir's "Reconstructability Analysis". Anticipatory decision-making is hence here proposed as a replacement to current expectation based and passive risk management. An anticipatory model of the business cycle is presented for supporting that proposition. The model, which is an extension of the Kaldor-Kalecki model, includes both retardation and anticipation. While cybernetics with the feedback process in control system deals with an explicit goal or purpose given to a system, the anticipatory system discussed here deals with a behaviour for which the future state of the system is built by the system itself, without explicit goal. A system with weak anticipation is based on a predictive model of the system, while a system with strong anticipation builds its own future by itself. Numerical simulations on

  8. Overview of Materials and Power Applications of Coated Conductors Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiohara, Yuh; Taneda, Takahiro; Yoshizumi, Masateru

    2012-01-01

    There are high expectations for coated conductors in electric power applications such as superconducting magnetic energy storage (SMES) systems, power cables, and transformers owing to their ability to contribute to stabilizing and increasing the capacity of the electric power supply grid as well as to reducing CO2 emission as a result of their high critical-current characteristics. Research and development has been performed on wires/tapes and electric power devices worldwide. The Materials and Power Applications of Coated Conductors (M-PACC) Project is a five-year national project in Japan started in 2008, supported by the Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry (METI) and the New Energy and Industrial Technology Development Organization (NEDO), to develop both coated conductors that meet market requirements and basic technologies for the above-mentioned power applications using coated conductors. In this article, research and development results are reviewed and compared with the interim/final targets of the project, and future prospects are discussed.

  9. Nestle's dynamic forecasting process: Anticipating risks and opportunities

    OpenAIRE

    Dias, Ana Sofia Fidalgo

    2012-01-01

    Nestlé’s Dynamic Forecasting Process: Anticipating Risks and Opportunities This Work Project discusses the Nestlé’s Dynamic Forecasting Process, implemented within the organization as a way of reengineering its performance management concept and processes, so as to make it more flexible and capable to react to volatile business conditions. When stressing the importance of demand planning to reallocate resources and enhance performance, Nescafé Dolce Gusto comes as way of seeking improvemen...

  10. Assessment of the noise annoyance among subway train conductors in Tehran, Iran

    OpenAIRE

    Mansoureh Hamidi; Amir Kavousi; Somayeh Zaheri; Abolfazl Hamadani; Roksana Mirkazemi

    2014-01-01

    Subway transportation system is a new phenomenon in Iran. Noise annoyance interferes with the individual′s task performance, and the required alertness in the driving of subway trains. This is the first study conducted to measure the level of noise and noise annoyance among conductors of subway organization in Tehran, Iran. This cross sectional study was conducted among 167 randomly selected train conductors. Information related to noise annoyance was collected by using a self-administered qu...

  11. Assessment of sodium conductor distribution cable

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1979-06-01

    The study assesses the barriers and incentives for using sodium conductor distribution cable. The assessment considers environmental, safety, energy conservation, electrical performance and economic factors. Along with all of these factors considered in the assessment, the sodium distribution cable system is compared to the present day alternative - an aluminum conductor system. (TFD)

  12. Anticipation of periodic environmental changes in an amoeba

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saigusa, Tetsu; Nakagaki, Toshiyuki

    2007-07-01

    The amoeboid organism of true slime mold, the plasmodium of Physarum polycephalum, had capacity of memorizing a periodic event. The organism showed vigorous locomotion in the favorite conditions. When stimulation of the unfavorable conditions was given in a pulse-like regime and was repeated three times at interval of 60 minutes, the amoeba reduced the locomotion speed in response to each pulse. Even though the favorite conditions were kept to be constant after the periodic pulses, the amoeba spontaneously reduced the locomotion speed at the timing of next pulse (after 60 minutes). This means that the amoeba anticipated the next environmental change.

  13. Chemical solution deposition: a path towards low cost coated conductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The achievement of low cost deposition techniques for high critical current YBa2Cu3O7 coated conductors is one of the major objectives to achieve a widespread use of superconductivity in power applications. Chemical solution deposition techniques are appearing as a very promising methodology to achieve epitaxial oxide thin films at a low cost, so an intense effort is being carried out to develop routes for all chemical coated conductor tapes. In this work recent achievements will be presented towards the goal of combining the deposition of different type of buffer layers on metallic substrates based on metal-organic decomposition with the growth of YBa2Cu3O7 layers using the trifluoroacetate route. The influence of processing parameters on the microstructure and superconducting properties will be stressed. High critical currents are demonstrated in 'all chemical' multilayers

  14. Radiation damages on superionic conductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Irradiation coloration on superionic conductors of MA4X5 (M=K, Rb, NH4; A=Ag, Cu; X=Cl, I) was observed. Five absorption bands were observed at 1.4, 1.8, 2.1, 2.3 and 2.9 eV in RbAg4I5. In these crystals, stable coloration was observed at lower temperature than in alkali halides. The absorption bands due to electronic centers and hole one were classified from the results of optical breaching and electron or hole doping. Growth rate and induced spectra by irradiation changed drastically at the temperatures just above the superionic phase transition. The growth rate increased drastically also at 40 K. ESR signal of γ-irradiated RbCu4Cl3I2 showed that one of the induced defects is a hole trapped by a monovalent copper ion (Cu2+). (author)

  15. Thailand NR Supply Better than Anticipation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Erin Zhao

    2011-01-01

    Learned from the media, though suffering from the attack of the rainstorm and flood, the Thailand NR is in better supply than anticipation this year. In the situation of the demand anxiety resulted from the European debt crisis and the sufficient inventory in China, the in- creasing supply makes the price under further pressure.

  16. Why the Economic Crisis Was Not Anticipated

    Science.gov (United States)

    Posner, Richard A.

    2009-01-01

    An article in the October 11 "New York Times" attributed the almost universal failure to anticipate the current economic crisis to "insanity"--more precisely, to a psychological inability to give proper weight to past events, so that if there is prosperity today people assume that it will last forever, even though they know that in the past booms…

  17. Comparison of hyperbolic and hyperboloid conductor electrostatics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lekner, John

    2006-01-01

    The potentials and fields of hyperbolic and hyperboloidal conductors are available analytically. A detailed comparison of the two-dimensional and three-dimensional problems shows strong similarities, but also interesting differences. The electric field near a hyperboloidal needle is stronger (ceteris paribus) than near a hyperbolic blade, and dies off faster. The field at the hyperbolic conductor varies as the 1/3 power of the local curvature. At the hyperboloid conductor the field varies as the 1/4 power of the local Gaussian curvature (which is the product of the two principal curvatures).

  18. A Clustering Method for Weak Signals to Support Anticipative Intelligence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Leonardo Martins Moreira

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Organizations need appropriate anticipative information to support their decision making process. Contrarily to some strategic information analyses that help managers to establish patterns using past information, anticipative intelligence is intended to help managers to act based on the analysis of pieces of information that indicate some sort of trend that may become true in the future. One example of this kind of information is known as a weak signal, which is a short text related to a specific domain. In this work, pairs of weak signals, written in Portuguese, are compared to each other so that similarities can be identified and correlated weak signals can be clustered together. The idea is that the analysis of the resulting similar groups may lead to the formulation of a hypothesis that can support the decision making process. The proposed technique consists of two main steps: preprocessing the set of weak signals and clustering. The proposed method was evaluated on a database of bio-energy weak signals. The main innovations of this work are: (i the application of a computational methodology from the literature for analyzing anticipative information; and (ii the adaptation of data mining techniques to implement this methodology in a software product.

  19. Measurement of local critical currents in TFA-MOD processed coated conductors by use of scanning Hall-probe microscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We have investigated 2-dimensional distribution of critical current density. We have measured TFA-MOD processed YBCO coated conductor. We used scanning Hall-probe microscopy. These provided information is useful for fabrication process of coated conductor. We have carried out 2-dimensional (2D) measurement of local critical current in a Trifluoroacetates-Metal Organic Deposition (TFA-MOD) processed YBCO coated conductor using scanning Hall-probe microscopy. Recently, remarkable R and D accomplishments on the fabrication processes of coated conductors have been conducted extensively and reported. The TFA-MOD process has been expected as an attractive process to produce coated conductors with high performance at a low production cost due to a simple process using non-vacuum equipments. On the other hand, enhancement of critical currents and homogenization of the critical current distribution in the coated conductors are definitely very important for practical applications. According to our measurements, we can detect positions and spatial distribution of defects in the conductor. This kind of information will be very helpful for the improvement of the TFA-MOD process and for the design of the conductor intended for practical electric power device applications.

  20. Anticipation of physical causality guides eye movements

    OpenAIRE

    Wende, Kim; Theunissen, Laetitia; Missal, Marcus

    2016-01-01

    Causality is a unique feature of human perception. We present here a behavioral investigation of the influence of physical causality during visual pursuit of object collisions. Pursuit and saccadic eye movements of human subjects were recorded during ocular pursuit of two concurrently launched targets, one that moved according to the laws of Newtonian mechanics (the causal target) and the other one that moved in a physically implausible direction (the non-causal target). We found that anticip...

  1. Intelligent Anticipated Exploration of Web Sites

    OpenAIRE

    Ianni, Giovambattista

    2001-01-01

    In this paper we describe a web search agent, called Global Search Agent (hereafter GSA for short). GSA integrates and enhances several search techniques in order to achieve significant improvements in the user-perceived quality of delivered information as compared to usual web search engines. GSA features intelligent merging of relevant documents from different search engines, anticipated selective exploration and evaluation of links from the current result set, automated derivation of refin...

  2. Radioactive lightning conductors: protection or danger?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present article describes the various aspects involved in the utilization of radioactive material in lightning conductors, in particular the main reasons and arguments that gave support to the decision taking concerning the interruption of this practice in Brazil. It is pointed out that although the risks associated with the presence of Am-241 in lightning conductors is small, there is no in technical evidence to justify the superiority of such devices, when compared to conventional ones. (author)

  3. Casimir force between sharp-shaped conductors

    OpenAIRE

    Maghrebi, Mohammad F.; Rahi, Sahand Jamal; Emig, Thorsten; Graham, Noah; Jaffe, Robert L.; Kardar, Mehran

    2010-01-01

    Casimir forces between conductors at the sub-micron scale cannot be ignored in the design and operation of micro-electromechanical (MEM) devices. However, these forces depend non-trivially on geometry, and existing formulae and approximations cannot deal with realistic micro-machinery components with sharp edges and tips. Here, we employ a novel approach to electromagnetic scattering, appropriate to perfect conductors with sharp edges and tips, specifically to wedges and cones. The interactio...

  4. A Psychophysiological Case Study of Orchestra Conductors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaque, S Victoria; Karamanukyan, Isabel H; Thomson, Paula

    2015-12-01

    The psychological and physiological effects of performance were investigated in two professional orchestral conductors, with data collected prior to, during, and after a rehearsal and a public performance. The participants were given a battery of psychological self-report tests (anxiety, dissociation, health inventory, fantasy proneness, shame, and flow). Ambulatory physiological monitoring (Vivometric LifeShirt® system) was conducted during both a rehearsal and public performance to gather information about the autonomic nervous system and heart rate variability (HRV). One conductor had a history of asthma and anxiety, and the second conductor had coronary artery disease. The results revealed within-subject and between-subject differences in autonomic nervous system responses and HRV during several conditions (pre-performance rest, stair-climbing, rehearsal, and performance). Based on heart rate, the physiological demands of professional conducting are reflective of work intensities considered "hard." Both conductors experienced high flow states. Anxiety and coronary artery disease may have attenuated HRV resilience in this study. It is recommended that noninvasive methods be implemented to assess cardiac autonomic activity in professional conductors, particularly during engagement in their professional activities. The findings suggest a need to further study anxiety, respiratory conditions, and cardiovascular risks for conductors. PMID:26614972

  5. Postmodern Anticipations with E. A. Poe

    OpenAIRE

    Lucian-Vasile SZABO

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of the present study is to serve as an introduction to a postmodern reading of Edgar Allan Poe’s short prose. Adventurous approach, as the author manifested himself as a writer in the first part of the 19th century, when romanticism revived and modern paradigm was founded. Based on the assessments expressed on postmodernism and using the tools proposed by various field researchers, we discover in Poe’s work anticipations of the narrative structure method specific for our present t...

  6. Role for Genetic Anticipation in Lynch Syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nilbert, Mef; Timshel, Susanne; Bernstein, Inge; Larsen, Klaus

    2009-01-01

    mismatch repair (MMR) defects cause early and accelerated tumor development with a broad tumor spectrum. PATIENTS AND METHODS: In the population-based Danish HNPCC registry, 407 MMR gene mutation carriers who had developed cancer associated with Lynch syndrome, were identified. These individuals formed 290...... remained when cancers diagnosed at surveillance were excluded, applied to maternal as well as paternal inheritance, and was independent of the MMR gene mutated. CONCLUSION: The effect from anticipation demonstrated in this large, population-based Lynch syndrome cohort underscores the need to initiate...

  7. Development of manufacturing technologies for ITER toroidal field coil conductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA) is responsible for procuring 25% of the ITER toroidal field (TF) coil conductors as the Japanese Domestic Agency (JADA) for the ITER project. The TF conductor is a circular shaped, cable-in-conduit conductor, composed of a cable and a stainless-steel conduit (jacket). The outer diameter and maximum length of the TF conductor are 43.7 mm and 760 m, respectively. JAEA has constructed a new conductor manufacturing facility. Prior to starting the conductor manufacturing, JAEA manufactured a 760 m-long Cu dummy conductor as a conductor manufacturing process qualification, such as processes of welding, cable insertion, compaction and spooling. All manufacturing processes have been qualified and JAEA has started to fabricate superconducting conductors for the TF coils. (author)

  8. Revitalizing the United Nations. Anticipation and Prevention as Primary Goals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandra Novosseloff

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available In tackling the on-going topic of UN reform, one should be honest with the analysis of the problems at stakes. It is necessary to first take into account the profound changes that have occurred since the end of the Cold War, as well as acknowledging the limits of an international organization and the shape of the UN system. It is only from that analysis that proposals can be made to rationalize and to make more efficient the functioning of the United Nations. What the Organization needs is not only a rationalization, it primarily needs a vision that gives it purpose and meaning. This article proposes that its primary goals should be anticipation and prevention – it should be the advanced guard and the conscience of the world. In this context, the United Nations is an indispensable and priceless instrument in international relations.

  9. Marketing As Competence Based Anticipation And Transaction-Chain Organizing

    OpenAIRE

    Damgaard, T

    1997-01-01

    The research theme of this paper is marketing management in professional services firms. According to marketing theories different perspectives are suggested. On the other hand we have the marketing mix perspective which focuses on market analysis and a marketing mix suitable for this, on the other hand we have interaction theory and network perspective which focus on delimiting and handling relationships. Contributions from the marketing mix perspective are quite clear concerning marketing p...

  10. Conductor shape optimisation using thermographic imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An important consideration in the design of high frequency electromagnetic devices is the effect of conductor shape on current distribution. As a rule of thumb, at high frequency the cross-sectional current distribution resembles a charge distribution in a charged conductor, with current travelling along the surface and particularly along edges. However when other conductors are present the current distribution may change dramatically. At BHP Research some novel electromagnetic devices are being developed. While the details are proprietary, in one of these the current distribution is an important factor in determining the ultimate performance of the device. Thus we required an experimental technique to analyse the current path. Thermographic imaging was considered because heating is proportional to I2. The conductors carry very high currents (thousands of ampere) at high frequencies (thousands of hertz) and are water cooled through their hollow centers. Two conductor profiles were tested; circular and rectangular. Calculated current distribution in a finite element model showed the landscape design as being the most efficient current carrier

  11. The Bionic Anticipation of Natural Disasters

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Helmut Tributsch

    2005-01-01

    After major natural disasters, such as the recent earthquake-tsunami event in South Asia, reports appear about the mysterious ability of animals to anticipate and to escape the impending danger. This is an opportunity to recall the long history of this phenomenon in the traditions of different civilizations, to evaluate Chinese efforts, 30 -40 years ago, to use this phenomenon for earthquake prediction, and to judge its state of acceptance in modern science. An effort is made to introduce this phenomenon as a research field of modern bionics. The timing is favorable since, increasingly, infrared thermal anomalies, monitored from satellite, suggesting litho-atmospheric processes, are found to precede earthquakes.They were unexpected by seismologists and are here suggested to essentially reflect the energy conversion patterns responsible for the signals monitored by animals. The aim is to learn from animals in the long term how natural disasters can better be anticipated, and how simple technical warning systems can be developed. Some challenges are analyzed. One is interpretation of the nature of energy release prior to the main earthquake disaster resulting in "macro-anomaly" precursors,another is better to understand the effect on animal senses. The role of non-linear cooperative phenomena including tsunamitype waves is emphasized.

  12. Postmodern Anticipations with E. A. Poe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucian-Vasile SZABO

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the present study is to serve as an introduction to a postmodern reading of Edgar Allan Poe’s short prose. Adventurous approach, as the author manifested himself as a writer in the first part of the 19th century, when romanticism revived and modern paradigm was founded. Based on the assessments expressed on postmodernism and using the tools proposed by various field researchers, we discover in Poe’s work anticipations of the narrative structure method specific for our present times. His concern for the newspaper reader, the insertion of general press topics and articles in his prose, the use of the sensational side of events in his newspaper reports, the ironic approach of real and diegetic facts allow a fresh reading, revaluating this surprising writer. Remarkable are his projections which come close to the SF genre, his confidence in the progress of science and the permanent impairment of this confidence, generated by the fear of world destruction. The conclusion would be that Poe’s prose allows certain postmodern anticipative projections to be decoded and the research to be extended beyond the conventional boundaries of modernity.

  13. Anticipation learning from the past the Russian/Soviet contributions to the science of anticipation

    CERN Document Server

    2015-01-01

    This volume presents the work of leading scientists from Russia, Georgia, Estonia, Lithuania, Israel, and the USA, revealing major insights long unknown to the scientific community. Without any doubt their work will provide a springboard for further research in anticipation. Until recently, Robert Rosen (Anticipatory Systems) and Mihai Nadin (MIND – Anticipation and Chaos) were deemed forerunners in this still new knowledge domain. The distinguished neurobiologist, Steven Rose, pointed to the fact that Soviet neuropsychological theories have not on the whole been well received by Western science. These earlier insights as presented in this volume make an important contribution to the foundation of the science of anticipation. It is shown that the daring hypotheses and rich experimental evidence produced by Bernstein, Beritashvili, Ukhtomsky, Anokhin, and Uznadze, among others—extend foundational work to aspects of neuroscience, physiology, motorics, education.

  14. Assessment of the noise annoyance among subway train conductors in Tehran, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mansoureh Hamidi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Subway transportation system is a new phenomenon in Iran. Noise annoyance interferes with the individual′s task performance, and the required alertness in the driving of subway trains. This is the first study conducted to measure the level of noise and noise annoyance among conductors of subway organization in Tehran, Iran. This cross sectional study was conducted among 167 randomly selected train conductors. Information related to noise annoyance was collected by using a self-administered questionnaire. The dosimetry and sound metering was done for the conductors and inside the cabins. There were 41 sound metering measuring samples inside the conductors′ cabin, and there were 12 samples of conductors′ noise exposure. The results of sound level meter showed that the mean Leq was 73.0 dBA ± 8.7 dBA and the dosimetry mean measured Leq was 82.1 dBA ± 6.8 dBA. 80% of conductors were very annoyed/annoyed by noise in their work place. 53.9% of conductors reported that noise affected their work performance and 63.5% reported that noise causes that they lose their concentration. The noise related to movement of train wheels on rail was reported as the worst by 83.2% followed by the noise of brakes (74.3% and the ventilation noise (71.9%. 56.9% of conductors reported that they are suffering from sleeplessness, 40.1% from tinnitus and 80.2% feeling fatigue and sleepy. The study results showed the high level of noise and noise annoyance among train conductors and the poor health outcome of their exposure to this level of noise.

  15. Properties and applications of perovskite proton conductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A brief overview is given of the main types and principles of solid-state proton conductors with perovskite structure. Their properties are summarized in terms of the defect chemistry, proton transport and chemical stability. A good understanding of these subjects allows the manufacturing of compounds with the desired electrical properties, for application in renewable and sustainable energy devices. A few trends and highlights of the scientific advances are given for some classes of protonic conductors. Recent results and future prospect about these compounds are also evaluated. The high proton conductivity of barium cerate and zirconate based electrolytes lately reported in the literature has taken these compounds to a highlight position among the most studied conductor ceramic materials. (author)

  16. Properties and applications of perovskite proton conductors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Souza, Eduardo Caetano Camilo de; Muccillo, Reginaldo, E-mail: ecsouza@ipen.b [Energy and Nuclear Research Institute (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Center of Science and Technology of Materials

    2010-07-01

    A brief overview is given of the main types and principles of solid-state proton conductors with perovskite structure. Their properties are summarized in terms of the defect chemistry, proton transport and chemical stability. A good understanding of these subjects allows the manufacturing of compounds with the desired electrical properties, for application in renewable and sustainable energy devices. A few trends and highlights of the scientific advances are given for some classes of protonic conductors. Recent results and future prospect about these compounds are also evaluated. The high proton conductivity of barium cerate and zirconate based electrolytes lately reported in the literature has taken these compounds to a highlight position among the most studied conductor ceramic materials. (author)

  17. Reinforced aluminium conductor for cryogenic applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Extreme purity aluminum has very attractive electrical properties at temperatures below 25 K which makes it competitive with conventional superconductors for cryogenic applications. Besides its inherently low density, its resistivity decreases by several orders of magnitude over its room temperature value thus making it suitable for use in lightweight high current density devices. This paper describes the fabrication of a 99.999% aluminum conductor reinforced by a powder metallurgy (P/M) processed Al-Fe-Ce alloy. Long continuous lengths of composite conductors consisting of 1, 4 and 19 Al filaments have been produced by streamline die hot extrusion and cold working by conventional wire drawing or cold hydrostatic extrusion. Microstructural observations and some limited electrical resistivity and mechanical property data are presented along with an analysis of the contamination of high purity Al conductors by diffusion during annealing

  18. Properties and applications of perovskite proton conductors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Caetano Camilo de Souza

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available A brief overview is given of the main types and principles of solid-state proton conductors with perovskite structure. Their properties are summarized in terms of the defect chemistry, proton transport and chemical stability. A good understanding of these subjects allows the manufacturing of compounds with the desired electrical properties, for application in renewable and sustainable energy devices. A few trends and highlights of the scientific advances are given for some classes of protonic conductors. Recent results and future prospect about these compounds are also evaluated. The high proton conductivity of barium cerate and zirconate based electrolytes lately reported in the literature has taken these compounds to a highlight position among the most studied conductor ceramic materials.

  19. Anticipated Activities in Maritime Work, Process Control, and Business Processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Peter Bøgh

    2004-01-01

    Most activities are anticipated before they are executed. The paper presents methods for describing this anticipated state and the processes that may lead to a new state where the activities are executed. The method builds on linguistic case-theory....

  20. Challenges and status of ITER conductor production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devred, A.; Backbier, I.; Bessette, D.; Bevillard, G.; Gardner, M.; Jong, C.; Lillaz, F.; Mitchell, N.; Romano, G.; Vostner, A.

    2014-04-01

    Taking the relay of the large Hadron collider (LHC) at CERN, ITER has become the largest project in applied superconductivity. In addition to its technical complexity, ITER is also a management challenge as it relies on an unprecedented collaboration of seven partners, representing more than half of the world population, who provide 90% of the components as in-kind contributions. The ITER magnet system is one of the most sophisticated superconducting magnet systems ever designed, with an enormous stored energy of 51 GJ. It involves six of the ITER partners. The coils are wound from cable-in-conduit conductors (CICCs) made up of superconducting and copper strands assembled into a multistage cable, inserted into a conduit of butt-welded austenitic steel tubes. The conductors for the toroidal field (TF) and central solenoid (CS) coils require about 600 t of Nb3Sn strands while the poloidal field (PF) and correction coil (CC) and busbar conductors need around 275 t of Nb-Ti strands. The required amount of Nb3Sn strands far exceeds pre-existing industrial capacity and has called for a significant worldwide production scale up. The TF conductors are the first ITER components to be mass produced and are more than 50% complete. During its life time, the CS coil will have to sustain several tens of thousands of electromagnetic (EM) cycles to high current and field conditions, way beyond anything a large Nb3Sn coil has ever experienced. Following a comprehensive R&D program, a technical solution has been found for the CS conductor, which ensures stable performance versus EM and thermal cycling. Productions of PF, CC and busbar conductors are also underway. After an introduction to the ITER project and magnet system, we describe the ITER conductor procurements and the quality assurance/quality control programs that have been implemented to ensure production uniformity across numerous suppliers. Then, we provide examples of technical challenges that have been encountered and

  1. Velocity measurement of conductor using electromagnetic induction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A basic technology was investigated to measure the speed of conductor by non-contact electromagnetic method. The principle of the velocity sensor was electromagnetic induction. To design electromagnet for velocity sensor, 2D electromagnetic analysis was performed using FEM software. The sensor output was analyzed according to the parameters of velocity sensor, such as the type of magnetizing currents and the lift-off. Output of magnetic sensor was linearly depended on the conductor speed and magnetizing current. To compensate the lift-off changes during measurement of velocity, the other magnetic sensor was put at the pole of electromagnet.

  2. Sistemas Avanzados de Asistencia al Conductor

    OpenAIRE

    Jimenez Ruiz, Francisco; Gómez Casado, Oscar; Naranjo Hernández, José Eugenio; Serradilla García, Francisco; López, José María; Martín, Ángel

    2011-01-01

    El control inteligente de vehículos autónomos es uno de los retos actuales más importantes de los Sistemas Inteligentes de Transporte. La aplicación de técnicas de inteligencia artificial para la gestión automática de los actuadores del vehículo permite a los diferentes sistemas avanzados de asistencia al conductor (ADAS) y a los sistemas de conducción autónoma, realizar una gestión de nivel bajo de una manera muy similar a la de los conductores humanos, mejorando la seguridad y el confor...

  3. Challenges and status of ITER conductor production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taking the relay of the large Hadron collider (LHC) at CERN, ITER has become the largest project in applied superconductivity. In addition to its technical complexity, ITER is also a management challenge as it relies on an unprecedented collaboration of seven partners, representing more than half of the world population, who provide 90% of the components as in-kind contributions. The ITER magnet system is one of the most sophisticated superconducting magnet systems ever designed, with an enormous stored energy of 51 GJ. It involves six of the ITER partners. The coils are wound from cable-in-conduit conductors (CICCs) made up of superconducting and copper strands assembled into a multistage cable, inserted into a conduit of butt-welded austenitic steel tubes. The conductors for the toroidal field (TF) and central solenoid (CS) coils require about 600 t of Nb3Sn strands while the poloidal field (PF) and correction coil (CC) and busbar conductors need around 275 t of Nb–Ti strands. The required amount of Nb3Sn strands far exceeds pre-existing industrial capacity and has called for a significant worldwide production scale up. The TF conductors are the first ITER components to be mass produced and are more than 50% complete. During its life time, the CS coil will have to sustain several tens of thousands of electromagnetic (EM) cycles to high current and field conditions, way beyond anything a large Nb3Sn coil has ever experienced. Following a comprehensive R and D program, a technical solution has been found for the CS conductor, which ensures stable performance versus EM and thermal cycling. Productions of PF, CC and busbar conductors are also underway. After an introduction to the ITER project and magnet system, we describe the ITER conductor procurements and the quality assurance/quality control programs that have been implemented to ensure production uniformity across numerous suppliers. Then, we provide examples of technical challenges that have been

  4. Anthropolis, revue d’anticipation culturelle1

    OpenAIRE

    Abélès, Marc

    2009-01-01

    Le projet d’Anthropolis est issu d’une constatation simple. Nous vivons dans un univers où le futur est désormais partie inté­grante du présent. Notre discours et nos comportements sont faits d’anticipations permanentes. Le virtuel est l’une des modalités essentielles du contemporain. L’appropriation massive des techno­logies de l’information a contribué à cette situation. De même, il est devenu parfois difficile de déterminer ce qui relève de la science proprement dite ou de la science‑ficti...

  5. Anticipating flow assurance challenges through geochemistry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flannery, M. [Fluid Evaluation and Sampling Technologies (FEAST) Team, Shell International Exploration and Production (United Kingdom)

    2008-07-01

    The behaviour of reservoir fluids pose a challenge at all stages of petroleum production, from the reservoir to refinery. The challenges sometimes stem from sub-optimal operations or inappropriate system design, with assumptions of similar fluid properties across the field. Hydrocarbon fluid phase behaviour is the product of local PVT conditions and the geochemical identity of the fluids. An appropriate development scenario along with anticipation of production challenges, can benefit from early integration of engineering and geochemical understanding of hydrocarbon fluids. This paper presented field examples of how the kerogen type and maturity, and later post-generation alteration processes such as biodegradation, water washing, TSR can influence likely flow assurance challenges in the production stream. The confounding issues of multiple charges and overlaying signatures were also discussed.

  6. Needs of anticipation for transport operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    COGEMA LOGISTICS (formerly Transnucleaire) has designed and manufactured several thousands of casks, and owns fleet of more than 4000 casks. Benefiting from more than 40 years of experience in cask shipment COGEMA LOGISTICS has demonstrated an outstanding performance in transportation and has integrated all feed back from past successful operations in current ones. Early anticipation of needs, i.e. at preliminary design step, is of major importance from a technical point of view (capacity, interface, handling means, licensing), and also in terms of political and public acceptance issues from the design step. This paper will highlight for each step required for the implementation of an optimal transport and storage system: Decision to proceed (including political aspects)-Design of casks to be used (including operational interface)-Licensing process-Manufacturing process-Transport plan, Public Acceptance-Loading Operations-Transport-Maintenance operations. (authors)

  7. EP1000 anticipated transient without scram analyses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present paper summarizes the main results of the Anticipated Transient Without Scram (ATWS) analysis activity, performed for the European Passive Plant Program (EPP). The behavior of the EP1000 plant following an ATWS has been analyzed by means of the RELAP5/Mod3.2 code. An ATWS is defined as an Anticipated Transient accompanied by a common mode failure in the reactor protection system, such that the control rods do not scram as required to mitigate the consequences of the transient. According to the experience gained in PWR design, the limiting ATWS events, in a PWR, have been found to be the heatup transients caused by a reduction of heat removal capability by the secondary side of the plant. For this reason, the Loss of Normal Feedwater initiating event, to which the failure of the reactor scram is associated, has been analyzed. The purpose of the study is to verify the performance requirements set for the core feedback characteristics (that is to evaluate the effect of the low boron core neutron kinetic parameters), the overpressure protection system, and boration systems to cope with the EUR Acceptance Criteria for ATWS. Another purpose of this analysis was to support development of revised PSA success criteria that would reduce the contribution of ATWS to the large release frequency (LRF). The low boron core improved the basic EP1000 response to an ATWS event. In particular, the peak pressure was significantly lower than that which would result from a standard core configuration. The improved ATWS analysis results also permitted improved ATWS PSA success criteria. For example, the reduced peak pressure allows the use of other plant features to mitigate the event, including manual initiation of feed-bleed cooling in the event of PRHR HX failure. As a result, the core melt frequency and especially the LRF are significantly reduced. (author)

  8. Time discounting and pain anticipation. Experimental evidence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brañas Garza, Pablo

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with pain anticipation experienced before medical procedures. our experimental results show that individuals with lower time discount factors are more prone to suffer pain in advance. We provide a framework to rationalize the connection between pain anticipation and impatience. in this set up, more impatient subjects, who only value very near events, mainly take into account the present negative effects of medical procedures (the costs, whereas more patient individuals have a net positive valuation of medical events, given that they are able to value both the cost incurred now and all the benefits to be accrued in the future.

    Este artículo trata de la anticipación del dolor experimentada antes de los procedimientos médicos. nuestros resultados experimentales muestran que los individuos con factor de descuento temporal más bajo son más proclives a sufrir dolor por adelantado. el artículo proporciona un marco en el que racionalizar la relación existente entre impaciencia y anticipación del dolor. en este marco, los sujetos más impacientes, que evalúan sólo los eventos muy próximos en el tiempo, focalizan su atención principalmente en los efectos negativos de los procedimientos médicos (sólo los costes, mientras que los individuos más pacientes tienen una valoración neta positiva de los actos médicos puesto que valoran tanto el coste en el que se incurre en el presente como los beneficios que se obtendrán en el futuro.

  9. Printable elastic conductors with a high conductivity for electronic textile applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuhisa, Naoji; Kaltenbrunner, Martin; Yokota, Tomoyuki; Jinno, Hiroaki; Kuribara, Kazunori; Sekitani, Tsuyoshi; Someya, Takao

    2015-06-01

    The development of advanced flexible large-area electronics such as flexible displays and sensors will thrive on engineered functional ink formulations for printed electronics where the spontaneous arrangement of molecules aids the printing processes. Here we report a printable elastic conductor with a high initial conductivity of 738 S cm-1 and a record high conductivity of 182 S cm-1 when stretched to 215% strain. The elastic conductor ink is comprised of Ag flakes, a fluorine rubber and a fluorine surfactant. The fluorine surfactant constitutes a key component which directs the formation of surface-localized conductive networks in the printed elastic conductor, leading to a high conductivity and stretchability. We demonstrate the feasibility of our inks by fabricating a stretchable organic transistor active matrix on a rubbery stretchability-gradient substrate with unimpaired functionality when stretched to 110%, and a wearable electromyogram sensor printed onto a textile garment.

  10. Electrodynamic Stability Computations for Flexible Conductors of the Aerial Lines

    OpenAIRE

    I. I. Sergey; Y. G. Panamarenka; P. I. Klimkovich; A. P. Dolin; Y. V. Potachits

    2015-01-01

    In aerial transmission lines aluminium multiwire conductors are in use. Owing to their flexible design the electrodynamic effect of short circuit currents may lead to intolerable mutual rendezvous and even cross-whipping of the phase conductors. The increasing motion of the conductors caused by effect of the short-circuit electrodynamic force impulse is accompanied by the dynamic load impact affecting the conductors, insulating and supporting constructions of the aerial lines. Intensity of th...

  11. What is the actual conductor temperature on Power Lines

    OpenAIRE

    Balghouzal, Salima; Lilien, Jean-Louis; El Adnani, Mustapha

    2013-01-01

    This paper will focus on power lines conductor temperature recording owing to smart sensor which is giving access to behaviour of power line span. Laboratory testing heating up HTLS (high temperature low sag) conductor up to 200°C with a smart sensor installed on the conductor is detailed. Peer reviewed

  12. Biaxially textured copper-iron alloys for coated conductors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gallistl, Bernhard; Hassel, Achim Walter [Institute for Chemical Technology of Inorganic Materials, Johannes Kepler University, Altenberger Str. 69, 4040 Linz (Austria); Kirchschlager, Raimund [Institute for Semiconductor and Solid State Physics, Johannes Kepler University, Altenberger Str. 69, 4040 Linz (Austria)

    2012-05-15

    Two copper based biaxially textured alloys containing 0.37 and 0.91 wt.%-Fe have been investigated for the use as substrate material for coated conductors. Average full width at half maximum (FWHM) values of 7.3 (CuFe0.37) and 6.8 (CuFe0.91) for in-plane alignment and 7.2 (CuFe0.37, CuFe0.91) for out-of-plane are achieved. Ultimate tensile strength for the two alloys is found to be much higher compared to the values for Cu and CuFe2.35. Hysteresis losses are dramatically reduced compared to other available substrate materials. Magnetisation data for both alloys obtained at 5 K show an anticipated saturation magnetisation (M{sub s}) <0.35 {mu}Wb m kg{sup -1}, which is less than 1% of pure Ni. (Copyright copyright 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  13. Conduction Mechanisms and Structure of Ionomeric Single-Ion Conductors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Colby, Ralph H.; Maranas, Janna K; Mueller, Karl T; Runt, James; Winey, Karen I

    2015-03-05

    Our team has designed using DFT (Gaussian) and synthesized low glass transition temperature single-ion conductors that are either polyanions that conduct small cations Li, Na, Cs or polycations that conduct small anions F, OH, Br. We utilize a wide range of complimentary experimental materials charactization tools to understand ion transport; differential scanning calorimetry, dielectric relaxation spectroscopy, infrared spectroscopy, nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, linear viscoelasticity, X-ray scattering and molecular dynamics simulations. The glass transition temperature Tg needs to be as low as possible to facilitate ion transport, so the nonionic parts of the polymer need to be polar, flexible and have strong solvation interactions with the ions. The lowest Tg we have managed for polyanions conducting Li is -60 C. In contrast, polysiloxanes with PEO side chains and tetrabutylphosphonium cationic side groups have Tg ~ -75C that barely increases with ion content, as anticipated by DFT. A survey of all polyanions in the literature suggests that Tg < -80C is needed to achieve the 10-4 S/cm conductivity needed for battery separators.

  14. High-temperature superconducting conductors and cables

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This is the final report of a 3-year LDRD project at LANL. High-temperature superconductivity (HTS) promises more efficient and powerful electrical devices such as motors, generators, and power transmission cables; however this depends on developing HTS conductors that sustain high current densities Jc in high magnetic fields at temperatures near liq. N2's bp. Our early work concentrated on Cu oxides but at present, long wire and tape conductors can be best made from BSCCO compounds with high Jc at low temperatures, but which are degraded severely at temperatures of interest. This problem is associated with thermally activated motion of magnetic flux lines in BSCCO. Reducing these dc losses at higher temperatures will require a high density of microscopic defects that will pin flux lines and inhibit their motion. Recently it was shown that optimum defects can be produced by small tracks formed by passage of energetic heavy ions. Such defects result when Bi is bombarded with high energy protons. The longer range of protons in matter suggests the possibility of application to tape conductors. AC losses are a major limitation in many applications of superconductivity such as power transmission. The improved pinning of flux lines reduces ac losses, but optimization also involves other factors. Measuring and characterizing these losses with respect to material parameters and conductor design is essential to successful development of ac devices

  15. Strain effect in REBCO coated conductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The strain effect on critical current (Ic) in REBCO coated conductors has been intensively investigated owing to its importance for practical applications. The change in Ic with applied strain can be divided into two phenomena; namely reversible variation within elastic deformation for superconducting film, and irreversible degradation related to brittle fracture. REBCO coated conductor is the first material among various high temperature superconductors in which the non-linear reversible change in Ic with uniaxial strain is markedly observed. High stress (strain) tolerance in coated conductors is one of the advantages compared with other superconducting composites, and there are high expectations for application to high-field magnets based on such superior mechanical properties. In this review article, recent research results on the mechanical properties of REBCO coated conductors are summarized, including the stress-strain characteristic for substrate materials, the strain effect on Ic and the experimental techniques for evaluating these properties. Delamination has been recognized as one of the most critical issues for coil applications. Several evaluation methods for delamination strength and interlaminar fracture toughness were introduced. (author)

  16. The Conductor as a Transformational Leader.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armstrong, Susan; Armstrong, Scott

    1996-01-01

    Identifies charisma and inspirational leadership as the most important characteristics of transformational leaders. Discusses how middle and secondary school music conductors can use the transformational leadership model. Summarizes key components of this model including positive modeling, sharing vision, and empowering others. Provides relevant…

  17. Anticipation as a Strategy: A Design Paradigm for Robotics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Mary-Anne; Gärdenfors, Peter; Johnston, Benjamin; Wightwick, Glenn

    Anticipation plays a crucial role during any action, particularly in agents operating in open, complex and dynamic environments. In this paper we consider the role of anticipation as a strategy from a design perspective. Anticipation is a crucial skill in sporting games like soccer, tennis and cricket. We explore the role of anticipation in robot soccer matches in the context of reaching the RoboCup vision to develop a robot soccer team capable of defeating the FIFA World Champions in 2050. Anticipation in soccer can be planned or emergent but whether planned or emergent, anticipation can be designed. Two key obstacles stand in the way of developing more anticipatory robot systems; an impoverished understanding of the "anticipation" process/capability and a lack of know-how in the design of anticipatory systems. Several teams at RoboCup have developed remarkable preemptive behaviors. The CMU Dive and UTS Dodge are two compelling examples. In this paper we take steps towards designing robots that can adopt anticipatory behaviors by proposing an innovative model of anticipation as a strategy that specifies the key characteristics of anticipation behaviors to be developed. The model can drive the design of autonomous systems by providing a means to explore and to represent anticipation requirements. Our approach is to analyze anticipation as a strategy and then to use the insights obtained to design a reference model that can be used to specify a set of anticipatory requirements for guiding an autonomous robot soccer system.

  18. Anticipated consumer reaction to irradiated foods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The reaction on first hearing of food irradiation is horror, revulsion, and disbelief that we could seriously anticipate such a thing. Ignorance coupled with fear of anything to do with the nuclear industry is the reason for such extreme reaction. Before anyone rushes into marketing irradiated foods, a lot of careful preparation must be done. A consumer education program is essential. The consumers must be told why it is proposed to irradiate food, what benefits it will bring to the public. Enough need will have to be demonstrated to overcome the supposed risk factor. Symbol on all irradiated foods must not be used to alert or alarm the consumer but rather as a piece of information. It will be necessary to be ever vigilant, to keep up the diligent training of food irradiators, food handlers and food inspectors. Irradiation is not a substitute for good manufacturing practice. So by using a different name or symbol, irradiated foods will soon be a part of our lives

  19. EDITORIAL: Coated conductors and their applications Coated conductors and their applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freyhardt, Herbert C.; Lee, Dominic; Izumi, Teruo

    2010-01-01

    The attractive perspectives offered by coated conductors, known as the 2nd generation of high temperature superconductors (2G-HTS), have triggered broad and fruitful R&D efforts to make them ready for the marketplace. The anisotropic features of YBCO and its weak-link behavior require the processing of almost single crystalline thin films into flat tapes of coated conductors by basically two different methods: RABiTS—rolling-assisted biaxially textured substrates; and IBAD—ion-beam assisted deposition. Reliable processing technologies are now at hand, and critical current carrying capacities can be raised to almost 10-20% of the theoretically possible limit by optimizing current transfer through grain boundaries as well as flux pinning through control and design of the microstructural landscapes. The optimization of the in-field properties of the 2G-HTS wires, as well as the manufacturing of coated conductors with low ac losses and of assembled conductors for high current application remain active development areas. Cost reduction and more economic processing are still an issue. However, coated conductors are now beginning to penetrate the market, particularly for power and electrical applications, where savings in energy are essential and where the unique features of high temperature superconducting materials can be utilized. Major international conferences have followed up the progress in this exciting realm, and important workshops and discussion meetings have been held on this topic. Nonetheless, it was felt that a concise and up-to-date issue of Superconductor Science and Technology would be most welcome to summarize and collect the latest developments in processing and characterizing coated conductors, as well as drawing attention to the most innovative applications. The Guest Editors of this focus issue owe great thanks to those colleagues who were willing to contribute with their most recent findings to this issue on 'Coated conductors and their

  20. Anticipated and experienced emotions in environmental risk perception

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gisela Bohm

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Affective forecasting with respect to two environmental risks (ozone depletion, air pollution was investigated by studying tourists who travelled to either Australia or Bangkok and were thus confronted with one of these risks. We measured anticipated outcome and anticipated emotions before the journey, actually experienced outcome and actually experienced emotions during the journey, and anticipated outcome and emotions concerning a future encounter with the same risk after the journey. Results indicate that tourists underestimate (air pollution or correctly predict (ozone depletion both the seriousness of the outcome and their emotional reactions. The relationship between actual outcome and actual emotions is stronger than that between anticipated outcome and anticipated emotions. Furthermore, tourists learn from their travel experience and adjust their anticipations concerning future encounters with the environmental risk. Findings suggest that the domain of environmental risks differs from personal outcomes with respect to the process of affective forecasting.

  1. Casimir force between sharp-shaped conductors

    CERN Document Server

    Maghrebi, Mohammad F; Emig, Thorsten; Graham, Noah; Jaffe, Robert L; Kardar, Mehran

    2010-01-01

    Casimir forces between conductors at the sub-micron scale cannot be ignored in the design and operation of micro-electromechanical (MEM) devices. However, these forces depend non-trivially on geometry, and existing formulae and approximations cannot deal with realistic micro-machinery components with sharp edges and tips. Here, we employ a novel approach to electromagnetic scattering, appropriate to perfect conductors with sharp edges and tips, specifically to wedges and cones. The interaction of these objects with a metal plate (and among themselves) is then computed systematically by a multiple-scattering series. For the wedge, we obtain analytical expressions for the interaction with a plate, as functions of opening angle and tilt, which should provide a particularly useful tool for the design of MEMs. Our result for the Casimir interactions between conducting cones and plates applies directly to the force on the tip of a scanning tunneling probe; the unexpectedly large temperature dependence of the force ...

  2. Current diffusion in rail-gun conductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A method has been developed to analyze one- and two-dimensional, nonlinear current diffusion in rail-gun conductors. A nonlinear current-diffusion equation that accounts for the temperature dependence of electrical conductivity has been developed from Maxwell's equations. A finite-difference heat-transfer computer program was adapted to solve the current-diffusion and thermal-diffusion problems for rail-gun conductors in one and two dimensions. The nonlinear current-diffusion equation was also extended to account for the magnetic-field dependence of the magnetic permeability, thus allowing ferromagnetic materials to be considered. A one-dimensional finite-difference technique was developed for ferromagnetic materials. Two one-dimensional test problems that compare results with other analyses are discussed. A series of calculations of current density and rail temperature was done for various size rectangular rails. One analysis of current diffusion in a ferromagnetic material was also performed

  3. Anticipated and experienced emotions in environmental risk perception

    OpenAIRE

    Gisela Bohm; Hans-Rudiger Pfister

    2008-01-01

    Affective forecasting with respect to two environmental risks (ozone depletion, air pollution) was investigated by studying tourists who travelled to either Australia or Bangkok and were thus confronted with one of these risks. We measured anticipated outcome and anticipated emotions before the journey, actually experienced outcome and actually experienced emotions during the journey, and anticipated outcome and emotions concerning a future encounter with the same risk after the journey. Resu...

  4. AA, inner conductor of a magnetic horn

    CERN Multimedia

    1981-01-01

    At the start-up of the AA and during its initial operation, magnetic horns focused the antiprotons emanating from the production target. These "current-sheet lenses" had a thin inner conductor (for minimum absorption of antiprotons), machined from aluminium to wall thicknesses of 0.7 or 1 mm. The half-sine pulses rose to 150 kA in 8 microsec. The angular acceptance was 50 mrad.

  5. Quantum pumping : coherent rings versus open conductors

    OpenAIRE

    Moskalets, Mykhaylo; Buttiker, Markus

    2003-01-01

    We examine adiabatic quantum pumping generated by an oscillating scatterer embedded in a one-dimensional ballistic ring and compare it with pumping caused by the same scatterer connected to external reservoirs. The pumped current for an open conductor, paradoxically, is non-zero even in the limit of vanishing transmission. In contrast, for the ring geometry the pumped current vanishes in the limit of vanishing transmission. We explain this paradoxical result and demonstrate that the physics u...

  6. Coated conductors for power applications: materials challenges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This manuscript reports on the recent progress and the remaining materials challenges in the development of coated conductors (CCs) for power applications and magnets, with a particular emphasis on the different initiatives being active at present in Europe. We first summarize the scientific and technological scope where CCs have been raised as a complex technology product and then we show that there exists still much room for performance improvement. The objectives and CC architectures being explored in the scope of the European project EUROTAPES are widely described and their potential in generating novel breakthroughs emphasized. The overall goal of this project is to create synergy among academic and industrial partners to go well beyond the state of the art in several scientific issues related to CCs’ enhanced performances and to develop nanoengineered CCs with reduced costs, using high throughput manufacturing processes which incorporate quality control tools and so lead to higher yields. Three general application targets are considered which will require different conductor architectures and performances and so the strategy is to combine vacuum and chemical solution deposition approaches to achieve the targeted goals. A few examples of such approaches are described related to defining new conductor architectures and shapes, as well as vortex pinning enhancement through novel paths towards nanostructure generation. Particular emphasis is made on solution chemistry approaches. We also describe the efforts being made in transforming the CCs into assembled conductors and cables which achieve appealing mechanical and electromagnetic performances for power systems. Finally, we briefly mention some outstanding superconducting power application projects being active at present, in Europe and worldwide, to exemplify the strong advances in reaching the demands to integrate them in a new electrical engineering paradigm. (paper)

  7. Electron quantum optics in ballistic chiral conductors

    OpenAIRE

    Bocquillon, E.; Freulon, V.; Parmentier, F. D.; Berroir, J.-M.; Plaçais, B.; Wahl, C.; Rech, J.; Jonckheere, T.; Martin, T; Grenier, C.; Ferraro, D.; Degiovanni, P.; Fève, G.

