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Sample records for anticipated organic conductors

  1. Organic Conductors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Jan Rud; Jacobsen, Claus S.; Rindorf, Grethe;

    1975-01-01

    2,3,6,7-Tetramethyl-1,4,5,8-tetraselenafulvalene reacts with 2,5-dimethyl-7,7′,8,8′-tetracyano-p-quinodi-methane to give a highly conducting organic solid.......2,3,6,7-Tetramethyl-1,4,5,8-tetraselenafulvalene reacts with 2,5-dimethyl-7,7′,8,8′-tetracyano-p-quinodi-methane to give a highly conducting organic solid....

  2. Focus on Organic Conductors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shinya Uji, Takehiko Mori and Toshihiro Takahashi

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Organic materials are usually thought of as electrical insulators. Progress in chemical synthesis, however, has brought us a rich variety of conducting organic materials, which can be classified into conducting polymers and molecular crystals. Researchers can realize highly conducting molecular crystals in charge-transfer complexes, where suitable combinations of organic electron donor or acceptor molecules with counter ions or other organic molecules provide charge carriers. By means of a kind of chemical doping, the charge-transfer complexes exhibit high electrical conductivity and, thanks to their highly crystalline nature, even superconductivity has been observed. This focus issue of Science and Technology of Advanced Materials is devoted to the research into such 'organic conductors'The first organic metal was (TTF(TCNQ, which was found in 1973 to have high conductivity at room temperature and a metal–insulator transition at low temperatures. The first organic superconductor was (TMTSF2PF6, whose superconductivity under high pressures was reported by J´erome in 1980. After these findings, the research on organic conductors exploded. Hundreds of organic conductors have been reported, among which more than one hundred exhibit superconductivity. Recently, a single-component organic conductor has been found with metallic conductivity down to low temperatures.In these organic conductors, in spite of their simple electronic structures, much new physics has arisen from the low dimensionality. Examples are charge and spin density waves, characteristic metal–insulator transitions, charge order, unconventional superconductivity, superconductor–insulator transitions, and zero-gap conductors with Dirac cones. The discovery of this new physics is undoubtedly derived from the development of many intriguing novel organic conductors. High quality single crystals are indispensable to the precise measurement of electronic states.This focus issue

  3. Conductive Mechanism of Organic Conductor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Organic conductor is a kind of organic compound which has special electronic and magnetic properties. The research of the organic compounds has received considerable attention because of their potential applications in many areas. The molecular conductive units are theoretically investigated as well as their energy gap and charge distribution. The relationship of conductivity and micro-mechanism is discussed.

  4. Focus on Organic Conductors

    OpenAIRE

    Shinya Uji, Takehiko Mori and Toshihiro Takahashi

    2009-01-01

    Organic materials are usually thought of as electrical insulators. Progress in chemical synthesis, however, has brought us a rich variety of conducting organic materials, which can be classified into conducting polymers and molecular crystals. Researchers can realize highly conducting molecular crystals in charge-transfer complexes, where suitable combinations of organic electron donor or acceptor molecules with counter ions or other organic molecules provide charge carriers. By means of a ki...

  5. Hall effect in organic layered conductors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.A.Hasan

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The Hall effect in organic layered conductors with a multisheeted Fermi surfaces was considered. It is shown that the experimental study of Hall effect and magnetoresistance anisotropy at different orientations of current and a quantizing magnetic field relative to the layers makes it possible to determine the contribution of various charge carriers groups to the conductivity, and to find out the character of Fermi surface anisotropy in the plane of layers.

  6. Recent progress in high-pressure studies on organic conductors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syuma Yasuzuka and Keizo Murata

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Recent high-pressure studies of organic conductors and superconductors are reviewed. The discovery of the highest Tc superconductivity among organics under high pressure has triggered the further progress of the high-pressure research. Owing to this finding, various organic conductors with the strong electron correlation were investigated under high pressures. This review includes the pressure techniques using the cubic anvil apparatus, as well as high-pressure studies of the organic conductors up to 10 GPa showing extraordinary temperature and pressure dependent transport phenomena.

  7. Organic Conductors: Evidence for Correlation Effects in Infrared Properties

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Claus Schelde; Johannsen, Ib; Bechgaard, Klaus

    1984-01-01

    The infrared conductivities of four organic conductors with partially filled one-electron bands are compared. The behavior ranges from near Drude type in the best metal to semiconductorlike in the moderate conductor. Electron-molecular-vibration coupling effects of varying degree are seen in all...

  8. Non-equilibrium and band tailing in organic conductors

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    A T Oza; P C Vinodkumar; R G Patel

    2003-03-01

    The concept of band tailing with focal point and width of the tail from IR absorption spectra of different organic conductors is found valid even for thermal and elastic changes. The experimental situations like change of solvents, method of preparation, applied pressure and pressure cycle apart from compositions is analyzed within the framework of tailing of states. Non-equilibrium due to coupling between applied energy and free electrons can be responsible for the exponential relaxation from non-equilibrium to equilibrium.

  9. Organic mixed conductors for bioelectronic applications (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivnay, Jonathan

    2016-09-01

    Direct measurement and stimulation of electrophysiological activity is a staple of neural and cardiac health monitoring, diagnosis and/or therapy. The ability to sensitively detect these signals can be enhanced by organic electronic materials that show mixed conduction properties (both electronic and ionic transport) in order to bridge the inherent mismatch that is prevalent between biological systems and traditional microelectronic materials/devices. Organic electrochemical transistors (OECTs) are one class of devices that utilize organic mixed conductors as the transistor channel, and have shown considerable promise as amplifying transducers due to their stability in aqueous conditions and high transconductance. These devices are fabricated in flexible, conformable form factors for in vivo recordings of epileptic activity, and for cutaneous EEG and ECG recordings in human subjects. The majority of high performance devices are based on conducting polymers such as poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) :poly(styrenesulfonate), PEDOT:PSS. By investigating PEDOT-based materials and devices, we are able to construct design rules for new formulations/materials. Introducing glycolated side chains to carefully selected semiconducting polymer backbones has enabled a new class high performance bioelectronic materials that feature high volumetric capacitance, transconductance >10mS (device dimensions ca. 10um), and steep subthreshold switching characteristics. A sub-set of these materials outperform PEDOT:PSS and shows significant promise for low power in vitro and in vivo biosensing applications.

  10. Magneto-optical studies of low-dimensional organic conductors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hitoshi Ohta, Motoi Kimata and Yugo Oshima

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Our periodic orbit resonance (POR results on quasi-two-dimensional (q2D, highly anisotropic q2D and quasi-one-dimensional (q1D organic conductors are reviewed together with our rotational cavity magneto-optical measurement system. Higher order POR up to seventh order has been observed in the q2D system (BEDT-TTF2Br(DIA, and the experimental conditions to observe POR and the cyclotron resonance (CR are discussed. Highly anisotropic q2D Fermi surface (FS in β''-(BEDT-TTF(TCNQ, which was considered to have q1D FS previously, is proposed by our POR measurements, and the possible interpretations of other experimental results of β''-(BEDT-TTF(TCNQ are discussed assuming the highly anisotropic q2D FS. Finally, detailed q1D FS of (DMET2I3, obtained from our POR results, is discussed in connection with the typical q1D system (TMTSF2ClO4.

  11. An Organic Mixed Ion–Electron Conductor for Power Electronics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Malti, Abdellah; Edberg, Jesper; Granberg, Hjalmar

    2016-01-01

    A mixed ionic–electronic conductor based on nanofibrillated cellulose composited with poly(3,4-ethylene-dioxythio­phene):­poly(styrene-sulfonate) along with high boiling point solvents is demonstrated in bulky electrochemical devices. The high electronic and ionic conductivities of the resulting...

  12. High magnetic field studies of BEDT-TTF organic conductors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Honold, M.M

    1999-07-01

    This Thesis gives a detailed account of the high magnetic field properties of {alpha}-phase BEDT-TTF charge-transfer salts, with particular focus on the salts {alpha}-(BEDT-TTF){sub 2}KHg(SCN){sub 4} and {alpha}-(BEDT-TTF){sub 2}TlHg(SCN){sub 4}. The existence of the bulk quantum Hall effect and its eventual destruction in the high-field limit is shown by a variety of experimental means, including magnetoresistance, magnetisation and Hall potential oscillation studies; the latter are based on a new technique specifically developed for this purpose. Chapter 1 introduces the concept of organic conductors and emphasises their potential as prototype systems of reduced dimensionality; in Chapter 2, the necessary physics and experimental techniques for their investigation are outlined. Following model calculations which suggested the possibility of the quantum Hall effect in {alpha}-phase BEDT-TTF salts, measurements of the Hall resistivity were carried out on {alpha}-(BEDT-TTF){sub 2}TlHg(SCN){sub 4} (described in Chapter 3). These exhibit a series of plateaux and represent the direct observation of the quantum Hall effect in a bulk material. Chapter 4 reports the discovery of an anomalous magnetotransport mode in the interplane resistance of {alpha}-(BEDT-TTF){sub 2}KHg(SCN){sub 4} which involves the suppression and phase inversion of the Shubnikov-de Haas oscillations at low temperatures. This is interpreted as the action of a two-dimensional chiral Fermi liquid formed from the current-carrying edge states of each quantum Hall layer. Chapter 5 reports the first observation of magnetic breakdown in the high-field phase of {alpha}-(BEDT-TTF){sub 2}KHg(SCN){sub 4}, allowing an improved description of the high-field Fermi surface topology. These results are used to develop a new model for the nested low-field Fermi surface which can explain experimental evidence previously unaccounted for. Studies of the limiting behaviour of Hall potential oscillations in Chapter 6 show

  13. An Organic Mixed Ion-Electron Conductor for Power Electronics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malti, Abdellah; Edberg, Jesper; Granberg, Hjalmar; Khan, Zia Ullah; Andreasen, Jens W; Liu, Xianjie; Zhao, Dan; Zhang, Hao; Yao, Yulong; Brill, Joseph W; Engquist, Isak; Fahlman, Mats; Wågberg, Lars; Crispin, Xavier; Berggren, Magnus

    2016-02-01

    A mixed ionic-electronic conductor based on nanofibrillated cellulose composited with poly(3,4-ethylene-dioxythio-phene):-poly(styrene-sulfonate) along with high boiling point solvents is demonstrated in bulky electrochemical devices. The high electronic and ionic conductivities of the resulting nanopaper are exploited in devices which exhibit record values for the charge storage capacitance (1F) in supercapacitors and transconductance (1S) in electrochemical transistors.

  14. Inhomogeneous superconductivity in quasi-one dimensional organic conductors and ropes of carbon nanotubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellafi, B.; Haddad, S.; Sfar, I.; Charfi-Kaddour, S.

    2009-03-01

    It has been reported that, in quasi-one dimensional organic conductors, superconductivity may coexist macroscopically with non-superconducting states giving rise to an inhomogeneous phase. We investigate, based on the time-dependent Ginzburg-Landau theory, the effect of disorder on the stability of the superconducting phase in such a mixed state. We also focus on the interplay between superconductivity and disorder in ropes of carbon nanotubes. We show that the superconducting transition temperature in quasi-one organic conductors is reduced by disorder but does not obey the Abrikosov-Gorkov law. However, and contrary to what is expected, disorder can further superconductivity in ropes of carbon nanotubes.

  15. Increasing organ donation via anticipated regret (INORDAR: protocol for a randomised controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O'Carroll Ronan E

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Throughout the world there is an insufficient supply of donor organs to meet the demand for organ transplantations. This paper presents a protocol for a randomised controlled trial, testing whether a simple, theory-based anticipated regret manipulation leads to a significant increase in posthumous organ donor registrations. Methods We will use a between-groups, prospective randomised controlled design. A random sample of 14,520 members of the adult Scottish general public will be contacted via post. These participants will be randomly allocated into 1 of the 4 conditions. The no questionnaire control (NQC group will simply receive a letter and donor registration form. The questionnaire control (QC arm will receive a questionnaire measuring their emotions and non-cognitive affective attitudes towards organ donation. The theory of planned behavior (TPB group will complete the emotions and affective attitudes questionnaire plus additional items assessing their cognitive attitudes towards organ donation, perceived control over registration and how they think significant others view this action. Finally, the anticipated regret (AR group will complete the same indices as the TPB group, plus two additional anticipated regret items. These items will assess the extent to which the participant anticipates regret for not registering as an organ donor in the near future. The outcome variable will be NHS Blood and Transplant verified registrations as an organ donor within 6 months of receiving our postal intervention. Discussion This study will assess whether simply asking people to reflect on the extent to which they may anticipate regret for not registering as an organ donor increases organ donor registration 6 months later. If successful, this simple and easy to administer theory-based intervention has the potential to save lives and money for the NHS by reducing the number of people receiving treatments such as dialysis. This

  16. Spectroscopy of charge transfer complexes of four amino acids as organic two-dimensional conductors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Padhiyar, Ashvin; Patel, A J; Oza, A T [Department of Physics, Sardar Patel University, Vallabh Vidyanagar-388 120, Gujarat (India)

    2007-12-05

    It is found in this study that four amino acids, namely asparagine, arginine, histidine and glutamine form two-dimensional conducting systems which are charge transfer complexes (CTCs) with organic acceptors like TCNQ, TCNE, chloranil, DDQ, TNF and iodine. It is verified using optical absorption edges that these are 2d conductors like transition metal dichalcogenides obeying absorption functions different from 1d and 3d conductors. This 2d nature is related to the network of intermolecular H-bonding in these complexes, which leads to a global H-bonded network resulting in the absence of local deformation due to the relaxation of strain.

  17. Spectroscopy of charge transfer complexes of four amino acids as organic two-dimensional conductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padhiyar, Ashvin; Patel, A. J.; Oza, A. T.

    2007-12-01

    It is found in this study that four amino acids, namely asparagine, arginine, histidine and glutamine form two-dimensional conducting systems which are charge transfer complexes (CTCs) with organic acceptors like TCNQ, TCNE, chloranil, DDQ, TNF and iodine. It is verified using optical absorption edges that these are 2d conductors like transition metal dichalcogenides obeying absorption functions different from 1d and 3d conductors. This 2d nature is related to the network of intermolecular H-bonding in these complexes, which leads to a global H-bonded network resulting in the absence of local deformation due to the relaxation of strain.

  18. Fast photo-induced phase switching in organic conductor crystal; (EDO-TTF)2PF6

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chollet, Matthieu; Guerin, Laurent; Uchida, Naoki; Fukaya, Souichi; Ishikawa, Tadahiko; Koshihara, Shin-ya; Matsuda, Kazunari; Ota, Akira; Yamochi, Hideki; Saito, Gunzi

    Organic conductor (EDO-TTF) 2PF6 crystal shows metal (M)-insulator (I) transition at 280 K. Here, we report the occurrence of highly efficient photo-conversion from insulator to metal phase within a few pico-seconds.

  19. Correlation versus surface effects in photoemission of quasi-1D organic conductors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Claessen, R.; Schwingenschlogl, U.; Sing, M.;

    2002-01-01

    The absence of spectral weight at the Fermi level in photoemission spectra of quasi-1D organic conductors has been interpreted as possible evidence for an unusual many-body state. We demonstrate that great care must be exercised to draw this conclusion exclusively on the basis of a pseudogap...

  20. Electronic structure of the quasi-one-dimensional organic conductor TTF-TCNQ

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sing, M.; Schwingenschlögl, U.; Claessen, R.;

    2003-01-01

    We study the electronic structure of the quasi-one-dimensional organic conductor TTF-TCNQ by means of density-functional band theory, Hubbard model calculations, and angle-resolved photoelectron spectroscopy (ARPES). The experimental spectra reveal significant quantitative and qualitative...

  1. Control of electronic properties of organic conductors by hydrostatic and uniaxial compression

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kagoshima, S.; Kondo, R.; Hirai, H.; Shibata, T.; Kaga, Y. [Tokyo Univ. (Japan). Dept. of Basic Science; Maesato, M. [Kyoto Univ. (Japan). Dept. of Chemistry

    2001-01-01

    We developed the uniaxial strain method to artificially control the electronic properties of organic conductors by reducing the intermolecular distance along a desired direction without changing those along others. Using this method, we were able to cause and enhance superconductivity in two-dimensional organic conductors, {alpha}-(BEDT-TTF){sub 2}KHg(SCN){sub 4} and its isostructural compound having NH{sub 4} instead of K. We found that these two compounds show essentially the same properties if their lattice parameters are appropriately reduced by the uniaxial strain method, although they show quite different properties under ambient and hydrostatic pressures. In the one-dimensional organic superconductor (TMTSF){sub 2}PF{sub 6}, we found a novel result that is contradictory to the current interpretation for the suppression of spin density waves under pressures. (orig.)

  2. Hydrogen bond-promoted metallic state in a purely organic single-component conductor under pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isono, Takayuki; Kamo, Hiromichi; Ueda, Akira; Takahashi, Kazuyuki; Nakao, Akiko; Kumai, Reiji; Nakao, Hironori; Kobayashi, Kensuke; Murakami, Youichi; Mori, Hatsumi

    2013-01-01

    Purely organic materials are generally insulating. Some charge-carrier generation, however, can provide them with electrical conductivity. In multi-component organic systems, carrier generation by intermolecular charge transfer has given many molecular metals. By contrast, in purely organic single-component systems, metallic states have rarely been realized although some neutral-radical semiconductors have been reported. Here we uncover a new type of purely organic single-component molecular conductor by utilizing strong hydrogen-bonding interactions between tetrathiafulvalene-based electron-donor molecules. These conductors are composed of highly symmetric molecular units constructed by the strong intra-unit hydrogen bond. Moreover, we demonstrate that, in this system, charge carriers are produced by the partial oxidation of the donor molecules and delocalized through the formation of the symmetric intra-unit hydrogen bonds. As a result, our conductors show the highest room-temperature electrical conductivity and the metallic state under the lowest physical pressure among the purely organic single-component systems, to our knowledge.

  3. Gossamer superconductivity near antiferromagnetic Mott insulator in layered organic conductors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gan, J Y; Chen, Yan; Su, Z B; Zhang, F C

    2005-02-18

    Layered organic superconductors are on the verge of the Mott insulator. We use the Gutzwiller variational method to study a two-dimensional Hubbard model including a spin exchange coupling term as a minimal model for the compounds. The ground state is found to be a Gossamer superconductor at small on-site Coulomb repulsion U and an antiferromagnetic Mott insulator at large U, separated by a first order phase transition. Our theory is qualitatively consistent with major experiments reported in organic superconductors.

  4. Kinetic phenomena in organic conductors in high magnetic fields (Review Article)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peschansky, V. G.; Stepanenko, D. I.

    2016-11-01

    A review of experimental and theoretical studies of transport phenomena in strongly anisotropic organic conductors is presented. Considerable attention is paid to the phenomena that are specific to quasi-2D and quasi-1D conductive structures and have no analogues both in ordinary metals and in truly 2D or 1D conducting systems. Angular magnetoresistance oscillations, de Haas-van Alphen and Shubnikov-de Haas phenomena, high-temperature quantum oscillations of the magnetoresistance, and high-frequency resonances, including those arising due to the motion of electrons open trajectories, are discussed. The resonant angular oscillations of high-frequency conductivity and weakly damped electromagnetic waves in quasi-2D organic conductors under strong spatial dispersion are considered.

  5. Toward crystal design in organic conductors and superconductors.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geiser, U.

    1999-04-23

    We have seen that many different types of intermolecular interactions in organic conducting cation radical salts. Hydrogen bonding between the donor molecules and the anions is weak but not negligible. The ionic Madelung energy is insufficient to completely intersperse anions and cations, thus the layers favored by the van der Waals interactions remain intact. The search for new conducting and superconducting salts has been mainly by trial-and-error methods, even though simple substitutions have been employed in order to obtain isostructural analogs of successful (e.g., superconducting) salts. However, even seemingly minor substitutions sometimes destroy the packing type, and different crystal structures result. Simulations with the aim at predicting crystal structures have not succeeded, mainly because the different interaction types are of comparable energy, and the delocalized and partial charges render the calculations of the ionic terms extremely unreliable. Clearly, the development of suitable crystal modeling techniques with predictive capabilities is one of the great needs of the field.

  6. Unconventional Density Waves in Organic Conductors and in Superconductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maki, K.; Dóra, B.; Virosztek, A.

    Unconventional density waves (UDW) are one of the ground states in metallic crystalline solids and have been speculated already in 1968. However, more focused studies on UDWstarted only recently, perhaps after the identification of the low temperature phase in α-(BEDT-TTF)2KHg(SCN)4 as unconventional charge density wave (UCDW) in 2002. More recently, the metallic phase of Bechgaard salts (TMTSF)2X with X=PF6 and ReO4 under both pressure and magnetic field appears to be unconventional spin density wave (USDW). The pseudogap regime of high T c superconductors LSCO, YBCO, Bi2212 and the one in CeCoIn5 belong to d-wave density waves (d-DW). In these identifications, the angular dependent magnetoresistance and the giant Nernst effect have played the crucial role. These are the simplest manifestations of the Landau quantization of quasiparticle energy in UDW in the presence of magnetic field (the Nersesyan effect). Also we speculate that UDW will be most likely found in α-(BEDT-TTF)2I3, α-(BEDT-TTF)2I2Br, κ-(BEDT-TTF)2Cu(NCS)2, κ-(BEDT-TTF)2Cu(CN)2Br, γ-(BEDT)2GaCl4 and in many other organic compounds.

  7. Next generation bioelectronics: Advances in fabrication coupled with clever chemistries enable the effective integration of biomaterials and organic conductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molino, Paul J.; Wallace, Gordon G.

    2015-01-01

    Organic bioelectronics is making an enormous impact in the field of tissue engineering, providing not just biocompatible, but biofunctional conducting material platforms. For their true potential to be reached, it is critical to integrate organic conductors with other biopolymers in a targeted manner, allowing the development of devices and scaffold architectures capable of delivering a number of physical, chemical, and electrical stimuli. Herein, we provide an overview of the methods currently being employed to tailor organic conductors for bioapplications, with a focus on the development of fabrication techniques vital to the development of the next generation of intelligent bionic devices.

  8. Next generation bioelectronics: Advances in fabrication coupled with clever chemistries enable the effective integration of biomaterials and organic conductors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul J. Molino

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Organic bioelectronics is making an enormous impact in the field of tissue engineering, providing not just biocompatible, but biofunctional conducting material platforms. For their true potential to be reached, it is critical to integrate organic conductors with other biopolymers in a targeted manner, allowing the development of devices and scaffold architectures capable of delivering a number of physical, chemical, and electrical stimuli. Herein, we provide an overview of the methods currently being employed to tailor organic conductors for bioapplications, with a focus on the development of fabrication techniques vital to the development of the next generation of intelligent bionic devices.

  9. Stretchable active-matrix organic light-emitting diode display using printable elastic conductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sekitani, Tsuyoshi; Nakajima, Hiroyoshi; Maeda, Hiroki; Fukushima, Takanori; Aida, Takuzo; Hata, Kenji; Someya, Takao

    2009-06-01

    Stretchability will significantly expand the applications scope of electronics, particularly for large-area electronic displays, sensors and actuators. Unlike for conventional devices, stretchable electronics can cover arbitrary surfaces and movable parts. However, a large hurdle is the manufacture of large-area highly stretchable electrical wirings with high conductivity. Here, we describe the manufacture of printable elastic conductors comprising single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) uniformly dispersed in a fluorinated rubber. Using an ionic liquid and jet-milling, we produce long and fine SWNT bundles that can form well-developed conducting networks in the rubber. Conductivity of more than 100Scm-1 and stretchability of more than 100% are obtained. Making full use of this extraordinary conductivity, we constructed a rubber-like stretchable active-matrix display comprising integrated printed elastic conductors, organic transistors and organic light-emitting diodes. The display could be stretched by 30-50% and spread over a hemisphere without any mechanical or electrical damage.

  10. Spectroscopic investigation of some building blocks of organic conductors: A comparative study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukherjee, V.; Yadav, T.

    2017-04-01

    Theoretical molecular structures and IR and Raman spectra of di and tetra methyl substituted tetrathiafulvalene and tetraselenafulvalene molecules have been studied. These molecules belong to the organic conductor family and are immensely used as building blocks of several organic conducting devices. The Hartree-Fock and density functional theory with exchange functional B3LYP have been employed for computational purpose. We have also performed normal coordinate analysis to scale the theoretical frequencies and to calculate potential energy distributions for the conspicuous assignments. The exciting frequency and temperature dependent Raman spectra have also presented. Optimization results reveal that the sulphur derivatives possess boat shape while selenium derivatives possess planner structures. Natural bond orbitals analysis has also been performed to study second order interaction between donors and acceptors and to compute molecular orbital occupancy and energy.

  11. Multidimensional Nature of Molecular Organic Conductors Revealed by Angular Magnetoresistance Oscillations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pashupati Dhakal, Harukazu Yoshino, Jeong-Il Oh, Koichi Kikuchi, Michael J. Naughton

    2012-09-01

    Angle-dependent magnetoresistance experiments on organic conductors exhibit a wide range of angular oscillations associated with the dimensionality and symmetry of the crystal structure and electron energy dispersion. In particular, characteristics associated with 1, 2, and 3-dimensional electronic motion are separately revealed when a sample is rotated through different crystal planes in a magnetic field. Originally discovered in the TMTSF-based conductors, these effects are particularly pronounced in the related system (DMET){sub 2}I{sub 3}. Here, experimental and computational results for magnetoresistance oscillations in this material, over a wide range of magnetic field orientations, are presented in such a manner as to uniquely highlight this multidimensional behavior. The calculations employ the Boltzmann transport equation that incorporates the system's triclinic crystal structure, which allows for accurate estimates of the transfer integrals along the crystallographic axes, verifying the 1D, 2D and 3D nature of (DMET){sub 2}I{sub 3}, as well as crossovers between dimensions in the electronic behavior.

  12. Origin of anomalous magnetic breakdown frequencies in quasi-two-dimensional organic conductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandhu, P. S.; Kim, Ju H.; Brooks, J. S.

    1997-11-01

    We investigate the origin of anomalous magnetic breakdown frequencies in the de Haas-van Alphen (dHvA) effect in quasi-two-dimensional organic conductors such as α-(BEDT-TTF)2KHg(SCN)4 and κ-(BEDT-TTF)2Cu(NCS)2. A tight-binding model based on their realistic band structure is constructed and solved numerically to compute the field dependence of the magnetization. The present model provides a natural description for the phenomenon of magnetic breakdown between coexisting closed and open Fermi surfaces and accounts for the experimentally observed frequencies that are forbidden in the semiclassical picture. We find that the appearance of these anomalous frequencies in the dHvA signal is a quantum-mechanical effect which arises from differences in field dependence of the states in the two partially occupied bands near the Fermi level.

  13. Magnetic Field-Temperature Phase Diagram of the Organic Conductor α-(BEDT-TTF)2KHg(SCN)4

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christ, P.; Biberacher, W.; Kartsovnik, M. V.; Steep, E.; Balthes, E.; Weiss, H.; Müller, H.

    2000-04-01

    We present systematic magnetic torque studies of the ``magnetic field - temperature'' phase diagram of the layered organic conductor alpha-(BEDT-TTF)2KHg(SCN)4 at fields nearly perpendicular and nearly parallel to the highly conducting plane. The shape of the phase diagram is compared to that predicted for a charge-density-wave system in a broad field range.

  14. High-frequency magneto-conductivity studies of low-dimensional organic conductors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schrama, J.M

    2000-07-01

    In this thesis I present experimental studies of the millimetre-wave magneto-conductivity of the organic charge-transfer salts {kappa}-(BEDT-TTF){sub 2}Cu(NCS){sub 2}, {alpha}-(BEDT-TTF){sub 2}KHg(SCN){sub 4} and (TMTSF){sub 2}ClO{sub 4}. A rotating resonant cavity insert was developed to investigate the angle dependence of resonances in the magneto-conductivity. The technique revealed a new kind of magnetic resonance, the Fermi-surface traversal resonance (FTR), which is described by a semiclassical model. The FTRs give information about the topology of the quasi-one-dimensional (Q1D) Fermi-surface sections. The Q1D Fermi-surface sections play an important role in forming the ground states in organic conductors giving rise, for example, to nesting associated with a density-wave. Chapter 1 gives a brief historical overview of the development of organic conductors and provides basic information about crystal structures and Fermi surfaces of BEDT-TTF based systems. Chapter 2 introduces the reader to basic solid state physics used later in the thesis. In Chapter 3 I discuss the operation of the experimental techniques and apparatus, including millimetre-wave techniques. In addition, Chapter 3 contains a description of the design of the FTR rotating cavity insert which is unique of its kind. In Chapter 4 a model of oscillating real-space velocity vectors is presented. The model is used to explain the origin of the FTRs observed in the high-frequency magneto- conductivity data. In Chapter 5 I report two studies of the angle dependence of FTRs in the high-frequency magneto-conductivity. The FTRs in {kappa}-(BEDT-TTF){sub 2}Cu(NCS){sub 2} and {alpha}-(BEDT- TTF){sub 2}KHg(SCN){sub 4} show two previously unknown corrugations in the Q1D Fermi-surface sections of the two materials. The FTRs in {alpha}-(BEDT-TTF){sub 2}KHg(SCN){sub 4} are investigated both in the density-wave state and near its collapse into a high-temperature, high-field state. In Chapter 6 a study of the

  15. Organic-inorganic halide perovskite solar cell with CH3NH3PbI2Br as hole conductor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Shufang; Zhang, Chenming; Bi, Enbing; Miao, Xiaoliang; Zeng, Haibo; Han, Liyuan

    2017-01-01

    Perovskite solar cells (PSCs) have attracted enormous interest as the most remarkably growing photovoltaic devices. With the power conversion efficiencies of PSCs excessing 20%, great challenges have been focused on the issues of cost and long-term stability which are majorly related to the hole transport materials. In contrast, the PSCs without special hole conductors show great potential for commercial applications due to their cost-effective and fairly stable features. However, the inferior charge separation at the CH3NH3PbI3 (MAPbI3) and back electrode interface limits the cells for high efficiency. Our strategy is to arrange suitable energy band alignment at the interface to enhance the charge separation. We herein report a MAPbI3/MAPbI2Br cascade structured PSC with MAPbI2Br majorly acting as a hole conductor. The conversion efficiency of the PSCs is greatly improved and a high efficiency of 15.83% is achieved. This new design of using organic-inorganic halide perovskites as hole conductors provides an efficient approach for improving the performance of low-cost PSCs.

  16. Hole-conductor-free perovskite organic lead iodide heterojunction thin-film solar cells: High efficiency and junction property

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Jiangjian; Dong, Juan; Lv, Songtao; Xu, Yuzhuan; Zhu, Lifeng; Xiao, Junyan; Xu, Xin; Wu, Huijue; Li, Dongmei; Luo, Yanhong; Meng, Qingbo

    2014-02-01

    Efficient hole-conductor-free organic lead iodide thin film solar cells have been fabricated with a sequential deposition method, and a highest efficiency of 10.49% has been achieved. Meanwhile, the ideal current-voltage model for a single heterojunction solar cell is applied to clarify the junction property of the cell. The model confirms that the TiO2/CH3NH3PbI3/Au cell is a typical heterojunction cell and the intrinsic parameters of the cell are comparable to that of the high-efficiency thin-film solar cells.

  17. Spectroscopic signatures of spin-charge separation in the quasi-one-dimensional organic conductor TTF-TCNQ

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Claessen, R.; Sing, M.; Schwingenschlogl, U.;

    2002-01-01

    The electronic structure of the quasi-one-dimensional organic conductor TTF-TCNQ is studied by angle-resolved photoelectron spectroscopy (ARPES). The experimental spectra reveal significant discrepancies to band theory. We demonstrate that the measured dispersions can be consistently mapped onto...... the one-dimensional Hubbard model at finite doping. This interpretation is further supported by a remarkable transfer of spectral weight as a function of temperature. The ARPES data thus show spectroscopic signatures of spin-charge separation on an energy scale of the conduction bandwidth....

  18. Rational design of metal-organic frameworks with anticipated porosities and functionalities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, MW; Bosch, M; Gentle, T; Zhou, HC

    2014-01-01

    Metal-organic frameworks have emerged as a new category of porous materials that have intriguing structures and diverse applications. Even though the early discovery of new MOFs appears to be serendipitous, much effort has been made to reveal their structure-property relationships for the purpose of rationally designing novel frameworks with expected properties. Until now, much progress has been made to rationalize the design and synthesis of MOFs. This highlight review will outline the recent advances on this topic from both our and other groups and provide a systematic overview of different methods for the rational design of MOFs with desired porosities and functionalities. In this review, we will categorize the recent efforts for rational MOF design into two different approaches: a structural approach and a functional approach.

  19. Anticipation and medicine

    CERN Document Server

    2017-01-01

    In this book, practicing physicians and experts in anticipation present arguments for a new understanding of medicine. Their contributions make it clear that medicine is the decisive test for anticipation. The reader is presented with a provocative hypothesis: If medicine will align itself with the anticipatory condition of life, it can prompt the most important revolution in our time. To this end, all stakeholders—medical practitioners, patients, scientists, and technology developers—will have to engage in the conversation. The book makes the case for the transition from expensive, and only marginally effective, reactive treatment through “spare parts” (joint replacements, organ transplants) and reliance on pharmaceuticals (antibiotics, opiates) to anticipation-informed healthcare. Readers will understand why the current premise of treating various behavioral conditions (attention deficit disorder, hyperactivity, schizophrenia) through drugs has to be re-evaluated from the perspective of anticipation...

  20. Electron Magnetic Resonance Fermi Surface Imaging. Applications to Organic Conductors and Sr2RuO4

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, S.; Kovalev, A.; Mola, M. M.; Palassis, C.; Mao, Z. Q.; Maeno, Y.; Qualls, J. S.

    We report detailed angle dependent studies of the metallic state microwave (40 to 200 GHz) magneto-conductivity of single crystal samples of the α-(BEDT-TTF)2KHg(SCN)4 organic charge density wave conductor, and the perovskite superconductor Sr2RuO4. We observe series' of resonant absorptions which we attribute to periodic orbit resonances - a phenomenon closely related to cyclotron resonance. By performing measurements on several samples, and in different electromagnetic field configurations, we are able to couple to different orbital modes (+ harmonics), which derive from deformations (warpings) of the quasi-one and quasi-two-dimensional Fermi surfaces of these compounds. These studies provide vital information concerning interlayer dispersion which, in turn, affects the Fermi surface nesting characteristics which are believed to play a crucial role in the low temperature physics of these exotic materials.

  1. Magnetic Torque Studies in Two-Dimensional Organic Conductor λ-(BETS)2FeCl4

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugiura, Shiori; Shimada, Kazuo; Tajima, Naoya; Nishio, Yutaka; Terashima, Taichi; Isono, Takayuki; Kato, Reizo; Uji, Shinya

    2017-01-01

    Systematic measurements of the magnetic torque τ of the organic conductor λ-(BETS)2FeCl4 have been performed to investigate the magnetic properties. In the magnetic field dependence of τ, a very sharp structure is observed at ˜1.2 T, resulting from the spin-flop transition. A step-like behavior associated with small hysteresis appears at ˜10 T, which is caused by the antiferromagnetic insulator-paramagnetic metal (AFI-PM) transition. In the angular dependence of τ for magnetic fields in the b*-c plane, it is found that the zero-crossing angles significantly change with field and temperature. The changes provide reasonable evidence of the antiferromagnetic order of the π spins (not the Fe 3d spins) in the AFI phase. The AFI-PM transition field has a minimum when the magnetization of the 3d spins has a maximum as a function of field angle.

  2. Anomalous photo-induced response by double-pulse excitation in the organic conductor (EDO-TTF)2PF6

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onda, Ken; Ogihara, Sho; Ishikawa, Tadahiko; Okimoto, Yoichi; Shao, Xiangfeng; Nakano, Yoshiaki; Yamochi, Hideki; Saito, Gunzi; Koshihara, Shin-ya

    2009-02-01

    We measured ultrafast reflectivity changes induced by double-pulse excitation in the organic conductor (EDO-TTF)2PF6. Using double-pulse excitation with a relatively high intensity, the sign of reflectivity change became reversed at around 0.8 ps and subsequently the reflectivity change reverted to that of the normal photo-induced state after about 1 ps. Using a optically phase-locked double-pulse with low intensity, we found that the temporal profile excited by an in-phase double-pulse differs from that by an out-of-phase double-pulse despite the time difference between the double-pulses being only 1.31 fs. This was true even when there is almost no overlap between each pulse in the double-pulse. These results indicate that the photo-response in this material to double-pulse excitation differs greatly from the linear sum of the responses to single pulses.

  3. Charge Transport in Antiferromagnetic Insulating Phase of Two-Dimensional Organic Conductor λ-(BETS)2FeCl4

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugiura, Shiori; Shimada, Kazuo; Tajima, Naoya; Nishio, Yutaka; Terashima, Taichi; Isono, Takayuki; Kobayashi, Akiko; Zhou, Biao; Kato, Reizo; Uji, Shinya

    2016-06-01

    Resistance and dielectric constants have been measured in the antiferromagnetic insulating phase of the quasi-two-dimensional organic conductor λ-(BETS)2FeCl4 to understand charge transport. Nonlinear current-voltage characteristics are observed at low temperatures, which are explained by a charge transport model based on the electric-field dependent Coulomb potential between the thermally excited electron and hole. A small dip in the magnetic field dependence of the resistance is found at 1.2 T, which is ascribed to a spin-flop transition. The large difference between the in-plane and out-of-plane dielectric constants shows the two-dimensionality of the Coulomb potential, which is consistent with the charge transport model. The angular dependence of the metal-insulator transition field is determined, which suggests that the Zeeman effect of the 3d spins of the Fe ions plays an essential role.

  4. First observation of angle-dependent Stark cyclotron resonance in bulk crystals: High-electric-field interlayer magnetotransport in a layered organic conductor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumagai, A.; Konoike, T.; Uchida, K. [Institute for Solid State Physics, University of Tokyo, 5-1-5 Kashiwanoha, Kashiwa, Chiba 277-8581 (Japan); Osada, T., E-mail: osada@issp.u-tokyo.ac.j [Institute for Solid State Physics, University of Tokyo, 5-1-5 Kashiwanoha, Kashiwa, Chiba 277-8581 (Japan)

    2010-06-01

    We report a novel angle-dependent magnetotransport phenomenon in layered conductors under strong interlayer electric fields. Interlayer conduction shows the Stark cyclotron resonance (SCR) when electron orbital motion becomes periodic in k-space. The SCR amplitude oscillates depending on magnetic field orientations. The conventional angle-dependent magnetoresistance oscillation (AMRO) switches to the angle-dependent SCR in high electric fields. We predict angle-dependent SCR due to electron orbital motion in layered conductors with coherent interlayer coupling. In addition, we demonstrate the expected switching from conventional AMRO to angle-dependent SCR in high electric fields using an organic conductor {alpha}-(BEDT-TTF){sub 2}NH{sub 4}Hg(SCN){sub 4}. This is the first observation of the SCR with orbital origin in bulk crystals.

  5. The metallic transport of (TMTSF){sub 2}X organic conductors close to the superconducting phase

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Auban-Senzier, P; Jerome, D [Laboratoire de Physique des Solides, UMR 8502 CNRS Universite Paris-Sud, 91405 Orsay (France); Doiron-Leyraud, N; Rene de Cotret, S; Sedeki, A; Bourbonnais, C; Taillefer, L [Departement de Physique and RQMP, Universite de Sherbrooke, Sherbrooke, QC, J1K 2R1 (Canada); Alemany, P [Departament de Quimica Fisica and Institut de Quimica Teorica i Computacional (IQTCUB), Universitat de Barcelona, Diagonal 647, 08028 Barcelona (Spain); Canadell, E [Institut de Ciencia de Materials de Barcelona (CSIC), Campus de la UAB, 08193 Bellaterra (Spain); Bechgaard, K, E-mail: pascale.senzier@lps.u-psud.fr, E-mail: denis.jerome@lps.u-psud.fr, E-mail: ndl@physique.usherbrooke.ca, E-mail: cbourbon@physique.usherbrooke.ca, E-mail: ltaillef@physique.usherbrooke.ca, E-mail: p.alemany@ub.edu, E-mail: canadell@icmab.es [Department of Chemistry, HC Oersted Institute, Copenhagen (Denmark)

    2011-08-31

    Comparing resistivity data of the quasi-one-dimensional superconductors (TMTSF){sub 2}PF{sub 6} and (TMTSF){sub 2}ClO{sub 4} along the least conducting c*-axis and along the high conductivity a-axis as a function of temperature and pressure, a low temperature regime is observed in which a unique scattering time governs the transport along both directions of these anisotropic conductors. However, the pressure dependence of the anisotropy implies a large pressure dependence of the interlayer coupling. This is in agreement with the results of first-principles density functional theory calculations implying methyl group hyperconjugation in the TMTSF molecule. In this low temperature regime, both materials exhibit for {rho}{sub c} a temperature dependence aT + bT{sup 2}. Taking into account the strong pressure dependence of the anisotropy, the T-linear {rho}{sub c} is found to correlate with the suppression of the superconducting T{sub c}, in close analogy with {rho}{sub a} data. This work reveals the domain of existence of the three-dimensional coherent regime in the generic (TMTSF){sub 2}X phase diagram and provides further support for the correlation between T-linear resistivity and superconductivity in non-conventional superconductors. (paper)

  6. Theoretical study of the zero-gap organic conductor α-(BEDT-TTF2I3

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akito Kobayashi, Shinya Katayama and Yoshikazu Suzumura

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The quasi-two-dimensional molecular conductor α-(BEDT-TTF2I3 exhibits anomalous transport phenomena where the temperature dependence of resistivity is weak but the ratio of the Hall coefficient at 10 K to that at room temperature is of the order of 104. These puzzling phenomena were solved by predicting massless Dirac fermions, whose motions are described using the tilted Weyl equation with anisotropic velocity. α-(BEDT-TTF2I3 is a unique material among several materials with Dirac fermions, i.e. graphene, bismuth, and quantum wells such as HgTe, from the view-points of both the structure and electronic states described as follows. α-(BEDT-TTF2I3 has the layered structure with highly two-dimensional massless Dirac fermions. The anisotropic velocity and incommensurate momenta of the contact points, ±k0, originate from the inequivalency of the BEDT-TTF sites in the unit cell, where ±k0 moves in the first Brillouin zone with increasing pressure. The massless Dirac fermions exist in the presence of the charge disproportionation and are robust against the increase in pressure. The electron densities on those inequivalent BEDT-TTF sites exhibit anomalous momentum distributions, reflecting the angular dependences of the wave functions around the contact points. Those unique electronic properties affect the spatial oscillations of the electron densities in the vicinity of an impurity. A marked behavior of the Hall coefficient, where the sign of the Hall coefficient reverses sharply but continuously at low temperatures around 5 K, is investigated by treating the interband effects of the magnetic field exactly. It is shown that such behavior is possible by assuming the existence of the extremely small amount of electron doping. The enhancement of the orbital diamagnetism is also expected. The results of the present research shed light on a new aspect of Dirac fermion physics, i.e. the emergence of unique electronic properties owing to the structure

  7. Phase transition in the organic conductor (TTM-TTP)I{3} studied by infrared and Raman spectroscopies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Świetlik, R.; Yakushi, K.; Yamamoto, K.; Kawamoto, T.; Mori, T.

    2004-04-01

    Polarised infrared reflectance (600 10000 cm-1) as well as Raman scattering spectra of the organic conductor (TTM-TTP)I{3} were investigated as a function of temperature, below and above the metal insulator phase transition at T=160 K. The IR electronic dispersion was analysed in terms of a Lorentz model and optical transport parameters were determined. The phase transition at 160 K has nearly no influence on IR spectra. The Raman scattering was studied for different excitations (λ =514.5, 632.6 and 785 nm). Within the C=C stretching region three Raman bands at 1436, 1453 and 1486 cm-1 were found and assigned to the three TTM-TTP modes of ag symmetry. Due to the phase transition the band at 1486 cm-1 splits into two lines at about 1487 and 1500 cm-1. We relate this splitting to an asymmetric deformation of TTM-TTP. Key words. TTM-TTP salt - organic metal - IR and Raman spectra - phase transition.

  8. Nonlocal magnetoresistance measurements of the organic zero-gap conductor α -(BEDT-TTF ) 2I3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamiya, Takeshi; Kawasugi, Yoshitaka; Ara, Masato; Tada, Hirokazu

    2017-02-01

    We prepared nonlocal spin valves based on single crystals of an organic multilayered zero-gap conductor α -(BEDT-TTF ) 2I3 and succeeded in evaluating the spin-diffusion length (1.1 μm) and relaxation time (3 ns) at 2.5 K under a static pressure of 1.6 GPa using a polyethylene naphthalate as a substrate. Although α -(BEDT-TTF ) 2I3 includes heavy atoms, such as iodine, it exhibited a rather long spin-relaxation time comparable to that of graphene. The spin-orbit interaction (SOI) estimated on the basis of the experimental values of the spin-relaxation time and carrier lifetime (1.2 ps) was 90 mK. The long spin-relaxation time and small SOI evaluated for α -(BEDT-TTF ) 2I3 are considered to originate from its layered structure in which spin scattering induced by surface defects is suppressed. In addition, the inversion asymmetry, which generates an extra term in the equation for the SOI, might be reduced in layered structures. These findings provide guiding principles for materials design in organic spintronics.

  9. Magnetic breakdown phenomenon in quasi-two-dimensional organic conductors: A quantum model inspired by a realistic band structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Ju H.; Han, S. Y.; Brooks, J. S.

    1999-08-01

    We investigate the phenomenon of magnetic breakdown in quasi-two-dimensional organic conductors such as α-(ET)2KHg(SCN)4 and κ-(ET)2Cu(NCS)2 by constructing a tight-binding model based on a realistic band structure which is derived from the crystallographic data. We solve the model numerically to compute the magnetic field dependence of the magnetization and show that the present model accounts naturally for the experimentally observed magnetization oscillation frequencies that are forbidden in the semiclassical picture. The computed values of the fundamental and magnetic breakdown frequencies with no adjustable parameters are close to the experimentally measured values. For completeness, we carry out the computation for both canonical (fixed number of particles) and grand canonical (fixed chemical potential) ensembles, and show that the forbidden frequencies appear in both cases. Hence, the appearance of anomalous frequencies in the de Haas-van Alphen effect has a quantum-mechanical origin and arises from the interplay of electronic states from two partially occupied bands near the Fermi energy as a function of magnetic field. We also compute the temperature dependence of the magnetization and apply ad hoc the Lifshitz-Kosevich analysis to the amplitudes of the Fourier components at moderately high temperatures. This yields effective mass values for α-(ET)2KHg(SCN)4 in good agreement with experimental values.

  10. Interplay between the orbital quantization and Pauli effect in a charge-density-wave organic conductor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kartsovnik, Mark; Andres, Dieter; Grigoriev, Pavel; Biberacher, Werner; Müller, Harald

    2004-04-01

    The interlayer magnetoresistance of the low-dimensional organic metal α-(BEDT-TTF) 2KHg(SCN) 4 under pressure shows features which are likely associated with theoretically predicted field-induced charge-density-wave (FICDW) transitions. At ambient pressure, a magnetic field strongly tilted towards the conducting layers induces a series of hysteretic anomalies. We attribute these anomalies to a novel kind of FICDW originating from a superposition of the orbital quantization of the nesting vector and Pauli effect on the charge-density wave.

  11. Interplay between the orbital quantization and Pauli effect in a charge-density-wave organic conductor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kartsovnik, Mark; Andres, Dieter; Grigoriev, Pavel; Biberacher, Werner; Mueller, Harald

    2004-04-30

    The interlayer magnetoresistance of the low-dimensional organic metal {alpha}-(BEDT-TTF){sub 2}KHg(SCN){sub 4} under pressure shows features which are likely associated with theoretically predicted field-induced charge-density-wave (FICDW) transitions. At ambient pressure, a magnetic field strongly tilted towards the conducting layers induces a series of hysteretic anomalies. We attribute these anomalies to a novel kind of FICDW originating from a superposition of the orbital quantization of the nesting vector and Pauli effect on the charge-density wave.

  12. Inhomogeneous superconductivity in organic conductors: the role of disorder and magnetic field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haddad, S; Charfi-Kaddour, S; Pouget, J-P

    2011-11-23

    Several experimental studies have shown the presence of spatially inhomogeneous phase coexistence of superconducting and non-superconducting domains in low dimensional organic superconductors. The superconducting properties of these systems are found to be strongly dependent on the amount of disorder introduced in the sample regardless of its origin. The suppression of the superconducting transition temperature T(c) shows a clear discrepancy with the result expected from the Abrikosov-Gor'kov law giving the behavior of T(c) with impurities. On the basis of the time dependent Ginzburg-Landau theory, we derive a model to account for this striking feature of T(c) in organic superconductors for different types of disorder by considering the segregated texture of the system. We show that the calculated T(c) quantitatively agrees with experiments. We also focus on the effect of superconducting fluctuations on the upper critical fields H(c2) of layered superconductors showing slab structure where superconducting domains are sandwiched by non-superconducting regions. We found that H(c2) may be strongly enhanced by such fluctuations.

  13. High-frequency magneto-conductivity studies of low-dimensional organic conductors

    CERN Document Server

    Schrama, J M

    2000-01-01

    Chapter 5 I report two studies of the angle dependence of FTRs in the high-frequency magneto-conductivity. The FTRs in kappa-(BEDT-TTF) sub 2 Cu(NCS) sub 2 and alpha-(BEDT- TTF) sub 2 KHg(SCN) sub 4 show two previously unknown corrugations in the Q1D Fermi-surface sections of the two materials. The FTRs in alpha-(BEDT-TTF) sub 2 KHg(SCN) sub 4 are investigated both in the density-wave state and near its collapse into a high-temperature, high-field state. In Chapter 6 a study of the millimetre-wave properties of (TMTSF) sub 2 ClO sub 4 at low temperatures is described. Finally, in Chapter 7 I present a study of the angle dependence of the superconductor order parameter in kappa-(BEDT-TTF) sub 2 Cu(NCS) sub 2 with a new millimetre-wave technique. In this thesis I present experimental studies of the millimetre-wave magneto-conductivity of the organic charge-transfer salts kappa-(BEDT-TTF) sub 2 Cu(NCS) sub 2 , alpha-(BEDT-TTF sub 2 KHg(SCN) sub 4 and (TMTSF) sub 2 ClO sub 4. A rotating resonant cavity insert was...

  14. Drude weight in quasi-two-dimensional organic conductors close to the Mott transition: Optical studies of the bandwidth, filling and temperature dependence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Drichko, Natalia [Ioffe Physico-Technical Institute, Polytekhnicheskaya 26, 194021 St. Petersburg (Russian Federation); 1. Physikalisches Institut, Universitaet Stuttgart, Pfaffenwaldring 57, 70550 Stuttgart (Germany)], E-mail: drichko@pi1.physik.uni-stuttgart.de; Dumm, Michael; Faltermeier, Daniel; Dressel, Martin [1. Physikalisches Institut, Universitaet Stuttgart, Pfaffenwaldring 57, 70550 Stuttgart (Germany); Merino, Jaime [Dept. de Fisica Teorica de la Materia Condensada, Universidad Autonoma de Madrid (Spain); Greco, Andres [Facultad de Ciencias Exactas Ingenieria y Agrimensura e Instituto de Fisica Rosario (UNR-CONICET), Rosario (Argentina)

    2007-09-01

    We explore the effects of electronic correlations in quasi-two-dimensional BEDT-TTF-based organic conductors with half, quarter and 1/5-filled bands. Close to the Mott transition but still on the metallic side, quasiparticles are observed in the 1/2-filled systems only at temperatures well below 100 K, with a considerable growth of the Drude-like contribution. In contrast, the 1/4-filled conductors show a zero-frequency conduction peak already at room temperature which increases slightly upon cooling. Basically no change with temperature is observed for the Drude contribution of the 1/5-filled compound. Optical studies allow us to investigate the formation of quasiparticles at low temperature for systems of different filling. The strongest effect is observed in 1/2-filled compounds, it becomes weaker in 1/4 filled, while in the 1/5-filled compound no change of the Dude-peak on temperature is seen.

  15. The density wave state synchronized with the quantum oscillation in the organic conductor α-(BEDT-TTF) 2KHg(SCN) 4

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujita, Toshiyuki; Sasaki, Takahiko; Yoneyama, Naoki; Kobayashi, Norio

    2004-04-01

    We report on the low-frequency AC higher harmonic response measurements in the density wave state of the layered organic conductor α-(BEDT-TTF) 2KHg(SCN) 4. The non-linear conduction in the longitudinal magnetoresistance is detected as the enhancement of the higher harmonic response. The magnitude of the non-linearity oscillates in the high magnetic field with the same frequency of the Shubnikov-de Haas oscillations. The observation is suggestive of the presence of the successive field-induced transition of the density wave state synchronized with the quantum oscillation in high magnetic fields.

  16. The density wave state synchronized with the quantum oscillation in the organic conductor {alpha}-(BEDT-TTF){sub 2}KHg(SCN){sub 4}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fujita, Toshiyuki; Sasaki, Takahiko; Yoneyama, Naoki; Kobayashi, Norio

    2004-04-30

    We report on the low-frequency AC higher harmonic response measurements in the density wave state of the layered organic conductor {alpha}-(BEDT-TTF){sub 2}KHg(SCN){sub 4}. The non-linear conduction in the longitudinal magnetoresistance is detected as the enhancement of the higher harmonic response. The magnitude of the non-linearity oscillates in the high magnetic field with the same frequency of the Shubnikov-de Haas oscillations. The observation is suggestive of the presence of the successive field-induced transition of the density wave state synchronized with the quantum oscillation in high magnetic fields.

  17. Photoinduced Change in the Charge Order Pattern in the Quarter-Filled Organic Conductor (EDO-TTF)2PF6 with a Strong Electron-Phonon Interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onda, Ken; Ogihara, Sho; Yonemitsu, Kenji; Maeshima, Nobuya; Ishikawa, Tadahiko; Okimoto, Yoichi; Shao, Xiangfeng; Nakano, Yoshiaki; Yamochi, Hideki; Saito, Gunzi; Koshihara, Shin-Ya

    2008-08-01

    The quasistable state in the photoinduced phase transition for the quasi-one-dimensional quarter-filled organic conductor (EDO-TTF)2PF6 has been examined by ultrafast reflective measurements and time-dependent model calculations incorporating both electron-electron and electron-phonon interactions. The transient optical conductivity spectrum over a wide probe photon-energy range revealed that photoexcitation induced a new type of charge-disproportionate state. Additionally, coherent and incoherent oscillations dependent on probe photon energies were found, as predicted by the calculation.

  18. Function, anticipation, representation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bickhard, Mark. H.

    2001-06-01

    Function emerges in certain kinds of far-from-equilibrium systems. One important kind of function is that of interactive anticipation, an adaptedness to temporal complexity. Interactive anticipation is the locus of the emergence of normative representational content, and, thus, of representation in general: interactive anticipation is the naturalistic core of the evolution of cognition. Higher forms of such anticipation are involved in the subsequent macro-evolutionary sequence of learning, emotions, and reflexive consciousness.

  19. Measurement of interlayer spin diffusion in the organic conductor {kappa}-(BEDT-TTF){sub 2}Cu[N(CN){sub 2}]X, X=Cl, Br

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Antal, Agnes; Feher, Titusz [Institute of Physics, Budapest University of Technology and Economics, and Condensed Matter Research Group of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences, P.O.Box 91, H-1521 Budapest (Hungary); Nafradi, Balint [Institute of Physics, Budapest University of Technology and Economics, and Condensed Matter Research Group of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences, P.O.Box 91, H-1521 Budapest (Hungary); Institute of Condensed Matter Physics, Ecole Polytechnique Federale de Lausanne, CH-1015 Lausanne (Switzerland); Gaal, Richard; Forro, Laszlo [Institute of Condensed Matter Physics, Ecole Polytechnique Federale de Lausanne, CH-1015 Lausanne (Switzerland); Janossy, Andras, E-mail: atj@szfki.h [Institute of Physics, Budapest University of Technology and Economics, and Condensed Matter Research Group of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences, P.O.Box 91, H-1521 Budapest (Hungary)

    2010-06-01

    In organic conductors the overlap integral between layers is small, in-plane momentum scattering is rapid and transport perpendicular to the layers is expected to be blocked. We present a high frequency conduction electron spin resonance (CESR) study in the layered organic metals {kappa}-(BEDT-TTF){sub 2}Cu[N(CN){sub 2}]X, X=Cl, Br, which verifies that the inter-layer spin hopping is effectively blocked. The method relies on resolving the CESR lines of adjacent layers in which the orientation of the g-factor tensors differs. We find that at ambient pressure and in the metallic phase the electron spin diffusion is two dimensional in both the X=Cl and Br compounds, i.e. electrons diffuse longer than the spin lifetime within a single molecular layer without inter-layer hopping. Application of pressure at 250 K increases rapidly the inter-layer hopping rate of spins.

  20. Current orientation and contact distance dependence of rapid voltage oscillations in the organic conductor β''-[bis(ethylenedithio)tetrathiafulvalene]3(HSO4)2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wakita, Hitoshi; Tamura, Kozo; Ozawa, Tatsuhiko; Bando, Yoshimasa; Kawamoto, Tadashi; Mori, Takehiko

    2010-12-01

    In an organic conductor β″-[bis(ethylenedithio)tetrathiafulvalene]3(HSO4)2, characteristic voltage oscillation is observed in the negative differential resistance region of the nonlinear conductivity below the metal-insulator transition at 125 K. The observed frequency f is 4-25 kHz and increases linearly with the collective current Jco. The oscillation appears in the two crystal directions of the conducting layer in agreement with the two-dimensional nonstripe charge order, where the anisotropy of the Jco/f slope is about two. The voltage oscillation disappears when the contact distance is larger than 0.02 cm, and at the same time the current-voltage characteristics loses a sharp negative resistance region. Since this critical length corresponds to the characteristic domain size of the charge order, the observed oscillation is interpreted by coherent transport of charge order which can move in different two directions.

  1. Non-Linear Conduction in the Density Wave State of Quasi-Two Dimensional Organic Conductor α-(BEDT-TTF)2KHg(SCN)4

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujita, Toshiyuki; Sasaki, Takahiko; Yoneyama, Naoki; Kobayashi, Norio

    2004-06-01

    Current-voltage characteristics are measured in the quasi-two dimensional organic conductor α-(BEDT-TTF)2KHg(SCN)4 at temperatures down to 0.5 K and in the magnetic field up to 25 T. The non-linear conduction with a threshold electric field is found in the density wave state. The features of threshold electric field obtained in the low magnetic field region are explained by the unconventional charge density wave model. In the high magnetic field region, where the Shubnikov-de Haas oscillations appear, the current-voltage characteristics reveal that the density wave state synchronizes with the filling of the electron on the Landau level and continues even above a kink field 23 T.

  2. The Hall effect in the organic conductor TTF–TCNQ: choice of geometry for accurate measurements of a highly anisotropic system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tafra, E; Čulo, M; Basletić, M;

    2012-01-01

    We have measured the Hall effect on recently synthesized single crystals of the quasi-one-dimensional organic conductor TTF–TCNQ (tetrathiafulvalene–tetracyanoquinodimethane), a well known charge transfer complex that has two kinds of conductive stacks: the donor (TTF) and the acceptor (TCNQ...... Hall effect measurements. Our results show, contrary to past belief, that the Hall coefficient does not depend on the geometry of measurements and that the Hall coefficient value is approximately zero in the high temperature region (T > 150 K), implying that there is no dominance of either the TTF...... or the TCNQ chain. At lower temperatures our measurements clearly prove that all three phase transitions of TTF–TCNQ could be identified from Hall effect measurements....

  3. The Hall effect in the organic conductor TTF-TCNQ: choice of geometry for accurate measurements of a highly anisotropic system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tafra, E; Culo, M; Basletić, M; Korin-Hamzić, B; Hamzić, A; Jacobsen, C S

    2012-02-01

    We have measured the Hall effect on recently synthesized single crystals of the quasi-one-dimensional organic conductor TTF-TCNQ (tetrathiafulvalene-tetracyanoquinodimethane), a well known charge transfer complex that has two kinds of conductive stacks: the donor (TTF) and the acceptor (TCNQ) chains. The measurements were performed in the temperature interval 30 K Hall effect measurements. Our results show, contrary to past belief, that the Hall coefficient does not depend on the geometry of measurements and that the Hall coefficient value is approximately zero in the high temperature region (T > 150 K), implying that there is no dominance of either the TTF or the TCNQ chain. At lower temperatures our measurements clearly prove that all three phase transitions of TTF-TCNQ could be identified from Hall effect measurements.

  4. Magnetic ground state of quasi-two-dimensional organic conductor, τ-(EDO-S,S-DMEDT-TTF)2(AuCl2)1+y

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakanishi, T.; Yasuzuka, S.; Yoshino, H.; Fujiwara, H.; Sugimoto, T.; Nishio, Y.; Kajita, K.; Anyfantis, G. A.; Papavassiliou, G. C.; Murata, K.

    2006-11-01

    To understand the interplay between transport and magnetic properties, quasi-two-dimensional (Q2D) organic conductor τ-(EDO-S,S-DMEDTTTF)2(AuCl2)1+y was studied by measurements of electric resistivity ( ρa, ρc), magnetoresistance (MR), susceptibility (χ) and specific heat (C) in the temperature region between 1 K and 300 K. In spite of the fact that the drastic changes were observed in ρa, ρc, MR and χ at TC = 20 K, no anomaly was seen in C. The concentration of spins estimated from M-H curve is about 360 ppm, which is difficult to detect anomaly in C. These data suggest that the number of spins is very small in the ground state like spin-glass system.

  5. Inverse anticipating chaos synchronization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahverdiev, E M; Sivaprakasam, S; Shore, K A

    2002-07-01

    We derive conditions for achieving inverse anticipating synchronization where a driven time-delay chaotic system synchronizes to the inverse future state of the driver. The significance of inverse anticipating chaos in delineating synchronization regimes in time-delay systems is elucidated. The concept is extended to cascaded time-delay systems.

  6. Unveiling the microscopic nature of correlated organic conductors: The case of κ-(ET)2Cu[N(CN)2]BrxCl1-x

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferber, Johannes; Foyevtsova, Kateryna; Jeschke, Harald O.; Valentí, Roser

    2014-05-01

    A few organic conductors show a diversity of exciting properties like Mott insulating behavior, spin liquid, antiferromagnetism, bad metal, or unconventional superconductivity controlled by small changes in temperature, pressure, or chemical substitution. While such a behavior can be technologically relevant for functional switches, a full understanding of its microscopic origin is still lacking and poses a challenge in condensed matter physics since these phases may be a manifestation of electronic correlation. Here we determine from first principles the microscopic nature of the electronic phases in the family of organic systems κ-(ET)2Cu[N(CN)2]BrxCl1-x by a combination of density functional theory calculations and the dynamical mean field theory approach in a form adapted for organic systems. By computing spectral and optical properties we are able to disentangle the origin of the various optical transitions in these materials and prove that correlations are responsible for relevant features. Remarkably, while some transitions are inherently affected by correlations, others are completely uncorrelated. We discuss the consequences of our findings for the phase diagram in these materials.

  7. Photoconduction in CDW conductors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zaitsev-Zotov, S.V., E-mail: serzz@cplire.ru [Kotel' nikov IRE RAS, Mokhovaya 11, Bld. 7, 125009 Moscow (Russian Federation); Minakova, V.E.; Nasretdinova, V.F.; Zybtsev, S.G. [Kotel' nikov IRE RAS, Mokhovaya 11, Bld. 7, 125009 Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2012-06-01

    Photoconduction study of quasi-1D conductors allows to distinguish between the single-particle and collective linear conduction, investigate the effect of screening on collective transport and obtain interesting new details of the electronic energy structure of pure and doped CDW conductors. Here we present results of photoconduction study in quasi-1D conductors o-TaS{sub 3}, K{sub 0.3}MoO{sub 3}, and NbS{sub 3}(I).

  8. Anticipation across disciplines

    CERN Document Server

    2016-01-01

    Never before was anticipation more relevant to the life and activity of humankind than it is today. “It is no overstatement to suggest that humanity’s future will be shaped by its capacity to anticipate….” (Research Agenda for the 21st Century, National Science Foundation). The sciences and the humanities can no longer risk explaining away the complexity and interactivity that lie at the foundation of life and living. The perspective of the world that anticipation opens justifies the descriptor “the post-Cartesian Revolution.” If anticipation is a valid research domain, what practical relevance can we await? Indeed, anticipation is more than just the latest catch-word in marketing the apps developed by the digital technology industry. Due to spectacular advances in the study of the living, anticipation can claim a legitimate place in current investigations and applications in the sciences and the humanities. Biology, genetics, medicine, as well as politics and cognitive, behavioral, and social sci...

  9. Magnetothermopower study of the charge density wave state in a multiband organic conductor α - (BEDT - TTF)2KHg(SCN)4

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krstovska, Danica

    2017-02-01

    Magnetic field dependence of the thermopower and Nernst effect of the multiband organic conductor α - (BEDT - TTF)2KHg(SCN)4 is theoretically studied at low temperatures in the charge density wave (CDW) state, to fields of 30 T and several field directions. A theoretical model of quantum interlayer tunneling for the q1D charge carriers is used to probe the thermoelectric effects in the CDW state. The contribution from the q2D carriers is calculated by using the Boltzmann transport theory. The background components of the thermopower and Nernst effect as well as the quantum oscillations that originate from the closed Fermi surface orbits are analyzed. The model implies that in the CDW state, the properties of α - (BEDT - TTF)2KHg(SCN)4 are determined mostly by the orbits on the new open Fermi sheets. This is in accord with the previously reported CDW scenario of the low temperature state of α - (BEDT - TTF)2KHg(SCN)4 with imperfect nesting of the open Fermi surface sections.

  10. Spin splitting at the high-magnetic-field phase transition of the organic conductor α-(BEDT-TTF)2KHg(SCN)4

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasaki, Takahiko; Fukase, Tetsuo

    1999-06-01

    Spin splitting of the de Haas-van Alphen (dHvA) effect is studied in the quasi-two-dimensional organic conductor α-(BEDT-TTF)2KHg(SCN)4 by means of the magnetic torque method. The magnetic field direction dependence of the dHvA oscillation amplitude shows that the spin-splitting zero angles change at 23 T, where the phase transition magnetic field between the low-temperature, low-magnetic-field phase [antiferromagnetic (AF) phase] and the high-magnetic-field phase (M* phase) is. This change implies the increase of the g(mc/m0) value in the AF phase, where g is the g value, mc and m0 the cyclotron effective and free electron masses, respectively. The enhancement of the electron-electron interaction may be the origin of the large g(mc/m0) value in the AF phase. This result supports a model which requires a modification of the Lifshitz-Kosevich formulation in the AF phase in order to evaluate the effective mass and Dingle temperature correctly. In addition, anomalous structures on the magnetic torque curves are observed in both the AF and the M* phases. Each structure may correspond to the subsequent phase transitions by changing the magnetic field direction.

  11. Uniaxial strain effects on transport properties of a supramolecular organic conductor theta-(DIETS) sub 2 [Au(CN) sub 4

    CERN Document Server

    Tajima, N; Kato, R; Nishio, Y; Kajita, K

    2003-01-01

    Pressure-controlled switching between an insulating state and a superconducting state has been successfully realized on a supramolecular organic conductor theta-(DIETS) sub 2 [Au(CN) sub 4] [DIETS = diiodo(ethylenedithio)diselenadithiafulvalene]. Strong contact between iodine on the donor (DIETS) molecule and nitrogen on the anion [Au(CN) sub 4] genetates characteristic uniaxial strain effects on transport properties. Under the ambient pressure, the present system undergoes a semiconductor-insulator transition at 226 K. The effect of strains parallel to the conduction plane (ab-plane) is very small. Even under uniaxial strains up to 20 kbar along the a- and b-axis directions, the transition is not suppressed. Surprisingly, however, the c-axis strain induces a superconducting state with T sub c of 8.6 K at 10 kbar. Band parameter calculation and the conductivity anisotropy ratio suggest that an increase in the bandwidth W associated with a c-axis strain transforms the system to the metallic and superconducting...

  12. Shubnikov de Haas oscillations and field-induced anomaly in an organic conductor β-(EDO-TTFVO)2FeCl4

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teramura, M.; Yasuzuka, S.; Yoshino, H.; Yokogawa, K.; Sasaki, T.; Fujiwara, H.; Sugimoto, T.; Hiraoka, T.; Hayashi, T.; Murata, Keizo

    2007-03-01

    In order to investigate its electronic structure and the π-d interaction, we studied magnetoresistance (MR) of β″-(EDO-TTFVO) 2FeCl 4. In the course of experiment Shubnikov-de Haas (SdH) effect was found, which shows that this material is a 2D metal. Below 3.5 K (close to TN), MR shows a dip anomaly near 8 T. The anomaly becomes more prominent and shifts slightly to higher field with lowering temperature. The dip anomaly may be caused by the transition from the antiferromagnetic to the paramagnetic states. In addition, SdH oscillations are clearly seen at 0.5 K, whose cross-sectional area corresponds to 13% of the first Brillouin zone. The mass of the π-electrons is m*≃3.3 me, which seems heavy as compared with non-magnetic organic conductors with similar cross-sectional areas, suggesting the enhancement of the mass due to magnetic interaction with the Fe 3d spins.

  13. Correlation Effects on Charge Order and Zero-Gap State in the Organic Conductor α-(BEDT-TTF)2I3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Yasuhiro; Ogata, Masao

    2016-10-01

    The effects of electron correlation in the quasi-two-dimensional organic conductor α-(BEDT-TTF)2I3 are investigated theoretically by using an extended Hubbard model with on-site and nearest-neighbor Coulomb interactions. A variational Monte Carlo method is applied to study its ground-state properties. We show that there appears a nonmagnetic horizontal-stripe charge order in which nearest-neighbor correlation functions indicate a tendency toward a spin-singlet formation on the bonds with large transfer integrals along the charge-rich stripe. Under uniaxial pressure, a first-order transition from the nonmagnetic charge order to a zero-gap state occurs. Our results on a spin correlation length in the charge-ordered state suggest that a spin gap is almost unaffected by the uniaxial pressure in spite of the suppression of the charge disproportionation. The relevance of these contrasting behaviors in spin and charge degrees of freedom to recent experimental observations is discussed.

  14. Doping of Semi Conductors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. V. Agashe

    1960-07-01

    Full Text Available Most of the semi-conductors are formed by addition of foreign substances in an insulator. This is called 'Doping'. These doped semi-conductors today are widely used in many electrical devices. Some of them are rectifiers, transistors, thermistors, oxides cathodes and photo-sensitive elements. This paper reviews the fundamental concept of impurity in semi-conductors and recent work on doping of the latter. Purification methods are described in the case of group IV elements and semi-conducting intermetallic compounds. Results of different physical measurements have been discussed in order to understand the role of 'doping'.

  15. Determination of the Fermi velocity by angle-dependent periodic orbit resonance measurements in the organic conductor α-(BEDT-TTF)2KHg(SCN)4

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovalev, A. E.; Hill, S.; Qualls, J. S.

    2002-10-01

    We report on detailed angle-dependent studies of the microwave (ν=50-90 GHz) interlayer magnetoelectrodynamics of a single crystal sample of the organic charge-density-wave (CDW) conductor α-(BEDT-TTF)2KHg(SCN)4. Recently developed instrumentation enables both magnetic-field (B) sweeps for a fixed sample orientation and angle sweeps at fixed ν/B. We observe series' of resonant absorptions, which we attribute to periodic orbit resonances (POR)-a phenomenon closely related to cyclotron resonance. The angle dependence of the POR indicates that they are associated with the low-temperature quasi-one-dimensional (Q1D) Fermi surface (FS) of the title compound; indeed, all of the resonance peaks collapse onto a single set of ν/B versus angle curves, generated using a semiclassical magnetotransport theory for a single Q1D FS. We show that Q1D POR measurements provide one of the most direct methods for determining the Fermi velocity, without any detailed assumptions concerning the band structure; our analysis yields an average value of vF=6.5×104 m/s. Quantitative analysis of the POR harmonic content indicates that the Q1D FS is strongly corrugated. This is consistent with the assumption that the low-temperature FS derives from a reconstruction of the high-temperature quasi-two-dimensional FS, caused by the CDW instability. Detailed analysis of the angle dependence of the POR yields parameters associated with the CDW superstructure, which are consistent with published results. Finally, we address the issue as to whether or not the interlayer electrodynamics are coherent in the title compound. We obtain a relaxation time from the POR linewidths, which is considerably longer than the interlayer hopping time, indicating that the transport in this direction is coherent.

  16. Anticipating Organizational Change

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krogh, Simon

    of organizational members waiting for changes to take effect. The 3-year period leading up to the ‘go-live’ of Sundhedsplatformen has been a unique opportunity to study the anticipatory phase in connection with large scale IT project and has resulted in the development of a theoretical / conceptual framework......This study reports on the extended time period prior to the introduction of the largest ever Health IT implementation in Denmark – Sundhedsplatformen. The focus of the dissertation is on organizational implications of introducing new technology and more specifically the anticipation...

  17. Plasmonic transparent conductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liapis, Andreas C.; Sfeir, Matthew Y.; Black, Charles T.

    2016-09-01

    Many of today's technological applications, such as solar cells, light-emitting diodes, displays, and touch screens, require materials that are simultaneously optically transparent and electrically conducting. Here we explore transparent conductors based on the excitation of surface plasmons in nanostructured metal films. We measure both the optical and electrical properties of films perforated with nanometer-scale features and optimize the design parameters in order to maximize optical transmission without sacrificing electrical conductivity. We demonstrate that plasmonic transparent conductors can out-perform indium tin oxide in terms of both their transparency and their conductivity.

  18. 76 FR 69801 - Conductor Certification

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-09

    ... definition of ``conductor'' is a fundamental element of the conductor certification regulation and FRA does... and 219. G. Vision and Hearing Acuity BLET/UTU commented that proposed Sec. 242.117(k) should...

  19. Hydrogen-bond-dynamics-based switching of conductivity and magnetism: a phase transition caused by deuterium and electron transfer in a hydrogen-bonded purely organic conductor crystal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ueda, Akira; Yamada, Shota; Isono, Takayuki; Kamo, Hiromichi; Nakao, Akiko; Kumai, Reiji; Nakao, Hironori; Murakami, Youichi; Yamamoto, Kaoru; Nishio, Yutaka; Mori, Hatsumi

    2014-08-27

    A hydrogen bond (H-bond) is one of the most fundamental and important noncovalent interactions in chemistry, biology, physics, and all other molecular sciences. Especially, the dynamics of a proton or a hydrogen atom in the H-bond has attracted increasing attention, because it plays a crucial role in (bio)chemical reactions and some physical properties, such as dielectricity and proton conductivity. Here we report unprecedented H-bond-dynamics-based switching of electrical conductivity and magnetism in a H-bonded purely organic conductor crystal, κ-D3(Cat-EDT-TTF)2 (abbreviated as κ-D). This novel crystal κ-D, a deuterated analogue of κ-H3(Cat-EDT-TTF)2 (abbreviated as κ-H), is composed only of a H-bonded molecular unit, in which two crystallographically equivalent catechol-fused ethylenedithiotetrathiafulvalene (Cat-EDT-TTF) skeletons with a +0.5 charge are linked by a symmetric anionic [O···D···O](-1)-type strong H-bond. Although the deuterated and parent hydrogen systems, κ-D and κ-H, are isostructural paramagnetic semiconductors with a dimer-Mott-type electronic structure at room temperature (space group: C2/c), only κ-D undergoes a phase transition at 185 K, to change to a nonmagnetic insulator with a charge-ordered electronic structure (space group: P1). The X-ray crystal structure analysis demonstrates that this dramatic switching of the electronic structure and physical properties originates from deuterium transfer or displacement within the H-bond accompanied by electron transfer between the Cat-EDT-TTF π-systems, proving that the H-bonded deuterium dynamics and the conducting TTF π-electron are cooperatively coupled. Furthermore, the reason why this unique phase transition occurs only in κ-D is qualitatively discussed in terms of the H/D isotope effect on the H-bond geometry and potential energy curve.

  20. Well Conductor Strain Monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-05-06

    comply with a collection of information if it does not display a currently valid OMB control number. 1. REPORT DATE JUL 2014 2. REPORT TYPE 3. DATES...849,429; filed on June 26, 2013 by the inventor, Dr. Anthony Ruffa and entitled “ SUBSEA WELL CONDUCTOR STRAIN MONITORING”. STATEMENT OF

  1. Can Cavitation Be Anticipated?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allgood, G.O.; Dress, W.B.; Hylton, J.O.; Kercel, S.W.

    1999-04-25

    The major problem with cavitation in pumps and hydraulic systems is that there is no effective (conventional) method for detecting or predicting its inception. The traditional method of recognizing cavitation in a pump is to declare the event occurring when the total head drops by some arbitrary value (typically 3%) in response to a pressure reduction at the pump inlet. However, the device is already seriously cavitating when this happens. What is actually needed is a practical method to detect impending rather than incipient cavitation. Whereas the detection of incipient cavitation requires the detection of features just after cavitation starts, the anticipation of cavitation requires the detection and identification of precursor features just before it begins. Two recent advances that make this detection possible. The first is acoustic sensors with a bandwidth of 1 MHz and a dynamic range of 80 dB that preserve the fine details of the features when subjected to coarse vibrations. The second is the application of Bayesian parameter estimation which makes it possible to separate weak signals, such as those present in cavitation precursors, from strong signals, such as pump vibration. Bayesian parameter estimation derives a model based on cavitation hydrodynamics and produces a figure of merit of how well it fits the acquired data. Applying this model to an anticipatory engine should lead to a reliable method of anticipating cavitation before it occurs. This paper reports the findings of precursor features using high-performance sensors and Bayesian analysis of weak acoustic emissions in the 100-1000kHz band from an experimental flow loop.

  2. Physics of superionic conductors

    CERN Document Server

    1979-01-01

    Superionic conductors are solids whose ionic conductivities approach, and in some cases exceed, those of molten salts and electrolyte solutions. This implies an un­ usual state of matter in which some atoms have nearly liquidlike mobility while others retain their regular crystalline arrangement. This liquid-solid duality has much appeal to condensed matter physicists, and the coincident development of powerful new methods for studying disordered solids and interest in superionic conductors for technical applications has resulted in a new surge of activity in this venerable field. It is the purpose of this book to summarize the current re­ search in the physics of superionic conduction. with special emphasis on those aspects which set these materials apart from other solids. The volume is aimed to­ wards the materials community and will, we expect, stimulate further research on these potentially useful substances. The usual characterization of the superionic phase lists high ionic conductivity; low activat...

  3. The CMS conductor

    CERN Document Server

    Blau, Bertrand; Curé, B; Folch, R; Hervé, A; Horváth, I L; Kircher, F; Musenich, R; Neuenschwander, J; Riboni, P; Seeber, B; Tavares, S; Sgobba, Stefano; Smith, R P

    2002-01-01

    The Compact Muon Solenoid (CMS) is one of the general-purpose detectors to be provided for the LHC project at CERN. The design field of the CMS superconducting magnet is 4 T, the magnetic length is 12.5 m and the free bore is 6 m. The magnetic field is achieved by means of a four-layer superconducting solenoid. The stored magnetic energy is 2.7 GJ at nominal current of 20 kA (at 4.5 K operating temperature). The coil is wound from a high purity aluminum- stabilized Rutherford type conductor. Unlike other existing Al- stabilized thin solenoids, the structural integrity of the CMS coil is ensured both by the Al-alloy reinforcement welded to the conductor and an external support cylinder. The flat NbTi cable is embedded in high purity aluminum by a continuous co-extrusion process. (7 refs).

  4. The CMS conductor

    CERN Document Server

    Horváth, I L; Marti, H P; Neuenschwander, J; Smith, R P; Fabbricatore, P; Musenich, R; Calvo, A; Campi, D; Curé, B; Desirelli, Alberto; Favre, G; Riboni, P L; Sgobba, Stefano; Tardy, T; Sequeira-Lopes-Tavares, S

    2000-01-01

    The Compact Muon Solenoid (CMS) is one of the experiments, which are being designed in the framework of the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) project at CERN, the design field of the CMS magnet is 4 T, the magnetic length is 13 m and the aperture is 6 m. This high magnetic field is achieved by means of a 4 layer, 5 modules superconducting coil. The coil is wound from an Al-stabilized Rutherford type conductor. The nominal current of the magnet is 20 kA at 4.5 K. In the CMS coil the structural function is ensured, unlike in other existing Al-stabilized thin solenoids, both by the Al-alloy reinforced conductor and the external former. In this paper the retained manufacturing process of the 50-km long reinforced conductor is described. In general the Rutherford type cable is surrounded by high purity aluminium in a continuous co-extrusion process to produce the Insert. Thereafter the reinforcement is joined by Electron Beam Welding to the pure Al of the insert, before being machined to the final dimensions. During the...

  5. Alternative HTS coated conductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blaugher, R. D.; Bhattacharya, R. N.; Chen, J.; Padmanabhan, R.

    2002-10-01

    The availability of Bi-2223 high-temperature-superconductor (HTS) powder-in-tube (PIT) tape, with acceptable performance for long lengths, has provided the ability to construct a wide range of HTS electric power components. As a result, there are major worldwide projects in developing HTS electric power components for demonstration in a utility environment. Utility acceptance for superconducting power equipment will depend on several key factors: improved system performance, lower life-cycle costs, higher efficiency versus conventional technology, reliability and maintenance comparable to conventional power equipment, and a competitive installed cost. The latter is impacted by the current high cost of HTS conductors, which must be lowered to costs comparable to conventional Nb-Ti wire, i.e., $2-5/kAm. The present performance and cost of state-of-the-art Bi-2223 HTS tape, although acceptable for prototype construction, is viewed as a major deterrent that may compromise eventual commercialization for most of these electric power devices. The so-called second-generation coated conductor development, with emphasis on conductors employing HTS YBCO films, is viewed as the solution to this performance and cost issue. The potential for the Tl, Hg, and Bi-oxide superconductors for producing an HTS tape as alternatives to Bi-2223 PIT (and YBCO) will be discussed with some recent results on Bi-2212 “coated conductor” development.

  6. L'anticipation comme actualisation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mondeme, Chloé

    2017-01-01

    It is commonly stated that anticipation is a phenomenon that is prior to a given action or situation, both time-wise and logically speaking. In this article, we focus in detail on how anticipation reconfigures the very action being anticipated. By ‘in detail’, we mean through the meticulous...... observation and analysis of ordinary interactions. The corpus is constituted of learning interactions, between dog educator and dogs in formation, in which anticipating an action, notably by assessing it before it happens, contributes in a large part to (re)configure it. This point leads us to develop...

  7. Determination of Band-filling Change in the Two-dimensional Organic Conductor, τ-(EDO-S,S-DMEDT-TTF)2(AuBr2)1+y, (y ≤ 0.875) by the Quantum Oscillation of Magnetoresistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshino, Harukazu; Murata, Keizo; Nakanishi, Tsutomu; Li, Lin; Choi, Eun Sang; Graf, David; Brooks, James S.; Nogami, Yoshio; Papavassiliou, George C.

    2005-01-01

    The effect of thermal treatment on the transport properties is studied for a two-dimensional organic conductor τ-(EDO-S,S-DMEDT-TTF)2(AuBr2)1+y, (y ≤ 0.875). The temperature dependence of the electric resistivity below room temperature was found to be changed from metallic down to low temperature to semiconducting by heating up to 420 K. One of the two frequencies of Shubnikov--de Haas oscillations are found to be different between the non-heated and heated parts from a single crystal, while no evidence of structural change in X-ray photograph was observed. The present result clearly shows that nominal valence or band filling can be controlled by simple thermal treatment for the quasi-two-dimensional organic metal. The mechanism of the change in the band filling is discussed in terms of anion decomposition.

  8. Shubnikov de Haas oscillations in the two-dimensional organic conductor τ-(EDO-S,S-DMEDT- TTF)2(AuBr2)1+y (y˜0.75)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konoike, Takako; Iwashita, K.; Yoshino, H.; Murata, Keizo; Sasaki, T.; Papavassiliou, G. C.

    2002-12-01

    The quasi-two-dimensional organic τ-type conductor, τ-(EDO-S,S-DMEDT-TTF)2(AuBr2)1+y (y˜0.75), shows metallic temperature dependence of the resistivity down to Tmin˜50 K, below which resistance upturn is observed. There has been no evidence of the phase transition through Tmin. In this work, in pursuit of direct evidence for metal at low temperature by transport measurement, we show an observation of the Shubnikov de Haas (SdH) oscillations for this salt. The observed frequencies of the oscillations are inconsistent with the previous band calculation. Further, it is remarkable that the amplitude of the oscillation was so giant (|Δρ/ρ0|˜30%), and the oscillation above 20 T corresponds to a N=2 Landau state, i.e., next to a quantum limit. We also observed the SdH oscillations in other τ-type conductor, τ-(P-S,S-DMEDT-TTF)2(AuBr2)1+y (y˜0.75), which almost reproduced the previous report by Storr et al. [Phys. Rev. B 64, 045107 (2001)].

  9. Oxygen ion conductors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen J Skinner

    2003-03-01

    A very interesting subgroup of this class of materials are the oxides that display oxygen ion conductivity. As well as the intrinsic interest in these materials, there has been a continued drive for their development because of the promise of important technological devices such as the solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC, oxygen separation membranes, and membranes for the conversion of methane to syngas1. All of these devices offer the potential of enormous commercial and ecological benefits provided suitable high performance materials can be developed. In this article we will review the materials currently under development for application in such devices with particular reference to some of the newly discovered oxide ion conductors.

  10. Conditioning flat conductors for flat conductor cable production

    Science.gov (United States)

    1968-01-01

    Apparatus can straighten, anneal, clean, and a tension to stretch a cable one percent to assure uniform cross-sectional area. A conductor passes through temperature controlled distilled water and through a toroid coil. As The conductor enters the water, steam performs the cleaning action. Quenching and annealing also take place.

  11. Solid state proton conductors properties and applications in fuel cells

    CERN Document Server

    Knauth, Philippe

    2012-01-01

    Proton conduction can be found in many different solid materials, from organic polymers at room temperature to inorganic oxides at high temperature. Solid state proton conductors are of central interest for many technological innovations, including hydrogen and humidity sensors, membranes for water electrolyzers and, most importantly, for high-efficiency electrochemical energy conversion in fuel cells. Focusing on fundamentals and physico-chemical properties of solid state proton conductors, topics covered include: Morphology and Structure of Solid Acids Diffusion in Soli

  12. Floating insulated conductors for heating subsurface formations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, David; Goodwin, Charles R.

    2014-07-29

    A heating system for a subsurface formation includes a conduit located in a first opening in the subsurface formation. Three electrical conductors are located in the conduit. A return conductor is located inside the conduit. The return conductor is electrically coupled to the ends of the electrical conductors distal from the surface of the formation. Insulation is located inside the conduit. The insulation electrically insulates the three electrical conductors, the return conductor, and the conduit from each other.

  13. 77 FR 6482 - Conductor Certification

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-08

    ... TRANSPORTATION Federal Railroad Administration 49 CFR Part 242 Conductor Certification AGENCY: Federal Railroad..., published on November 9, 2011, which prescribed regulations for certification of conductors as required by... Certification, U.S. Department of Transportation, Federal Railroad Administration, Mail Stop-25, Room...

  14. Stereoscopic study of the angle-dependent magnetoresistance oscillations across the charge-density-wave transition of the organic conductor α-(BEDT-TTF)2KHg(SCN)4

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, W.; Osada, T.; Konoike, T.; Uchida, K.