    2014-01-01

    The edge channels of the quantum Hall effect provide one dimensional chiral and ballistic wires along which electrons can be guided in optics like setup. Electronic propagation can then be analyzed using concepts and tools derived from optics. After a brief review of electron optics experiments performed using stationary current sources which continuously emit electrons in the conductor, this paper focuses on triggered sources, which can generate on-demand a single particle state. It first ou...

  8. A Review of Coated Conductor Development

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐永利; 时东陆

    2003-01-01

    The developments of coated conductor technology have been reviewed. It is shown that the critical current density of high-Tc wires can begreatly enhanced by using three-fold approaches: grain alignment, grain boundary doping, and optimization of the grain architecture. Major advances have been made in the last16 years mainly in three aspects: substrates, buffer layers and the YBCO layer. Cost is still the main concern for scale up, especially for the approach through vapor depositions, such as the PLD method. TFA-MOD or other CSD methods may be the trend to overcome cost and speed consideration during the scale up. However, high reliability and reproducibility will be the new focus for these techniques. Ni-alloy tapes seem to have advantages over pure Ni in terms of mechanicalstrength and oxidation resistance. Depositing a pure Ni layer on top of Ni-based alloys (such as Ni-Cr and Ni-W alloys) solves the problem of low strength ofNi and poor texture of Ni alloys. The RABiTS and IBAD are the two robust approaches for the texture generation. But the buffer materials and architectures being investigated remain unclear, though CeO2/YSZ/CeO2 and MgO are commonly used buffer layers for RABiTS and IBAD respectively. For the case where a buffer layer isunavoidable, a non-vacuum process would be suitable for low cost and scale up. However, none of the buffer layer fabrication processes through CSD has been demonstrated results good enough for long length coated conductor applications. While, a high Jc superconducting layer can be produced by TFA-MOD, which brings a bright future for coated conductors. Clearly, there are still many scientific and technological barriers to be overcome before any long length of high Jc coated conductor be produced commercially. But theoretical analyses and technological progress show the potential for the practical application of coatedconductor wires in the near future.

  9. Coated conductors for power applications: materials challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obradors, Xavier; Puig, Teresa

    2014-04-01

    This manuscript reports on the recent progress and the remaining materials challenges in the development of coated conductors (CCs) for power applications and magnets, with a particular emphasis on the different initiatives being active at present in Europe. We first summarize the scientific and technological scope where CCs have been raised as a complex technology product and then we show that there exists still much room for performance improvement. The objectives and CC architectures being explored in the scope of the European project EUROTAPES are widely described and their potential in generating novel breakthroughs emphasized. The overall goal of this project is to create synergy among academic and industrial partners to go well beyond the state of the art in several scientific issues related to CCs’ enhanced performances and to develop nanoengineered CCs with reduced costs, using high throughput manufacturing processes which incorporate quality control tools and so lead to higher yields. Three general application targets are considered which will require different conductor architectures and performances and so the strategy is to combine vacuum and chemical solution deposition approaches to achieve the targeted goals. A few examples of such approaches are described related to defining new conductor architectures and shapes, as well as vortex pinning enhancement through novel paths towards nanostructure generation. Particular emphasis is made on solution chemistry approaches. We also describe the efforts being made in transforming the CCs into assembled conductors and cables which achieve appealing mechanical and electromagnetic performances for power systems. Finally, we briefly mention some outstanding superconducting power application projects being active at present, in Europe and worldwide, to exemplify the strong advances in reaching the demands to integrate them in a new electrical engineering paradigm.

  10. Los conductores re-examinados: El transcurso del tiempo deteriora significativamente los conocimientos de los conductores

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco J. Martos

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Dos mil cinco conductores, 1204 hombres y 801 mujeres, una muestra representativa de la población española de conductores, fueron nuevamente examinados utilizando un cuestionario que reproducía fielmente un examen de conducir realizado por la Dirección General de Tráfico (DGT. Las preguntas fueron clasificadas en"“muy importantes", "importantes" y "poco importantes". El 96.5 % de los conductores, suspendió el examen. Los resultados eran tanto peores cuanto más tiempo había transcurridodesde la obtención del permiso de conducir. Esto era independiente de la importancia de las preguntas, de la mayor o menor frecuencia de conducción y afectaba por igual a hombres y mujeres. Las mujeres obtienen mejores puntuaciones en señalización mientras que los hombres son mejores en las preguntas de seguridad vial. Los resultados también demostraban que los conductores profesionales y los de mayor nivel educativo sufren un menor deterioro. Tales resultados nos llevan a considerar la relación que estos datos puedan tener en los niveles de accidentalidad y la conveniencia de establecer pautas para la actualización del conocimiento de los conductores. Finalmente, se discute la relevancia que el examen que se utiliza para obtener el permiso de conducir tiene como indicador o predictor de una futura conducción segura.

  11. HTS twisted stacked-tape cable conductor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The feasibility of high field magnet applications of the twisted stacked-tape cabling method with 2G YBCO tapes has been investigated. An analysis of torsional twist strains of a thin HTS tape has been carried out taking into account the internal shortening compressive strains accompanied with the lengthening tensile strains due to the torsional twist. The model is benchmarked against experimental tests using YBCO tapes. The critical current degradation and current distribution of a four-tape conductor was evaluated by taking account of the twist strain, the self-field and the termination resistances. The critical current degradation for the tested YBCO cables can be explained by the perpendicular self-field effect. It is shown that the critical current of a twisted stacked-tape conductor with a four-tape cable does not degrade with a twist pitch length as short as 120 mm. Current distribution among tapes and hysteresis losses are also investigated. A compact joint termination method for a 2G YBCO tape cable has been developed. The twisted stacked-tape conductor method may be an attractive means for the fabrication of highly compact, high current cables from multiple flat HTS tapes.

  12. Testing of the 3M Company Composite Conductor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stovall, John P [ORNL; Rizy, D Tom [ORNL; Kisner, Roger A [ORNL

    2010-10-01

    The 3M Company has developed a high-temperature low-sag conductor referred to as Aluminum-Conductor Composite-Reinforced or ACCR. The conductor uses an aluminum metal matrix material to replace the steel in conventional conductors. The objective of this work is to accelerate the commercial acceptance by electric utilities of this new conductor design by testing four representative conductor classes in controlled conditions. A unique facility called the Powerline Conductor Accelerated Testing (PCAT) Facility was built at ORNL for testing overhead conductors. The PCAT has been uniquely designed for testing overhead bare transmission line conductors at high currents and temperatures after they have been installed and tensioned to the manufacturer's specifications. The ability to operate a transmission line conductor in this manner does not exist elsewhere in the United States. Four classes of ACCR cable designed by the 3M Company have been successfully test at ORNL small, medium, large and small/compact. Based on these and other manufacturer tests, the 3M Company has successfully introduced the ACCR into the commercial market and has completed over twenty installations for utility companies.

  13. On the origins of anticipation as an evolutionary framework: functional systems perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurismaa, Andres

    2015-08-01

    This paper discusses the problem of anticipation from an evolutionary and systems-theoretical perspective, developed in the context of Russian/Soviet evolutionary biological and neurophysiological schools in the early and mid-twentieth century. On this background, an outline is given of the epigenetic interpretation of anticipatory capacities formulated and substantiated by the eminent Russian neurophysiologist academician Peter K. Anokhin in the framework of functional systems theory. It is considered that several key positions of this theory are well confirmed by recent evidence on anticipation as an evolutionarily basic adaptive capacity, possibly inherent to the organization of life. In the field of neuroscience, the theory of functional systems may potentially facilitate future studies at the intersection of learning, development and evolution by representing an integrative approach to the problem of anticipation.

  14. Diamagnetic phase transitions in two-dimensional conductors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bakaleinikov, L.A., E-mail: bakal.ammp@mail.ioffe.ru [A.F. Ioffe Physico-Technical Institute, Russian Academy of Sciences, St. Petersburg 194021 (Russian Federation); Department of Mathematics and Physics, Faculty of Natural Sciences, University of Haifa, Campus Oranim, Tivon 36006 (Israel); Gordon, A. [Department of Mathematics and Physics, Faculty of Natural Sciences, University of Haifa, Campus Oranim, Tivon 36006 (Israel)

    2014-11-15

    A theory describing the susceptibility amplitude and the magnetic induction bifurcation near the dHvA driven diamagnetic phase transitions in quasi two-dimensional (2D) organic conductors of the (ET){sub 2}X with X=Cu(NCS){sub 2},KHg(SCN){sub 4},I{sub 3},AuBr{sub 2},IBr{sub 2}, etc. is presented. We show that there is a drastic increase in the temperature and magnetic field dependence of the susceptibility amplitude on approaching the diamagnetic phase transition point. Near the phase transition point the temperature and magnetic field dependences are fitted by the ones typical of the mean-field phase transition theory. These dependences confirm the long-range character of the magnetic interactions among the conduction electrons leading to diamagnetic phase transitions. We demonstrate that the magnetic induction splitting of nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and muon spin-rotation spectroscopy (μSR) lines due to two Condon domains decreases tending to zero on approaching the diamagnetic phase transition. This decrease is fitted by the temperature and magnetic field dependence of the susceptibility characteristic of the mean-field theory of phase transitions. Performing new susceptibility, NMR and μSR experiments will enable to detect diamagnetic phase transitions and Condon domains in quasi 2D metals. - Highlights: • A theory of diamagnetic phase transitions (DPTs) is presented in 2D organic conductors. • The behaviour of the susceptibility amplitude and the induction splitting is shown near the DPT. • The calculated quantities are described by the mean-field theory of phase transitions.

  15. The non-anticipation of the asynchronous systems

    OpenAIRE

    Vlad, Serban E.

    2008-01-01

    The asynchronous systems are the models of the asynchronous circuits from the digital electrical engineering and non-anticipation is one of the most important properties in systems theory. Our present purpose is to introduce several concepts of non-anticipation of the asynchronous systems.

  16. Age Differences in Risky Decisions: The Role of Anticipated Emotions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yiwei; Ma, Xiaodong

    2009-01-01

    The present study investigated the role of anticipated emotions in risky decisions of young and older adults. Young and older adults were asked to make a choice between an alternative that may have either a very positive or a very negative consequence and an alternative that was relatively safe. Meanwhile, they rated their anticipated emotions if…

  17. Test of ITER conductors in SULTAN: An update

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The ITER Toroidal Field (TF) conductor qualification phase has been carried out by testing short sample prototype conductors in the SULTAN test facility. This phase, started in 2007, has been substantially completed after minor adjustment of the conductor specification and test procedures. All the parties involved in the TF conductor procurement passed the qualification phase. Starting 2010, the samples for TF process qualification phase are tested in SULTAN. A summary of the results for all the ITER Qualification samples and an updated statistics are presented for the V-I and V-T characteristics of the cable-in-conduit conductors (CICC), including Nb3Sn and NbTi samples assembled with either a 'bottom joint' or a 'U-bend'. The technical improvements of the test facility are reported, including the enhanced cyclic loading rate and the calibration of the current meter. An outlook of the ITER conductor tests in the coming years is also presented.

  18. A new car-following model considering velocity anticipation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The full velocity difference model proposed by Jiang et al. [2001 Phys. Rev. E 64 017101] has been improved by introducing velocity anticipation. Velocity anticipation means the follower estimates the future velocity of the leader. The stability condition of the new model is obtained by using the linear stability theory. Theoretical results show that the stability region increases when we increase the anticipation time interval. The mKdV equation is derived to describe the kink–antikink soliton wave and obtain the coexisting stability line. The delay time of car motion and kinematic wave speed at jam density are obtained in this model. Numerical simulations exhibit that when we increase the anticipation time interval enough, the new model could avoid accidents under urgent braking cases. Also, the traffic jam could be suppressed by considering the anticipation velocity. All results demonstrate that this model is an improvement on the full velocity difference model. (general)

  19. Effects of Anticipation in Individually Motivated Behaviour on Survival and Control in a Multi-Agent Scenario with Resource Constraints

    OpenAIRE

    Christian Guckelsberger; Daniel Polani

    2014-01-01

    Self-organization and survival are inextricably bound to an agent’s ability to control and anticipate its environment. Here we assess both skills when multiple agents compete for a scarce resource. Drawing on insights from psychology, microsociology and control theory, we examine how different assumptions about the behaviour of an agent’s peers in the anticipation process affect subjective control and survival strategies. To quantify control and drive behaviour, we use the recently developed ...

  20. Fabrication of built-up conductors for large pulsed coils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The development work was performed to provide a low-loss, cryostable conductor capable of carrying 5 kA at 3 T for a 30-MJ coil cycled at 0.35 Hz. Much of the work is relevant to conductor development for other pulsed coils, such as a tokamak induction heating coil. As part of the development process, various conductor configurations were subjected to ac loss measurements, stability tests, electrical resistance measurements, and mechanical load-bearing and mechanical fatigue tests. The result is a conductor that appears to satisfy the design criteria with a considerable safety margin

  1. First qualification of ITER Toroidal Field Coil conductor jacketing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamada, Kazuya, E-mail: hamada.kazuya@jaea.go.jp [Japan Atomic Energy Agency (Japan); Takahashi, Yoshikazu; Isono, Takaaki; Nunoya, Yoshihiko; Matsui, Kunihiro; Kawano, Katsumi; Oshikiri, Masayuki; Tsutsumi, Fumiaki; Koizumi, Norikiyo; Nakajima, Hideo; Okuno, Kiyoshi [Japan Atomic Energy Agency (Japan); Matsuda, Hidemitsu; Yano, Yoshitaka [Nippon Steel Engineering Co. Ltd (Japan); Devred, Arnauld; Bessette, Denis [ITER Organization (France)

    2011-10-15

    The Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA) has the responsibility to procure 25% of the ITER Toroidal Field Coil conductors as the Japanese Domestic Agency (JADA) in the ITER project. The TF conductor is a circular shaped, cable-in-conduit conductor, composed of a cable and a stainless steel conduit (jacket). The outer diameter and maximum length of the TF conductor are 43.7 mm and 760 m, respectively. JAEA started to produce strand, cables and jacket sections and to construct a conductor manufacturing (jacketing) facility in 2008. Following preparation in December 2009 of the jacketing facility, the dummy cable, the jacket sections and fabrication procedures, such as welding, cable insertion, compaction and spooling, JAEA manufactured a 760 m long Cu dummy conductor for process qualification. Into the 760 m long Cu dummy conductor jacketing, JAEA successfully inserted the cable with a maximum force of 32 kN. The outer diameter of the cross section of the spooled conductor was 43.7 {+-} 0.15 mm, which complies with the ITER target requirement of 43.7 {+-} 0.3 mm. Following qualification of all manufacturing processes, JAEA has started to fabricate superconducting conductors for the TF coils.

  2. First qualification of ITER Toroidal Field Coil conductor jacketing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA) has the responsibility to procure 25% of the ITER Toroidal Field Coil conductors as the Japanese Domestic Agency (JADA) in the ITER project. The TF conductor is a circular shaped, cable-in-conduit conductor, composed of a cable and a stainless steel conduit (jacket). The outer diameter and maximum length of the TF conductor are 43.7 mm and 760 m, respectively. JAEA started to produce strand, cables and jacket sections and to construct a conductor manufacturing (jacketing) facility in 2008. Following preparation in December 2009 of the jacketing facility, the dummy cable, the jacket sections and fabrication procedures, such as welding, cable insertion, compaction and spooling, JAEA manufactured a 760 m long Cu dummy conductor for process qualification. Into the 760 m long Cu dummy conductor jacketing, JAEA successfully inserted the cable with a maximum force of 32 kN. The outer diameter of the cross section of the spooled conductor was 43.7 ± 0.15 mm, which complies with the ITER target requirement of 43.7 ± 0.3 mm. Following qualification of all manufacturing processes, JAEA has started to fabricate superconducting conductors for the TF coils.

  3. Conductor requirements for high-temperature superconducting utility power transformers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    High-temperature superconducting (HTS) coated conductors in utility power transformers must satisfy a set of operating requirements that are driven by two major considerations-HTS transformers must be economically competitive with conventional units, and the conductor must be robust enough to be used in a commercial manufacturing environment. The transformer design and manufacturing process will be described in order to highlight the various requirements that it imposes on the HTS conductor. Spreadsheet estimates of HTS transformer costs allow estimates of the conductor cost required for an HTS transformer to be competitive with a similarly performing conventional unit.

  4. Anticipating the Species Jump: Surveillance for Emerging Viral Threats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flanagan, M. L.; Parrish, C. R.; Cobey, S.; Glass, G. E.; Bush, R. M.; Leighton, T. J.

    2016-01-01

    Summary Zoonotic disease surveillance is typically triggered after animal pathogens have already infected humans. Are there ways to identify high-risk viruses before they emerge in humans? If so, then how and where can identifications be made and by what methods? These were the fundamental questions driving a workshop to examine the future of predictive surveillance for viruses that might jump from animals to infect humans. Virologists, ecologists and computational biologists from academia, federal government and non-governmental organizations discussed opportunities as well as obstacles to the prediction of species jumps using genetic and ecological data from viruses and their hosts, vectors and reservoirs. This workshop marked an important first step towards envisioning both scientific and organizational frameworks for this future capability. Canine parvoviruses as well as seasonal H3N2 and pandemic H1N1 influenza viruses are discussed as exemplars that suggest what to look for in anticipating species jumps. To answer the question of where to look, prospects for discovering emerging viruses among wildlife, bats, rodents, arthropod vectors and occupationally exposed humans are discussed. Finally, opportunities and obstacles are identified and accompanied by suggestions for how to look for species jumps. Taken together, these findings constitute the beginnings of a conceptual framework for achieving a virus surveillance capability that could predict future species jumps. PMID:21914152

  5. AA, Inner Conductor of Magnetic Horn

    CERN Multimedia

    1979-01-01

    Antiprotons emerging at large angles from the production target (hit by an intense 26 GeV proton beam from the PS), were focused into the acceptance of the injection line of the AA by means of a "magnetic horn" (current-sheet lens). Here we see an early protype of the horn's inner conductor, machined from solid aluminium to a thickness of less than 1 mm. The 1st version had to withstand pulses of 150 kA, 15 us long, every 2.4 s. See 8801040 for a later version.

  6. Anticipating Human Activities Using Object Affordances for Reactive Robotic Response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koppula, Hema S; Saxena, Ashutosh

    2016-01-01

    An important aspect of human perception is anticipation, which we use extensively in our day-to-day activities when interacting with other humans as well as with our surroundings. Anticipating which activities will a human do next (and how) can enable an assistive robot to plan ahead for reactive responses. Furthermore, anticipation can even improve the detection accuracy of past activities. The challenge, however, is two-fold: We need to capture the rich context for modeling the activities and object affordances, and we need to anticipate the distribution over a large space of future human activities. In this work, we represent each possible future using an anticipatory temporal conditional random field (ATCRF) that models the rich spatial-temporal relations through object affordances. We then consider each ATCRF as a particle and represent the distribution over the potential futures using a set of particles. In extensive evaluation on CAD-120 human activity RGB-D dataset, we first show that anticipation improves the state-of-the-art detection results. We then show that for new subjects (not seen in the training set), we obtain an activity anticipation accuracy (defined as whether one of top three predictions actually happened) of 84.1, 74.4 and 62.2 percent for an anticipation time of 1, 3 and 10 seconds respectively. Finally, we also show a robot using our algorithm for performing a few reactive responses. PMID:26656575

  7. The Silicon Microstrip Sensors of the ATLAS SemiConductor Tracker

    CERN Document Server

    Ahmad, A; Allport, P P; Alonso, J; Andricek, L; Apsimon, R J; Barr, A J; Bates, R L; Beck, G A; Bell, P J; Belymam, A; Benes, J; Berg, C M; Bernabeu, J; Bethke, S; Bingefors, N; Bizzell, J P; Bohm, J; Brenner, R; Brodbeck, T J; Bruckman De Renstrom, P; Buttar, C M; Campbell, D; Carpentieri, C; Carter, A A; Carter, J R; Charlton, D G; Casse, G-L; Chilingarov, A; Cindro, V; Ciocio, A; Civera, J V; Clark, A G; Colijn, A-P; Costa, M J; Dabrowski, W; Danielsen, K M; Dawson, I; Demirkoz, B; Dervan, P; Dolezal, Z; Dorholt, O; Duerdoth, I P; Dwuznik, M; Eckert, S; Ekelöf, T; Eklund, L; Escobar, C; Fasching, D; Feld, L; Ferguson, D P S; Ferrere, D; Fortin, R; Foster, J M; Fox, H; French, R; Fromant, B P; Fujita, K; Fuster, J; Gadomski, S; Gallop, B J; Garcia, C; Garcia-Navarro, J E; Gibson, M D; Gonzalez, S; Gonzalez-Sevilla, S; Goodrick, M J; Gornicki, E; Green, C; Greenall, A; Grigson, C; Grillo, A A; Grosse-Knetter, J; Haber, C; Handa, T; Hara, K; Harper, R S; Hartjes, F G; Hashizaki, T; Hauff, D; Hessey, N P; Hill, J C; Hollins, T I; Holt, S; Horazdovsky, T; Hornung, M; Hovland, K M; Hughes, G; Huse, T; Ikegami, Y; Iwata, Y; Jackson, J N; Jakobs, K; Jared, R C; Johansen, L G; Jones, R W L; Jones, T J; de Jong, P; Joseph, J; Jovanovic, P; Kaplon, J; Kato, Y; Ketterer, C; Kindervaag, I M; Kodys, P; Koffeman, E; Kohriki, T; Kohout, Z; Kondo, T; Koperny, S; van der Kraaij, E; Kral, V; Kramberger, G; Kudlaty, J; Lacasta, C; Limper, M; Linhart, V; Llosa, G; Lozano, M; Ludwig, I; Ludwig, J; Lutz, G; Macpherson, A; McMahon, S J; Macina, D; Magrath, C A; Malecki, P; Mandic, I; Marti-Garcia, S; Matsuo, T; Meinhardt, J; Mellado, B; Mercer, I J; Mikestikova, M; Mikuz, M; Minano, M; Mistry, J; Mitsou, V; Modesto, P; Mohn, B; Molloy, S D; Moorhead, G; Moraes, A; Morgan, D; Morone, M C; Morris, J; Moser, H-G; Moszczynski, A; Muijs, A J M; Nagai, K; Nakamura, Y; Nakano, I; Nicholson, R; Niinikoski, T; Nisius, R; Ohsugi, T; O'Shea, V; Oye, O K; Parzefall, U; Pater, J R; Pernegger, H; Phillips, P W; Posisil, S; Ratoff, P N; Reznicek, P; Richardson, J D; Richter, R H; Robinson, D; Roe, S; Ruggiero, G; Runge, K; Sadrozinski, H F W; Sandaker, H; Schieck, J; Seiden, A; Shinma, S; Siegrist, J; Sloan, T; Smith, N A; Snow, S W; Solar, M; Solberg, A; Sopko, B; Sospedra, L; Spieler, H; Stanecka, E; Stapnes, S; Stastny, J; Stelzer, F; Stradling, A; Stugu, B; Takashima, R; Tanaka, R; Taylor, G; Terada, S; Thompson, R J; Titov, M; Tomeda, Y; Tovey, D R; Turala, M; Turner, P R; Tyndel, M; Ullan, M; Unno, Y; Vickey, T; Vos, M; Wallny, R; Weilhammer, P; Wells, P S; Wilson, J A; Wolter, M; Wormald, M; Wu, S L; Yamashita, T; Zontar, D; Zsenei, A

    2007-01-01

    This paper describes the AC-coupled, single-sided, p-in-n silicon microstrip sensors used in the SemiConductor Tracker (SCT) of the ATLAS experiment at the CERN Large Hadron Collider (LHC). The sensor requirements, specifications and designs are discussed, together with the qualification and quality assurance procedures adopted for their production. The measured sensor performance is presented, both initially and after irradiation to the fluence anticipated after 10 years of LHC operation. The sensors are now successfully assembled within the detecting modules of the SCT, and the SCT tracker is completed and integrated within the ATLAS Inner Detector. Hamamatsu Photonics Ltd supplied 92.2% of the 15,392 installed sensors, with the remainder supplied by CiS.

  8. Novel processing of HTS based conductors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ginley, D. S.; Venturini, E. L.; Kwak, J. F.; Baughman, R. J.; Bourcier, R. J.; Mitchell, M. A.; Morosin, B. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (USA); Halloran, J. W.; Neal, M. J. [Ceramics Process Systems Corp., Milford, MA (USA); Capone, D. W. [Supercon, Inc., Shrewsbury, MA (USA)

    1990-01-01

    Conductor development is one of the major long term goals in high temperature superconductor research. In this paper we report on two promising processing technologies that have been utilized to produce superconducting HTS conductors. First, melt spun YBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 7} fibers rapid thermal processed for 1--8 sec at 950 to 1075{degree}C have {Tc}'s to 92 K, J{sub c}'s to 1100 A/cm{sup 2} and the orthorhombic twinned morphology typical for high quality YBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 7}. A processing matrix of time, temperature and composition for these fibers shows that slightly CuO-rich starting compositions give the best results. Second, silver tube encapsulated wires of Bi{sub 1.7}Pb{sub 0.3}Sr{sub 2}Ca{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 10} have been made by extrusion, wire drawing and cold rolling. The resulting tapes show orientation of the crystallites, zero resistance up to 100K and improved magnetic hysteresis above 50 K. The combination of mechanical reprocessing and extended thermal anneals near 850{degree}C appears to significantly improve these materials. 13 refs., 7 figs.

  9. Novel processing of HTS based conductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conductor development is one of the major long term goals in high temperature superconductor research. In this paper the authors report on two promising processing technologies that have been utilized to produce superconducting HTS conductors. First, melt spun YBa2Cu3O7 fibers rapid thermal processed for 1-8 sec at 950 to 1075 degrees C have Tc's to 92 K, Jc to 1100 A/cm2 and the orthorhombic twinned morphology typical for high quality YBa2Cu3O7. A processing matrix of time, temperature and composition for these fibers shows that slightly CuO-rich starting composition give the best results. Second, silver tube encapsulated wires of Bi1.7Pb0.3Sr2Ca2Cu3O10 have been made by extrusion, wire drawing and cold rolling. The resulting tapes show orientation of the crystallites, zero resistance up to 100K and improved magnetic hysteria above 50 K. The combination of mechanical reprocessing and extended thermal anneal near 850 degrees C appears to significantly improve these materials

  10. Conductor gestures influence evaluations of ensemble performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrison, Steven J; Price, Harry E; Smedley, Eric M; Meals, Cory D

    2014-01-01

    Previous research has found that listener evaluations of ensemble performances vary depending on the expressivity of the conductor's gestures, even when performances are otherwise identical. It was the purpose of the present study to test whether this effect of visual information was evident in the evaluation of specific aspects of ensemble performance: articulation and dynamics. We constructed a set of 32 music performances that combined auditory and visual information and were designed to feature a high degree of contrast along one of two target characteristics: articulation and dynamics. We paired each of four music excerpts recorded by a chamber ensemble in both a high- and low-contrast condition with video of four conductors demonstrating high- and low-contrast gesture specifically appropriate to either articulation or dynamics. Using one of two equivalent test forms, college music majors and non-majors (N = 285) viewed sixteen 30 s performances and evaluated the quality of the ensemble's articulation, dynamics, technique, and tempo along with overall expressivity. Results showed significantly higher evaluations for performances featuring high rather than low conducting expressivity regardless of the ensemble's performance quality. Evaluations for both articulation and dynamics were strongly and positively correlated with evaluations of overall ensemble expressivity. PMID:25104944

  11. Maximum permissible voltage of YBCO coated conductors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wen, J.; Lin, B.; Sheng, J.; Xu, J.; Jin, Z. [Department of Electrical Engineering, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai (China); Hong, Z., E-mail: zhiyong.hong@sjtu.edu.cn [Department of Electrical Engineering, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai (China); Wang, D.; Zhou, H.; Shen, X.; Shen, C. [Qingpu Power Supply Company, State Grid Shanghai Municipal Electric Power Company, Shanghai (China)

    2014-06-15

    Highlights: • We examine three kinds of tapes’ maximum permissible voltage. • We examine the relationship between quenching duration and maximum permissible voltage. • Continuous I{sub c} degradations under repetitive quenching where tapes reaching maximum permissible voltage. • The relationship between maximum permissible voltage and resistance, temperature. - Abstract: Superconducting fault current limiter (SFCL) could reduce short circuit currents in electrical power system. One of the most important thing in developing SFCL is to find out the maximum permissible voltage of each limiting element. The maximum permissible voltage is defined as the maximum voltage per unit length at which the YBCO coated conductors (CC) do not suffer from critical current (I{sub c}) degradation or burnout. In this research, the time of quenching process is changed and voltage is raised until the I{sub c} degradation or burnout happens. YBCO coated conductors test in the experiment are from American superconductor (AMSC) and Shanghai Jiao Tong University (SJTU). Along with the quenching duration increasing, the maximum permissible voltage of CC decreases. When quenching duration is 100 ms, the maximum permissible of SJTU CC, 12 mm AMSC CC and 4 mm AMSC CC are 0.72 V/cm, 0.52 V/cm and 1.2 V/cm respectively. Based on the results of samples, the whole length of CCs used in the design of a SFCL can be determined.

  12. Testing of the 3M Company ACCR Conductor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stovall, J.P.; RIzy, D.T.; Kisner, R.A.; Deve, H.E. (3M Comp.)

    2010-09-15

    The 3M Company has developed a high-temperature low-sag conductor referred to as Aluminum- Conductor Composite-Reinforced or ACCR. The conductor uses an aluminum metal matrix material to replace the steel in conventional conductors so the core has a lower density and higher conductivity. The objective of this work is to accelerate the commercial acceptance by electric utilities of these new conductor designs by testing four representative conductor classes in controlled conditions. Overhead transmission lines use bare aluminum conductor strands wrapped around a steel core strands to transmit electricity. The typical cable is referred to as aluminum-conductor steel-reinforced (ACSR). The outer strands are aluminum, chosen for its conductivity, low weight, and low cost. The center strand is of steel for the strength required to support the weight without stretching the aluminum due to its ductility. The power density of a transmission corridor has been directly increased by increasing the voltage level. Transmission voltages have increased from 115-kV to 765- kV over the past 80 years. In the United States, further increasing the voltage level is not feasible at this point in time, so in order to further increase the power density of a transmission corridor, conductor designs that increase the current carrying capability have been examined. One of the key limiting factors in the design of a transmission line is the conductor sag which determines the clearance of the conductor above ground or underlying structures needed for electrical safety. Increasing the current carrying capability of a conductor increases the joule heating in the conductor which increases the conductor sag. A conductor designed for high-temperature and lowsag operation requires an engineered modification of the conductor materials. To make an advanced cable, the 3M Company solution has been the development of a composite conductor consisting of Nextel ceramic fibers to replace the steel core and

  13. 21 CFR 868.1920 - Esophageal stethoscope with electrical conductors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Esophageal stethoscope with electrical conductors. 868.1920 Section 868.1920 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN... stethoscope with electrical conductors. (a) Identification. An esophageal stethoscope with...

  14. Participation anticipating in elections using data mining methods

    OpenAIRE

    Sangar, Amin Babazadeh; Khaze, Seyyed Reza; Ebrahimi, Laya

    2013-01-01

    Anticipating the political behavior of people will be considerable help for election candidates to assess the possibility of their success and to be acknowledged about the public motivations to select them. In this paper, we provide a general schematic of the architecture of participation anticipating system in presidential election by using KNN, Classification Tree and Na\\"ive Bayes and tools orange based on crisp which had hopeful output. To test and assess the proposed model, we begin to u...

  15. Anticipated Monetary Policy in a Cash-in-Advance Economy.

    OpenAIRE

    Benoit Carmichael

    1989-01-01

    This paper analyzes the effects of perfectly foreseen monetary policy within the framework of a standard cash-in-advance economy. Anticipated monetary policy is shown to have real effects by influencing inflationary expectations. In a cash-in-advance economy, an increase in the anticipated rate of inflation reduces the return to labor supply and induces a substitution away from time spent in the labor market. The paper analyzes the implication of this substitution for the time paths of output...

  16. Double-Sided Energy Auction Equilibrium Under Price Anticipation

    OpenAIRE

    Faqiry, M. Nazif; Das, Sanjoy

    2016-01-01

    This paper investigates the problem of proportionally fair double sided energy auction involving buying and selling agents. The grid is assumed to be operating under islanded mode. A distributed auction algorithm that can be implemented by an aggregator, as well as a possible approach by which the agents may approximate price anticipation is considered. Equilibrium conditions arising due to price anticipation is analyzed. A modified auction to mitigate the resulting loss in efficiency due to ...

  17. Performance evaluation and analysis of ITER poloidal field conductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The performance evaluation and analysis of PF5 conductor of the ITER Project in China have been performed using the Gandalf code (Bottura [1]). This study focuses on the Tcs and MQE of PF5 conductor with Cu–non Cu ratio of 2.3 NbTi strands from WST. The PF5 conductor samples have been measured in SULTAN at CRPP for evaluating the performance successfully. The measurement results are also presented with the evaluation results in the paper. The evaluation results related to Tcs and MQE are agreed well with the measurement results. The simulation with Gandalf code can predict the performance of PF5 conductor effectively and provide the helpful method for ITER conductor design and analysis.

  18. Application of superconductors to center conductor of spherical tokamak reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The feasibility of superconducting center conductors in spherical tokamaks has been studied. The advantage of superconducting center conductors is evaluated from the view point of loss reduction, increasing q and reduction of required βp. The magnetic field dependence of the critical current density is taken into account. The center conductor is divided radially into several layers, and the operating current density of each layer is optimized. If A > 1.3 and βp > 0.6, the electric power loss can be reduced by the application of superconducting center conductors where κ ∼ 3 and q ∼ 10. In spherical tokamak reactors with low electric power loss, larger q can be attained by the application of superconducting center conductor. In other word, the βp required for the specified q can be reduced. (author)

  19. Na+ and Li+ NASICON Superionic Conductors Thick Films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perthuis, H.; Velasco, G.; Colomban, Ph.

    1984-05-01

    For microionic applications, superionic conductors have been elaborated in the form of thick films, using silk-screen printable powders. Na3Zr2Si2PO12, Na3.1Zr1.55Si2.3P0.7O11 and Li0.8Zr1.8Ta0.2(PO4)3 compositions are synthesized by a sol-gel process involving hydrolysis-polycondensation reactions of metal-organic alcoholic solutions. A thermal treatment (600°C-800°C) allows to obtain very fine particles (Inks are prepared with these powders, an organic binder, volatile fluidifying agents and mineralizers. The layers, about 50 μm in thickness, are achieved by successive deposits and sinterings (950°C-1050°C) onto alumina substrates. Films conductivity is determined by the complex impedance method. Values measured at 300°C (Na+: σ˜10-2 Ω-1cm-1, EA{=}0.25 eV, Li+: σ˜5 10-4 Ω-1cm-1, EA{=}0.5 eV) reach those obtained with well-densified ceramics. An anisotropic behaviour related to microstructure is pointed out.

  20. ELECTRODYNAMIC STABILITY COMPUTATIONS FOR FLEXIBLE CONDUCTORS OF THE AERIAL LINES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. I. Sergey

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In aerial transmission lines aluminium multiwire conductors are in use. Owing to their flexible design the electrodynamic effect of short circuit currents may lead to intolerable mutual rendezvous and even cross-whipping of the phase conductors. The increasing motion of the conductors caused by effect of the short-circuit electrodynamic force impulse is accompanied by the dynamic load impact affecting the conductors, insulating and supporting constructions of the aerial lines. Intensity of the short-circuit currents electrodynamic impact on the flexible conductors depends on the short circuit current magnitude. For research into electrodynamic endurance of the conductors of the aerial lines located at the vertices of arbitrary triangle with spans of a large length, the authors assume the conductor analytical model in the form of a flexible tensile thread whose mass is distributed evenly lengthwise the conductor. With this analytical model, by the action of the imposed forces the conductor assumes the form conditioned by the diagram of applied external forces, and resists neither bending nor torsion. The initial conditions calculation task reduces to solving the flexible thread statics equations. The law of motion of the conductor marginal points comes out of the conjoint solution of dynamic equations of the conductor and structural components of the areal electric power lines. Based on the proposed algorithm, the researchers of the Chair of the Electric Power Stations of BNTU developed a software program LINEDYS+, which in its characteristics yields to no foreign analogs, e. g. SAMSEF. To calculate the initial conditions they modified a software program computing the flexible conductor mechanics named MR 21. The conductor short-circuit electrodynamic interaction estimation considers structural elements of the areal lines, ice and wind loads, objective parameters of the short circuit. The software programs are accommodated with the simple and

  1. Microwave Loss Reduction in Cryogenically Cooled Conductors

    CERN Document Server

    Finger, R

    2015-01-01

    Measurements of microwave attenuation at room temperature and 4.2 K have been performed on some conductors commonly used in receiver input circuits. The reduction in loss on cooling is substantial, particularly for copper and plated gold, both of which showed a factor of 3 loss reduction. Copper passivated with benzotriazole shows the same loss as without passivation. The residual resistivity ratio between room temperature and 4.2 K, deduced from the measurements using the classical skin effect formula, was smaller than the measured DC value to a degree consistent with conduction in the extreme anomalous skin effect regime at cryogenic temperatures. The measurements were made in the 5-10 GHz range. The materials tested were: aluminum alloys 1100-T6 and 6061-O, C101 copper, benzotriazole treated C101 copper, and brass plated with electroformed copper, Pur-A-Gold 125-Au soft gold, and BDT200 bright gold.

  2. Random matrix model for disordered conductors

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Zafar Ahmed; Sudhir R Jain

    2000-03-01

    We present a random matrix ensemble where real, positive semi-definite matrix elements, , are log-normal distributed, $\\exp[-\\log^{2}(x)]$. We show that the level density varies with energy, , as 2/(1 + ) for large , in the unitary family, consistent with the expectation for disordered conductors. The two-level correlation function is studied for the unitary family and found to be largely of the universal form despite the fact that the level density has a non-compact support. The results are based on the method of orthogonal polynomials (the Stieltjes-Wigert polynomials here). An interesting random walk problem associated with the joint probability distribution of the ensuing ensemble is discussed and its connection with level dynamics is brought out. It is further proved that Dyson's Coulomb gas analogy breaks down whenever the confining potential is given by a transcendental function for which there exist orthogonal polynomials.

  3. Plasma Waves and Jets from Moving Conductors

    CERN Document Server

    Gralla, Samuel E

    2016-01-01

    We consider force-free plasma waves launched by the motion of conducting material through a magnetic field. We develop a spacetime-covariant formalism for perturbations of a uniform magnetic field and show how the transverse motion of a conducting fluid acts as a source. We show that fast-mode waves are sourced by the compressibility of the fluid, with incompressible fluids launching a pure-Alfven outflow. Remarkably, this outflow can be written down in closed form, at the nonlinear level, for an arbitrary incompressible flow. The instantaneous flow velocity is imprinted on the magnetic field and transmitted away at the speed of light, carrying detailed information about the conducting source at the time of emission. These results can be applied to transients in pulsar outflows and to jets from neutron stars orbiting in the magnetosphere of another compact object. We discuss jets from moving conductors in some detail.

  4. Conductors and Newforms for (1,1)

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Joshua Lansky; A Raghuram

    2004-11-01

    Let be a non-Archimedean local field whose residue characteristic is odd. In this paper we develop a theory of newforms for (1,1)(), building on previous work on $SL_2(F)$. This theory is analogous to the results of Casselman for $GL_2(F)$ and Jacquet, Piatetski-Shapiro, and Shalika for $GL_n(F)$. To a representation π of (1,1)(), we attach an integer () called the conductor of , which depends only on the -packet containing . A newform is a vector in which is essentially fixed by a congruence subgroup of level ()$. We show that our newforms are always test vectors for some standard Whittaker functionals, and, in doing so, we give various explicit formulae for newforms.

  5. Plasma waves and jets from moving conductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gralla, Samuel E.; Zimmerman, Peter

    2016-06-01

    We consider force-free plasma waves launched by the motion of conducting material through a magnetic field. We develop a spacetime-covariant formalism for perturbations of a uniform magnetic field and show how the transverse motion of a conducting fluid acts as a source. We show that fast-mode waves are sourced by the compressibility of the fluid, with incompressible fluids launching a pure-Alfvén outflow. Remarkably, this outflow can be written down in closed form for an arbitrary time-dependent, nonaxisymmetric incompressible flow. The instantaneous flow velocity is imprinted on the magnetic field and transmitted away at the speed of light, carrying detailed information about the conducting source at the time of emission. These results can be applied to transients in pulsar outflows and to jets from neutron stars orbiting in the magnetosphere of another compact object. We discuss jets from moving conductors in some detail.

  6. Charge ordering in low dimensional organic conductors: Structural aspects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pouget, Jean-Paul; Foury-Leylekian, Pascale [Laboratoire de Physique des Solides, Universite Paris-sud, CNRS UMR 8502, Batiment 510, 91405 Orsay Cedex (France); Alemany, Pere [Departament de Quimica Fisica and Institut de Quimica Teorica i Computacional (IQTCUB), Universitat de Barcelona, Diagonal 627, 08028 Barcelona (Spain); Canadell, Enric [Institut de Ciencia de Materials de Barcelona, CSIC, Campus UAB, 08193 Bellaterra (Spain)

    2012-05-15

    The paper points out the importance of the coupling between anions and donors in order to achieve the 4k{sub F} charge localization observed in (TMTTF){sub 2}PF{sub 6}, {delta}-(EDT-TTF-CONMe{sub 2}){sub 2}Br and (o-DMTTF){sub 2}Cl/Br salts, the 2k{sub F} charge density wave (CDW) ground state of {alpha}-(BEDT-TTF){sub 2}KHg(SCN){sub 4} and the metal to insulator transition of {alpha}-(BEDT-TTF){sub 2}I{sub 3}. This coupling leads to a cooperative displacement wave of the anions accompanied by a modulation of the density of {pi} holes on the donors. We distinguish two principal anion-donor coupling mechanisms: a direct mechanism via the Hartree anion potential on donor sites and an indirect mechanism via the polarization of {sigma} bonds activated by the modification of the H bonds network. Both kinds of interaction are tuned by the relative displacement of the anions with respect to the donors. (Copyright copyright 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  7. Anticipation in turn-taking: mechanisms and information sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riest, Carina; Jorschick, Annett B; de Ruiter, Jan P

    2015-01-01

    During conversations participants alternate smoothly between speaker and hearer roles with only brief pauses and overlaps. There are two competing types of accounts about how conversationalists accomplish this: (a) the signaling approach and (b) the anticipatory ('projection') approach. We wanted to investigate, first, the relative merits of these two accounts, and second, the relative contribution of semantic and syntactic information to the timing of next turn initiation. We performed three button-press experiments using turn fragments taken from natural conversations to address the following questions: (a) Is turn-taking predominantly based on anticipation or on reaction, and (b) what is the relative contribution of semantic and syntactic information to accurate turn-taking. In our first experiment we gradually manipulated the information available for anticipation of the turn end (providing information about the turn end in advance to completely removing linguistic information). The results of our first experiment show that the distribution of the participants' estimation of turn-endings for natural turns is very similar to the distribution for pure anticipation. We conclude that listeners are indeed able to anticipate a turn-end and that this strategy is predominantly used in turn-taking. In Experiment 2 we collected purely reacted responses. We used the distributions from Experiments 1 and 2 together to estimate a new dependent variable called Reaction Anticipation Proportion. We used this variable in our third experiment where we manipulated the presence vs. absence of semantic and syntactic information by low-pass filtering open-class and closed class words in the turn. The results suggest that for turn-end anticipation, both semantic and syntactic information are needed, but that the semantic information is a more important anticipation cue than syntactic information. PMID:25699004

  8. HTS current lead units prepared by the TFA-MOD processed YBCO coated conductors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shiohara, K.; Sakai, S.; Ishii, Y. [Tokai University, 1117 Kita-Kaname, Hiratsuka, Kanagawa 259-1292 (Japan); Yamada, Y., E-mail: yyamaday@keyaki.cc.u-tokai.ac.j [Tokai University, 1117 Kita-Kaname, Hiratsuka, Kanagawa 259-1292 (Japan); Tachikawa, K. [Tokai University, 1117 Kita-Kaname, Hiratsuka, Kanagawa 259-1292 (Japan); Koizumi, T.; Aoki, Y.; Hasegawa, T. [SWCC Showa Cable System Co., LTD, 4-1-1 Minami-Hashimoto, Sagamihara, Kanagawa 229-1133 (Japan); Tamura, H.; Mito, T. [NIFS National Institute for Fusion Science, 322-6 Oroshi, Toki, Gifu 509-5292 (Japan)

    2010-11-01

    Two superconducting current lead units have been prepared using ten coated conductors of the Tri-Fluoro-Acetate - Metal Organic Deposition (TFA-MOD) processed Y{sub 1}Ba{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 7-{delta}}(YBCO) coated conductors with critical current (I{sub c}) of about 170 A at 77 K in self-field. The coated conductors are 5 mm in width, 190 mm in length and about 120 {mu}m in overall thickness. The 1.5 {mu}m thick superconducting YBCO layer was synthesized through the TFA-MOD process on Hastelloy{sup TM} C-276 substrate tape with two buffer oxide layers of Gd{sub 2}Zr{sub 2}O{sub 7} and CeO{sub 2}. The five YBCO coated conductors are attached on a 1 mm thick Glass Fiber Reinforced Plastics (GFRP) board and soldered to Cu caps at the both ends. We prepared two 500 A-class current lead units. The DC transport current of 800 A was stably applied at 77 K without any voltage generation in all coated conductors. The voltage between both Cu caps linearly increased with increasing the applied current, and was about 350 {mu}V at 500 A in both current lead units. According to the estimated values of the heat leakage from 77 K to 4.2 K, the heat leakage for the current lead unit was 46.5 mW. We successfully attained reduction of the heat leakage because of improvement of the transport current performance (I{sub c}), a thinner Ag layer of YBCO coated conductor and usage of the GFRP board for reinforcement instead of a stainless steel board used in the previous study. The DC transport current of 1400 A was stably applied when the two current lead units were joined in parallel. The sum of the heat leakages from 77 K to 4.2 K for the combined the current lead units was 93 mW. In comparison with the conventional Cu current leads by gas-cooling, it could be noted that the heat leakage of the current lead is about one order of magnitude smaller than that of the Cu current lead.

  9. HTS current lead units prepared by the TFA-MOD processed YBCO coated conductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Two superconducting current lead units have been prepared using ten coated conductors of the Tri-Fluoro-Acetate - Metal Organic Deposition (TFA-MOD) processed Y1Ba2Cu3O7-δ (YBCO) coated conductors with critical current (Ic) of about 170 A at 77 K in self-field. The coated conductors are 5 mm in width, 190 mm in length and about 120 μm in overall thickness. The 1.5 μm thick superconducting YBCO layer was synthesized through the TFA-MOD process on HastelloyTM C-276 substrate tape with two buffer oxide layers of Gd2Zr2O7 and CeO2. The five YBCO coated conductors are attached on a 1 mm thick Glass Fiber Reinforced Plastics (GFRP) board and soldered to Cu caps at the both ends. We prepared two 500 A-class current lead units. The DC transport current of 800 A was stably applied at 77 K without any voltage generation in all coated conductors. The voltage between both Cu caps linearly increased with increasing the applied current, and was about 350 μV at 500 A in both current lead units. According to the estimated values of the heat leakage from 77 K to 4.2 K, the heat leakage for the current lead unit was 46.5 mW. We successfully attained reduction of the heat leakage because of improvement of the transport current performance (Ic), a thinner Ag layer of YBCO coated conductor and usage of the GFRP board for reinforcement instead of a stainless steel board used in the previous study. The DC transport current of 1400 A was stably applied when the two current lead units were joined in parallel. The sum of the heat leakages from 77 K to 4.2 K for the combined the current lead units was 93 mW. In comparison with the conventional Cu current leads by gas-cooling, it could be noted that the heat leakage of the current lead is about one order of magnitude smaller than that of the Cu current lead.