    2013-11-01

    The stereoscopic angle-dependent magnetoresistance oscillations (AMRO) in an organic conductor α-(BEDT-TTF)2KHg(SCN)4 were measured across the temperature-pressure boundary that separates the charge-density-wave state from the metallic state. The gnomonic projections of the data clearly resolved the contributions from different parts of the Fermi surfaces. The temperature and pressure dependencies of the AMRO results revealed the progressive formation of a quasi-one-dimensional orbit in the charge-density-wave state. The AMRO measurements at ambient pressures and at low temperatures revealed the presence of two sets of quasi-one-dimensional Fermi surfaces. Additional evidence for multiple quasi-one-dimensional orbits was obtained from the data collected in conjunction with the in-plane field rotations.

  15. High-field phase transitions and Fermi surfaces in the organic conductor α-(BEDT-TTF) 2KHg(SCN) 4: Influence of the magnetic breakdown on evaluation of the effective mass and the scattering time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasaki, T.; Biberacher, W.; Fukase, T.

    1998-05-01

    The change of the de Haas-van Alphen (dHvA) oscillation between the low-field spin-density-wave (SDW) phase and the high-field ( H⩾23 T) metallic phase of the organic conductor α-(BEDT-TTF) 2KHg(SCN) 4 is explained in terms of a model of the magnetic breakdown (MB) and a reconstructed Fermi surface by SDW. On the reconstructed Fermi surface, the scattering time obtained by fitting the standard Lifshitz-Kosevich formulation to the dHvA oscillations is affected by the MB giving the additional field-dependent effect. Furthermore, the evaluation of the effective mass needs to consider the additional temperature-dependent factor being due to the MB gap which may change intrinsically and/or thermally with temperature.

  16. Cyclotron resonance and De Haas-Van Alphen effect in (BEDT-TTF) sub 8 Hg sub 4 Cl sub 1 sub 2 (C sub 6 H sub 5 Cl) sub 2 organic conductor

    CERN Document Server

    Voskobojnikov, I B; Samarin, N A; Cluchanko, N E; Lyubovskaya, R N; Moshchalkov, V V

    2002-01-01

    Within 0.33-1.44 K temperature range at B <= 50 T magnetic field values one measured the De Haas-Van Alphen effect for (BEDT-TTF) sub 8 Hg sub 4 Cl sub 1 sub 2 (C sub 6 H sub 5 Cl) sub 2 organic quasi-two-dimensional conductor. Analysis of quantum oscillations with regard to data on cyclotron resonance derived for 40-120 GHz frequency interval enabled to determine that a complex spectrum of quantum oscillations was formed by alpha approx 256 T and beta approx 670-610 T fundamental frequencies as well as, by combination and multiple frequencies. It is shown that nature of temperature rearrangement of oscillation spectrum may be interpreted in terms of model taking account of occurrence of magnetic phase transition at T sub c approx 0.9 K and proximity of a fundamental frequency with m* = 1.48m sub 0 efficient mass to the spin dumping condition

  17. Evidence for anticipation in schizophrenia.

    OpenAIRE

    Bassett, A. S.; Honer, W.G.

    1994-01-01

    Anticipation, or increasing severity of a disorder across successive generations, is a genetic phenomenon with an identified molecular mechanism: expansion of unstable trinucleotide repeat sequences. This study examined anticipation in familial schizophrenia. Three generations of siblines from the affected side of families selected for unilineal, autosomal dominant-like inheritance of schizophrenia were studied (n = 186). Across generations more subjects were hospitalized with psychotic illne...

  18. Understanding core conductor fabrics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Swenson, D E, E-mail: deswenson@affinity-esd.com [Affinity Static Control Consulting, LLC 2609 Quanah Drive, Round Rock, Texas, 78681 (United States)

    2011-06-23

    ESD Association standard test method ANSI/ESD STM2.1 - Garments (STM2.1), provides electrical resistance test procedures that are applicable for materials and garments that have surface conductive or surface dissipative properties. As has been reported in other papers over the past several years{sup 1} fabrics are now used in many industries for electrostatic control purposes that do not have surface conductive properties and therefore cannot be evaluated using the procedures in STM2.1{sup 2}. A study was conducted to compare surface conductive fabrics with samples of core conductor fibre based fabrics in order to determine differences and similarities with regards to various electrostatic properties. This work will be used to establish a new work item proposal within WG-2, Garments, in the ESD Association Standards Committee in the USA.

  19. Palatable meal anticipation in mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cynthia T Hsu

    Full Text Available The ability to sense time and anticipate events is a critical skill in nature. Most efforts to understand the neural and molecular mechanisms of anticipatory behavior in rodents rely on daily restricted food access, which induces a robust increase of locomotor activity in anticipation of daily meal time. Interestingly, rats also show increased activity in anticipation of a daily palatable meal even when they have an ample food supply, suggesting a role for brain reward systems in anticipatory behavior, and providing an alternate model by which to study the neurobiology of anticipation in species, such as mice, that are less well adapted to "stuff and starve" feeding schedules. To extend this model to mice, and exploit molecular genetic resources available for that species, we tested the ability of wild-type mice to anticipate a daily palatable meal. We observed that mice with free access to regular chow and limited access to highly palatable snacks of chocolate or "Fruit Crunchies" avidly consumed the snack but did not show anticipatory locomotor activity as measured by running wheels or video-based behavioral analysis. However, male mice receiving a snack of high fat chow did show increased food bin entry prior to access time and a modest increase in activity in the two hours preceding the scheduled meal. Interestingly, female mice did not show anticipation of a daily high fat meal but did show increased activity at scheduled mealtime when that meal was withdrawn. These results indicate that anticipation of a scheduled food reward in mice is behavior, diet, and gender specific.

  20. Flat conductor cable commercialization project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hogarth, P.; Wadsworth, E.

    1977-01-01

    An undercarpet flat conductor cable and a baseboard flat conductor cable system were studied for commercialization. The undercarpet system is designed for use in office and commercial buildings. It employs a flat power cable, protected by a grounded metal shield, that terminates in receptacles mounted on the floor. It is designed to interface with a flat conductor cable telephone system. The baseboard system consists of a flat power cable mounted in a plastic raceway; both the raceway and the receptacles are mounted on the surface of the baseboard. It is designed primarily for use in residential buildings, particularly for renovation and concrete and masonry construction.

  1. PREFACE: International Symposium on Molecular Conductors: Novel Functions of Molecular Conductors under Extreme Conditions (ISMC 2008)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Toshihiro; Suzumura, Yoshikazu

    2008-02-01

    The International Symposium on Molecular Conductors 2008 (ISMC2008) was held as the second international symposium of the project entitled `Novel Functions of Molecular Conductors under Extreme Conditions', which was supported by the Grant-in-aid for Scientific Research on Priority Areas from the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology in Japan. The project lasted from September 2003 to March 2008, and was completed by this symposium held at Okazaki Conference Center, Institute for Molecular Science, Okazaki, Japan (23-25 July 2008), which about 100 scientists attended. During the symposium, five project teams gave summary talks and exciting talks were given on the topics developed recently not only by the members of the project but also by other scientists including invited speakers from abroad, who are doing active research on molecular conductors. It is expected that papers presented in the symposium will give valuable hints for the next step in the research of this field. Therefore the organizers of this symposium decided to publish this proceedings in order to demonstrate these activities, not only for the local community of the project, but also for the broad society of international scientists who are interested in molecular conductors. The editors, who are also the organizers of this symposium, believe that this proceedings provides a significant and relevant contribution to the field of molecular conductors since it is the first time we have published such a proceedings as an electronic journal. We note that all papers published in this volume of Journal of Physics: Conference Series have been peer reviewed by expert referees. Editors made every effort to satisfy the criterion of a proceedings journal published by IOP Publishing. Toshihiro Takahashi and Yoshikazu Suzumura Editors: Toshihiro Takahashi (Gakushuin University) (Chairman) Kazushi Kanoda (University of Tokyo) Seiichi Kagoshima (University of Tokyo) Takehiko Mori (Tokyo

  2. 33 CFR 183.425 - Conductors: General.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Conductors: General. 183.425... Conductors: General. (a) Each conductor must be insulated, stranded copper. (b) Except for intermittent surges each conductor must not carry a current greater than that specified in Table 5 for the...

  3. 30 CFR 56.12004 - Electrical conductors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Electrical conductors. 56.12004 Section 56....12004 Electrical conductors. Electrical conductors shall be of a sufficient size and current-carrying... insulating materials. Electrical conductors exposed to mechanical damage shall be protected....

  4. 30 CFR 57.12004 - Electrical conductors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Electrical conductors. 57.12004 Section 57... Surface and Underground § 57.12004 Electrical conductors. Electrical conductors shall be of a sufficient... operations will not damage the insulating materials. Electrical conductors exposed to mechanical damage...

  5. 33 CFR 183.445 - Conductors: Protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Conductors: Protection. 183.445 Section 183.445 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED... Conductors: Protection. (a) Each conductor or group of conductors that passes through a bulkhead,...

  6. Electromagnetism of rotating conductors revisited

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Redzic, Dragan V. [Faculty of Physics, University of Belgrade, Belgrade (Yugoslavia)]. E-mail: redzic@ff.bg.ac.yu

    2002-03-01

    The charge distribution and electromagnetic fields in a rotating, charged conductor under stationary conditions are investigated, assuming that the electrons are at rest relative to the conductor. The basic equations are found, referred to the inertial rest frame of the rotational axis, in the relativistic case, and applied to the case of a cylindrical conductor. The results obtained are compared with those of Groen and Voeyenli (Groen Oe and Voeyenli K 1982 Eur. J. Phys. 3 210-4) who considered the same problem but without taking into account the relative permittivity of the rotating conductor. It is found that the E- and B-fields do not depend on {epsilon}{sub r} and coincide with those calculated by Groen and Voeyenli; the space and surface charge densities, however, depend on {epsilon}{sub r}. (author)

  7. Intentionality, self-reference and anticipation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Julià, Pere

    1998-07-01

    The conceptual analysis of anticipation inherits all the difficulties associated with intentionality. These can be reduced to: (1) the unwillingness to recognize the dispositional nature of the organism-environment interaction; (2) a reluctance to treat language and perception as bona fide forms of activity, thus blocking an effective approach to self-reference, among other things; (3) the general tendency to accept the ascriptional mode of research as a way out of these difficulties. The stage is then set for the assimilation of animal and human behavior studies to machine simulation; also, for the unnecessary reductionism and largely speculative physiologizing that go with mind-brain analogies in lieu of a holistic approach to the facts. This paper argues for a naturalistic approach. Anticipation is about "bringing the future into the present" as part of adaptation; it involves special activities of a cognitive nature, sometimes automatic and probably shared with other species, at other times self-generated and only possible due to some unique properties of human language. Anticipation is best conceptualized as a component in self-regulation. An account in terms of "etiology" serves to recast the notion of "context"; the importance of conative factors is stressed. The emphasis is on experimentally determined variables and processes rather than on abstract idealization or post facto reconstruction. Incursion and hyperincursion techniques are discussed in connection with a possible formulation centered on the synergistic influence of environmental and organismic factors.

  8. Liturgy as space for anticipation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johan Cilliers

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available This article proposes that the notion of liturgical space, understood in conjunction with the original Greek concept of space, is not only a quantitative, physical locality, but also a primary qualitative possibility for existence, a meaningful womb, a neighbourhood for imagination and a space for anticipation. Three consequences of this proposal are discussed, namely liturgy as waiting on the elusive presence (presence of absence of God, celebration as (metaphorical dance of hope, and the need for liturgical refiguring.

  9. Graphene, a promising transparent conductor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan K. Wassei

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available New electronic devices such as touch screens, flexible displays, printable electronics, solid-state lighting and thin film photovoltaics have led to a rapidly growing market for flexible transparent conductors. Standard indium tin oxide films are unlikely to satisfy future needs due to losses in conductivity on bending and the escalating cost of indium which is in limited supply. Recent advances in the synthesis and characterization of graphene indicate that it may be suitable for many electronic applications including as a transparent conductor. Graphene hybrids with, for example, carbon nanotubes, may prove to be especially interesting.

  10. Quartz antenna with hollow conductor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, Ka-Ngo; Benabou, Elie

    2002-01-01

    A radio frequency (RF) antenna for plasma ion sources is formed of a hollow metal conductor tube disposed within a glass tube. The hollow metal tubular conductor has an internal flow channel so that there will be no coolant leakage if the outer glass tube of the antenna breaks. A portion of the RF antenna is formed into a coil; the antenna is used for inductively coupling RF power to a plasma in an ion source chamber. The antenna is made by first inserting the metal tube inside the glass tube, and then forming the glass/metal composite tube into the desired coil shape.

  11. Air-Stable n-type Conductors and Semiconductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-07-14

    AFRL-OSR-VA-TR-2015-0209 Air-Stable n-type Conductors and Semiconductors Zhenan Bao LELAND STANFORD JUNIOR UNIVERSITY THE Final Report 07/14/2015...04-2012 to 14-04-2015 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Air-Stable n-type Conductors and Semiconductors 5a.  CONTRACT NUMBER 5b.  GRANT NUMBER FA9550-12-1-0190 5c...2. Design rules and synthesis of high performance n-doped conducting polymers; 3. Fundamental understanding of organic semiconductors through

  12. Improving YBCO Coated Conductors for Applications (Postprint)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-01

    AFRL-RZ-WP-TP-2012-0123 IMPROVING YBCO COATED CONDUCTORS FOR APPLICATIONS (POSTPRINT) P.N. Barnes, B.C. Harrison, J.W. Kell, and G.A...SUBTITLE IMPROVING YBCO COATED CONDUCTORS FOR APPLICATIONS (POSTPRINT) 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER In-house 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT...are lighter in weight and smaller in size than their conventional counterparts. The YBCO coated conductor is expected to be the premiere HTS conductor

  13. 46 CFR 111.15-20 - Conductors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Conductors. 111.15-20 Section 111.15-20 Shipping COAST... REQUIREMENTS Storage Batteries and Battery Chargers: Construction and Installation § 111.15-20 Conductors. (a) Each conductor penetration to a battery room must be made watertight. (b) The termination of each...

  14. 33 CFR 159.73 - Conductors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Conductors. 159.73 Section 159.73 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) POLLUTION MARINE SANITATION DEVICES Design, Construction, and Testing § 159.73 Conductors. Current carrying conductors must...

  15. 75 FR 69165 - Conductor Certification

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-10

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ] Part II Department of Transportation Federal Railroad Administration 49 CFR Part 242 Conductor Certification; Proposed Rule #0;#0;Federal Register / Vol. 75, No. 217 / Wednesday, November 10, 2010 / Proposed Rules#0;#0; ] DEPARTMENT...

  16. Multicomponent DFT study of geometrical H/D isotope effect on hydrogen-bonded organic conductor, κ-H3(Cat EDT-ST)2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Kaichi; Kanematsu, Yusuke; Nagashima, Umpei; Ueda, Akira; Mori, Hatsumi; Tachikawa, Masanori

    2017-04-01

    We theoretically investigated a significant contraction of the hydrogen-bonding O⋯O distance upon H/D substitution in our recently developed purely organic crystals, κ-H3(Cat-EDT-ST)2 (H-ST) and its isotopologue κ-D3(Cat-EDT-ST)2 (D-ST), having π-electron systems coupled with hydrogen-bonding fluctuation. The origin of this geometrical H/D isotope effect was elucidated by using the multicomponent DFT method, which takes the H/D nuclear quantum effect into account. The optimized O⋯O distance in H-ST was found to be longer than that in D-ST due to the anharmonicity of the potential energy curve along the Osbnd H bond direction, which was in reasonable agreement with the experimental trend.

  17. Anticipated regret and precautionary sexual behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R. Richard; N.K. de Vries; J. van der Pligt

    1998-01-01

    This study investigated the impact of anticipated regret on precautionary sexual behavior. 317 female and 134 male 18-48 yr old college students completed questionnaires assessing behavioral expectations regarding casual sexual behavior, anticipated regret, perceived behavioral control, attitudes, s

  18. Temperature limited heater utilizing non-ferromagnetic conductor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vinegar,; Harold J. (Bellaire, TX), Harris; Kelvin, Christopher [Houston, TX

    2012-07-17

    A heater is described. The heater includes a ferromagnetic conductor and an electrical conductor electrically coupled to the ferromagnetic conductor. The ferromagnetic conductor is positioned relative to the electrical conductor such that an electromagnetic field produced by time-varying current flow in the ferromagnetic conductor confines a majority of the flow of the electrical current to the electrical conductor at temperatures below or near a selected temperature.

  19. Composite conductor containing superconductive wires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larson, W.L.; Wong, J.

    1974-03-26

    A superconductor cable substitute made by coworking multiple rods of superconductive niobium--titanium or niobium--zirconium alloy with a common copper matrix to extend the copper and rods to form a final elongated product which has superconductive wires distributed in a reduced cross-section copper conductor with a complete metallurgical bond between the normal-conductive copper and the superconductor wires contained therein is described. The superconductor cable can be in the form of a tube.

  20. Method for making conductors for ferrite memory arrays. [from pre-formed metal conductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heckler, C. H.; Baba, P. D.; Bhiwandker, N. C. (Inventor)

    1974-01-01

    The ferrite memory arrays are made from pre-formed metal conductors for the ferrite arrays. The conductors are made by forming a thin sheet of a metallizing paste of metal alloy powder, drying the paste layer, bisque firing the dried sheet at a first temperature, and then punching the conductors from the fired sheet. During the bisque firing, the conductor sheet shrinks to 58 percent of its pre-fired volume and the alloy particles sinter together. The conductors are embedded in ferrite sheet material and finally fired at a second higher temperature during which firing the conductors shrink approximately the same degree as the ferrite material.

  1. 46 CFR 111.05-31 - Grounding conductors for systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Grounding conductors for systems. 111.05-31 Section 111... Grounding conductors for systems. (a) A conductor for grounding a direct-current system must be the larger of: (1) The largest conductor supplying the system; or (2) No. 8 AWG (8.4mm2). (b) A conductor...

  2. Role for Genetic Anticipation in Lynch Syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nilbert, Mef; Timshel, Susanne; Bernstein, Inge

    2009-01-01

    PURPOSE: Anticipation (ie, an earlier age at onset in successive generations) is linked to repeat expansion in neurodegenerative syndromes, whereas its role in hereditary cancer is unclear. We assessed anticipation in Lynch syndrome (hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer [HNPCC]), in which DN...... to initiate surveillance programs at young age. It should also stimulate research into the genetic mechanisms that determine age at onset and whether the genetic instability that characterizes Lynch syndrome can be linked to anticipation....

  3. Guo Shuang, A Woman Conductor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1996-01-01

    BORN in a musical family in Beijing, Guo Shuang began to show her talent for music when she was nine years old and began to learn piano from her mother. At the primary and then the secondary school attached to the Central Conservatory of Music, Guo Shuang studied piano, musical theory and composing. Later, she enrolled in the Conservatory to study conducting and piano under the famous conductors Zheng Xiaoying and Xu Xin, piano professors Wu Ying and Xie Huazhen. In 1989, she went to Germany

  4. Responsabilidad penal del conductor ebrio

    OpenAIRE

    Gamboa Mosquera, Mauricio

    2012-01-01

    Mediante el presente artículo se busca mostrar cómo la Corte Suprema de Justicia, en aplicación de la teoría citada ut supra: determinación optativa o alternativa , ha debido aplicar por favorabilidad la condena del conductor a título de homicidio culposo, como quiera que con los mismos elementos de juicio utilizados para concluir que se actuó con dolo eventual, se ha podido arribar al delito imprudente, esto es, al comportamiento culposo.

  5. Performance analysis of the Nb-Ti conductor qualification samples for the ITER project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breschi, M.; Carati, D.; Bessette, D.; Devred, A.; Romano, G.; Vostner, A.; Zhou, C.

    2015-11-01

    The ITER machine will require approximately 275 tons of Nb-Ti strands that will be used in poloidal field (PF) coils, correction coils (CC) and feeder busbars. The performance of all these conductors for the ITER machine is qualified by a short full-size sample (4 m) current sharing temperature (T cs) test in the SULTAN facility at CRPP in Villigen, Switzerland, at the design operating current and peak field. Three ITER domestic agencies participated in PF conductor fabrication (China, the European Union, Russia) while the conductors for feeder busbars and correction coils are entirely produced by the Chinese domestic agency. Each conductor type was qualified by the ITER International Organization after reaching T cs values in excess of ITER specifications. This qualification enabled the launch of procurement and industrial production of the Nb-Ti cable-in-conduit conductors in each domestic agency. In this paper, we summarize the performance of the qualified Nb-Ti samples of the ITER Project, comparing strand performance with conductor performance. The details of the test results will be discussed in terms of dc performance, ac losses and minimum quench energies of each conductor type.

  6. Solid-state proton conductors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jewulski, J.R.; Osif, T.L.; Remick, R.J.

    1990-12-01

    The purpose of this program was to survey the field of solid-state proton conductors (SSPC), identify conductors that could be used to develop solid-state fuel cells suitable for use with coal derived fuel gases, and begin the experimental research required for the development of these fuel cells. This document covers the following topics: the history of developments and current status of the SSPC, including a review of proton conducting electrolyte structures, the current status of the medium temperature SSPC development, electrodes for moderate temperature (SSPC) fuel cell, basic material and measurement techniques applicable for SSPC development, modeling and optimization studies. Correlation and optimization studies, to include correlation studies on proton conduction and oxide cathode optimization for the SSPC fuel cell. Experiments with the SSPC fuel cells including the fabrication of the electrolyte disks, apparatus for conducting measurements, the strontium-cerium based electrolyte, the barium-cerium based electrolyte with solid foil electrodes, the barium-cerium based electrolyte with porous electrodes, and conduction mechanisms. 164 refs., 27 figs., 13 tabs.

  7. Solid-state proton conductors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Remick, R.J.; Jewulski, J.; Osif, T.

    1989-01-01

    Work on this project is divided into three tasks. In the first, a comprehensive literature review was performed for the purpose of collecting data on solid proton conductors. The data was then analyzed with the goal of correlating physical and chemical characteristics with protonic conductivity in order to gain a better understanding of the phenomenon. In the second task, the results of the correlation study were used to choose an electrolyte system in which to work and to aid in the formulation of new candidate proton conductors. Under the third task, a universal test stand was constructed which can measure both electronic and protonic conductivity and which can be converted to use as a solid state fuel cell test stand. Samples of doped SrCe{sub 0.95}Yb{sub 0.05}O{sub 3} have been coated with palladium electrodes and the mechanism responsible for ionic conductivity through this material is currently under study. 6 refs., 1 fig.

  8. Solid-state proton conductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jewulski, J. R.; Osif, T. L.; Remick, R. J.

    1990-12-01

    The purpose of this program was to survey the field of solid-state proton conductors (SSPC), identify conductors that could be used to develop solid-state fuel cells suitable for use with coal derived fuel gases, and begin the experimental research required for the development of these fuel cells. This document covers the following topics: the history of developments and current status of the SSPC, including a review of proton conducting electrolyte structures, the current status of the medium temperature SSPC development, electrodes for moderate temperature (SSPC) fuel cell, basic material and measurement techniques applicable for SSPC development, modeling, and optimization studies. Correlation and optimization studies are described which include correlation studies on proton conduction and oxide cathode optimization for the SSPC fuel cell. Experiments with the SSPC fuel cells are presented which include the fabrication of the electrolyte disks, apparatus for conducting measurements, the strontium-cerium based electrolyte, the barium-cerium based electrolyte with solid foil electrodes, the barium-cerium based electrolyte with porous electrodes, and conduction mechanisms.

  9. Doped LZO buffer layers for laminated conductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paranthaman, Mariappan Parans [Knoxville, TN; Schoop, Urs [Westborough, MA; Goyal, Amit [Knoxville, TN; Thieme, Cornelis Leo Hans [Westborough, MA; Verebelyi, Darren T [Oxford, MA; Rupich, Martin W [Framingham, MA

    2010-03-23

    A laminated conductor includes a metallic substrate having a surface, a biaxially textured buffer layer supported by the surface of the substrate, the biaxially textured buffer layer comprising LZO and a dopant for mitigating metal diffusion through the LZO, and a biaxially textured conductor layer supported by the biaxially textured buffer layer.

  10. Assessment of the noise annoyance among subway train conductors in Tehran, Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamidi, Mansoureh; Kavousi, Amir; Zaheri, Somayeh; Hamadani, Abolfazl; Mirkazemi, Roksana

    2014-01-01

    Subway transportation system is a new phenomenon in Iran. Noise annoyance interferes with the individual's task performance, and the required alertness in the driving of subway trains. This is the first study conducted to measure the level of noise and noise annoyance among conductors of subway organization in Tehran, Iran. This cross sectional study was conducted among 167 randomly selected train conductors. Information related to noise annoyance was collected by using a self-administered questionnaire. The dosimetry and sound metering was done for the conductors and inside the cabins. There were 41 sound metering measuring samples inside the conductors' cabin, and there were 12 samples of conductors' noise exposure. The results of sound level meter showed that the mean Leq was 73.0 dBA ± 8.7 dBA and the dosimetry mean measured Leq was 82.1 dBA ± 6.8 dBA. 80% of conductors were very annoyed/annoyed by noise in their work place. 53.9% of conductors reported that noise affected their work performance and 63.5% reported that noise causes that they lose their concentration. The noise related to movement of train wheels on rail was reported as the worst by 83.2% followed by the noise of brakes (74.3%) and the ventilation noise (71.9%). 56.9% of conductors reported that they are suffering from sleeplessness, 40.1% from tinnitus and 80.2% feeling fatigue and sleepy. The study results showed the high level of noise and noise annoyance among train conductors and the poor health outcome of their exposure to this level of noise.

  11. Adaptive and Rational Anticipations in Risk Management Systems and Economy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubois, Daniel M.; Holmberg, Stig C.

    2010-11-01

    The global financial crisis of year 2009 is explained as a result of uncoordinated risk management decisions in business firms and economic organisations. The underlying reason for this can be found in the current financial system. As the financial market has lost much of its direct coupling to the concrete economy it provides misleading information to economic decision makers at all levels. Hence, the financial system has moved from a state of moderate and slow cyclical fluctuations into a state of fast and chaotic ones. Those misleading decisions can further be described, but not explained, by help of adaptive and rational expectations from macroeconomic theory. In this context, AE, the Adaptive Expectations are related to weak passive Exo-anticipation, and RE, the Rational expectations can be related to a strong, active and design oriented anticipation. The shortcomings of conventional cures, which builds on a reactive paradigm, have already been demonstrated in economic literature and are here further underlined by help of Ashby's "Law of Requisite Variety", Weaver's distinction between systems of "Disorganized Complexity" and those of "Organized Complexity", and Klir's "Reconstructability Analysis". Anticipatory decision-making is hence here proposed as a replacement to current expectation based and passive risk management. An anticipatory model of the business cycle is presented for supporting that proposition. The model, which is an extension of the Kaldor-Kalecki model, includes both retardation and anticipation. While cybernetics with the feedback process in control system deals with an explicit goal or purpose given to a system, the anticipatory system discussed here deals with a behaviour for which the future state of the system is built by the system itself, without explicit goal. A system with weak anticipation is based on a predictive model of the system, while a system with strong anticipation builds its own future by itself. Numerical simulations on

  12. Role for Genetic Anticipation in Lynch Syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nilbert, Mef; Timshel, Susanne; Bernstein, Inge;

    2009-01-01

    parent-child pairs in which age at the first cancer diagnosis was assessed. A paired t-test and a specifically developed bivariate model were used to assess a possible role of anticipation. RESULTS: Both methods revealed anticipation with children developing cancer mean 9.8 years (P ... parents using the paired t-test and 5.5 years (P ... to initiate surveillance programs at young age. It should also stimulate research into the genetic mechanisms that determine age at onset and whether the genetic instability that characterizes Lynch syndrome can be linked to anticipation....

  13. Anticipation Behavior Upstream of a Bottleneck

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Duives, D.C.; Daamen, W.; Hoogendoorn, S.P.

    2014-01-01

    Whether pedestrian movements do or do not follow similar patterns as vehicular traffic while experiencing congestion is not entirely understood. Using data gathered during bottleneck experiments under laboratory conditions, the phenomenon of anticipation before entering congestion is studied. This p

  14. 46 CFR 111.50-3 - Protection of conductors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... conductor must be protected in accordance with its current carrying capacity, except a conductor for the..., Subpart 111.30. (c) Fuses and circuitbreakers. If the allowable current-carrying capacity of the conductor... current-carrying capacity of the conductor; and (2) The effect of temperature on the operation of...

  15. An Exploratory Comparison of Novice, Intermediate, and Expert Orchestral Conductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergee, Martin J.

    2005-01-01

    This study compared novice, "intermediate" (graduate student), and expert orchestral conductors. Two novice conductors, one graduate student in orchestral conducting, and one expert conductor led a university symphony orchestra in part of the first movement of Brahms's Symphony No. 2. Wired for sound, conductors attempted to verbalize their…

  16. 33 CFR 159.71 - Electrical controls and conductors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... conductors. 159.71 Section 159.71 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND... Electrical controls and conductors. Electrical controls and conductors must be installed in accordance with good marine practice. Wire must be copper and must be stranded. Electrical controls and conductors...

  17. 30 CFR 56.12011 - High-potential electrical conductors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false High-potential electrical conductors. 56.12011... § 56.12011 High-potential electrical conductors. High-potential electrical conductors shall be covered, insulated, or placed to prevent contact with low potential conductors....

  18. 30 CFR 57.12011 - High-potential electrical conductors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false High-potential electrical conductors. 57.12011... Electricity Surface and Underground § 57.12011 High-potential electrical conductors. High-potential electrical conductors shall be covered, insulated, or placed to prevent contact with low potential conductors....

  19. 30 CFR 57.12080 - Bare conductor guards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Bare conductor guards. 57.12080 Section 57... Underground Only § 57.12080 Bare conductor guards. Trolley wires and bare power conductors shall be guarded at... conductors are less than 7 feet above the rail, they shall be guarded at all points where persons work...

  20. 46 CFR 111.60-4 - Minimum cable conductor size.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Minimum cable conductor size. 111.60-4 Section 111.60-4...-GENERAL REQUIREMENTS Wiring Materials and Methods § 111.60-4 Minimum cable conductor size. Each cable conductor must be #18 AWG (0.82 mm2) or larger except— (a) Each power and lighting cable conductor must...

  1. Materiales conductores mediante funcionalización de polímeros con nanomateriales conductores

    OpenAIRE

    Gutierrez, Manuel; Llobera, Andreu; Fernández Sánchez, César; Jiménez Jorquera, Cecilia; Mendoza Gómez, Ernest

    2010-01-01

    La presente invención se refiere un material conductor que comprende un polímero funcionalizado y a un nanomaterial conductor unidos mediante enlace covalente. La invención también se refiere a un procedimiento de obtención del material conductor sin modificar las propiedades ópticas del polímero y a su uso para la fabricación de sensores o electrodos.

  2. Failure Mechanism of Reflow Conductor Roll of Electroplating Tinning Line

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    The surface roughness of reflow conductor roll was checked on membrane sample. The surface morphology of conductor roll was observed by microscope, and the composition of adhered layer on conductor roll surface was analyzed by X-ray spectroscope. The results show that tin adhesion is the main reason for failure of conductor roll, and the failure of conductor roll is accelerated by wear. The measures to decrease tin adhesion and improve wear resistance were put forward.

  3. Controlled Electronic Transport through Branched Molecular Conductors

    OpenAIRE

    2008-01-01

    Abstract The conductance through a branched conductor placed between two electrodes is analyzed using the Landauer transport formulation within the framework of the single electron, and the tight binding approximations. Terminal side chains are expressed as self energy terms which map the branched conductor onto an effective linear chain Hamiltonian. The effect of uniform side branches on resonant zero-bias conductance is shown to be analytically solvable and particularly simple, w...

  4. Application of protonic conductors in metallurgy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Two types of disposable EMF hydrogen sensors for measurements of solute contents of liquid metals in situ in metal-refining processes and their general principles are introduced. The way to design new electrochemical sensors and the direction to develop new protonic conductors as new electrochemical sensors are discussed. The feasibility of protonic conductors worked as hydrogen pump in non-ferrous metal refining processes is discussed as well.

  5. Analysis and application of transmission line conductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laney, Orin

    Skin effect is usually a concern reserved for radio frequency design and for high current conductors used in utility power distribution. Proximity effect between adjacent conductors has traditionally been a concern for the design of magnetic windings and other applications involving wire bundles. The rise in the ubiquity of high speed bit streams and other signals of very wide bandwidth has broadened the range of applicable contexts and increased the need to account for such effects. This is especially true for transmission lines used to interconnect critical signal paths in applications ranging from microelectronic devices to the signal integrity of printed circuit traces and implementation of system cabling. Optimal conductor design is obviously fundamental to transmission line performance. Researchers have paid considerable attention to the topic but the results are scattered throughout the literature. This thesis collected information on extant conductor designs, and the theoretical considerations behind each solution. A detailed analysis of current flow in a conducting half-space was included as a foundation. The conductor types discussed were solid cylindrical, rectangular, ribbonoid, bimetallic, tubular, laminated, litz, and stranded constructions. Discussions of the performance of stranded shields and conductor roughness e¤ects were included for completeness of understanding.

  6. The impact of anticipation in dynamical systems

    CERN Document Server

    Gerlee, P; Lundh, T; Wennberg, B

    2016-01-01

    The flocking of animals is often modelled as a dynamical system, in which individuals are represented as particles whose interactions are determined by the current state of the system. Many animals, however, including humans, have predictive capabilities, and presumably base their behavioural decisions---at least partially---upon an anticipated state of their environment. We explore a minimal version of this idea in the context of particles that interact according to a pairwise potential. Anticipation enters the picture by calculating the interparticle forces from linear extrapolation of the positions some time $\\tau$ into the future. Our analysis shows that for intermediate values of $\\tau$ the particles rapidly form milling structures, induced by velocity alignment that emerges from the prediction. We also show that for $\\tau > 0$, any dynamical system governed by an even potential becomes dissipative. These results suggest that anticipation could play an important role in collective behaviour, since it ind...

  7. Conductor fatigue-life research. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramey, G.E.

    1981-07-01

    This is the final report of Research Project RP 1278-1 sponsored by the Electric Power Research Institute and carried out at the Civil Engineering Department of Auburn University (Auburn, Alabama). The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of reducing vibration amplitudes of ACSR conductors which had been minimally damaged by aeolian vibration. The aeolian vibration was simulated by mechanical means in a controlled laboratory situation and the reduction in vibration amplitudes was a simulation of the addition of amplitude limiting devices (dampers). Conductors were vibrated at high amplitudes until a predetermined number of strand breaks occurred, after which the vibration was continued at reduced amplitudes. Three different ACSB conductors were tested: 795 KCM 26/7, 795 KCM 45/7, and 397.5 KCM 26/7. These conductors were chosen to establish the effects of conductor size and stranding on the amplitude reduction tests. Two different amplitude reductions were used to establish a threshold value for a maximum reduced amplitude. Previous preliminary research by others indicated that amplitude reductions extended the working life of conductors. This research expanded the amplitude reduction values and conductor sizes and strandings tested. For each set of parameters, four duplicative tests were performed to give statistical credence to the data. The results of the investigation indicated that amplitude reductions arrested fatigue strand breakage in each case. Electric utilities can utilize the results of this EPRI project in assessing the fatigue life of minimally damaged transmisson lines and in evaluating techniques for mitigating fatigue damage.

  8. Why the Economic Crisis Was Not Anticipated

    Science.gov (United States)

    Posner, Richard A.

    2009-01-01

    An article in the October 11 "New York Times" attributed the almost universal failure to anticipate the current economic crisis to "insanity"--more precisely, to a psychological inability to give proper weight to past events, so that if there is prosperity today people assume that it will last forever, even though they know that in the past booms…

  9. Health, Anticipated Partner Infidelity, and Jealousy in Men and Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven Arnocky

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Health has been identified as an important variable involved in mate choice. Unhealthy organisms are generally less able to provide reproductively important resources to partners and offspring and are more likely to pass on communicable disease. Research on human mate preferences has shown that both men and women prefer healthy mates. Yet to date, little research has examined how health relates to one’s own mating experiences. In the present study, 164 participants (87 women who were currently in heterosexual romantic relationships completed measures of frequency and severity of health problems, anticipated partner infidelity, and intensity of jealousy felt in their current relationship. Mediation analyses showed that health problems predicted greater anticipated partner infidelity and jealousy scores and that anticipated partner infidelity mediated the links between health and jealousy for both frequency and severity of health problems, controlling for both sex and relationship duration. These findings suggest that unhealthy people perceive themselves to be at a mating disadvantage, experiencing associated differences in perceptions and emotions surrounding their romantic partners’ fidelity.

  10. Tunable Broadband Printed Carbon Transparent Conductor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yue; Wan, Jiayu

    Transparent conductors have been widely applied in solar cells, transparent smart skins, and sensing/imaging antennas, etc. Carbon-based transparent conductor has attracted great attention for its low cost and broad range transparency. Ion intercalation has been known to highly dope graphitic materials, thereby tuning materials' optoelectronic properties. For the first time, we successfully tune the optical transmittance of a reduced graphene oxide (RGO)/CNT network from mid-IR range to visible range by means of Li-ion intercalation/deintercalation. We also observed a simultaneous increase of the electrical conductivity with the Li-ion intercalation. This printed carbon hybrid thin film was prepared through all solution processes and was easily scalable. This study demonstrates the possibility of using ion intercalation for low cost, tunable broadband transparent conductors.

  11. Properties and applications of perovskite proton conductors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Caetano Camilo de Souza

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available A brief overview is given of the main types and principles of solid-state proton conductors with perovskite structure. Their properties are summarized in terms of the defect chemistry, proton transport and chemical stability. A good understanding of these subjects allows the manufacturing of compounds with the desired electrical properties, for application in renewable and sustainable energy devices. A few trends and highlights of the scientific advances are given for some classes of protonic conductors. Recent results and future prospect about these compounds are also evaluated. The high proton conductivity of barium cerate and zirconate based electrolytes lately reported in the literature has taken these compounds to a highlight position among the most studied conductor ceramic materials.

  12. Measuring the Magnetic Force on a Current-Carrying Conductor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herreman, W.; Huysentruyt, R.

    1995-01-01

    Describes a fast and simple method for measuring the magnetic force acting on a current-carrying conductor using a digital balance. Discusses the influence of current intensity and wire length on the magnetic force on the conductor. (JRH)

  13. Velocity anticipation in the optimal velocity model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DONG Li-yun; WENG Xu-dan; LI Qing-ding

    2009-01-01

    In this paper,the velocity anticipation in the optimal velocity model (OVM) is investigated.The driver adjusts the velocity of his vehicle by the desired headway,which depends on both instantaneous headway and relative velocity.The effect of relative velocity is measured by a sensitivity function.A specific form of the sensitivity function is supposed and the involved parameters are determined by the both numerical simulation and empirical data.It is shown that inclusion of velocity anticipation enhances the stability of traffic flow.Numerical simulations show a good agreement with empirical data.This model provides a better description of real traffic,including the acceleration process from standing states and the deceleration process approaching a stopped car.

  14. Investigating the Reinforcing Value of Binge Anticipation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearson, Carolyn M.; Chester, David S.; Powell, David; Wonderlich, Stephen A.; Smith, Gregory T.

    2017-01-01

    Binge eating is a hallmark feature of several types of eating disorders, including bulimia nervosa, anorexia nervosa (binge/purge type), and binge-eating disorder, and is associated with numerous harmful consequences. For decades, researchers have sought to understand what maintains and reinforces this behavior in the face of such profound negative consequences. In this context, researchers have focused on the binge-eating behavior itself, and given little consideration to what may be a crucial part of the process: anticipating or planning binge-eating episodes. In this article, we discuss binge anticipation, its potential reinforcing value, and methodologies which would allow researchers to investigate this potentially critical process in individuals who binge eat. PMID:27184737

  15. Young people's anticipation regarding education and job

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juul, Tilde Mette; Lundby, Astrid Arbjerg

    struggle in the decision making process because they see educational and vocational choices as definitive and therefore are afraid to take a ‘wrong’ turn. They seem to think of their educational pathway as linear with no room for detours. This can appear paradoxical on a labour market described as both...... of the reason why young people choose gymnasium instead of vocational education. In the paper we discuss the foundation we outline of young people’s anticipation regarding education and job....

  16. Anticipation: beyond synthetic biology and cognitive robotics

    OpenAIRE

    Slawomir J. Nasuto; Hayashi, Yoshikatsu

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to propose that current robotic technologies cannot have intentional states any more than is feasible within the sensorimotor variant of embodied cognition. It argues that anticipation is an emerging concept that can provide a bridge between both the deepest philosophical theories about the nature of life and cognition and the empirical biological and cognitive sciences steeped in reductionist and Newtonian conceptions of causality. The paper advocates that in order t...

  17. Strong light-field effects in correlated oraganic conductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwai, Shinichiro; Kawakami, Yohei; Naitoh, Yota; Itoh, Hirotake; Ishihara, Sumio; Yonemitsu, Kenji

    Optical responses of organic conductors have attracted much attentions, because they exhibit ultrafast solid-state phase transitions in the conducting and/or dielectric natures upon photo-excitations. In this decade, photoinduced melting of correlated insulators with clear charge gap have been extensively investigated. On the other hand, optical rsponses of correlated metal has not been studied well. Here, we describe a charge localization induced by the 9.3 MV/cm instantaneous electric field of a 1.5 cycle (7 fs) infrared pulse in an organic conductor alpha- (bis[ethylenedithio]-tetrathiafulvelene)2I3. A large reflectivity change of 30 percent and a coherent charge oscillation along the time axis reflect the opening of the charge ordering gap in the metallic phase. This optical freezing of charges, which is the reverse of the photoinduced melting of electronic orders, is attributed to the 10 percent reduction of t driven by the strong, high-frequency electric field. Furthermore, the contribution of Coulomb repulsion will be discussed on the basis of the polarization dependence of the pump light and the theory.

  18. Printable elastic conductors with a high conductivity for electronic textile applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuhisa, Naoji; Kaltenbrunner, Martin; Yokota, Tomoyuki; Jinno, Hiroaki; Kuribara, Kazunori; Sekitani, Tsuyoshi; Someya, Takao

    2015-06-01

    The development of advanced flexible large-area electronics such as flexible displays and sensors will thrive on engineered functional ink formulations for printed electronics where the spontaneous arrangement of molecules aids the printing processes. Here we report a printable elastic conductor with a high initial conductivity of 738 S cm-1 and a record high conductivity of 182 S cm-1 when stretched to 215% strain. The elastic conductor ink is comprised of Ag flakes, a fluorine rubber and a fluorine surfactant. The fluorine surfactant constitutes a key component which directs the formation of surface-localized conductive networks in the printed elastic conductor, leading to a high conductivity and stretchability. We demonstrate the feasibility of our inks by fabricating a stretchable organic transistor active matrix on a rubbery stretchability-gradient substrate with unimpaired functionality when stretched to 110%, and a wearable electromyogram sensor printed onto a textile garment.

  19. 30 CFR 77.503 - Electric conductors; capacity and insulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Electrical Equipment-General § 77.503 Electric conductors; capacity and insulation. Electric conductors shall be sufficient in size and have adequate current carrying capacity and be of such... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Electric conductors; capacity and...

  20. 30 CFR 75.513 - Electric conductor; capacity and insulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... § 75.513 Electric conductor; capacity and insulation. All electric conductors shall be sufficient in size and have adequate current carrying capacity and be of such construction that a rise in temperature... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Electric conductor; capacity and insulation....

  1. 30 CFR 56.12048 - Communication conductors on power poles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Communication conductors on power poles. 56... Electricity § 56.12048 Communication conductors on power poles. Telegraph, telephone, or signal wires shall not be installed on the same crossarm with power conductors. When carried on poles...

  2. 30 CFR 75.513-1 - Electric conductor; size.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Electric conductor; size. 75.513-1 Section 75.513-1 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COAL MINE SAFETY... Electric conductor; size. An electric conductor is not of sufficient size to have adequate...

  3. 46 CFR 120.372 - Equipment and conductor grounding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Equipment and conductor grounding. 120.372 Section 120... INSTALLATION Power Sources and Distribution Systems § 120.372 Equipment and conductor grounding. (a) All... together to a common ground by a normally non-current carrying conductor. Metallic cases of instruments...

  4. 21 CFR 868.1920 - Esophageal stethoscope with electrical conductors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Esophageal stethoscope with electrical conductors... stethoscope with electrical conductors. (a) Identification. An esophageal stethoscope with electrical conductors is a device that is inserted into the esophagus to listen to a patient's heart and breath...

  5. 30 CFR 57.12048 - Communication conductors on power poles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Communication conductors on power poles. 57... MINES Electricity Surface and Underground § 57.12048 Communication conductors on power poles. Telegraph, telephone, or signal wires shall not be installed on the same crossarm with power conductors. When...

  6. 46 CFR 183.372 - Equipment and conductor grounding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Equipment and conductor grounding. 183.372 Section 183... conductor grounding. (a) All metallic enclosures and frames of electrical equipment must be permanently... equipment must be bonded together to a common ground by a normally non-current carrying conductor....

  7. Crystal structure, stability, and optoelectronic properties of the organic-inorganic wide-band-gap perovskite CH3NH3BaI3 : Candidate for transparent conductor applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Akash; Balasubramaniam, K. R.; Kangsabanik, Jiban; Vikram, Alam, Aftab

    2016-11-01

    Structural stability, electronic structure, and optical properties of CH3NH3BaI3 hybrid perovskite are examined from theory as well as experiment. Solution-processed thin films of CH3NH3BaI3 exhibited a high transparency in the wavelength range of 400-825 nm (1.5-3.1 eV for which the photon current density is highest in the solar spectrum) which essentially justifies a high band gap of 4 eV obtained by theoretical estimation. Also, the x-ray diffraction patterns of the thin films match well with the {00 l } peaks of the simulated pattern obtained from the relaxed unit cell of CH3NH3BaI3 , crystallizing in the I 4 /m c m space group, with lattice parameters, a =9.30 Å, c =13.94 Å. Atom projected density of state and band structure calculations reveal the conduction and valence band edges to be comprised primarily of barium d orbitals and iodine p orbitals, respectively. The larger band gap of CH3NH3BaI3 compared to CH3NH3PbI3 can be attributed to the lower electronegativity coupled with the lack of d orbitals in the valence band of Ba2 +. A more detailed analysis reveals the excellent chemical and mechanical stability of CH3NH3BaI3 against humidity, unlike its lead halide counterpart, which degrades under such conditions. We propose La to be a suitable dopant to make this compound a promising candidate for transparent conductor applications, especially for all perovskite solar cells. This claim is supported by our calculated results on charge concentration, effective mass, and vacancy formation energies.

  8. High-temperature superconducting conductors and cables

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peterson, D.E.; Maley, M.P.; Boulaevskii, L.; Willis, J.O.; Coulter, J.Y.; Ullmann, J.L.; Cho, Jin; Fleshler, S.

    1996-09-01

    This is the final report of a 3-year LDRD project at LANL. High-temperature superconductivity (HTS) promises more efficient and powerful electrical devices such as motors, generators, and power transmission cables; however this depends on developing HTS conductors that sustain high current densities J{sub c} in high magnetic fields at temperatures near liq. N2`s bp. Our early work concentrated on Cu oxides but at present, long wire and tape conductors can be best made from BSCCO compounds with high J{sub c} at low temperatures, but which are degraded severely at temperatures of interest. This problem is associated with thermally activated motion of magnetic flux lines in BSCCO. Reducing these dc losses at higher temperatures will require a high density of microscopic defects that will pin flux lines and inhibit their motion. Recently it was shown that optimum defects can be produced by small tracks formed by passage of energetic heavy ions. Such defects result when Bi is bombarded with high energy protons. The longer range of protons in matter suggests the possibility of application to tape conductors. AC losses are a major limitation in many applications of superconductivity such as power transmission. The improved pinning of flux lines reduces ac losses, but optimization also involves other factors. Measuring and characterizing these losses with respect to material parameters and conductor design is essential to successful development of ac devices.

  9. The Conductor as a Transformational Leader.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armstrong, Susan; Armstrong, Scott

    1996-01-01

    Identifies charisma and inspirational leadership as the most important characteristics of transformational leaders. Discusses how middle and secondary school music conductors can use the transformational leadership model. Summarizes key components of this model including positive modeling, sharing vision, and empowering others. Provides relevant…

  10. Conduction Mechanisms and Structure of Ionomeric Single-Ion Conductors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Colby, Ralph H.; Maranas, Janna K; Mueller, Karl T; Runt, James; Winey, Karen I

    2015-03-05

    Our team has designed using DFT (Gaussian) and synthesized low glass transition temperature single-ion conductors that are either polyanions that conduct small cations Li, Na, Cs or polycations that conduct small anions F, OH, Br. We utilize a wide range of complimentary experimental materials charactization tools to understand ion transport; differential scanning calorimetry, dielectric relaxation spectroscopy, infrared spectroscopy, nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, linear viscoelasticity, X-ray scattering and molecular dynamics simulations. The glass transition temperature Tg needs to be as low as possible to facilitate ion transport, so the nonionic parts of the polymer need to be polar, flexible and have strong solvation interactions with the ions. The lowest Tg we have managed for polyanions conducting Li is -60 C. In contrast, polysiloxanes with PEO side chains and tetrabutylphosphonium cationic side groups have Tg ~ -75C that barely increases with ion content, as anticipated by DFT. A survey of all polyanions in the literature suggests that Tg < -80C is needed to achieve the 10-4 S/cm conductivity needed for battery separators.

  11. Conduction Mechanisms and Structure of Ionomeric Single-Ion Conductors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Colby, Ralph H. [Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (United States); Maranas, Janna K. [Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (United States); Mueller, Karl T. [Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (United States); Runt, James [Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (United States); Winey, Karen I. [Univ. of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA (United States)

    2015-03-01

    Our team has designed using DFT (Gaussian) and synthesized low glass transition temperature single-ion conductors that are either polyanions that conduct small cations Li+, Na+, Cs+ or polycations that conduct small anions F-, OH-, Br-. We utilize a wide range of complimentary experimental materials characterization tools to understand ion transport; differential scanning calorimetry, dielectric relaxation spectroscopy, infrared spectroscopy, nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, linear viscoelasticity, X-ray scattering and molecular dynamics simulations. The glass transition temperature Tg needs to be as low as possible to facilitate ion transport, so the nonionic parts of the polymer need to be polar, flexible and have strong solvation interactions with the ions. The lowest Tg we have managed for polyanions conducting Li+ is -60 °C. In contrast, polysiloxanes with PEO side chains and tetrabutylphosphonium cationic side groups have Tg ≈ -75 °C that barely increases with ion content, as anticipated by DFT. A survey of all polyanions in the literature suggests that Tg < -80 °C is needed to achieve the 10-4 S/cm conductivity needed for battery separators.

  12. Revitalizing the United Nations. Anticipation and Prevention as Primary Goals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandra Novosseloff

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available In tackling the on-going topic of UN reform, one should be honest with the analysis of the problems at stakes. It is necessary to first take into account the profound changes that have occurred since the end of the Cold War, as well as acknowledging the limits of an international organization and the shape of the UN system. It is only from that analysis that proposals can be made to rationalize and to make more efficient the functioning of the United Nations. What the Organization needs is not only a rationalization, it primarily needs a vision that gives it purpose and meaning. This article proposes that its primary goals should be anticipation and prevention – it should be the advanced guard and the conscience of the world. In this context, the United Nations is an indispensable and priceless instrument in international relations.

  13. Postmodern Anticipations with E. A. Poe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucian-Vasile SZABO

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the present study is to serve as an introduction to a postmodern reading of Edgar Allan Poe’s short prose. Adventurous approach, as the author manifested himself as a writer in the first part of the 19th century, when romanticism revived and modern paradigm was founded. Based on the assessments expressed on postmodernism and using the tools proposed by various field researchers, we discover in Poe’s work anticipations of the narrative structure method specific for our present times. His concern for the newspaper reader, the insertion of general press topics and articles in his prose, the use of the sensational side of events in his newspaper reports, the ironic approach of real and diegetic facts allow a fresh reading, revaluating this surprising writer. Remarkable are his projections which come close to the SF genre, his confidence in the progress of science and the permanent impairment of this confidence, generated by the fear of world destruction. The conclusion would be that Poe’s prose allows certain postmodern anticipative projections to be decoded and the research to be extended beyond the conventional boundaries of modernity.

  14. The Bionic Anticipation of Natural Disasters

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Helmut Tributsch

    2005-01-01

    After major natural disasters, such as the recent earthquake-tsunami event in South Asia, reports appear about the mysterious ability of animals to anticipate and to escape the impending danger. This is an opportunity to recall the long history of this phenomenon in the traditions of different civilizations, to evaluate Chinese efforts, 30 -40 years ago, to use this phenomenon for earthquake prediction, and to judge its state of acceptance in modern science. An effort is made to introduce this phenomenon as a research field of modern bionics. The timing is favorable since, increasingly, infrared thermal anomalies, monitored from satellite, suggesting litho-atmospheric processes, are found to precede earthquakes.They were unexpected by seismologists and are here suggested to essentially reflect the energy conversion patterns responsible for the signals monitored by animals. The aim is to learn from animals in the long term how natural disasters can better be anticipated, and how simple technical warning systems can be developed. Some challenges are analyzed. One is interpretation of the nature of energy release prior to the main earthquake disaster resulting in "macro-anomaly" precursors,another is better to understand the effect on animal senses. The role of non-linear cooperative phenomena including tsunamitype waves is emphasized.

  15. Anticipation: Beyond synthetic biology and cognitive robotics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasuto, Slawomir J; Hayashi, Yoshikatsu

    2016-10-01

    The aim of this paper is to propose that current robotic technologies cannot have intentional states any more than is feasible within the sensorimotor variant of embodied cognition. It argues that anticipation is an emerging concept that can provide a bridge between both the deepest philosophical theories about the nature of life and cognition and the empirical biological and cognitive sciences steeped in reductionist and Newtonian conceptions of causality. The paper advocates that in order to move forward, cognitive robotics needs to embrace new platforms and a conceptual framework that will enable it to pursue, in a meaningful way, questions about autonomy and purposeful behaviour. We suggest that hybrid systems, part robotic and part cultures of neurones, offer experimental platforms where different dimensions of enactivism (sensorimotor, constitutive foundations of biological autonomy, including anticipation), and their relative contributions to cognition, can be investigated in an integrated way. A careful progression, mindful to the deep philosophical concerns but also respecting empirical evidence, will ultimately lead towards unifying theoretical and empirical biological sciences and may offer advancement where reductionist sciences have been so far faltering.

  16. Anticipation learning from the past the Russian/Soviet contributions to the science of anticipation

    CERN Document Server

    2015-01-01

    This volume presents the work of leading scientists from Russia, Georgia, Estonia, Lithuania, Israel, and the USA, revealing major insights long unknown to the scientific community. Without any doubt their work will provide a springboard for further research in anticipation. Until recently, Robert Rosen (Anticipatory Systems) and Mihai Nadin (MIND – Anticipation and Chaos) were deemed forerunners in this still new knowledge domain. The distinguished neurobiologist, Steven Rose, pointed to the fact that Soviet neuropsychological theories have not on the whole been well received by Western science. These earlier insights as presented in this volume make an important contribution to the foundation of the science of anticipation. It is shown that the daring hypotheses and rich experimental evidence produced by Bernstein, Beritashvili, Ukhtomsky, Anokhin, and Uznadze, among others—extend foundational work to aspects of neuroscience, physiology, motorics, education.

  17. Local noise in a diffusive conductor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tikhonov, E. S.; Shovkun, D. V.; Ercolani, D.; Rossella, F.; Rocci, M.; Sorba, L.; Roddaro, S.; Khrapai, V. S.

    2016-01-01

    The control and measurement of local non-equilibrium configurations is of utmost importance in applications on energy harvesting, thermoelectrics and heat management in nano-electronics. This challenging task can be achieved with the help of various local probes, prominent examples including superconducting or quantum dot based tunnel junctions, classical and quantum resistors, and Raman thermography. Beyond time-averaged properties, valuable information can also be gained from spontaneous fluctuations of current (noise). From these perspective, however, a fundamental constraint is set by current conservation, which makes noise a characteristic of the whole conductor, rather than some part of it. Here we demonstrate how to remove this obstacle and pick up a local noise temperature of a current biased diffusive conductor with the help of a miniature noise probe. This approach is virtually noninvasive for the electronic energy distributions and extends primary local measurements towards strongly non-equilibrium regimes. PMID:27466216

  18. Local noise in a diffusive conductor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tikhonov, E S; Shovkun, D V; Ercolani, D; Rossella, F; Rocci, M; Sorba, L; Roddaro, S; Khrapai, V S

    2016-07-28

    The control and measurement of local non-equilibrium configurations is of utmost importance in applications on energy harvesting, thermoelectrics and heat management in nano-electronics. This challenging task can be achieved with the help of various local probes, prominent examples including superconducting or quantum dot based tunnel junctions, classical and quantum resistors, and Raman thermography. Beyond time-averaged properties, valuable information can also be gained from spontaneous fluctuations of current (noise). From these perspective, however, a fundamental constraint is set by current conservation, which makes noise a characteristic of the whole conductor, rather than some part of it. Here we demonstrate how to remove this obstacle and pick up a local noise temperature of a current biased diffusive conductor with the help of a miniature noise probe. This approach is virtually noninvasive for the electronic energy distributions and extends primary local measurements towards strongly non-equilibrium regimes.

  19. Films of Carbon Nanomaterials for Transparent Conductors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Wei

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The demand for transparent conductors is expected to grow rapidly as electronic devices, such as touch screens, displays, solid state lighting and photovoltaics become ubiquitous in our lives. Doped metal oxides, especially indium tin oxide, are the commonly used materials for transparent conductors. As there are some drawbacks to this class of materials, exploration of alternative materials has been conducted. There is an interest in films of carbon nanomaterials such as, carbon nanotubes and graphene as they exhibit outstanding properties. This article reviews the synthesis and assembly of these films and their post-treatment. These processes determine the film performance and understanding of this platform will be useful for future work to improve the film performance.

  20. Local noise in a diffusive conductor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tikhonov, E. S.; Shovkun, D. V.; Ercolani, D.; Rossella, F.; Rocci, M.; Sorba, L.; Roddaro, S.; Khrapai, V. S.

    2016-07-01

    The control and measurement of local non-equilibrium configurations is of utmost importance in applications on energy harvesting, thermoelectrics and heat management in nano-electronics. This challenging task can be achieved with the help of various local probes, prominent examples including superconducting or quantum dot based tunnel junctions, classical and quantum resistors, and Raman thermography. Beyond time-averaged properties, valuable information can also be gained from spontaneous fluctuations of current (noise). From these perspective, however, a fundamental constraint is set by current conservation, which makes noise a characteristic of the whole conductor, rather than some part of it. Here we demonstrate how to remove this obstacle and pick up a local noise temperature of a current biased diffusive conductor with the help of a miniature noise probe. This approach is virtually noninvasive for the electronic energy distributions and extends primary local measurements towards strongly non-equilibrium regimes.

  1. Anticipated Activities in Maritime Work, Process Control, and Business Processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Peter Bøgh

    2004-01-01

    Most activities are anticipated before they are executed. The paper presents methods for describing this anticipated state and the processes that may lead to a new state where the activities are executed. The method builds on linguistic case-theory.......Most activities are anticipated before they are executed. The paper presents methods for describing this anticipated state and the processes that may lead to a new state where the activities are executed. The method builds on linguistic case-theory....

  2. A Review of Coated Conductor Development

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐永利; 时东陆

    2003-01-01

    The developments of coated conductor technology have been reviewed. It is shown that the critical current density of high-Tc wires can begreatly enhanced by using three-fold approaches: grain alignment, grain boundary doping, and optimization of the grain architecture. Major advances have been made in the last16 years mainly in three aspects: substrates, buffer layers and the YBCO layer. Cost is still the main concern for scale up, especially for the approach through vapor depositions, such as the PLD method. TFA-MOD or other CSD methods may be the trend to overcome cost and speed consideration during the scale up. However, high reliability and reproducibility will be the new focus for these techniques. Ni-alloy tapes seem to have advantages over pure Ni in terms of mechanicalstrength and oxidation resistance. Depositing a pure Ni layer on top of Ni-based alloys (such as Ni-Cr and Ni-W alloys) solves the problem of low strength ofNi and poor texture of Ni alloys. The RABiTS and IBAD are the two robust approaches for the texture generation. But the buffer materials and architectures being investigated remain unclear, though CeO2/YSZ/CeO2 and MgO are commonly used buffer layers for RABiTS and IBAD respectively. For the case where a buffer layer isunavoidable, a non-vacuum process would be suitable for low cost and scale up. However, none of the buffer layer fabrication processes through CSD has been demonstrated results good enough for long length coated conductor applications. While, a high Jc superconducting layer can be produced by TFA-MOD, which brings a bright future for coated conductors. Clearly, there are still many scientific and technological barriers to be overcome before any long length of high Jc coated conductor be produced commercially. But theoretical analyses and technological progress show the potential for the practical application of coatedconductor wires in the near future.

  3. Current-Induced Effects in Nanoscale Conductors

    OpenAIRE

    2005-01-01

    We present an overview of current-induced effects in nanoscale conductors with emphasis on their description at the atomic level. In particular, we discuss steady-state current fluctuations, current-induced forces, inelastic scattering and local heating. All of these properties are calculated in terms of single-particle wavefunctions computed using a scattering approach within the static density-functional theory of many-electron systems. Examples of current-induced effects in atomic and mole...

  4. Ray class fields of conductor p

    CERN Document Server

    Stadnik, Maria

    2012-01-01

    We prove that (under the assumption of the generalized Riemann hypothesis) a totally real multiquadratic number field K has a positive density of primes p for which the ray class field of conductor p has an explicit description as the Hilbert class field H of K adjoin the real number \\zeta_p + \\zeta_p^{-1} if and only if K contains a unit of norm -1.

  5. AA, inner conductor of a magnetic horn

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN PhotoLab

    1981-01-01

    At the start-up of the AA and during its initial operation, magnetic horns focused the antiprotons emanating from the production target. These "current-sheet lenses" had a thin inner conductor (for minimum absorption of antiprotons), machined from aluminium to wall thicknesses of 0.7 or 1 mm. The half-sine pulses rose to 150 kA in 8 microsec. The angular acceptance was 50 mrad.

  6. Los conductores re-examinados: El transcurso del tiempo deteriora significativamente los conocimientos de los conductores

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco J. Martos

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Dos mil cinco conductores, 1204 hombres y 801 mujeres, una muestra representativa de la población española de conductores, fueron nuevamente examinados utilizando un cuestionario que reproducía fielmente un examen de conducir realizado por la Dirección General de Tráfico (DGT. Las preguntas fueron clasificadas en"“muy importantes", "importantes" y "poco importantes". El 96.5 % de los conductores, suspendió el examen. Los resultados eran tanto peores cuanto más tiempo había transcurridodesde la obtención del permiso de conducir. Esto era independiente de la importancia de las preguntas, de la mayor o menor frecuencia de conducción y afectaba por igual a hombres y mujeres. Las mujeres obtienen mejores puntuaciones en señalización mientras que los hombres son mejores en las preguntas de seguridad vial. Los resultados también demostraban que los conductores profesionales y los de mayor nivel educativo sufren un menor deterioro. Tales resultados nos llevan a considerar la relación que estos datos puedan tener en los niveles de accidentalidad y la conveniencia de establecer pautas para la actualización del conocimiento de los conductores. Finalmente, se discute la relevancia que el examen que se utiliza para obtener el permiso de conducir tiene como indicador o predictor de una futura conducción segura.

  7. Testing of the 3M Company Composite Conductor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stovall, John P [ORNL; Rizy, D Tom [ORNL; Kisner, Roger A [ORNL

    2010-10-01

    The 3M Company has developed a high-temperature low-sag conductor referred to as Aluminum-Conductor Composite-Reinforced or ACCR. The conductor uses an aluminum metal matrix material to replace the steel in conventional conductors. The objective of this work is to accelerate the commercial acceptance by electric utilities of this new conductor design by testing four representative conductor classes in controlled conditions. A unique facility called the Powerline Conductor Accelerated Testing (PCAT) Facility was built at ORNL for testing overhead conductors. The PCAT has been uniquely designed for testing overhead bare transmission line conductors at high currents and temperatures after they have been installed and tensioned to the manufacturer's specifications. The ability to operate a transmission line conductor in this manner does not exist elsewhere in the United States. Four classes of ACCR cable designed by the 3M Company have been successfully test at ORNL small, medium, large and small/compact. Based on these and other manufacturer tests, the 3M Company has successfully introduced the ACCR into the commercial market and has completed over twenty installations for utility companies.

  8. Anticipated synchronization in neuronal network motifs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matias, F. S.; Gollo, L. L.; Carelli, P. V.; Copelli, M.; Mirasso, C. R.

    2013-01-01

    Two identical dynamical systems coupled unidirectionally (in a so called master-slave configuration) exhibit anticipated synchronization (AS) if the one which receives the coupling (the slave) also receives a negative delayed self-feedback. In oscillatory neuronal systems AS is characterized by a phase-locking with negative time delay τ between the spikes of the master and of the slave (slave fires before the master), while in the usual delayed synchronization (DS) regime τ is positive (slave fires after the master). A 3-neuron motif in which the slave self-feedback is replaced by a feedback loop mediated by an interneuron can exhibits both AS and DS regimes. Here we show that AS is robust in the presence of noise in a 3 Hodgkin-Huxley type neuronal motif. We also show that AS is stable for large values of τ in a chain of connected slaves-interneurons.

  9. Intent, Future, Anticipation: A Semiotic, Transdisciplinary Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loeckenhoff, Hellmut

    2008-10-01

    Encouraged e.g. by chaos theory and (bio-)semiotics science is trying to attempt a deeper understanding of life. The paradigms of physics alone prove not sufficient to explain f. ex. evolution or phylogenesis and ontogenesis. In complement, research on life systems reassesses paradigmatic models not only for living systems and not only on the strict biological level. The ontological as well as the epistemological base of science in toto is to be reconsidered. Science itself proves a historical and cultural phenomenon and can be seen as shaped by evolution and semiosis. -Living systems are signified by purpose, intent and, necessarily, by the faculty to anticipate e.g. the cyclic changes of their environment. To understand the concepts behind a proposal is developed towards a model set constituting a transdisciplinary approach. It rests e.g. on concepts of systems, evolution, complexity and semiodynamics.

  10. Parallel Error Detection for Leading Zero Anticipation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ge Zhang; Wei-Wu Hu; Zi-Chu Qi

    2006-01-01

    The algorithm and its implementation of the leading zero anticipation (LZA) are very vital for the performance of a high-speed floating-point adder in today's state of art microprocessor design. Unfortunately, in predicting "shift amount"by a conventional LZA design, the result could be off by one position. This paper presents a novel parallel error detection algorithm for a general-case LZA. The proposed approach enables parallel execution of conventional LZA and its error detection, so that the error-indication signal can be generated earlier in the stage of normalization, thus reducing the critical path and improving overall performance. The circuit implementation of this algorithm also shows its advantages of area and power compared with other previous work.

  11. Time discounting and pain anticipation. Experimental evidence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brañas Garza, Pablo

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with pain anticipation experienced before medical procedures. our experimental results show that individuals with lower time discount factors are more prone to suffer pain in advance. We provide a framework to rationalize the connection between pain anticipation and impatience. in this set up, more impatient subjects, who only value very near events, mainly take into account the present negative effects of medical procedures (the costs, whereas more patient individuals have a net positive valuation of medical events, given that they are able to value both the cost incurred now and all the benefits to be accrued in the future.

    Este artículo trata de la anticipación del dolor experimentada antes de los procedimientos médicos. nuestros resultados experimentales muestran que los individuos con factor de descuento temporal más bajo son más proclives a sufrir dolor por adelantado. el artículo proporciona un marco en el que racionalizar la relación existente entre impaciencia y anticipación del dolor. en este marco, los sujetos más impacientes, que evalúan sólo los eventos muy próximos en el tiempo, focalizan su atención principalmente en los efectos negativos de los procedimientos médicos (sólo los costes, mientras que los individuos más pacientes tienen una valoración neta positiva de los actos médicos puesto que valoran tanto el coste en el que se incurre en el presente como los beneficios que se obtendrán en el futuro.

  12. Isotropic magnetoresistance anomaly in the antiferromagnetic anisotropic conductor, β''(EDO-TTFVO)2FeCl4

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teramura, M.; Yasuzuka, S.; Yoshino, H.; Sasaki, T.; Fujiwara, H.; Sugimoto, T.; Hiraoka, T.; Hayashi, T.; Murata, K.

    2006-11-01

    We report the magnetoresistance (MR) in 2D-organic conductor, β''(EDOTTFVO)2FeCl4. We found an anomaly at 8T in MR, which is field-angle-independent. We speculate that this behavior is associated with from antiferromagnetic to paramagnetic transition, occurring at the same magnitude of magnetic field irrespective of field direction. To realize this situation, comparable magnitude of Jπd and Jdis required, which is rather rare the case. The isotropic nature in the magnetic transition is remarkable in the anisotropic organic conductors.

  13. Control of flux pinning in MOD YBCO coated conductor.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, W.; Huang, Y.; Li, X.; Kodenkandath, T.; Rupich, M. W.; Schoop, U.; Verebelyi, D. T.; Thieme, C. L. H.; Siegal, E.; Holesinger, T. G.; Maiorov, B.; Civale, L.; Miller, D. J.; Maroni, V. A.; Li, J.; Martin, P. M.; Specht, E. D.; Goyal, A.; Paranthaman, M. P.; American Superconductor Corp.; LANL; ORNL

    2007-06-01

    NTwo different types of defect structures have been identified to be responsible for the enhanced pinning in metal organic deposited YBCO films. Rare earth additions result in the formation of nanodots in the YBCO matrix, which form uncorrelated pinning centers, increasing pinning in all magnetic field orientations. 124-type intergrowths, which form as laminar structures parallel to the ab-plane, are responsible for the large current enhancement when the magnetic field is oriented in the ab-plane. TEM studies showed that the intergrowths emanate from cuprous containing secondary phase particles, whose density is partially controlled by the rare earth doping level. Critical process parameters have been identified to control this phase formation, and therefore, control the f 24 intergrowth formation. This work has shown that through process control and proper conductor design, either by adjusting the composition or by multiple coatings of different functional layers, the desired angular dependence can be achieved.

  14. Anticipated effects of climate change on estuarine and coastal fisheries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kennedy, V.S. (Univ. of Maryland, Cambridge (USA))

    Although the timing and magnitude of global climate change is in dispute, the possible effects of such charge merit consideration to allow for discussion of policy ramification and mitigative actions. Climate change may result in sea level rise; water temperature increase; and deviations from present patterns of precipitation, wind, and water circulation. Estuaries may experience loss of marsh habitat, intrusion of marine waters and associated organisms, changes in circulation patterns that affect retention of some indigenous species, and increased hypoxia and storm surges. Estuarine and coastal systems could experience poleward retreat of cold-tolerant species and range expansion of warm-tolerant species. Some fisheries and aquacultural enterprises and communities would benefit from the results of climate change and others would suffer losses, with economic and population dislocations probably inevitable in many parts of the world. Thus, flexibility in policy-making and planning will be vital if global climate is modified as rapidly as is anticipated by some scientists.

  15. Systems and models with anticipation in physics and its applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makarenko, A.

    2012-11-01

    Investigations of recent physics processes and real applications of models require the new more and more improved models which should involved new properties. One of such properties is anticipation (that is taking into accounting some advanced effects).It is considered the special kind of advanced systems - namely a strong anticipatory systems introduced by D. Dubois. Some definitions, examples and peculiarities of solutions are described. The main feature is presumable multivaluedness of the solutions. Presumable physical examples of such systems are proposed: self-organization problems; dynamical chaos; synchronization; advanced potentials; structures in micro-, meso- and macro- levels; cellular automata; computing; neural network theory. Also some applications for modeling social, economical, technical and natural systems are described.

  16. Diamagnetic phase transitions in two-dimensional conductors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bakaleinikov, L.A., E-mail: bakal.ammp@mail.ioffe.ru [A.F. Ioffe Physico-Technical Institute, Russian Academy of Sciences, St. Petersburg 194021 (Russian Federation); Department of Mathematics and Physics, Faculty of Natural Sciences, University of Haifa, Campus Oranim, Tivon 36006 (Israel); Gordon, A. [Department of Mathematics and Physics, Faculty of Natural Sciences, University of Haifa, Campus Oranim, Tivon 36006 (Israel)

    2014-11-15

    A theory describing the susceptibility amplitude and the magnetic induction bifurcation near the dHvA driven diamagnetic phase transitions in quasi two-dimensional (2D) organic conductors of the (ET){sub 2}X with X=Cu(NCS){sub 2},KHg(SCN){sub 4},I{sub 3},AuBr{sub 2},IBr{sub 2}, etc. is presented. We show that there is a drastic increase in the temperature and magnetic field dependence of the susceptibility amplitude on approaching the diamagnetic phase transition point. Near the phase transition point the temperature and magnetic field dependences are fitted by the ones typical of the mean-field phase transition theory. These dependences confirm the long-range character of the magnetic interactions among the conduction electrons leading to diamagnetic phase transitions. We demonstrate that the magnetic induction splitting of nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and muon spin-rotation spectroscopy (μSR) lines due to two Condon domains decreases tending to zero on approaching the diamagnetic phase transition. This decrease is fitted by the temperature and magnetic field dependence of the susceptibility characteristic of the mean-field theory of phase transitions. Performing new susceptibility, NMR and μSR experiments will enable to detect diamagnetic phase transitions and Condon domains in quasi 2D metals. - Highlights: • A theory of diamagnetic phase transitions (DPTs) is presented in 2D organic conductors. • The behaviour of the susceptibility amplitude and the induction splitting is shown near the DPT. • The calculated quantities are described by the mean-field theory of phase transitions.

  17. 46 CFR 111.05-33 - Equipment safety grounding (bonding) conductors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Equipment safety grounding (bonding) conductors. 111.05... § 111.05-33 Equipment safety grounding (bonding) conductors. (a) Each equipment-grounding conductor must... 110.10-1). (b) Each equipment-grounding conductor (other than a system-grounding conductor) of a...

  18. Transport AC Losses in Striated YBCO Coated Conductors (Postprint)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-01

    AFRL-RZ-WP-TP-2012-0124 TRANSPORT AC LOSSES IN STRIATED YBCO COATED CONDUCTORS (POSTPRINT) G.A. Levin and P.N. Barnes Mechanical Energy...TRANSPORT AC LOSSES IN STRIATED YBCO COATED CONDUCTORS (POSTPRINT) 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER In-house 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT...2006. 14. ABSTRACT DC current-voltage characteristics and transport ac losses of striated and non-striated Y1Ba2Cu3O7-δ ( YBCO ) coated conductors

  19. Magnetically Guiding Atoms with Current-Carrying Conductors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘南春; 高伟建; 印建平

    2002-01-01

    We propose a novel magnetic guide for cold neutral atoms using some current-carrying conductors. The spatial distributions of the magnetic fields from a V-shaped or U-shaped current-carrying conductor are calculated, and the relationship between the resulting magnetic field and the parameters of the current-carrying conductors is analysed in detail. The result shows that these current-carrying conductors can be used to realize a single or a controllable double magnetic guide of cold atoms in the weak-field-seeking state, and to construct various atom-optical elements, and even to realize a single-mode atomic waveguiding under certain conditions.

  20. First qualification of ITER Toroidal Field Coil conductor jacketing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamada, Kazuya, E-mail: hamada.kazuya@jaea.go.jp [Japan Atomic Energy Agency (Japan); Takahashi, Yoshikazu; Isono, Takaaki; Nunoya, Yoshihiko; Matsui, Kunihiro; Kawano, Katsumi; Oshikiri, Masayuki; Tsutsumi, Fumiaki; Koizumi, Norikiyo; Nakajima, Hideo; Okuno, Kiyoshi [Japan Atomic Energy Agency (Japan); Matsuda, Hidemitsu; Yano, Yoshitaka [Nippon Steel Engineering Co. Ltd (Japan); Devred, Arnauld; Bessette, Denis [ITER Organization (France)

    2011-10-15

    The Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA) has the responsibility to procure 25% of the ITER Toroidal Field Coil conductors as the Japanese Domestic Agency (JADA) in the ITER project. The TF conductor is a circular shaped, cable-in-conduit conductor, composed of a cable and a stainless steel conduit (jacket). The outer diameter and maximum length of the TF conductor are 43.7 mm and 760 m, respectively. JAEA started to produce strand, cables and jacket sections and to construct a conductor manufacturing (jacketing) facility in 2008. Following preparation in December 2009 of the jacketing facility, the dummy cable, the jacket sections and fabrication procedures, such as welding, cable insertion, compaction and spooling, JAEA manufactured a 760 m long Cu dummy conductor for process qualification. Into the 760 m long Cu dummy conductor jacketing, JAEA successfully inserted the cable with a maximum force of 32 kN. The outer diameter of the cross section of the spooled conductor was 43.7 {+-} 0.15 mm, which complies with the ITER target requirement of 43.7 {+-} 0.3 mm. Following qualification of all manufacturing processes, JAEA has started to fabricate superconducting conductors for the TF coils.

  1. Cardiac fluid dynamics anticipates heart adaptation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedrizzetti, Gianni; Martiniello, Alfonso R; Bianchi, Valter; D'Onofrio, Antonio; Caso, Pio; Tonti, Giovanni

    2015-01-21

    Hemodynamic forces represent an epigenetic factor during heart development and are supposed to influence the pathology of the grown heart. Cardiac blood motion is characterized by a vortical dynamics, and it is common belief that the cardiac vortex has a role in disease progressions or regression. Here we provide a preliminary demonstration about the relevance of maladaptive intra-cardiac vortex dynamics in the geometrical adaptation of the dysfunctional heart. We employed an in vivo model of patients who present a stable normal heart function in virtue of the cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT, bi-ventricular pace-maker) and who are expected to develop left ventricle remodeling if pace-maker was switched off. Intra-ventricular fluid dynamics is analyzed by echocardiography (Echo-PIV). Under normal conditions, the flow presents a longitudinal alignment of the intraventricular hemodynamic forces. When pacing is temporarily switched off, flow forces develop a misalignment hammering onto lateral walls, despite no other electro-mechanical change is noticed. Hemodynamic forces result to be the first event that evokes a physiological activity anticipating cardiac changes and could help in the prediction of longer term heart adaptations.

  2. AA, Inner Conductor of Magnetic Horn

    CERN Multimedia

    1979-01-01

    Antiprotons emerging at large angles from the production target (hit by an intense 26 GeV proton beam from the PS), were focused into the acceptance of the injection line of the AA by means of a "magnetic horn" (current-sheet lens). Here we see an early protype of the horn's inner conductor, machined from solid aluminium to a thickness of less than 1 mm. The 1st version had to withstand pulses of 150 kA, 15 us long, every 2.4 s. See 8801040 for a later version.

  3. The Famous Conductor,VuZhu Dokyi

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1996-01-01

    VUzhu Dokyi,now the head of the Tibetan Song and Dance Ensemble is a second-grade conductor of the state,a member of Chinese Musicians’Association,the vice-president of Tibetan Musicians’Association and a council member of the Chinese Chorus Artists’Association.In 1960 he was admitted to the Tianjin Conservatory of Music and followed Qiu Jianhua,the famous music educator,to learn violin.After graduation,he was first violin in the Tibetan Song and Dance Ensemble Orchestra.

  4. Precision gold conductors for HMCs. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Widmer, M.R.

    1994-08-01

    Ti/Pd/Au multiple code coded switch (MCCS) networks were built and compared to Cr/Au MCCS networks. The data showed no measurable difference between the two systems. Interface resistance of both types of networks was measured as a diagnostic aid to determine if hydrogen was affecting the Ti/Pd/Au MCCS networks. The data showed that although hydrogen does affect Ti/Pd/Au, the changes are not significant with respect to MCCS environments. An evaluation of several proprietary gold electroplating solutions for use in the production of Ti/Pd/Au conductors was performed. All the testing results were comparable to the current product requirements.

  5. Shubnikov-de Haas Oscillations in New Organic Conductors (ET)8[ Hg4Cl12(C6H5Cl)2] and (ET)8[ Hg4Cl12(C6H5Br)2

    OpenAIRE

    Lyubovskii, R.; Pesotskii, S.; Gilevski, A.; Lyubovskaya, R.

    1996-01-01

    The results of the investigations of Shubnikov-de Haas oscillations in the quasi-two-dimensional organic complexes (ET)8[ Hg4Cl12(C6H5Cl)2] , where X = CI, Br in the magnetic fields up to 40 T were reported. These results allow one to obtain some information about Fermi surface in the mentioned complexes. Shubnikov-de Haas oscillations in the compound with X = Cl correspond at least to two different cylindrical sheets of Fermi surface with the cross-section in (bc)-plane of 13% and 20% Brillo...

  6. Transport properties and giant Shubnikov-de Haas oscillations in the first organic conductor with metal complex anion containing selenocyanate ligand, (ET){sub 2}TlHg(SeCN){sub 4}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laukhin, V.N. [Service National des Champs Magnetiques Pulses du CNRS et Laboratoire de Physique des Solides, URA CNRS 074, Complexe Scientifique de Rangueil, 31077 Toulouse (France)]|[Institute of Chemical Physics in Chernogolovka, Russian Academy of Sciences, Chernogolovka, MD 142432 (Russian Federation); Audouard, A. [Service National des Champs Magnetiques Pulses du CNRS et Laboratoire de Physique des Solides, URA CNRS 074, Complexe Scientifique de Rangueil, 31077 Toulouse (France); Rakoto, H. [Service National des Champs Magnetiques Pulses du CNRS et Laboratoire de Physique des Solides, URA CNRS 074, Complexe Scientifique de Rangueil, 31077 Toulouse (France); Broto, J.M. [Service National des Champs Magnetiques Pulses du CNRS et Laboratoire de Physique des Solides, URA CNRS 074, Complexe Scientifique de Rangueil, 31077 Toulouse (France); Goze, F. [Service National des Champs Magnetiques Pulses du CNRS et Laboratoire de Physique des Solides, URA CNRS 074, Complexe Scientifique de Rangueil, 31077 Toulouse (France); Coffe, G. [Service National des Champs Magnetiques Pulses du CNRS et Laboratoire de Physique des Solides, URA CNRS 074, Complexe Scientifique de Rangueil, 31077 Toulouse (France); Brossard, L. [Service National des Champs Magnetiques Pulses du CNRS et Laboratoire de Physique des Solides, URA CNRS 074, Complexe Scientifique de Rangueil, 31077 Toulouse (France); Redoules, J.P. [Service National des Champs Magnetiques Pulses du CNRS et Laboratoire de Physique des Solides, URA CNRS 074, Complexe Scientifique de Rangueil, 31077 Toulouse (France); Kartsovnik, M.V. [Institute of Solid State Physics, Russian Academy of Sciences, Chernogolovka, MD 142432 (Russian Federation); Kushch, N.D. [Institute of Chemical Physics in Chernogolovka, Russian Academy of Sciences, Chernogolovka, MD 142432 (Russian Federation); Buravov, L.I.

    1995-05-01

    Temperature dependence of the resistivity in various crystallographic directions and high pulsed field magnetoresistance of organic metal {alpha}-(ET){sub 2}TlHg(SeCN){sub 4} have been studied at temperatures down to 80 mK. Giant Shubnikov-de Haas oscillations, which are attributed to the two-dimensional nature of the cylindrical Fermi surface with a very small warping along the direction of the lowest conductivity have been observed. Four harmonics of the fast oscillations with fundamental frequency F{sub 0}=653{+-}3 T and slow frequency oscillations with F{sub s}=38{+-}5 T have been revealed. (orig.).

  7. 30 CFR 56.12010 - Isolation or insulation of communication conductors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... conductors. 56.12010 Section 56.12010 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... MINES Electricity § 56.12010 Isolation or insulation of communication conductors. Telephone and low... energized power conductors or any other power source....

  8. David Barker: the revolution that anticipates existence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Italo Farnetani

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available David Barker is the man who “anticipated" the existence of babies by focusing attention on the importance of the fetus and what takes place during intrauterine life. Barker was one of the physicians who in the last decades brought about the greatest changes in medicine, changes so important as to represent a veritable revolution in medical thought. According to Barker's studies, the embryo obviously has a genetic complement coming from the mother and father, but from the very first stages of development it begins to undergo the influence of the outside environment, just as occurs for adults whose biological, psychological and pathological aspects are influenced by the environment to a not well-established percentage between genetic complement and epigenetics. Much of our future lives as adults is decided in our mothers' wombs. If Barker's discovery was revolutionary from the cultural standpoint, it was even more so from the strictly medical one. Barker's research method was rigid from the methodological standpoint, but innovative and speculative in its working hypotheses, with a humanistic slant. Barker's idea has another practical corollary: it is evident that the role of obstetricians, perinatologists and neonatologists is more and more relevant in medicine and future prevention. Unquestionably, besides the enormous merits of his clinical research, among the benefits that Barker has contributed there is that of having helped us to see things from new points of view. Not only is the neonate (and even more so the fetus not an adult of reduced proportions, but perhaps the neonate is the "father" of the adult person.

  9. Anticipated and experienced emotions in environmental risk perception

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gisela Bohm

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Affective forecasting with respect to two environmental risks (ozone depletion, air pollution was investigated by studying tourists who travelled to either Australia or Bangkok and were thus confronted with one of these risks. We measured anticipated outcome and anticipated emotions before the journey, actually experienced outcome and actually experienced emotions during the journey, and anticipated outcome and emotions concerning a future encounter with the same risk after the journey. Results indicate that tourists underestimate (air pollution or correctly predict (ozone depletion both the seriousness of the outcome and their emotional reactions. The relationship between actual outcome and actual emotions is stronger than that between anticipated outcome and anticipated emotions. Furthermore, tourists learn from their travel experience and adjust their anticipations concerning future encounters with the environmental risk. Findings suggest that the domain of environmental risks differs from personal outcomes with respect to the process of affective forecasting.

  10. Testing of the 3M Company ACCR Conductor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stovall, J.P.; RIzy, D.T.; Kisner, R.A.; Deve, H.E. (3M Comp.)