  10. Conductor development for the Superconducting Super Collider (SSC)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This review investigates the developments in fine filamentary materials over the last three years and traces how the relations between the magnet requirements and property improvements have fashioned SSC conductor specifications. The review emphasizes factors that affect filament nonuniformity and the overall quality of the product. The elimination of proximity effect-induced coupling in SCC type conductors, by introducing small percentages of manganese into the copper between the filaments, is discussed. Modification of a Fermi kit has produced materials with improved critical current densities. The possibility of using this approach to make conductors for accelerator magnets is assessed

  11. Selecting the proper size for conductors and overcurrent protection devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper reports that most electricity-related industrial accidents result from an electrical system's inability to carry a continuous load without excessive heat buildup or to handle safely a short circuit or ground fault conditions when it occurs. Both of these potentially hazardous conditions can be minimized by properly sizing the conductors and the conductors' overcurrent protection device. In selecting the proper size for a conductor and a protective device it is important to understand the appropriate factors that may apply and how the conditions of application relate to the National Electrical Code (NEC) the electrical code that is legally applicable throughout most of the United States

  12. Anticipating and Resisting the Temptation to Behave Unethically.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheldon, Oliver J; Fishbach, Ayelet

    2015-07-01

    Ethical dilemmas pose a self-control conflict between pursuing immediate benefits through behaving dishonestly and pursuing long-term benefits through acts of honesty. Therefore, factors that facilitate self-control for other types of goals (e.g., health and financial) should also promote ethical behavior. Across four studies, we find support for this possibility. Specifically, we find that only under conditions that facilitate conflict identification--including the consideration of several decisions simultaneously (i.e., a broad decision frame) and perceived high connectedness to the future self--does anticipating a temptation to behave dishonestly in advance promote honesty. We demonstrate these interaction patterns between conflict identification and temptation anticipation in negotiation situations (Study 1), lab tasks (Study 2), and ethical dilemmas in the workplace (Studies 3-4). We conclude that identifying a self-control conflict and anticipating a temptation are two necessary preconditions for ethical decision making. PMID:26001580

  13. Ultrasonic vocalizations in rats anticipating circadian feeding schedules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Opiol, Hanna; Pavlovski, Ilya; Michalik, Mateusz; Mistlberger, Ralph E

    2015-05-01

    Rats readily learn to anticipate a reward signaled by an external stimulus. Anticipatory behaviors evoked by conditioned stimuli include 50 kHz ultrasonic vocalizations (USVs), a proposed behavioral correlate of positive affect and activation of midbrain dopamine pathways. Rats can also anticipate a reward, such as food, provided once daily, without external cueing. Anticipation of a daily reward exhibits formal properties of a circadian rhythm. The neural circuits that regulate the timing and amplitude of these rhythms remain an open question, but evidence suggests a role for dopamine. To gain further insight into the neural and affective correlates of circadian food anticipatory rhythms, we made 2h and 24h USV recordings in rats fed 2h/day in the light period, a procedure that induces robust anticipation 2-3h before mealtime. Potential interactions between internal and external time cues in USV production were evaluated by inclusion of a 3 kHz tone 15 min before mealtime. Prior to scheduled feeding, spontaneous 50 kHz USVs were rare during the light period. During scheduled feeding, flat and frequency modulated (FM) 50kHz USVs occurred prior to and during mealtime. FM USVs were more closely related to anticipation, while flat USVs were more dependent on food access. USVs also occurred during spontaneous waking at other times of day. The tone did not evoke USVs but did modulate activity. Behavioral anticipation of a daily meal is accompanied by USVs consistent with a positive affective state and elevated dopamine transmission. PMID:25677650

  14. Source term research for ship reactor anticipated operational events

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    According to the basic hypothesis of anticipated operational events, grounding on the special characters of a ship reactor, the equilibrium vapor specific activity and the cabin activity were calculated using NSRC code for the main loop and the secondary loop. The calculation results show that the computational mode of NSRC code is correct, and the NSRC code can be used to calculate radioactive effect of a ship reactor in anticipated operational events of design basis accidents. The calculation results can provide support to the safe operation of a ship nuclear power device. (authors)

  15. Factors affecting anticipated emotions in association with aggressive behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarína VASKOVÁ

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Conflict situations and situations of guile are not rare in our everyday life. In context of broadly conceived study, inspired by Richetins and Richardson’s (2011 extension of Theory of Planned Behavior, the character of anticipated emotions in relation to situation of aggressive and non aggressive reaction is analyzed. Influence of behavioral desire and perceived behavioral control is examined. Results show anticipating different emotions in relation to situation and acknowledge significant role of behavioral desire. Unimportant role of perceived behavioral control is ascer tained. Closer explanations in relation to self-control and self-regulation is discussed.

  16. Investigation and optimization of YBa2Cu3O7-δ grain boundaries and coated conductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    With increasing misorientation angle grain boundaries strongly reduce the critical current density of high temperature superconductors. For this reason costly techniques are used in production of modern Coated Conductors to induce sharp textures in the polycrystalline superconductor layers. In this dissertation measurements of the critical current density of different grain boundary types are presented showing that out-of-plane grain boundaries exhibit, also in applied magnetic fields, much higher critical current densities than expected. In further analysis of the grain boundaries indications for a microstructural reason of the high critical current densities were found. The high critical current densities of the out-of-plane grain boundaries should in fabrication of Coated Conductors allow for a relaxation of the out-of-plane grain alignment requirements and a concomitant cost reduction. In this work also results of a industrial cooperation with Nexans are presented demonstrating that the critical current density of metal-organic deposited grain boundaries and Coated Conductor layers can be increased by selective Calcium-doping. In the experiments selective Calcium-doping most effectively increased the critical current density of weak spots. (orig.)

  17. High-rate fabrication of YBCO coated conductors using TFA-MOD method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakaoka, K.; Yoshizumi, M.; Usui, Y.; Izumi, T.; Shiohara, Y.

    The YBa2Cu3O7-y (YBCO) coated conductors derived from metal-organic deposition (MOD) method using the metal salts of trifluoroacetic acid (TFA) have been developed with high critical current property. The long-length YBCO coated conductors have been fabricated by multi-turn reel-to-reel system. Increasing the thickness per single coating in the multi-turn reel-to-reel system is a cost-effective technique for fabrication of the precursor films in the calcination process. In this work, we have developed a new starting solution consisting of non-fluorine salts of yttrium 4-oxopentanoate and copper 2-ethylhexanoate with focusing on increasing the thickness per single coating for a high-rate fabrication of the YBCO coated conductors by the TFA-MOD method. The critical thickness per single coating of the film fabricated from the new starting solution was 0.54 μm/coat. High critical current of 377 A/cm-width with high critical current density (3.0 MA/cm2) was obtained in the YBCO film fabricated on CeO2 buffered LaMnO3/MgO/Gd2Zr2O-7/HastelloyTM substrates using the new starting solution at the thickness per single coating of 0.42 μm/coat.

  18. Improvement of Production Rate of YBCO Coated Conductors Fabricated by TFA-MOD Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakaoka, K.; Yoshizumi, M.; Usui, Y.; Izumi, T.; Shiohara, Y.

    The metal-organic deposition (MOD) method using trifluoroacetate (TFA) salts is considered to be an effective method for inexpensively fabricating YBa2Cu3O7-y (YBCO) coated conductors with high critical current density property. The long-length TFA-MOD YBCO coated conductors have been fabricated by multi-turn reel-to-reel system. Increasing the thickness per single coating in the multi-turn reel-to-reel system is a cost-effective technique for fabrication of the precursor films in the calcination process since it reduces the number of coatings and shortens the processing time. In this work, we have developed a new starting solution consisting of non-fluorine salts of yttrium propionate and copper 2-ethylhexanoate with focusing on increasing the thickness per single coating for a high-rate fabrication of the YBCO coated conductors by the TFA-MOD method. The critical thickness per single coating of the precursor film fabricated from the new starting solution was improved to 0.44 μm/coat. Furthermore, the addition of diacetoneacrylamide in the new starting solution increased the critical thickness per single coating to 0.79 μm/coat. High critical current of 791 A/cm-width with high critical current density of 2.7 MA/cm2 was obtained using the new starting solution with diacetoneacrylamide at the thickness per single coating of 0.49 μm/coat.

  19. Manufacture of mineral-insulated conductor for ITER prototype ELM and VS coil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Compaction method is successfully developed for MIC manufacture. • Manufactured MICs show well controlled outer diameter and good electrical properties. • Insulation resistance of all the MICs is higher than 100 GΩ@DC 2500 V. - Abstract: An ITER Organization (IO) Task Agreement (TA) “Final Design and Prototyping of the ITER In-Vessel Coils (IVC) and Feeders” is almost finished by Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences (ASIPP). ITER IVCs consist of edge-localized mode (ELM) and vertical stabilization (VS) coils. One prototype Mid-ELM coil complete with 19 brackets brazed with the conductors and one prototype 120° section of upper VS coil with structural components brazed to the conductors have been fabricated. Compaction method is developed successfully for the mineral-insulated conductor (MIC) manufacture. Approximate 110 m Inconel 625 jacket MICs for Mid-ELM prototype coil and 80 m stainless steel 316L jacket MICs for VS prototype coil were manufactured. Most of the copper tubes used for the MICs fabrication failed the ultrasonic testing (UT), but the jacket tubes have good passing rate. Manufacture processes and inspection for the MICs are presented in this paper

  20. The ATLAS SemiConductor tracker-overview and status

    CERN Document Server

    Eklund, L

    2002-01-01

    The ATLAS SemiConductor Tracker (SCT) in one of the three tracking detectors making up the ATLAS inner detector. The trackers 4088 r modules covers an area of over 60 m/sup 2/, distributed over four barrel cylinders and 18 end-cap disks. The back-to-back mounted silicon sensors provide space points for track reconstruction. The sensors are read out via front-end ASIC and binary data from selected events are read out via optical links. A large number of prototypes have been built and measured with test pulses, in beam tests and in a small-scale system tests. The radiation hardness of the components has been verified by a series of irradiations with subsequent thorough measurement programs. The SCT is now close to its final design and series production of detector modules is about to start. The final assembly and quality assurance of the SCT detector modules will be done in production at universities, organizing themselves in production clusters. (7 refs).

  1. High voltage switches having one or more floating conductor layers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werne, Roger W.; Sampayan, Stephen; Harris, John Richardson

    2015-11-24

    This patent document discloses high voltage switches that include one or more electrically floating conductor layers that are isolated from one another in the dielectric medium between the top and bottom switch electrodes. The presence of the one or more electrically floating conductor layers between the top and bottom switch electrodes allow the dielectric medium between the top and bottom switch electrodes to exhibit a higher breakdown voltage than the breakdown voltage when the one or more electrically floating conductor layers are not present between the top and bottom switch electrodes. This increased breakdown voltage in the presence of one or more electrically floating conductor layers in a dielectric medium enables the switch to supply a higher voltage for various high voltage circuits and electric systems.

  2. Effect of joint quality on conductor short sample performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full size conductor short samples for the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) are composed of two straight bars connected together at one end, and to the facility current leads at the other ends. The quality of these electrical connections was early suspected to play a role in the measurement of the conductor performance, which has been confirmed by recent test results. In order to investigate this phenomenon, CEA developed an experimental program, to study the effect of well calibrated joint defaults on sub-size NbTi conductor performances. Two types of NbTi strands associated with two different cable void fractions were used in order to vary the interstrand resistances. Experimental results clearly show that joint defaults degrade measured conductor critical currents, except when sufficiently low interstrand resistances allow a possible current redistribution among strands. Analysis of Hall probe signals show evidence of current redistribution among sub-cables during the tests. (authors)

  3. A microstructure continuum approach to electromagneto-elastic conductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romeo, Maurizio

    2016-06-01

    A micromorphic continuum model of a deformable electromagnetic conductor is established introducing microdensities of bound and free charges. The conductive part of electric current consists of contributions due to free charges and microdeformation. Beside the conservation of charge, we derive suitable evolution equations for electric multipoles which are exploited to obtain the macroscopic form of Maxwell's equations. A constitutive model for electromagneto-elastic conductors is considered which allows for a natural characterization of perfect conductors independently on the form of the constitutive equation for the conduction current. A generalized Ohm's law is also derived for not ideal conductors which accounts for relaxation effects. The consequences of the linearized Ohm's law on the classic magnetic transport equation are shown.

  4. Study on detinning process of a reflow conductor roll

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FU Hanguang; DAI Mingshan; FU Hanfeng

    2005-01-01

    Adhering tin is the main reason of a reflow conductor roll which works in an electroplating tin line (ETL). A detinning agent whose main composition is NaOH and KOH and assistant composition is Na2PbO2 or K2PbO2 and NaNO3 or NaNO2 has excellent detinning effects when the temperature of detinning solution is 40-80℃ and the temperature of the reflow conductor roll reaches 40-70℃. After the adhering tin layer of the reflow conductor roll is removed, the roughness of the reflow conductor roll can resume to 4.0 μm, its service life increases by 80%, and the repairing cost decreases by 90%.

  5. Casimir Free Energy at High Temperatures: Grounded vs Isolated Conductors

    CERN Document Server

    Fosco, C D; Mazzitelli, F D

    2016-01-01

    We evaluate the difference between the Casimir free energies corresponding to either grounded or isolated perfect conductors, at high temperatures. We show that a general and simple expression for that difference can be given, in terms of the electrostatic capacitance matrix for the system of conductors. For the case of close conductors, we provide approximate expressions for that difference, by evaluating the capacitance matrix using the proximity force approximation. Since the high-temperature limit for the Casimir free energy for a medium described by a frequency-dependent conductivity diverging at zero frequency coincides with that of an isolated conductor, our results may shed light on the corrections to the Casimir force in the presence of real materials.

  6. Tilt stability of rotating current rings with passive conductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We study the combined effects of rotation and resistive passive conductors on the stability of a rigid current in an external magnetic field. We present numerical and approximate analytical solutions to the equations of motion, which show that the ring is always tilt unstable on the resistive decay timescale of the conductors, although rotation and eddy currents may stabilize it over short times. Possible applications of our model include spheromaks which rotate or which are encircled by energetic particle rings

  7. Spatial Analysis of Thermal Aging of Overhead Transmission Conductors

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Musílek, P.; Heckenbergerová, Jana; Bhuiyan, M.M.I.

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 27, č. 3 (2012), s. 1196-1204. ISSN 0885-8977 Grant ostatní: GA AV ČR(CZ) M100300904 Source of funding: V - iné verejné zdroje Keywords : aluminium conductor steel reinforced (ACSR) conductor * hot spot * loss of tensile strength * numerical weather prediction * power transmission lines * thermal aging Subject RIV: JE - Non-nuclear Energetics, Energy Consumption ; Use Impact factor: 1.519, year: 2012

  8. Tilt stability of rotating current rings with passive conductors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zweibel, E.G.; Pomphrey, N.

    1984-12-01

    We study the combined effects of rotation and resistive passive conductors on the stability of a rigid current in an external magnetic field. We present numerical and approximate analytical solutions to the equations of motion, which show that the ring is always tilt unstable on the resistive decay timescale of the conductors, although rotation and eddy currents may stabilize it over short times. Possible applications of our model include spheromaks which rotate or which are encircled by energetic particle rings.

  9. Linear stochastic differential equations with anticipating initial conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khalifa, Narjess; Kuo, Hui-Hsiung; Ouerdiane, Habib;

    In this paper we use the new stochastic integral introduced by Ayed and Kuo (2008) and the results obtained by Kuo et al. (2012b) to find a solution to a drift-free linear stochastic differential equation with anticipating initial condition. Our solution is based on well-known results from...

  10. Person x Context Effects on Anticipated Moral Emotions Following Aggression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roos, Sanna; Salmivalli, Christina; Hodges, Ernest V. E.

    2011-01-01

    We investigated person (sex, aggression level), context (witness type, victim reactions), and person x context effects on children's anticipated moral emotions following hypothetical acts of aggression against a peer. Children (N = 378, mean age = 11.3 years) were presented a series of hypothetical vignettes in which the presence of witnesses (no…

  11. Design, development, fabrication and testing of high temperature Flat Conductor Cable (FCC)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rigling, W. S.

    1974-01-01

    The results are presented of a development program for a flat, 25-conductor signal cable and a flat, 3-conductor power cable. Flat cables employ conductors made of strips or flattened round copper conductors insulated with polyimide films. It is shown that conductor thickness ranges from 0.003 to 0.010 inch, and begins to soften and loose mechanical strength at temperatures above 200 C.

  12. Internally heated convection beneath a poor conductor

    CERN Document Server

    Goluskin, David

    2016-01-01

    We consider convection in an internally heated layer of fluid that is bounded below by a perfect insulator and above by a poor conductor. The poorly conducting boundary is modelled by a fixed heat flux. Using solely analytical methods, we find linear and energy stability thresholds for the static state, and we construct a lower bound on the mean temperature that applies to all flows. The linear stability analysis yields a Rayleigh number above which the static state is linearly unstable ($R_L$), and the energy analysis yields a Rayleigh number below which it is globally stable ($R_E$). For various boundary conditions on the velocity, exact expressions for $R_L$ and $R_E$ are found using long-wavelength asymptotics. Each $R_E$ is strictly smaller than the corresponding $R_L$ but is within 1%. The lower bound on the mean temperature is proven for no-slip velocity boundary conditions using the background method. The bound guarantees that the mean temperature of the fluid, relative to that of the top boundary, gr...

  13. Transport AC losses in YBCO coated conductors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Majoros, M [Ohio State University, Columbus, OH 43210 (United States); Ye, L [IRC in Superconductivity, University of Cambridge, Madingley Road, Cambridge CB3 0HE (United Kingdom); Velichko, A V [IRC in Superconductivity, University of Cambridge, Madingley Road, Cambridge CB3 0HE (United Kingdom); Coombs, T A [IRC in Superconductivity, University of Cambridge, Madingley Road, Cambridge CB3 0HE (United Kingdom); Sumption, M D [Ohio State University, Columbus, OH 43210 (United States); Collings, E W [Ohio State University, Columbus, OH 43210 (United States)

    2007-09-15

    Transport AC loss measurements have been made on YBCO-coated conductors prepared on two different substrate templates-RABiTS (rolling-assisted biaxially textured substrate) and IBAD (ion-beam-assisted deposition). RABiTS samples show higher losses compared with the theoretical values obtained from the critical state model, with constant critical current density, at currents lower than the critical current. An origin of this extra AC loss was demonstrated experimentally by comparison of the AC loss of two samples with different I-V curves. Despite a difference in I-V curves and in the critical currents, their measured losses, as well as the normalized losses, were practically the same. However, the functional dependence of the losses was affected by the ferromagnetic substrate. An influence of the presence of a ferromagnetic substrate on transport AC losses in YBCO film was calculated numerically by the finite element method. The presence of a ferromagnetic substrate increases transport AC losses in YBCO films depending on its relative magnetic permeability. The two loss contributions-transport AC loss in YBCO films and ferromagnetic loss in the substrate-cannot be considered as mutually independent.

  14. Conductor gestures influence evaluations of ensemble performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven eMorrison

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Previous research has found that listener evaluations of ensemble performances vary depending on the expressivity of the conductor’s gestures, even when performances are otherwise identical. It was the purpose of the present study to test whether this effect of visual information was evident in the evaluation of specific aspects of ensemble performance, articulation and dynamics. We constructed a set of 32 music performances that combined auditory and visual information and were designed to feature a high degree of contrast along one of two target characteristics: articulation and dynamics. We paired each of four music excerpts recorded by a chamber ensemble in both a high- and low-contrast condition with video of four conductors demonstrating high- and low-contrast gesture specifically appropriate to either articulation or dynamics. Using one of two equivalent test forms, college music majors and nonmajors (N = 285 viewed sixteen 30-second performances and evaluated the quality of the ensemble’s articulation, dynamics, technique and tempo along with overall expressivity. Results showed significantly higher evaluations for performances featuring high rather than low conducting expressivity regardless of the ensemble’s performance quality. Evaluations for both articulation and dynamics were strongly and positively correlated with evaluations of overall ensemble expressivity.

  15. Synergistic, ultrafast mass storage and removal in artificial mixed conductors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chia-Chin; Fu, Lijun; Maier, Joachim

    2016-08-11

    Mixed conductors-single phases that conduct electronically and ionically-enable stoichiometric variations in a material and, therefore, mass storage and redistribution, for example, in battery electrodes. We have considered how such properties may be achieved synergistically in solid two-phase systems, forming artificial mixed conductors. Previously investigated composites suffered from poor kinetics and did not allow for a clear determination of such stoichiometric variations. Here we show, using electrochemical and chemical methods, that a melt-processed composite of the 'super-ionic' conductor RbAg4I5 and the electronic conductor graphite exhibits both a remarkable silver excess and a silver deficiency, similar to those found in single-phase mixed conductors, even though such behaviour is not possible in the individual phases. Furthermore, the kinetics of silver uptake and release is very fast. Evaluating the upper limit set by interfacial ambipolar diffusion reveals chemical diffusion coefficients that are even higher than those achieved for sodium chloride in bulk liquid water. These results could potentially stimulate systematic research into powerful, even mesoscopic, artificial mixed conductors. PMID:27510217

  16. Safety analysis of the GEM Detector Magnet conductor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The safety of the GEM Detector Magnet is analyzed using a computational model to determine current sharing between the cabled conductor and the external aluminum stabilizer. The model includes inductive and transverse conductive effects due to the geometries of the coil and the conductor. A conservative analysis indicates a peak conductor hotspot temperature of ∼ 50 K at two seconds after the initiation of quench. After this time, additional heating is limited because most of the current in the normal zone region is carried by the aluminum stabilizer and an external protection circuit should have begun to diminish the total current. The analysis shows that conductor safety requires adequate transverse conductivity between the cable and the aluminum stabilizer. The calculated transverse conductance of the GEM conductor, 1 x 107 mho/m, is at least 100 times greater than the minimum value necessary to limit the hotspot temperature to ∼ 50 K after two seconds. This report describes the results of calculations based on a realistic assumption of GEM conductor performance during a quench

  17. Anticipated Changes in Conducting Scientific Data-Analysis Research in the Big-Data Era

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuo, Kwo-Sen; Seablom, Michael; Clune, Thomas; Ramachandran, Rahul

    2014-01-01

    A Big-Data environment is one that is capable of orchestrating quick-turnaround analyses involving large volumes of data for numerous simultaneous users. Based on our experiences with a prototype Big-Data analysis environment, we anticipate some important changes in research behaviors and processes while conducting scientific data-analysis research in the near future as such Big-Data environments become the mainstream. The first anticipated change will be the reduced effort and difficulty in most parts of the data management process. A Big-Data analysis environment is likely to house most of the data required for a particular research discipline along with appropriate analysis capabilities. This will reduce the need for researchers to download local copies of data. In turn, this also reduces the need for compute and storage procurement by individual researchers or groups, as well as associated maintenance and management afterwards. It is almost certain that Big-Data environments will require a different "programming language" to fully exploit the latent potential. In addition, the process of extending the environment to provide new analysis capabilities will likely be more involved than, say, compiling a piece of new or revised code.We thus anticipate that researchers will require support from dedicated organizations associated with the environment that are composed of professional software engineers and data scientists. A major benefit will likely be that such extensions are of higherquality and broader applicability than ad hoc changes by physical scientists. Another anticipated significant change is improved collaboration among the researchers using the same environment. Since the environment is homogeneous within itself, many barriers to collaboration are minimized or eliminated. For example, data and analysis algorithms can be seamlessly shared, reused and re-purposed. In conclusion, we will be able to achieve a new level of scientific productivity in the Big

  18. Depletion region effect of highly efficient hole conductor free CH3NH3PbI3 perovskite solar cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aharon, Sigalit; Gamliel, Shany; El Cohen, Bat; Etgar, Lioz

    2014-06-14

    The inorganic-organic perovskite is currently attracting a lot of attention due to its use as a light harvester in solar cells. The large absorption coefficients, high carrier mobility and good stability of organo-lead halide perovskites present good potential for their use as light harvesters in mesoscopic heterojunction solar cells. This work concentrated on a unique property of the lead halide perovskite, its function simultaneously as a light harvester and a hole conductor in the solar cell. A two-step deposition technique was used to optimize the perovskite deposition and to enhance the solar cell efficiency. It was revealed that the photovoltaic performance of the hole conductor free perovskite solar cell is strongly dependent on the depletion layer width which was created at the TiO2-CH3NH3PbI3 junction. X-ray diffraction measurements indicate that there were no changes in the crystallographic structure of the CH3NH3PbI3 perovskite over time, which supports the high stability of these hole conductor free perovskite solar cells. Furthermore, the power conversion efficiency of the best cells reached 10.85% with a fill factor of 68%, a Voc of 0.84 V, and a Jsc of 19 mA cm(-2), the highest efficiency to date of a hole conductor free perovskite solar cell. PMID:24736900

  19. Anticipation as a key for collaboration in a team of agents: a case study in robotic soccer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veloso, Manuela M.; Stone, Peter; Bowling, Michael

    1999-08-01

    We investigate teams of compete autonomous agents that can collaborate towards achieving precise objectives in an adversarial dynamic environment. We have pursued these two frameworks emphasizing their different technical challenges. Creating effective members of a team is a challenging research problem. We first address this issue by introducing a team architecture organization which allows for a rich task decomposition between team members. The main contribution of this paper is our introduction of an action- selection algorithm that allows for a teammate to anticipate the needs of other teammates. Anticipation is critical for maximizing the probability of successful collaboration in teams of agents. We show how our contribution applies to the two concrete robotic soccer frameworks and present controlled empirical result run in simulation. Anticipation was successfully used by both our CMUnited-98 simulator and CMUnited-98 small-robot teams in the RoboCup-98 competition. The two teams are RoboCup-98 world champions each in its own league.

  20. Conceptual overlap between moral norms and anticipated regret in the prediction of intention: implications for theory of planned behaviour research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newton, Joshua D; Newton, Fiona J; Ewing, Michael T; Burney, Sue; Hay, Margaret

    2013-01-01

    Moral norms and anticipated regret are widely used extensions to the theory of planned behaviour, yet there is some evidence to suggest that these constructs may conceptually overlap as predictors of intention. Two health-related behaviours with distinct moral implications (Study 1: organ donation registration, N = 352 and Study 2: condom usage, N = 1815) were therefore examined to ascertain whether moral norms and anticipated regret are indeed conceptually distinct. While evidence consistent with conceptual overlap was identified in Study 1, the evidence for such overlap in Study 2 was more ambiguous. In Study 3, a meta-analysis of existing literature revealed that the relationship between moral norms and anticipated regret was moderated by the extent of the moral implications arising from the behaviour under examination. Taken together, these findings suggest that conceptual overlap between moral norms and anticipated regret is more likely to occur among behaviours with obvious moral implications. Researchers wishing to examine the predictive utility of moral norms and anticipated regret among such behaviours would therefore be advised to aggregate these measures to form a composite variable (personal norms). PMID:23256489

  1. Neural bases for anticipation skill in soccer: an FMRI study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bishop, Daniel T; Wright, Michael J; Jackson, Robin C; Abernethy, Bruce

    2013-02-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the neural bases for perceptual-cognitive superiority in a soccer anticipation task using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Thirty-nine participants lay in an MRI scanner while performing a video-based task in which they predicted an oncoming opponent's movements. Video clips were occluded at four time points, and participants were grouped according to in-task performance. Early occlusion reduced prediction accuracy significantly for all participants, as did the opponent's execution of a deceptive maneuver; however, high-skill participants were significantly more accurate than their low-skill counterparts under deceptive conditions. This perceptual-cognitive superiority was associated with greater activation of cortical and subcortical structures involved in executive function and oculomotor control. The contributions of the present findings to an existing neural model of anticipation in sport are highlighted. PMID:23404883

  2. Neural basis of reward anticipation and its genetic determinants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Tianye; Macare, Christine; Desrivières, Sylvane; Gonzalez, Dante A; Tao, Chenyang; Ji, Xiaoxi; Ruggeri, Barbara; Nees, Frauke; Banaschewski, Tobias; Barker, Gareth J; Bokde, Arun L W; Bromberg, Uli; Büchel, Christian; Conrod, Patricia J; Dove, Rachel; Frouin, Vincent; Gallinat, Jürgen; Garavan, Hugh; Gowland, Penny A; Heinz, Andreas; Ittermann, Bernd; Lathrop, Mark; Lemaitre, Hervé; Martinot, Jean-Luc; Paus, Tomáš; Pausova, Zdenka; Poline, Jean-Baptiste; Rietschel, Marcella; Robbins, Trevor; Smolka, Michael N; Müller, Christian P; Feng, Jianfeng; Rothenfluh, Adrian; Flor, Herta; Schumann, Gunter

    2016-04-01

    Dysfunctional reward processing is implicated in various mental disorders, including attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and addictions. Such impairments might involve different components of the reward process, including brain activity during reward anticipation. We examined brain nodes engaged by reward anticipation in 1,544 adolescents and identified a network containing a core striatal node and cortical nodes facilitating outcome prediction and response preparation. Distinct nodes and functional connections were preferentially associated with either adolescent hyperactivity or alcohol consumption, thus conveying specificity of reward processing to clinically relevant behavior. We observed associations between the striatal node, hyperactivity, and the vacuolar protein sorting-associated protein 4A (VPS4A) gene in humans, and the causal role of Vps4 for hyperactivity was validated in Drosophila Our data provide a neurobehavioral model explaining the heterogeneity of reward-related behaviors and generate a hypothesis accounting for their enduring nature. PMID:27001827

  3. Acting on intentions: the role of anticipated regret.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abraham, Charles; Sheeran, Paschal

    2003-12-01

    Three studies tested the hypothesis that anticipated regret (AR) increases consistency between exercise intentions and behaviour. Study 1 employed a longitudinal survey design (N = 384). Measures specified by the theory of planned behaviour, past behaviour, and AR were used to predict self-reported exercise behaviour 2 weeks later. AR moderated the intention-behaviour relationship such that participants were most likely to exercise if they both intended to exercise and anticipated regret if they failed to exercise. Study 2 used an experimental design to examine the effect of focusing on AR prior to reporting intentions (N = 229). Exercise was measured 2 weeks later and the AR-focus manipulation was found to moderate the intention-behaviour relationship in a similar manner to that observed in Study 1. In Study 3 (N = 97), moderation was replicated and was shown to be mediated by the temporal stability of intention. PMID:14715114

  4. From insufficiency to anticipation, an introduction to 'Lichaamskaart'

    OpenAIRE

    De Grave, Dieter; Van Den Eede, Lucia

    2009-01-01

    In this paper we take up the point of symbolic-imaginary anticipation and we combine it with the mirror stage, worked out by Jacques Lacan in numerous publications. We place the mirror stage within its complex temporal framework and explain how the three topological categories (RSI) follow from this most intimate of subjective experiences in the double mirror set up. All kinds of psychopathological mechanisms are traceable to this period in subjective development. Until recently it was imposs...

  5. Anticipated Tax Amnesties and Tax Compliance: An Experimental Study

    OpenAIRE

    Koch, Christian; Müller, Cornelius

    2015-01-01

    Many countries grant exemption from legal prosecution under certain conditions, allowing for voluntary disclosures regarding tax evasion. It has been claimed that tax amnesties are most successful when they are accompanied by an increase in compliance efforts because amnesties then help tax evaders to adjust to the new circumstances. At the same time, time-limited amnesties are often repeated or in some countries even permanent amnesty laws exist. When tax amnesties are, however, anticipated,...

  6. Atypical emotional anticipation in high-functioning autism

    OpenAIRE

    Palumbo, Letizia; Burnett, Hollie G.; Jellema, Tjeerd

    2015-01-01

    Background Understanding and anticipating others’ mental or emotional states relies on the processing of social cues, such as dynamic facial expressions. Individuals with high-functioning autism (HFA) may process these cues differently from individuals with typical development (TD) and purportedly use a ‘mechanistic’ rather than a ‘mentalistic’ approach, involving rule- and contingency-based interpretations of the stimuli. The study primarily aimed at examining whether the judgments of facial...

  7. Meal anticipation potentiates postprandial ghrelin suppression in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ott, Volker; Friedrich, Monique; Zemlin, Janna; Lehnert, Hendrik; Schultes, Bernd; Born, Jan; Hallschmid, Manfred

    2012-07-01

    Circulating concentrations of the orexigenic hormone ghrelin show a postprandial decrease in dependence on meal size and composition. Cognitive determinants of postprandial ghrelin suppression in humans are largely unexplored. We assessed the effects of cued meal anticipation on pre- and postprandial concentrations of total plasma ghrelin, pancreatic polypeptide and leptin as well as on markers of glucose metabolism in healthy men. In a between-subject comparison, meal anticipation was induced in 14 fasted men at 08:00 h by the announcement and subsequent presentation of a breakfast buffet. Fifteen fasted control subjects were informed that they would remain fasted until noon. At 10:00 h, both groups were served a rich free-choice breakfast. At 12:00 h, all subjects underwent a snack test assessing casual cookie intake. Circulating concentrations of ghrelin, pancreatic polypeptide, glucose, insulin and leptin were frequently assessed. Preprandial endocrine parameters as well as breakfast intake (all p>0.23) and subsequent snack consumption (p>0.83) were comparable between groups. The postprandial suppression of ghrelin levels observed in both groups was markedly stronger in subjects who had anticipated breakfast intake (p0.56). Results indicate that meal anticipation is a critical determinant of postprandial ghrelin suppression that, as suggested by unaltered pancreatic polypeptide levels, appears to be mediated independent of vagal activation. Our findings highlight the role of subtle cognitive factors in the postprandial regulation of ghrelin secretion, suggesting that neurobehavioral approaches to improved food intake control should take into account meal anticipatory mechanisms. PMID:22094111

  8. The role of anticipation in drug addiction and reward

    OpenAIRE

    Field, Matt

    2013-01-01

    Paweł Jędras, Andrew Jones, Matt FieldDepartment of Psychological Sciences, University of Liverpool, Liverpool, UKAbstract: Addiction is a chronically relapsing disorder, and substance users frequently relapse when they encounter opportunities to use drugs. In this paper, we review evidence regarding the psychological response to anticipation of imminent drug availability, its neural substrates, and its relationship to other phenomena implicated in addiction. Naturalistic and labor...

  9. The role of anticipation in drug addiction and reward

    OpenAIRE

    Jędras P; Jones A; Field M

    2013-01-01

    Paweł Jędras, Andrew Jones, Matt FieldDepartment of Psychological Sciences, University of Liverpool, Liverpool, UKAbstract: Addiction is a chronically relapsing disorder, and substance users frequently relapse when they encounter opportunities to use drugs. In this paper, we review evidence regarding the psychological response to anticipation of imminent drug availability, its neural substrates, and its relationship to other phenomena implicated in addiction. Naturalistic and laboratory ...

  10. Good rough path sequences and applications to anticipating stochastic calculus

    OpenAIRE

    Coutin, Laure; Friz, Peter; Victoir, Nicolas

    2007-01-01

    We consider anticipative Stratonovich stochastic differential equations driven by some stochastic process lifted to a rough path. Neither adaptedness of initial point and vector fields nor commuting conditions between vector field is assumed. Under a simple condition on the stochastic process, we show that the unique solution of the above SDE understood in the rough path sense is actually a Stratonovich solution. We then show that this condition is satisfied by the Brownian motion. As applica...

  11. Anticipated and Unanticipated Oil Price Increases and the Current Account

    OpenAIRE

    Nancy Peregrim Marion

    1981-01-01

    This paper examines the current-account response to anticipated future increases in real oil prices as well as to unexpected increases which may be temporary or permanent in nature. The analysis is conducted using an intertemporal two-period model of a small open economy which produces both traded and nontraded goods and imports its oil. The paper identifies the channels through which various types of oil price increases affect the current account. The inclusion of nontraded investment and co...

  12. Polymer-assisted metal deposition (PAMD): a full-solution strategy for flexible, stretchable, compressible, and wearable metal conductors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, You; Yan, Casey; Zheng, Zijian

    2014-08-20

    Metal interconnects, contacts, and electrodes are indispensable elements for most applications of flexible, stretchable, and wearable electronics. Current fabrication methods for these metal conductors are mainly based on conventional microfabrication procedures that have been migrated from Si semiconductor industries, which face significant challenges for organic-based compliant substrates. This Research News highlights a recently developed full-solution processing strategy, polymer-assisted metal deposition (PAMD), which is particularly suitable for the roll-to-roll, low-cost fabrication of high-performance compliant metal conductors (Cu, Ni, Ag, and Au) on a wide variety of organic substrates including plastics, elastomers, papers, and textiles. This paper presents i) the principles of PAMD, and how to use it for making ii) flexible, stretchable, and wearable conductive metal electrodes, iii) patterned metal interconnects, and d) 3D stretchable and compressible metal sponges. A critical perspective on this emerging strategy is also provided. PMID:24458846

  13. Design of force-cooled conductors for large fusion magnets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dresner, L.; Lue, J.W.

    1977-01-01

    Conductors cooled by supercritical helium in forced convection are under active consideration for large toroidal fusion magnets. One of the central problems in designing such force cooled conductors is to maintain an adequate stability margin while keeping the pumping power tolerably low. A method has been developed for minimizing the pumping power for fixed stability by optimally choosing the matrix-to-superconductor and the metal-to-helium ratios. Such optimized conductors reduce pumping power requirements for fusion size magnets to acceptable limits. Furthermore, the mass flow and hence pumping losses can be varied through a magnet according to the local magnetic field and magnitude of desired stability margin. Force cooled conductors give flexibility in operation, permitting, for example, higher fields to be obtained than originally intended by lowering the bath temperature or increasing the pumping power or both. This flexibility is only available if the pumping power is low to begin with. Scaling laws for the pumping requirement and stability margin as functions of operating current density, number of strands and such physical parameters as stabilizer resistivity and critical current density, have been proved. Numerical examples will be given for design of conductors intended for use in large toroidal fusion magnet systems.

  14. Procurement of Nb3Sn superconducting conductors in ITER

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Superconducting strands are applied to Toroidal Field (TF) coil, Poloidal Field (PF) coil and Centre Solenoid (CS) in ITER. Japanese share of TF conductor is 25% and that of CS conductor is 100%. The conductor of TF coil contains 900 Nb3Sn superconducting strands and 522 copper wires. As described in the length of superconducting strand, the length of Japanese share is 23,000km. In order to generate the magnetic field of which maximum value is 11.8T, 68kA of current is sent through the conductor under the rated operation. Although the critical current must be high, the high critical current tends to make the hysteresis loss rise at the same time. The hysteresis loss must be low because that is the heat generation under a fluctuating magnetic field. The strands which satisfy these performances compatibly had been developed. In advance of the other parties, the production of strands for TF coil started in 2008. To date, 3,400km long strands have been fabricated. Some of them are going to be cabled soon. The jacketing facility of TF conductor is being newly built. The building is almost completed. The procurement of strands for TF coil is underway. (author)

  15. Design of force-cooled conductors for large fusion magnets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conductors cooled by supercritical helium in forced convection are under active consideration for large toroidal fusion magnets. One of the central problems in designing such force cooled conductors is to maintain an adequate stability margin while keeping the pumping power tolerably low. A method has been developed for minimizing the pumping power for fixed stability by optimally choosing the matrix-to-superconductor and the metal-to-helium ratios. Such optimized conductors reduce pumping power requirements for fusion size magnets to acceptable limits. Furthermore, the mass flow and hence pumping losses can be varied through a magnet according to the local magnetic field and magnitude of desired stability margin. Force cooled conductors give flexibility in operation, permitting, for example, higher fields to be obtained than originally intended by lowering the bath temperature or increasing the pumping power or both. This flexibility is only available if the pumping power is low to begin with. Scaling laws for the pumping requirement and stability margin as functions of operating current density, number of strands and such physical parameters as stabilizer resistivity and critical current density, have been proved. Numerical examples will be given for design of conductors intended for use in large toroidal fusion magnet systems

  16. Fine filament NbTi and Nb3Sn conductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fine filament conductors are needed for applications requiring low hysteresis losses and/or low magnetization in small fields in order to reduce field distortions. Examples are accelerator magnets (dipoles and quadrupoles) and magnets for TOKAMAK nuclear fusion devices. The main task is to achieve low magnetization especially at low fields while maintaining high critical current density jC at high fields. The relevant parameters are the width 2ΔM of the magnetization curve and the area of the M-H-curve during a field cycle, respectively. In this work, NbTi and Nb3Sn fine filament conductors were produced on a large scale and characterized with respect to transport critical current density and magnetization behavior. In NbTi jc values of about 3000 A/mm2 at 5 T and 4.2 K were achieved in 5 μm filament diameter single stack type conductors. Deterioration of the order of 15 to 20 % was observed when using double stack techniques and/or when going to 2.5 μm type conductors. Possible reasons were identified and work is in progress to improve jc further. At external fields smaller than 100 mT proximity effect induced excess magnetization was observed in Cu matrix conductors and its dependence on filament spacing, twist pitch, field sweep rate, and temperature was measured. The effect is significant, but plays a role only in applications where this low field regime is relevant

  17. Quantum Optics Theory of Electronic Noise in Coherent Conductors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grimsmo, Arne L; Qassemi, Farzad; Reulet, Bertrand; Blais, Alexandre

    2016-01-29

    We consider the electromagnetic field generated by a coherent conductor in which electron transport is described quantum mechanically. We obtain an input-output relation linking the quantum current in the conductor to the measured electromagnetic field. This allows us to compute the outcome of measurements on the field in terms of the statistical properties of the current. We moreover show how under ac bias the conductor acts as a tunable medium for the field, allowing for the generation of single- and two-mode squeezing through fermionic reservoir engineering. These results explain the recently observed squeezing using normal tunnel junctions [G. Gasse et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 111, 136601 (2013); J.-C. Forgues et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 114, 130403 (2015)]. PMID:26871330

  18. Mobility propagation and dynamic facilitation in superionic conductors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Annamareddy, Ajay, E-mail: vkannama@ncsu.edu; Eapen, Jacob, E-mail: jacob.eapen@ncsu.edu [Department of Nuclear Engineering, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, North Carolina 27695 (United States)

    2015-11-21

    In an earlier work [V. A. Annamareddy et al., Phys. Rev. E 89, 010301(R) (2014)], we showed the manifestation of dynamical heterogeneity (DH)—the presence of clustered mobile and immobile regions—in UO{sub 2}, a model type II superionic conductor. In the current work, we demonstrate the mechanism of dynamic facilitation (DF) in two superionic conductors (CaF{sub 2} and UO{sub 2}) using atomistic simulations. Using the mobility transfer function, DF is shown to vary non-monotonically with temperature with the intensity of DF peaking at temperatures close to the superionic transition temperature (T{sub λ}). Both the metrics quantifying DH and DF show remarkable correspondence implying that DF, in the framework of kinematically constrained models, underpins the heterogeneous dynamics in type II superionic conductors.

  19. Characterization of textile electrodes and conductors using standardized measurement setups

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Textile electrodes and conductors are being developed and used in different monitoring scenarios, such as ECG or bioimpedance spectroscopy measurements. Compared to standard materials, conductive textile materials offer improved wearing comfort and enable long-term measurements. Unfortunately, the development and investigation of such materials often suffers from the non-reproducibility of the test scenarios. For example, the materials are generally tested on human skin which is difficult since the properties of human skin differ for each person and can change within hours. This study presents two test setups which offer reproducible measurement procedures for the systematic analysis of textile electrodes and conductors. The electrode test setup was designed with a special skin dummy which allows investigation of not only the electrical properties of textile electrodes but also the contact behavior between electrode and skin. Using both test setups, eight textile electrodes and five textile conductors were analyzed and compared

  20. Nb3Sn conductor development for the ITER magnets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The ITER magnet system consists of Toroidal Field (TF) coils, Poloidal Field (PF) coils, the Central Solenoid (CS) and error field correction coils (CC). The conductors for the coils are Nb3Sn or NbTi cable in conduit type, forced flow cooled with supercritical helium having a maximum operating current in the range 40-60 kA. To qualify the Nb3Sn conductor, two large model coils (energy up to 640 MJ) are being wound by the Home Teams of the Parties to the ITER EDA Agreement. A total of 24 t of strand has been completed for the CS model coil and 4 t for the TF model coil, and fabricated into 7 km of conductor in unit lengths up to 210 m, by an international collaboration involving 12 companies in Europe, Japan, Russia and the USA

  1. Quantum Optics Theory of Electronic Noise in Coherent Conductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grimsmo, Arne L.; Qassemi, Farzad; Reulet, Bertrand; Blais, Alexandre

    2016-01-01

    We consider the electromagnetic field generated by a coherent conductor in which electron transport is described quantum mechanically. We obtain an input-output relation linking the quantum current in the conductor to the measured electromagnetic field. This allows us to compute the outcome of measurements on the field in terms of the statistical properties of the current. We moreover show how under ac bias the conductor acts as a tunable medium for the field, allowing for the generation of single- and two-mode squeezing through fermionic reservoir engineering. These results explain the recently observed squeezing using normal tunnel junctions [G. Gasse et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 111, 136601 (2013); J.-C. Forgues et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 114, 130403 (2015)].

  2. Use of polymer conductors for welding thermoplastic materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Although some polymer conductors of electricity (ex. Polyanilines) are materials known for more than 100 years, only recently have the interesting chemical, electrical and optic properties of their insulating and conducting forms been recognized. Advances made in the chemistry of polymer conductors have also led to improvements in processing them. This work studies a practical application of these materials: the use of polymer conductors for the remote welding of insulating thermoplastic polymers, using energy from microwaves for the local heating of the union. Many thermoplastics (for ex. Polyethylene) do not absorb, or absorb very little, energy from microwaves. Different conductor materials (conductor polymers, carbon nanotubes), however, heavily absorb energy from microwaves with the resulting heating. In this way the welding zone can be heated without affecting the rest of the piece. Conductor polymers (polyanilines) were synthesized chemically and they were characterized by infrared spectroscopy. Polyanilines and other materials (carbon nanotubes) were also modified by reaction with diazone salts. Tests were carried out using different types of coupling: in powder, with material in suspension with wax, with material in suspension with Vaseline, with painted soluble material and with in-situ synthesized polymer on both surfaces to be joined. Different exposure times were tested in a 700 W microwave oven; the 10 mm bars made with different thermoplastic materials, particularly high density polyethylene (HDPE) and polypropylene (PP), were welded. These welded unions were then mechanically tested. The tests on the mechanical properties of the unions yielded an interesting repetition of results when samples welded by microwaves were examined under the same conditions. It was shown that splices can be achieved with reasonably acceptable mechanical resistance in a reduced processing time (CW)

  3. Engineered microstructures and transport properties in YBCO coated conductors.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holesinger, T. G. (Terry G.); Gibbons, B. J. (Brady J.); Coulter, J. Y. (James Y.); Foltyn, S. R. (Stephen R.); Arendt, P. N. (Paul N.)

    2001-01-01

    Each process used to deposit or make the bi-axially textured template, buffer layer(s), and the superconductor in a coated conductor creates interfaces along which defects or interfacial reactions may result. These defects can be additive and propagate through the entire film structure to affect the growth and properties of the superconducting film. Defects within the films and their corresponding transport properties have been correlated with the differences in the thickness of the underlying buffer layer material. This knowledge can be used to control and engineer the structure of the coated conductor to maximize critical current densities.