    2010-09-15

    The 3M Company has developed a high-temperature low-sag conductor referred to as Aluminum- Conductor Composite-Reinforced or ACCR. The conductor uses an aluminum metal matrix material to replace the steel in conventional conductors so the core has a lower density and higher conductivity. The objective of this work is to accelerate the commercial acceptance by electric utilities of these new conductor designs by testing four representative conductor classes in controlled conditions. Overhead transmission lines use bare aluminum conductor strands wrapped around a steel core strands to transmit electricity. The typical cable is referred to as aluminum-conductor steel-reinforced (ACSR). The outer strands are aluminum, chosen for its conductivity, low weight, and low cost. The center strand is of steel for the strength required to support the weight without stretching the aluminum due to its ductility. The power density of a transmission corridor has been directly increased by increasing the voltage level. Transmission voltages have increased from 115-kV to 765- kV over the past 80 years. In the United States, further increasing the voltage level is not feasible at this point in time, so in order to further increase the power density of a transmission corridor, conductor designs that increase the current carrying capability have been examined. One of the key limiting factors in the design of a transmission line is the conductor sag which determines the clearance of the conductor above ground or underlying structures needed for electrical safety. Increasing the current carrying capability of a conductor increases the joule heating in the conductor which increases the conductor sag. A conductor designed for high-temperature and lowsag operation requires an engineered modification of the conductor materials. To make an advanced cable, the 3M Company solution has been the development of a composite conductor consisting of Nextel ceramic fibers to replace the steel core and

  11. The Silicon Microstrip Sensors of the ATLAS SemiConductor Tracker

    CERN Document Server

    Ahmad, A; Allport, P P; Alonso, J; Andricek, L; Apsimon, R J; Barr, A J; Bates, R L; Beck, G A; Bell, P J; Belymam, A; Benes, J; Berg, C M; Bernabeu, J; Bethke, S; Bingefors, N; Bizzell, J P; Bohm, J; Brenner, R; Brodbeck, T J; Bruckman De Renstrom, P; Buttar, C M; Campbell, D; Carpentieri, C; Carter, A A; Carter, J R; Charlton, D G; Casse, G-L; Chilingarov, A; Cindro, V; Ciocio, A; Civera, J V; Clark, A G; Colijn, A-P; Costa, M J; Dabrowski, W; Danielsen, K M; Dawson, I; Demirkoz, B; Dervan, P; Dolezal, Z; Dorholt, O; Duerdoth, I P; Dwuznik, M; Eckert, S; Ekelöf, T; Eklund, L; Escobar, C; Fasching, D; Feld, L; Ferguson, D P S; Ferrere, D; Fortin, R; Foster, J M; Fox, H; French, R; Fromant, B P; Fujita, K; Fuster, J; Gadomski, S; Gallop, B J; Garcia, C; Garcia-Navarro, J E; Gibson, M D; Gonzalez, S; Gonzalez-Sevilla, S; Goodrick, M J; Gornicki, E; Green, C; Greenall, A; Grigson, C; Grillo, A A; Grosse-Knetter, J; Haber, C; Handa, T; Hara, K; Harper, R S; Hartjes, F G; Hashizaki, T; Hauff, D; Hessey, N P; Hill, J C; Hollins, T I; Holt, S; Horazdovsky, T; Hornung, M; Hovland, K M; Hughes, G; Huse, T; Ikegami, Y; Iwata, Y; Jackson, J N; Jakobs, K; Jared, R C; Johansen, L G; Jones, R W L; Jones, T J; de Jong, P; Joseph, J; Jovanovic, P; Kaplon, J; Kato, Y; Ketterer, C; Kindervaag, I M; Kodys, P; Koffeman, E; Kohriki, T; Kohout, Z; Kondo, T; Koperny, S; van der Kraaij, E; Kral, V; Kramberger, G; Kudlaty, J; Lacasta, C; Limper, M; Linhart, V; Llosa, G; Lozano, M; Ludwig, I; Ludwig, J; Lutz, G; Macpherson, A; McMahon, S J; Macina, D; Magrath, C A; Malecki, P; Mandic, I; Marti-Garcia, S; Matsuo, T; Meinhardt, J; Mellado, B; Mercer, I J; Mikestikova, M; Mikuz, M; Minano, M; Mistry, J; Mitsou, V; Modesto, P; Mohn, B; Molloy, S D; Moorhead, G; Moraes, A; Morgan, D; Morone, M C; Morris, J; Moser, H-G; Moszczynski, A; Muijs, A J M; Nagai, K; Nakamura, Y; Nakano, I; Nicholson, R; Niinikoski, T; Nisius, R; Ohsugi, T; O'Shea, V; Oye, O K; Parzefall, U; Pater, J R; Pernegger, H; Phillips, P W; Posisil, S; Ratoff, P N; Reznicek, P; Richardson, J D; Richter, R H; Robinson, D; Roe, S; Ruggiero, G; Runge, K; Sadrozinski, H F W; Sandaker, H; Schieck, J; Seiden, A; Shinma, S; Siegrist, J; Sloan, T; Smith, N A; Snow, S W; Solar, M; Solberg, A; Sopko, B; Sospedra, L; Spieler, H; Stanecka, E; Stapnes, S; Stastny, J; Stelzer, F; Stradling, A; Stugu, B; Takashima, R; Tanaka, R; Taylor, G; Terada, S; Thompson, R J; Titov, M; Tomeda, Y; Tovey, D R; Turala, M; Turner, P R; Tyndel, M; Ullan, M; Unno, Y; Vickey, T; Vos, M; Wallny, R; Weilhammer, P; Wells, P S; Wilson, J A; Wolter, M; Wormald, M; Wu, S L; Yamashita, T; Zontar, D; Zsenei, A

    2007-01-01

    This paper describes the AC-coupled, single-sided, p-in-n silicon microstrip sensors used in the SemiConductor Tracker (SCT) of the ATLAS experiment at the CERN Large Hadron Collider (LHC). The sensor requirements, specifications and designs are discussed, together with the qualification and quality assurance procedures adopted for their production. The measured sensor performance is presented, both initially and after irradiation to the fluence anticipated after 10 years of LHC operation. The sensors are now successfully assembled within the detecting modules of the SCT, and the SCT tracker is completed and integrated within the ATLAS Inner Detector. Hamamatsu Photonics Ltd supplied 92.2% of the 15,392 installed sensors, with the remainder supplied by CiS.

  12. Maximum permissible voltage of YBCO coated conductors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wen, J.; Lin, B.; Sheng, J.; Xu, J.; Jin, Z. [Department of Electrical Engineering, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai (China); Hong, Z., E-mail: zhiyong.hong@sjtu.edu.cn [Department of Electrical Engineering, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai (China); Wang, D.; Zhou, H.; Shen, X.; Shen, C. [Qingpu Power Supply Company, State Grid Shanghai Municipal Electric Power Company, Shanghai (China)

    2014-06-15

    Highlights: • We examine three kinds of tapes’ maximum permissible voltage. • We examine the relationship between quenching duration and maximum permissible voltage. • Continuous I{sub c} degradations under repetitive quenching where tapes reaching maximum permissible voltage. • The relationship between maximum permissible voltage and resistance, temperature. - Abstract: Superconducting fault current limiter (SFCL) could reduce short circuit currents in electrical power system. One of the most important thing in developing SFCL is to find out the maximum permissible voltage of each limiting element. The maximum permissible voltage is defined as the maximum voltage per unit length at which the YBCO coated conductors (CC) do not suffer from critical current (I{sub c}) degradation or burnout. In this research, the time of quenching process is changed and voltage is raised until the I{sub c} degradation or burnout happens. YBCO coated conductors test in the experiment are from American superconductor (AMSC) and Shanghai Jiao Tong University (SJTU). Along with the quenching duration increasing, the maximum permissible voltage of CC decreases. When quenching duration is 100 ms, the maximum permissible of SJTU CC, 12 mm AMSC CC and 4 mm AMSC CC are 0.72 V/cm, 0.52 V/cm and 1.2 V/cm respectively. Based on the results of samples, the whole length of CCs used in the design of a SFCL can be determined.

  13. Maximum permissible voltage of YBCO coated conductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, J.; Lin, B.; Sheng, J.; Xu, J.; Jin, Z.; Hong, Z.; Wang, D.; Zhou, H.; Shen, X.; Shen, C.

    2014-06-01

    Superconducting fault current limiter (SFCL) could reduce short circuit currents in electrical power system. One of the most important thing in developing SFCL is to find out the maximum permissible voltage of each limiting element. The maximum permissible voltage is defined as the maximum voltage per unit length at which the YBCO coated conductors (CC) do not suffer from critical current (Ic) degradation or burnout. In this research, the time of quenching process is changed and voltage is raised until the Ic degradation or burnout happens. YBCO coated conductors test in the experiment are from American superconductor (AMSC) and Shanghai Jiao Tong University (SJTU). Along with the quenching duration increasing, the maximum permissible voltage of CC decreases. When quenching duration is 100 ms, the maximum permissible of SJTU CC, 12 mm AMSC CC and 4 mm AMSC CC are 0.72 V/cm, 0.52 V/cm and 1.2 V/cm respectively. Based on the results of samples, the whole length of CCs used in the design of a SFCL can be determined.

  14. Elastically stretchable thin film conductors on an elastomeric substrate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones Harris, Joyelle Elizabeth

    Imagine a large, flat screen television that can be rolled into a small cylinder after purchase in the store and then unrolled and mounted onto the wall of a home. The electronic devices within the television must be able to withstand large deformation and tensile strain. Consider a robot that is covered with an electronic skin that simulates human skin. The skin would enable the machine to lift an elderly person with care and sensitivity. The skin will endure repeated deformation with the highest tensile strains being experienced at the robot's joints. These applications and many others will benefit from stretchable electronic circuitry. While several different methods have been employed to create stretchable electronics, all methods use a common tool -- stretchable conductors. Therefore, the goal of this thesis work was to fabricate elastically stretchable conductors that can be used in stretchable electronics. We deposited Au thin films on an elastomeric substrate, and the resulting conductors remained electrically continuous when stretched by 30% and more. We developed photolithographic processes that can be used to pattern elastically stretchable conductors with a 10 mum resolution. We fabricated bi-level stretchable conductors that are separated by an elastomeric insulator and are electrically connected through via holes in the insulator. We applied our bi-level conductors to create a stretchable resistor-inductor-capacitor (RLC) circuit with a tunable resonant frequency. We also used stretchable conductors to measure action potentials in biological samples. This thesis describes the fabrication and application of our elastically stretchable conductors.

  15. Beyond the Beat: Modelling Intentions in a Virtual Conductor

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maat, ter Mark; Ebbers, Rob M.; Reidsma, Dennis; Nijholt, Anton

    2008-01-01

    We describe our research on designing and implementing a Virtual Conductor. That is, a virtual human (embodied agent) that acts like a human conductor in its interaction with a real, human orchestra. We reported previously on a first version that used a digital musical score to lead an orchestra. Th

  16. The Identification of Conductor-Distinguished Functions of Conducting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gumm, Alan J.; Battersby, Sharyn L.; Simon, Kathryn L.; Shankles, Andrew E.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to identify whether conductors distinguish functions of conducting similarly to functions implied in previous research. A sample of 84 conductors with a full range of experience levels (M = 9.8) and of a full range of large ensemble types and ensemble age levels rated how much they pay attention to 82…

  17. Electric-Field Effect on the Angle-Dependent Magnetotransport Properties of Quasi-One-Dimensional Conductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, K.; Saito, M.; Ohmichi, E.; Osada, T.

    2006-03-01

    We report a novel electric field effect on angular dependent magnetotransport in quasi-one-dimensional layered conductors with a pair of sheetlike Fermi surfaces. Under tilted magnetic fields and additional interlayer electric fields, semiclassical electron orbits on two Fermi sheets become periodic at different magnetic field orientations. This causes double splitting of the Lebed’s commensurability resonance in interlayer transport, and the amount of splitting allows us to estimate the Fermi velocity directly. We have successfully demonstrated this effect in the organic conductor α-(BEDT-TTF)2KHg(SCN)4.

  18. Overcurrent experiments on HTS tape and cable conductor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tønnesen, Ole; Jensen, Kim Høj; Træholt, Chresten;

    2001-01-01

    their critical current. In this light, it is important to investigate the response of HTS tapes and cable conductors to overcurrents several times the critical current. A number of experiments have been performed on HTS tapes and cable conductors, with currents up to 20 times the critical current. During...... overcurrent experiments, the voltage, and the temperature were measured as functions of time in order to investigate the dynamic behavior of the HTS tape and cable conductor. After each experiment, damage to the superconductors was assessed by measuring the critical current. Preliminary results show...... that within seconds an HTS tape (critical current=17 A) heats above room temperature with an overcurrent larger than 140 A. Similar overcurrent experiments showed that a HTS cable conductor could sustain damage with overcurrents exceeding 10 times the critical current of the cable conductor....

  19. A parametric model for analyzing anticipation in genetically predisposed families

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Klaus; Petersen, Janne; Bernstein, Inge;

    2009-01-01

    Anticipation, i.e. a decreasing age-at-onset in subsequent generations has been observed in a number of genetically triggered diseases. The impact of anticipation is generally studied in affected parent-child pairs. These analyses are restricted to pairs in which both individuals have been affect...

  20. Client Anticipations about Computer-Assisted Career Guidance System Outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osborn, Debra S.; Peterson, Gary W.; Sampson, James P., Jr.; Reardon, Robert C.

    2003-01-01

    This study describes how 55 clients from a career center at a large, southeastern university anticipated using computer-assisted career guidance (CACG) systems to help in their career decision making and problem solving. Responses to a cued and a free response survey indicated that clients' most frequent anticipations included increased career…

  1. LINEAR ISOMETRIC NON-ANTICIPATIVE TRANSFORMATIONS OF WIENER PROCESS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    The necessary and sufficient conditions are given so that a non-anticipative transformation in Hilbert space is isometric. In terms of second order Wiener process, these conditions assure that a non-anticipative transformation of Wiener process is a Wiener process, too.

  2. ELECTRODYNAMIC STABILITY COMPUTATIONS FOR FLEXIBLE CONDUCTORS OF THE AERIAL LINES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. I. Sergey

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In aerial transmission lines aluminium multiwire conductors are in use. Owing to their flexible design the electrodynamic effect of short circuit currents may lead to intolerable mutual rendezvous and even cross-whipping of the phase conductors. The increasing motion of the conductors caused by effect of the short-circuit electrodynamic force impulse is accompanied by the dynamic load impact affecting the conductors, insulating and supporting constructions of the aerial lines. Intensity of the short-circuit currents electrodynamic impact on the flexible conductors depends on the short circuit current magnitude. For research into electrodynamic endurance of the conductors of the aerial lines located at the vertices of arbitrary triangle with spans of a large length, the authors assume the conductor analytical model in the form of a flexible tensile thread whose mass is distributed evenly lengthwise the conductor. With this analytical model, by the action of the imposed forces the conductor assumes the form conditioned by the diagram of applied external forces, and resists neither bending nor torsion. The initial conditions calculation task reduces to solving the flexible thread statics equations. The law of motion of the conductor marginal points comes out of the conjoint solution of dynamic equations of the conductor and structural components of the areal electric power lines. Based on the proposed algorithm, the researchers of the Chair of the Electric Power Stations of BNTU developed a software program LINEDYS+, which in its characteristics yields to no foreign analogs, e. g. SAMSEF. To calculate the initial conditions they modified a software program computing the flexible conductor mechanics named MR 21. The conductor short-circuit electrodynamic interaction estimation considers structural elements of the areal lines, ice and wind loads, objective parameters of the short circuit. The software programs are accommodated with the simple and

  3. Conductors and Newforms for (1,1)

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Joshua Lansky; A Raghuram

    2004-11-01

    Let be a non-Archimedean local field whose residue characteristic is odd. In this paper we develop a theory of newforms for (1,1)(), building on previous work on $SL_2(F)$. This theory is analogous to the results of Casselman for $GL_2(F)$ and Jacquet, Piatetski-Shapiro, and Shalika for $GL_n(F)$. To a representation π of (1,1)(), we attach an integer () called the conductor of , which depends only on the -packet containing . A newform is a vector in which is essentially fixed by a congruence subgroup of level ()$. We show that our newforms are always test vectors for some standard Whittaker functionals, and, in doing so, we give various explicit formulae for newforms.

  4. Frequency Dependent Losses in Transmission Cable Conductors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Rasmus Schmidt; Holbøll, Joachim; Guðmundsdóttir, Unnur Stella

    2011-01-01

    Denmark is taking on the exciting project of undergrounding the electricity transmission grid. In 2009 it was decided by the Danish government to underground large parts of the 400 kV and the entire 132-150 kV transmission network before the end of 2030. For ensuring network stability...... and economical gain, such severe network changes necessitate correct estimation and optimisation of load conditions in the cable grid. Both IEC and IEEE have published standards for rating transmission cables' current carrying capacity. These standards are based on assumptions of a number of parameters...... of better calculation of the AC resistance of transmission cable conductors, in particular regarding higher frequencies. In this way, also losses under harmonics can be covered. Furthermore, the model is suitable for modelling of transient attenuation in high voltage cables. The AC resistance is calculated...

  5. Random matrix model for disordered conductors

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Zafar Ahmed; Sudhir R Jain

    2000-03-01

    We present a random matrix ensemble where real, positive semi-definite matrix elements, , are log-normal distributed, $\\exp[-\\log^{2}(x)]$. We show that the level density varies with energy, , as 2/(1 + ) for large , in the unitary family, consistent with the expectation for disordered conductors. The two-level correlation function is studied for the unitary family and found to be largely of the universal form despite the fact that the level density has a non-compact support. The results are based on the method of orthogonal polynomials (the Stieltjes-Wigert polynomials here). An interesting random walk problem associated with the joint probability distribution of the ensuing ensemble is discussed and its connection with level dynamics is brought out. It is further proved that Dyson's Coulomb gas analogy breaks down whenever the confining potential is given by a transcendental function for which there exist orthogonal polynomials.

  6. Microwave Loss Reduction in Cryogenically Cooled Conductors

    CERN Document Server

    Finger, R

    2015-01-01

    Measurements of microwave attenuation at room temperature and 4.2 K have been performed on some conductors commonly used in receiver input circuits. The reduction in loss on cooling is substantial, particularly for copper and plated gold, both of which showed a factor of 3 loss reduction. Copper passivated with benzotriazole shows the same loss as without passivation. The residual resistivity ratio between room temperature and 4.2 K, deduced from the measurements using the classical skin effect formula, was smaller than the measured DC value to a degree consistent with conduction in the extreme anomalous skin effect regime at cryogenic temperatures. The measurements were made in the 5-10 GHz range. The materials tested were: aluminum alloys 1100-T6 and 6061-O, C101 copper, benzotriazole treated C101 copper, and brass plated with electroformed copper, Pur-A-Gold 125-Au soft gold, and BDT200 bright gold.

  7. Alternative fiber optic conductor for laboratory practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calderon Ocampo, Juan F.; Jaramillo Florez, Samuel A.; Amaya Rodriguez, Juan C.

    1995-10-01

    Due to the high cost and difficulty in obtaining an optical fiber sample to be used in laboratory tests, we have given ourselves the task of looking for an adequate optical-fiber alternative for laboratory practices. We have as a result, found an object that can be used as an alternate optical conductor. This object called 'Venoclisis Hose', is a cylindrical plastic tube, hollow inside, whose main use has been in medical applications as a conveyor of liquids going in or coming out of the human body. In this document, the tests carried out and the results obtained to characterize the venoclisis as an optical fiber are described. This project was undertaken in order to propose the use of Venoclisis as an alternate optical fiber for laboratory work, due primarily to its low costs, as well as how easy it to acquire and measure its parameters as an optical fiber.

  8. A new car-following model considering velocity anticipation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Jun-Fang; Jia, Bin; Li, Xin-Gang; Gao, Zi-You

    2010-01-01

    The full velocity difference model proposed by Jiang et al. [2001 Phys. Rev. E 64 017101] has been improved by introducing velocity anticipation. Velocity anticipation means the follower estimates the future velocity of the leader. The stability condition of the new model is obtained by using the linear stability theory. Theoretical results show that the stability region increases when we increase the anticipation time interval. The mKdV equation is derived to describe the kink-antikink soliton wave and obtain the coexisting stability line. The delay time of car motion and kinematic wave speed at jam density are obtained in this model. Numerical simulations exhibit that when we increase the anticipation time interval enough, the new model could avoid accidents under urgent braking cases. Also, the traffic jam could be suppressed by considering the anticipation velocity. All results demonstrate that this model is an improvement on the full velocity difference model.

  9. Anticipated Guilt for not Helping and Anticipated Warm Glow for Helping are Differently Impacted by Personal Responsibility to Help

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arvid Erlandsson

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available One important motivation for people behaving prosocially is that they want to avoid negative and obtain positive emotions. In the prosocial behavior literature however, the motivations to avoid negative emotions (e.g. guilt and to approach positive emotions (e.g. warm glow are rarely separated, and sometimes even aggregated into a single mood-management construct. The aim of this study was to investigate whether anticipated guilt if not helping and anticipated warm glow if helping are influenced similarly or differently when varying situational factors related to personal responsibility to help. Helping scenarios were created and pilot tests established that each helping scenario could be formulated both in a high-responsibility version and in a low-responsibility version. In Study 1 participants read high-responsibility and low-responsibility helping scenarios, and rated either their anticipated guilt if not helping or their anticipated warm glow if helping (i.e. separate evaluation. Study 2 was similar but here participants rated both their anticipated guilt if not helping and their anticipated warm glow if helping (i.e. joint evaluation. Anticipated guilt was clearly higher in the high-responsibility versions, but anticipated warm glow was unaffected (in Studies 1a and 1b, or even higher in the low-responsibility versions (Study 2. In Studies 3 (where anticipated guilt and warm glow were evaluated separately and 4 (where they were evaluated jointly, personal responsibility to help was manipulated within-subjects. Anticipated guilt was again constantly higher in the high-responsibility versions but for many types of responsibility-manipulations, anticipated warm glow was higher in the low-responsibility versions. The results suggest that we anticipate guilt if not fulfilling our responsibility but that we anticipate warm glow primarily when doing over and beyond our responsibility. We argue that future studies investigating motivations for

  10. Modelling the transient emission from a twin conductor cable

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    Using the equations of transmission line theory, a programme is developed to simulate the response of an open-circuit line to a step pulse. This is compared with the observed response of a twin-conductor cable. It is deduced that not all of the current delivered to the send conductor arrives back via the return conductor. Some of it departs in the form of radiated emission. A virtual capacitor is used to simulate this, with limited success. However, by adding a second virtual capacitor to sim...

  11. HTS current lead units prepared by the TFA-MOD processed YBCO coated conductors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shiohara, K.; Sakai, S.; Ishii, Y. [Tokai University, 1117 Kita-Kaname, Hiratsuka, Kanagawa 259-1292 (Japan); Yamada, Y., E-mail: yyamaday@keyaki.cc.u-tokai.ac.j [Tokai University, 1117 Kita-Kaname, Hiratsuka, Kanagawa 259-1292 (Japan); Tachikawa, K. [Tokai University, 1117 Kita-Kaname, Hiratsuka, Kanagawa 259-1292 (Japan); Koizumi, T.; Aoki, Y.; Hasegawa, T. [SWCC Showa Cable System Co., LTD, 4-1-1 Minami-Hashimoto, Sagamihara, Kanagawa 229-1133 (Japan); Tamura, H.; Mito, T. [NIFS National Institute for Fusion Science, 322-6 Oroshi, Toki, Gifu 509-5292 (Japan)

    2010-11-01

    Two superconducting current lead units have been prepared using ten coated conductors of the Tri-Fluoro-Acetate - Metal Organic Deposition (TFA-MOD) processed Y{sub 1}Ba{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 7-{delta}}(YBCO) coated conductors with critical current (I{sub c}) of about 170 A at 77 K in self-field. The coated conductors are 5 mm in width, 190 mm in length and about 120 {mu}m in overall thickness. The 1.5 {mu}m thick superconducting YBCO layer was synthesized through the TFA-MOD process on Hastelloy{sup TM} C-276 substrate tape with two buffer oxide layers of Gd{sub 2}Zr{sub 2}O{sub 7} and CeO{sub 2}. The five YBCO coated conductors are attached on a 1 mm thick Glass Fiber Reinforced Plastics (GFRP) board and soldered to Cu caps at the both ends. We prepared two 500 A-class current lead units. The DC transport current of 800 A was stably applied at 77 K without any voltage generation in all coated conductors. The voltage between both Cu caps linearly increased with increasing the applied current, and was about 350 {mu}V at 500 A in both current lead units. According to the estimated values of the heat leakage from 77 K to 4.2 K, the heat leakage for the current lead unit was 46.5 mW. We successfully attained reduction of the heat leakage because of improvement of the transport current performance (I{sub c}), a thinner Ag layer of YBCO coated conductor and usage of the GFRP board for reinforcement instead of a stainless steel board used in the previous study. The DC transport current of 1400 A was stably applied when the two current lead units were joined in parallel. The sum of the heat leakages from 77 K to 4.2 K for the combined the current lead units was 93 mW. In comparison with the conventional Cu current leads by gas-cooling, it could be noted that the heat leakage of the current lead is about one order of magnitude smaller than that of the Cu current lead.

  12. Anticipating Human Activities Using Object Affordances for Reactive Robotic Response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koppula, Hema S; Saxena, Ashutosh

    2016-01-01

    An important aspect of human perception is anticipation, which we use extensively in our day-to-day activities when interacting with other humans as well as with our surroundings. Anticipating which activities will a human do next (and how) can enable an assistive robot to plan ahead for reactive responses. Furthermore, anticipation can even improve the detection accuracy of past activities. The challenge, however, is two-fold: We need to capture the rich context for modeling the activities and object affordances, and we need to anticipate the distribution over a large space of future human activities. In this work, we represent each possible future using an anticipatory temporal conditional random field (ATCRF) that models the rich spatial-temporal relations through object affordances. We then consider each ATCRF as a particle and represent the distribution over the potential futures using a set of particles. In extensive evaluation on CAD-120 human activity RGB-D dataset, we first show that anticipation improves the state-of-the-art detection results. We then show that for new subjects (not seen in the training set), we obtain an activity anticipation accuracy (defined as whether one of top three predictions actually happened) of 84.1, 74.4 and 62.2 percent for an anticipation time of 1, 3 and 10 seconds respectively. Finally, we also show a robot using our algorithm for performing a few reactive responses.

  13. A magnetoencephalography study of visual processing of pain anticipation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machado, Andre G; Gopalakrishnan, Raghavan; Plow, Ela B; Burgess, Richard C; Mosher, John C

    2014-07-15

    Anticipating pain is important for avoiding injury; however, in chronic pain patients, anticipatory behavior can become maladaptive, leading to sensitization and limiting function. Knowledge of networks involved in pain anticipation and conditioning over time could help devise novel, better-targeted therapies. With the use of magnetoencephalography, we evaluated in 10 healthy subjects the neural processing of pain anticipation. Anticipatory cortical activity elicited by consecutive visual cues that signified imminent painful stimulus was compared with cues signifying nonpainful and no stimulus. We found that the neural processing of visually evoked pain anticipation involves the primary visual cortex along with cingulate and frontal regions. Visual cortex could quickly and independently encode and discriminate between visual cues associated with pain anticipation and no pain during preconscious phases following object presentation. When evaluating the effect of task repetition on participating cortical areas, we found that activity of prefrontal and cingulate regions was mostly prominent early on when subjects were still naive to a cue's contextual meaning. Visual cortical activity was significant throughout later phases. Although visual cortex may precisely and time efficiently decode cues anticipating pain or no pain, prefrontal areas establish the context associated with each cue. These findings have important implications toward processes involved in pain anticipation and maladaptive pain conditioning.

  14. 33 CFR 183.430 - Conductors in circuits of less than 50 volts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Conductors in circuits of less... Requirements § 183.430 Conductors in circuits of less than 50 volts. (a) Each conductor in a circuit that has a...; resistance conductors that control circuit amperage; and pigtails of less than seven inches of exposed length....

  15. 33 CFR 183.435 - Conductors in circuits of 50 volts or more.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Conductors in circuits of 50... Requirements § 183.435 Conductors in circuits of 50 volts or more. (a) Each conductor in a circuit that has a nominal voltage of 50 volts or more must be: (1) A conductor that has insulation listed and...

  16. 30 CFR 56.12005 - Protection of power conductors from mobile equipment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Protection of power conductors from mobile... MINES Electricity § 56.12005 Protection of power conductors from mobile equipment. Mobile equipment shall not run over power conductors, nor shall loads be dragged over power conductors, unless...

  17. Mixed density wave state in quasi-2D organic conductor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Katono, K., E-mail: k_katono@eng.hokudai.ac.jp [Department of Applied Physics, Hokkaido University, Sapporo 060-8628 (Japan); Ichimura, K. [Department of Applied Physics, Hokkaido University, Sapporo 060-8628 (Japan); Center of Education and Research for Topological Science and Technology, Hokkaido University, Sapporo 060-8628 (Japan); Kawashima, Y.; Yamaya, K. [Department of Applied Physics, Hokkaido University, Sapporo 060-8628 (Japan); Tanda, S. [Department of Applied Physics, Hokkaido University, Sapporo 060-8628 (Japan); Center of Education and Research for Topological Science and Technology, Hokkaido University, Sapporo 060-8628 (Japan)

    2012-06-01

    The density wave phase of {alpha}-(BEDT-TTF){sub 2}KHg(SCN){sub 4} was investigated by transport properties and magnetic susceptibility. The density wave transition was observed as a broad increase at T{sub DW}=9 K by resistance measurement. Temperature dependence of the static magnetic susceptibility {chi} shows a large Curie tail below 100 K. By subtracting the Curie component, we found that the magnetic susceptibility increases like weak ferromagnetism with decreasing temperature below 7.4 K. The gradual increase of {chi} below T{sub DW} is not expected in simple CDW or SDW, where the magnetic susceptibility decreases with decreasing temperature due to the reduction of Pauli paramagnetic component. To explain the weak ferromagnetic behavior, we consider the coexistence of CDW and SDW. We propose a model of the mixed density wave, where CDW exists with antiferromagnetically coupled canting spins.

  18. Charge ordering in low dimensional organic conductors: Structural aspects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pouget, Jean-Paul; Foury-Leylekian, Pascale [Laboratoire de Physique des Solides, Universite Paris-sud, CNRS UMR 8502, Batiment 510, 91405 Orsay Cedex (France); Alemany, Pere [Departament de Quimica Fisica and Institut de Quimica Teorica i Computacional (IQTCUB), Universitat de Barcelona, Diagonal 627, 08028 Barcelona (Spain); Canadell, Enric [Institut de Ciencia de Materials de Barcelona, CSIC, Campus UAB, 08193 Bellaterra (Spain)

    2012-05-15

    The paper points out the importance of the coupling between anions and donors in order to achieve the 4k{sub F} charge localization observed in (TMTTF){sub 2}PF{sub 6}, {delta}-(EDT-TTF-CONMe{sub 2}){sub 2}Br and (o-DMTTF){sub 2}Cl/Br salts, the 2k{sub F} charge density wave (CDW) ground state of {alpha}-(BEDT-TTF){sub 2}KHg(SCN){sub 4} and the metal to insulator transition of {alpha}-(BEDT-TTF){sub 2}I{sub 3}. This coupling leads to a cooperative displacement wave of the anions accompanied by a modulation of the density of {pi} holes on the donors. We distinguish two principal anion-donor coupling mechanisms: a direct mechanism via the Hartree anion potential on donor sites and an indirect mechanism via the polarization of {sigma} bonds activated by the modification of the H bonds network. Both kinds of interaction are tuned by the relative displacement of the anions with respect to the donors. (Copyright copyright 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  19. Mixed density wave state in quasi-2D organic conductor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katono, K.; Ichimura, K.; Kawashima, Y.; Yamaya, K.; Tanda, S.

    2012-06-01

    The density wave phase of α-(BEDT-TTF)2KHg(SCN)4 was investigated by transport properties and magnetic susceptibility. The density wave transition was observed as a broad increase at TDW=9 K by resistance measurement. Temperature dependence of the static magnetic susceptibility χ shows a large Curie tail below 100 K. By subtracting the Curie component, we found that the magnetic susceptibility increases like weak ferromagnetism with decreasing temperature below 7.4 K. The gradual increase of χ below TDW is not expected in simple CDW or SDW, where the magnetic susceptibility decreases with decreasing temperature due to the reduction of Pauli paramagnetic component. To explain the weak ferromagnetic behavior, we consider the coexistence of CDW and SDW. We propose a model of the mixed density wave, where CDW exists with antiferromagnetically coupled canting spins.

  20. Thermal effects on photogeneration of free carriers in organic conductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Oliveira Neto, Pedro H.; da Cunha, Wiliam F.; Roncaratti, Luiz F.; Gargano, Ricardo; Silva, Geraldo M. e.

    2010-06-01

    We performed numerical simulations of two parallel interacting conjugated polymer chains subjected to photoionization. Within the SSH model modified to include thermal effects, an electron is removed from one chain and later absorbed by the other chain. It was obtained that the system relaxes into a free polaron in each chain. For higher electron absorption the system initially relaxes into a pair of half-polarons that spontaneously suffers monomolecular recombination. The time response of the system agrees with experimental results. Although thermal effects are important to carrier creation mechanism, the obtained photogeneration creation time is temperature independent, as suggested experimentally.

  1. Organic Semiconductors and Conductors with tert-Butyl Substituents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toshiki Higashino

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Tetrathiafulvalene (TTF, pentacene, and quarterthiophene with tert-butyl substituents are synthesized, and the crystal structures and the transistor properties are investigated. The tetracyanoquinodimethane (TCNQ complex of tert-butyl TTF constructs highly one-dimensional segregated columns with tetragonal crystal symmetry.

  2. Fertility and apparent genetic anticipation in Lynch syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stupart, Douglas; Win, Aung Ko; Jenkins, Mark; Winship, Ingrid M; Goldberg, Paul; Ramesar, Rajkumar

    2014-09-01

    Genetic anticipation is the phenomenon in which age of onset of an inherited disorder decreases in successive generations. Inconsistent evidence suggests that this occurs in Lynch syndrome. A possible cause for apparent anticipation is fecundity bias, which occurs if the disease adversely affects fertility. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of age of diagnosis of colorectal cancer (CRC) on lifetime fertility in Lynch syndrome, and whether this can falsely create the appearance of genetic anticipation. A computer model simulated age of diagnosis of CRC in hypothetical Lynch syndrome carriers and their offspring. The model assumed similar age distribution of CRC across generations (i.e. that there was no true anticipation). Age distribution of CRC diagnosis, and lifetime fertility rates (grouped by age of diagnosis of CRC) were determined from the Australasian Colorectal Cancer Family Registry (ACCFR). Apparent anticipation was calculated by comparing ages of diagnosis of CRC in affected parent-child pairs. A total of 1,088 patients with CRC were identified from the ACCFR. Total lifetime (cohort) fertility was related to age of diagnosis of CRC (correlation coefficient 0.13, P = 0.0001). In the simulation, apparent anticipation was 1.8 ± 0.54 years (P = 0.0044). Observed apparent anticipation in the ACCFR cohort was 4.8 ± 1.73 years (P = 0.0064). There was no difference in apparent anticipation between the simulate d and observed parent-child pairs (P = 0.89). The appearance of genetic anticipation in Lynch syndrome can be falsely created due to changes in fertility.

  3. Overcoming the Educational Time Warp: Anticipating a Different Future

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Garry Jacobs

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Education abridges the time required for individual and social progress by preserving and propagating the essence of human experience. It delivers to youth the accumulated knowledge of countless past generations in an organized and abridged form, so that future generations can start off with all the capacities acquired by their predecessors. However, today education confronts a serious dilemma. We are living in an educational time warp. There is a growing gap between contemporary human experience and what is taught in our educational system and that gap is widening rapidly with each passing year. Today humanity confronts challenges of unprecedented scope, magnitude and intensity. The incremental development of educational content and pedagogy in recent decades has not kept with the ever-accelerating pace of technological and social evolution. Education is also subject to a generational time warp resulting from the fact that many of today’s teachers were educated decades ago during very different times and based on different values and perspectives. The challenge of preparing youth for the future is exasperated by the fact that the future for which we are educating youth does not yet exist and to a large extent is unknown or unknowable. The resulting gap between the content of education and societal needs inhibits our capacity to anticipate and effectively respond to social problems. All these factors argue for a major reorientation of educational content and pedagogy from transmission of acquired knowledge based on past experience to development of the knowledge, skills and capacities of personality needed in a future we cannot clearly envision. We may not be able to anticipate the precise nature of the future, but we can provide an education based on the understanding that it will be very different from the present. In terms of content, the emphasis needs to shift from facts regarding the actual state of affairs in the past, present and

  4. An electronic implementation of amoeba anticipation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziegler, Martin; Ochs, Karlheinz; Hansen, Mirko; Kohlstedt, Hermann

    2014-02-01

    In nature, the capability of memorizing environmental changes and recalling past events can be observed in unicellular organisms like amoebas. Pershin and Di Ventra have shown that such learning behavior can be mimicked in a simple memristive circuit model consisting of an LC (inductance capacitance) contour and a memristive device. Here, we implement this model experimentally by using an Ag/TiO2- x /Al memristive device. A theoretical analysis of the circuit is used to gain insight into the functionality of this model and to give advice for the circuit implementation. In this respect, the transfer function, resonant frequency, and damping behavior for a varying resistance of the memristive device are discussed in detail.

  5. Numerical analysis of quench in coated conductors with defects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Wenbin; Yong, Huadong; Zhou, Youhe

    2016-09-01

    When the superconductor is subjected to local thermal perturbations, a large amount of joule heat may be generated in the conductor, which may lead to a quench. In a quench event, a normal zone irreversibly spreads throughout the conductor leading to failure of the superconducting device. In this paper, we will discuss the one-dimensional quench behavior in the coated conductors with internal defects or interface defects. Based on the numerical procedure given in the previous works, the normal zone propagation is studied by using the finite difference method. The numerical results are presented to discuss the normal zone propagation. We consider the effect of internal defect on the nonuniform temperature propagation. For the conductor with interface defects, it can be found that the normal zone propagation velocity is increased by defects.

  6. A microstructure continuum approach to electromagneto-elastic conductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romeo, Maurizio

    2016-11-01

    A micromorphic continuum model of a deformable electromagnetic conductor is established introducing microdensities of bound and free charges. The conductive part of electric current consists of contributions due to free charges and microdeformation. Beside the conservation of charge, we derive suitable evolution equations for electric multipoles which are exploited to obtain the macroscopic form of Maxwell's equations. A constitutive model for electromagneto-elastic conductors is considered which allows for a natural characterization of perfect conductors independently on the form of the constitutive equation for the conduction current. A generalized Ohm's law is also derived for not ideal conductors which accounts for relaxation effects. The consequences of the linearized Ohm's law on the classic magnetic transport equation are shown.

  7. Numerical analysis of quench in coated conductors with defects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenbin Liu

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available When the superconductor is subjected to local thermal perturbations, a large amount of joule heat may be generated in the conductor, which may lead to a quench. In a quench event, a normal zone irreversibly spreads throughout the conductor leading to failure of the superconducting device. In this paper, we will discuss the one-dimensional quench behavior in the coated conductors with internal defects or interface defects. Based on the numerical procedure given in the previous works, the normal zone propagation is studied by using the finite difference method. The numerical results are presented to discuss the normal zone propagation. We consider the effect of internal defect on the nonuniform temperature propagation. For the conductor with interface defects, it can be found that the normal zone propagation velocity is increased by defects.

  8. High voltage switches having one or more floating conductor layers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Werne, Roger W.; Sampayan, Stephen; Harris, John Richardson

    2015-11-24

    This patent document discloses high voltage switches that include one or more electrically floating conductor layers that are isolated from one another in the dielectric medium between the top and bottom switch electrodes. The presence of the one or more electrically floating conductor layers between the top and bottom switch electrodes allow the dielectric medium between the top and bottom switch electrodes to exhibit a higher breakdown voltage than the breakdown voltage when the one or more electrically floating conductor layers are not present between the top and bottom switch electrodes. This increased breakdown voltage in the presence of one or more electrically floating conductor layers in a dielectric medium enables the switch to supply a higher voltage for various high voltage circuits and electric systems.

  9. Study on detinning process of a reflow conductor roll

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FU Hanguang; DAI Mingshan; FU Hanfeng

    2005-01-01

    Adhering tin is the main reason of a reflow conductor roll which works in an electroplating tin line (ETL). A detinning agent whose main composition is NaOH and KOH and assistant composition is Na2PbO2 or K2PbO2 and NaNO3 or NaNO2 has excellent detinning effects when the temperature of detinning solution is 40-80℃ and the temperature of the reflow conductor roll reaches 40-70℃. After the adhering tin layer of the reflow conductor roll is removed, the roughness of the reflow conductor roll can resume to 4.0 μm, its service life increases by 80%, and the repairing cost decreases by 90%.

  10. Casimir Free Energy at High Temperatures: Grounded vs Isolated Conductors

    CERN Document Server

    Fosco, C D; Mazzitelli, F D

    2016-01-01

    We evaluate the difference between the Casimir free energies corresponding to either grounded or isolated perfect conductors, at high temperatures. We show that a general and simple expression for that difference can be given, in terms of the electrostatic capacitance matrix for the system of conductors. For the case of close conductors, we provide approximate expressions for that difference, by evaluating the capacitance matrix using the proximity force approximation. Since the high-temperature limit for the Casimir free energy for a medium described by a frequency-dependent conductivity diverging at zero frequency coincides with that of an isolated conductor, our results may shed light on the corrections to the Casimir force in the presence of real materials.

  11. Diamagnetic phase transitions in two-dimensional conductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakaleinikov, L. A.; Gordon, A.

    2014-11-01

    A theory describing the susceptibility amplitude and the magnetic induction bifurcation near the dHvA driven diamagnetic phase transitions in quasi two-dimensional (2D) organic conductors of the (ET)2X with X=Cu(NCS)2, KHg(SCN)4, I3, AuBr2, IBr2, etc. is presented. We show that there is a drastic increase in the temperature and magnetic field dependence of the susceptibility amplitude on approaching the diamagnetic phase transition point. Near the phase transition point the temperature and magnetic field dependences are fitted by the ones typical of the mean-field phase transition theory. These dependences confirm the long-range character of the magnetic interactions among the conduction electrons leading to diamagnetic phase transitions. We demonstrate that the magnetic induction splitting of nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and muon spin-rotation spectroscopy (μSR) lines due to two Condon domains decreases tending to zero on approaching the diamagnetic phase transition. This decrease is fitted by the temperature and magnetic field dependence of the susceptibility characteristic of the mean-field theory of phase transitions. Performing new susceptibility, NMR and μSR experiments will enable to detect diamagnetic phase transitions and Condon domains in quasi 2D metals.

  12. Guanidinium nonaflate as a solid-state proton conductor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Xiaoli; Tang, Haolin; Putzeys, Tristan

    2016-01-01

    Protic organic ionic plastic crystals (POIPCs) are a type of novel solid-state proton conductors. In this work, guanidinium nonaflate ([Gdm-H][NfO]) is reported to be a model POIPC. Its structure-property relationship has been investigated comprehensively. Infrared analysis of [Gdm-H][NfO] and its...... deuterated analogue [Gdm-D][NfO] confirms the complete formation of the protic salts. The cations in as-prepared [Gdm-D][NfO] are estimated to consist of [C(ND2)2(NHD)]+ and [C(ND2)3]+ with a molar ratio of around 1:1. The deuteration also proves that each guanidinium cation has six displaceable protons...... order in the plastic crystalline phases. Dielectric spectroscopy measurements show that its ionic conductivity reaches 2.1 × 10-3 S cm-1 at 185 °C. The proton conduction in the plastic crystalline phases of [Gdm-H][NfO] is assumed to happen via the vehicle mechanism. In the molten state, the proton...

  13. New resistivity for high-mobility quantum Hall conductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mceuen, P. L.; Szafer, A.; Richter, C. A.; Alphenaar, B. W.; Jain, J. K.

    1990-01-01

    Measurements showing dramatic nonlocal behavior in the four-terminal resistances of a high-mobility quantum Hall conductor are presented. These measurements illustrate that the standard definition of the resistivity tensor is inappropriate, but they are in excellent agreement with a new model of the conductor that treats the edge and bulk conducting pathways independently. This model uses a single intensive parameter, analogous to a local resistivity for the bulk channel only, to characterize the system.

  14. Tilt stability of rotating current rings with passive conductors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zweibel, E.G.; Pomphrey, N.

    1984-12-01

    We study the combined effects of rotation and resistive passive conductors on the stability of a rigid current in an external magnetic field. We present numerical and approximate analytical solutions to the equations of motion, which show that the ring is always tilt unstable on the resistive decay timescale of the conductors, although rotation and eddy currents may stabilize it over short times. Possible applications of our model include spheromaks which rotate or which are encircled by energetic particle rings.

  15. Anticipating the Environmental Impacts and Behavioral Drivers of Deep Decarbonization

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA is seeking regular and early career applications proposing research that will contribute to an improved ability to understand and anticipate the public health and environmental impacts and behavioral drivers of significant changes in energy consumption

  16. Modelling the transient emission from a twin conductor cable

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ian Brook Darney

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Using the equations of transmission line theory, a programme is developed to simulate the response of an open-circuit line to a step pulse. This is compared with the observed response of a twin-conductor cable. It is deduced that not all of the current delivered to the send conductor arrives back via the return conductor. Some of it departs in the form of radiated emission. A virtual capacitor is used to simulate this, with limited success. However, by adding a second virtual capacitor to simulate transient current being delivered from the return conductor back to the send conductor, a fair correlation is achieved between theoretical and actual results. This analysis demonstrates that the return conductor plays an active role in propagating any signal along the cable. This study also demonstrates that a circuit model can be created to simulate the mechanisms involved in the radiation of interference from power supply cables. This is but one example of the use of circuit models to analyse electromagnetic interference (EMI. The key relationship between electromagnetic theory and circuit theory which enables this technique to be used to analyse any EMI problem is identified. A dramatic simplification in the mathematics can be achieved.

  17. Local electron heating in nanoscopic conductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Agosta, Roberto; Sai, Na; di Ventra, Massimiliano

    2007-03-01

    The electron current density in nanoscale junctions is typically several orders of magnitude larger than the corresponding one in bulk electrodes. Consequently, the electron-electron scattering rate increases substantially in the junction. This leads to local electron heating of the underlying Fermi sea [1] in analogy to the local ionic heating that is due to the increased electron-phonon scattering rates [2]. By using a novel hydrodynamic formulation of transport [3], we predict the bias dependence of local electron heating in quasi-ballistic nanoscale conductors [1], its effect on ionic heating [1], and the consequent observable changes in the inelastic conductance [4]. [1] R. D'Agosta, N. Sai and M. Di Ventra, accepted in Nano Letters (2006). [2] Y.-C. Chen, M. Zwolak, and M. Di Ventra, Nano Lett. 3, 1961 (2003); Nano Lett. 4, 1709 (2004); Nano Lett. 5, 621 (2005). M. J. Montgomery, T. N. Todorov, and A. P. Sutton, J. Phys. Cond. Matt. 14, 5377 (2002). [3] R. D'Agosta and M. Di Ventra, J. Phys. Cond. Matt. in press. [4] R. D'Agosta and M. Di Ventra, in preparation.

  18. The ATLAS SemiConductorTracker

    CERN Document Server

    Mikuz, M

    2004-01-01

    The ATLAS SemiConductor Tracker (SCT) is presented. About 16000 silicon micro-strip sensors with a total active surface of over 60 m /sup 2/ and with 6.3 million read-out channels are built into 4088 modules arranged into four barrel layers and nine disks covering each of the forward regions up to an eta of 2.5. Challenges are imposed by the hostile radiation environment with particle fluences up to 2*10 /sup 14/ cm/sup -2/ 1 MeV neutron NIEL equivalent and 100 kGy TID, the 25 ns LHC bunch crossing time and the need for a hermetic, lightweight tracker. The solution adopted is carefully designed strip detectors operated at -7 degrees C, biased up to 500 V and read out by binary rad-hard fast BiCMOS electronics. A zero-CTE carbon fibre structure provides mechanical support. 30 kW of power are supplied on aluminium/Kapton tapes and cooled by C/sub 3/F/sub 8/ evaporative cooling. Data and commands are transferred by optical links. Prototypes of detector modules have been built, irradiated to the maximum expected ...

  19. Internally heated convection beneath a poor conductor

    CERN Document Server

    Goluskin, David

    2016-01-01

    We consider convection in an internally heated layer of fluid that is bounded below by a perfect insulator and above by a poor conductor. The poorly conducting boundary is modelled by a fixed heat flux. Using solely analytical methods, we find linear and energy stability thresholds for the static state, and we construct a lower bound on the mean temperature that applies to all flows. The linear stability analysis yields a Rayleigh number above which the static state is linearly unstable ($R_L$), and the energy analysis yields a Rayleigh number below which it is globally stable ($R_E$). For various boundary conditions on the velocity, exact expressions for $R_L$ and $R_E$ are found using long-wavelength asymptotics. Each $R_E$ is strictly smaller than the corresponding $R_L$ but is within 1%. The lower bound on the mean temperature is proven for no-slip velocity boundary conditions using the background method. The bound guarantees that the mean temperature of the fluid, relative to that of the top boundary, gr...

  20. On electromagnetic induction in electric conductors

    CERN Document Server

    Korolev, Alexander I

    2013-01-01

    Experimental validation of the Faraday's law of electromagnetic induction (EMI) is performed when an electromotive force is generated in thin copper turns, located inside a large magnetic coil. It has been established that the electromotive force (emf) value should be dependent not only on changes of the magnetic induction flux through a turn and on symmetry of its crossing by magnetic power lines also. The law of EMI is applicable in sufficient approximation in case of the changes of the magnetic field near the turn are symmetrical. Experimental study of the induced emf in arcs and a direct section of the conductor placed into the variable field has been carried out. Linear dependence of the induced emf on the length of the arc has been ascertained in case of the magnetic field distribution symmetry about it. Influence of the magnetic field symmetry on the induced emf in the arc has been observed. The curve of the induced emf in the direct section over period of current pulse is similar to this one for the t...

  1. SYNTHESIS AND CHARACTERIZATION OF PROTON CONDUCTORS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brinkman, K.

    2010-02-18

    The morphological and electrical properties of yttrium (Y) and indium (In) doped barium cerate perovskites of the form BaIn{sub 0.3-x}Y{sub x}Ce{sub 0.7}O{sub 3-{delta}} (with x=0-0.3) prepared by a modified Pechini method were investigated as potential high temperature proton conductors with improved chemical stability. The sinterability increased with the increase of In-doping, and the perovskite phase was found in the BaIn{sub 0.3-x}Y{sub x}Ce{sub 0.7}O{sub 3-{delta}} solid solutions over the range 0 {le} x {le} 0.3. The conductivities decreased (from x to x, insert quantitative values) while the tolerance to wet CO{sub 2} improved for BaIn{sub 0.3-x}Y{sub x}Ce{sub 0.7}O{sub 3-{delta}} samples with an increase of In-doping.

  2. Depletion region effect of highly efficient hole conductor free CH3NH3PbI3 perovskite solar cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aharon, Sigalit; Gamliel, Shany; El Cohen, Bat; Etgar, Lioz

    2014-06-14

    The inorganic-organic perovskite is currently attracting a lot of attention due to its use as a light harvester in solar cells. The large absorption coefficients, high carrier mobility and good stability of organo-lead halide perovskites present good potential for their use as light harvesters in mesoscopic heterojunction solar cells. This work concentrated on a unique property of the lead halide perovskite, its function simultaneously as a light harvester and a hole conductor in the solar cell. A two-step deposition technique was used to optimize the perovskite deposition and to enhance the solar cell efficiency. It was revealed that the photovoltaic performance of the hole conductor free perovskite solar cell is strongly dependent on the depletion layer width which was created at the TiO2-CH3NH3PbI3 junction. X-ray diffraction measurements indicate that there were no changes in the crystallographic structure of the CH3NH3PbI3 perovskite over time, which supports the high stability of these hole conductor free perovskite solar cells. Furthermore, the power conversion efficiency of the best cells reached 10.85% with a fill factor of 68%, a Voc of 0.84 V, and a Jsc of 19 mA cm(-2), the highest efficiency to date of a hole conductor free perovskite solar cell.

  3. Differences in gaze anticipation for locomotion with and without vision

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Colas Nils Authié

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Previous experimental studies have shown a spontaneous anticipation of locomotor trajectory by the head and gaze direction during human locomotion. This anticipatory behavior could serve several functions: an optimal selection of visual information, for instance through landmarks and optic flow, as well as trajectory planning and motor control. This would imply that anticipation remains in darkness but with different characteristics.We asked ten participants to walk along two predefined complex trajectories (limacon and figure eight without any cue on the trajectory to follow. Two visual conditions were used: (i in light and (ii in complete darkness with eyes open. The whole body kinematics were recorded by motion capture, along with the participant's right eye movements.We showed that in darkness and in light, horizontal gaze anticipates the orientation of the head which itself anticipates the trajectory direction. However, the horizontal angular anticipation decreases by a half in darkness for both gaze and head. In both visual conditions we observed an eye nystagmus with similar properties (frequency and amplitude. The main difference comes from the fact that in light, there is a shift of the orientations of the eye nystagmus and the head in the direction of the trajectory.These results suggest that a fundamental function of gaze is to represent self motion, stabilize the perception of space during locomotion, and to simulate the future trajectory, regardless of the vision condition.

  4. Design of force-cooled conductors for large fusion magnets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dresner, L.; Lue, J.W.

    1977-01-01

    Conductors cooled by supercritical helium in forced convection are under active consideration for large toroidal fusion magnets. One of the central problems in designing such force cooled conductors is to maintain an adequate stability margin while keeping the pumping power tolerably low. A method has been developed for minimizing the pumping power for fixed stability by optimally choosing the matrix-to-superconductor and the metal-to-helium ratios. Such optimized conductors reduce pumping power requirements for fusion size magnets to acceptable limits. Furthermore, the mass flow and hence pumping losses can be varied through a magnet according to the local magnetic field and magnitude of desired stability margin. Force cooled conductors give flexibility in operation, permitting, for example, higher fields to be obtained than originally intended by lowering the bath temperature or increasing the pumping power or both. This flexibility is only available if the pumping power is low to begin with. Scaling laws for the pumping requirement and stability margin as functions of operating current density, number of strands and such physical parameters as stabilizer resistivity and critical current density, have been proved. Numerical examples will be given for design of conductors intended for use in large toroidal fusion magnet systems.

  5. The fate of sounds in conductors' brains: an ERP study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nager, Wido; Kohlmetz, Christine; Altenmüller, Eckart; Rodriguez-Fornells, Antoni; Münte, Thomas F

    2003-06-01

    Professional music conductors are required to home in on a particular musician but at the same time have to monitor the entire orchestra. It was hypothesized that this unique experience should be reflected by superior auditory spatial processing. Event-related brain potentials were obtained, while conductors, professional pianists, and non-musicians listened to sequences of bandpass-filtered noise-bursts presented in random order from six speakers, three located in front and three to the right of the subjects. In different runs, subjects either attended the centermost or the most peripheral speaker in order to detect slightly deviant noise-bursts. For centrally located speakers, the ERPs showed a typical Nd attention effect for the relevant location with a steep decline for the neighboring speakers in all subject groups. For peripheral speakers, only the conductors showed attentional selectivity, while the Nd effect was of similar size for all three peripheral speakers in the other two groups. These ERP effects were paralleled by an enhanced behavioral selectivity in peripheral auditory space in conductors. Moreover, the pre-attentive monitoring of the entire auditory scene indexed by the mismatch negativity was superior in musicians compared to non-musicians. In conductors, the MMN was followed by a positivity suggesting an attention shift towards the deviant stimuli in this group only.

  6. Synergistic, ultrafast mass storage and removal in artificial mixed conductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chia-Chin; Fu, Lijun; Maier, Joachim

    2016-08-01

    Mixed conductors—single phases that conduct electronically and ionically—enable stoichiometric variations in a material and, therefore, mass storage and redistribution, for example, in battery electrodes. We have considered how such properties may be achieved synergistically in solid two-phase systems, forming artificial mixed conductors. Previously investigated composites suffered from poor kinetics and did not allow for a clear determination of such stoichiometric variations. Here we show, using electrochemical and chemical methods, that a melt-processed composite of the ‘super-ionic’ conductor RbAg4I5 and the electronic conductor graphite exhibits both a remarkable silver excess and a silver deficiency, similar to those found in single-phase mixed conductors, even though such behaviour is not possible in the individual phases. Furthermore, the kinetics of silver uptake and release is very fast. Evaluating the upper limit set by interfacial ambipolar diffusion reveals chemical diffusion coefficients that are even higher than those achieved for sodium chloride in bulk liquid water. These results could potentially stimulate systematic research into powerful, even mesoscopic, artificial mixed conductors.

  7. Conformism moderates the relations between values, anticipated regret, and behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lönnqvist, Jan-Erik; Leikas, Sointu; Paunonen, Sampo; Nissinen, Vesa; Verkasalo, Markku

    2006-11-01

    The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the moderating effect of Conformism values on the relations between other values and behavior. The authors expected people low, but not high, in Conformism to behave in a manner that is consistent with their personal values related to self-transcendence versus self-enhancement. In Study 1 (N = 199), such values predicted actual altruistic behavior, as estimated by other-reports, but only if Conformism values were low. In Study 2 (N = 189), only people who considered Conformism values to be relatively unimportant showed expected connections between self-transcendence values and anticipated regret in hypothetical scenarios having negative consequences. The data are interpreted as supporting the view that (a) anticipated regret motivates value-consistent behavior, (b) self-transcendence values in particular are connected to altruistic behavior and to anticipated regret, but (c) conformity to social norms moderates these connections.

  8. Loss and Inductance Investigation in Superconducting Cable Conductors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Søren Krüger; Tønnesen, Ole; Træholt, Chresten

    1999-01-01

    An important parameter in the design and optimization of a superconducting cable conductor is the control of the current distribution among single tapes and layers. This distribution is to a large degree determined by inductances, since the resistances are low. The self and mutual inductances...... of the layers are therefore studied theoretically. The current distribution between the superconducting layers is monitored as a function of transport current, and the results are compared with the expected current distribution given by our electrical circuit model.The AC-losses are measured as a function...... of transport current and current distribution.This presentation is based on a number of experiments performed on prototype superconducting cable conductors. The critical current (1uV/cm) of the conductor at 77K was 1590 A (cable #1) and 3240 A (cable #2) respectively.At an rms current of 2 kA (50 Hz) the AC...

  9. New scheme of anticipating synchronization for arbitrary anticipation time and its application to long-term prediction of chaotic states

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sun Zhong-Kui; Xu Wei; Yang Xiao-Li

    2007-01-01

    How to predict the dynamics of nonlinear chaotic systems is still a challenging subject with important real-life applications. The present paper deals with this important yet difficult problem via a new scheme of anticipating synchronization. A global, robust, analytical and delay-independent sufficient condition is obtained to guarantee the existence of anticipating synchronization manifold theoretically in the framework of the Krasovskii-Lyapunov theory.that the receiver system can synchronize with the future state of a transmitter system for an arbitrarily long anticipation time, which allows one to predict the dynamics of chaotic transmitter at any point of time if necessary. Also it is simple to implement in practice. A classical chaotic system is employed to demonstrate the application of the proposed scheme to the long-term prediction of chaotic states.

  10. The Joule-Thomson effect on the thermoelectric conductors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Consiglieri, Luisa [Lisbon Univ. (Portugal). Dept. of Mathematics and CMAF

    2009-03-15

    The transmission of an electric current in a conductor is a process in which some electrical energy is converted into heat (thermal energy). We deal with a nonlinear boundary value elliptic problem which describes the electrical heating of a solid conductor and the Joule-Thomson effect is taken into account. The existence of a weak solution is proved under both space and temperature dependence of the electrical and thermal conductivities. When the coefficients are only dependent on their temperature argument, some regularity results are stated. (orig.)

  11. Improvement of SOFC electrodes using mixed ionic-electronic conductors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsuzaki, Y.; Hishinuma, M. [Tokyo Gas Co., Ltd. (Japan)

    1996-12-31

    Since the electrode reaction of SOFC is limited to the proximity of a triple phase boundary (TPB), the local current density at the electrode and electrolyte interface is larger than mean current density, which causes large ohmic and electrode polarization. This paper describes an application of mixed ionic-electronic conductors to reduce such polarization by means of (1) enhancing ionic conductivity of the electrolyte surface layer by coating a high ionic conductors, and (2) reducing the local current density by increasing the electrochemically active sites.

  12. Linear stochastic differential equations with anticipating initial conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khalifa, Narjess; Kuo, Hui-Hsiung; Ouerdiane, Habib

    In this paper we use the new stochastic integral introduced by Ayed and Kuo (2008) and the results obtained by Kuo et al. (2012b) to find a solution to a drift-free linear stochastic differential equation with anticipating initial condition. Our solution is based on well-known results from...

  13. Patients' Anticipation of Stress in Nursing Home Care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stein, Shayna; And Others

    1985-01-01

    Examined anticipation of stresses in 223 patients recently admitted to nursing homes, who completed the stresses in Institutional Care Scale (SIC). Factor analysis revealed five factors significantly related to psychological and physical variables. Suggests using SIC for admission screening in nursing homes. Appendix contains the SIC. (NRB)

  14. Anticipated identification costs: Improving assortment evaluation by diagnostic attributes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Herpen, van E.; Pieters, F.G.M.

    2007-01-01

    Abstract Consumers often make quick assessments of product assortments, to determine if these are worthwhile for further investigation. They anticipate how difficult it will be to distinguish the various options in the assortment, which will influence their assortment evaluations. We reason that the

  15. Probing the Neural Correlates of Anticipated Peer Evaluation in Adolescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guyer, Amanda E.; McClure-Tone, Erin B.; Shiffrin, Nina D.; Pine, Daniel S.; Nelson, Eric E.

    2009-01-01

    Neural correlates of social-cognition were assessed in 9- to- 17-year-olds (N = 34) using functional magnetic resonance imaging. Participants appraised how unfamiliar peers they had previously identified as being of high or low interest would evaluate them for an anticipated online chat session. Differential age- and sex-related activation…

  16. Anticipating change : sustainable water policy pathways for an uncertain future

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haasnoot, M.

    2013-01-01

    Water management should preferably bring solutions that sustain even if conditions change. In anticipating change, a sustainable plan should not only achieve economic, environmental, and social targets, but it should also be robust to uncertainty and able to be adapted over time to (unforeseen) futu

  17. Person x Context Effects on Anticipated Moral Emotions Following Aggression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roos, Sanna; Salmivalli, Christina; Hodges, Ernest V. E.

    2011-01-01

    We investigated person (sex, aggression level), context (witness type, victim reactions), and person x context effects on children's anticipated moral emotions following hypothetical acts of aggression against a peer. Children (N = 378, mean age = 11.3 years) were presented a series of hypothetical vignettes in which the presence of witnesses (no…

  18. Enhancing Light-Trapping Properties of Amorphous Si Thin-Film Solar Cells Containing High-Reflective Silver Conductors Fabricated Using a Nonvacuum Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun-Chin Liu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We proposed a low-cost and highly reflective liquid organic sheet silver conductor using back contact reflectors in amorphous silicon (a-Si single junction superstrate configuration thin-film solar cells produced using a nonvacuum screen printing process. A comparison of silver conductor samples with vacuum-system-sputtered silver samples indicated that the short-circuit current density (Jsc of sheet silver conductor cells was higher than 1.25 mA/cm2. Using external quantum efficiency measurements, the sheet silver conductor using back contact reflectors in cells was observed to effectively enhance the light-trapping ability in a long wavelength region (between 600 nm and 800 nm. Consequently, we achieved an optimal initial active area efficiency and module conversion efficiency of 9.02% and 6.55%, respectively, for the a-Si solar cells. The results indicated that the highly reflective sheet silver conductor back contact reflector layer prepared using a nonvacuum process is a suitable candidate for high-performance a-Si thin-film solar cells.

  19. Effects of room-temperature tensile fatigue on critical current and n-value of IBAD-MOCVD YBa2Cu3O7-x /Hastelloy coated conductor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, Samuel; Kan Chan, Wan; Schwartz, Justin

    2016-08-01

    REBa2Cu3O7-x (REBCO) coated conductors potentially enable a multitude of superconducting applications, over a wide range of operating temperatures and magnetic fields, including high-field magnets, energy storage devices, motors, generators, and power transmission systems (Zhang et al 2013 IEEE Trans. Appl. Supercond. 23 5700704). Many of these are AC applications and thus the fatigue properties may be limiting (Vincent et al 2013 IEEE Trans. Appl. Supercond. 23 5700805). Previous electromechanical studies have determined the performance of REBCO conductors under single cycle loads (Barth et al 2015 Supercond. Sci. Technol. 28 045011), but an understanding of the fatigue properties is lacking. Here the fatigue behavior of commercial ion beam assisted deposition-metal organic chemical vapor deposition REBCO conductors on Hastelloy substrates is reported for axial tensile strains up to 0.5% and up to 100 000 cycles. Failure mechanisms are investigated via microstructural studies. Results show that REBCO conductors retained I c(ɛ)/I c0 = 0.9 for 10 000 cycles at ɛ = 0.35% and ɛ = 0.45% strain, and ɛ = 0.5% for 100 cycles. The main cause of fatigue degradation in REBCO conductors is crack propagation that initiates at the slitting defects that result from the manufacturing process.

  20. Study on Quench Protection of a Coil Wound of YBCO Coated Conductors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FUYoukun

    2003-01-01

    Owing to recent progress of long YBCO coated conductors, coils wound of YBCO conductors will be developed in near future.Compared with coils wound of LTS conductom, coils wound of HTS conductors operated at higher temperature are hard to be quenched. However, measures for quench protection are still necessary. Especially YBCO coated conductors that are made by deposition of thin YBCO film on Ni based alloy substrates such as Hastelloy tapes are highly resistive when they are quenched, Therefore,

  1. Anticipated Changes in Conducting Scientific Data-Analysis Research in the Big-Data Era

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuo, Kwo-Sen; Seablom, Michael; Clune, Thomas; Ramachandran, Rahul

    2014-01-01

    A Big-Data environment is one that is capable of orchestrating quick-turnaround analyses involving large volumes of data for numerous simultaneous users. Based on our experiences with a prototype Big-Data analysis environment, we anticipate some important changes in research behaviors and processes while conducting scientific data-analysis research in the near future as such Big-Data environments become the mainstream. The first anticipated change will be the reduced effort and difficulty in most parts of the data management process. A Big-Data analysis environment is likely to house most of the data required for a particular research discipline along with appropriate analysis capabilities. This will reduce the need for researchers to download local copies of data. In turn, this also reduces the need for compute and storage procurement by individual researchers or groups, as well as associated maintenance and management afterwards. It is almost certain that Big-Data environments will require a different "programming language" to fully exploit the latent potential. In addition, the process of extending the environment to provide new analysis capabilities will likely be more involved than, say, compiling a piece of new or revised code.We thus anticipate that researchers will require support from dedicated organizations associated with the environment that are composed of professional software engineers and data scientists. A major benefit will likely be that such extensions are of higherquality and broader applicability than ad hoc changes by physical scientists. Another anticipated significant change is improved collaboration among the researchers using the same environment. Since the environment is homogeneous within itself, many barriers to collaboration are minimized or eliminated. For example, data and analysis algorithms can be seamlessly shared, reused and re-purposed. In conclusion, we will be able to achieve a new level of scientific productivity in the Big

  2. Application Research on Drag Reduced Conductors for Electric Power Transmission Lines in Strong Wind Areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Dong Qing

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The breeze vibration duration of conductors is long, the vibration amplitude is strong and the frequency range is wide for electric power transmission lines in strong wind areas, which seriously affects the safe and stable operation of transmission lines. There are two design schemes of conductors which can achieve the purpose of reducing wind-induced disaster. One is enhancing the structural strength of conductors to withstand wind load, but the investment is enormous and the effect is limited. The other is developing drag reduced conductors to reduce wind load by changing conductor structure. This paper started from application feasibility analysis of drag reduced conductors and designed four drag reduced conductors by structure optimization of the conventional aluminium conductor steel reinforced JL/G1A-630/45-45/7, denoted as DFY630/45(45°-R3.5, DFY630/45(60°-R3.5, DFY630/45(45°–R3.2 and DFY630/45(60°-R3.2, respectively. The wind tunnel test was performed and the wind resistance coefficients in unit length of five conductors were compared. Result showed that the wind resistance coefficients in unit length of four drag reduced conductors were obviously lower than that of the conventional conductor. By controlling the manufacturing process, popularization and application of drag reduced conductors for transmission lines in strong wind areas can be realized.

  3. 30 CFR 57.12005 - Protection of power conductors from mobile equipment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Protection of power conductors from mobile... NONMETAL MINES Electricity Surface and Underground § 57.12005 Protection of power conductors from mobile equipment. Mobile equipment shall not run over power conductors, nor shall loads be dragged over...

  4. 30 CFR 57.12069 - Lightning protection for telephone wires and ungrounded conductors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Lightning protection for telephone wires and ungrounded conductors. 57.12069 Section 57.12069 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION... ungrounded conductors. Each ungrounded conductor or telephone wire that leads underground and is...

  5. 30 CFR 77.508 - Lightning arresters, ungrounded and exposed power conductors and telephone wires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... power conductors and telephone wires. 77.508 Section 77.508 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH... arresters, ungrounded and exposed power conductors and telephone wires. All ungrounded, exposed power conductors and telephone wires shall be equipped with suitable lightning arresters which are...

  6. 30 CFR 56.12069 - Lightning protection for telephone wires and ungrounded conductors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... ungrounded conductors. 56.12069 Section 56.12069 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION... NONMETAL MINES Electricity § 56.12069 Lightning protection for telephone wires and ungrounded conductors. Each ungrounded power conductor or telephone wire that leads underground and is directly exposed...

  7. 30 CFR 75.521 - Lightning arresters; ungrounded and exposed power conductors and telephone wires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... power conductors and telephone wires. 75.521 Section 75.521 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH... Electrical Equipment-General § 75.521 Lightning arresters; ungrounded and exposed power conductors and telephone wires. Each ungrounded, exposed power conductor and each ungrounded, exposed telephone wire...

  8. 30 CFR 75.700 - Grounding metallic sheaths, armors, and conduits enclosing power conductors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... conduits enclosing power conductors. 75.700 Section 75.700 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH... Grounding § 75.700 Grounding metallic sheaths, armors, and conduits enclosing power conductors. All metallic sheaths, armors, and conduits enclosing power conductors shall be electrically continuous throughout...

  9. 30 CFR 57.12010 - Isolation or insulation of communication conductors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... conductors. 57.12010 Section 57.12010 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... conductors. Telephone and low-potential signal wire shall be protected, by isolation or suitable insulation, or both, from contacting energized power conductors or any other power source....

  10. 30 CFR 77.700 - Grounding metallic sheaths, armors, and conduits enclosing power conductors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... conduits enclosing power conductors. 77.700 Section 77.700 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH..., and conduits enclosing power conductors. Metallic sheaths, armors, and conduits enclosing power conductors shall be electrically continuous throughout and shall be grounded by methods approved by...

  11. 30 CFR 75.1002 - Installation of electric equipment and conductors; permissibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... conductors; permissibility. 75.1002 Section 75.1002 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION... Wires and Trolley Feeder Wires § 75.1002 Installation of electric equipment and conductors... equipment is located within 150 feet of pillar workings or longwall faces. (b) Electric conductors...

  12. Elementary charge-transfer processes in mesoscopic conductors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vanević, M.; Nazarov, Y.V.; Belzig, W.

    2008-01-01

    We determine charge-transfer statistics in a quantum conductor driven by a time-dependent voltage and identify the elementary transport processes. At zero temperature unidirectional and bidirectional single-charge transfers occur. The unidirectional processes involve electrons injected from the sour

  13. Influence of the magnetic field profile on ITER conductor testing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijhuis, A.; Ilyin, Y.; Kate, ten H.H.J.

    2006-01-01

    We performed simulations with the numerical CUDI-CICC code on a typical short ITER (International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor) conductor test sample of dual leg configuration, as usually tested in the SULTAN test facility, and made a comparison with the new EFDA-Dipole test facility offering

  14. Effects of volume conductor and source configuration on simulated magnetogastrograms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Komuro, Rie; Qiao Wenlian; Pullan, Andrew J; Cheng, Leo K, E-mail: l.cheng@auckland.ac.n [Auckland Bioengineering Institute, University of Auckland, Auckland (New Zealand)

    2010-11-21

    Recordings of the magnetic fields (MFs) arising from gastric electrical activity (GEA) have been shown to be able to distinguish between normal and certain abnormal GEA. Mathematical models provide a powerful tool for revealing the relationship between the underlying GEA and the resultant magnetogastrograms (MGGs). However, it remains uncertain the relative contributions that different volume conductor and dipole source models have on the resultant MFs. In this study, four volume conductor models (free space, sphere, half space and an anatomically realistic torso) and two dipole source configurations (containing 320 moving dipole sources and a single equivalent moving dipole source) were used to simulate the external MFs. The effects of different volume conductor models and dipole source configurations on the MF simulations were examined. The half space model provided the best approximation of the MFs produced by the torso model in the direction normal to the coronal plane. This was despite the fact that the half space model does not produce secondary sources, which have been shown to contribute up to 50% of the total MFs when an anatomically realistic torso model was used. We conclude that a realistic representation of the volume conductor and a detailed dipole source model are likely to be necessary when using a model-based approach for interpreting MGGs.

  15. Low resistive trasparent conductors with metallic grids : modeling and experiments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Deelen, J. van; Rendering, H.; Mannetje, H.H 't; Klerk, L.; Hovestad, A.

    2012-01-01

    At present, transparent conducting oxides (TCOs) are still superior in performance to most other transparent conductors. Results on opto-electronic modeling and design optimization of TCOs are presented using a monolithically integrated CIGS cell configuration as case. For various cell dimensions an

  16. Polaron effects in the protonic conductor hydrogen uranyl phosphate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lupu, D. (Inst. of Isotopic and Molecular Technology, Cluj-Napoca (Romania)); Grecu, R. (Inst. of Chemistry, Cluj-Napoca (Romania)); Biris, A.R. (Inst. of Isotopic and Molecular Technology, Cluj-Napoca (Romania))

    1993-08-01

    The isotope effects on the conductivity of hydrogen uranyl phosphate reveal ionic polaron effects in this solid protonic conductor, in agreement with the small polaron theory. An absorption band is observed at 0.67 eV, which can be correlated with the conduction mechanism consisting in both tunnelling and over-barrier hopping processes. (orig.)

  17. Metallic grids for low resistive transparent conductors: modeling and experiments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Deelen, J. van; Rendering, H.; Mannetje, H. het; Klerk, L.; Hovestad, A.

    2012-01-01

    At present, transparent conducting oxides (TCOs) are still superior in performance to most other transparent conductors. Results on opto-electronic modeling and design optimization of TCOs are presented using a monolithically integrated CIGS cell configuration as case. For various cell dimensions an

  18. Conductor and Ensemble Performance Expressivity and State Festival Ratings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, Harry E.; Chang, E. Christina

    2005-01-01

    This study is the second in a series examining the relationship between conducting and ensemble performance. The purpose was to further examine the associations among conductor, ensemble performance expressivity, and festival ratings. Participants were asked to rate the expressivity of video-only conducting and parallel audio-only excerpts from a…

  19. Low-frequency scattering from two-dimensional perfect conductors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Thorkild; Yaghjian, A.D

    1991-01-01

    Exact expressions have been obtained for the leading terms in the low-frequency expansions of the far fields scattered from three different types of two-dimensional perfect conductors: a cylinder with finite cross section, a cylindrical bump on an infinite ground plane, and a cylindrical dent...

  20. Neural basis of reward anticipation and its genetic determinants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Tianye; Macare, Christine; Desrivières, Sylvane; Gonzalez, Dante A; Tao, Chenyang; Ji, Xiaoxi; Ruggeri, Barbara; Nees, Frauke; Banaschewski, Tobias; Barker, Gareth J; Bokde, Arun L W; Bromberg, Uli; Büchel, Christian; Conrod, Patricia J; Dove, Rachel; Frouin, Vincent; Gallinat, Jürgen; Garavan, Hugh; Gowland, Penny A; Heinz, Andreas; Ittermann, Bernd; Lathrop, Mark; Lemaitre, Hervé; Martinot, Jean-Luc; Paus, Tomáš; Pausova, Zdenka; Poline, Jean-Baptiste; Rietschel, Marcella; Robbins, Trevor; Smolka, Michael N; Müller, Christian P; Feng, Jianfeng; Rothenfluh, Adrian; Flor, Herta; Schumann, Gunter

    2016-04-05

    Dysfunctional reward processing is implicated in various mental disorders, including attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and addictions. Such impairments might involve different components of the reward process, including brain activity during reward anticipation. We examined brain nodes engaged by reward anticipation in 1,544 adolescents and identified a network containing a core striatal node and cortical nodes facilitating outcome prediction and response preparation. Distinct nodes and functional connections were preferentially associated with either adolescent hyperactivity or alcohol consumption, thus conveying specificity of reward processing to clinically relevant behavior. We observed associations between the striatal node, hyperactivity, and the vacuolar protein sorting-associated protein 4A (VPS4A) gene in humans, and the causal role of Vps4 for hyperactivity was validated in Drosophila Our data provide a neurobehavioral model explaining the heterogeneity of reward-related behaviors and generate a hypothesis accounting for their enduring nature.

  1. The role of anticipated regret in escalation of commitment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Kin Fai Ellick; Kwong, Jessica Y Y

    2007-03-01

    This research tests the general proposition that people are motivated to reduce future regret under escalation situations. This is supported by the findings that (a) escalation of commitment is stronger when the possibility of future regret about withdrawal is high than when this possibility is low (Studies 1a and 1b) and (b) escalation of commitment increases as the net anticipated regret about withdrawal increases (Studies 2a and 2b). Furthermore, the regret effects in the 4 studies were above and beyond the personal responsibility effects on escalation. This research indicates that people in escalation situations are simultaneously influenced by the emotions they expect to experience in the future (e.g., anticipated regret) and by events that have happened in the past (e.g., responsibility for the initiating previous decision).

  2. ANTICIPATING WPS PIN VULNERABILITY TO SECURE WIRELESS NETWORK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Indra Dwi Rianto

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available WiFi Protected Setup (WPS is a standardized function supported by numerous vendors of wireless routers and access point to help set up connection to a wireless local area network. It is designed to simplify the set up and generally enabled by default. Due to design flaw, the WPS or QSS PIN is susceptible to a brute force attack. In this paper, we test the security vulnerability occurred, evaluate the performance and give recommendations to anticipate the attack.

  3. Neural response to reward anticipation is modulated by Gray's impulsivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hahn, Tim; Dresler, Thomas; Ehlis, Ann-Christine; Plichta, Michael M; Heinzel, Sebastian; Polak, Thomas; Lesch, Klaus-Peter; Breuer, Felix; Jakob, Peter M; Fallgatter, Andreas J

    2009-07-15

    According to the Reinforcement Sensitivity Theory (RST), Gray's dimension of impulsivity, reflecting human trait reward sensitivity, determines the extent to which stimuli activate the Behavioural Approach System (BAS). The potential neural underpinnings of the BAS, however, remain poorly understood. In the present study, we examined the association between Gray's impulsivity as defined by the RST and event-related fMRI BOLD-response to anticipation of reward in twenty healthy human subjects in brain regions previously associated with reward processing. Anticipation of reward during a Monetary Incentive Delay Task elicited activation in key components of the human reward circuitry such as the ventral striatum, the amygdala and the orbitofrontal cortex. Interindividual differences in Gray's impulsivity accounted for a significant amount of variance of the reward-related BOLD-response in the ventral striatum and the orbitofrontal cortex. Specifically, higher trait reward sensitivity was associated with increased activation in response to cues indicating potential reward. Extending previous evidence, here we show that variance in functional brain activation during anticipation of reward is attributed to interindividual differences regarding Gray's dimension of impulsivity. Thus, trait reward sensitivity contributes to the modulation of responsiveness in major components of the human reward system which thereby display a core property of the BAS. Generally, fostering our understanding of the neural underpinnings of the association of reward-related interindividual differences in affective traits might aid researchers in quest for custom-tailored treatments of psychiatric disorders, further disentangling the complex relationship between personality traits, emotion, and health.

  4. Apparent anticipation in SOD1 familial amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vucic, Steve; Nicholson, Garth A; Chio, Adriano; Kiernan, Matthew C

    2013-09-01

    Although anticipation has been previously reported in the copper/zinc superoxide dismutase-1 (SOD1) associated familial amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (FALS), some have argued that this may represent ascertainment bias. Consequently, the aim of the present study was to determine whether anticipation was a feature in SOD1 FALS. From a cohort of 112 individuals, the clinical and genetic history of 34 SOD1 patients was assessed. Clinical history was collected with the age of death and disease duration determined in successive generations (generation 1, grandparent; generation 2, parents; generation 3, children), from five large SOD1 families. Results showed that the age of death was significantly less in generation 3 (40.1 ± 2.8 years) compared to generation 2 (46.2 ± 2.0 years, p < 0.05) and generation 1 (56.7 ± 4.5 years, p < 0.01). Furthermore, disease duration was longer in generation 1 (18.4 ± 3.7 months) compared to the disease duration in generation 2 (12.6 ± 2.6 months) and generation 3 (12.3 ± 1.9 months, p = 0.08). Positive intergenerational differences were evident in 92% of parent-offspring transmissions in the present SOD1 FALS cohort (c(2) = 70.6, p < 0.001). In conclusion, the present study supports anticipation as a phenomenon in FALS, possibly due to co-inheritance of modifier genes.

  5. Structure Design and Service Performance Study of Low Wind-pressure Conductor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Zhao Lin

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The low wind-pressure conductor is a dedicated conductor which obtains low wind resistance coefficient by changing the sectional shape of the conductor and has extensive application prospect in electric power transmission lines in strong wind areas. Previous wind tunnel testing results showed that the wind resistance coefficient in unit length of the low wind-pressure aluminium conductor steel reinforced was obviously lower than that of the conventional aluminium conductor steel reinforced, and the control factors of manufacturing process of the low wind-pressure conductor were proposed. In this paper, the low wind-pressure aluminium conductor steel reinforced JLX1/G1A(DFY–680/45–338 was designed based on the structure optimization of the conventional aluminium conductor steel reinforced JL/G1A–630/45–45/7, and the service performance study of the conductor was carried out. Results showed that the mechanical properties, electrical properties and construction properties of the low wind-pressure conductor fully satisfied service requirements, and the conductor can be popularized and applied for transmission lines in strong wind areas.

  6. EEG generator--a model of potentials in a volume conductor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avitan, Lilach; Teicher, Mina; Abeles, Moshe

    2009-11-01

    EEG generator-a model of potentials in a volume conductor. The potential recorded over the cortex electro-corticogram (ECoG) or over the scalp [electroencephalograph (EEG)] derives from the activity of many sources known as "EEG generators." The recorded amplitude is basically a function of the unitary potential of a generator and the statistical relationship between different EEG generators in the recorded population. In this study, we first suggest a new definition of the EEG generator. We use the theory of potentials in a volume conductor and model the contribution of a single synapse activated to the surface potential. We then model the contribution of the generator to the surface potential. Once the generator and its contribution are well defined, we can quantitatively assess the degree of synchronization among generators. The measures obtained by the model for a real life scenario of a group of generators organized in a specific statistical way were consistent with the expected values that were reported experimentally. The study sheds new light on macroscopic modeling approaches which make use of mean soma membrane potential. We showed major contribution of activity of superficial apical synapses to the ECoG signal recorded relative to lower somatic or basal synapses activity.

  7. The brain, an orchestra without conductor

    CERN Document Server

    CERN. Geneva

    2008-01-01

    The brain is a highly distributed, self-organizing system that lacks central institutions for the coordination of cognitive and executive functions. This raises the question how the multiple parallel operations are bound together to give rise to coherent percepts, decisions and intentions. The hypothesis is proposed that time is used as coding space for the flexible definition of relations and the targeted routing of activity across highly interconnected networks.

  8. Anticipating flash-floods: Multi-scale aspects of the social response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lutoff, Céline; Creutin, Jean-Dominique; Ruin, Isabelle; Borga, Marco

    2016-10-01

    This paper aims at exploring the anticipation phase before a flash flood, corresponding to the time between the first climatic signs and the peak-flow. We focus the analysis on people's behaviors observing how they use this period to organize themselves for facing the event. The analysis is made through the definition of three specific scales: the timeliness scale, an analytical scale of anticipatory actions and the scale of human response network. Using a cross-scale and cross level analysis enables to define different phases in the anticipation period where different kind of environmental precursors are mobilized by the actors in order to make sense of the situation and adapt. Three main points deserve attention at the end: firstly, the concepts of timeliness, anticipatory actions and crisis network scales enable to understand differently what happens both physically and socially during an extreme event; secondly, analyzing the precursors shows that each level of crisis network uses different kinds of signs for estimating the situation, organizing and reacting; thirdly, there is a potential for improvement in observation on both social and physical processes at different scales, for verifying the theory of the anticipatory phases.

  9. Structural Parameter Optimization of Multilayer Conductors in HTS Cable

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yan Mao; Jie Qiu; Xin-Ying Liu; Zhi-Xuan Wang; Shu-Hong Wang; Jian-Guo Zhu; You-Guang Guo; Zhi-Wei Lin; Jian-Xun Jin

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, the design optimization of the structural parameters of multilayer conductors in high temperature superconducting (HTS) cable is reviewed. Various optimization methods, such as the particle swarm optimization (PSO), the genetic algorithm (GA), and a robust optimization method based on design for six sigma (DFSS), have been applied to realize uniform current distribution among the multi- layer HTS conductors. The continuous and discrete variables, such as the winding angle, radius, and winding direction of each layer, are chosen as the design parameters. Under the constraints of the mechanical properties and critical current, PSO is proven to be a more powerful tool than GA for structural parameter optimization, and DFSS can not only achieve a uniform current distribution, but also improve significantly the reliability and robustness of the HTS cable quality.

  10. Critical area computation for real defects and arbitrary conductor shapes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Jun-Ping; Hao Yue

    2006-01-01

    In current critical area models, it is generally assumed the defect outlines are circular and the conductors to be rectangle or the merger of rectangles. However, real defects and conductors associated with optimal layout design exhibit a great variety of shapes. Based on mathematical morphology, a new critical area model is presented, which can be used to estimate the critical area of short circuit, open circuit and pinhole. Based on the new model, the efficient validity check algorithms are explored to extract critical areas of short circuit, open circuit and pinhole from layouts.The results of experiment on an approximate layout of 4 × 4 shifts register show that the new model predicts the critical areas accurately. These results suggest that the proposed model and algorithm could provide new approaches for yield prediction.

  11. H/D isotope effects in high temperature proton conductors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bonanos, Nikolaos; Huijser, A.; Poulsen, Finn Willy

    2015-01-01

    The atomic mass ratio of ca. 2 between deuterium and hydrogen is the highest for any pair of stable isotopes and results in significant and measurable H/D isotope effects in high temperature proton conductors containing these species. This paper discusses H/D isotope effects manifested in O......-H/O-D vibration frequencies, the mobility of H+/D+ carriers, the kinetics of the electrochemical oxidation of H2/D2, the solubilities of H2O/D2O and, finally, the spontaneous electromotive force that appears across H2/D2 cells with proton conducting electrolytes. Comparable work on tritium-exchanged materials...... is also discussed. The results highlight the usefulness of isotope effects in the study of high temperature proton conductors....

  12. Increasing titration speed by using an end paint anticipator device

    OpenAIRE

    2001-01-01

    A simple device is described for use in any titrations with the objective of rapidly locating the vicinity of the end point of a titration. The device stores inside about 10% of a 10 mL titrand solution. The titration itself proceeds with rapid addition of titrant until the end point is passed. The anticipator device now starts to rotate, using a dc motor, which is turned on by a micro-computer. The solution stored in the device is mixed with the already titrated solution and the property bei...

  13. Hi-Tech Skills Anticipation for Sustainable Development in Russia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valery Gurtov

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available It is evident that there is a heightened importance in Russia attributed to ensuring that students develop skills, which will enable them to be more productive and engaged citizens. This article deals with a skills anticipation methodology for seven hi-tech industries in Russia that resulted in the development of models for both soft and hard skills. There is a variety of widely applied methods – qualitative projection of labor market parameters, desk studies, documents analysis, foresight sessions, employers' and experts' surveys. As a result, new skills models are to help the specialists to effectively overcome the challenges, apply innovative decisions, and increase their technological knowledge.

  14. tsk tsk tsk and Beyond: Anticipating Distributed Aesthetics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darren Tofts

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper considers some important precursory events in the formative history of Australian media arts. These events have anticipated the post-object, serial conception of arts practice that Nicholas Bourriaud has called relational aesthetics. Relational aesthetics interpret both artwork and audience in differential, highly idiosyncratic ways; ways that have become important to our contemporary vocabulary of interactive, immersive and interfaced art. This paper will consider the ways in which the concept of the network was important to artists such as Philip Brophy & Tsk-tsk-tsk in the early 1980s. It will also explore related notions of “audience manipulation” in the work of Martine Corompt.