  4. In the search of new electrocaloric materials: Fast ion conductors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudio Cazorla

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We analyse the effects of applying an electric field on the critical temperature at which superionicity appears in archetypal fast ion conductor CaF2, by means of molecular dynamics simulations. We find that the onset of superionicity can be reduced by about 100 K when relatively small electric fields of ∼50 KV cm−1 are applied. Under large enough electric fields, however, ionic conductivity is depleted. The normal to superionic phase transition is characterised by a large increase of entropy, thereby sizeable electrocaloric effects can be realised in fast ion conductors that are promising for solid-state cooling applications.

  5. Sub-electron Charge Relaxation via 2D Hopping Conductors

    OpenAIRE

    Kinkhabwala, Yusuf A.; Likharev, Konstantin K.

    2005-01-01

    We have extended Monte Carlo simulations of hopping transport in completely disordered 2D conductors to the process of external charge relaxation. In this situation, a conductor of area $L \\times W$ shunts an external capacitor $C$ with initial charge $Q_i$. At low temperatures, the charge relaxation process stops at some "residual" charge value corresponding to the effective threshold of the Coulomb blockade of hopping. We have calculated the r.m.s$.$ value $Q_R$ of the residual charge for a...

  6. Improvement of SOFC electrodes using mixed ionic-electronic conductors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsuzaki, Y.; Hishinuma, M. [Tokyo Gas Co., Ltd. (Japan)

    1996-12-31

    Since the electrode reaction of SOFC is limited to the proximity of a triple phase boundary (TPB), the local current density at the electrode and electrolyte interface is larger than mean current density, which causes large ohmic and electrode polarization. This paper describes an application of mixed ionic-electronic conductors to reduce such polarization by means of (1) enhancing ionic conductivity of the electrolyte surface layer by coating a high ionic conductors, and (2) reducing the local current density by increasing the electrochemically active sites.

  7. Anticipation of dental anomalies induced by radiation therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Therapeutic irradiation of the head and neck of children up to the age of 16 years can cause malformation and developmental arrest of the permanent teeth. Dental anomalies occurring after irradiation of the palatal tumor in an 8-year-old are described and compared with a normal 8-year-old's developmental sequence to demonstrate that the immature, noncalcified dental structures are most susceptible to radiation injury. The stage of dental development at the time of therapy may be precisely determined by a routine oral radiographic survey, which provides a reliable estimate of the deformation that may be anticipated following radiotherapy. (auth)

  8. Hi-Tech Skills Anticipation for Sustainable Development in Russia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valery Gurtov

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available It is evident that there is a heightened importance in Russia attributed to ensuring that students develop skills, which will enable them to be more productive and engaged citizens. This article deals with a skills anticipation methodology for seven hi-tech industries in Russia that resulted in the development of models for both soft and hard skills. There is a variety of widely applied methods – qualitative projection of labor market parameters, desk studies, documents analysis, foresight sessions, employers' and experts' surveys. As a result, new skills models are to help the specialists to effectively overcome the challenges, apply innovative decisions, and increase their technological knowledge.

  9. tsk tsk tsk and Beyond: Anticipating Distributed Aesthetics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darren Tofts

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper considers some important precursory events in the formative history of Australian media arts. These events have anticipated the post-object, serial conception of arts practice that Nicholas Bourriaud has called relational aesthetics. Relational aesthetics interpret both artwork and audience in differential, highly idiosyncratic ways; ways that have become important to our contemporary vocabulary of interactive, immersive and interfaced art. This paper will consider the ways in which the concept of the network was important to artists such as Philip Brophy & Tsk-tsk-tsk in the early 1980s. It will also explore related notions of “audience manipulation” in the work of Martine Corompt.

  10. Enhancing Light-Trapping Properties of Amorphous Si Thin-Film Solar Cells Containing High-Reflective Silver Conductors Fabricated Using a Nonvacuum Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun-Chin Liu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We proposed a low-cost and highly reflective liquid organic sheet silver conductor using back contact reflectors in amorphous silicon (a-Si single junction superstrate configuration thin-film solar cells produced using a nonvacuum screen printing process. A comparison of silver conductor samples with vacuum-system-sputtered silver samples indicated that the short-circuit current density (Jsc of sheet silver conductor cells was higher than 1.25 mA/cm2. Using external quantum efficiency measurements, the sheet silver conductor using back contact reflectors in cells was observed to effectively enhance the light-trapping ability in a long wavelength region (between 600 nm and 800 nm. Consequently, we achieved an optimal initial active area efficiency and module conversion efficiency of 9.02% and 6.55%, respectively, for the a-Si solar cells. The results indicated that the highly reflective sheet silver conductor back contact reflector layer prepared using a nonvacuum process is a suitable candidate for high-performance a-Si thin-film solar cells.

  11. Market efficiency, anticipation and the formation of bubbles-crashes

    CERN Document Server

    Galam, Serge

    2011-01-01

    A dynamical model is introduced for the formation of a bullish or bearish trends driving an asset price in a given market. Initially, each agent decides to buy or sell according to its personal opinion, which results from the combination of its own private information, the public information and its own analysis. It then adjusts such opinion through the market as it observes sequentially the behavior of a group of random selection of other agents. Its choice is then determined by a local majority rule including itself. Whenever the selected group is at a tie, i.e., it is undecided on what to do, the choice is determined by the local group belief with respect to the anticipated trend at that time. These local adjustments create a dynamic that leads the market price formation. In case of balanced anticipations the market is found to be efficient in being successful to make the "right price" to emerge from the sequential aggregation of all the local individual informations which all together contain the fundamen...

  12. The role of anticipation in drug addiction and reward

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jędras P

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Paweł Jędras, Andrew Jones, Matt FieldDepartment of Psychological Sciences, University of Liverpool, Liverpool, UKAbstract: Addiction is a chronically relapsing disorder, and substance users frequently relapse when they encounter opportunities to use drugs. In this paper, we review evidence regarding the psychological response to anticipation of imminent drug availability, its neural substrates, and its relationship to other phenomena implicated in addiction. Naturalistic and laboratory studies indicate that drug anticipation increases cue-provoked craving and attentional biases for drug-related cues. As predicted by existing theoretical models, these effects reflect hyper-valuation of drugs that are perceived as available for consumption, which is linked to activation of the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex that, in turn, innervates subcortical regions associated with reward processing. Drug expectancy is necessary for the formation of conditioned responses to drug-related cues and it modulates the strength of conditioned responses. Furthermore, the role of impulsivity in addiction can be understood in terms of its interaction with the response to imminent drug availability. These results have a number of implications for the treatment of addiction, ranging from government policies that restrict the perceived availability of drugs to novel biological and psychological interventions that could blunt the response to signals of drug availability.Keywords: attentional bias, availability, conditioning, cue-reactivity, expectancy, substance use disorders

  13. Reduced anticipation of negative emotional events in alexithymia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starita, Francesca; Làdavas, Elisabetta; di Pellegrino, Giuseppe

    2016-01-01

    Alexithymia is characterized by difficulties in different domains of emotion processing, especially in relation to negative emotions. Nevertheless, its causal mechanisms remain elusive. Reduced anticipation of negative emotional events might be one such mechanism because it enables the individual to prepare to respond effectively to coming events. To test this, changes in skin conductance response (SCR) were recorded during classical fear conditioning in sixty participants with high (HA), medium (MA) and low (LA) levels of alexithymia. Two coloured squares were presented, one was reinforced with a mild electrical stimulation (CS+) while the other was never reinforced (CS-). Critically, despite all groups showing higher SCR to CS+ compared to CS-, SCR to CS+ was lower and extinguished earlier in HA compared to MA and LA. These differences appeared to be attributable neither to differences in the intensity of stimulation received, nor to SCR to the stimulation itself. Groups showed comparable SCR to CS- as well. Therefore, HA exhibited decreased anticipation of the occurrence of a negative emotional event. Disruption of this mechanism may then compromise effective emotion recognition, emotional response and response regulation, which characterise HA, and represent a unifying causal mechanism underlying the difficulties in emotion processing of this group. PMID:27278856

  14. Processing for long YBCO coated conductors by TFA-MOD process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The metal organic deposition (MOD) process of YBa2Cu3O7-X (YBCO) using metal trifluoroacetate (TFA) precursors is considered to be a strong candidate as a low cost fabrication process in coated conductors since the TFA-MOD process is a non vacuum process and can provide high Jc films. In order to develop long tape conductors using this process, the influence of the gas flow direction in the heat treatment was investigated. The Jc value decreases toward to leeward side in the case of the parallel gas flow condition. On the other hand, in the case of the perpendicular gas flow condition. The Jc value reveals uniformity in all over the tape and the high Jc level is maintained. In the case of long tape production, it was found that the perpendicular gas flow to the tape length is effective to fabricate the uniform films. It could minimize the influence of consumption of H2O and generation of HF gas in the up-stream area to the leeward region. The Jc and Ic properties and these distribution of the YBCO tape fabricated by this method on CeO2/IBAD-Gd2Zr2O7/Hastelloy is presented. Furthermore, a large scale equipment for the continues long tape process was developed based on the above findings. Consequently we have fabricated a 1 m long Y123 tape conductor by a reel to reel system. Even in the first trial, the uniform reaction for the entire length was recognized

  15. Diffusion of magnetic fields into conductors of non-uniform resistivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Solutions are obtained for the spatial variation of electrical resistivity of cylindrical and rectangular conductors such that the magnetic field external to the conductor maintains a constant spatial variation as the magnetic field diffuses into the conductor. Practical implementations of the ideal solution are described

  16. Attentional flexibility and memory capacity in conductors and pianists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wöllner, Clemens; Halpern, Andrea R

    2016-01-01

    Individuals with high working memory (WM) capacity also tend to have better selective and divided attention. Although both capacities are essential for skilled performance in many areas, evidence for potential training and expertise effects is scarce. We investigated the attentional flexibility of musical conductors by comparing them to equivalently trained pianists. Conductors must focus their attention both on individual instruments and on larger sections of different instruments. We studied students and professionals in both domains to assess the contributions of age and training to these skills. Participants completed WM span tests for auditory and visual (notated) pitches and timing durations, as well as long-term memory tests. In three dichotic attention tasks, they were asked to detect small pitch and timing deviations from two melodic streams presented in baseline (separate streams), selective-attention (concentrating on only one stream), and divided-attention (concentrating on targets in both streams simultaneously) conditions. Conductors were better than pianists in detecting timing deviations in divided attention, and experts detected more targets than students. We found no group differences for WM capacity or for pitch deviations in the attention tasks, even after controlling for the older age of the experts. Musicians' WM spans across multimodal conditions were positively related to selective and divided attention. High-WM participants also had shorter reaction times in selective attention. Taken together, conductors showed higher attentional flexibility in successfully switching between different foci of attention. PMID:26404532

  17. Exploring a Metamorphosis: Identity Formation for an Emerging Conductor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponchione, Cayenna

    2013-01-01

    Exploring the manner in which professional identity formation in emerging conductors is entangled with the cultural context of orchestras, I focus on the amorphous evolution from a student identity to that of a professional, illuminating some underlying social conditions of the ever-elusive profession of conducting. Prevailing assumptions about…

  18. Aharonov-Bohm oscillations in singly connected disordered conductors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aleiner, I L; Andreev, A V; Vinokur, V

    2015-02-20

    We show that the transport and thermodynamic properties of a singly connected disordered conductor exhibit quantum Aharonov-Bohm oscillations as a function of the total magnetic flux through the sample. The oscillations are associated with the interference contribution from a special class of electron trajectories confined to the surface of the sample. PMID:25763968

  19. Spectral magnetotelluric impedances for an anisotropic layered conductor

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pek, Josef

    2002-01-01

    Roč. 50, č. 4 (2002), s. 619-643. ISSN 0001-5725 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA205/99/0917; GA MŠk ME 185 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z3012916 Keywords : magnetotelluric impedance * anisotropic conductor * electromagnetic induction Subject RIV: DE - Earth Magnetism, Geodesy, Geography

  20. Comparison of two ICCS conductors for MHD application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Two subscale internally cooled, cabled superconductors have been examined as candidates for use in a retrofit MHD topping cycle magnet. One of these was a 3 x 3 x 3 cable in which all the strands were multifilamentary NbTi stabilized with copper. The other was a 3 x 3 x 3 cable in which two strands in each of the nine triplets was OFHC copper and one was multifilamentary NbTi. The overall copper-to-superconductor ratio for each of the two 27-strand cables was approximately the same. The two conductors were cowound onto a grooved mandrel in such a way that they could be tested alternately. Each sample was instrumented with a heater at the center of the conductor length, and with a pressure transducer, four pairs of voltage tape and one iron-doped gold/constantan thermocouple. Performance tests of the conductors were made at 6, 7 and 7.8 tesla background magnetic fields and at heater input energies ranging from 60 mJ/cm/sup 3/ to 1758 mJ/cm/sup 3/ of conductor. The results of these tests and their significance for MHD magnet design and economics are discussed

  1. Construction and power rating of HTS high current conductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Transmission of very large dc and ac currents over short distances is often required as part of the design of large-scale power devices such superconducting magnet coils and SMES devices or between the power supply and a large machine or distribution point in an industrial plant. Superconducting high-current conductors can be used to transmit large quantities of power with little or no power loss. The near zero voltage drop along such a conductor allows better match to the power supply and enhances the transmission efficiency. Bi-2223/Ag composite tape, produced by powder-in-tube processing, was used to construct and test several prototype high-current conductors including a bus bar and current leads. The bus bar was made by connecting in parallel several stacks of multifilament tape and using an aluminium former for mechanical support. The current leads were constructed by connecting parallel stacks of multifilament tape and then soldering these to copper end caps; structural support was provided by a polycarbonate housing. We report on the test results of the I-V characteristics and dc power loss as a function of transport current (up to 500 A) at 77 K, and compare the results with the ohmic losses of the equivalent conductors made from pure silver metal

  2. Effect of paramagnetic impurities on NMR in superionic conductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Relaxation of mobile 7Li nuclei in LiAlSiO4 and other Li+ conductors is shown by the high temperature T1 : T2 ratio to be caused by paramagnetic impurities. The stationary 27Al, however, is relaxed by quadrupole coupling

  3. Alternative conductor arrangements for ITER TF coil winding pack

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Different arrangements of round and rectangular conductors and shear plates for the ITER TF coil winding pack have been investigated. Detailed stress analysis for each configuration have been performed for different loading conditions : in-plane force and out-of-plane forces. This analysis includes parametric studies taking into account different mechanical properties of the materials used in the winding pack. With rectangular conductor the peak shear stress remains high and the manufacture of the jacket of the conductor with variable wall thickness raises problems also this solution has not been considered any longer. With round conductors the shear stress generated in the insulation by the out-of-plane force is small compared to the shear stress produced by the in-plane force. - Maximum Von Mises stress in the steel 483 MPa. - Maximum compressive stress in the insulation - 164 MPa. - Maximum interlaminar shear stress in the insulation 38 MPa. Simplification of the manufacturing process including : shear plate machining, transfer of the winding after heat treatment and final assembly of the shear plates and layers have been investigated. (orig.)

  4. Organizations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hatch, Mary Jo

    Most of us recognize that organizations are everywhere. You meet them on every street corner in the form of families and shops, study in them, work for them, buy from them, pay taxes to them. But have you given much thought to where they came from, what they are today, and what they might become in...... considers many more. Mary Jo Hatch introduces the concept of organizations by presenting definitions and ideas drawn from the a variety of subject areas including the physical sciences, economics, sociology, psychology, anthropology, literature, and the visual and performing arts. Drawing on examples from...... prehistory and everyday life, from the animal kingdom as well as from business, government, and other formal organizations, Hatch provides a lively and thought provoking introduction to the process of organization....

  5. All-chemical YBa2Cu3O7 coated conductors on IBAD-YSZ stainless steel substrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We report on the fabrication of all-chemical YBa2Cu3O7 coated conductors on IBAD-YSZ (IBAD stands for ion beam assisted deposition; YSZ is yttrium stabilized zirconia) stainless steel substrates. YBCO films were grown by the trifluoroacetates route on top of CeO2 buffer layers made by metal-organic decomposition. The achievement of atomically flat CeO2 surfaces is found to be a key factor for obtaining clean interfaces with YBCO and high performance. Coated conductors with percolative critical currents of JcGB(65 K) = 1.8 MA cm-2 were achieved. The determination of the intra-grain critical current JcG from inductive measurements suggests that the limiting factor for JcGB is the YBCO in-plane texture, which is already of higher quality than that of the IBAD-YSZ cap layer. (rapid communication)

  6. Advanced development of TFA-MOD coated conductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We describe the capabilities of a wide-web manufacturing process for 2G wire. We compare YBCO films prepared by single and double-coat processes. A single-coat process was developed for 1.2 um thick YBCO films. Properties of single-coat films are uniform through thickness. American Superconductor is manufacturing 2G wire for initial commercial applications. The 2G wire properties satisfy the requirements for these initial projects; however, improvements in the critical current, field performance and cost are required to address the broad range of potential commercial and military applications. In order to meet the anticipated the performance and cost requirements, AMSC's R and D effort is focused on two major areas: (1) higher critical current and (2) enhanced flux pinning. AMSC's current 2G production wire, designed around a 0.8 μm thick YBCO layer deposited by a Metal Organic Deposition (MOD) process, carries a critical current in the range of 200-300 A/cm-w (77 K, sf). Achieving higher critical current requires increasing the thickness of the YBCO layer. This paper describes recent progress at AMSC on increasing the critical current of MOD-YBCO films using processes compatible with low-cost, high-rate manufacturing.

  7. MINING OF WEB LOG FILES USING RELEVANT COMPUTING TECHNIQUES FOR IMPROVING FUTURE ANTICIPATION USAGE OF WEB NAVIGATION

    OpenAIRE

    N.Sanfia Sehnaz*, Dr.I.Elizabeth Shanthi

    2016-01-01

    The Internet has evolved extensively over the past few decades. Web navigation refers to the process of navigating a network of information resources in the World Wide Web, which is organized as hypertext or hypermedia.  The navigation related to web navigation usability gets solved by comparing the actual and anticipated usage patterns. The actual usage pattern removed from web server logs are sporadically recorded in operational websites for handling the log data. This process is used ...

  8. Design of multiband metamaterial absorber based on artificial magnetic conductor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dang, Kezheng; He, Zijian; Li, Zhigang; Miao, Lei; Liu, Hao

    2015-10-01

    We present a general method to design multiband absorber by replacing the ground plane in a conventional metamaterial absorber with an artificial magnetic conductor. Due to its unique property of in-phase reflection at some specific frequency, the artificial magnetic conductor is used to introduce new absorption in the operation band. Meanwhile, out of the in-phase reflection band, the original absorbing capability of the absorber is reserved. To demonstrate it, we design a metamaterial absorber comprising three layers which are grids patterned resistive frequency selective surface, dielectric layer and the ground plane respectively. With an appropriate design, the absorber performs an absorbing peak at about 10 GHz. Then, we utilize a single band artificial magnetic conductor at 6.25 GHz and a dual-band one at 6.27 GHz and 8.17 GHz, which are both lossy and comprised of patches array varying in periodic size with a thickness of 0.6 mm, to replace the ground plane in the metamaterial absorber separately. The reflectivity of these multiband absorbers are simulated, and experiments are carried out later. Experimental results agree well with the simulations. All results verified that the method presented at the beginning is effective. The results show that additional absorptions exist at the frequencies where microwaves are nearly reflected in phase on the artificial magnetic conductor. Meanwhile the original absorbing capability of the metamaterial absorber has been preserved mostly. Based on the artificial magnetic conductor, the multiband absorber performs better with an increasing absorption bandwidth from 8.5 GHz to 10 GHz compared to the metamaterial absorber.

  9. Anticipative Criminal Investigation : Theory and Counterterrorism Practice in the Netherlands and the United States

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hirsch Ballin, M.F.H.

    2012-01-01

    The book assesses the adoption of counterterrorism measures in the Netherlands and the United States, which facilitate criminal investigations with a preventive focus (anticipative criminal investigations), from the perspective of rule of law principles. Anticipative criminal investigation has emerg

  10. The Relationship of Personality, Values, and Race to Anticipation of the Supervisory Relationship

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vander Kolk, Charles J.

    1974-01-01

    Graduate counseling students were placed in two groups according to whether they anticipated the supervisory relatonship to be more or less facilitative. Blacks differed from whites on how they anticipated the supervisory relationship. (Author)

  11. Modele a anticipations rationnelles de la conjoncture simulee : MARCOS.

    OpenAIRE

    Jacquinot, P.; Mihoubi, F.

    2000-01-01

    MARCOS est un modèle étalonné de l'économie française en présence d'anticipations rationnelles. Son principal objectif est la réalisation d'exercices de simulation sur un horizon de moyen long terme. Il a été construit en adoptant l'hypothèse d'un petit pays où les marchés des biens et du travail sont dans un contexte de concurrence monopolistique, les salaires sont négociés suivant un modèle de droit à gérer l'emploi et la consommation des ménages non contraints par les liquidités résulte d'...

  12. The rise of sea level. To understand and to anticipate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    By proposing and briefly commenting graphs and drawings, this publication propose brief presentations of the main issues related to sea level rise: global warming and climate disturbance, description of the phenomenon of sea level rise (difference between sea ice and ground ice, melting of glaciers), increase of sea level rise during the twentieth century, territories at risk (examples of Greenland, Tuvalu, Shanghai), acceleration of ice melting during the twenty first century with many coastal areas at risk, already noticed and possible future impacts in France (glaciers runoff, threatened coasts, example of the Xynthia tempest), how to be united and to anticipate (a threat for millions of people, adaptation to sea level rise, limitation of global warming to limit sea level rise)

  13. Anticipation in Social Systems: the Incursion and Communication of Meaning

    CERN Document Server

    Leydesdorff, Loet

    2009-01-01

    In social systems, meaning can be communicated in addition to underlying processes of the information exchange. Meaning processing incurs on information processing with hindsight, while information processing recursively follows the time axis. The sole assumption of social relatedness as a variable among groups of agents provides sufficient basis for deriving the logistic map as a first-order approximation of the social system. The anticipatory formulation of this equation can be derived for both anticipation in the interaction term and in the aggregation among subgroups. Using this formula in a cellular automaton, an observer is generated as a reflection of the system under observation. The social system of interactions among observations can improve on the representations entertained by each of the observing systems.

  14. Anticipating the organizational impacts of electric industry restructuring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The various aspects of restructuring in the electric industry, and what can be done to anticipate them, were reviewed, based on the California experience. Major issues that will affect the industry organizationally were discussed, with several examples of alternative structural models. Current issues and likely changes in competition at the wholesale level were described, along with the most probable changes in the way electricity will be marketed at the retail level. Potential benefits, and major concerns about retail access were defined. The structure of the industry in California was summarized (the Independent System Operator (ISO), and the Power Exchange (PX) being the principal features). The system's governance, present and future structure, the still evolving nature of regulation, problems with stranded costs and alternative methods for computing them, the transition process itself, the California approach to transition cost recovery, and what all this means to customers, were some of the topics that have received attention

  15. A Complex Data Warehouse for Personalized, Anticipative Medicine

    CERN Document Server

    Darmont, Jérôme

    2008-01-01

    With the growing use of new technologies, healthcare is nowadays undergoing significant changes. Information-based medicine has to exploit medical decision-support systems and requires the analysis of various, heterogeneous data, such as patient records, medical images, biological analysis results, etc. In this paper, we present the design of the complex data warehouse relating to high-level athletes. It is original in two ways. First, it is aimed at storing complex medical data. Second, it is designed to allow innovative and quite different kinds of analyses to support: (1) personalized and anticipative medicine (in opposition to curative medicine) for well-identified patients; (2) broad-band statistical studies over a given population of patients. Furthermore, the system includes data relating to several medical fields. It is also designed to be evolutionary to take into account future advances in medical research.

  16. Strong anticipation: Multifractal cascade dynamics modulate scaling in synchronization behaviors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Research highlights: → We investigated anticipatory behaviors in response to chaotic metronomes. → We assessed multifractal structure in tap intervals and onset intervals. → Strength of multifractality in tap intervals appears to match that in onset intervals. - Abstract: Previous research on anticipatory behaviors has found that the fractal scaling of human behavior may attune to the fractal scaling of an unpredictable signal [Stephen DG, Stepp N, Dixon JA, Turvey MT. Strong anticipation: Sensitivity to long-range correlations in synchronization behavior. Physica A 2008;387:5271-8]. We propose to explain this attunement as a case of multifractal cascade dynamics [Schertzer D, Lovejoy S. Generalised scale invariance in turbulent phenomena. Physico-Chem Hydrodyn J 1985;6:623-5] in which perceptual-motor fluctuations are coordinated across multiple time scales. This account will serve to sharpen the contrast between strong and weak anticipation: whereas the former entails a sensitivity to the intermittent temporal structure of an unpredictable signal, the latter simply predicts sensitivity to an aggregate description of an unpredictable signal irrespective of actual sequence. We pursue this distinction through a reanalysis of Stephen et al.'s data by examining the relationship between the widths of singularity spectra for intertap interval time series and for each corresponding interonset interval time series. We find that the attunement of fractal scaling reported by Stephen et al. was not the trivial result of sensitivity to temporal structure in aggregate but reflected a subtle sensitivity to the coordination across multiple time scales of fluctuation in the unpredictable signal.

  17. The brain, an orchestra without conductor

    CERN Document Server

    CERN. Geneva

    2008-01-01

    The brain is a highly distributed, self-organizing system that lacks central institutions for the coordination of cognitive and executive functions. This raises the question how the multiple parallel operations are bound together to give rise to coherent percepts, decisions and intentions. The hypothesis is proposed that time is used as coding space for the flexible definition of relations and the targeted routing of activity across highly interconnected networks.

  18. Fabrication of long Y123 coated conductor tape by advanced TFA-MOD process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Metal organic deposition (MOD) process of YBa2Cu3O7-y (YBCO) using metal trifluoro acetate (TFA) precursors is thought to be promising since YBCO films with high Jc can be fabricated by this process inexpensively. However it is difficult to maintain high Jc throughout long tapes. We have improved Ic values and longitudinal Ic distribution for a long coated conductor tape by the advanced TFA-MOD method. It was clarified that a humid atmosphere degraded as-coated films. The Ba-poor composition precursor from the 1:2:3 cationic ratio improved Jc/Ic significantly. As a result, a 86 m long coated conductor was obtained with Ic values higher than 200 A/cm-w throughout the tape except for one small region. Almost of the tape has as high Ic as 300 A/cm-w and the end-to-end Ic x L value was 14 000 Am (Ic 250 A, L = 56 m)

  19. Single-Component Conductors: A Sturdy Electronic Structure Generated by Bulky Substituents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filatre-Furcate, Agathe; Bellec, Nathalie; Jeannin, Olivier; Auban-Senzier, Pascale; Fourmigué, Marc; Íñiguez, Jorge; Canadell, Enric; Brière, Benjamin; Ta Phuoc, Vinh; Lorcy, Dominique

    2016-06-20

    While the introduction of large, bulky substituents such as tert-butyl, -SiMe3, or -Si(isopropyl)3 has been used recently to control the solid state structures and charge mobility of organic semiconductors, this crystal engineering strategy is usually avoided in molecular metals where a maximized overlap is sought. In order to investigate such steric effects in single component conductors, the ethyl group of the known [Au(Et-thiazdt)2] radical complex has been replaced by an isopropyl one to give a novel single component molecular conductor denoted [Au(iPr-thiazdt)2] (iPr-thiazdt: N-isopropyl-1,3-thiazoline-2-thione-4,5-dithiolate). It exhibits a very original stacked structure of crisscross molecules interacting laterally to give a truly three-dimensional network. This system is weakly conducting at ambient pressure (5 S·cm(-1)), and both transport and optical measurements evidence a slowly decreasing energy gap under applied pressure with a regime change around 1.5 GPa. In contrast with other conducting systems amenable to a metallic state under physical or chemical pressure, the Mott insulating state is stable here up to 4 GPa, a consequence of its peculiar electronic structure. PMID:27266960

  20. Progress in scale-up of second-generation HTS conductor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tremendous progress has been recently made in the achievement of high-performance, high-speed, long-length second-generation (2G) HTS conductors. Using ion beam assisted deposition (IBAD) MgO and metal organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD), SuperPower has scaled up tape lengths to 427 m with a minimum critical current value of 191 A/cm corresponding to a critical current x length performance of 81,550 m. Tape speeds up to 120 m/h have been reached with IBAD MgO, up to 80 m/h with buffer deposition and up to 45 m/h with MOCVD, all in single pass processing of 12 mm wide tape. Critical current value of 227 A/cm has been achieved in a 203 m long tape produced in an all-high-speed fabrication process. Critical current values have been raised to 721 A/cm, 592 A/cm and 486 A/cm in short, reel-to-reel processed tape, over 1 m length and over 11.1 m, respectively, using thicker MOCVD HTS films. Finally, over 10,000 m of copper-stabilized, 4 mm wide conductor has been produced and tested for delivery to the Albany Cable project. The average critical current of the 10,000 m lot was 81 A

  1. Test results of the FER/ITER conductors in the FENIX test facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI) has developed the Advanced Disk and the Hollow Monolithic conductors for the FER/ITER Toroidal Field coils. The advanced Disk conductor is a Cable-in-Conduit conductor which consists of 324 Nb3Sn strands. The Hollow monolithic conductor has hollow cooling channels and 23 Nb3Sn strands. The JA-FENIX sample consists of a pair of straight legs: one leg is the Advanced disk conductor and another is the Hollow Monolithic one. The FENIX facility at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) can provide a magnetic field up to 13T on a sample conductor of over 40cm-length. The performance test of the JA-sample was carried out in Autumn 1992. The critical current, the current sharing temperature, and the stability margin of each conductor were measured in this test. These results are presented and discussed

  2. INTRODUCTION: Anticipated changes in the global atmospheric water cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allan, Richard P.; Liepert, Beate G.

    2010-06-01

    The atmospheric branch of the water cycle, although containing just a tiny fraction of the Earth's total water reserves, presents a crucial interface between the physical climate (such as large-scale rainfall patterns) and the ecosystems upon which human societies ultimately depend. Because of the central importance of water in the Earth system, the question of how the water cycle is changing, and how it may alter in future as a result of anthropogenic changes, present one of the greatest challenges of this century. The recent Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change report on Climate Change and Water (Bates et al 2008) highlighted the increasingly strong evidence of change in the global water cycle and associated environmental consequences. It is of critical importance to climate prediction and adaptation strategies that key processes in the atmospheric water cycle are precisely understood and determined, from evaporation at the surface of the ocean, transport by the atmosphere, condensation as cloud and eventual precipitation, and run-off through rivers following interaction with the land surface, sub-surface, ice, snow and vegetation. The purpose of this special focus issue of Environmental Research Letters on anticipated changes in the global atmospheric water cycle is to consolidate the recent substantial advances in understanding past, present and future changes in the global water cycle through evidence built upon theoretical understanding, backed up by observations and borne out by climate model simulations. Thermodynamic rises in water vapour provide a central constraint, as discussed in a guest editorial by Bengtsson (2010). Theoretical implications of the Clausius-Clapeyron equation are presented by O'Gorman and Muller (2010) and with reference to a simple model (Sherwood 2010) while observed humidity changes confirm these anticipated responses at the land and ocean surface (Willett et al 2008). Rises in low-level moisture are thought to fuel an

  3. The electrostatics of charged insulating sheets peeled from grounded conductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The physics of a charged, insulating sheet peeled from a ground-plane conductor is examined. Contact charging is ensured by charging a sheet to 10-12 kV with corona to establish intimate electrostatic contact with the underlying conductor. The surface potential is next forced to zero by sweeping the sheet with a stainless-steel brush, and the surface recharged to a new potential between 0 and 11 kV. The sheet is then peeled from the ground plane and its residual charge density is measured. Results show that the residual charge equals the breakdown-limiting value, but its polarity depends on the surface potential acquired just prior to peeling. The results have relevance to studies of industrial webs and insulating sheets.

  4. Structural Parameter Optimization of Multilayer Conductors in HTS Cable

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yan Mao; Jie Qiu; Xin-Ying Liu; Zhi-Xuan Wang; Shu-Hong Wang; Jian-Guo Zhu; You-Guang Guo; Zhi-Wei Lin; Jian-Xun Jin

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, the design optimization of the structural parameters of multilayer conductors in high temperature superconducting (HTS) cable is reviewed. Various optimization methods, such as the particle swarm optimization (PSO), the genetic algorithm (GA), and a robust optimization method based on design for six sigma (DFSS), have been applied to realize uniform current distribution among the multi- layer HTS conductors. The continuous and discrete variables, such as the winding angle, radius, and winding direction of each layer, are chosen as the design parameters. Under the constraints of the mechanical properties and critical current, PSO is proven to be a more powerful tool than GA for structural parameter optimization, and DFSS can not only achieve a uniform current distribution, but also improve significantly the reliability and robustness of the HTS cable quality.

  5. Current distribution for conductors in variable external magnetic fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This work presents the results of a study on current distribution for compact cable shaped conductors with several elements (filaments) that have fluid cooling. This cables are used in facilities for fusion with superconducting magnets. Current distribution between the filaments of the cable is not uniform. Flow leaps can appear. Taking into account certain simplifying hypotheses and the internal inductance on the basis of calculations, the basic equation results that is specific to the current distribution. The analysis of the solutions to the basic equation is carried out by means of the Bessel functions. In the last part of the work to examples are presented: 1. The case of a initial profile of the current estimated by a Bessel modified function; 2. The case of a magnet of alternating current where the magnetic field acting on the conductor is proportional to its current. (author)

  6. Coulomb correlation effects in quasi-one-dimensional conductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recent results on the role of electron-electron (e-e) interactions - ''correlation effects'' - in quasi-one-dimensional conductors are reviewed. Within the Peierls-Hubbard model, the consequences of short range (on-site U and nearest neighbor V) e-e interactions for ground state properties, nonlinear excitations, and optical absorption are examined. Techniques include quantum Monte Carlo and weak and strong coupling perturbative arguments. 26 refs., 2 figs

  7. Assessment of seasonal static thermal ratings of overhead transmission conductors

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Heckenbergerová, Jana; Musílek, P.; Filimonenkov, K.

    Piscataway : IEEE, 2011, s. 1-8. ISBN 978-1-4577-1001-8. ISSN 1944-9925. [PES 2011. Detroit (US), 24.07.2011-29.07.2011] Grant ostatní: GA AV ČR(CZ) M100300904 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10300504 Keywords : transmission line * overhead conductor * weather conditions * thermal rating * ampacity * risk * aging Subject RIV: JE - Non-nuclear Energetics, Energy Consumption ; Use

  8. Activation volumes of some superionic conductors with the fluorite structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Information about defect and conduction mechanisms of ionic conductors can be obtained by studying the pressure and temperature dependence of the electrical conductivity. The existence of several activated regions of conduction was found. The activation volumes, which are extracted from the pressure data, are small and positive throughout the temperature range investigated. This implies that Frenkel defects are dominant up to near the melting points of the materials examined

  9. Group Members’ Assessment of Their Conductor in Small Analytic Group

    OpenAIRE

    Vlastelica, Mirela; Urlić, Ivan

    2004-01-01

    In this pilot study the authors present the group members’ assessment of their conductor in group analysis – the treatment conducted in accordance with concept »groupas- a-whole« of S. H. Foulkes. There will be presented the results obtained by scale for evaluation of characteristics of the group therapist. In the scale, developed by the authors of the study, there were 30 items and by factorial analysis it gave three interpretable factors: authenticity, empathy and distrust. B...

  10. Equivalent electric circuit of a carbon nanotube based molecular conductor

    CERN Document Server

    Yam, ChiYung; Wang, Fan; Li, Xiaobo; Chen, GuanHua; Zheng, Xiao; Matsuda, Yuki; Tahir-Kheli, Jamil; Goddard, William A

    2008-01-01

    We apply our first-principles method to simulate the transient electrical response through carbon nanotube based conductors under time-dependent bias voltages, and report the dynamic conductance for a specific system. We find that the electrical response of the carbon nanotube device can be mapped onto an equivalent classical electric circuit. This is confirmed by studying the electric response of a simple model system and its equivalent circuit.

  11. Non-equilibrium noise in a mesoscopic conductor: microscopic analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Altshuler, B. L.; Levitov, L.S.; Yakovets, A. Yu.

    1994-01-01

    Current fluctuations are studied in a mesoscopic conductor using non-equilibrium Keldysh technique. We derive a general expression for the fluctuations in the presence of a time dependent voltage, valid for arbitrary relation between voltage and temperature. Two limits are then treated: a pulse of voltage and a DC voltage. A pulse of voltage causes phase sensitive current fluctuations for which we derive microscopically an expression periodic in $\\int V(t)dt$ with the period $h/e$. Applied to...

  12. Electromigration induced resistance changes in passivated aluminum thin film conductors

    OpenAIRE

    Möckl, U. E.; Lloyd, J. R.; Arzt, Eduard

    1993-01-01

    The relative change in resistance due to electromigration was studied in thin (0.7 µm) film conductors of Al-0.5% Cu alloy passivated with a 1 µm thick glass passivation using a sensitive AC bridge technique. In contrast to previous experiments performed on unpassivated structures where a roughly linear resistance increase was observed, a saturation value for the resistance increase was observe which was seen to be a function of temperature and the applied current density. The results were fo...

  13. Modeling Wet-Snow Shedding from Current-Carrying Conductors

    OpenAIRE

    Olqma, Ossama; Kollar, László E.; Farzaneh, Masoud; Pellet, Laure

    2009-01-01

    The initiation of wet-snow shedding from currentcarrying conductors was studied experimentally and theoretically. A suspended cable with cylindrical snow accretion was considered, and some of the snow properties at the end of sleeve were measured and calculated until snow shedding. The current in the cable appears to be a heat source which accelerates snow melting, similarly to air temperatures above freezing, wind and heat radiation. All of these effects were taken into account to study how ...

  14. Anticipating Juno Observations of the Magnetosphere of Jupiter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bunnell, E.; Fowler, C. M.; Bagenal, F.; Bonfond, B.

    2012-12-01

    The Juno spacecraft will arrive at Jupiter in 2016 and will go into polar orbit. Juno will make the first exploration of the polar regions of Jupiter's vast magnetosphere, combining in situ particles and fields measurements with remote sensing of auroral emissions in the UV, IR and radio. The primary science period comprises ~30 orbits with 11-day periods with a~1.06Rj perijove, allowing Juno to duck under the hazardous synchrotron radiation belts. Apojove is at ~38Rj. The oblateness of the planet causes the orbit to precess with the major axis moving progressively south at about 1 degree per orbit, eventually bringing the spacecraft into the radiation belts. This orbit allows unprecedented views of the aurora and exploration of the auroral acceleration regions. We present an overview of anticipated Juno observations based on models of the Jovian magnetosphere. On approach to Jupiter and over a capture orbit that extends to ~180Rj on the dawn flank, Juno will traverse the magnetosheath, magnetopause and boundary layer regions of the magnetosphere. Due to the high plasma pressures in the magnetospheric plasmasheet the magnetosphere of Jupiter is known to vary substantially with the changes in the solar wind dynamic pressure. We use Ulysses solar wind data obtained around 5 AU to predict the conditions that Juno will observe over the several months it will spend in these boundary regions.

  15. Early effects of reward anticipation are modulated by dopaminergic stimulation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thore Apitz

    Full Text Available The abilities to predict future rewards and assess the value of reward delivery are crucial aspects of adaptive behavior. While the mesolimbic system, including dopaminergic midbrain, ventral striatum and prefrontal cortex have long been associated with reward processing, recent studies also indicate a prominent role of early visual brain regions. However, the precise underlying neural mechanisms still remain unclear. To address this issue, we presented participants with visual cues predicting rewards of high and low magnitudes and probability (2 × 2 factorial design, while neural activity was scanned using magnetoencephalography. Importantly, one group of participants received 150 mg of the dopamine precursor levodopa prior to the experiment, while another group received a placebo. For the placebo group, neural signals of reward probability (but not magnitude emerged at ∼ 100 ms after cue presentation at occipital sensors in the event-related magnetic fields. Importantly, these probability signals were absent in the levodopa group indicating a close link. Moreover, levodopa administration reduced oscillatory power in the high (20-30 Hz and low (13-20 Hz beta band during both reward anticipation and delivery. Taken together, our findings indicate that visual brain regions are involved in coding prospective reward probability but not magnitude and that these effects are modulated by dopamine.

  16. A Bayesian belief network of threat anticipation and terrorist motivations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olama, Mohammed M.; Allgood, Glenn O.; Davenport, Kristen M.; Schryver, Jack C.

    2010-04-01

    Recent events highlight the need for efficient tools for anticipating the threat posed by terrorists, whether individual or groups. Antiterrorism includes fostering awareness of potential threats, deterring aggressors, developing security measures, planning for future events, halting an event in process, and ultimately mitigating and managing the consequences of an event. To analyze such components, one must understand various aspects of threat elements like physical assets and their economic and social impacts. To this aim, we developed a three-layer Bayesian belief network (BBN) model that takes into consideration the relative threat of an attack against a particular asset (physical layer) as well as the individual psychology and motivations that would induce a person to either act alone or join a terrorist group and commit terrorist acts (social and economic layers). After researching the many possible motivations to become a terrorist, the main factors are compiled and sorted into categories such as initial and personal indicators, exclusion factors, and predictive behaviors. Assessing such threats requires combining information from disparate data sources most of which involve uncertainties. BBN combines these data in a coherent, analytically defensible, and understandable manner. The developed BBN model takes into consideration the likelihood and consequence of a threat in order to draw inferences about the risk of a terrorist attack so that mitigation efforts can be optimally deployed. The model is constructed using a network engineering process that treats the probability distributions of all the BBN nodes within the broader context of the system development process.

  17. In Wrong Anticipation - Miscalibrated Beliefs between Germans, Israelis, and Palestinians

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goerg, Sebastian J.; Hennig-Schmidt, Heike; Walkowitz, Gari; Winter, Eyal

    2016-01-01

    The reconcilability of actions and beliefs in inter-country relationships, either in business or politics, is of vital importance as incorrect beliefs on foreigners’ behavior can have serious implications. We study a typical inter-country interaction by means of a controlled laboratory investment game experiment in Germany, Israel and Palestine involving 400 student participants in total. An investor has to take a risky decision in a foreign country that involves transferring money to an investee/allocator. We found a notable constellation of calibrated and un-calibrated beliefs. Within each country, transfer standards exist, which investees correctly anticipate within their country. However, across countries these standards differ. By attributing the standard of their own environment to the other countries investees are remarkably bad in predicting foreign investors’ behavior. The tendency to ignore this potential difference can be a source of misinterpreting motives in cross-country interaction. Foreigners might perceive behavior as unfavorable or favorable differentiation, even though—unknown to them—investors actually treat fellow-country people and foreigners alike. PMID:27311066

  18. Material and Stress Rotations: Anticipating the 1992 Landers, CA Earthquake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nur, A. M.

    2014-12-01

    "Rotations make nonsense of the two-dimensional reconstructions that are still so popular among structural geologists". (McKenzie, 1990, p. 109-110) I present a comprehensive tectonic model for the strike-slip fault geometry, seismicity, material rotation, and stress rotation, in which new, optimally oriented faults can form when older ones have rotated about a vertical axis out of favorable orientations. The model was successfully tested in the Mojave region using stress rotation and three independent data sets: the alignment of epicenters and fault plane solutions from the six largest central Mojave earthquakes since 1947, material rotations inferred from paleomagnetic declination anomalies, and rotated dike strands of the Independence dike swarm. The model led not only to the anticipation of the 1992 M7.3 Landers, CA earthquake but also accounts for the great complexity of the faulting and seismicity of this event. The implication of this model for crustal deformation in general is that rotations of material (faults and the blocks between them) and of stress provide the key link between the complexity of faults systems in-situ and idealized mechanical theory of faulting. Excluding rotations from the kinematical and mechanical analysis of crustal deformation makes it impossible to explain the complexity of what geologists see in faults, or what seismicity shows us about active faults. However, when we allow for rotation of material and stress, Coulomb's law becomes consistent with the complexity of faults and faulting observed in situ.

  19. Mental practice promotes motor anticipation: evidence from skilled music performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernardi, Nicolò F; De Buglio, Matteo; Trimarchi, Pietro D; Chielli, Alfonso; Bricolo, Emanuela

    2013-01-01

    Mental practice (MP) has been shown to improve movement accuracy and velocity, but it is not known whether MP can also optimize movement timing. We addressed this question by studying two groups of expert pianists who performed challenging music sequences after either MP or physical practice (PP). Performance and motion-capture data were collected along with responses to imagery questionnaires. The results showed that MP produced performance improvements, although to a lower degree than PP did. MP and PP induced changes in both movement velocity and movement timing, promoting the emergence of movement anticipatory patterns. Furthermore, motor imagery was associated with greater changes in movement velocity, while auditory imagery was associated with greater movement anticipation. Data from a control group that was not allowed to practice confirmed that the changes in accuracy and kinematics were not due to mere repetition of the sequence during testing. This study provides the first evidence of an anticipatory control following MP and extends the present knowledge on the effectiveness of MP to a task of unparalleled motor complexity. The practical implications of MP in the motor domain are discussed. PMID:23970859

  20. Mental practice promotes motor anticipation: evidence from skilled music performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolò Francesco Bernardi

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Mental practice (MP has been shown to improve movement accuracy and velocity, but it is not known whether MP can also optimize movement timing. We addressed this question by studying two groups of expert pianists who performed challenging music sequences after either MP or physical practice (PP. Performance and motion-capture data were collected along with responses to imagery questionnaires. The results showed that MP produced performance improvements, although to a lower degree than PP did. MP and PP induced changes in both movement velocity and movement timing, promoting the emergence of movement anticipatory patterns. Furthermore, motor imagery was associated with greater changes in movement velocity, while auditory imagery was associated with greater movement anticipation. Data from a control group that was not allowed to practice confirmed that the changes in accuracy and kinematics were not due to mere repetition of the sequence during testing. This study provides the first evidence of an anticipatory control following MP and extends the present knowledge on the effectiveness of mental practice to a task of unparalleled motor complexity. The practical implications of MP in the motor domain are discussed.

  1. In Wrong Anticipation - Miscalibrated Beliefs between Germans, Israelis, and Palestinians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goerg, Sebastian J; Hennig-Schmidt, Heike; Walkowitz, Gari; Winter, Eyal

    2016-01-01

    The reconcilability of actions and beliefs in inter-country relationships, either in business or politics, is of vital importance as incorrect beliefs on foreigners' behavior can have serious implications. We study a typical inter-country interaction by means of a controlled laboratory investment game experiment in Germany, Israel and Palestine involving 400 student participants in total. An investor has to take a risky decision in a foreign country that involves transferring money to an investee/allocator. We found a notable constellation of calibrated and un-calibrated beliefs. Within each country, transfer standards exist, which investees correctly anticipate within their country. However, across countries these standards differ. By attributing the standard of their own environment to the other countries investees are remarkably bad in predicting foreign investors' behavior. The tendency to ignore this potential difference can be a source of misinterpreting motives in cross-country interaction. Foreigners might perceive behavior as unfavorable or favorable differentiation, even though-unknown to them-investors actually treat fellow-country people and foreigners alike. PMID:27311066

  2. Current and anticipated uses of thermal hydraulic codes in Korea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Kyung-Doo; Chang, Won-Pyo [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1997-07-01

    In Korea, the current uses of thermal hydraulic codes are categorized into 3 areas. The first application is in designing both nuclear fuel and NSSS. The codes have usually been introduced based on the technology transfer programs agreed between KAERI and the foreign vendors. Another area is in the supporting of the plant operations and licensing by the utility. The third category is research purposes. In this area assessments and some applications to the safety issue resolutions are major activities using the best estimate thermal hydraulic codes such as RELAP5/MOD3 and CATHARE2. Recently KEPCO plans to couple thermal hydraulic codes with a neutronics code for the design of the evolutionary type reactor by 2004. KAERI also plans to develop its own best estimate thermal hydraulic code, however, application range is different from KEPCO developing code. Considering these activities, it is anticipated that use of the best estimate hydraulic analysis code developed in Korea may be possible in the area of safety evaluation within 10 years.