  15. Numerical Analysis of Conductor Galloping Limitation by Oscillation Frequency Detuning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. I. Serguey

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available A numerical method has been developed for calculation of conductor oscillations at the moment of galloping that takes account of pendulum  oscillation dampers in the form of eccentric loads. The method is recommended for a numerical analysis of various schemes pertaining to arrangement of horizontal pendulums in the span and their parameters including angles of their initial setting. The obtained results can be used for designing and operation of aerial power lines. 

  16. What is a good conductor for metamaterials or plasmonics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soukoulis, Costas M.; Koschny, Thomas; Tassin, Philippe; Shen, Nian-Hai; Dastmalchi, Babak

    2015-04-01

    We review conducting materials like metals, conducting oxides and graphene for nanophotonic applications. We emphasize that metamaterials and plasmonic systems benefit from different conducting materials. Resonant metamaterials need conductors with small resistivity, since dissipative loss in resonant metamaterials is proportional to the real part of the resistivity of the conducting medium it contains. For plasmonic systems, one must determine the propagation length at a desired level of confinement to estimate the dissipative loss.

  17. What is a good conductor for metamaterials or plasmonics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soukoulis Costas M.

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available We review conducting materials like metals, conducting oxides and graphene for nanophotonic applications. We emphasize that metamaterials and plasmonic systems benefit from different conducting materials. Resonant metamaterials need conductors with small resistivity, since dissipative loss in resonant metamaterials is proportional to the real part of the resistivity of the conducting medium it contains. For plasmonic systems, one must determine the propagation length at a desired level of confinement to estimate the dissipative loss.

  18. ADIDAS CONDUCTOR HI 配色美学

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    ADIDAS将于2010年春季推出以80年代香篮球鞋为设计灵感的CONDUCTOR HI,材质上不仅使用了皮革及魔皮想互衬托在配色上更是用出了神秘的黑色以及极富质感 的咖啡配色,质感不俗。

  19. The winding line for the CMS reinforced conductor

    CERN Document Server

    Fabbricatore, P; D'Urzo, C; Farinon, S; Gaddi, A; Levesy, B; Loche, L; Musenich, R; Rondeaux, F; Penco, R; Valle, N

    2002-01-01

    The Compact Muon Solenoid (CMS) is one of the general-purpose detectors to be provided for the LHC project at CERN. The design field of the CMS superconducting magnet is 4 T, the length is 12.5 m and the free bore is 6 m. The use of a reinforced conductor for the CMS coil required a sustained activity of development at industrial level, to understand how to handle, to pre-bend and to wind the conductor with an inner winding technique. The winding line was designed and constructed according to this experience. The working principles of the line are under test through the winding of a prototype of a CMS coil module. The prototype has the same radius of a CMS module (6900 mm outer diameter), but a shorter axial length (670 mm against 2500 for the module). The critical operations are related to the accurate pre-bending of the conductor, the positioning of the turns into the winding, the axial compaction, and the correct handling of 50-ton windings. (9 refs).

  20. Charge densities and charge noise in mesoscopic conductors

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    M Büttiker

    2002-02-01

    We introduce a hierarchy of density of states to characterize the charge distribution in a mesoscopic conductor. At the bottom of this hierarchy are the partial density of states which represent the contribution to the local density of states if both the incident and the out-going scattering channel is prescribed. The partial density of states play a prominent role in measurements with a scanning tunneling microscope on multiprobe conductors in the presence of current flow. The partial density of states determine the degree of dephasing generated by a weakly coupled voltage probe. In addition the partial density of states determine the frequency-dependent response of mesoscopic conductors in the presence of slowly oscillating voltages applied to the contacts of the sample. The partial density of states permit the formulation of a Friedel sum rule which can be applied locally. We introduce the off-diagonal elements of the partial density of states matrix to describe charge fluctuation processes. This generalization leads to a local Wigner–Smith life-time matrix.

  1. High-field thermal transports properties of REBCO coated conductors

    CERN Document Server

    Bonura, M

    2015-01-01

    The use of REBCO coated conductors is envisaged for many applications, extending from power cables to high-field magnets. Whatever the case, thermal properties of REBCO tapes play a key role for the stability of superconducting devices. In this work, we present the first study on the longitudinal thermal conductivity (k) of REBCO coated conductors in magnetic fields up to 19 T applied both parallelly and perpendicularly to the thermal-current direction. Copper-stabilized tapes from six industrial manufacturers have been investigated. We show that zero-field k of coated conductors can be calculated with an accuracy of ‡ 15% from the residual resistivity ratio of the stabilizer and the Cu/non-Cu ratio. Measurements performed at high fields have allowed us to evaluate the consistency of the procedures generally used for estimating in-field k in the framework of the Wiedemann-Franz law from an electrical characterization of the materials. In-field data are intended to provide primary ingredients for the ...

  2. Stability measurements on the 50 kA SMES conductor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfotenhauer, M. J.

    Stability measurements have been made on a large aluminium stabilized conductor designed for use in a superconducting magnetic energy storage (SMES) coil. The conductor has been built to carry 50 kA at 1.8 K and in 4.6 T field. It consists of a 25.4 mm diameter, high purity aluminium stabilizer with eight superconducting strands of 2.8 mm diameter each, composed of 60% Cu, 40% NbTi. The strands are set in eight helical grooves, evenly spaced around the outer diameter of the aluminium. The conductor is designed for use in full scale SMES units and has been tested in the 1 m diameter, three-turn test coil of the University of Wisconsin proof of principle experiment (POPE). The POPE facility includes the test coil, a 4 T background magnet, a dewar for a 1.8 K, 1 atm environment and a 100 kA d.c. power supply. Test results demonstrate good agreement with a new dynamic stability model. The balance of time-dependent heat generation during current diffusion and time-dependent cooling to the helium produces three new features of stability: 1, a threshold current for propagation; 2, large propagation velocities; and 3, a finite length travelling normal zone. POPE measurements verify all three features of the dynamic stability model.

  3. Development of an aluminium stabilized reinforced superconducting conductor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fritz, D. [PTR Praezisionstechnik GmbH Maintal (Germany); Horvath, I.L. [Swiss Federal Inst. of Tech., Zuerich (Switzerland); Harzenmoser, M.; Neuenschwander, J. [Swiss Federal Labs. for Materials Testing and Research, Duebendorf (Switzerland); Wittgenstein, F. [CERN, Geneva (Switzerland)

    1996-07-01

    For high performance superconducting magnets as used in large detectors for the High Energy Physics or for magnets of magnetic storage devices (SMES) the mechanical stresses on the conductor go beyond the yield stress level of the high purity matrix stabilizer, specially if aluminium is used. Therefore, a novel method is proposed to join high strength aluminium strips to high purity aluminium stabilizer by using the electron beam (EB) welding. The proposed EB-welding, combined with roll-pressing under vacuum, provides the minimum heat input on the conductor in comparison with other welding techniques. This method provides the advantage to allow the production of very long conductor lengths and includes the potentiality of repairing without losing expensive material. As this process has to be adapted to the high purity aluminium on the one side and to the high strength material on the other, the authors started in a first step with investigation and development of the process, using standard laboratory machines together with laboratory-size tooling. In this report the development program is described and first results of the quality control measurements are presented.

  4. Nexans advances in all CSD route for REBCO coated conductors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bock, J.; Ehrenberg, J.; Hoppe, B.; Isfort, D.; Klein, M.; Rikel, M. [Nexans SuperConductors, Chemiepark Knapsack, Huerth (Germany)

    2007-07-01

    Development of REBCO coated conductors (CC) at Nexans SuperConductors (NSC) is focused on all chemical solution deposition (CSD) route that promises the best performance-to-price ratio in long lengths. The feasibility of all CSD approach is shown on the lab scale: using metalorganic deposition (MOD), NSC was able to produce YBCO/CeO{sub 2}/LZO/NiW CCs with J{sub c}(77 K,sf)=0.5 MA/cm{sup 2}. The major advance of NSC on a semi-industrial scale is the use of MOD route for production of high-quality La{sub 2}Zr{sub 2}O{sub 7} (LZO) coated NiW RABITS in lengths up to 12 m. With those substrates, it is possible to produce CCs with the simplest (one-buffer) architecture by depositing REBCO using other techniques (ISD at Theva, Ismaning; MOCVD at IOT, Braunschweig; HLPE at University of Cambridge, UK). The best short sample I{sub c}=280, 120 and 100 A/cm-width for HLPE, ISD, and MOCVD, respectively First long-length conductors show transport I{sub c}=40 A (10m-long, ISD). Further work is focused on optimisation of the already established mixed (MOD+PVD) approaches, understanding optimum architecture and processing conditions for the all-CSD route and developing tools for scaling those conditions to long-length production. (orig.)

  5. Conductors for commercial MRI magnets beyond NbTi: requirements and challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parizh, Michael; Lvovsky, Yuri; Sumption, Michael

    2017-01-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), a powerful medical diagnostic tool, is the largest commercial application of superconductivity. The superconducting magnet is the largest and most expensive component of an MRI system. The magnet configuration is determined by competing requirements including optimized functional performance, patient comfort, ease of siting in a hospital environment, minimum acquisition and lifecycle cost including service. In this paper, we analyze conductor requirements for commercial MRI magnets beyond traditional NbTi conductors, while avoiding links to a particular magnet configuration or design decisions. Potential conductor candidates include MgB2, ReBCO and BSCCO options. The analysis shows that no MRI-ready non-NbTi conductor is commercially available at the moment. For some conductors, MRI specifications will be difficult to achieve in principle. For others, cost is a key barrier. In some cases, the prospects for developing an MRI-ready conductor are more favorable, but significant developments are still needed. The key needs include the development of, or significant improvements in: (a) conductors specifically designed for MRI applications, with form-fit-and-function readily integratable into the present MRI magnet technology with minimum modifications. Preferably, similar conductors should be available from multiple vendors; (b) conductors with improved quench characteristics, i.e. the ability to carry significant current without damage while in the resistive state; (c) insulation which is compatible with manufacturing and refrigeration technologies; (d) dramatic increases in production and long-length quality control, including large-volume conductor manufacturing technology. In-situ MgB2 is, perhaps, the closest to meeting commercial and technical requirements to become suitable for commercial MRI. Conductor technology is an important, but not the only, issue in introduction of HTS/MgB2 conductor into commercial MRI magnets. These

  6. Subjective illusion of control modulates striatal reward anticipation in adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorenz, Robert C; Gleich, Tobias; Kühn, Simone; Pöhland, Lydia; Pelz, Patricia; Wüstenberg, Torsten; Raufelder, Diana; Heinz, Andreas; Beck, Anne

    2015-08-15

    The perception of control over the environment constitutes a fundamental biological adaptive mechanism, especially during development. Previous studies comparing an active choice condition with a passive no-choice condition showed that the neural basis of this mechanism is associated with increased activity within the striatum and the prefrontal cortex. In the current study, we aimed to investigate whether subjective belief of control in an uncertain gambling situation induces elevated activation in a cortico-striatal network. We investigated 79 adolescents (age range: 13-16years) during reward anticipation with a slot machine task using functional magnetic resonance imaging. We assessed post-experimentally whether the participants experienced a subjective illusion of control on winning or losing in this task that was objectively not given. Nineteen adolescents experienced an illusion of control during slot machine gambling. This illusion of control group showed an increased neural activity during reward anticipation within a cortico-striatal network including ventral striatum (VS) as well as right inferior frontal gyrus (rIFG) relative to the group reporting no illusion of control. The rIFG activity was inversely associated with impulsivity in the no illusion of control group. The subjective belief about control led to an elevated ventral striatal activity, which is known to be involved in the processing of reward. This finding strengthens the notion that subjectively perceived control, not necessarily the objective presence of control, affects striatal reward-related processing.

  7. Five year old preschoolers’ sharing is influenced by anticipated reciprocation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mingrui eXiong

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Whether children share in anticipation of future benefits returned by a partner is an interesting question. In this study, 5-year-old children and an adult partner played a sharing game, in which children donated first and the partner donated afterward. In Experiment 1, the partner’s resources were more attractive than the child’s. In the reciprocal condition, the child was told that s/he would be a recipient when the partner played as a donor. In the nonreciprocal condition, however, the child was told that an anonymous child would be the recipient when the partner donated. Results showed that children shared more with the partner when they knew that they would be a recipient later. In Experiment 2, the child was always the recipient when the partner donated, but the partner’s resources were more desirable than the child’s in the high-value condition, and less desirable in the low-value condition. We found that children were more generous when the partner’s resources were valued higher. These findings demonstrate that 5-year-old preschoolers’ sharing choices take into account the anticipated reciprocity of the recipient, suggesting either self-interested tactical sharing or direct reciprocity in advance of receiving. Specifically, they adjust their sharing behavior depending on whether a partner has the potential to reciprocate, and whether it is worth sharing relative to the value of the payback.

  8. Time to Tango: expertise and contextual anticipation during action observation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amoruso, Lucía; Sedeño, Lucas; Huepe, David; Tomio, Ailin; Kamienkowski, Juan; Hurtado, Esteban; Cardona, Juan Felipe; Álvarez González, Miguel Ángel; Rieznik, Andrés; Sigman, Mariano; Manes, Facundo; Ibáñez, Agustín

    2014-09-01

    Predictive theories of action observation propose that we use our own motor system as a guide for anticipating and understanding other people's actions through the generation of context-based expectations. According to this view, people should be better in predicting and interpreting those actions that are present in their own motor repertoire compared to those that are not. We recorded high-density event-related potentials (ERPs: P300, N400 and Slow Wave, SW) and source estimation in 80 subjects separated by their level of expertise (experts, beginners and naïves) as they observed realistic videos of Tango steps with different degrees of execution correctness. We also performed path analysis to infer causal relationships between ongoing anticipatory brain activity, evoked semantic responses, expertise measures and behavioral performance. We found that anticipatory activity, with sources in a fronto-parieto-occipital network, early discriminated between groups according to their level of expertise. Furthermore, this early activity significantly predicted subsequent semantic integration indexed by semantic responses (N400 and SW, sourced in temporal and motor regions) which also predicted motor expertise. In addition, motor expertise was a good predictor of behavioral performance. Our results show that neural and temporal dynamics underlying contextual action anticipation and comprehension can be interpreted in terms of successive levels of contextual prediction that are significantly modulated by subject's prior experience.

  9. Strong anticipation: Multifractal cascade dynamics modulate scaling in synchronization behaviors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stephen, Damian G., E-mail: foovian@gmail.co [Wyss Institute for Biologically Inspired Engineering, Harvard University, 3 Blackfan Circle, Floor 5, Boston, MA 02115 (United States); Dixon, James A. [Department of Psychology, University of Connecticut, 406 Babbidge Rd., Unit 1020, Storrs, CT 06269-1020 (United States); Haskins Laboratories, 300 George St., New Haven, CT 06511 (United States)

    2011-01-15

    Research highlights: We investigated anticipatory behaviors in response to chaotic metronomes. We assessed multifractal structure in tap intervals and onset intervals. Strength of multifractality in tap intervals appears to match that in onset intervals. - Abstract: Previous research on anticipatory behaviors has found that the fractal scaling of human behavior may attune to the fractal scaling of an unpredictable signal [Stephen DG, Stepp N, Dixon JA, Turvey MT. Strong anticipation: Sensitivity to long-range correlations in synchronization behavior. Physica A 2008;387:5271-8]. We propose to explain this attunement as a case of multifractal cascade dynamics [Schertzer D, Lovejoy S. Generalised scale invariance in turbulent phenomena. Physico-Chem Hydrodyn J 1985;6:623-5] in which perceptual-motor fluctuations are coordinated across multiple time scales. This account will serve to sharpen the contrast between strong and weak anticipation: whereas the former entails a sensitivity to the intermittent temporal structure of an unpredictable signal, the latter simply predicts sensitivity to an aggregate description of an unpredictable signal irrespective of actual sequence. We pursue this distinction through a reanalysis of Stephen et al.'s data by examining the relationship between the widths of singularity spectra for intertap interval time series and for each corresponding interonset interval time series. We find that the attunement of fractal scaling reported by Stephen et al. was not the trivial result of sensitivity to temporal structure in aggregate but reflected a subtle sensitivity to the coordination across multiple time scales of fluctuation in the unpredictable signal.

  10. Coincidence-anticipation timing requirements are different in racket sports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akpinar, Selçuk; Devrilmez, Erhan; Kirazci, Sadettin

    2012-10-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the coincidence-anticipation timing accuracy of athletes of different racket sports with various stimulus velocity requirements. Ninety players (15 girls, 15 boys for each sport) from tennis (M age = 12.4 yr., SD = 1.4), badminton (M age = 12.5 yr., SD = 1.4), and table tennis (M age = 12.4 yr., SD = 1.2) participated in this study. Three different stimulus velocities, low, moderate, and high, were used to simulate the velocity requirements of these racket sports. Tennis players had higher accuracy when they performed under the low stimulus velocity compared to badminton and table tennis players. Badminton players performed better under the moderate speed comparing to tennis and table tennis players. Table tennis players had better performance than tennis and badminton players under the high stimulus velocity. Therefore, visual and motor systems of players from different racket sports may adapt to a stimulus velocity in coincidence-anticipation timing, which is specific to each type of racket sports.

  11. The Boxing Day Tsunami: Could the Disaster have been Anticipated?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cummins, P. R.; Burbdige, D.

    2005-05-01

    The occurrence of the 26 December, 2004 Sumatra-Andaman earthquake and the accompanying "Boxing Day" Tsunami, which killed over 280,00, has been described as one of the most lethal natural disasters in human history. Many lives could have been saved had a tsunami warning system, similar to that which exists for the Pacific Ocean, been in operation for the Indian Ocean. The former exists because great subduction zone earthquakes have generated destructive, Pacific-wide tsunami in the Pacific Ocean with some frequency. Prior to 26 December, 2004, all of the world's earthquakes with magnitude > 9 were widely thought to have occurred in the Pacific Ocean, where they caused destructive tsunami. Could the occurrence of similar earthquakes and tsunami in the Indian Ocean been predicted prior to the 2004 Box Day Tragedy? This presentation will argue that the answer is "Yes". Almost without exception (the exception being the 1952 Kamchatka earthquake) the massive subduction zone earthquakes and tsunami of the Pacific Ocean have been associated with the subduction of relatively young ocean lithosphere (Boxing day event, the effects in the Bay of Bengal would not have been as severe. Thus, it seems to this author that the Boxing Day event could and should have been anticipated. This presentation will further consider why it was not, and what steps can be taken to anticipate and mitigate the effects of future events that may occur in the Indian Ocean and elsewhere.

  12. First studies in the 45 T hybrid magnet at the NHMFL-Tallahassee: the high-field phases of organic and Kondo systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, J. S.; Balicas, L.; Tokumoto, M.; Terashima, T.; Echizen, Y.; Takabatake, T.

    2001-01-01

    We have performed magnetoresistance measurements on an organic conductor, α-(BEDT-TTF) 2KHg(SCN) 4, and on a Kondo semiconductor, CeNiSn, at low temperatures and for fields up to 45 T in the hybrid magnet at the National High Magnetic Field Laboratory. We will discuss some new insight into a very controversial high-field phase of α-(BEDT-TTF) 2KHg(SCN) 4 gained from measurements of the anomalous temperature dependence of the quantum oscillations in the range 25-45 T. New information will also be presented on the temperature dependence of resistivity in the high-field state of CeNiSn, where questions of metallic versus semiconducting ground states arise. To acquaint researchers who anticipate using the facility in the near future, practical details concerning use of this new high-field resource are included.

  13. Exploring the limits of a very large Nb{sub 3}Sn conductor: the 80 kA conductor of the ITER toroidal field model coil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duchateau, J.L.; Ciazynski, D.; Guerber, O.; Park, S.H.; Zani, L. [Association Euratom-CEA Cadarache, 13 - Saint-Paul-lez-Durance (France). Dept. de Recherches sur la Fusion Controlee; Fietz, W.H.; Ulbricht, A.; Zahn, G. [Association Euratom-FZK Forschungszentrum, Karlsruhe (Germany)

    2003-07-01

    In Phase II experiment of the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) Toroidal Field Model Coil (TFMC) the operation limits of its 80 kA Nb{sub 3}Sn conductor were explored. To increase the magnetic field on the conductor, the TFMC was tested in presence of another large coil: the EURATOM-LCT coil. Under these conditions the maximum field reached on the conductor, was around 10 tesla. This exploration has been performed at constant current, by progressively increasing the coil temperature and monitoring the coil voltage drop in the current sharing regime. Such an operation was made possible thanks to the very high stability of the conductor. The aim of these tests was to compare the critical properties of the conductor with expectations and assess the ITER TF conductor design. These expectations are based on the documented critical field and temperature dependent properties of the 720 superconducting strands which compose the conductor. In addition the conductor properties are highly dependent on the strain, due to the compression appearing on Nb{sub 3}Sn during the heat treatment of the pancakes and related to the differential thermal compression between Nb{sub 3}Sn and the stainless steel jacket. No precise model exists to predict this strain, which is therefore the main information, which is expected from these tests. The method to deduce this strain from the different tests is presented, including a thermalhydraulic analysis to identify the temperature of the critical point and a careful estimation of the field map across the conductor. The measured strain has been estimated in the range -0.75% to -0.79 %. This information will be taken into account for ITER design and some adjustment of the ITER conductor design is under examination. (authors)

  14. Nanocrystalline Axially Bridged Iron Phthalocyanine Polymeric Conductor: (μ-Thiocyanato(phthalocyaninatoiron(III

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eiza Shimizu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Skewered Iron(III phthalocyanine conducting polymer can be constructed with the utilization of axial thiocyanato ligands ((μ-thiocyanato(phthalocyaninatoiron(III; (FeIII(Pc(SCNn thereby creating additional avenues for electron transport through a linear SCN bridge, apart from the intermolecular π-π orbital overlap between the Pc molecules. In this paper, we report on the conversion of bulk FeIII(Pc(SCNn polymeric organic conductor into crystalline nanostructures through horizontal vapor phase growth process. The needle-like nanostructures are deemed to provide more ordered and, thus, more π-π interactive interskewer FeIII(Pc(SCNn polymer orientation, resulting in a twofold increase of its electrical conductivity per materials density unit.

  15. Organizations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hatch, Mary Jo

    Most of us recognize that organizations are everywhere. You meet them on every street corner in the form of families and shops, study in them, work for them, buy from them, pay taxes to them. But have you given much thought to where they came from, what they are today, and what they might become...... and considers many more. Mary Jo Hatch introduces the concept of organizations by presenting definitions and ideas drawn from the a variety of subject areas including the physical sciences, economics, sociology, psychology, anthropology, literature, and the visual and performing arts. Drawing on examples from...... prehistory and everyday life, from the animal kingdom as well as from business, government, and other formal organizations, Hatch provides a lively and thought provoking introduction to the process of organization....

  16. A Boundary Element Solution to the Problem of Interacting AC Fields in Parallel Conductors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Einar M. Rønquist

    1984-04-01

    Full Text Available The ac fields in electrically insulated conductors will interact through the surrounding electromagnetic fields. The pertinent field equations reduce to the Helmholtz equation inside each conductor (interior problem, and to the Laplace equation outside the conductors (exterior problem. These equations are transformed to integral equations, with the magnetic vector potential and its normal derivative on the boundaries as unknowns. The integral equations are then approximated by sets of algebraic equations. The interior problem involves only unknowns on the boundary of each conductor, while the exterior problem couples unknowns from several conductors. The interior and the exterior problem are coupled through the field continuity conditions. The full set of equations is solved by standard Gaussian elimination. We also show how the total current and the dissipated power within each conductor can be expressed as boundary integrals. Finally, computational results for a sample problem are compared with a finite difference solution.

  17. Mathematical Physics Framework SustainingNatural Anticipation and Selection of Attention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfons Salden

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available An ambient intelligent environment is definitely a prerequisite for anticipating the needs and catching the attention of systems. But how to endow such an environment with natural anticipatory and attentive features is still a hardly ever properly addressed question. Before providing a roadmap towards such an ambient intelligent environment we first give cognitive-ergonomic accounts for how natural anticipation and selection of attention (NASA emerge in living organisms. In particular, we describe why, when and how exploratory and goal-directed acts by living organisms are controlled while optimizing their changing and limited structural and functional capabilities of multimodal sensor, cognitive and actuator systems. Next, we describe how NASA can be embedded and embodied in sustainable intelligent multimodal systems (SIMS. Such systems allow an ambient intelligent environment to (self- interact taking its contexts into account. In addition, collective intelligent agents (CIA distribute, store, extend, maintain, optimize, diversify and sustain the NASA embedded and embodied in the ambient intelligent environment. Finally, we present the basic ingredients of a mathematical-physical framework for empirically modeling and sustaining NASA within SIMS by CIA in an ambient intelligent environment. An environment which is modeled this way, robustly and reliably over time aligns multi-sensor detection and fusion; multimodal fusion, dialogue planning and fission; multi actuator fission, rendering and presentation schemes. NASA residing in such an environment are then active within every phase of perception-decision-action cycles, and are gauged and renormalized to its physics. After determining and assessing across several evolutionary dynamic scales appropriate fitness, utility and measures, NASA can be realized by reinforcement learning and self-organization.

  18. Conductor and joint test results of JT-60SA CS and EF coils using the NIFS test facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obana, Tetsuhiro; Takahata, Kazuya; Hamaguchi, Shinji; Kizu, Kaname; Murakami, Haruyuki; Chikaraishi, Hirotaka; Noguchi, Hiroki; Kobuchi, Takashi; Moriuchi, Sadatomo; Imagawa, Shinsaku; Mito, Toshiyuki; Tsuchiya, Katsuhiko; Natsume, Kyohei; Yoshida, Kiyoshi; Nomoto, Kazuhiro; Kim, Tae-hyun

    2016-01-01

    In 2007, JAEA and NIFS launched the test project to evaluate the performance of cable-in-conduit (CIC) conductors and conductor joints for the JT-60SA CS and EF coils. In this project, conductor tests for four types of coil conductor and joint tests for seven types of conductor joint have been conducted for the past eight years using the NIFS test facility. As a result, the test project indicated that the CIC conductors and conductor joints fulfill the design requirement for the CS and EF coils. In addition, the NIFS test facility is expected to be utilized as the test facility for the development of a conductor and conductor joint for the purpose of the DEMO nuclear fusion power plant, provided that the required magnetic field strength is within 9 T.

  19. Critical Current in YBCO Coated Conductors in the Presence of a Macroscopic Defect (POSTPRINT)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-01

    AFRL-RZ-WP-TP-2010-2084 CRITICAL CURRENT IN YBCO COATED CONDUCTORS IN THE PRESENCE OF A MACROSCOPIC DEFECT (POSTPRINT) Milan Polak and...CRITICAL CURRENT IN YBCO COATED CONDUCTORS IN THE PRESENCE OF A MACROSCOPIC DEFECT (POSTPRINT) 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER In-house 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c...display, or disclose the work. 14. ABSTRACT We have studied the effects of localized defects in the YBCO coated conductors on the critical current. The

  20. Scattering by a perfect electromagnetic conductor (PEMC) plate embedded in lossy medium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Saeed; Khalid Khan, Muhammad; Rehman, Atta Ur

    2016-07-01

    In this article, we develop an analytic theory for a perfect electromagnetic conductor (PEMC) plate embedded in lossy medium. The duality transformation introduced by Lindell and Sihvola is applied to study the electromagnetic wave scattering by a PEMC plate. Perfect electric conductor and perfect magnetic conductor are the limiting cases of PEMC media. Here, we study monoscattering by PEMC plate embedded in four different soil models. Numerical results are discussed and compared with the available literature.

  1. A comparison of graphene, superconductors and metals as conductors for metamaterials and plasmonics

    OpenAIRE

    Tassin, Philippe; Koschny, Thomas; Kafesaki, Maria; Soukoulis, Costas M.

    2012-01-01

    Recent advancements in metamaterials and plasmonics have promised a number of exciting applications, in particular at terahertz and optical frequencies. Unfortunately, the noble metals used in these photonic structures are not particularly good conductors at high frequencies, resulting in significant dissipative loss. Here, we address the question of what is a good conductor for metamaterials and plasmonics. For resonant metamaterials, we develop a figure-of-merit for conductors that allows f...

  2. Loss and Inductance Investigations in a 4-layer Superconducting Prototype Cable Conductor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tønnesen, Ole; Olsen, Søren Krüger; Kühle (fratrådt), Anders Van Der Aa;

    1999-01-01

    One important issue in the design and optimization of a superconducting cable conductor is the control of the current distribution between single tapes and layers. This presentation is based on a number of experiments performed on a 4-layer three meter long prototype superconducting cable conductor......-losses are measured as a function of transport current and a given current distribution and compared with the monoblock model. Recommendations for design of future cable conductor prototypes are given....

  3. 厚膜金导体浆料%Thick-Film Gold Conductor Pastes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李世鸿

    2001-01-01

    概括介绍了厚膜金导体浆料。通过改变金粉、粘结剂和有机载体等主要组份的类型和含量,可以制得多种金浆料。①粘结剂类型对厚膜金导体的性能有较大的影响。根据附着机理分类,厚膜金导体分为4种主要类型,即玻璃结合型、反应结合型、混合结合型和表面活化结合型。②金粉颗粒的均匀性、单分散性、表面形态及尺寸对浆料的印刷性能和烧结性能影响大。颗粒表面越光滑,对提高印刷性能越有利。光滑的表面吸附有机载体较少,可减少导体膜在烘干—烧结时的收缩率。③有机载体的含量和流变学性能影响金浆料的印刷性能及烘干—烧结时的收缩率。④金浆中添加起合金化作用的元素,可提高导体在铝丝键合体系及Pb-In焊接体系的热老化性能。⑤为适应新的厚膜工艺技术的需要,研制可光刻的厚膜金导体浆料和金的金属有机浆料[Au MOC]。%Thick-film gold conductor pastes are summarized in this paper.Many kinds of gold pastes are made by changing types and contents of main components such as gold powder,binder and organic vehicle.1.The types of binders deeply affect the characteristics of thick-film gold conductors.Depending on the adhesion mechanisms,thick-film gold conductors are classified into four main types:the fritted-bonded,the reactivity-bonded,the mixed-bonded and the surface activated-bonded systems.2.The homogeneity,monodisperesability,morphology and size of the gold powder particles greatly influence the paste printability and sintering properties.The smoother surface renders the pastes greater printability,and the lower vehicle absorption rate resulting from smooth surface can reduce shrinkage.3.The content and rheology of organic vehicle influence the paste printability and dried-fired shinkage.4.The addition of alloyed elements to gold pastes can improve the thermal-ageing performance in Al-wire bonding and

  4. A Complex Data Warehouse for Personalized, Anticipative Medicine

    CERN Document Server

    Darmont, Jérôme

    2008-01-01

    With the growing use of new technologies, healthcare is nowadays undergoing significant changes. Information-based medicine has to exploit medical decision-support systems and requires the analysis of various, heterogeneous data, such as patient records, medical images, biological analysis results, etc. In this paper, we present the design of the complex data warehouse relating to high-level athletes. It is original in two ways. First, it is aimed at storing complex medical data. Second, it is designed to allow innovative and quite different kinds of analyses to support: (1) personalized and anticipative medicine (in opposition to curative medicine) for well-identified patients; (2) broad-band statistical studies over a given population of patients. Furthermore, the system includes data relating to several medical fields. It is also designed to be evolutionary to take into account future advances in medical research.

  5. Anticipative Stochastic Differential Equations with Non-smooth Diffusion Coefficient

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zong Xia LIANG

    2006-01-01

    In this paper we prove the existence and uniqueness of the solutions to the one-dimensional linear stochastic differential equation with Skorohod integralXt(ω) = η(ω) + ∫t0 asXs(ω)dWs + bsXs(ω)ds, t ∈ [0, 1],where (Ws) is the canonical Wiener process defined on the standard Wiener space ((W), (H),μ), a is non-smooth and adapted, but η and b may be anticipating to the filtration generated by (Ws). The intention of the paper is to eliminate the regularity of the diffusion coefficient a in the Malliavin sense, in the existing literature. The idea is to approach the non-smooth diffusion coefficient a by smooth ones.

  6. Calculation of the surface effect in the ferromagnetic conductor with the harmonic electromagnetic field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nosov, G. V.; Kuleshova, E. O.; Vassilyeva, Yu Z.; Elizarov, A. I.

    2016-04-01

    The authors of the paper have obtained formulas for analytical calculation of the constants with the harmonic electromagnetic field, which characterize the surface layer (a skin layer) of the ferromagnetic conductors in case of heating and nonlinear magnetic properties, which can be used for practical calculation of the electromagnetic screens, rotors of the electrical machines and inductive heating installations. A nonlinear dependence of the magnetic induction on the magnetic tension of the ferromagnetic conductor is replaced by one or two linear sections. It is considered that the skin layer of the conductor has constant quantities of the specific conductivity and averaged temperature. Linear electrodynamics equations are solved for the conductive half-space. Parameters of the ferromagnetic conductor's surface layer are calculated: magnetic permeability, the thickness of the skin layer and its averaged temperature, exposure time of the electromagnetic field on the conductor with the established maximum temperature on the conductor's surface, pressure of the field on the conductor and its resistance, inductivity of the internal magnetic field in the conductor, the thermal energy capacity. The methods credibility is confirmed with the concurrence of the resistance and inductiviry of the ferromagnetic conductor with analogous quantities from other methods.

  7. Keeping an eye on the conductor: neural correlates of visuo-motor synchronization and musical experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ono, Kentaro; Nakamura, Akinori; Maess, Burkhard

    2015-01-01

    For orchestra musicians, synchronized playing under a conductor's direction is necessary to achieve optimal performance. Previous studies using simple auditory/visual stimuli have reported cortico-subcortical networks underlying synchronization and that training improves the accuracy of synchronization. However, it is unclear whether people who played regularly under a conductor and non-musicians activate the same networks when synchronizing with a conductor's gestures. We conducted a functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) experiment testing nonmusicians and musicians who regularly play music under a conductor. Participants were required to tap the rhythm they perceived from silent movies displaying either conductor's gestures or a swinging metronome. Musicians performed tapping under a conductor with more precision than nonmusicians. Results from fMRI measurement showed greater activity in the anterior part of the left superior frontal gyrus (SFG) in musicians with more frequent practice under a conductor. Conversely, tapping with the metronome did not show any difference between musicians and nonmusicians, indicating that the expertize effect in tapping under the conductor does not result in a general increase in tapping performance for musicians. These results suggest that orchestra musicians have developed an advanced ability to predict conductor's next action from the gestures.

  8. Study on galloping behavior of iced eight bundle conductor transmission lines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Linshu; Yan, Bo; Zhang, Liang; Zhou, Song

    2016-02-01

    Wind tunnel test was carried out to obtain the aerodynamic coefficients of an eight bundle conductor accreted with crescent-shaped ice. A user-defined cable element with torsional degree of freedom is developed in ABAQUS software to capture the torsional deformation of the iced conductors during galloping. By means of the user-defined cable element, different damping ratios in in-plane, out-of-plane and torsional directions of the conductors can be defined and the aerodynamic forces varying with their motion status can be exerted on the conductors conveniently when ABAQUS is used to simulate galloping of transmission lines. A wind tunnel test to model galloping of an iced eight bundle conductor segment was carried out, and the validity of the numerical simulation method is demonstrated by the agreement of the galloping orbit of the bundle conductor segment model recorded in the test and that by the numerical simulation. Furthermore, galloping behavior, including dynamic responses, galloping orbits, frequencies, vibration modes and amplitudes, of typical iced eight bundle conductor transmission lines in the cases of different span lengths, initial tensions in sub-conductors, wind velocities, angles of wind attack and damping ratios is studied, and the galloping behavior of the lines with internal resonance conditions is discussed. The obtained results may provide a fundamental tool for the development of anti-galloping techniques of eight bundle conductor transmission lines.

  9. 特殊导线的应用比较%Application Comparison of Special Conductor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姚洪林

    2012-01-01

    This article compares 500mm2 Section of ACCC,Gap type conductor and plain conductor suppose increase the capacity of the conductors. And Chose the suitable type of conductor based on the comparison.%本文假设导线达到倍容目的,针对截面是500mm2碳纤维导线、间隙型导线、普通导线进行比较,确定特殊导线的选择.

  10. Improving Students' Conceptual Understanding of Conductors and Insulators

    CERN Document Server

    Bilak, Joshua

    2016-01-01

    We examine the difficulties that introductory physics students, undergraduate physics majors, and physics graduate students have with concepts related to conductors and insulators covered in introductory physics by giving written tests and interviewing a subset of students. We find that even graduate students have serious difficulties with these concepts. We develop tutorials related to these topics and evaluate their effectiveness by comparing the performance on written pre-/post-tests and interviews of students who received traditional instruction vs. those who learned using tutorials.

  11. Anticipation - the underlying science of sport. Report on research in progress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nadin, Mihai

    2015-05-01

    Professional sport practitioners intuitively acknowledge anticipation. Sports researchers sometimes discuss it. Still, there is little data-based evidence to characterize the role anticipation plays in human performance. Even less documented is the distinction between reaction and anticipation. This text presents the real-time quantification environment developed as an AnticipationScope™. Based on a very large data harvest from this experimental set-up, hypotheses regarding the role of anticipation in sport are advanced. The conclusion is that while preparation and reaction play an important role in sports performance, in the final analysis anticipation distinguishes the professional from other sport practitioners. Work in progress is presented with the aim of engaging the community of researchers in the design of alternative methods for quantifying anticipation and for processing the data. Generalization from sport to human performance is one of the intended outcomes of this research.

  12. ATLAS SemiConductor Tracker Operation and Performance

    CERN Document Server

    Tojo, J; The ATLAS collaboration

    2011-01-01

    The SemiConductor Tracker (SCT), comprising of silicon micro-strip detectors is one of the key precision tracking devices in the ATLAS Inner Detector. ATLAS is one of the experiments at CERN LHC. The completed SCT is in very good shapes with 99.3% of the SCT’s 4088 modules (a total of 6.3 million strips) are operational. The noise occupancy and hit efficiency exceed the design specifications. In the talk the current status of the SCT will be reviewed. We will report on the operation of the detector, its performance and observed problems, with stress on the sensor and electronics performance. In December 2009 the ATLAS experiment at the CERN Large Hadron Collider (LHC) recorded the first proton-proton collisions at a centre-of-mass energy of 900 GeV and this was followed by the unprecedented energy of 7 TeV in March 2010. The Semi- Conductor Tracker (SCT) is the key precision tracking device in ATLAS, made from silicon micro-strip detectors processed in the planar p-in-n technology. The signals from the stri...

  13. Amorphous carbon interlayers for gold on elastomer stretchable conductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manzoor, M. U.; Tuinea-Bobe, C. L.; McKavanagh, F.; Byrne, C. P.; Dixon, D.; Maguire, P. D.; Lemoine, P.

    2011-06-01

    Gold on polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) stretchable conductors were prepared using a novel approach by interlacing an hydrogenated amorphous carbon (a-C : H) layer between the deposited metal layer and the elastomer. AFM analysis of the a-C : H film surface before gold deposition shows nanoscale buckling, the corresponding increase in specific surface area corresponds to a strain compensation for the first 4-6% of bi-axial tensile loading. Without this interlayer, the deposited gold films show much smaller and uni-directional ripples as well as more cracks and delaminations. With a-C : H interlayer, the initial electrical resistivity of the metal film decreases markedly (280-fold decrease to 8 × 10-6 Ω cm). This is not due to conduction within the carbon interlayer; both a-C : H/PDMS and PDMS substrates are electrically insulating. Upon cyclic tensile loading, both films become more resistive, but return to their initial state after 20 tensile cycles up to 60% strain. Profiling experiments using secondary ion mass spectroscopy and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy indicate that the a-C : H layer intermixes with the PDMS, resulting in a graded layer of decreasing stiffness. We believe that both this graded layer and the surface buckling contribute to the observed improvement in the electrical performance of these stretchable conductors.

  14. Li mobility in fast ion conductors followed by NMR spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanz, J.

    2010-07-01

    Structural features that enhance Li mobility in fast ion conductors with perovskite (Li{sub 3}xLa{sub 2}/3-xTiO{sub 3} series) and Nasicon structure (Li{sub 1}+xTi{sub 2}-xAl{sub x} (PO{sub 4}){sub 3} series) have been investigated. From the analysis of quadrupolar interactions, the local symmetry and exchange processes between structural sites occupied by lithium have been deduced to investigate local motions of lithium in conduction paths of analyzed compounds. The study of spin-lattice (T{sub 1}) and spin-spin (T{sub 2}) relaxation times made possible the analysis of the temperature dependence of Li residence times at structural sites. The comparison of these values with those deduced from conductivity (ac and dc-measurements) allowed the study of Li-motion mechanisms. The onset of long range motions requires the analysis of low frequency measurements (T{sub 2} relaxation and dc-conductivity). The non- Arrhenius behaviour, often observed in fast ion conductors, has been ascribed to order/disorder transitions. At increasing temperatures, Li motions become less correlated, producing the decrement of activation energy. In analyzed compounds, a direct measurement of diffusion coefficients has been obtained from NMR experiments performed with the pulse field gradient (PFG) technique. Finally, it is emphasized the importance of the vacancy percolation in conductivity processes. (Author)

  15. The Optical Links of the ATLAS SemiConductor Tracker

    CERN Document Server

    Abdesselam, A; Apsimon, R; Band, C; Barr, C; Batchelor, L; Bates, R; Bell, P; Bernabeu, J; Bizzell, J; Brenner, R; Brodbeck, T; Bruckman De Renstrom, P; Buttar, C; Carter, J; Charlton, D; Cheplakov, A; Chilingarov, A; Chu, M-L; Colijn, A-P; Dawson, I; Demirkõz, B; de Jong, P; Dervan, P; Dolezal, Z; Dowell, J; Escobar, P; Spencer, E; Ekelöf, T J C; Eklund, L; Ferrere, D; Fraser, T; French, M; French, R; Fuster, J; Gallop, B; García, C; Goodrick, M; Greenall, A; Grillo, A; Grosse-Knetter, J; Hartjes, F; Hessey, N; Hill, J C; Homer, J; Hou, L; Hughes, G; Ikegami, Y; Issever, C; Jackson, J; Jones, M; Jones, T J; Jovanovic, P; Koffeman, E; Kodys, P; Kohriki, T; Lee, S-C; Lester, C; Limper, M; Lindsay, S W; Lozano, M; Macwaters, C; Magrath, C; Mahout, G; Mandic, I; Matheson, J; McMahon, T; Mikulec, B; Muijs, A; Morrissey, M; Nichols, A; Nickerson, R; O'Shea, V; Pagenis, S; Parker, M; Pater, J; Perrin, E; Pernegger, H; Peeters, S; Phillips, P; Postranecky, M; Robinson, D; Robson, A; Rudge, A; Sandaker, H; Sedlak, K; Smith, N A; Stapnes, S; Stugu, B; Teng, P K; Terada, S; Tricoli, A; Tyndel, M; Ujiie, N; Ullán, M; Unno, Y; van der Kraaij, E; Van Vulpen, I; Viehhauser, G; Vossebeld, J H; Warren, M; Wastie, R; Weidberg, A; Wells, P; White, D; Wilson, J

    2007-01-01

    Optical links are used for the readout of the 4088 silicon microstrip modules that make up the SemiConductor Tracker of the ATLAS experiment at the CERN Large Hadron Collider (LHC). The optical link requirements are reviewed, with particular emphasis on the very demanding environment at the LHC. The on-detector components have to operate in high radiation levels for 10 years, with no maintenance, and there are very strict requirements on power consumption, material and space. A novel concept for the packaging of the on-detector optoelectronics has been developed to meet these requirements. The system architecture, including its redundancy features, is explained and the critical on-detector components are described. The results of the extensive Quality Assurance performed during all steps of the assembly are discussed. Optical links are used for the readout of the 4088 silicon microstrip modules that make up the SemiConductor Tracker of the ATLAS experiment at the CERN Large Hadron Collider (LHC). The optical ...