  3. Anticipating Potential Waste Acceptance Criteria for Defense Spent Nuclear Fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rechard, R.P.; Lord, M.E.; Stockman, C.T. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States). Nuclear Waste Management Center; McCurley, R.D. [New Mexico Univ., Albuquerque, NM (United States). New Mexico Engineering Research Institute

    1997-12-31

    The Office of Environmental Management of the U.S. Department of Energy is responsible for the safe management and disposal of DOE owned defense spent nuclear fuel and high level waste (DSNF/DHLW). A desirable option, direct disposal of the waste in the potential repository at Yucca Mountain, depends on the final waste acceptance criteria, which will be set by DOE`s Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (OCRWM). However, evolving regulations make it difficult to determine what the final acceptance criteria will be. A method of anticipating waste acceptance criteria is to gain an understanding of the DOE owned waste types and their behavior in a disposal system through a performance assessment and contrast such behavior with characteristics of commercial spent fuel. Preliminary results from such an analysis indicate that releases of 99Tc and 237Np from commercial spent fuel exceed those of the DSNF/DHLW; thus, if commercial spent fuel can meet the waste acceptance criteria, then DSNF can also meet the criteria. In large part, these results are caused by the small percentage of total activity of the DSNF in the repository (1.5%) and regulatory mass (4%), and also because commercial fuel cladding was assumed to provide no protection.

  4. Current and anticipated uses of thermal hydraulic codes in Korea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In Korea, the current uses of thermal hydraulic codes are categorized into 3 areas. The first application is in designing both nuclear fuel and NSSS. The codes have usually been introduced based on the technology transfer programs agreed between KAERI and the foreign vendors. Another area is in the supporting of the plant operations and licensing by the utility. The third category is research purposes. In this area assessments and some applications to the safety issue resolutions are major activities using the best estimate thermal hydraulic codes such as RELAP5/MOD3 and CATHARE2. Recently KEPCO plans to couple thermal hydraulic codes with a neutronics code for the design of the evolutionary type reactor by 2004. KAERI also plans to develop its own best estimate thermal hydraulic code, however, application range is different from KEPCO developing code. Considering these activities, it is anticipated that use of the best estimate hydraulic analysis code developed in Korea may be possible in the area of safety evaluation within 10 years

  5. Testing surgical gowns for the "anticipated level of exposure".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belkin, N L

    2000-04-01

    Although the use of the surgeon's gown dates back to the turn of the century, the need for it to be made of a liquid-repellent material was disclosed only in 1952. Because of the relatively poor performance of the products that were introduced early on, the entire textile industry--makers of nonwoven disposable and woven reusable materials alike--was challenged to develop a test method to demonstrate a fabric's capability "under usual conditions of use." A cooperative attempt to do that was abandoned in 1983. With the emergence of HIV, the need to protect the wearer became the gown's priority. However, because there was no standard test method, the manufacturers used any of an array of tests to promote a product's suitability for use under what the Occupational Safety and Health Administration describes as the "level of exposure anticipated." Now, a standard test method has been adopted that describes the results on a pass/fail basis. However, the literature indicates that gowns made of materials that have passed this test have failed "under usual conditions of use." Nevertheless, the Food and Drug Administration is permitting manufacturers to mislead the surgical community by describing products as being "impervious" or "liquid proof." PMID:10794218

  6. High-field thermal transports properties of REBCO coated conductors

    CERN Document Server

    Bonura, M

    2015-01-01

    The use of REBCO coated conductors is envisaged for many applications, extending from power cables to high-field magnets. Whatever the case, thermal properties of REBCO tapes play a key role for the stability of superconducting devices. In this work, we present the first study on the longitudinal thermal conductivity (k) of REBCO coated conductors in magnetic fields up to 19 T applied both parallelly and perpendicularly to the thermal-current direction. Copper-stabilized tapes from six industrial manufacturers have been investigated. We show that zero-field k of coated conductors can be calculated with an accuracy of ‡ 15% from the residual resistivity ratio of the stabilizer and the Cu/non-Cu ratio. Measurements performed at high fields have allowed us to evaluate the consistency of the procedures generally used for estimating in-field k in the framework of the Wiedemann-Franz law from an electrical characterization of the materials. In-field data are intended to provide primary ingredients for the ...

  7. Nexans advances in all CSD route for REBCO coated conductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Development of REBCO coated conductors (CC) at Nexans SuperConductors (NSC) is focused on all chemical solution deposition (CSD) route that promises the best performance-to-price ratio in long lengths. The feasibility of all CSD approach is shown on the lab scale: using metalorganic deposition (MOD), NSC was able to produce YBCO/CeO2/LZO/NiW CCs with Jc(77 K,sf)=0.5 MA/cm2. The major advance of NSC on a semi-industrial scale is the use of MOD route for production of high-quality La2Zr2O7 (LZO) coated NiW RABITS in lengths up to 12 m. With those substrates, it is possible to produce CCs with the simplest (one-buffer) architecture by depositing REBCO using other techniques (ISD at Theva, Ismaning; MOCVD at IOT, Braunschweig; HLPE at University of Cambridge, UK). The best short sample Ic=280, 120 and 100 A/cm-width for HLPE, ISD, and MOCVD, respectively First long-length conductors show transport Ic=40 A (10m-long, ISD). Further work is focused on optimisation of the already established mixed (MOD+PVD) approaches, understanding optimum architecture and processing conditions for the all-CSD route and developing tools for scaling those conditions to long-length production. (orig.)

  8. MHD Modeling of Conductors at Ultra-High Current Density

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Asay, J.R.; Desjarlais, M.P.; Douglas, M.R.; Frese, M.H.; Hall, C.A.; Morse, R.L.; Reisman, D.; Rosenthal, S.E.; Spielman, R.B.; Stygar, W.A.

    1999-06-30

    In conjunction with ongoing high-current experiments on Sandia National Laboratories' Z accelerator we have revisited a problem first described in detail by Heinz Knoepfel. MITLs of previous pulsed power accelerators have been in the 1-Tesla regime. Z's disc transmission line (downstream of the current addition) is in a 100-1200 Tesla regime, so its conductors cannot be modeled simply as static infinite conductivity boundaries. Using the MHD code MACH2 we have been investigating conductor hydrodynamics, characterizing the joule heating, magnetic field diffusion, and material deformation, pressure, and velocity over a range of current densities, current rise-times, and conductor materials. Three purposes of this work are ( 1) to quantify power flow losses owing to ultra-high magnetic fields, (2) to model the response of VISAR diagnostic samples in various configurations on Z, and (3) to incorporate the most appropriate equation of state and conductivity models into our MHD computations. Certain features are strongly dependent on the details of the conductivity model. Comparison with measurements on Z will be discussed.

  9. MHD Modeling of Conductors at Ultra-High Current Density

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In conjunction with ongoing high-current experiments on Sandia National Laboratories' Z accelerator, the authors have revisited a problem first described in detail by Heinz Knoepfel. Unlike the 1-Tesla MITLs of pulsed power accelerators used to produce intense particle beams, Z's disc transmission line (downstream of the current addition) is in a 100--1,200 Tesla regime, so its conductors cannot be modeled simply as static infinite conductivity boundaries. Using the MHD code MACH2 they have been investigating the conductor hydrodynamics, characterizing the joule heating, magnetic field diffusion, and material deformation, pressure, and velocity over a range of current densities, current rise-times, and conductor materials. Three purposes of this work are (1) to quantify power flow losses owing to ultra-high magnetic fields, (2) to model the response of VISAR diagnostic samples in various configurations on Z, and (3) to incorporate the most appropriate equation of state and conductivity models into the MHD computations. Certain features are strongly dependent on the details of the conductivity model

  10. Charge densities and charge noise in mesoscopic conductors

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    M Büttiker

    2002-02-01

    We introduce a hierarchy of density of states to characterize the charge distribution in a mesoscopic conductor. At the bottom of this hierarchy are the partial density of states which represent the contribution to the local density of states if both the incident and the out-going scattering channel is prescribed. The partial density of states play a prominent role in measurements with a scanning tunneling microscope on multiprobe conductors in the presence of current flow. The partial density of states determine the degree of dephasing generated by a weakly coupled voltage probe. In addition the partial density of states determine the frequency-dependent response of mesoscopic conductors in the presence of slowly oscillating voltages applied to the contacts of the sample. The partial density of states permit the formulation of a Friedel sum rule which can be applied locally. We introduce the off-diagonal elements of the partial density of states matrix to describe charge fluctuation processes. This generalization leads to a local Wigner–Smith life-time matrix.

  11. Oxygen and cation diffusion in YBCO coated conductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biaxially textured YBa2Cu3Ox (YBCO) films 0.3 μm thick were deposited on single-crystal LaAlO3 and buffered Hastelloy C276 substrates. After annealing in 18O at 400 deg. C, secondary-ion mass spectrometry was used to determine oxygen-diffusion profiles and several cation-diffusion profiles within the various layers of the conductors. Oxygenation in the YBCO/LaAlO3 specimen was relatively slow and hours would be required for full oxygenation of the YBCO. Oxygen diffusion was rapid in the coated conductor. It was dominated by diffusion along a-b planes and full oxygenation of a 0.3-μm-thick YBCO layer was achieved in several minutes. Cation interdiffusion was limited in the YBCO/LaAlO3 specimen, but was significant within the coated conductor. Although Cu diffused out of the superconductor, an SrTiO3 layer between textured MgO and YBCO limited diffusion of cations from the various substrate layers into the superconductor

  12. Oxygen and cation diffusion in YBCO coated conductors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsukui, S.; Koritala, R.E.; Li, M.; Goretta, K.C.; Adachi, M.; Baker, J.E.; Routbort, J.L

    2003-10-15

    Biaxially textured YBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub x} (YBCO) films 0.3 {mu}m thick were deposited on single-crystal LaAlO{sub 3} and buffered Hastelloy C276 substrates. After annealing in {sup 18}O at 400 deg. C, secondary-ion mass spectrometry was used to determine oxygen-diffusion profiles and several cation-diffusion profiles within the various layers of the conductors. Oxygenation in the YBCO/LaAlO{sub 3} specimen was relatively slow and hours would be required for full oxygenation of the YBCO. Oxygen diffusion was rapid in the coated conductor. It was dominated by diffusion along a-b planes and full oxygenation of a 0.3-{mu}m-thick YBCO layer was achieved in several minutes. Cation interdiffusion was limited in the YBCO/LaAlO{sub 3} specimen, but was significant within the coated conductor. Although Cu diffused out of the superconductor, an SrTiO{sub 3} layer between textured MgO and YBCO limited diffusion of cations from the various substrate layers into the superconductor.

  13. Oxygen and cation diffusion in YBCO coated conductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsukui, S.; Koritala, R. E.; Li, M.; Goretta, K. C.; Adachi, M.; Baker, J. E.; Routbort, J. L.

    2003-10-01

    Biaxially textured YBa 2Cu 3O x (YBCO) films 0.3 μm thick were deposited on single-crystal LaAlO 3 and buffered Hastelloy C276 substrates. After annealing in 18O at 400 °C, secondary-ion mass spectrometry was used to determine oxygen-diffusion profiles and several cation-diffusion profiles within the various layers of the conductors. Oxygenation in the YBCO/LaAlO 3 specimen was relatively slow and hours would be required for full oxygenation of the YBCO. Oxygen diffusion was rapid in the coated conductor. It was dominated by diffusion along a- b planes and full oxygenation of a 0.3-μm-thick YBCO layer was achieved in several minutes. Cation interdiffusion was limited in the YBCO/LaAlO 3 specimen, but was significant within the coated conductor. Although Cu diffused out of the superconductor, an SrTiO 3 layer between textured MgO and YBCO limited diffusion of cations from the various substrate layers into the superconductor.

  14. Large magneto-conductivity effect in Fe-Phthalocyanine conductor at low temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimata, M.; Yamaguchi, T.; Hazama, K.; Terashima, T.; Uji, S.; Naito, T.; Inabe, T.

    2009-02-01

    Magnetoresistance and magnetic torque measurements of one-dimensional π-d organic conductor TPP[Fe(Pc)(CN)2]2 are performed in the temperature range of 30-1.5 K. The resistance shows semiconducting behavior in the whole temperature range, suggesting a charge ordered state. Quite large negative magnetoresistance is observed at low temperatures, which is associated with the change of the magnetic torque. These results show that the charge gap steeply decreases at about 14.5 T, where some magnetic transition of Fe 3d spins occurs. This is clear evidence that the π electron transport is strongly correlated with the local spins via the strong π-d interaction. Possible theoretical models, double-exchange interaction and π-d spin-singlet models are discussed.

  15. Large magneto-conductivity effect in Fe-Phthalocyanine conductor at low temperatures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Magnetoresistance and magnetic torque measurements of one-dimensional π-d organic conductor TPP[Fe(Pc)(CN)2]2 are performed in the temperature range of 30-1.5 K. The resistance shows semiconducting behavior in the whole temperature range, suggesting a charge ordered state. Quite large negative magnetoresistance is observed at low temperatures, which is associated with the change of the magnetic torque. These results show that the charge gap steeply decreases at about 14.5 T, where some magnetic transition of Fe 3d spins occurs. This is clear evidence that the π electron transport is strongly correlated with the local spins via the strong π-d interaction. Possible theoretical models, double-exchange interaction and π-d spin-singlet models are discussed.

  16. High-Performance, Solution-Processed, Embedded Multiscale Metallic Transparent Conductors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Yong Suk; Lee, Hyunwoo; Choi, Dong Yun; Lee, Sung-Uk; Kim, Hojin; Yoo, Seunghyup; Park, Inkyu; Sung, Hyung Jin

    2016-05-01

    High-performance multiscale metallic transparent conductors (TCs) are demonstrated by incorporating Ag nanowire (NW) networks into microscale Ag grid structures. Highly conductive Ag grids are fabricated via direct imprinting of an Ag ion ink using a reservoir-assisted mold. In this mold, a macroscale cavity, called the "reservoir", is designed to connect to a grid-patterned cavity. The reservoir has a large cavity volume, which reduces unwanted residual layers within the grid spacings by introducing a thinner liquid film. The reservoir undergoes a large volume reduction during mold deformation, which improves ink filling within the grid-patterned cavity through deformation-induced ink injection. The multiscale metallic TCs show a sheet resistance (Rs) of polymer matrix. The embedded multiscale metallic TCs show reasonable electromechanical and chemical stability. The utility of these TCs is demonstrated by fabricating flexible organic solar cells. PMID:27074908

  17. Regulating emotion in the context of interpersonal decisions: The role of anticipated pride and regret

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Job eVan Der Schalk

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Recent theories about the relation between emotion and behavior hold that social behavior is influenced not only by the experience of emotion, but also by the anticipation of emotion. We argue that anticipating future emotional states is an emotion regulation strategy when it leads to a change in behavior. In the current studies we examined how construal of a fair or an unfair situation in terms of positive or negative anticipated emotions influences the fairness of subsequent behavior. We used the Ultimatum Bargaining Game--an experimental game in which participants divide a resource between themselves and another person--as a social situation that offers the opportunity to engage in fair and unfair behavior. In Study 1 we used an autobiographical recall task to manipulate anticipated emotions. Although the task did not influence anticipated emotions directly, results showed that anticipated pride about fair behavior increased levels of fairness, whereas anticipated pride about unfair behavior decreased levels of fairness. Similarly, anticipated regret about fair behavior decreased levels of fairness, whereas anticipated regret about unfair behavior increased levels of fairness. In Study 2 we replicated this pattern of findings, and found that participants who thought about their anticipated emotions (pride or regret in relation to unfair behavior behaved more fairly. We discuss these findings in relation to theories of emotion regulation and economic decision-making.

  18. Anticipating the Future, Influencing the Present: Assessing the Societal Implications of Emerging Technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michelson, Evan S.

    A growing challenge for the American policymaking system is to respond effectively to a wide range of interconnected, complex, long-term science and technology issues. Simultaneously, current approaches and institutions of governance are ill suited to address these multidimensional challenges. As the next generation of innovations in science and technology is arriving at an accelerating rate, the governance system is lagging behind. This realization leads to a vital overarching consideration that steers this study: What approaches are well suited to anticipate the longer-term societal implications of emerging technologies in the 21st Century? This study identifies and examines strategies for anticipating the longer-term societal implications of emerging technologies by way of a qualitative case study. It explores one area of technology (nanotechnology), in one particular governance system (the United States), and with a focus on one high profile non-governmental organization (NGO) involved in addressing a range of nanotechnology's societal and policy implications: the Project on Emerging Nanotechnologies (PEN). Based at the Woodrow Wilson International Center for Scholars, PEN's goal was to ensure "that as nanotechnologies advance, possible risks are minimized, public and consumer engagement remains strong, and the potential benefits of these new technologies are realized." The conceptual framework of anticipatory governance guides the research, which offers a real-world example about how anticipatory governance applies in the nongovernmental sector and shows how this idea links to broader theoretical debates about the policymaking process. The study's main conclusion is that PEN utilized a set of interconnected strategies related to advancing foresight, operating in a boundary-spanning role, and promoting communications and public engagement in its attempt to influence, anticipate, and shape the societal implications of emerging technologies. The findings are

  19. A Boundary Element Solution to the Problem of Interacting AC Fields in Parallel Conductors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Einar M. Rønquist

    1984-04-01

    Full Text Available The ac fields in electrically insulated conductors will interact through the surrounding electromagnetic fields. The pertinent field equations reduce to the Helmholtz equation inside each conductor (interior problem, and to the Laplace equation outside the conductors (exterior problem. These equations are transformed to integral equations, with the magnetic vector potential and its normal derivative on the boundaries as unknowns. The integral equations are then approximated by sets of algebraic equations. The interior problem involves only unknowns on the boundary of each conductor, while the exterior problem couples unknowns from several conductors. The interior and the exterior problem are coupled through the field continuity conditions. The full set of equations is solved by standard Gaussian elimination. We also show how the total current and the dissipated power within each conductor can be expressed as boundary integrals. Finally, computational results for a sample problem are compared with a finite difference solution.

  20. Transport ac losses in Bi-2223 multifilamentary tapes - conductor materials aspect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Transport ac losses in technical superconductors based on Bi-2223 tape material are influenced by many parameters. The major factors that define the ac performance of such conductors are the following: the size and number of filaments, their geometrical arrangement in the cross-section of the conductor, the twist pitch length, the resistivity of the matrix, the presence of oxide barriers around the filaments and deformation procedures such as sequential pressing or rolling followed by appropriate thermal treatment. In the present paper the above aspects are addressed from the viewpoint of the materials science of technical conductor design. Transport ac losses at power frequencies in different types of Bi-2223 conductor are presented and analysed. The results of conductor design analysis with respect to the coexistence of the superconductor with other materials in the conductor structure are presented. New concepts for minimization of the transport ac losses are discussed in detail. (author)

  1. Promoting orchestral performance : the interplay between musicians' mood and a conductor's leadership style

    OpenAIRE

    Boerner, Sabine; Streit, Christian von

    2007-01-01

    This study investigates the degree to which a conductor s transformational leadership and orchestral musicians positive group mood have a beneficial effect on orchestral performance. The authors study the assertion that there is an interaction effect of conductor s transformational leadership style and group mood in the orchestra. In this view, neither the conductor s transformational leadership nor the musicians positive group mood alone foster success; only the interaction between transfo...

  2. Studies of the strain-dependent properties of A15 filamentary conductors at Brookhaven National Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Work at BNL pertaining to the strain response of filamentary bronze-processed superconductors is reviewed. This work includes the intrinsic strain dependence of the critical properties of A15 structure compounds, the nature of the initial internal strain state of composite conductors, and the interplay between these residual strains and applied strains which governs the response of the conductor to external strain. Some factors which can enhance the strain tolerances of filamentary conductors are briefly discussed

  3. Understanding the Reasons behind Anticipated Regret for Missing Regular Physical Activity

    OpenAIRE

    Rhodes, Ryan E; Chetan D Mistry

    2016-01-01

    Anticipated affective reactions to missing physical activity (PA), often labeled anticipated regret, has reliable evidence as a predictor of PA intention and behavior independent of other standard social cognitive constructs. Despite this evidence, the sources of regret are understudied and may come from many different reasons. The purpose of this study was to theme the reasons for why people responded to anticipated regret over missing regular PA for 2 weeks. Participants were a random sampl...

  4. Recurrent Neural Networks for Driver Activity Anticipation via Sensory-Fusion Architecture

    OpenAIRE

    Jain, Ashesh; Singh, Avi; Koppula, Hema S.; Soh, Shane; Saxena, Ashutosh

    2015-01-01

    Anticipating the future actions of a human is a widely studied problem in robotics that requires spatio-temporal reasoning. In this work we propose a deep learning approach for anticipation in sensory-rich robotics applications. We introduce a sensory-fusion architecture which jointly learns to anticipate and fuse information from multiple sensory streams. Our architecture consists of Recurrent Neural Networks (RNNs) that use Long Short-Term Memory (LSTM) units to capture long temporal depend...

  5. Anxiety, anticipation, and contextual information: A test of attentional control theory

    OpenAIRE

    Cocks, AJ; Jackson, RC; Bishop, DT; Williams, AM

    2015-01-01

    We tested Attentional Control Theory’s assumptions by examining the impact of anxiety on anticipation using a dynamic, time-constrained task. Moreover, we examined the involvement of high- and low-level cognitive processes in anticipation and how their importance may interact with anxiety. Skilled and less-skilled tennis players anticipated opponents’ shots under low- and high-anxiety conditions. Three different video stimuli were presented, each presenting various degrees of contextual infor...

  6. The complete, lag and anticipated synchronization of a BLDCM chaotic system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The complete, lag and anticipated synchronizations of two identical autonomous chaotic systems, Brushless DC Motors (BLDCM) systems, are studied in this paper. PC method, linear coupling and active control are used for the achievements of the complete and the lag synchronizations. Linear coupling method and active control is used for the anticipated synchronization. Generalized lag, anticipated and complete synchronization are obtained by active control. Finally, the generalized lag synchronization of BLDCM system and Lorenz system is studied

  7. Anticipating Interruptions. Security and risk in a liberalized electricity infrastructure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silvast, A.

    2013-11-01

    During the past ten years, a number of social scientists have emphasized the importance of material infrastructures like electricity supply as a research topic for the social sciences. The developing of such new perspectives concerning infrastructures also includes uncertainties and risks. This research analyzes the management of uncertainties in the Finnish electricity infrastructure by posing the following research question: how are electricity interruptions, or blackouts, anticipated in Finland and how are these interruptions managed as risks? The main research methodology of the work is multi-sited field work. The empirical materials include interviews with experts and lay people (33 interviews); participant observation in two electricity control rooms; an electricity consumer survey (115 respondents); and also a number of infrastructure and security policy documents and observations from electricity security seminars. The materials were primarily gathered between 2004 and 2008. Social science research often links risks with major current social changes or socio-cultural risk perceptions. In recent international social science discussions, however, a new research topic has emerged - those styles of reasoning and techniques of governance that are deployed to manage risk as a practical matter. My study explores these themes empirically by focusing on the specific habitual practices of risk management in the Finnish electricity infrastructure. The work develops various also semi-ethnographic inquiries into infrastructure risk techniques like monitor screening of real-time risks in electricity control rooms; the management of risks in a liberalized electricity market; the emergence of Finnish reasoning about blackouts from a specific historical background; and the ways in which electricity consumers respond to blackouts in their homes. In addition, the work reflects upon the position of a risk researcher in those situations when the research subjects do not define

  8. Anticipating the uncertain: economic modeling and climate change policy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jensen, Svenn

    2012-11-01

    With this thesis I wish to contribute to the understanding of how uncertainty and the anticipation of future events by economic actors affect climate policies. The thesis consists of four papers. Two papers are analytical models which explicitly consider that emissions are caused by extracting scarce fossil fuels which in the future must be replaced by clean technologies. The other two are so called numerical integrated assessment models. Such models represent the world economy, the climate system and the interactions between those two quantitatively, complementing more abstract theoretical work. Should policy makers discriminate between subsidizing renewable energy sources such as wind or solar power, and technologies such as carbon capture and storage (CCS)? Focusing only on the dynamic supply of fossil fuels and hence Co{sub 2}, we find here that cheaper future renewables cause extraction to speed up, lower costs of CCS may delay it. CCS hence may dampen the dynamic inefficiency caused by the absence of comprehensive climate policies today. Does it matter whether uncertainty about future damage assessment is due to scientific complexities or stems from the political process? In paper two, I find that political and scientific uncertainties have opposing effects on the incentives to investment in renewables and the extraction of fossil fuels: The prospect of scientific learning about the climate system increases investment incentives and, ceteris paribus, slows extraction down; uncertainty about future political constellations does the opposite. The optimal carbon tax under scientific uncertainty equals expected marginal damages, whereas political uncertainty demands a tax below marginal damages that decreases over time. Does uncertainty about economic growth impact optimal climate policy today? Here we are the first to consistently analyze how uncertainty about future economic growth affects optimal emission reductions and the optimal social cost of carbon. We

  9. The performance test and analysis of the third and fourth China PF conductor for ITER

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • The Tcs of PFCN4 conductor is consistent with the calculated result. • The Tcs of PFCN3 conductor is a little larger than calculated result. • The AC loss before and after cycling of PFCN3 and PFCN4 is not the same. • The cable layout or the cycling electromagnetic force influence the AC loss. • The MQE performance of PFCN3 after cycling is decreased obvious. - Abstract: The third Chinese PF conductor for ITER PF5 (PFCN3) and the fourth Chinese PF conductor for ITER PF2/3/4 (PFCN4) conductor in Phase II were manufactured in ASIPP and tested in the SULTAN facility. This paper introduces the PFCN3 and PFCN4 sample manufacture, including strand, sample preparation, current sharing temperature (Tcs), AC loss and Minimum Quench Energy (MQE) test performance of PFCN3 and PFCN4 conductors. The Tcs test result of PFCN4 conductor is consistent with the calculated result used the strand scaling and the Tcs test result of PFCN3 conductor is a little larger than calculated result, whose maximum difference is about 0.2 K. According to the SULTAN test result, the Tcs performance of both PFCN3 and PFCN4 conductor sample could meet the ITER requirement

  10. Development and characterization of aluminum stranded water cooled conductor for rapid cycling synchrotron magnets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Magnet coils of rapid cycling synchrotron are subjected to time varying magnetic fields and a special water cooled stranded conductor is preferred for making magnet coils to reduce eddy current losses, magnetic field inhomogeneity and operating costs of magnets. A continuous length (∼ 50 m) aluminum stranded water cooled conductor is indigenously developed. Five stranded magnet coils are wound and epoxy resin impregnated as per the technical requirements. The stranded conductor magnet coils are assembled with a laminated dipole magnet core for their electrical characterization. The development of water cooled aluminum stranded conductor, characterization of stranded magnet coils will be discussed in this paper. (author)

  11. Development of the KfK NET toroidal field coil react and wind conductor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the frame of the Euratom Fusion Technology program an A15 forced flow cooled conductor for the toroidal field (TF) coils of the Next European Torus (NET) was developed at KfK Karlsruhe. The conductor is based on the bronze route of Nb3Sn. It was designed as a react and wind conductor in a sandwich type where the flat Nb3Sn Rutherford cable was enclosed between two Cu stabilizers based on roebeled Cu profiles. A subsize conductor at the scale 1:1.75 was fabricated for developing the industrial fabrication procedure and testing the electrical properties within an acceptable cost frame. For the heat treatment of the Rutherford cable a suitable process was developed. No unexpected degradations were found on samples taken at different fabrication stages and tested in the FBI facility at KfK. In a late stage of development the NET parameters were changed which loaded the conductor with 10 times higher field transients caused by plasmas disruption with respect to the original specifications. A detailed analysis showed that the conductor fulfilled further all specifications except the field transients of the plasma disruption where the conductor will quench. The development of the Nb3Sn conductor in react and wind technique demonstrate that this conductor type is feasible using the common manufacturing techniques of large coils which were already successfully demonstrated in the Large Coil Task and in the KfK-Polo project. (orig.)

  12. Calculation of the surface effect in the ferromagnetic conductor with the harmonic electromagnetic field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nosov, G. V.; Kuleshova, E. O.; Vassilyeva, Yu Z.; Elizarov, A. I.

    2016-04-01

    The authors of the paper have obtained formulas for analytical calculation of the constants with the harmonic electromagnetic field, which characterize the surface layer (a skin layer) of the ferromagnetic conductors in case of heating and nonlinear magnetic properties, which can be used for practical calculation of the electromagnetic screens, rotors of the electrical machines and inductive heating installations. A nonlinear dependence of the magnetic induction on the magnetic tension of the ferromagnetic conductor is replaced by one or two linear sections. It is considered that the skin layer of the conductor has constant quantities of the specific conductivity and averaged temperature. Linear electrodynamics equations are solved for the conductive half-space. Parameters of the ferromagnetic conductor's surface layer are calculated: magnetic permeability, the thickness of the skin layer and its averaged temperature, exposure time of the electromagnetic field on the conductor with the established maximum temperature on the conductor's surface, pressure of the field on the conductor and its resistance, inductivity of the internal magnetic field in the conductor, the thermal energy capacity. The methods credibility is confirmed with the concurrence of the resistance and inductiviry of the ferromagnetic conductor with analogous quantities from other methods.

  13. Study on galloping behavior of iced eight bundle conductor transmission lines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Linshu; Yan, Bo; Zhang, Liang; Zhou, Song

    2016-02-01

    Wind tunnel test was carried out to obtain the aerodynamic coefficients of an eight bundle conductor accreted with crescent-shaped ice. A user-defined cable element with torsional degree of freedom is developed in ABAQUS software to capture the torsional deformation of the iced conductors during galloping. By means of the user-defined cable element, different damping ratios in in-plane, out-of-plane and torsional directions of the conductors can be defined and the aerodynamic forces varying with their motion status can be exerted on the conductors conveniently when ABAQUS is used to simulate galloping of transmission lines. A wind tunnel test to model galloping of an iced eight bundle conductor segment was carried out, and the validity of the numerical simulation method is demonstrated by the agreement of the galloping orbit of the bundle conductor segment model recorded in the test and that by the numerical simulation. Furthermore, galloping behavior, including dynamic responses, galloping orbits, frequencies, vibration modes and amplitudes, of typical iced eight bundle conductor transmission lines in the cases of different span lengths, initial tensions in sub-conductors, wind velocities, angles of wind attack and damping ratios is studied, and the galloping behavior of the lines with internal resonance conditions is discussed. The obtained results may provide a fundamental tool for the development of anti-galloping techniques of eight bundle conductor transmission lines.

  14. Review of incursive, hyperincursive and anticipatory systems-foundation of anticipation in electromagnetism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubois, Daniel M.

    2000-05-01

    The main purpose of this paper is to show that anticipation is not only a property of biosystems but is also a fundamental property of physical systems. In electromagnetism, the anticipation is related to the Lorentz transform. In this framework the anticipation is a strong anticipation because it is not based on a prediction from a model of the physical system but is embedded in the fundamental system. So, Robert Rosen's anticipatory systems deal with weak anticipation. Contrary to Robert Rosen's affirmation, anticipation is thus not a characteristic of living systems. Finality is implicitly embedded in any system and thus the final cause of Aristotle is implicitly embedded in any physical and biological systems, contrary to what Robert Rosen argued. This paper will review some incursive and hyperincursive systems giving rise to strong anticipation. Space-time incursive parabolic systems show non-local properties. Hyperincursive crisp systems are related to catastrophe theory. Finally it will be shown that incursive and hyperincursive anticipatory systems could model properties of biosystems like free will, game strategy, theorem creation, etc. Anticipation is not only related to predictions but to decisions: hyperincursive systems create multiple choices and a decision process selects one choice. So, anticipation is not a final goal, like in cybernetics and system science, but is a fundamental property of physical and biological systems.

  15. Revitalizing the United Nations. Anticipation and Prevention as Primary Goals

    OpenAIRE

    Alexandra Novosseloff

    2000-01-01

    In tackling the on-going topic of UN reform, one should be honest with the analysis of the problems at stakes. It is necessary to first take into account the profound changes that have occurred since the end of the Cold War, as well as acknowledging the limits of an international organization and the shape of the UN system. It is only from that analysis that proposals can be made to rationalize and to make more efficient the functioning of the United Nations. What the Organization needs is no...

  16. Progress towards all-chemical superconducting YBa2Cu3O7-coated conductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chemical solution deposition (CSD) has recently emerged as a very competitive technique for obtaining epitaxial films of high quality with controlled nanostructure. In particular, the all-CSD approach is considered to be one of the most promising approaches for cost-effective production of second-generation superconducting wires. The trifluoroacetate (TFA) route is a very versatile route for achieving epitaxial YBa2Cu3O7 (YBCO) layers with high critical currents. In this work, recent advances towards improvement of the performance of several conductor architectures based on the YBCO TFA process will be presented. We show that new improved anhydrous TFA precursors allow a significant shortening of the pyrolysis time (∼1.5 h), and we have increased the total film thickness in a single deposition using polymeric additives. On the other hand, further understanding of the YBCO nucleation and growth process has allowed us to obtain a controlled microstructure and high critical currents (Jc∼4-5 MA cm-2 and Ic∼300 A cm-1 width at 77 K). The growth conditions (CSD) and post-processing conditions (sputtering and CSD) for the underlying oxide cap and buffer layers (CeO2, BaZrO3, SrTiO3, La2Zr2O7 (La,Sr)MnO3) and of self-organized nanostructures (CeO2, BaZrO3) deposited by CSD have been investigated to obtain high-quality interfaces in multilayered systems. Different single-crystal or metallic substrates (YSZ-IBAD (yttrium stabilized zirconia-ion beam assisted deposition) and Ni-RABiT (rolling assisted biaxial texturing)) have been investigated and long (∼10 m) CSD biaxially textured buffers (CeO2, La2Zr2O7) have been grown on Ni-RABiT substrates using a reel-to-reel system. High-performance TFA-YBCO-coated conductors have been obtained on vacuum-based buffer layers (Ic∼140 A cm-1 width) and on CSD buffer layers grown on IBAD YSZ-SS (stainless steel) substrates. Finally, we report on recent analysis of the magnetic granularity and vortex pinning properties of TFA

  17. Zero-pressure organic superconductor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bechgaard, K.; Carneiro, K.; Olsen, M.; Jacobsen, C.S.; Rasmussen, Finn Berg

    1981-01-01

    Evidence for superconductivity in the organic conductor di-(tetramethyltetraselenafulvalenium)-perchlorate [(TMTSF)2ClO4] has been found by resistance measurements in the absence of applied pressure. For different crystals the transitions are approximately 0.3 K wide and are centered around...

  18. Solderability study of RABiTS-based YBCO coated conductors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang Yifei [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, P.O. Box 2008, Oak Ridge, TN 37831-6305 (United States); Duckworth, Robert C., E-mail: duckworthrc@ornl.gov [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, P.O. Box 2008, Oak Ridge, TN 37831-6305 (United States); Ha, Tam T.; Gouge, Michael J. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, P.O. Box 2008, Oak Ridge, TN 37831-6305 (United States)

    2011-08-15

    Study examines the implication of solder and flux selection in YBCO splice joints. Focus is on commercially available RABiTS-based YBCO coated conductors. Solderability varied with solder and flux for three different stabilizations tested. Resistivity of stabilizer was dominant factor in splice joint resistance. Solder materials affected splice joint resistance when solderability was poor. The solderability of commercially available YBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 7-x} (YBCO) coated conductors that were made from Rolling Assisted Biaxially Textured Substrates (RABiTS)-based templates was studied. The coated conductors, also known as second-generation (2G) high temperature superconductor (HTS) wires (in the geometry of flat tapes about 4 mm wide), were laminated with copper, brass, or stainless steel strips as stabilizers. To understand the factors that influence their solderability, surface profilometry and scanning electron microscopy were used to characterize the wire surfaces. The solderability of three solders, 52In48Sn, 67Bi33In, and 100In (wt.%), was evaluated using a standard test (IPC/ECA J-STD-002) and with two different commercial fluxes. It was found that the solderability varied with the solder and flux but the three different wires showed similar solderability for a fixed combination of solder and flux. Solder joints of the 2G wires were fabricated using the tools and the procedures recommended by the HTS wire manufacturer. The solder joints were made in a lap-joint geometry and with the superconducting sides of the two wires face-to-face. The electrical resistances of the solder joints were measured at 77 K, and the results were analyzed to qualify the soldering materials and evaluate the soldering process. It was concluded that although the selection of soldering materials affected the resistance of a solder joint, the resistivity of the stabilizer was the dominant factor.

  19. Microstructure of Ice Accretions Grown on Aluminum Conductors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laforte, Jean-Louis; Phan, Luan C.; Felin, Béatrice

    1983-07-01

    In order to study the microstructure of glaze and rime deposits formed on the conductors of power lines, ice accretions are grown on a slowly rotating aluminum cylinder placed in the working section of a wind tunnel. The growth conditions cover both dry and wet regimes in the air temperature interval between 2 and 15°C and are close to those commonly prevailing in natural icing storms near the ground: liquid water contents vary from 0.4 to 0.8 g m3 and wind speed from 4 to 20 m s1; thew values are lower than those usually used in hail simulation studies. Four droplet spectra of 12, 22, 38 and 98 m mean volume diameter were used. The air bubble features of glaze and rime deposits grown in the abovementioned conditions show that the degree of transparency and the layering of the fine air bubbles strongly depend on the deposit temperatures and the intensity of accretion. On the other hand, crystal textures reveal that the mean width of ice crystals depends mainly on the ambient temperature and to a lesser degree on the wind velocity, particularly at low wind speeds. Mean droplet size and liquid water content seem to have little effect upon the crystal mean width. In addition, it is found that in the layer of ice closest to the aluminium cylinder, the crystal mean width increases with the radial distance from the conductor surface and this increase is more marked at low air temperatures. This effect cannot be attributed to the thermal conductivity of the substrate, but probably to the nucleation rate of ice crystals near the ice-conductor interface.

  20. Improving Students' Conceptual Understanding of Conductors and Insulators

    CERN Document Server

    Bilak, Joshua

    2016-01-01

    We examine the difficulties that introductory physics students, undergraduate physics majors, and physics graduate students have with concepts related to conductors and insulators covered in introductory physics by giving written tests and interviewing a subset of students. We find that even graduate students have serious difficulties with these concepts. We develop tutorials related to these topics and evaluate their effectiveness by comparing the performance on written pre-/post-tests and interviews of students who received traditional instruction vs. those who learned using tutorials.

  1. Salud vial: ¿el conductor a terapia?

    OpenAIRE

    Alonso Plá, Francisco Manuel; Esteban Martínez, Cristina; Calatayud Miñana, Constanza; Alamar Rocatí, Beatriz; Fernández Fernández, Cesáreo; Medina Sarmiento, José Eugenio

    2009-01-01

    El Instituto Universitario de Investigación en Tráfico y Seguridad Vial (INTRAS) y Attitudes (programa social de Audi), tras la publicación de los libros "Salud vial: Teoría y prácticas de los trastornos físicos y psíquicos en la conducción." y "Salud vial: Diagnóstico de los conductores españoles.", se plantearon como actividad complementaria la realización de unas jornadas que cumplieran los siguientes objetivos: • Permitir avanzar en el conocimiento y la implementación de medidas que co...

  2. Application of the Lifshitz Theory to Poor Conductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Lifshitz formula for dispersive forces is generalized to the materials, which cannot be described with the local dielectric response. The principal nonlocality of poor conductors is related to the finite screening length of the penetrating field and collisional relaxation; at low temperatures the role of collisions plays the Landau damping. Spatial dispersion makes the theory self-consistent. Our predictions are compared with the recent experiment. It is demonstrated that at low temperatures Casimir-Lifshitz entropy disappears as T in the case of degenerate plasma and as T2 for the nondegenerate one

  3. Magnet and conductor developments for the Mirror Fusion Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The conductor development and the magnet design and construction for the MFTF are described. Future plans for the Mirror Program and their influence on the associated superconductor development program are discussed. Included is a summary of the progress being made to develop large, high-field, multifilamentary Nb3Sn superconductors and the feasibility of building a 12-T yin-yang set of coils for the machine to follow MFTF. In a further look into the future, possible magnetic configurations and requirements for mirror reactors are surveyed

  4. Evaluation of the ITER cable in conduit conductor heat transfer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Convective heat transfer correlations in dual channel Cable In Conduit Conductor (CICC) are presented as functions of friction factor, and based on the Reynolds-Colburn analogy using the Stanton number. The developed thermohydraulic model determines helium temperatures in both channels, with the real geometrical spiral perforation. It is applied with pertinence to the Poloidal Field Full Size Joint Sample (PF-FSJS) and shows good agreement between the experimental measurements and the calculated temperatures, characterised by a 0.43 m space constant. The heat load applied in the bundle region induces density imbalance; the gravity effect in this vertical sample is evaluated and discussed. (authors)

  5. Loss and Inductance Investigation in Superconducting Cable Conductors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Søren Krüger; Tønnesen, Ole; Træholt, Chresten;

    1999-01-01

    the layers are therefore studied theoretically. The current distribution between the superconducting layers is monitored as a function of transport current, and the results are compared with the expected current distribution given by our electrical circuit model.The AC-losses are measured as a...... Hz) the AC-loss was measured on cable #2 to 0.6W/mxphase. This is, to our knowledge, the lowest AC-loss (at 2kA and 77K) of a high temperature superconducting cable conductor reported so far....

  6. Flux line lattice in type II super conductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The shear modules C66 of the flux line lattice in type II super conductors can be obtained from a two body interaction between the flux lines even at large inductions B ∼ HC2. The potential is composed of a repulsive and an attractive part and has a range diverging at HC2. An explicit expression for the Ginzberg-Landau C66 is given for arbitrary B and k' (G-L parameter). The graph for C66 exhibits the expected maximum at a certain value of b. (author)

  7. Pd layer on cube-textured substrates for MOD-TFA and PLD YBCO coated conductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pd films were deposited on rolling assisted biaxially textured substrate (RABiTS) Ni-5 at.% W in order to exploit the Pd effect of the texture sharpening with respect to that of the substrate, for the development of YBa2Cu3O7-x (YBCO) coated conductors. The Pd sharpening effect was relevant in the out-of-plane direction where the reduction for the ω-scans' full width at half maximum (FWHM) ranged from 55 to 65%, depending on the substrate roughness. The obtained minimum values of the FWHM in the transverse rolling direction of the (002) Pd ω-scan and in the (111) Pd φ-scan were of about 2.50 and 50, respectively. The CeO2/YSZ/CeO2 (YSZ is Y2O3-stabilised ZrO2) heterostructure of the buffer layer was developed by pulsed laser deposition (PLD). In order to transfer the sharp orientation of the Pd film, both the seed CeO2 layer and the YSZ layer were deposited at low temperatures (450 deg. C ), low enough to avoid Pd/Ni-W interdiffusion. The YBCO, films deposited by both PLD and metal-organic deposition (MOD) using metal trifluoroacetate acid (TFA), exhibited rolling direction (005) ω-scan and the (113) φ-scan FWHM values of about 2 deg. and 5 deg., respectively. In spite of the complete interdiffusion between Ni and Pd during the YBCO film deposition, the coated conductors exhibit good adherence, as well as a smooth and crack-free surface. A zero-resistance critical temperature (TC0) of 90.8 K for the MOD-TFA YBCO films and critical current-density (JC) up to 2.2 MA cm-2 at 77 K and self-field for PLD YBCO films have been obtained

  8. Anticipated Impacts of GMO Introduction on Production Pattern In Poland

    OpenAIRE

    Maciejczak, Mariusz; Was, Adam

    2008-01-01

    The paper takes one significant element of the agriculture production – use of genetically modified organisms (GMO) – and considers it in relation to the production pattern in Polish farms. It asks if under the ceteris paribus conditions the use of GMO plants in Polish farms will have influence on the cropping structure. To answer this question only a scientific and theoretical assumption has been applied that GMO cultivation is permitted without restrictions in Poland. The approach combines ...

  9. A review of statistical methods for testing genetic anticipation: looking for an answer in Lynch syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boonstra, Philip S; Gruber, Stephen B; Raymond, Victoria M;

    2010-01-01

    Anticipation, manifested through decreasing age of onset or increased severity in successive generations, has been noted in several genetic diseases. Statistical methods for genetic anticipation range from a simple use of the paired t-test for age of onset restricted to affected parent-child pair...

  10. parkin mutation dosage and the phenomenon of anticipation: a molecular genetic study of familial parkinsonism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schellenberg Gerard D

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background parkin mutations are a common cause of parkinsonism. Possessing two parkin mutations leads to early-onset parkinsonism, while having one mutation may predispose to late-onset disease. This dosage pattern suggests that some parkin families should exhibit intergenerational variation in age at onset resembling anticipation. A subset of familial PD exhibits anticipation, the cause of which is unknown. The aim of this study was to determine if anticipation was due to parkin mutation dosage. Methods We studied 19 kindreds that had early-onset parkinsonism in the offspring generation, late-onset parkinsonism in the parent generation, and ≥ 20 years of anticipation. We also studied 28 early-onset parkinsonism cases without anticipation. Patients were diagnosed by neurologists at a movement disorder clinic. parkin analysis included sequencing and dosage analysis of all 12 exons. Results Only one of 19 cases had compound parkin mutations, but contrary to our postulate, the affected relative with late-onset parkinsonism did not have a parkin mutation. In effect, none of the anticipation cases could be attributed to parkin. In contrast, 21% of early-onset parkinsonism patients without anticipation had parkin mutations. Conclusion Anticipation is not linked to parkin, and may signify a distinct disease entity.

  11. Attitudes toward Seeking Professional Help for an Eating Disorder: The Role of Stigma and Anticipated Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hackler, Ashley H.; Vogel, David L.; Wade, Nathaniel G.

    2010-01-01

    This study examined the relationship between self-stigma, anticipated risks and benefits associated with seeking counseling, and attitudes toward seeking counseling among college students with disordered eating attitudes and behaviors. The results of hierarchical regression analyses demonstrated that self-stigma and the anticipated risks and…

  12. A Na(+) Superionic Conductor for Room-Temperature Sodium Batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Shufeng; Duong, Hai M; Korsunsky, Alexander M; Hu, Ning; Lu, Li

    2016-01-01

    Rechargeable lithium ion batteries have ruled the consumer electronics market for the past 20 years and have great significance in the growing number of electric vehicles and stationary energy storage applications. However, in addition to concerns about electrochemical performance, the limited availability of lithium is gradually becoming an important issue for further continued use and development of lithium ion batteries. Therefore, a significant shift in attention has been taking place towards new types of rechargeable batteries such as sodium-based systems that have low cost. Another important aspect of sodium battery is its potential compatibility with the all-solid-state design where solid electrolyte is used to replace liquid one, leading to simple battery design, long life span, and excellent safety. The key to the success of all-solid-state battery design is the challenge of finding solid electrolytes possessing acceptable high ionic conductivities at room temperature. Herein, we report a novel sodium superionic conductor with NASICON structure, Na3.1Zr1.95Mg0.05Si2PO12 that shows high room-temperature ionic conductivity of 3.5 × 10(-3) S cm(-1). We also report successful fabrication of a room-temperature solid-state Na-S cell using this conductor. PMID:27572915

  13. A Na+ Superionic Conductor for Room-Temperature Sodium Batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Shufeng; Duong, Hai M.; Korsunsky, Alexander M.; Hu, Ning; Lu, Li

    2016-01-01

    Rechargeable lithium ion batteries have ruled the consumer electronics market for the past 20 years and have great significance in the growing number of electric vehicles and stationary energy storage applications. However, in addition to concerns about electrochemical performance, the limited availability of lithium is gradually becoming an important issue for further continued use and development of lithium ion batteries. Therefore, a significant shift in attention has been taking place towards new types of rechargeable batteries such as sodium-based systems that have low cost. Another important aspect of sodium battery is its potential compatibility with the all-solid-state design where solid electrolyte is used to replace liquid one, leading to simple battery design, long life span, and excellent safety. The key to the success of all-solid-state battery design is the challenge of finding solid electrolytes possessing acceptable high ionic conductivities at room temperature. Herein, we report a novel sodium superionic conductor with NASICON structure, Na3.1Zr1.95Mg0.05Si2PO12 that shows high room-temperature ionic conductivity of 3.5 × 10−3 S cm−1. We also report successful fabrication of a room-temperature solid-state Na-S cell using this conductor. PMID:27572915

  14. Mutual capacitance of liquid conductors in deformable tactile sensing arrays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Advances in highly deformable electronics are needed in order to enable emerging categories of soft computing devices ranging from wearable electronics, to medical devices, and soft robotic components. The combination of highly elastic substrates with intrinsically stretchable conductors holds the promise of enabling electronic sensors that can conform to curved objects, reconfigurable displays, or soft biological tissues, including the skin. Here, we contribute sensing principles for tactile (mechanical image) sensors based on very low modulus polymer substrates with embedded liquid metal microfluidic arrays. The sensors are fabricated using a single-step casting method that utilizes fine nylon filaments to produce arrays of cylindrical channels on two layers. The liquid metal (gallium indium alloy) conductors that fill these channels readily adopt the shape of the embedding membrane, yielding levels of deformability greater than 400%, due to the use of soft polymer substrates. We modeled the sensor performance using electrostatic theory and continuum mechanics, yielding excellent agreement with experiments. Using a matrix-addressed capacitance measurement technique, we are able to resolve strain distributions with millimeter resolution over areas of several square centimeters

  15. Fully filamentized HTS coated conductor via striation and selective electroplating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ► Fully-filamentized coated conductor with 13-fold reduction in ac losses. ► Selective electroplating for filamentization of thick copper stabilizer. ► A twofold decrease in ac loss by filamentization of copper stabilizer. ► Absence of appreciable coupling loss contribution from electroplating. -- Abstract: A simple, cost-effective method involving top-down mechanical scribing, oxidation and bottom-up electroplating has been successfully developed to fabricate fully filamentized HTS coated conductors. The copper stabilizer layer is selectively electroplated on the superconducting filaments while the striations remain copper-free due to the formation of a resistive oxide layer in between filaments by oxidation of the striated grooves at elevated temperature in oxygen atmosphere. Magnetization AC loss measurements, performed in a frequency range of 45–500 Hz at 77 K, confirmed the expected N-fold reduction in AC loss of the filamentized tapes with no significant degradation in critical current beyond that due to the material removal from the striations (N – number of filaments). A considerable reduction in coupling AC loss was observed after high temperature annealing/oxidation of the striated tapes. Furthermore, a significant reduction in eddy current loss was achieved with selective copper electroplating, as evidenced by analyzing the field and frequency dependence of magnetization AC loss, as well as by comparing the AC loss performance of striated samples to that of non-striated samples after electroplating of copper stabilizer

  16. Flexural self-damping in overhead electrical transmission conductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rawlins, Charles B.

    2009-06-01

    Internal damping of tensioned cables during flexure by transverse vibration is analyzed. The flexure causes relative movements between the wires or strands of the cable, movements which are constrained by friction between them. Under conditions common to vibration of overhead transmission line conductors the friction is great enough to prevent gross sliding. However, there is microslip at the edges of the interstrand contacts, so there is frictional dissipation. In addition, the frictional forces cause shear strains at the contacts with resulting material damping. An analysis is presented that connects the bodily flexure of the conductor with the internal interstrand movements and forces, and with the amounts of dissipation that occur—self-damping. Comparison of estimates based on the analysis with measured data on self-damping reveals reasonable agreement, for a limited range. Cases lying outside that range appear to be associated with treatments applied to cable samples involved in the measurements prior to testing. Possible mechanisms activated by these treatments are discussed.

  17. Mutual capacitance of liquid conductors in deformable tactile sensing arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Bin; Fontecchio, Adam K.; Visell, Yon

    2016-01-01

    Advances in highly deformable electronics are needed in order to enable emerging categories of soft computing devices ranging from wearable electronics, to medical devices, and soft robotic components. The combination of highly elastic substrates with intrinsically stretchable conductors holds the promise of enabling electronic sensors that can conform to curved objects, reconfigurable displays, or soft biological tissues, including the skin. Here, we contribute sensing principles for tactile (mechanical image) sensors based on very low modulus polymer substrates with embedded liquid metal microfluidic arrays. The sensors are fabricated using a single-step casting method that utilizes fine nylon filaments to produce arrays of cylindrical channels on two layers. The liquid metal (gallium indium alloy) conductors that fill these channels readily adopt the shape of the embedding membrane, yielding levels of deformability greater than 400%, due to the use of soft polymer substrates. We modeled the sensor performance using electrostatic theory and continuum mechanics, yielding excellent agreement with experiments. Using a matrix-addressed capacitance measurement technique, we are able to resolve strain distributions with millimeter resolution over areas of several square centimeters.

  18. Nb3Sn Conductor Development and Characterization for NED

    CERN Document Server

    Boutboul, T; Devred, A; Fabbricatore, P; Greco, M; Leroy, D; Oberli, L; Pedrini, D; Volpini, G

    2008-01-01

    The main purpose of Next European Dipole (NED) project is to design and to build an Nb3Sn ~ 15 T dipole magnet. Due to budget constraints, NED is mainly focused on superconducting cable development and production. In this work, an update is given on the NED conductor development by Alstom-MSA and SMI, which uses, respectively, Internal-Tin-Diffusion and Powder-In-Tube methods, with the aim of reaching a non-copper critical current density of ~ 3000 A/mm2 at 12 T and 4.2 K. Characterization results, including critical current and magnetization data, are presented and discussed, as well, for conductors already developed by both companies for this project. SMI succeeded to produce a strand with 50 µm diameter filaments and with a critical current of ~ 1400 A at 4.2 K and 12 T, corresponding to a non-copper critical current density of ~ 2500 A/mm2. Cabling trials with this strand were successfully carried out at LBNL.

  19. Mutual capacitance of liquid conductors in deformable tactile sensing arrays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Bin [Electrical and Computer Engineering Department, Drexel University, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19104 (United States); Fontecchio, Adam K. [Electrical and Computer Engineering and Materials Science and Engineering Departments, Drexel University, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19104 (United States); Visell, Yon [Electrical and Computer Engineering Department, Media Arts and Technology, California NanoSystems Institute, University of California, Santa Barbara, California 93106 (United States)

    2016-01-04

    Advances in highly deformable electronics are needed in order to enable emerging categories of soft computing devices ranging from wearable electronics, to medical devices, and soft robotic components. The combination of highly elastic substrates with intrinsically stretchable conductors holds the promise of enabling electronic sensors that can conform to curved objects, reconfigurable displays, or soft biological tissues, including the skin. Here, we contribute sensing principles for tactile (mechanical image) sensors based on very low modulus polymer substrates with embedded liquid metal microfluidic arrays. The sensors are fabricated using a single-step casting method that utilizes fine nylon filaments to produce arrays of cylindrical channels on two layers. The liquid metal (gallium indium alloy) conductors that fill these channels readily adopt the shape of the embedding membrane, yielding levels of deformability greater than 400%, due to the use of soft polymer substrates. We modeled the sensor performance using electrostatic theory and continuum mechanics, yielding excellent agreement with experiments. Using a matrix-addressed capacitance measurement technique, we are able to resolve strain distributions with millimeter resolution over areas of several square centimeters.

  20. Interacting Electrodynamics of Short Coherent Conductors in Quantum Circuits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altimiras, C.; Portier, F.; Joyez, P.

    2016-07-01

    When combining lumped mesoscopic electronic components to form a circuit, quantum fluctuations of electrical quantities lead to a nonlinear electromagnetic interaction between the components, which is generally not understood. The Landauer-Büttiker formalism that is frequently used to describe noninteracting coherent mesoscopic components is not directly suited to describe such circuits since it assumes perfect voltage bias, i.e., the absence of fluctuations. Here, we show that for short coherent conductors of arbitrary transmission, the Landauer-Büttiker formalism can be extended to take into account quantum voltage fluctuations similarly to what is done for tunnel junctions. The electrodynamics of the whole circuit is then formally worked out disregarding the non-Gaussianity of fluctuations. This reveals how the aforementioned nonlinear interaction operates in short coherent conductors: Voltage fluctuations induce a reduction of conductance through the phenomenon of dynamical Coulomb blockade, but they also modify their internal density of states, leading to an additional electrostatic modification of the transmission. Using this approach, we can quantitatively account for conductance measurements performed on quantum point contacts in series with impedances of the order of RK=h /e2 . Our work should enable a better engineering of quantum circuits with targeted properties.

  1. Thin magnetic conductor substrate for placement-immune, electrically-small antennas.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eubanks, Travis Wayne; McDonald, Jacob J.; Loui, Hung

    2011-09-01

    An antenna is considered to be placement-immune when the antenna operates effectively regardless of where it is placed. By building antennas on magnetic conductor materials, the radiated fields will be positively reinforced in the desired radiation direction instead of being negatively affected by the environment. Although this idea has been discussed thoroughly in theoretical research, the difficulty in building thin magnetic conductor materials necessary for in-phase field reflections prevents this technology from becoming more widespread. This project's purpose is to build and measure an electrically-small antenna on a new type of non-metallic, thin magnetic conductor. This problem has not been previously addressed because non-metallic, thin magnetic conductor materials have not yet been discovered. This work proposed the creation of an artificial magnetic conductor (AMC) with in-phase field reflections without using internal electric conductors, the placement of an electrically-small antenna on this magnetic conductor, and the development of a transmit-receive system that utilizes the substrate and electrically-small antenna. By not using internal electric conductors to create the AMC, the substrate thickness can be minimized. The electrically-small antenna will demonstrate the substrate's ability to make an antenna placement immune, and the transmit-receive system combines both the antenna and the substrate while adding a third layer of system complexity to demonstrate the complete idea.

  2. Homogeneous Current Distribution in Multi-laminated HTS Tape Conductor for Pancake Coil of SMES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamajima, T.; Chiba, Y.; Atomura, N.; Takahashi, T.; Miyagi, D.; Tsuda, M.; Shikimachi, K.; Hirano, N.; Nagaya, S.

    A multi-laminated HTS tape conductor has been recently developed to fabricate large pancake coils such as SMES. If the HTS tapes are simply laminated to form the conductor, the current distribution in the laminated tape conductor of the coil is unbalanced because of different inductances of all tapes. The pancake coil has been widely used for large magnet, because the pancake coil is tightly wound and endures large electromagnetic force. The tape transpositions at both ends of the pancake coil are effective for the coil fabrication, because it cannot damage the conductor. It is very important to analyze current distribution in the multi-laminated tape conductor used for the pancake coil. In this paper, we analyze the current distribution in the tape conductor by using circuit model, and then propose a relationship between the laminated tape number of the conductor and the pancake coil number to obtain the homogeneous current distribution. We fabricated the double pancake coil based on the relation, tested it to verify the relation and demonstrated the homogeneous current distribution in the conductor.

  3. Simulation of multiple stability regions in an internally cooled superconducting conductor with the computer code SSICC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The computer code SSICC (Safety and Stability of Internally Cooled Conductors) has successfully simulated the multiple stability regions observed experimentally by Lue, Miller, and Dresner of Oak Ridge National Laboratory. The simulation requires asymmetrical boundary conditions and a heating pulse duration short compared to the time for reflection of the transient pressure wave back into the heated region of the conductor

  4. Status of European manufacture of Toroidal Field conductor and strand for JT-60SA project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the framework of the JT-60SA project, part of the Broader Approach (BA) agreement, EURATOM provides to Japan, the Toroidal Field (TF) magnet system, consisting of 18 superconducting coils. The procurement of the conductor for the TF coils is managed by Fusion for Energy, acting as EU representative in the BA agreement. The TF conductor procurement is split into two contracts, one dedicated to the production of Niobium Titanium (NbTi) and Cu strand and the other to TF conductor production through strand cabling and cable jacketing operations. The TF conductor is a rectangular-shaped cable-in-conduit conductor formed by 486 (0.81 mm diameter) strands (2/3 NbTi–1/3 Cu) wrapped in a stainless steel foil and embedded into a stainless steel jacket. The 18 TF coils require (including spares) 115 ‘Unit Lengths’ (UL) of such conductor, each 240 m long for a total of about 28 km. Correspondingly about 10,000 km for NbTi and 5000 km for Cu strand are produced. The Japanese company Furukawa Electric Co. (FEC) is in charge of TF strand manufacture while the Italian company Italian Consortium for Applied Superconductivity (ICAS) is in charge of cabling and jacketing of TF conductor ULs. In the paper, we provide information on the production stages presently achieved in TF strand and conductor contracts

  5. Ceramic to metal attachment system. [Ceramic electrode to metal conductor in MHD generator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchant, D.D.

    1983-06-10

    A composition and method are described for attaching a ceramic electrode to a metal conductor. A layer of randomly interlocked metal fibers saturated with polyimide resin is sandwiched between the ceramic electrode and the metal conductor. The polyimide resin is then polymerized providing bonding.

  6. Effects of room-temperature tensile fatigue on critical current and n-value of IBAD–MOCVD YBa2Cu3O7‑x /Hastelloy coated conductor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, Samuel; Kan Chan, Wan; Schwartz, Justin

    2016-08-01

    REBa2Cu3O7‑x (REBCO) coated conductors potentially enable a multitude of superconducting applications, over a wide range of operating temperatures and magnetic fields, including high-field magnets, energy storage devices, motors, generators, and power transmission systems (Zhang et al 2013 IEEE Trans. Appl. Supercond. 23 5700704). Many of these are AC applications and thus the fatigue properties may be limiting (Vincent et al 2013 IEEE Trans. Appl. Supercond. 23 5700805). Previous electromechanical studies have determined the performance of REBCO conductors under single cycle loads (Barth et al 2015 Supercond. Sci. Technol. 28 045011), but an understanding of the fatigue properties is lacking. Here the fatigue behavior of commercial ion beam assisted deposition–metal organic chemical vapor deposition REBCO conductors on Hastelloy substrates is reported for axial tensile strains up to 0.5% and up to 100 000 cycles. Failure mechanisms are investigated via microstructural studies. Results show that REBCO conductors retained I c(ε)/I c0 = 0.9 for 10 000 cycles at ε = 0.35% and ε = 0.45% strain, and ε = 0.5% for 100 cycles. The main cause of fatigue degradation in REBCO conductors is crack propagation that initiates at the slitting defects that result from the manufacturing process.

  7. AC loss characteristics of simulated CIC-type conductors having plastic conduit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    When alternating current superconducting coils having cable-in-conduit conductors are fabricated, non-metallic conduit materials are necessary to avoid eddy current losses in the conduits. Using two kinds of non-metallic tapes made of glass fiber reinforced plastics (GFRPs) and Dyneema fiber reinforced plastics (DFRPs), we made the conductors with the GFRP conduits and DFRP conduits, and experimentally studied the total losses of the conductors. The measured results showed that the total loss of the conductor with the GFRP conduit was smaller than that with the DFRP conduit at the same value of the void ratio, the transport current, the external magnetic field, and so on. When the void ratios become high, the superconducting bundle cable can easily move in the conduit. Hence the measured total losses increased with the void ratios of the conductors

  8. Stability and protection of forced cooling conductor for large superconducting magnet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    From the requirements or needs revealed from the coil design at the conceptual design activity in ITER, the forced flow conductor cooled by supercritical helium is the most suitable. The stability margins against the quench of superconducting coils were measured in a function of magnetic field, operating temperature, and the operating current in several cable-in-conduit conductors of large superconducting magnets. The measured stability margins are analyzed to provide the design criteria of the stability margin of the large current superconducting conductor by using a fluid dynamic analysis, a non-dimensional thermal analysis and a concept of the limiting current. The disturbances inside the superconducting conductor are estimated at duration times and values from several experimental data. The influence of the quench is relatively small if the coil protection works within a few seconds. The hot spot temperature in case of large magnet is estimated from experimental data using a small conductor. (J.P.N.) 140 refs

  9. Magnetic guide of cold atoms using a U-shaped current-carrying conductor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘南春; 印建平

    2003-01-01

    We propose a new scheme to magnetically guide cold neutral atoms using a U-shaped current carrying conductor.The spatial magnetic field distribution from the U-shaped current-carrying conductor and the relationship between the magnetic field and parameters of the U-shaped conductor are analysed.Our study shows that U-shaped current-carrying conductor can be used to realize single-or double-channel magnetic guiding of cold atoms in weak-field-seeking states and to construct wrious atom-optical elements.By using Monte Carlo simulations,the dynamic process of the guided atomic-beam splitting in an atomic-beam splitter composed by the U-shaped current-carrying conductor is studied,and some results are presented.

  10. Current distribution and stability of LTS/HTS hybrid superconducting conductors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    Current distribution and stability of a hybrid LTS/HTS superconductor, consisting of multifilamentary NbTi/Cu and Bi2223/Ag tapes, were numerically analyzed according to power-law models. The results showed that most of current passed through the LTS and the current increased in the HTS with temperature rise when the transport current was below the critical current of the hybrid conductor. The quench propagation velocity of the hybrid conductor was smaller but its minimum quench energy was larger than those of LTS conductors, indicating that the stability of the hybrid superconducting conductor was effectively improved and a high engineering current density was simultaneously achieved. Finally, a hybrid sample, made by soldering Bi2223/Ag tape onto NbTi/Cu conductor, was prepared and tested successfully at helium temperature. The experimental results qualitatively agreed with the simulated ones.

  11. Anticipating future innovation pathways through large data analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Chiavetta, Denise; Porter, Alan; Saritas, Ozcan

    2016-01-01

    This book aims to identify promising future developmental opportunities and applications for Tech Mining. Specifically, the enclosed contributions will pursue three converging themes: The increasing availability of electronic text data resources relating to Science, Technology & Innovation (ST&I) The multiple methods that are able to treat this data effectively and incorporate means to tap into human expertise and interests Translating those analyses to provide useful intelligence on likely future developments of particular emerging S&T targets. Tech Mining can be defined as text analyses of ST&I information resources to generate Competitive Technical Intelligence (CTI). It combines bibliometrics and advanced text analytic, drawing on specialized knowledge pertaining to ST&I. Tech Mining may also be viewed as a special form of “Big Data” analytics because it searches on a target emerging technology (or key organization) of interest in global databases. One then downloads, typically, th...

  12. Antibiotics in Canadian poultry productions and anticipated alternatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moussa Sory Diarra

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The use of antibiotics in food-producing animals has significantly increased animal health by lowering mortality and the incidence of diseases. Antibiotics also have largely contributed to increase productivity of farms. However, antibiotic usage in general and relevance of non-therapeutic antibiotics in feed (growth promoters need to be reevaluated especially because bacterial pathogens of humans and animals have developed and shared a variety of antibiotic resistance mechanisms that can easily spread within microbial communities. In Canada, poultry production involves more than 2,600 regulated chicken producers. There are several antibiotics approved as feed additives available for poultry farmers. Feed recipes and mixtures greatly vary geographically and from one farm to another, making links between use of a specific antibiotic feed additive and production yields or selection of specific antibiotic-resistant bacteria difficult to establish. Many on-farm studies have revealed the widespread presence of antibiotic-resistant bacteria in broiler chickens. While sporadic reports linked the presence of antibiotic-resistant organisms to the use of feed supplemented with antibiotics, no recent studies could clearly demonstrate the benefit of antimicrobial growth promoters on performance and production yields. With modern biosecurity and hygienic practices, there is a genuine concern that intensive utilization of antibiotics or use of antimicrobial growth promoters in feed might no longer be useful. Public pressure and concerns about food and environmental safety (antibiotic residues, antibiotic-resistant pathogens have driven researchers to actively look for alternatives to antibiotics. Some of the alternatives include pre- and probiotics, organic acids and essential oils. We will describe here the properties of some bioactive molecules, like those found in cranberry, which have shown interesting polyvalent antibacterial and immuno

  13. Antibiotics in Canadian poultry productions and anticipated alternatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diarra, Moussa S; Malouin, François

    2014-01-01

    The use of antibiotics in food-producing animals has significantly increased animal health by lowering mortality and the incidence of diseases. Antibiotics also have largely contributed to increase productivity of farms. However, antibiotic usage in general and relevance of non-therapeutic antibiotics (growth promoters) in feed need to be reevaluated especially because bacterial pathogens of humans and animals have developed and shared a variety of antibiotic resistance mechanisms that can easily be spread within microbial communities. In Canada, poultry production involves more than 2600 regulated chicken producers who have access to several antibiotics approved as feed additives for poultry. Feed recipes and mixtures vary greatly geographically and from one farm to another, making links between use of a specific antibiotic feed additive and production yields or selection of specific antibiotic-resistant bacteria difficult to establish. Many on-farm studies have revealed the widespread presence of antibiotic-resistant bacteria in broiler chickens. While some reports linked the presence of antibiotic-resistant organisms to the use of feed supplemented with antibiotics, no recent studies could clearly demonstrate the benefit of antimicrobial growth promoters on performance and production yields. With modern biosecurity and hygienic practices, there is a genuine concern that intensive utilization of antibiotics or use of antimicrobial growth promoters in feed might no longer be useful. Public pressure and concerns about food and environmental safety (antibiotic residues, antibiotic-resistant pathogens) have driven researchers to actively look for alternatives to antibiotics. Some of the alternatives include pre- and probiotics, organic acids and essential oils. We will describe here the properties of some bioactive molecules, like those found in cranberry, which have shown interesting polyvalent antibacterial and immuno-stimulatory activities. PMID:24987390

  14. Effects of Anticipation in Individually Motivated Behaviour on Survival and Control in a Multi-Agent Scenario with Resource Constraints

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Guckelsberger

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Self-organization and survival are inextricably bound to an agent’s ability to control and anticipate its environment. Here we assess both skills when multiple agents compete for a scarce resource. Drawing on insights from psychology, microsociology and control theory, we examine how different assumptions about the behaviour of an agent’s peers in the anticipation process affect subjective control and survival strategies. To quantify control and drive behaviour, we use the recently developed information-theoretic quantity of empowerment with the principle of empowerment maximization. In two experiments involving extensive simulations, we show that agents develop risk-seeking, risk-averse and mixed strategies, which correspond to greedy, parsimonious and mixed behaviour. Although the principle of empowerment maximization is highly generic, the emerging strategies are consistent with what one would expect from rational individuals with dedicated utility models. Our results support empowerment maximization as a universal drive for guided self-organization in collective agent systems.

  15. The relationship between action anticipation and emotion recognition in athletes of open skill sports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shih, Yu-Ling; Lin, Chia-Yen

    2016-08-01

    Action anticipation plays an important role in the successful performance of open skill sports, such as ball and combat sports. Evidence has shown that elite athletes of open sports excel in action anticipation. Most studies have targeted ball sports and agreed that information on body mechanics is one of the key determinants for successful action anticipation in open sports. However, less is known about combat sports, and whether facial emotions have an influence on athletes' action anticipation skill. It has been suggested that the understanding of intention in combat sports relies heavily on emotional context. Based on this suggestion, the present study compared the action anticipation performances of taekwondo athletes, weightlifting athletes, and non-athletes and then correlated these with their performances of emotion recognition. This study primarily found that accurate action anticipation does not necessarily rely on the dynamic information of movement, and that action anticipation performance is correlated with that of emotion recognition in taekwondo athletes, but not in weightlifting athletes. Our results suggest that the recognition of facial emotions plays a role in the action prediction in such combat sports as taekwondo. PMID:27160338

  16. Regulatory Mode and Risk-Taking: The Mediating Role of Anticipated Regret.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angelo Panno

    Full Text Available We propose that decision maker's regulatory mode affects risk-taking through anticipated regret. In the Study 1 either a locomotion or an assessment orientation were experimentally induced, and in the Studies 2 and 3 these different orientations were assessed as chronic individual differences. To assess risk-taking we used two behavioral measures of risk: BART and hot-CCT. The results show that experimentally induced assessment orientation--compared to locomotion--leads to decreased risk-taking through increased anticipated regret (Study 1. People chronically predisposed to be in the assessment state take less risk through increased anticipated regret (Study 2 and Study 3. Study 2 results also show a marginally non-significant indirect effect of chronic locomotion mode on BART through anticipated regret. Differently, Study 3 shows that people chronically predisposed to be in the locomotion state take greater risk through decreased anticipated regret, when play a dynamic risk task triggering stronger emotional arousal. Through all three studies, the average effect size for the relationship of assessment with anticipated regret was in the moderate-large range, whereas for risk-taking was in the moderate range. The average effect size for the relationship of locomotion with anticipated regret was in the moderate range, whereas for risk-taking was in the small-moderate range. These results increase our understanding of human behavior under conditions of risk obtaining novel insights into regulatory mode theory and decision science.

  17. Development of high-temperature superconducting coated conductor by MOCVD method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To fabricate the second generation superconductor wire, coated conductor, we selected MOCVD (Metal organic chemical vapor deposition) method which is commercially available and whose growth rate is very high. The first buffer layer CeO2 was successfully deposited on the Ni tape. The thick Y-stabilized ZrO2 layer was thus inserted between two CeO2 layers by MOCVD method. The c-axis growth of the first CeO2, the inserted YSZ and top CeO2 layer was achieved by optimized the deposition condition for the three buffers. It was found that the YBCO deposition was fairly dependant on the depostion temperature, time, oxygen partial pressure, amount of the source supplied. Especially the thickness of the YBCO films was linearly dedendant on the deposition temperature and time, but current properties was not linearly dependant on the film thickness. The critical current (Ic) of the YBCO film grown on SrTiO3 and IBAD template were over 100 A/cm-width and 50 A/cm-width at 77 K and 0 field. To establish the MOCVD process, collaboration work with several organizations was made

  18. Interplay between electronic and structural degrees of freedom in quarter-filled low dimensional conductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We review the basic aspects of the charge density wave (CDW) and bond order wave (BOW) instabilities observed in one dimension (1D) organic conductors at either the 2kF and/or 4kF critical wave vectors. We start by recalling the main features of the coupled structural/electronic Peierls instabilities observed in donor–acceptor (D–A) charge transfer (CT) salts. Then we consider the specific case of 2:1 salts D2X where X is a monovalent anion. We show that the incipient CDW/BOW instabilities of the Bechgaard and Fabre salts are those of the parent quarter-filled CT salts TMTSF-DMTCNQ and TMTTF-DMTCNQ respectively. We also consider more specifically the influence of specific features of D2X salts such as the stack dimerization, the Fermi surface warping and the coupling to the anions. Then we discuss more generally the role of the anions in the Bechgaard and Fabre salts by pointing out the influence of polarization and charge displacement induced by the anion shift. Finally we show that some of these features are also relevant to understand the subtle interplay between structural and electronic degrees of freedom in 2D quarter-filled organic salts such as the (BEDT-TTF)2X series

  19. Seaweeds in ornamental aquaria in Brazil: anticipating introductions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beatriz N Torrano-Silva

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Home and public sea aquaria are becoming more and more popular worldwide. Aquaria species are selected for their aesthetic appeal in terms of color, shape or behavior. In Brazil, most species are imported from remote places, usually tropical areas around the world. Water discarded from aquaria often includes organisms, or their propagula, that may become locally established. There have been extensive discussions concerning the vectors of species dispersion from their native areas, which includes ornamental aquaria. In order to evaluate the potential of local aquaria as a source of non native macro algae, we surveyed sea-aquaria shops and exhibition aquaria in São Paulo State. Thirty eight species of seaweeds were isolated in the aquaria surveyed. Among them, six have not been recorded from Brazil and nineteen were not reported for São Paulo littoral, including Caulerpa scalpelliformis var. denticulata the only species that so far deserves being designated as invasive in Brazil. The present paper should alert environmental agencies and aquaria shops about the risk of involuntarily introducing non-native species through aquariophyly.

  20. AC magnetization losses in striated YBCO-123/Hastelloy coated conductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this work we present experimental results of reductions in AC magnetization losses due to a striation process in YBCO-123/Hastelloy coated conductors. The measurements were carried out in a sinusoidally varying external magnetic field, with amplitudes up to 100 mT, in a frequency range of 8.5-85.4 Hz, and at a temperature of 77 K. The field was oriented perpendicularly to the face of the tapes. Sample tapes were successively patterned into the form of narrow parallel strips, by means of a photoresist lithography and chemical wet etching technique. Experimental results are discussed in the framework of existing theoretical models for energy dissipation in thin films in perpendicular AC magnetic fields

  1. OPG operational experience with stator conductor bars fouling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Over the last three years, Ontario Power Generation (OPG) Pickering Nuclear has experienced fouling of the stator conductor bar cooling water channels on two units. To address the associated stator bar temperature rises, chemical cleaning was undertaken three times on one unit and once on the other. These events were the subject of two formal investigations and a single rigorous chemistry assessment. The investigations were conducted using a formalized root-cause protocol. The assessment involved a system chemistry review over a 10-year period and a critical evaluation of dissolved oxygen control. This paper describes: - the internal investigations undertaken by OPG to better understand and resolve the problem, - OPG's cleaning strategy and different cleaning options performed on affected units, - the remedial actions undertaken by OPG, and - The interim actions following the final post-cleaning inspections. (orig.)

  2. Effect of annular secondary conductor in a linear electromagnetic stirrer

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    R Madhavan; V Ramanarayanan

    2008-10-01

    This paper presents the variation of average axial force density in the annular secondary conductor of a linear electromagnetic stirrer. Different geometries of secondaries are considered for numerical and experimental validation namely, 1. hollow annular ring, 2. annular ring with a solid cylinder and 3. solid cylinder. Experimental and numerical simulations are performed for a 2-pole in house built 15 kW linear electromagnetic stirrer (EMS). It is observed for a supply current of 200 A at 30 Hz the force densities in the hollow annular ring is 67% higher than the equivalent solid cylinder. The same values are 33% for annular ring with a solid cylinder. Force density variation with supply frequency and current are also reported. Numerical simulations using finite element model are validated with experimental results.

  3. Fuel-Cell Electrolytes Based on Organosilica Hybrid Proton Conductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narayan, Sri R.; Yen, Shiao-Pin S.

    2008-01-01

    A new membrane composite material that combines an organosilica proton conductor with perfluorinated Nafion material to achieve good proton conductivity and high-temperature performance for membranes used for fuel cells in stationary, transportation, and portable applications has been developed. To achieve high proton conductivities of the order of 10(exp -1)S/cm over a wide range of temperatures, a composite membrane based on a new class of mesoporous, proton-conducting, hydrogen-bonded organosilica, used with Nafion, will allow for water retention and high proton conductivity over a wider range of temperatures than currently offered by Nafion alone. At the time of this reporting, this innovation is at the concept level. Some of the materials and processes investigated have shown good proton conductivity, but membranes have not yet been prepared and demonstrated.

  4. Anticipation and subjectivity: A commentary on an early text by Lacan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blomme, David; Hoens, Dominiek

    2000-05-01

    In his 1945 paper Lacan discusses a sophism to exemplify crucial moments in the becoming of a human subject. One of these moments is the anticipation of an identity. This anticipatory decision is confirmed in a subsequent logical reasoning. In our paper we will present the sophism in its details and will focus on the essential moment of anticipation. The further (and sometimes implicit) reworking of this notion by Lacan shows that, according to psychoanalysis, anticipation is an important mechanism that involves time and the presence of the other.

  5. A Compensation Method of Conductor Parameter for Transient Fault Location

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ugbome, Chukwunweike Lucky

    Faults in underground distribution systems are predominantly caused by the deterioration of cable insulation. The inherent nature of underground distribution is such that cables are laid underground and exposed to harmful substances which can cause deterioration of cable insulation. The penetration of water into the cable splice is a common cause of cable deterioration and a common source of transitory sub-cycle cable fault in underground distribution systems. The presence of a sub-cycle fault in a distribution line is not necessarily noticeable and may not cause any protective device to operate due to its short live-span but can be destructive if it is sustained and unattended to. The location of transitory sub-cycle fault in underground cable is fundamentally important in preventing and containing a permanent fault which can potentially result to an unplanned outage. However the location of this type of fault is not easy due to so many unknowns. A few numbers of approaches have been developed for determining the location of short-lived sub-cycle (SLSC) faults, but they approximate the conductor parameter which would reduce the accuracy of the location determination. This thesis develops an algorithm for transitory sub-cycle fault location to compensate for the ignored conductor parameter by employing the X/R ratio of the distribution line. First, a model for transient faults at different locations in underground cable is presented and used to generate the voltage and current waveforms at the source side. Also presented is the performance of the fault location by the uncompensated and compensated algorithms under two configurations of the distribution line: a homogeneous distribution circuit and a heterogeneous distribution line. The result obtained from the performance studies show that the proposed compensation method would help the non-compensated fault location approaches to achieve relatively high accuracy in locating transitory sub-cycle faults in numerous

  6. Actitudes hacia comportamientos protectores y de riesgo en conductores costarricenses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marjorie Moreno Salas

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available En el presente estudio se exploraron las actitudes y los comportamientos protectores y de riesgo al conducir vehículos particulares en una muestra de 590 conductores de entre 20 y 60 años (M = 38,57, DE =11,69 residentes del área metropolitana costarricense. Se realizó una investigación exploratoria, desarrollada mediante un diseño transversal con un cuestionario autoaplicado. Los principales resultados fueron que: A mayor cantidad de hijos e hijas dependientes, menores comportamientos y actitudes hacia el riesgo y mayores comportamientos protectores. A mayor cantidad de años de tener licencia, menores actitudes hacia el exceso de velocidad y menores comportamientos de riesgo asociados con la alta velocidad. Entre más días de manejo, mayores comportamientos protectores. A mayor reporte de actitudes y comportamientos favorables hacia el riesgo, menor edad de los participantes. A manera de conclusión, las actitudes y los comportamientos de riesgo se vinculan negativamente. Además, variables sociodemográficas como el número de hijos y la edad de los conductores modula la respuesta en cuanto a las actitudes y los comportamientos protectores y de riesgo al manejar. Los resultados del estudio forman un primer aporte a la investigación nacional en el tema, en tanto, se cuenta con un instrumento susceptible de ser aplicado en otros estudios y múltiples datos empíricos en la temática.

  7. Development of 1 m HTS conductor using YBCO on textured metal substrate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We fabricated 1 m high temperature superconducting conductor (HTS conductor) using YBa2Cu3O7-x coated conductors (YBCO tapes) on textured metal substrates, which are expected to be lower in cost than YBCO tapes using ion-beam assisted deposition. Those substrate and intermediate layers were manufactured by Furukawa Electric, and YBCO and a protective layer were applied to the intermediate layer by Chubu Electric Power. Before fabricating the conductor, a 0.1 mm thick copper tape was soldered to the YBCO tape, and 10 mm wide YBCO tape was divided into three strips by a YAG laser. To have sufficient current capacity for 1 kA, a two-layer conductor was fabricated, and its critical current (Ic) was 1976 A, but the magnetic properties of the textured metal substrates affected the increase in AC loss. In a low current region, the AC loss in this conductor was much higher than the Norris strip model, but approached the Norris strip model in the high current region because the magnetization was almost saturated. Low AC loss of 0.144 W/m at 1 kArms was achieved even though the conductor had a small outer diameter of 20 mm and was composed of YBCO tapes with magnetic substrates.

  8. Development of 1 m HTS conductor using YBCO on textured metal substrate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yagi, M., E-mail: m-yagi@ch.furukawa.co.j [Furukawa Electric Co., Ltd, 6, Yawata-Kaigandori, Ichihara, Chiba 290-8555 (Japan); Sakamoto, H. [Furukawa Electric Co., Ltd, 500, Kiyotaki-machi, Nikko, Tochigi 321-1493 (Japan); Mukoyama, S. [Furukawa Electric Co., Ltd, 6, Yawata-Kaigandori, Ichihara, Chiba 290-8555 (Japan); Yamamoto, K. [Furukawa Electric Co., Ltd, 500, Kiyotaki-machi, Nikko, Tochigi 321-1493 (Japan); Amemiya, N. [Kyoto University, Kyotodaigaku-Katsura, Nishikyo, Kyoto 615-8510 (Japan); Nagaya, S.; Kashima, N. [Chubu Electric Power Co., Inc., 20-1, Kitasekiyama, Ohdaka-cho, Midori-ku, Nagoya 459-8522 (Japan); Shiohara, Y. [Superconductivity Research Laboratory, 1-10-13, Shinonome, Koto-ku, Tokyo 135-0062 (Japan)

    2009-10-15

    We fabricated 1 m high temperature superconducting conductor (HTS conductor) using YBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 7-x} coated conductors (YBCO tapes) on textured metal substrates, which are expected to be lower in cost than YBCO tapes using ion-beam assisted deposition. Those substrate and intermediate layers were manufactured by Furukawa Electric, and YBCO and a protective layer were applied to the intermediate layer by Chubu Electric Power. Before fabricating the conductor, a 0.1 mm thick copper tape was soldered to the YBCO tape, and 10 mm wide YBCO tape was divided into three strips by a YAG laser. To have sufficient current capacity for 1 kA, a two-layer conductor was fabricated, and its critical current (I{sub c}) was 1976 A, but the magnetic properties of the textured metal substrates affected the increase in AC loss. In a low current region, the AC loss in this conductor was much higher than the Norris strip model, but approached the Norris strip model in the high current region because the magnetization was almost saturated. Low AC loss of 0.144 W/m at 1 kA{sub rms} was achieved even though the conductor had a small outer diameter of 20 mm and was composed of YBCO tapes with magnetic substrates.

  9. Electrohydrodynamic direct—writing of conductor—insulator-conductor multi-layer interconnection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A multi-layer interconnection structure is a basic component of electronic devices, and printing of the multi-layer interconnection structure is the key process in printed electronics. In this work, electrohydrodynamic direct-writing (EDW) is utilized to print the conductor—insulator—conductor multi-layer interconnection structure. Silver ink is chosen to print the conductor pattern, and a polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) solution is utilized to fabricate the insulator layer between the bottom and top conductor patterns. The influences of EDW process parameters on the line width of the printed conductor and insulator patterns are studied systematically. The obtained results show that the line width of the printed structure increases with the increase of the flow rate, but decreases with the increase of applied voltage and PVP content in the solution. The average resistivity values of the bottom and top silver conductor tracks are determined to be 1.34 × 10−7 Ω·m and 1.39 × 10−7 Ω·m, respectively. The printed PVP layer between the two conductor tracks is well insulated, which can meet the insulation requirement of the electronic devices. This study offers an alternative, fast, and cost-effective method of fabricating conductor—insulator—conductor multi-layer interconnections in the electronic industry

  10. Stress dependence of the critical currents in neutron irradiated (RE)BCO coated conductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The application of HTS coated conductors in future fusion or accelerator magnets is currently of increasing interest. High Lorentz forces and therefore high hoop stresses act on the conductors in large coils. The conductor is furthermore exposed to neutron radiation in fusion or accelerator magnets. The expected neutron fluence over the desired lifetime of such magnets can be simulated by irradiation experiments in a fission reactor. The coated conductors were characterized in the pristine state and after irradiation to a fast neutron fluence of 1 × 1022 m−2 (ITER design fluence). The sensitivity of the critical currents to applied stress was measured in liquid nitrogen. The cold part of the setup was positioned within a rotatable split coil electro-magnet to assess the Ic-anisotropy up to 1.4 T under maximum Lorentz force configuration. The Ic-sensitivity to applied stress changed significantly in the GdBCO/IBAD conductor after irradiation, whereas nearly no change was observed in the YBCO/RABiTS conductor. Furthermore, Ic and Tc were strongly reduced in the GdBCO/IBAD sample after irradiation. The angular dependence of Ic changed for both samples in different ways after the irradiation, but no change in the angular dependence was observed upon applying stress. The high neutron capture cross-section of Gd and the resulting strong reduction of Tc seem to be responsible for the different stress dependences of Ic in irradiated Gd-123 coated conductors. (paper)

  11. Electrohydrodynamic direct—writing of conductor—insulator-conductor multi-layer interconnection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Gao-Feng; Pei, Yan-Bo; Wang, Xiang; Zheng, Jian-Yi; Sun, Dao-Heng

    2014-06-01

    A multi-layer interconnection structure is a basic component of electronic devices, and printing of the multi-layer interconnection structure is the key process in printed electronics. In this work, electrohydrodynamic direct-writing (EDW) is utilized to print the conductor—insulator—conductor multi-layer interconnection structure. Silver ink is chosen to print the conductor pattern, and a polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) solution is utilized to fabricate the insulator layer between the bottom and top conductor patterns. The influences of EDW process parameters on the line width of the printed conductor and insulator patterns are studied systematically. The obtained results show that the line width of the printed structure increases with the increase of the flow rate, but decreases with the increase of applied voltage and PVP content in the solution. The average resistivity values of the bottom and top silver conductor tracks are determined to be 1.34 × 10-7 Ω·m and 1.39 × 10-7 Ω·m, respectively. The printed PVP layer between the two conductor tracks is well insulated, which can meet the insulation requirement of the electronic devices. This study offers an alternative, fast, and cost-effective method of fabricating conductor—insulator—conductor multi-layer interconnections in the electronic industry.

  12. Stochastic optimal control of McKean-Vlasov equations with anticipating law

    OpenAIRE

    Agram, Nacira

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we generalise Pontryagin's stochastic maximum principle to controlled McKean-Vlasov equations with anticipating law. The associated new type of delayed backward equations with implicit terminal condition is studied.

  13. Preferences and Anticipations of Career Counseling: Comment of Galassi, Crace, Martin, James, and Wallace (1992).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tracey, Terence J.

    1992-01-01

    Criticizes previous article by Galassi, Crace, Martin, James, and Wallace on client anticipations and preferences regarding career counseling. Criticisms focus on theoretical grounding of the study, assessment format, data analysis, and data interpretation. (Author/NB)

  14. How Stakeholder Sensing and Anticipations Shape the Firm’s Strategic Response Capability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hallin, Carina Antonia; Andersen, Torben Juul; Ooi, Can-Seng

    We outline a strategic response capability framework drawing on cognitive neuroscience to explain stakeholder sensing and anticipations as essential input to environmental analysis. Stakeholders receive stimuli from ongoing interactions with the firm and thereby sense current environmental changes...

  15. Perturbation and Stability Analysis of the Multi-Anticipative Intelligent Driver Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xi-Qun; Xie, Wei-Jun; Shi, Jing; Shi, Qi-Xin

    This paper discusses three kinds of IDM car-following models that consider both the multi-anticipative behaviors and the reaction delays of drivers. Here, the multi-anticipation comes from two ways: (1) the driver is capable of evaluating the dynamics of several preceding vehicles, and (2) the autonomous vehicles can obtain the velocity and distance information of several preceding vehicles via inter-vehicle communications. In this paper, we study the stability of homogeneous traffic flow. The linear stability analysis indicates that the stable region will generally be enlarged by the multi-anticipative behaviors and reduced by the reaction delays. The temporal amplification and the spatial divergence of velocities for local perturbation are also studied, where the results further prove this conclusion. Simulation results also show that the multi-anticipative behaviors near the bottleneck will lead to a quicker backwards propagation of oscillations.

  16. Protecting against natural hazards - Information seeking behaviour in anticipation of severe weather events

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jeuring, Jelmer

    2011-01-01

    Protection against natural hazards - Information seeking behaviour in anticipation of severe weather events Severe weather events can have considerable impact on society, including tourism organisations and tourists. Providing accurate and timely information about possible risks due to environmental

  17. Anticipation of monetary and social reward differently activates mesolimbic brain structures in men and women

    OpenAIRE

    Spreckelmeyer, Katja N.; Krach, Sören; Kohls, Gregor; Rademacher, Lena; Irmak, Arda; Konrad, Kerstin; Kircher, Tilo; Gründer, Gerhard

    2009-01-01

    Motivation for goal-directed behaviour largely depends on the expected value of the anticipated reward. The aim of the present study was to examine how different levels of reward value are coded in the brain for two common forms of human reward: money and social approval. To account for gender differences 16 male and 16 female participants performed an incentive delay task expecting to win either money or positive social feedback. fMRI recording during the anticipation phase revealed proporti...

  18. Dietary fat and corticosterone levels are contributing factors to meal anticipation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Namvar, Sara; Gyte, Amy; Denn, Mark; Leighton, Brendan; Piggins, Hugh D

    2016-04-15

    Daily restricted access to food leads to the development of food anticipatory activity and metabolism, which depends upon an as yet unidentified food-entrainable oscillator(s). A premeal anticipatory peak in circulating hormones, including corticosterone is also elicited by daily restricted feeding. High-fat feeding is associated with elevated levels of corticosterone with disrupted circadian rhythms and a failure to develop robust meal anticipation. It is not clear whether the disrupted corticosterone rhythm, resulting from high-fat feeding contributes to attenuated meal anticipation in high-fat fed rats. Our aim was to better characterize meal anticipation in rats fed a low- or high-fat diet, and to better understand the role of corticosterone in this process. To this end, we utilized behavioral observations, hypothalamic c-Fos expression, and indirect calorimetry to assess meal entrainment. We also used the glucocorticoid receptor antagonist, RU486, to dissect out the role of corticosterone in meal anticipation in rats given daily access to a meal with different fat content. Restricted access to a low-fat diet led to robust meal anticipation, as well as entrainment of hypothalamic c-Fos expression, metabolism, and circulating corticosterone. These measures were significantly attenuated in response to a high-fat diet, and animals on this diet exhibited a postanticipatory rise in corticosterone. Interestingly, antagonism of glucocorticoid activity using RU486 attenuated meal anticipation in low-fat fed rats, but promoted meal anticipation in high-fat-fed rats. These findings suggest an important role for corticosterone in the regulation of meal anticipation in a manner dependent upon dietary fat content. PMID:26818054

  19. Conceptual Approximations to Juvenile Politics: Demodernization, Moral Anticipation and Life Politics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Eliécer Martínez Posada

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available The central thesis of this essay is the understanding of juvenile collective dynamics as political forms of demodernization, moral anticipation and life politics, viewing its academic productions as zombie categories, unable to understand the dynamics of new times and the juvenile collective dynamics, interpreted as the moral anticipation and distanciation from forms of social proscription or deviation label. Emphasis is placed on the alternative political dimension of the juvenile collective dynamics, noted as political forms of life.

  20. Calorie anticipation alters food intake after low-caloric but not high-caloric preloads

    OpenAIRE

    Hogenkamp, Pleunie; Cedernaes, Jonathan; Chapman, Colin; Vogel, Heike; Hjorth, Olof; Zarei, Sanaz; Lundberg, Lina; Brooks, Samantha; Dickson, Suzanne; Benedict, Christian; Schiöth, Helgi

    2013-01-01

    Objective Cognitive factors and anticipation are known to influence food intake. The current study examined the effect of anticipation and actual consumption of food on hormone (ghrelin, cortisol, and insulin) and glucose levels, appetite and ad libitum intake, to assess whether changes in hormone levels might explain the predicted differences in subsequent food intake. Design and Methods During four breakfast sessions, participants consumed a yogurt preload that was either low caloric (LC: 1...

  1. The Roles of Anticipated Guilt, Neutralisation and Advertising Appeals in Consumers' Ethical Decision-Making

    OpenAIRE

    Yang, Shu-Ting

    2008-01-01

    In this study, first, the discrepancy between consumers'ethical belief and ethical intention was reported in the ethical context of whether to use plastic carrier bags in supermarkets. Second, the anticipated guilt and consumers'acceptance of neutralization techniques were found to play the important roles in ethical consumers'decision making process. A framework, based on the theory of planned behavior, incorporated anticipated guilt as a mediator between consumers' neutralization and ethic...

  2. A 50 mm BORE, 13 TESLA SUPERCONDUCTING MAGNET EMPLOYING A PREREACTED MULTIFILAMENTARY Nb3Sn CONDUCTOR

    OpenAIRE

    Noto, K.; Watanabe, K; Muto, Y; M. Ikeda; Tanaka, Y.; Inoue, I; Ban, M

    1984-01-01

    Following the construction of two hybrid magnets, we intend to build up a third hybrid magnet which will produce about 30 T. A prereacted multifilamentary Nb3Sn conductor will be employed for the 12 T superconducting part of the hybrid. As a first step for the project, we have designed, constructed and tested a magnet which consists of 14 double-pancakes made of a prereacted multifilamentary Nb3Sn conductor and a back up coil made of a Nb-Ti conductor. The satisfactory results of the test on ...

  3. Modeling the electrical resistance of gold film conductors on uniaxially stretched elastomeric substrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Wenzhe; Görrn, Patrick; Wagner, Sigurd

    2011-05-01

    The electrical resistance of gold film conductors on polydimethyl siloxane substrates at stages of uniaxial stretching is measured and modeled. The surface area of a gold conductor is assumed constant during stretching so that the exposed substrate takes up all strain. Sheet resistances are calculated from frames of scanning electron micrographs by numerically solving for the electrical potentials of all pixels in a frame. These sheet resistances agree sufficiently well with values measured on the same conductors to give credence to the model of a stretchable network of gold links defined by microcracks.

  4. Effect of bending on critical current of react-and-jacket processed Nb3Sn conductor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A 'react-and-jacket' processed Nb3Sn conductor consisting of a Rutherford cable and aluminum-alloy jacket has been developed for large-scale magnets. This study investigates the effect of bending on the critical current of this conductor, which has a cross-section of 17 x 4.9 mm2. The conductor was wound in a three-turn coil and its critical current was measured. The measured critical currents can be fitted by an empirical formula that gives the strain dependence. (author)

  5. Anticipation of negative pictures enhances the P2 and P3 in their later recognition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huiyan Lin

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Anticipation of emotional pictures has been found to be relevant to the encoding of the pictures as well as their later recognition performance. However, it is as yet unknown whether anticipation modulates neural activity in the later recognition of emotional pictures. To address this issue, participants in the present study were asked to view emotional (negative or neutral pictures. The picture was preceded by a cue which indicated the emotional content of the picture in half of the trials (the anticipated condition and without any cues in the other half (the unanticipated condition. Subsequently, participants had to perform an unexpected old/new recognition task in which old and novel pictures were presented without any preceding cues. Electroencephalography (EEG data was recorded during the recognition phase. Event-related potential (ERP results showed that for negative pictures, P2 and P3 amplitudes were larger in the anticipated as compared to the unanticipated condition; whereas this anticipation effect was not shown for neutral pictures. The present findings suggest that anticipation of negative pictures may enhance neural activity in their later recognition.

  6. Fabrication and modeling of stretchable conductors for traumatic brain injury research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Wenzhe

    Stretchable electronics are an emergent class of electronics that can retain their electric functionality under large mechanical deformation, such as stretching, bending and compression. Like traditional electric circuits, stretchable electronics rely on electrical conductors, but in this specific instance the conductors must also be stretchable. This thesis research had three goals: (1) fabricate elastically stretchable conductors that retain their electrical conductance when stretched by tens of percent of strain; (2) understand the underlying stretching mechanism of gold conductors on polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) substrates; (3) produce a special device---a stretchable microelectrode array, which contains a matrix of stretchable conductors that enables a new approach to studying traumatic brain injury. We first developed and optimized the micro-fabrication process to make elastically stretchable thin gold film conductors on PDMS substrates. The conductors can retain electrical conduction while being stretched reversibly to 140% uniaxially and 16% radially. We further developed a fabrication process to encapsulate the conductors with either a commercially available photopatternable silicone (PPS) or with PDMS. 100 microm by 100 microm vias were patterned in the encapsulation layer to expose electrical contacts. PPS encapsulated conductors can be stretched uniaxially to 80%, and the PDMS encapsulated conductor can be stretched to ˜15%, without losing electrical conduction. We also introduced acrylate-based shape memory polymers (SMPs) as a new type of substrate for stretchable conductors. Their stiffness can be tuned by varying the monomer composition or by changing the ambient temperature. Thin gold film conductors deposited on pre-strained SMPs remain conductive when first stretched and then relaxed to their pre-strain value. Moreover, an SMP can also serve as a stretchable carrier to make pre-strained conductors on an overlying PDMS membrane. The resistance of

  7. Homogeneous current distribution experiment in a multi-laminated HTS tape conductor for a double-pancake coil of SMES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Atomura, N., E-mail: a.naoki@ecei.tohoku.ac.jp [Electrical Engineering Department, Graduate School, Tohoku University, 6-6-05 Aoba Aramaki, Aoba-ku, Sendai 980-8579 (Japan); Takahashi, T.; Chiba, Y.; Tsuda, M.; Hamajima, T. [Electrical Engineering Department, Graduate School, Tohoku University, 6-6-05 Aoba Aramaki, Aoba-ku, Sendai 980-8579 (Japan); Shikimachi, K.; Hirano, N.; Nagaya, S. [Chubu Electric Power Co., Inc., 1, Higashi-shincho, Higashi-ku, Nagoya 461-8680 (Japan)

    2011-11-15

    We propose a new method to control the current distribution in the laminated conductor. It's using transposition at the innermost layer of a double-pancake coil and adjusting the gaps between the laminated tapes. We design and examine a homogeneous current distribution coil wound with the multi-laminated (four times) HTS tape conductor. The multi-laminated conductor of a double-pancake coil can make the homogeneous current distribution. A multi-laminated HTS tape conductor wound into double-pancake coils has recently been used for large SMES. If the HTS tapes are simply laminated to form the conductor, the current distribution in the laminated tape conductor of the coil is not homogeneous because of the differences among all the tape inductances. Transposition of these tapes at the innermost or outermost layer of the coil is effective for homogeneous current distribution. However, this method would requires the same number of single-pancake coils as that of the HTS tape conductor, and hence the number of HTS tape conductors is restricted. In this paper, we propose a new method to control the current distribution in the laminated conductor using transposition at the innermost layer of a double-pancake coil and adjusting the gaps between the laminated tapes. We analyze the current distributions for multi-laminated HTS tape conductors for a double-pancake coil, and show the homogeneous current distribution of the laminated tape conductor. In order to verify the theory, we designed homogeneous current distribution coil wound with the multi-laminated (four times) HTS tape conductors by transposing them at the innermost layer and by adjusting the additional thickness 0.075 mm between the parallel conductors. We obtained the homogeneous current distribution in the tape conductor. The experimental data were in good agreement with the theory.

  8. (TMTTF)2Br: first organic superconductor in the (TMTTF)2X family

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Superconductivity in quasi-1-dimensional organic conductors is shown not to be confined to the selenium-containing (TMTSF)2X series (TMTSF=tetramethyltetraselenafulvalene). The title compound is shown to exhibit superconductivity in the 1 K range provided the spin density wave ground state is suppressed by the application of pressure, leading to conclusions about the origin of pairing strength in organic conductors. (orig.)

  9. (TMTTF)[sub 2]Br: first organic superconductor in the (TMTTF)[sub 2]X family

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balicas, L. (Paris-Sud Univ., 91 - Orsay (France). Lab. de Physique des Solides); Behnia, K. (Paris-Sud Univ., 91 - Orsay (France). Lab. de Physique des Solides); Kang, Woun (Ewha Womans Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of). Dept. of Physics); Auban-Senzier, P. (Paris-Sud Univ., 91 - Orsay (France). Lab. de Physique des Solides); Canadell, E. (Paris-11 Univ., 91 - Orsay (France). Lab. de Chimie Theorique); Jerome, D. (Paris-Sud Univ., 91 - Orsay (France). Lab. de Physique des Solides); Ribault, M. (Paris-Sud Univ., 91 - Orsay (France). Lab. de Physique des Solides); Fabre, J.M. (Montpellier-2 Univ., 34 (France). Lab. de Chimie Organique et Structurale)

    1994-10-01

    Superconductivity in quasi-1-dimensional organic conductors is shown not to be confined to the selenium-containing (TMTSF)[sub 2]X series (TMTSF=tetramethyltetraselenafulvalene). The title compound is shown to exhibit superconductivity in the 1 K range provided the spin density wave ground state is suppressed by the application of pressure, leading to conclusions about the origin of pairing strength in organic conductors. (orig.)

  10. Enhanced Mixed Electronic-Ionic Conductors through Cation Ordering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jacobson, Allan J. [Univ. of Houston, TX (United States); Morgan, Dane [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States); Grey, Clare [Stony Brook Univ., NY (United States)

    2014-08-31

    The performance of many energy conversion and storage devices depend on the properties of mixed ionic-electronic conducting (miec) materials. Mixed or ambipolar conductors simultaneously transport ions and electrons and provide the critical interface between chemical and electrical energy in devices such as fuel cells, ion transport membranes, and batteries. Enhancements in storage capacity, reversibility, power density and device lifetime all require new materials and a better understanding of the fundamentals of ambipolar conductivity and surface reactivity.The high temperature properties of the ordered perovksites AA’B2O5+x, where A = rare earth ion, Y and B = Ba, Sr were studied. The work was motivated by the high oxygen transport and surface exchange rates observed for members of this class of mixed ionic and electronic conductors. A combined experimental and computational approach, including structural, electrochemical, and transport characterization and modeling was used. The approach attacks the problem simultaneously at global (e.g., neutron diffraction and impedance spectroscopy), local (e.g., pair distribution function, nuclear magnetic resonance) and molecular (ab initio thermokinetic modeling) length scales. The objectives of the work were to understand how the cation and associated anion order lead to exceptional ionic and electronic transport properties and surface reactivity in AA’B2O5+x perovskites. A variety of compounds were studied by X-ray and neutron diffraction, measurements of thermodynamics and transport and theoretically. These included PrBaCo2O5+x and NdBaCo2O5+x, PrBaCo2-xFexO6- δ (x = 0, 0.5, 1.0, 1.5 and 2) and LnBaCoFeO6- δ (Ln = La, Pr, Nd, Sm, Eu and Gd), Sr3YCo4O10.5, YBaMn2O5+x. A0.5A’0.5BO3 (where A=Y, Sc, La, Ce, Pr, Nd, Pm, Sm; A’= Sr

  11. Fabrication and growth mechanism of YBCO coated conductors by TFA-MOD process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the development for the coated conductors, the trifluoroacetates-metal organic deposition (TFA-MOD) process using the multi-coating method was applied to form thicker YBa2Cu3Oy (YBCO) films on the CeO2 buffered IBAD(Zr2Gd2O7)/Hastelloy tape. As a result, in the 5 times coated film with 1.38 μm in thickness, the Jc and Ic values achieved to be 1.5 MA/cm2 and 210 A, respectively. Then, we fabricated a 1 m long YBCO tape by the continuous reel-to-reel system. As a result, we confirmed the tape to be homogeneous by XRD analysis. Additionally, we report the theoretical analysis of YBCO growth during post-annealing in the TFA-MOD process considering both the diffusion in the gas boundary layer and the growth kinetics at the precursor/YBCO interface. This model reveals a basic idea of the growth mechanism to define the steady state growth rate, and could explain the experimental results. In addition, it predicts that the growth rate could be estimated from the partial pressure of the water vapor of the inlet gas

  12. Critical current property in YBCO coated conductor fabricated by improved TFA-MOD process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We have investigated critical current property in YBa2Cu3O7-δ (YBCO) coated conductor fabricated by improved metal organic deposition using trifluoroacetates (TFA-MOD) process optimizing conditions such as solution compositions. The electric field vs. current density (E-J) characteristic measurement was carried out at wide range of temperature, T, and magnetic field, B. Critical current density, Jc, reached 3.8 x 1010 A/m2 at 77 K in self-field for 1.2 μm thick YBCO layer. In-field Jc is also improved by this new process. From the analysis of E-J characteristics, we have found out that the shape of statistical distribution of Jc in the new process becomes sharper than that of the previous one. These results indicate that the uniformity of YBCO layer is improved by the new process. Furthermore, analytical expression of E-J characteristics, which is based on a percolation model and a scaling law of the pinning force density, shows good agreement with the experimental results. This allows us to predict the critical current property at arbitrary conditions of T and B even if we could not have measured data. For example, it is predicted that Jc could be about 1 x 1010 A/m2 at 4.2 K and 30 T parallel to the c-axis.

  13. Large-area soft-imprinted nanowire networks as light trapping transparent conductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    van de Groep, Jorik; Gupta, Dhritiman; Verschuuren, Marc A.; M. Wienk, Martijn; Janssen, Rene A. J.; Polman, Albert

    2015-06-01

    Using soft-imprint nanolithography, we demonstrate large-area application of engineered two-dimensional polarization-independent networks of silver nanowires as transparent conducting electrodes. These networks have high optical transmittance, low electrical sheet resistance, and at the same time function as a photonic light-trapping structure enhancing optical absorption in the absorber layer of thin-film solar cells. We study the influence of nanowire width and pitch on the network transmittance and sheet resistance, and demonstrate improved performance compared to ITO. Next, we use P3HT-PCBM organic solar cells as a model system to show the realization of nanowire network based functional devices. Using angle-resolved external quantum efficiency measurements, we demonstrate engineered light trapping by coupling to guided modes in the thin absorber layer of the solar cell. Concurrent to the direct observation of controlled light trapping we observe a reduction in photocurrent as a result of increased reflection and parasitic absorption losses; such losses can be minimized by re-optimization of the NW network geometry. Together, these results demonstrate how engineered 2D NW networks can serve as multifunctional structures that unify the functions of a transparent conductor and a light trapping structure. These results are generic and can be applied to any type of optoelectronic device.

  14. Memory effect of photoinduced conductivity switching controlled by pulsed voltages in a molecular conductor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iimori, Toshifumi; Ohta, Nobuhiro [Research Institute for Electronic Science, Hokkaido University, Sapporo 001-0020 (Japan); Naito, Toshio, E-mail: nohta@es.hokudai.ac.j [Division of Chemistry, Graduate School of Science, Hokkaido University, Sapporo 060-0810 (Japan)

    2009-02-01

    Transient photoresponses of the electrical conductivity in single crystals of an organic conductor alpha-(BEDT-TTF){sub 2}I{sub 3} are studied in the charge-ordered insulating phase. Electrical conductivity switching is observed in the presence of pulsed voltages and synchronous irradiation of nanosecond laser pulse. Current in the photoirradiated crystal as a function of applied voltages shows a bistability in a certain range of voltage. For the initial triggering of the conductivity switching, not only pulsed voltages but also photoirradiation is necessary. A high conductivity state produced by the switching can be repeatedly recovered by applying the pulsed voltages without further photoirradiation even after the current has been reduced to zero. This observation indicates a memory effect of the photoinduced conductivity switching. The appearance of the memory effect depends on the temporal width of the pulsed voltages, which are applied at a rate of approximately 8 Hz. In the measurement using short pulse widths, the memory effect is not observed. This controllability of the memory effect with the pulse width is related to the bistability of the current with respect to the photoirradiation intensity. The shape of the hysteresis loop appearing in the current versus photoirradiation intensity curve can be varied by changing the pulse width.

  15. On the use of copper-based substrates for YBCO coated conductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It is well known that the recrystallization texture of heavily cold-rolled pure copper is almost completely cubic. However, one of the main drawbacks concerning the use of pure copper cube-textured substrates for YBCO coated conductor is the reduced secondary recrystallization temperature. The onset of secondary recrystallization (i.e., the occurrence of abnormal grains with unpredictable orientation) in pure copper substrate was observed within the typical temperature range required for buffer layer and YBCO processing (600–850 °C). To avoid the formation of abnormal grains the effect of both grain size adjustment (GSA) and recrystallization annealing was analyzed. The combined use of a small initial grain size and a recrystallization two-step annealing (TSA) drastically reduced the presence of abnormal grains in pure copper tapes. Another way to overcome the limitation imposed by the formation of abnormal grains is to deposit a buffer layer at temperatures where secondary recrystallization does not occur. For example, La2Zr2O7 (LZO) film with a high degree of epitaxy was grown by metal-organic decomposition (MOD) at 1000 °C on pure copper substrate. In several samples the substrate underwent secondary recrystallization. Our experiments indicate that the motion of grain boundaries occurring during secondary recrystallization process does not affect the quality of LZO film.

  16. Self-healing effect in strained multifilamentary Nb3Sn conductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Multifilamentary Nb3Sn conductors can be strained without damage much more than can bare Nb3Sn. The reason is a compression of the Nb3Sn filaments, which acts as a mechanical reserve, caused by a stronger thermal contraction of the bronze in the composite. By overloading the conductor at low temperature the compression of the Nb3Sn disappears. Afterwards the conductor is subject to damage upon further loading. Measurements of the critical current under strain showed that at least part of the compressive strain can be regained by warming the conductor to room temperature. Analysis of the measured low temperature stress-strain diagram revealed that plastic deformation of the bronze during warming up is the cause of this self-healing. (author)

  17. Stress-tuned conductor-polymer composite for use in sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, James E; Read, Douglas H

    2013-10-22

    A method for making a composite polymeric material with electrical conductivity determined by stress-tuning of the conductor-polymer composite, and sensors made with the stress-tuned conductor-polymer composite made by this method. Stress tuning is achieved by mixing a miscible liquid into the polymer precursor solution or by absorbing into the precursor solution a soluble compound from vapor in contact with the polymer precursor solution. The conductor may or may not be ordered by application of a magnetic field. The composite is formed by polymerization with the stress-tuning agent in the polymer matrix. The stress-tuning agent is removed following polymerization to produce a conductor-polymer composite with a stress field that depends on the amount of stress-tuning agent employed.

  18. Nonlinear optical constants of ionic conductors: a study based on the Sheik-Bahae equation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guided by the prediction of the bond fluctuation model of superionic conductors, the relation between the nonlinear optical constants and the ion transport properties in ionic conductors has been studied. Since the measured values of nonlinear optical constants in ionic conductors are very limited, they have been evaluated through the Sheik-Bahae equation. Using such values, it is shown that the activation energy of ion transport and the superionic transition temperature decrease with the increase of the nonlinear refractive index. It is also pointed out that the band gap energy and the linear refractive index in superionic conductors are relatively weakly correlated when compared with non-superionic materials. The development of a new field of study that could be called photoionics is suggested (copyright 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  19. Nonlinear optical constants of ionic conductors: a study based on the Sheik-Bahae equation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ikeda, Shosuke [HUREC, Kumamoto University, 860-8555 Kumamoto (Japan); Aniya, Masaru [Department of Physics, Graduate School of Science and Technology, Kumamoto University, 860-8555 Kumamoto (Japan)

    2012-12-15

    Guided by the prediction of the bond fluctuation model of superionic conductors, the relation between the nonlinear optical constants and the ion transport properties in ionic conductors has been studied. Since the measured values of nonlinear optical constants in ionic conductors are very limited, they have been evaluated through the Sheik-Bahae equation. Using such values, it is shown that the activation energy of ion transport and the superionic transition temperature decrease with the increase of the nonlinear refractive index. It is also pointed out that the band gap energy and the linear refractive index in superionic conductors are relatively weakly correlated when compared with non-superionic materials. The development of a new field of study that could be called photoionics is suggested (copyright 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  20. Test results of the ITER PF insert conductor short sample in SULTAN

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A short sample of the NbTi cable-in-conduit conductor (CICC) manufactured for the ITER PF insert coil has been tested in the SULTAN facility at CRPP. The short sample consists of two paired conductor sections, identical except for the sub-cable and outer wraps, which have been removed from one of the sections before jacketing. The test program for conductor and joint includes DC performance, cyclic load and AC loss, with a large number of voltage taps and Hall sensors for current distribution. At high operating current, the DC behavior is well below expectations, with temperature margin lower than specified in the ITER design criteria. The conductor without wraps has higher tolerance to current unbalance. The joint resistance is by far higher than targeted. (authors)

  1. Transient Thermal Analysis of Intense Proton Beam Loss on a Kicker Magnet Conductor Plate

    CERN Document Server

    Knaus, P

    2000-01-01

    The Super Proton Synchrotron SPS will be used as injector for the Large Hadron Collider LHC and needs adaptation to meet LHC requirements. The SPS injection kicker magnets MKP will undergo important modifications to comply with the requirements on magnetic field rise-time and ripple. The injection kicker presently installed has a return conductor of beryllium to minimise the risk of metal evaporation from its surface due to heating caused by beam impact. In the context of refurbishing the MKP to satisfy LHC requirements these conductors need replacement, preferably with a less delicate material. This article presents the transient thermal analysis of energy deposition caused by beam loss on the conductor plate. The expected time structure of the beam is taken into account. Simulations comparing different conductor materials have been performed, leading to the result that a significantly cheaper and fully inoffensive titanium alloy can satisfy the needs.

  2. Tester automatically checks insulation of individual conductors in multiple-strand cables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, J.; Vuckovich, M.

    1967-01-01

    Insulation tester checks multiple-strand electrical cables in nuclear rocket reactors. It has both manual and automatic capabilities and can check the insulation of a cable with 200 or more conductors in a few minutes.

  3. Simple method for high-performance stretchable composite conductors with entrapped air bubbles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Hyejin; Kim, Dae-Gon; Jang, Nam-Su; Kong, Jeong-Ho; Kim, Jong-Man

    2016-12-01

    We integrate air bubbles into conductive elastic composite-based stretchable conductors to make them mechanically less stiff and electrically more robust against physical deformations. A surfactant facilitates both the formation and maintenance of air bubbles inside the elastic composites, leading to a simple fabrication of bubble-entrapped stretchable conductors. Based on the unique bubble-entrapped architecture, the elastic properties are greatly enhanced and the resistance change in response to tensile strains can clearly be controlled. The bubble-entrapped conductor achieves ~80 % elongation at ~3.4 times lower stress and ~44.8 % smaller change in the electrical resistance at 80 % tensile strain, compared to bare conductor without air bubbles. PMID:26754940

  4. Quantitative impedance analysis of solid ionic conductors: Effects of electrode polarization

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Patil, D.; Shimakawa, K.; Zima, Vítězslav; Wágner, T.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 115, č. 14 (2014), "143707-1"-"143707-6". ISSN 0021-8979 Institutional support: RVO:61389013 Keywords : impedance * conductivity * ion conductors Subject RIV: CA - Inorganic Chemistry Impact factor: 2.183, year: 2014

  5. Health effects of electromagnetic field generated by lightning current pulses near down conductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The lightning current generates a time varying magnetic field near down conductors, when lightning strikes the connected Franklin-rod. The down conductors are mounted on the wall of buildings, where residential places can be situated. It is well known that the rapidly changing magnetic fields could generate dangerous eddy currents in the human body. If the duration and the gradient of the magnetic field were high enough, the peripheral nerves are excited. In this study, the authors introduce an improved model of the interaction of electromagnetic fields of lighting current near a down conductor with the human body. The interaction model has two parts: estimation of the magnetic fields surrounding the down conductor and evaluation of health effects of rapid changing magnetic fields on the human body.

  6. On the electrostatic equilibrium of charges and cavities in a conductor

    CERN Document Server

    Pathak, Aritro

    2016-01-01

    We consider a charged conductor of arbitrary shape, in electrostatic equilibrium, with one or more cavities inside it, and with fixed charges placed outside the conductors and inside the cavities. The field inside a particular cavity is then only due to charges within that cavity itself and to the surface charge induced on the surface of the same cavity. A similar statement holds for the exterior of the conductor. Although this is an elementary property of conductors, it is not a trivial statement, as explained in this article. Undergraduate texts in electrodynamics do not discuss at length or provide a complete argument for an important problem such as this. Two simple and complete proofs are provided in this note with the help of the standard electrostatic uniqueness theorems.

  7. Characterization of coated conductors by magneto-optical imaging, Raman spectroscopy, and electron microscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Argonne National Laboratory has established and implemented a coordinated set of characterization methods for coated-conductor specimens that can be applied in a manner compatible with further processing or utilization of the respective specimen. These characterization methods include measurements of superconductor transport properties, phase composition, microstructure, and epitaxy quality for YBCO-coated conductors that range in size up to multi-meters. Recent progress will be reported on the integrated application of Raman microscopy, magneto-optical imaging, and focused-ion-beam-assisted electron microscopy to a meter-length tape produced by SuperPower, Inc. This non-destructive, multifaceted characterization approach has allowed us to develop a seamless methodology for the interrogation of coated-conductor tapes during the course of sequential high-temperature treatments. The aim of this research effort is to identify performance-limiting defects, clarify their origin/cause, and prescribe methods to eliminate them during coated conductor manufacturing

  8. Skin effect mitigation in laser processed multi-walled carbon nanotube/copper conductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this study, laser-processed multi-walled carbon nanotube (MWCNT)/Cu conductors are introduced as potential passive components to mitigate the skin effect of Cu at high frequencies (0–10 MHz). Suppressed skin effect is observed in the MWCNT/Cu conductors compared to primitive Cu. At an AC frequency of 10 MHz, a maximum AC resistance reduction of 94% was observed in a MWCNT/Cu conductor after being irradiated at a laser power density of 189 W/cm2. The reduced skin effect in the MWCNT/Cu conductors is ascribed to the presence of MWCNT channels which are insensitive to AC frequencies. The laser irradiation process is observed to play a crucial role in reducing contact resistance at the MWCNT-Cu interfaces, removing impurities in MWCNTs, and densifying MWCNT films

  9. Skin effect mitigation in laser processed multi-walled carbon nanotube/copper conductors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keramatnejad, K.; Zhou, Y. S.; Gao, Y.; Rabiee Golgir, H.; Wang, M.; Lu, Y. F., E-mail: ylu2@unl.edu [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Nebraska-Lincoln, Lincoln, Nebraska 68588-0511 (United States); Jiang, L. [School of Mechanical Engineering, Beijing Institute of Technology, Beijing 100081 (China); Silvain, J.-F. [Institut de Chimie de la Matière Condensée de Bordeaux (ICMCB-CNRS) 87, Avenue du Docteur Albert Schweitzer F-33608 Pessac Cedex (France)

    2015-10-21

    In this study, laser-processed multi-walled carbon nanotube (MWCNT)/Cu conductors are introduced as potential passive components to mitigate the skin effect of Cu at high frequencies (0–10 MHz). Suppressed skin effect is observed in the MWCNT/Cu conductors compared to primitive Cu. At an AC frequency of 10 MHz, a maximum AC resistance reduction of 94% was observed in a MWCNT/Cu conductor after being irradiated at a laser power density of 189 W/cm{sup 2}. The reduced skin effect in the MWCNT/Cu conductors is ascribed to the presence of MWCNT channels which are insensitive to AC frequencies. The laser irradiation process is observed to play a crucial role in reducing contact resistance at the MWCNT-Cu interfaces, removing impurities in MWCNTs, and densifying MWCNT films.

  10. Pd layer on cube-textured substrates for MOD-TFA and PLD YBCO coated conductors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mancini, A [ENEA, Frascati Research Center, Via E Fermi 45, 00044 Frascati (Rome) (Italy); Celentano, G [ENEA, Frascati Research Center, Via E Fermi 45, 00044 Frascati (Rome) (Italy); Galluzzi, V [ENEA, Frascati Research Center, Via E Fermi 45, 00044 Frascati (Rome) (Italy); Rufoloni, A [ENEA, Frascati Research Center, Via E Fermi 45, 00044 Frascati (Rome) (Italy); Vannozzi, A [ENEA, Frascati Research Center, Via E Fermi 45, 00044 Frascati (Rome) (Italy); Augieri, A [ENEA, Frascati Research Center, Via E Fermi 45, 00044 Frascati (Rome) (Italy); Ciontea, L [Technical University of Cluj Napoca, Str. C Daicoviciu 15, 3400 Cluj-Napoca (Romania); Petrisor, T [Technical University of Cluj Napoca, Str. C Daicoviciu 15, 3400 Cluj-Napoca (Romania); Gambardella, U [INFN-LFN, Via E Fermi 40, 00044 Frascati (Rome) (Italy); Longo, G [ISM-CNR, Via Fosso del Cavaliere 100, 00133 Rome (Italy); Cricenti, A [ISM-CNR, Via Fosso del Cavaliere 100, 00133 Rome (Italy)

    2008-01-15

    Pd films were deposited on rolling assisted biaxially textured substrate (RABiTS) Ni-5 at.% W in order to exploit the Pd effect of the texture sharpening with respect to that of the substrate, for the development of YBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 7-x} (YBCO) coated conductors. The Pd sharpening effect was relevant in the out-of-plane direction where the reduction for the {omega}-scans' full width at half maximum (FWHM) ranged from 55 to 65%, depending on the substrate roughness. The obtained minimum values of the FWHM in the transverse rolling direction of the (002) Pd {omega}-scan and in the (111) Pd {phi}-scan were of about 2.5{sup 0} and 5{sup 0}, respectively. The CeO{sub 2}/YSZ/CeO{sub 2} (YSZ is Y{sub 2}O{sub 3}-stabilised ZrO{sub 2}) heterostructure of the buffer layer was developed by pulsed laser deposition (PLD). In order to transfer the sharp orientation of the Pd film, both the seed CeO{sub 2} layer and the YSZ layer were deposited at low temperatures (450 deg. C ), low enough to avoid Pd/Ni-W interdiffusion. The YBCO, films deposited by both PLD and metal-organic deposition (MOD) using metal trifluoroacetate acid (TFA), exhibited rolling direction (005) {omega}-scan and the (113) {phi}-scan FWHM values of about 2 deg. and 5 deg., respectively. In spite of the complete interdiffusion between Ni and Pd during the YBCO film deposition, the coated conductors exhibit good adherence, as well as a smooth and crack-free surface. A zero-resistance critical temperature (T{sub C0}) of 90.8 K for the MOD-TFA YBCO films and critical current-density (J{sub C}) up to 2.2 MA cm{sup -2} at 77 K and self-field for PLD YBCO films have been obtained.

  11. Altered brain activity during reward anticipation in pathological gambling and obsessive-compulsive disorder.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jung-Seok Choi

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Pathological gambling (PG and obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD are conceptualized as a behavioral addiction, with a dependency on repetitive gambling behavior and rewarding effects following compulsive behavior, respectively. However, no neuroimaging studies to date have examined reward circuitry during the anticipation phase of reward in PG compared with in OCD while considering repetitive gambling and compulsion as addictive behaviors. METHODS/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: To elucidate the neural activities specific to the anticipation phase of reward, we performed event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI in young adults with PG and compared them with those in patients with OCD and healthy controls. Fifteen male patients with PG, 13 patients with OCD, and 15 healthy controls, group-matched for age, gender, and IQ, participated in a monetary incentive delay task during fMRI scanning. Neural activation in the ventromedial caudate nucleus during anticipation of both gain and loss decreased in patients with PG compared with that in patients with OCD and healthy controls. Additionally, reduced activation in the anterior insula during anticipation of loss was observed in patients with PG compared with that in patients with OCD which was intermediate between that in OCD and healthy controls (healthy controls < PG < OCD, and a significant positive correlation between activity in the anterior insula and South Oaks Gambling Screen score was found in patients with PG. CONCLUSIONS: Decreased neural activity in the ventromedial caudate nucleus during anticipation may be a specific neurobiological feature for the pathophysiology of PG, distinguishing it from OCD and healthy controls. Correlation of anterior insular activity during loss anticipation with PG symptoms suggests that patients with PG fit the features of OCD associated with harm avoidance as PG symptoms deteriorate. Our findings have identified functional disparities and

  12. Metallographic autopsies of full-scale ITER prototype cable-in-conduit conductors after full cyclic testing in SULTAN: III. The importance of strand surface roughness in long twist pitch conductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanabria, Charlie; Lee, Peter J.; Starch, William; Devred, Arnaud; Larbalestier, David C.

    2016-07-01

    As part of the ITER conductor qualification process, 3 m long cable-in-conduit conductors (CICCs) were tested at the SULTAN facility under conditions simulating ITER operation so as to establish the current-sharing temperature, T cs, as a function of multiple full Lorentz force loading cycles. After a comprehensive evaluation of both the toroidal field (TF) and the central solenoid (CS) conductors, it was found that T cs degradation was common in long twist pitch TF conductors while short twist pitch CS conductors showed some T cs increase. However, one kind of TF conductors containing superconducting strand fabricated by the Bochvar Institute of Inorganic Materials (VNIINM) avoided T cs degradation despite having long twist pitch. In our earlier metallographic autopsies of long and short twist pitch CS conductors, we observed a substantially greater transverse strand movement under Lorentz force loading for long twist pitch conductors, while short twist pitch conductors had negligible transverse movement. With help from the literature, we concluded that the transverse movement was not the source of T cs degradation but rather an increase of the compressive strain in the Nb3Sn filaments possibly induced by longitudinal movement of the wires. Like all TF conductors this TF VNIINM conductor showed large transverse motions under Lorentz force loading, but T cs actually increased, as in all short twist pitch CS conductors. We here propose that the high surface roughness of the VNIINM strand may be responsible for the suppression of the compressive strain enhancement (characteristic of long twist pitch conductors). It appears that increasing strand surface roughness could improve the performance of long twist pitch CICCs.

  13. Reliability studies on printed conductors on flexible substrates under cyclic bending

    OpenAIRE

    Happonen, T. (Tuomas)

    2016-01-01

    Abstract This thesis investigates the reliability of printed conductors on flexible substrates under cyclic bending. The topic is approached by studying the effects of several key design parameters on the bending lifetime of printed conductors under dynamic loading. In this thesis, the test specimens with various cross-sectional geometries were printed on different plastic and paper substrates. The test samples were fabricated with two printing methods, silk screen and roll-to-roll pri...

  14. Creep testing of overhead line conductors; Essais de fluage des conducteurs de lignes aeriennes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salomon, E.

    1997-12-31

    Two creep test rigs have been installed in a thermally-stable chamber, one operating at a temperature of 20 C, the second between 20 and 100 C. Under weight loading, deformations are measured over a conductor length of 100 times its diameter. Conductors made of aluminium-steel and homogenous aluminium alloy have been tested during a series of 6 times 1000 hours. Exponential creep relationships are derived from the results

  15. A Study of Students Attitudes towards the Choral Conductors Rehearsal Behaviours in Four Universities in Malaysia

    OpenAIRE

    Wong Kwan Yie

    2014-01-01

    This study was to survey university choral students regarding their views towards the choral conductor’s rehearsal behaviours utilized in the rehearsal setting by ranking the behaviours in the order of importance to them and to investigate the attitudes of university choral students towards their choral rehearsal. The author also surveyed conductors about the value they place upon conductor’s rehearsal behaviours in the choral rehearsal. A sample of 111 choral students and four conductors fro...

  16. Self-consistent modelling of nonlinear dynamic ESM microscopy in mixed ionic-electronic conductors

    OpenAIRE

    Varenyk, O. V.; Silibin, M. V.; D.A. Kiselev; Eliseev, E. A.; Kalinin, S. V.; Morozovska, A. N.

    2014-01-01

    Dynamic Electrochemical Strain Microscopy (ESM) response of mixed ionic-electronic conductors is analysed in the framework of the Thomas-Fermi screening theory and Vegard law with accounting of the steric effects. The emergence of dynamic charge waves and nonlinear deformation of the surface as result of applying probing voltage is numerically explored. 2D maps of the strain and concentration distribution across the mixed ionic-electronic conductor and bias-induced surface displacements for E...

  17. Simplified Calculation of Maximum Tensions of Split Conductors at Short Circuit

    OpenAIRE

    I. I. Sergey; A. P. Andrukevich

    2008-01-01

    A modified method for simplified calculation of the first maximum tension occurring in the conductors of split phase at short circuit has been developed in the paper. The paper contains evaluation of simplified calculation reliability while using calculative experiment in accordance with FAZA computer program and experimental data of foreign researchers. Graphs for determination of conductor bending angle while calculating maximum tension have been obtained in the paper and they permit signif...

  18. Simplified Calculation of Maximum Tensions of Split Conductors at Short Circuit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. I. Sergey

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available A modified method for simplified calculation of the first maximum tension occurring in the conductors of split phase at short circuit has been developed in the paper. The paper contains evaluation of simplified calculation reliability while using calculative experiment in accordance with FAZA computer program and experimental data of foreign researchers. Graphs for determination of conductor bending angle while calculating maximum tension have been obtained in the paper and they permit significantly to accelerate the process of calculation.

  19. Development of long YBCO coated conductors by multiple-stage CVD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We have developed YBCO coated conductors by Multiple-Stage Chemical Vapor Deposition (MS-CVD) technique, which can make YBCO layer with high deposition rate and easy to scale up by increasing the number of reactors. We confirmed that the high speed production by the twelve-stage CVD equipment, which was designed to scale up CVD process, did not affect the property of YBCO coated conductors and that the YBCO coated conductors with I c of 100 A-class could be fabricated by the high speed production of 10 m/h. In order to demonstrate the advantage of the MS-CVD technique for longer YBCO coated conductors, we have also fabricated the 92-m-long YBCO conductor on an IBAD substrate. The YBCO conductor was fabricated with a tape moving at the speed of 25 m/h and was deposited several times to control the thickness of the YBCO films. The end-to-end I c of the 92-m-long YBCO tape was measured by criterion of 1 μV/cm and was 96 A (J c of 1.9 MA/cm2). We have successfully realized the fabrication of the YBCO coated conductor with the practical properties of 100 A-class in I c and 100 m-class in length. Recently, we have also obtained high I c of 227 A (J c of 2.3 MA/cm2) in a short sample of a YBCO conductor on IBAD substrates by optimization of the fabrication process

  20. New Development in the Preparation of Micro/Nano-Wires of Molecular (Magnetic) Conductors

    OpenAIRE

    Lydie Valade; Hisashi Tanaka; Dominique de Caro; Toyonari Sugimoto

    2010-01-01

    A lot of molecular (magnetic) conductors are prepared largely using charge-transfer (CT) salts of donor molecules with acceptor molecules or nonmagnetic or magnetic anions such as metal halides and oxides; their CT salts are usually obtained as bulk crystals, which are used to elucidate the electrical conducting (magnetic) properties. In contrast, a small number of micro/nano-crystals of the molecular (magnetic) conductors, especially micro/nano-wires, are known, of which highly conducting na...

  1. Analysis of Cable-in-Conduit Conductors' DC Performance in Light of Strand's Experimental Properties

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TAN Yunfei; WENG Peide; LIU Fang; LI Shaolei

    2007-01-01

    Conductor qualification will be carried out with four Cable-in-Conduit Conductor (CICC) samples made of superconducting strands. The direct current (DC) performance of these samples will be tested in the SULTAN facility. The critical current densities of the strands can be well simulated by empirical equations. In this paper, a model is illustrated to predict the DC behaviour of the cable in light of the single strand's experimental properties. The simulation results were compared with experimental results.

  2. Aerodynamic and structural modeling for vortex-excited vibrations in bundled conductors

    OpenAIRE

    Verma, Himanshu

    2009-01-01

    Wind excited vibrations generated by the vortex shedding are very common in high-voltage overhead transmission lines. Although such vibrations are barely perceptible due to their low amplitudes (less than a conductor diameter), controlling them, however, is extremely important since they may lead to conductor fatigue. Mathematical models are therefore necessary for the computation of these vibrations, not only to evaluate the risk of potential damage to the transmission line but also for stud...

  3. Fluid dynamics of supercritical helium within cable-in-conduit conductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vansciver, S. W.

    1992-07-01

    The enclosed report summarizes work carried out under DOE/MFE support during the past four years. Emphasis is placed on progress within the last year. Results of experiments on pressure drop and heat transfer within several cable-in-conduit conductors are described. These results are compared to models for flow in similar geometrics. The work provides a basis for design of magnets using the CIC conductor concept.

  4. A comparative analysis of graphene oxide films as proton conductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smirnov, V. A.; Denisov, N. N.; Dremova, N. N.; Vol'fkovich, Y. M.; Rychagov, A. Y.; Sosenkin, V. E.; Belay, K. G.; Gutsev, G. L.; Shulga, N. Yu.; Shulga, Y. M.

    2014-12-01

    The electrical conductivity of graphene oxide (GO) films in vapors of water and acid solutions is found to be close to the conductivity of a film formed after drying the solution of phenol-2,4-disulfonic acid in polyvinyl alcohol, which is known to be a proton conductor. We found that the conductivity of a GO film in vapors of the H2O-H2SO4 electrolyte possesses a sharp maximum at ~1 % by weight of sulfuric acid. The highest conductivity of GO films can be expected when placing the films over acid vapors where the acid concentration is essentially lower than in the acid solutions at their maximum conductivity. Since the conductivity of the H2O-H2SO4 electrolyte itself has a maximum at ~30 % by weight of sulfuric acid, the use of intermediate concentrations of H2SO4 is recommended in practical applications. The GO films permeated with water or acid solution in water are expected to possess the proton-exchange properties similar to those of other proton-exchanging membranes.

  5. Volume conductor model of transcutaneous electrical stimulation with kilohertz signals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medina, Leonel E.; Grill, Warren M.

    2014-12-01

    Objective. Incorporating high-frequency components in transcutaneous electrical stimulation (TES) waveforms may make it possible to stimulate deeper nerve fibers since the impedance of tissue declines with increasing frequency. However, the mechanisms of high-frequency TES remain largely unexplored. We investigated the properties of TES with frequencies beyond those typically used in neural stimulation. Approach. We implemented a multilayer volume conductor model including dispersion and capacitive effects, coupled to a cable model of a nerve fiber. We simulated voltage- and current-controlled transcutaneous stimulation, and quantified the effects of frequency on the distribution of potentials and fiber excitation. We also quantified the effects of a novel transdermal amplitude modulated signal (TAMS) consisting of a non-zero offset sinusoidal carrier modulated by a square-pulse train. Main results. The model revealed that high-frequency signals generated larger potentials at depth than did low frequencies, but this did not translate into lower stimulation thresholds. Both TAMS and conventional rectangular pulses activated more superficial fibers in addition to the deeper, target fibers, and at no frequency did we observe an inversion of the strength-distance relationship. Current regulated stimulation was more strongly influenced by fiber depth, whereas voltage regulated stimulation was more strongly influenced by skin thickness. Finally, our model reproduced the threshold-frequency relationship of experimentally measured motor thresholds. Significance. The model may be used for prediction of motor thresholds in TES, and contributes to the understanding of high-frequency TES.

  6. Eddy damping effect of additional conductors in superconducting levitation systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Zhao-Fei; Gou, Xiao-Fan

    2015-12-01

    Passive superconducting levitation systems consisting of a high temperature superconductor (HTSC) and a permanent magnet (PM) have demonstrated several fascinating applications such as the maglev system, flywheel energy storage. Generally, for the HTSC-PM levitation system, the HTSC with higher critical current density Jc can obtain larger magnetic force to make the PM levitate over the HTSC (or suspended below the HTSC), however, the process of the vibration of the levitated PM, provides very limited inherent damping (essentially hysteresis). To improve the dynamic stability of the levitated PM, eddy damping of additional conductors can be considered as the most simple and effective approach. In this article, for the HTSC-PM levitation system with an additional copper damper attached to the HTSC, we numerically and comprehensively investigated the damping coefficient c, damping ratio, Joule heating of the copper damper, and the vibration frequency of the PM as well. Furthermore, we comparatively studied four different arrangements of the copper damper, on the comprehensive analyzed the damping effect, efficiency (defined by c/VCu, in which VCu is the volume of the damper) and Joule heating, and finally presented the most advisable arrangement.

  7. Aluminum alloy production for the reinforcement of the CMS conductor

    CERN Document Server

    Sequeira-Lopes-Tavares, S; Campi, D; Curé, B; Horváth, I L; Riboni, P; Sgobba, Stefano; Smith, R P

    2002-01-01

    The Compact Muon Solenoid (CMS) is one of the general-purpose detectors to be provided for the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) project at CERN. The design field of the CMS superconducting magnet is 4 T, the magnetic length is 12.5 m and the free bore is 6 m. To reinforce the high-purity (99.998%) Al-stabilized conductor of the magnet against the magnetic loadings experienced during operation at 4.2 K, two continuous sections of Al-alloy (AA) reinforcement are Electron Beam (EB) welded to it. The reinforcements have a section of 24*18 mm and are produced in continuous 2.55 km lengths. The alloy EN AW-6082 has been selected for the reinforcement due to its excellent extrudability, high strength in the precipitation hardened states, high toughness and strength at cryogenic temperature and good EB weldability. Each of the continuous lengths of the reinforcement is extruded billet on billet and press quenched on-line from the extrusion temperature in an industrial extrusion plant. In order to insure the ready EB welda...

  8. Coupling losses of fusion conductors: Influence of some design parameters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Superconductors for fusion are subjected to fast variations of magnetic fields. The effective diameter of the strands is of great importance to limit the level of losses appearing during theses variations. Another less controlled characteristic also plays a major role: the conductor time constant. A model is given to calculate this time constant. The void fraction, the twist pitches associated to the different stages, the chromium coating and the internal resistive barriers inside the strand influence greatly this time constant. The influence of the different parameters is discussed through practical considerations depending on the kind of cable considered. This model is applied to measurements performed at the University of Twente and at CEA on Nb3Sn subcables made of twisted strands relevant for ITER. The application of this model is also discussed for a typical NbTi strand for fusion application developed by GEC AISA. As a matter of fact, the NbTi is again present in the ITER design for most of the poloidal field coils, which represents hundreds tons of material

  9. Study of superionic conductors dynamics by continued diffusion model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The superionic conductors form a special category of solids characterized by their remarkable transport properties and are in general, Simplified as being constituted by the superposition of two inter penetrable crystal lattices. The ions of the first one form a rigid structure through which the other ions of opposite charge diffuse in quasi-liquid way. Basing on experimental and theoretical arguments, it was proved necessary to adopt a model of N-body continued diffusion which the basic theory is that of brownian movement. This thesis deals with the study of the dynamic structure factor S (q,w) and its line half width by the method of development in continued fractions issued from the Mori theory. With regard to the analytical difficulty met at the time of the static correlations functions calculation, the homogeneous approximation was applied and the notion of effective strength was introduced. So, it was obtained general relationships which give the static correlation functions, only in term of the static structure factor of liquids and effective potential. 98 refs.; 22 figs. (F.M.)

  10. The superconducting strand for the CMS solenoid conductor

    CERN Document Server

    Curé, B; Campi, D; Goodrich, L F; Horváth, I L; Kircher, F; Liikamaa, R; Seppälä, J; Smith, R P; Teuho, J; Vieillard, L

    2002-01-01

    The Compact Muon Solenoid (CMS) is one of the general-purpose detectors to be provided for the LHC project at CERN. The design field of the CMS superconducting magnet is 4 T, the magnetic length is 12.5 m and the free bore is 6 m. Approximately 2000 km of superconducting strand is under procurement for the conductor of the CMS superconducting solenoid. Each strand length is required to be an integral multiple of 2.75 km. The strand is composed of copper- stabilized multifilamentary Nb-Ti with Nb barrier. Individual strands are identified by distinctive patterns of Nb-Ti filaments selected during stacking of the monofilaments. The statistics of piece length, measurements of I/sub c/, n-value, copper RRR, (Cu+Nb)/Nb-Ti ratio, as well as the results of independent cross checks of these quantities, are presented. A study was performed on the CMS strands to investigate the critical current degradation due to various heat treatments. The degradation versus annealing temperature and duration are reported. (4 refs).

  11. Development of coated conductors by inclined substrate deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balachandran, U.; Ma, B.; Li, M.; Fisher, B. L.; Koritala, R. E.; Miller, D. J.; Dorris, S. E.

    2003-10-01

    Inclined substrate deposition (ISD) offers the potential for rapid production of high-quality biaxially textured buffer layers suitable for YBa 2Cu 3O 7- δ (YBCO)-coated conductors. We have grown biaxially textured magnesium oxide (MgO) films on Hastelloy C276 (HC) substrates by ISD at deposition rates of 20-100 Å/s. Scanning electron microscopy of the ISD MgO films showed columnar grain structures with a roof-tile-shaped surface. X-ray pole figure analysis revealed that the c-axis of the ISD MgO films is titled at an angle ≈32° from the substrate normal. A small full-width at half maximum of ≈9° was observed for the φ-scan of MgO films. YBCO films were grown on ISD MgO buffered HC substrates by pulsed laser deposition and were determined to be biaxially aligned with the c-axis parallel to the substrate normal. The orientation relationship between the ISD template and the top YBCO film was investigated by X-ray pole figure analysis and transmission electron microscopy. A transport critical current density of Jc=5.5×10 5 A/cm 2 at 77 K in self-field was measured on a YBCO film that was 0.46-μm thick, 4-mm wide, 10-mm long.

  12. Development of coated conductors by inclined substrate deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inclined substrate deposition (ISD) offers the potential for rapid production of high-quality biaxially textured buffer layers suitable for YBa2Cu3O7-δ (YBCO)-coated conductors. We have grown biaxially textured magnesium oxide (MgO) films on Hastelloy C276 (HC) substrates by ISD at deposition rates of 20-100 Angst. Scanning electron microscopy of the ISD MgO films showed columnar grain structures with a roof-tile-shaped surface. X-ray pole figure analysis revealed that the c-axis of the ISD MgO films is titled at an angle ∼32 deg. from the substrate normal. A small full-width at half maximum of ∼9 deg. was observed for the phi-scan of MgO films. YBCO films were grown on ISD MgO buffered HC substrates by pulsed laser deposition and were determined to be biaxially aligned with the c-axis parallel to the substrate normal. The orientation relationship between the ISD template and the top YBCO film was investigated by X-ray pole figure analysis and transmission electron microscopy. A transport critical current density of Jc=5.5x105 A/cm2 at 77 K in self-field was measured on a YBCO film that was 0.46-μm thick, 4-mm wide, 10-mm long

  13. Development of coated conductors by inclined substrate deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balachandran, U.; Ma, B.; Li, M.; Fisher, B.L.; Koritala, R.E.; Miller, D.J.; Dorris, S.E

    2003-10-15

    Inclined substrate deposition (ISD) offers the potential for rapid production of high-quality biaxially textured buffer layers suitable for YBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 7-{delta}} (YBCO)-coated conductors. We have grown biaxially textured magnesium oxide (MgO) films on Hastelloy C276 (HC) substrates by ISD at deposition rates of 20-100 Angst. Scanning electron microscopy of the ISD MgO films showed columnar grain structures with a roof-tile-shaped surface. X-ray pole figure analysis revealed that the c-axis of the ISD MgO films is titled at an angle {approx}32 deg. from the substrate normal. A small full-width at half maximum of {approx}9 deg. was observed for the phi-scan of MgO films. YBCO films were grown on ISD MgO buffered HC substrates by pulsed laser deposition and were determined to be biaxially aligned with the c-axis parallel to the substrate normal. The orientation relationship between the ISD template and the top YBCO film was investigated by X-ray pole figure analysis and transmission electron microscopy. A transport critical current density of J{sub c}=5.5x10{sup 5} A/cm{sup 2} at 77 K in self-field was measured on a YBCO film that was 0.46-{mu}m thick, 4-mm wide, 10-mm long.

  14. Large Scale Assembly and Characterization of BI-2223 HTS Conductors

    CERN Document Server

    Ballarino, Amalia; Mathot, Serge; Taylor, T; Brambilla, R

    2007-01-01

    The powering of the LHC machine requires more than 1000 High Temperature Superconducting (HTS) current leads. These leads contain, at their cold end, HTS conductors made of stacks of Bi-2223 tape with gold-doped silver matrix. CERN specified and purchased 31 km of this material, which was delivered on spools in unit lengths of 100 to 300 m. On reception the tape was inspected, cut into short length and vacuum soldered into stacks. All stacks were characterized in liquid nitrogen using a measuring procedure and set-up specifically developed for this purpose. Contact resistance values and critical currents at different electric field criteria were measured, from which the n-values have been extrapolated from the experimental V-I characteristics. This paper reports on the assembly and electrical characterization (up to 800 A) of more than ten thousand Bi-2223 stacks. Three types of stack were made from tape from two manufacturers. The assembly and soldering procedures and the set-up for the series electrical cha...

  15. An A15 conductor design and its implications for the NET-II TF coils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper describes the results of studies for a NET toroidal field coil conductor carried out at KfK-Karlsruhe. The conductor concept is based on the same design principles as used in the Euratom-LCT coil, well proven in all conductor tests and the domestic tests of the coil. These principles are applied to the peculiarities of Nb3Sn for a rated current of 20 kA at 12 T, taking into account ac losses and nuclear heating. A flat Nb3Sn cable is soldered to a surrounding CuNi tape after reaction. Around this rectangular conductor core, Cu profiles are cabled on distance by the Roebel-process and subsequently soldered onto the CuNi tape. The whole system is surrounded by a steel conduit. The conductor data result from electric, thermohydraulic and stability calculations as well as mechanical evaluations. Expected fabrication processes are discussed, and measurements on a first simplified subsize conductor model are presented. (orig.)

  16. Recent developments in fabrication and properties of Ag-clad BSCCO conductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Long-length mono- and multifilament Ag-clad BSCCO (Bi-Sr-Ca-Cu-O) superconductors with consistent current transport properties were fabricated by the powder-in-tube method. Ic of 42 A was recorded in short lengths of 37 filament conductors. Jc up to 12,000 A/cm2 was observed at 77 K in 124-m-long monocore andd 850-m-long multifilament conductors. A high-Tc magnet, fabricated from 770 m of monofilament conductor, generated a high field of ∼1 T at 4.2 K in a field of ∼20 T. In-situ strain tests showed that multifilament conductors have better strain tolerance than monofilament conductors. In-situ bending of the monofilament conductors indicate that their irreversible strain limit increases with decreasing superconductor/Ag ratio. Superconducting joints and multilayer Ag/superconductor composites have been fabricated by chemical etching. Typical Ic through such joints was 23 A, or ∼70% of that carried by normal monofilament tapes and ∼60% of that carried by multifilament tapes. Preliminary results with multilayer tapes show that continuous Ag reinforcement of the BSCCO core improves strain tolerance of the tapes so they can carry 90% of their initial I2 at 1% bend strain ins pite of a higher superconductor/Ag ratio than unreinforced tapes

  17. Manufacturing and test of 2G-HTS coils for rotating machines: Challenges, conductor requirements, realization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We investigate the use of 2nd-generation High-Temperature Superconductors (2G-HTSs) in the rotors of electrical motors and generators. For these devices the conductor must be wound into robust impregnated coils, which are operated in vacuum at temperatures around 30 K, in strong magnetic fields of about 2T. Differences in thermal contraction between the coil former, conductor constituents, impregnation resin, bandage and heat-sink materials (assembled at room temperature) cause mechanical stresses at operating temperature. Rotating-machine operation adds Lorentz forces and challenging centripetal accelerations up to thousands of g. Second generation-HTS conductors withstand large tensile stresses in axial direction and compression in normal direction. However, shear stresses, axial compression, and tension normal to the conductor can cause degradation in superconducting properties. Such stresses can be mitigated by correct choice of materials, coil lay-out and manufacturing process. A certain stress level will remain, which the conductor must withstand. We have manufactured many impregnated round and race-track coils, using different 2G-HTS conductors, and tested them at temperatures from 25 K to 77 K. Degradation of the superconductor in early coils was traced to the mentioned differences in thermal contraction, and was completely avoided in coils produced later. We will discuss appropriate coil-winding techniques to assure robust and reliable superconductor performance.

  18. The effect of volume conductor modeling on the estimation of cardiac vectors in fetal magnetocardiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Previous studies based on fetal magnetocardiographic (fMCG) recordings used simplified volume conductor models to estimate the fetal cardiac vector as an unequivocal measure of the cardiac source strength. However, the effect of simplified volume conductor modeling on the accuracy of the fMCG inverse solution remains largely unknown. Aiming to determine the sensitivity of the source estimators to the details of the volume conductor model, we performed simulations using fetal–maternal anatomical information from ultrasound images obtained in 20 pregnant women in various stages of pregnancy. The magnetic field produced by a cardiac source model was computed using the boundary-element method for a piecewise homogeneous volume conductor with three nested compartments (fetal body, amniotic fluid and maternal abdomen) of different electrical conductivities. For late gestation, we also considered the case of a fourth highly insulating layer of vernix caseosa covering the fetus. The errors introduced for simplified volume conductors were assessed by comparing the reconstruction results obtained with realistic versus spherically symmetric models. Our study demonstrates the significant effect of simplified volume conductor modeling, resulting mainly in an underestimation of the cardiac vector magnitude and low goodness-of-fit. These findings are confirmed by the analysis of real fMCG data recorded in mid-gestation. (paper)

  19. Skin electric explosion in double-layer conductors with a low-conductivity deposited layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Datsko, I. M.; Labetskaya, N. A.; Chaikovsky, S. A.; Shugurov, V. V.

    2016-06-01

    The experiments on explosion of cylindrical conductors aimed at comparison of plasma formation during skin explosion of homogeneous and double-layer conductors with an external layer with a lower conductivity are carried out on a high-current MIG generator (current amplitude up to 2.5 MA and current rise time 100 ns). The generator is loaded with cylindrical copper conductors with a diameter of 3 mm on the cathode part of which a titanium layer of thickness 20, 50, and 80 μm is deposited in vacuum. This type of loading makes it possible to compare the behaviors of the homogeneous and double-layer conductors in identical conditions. It is shown that using the double-layer structure of the conductor with an external layer of thickness 20-80 μm with a lower conductivity, which is obtained by vacuum arc deposition, higher values of magnetic induction (as compared to homogeneous conductor) can be attained on its surface prior to plasma formation and spread.

  20. Powder-in-tube (PIT) $Nb_{3}Sn$ conductors for high-field magnets

    CERN Document Server

    Lindenhovius, J L H; den Ouden, A; Wessel, W A J; ten Kate, H H J

    2000-01-01

    New Nb/sub 3/Sn conductors, based on the powder-in-tube (PIT) process, have been developed for application in accelerator magnets and high-field solenoids. For application in accelerator magnets, SMI has developed a binary 504 filament PIT conductor by optimizing the manufacturing process and adjustment of the conductor lay-out. It uniquely combines a non-copper current density of 2680 A/mm/sup 2/@10 T with an effective filament diameter of about 20 mu m. This binary conductor may be used in a 10 T, wide bore model separator dipole magnet for the LHC, which is being developed by a collaboration of the University of Twente and CERN. A ternary (Nb/7.5wt%Ta)/sub 3/Sn conductor containing 37 filaments is particularly suited for application in extremely high-field superconducting solenoids. This wire features a copper content of 43%, a non-copper current density of 217 A/mm/sup 2/@20 T and a B/sub c2/ of 25.6 T. The main issues and the experimental results of the development program of PIT Nb/sub 3/Sn conductors a...

  1. Neural Activation during Anticipation of Near Pain-Threshold Stimulation among the Pain-Fearful.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Zhou; Jackson, Todd; Huang, Chengzhi

    2016-01-01

    Fear of pain (FOP) can increase risk for chronic pain and disability but little is known about corresponding neural responses in anticipation of potential pain. In this study, more (10 women, 6 men) and less (7 women, 6 men) pain-fearful groups underwent whole-brain functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) during anticipation of near pain-threshold stimulation. Groups did not differ in the proportion of stimuli judged to be painful but pain-fearful participants reported significantly more state fear prior to stimulus exposure. Within the entire sample, stronger activation was found in several pain perception regions (e.g., bilateral insula, midcingulate cortex (MCC), thalamus, superior frontal gyrus) and visual areas linked to decoding stimulus valences (inferior orbital cortex) during anticipation of "painful" stimuli. Between groups and correlation analyses indicated pain-fearful participants experienced comparatively more activity in regions implicated in evaluating potential threats and processing negative emotions during anticipation (i.e., MCC, mid occipital cortex, superior temporal pole), though group differences were not apparent in most so-called "pain matrix" regions. In sum, trait- and task-based FOP is associated with enhanced responsiveness in regions involved in threat processing and negative affect during anticipation of potentially painful stimulation. PMID:27489536

  2. Neural signal during immediate reward anticipation in schizophrenia: Relationship to real-world motivation and function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karuna Subramaniam

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Amotivation in schizophrenia is a central predictor of poor functioning, and is thought to occur due to deficits in anticipating future rewards, suggesting that impairments in anticipating pleasure can contribute to functional disability in schizophrenia. In healthy comparison (HC participants, reward anticipation is associated with activity in frontal–striatal networks. By contrast, schizophrenia (SZ participants show hypoactivation within these frontal–striatal networks during this motivated anticipatory brain state. Here, we examined neural activation in SZ and HC participants during the anticipatory phase of stimuli that predicted immediate upcoming reward and punishment, and during the feedback/outcome phase, in relation to trait measures of hedonic pleasure and real-world functional capacity. SZ patients showed hypoactivation in ventral striatum during reward anticipation. Additionally, we found distinct differences between HC and SZ groups in their association between reward-related immediate anticipatory neural activity and their reported experience of pleasure. HC participants recruited reward-related regions in striatum that significantly correlated with subjective consummatory pleasure, while SZ patients revealed activation in attention-related regions, such as the IPL, which correlated with consummatory pleasure and functional capacity. These findings may suggest that SZ patients activate compensatory attention processes during anticipation of immediate upcoming rewards, which likely contribute to their functional capacity in daily life.

  3. The effect of current and anticipated body pride and shame on dietary restraint and caloric intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Troop, Nicholas A

    2016-01-01

    Studies have established a link between body shame and eating disorder symptoms and behaviours. However, few have differentiated current feelings of body shame from those anticipated with weight change and none has examined the effects of these on subsequent eating behaviour. In this paper, a measure of body pride and shame was developed (Study 1) for the purposes of using it in a subsequent longitudinal study (Study 2). Two hundred and forty two women were recruited from a university and the general population and participated in Study 1, completing the Body Pride and Shame (BPS) scale either online or offline, as well as a number of validating measures. In Study 2, 40 female students completed the BPS, as well as a measure of dietary restraint, and subsequently recorded their dietary intake everyday for the next seven days. Study 1 identified and validated subscales of current body pride/shame as well as pride/shame that is anticipated were the individual to gain weight or lose weight. In Study 2, over and above levels of dietary restraint, current feelings of body shame predicted eating more calories over the next 7 days while the anticipation of shame with weight gain predicted eating fewer calories. Although previous research has only measured current feelings of body shame, the present studies showed that anticipated shame also impacts on subsequent behaviour. Interventions that regulate anticipated as well as current emotions, and that do not merely challenge cognitions, may be important in changing eating behaviour. PMID:26456412

  4. Neural responsivity during soft drink intake, anticipation, and advertisement exposure in habitually consuming youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burger, Kyle S.; Stice, Eric

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Although soft drinks are heavily advertised, widely consumed, and have been associated with obesity, little is understood regarding neural responsivity to soft drink intake, anticipated intake, and advertisements. METHODS Functional MRI was used to assess examine neural response to carbonated soft drink intake, anticipated intake and advertisement exposure as well as milkshake intake in 27 adolescents that varied on soft drink consumer status. RESULTS Intake and anticipated intake of carbonated Coke® activated regions implicated in gustatory, oral somatosensory, and reward processing, yet high-fat/sugar milkshake intake elicited greater activation in these regions versus Coke intake. Advertisements highlighting the Coke product vs. non-food control advertisements, but not the Coke logo, activated gustatory and visual brain regions. Habitual Coke consumers vs. non-consumers showed greater posterior cingulate responsivity to Coke logo ads, suggesting that the logo is a conditioned cue. Coke consumers exhibited less ventrolateral prefrontal cortex responsivity during anticipated Coke intake relative to non-consumers. CONCLUSIONS Results indicate that soft drinks activate reward and gustatory regions, but are less potent in activating these regions than high-fat/sugar beverages, and imply that habitual soft drink intake promotes hyper-responsivity of regions encoding salience/attention toward brand specific cues and hypo-responsivity of inhibitory regions while anticipating intake. PMID:23836764

  5. MO observation on YBa2Cu3O7-δ coated conductors obtained by TFA-MOD technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We have observed the flux penetration into a high-T c superconducting YBa2Cu3O7-δ (YBCO) tape by a magneto-optical (MO) imaging technique in order to feed back to the R and D of processing. The MO images of YBCO coated conductor prepared by metal organic deposition using trifluoroacetates (TFA-MOD) showed many weak links such as periodic defect and other serious defects, which were corresponding to the dispersion of critical current along to length direction. Since the combination study of MO imaging with TEM observation revealed the reason of such defects, we could feed back to several processes. The new TFA-MOD tapes prepared by using an advanced process after using many innovations showed a homogeneous flux penetration observed by MO imaging, and then it is confirmed that the process went to higher stage rather than previous one

  6. 导游员素质与形象塑造%Tour Conductor Quality and Image Building

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邱邻霖

    2012-01-01

    Tour conductor quality is related to the rise and decline of travel agency, including good personal quality, extensive and reasonable knowledge structure, excellent skills of organization and interpersonal communication, self-control ability, superb language expression skills, excellent and effective guide skills, and healthy psychology and physique.%导游员素质关系旅行社的兴衰,主要表现为良好的思想品质,广博合理的知识结构,杰出的组织、人际交往能力和自控力以及高超的语言表达能力,卓越而有效的导游技能,健康的心理和体质等方面.

  7. Bayesian Modeling for Genetic Anticipation in Presence of Mutational Heterogeneity: A Case Study in Lynch Syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boonstra, Philip S; Mukherjee, Bhramar; Taylor, Jeremy M G;

    2011-01-01

    Summary Genetic anticipation, described by earlier age of onset (AOO) and more aggressive symptoms in successive generations, is a phenomenon noted in certain hereditary diseases. Its extent may vary between families and/or between mutation subtypes known to be associated with the disease phenotype....... In this article, we posit a Bayesian approach to infer genetic anticipation under flexible random effects models for censored data that capture the effect of successive generations on AOO. Primary interest lies in the random effects. Misspecifying the distribution of random effects may result in......) genes known to cause hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer, also called Lynch syndrome (LS). We find evidence for a decrease in AOO between generations in this article. Our model predicts family-level anticipation effects that are potentially useful in genetic counseling clinics for high...

  8. Best-estimate methodology for analysis of anticipated transients without scram in pressurized water reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Union Fenosa, a utility company in Spain, has performed research on pressurized water reactor (PWR) safety with respect to the development of a best-estimate methodology for the analysis of anticipated transients without scram (ATWS), i.e., those anticipated transients for which failure of the reactor protection system is postulated. A scientific and technical approach is adopted with respect to the ATWS phenomenon as it affects a PWR, specifically the Zorita nuclear power plant, a single-loop Westinghouse-designed PWR in Spain. In this respect, an ATWS sequence analysis methodology based on published codes that is generically applicable to any PWR is proposed, which covers all the anticipated phenomena and defines the applicable acceptance criteria. The areas contemplated are cell neutron analysis, core thermal hydraulics, and plant dynamics, which are developed, qualified, and plant dynamics, which are developed, qualified, and validated by comparison with reference calculations and measurements obtained from integral or separate-effects tests

  9. Best-estimate methodology for analysis of anticipated transients without scram in pressurized water reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rebollo, L. (Union Fenosa, Madrid (Spain))

    1993-07-01

    Union Fenosa, a utility company in Spain, has performed research on pressurized water reactor (PWR) safety with respect to the development of a best-estimate methodology for the analysis of anticipated transients without scram (ATWS), i.e., those anticipated transients for which failure of the reactor protection system is postulated. A scientific and technical approach is adopted with respect to the ATWS phenomenon as it affects a PWR, specifically the Zorita nuclear power plant, a single-loop Westinghouse-designed PWR in Spain. In this respect, an ATWS sequence analysis methodology based on published codes that is generically applicable to any PWR is proposed, which covers all the anticipated phenomena and defines the applicable acceptance criteria. The areas contemplated are cell neutron analysis, core thermal hydraulics, and plant dynamics, which are developed, qualified, and plant dynamics, which are developed, qualified, and validated by comparison with reference calculations and measurements obtained from integral or separate-effects tests.

  10. Neurobiological underpinnings of reward anticipation and outcome evaluation in gambling disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Linnet, Jakob

    2014-01-01

    Gambling disorder is characterized by persistent and recurrent maladaptive gambling behavior, which leads to clinically significant impairment or distress. The disorder is associated with dysfunctions in the dopamine system. The dopamine system codes reward anticipation and outcome evaluation....... Reward anticipation refers to dopaminergic activation prior to reward, while outcome evaluation refers to dopaminergic activation after reward. This article reviews evidence of dopaminergic dysfunctions in reward anticipation and outcome evaluation in gambling disorder from two vantage points: a model of...... reward prediction and reward prediction error by Wolfram Schultz et al. and a model of “wanting” and “liking” by Terry E. Robinson and Kent C. Berridge. Both models offer important insights on the study of dopaminergic dysfunctions in addiction, and implications for the study of dopaminergic dysfunctions...

  11. Differences in anticipated interaction drive own group biases in face memory.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Paul Wilson

    Full Text Available According to much research, the Own Group Bias (OGB in face memory occurs as a consequence of social categorization - ingroup members are more likely than outgroup members to be encoded as individuals and remembered well. The current work is an examination of the role of anticipated future interaction in the OGB. We conducted two studies showing that anticipated interaction influences group-based face memory. In Study 1, we provided correlational evidence that beliefs about the amount and importance of future interaction one will have with racial outgroup members is associated with the OGB, such that people expecting more interaction with outgroup members show a reduced OGB. In Study 2, we manipulated expectations about future interactions with lab-created groups and observed that high levels of anticipated future interaction with the outgroup eliminated the OGB. Thus, social group categorization drives face memory biases to the extent that group membership affords the expectation of interpersonal interaction.

  12. Jail Inmates' Perceived and Anticipated Stigma: Implications for Post-release Functioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Kelly; Stuewig, Jeffrey; Tangney, June

    2013-01-01

    Research shows that offenders perceive stigma, but the accuracy of these perceptions has not been assessed, nor their impact on successful reintegration. In a longitudinal study, jail inmates (N = 168) reported perceptions of stigma toward criminals and anticipated stigma just prior to release. A diverse college sample completed a parallel survey assessing stigmatizing attitudes toward criminals. Inmates' perceived stigma was significantly higher than students' stigmatizing attitudes. Perceived stigma positively predicted post-release employment for African-American inmates, but not for Caucasians. Anticipated stigma negatively predicted arrests for Caucasian inmates, but not for African Americans. Perceived and anticipated stigma may have different implications for reintegration, and these implications may vary across race. PMID:25045324

  13. Effects of Spike Anticipation on the Spiking Dynamics of Neural Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel ede Santos-Sierra

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Synchronization is one of the central phenomena involved in information processing in living systems. It is known that the nervous system requires the coordinated activity of both local and distant neural populations. Such an interplay allows to merge different information modalities in a whole processing supporting high-level mental skills as understanding, memory, abstraction, etc. Though the biological processes underlying synchronization in the brain are not fully understood there have been reported a variety of mechanisms supporting different types of synchronization both at theoretical and experimental level. One of the more intriguing of these phenomena is the anticipating synchronization, which has been recently reported in a pair of unidirectionally coupled artificial neurons under simple conditions cite{Pyragas}, where the slave neuron is able to anticipate in time the behaviour of the master one. In this paper we explore the effect of spike anticipation over the information processing performed by a neural network at functional and structural level. We show that the introduction of intermediary neurons in the network enhances spike anticipation and analyse how these variations in spike anticipation can significantly change the firing regime of the neural network according to its functional and structural properties. In addition we show that the interspike interval (ISI, one of the main features of the neural response associated to the information coding, can be closely related to spike anticipation by each spike, and how synaptic plasticity can be modulated through that relationship. This study has been performed through numerical simulation of a coupled system of Hindmarsh-Rose neurons.

  14. Effects of Spike Anticipation on the Spiking Dynamics of Neural Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Santos-Sierra, Daniel; Sanchez-Jimenez, Abel; Garcia-Vellisca, Mariano A; Navas, Adrian; Villacorta-Atienza, Jose A

    2015-01-01

    Synchronization is one of the central phenomena involved in information processing in living systems. It is known that the nervous system requires the coordinated activity of both local and distant neural populations. Such an interplay allows to merge different information modalities in a whole processing supporting high-level mental skills as understanding, memory, abstraction, etc. Though, the biological processes underlying synchronization in the brain are not fully understood there have been reported a variety of mechanisms supporting different types of synchronization both at theoretical and experimental level. One of the more intriguing of these phenomena is the anticipating synchronization, which has been recently reported in a pair of unidirectionally coupled artificial neurons under simple conditions (Pyragiene and Pyragas, 2013), where the slave neuron is able to anticipate in time the behavior of the master one. In this paper, we explore the effect of spike anticipation over the information processing performed by a neural network at functional and structural level. We show that the introduction of intermediary neurons in the network enhances spike anticipation and analyse how these variations in spike anticipation can significantly change the firing regime of the neural network according to its functional and structural properties. In addition we show that the interspike interval (ISI), one of the main features of the neural response associated with the information coding, can be closely related to spike anticipation by each spike, and how synaptic plasticity can be modulated through that relationship. This study has been performed through numerical simulation of a coupled system of Hindmarsh-Rose neurons. PMID:26648863

  15. Moral Disengagement, Anticipated Social Outcomes and Adolescents' Alcohol Use: Parallel Latent Growth Curve Analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinn, Catherine A; Bussey, Kay

    2015-10-01

    Moral disengagement is a social cognitive process that has been extensively applied to transgressive behaviors, including delinquency, aggression and illicit substance use. However, there has been limited research on moral disengagement as it relates to underage drinking. The current study aimed to examine moral disengagement contextualized to underage drinking and its longitudinal relationship to alcohol use. Moreover, the social context in which adolescent alcohol use typically occurs was also considered, with a specific emphasis on the social sanctions, or social outcomes, that adolescents anticipate receiving from friends for their alcohol use. Adolescents were assessed across three time-points, 8 months apart. The longitudinal sample consisted of 382 (46% female) underage drinkers (12-16 years at T1). Parallel latent growth curve analysis was used to examine the bi-directional influence of initial moral disengagement, anticipated social outcomes, and alcohol use on subsequent growth in moral disengagement, anticipated social outcomes and alcohol use. The interrelation of initial scores and growth curves was also assessed. The findings revealed that, in the binary parallel analyses, initial moral disengagement and anticipated social outcomes both significantly predicted changes in alcohol use across time. Moreover, initial anticipated social outcomes predicted changes in moral disengagement. These findings were not consistently found when all three process analyses were included in a single model. The results emphasize the impact of social context on moral disengagement and suggest that by targeting adolescents' propensity to justify or excuse their drinking, as well as the social outcomes adolescents anticipate for being drunk, it may be possible to reduce their underage drinking. PMID:26318080

  16. Fear of negative evaluation modulates electrocortical and behavioral responses when anticipating social evaluative feedback

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melle J.W. Van Der Molen

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Cognitive models posit that the fear of negative evaluation (FNE is a hallmark feature of social anxiety. As such, individuals with high FNE may show biased information processing when faced with social evaluation. The aim of the current study was to examine the neural underpinnings of anticipating and processing of social-evaluative feedback, and its correlates with FNE. We used a social judgment paradigm in which female participants (N=31 were asked to indicate whether they believed to be socially accepted or rejected by their peers. Anticipatory attention was indexed by the stimulus preceding negativity (SPN, while the feedback-related negativity and P3 were used to index the processing of social-evaluative feedback. Results provided evidence of an optimism bias in social peer evaluation, as participants more often predicted to be socially accepted than rejected. Participants with high levels of FNE needed more time to provide their judgments about the social-evaluative outcome. While anticipating social-evaluative feedback, SPN amplitudes were larger for anticipated social acceptance than for social rejection feedback. Interestingly, the SPN during anticipated social acceptance was larger in participants with high levels of FNE. None of the feedback-related brain potentials correlated with the FNE. Together, the results provide evidence of biased information processing in individuals with high levels of FNE when anticipating (rather than processing social-evaluative feedback. The delayed response times in high FNE individuals were interpreted to reflect augmented vigilance imposed by the upcoming social evaluative threat. Allegedly, the SPN constitutes a neural marker of this vigilance in females with higher FNE levels, particularly when anticipating social acceptance feedback.

  17. ANALYSIS OF CORRELATION BETWEENTHE EXPENSES OF SOCIAL PROTECTION AND THE ANTICIPATED OLD AGE PENSION

    OpenAIRE

    Nicolae Daniel Militaru

    2015-01-01

    In this article, I have analysed two components of our social protection system in our country: the expenses of social protection and the anticipated old age pension. The main goal of the study is the analysis of the correlation that exists between the expenses with social protection and the anticipated old age pension, while the secondary goal of the study consists of the identification of the way in which the pension increases to an increase of the expenses with social protection by one uni...

  18. An effect from anticipation also in hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer families without identified mutations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Timshel, Susanne; Therkildsen, Christina; Bendahl, Pär-Ola; Bernstein, Inge; Nilbert, Mef

    ). We specifically addressed anticipation in phenotypic HNPCC families without disease-predisposing mismatch repair (MMR) defects since risk estimates and age at onset are particularly difficult to determine in this cohort. The national Danish HNPCC register was used to identify families who fulfilled...... the Amsterdam criteria for HNPCC and showed normal MMR function and/or lack of disease-predisposing MMR gene mutation. In total, 319 cancers from 212 parent-child pairs in 99 families were identified. A paired t-test and a bivariate statistical model were used to assess anticipation. Both methods...

  19. Liberalization of the Natural gas market. Combinations of options to anticipate for fruit-vegetable businesses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The technical and economical possibilities for the greenhouse sector (section fruit-vegetables) to anticipate the liberalization process of the natural gas market in the Netherlands have been evaluated. As a result of the liberalization the structure of the tariffs for natural gas changes. The maximum gas consumption per hour will be a decisive factor for the cost of natural gas and is related to extreme cold conditions outdoors. The first anticipation option is to reduce the overcapacity. Several options to save costs are discussed

  20. Effect of wire arrangements on AC transport losses in cylindrical conductors composed of Ag-sheathed Bi2223 tapes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The AC transport self-field losses at 77 K were investigated on the double-layer cylindrical conductors composed of Ag-sheathed Bi2223 tapes. The multifilamentary tapes as the strands are arranged in a parallel way on the cylindrical former with a diameter of 10.5 mm. The loss values are strongly influenced by the arrangements of tape strands in the conductors. The loss generation in conductors enhances with increasing of the separation between the layers and gap length between the adjacent tapes in the outer-layer. From the numerical calculations of the loss density distributions per-cycle in the conductors, it is suggested that the difference in loss values for each conductor is attributed to the magnetic flux distributions due to self-field and loss generations in tape strands, varying with the arrangement of tape strands in the conductors

  1. Effect of chrome plating on coupling losses in a Nb3Sn cable-in-conduit conductor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Time constant of decay of coupling current was measured on cable-in-conduit conductors which consist of twelve Nb3Sn strands with chrome plating. The time constant measurement was performed by observing exponential decrease of induced coupling current in conductors. The measured time constant of conductor composed of bare strands was 4.5 times larger than that of the single strand, in case that a void fraction of conductor was 30%. However, the time constant of conductor composed of strands with chrome plating of more than 2 μm thickness was equal to that of the single strand. These results show that chrome plating on strands is effective for decrease of coupling losses in Nb3Sn cable-in-conduit conductors. (author)

  2. Current distribution in Cable-In-Conduit Conductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A numerical study of the current distribution in Cable-In-Conduit Conductors (CICC's) experiencing linearly ramping transport currents and transverse magnetic fields was conducted for both infinitely long, periodic cables and finite length cables terminated in low resistance joints. The goal of the study was to gain insight into the phenomenon known as Ramp Rate Limitation, an as yet unexplained correspondence between maximum attainable current and the ramp time taken to reach that current in CICC superconducting magnets. A discrete geometric model of a 27 strand multiply twisted CICC was developed to effectively represent the flux linkages, mutual inductances, and resistive contact points between the strands of an experimentally tested cable. The results of the numerical study showed that for fully periodic cables, the current imbalances due to ramping magnetic fields and ramping transport currents are negligible in the range of experimentally explored operating conditions. For finite length, joint terminated cables, however, significant imbalances can exist. Unfortunately, quantitative results are limited by a lack of knowledge of the transverse resistance between strands in the joints. Nonetheless, general results are presented showing the dependency of the imbalance on cable length, ramp time, and joint resistance for both ramping transverse magnet fields and ramping transport currents. At the conclusion of the study, it is suggested that calculated current imbalances in a finite length cable could cause certain strands to prematurely ''quench'' -- become non-superconducting --thus leading to an instability for the entire cable. This numerically predicted ''current imbalance instability'' is compared to the experimentally observed Ramp Rate Limitation for the 27 strand CICC sample

  3. The ATLAS SemiConductor Tracker operation and performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pater, J. R.

    2012-04-01

    The ATLAS SemiConductor Tracker (SCT) is a key precision tracking detector in the ATLAS experiment at CERN's Large Hadron Collider. The SCT is composed of 4088 planar p-in-n silicon micro-strip detectors. The signals from the strips are processed in the front-end ABCD3TA ASICs, which operate in binary readout mode; data are transferred to the off-detector readout electronics via optical fibres. The SCT was completed in 2007. An extensive commissioning phase followed, during which calibration data were collected and analysed to determine the noise performance of the system, and further performance parameters of the detector were determined using cosmic ray data, both with and without magnetic field. After the commissioning phase, the SCT was ready for the first LHC proton-proton collisions in December 2009. From the beginning of data taking, the completed SCT has been in very good shape with more than 99% of its 6.3 million strips operational; the detector is well timed-in and the operational channels are 99.9% efficient in data acquisition. The noise occupancy and hit efficiency are better than the design specifications. The detector geometry is monitored continuously with a laser-based alignment system and is stable to the few-micron level; the alignment accuracy as determined by tracks is near specification and improving as statistics increase. The sensor behaviour in the 2T solenoidal magnetic field has been studied by measuring the Lorentz angle. Radiation damage in the silicon is monitored by periodic measurements of the leakage current; these measurements are in reasonable agreement with predictions.

  4. Progress on TFA-MOD coated conductor development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The recent progress in coated conductor development by the TFA-MOD process was reviewed. Much progress was recognized in the R and D on TFA-MOD processing for satisfying several requirements, such as high superconducting performance, long tape production, high production rate, etc., considering the real application. For high superconducting performance, the high I c value of 413 A was achieved in a short sample with an architecture of MOD-YBCO/IBAD-GZO/IBAD-GZO/Hastelloy. It was realized by improving the in-plane crystal grain alignment of the CeO2 buffer layer and optimizing conditions of the heat treatments in the calcination and crystallization processes. In the calcination process, it was found that lower heating rate was effective to improve the morphology of the multi-layered precursor by preventing from pore generation and segregation of Cu elements. In the crystallization process, it was found that high humid gas partial pressure was effective to improve the J c values by reducing the amounts and size of pores in the YBCO layers. Furthermore, in the case of thicker firm, it was found that the low heating rate in the crystallization process was effective to prevent from the crack formation. On the other hand, in order to obtain the long tape with uniform I c values, in the crystallization process, the gas flow condition in a large scale equipment for the continuous long tape process was investigated using a computer simulation technique. Consequently, the 8.6 m YBCO on PLD-CeO2/IBAD-Gd2Zr2O7/Hastelloy tape which shows high I c performance of 119 A as an end-to-end value at 77.3 K in self fields, was successfully obtained. As a result, I c x L(length) value of 1024 A m was achieved

  5. Crossover exponents in percolating superconductor endash nonlinear-conductor mixtures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The nonlinear response is studied in a two-component composite with concentration p of superconductor (S) and concentration 1-p of normal conductor (N) with nonlinear response of the form J=σ1E+χ1Eβ (β approx-gt 1). Below the percolation threshold pc of the superconductor, the response of the composite can be represented by left-angle J right-angle=σeE+χeEβ, where left-angle...right-angle represents spatial averages. The magnitude of the crossover field Ec, defined as the electric field at which the linear and nonlinear response of the composite become comparable, is found to have a power-law dependence Ec∼(pc-p)M(β), and the corresponding crossover current Ic is found to have similar dependence Ec∼(pc-p)W(β) as the percolation threshold is approached from below. By using a connection between the nonlinear response of the random nonlinear composite problem and the conductance fluctuation of the corresponding random linear composite problem the explicit expressions for M(β) and W(β) are calculated. We prove that both M(β) and W(β) are monotonically decreasing functions of β, which have the special values M(1+)=W(1+)=+∞, M(3)=[κ'(2)+s/2], W(3)=[κ'(2)-s/2], M(+∞)=(2-d)ν/2≤0, W(+∞)=-(s+ζG)/2c and the corresponding crossover current Ic are discussed as functions of β and some interesting crossover effects are reported. copyright 1996 The American Physical Society

  6. A pulsed magnetic field test facility for conductors and joints

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) and, in the US, the Tokamak Physics Experiment (TPX) fusion programs both require conductor and joint testing in a pulsed magnetic background field in order to demonstrate that these components can operate successfully in a simulated, fusion-machine environment. Here, a pulsed magnetic field test facility is under construction at Massachusetts Institute of Technology for testing large scale cable-in-conduit superconductor and joint samples. Separate, demountable split-pair solenoid and saddle coils provide a combination of fields which can be either transverse of parallel to the sample axis. The solenoid and saddle magnets together can provide transverse peak fields as high as 8.4 T. Peak parallel fields of 6.6 T can be generated with the solenoid alone. Ramp-up rates of 1.5 T/s and ramp-down rates of 20 T/s are possible. Sample currents up to 50 kA are provided by a superconducting current transformer. The sample is connected to the transformer secondary through a pair of low resistance joints. Supercritical helium is provided to the sample at flow rates up to 20 g/s, pressures up to 1 MPa, and temperatures from 4.7 to 10 K. Programmable logic controllers provide coordination of the magnetic field, sample current, and helium flow rate and temperature in the sample. Sample and facility instrumentation signals are processed and data is stored on a workstation-based data acquisition system with comprehensive data reduction capability. Facility details and status are described

  7. Defects and properties of cadmium oxide based transparent conductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Kin Man; Detert, D. M.; Chen, Guibin; Zhu, Wei; Liu, Chaoping; Grankowska, S.; Hsu, L.; Dubon, O. D.; Walukiewicz, Wladek

    2016-05-01

    Transparent conductors play an increasingly important role in a number of semiconductor technologies. This paper reports on the defects and properties of Cadmium Oxide, a transparent conducting oxide which can be potentially used for full spectrum photovoltaics. We carried out a systematic investigation on the effects of defects in CdO thin films undoped and intentionally doped with In and Ga under different deposition and annealing conditions. We found that at low growth temperatures (1 Ω cm due to incorporation of excess O in the form of O-related acceptor defects, likely to be O interstitials. Intentional doping with In and Ga donors leads to an increase of both the electron concentration and the mobility. With proper doping CdO films with electron concentration of more than 1021 cm-3 and electron mobility higher than 120 cm2/V s can be achieved. Thermal annealing of doped CdO films in N2 ambient can further improve the electrical properties by removing native acceptors and improving film crystallinity. Furthermore, the unique doping behavior and electrical properties of CdO were explored via simulations based on the amphoteric defect model. A comparison of the calculations and experimental results show that the formation energy of native donors and acceptors at the Fermi stabilization energy is ˜1 eV and that the mobility of sputtered deposited CdO is limited by a background acceptor concentration of ˜5-6 × 1020/cm3. The calculations offer an insight into understanding of the effects of defects on electrical properties of undoped and doped CdO and offer a potential to use similar methods to analyze doping and defect properties of other semiconductor materials.

  8. Quantum Hall effect anomaly and collective modes in the magnetic-field induced spin-density-wave phases of quasi one-dimensional conductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dupuis, N.; Yakovenko, V. M.

    1999-02-01

    We study the collective modes in the magnetic-field induced spin-density-wave (FISDW) phases experimentally observed in organic conductors of the Bechgaard salts family. In phases that exhibit a sign reversal of the quantum Hall effect (Ribault anomaly), the coexistence of two spin-density waves gives rise to additional long-wavelength collective modes besides the Goldstone modes due to spontaneous translation and rotation symmetry breaking. These modes strongly affect the charge and spin response functions. We discuss some experimental consequences for the Bechgaard salts.

  9. Studies on advanced superconductors for fusion device. Pt. 1. Present status of Nb{sub 3}Sn conductors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tachikawa, Kyoji; Yamamoto, Junya [eds.

    1996-03-01

    Nb{sub 3}Sn conductors have been developed with great expectation as an advanced high-field superconductor to be used in fusion devices of next generation. Furthermore, Nb{sub 3}Sn conductors are being developed for NMR magnet and superconducting generator as well as for cryogen-free superconducting magnet. A variety of fabrication procedures, such as bronze process, internal tin process and Nb tube method, have been developed based on the diffusion reaction. Recently, Nb{sub 3}Sn conductors with ultra-thin filaments have been fabricated for AC use. Both high-field and AC performances of Nb{sub 3}Sn conductors have been significantly improved by alloying addition. The Ti-doped Nb{sub 3}Sn conductor has generated 21.5T at 1.8K operation. This report summarizes manufacturing procedures, superconducting performances and applications of Nb{sub 3}Sn conductors fabricated through different processes in different countries. More detailed subjects included in this report are high-field properties, AC properties, conductors for fusion with large current capacities, stress-strain effect and irradiation effect as well as standardization of critical current measurement method regarding to Nb{sub 3}Sn conductors. Comprehensive grasp on the present status of Nb{sub 3}Sn conductors provided by this report will act as a useful data base for the future planning of fusion devices. (author). 172 refs.

  10. Functional Connectivity under Anticipation of Shock: Correlates of Trait Anxious Affect versus Induced Anxiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bijsterbosch, Janine; Smith, Stephen; Bishop, Sonia J

    2015-09-01

    Sustained anxiety about potential future negative events is an important feature of anxiety disorders. In this study, we used a novel anticipation of shock paradigm to investigate individual differences in functional connectivity during prolonged threat of shock. We examined the correlates of between-participant differences in trait anxious affect and induced anxiety, where the latter reflects changes in self-reported anxiety resulting from the shock manipulation. Dissociable effects of trait anxious affect and induced anxiety were observed. Participants with high scores on a latent dimension of anxious affect showed less increase in ventromedial pFC-amygdala connectivity between periods of safety and shock anticipation. Meanwhile, lower levels of induced anxiety were linked to greater augmentation of dorsolateral pFC-anterior insula connectivity during shock anticipation. These findings suggest that ventromedial pFC-amygdala and dorsolateral pFC-insula networks might both contribute to regulation of sustained fear responses, with their recruitment varying independently across participants. The former might reflect an evolutionarily old mechanism for reducing fear or anxiety, whereas the latter might reflect a complementary mechanism by which cognitive control can be implemented to diminish fear responses generated due to anticipation of aversive stimuli or events. These two circuits might provide complementary, alternate targets for exploration in future pharmacological and cognitive intervention studies. PMID:25961638

  11. Awake fiberoptic or awake video laryngoscopic tracheal intubation in patients with anticipated difficult airway management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosenstock, Charlotte Vallentin; Thøgersen, Bente; Afshari, Arash;

    2012-01-01

    Awake flexible fiberoptic intubation (FFI) is the gold standard for management of anticipated difficult tracheal intubation. The purpose of this study was to compare awake FFI to awake McGrath® video laryngoscope, (MVL), (Aircraft Medical, Edinburgh, Scotland, United Kingdom) intubation in patients...

  12. Under stochastic dominance choquet-expected utility and anticipated utility are identical

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P.P. Wakker

    1990-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to convince the reader that Choquet-expected utility, as initiated by Schmeidler (1982) for decision making under uncertainty, when formulated for decision making under risk naturally leads to Yaari (1987)'s anticipated utility. Thus the two generalizations of expected utili

  13. Under stochastic dominance Choquet-expected utility and anticipated utility are identical

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P.P. Wakker (Peter)

    1990-01-01

    textabstractThe aim of this paper is to convince the reader that Choquet-expected utility, as initiated by Schmeidler (1982, 1989) for decision making under uncertainty, when formulated for decision making under risk naturally leads to anticipated utility, as initiated by Quiggin/Yaari. Thus the two

  14. Perception of Kinematic Characteristics of Tennis Strokes for Anticipating Stroke Type and Direction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shim, Jaeho; Carlton, Les G.; Kwon, Young-Hoo

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the sources of visual information used by highly skilled tennis players in anticipating their opponent's shots. In Experiment 1, motion analysis of the strokes showed that the relative motion between the racquet and forearm was different between the ground strokes and lobs, but there were no reliable…

  15. Will Marriage Matter? Effects of Marriage Anticipated by Same-Sex Couples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shulman, Julie L.; Gotta, Gabrielle; Green, Robert-Jay

    2012-01-01

    The current study used an online survey to explore the anticipated impact of legalized marriage on partners in same-sex couples living in California. These data were gathered prior to the California Supreme Court decision in May 2008 legalizing same-sex marriage, which held sway for 5 months before California Proposition 8 eliminating same-sex…

  16. Time to Separate the Men From the Beasts: Symbolic Anticipation as the Typically Human Subjective Dimension

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Grave, Dieter

    2004-08-01

    In this paper it is argued that the dividing line that runs between the human psyche as opposed to any other complex system is made up by symbolic anticipation. The functionality of the human mind as an anticipatory system is entirely caught up in the crucial role that finiteness, shortage or lack plays for human beings. Anticipation for us is the way by which this negative finiteness or lack is translated into a positive longing, want or desire. We take a look at the three dimensional view of Jacques Lacan regarding these matters in a sophistical example and we illustrate how anticipation as a Symbolic phenomenon is distinct from the Imaginary or the Real register. As Lacan points out anticipation creates a symbolic social link which binds two or more interacting humans together in an anticipatory relationship. Beliefs, expectations and convictions are the typically human social links which ground human interaction and set it apart from other forms of social interaction we can observe in other complex biological entities.

  17. Discourse-Based Word Anticipation during Language Processing: Prediction or Priming?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otten, Marte; Van Berkum, Jos J. A.

    2008-01-01

    Language is an intrinsically open-ended system. This fact has led to the widely shared assumption that readers and listeners do not predict upcoming words, at least not in a way that goes beyond simple priming between words. Recent evidence, however, suggests that readers and listeners do anticipate upcoming words "on the fly" as a text unfolds.…

  18. Age associations with neural processing of reward anticipation in adolescents with bipolar disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Snežana Urošević

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Reward/behavioral approach system hypersensitivity is implicated in bipolar disorders (BD and in normative development during adolescence. Pediatric onset of BD is associated with a more severe illness course. However, little is known about neural processing of rewards in adolescents with BD or developmental (i.e., age associations with activation of these neural systems. The present study aims to address this knowledge gap. The present sample included 21 adolescents with BD and 26 healthy adolescents, ages 13 to 19. Participants completed a functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI protocol using the Monetary Incentive Delay (MID task. Behavioral performance was similar between groups. Group differences in BOLD activation during target anticipation and feedback anticipation periods of the task were examined using whole-brain analyses, as were group differences in age effects. During both target anticipation and feedback anticipation, adolescents with BD, compared to adolescents without psychopathology, exhibited decreased engagement of frontal regions involved in cognitive control (i.e., dorsolateral prefrontal cortex. Healthy adolescents exhibited age-related decreases, while adolescents with BD exhibited age-related increases, in activity of other cognitive control frontal areas (i.e., right inferior frontal gyrus, suggesting altered development in the BD group. Longitudinal research is needed to examine potentially abnormal development of cognitive control during reward pursuit in adolescent BD and whether early therapeutic interventions can prevent these potential deviations from normative development.

  19. An effect from anticipation also in hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer families without identified mutations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Timshel, Susanne; Therkildsen, Christina; Bendahl, Pär-Ola; Bernstein, Inge; Nilbert, Mef

    Optimal prevention of hereditary cancer is central and requires initiation of surveillance programmes and/or prophylactic measures at a safe age. Anticipation, expressed as an earlier age at onset in successive generations, has been demonstrated in hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer (HNPCC...

  20. Modeling anticipated climate change impact on biogeochemical cycles of an acidified headwater catchment

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Benčoková, A.; Hruška, Jakub; Krám, P.

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 26, S (2011), S6-S8. ISSN 0883-2927 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) ED1.1.00/02.0073 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60870520 Keywords : modeling anticipated * climate change * biogeochemical cycles * acidified headwater catchment Subject RIV: DD - Geochemistry Impact factor: 2.176, year: 2011