  16. Mutual capacitance of liquid conductors in deformable tactile sensing arrays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Bin [Electrical and Computer Engineering Department, Drexel University, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19104 (United States); Fontecchio, Adam K. [Electrical and Computer Engineering and Materials Science and Engineering Departments, Drexel University, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19104 (United States); Visell, Yon [Electrical and Computer Engineering Department, Media Arts and Technology, California NanoSystems Institute, University of California, Santa Barbara, California 93106 (United States)

    2016-01-04

    Advances in highly deformable electronics are needed in order to enable emerging categories of soft computing devices ranging from wearable electronics, to medical devices, and soft robotic components. The combination of highly elastic substrates with intrinsically stretchable conductors holds the promise of enabling electronic sensors that can conform to curved objects, reconfigurable displays, or soft biological tissues, including the skin. Here, we contribute sensing principles for tactile (mechanical image) sensors based on very low modulus polymer substrates with embedded liquid metal microfluidic arrays. The sensors are fabricated using a single-step casting method that utilizes fine nylon filaments to produce arrays of cylindrical channels on two layers. The liquid metal (gallium indium alloy) conductors that fill these channels readily adopt the shape of the embedding membrane, yielding levels of deformability greater than 400%, due to the use of soft polymer substrates. We modeled the sensor performance using electrostatic theory and continuum mechanics, yielding excellent agreement with experiments. Using a matrix-addressed capacitance measurement technique, we are able to resolve strain distributions with millimeter resolution over areas of several square centimeters.

  17. A Na+ Superionic Conductor for Room-Temperature Sodium Batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Shufeng; Duong, Hai M.; Korsunsky, Alexander M.; Hu, Ning; Lu, Li

    2016-01-01

    Rechargeable lithium ion batteries have ruled the consumer electronics market for the past 20 years and have great significance in the growing number of electric vehicles and stationary energy storage applications. However, in addition to concerns about electrochemical performance, the limited availability of lithium is gradually becoming an important issue for further continued use and development of lithium ion batteries. Therefore, a significant shift in attention has been taking place towards new types of rechargeable batteries such as sodium-based systems that have low cost. Another important aspect of sodium battery is its potential compatibility with the all-solid-state design where solid electrolyte is used to replace liquid one, leading to simple battery design, long life span, and excellent safety. The key to the success of all-solid-state battery design is the challenge of finding solid electrolytes possessing acceptable high ionic conductivities at room temperature. Herein, we report a novel sodium superionic conductor with NASICON structure, Na3.1Zr1.95Mg0.05Si2PO12 that shows high room-temperature ionic conductivity of 3.5 × 10−3 S cm−1. We also report successful fabrication of a room-temperature solid-state Na-S cell using this conductor. PMID:27572915

  18. Broadband dielectric spectroscopy of inhomogeneous and composite weak conductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petzelt, J.; Nuzhnyy, D.

    2016-08-01

    In this paper, we discuss broadband dielectric spectroscopy from mHz up to the infrared range mainly for materials with inhomogeneous weak conductivity, including conductor-dielectric nanocomposites. Our discussion is based on the effective medium approximation (EMA) and experiments modeled by this approach are reviewed. We discuss core-shell composites modeled by coated-spheres (Hashin-Shtrikman model) and normal composites with a possible percolation of the conductor component resulting in sharp or smeared percolation threshold of the DC conductivity and diverging static permittivity in the former case. The sharp percolation threshold is modeled by the Bruggeman EMA or by general EMA with arbitrary percolation threshold and arbitrary critical exponents of the DC conductivity and static permittivity. For the case of smeared percolation threshold in the case of complex topologies, we use the Lichtenecker model allowing for partial percolation of both the components. Finally, numerous papers reporting negative permittivity in weakly conducting materials are criticized and concluded to be due to spurious effects.

  19. A Na+ Superionic Conductor for Room-Temperature Sodium Batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Shufeng; Duong, Hai M.; Korsunsky, Alexander M.; Hu, Ning; Lu, Li

    2016-08-01

    Rechargeable lithium ion batteries have ruled the consumer electronics market for the past 20 years and have great significance in the growing number of electric vehicles and stationary energy storage applications. However, in addition to concerns about electrochemical performance, the limited availability of lithium is gradually becoming an important issue for further continued use and development of lithium ion batteries. Therefore, a significant shift in attention has been taking place towards new types of rechargeable batteries such as sodium-based systems that have low cost. Another important aspect of sodium battery is its potential compatibility with the all-solid-state design where solid electrolyte is used to replace liquid one, leading to simple battery design, long life span, and excellent safety. The key to the success of all-solid-state battery design is the challenge of finding solid electrolytes possessing acceptable high ionic conductivities at room temperature. Herein, we report a novel sodium superionic conductor with NASICON structure, Na3.1Zr1.95Mg0.05Si2PO12 that shows high room-temperature ionic conductivity of 3.5 × 10‑3 S cm‑1. We also report successful fabrication of a room-temperature solid-state Na-S cell using this conductor.

  20. IBAD-MgO technology for coated conductors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jo, William [Dept. of Physics, Ewha Womans University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-09-15

    Ion-beam assisted deposition (IBAD) technology has been successfully applied to high-temperature superconductor coated conductors (CC) as textured substrates. Since the coated conductors were proposed as a potential framework for utilizing the superior transport characteristics of YBa2Cu3O7 and related cuprate oxides, several methods including rolling-assisted bi-axial textured substrates (RABiTS) and inclined substrate deposition (ISD), as well as IBAD, have been attempted. As of 2016, most companies that are trying to commercialize CC adapt IBAD technology except for American Superconductors who use RABiTS predominantly. For the materials in the IBAD process, initial efforts to use yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) or related fluorites in Fujikura in Japan have quickly given way to MgO which technique was developed by Stanford University in the USA. In this review, we present a historical overview of IBAD technology, in particular, for the application of CC. We describe the key scientific understanding of nucleation, the texturing mechanism, and the growth of large bi-axial grains and discuss some potential new IBAD materials and systems for large-scale production.

  1. Development of Jacketing Technologies for Iter CS and TF Conductor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamada, K.; Nakajima, H.; Matsui, K.; Kawano, K.; Takano, K.; Tsutsumi, F.; Okuno, K.; Teshima, O.; Soejima, K.

    2008-03-01

    The Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA) has developed jacketing technologies for ITER Toroidal Field (TF) and Central Solenoid (CS) conductor. Full scale TF and CS conduits were fabricated using carbon-reduced SUS316LN and boron-added (˜40 ppm) high manganese stainless steel (0.025C -22Mn -13Cr -9Ni -0.12N: JK2LB), respectively. Welding condition was optimized so that back bead does not interfere a cable insertion. The weld joint samples were compacted by a compaction machine that was newly constructed and tested at 4.2 K. Mechanical characteristics at 4K of CS, TF conduits and CS welded joint satisfied ITER mechanical requirements. TF welded joint shows slightly lower value of 0.2% yield strength (885 MPa) than that of ITER requirement (900 MPa). The TF conduit contains nitrogen content of 0.14%, which is minimum value in ITER specification. The lower nitrogen content may be caused by the release of nitrogen from molten metal during non-filler welding resulting in a 4 K strength decrease. To satisfy the ITER requirements, minimum nitrogen contents of conduit should be increased from 0.14% to 0.15% at least. Therefore, JAEA successfully developed TF and CS conduits with welding technologies and finalized the procurement specification for ITER conductor jacketing.

  2. Solution-solid-solid mechanism: superionic conductors catalyze nanowire growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Junli; Chen, Kangmin; Gong, Ming; Xu, Bin; Yang, Qing

    2013-09-11

    The catalytic mechanism offers an efficient tool to produce crystalline semiconductor nanowires, in which the choice, state, and structure of catalysts are active research issues of much interest. Here we report a novel solution-solid-solid (SSS) mechanism for nanowire growth catalyzed by solid-phase superionic conductor nanocrystals in low-temperature solution. The preparation of Ag2Se-catalyzed ZnSe nanowires at 100-210 °C is exampled to elucidate the SSS model, which can be extendable to grow other II-VI semiconductor (e.g., CdSe, ZnS, and CdS) nanowires by the catalysis of nanoscale superionic-phase silver or copper(I) chalcogenides (Ag2Se, Ag2S, and Cu2S). The exceptional catalytic ability of these superionic conductors originates from their structure characteristics, known for high-density vacancies and fast mobility of silver or copper(I) cations in the rigid sublattice of Se(2-) or S(2-) ions. Insights into the SSS mechanism are provided based on the formation of solid solution and the solid-state ion diffusion/transport at solid-solid interface between catalyst and nanowire.

  3. Nb3Sn Conductor Development and Characterization for NED

    CERN Document Server

    Boutboul, T; Devred, A; Fabbricatore, P; Greco, M; Leroy, D; Oberli, L; Pedrini, D; Volpini, G

    2008-01-01

    The main purpose of Next European Dipole (NED) project is to design and to build an Nb3Sn ~ 15 T dipole magnet. Due to budget constraints, NED is mainly focused on superconducting cable development and production. In this work, an update is given on the NED conductor development by Alstom-MSA and SMI, which uses, respectively, Internal-Tin-Diffusion and Powder-In-Tube methods, with the aim of reaching a non-copper critical current density of ~ 3000 A/mm2 at 12 T and 4.2 K. Characterization results, including critical current and magnetization data, are presented and discussed, as well, for conductors already developed by both companies for this project. SMI succeeded to produce a strand with 50 µm diameter filaments and with a critical current of ~ 1400 A at 4.2 K and 12 T, corresponding to a non-copper critical current density of ~ 2500 A/mm2. Cabling trials with this strand were successfully carried out at LBNL.

  4. Quenched microemulsions: a new route to proton conductors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noirjean, Cecile; Testard, Fabienne; Jestin, Jacques; Taché, Olivier; Dejugnat, Christophe; Carriere, David

    2014-08-28

    Solid-state proton conductors operating under mild temperature conditions (T < 150 °C) would promote the use of electrochemical devices as fuel cells. Alternatives to the water-sensitive membranes made of perfluorinated sulfonated polymers require the use of protogenic moieties bearing phosphates/phosphonates or imidazole groups. Here, we formulate microemulsions using water, a cationic surfactant (cetyltrimethyl ammonium bromide, CTAB) and a fatty acid (myristic acid, MA). The fatty acid acts both as an oil phase above its melting point (52 °C) and as a protogenic moiety. We demonstrate that the mixed MA-CTA film presents significant proton conductivity. Furthermore, bicontinuous microemulsions are found in the water-CTAB-MA phase diagram above 52 °C, where molten MA plays both the role of the oil phase and the co-surfactant. This indicates that the hydrogen-bond rich MA-CTA film can be formulated in the molten phase. The microemulsion converts into a lamellar phase upon solidification at room temperature. Our results demonstrate the potential of such self-assembled materials for the design of bulk proton conductors, but also highlight the necessity to control the evolution of the nanostructure upon solidification of the oil phase.

  5. Blunted cardiovascular reactivity in dysphoria during reward and punishment anticipation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franzen, Jessica; Brinkmann, Kerstin

    2015-03-01

    Hyposensitivity to reward in depression and dysphoria has been found in behavioral and neuroimaging studies. For punishment responsiveness, some studies showed hyposensitivity to punishment while other studies demonstrated hypersensitivity. Only few studies have addressed the motivational question as to whether depressed individuals mobilize less effort in anticipation of a positive or a negative consequence. The present study aimed at investigating reward and punishment responsiveness in subclinical depression from an effort mobilization perspective. Working on a recognition memory task, one third of the participants could earn small amounts of money, one third could lose small amounts of money, and one third could neither earn nor lose money. Effort mobilization was operationalized as participants' cardiovascular reactivity during task performance. As expected, reactivity of cardiac pre-ejection period and heart rate was higher in both incentive conditions compared to the neutral condition for nondysphorics, while it was blunted across conditions for dysphorics. Moreover, the present study found that dysphorics show an altered behavioral response to punishment. These findings thus show that dysphorics present a reduced motivation to obtain a reward or to avoid a punishment in terms of reduced effort-related cardiac reactivity.

  6. Current and anticipated uses of thermal hydraulic codes in Korea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Kyung-Doo; Chang, Won-Pyo [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1997-07-01

    In Korea, the current uses of thermal hydraulic codes are categorized into 3 areas. The first application is in designing both nuclear fuel and NSSS. The codes have usually been introduced based on the technology transfer programs agreed between KAERI and the foreign vendors. Another area is in the supporting of the plant operations and licensing by the utility. The third category is research purposes. In this area assessments and some applications to the safety issue resolutions are major activities using the best estimate thermal hydraulic codes such as RELAP5/MOD3 and CATHARE2. Recently KEPCO plans to couple thermal hydraulic codes with a neutronics code for the design of the evolutionary type reactor by 2004. KAERI also plans to develop its own best estimate thermal hydraulic code, however, application range is different from KEPCO developing code. Considering these activities, it is anticipated that use of the best estimate hydraulic analysis code developed in Korea may be possible in the area of safety evaluation within 10 years.

  7. A Bayesian belief network of threat anticipation and terrorist motivations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olama, Mohammed M.; Allgood, Glenn O.; Davenport, Kristen M.; Schryver, Jack C.

    2010-04-01

    Recent events highlight the need for efficient tools for anticipating the threat posed by terrorists, whether individual or groups. Antiterrorism includes fostering awareness of potential threats, deterring aggressors, developing security measures, planning for future events, halting an event in process, and ultimately mitigating and managing the consequences of an event. To analyze such components, one must understand various aspects of threat elements like physical assets and their economic and social impacts. To this aim, we developed a three-layer Bayesian belief network (BBN) model that takes into consideration the relative threat of an attack against a particular asset (physical layer) as well as the individual psychology and motivations that would induce a person to either act alone or join a terrorist group and commit terrorist acts (social and economic layers). After researching the many possible motivations to become a terrorist, the main factors are compiled and sorted into categories such as initial and personal indicators, exclusion factors, and predictive behaviors. Assessing such threats requires combining information from disparate data sources most of which involve uncertainties. BBN combines these data in a coherent, analytically defensible, and understandable manner. The developed BBN model takes into consideration the likelihood and consequence of a threat in order to draw inferences about the risk of a terrorist attack so that mitigation efforts can be optimally deployed. The model is constructed using a network engineering process that treats the probability distributions of all the BBN nodes within the broader context of the system development process.

  8. Isolating neural correlates of the pacemaker for food anticipation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ian David Blum

    Full Text Available Mice fed a single daily meal at intervals within the circadian range exhibit food anticipatory activity. Previous investigations strongly suggest that this behaviour is regulated by a circadian pacemaker entrained to the timing of fasting/refeeding. The neural correlate(s of this pacemaker, the food entrainable oscillator (FEO, whether found in a neural network or a single locus, remain unknown. This study used a canonical property of circadian pacemakers, the ability to continue oscillating after removal of the entraining stimulus, to isolate activation within the neural correlates of food entrainable oscillator from all other mechanisms driving food anticipatory activity. It was hypothesized that continued anticipatory activation of central nuclei, after restricted feeding and a return to ad libitum feeding, would elucidate a neural representation of the signaling circuits responsible for the timekeeping component of the food entrainable oscillator. Animals were entrained to a temporally constrained meal then placed back on ad libitum feeding for several days until food anticipatory activity was abolished. Activation of nuclei throughout the brain was quantified using stereological analysis of c-FOS expressing cells and compared against both ad libitum fed and food entrained controls. Several hypothalamic and brainstem nuclei remained activated at the previous time of food anticipation, implicating them in the timekeeping mechanism necessary to track previous meal presentation. This study also provides a proof of concept for an experimental paradigm useful to further investigate the anatomical and molecular substrates of the FEO.

  9. A Bayesian Belief Network of Threat Anticipation and Terrorist Motivations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olama, Mohammed M [ORNL; Allgood, Glenn O [ORNL; Davenport, Kristen M [ORNL; Schryver, Jack C [ORNL

    2010-01-01

    Recent events highlight the need for efficient tools for anticipating the threat posed by terrorists, whether individual or groups. Antiterrorism includes fostering awareness of potential threats, deterring aggressors, developing security measures, planning for future events, halting an event in process, and ultimately mitigating and managing the consequences of an event. To analyze such components, one must understand various aspects of threat elements like physical assets and their economic and social impacts. To this aim, we developed a three-layer Bayesian belief network (BBN) model that takes into consideration the relative threat of an attack against a particular asset (physical layer) as well as the individual psychology and motivations that would induce a person to either act alone or join a terrorist group and commit terrorist acts (social and economic layers). After researching the many possible motivations to become a terrorist, the main factors are compiled and sorted into categories such as initial and personal indicators, exclusion factors, and predictive behaviors. Assessing such threats requires combining information from disparate data sources most of which involve uncertainties. BBN combines these data in a coherent, analytically defensible, and understandable manner. The developed BBN model takes into consideration the likelihood and consequence of a threat in order to draw inferences about the risk of a terrorist attack so that mitigation efforts can be optimally deployed. The model is constructed using a network engineering process that treats the probability distributions of all the BBN nodes within the broader context of the system development process.

  10. Early effects of reward anticipation are modulated by dopaminergic stimulation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thore Apitz

    Full Text Available The abilities to predict future rewards and assess the value of reward delivery are crucial aspects of adaptive behavior. While the mesolimbic system, including dopaminergic midbrain, ventral striatum and prefrontal cortex have long been associated with reward processing, recent studies also indicate a prominent role of early visual brain regions. However, the precise underlying neural mechanisms still remain unclear. To address this issue, we presented participants with visual cues predicting rewards of high and low magnitudes and probability (2 × 2 factorial design, while neural activity was scanned using magnetoencephalography. Importantly, one group of participants received 150 mg of the dopamine precursor levodopa prior to the experiment, while another group received a placebo. For the placebo group, neural signals of reward probability (but not magnitude emerged at ∼ 100 ms after cue presentation at occipital sensors in the event-related magnetic fields. Importantly, these probability signals were absent in the levodopa group indicating a close link. Moreover, levodopa administration reduced oscillatory power in the high (20-30 Hz and low (13-20 Hz beta band during both reward anticipation and delivery. Taken together, our findings indicate that visual brain regions are involved in coding prospective reward probability but not magnitude and that these effects are modulated by dopamine.

  11. [Circadian regulation of sleep-wake cycles and food anticipation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Wataru

    2012-06-01

    The circadian clock is crucial for efficient physiological function and drives the temporal regulation of the sleep-wake state, metabolism, and behavior. The timing of food intake and the accompanying behavior are both controlled by the internal clock, which is located in the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) of the anterior hypothalamus. The SCN is considered as the master clock because the circadian rhythms for most physiological and behavioral processes are terminated after SCN ablation. The molecular framework of circadian oscillations can be best studied in the SCN. A "core" set of circadian clock genes form autoregulatory transcription-translation feedback loops that are believed to drive daily rhythms in individual cells. These clock genes are expressed in a circadian manner not only in the SCN but also in other parts of the brain and many peripheral tissues. Mammals can anticipate a predictable daily mealtime through entrainment of circadian oscillators. Because the restriction of food availability to a specific time of the day elicits anticipatory behavior even after ablation of the SCN, such behaviour is assumed to be controlled by another circadian oscillator. In this paper, we have (1) reviewed studies involving the identification of the circadian clock and (2) aimed to elucidate the complex mechanism underlying feeding-associated rhythms by achieving a deep understanding of the circadian phenotypes of the SCN.

  12. Theoretical Investigation on Skin Effect Factor of Conductor in Power Cables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Hiroshi; Kanaoka, Mamoru

    This paper describes a newly-derived theoretical equation on the skin effect factor of power cables, and its application to large-size OF and XLPE cables with segmental conductors, including insulated wires. The skin effect factors calculated with the new equation were fit very well to measurements in wide range conductor sizes. In the new equation, the important factor which characterizes the skin effect of segmental conductors is the `equivalent conductivity ratio' ν defined by the ratio of longitudinal conductivity in axial direction of conductor to conductivity of conductor wires. Since the obtained ratio ν in XLPE cable was three times greater than that in OF cable, the larger longitudinal eddy current passing from a wire to another increased the eddy current loss in conductor, which increased the conductor loss of XLPE cable. The new equation enables us to investigate quantitatively the dominant loss component affecting the skin effect factor. Then, the skin effect factors and coefficients for OF and XLPE cables were investigated with the new equation. It was revealed that the best number of separation, in which the skin effect became minimum, existed in OF and XLPE cables with segmental conductors. In addition, it was confirmed that the skin effect coefficients ks1 calculated with the new equation were consistent well with those used in JCS.

  13. Current Density Distribution on the Perimeter of Waveguide Exciter Cylindrical Vibrator Conductor

    OpenAIRE

    Zakharia, Yosyp

    2010-01-01

    On ground of electrodynamic analysis the surface current distribution nonuniformity on the perimeter of waveguide-exciter cylindrical conductor is found. Considerable influence of current distribution nonuniformity on exciter input reactance is established. It is also showed, that the current distribution on the vibrator perimeter, for conductor radius no greater then 0,07 of waveguide cross section breadth, approximately uniform is.

  14. Modelling and simulation of the ice melting process on a current-carrying conductor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peter, Z.

    2006-07-01

    Mathematical models were developed to determine the current and energy requirements for thermal de-icing and ice prevention on overhead power transmission lines. The models were based on the Joule effect under various meteorological and current transmission conditions. The minimum current intensity required to inhibit ice formation on a single power line conductor was determined. Correction factors were then introduced for 3 specific aluminum conductors with steel reinforcement (ACSRs). Water runback on the conductor surface was considered as well as deviation of the water layer from the thermal equilibrium state. Model results were in good agreement with measurements taken in an icing research wind tunnel. The overall heat transfer coefficient (HTC) for stranded conductors was then assessed to complete the model. A computational model using finite differences was also developed to calculate the current and energy requirements for de-icing partially ice covered conductors. Joule heating by AC current and impulse current were the 2 heating techniques analyzed. Thermal conductivity of the ACSR conductor was also estimated. Experimentally validated analytical approaches were proposed to determine the shedding time and corresponding energy required to de-ice a completely ice covered conductor by heating with increased nominal AC current. It was concluded that ice accretion on a single power line can be prevented using the experimentally validated mathematical models that calculate the current and energy requirements of de-icing conductors.

  15. Measuring ac-loss in high temperature superconducting cable-conductors using four probe methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kühle (fratrådt), Anders Van Der Aa; Træholt, Chresten; Olsen, Søren Krüger;

    1999-01-01

    Measuring the ac-loss of superconducting cable conductors have many aspects in common with measuring the ac-loss of single superconducting tapes. In a cable conductor all tapes are connected to each other and to the test circuit through normal metal joints in each end. This makes such measurement...

  16. Testing of flat conductor cable to Underwriters Laboratory standards UL719 and UL83

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loggins, R. W.; Herndon, R. H.

    1974-01-01

    The flat conductor cable (FCC) which was tested consisted of three AWG No. 12 flat copper conductors laminated between two films of polyethylene terephthalate (Mylar) insulation with a self-extinguishing polyester adhesive. Results of the tests conducted on this cable, according to specifications, warrants the use of this FCC for electrical interconnections in a surface nonmetallic protective covering.

  17. Effective Installations Technique of Grounding Conductors for Metal Oxide Surge Arresters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, B.H.; Kang, S.M. [Inha University, Inchon (Korea); Ryu, I.S. [Korea Electric Power Corporation, Seoul (Korea)

    2002-06-01

    This paper deals with the effects of grounding conductors for metal oxide surge arresters. When surge arresters are improperly installed, the results can cause costly damage of electrical equipments. In particular, the route of surge arrester connection is very important because bends and links of leads increase the impedances to lightning surges and tend to nullify the effectiveness of a grounding conductor. Therefore, there is a need to know how effective installation of lightning surge arresters is made in order to control voltage and to absorb energy at high lightning currents. The effectiveness of a grounding conductor and 18 [kV] metal oxide distribution line arresters was experimentally investigated under the lightning and oscillatory impulse voltages. Thus, the results are as follows; (1) The induced voltage of a grounding conductor is drastically not affected by length of a connecting line, but it is very sensitive to types of grounding conductor. (2) The coaxial cable having a low characteristic impedance is suitable as a grounding conductor. (3) It is also clear from these results that bonding the metal raceway enclosing the grounding conductor to the grounding electrode is very effective because of skin effect. (4) The induced voltages of grounding conductors for the oscillatory impulse voltages are approximately twice as large as those for the lightning impulse voltages. (author). 9 refs., 12 figs., 2 tabs.

  18. Thin magnetic conductor substrate for placement-immune, electrically-small antennas.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eubanks, Travis Wayne; McDonald, Jacob J.; Loui, Hung

    2011-09-01

    An antenna is considered to be placement-immune when the antenna operates effectively regardless of where it is placed. By building antennas on magnetic conductor materials, the radiated fields will be positively reinforced in the desired radiation direction instead of being negatively affected by the environment. Although this idea has been discussed thoroughly in theoretical research, the difficulty in building thin magnetic conductor materials necessary for in-phase field reflections prevents this technology from becoming more widespread. This project's purpose is to build and measure an electrically-small antenna on a new type of non-metallic, thin magnetic conductor. This problem has not been previously addressed because non-metallic, thin magnetic conductor materials have not yet been discovered. This work proposed the creation of an artificial magnetic conductor (AMC) with in-phase field reflections without using internal electric conductors, the placement of an electrically-small antenna on this magnetic conductor, and the development of a transmit-receive system that utilizes the substrate and electrically-small antenna. By not using internal electric conductors to create the AMC, the substrate thickness can be minimized. The electrically-small antenna will demonstrate the substrate's ability to make an antenna placement immune, and the transmit-receive system combines both the antenna and the substrate while adding a third layer of system complexity to demonstrate the complete idea.

  19. Regulating emotion in the context of interpersonal decisions: The role of anticipated pride and regret

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Job eVan Der Schalk

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Recent theories about the relation between emotion and behavior hold that social behavior is influenced not only by the experience of emotion, but also by the anticipation of emotion. We argue that anticipating future emotional states is an emotion regulation strategy when it leads to a change in behavior. In the current studies we examined how construal of a fair or an unfair situation in terms of positive or negative anticipated emotions influences the fairness of subsequent behavior. We used the Ultimatum Bargaining Game--an experimental game in which participants divide a resource between themselves and another person--as a social situation that offers the opportunity to engage in fair and unfair behavior. In Study 1 we used an autobiographical recall task to manipulate anticipated emotions. Although the task did not influence anticipated emotions directly, results showed that anticipated pride about fair behavior increased levels of fairness, whereas anticipated pride about unfair behavior decreased levels of fairness. Similarly, anticipated regret about fair behavior decreased levels of fairness, whereas anticipated regret about unfair behavior increased levels of fairness. In Study 2 we replicated this pattern of findings, and found that participants who thought about their anticipated emotions (pride or regret in relation to unfair behavior behaved more fairly. We discuss these findings in relation to theories of emotion regulation and economic decision-making.

  20. Mixed valency of Cu, electron-mass enhancement, and three-dimensional arrangement of magnetic sites in the organic conductors (R1,R2-N,N'-dicyanoquinonediimine)2Cu (where R1,R2=CH3,CH3O,Cl,Br)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, H.; Miyamoto, A.; Kato, R.; Sakai, F.; Kobayashi, A.; Yamakita, Y.; Furukawa, Y.; Tasumi, M.; Watanabe, T.

    1993-02-01

    The unique molecular conductors with pπ-d mixing band structures (R1,R2-N,N'-dicyanoquinonediimine)2Cu [(R1,R2-DCNQI)2Cu] (R1,R2=CH3,CH3O,Cl,Br) were examined. General features of the phase diagram of the DCNQI-Cu system were depicted. A region that is related to the existence of anomalously heavy-metal electrons has been found. The T2 dependence of the low-temperature resistivity of the alloyed system (DMe1-xMeBrx-DCNQI)2Cu (where Me=CH3) suggests a large enhancement of the electron mass at the critical situation where the system begins to exhibit a characteristic metal instability. The mixed valency of Cu (Cu+1.3) in (DMe-DCNQI)2Cu was confirmed by ir experiments performed on neutral DMe-DCNQI crystals and (DMe-DCNQI)2M (M=Li, Ba, Cu). The same conclusion was also derived from a low-temperature x-ray-diffraction experiment. The gradual temperature dependences of the ir absorption intensities of totally symmetric modes of (DBr-DCNQI)2Cu observed below the metal-insulator transition temperature (TMI) are in contrast with the discontinuous resistivity and susceptibility changes at TMI. This may be attributable to the existence of two driving forces characterizing the M-I transition. One is the sharp charge ordering in Cu sites and the other is the continuous development of charge-density waves on DCNQI stacks. The arrangement of Cu2+ and Cu+ below TMI was determined by an x-ray crystal-structure analysis of the threefold insulating phase of (MeBr-DCNQI)2Cu at 110 K. The nearest-neighbor Cu2+ ions interact with each other via two DCNQI molecules. A plausible spin structure of the antiferromagnetic ground state was proposed. According to this spin-structure model, the magnetic moments of Cu2+ along the crystallographic c axis will be arranged ferromagnetically.

  1. Current distribution and stability of LTS/HTS hybrid superconducting conductors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    Current distribution and stability of a hybrid LTS/HTS superconductor, consisting of multifilamentary NbTi/Cu and Bi2223/Ag tapes, were numerically analyzed according to power-law models. The results showed that most of current passed through the LTS and the current increased in the HTS with temperature rise when the transport current was below the critical current of the hybrid conductor. The quench propagation velocity of the hybrid conductor was smaller but its minimum quench energy was larger than those of LTS conductors, indicating that the stability of the hybrid superconducting conductor was effectively improved and a high engineering current density was simultaneously achieved. Finally, a hybrid sample, made by soldering Bi2223/Ag tape onto NbTi/Cu conductor, was prepared and tested successfully at helium temperature. The experimental results qualitatively agreed with the simulated ones.

  2. Parametric analysis of hollow conductor parallel and coaxial transmission lines for high frequency space power distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeffries, K. S.; Renz, D. D.

    1984-01-01

    A parametric analysis was performed of transmission cables for transmitting electrical power at high voltage (up to 1000 V) and high frequency (10 to 30 kHz) for high power (100 kW or more) space missions. Large diameter (5 to 30 mm) hollow conductors were considered in closely spaced coaxial configurations and in parallel lines. Formulas were derived to calculate inductance and resistance for these conductors. Curves of cable conductance, mass, inductance, capacitance, resistance, power loss, and temperature were plotted for various conductor diameters, conductor thickness, and alternating current frequencies. An example 5 mm diameter coaxial cable with 0.5 mm conductor thickness was calculated to transmit 100 kW at 1000 Vac, 50 m with a power loss of 1900 W, an inductance of 1.45 micron and a capacitance of 0.07 micron-F. The computer programs written for this analysis are listed in the appendix.

  3. Magnetic guide of cold atoms using a U-shaped current-carrying conductor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘南春; 印建平

    2003-01-01

    We propose a new scheme to magnetically guide cold neutral atoms using a U-shaped current carrying conductor.The spatial magnetic field distribution from the U-shaped current-carrying conductor and the relationship between the magnetic field and parameters of the U-shaped conductor are analysed.Our study shows that U-shaped current-carrying conductor can be used to realize single-or double-channel magnetic guiding of cold atoms in weak-field-seeking states and to construct wrious atom-optical elements.By using Monte Carlo simulations,the dynamic process of the guided atomic-beam splitting in an atomic-beam splitter composed by the U-shaped current-carrying conductor is studied,and some results are presented.

  4. Current Sharing Temperature Test and Simulation with GANDALF Code for ITER PF2 Conductor Sample

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shaolei; Wu, Yu; Liu, Bo; Weng, Peide

    2011-10-01

    Cable-in-conduit conductor (CICC) conductor sample of the PF2 coil for ITER was tested in the SULTAN facility. According to the test results, the CICC conductor sample exhibited a stable performance regarding the current sharing temperature. Under the typical operational conditions of a current of 45 kA, a magnetic field of 4 T and a temperature of 5 K for PF2, the test result for the conductor current sharing temperature is 6.71 K, with a temperature margin of 1.71 K. For a comparison thermal-hydraulic analysis of the PF2 conductor was carried out using GANDALF code in a 1-D model, and the result is consistent with the test one.

  5. Anticipating the Future, Influencing the Present: Assessing the Societal Implications of Emerging Technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michelson, Evan S.

    A growing challenge for the American policymaking system is to respond effectively to a wide range of interconnected, complex, long-term science and technology issues. Simultaneously, current approaches and institutions of governance are ill suited to address these multidimensional challenges. As the next generation of innovations in science and technology is arriving at an accelerating rate, the governance system is lagging behind. This realization leads to a vital overarching consideration that steers this study: What approaches are well suited to anticipate the longer-term societal implications of emerging technologies in the 21st Century? This study identifies and examines strategies for anticipating the longer-term societal implications of emerging technologies by way of a qualitative case study. It explores one area of technology (nanotechnology), in one particular governance system (the United States), and with a focus on one high profile non-governmental organization (NGO) involved in addressing a range of nanotechnology's societal and policy implications: the Project on Emerging Nanotechnologies (PEN). Based at the Woodrow Wilson International Center for Scholars, PEN's goal was to ensure "that as nanotechnologies advance, possible risks are minimized, public and consumer engagement remains strong, and the potential benefits of these new technologies are realized." The conceptual framework of anticipatory governance guides the research, which offers a real-world example about how anticipatory governance applies in the nongovernmental sector and shows how this idea links to broader theoretical debates about the policymaking process. The study's main conclusion is that PEN utilized a set of interconnected strategies related to advancing foresight, operating in a boundary-spanning role, and promoting communications and public engagement in its attempt to influence, anticipate, and shape the societal implications of emerging technologies. The findings are

  6. Field dependence of the critical current and its relation to the anisotropy of BSCCO conductors and coils

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weijers, H.W.; Haken, ten B.; Kate, ten H.H.J.; Schwartz, J.

    2005-01-01

    The design of HTS magnets is often based on the properties of a number of short samples that are presumed to be representative of the conductor to be used. Variability in conductor properties and inhomogeneity in the magnetic field distribution within the magnets, coupled with conductor anisotropy,

  7. THE TIME DOMAIN SPECTROSCOPIC SURVEY: VARIABLE SELECTION AND ANTICIPATED RESULTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morganson, Eric; Green, Paul J. [Harvard Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden St, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Anderson, Scott F.; Ruan, John J. [Department of Astronomy, University of Washington, Box 351580, Seattle, WA 98195 (United States); Myers, Adam D. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Wyoming, Laramie, WY 82071 (United States); Eracleous, Michael; Brandt, William Nielsen [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, 525 Davey Laboratory, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802 (United States); Kelly, Brandon [Department of Physics, Broida Hall, University of California, Santa Barbara, CA 93106-9530 (United States); Badenes, Carlos [Department of Physics and Astronomy and Pittsburgh Particle Physics, Astrophysics and Cosmology Center (PITT PACC), University of Pittsburgh, 3941 O’Hara St, Pittsburgh, PA 15260 (United States); Bañados, Eduardo [Max-Planck-Institut für Astronomie, Königstuhl 17, D-69117 Heidelberg (Germany); Blanton, Michael R. [Center for Cosmology and Particle Physics, Department of Physics, New York University, 4 Washington Place, New York, NY 10003 (United States); Bershady, Matthew A. [Department of Astronomy, University of Wisconsin, 475 N. Charter St., Madison, WI 53706 (United States); Borissova, Jura [Instituto de Física y Astronomía, Universidad de Valparaíso, Av. Gran Bretaña 1111, Playa Ancha, Casilla 5030, and Millennium Institute of Astrophysics (MAS), Santiago (Chile); Burgett, William S. [GMTO Corp, Suite 300, 251 S. Lake Ave, Pasadena, CA 91101 (United States); Chambers, Kenneth, E-mail: emorganson@cfa.harvard.edu [Institute for Astronomy, University of Hawaii at Manoa, Honolulu, HI 96822 (United States); and others

    2015-06-20

    We present the selection algorithm and anticipated results for the Time Domain Spectroscopic Survey (TDSS). TDSS is an Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS)-IV Extended Baryon Oscillation Spectroscopic Survey (eBOSS) subproject that will provide initial identification spectra of approximately 220,000 luminosity-variable objects (variable stars and active galactic nuclei across 7500 deg{sup 2} selected from a combination of SDSS and multi-epoch Pan-STARRS1 photometry. TDSS will be the largest spectroscopic survey to explicitly target variable objects, avoiding pre-selection on the basis of colors or detailed modeling of specific variability characteristics. Kernel Density Estimate analysis of our target population performed on SDSS Stripe 82 data suggests our target sample will be 95% pure (meaning 95% of objects we select have genuine luminosity variability of a few magnitudes or more). Our final spectroscopic sample will contain roughly 135,000 quasars and 85,000 stellar variables, approximately 4000 of which will be RR Lyrae stars which may be used as outer Milky Way probes. The variability-selected quasar population has a smoother redshift distribution than a color-selected sample, and variability measurements similar to those we develop here may be used to make more uniform quasar samples in large surveys. The stellar variable targets are distributed fairly uniformly across color space, indicating that TDSS will obtain spectra for a wide variety of stellar variables including pulsating variables, stars with significant chromospheric activity, cataclysmic variables, and eclipsing binaries. TDSS will serve as a pathfinder mission to identify and characterize the multitude of variable objects that will be detected photometrically in even larger variability surveys such as Large Synoptic Survey Telescope.

  8. The Developments of Inorganic Proton Conductors%无机质子导体的研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马桂林; 许佳; 张明; 王小稳; 尹金玲; 徐建红

    2011-01-01

    Inorganic proton conductor is a kind of important functional material for many potential electrochemical applications such as fuel cell, hydrogen sensor, electrolytic preparation and separation and purification of hydrogen, hydrogen pump, steam pump, removal of nitrogen oxide, hydrogenation and dehydrogenation of some organic compounds, recover of hydrogen isotopes from nuclear fusion reactor, and ammonia synthesis at atmospheric pressure, etc. In this paper, the recent progress of inorganic proton conductors is reviewed, mainly including typical inorganic proton conductors, their defect chemistry and proton transport mechanism, possible applications, some issues, and expectations for the future.%无机质子导体是一类重要的功能材料,具有许多潜在的电化学应用,包括燃料电池、氢传感器、氢的电解制备和分离提纯、氢泵、水蒸气泵、氮氧化物消除、有机物的催化氢化和脱氢,核聚变反应堆废气中的氢同位素气体的回收利用,以及常压合成氨等.本文综述了无机质子导体的研究进展,尤其是近年来的最新研究进展,主要包括典型的无机质子导体,无机质子导体的缺陷化学及质子传导机制,无机质子导体材料可能的应用、问题及展望.

  9. Development of HTS power cable using YBCO coated conductor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukoyama, Shinichi; Yagi, Masashi; Hirano, Hironobu; Yamada, Yutaka; Izumi, Teruo; Shiohara, Yuh

    2006-10-01

    Reductions of AC losses and of cost of HTS power cables are important to put it into practical power networks. Since an YBCO-coated-conductor (YBCO tape) has higher Jc and better magnetic property than a Bi2223-Ag-sheathed-tape, an AC power cable using YBCO tapes will obtain higher performance than XLPE-cables and HTS cables using BSCCO tapes in future. Especially, an YBCO HTS cable will be expected to become a higher economical cable than a Bi cable because an YBCO tape reduced its AC losses and its wire cost. We have started developing HTS power cables using YBCO tapes. Mechanical properties, superconducting properties and other electro magnetic properties of YBCO tapes have been measured to estimate the applicability to the HTS cable. Moreover, we have developed some technologies to bring out latent potentials of YBCO tapes.

  10. Mixed conductor anodes: Ni as electrocatalyst for hydrogen conversion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Primdahl, S.; Mogensen, Mogens Bjerg

    2002-01-01

    Five types of anodes for solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC) are examined on an yttria-stabilised zirconia (YSZ) electrolyte by impedance spectroscopy at 850 degreesC in hydrogen. The examined porous anodes are a Ni/Zr(0.92)Y(0.16)O(2.08) (Ni/YSZ) cermet, a Ni/Ce(0.9)Gd(0.1)O(1.95) (Ni/CGI) cermet, a Ce...... conductors (MIEC's), distinctly in the low-frequency part of the impedance spectra. An effect of isotope exchange (H(2)/H(2)O to D(2)/D(2)O) is observed for all anodes. The low-frequency limitation is suggested to be hydrogen adsorption and/or dissociation on the surface of MIEC electrodes, (C) 2002 Elsevier...

  11. Fuel-Cell Electrolytes Based on Organosilica Hybrid Proton Conductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narayan, Sri R.; Yen, Shiao-Pin S.

    2008-01-01

    A new membrane composite material that combines an organosilica proton conductor with perfluorinated Nafion material to achieve good proton conductivity and high-temperature performance for membranes used for fuel cells in stationary, transportation, and portable applications has been developed. To achieve high proton conductivities of the order of 10(exp -1)S/cm over a wide range of temperatures, a composite membrane based on a new class of mesoporous, proton-conducting, hydrogen-bonded organosilica, used with Nafion, will allow for water retention and high proton conductivity over a wider range of temperatures than currently offered by Nafion alone. At the time of this reporting, this innovation is at the concept level. Some of the materials and processes investigated have shown good proton conductivity, but membranes have not yet been prepared and demonstrated.

  12. Non-classical radiation emission by a coherent conductor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forgues, Jean-Charles; Gasse, Gabriel; Lupien, Christian; Reulet, Bertrand

    2016-08-01

    We report experimental evidence that the microwave electromagnetic field generated by a normal conductor, here a tunnel junction placed at ultra-low temperature, can be non-classical. By measuring the quadratures of the electromagnetic field at one or two frequencies in the GHz range, we demonstrate the existence of squeezing as well as entanglement in such radiation. In one experiment, we observe that the variance of one quadrature of the photo-assisted noise generated by the junction goes below its vacuum level. In the second experiment, we demonstrate the existence of correlations between the quadratures taken at two frequencies, which can be stronger than allowed by classical mechanics, proving that the radiation at those two frequencies are entangled. xml:lang="fr"

  13. Ionic polymeric conductor nanocomposites (IPCNCs) as distributed nanosensors and nanoactuators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahinpoor, Mohsen

    2008-09-01

    This paper covers advances made in connection with ionic polymeric conductor nanocomposites (IPCNCs) as distributed biomimetic nanosensors, nanoactuators, nanorobots and artificial muscles. A review of the fundamental properties and characteristics of IPCNCs will be presented first. This summary will include descriptions of the basic materials' molecular structure and subsequent procedure to manufacture the basic material for chemical plating and electroactivation. Further described are chemical molecular plating technologies to make IPCNCs; nanotechnologies of manufacturing and trapping of nanoparticles; SEM, TEM, SPM and AFM characterization of IPMNCs; biomimetic sensing and actuation characterization techniques; electrical characterization; and equivalent circuit modeling of IPCNCs as electronic materials. A phenomenological model of the underlying sensing and actuation mechanisms is also presented based on linear irreversible thermodynamics with two driving forces, an electric field and a solvent pressure gradient and two fluxes, electric current density and the ionic+solvent flux.

  14. Dynamic corona characteristics of water droplets on charged conductor surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Pengfei; Zhang, Bo; Wang, Zezhong; Chen, Shuiming; He, Jinliang

    2017-03-01

    The formation of the Taylor cone of a water droplet on the surface of the conductor in a line-ground electrode system is captured using a high-speed camera, while the corona current is synchronously measured using a current measurement system. Repeated Taylor cone deformation is observed, yielding regular groupings of corona current pulses. The underlying mechanism of this deformation is studied and the correlation between corona discharge characteristics and cone deformation is investigated. Depending on the applied voltage and rate of water supply, the Taylor cone may be stable or unstable and has a significant influence on the characteristics of the corona currents. If the rate of water supply is large enough, the Taylor cone tends to be unstable and generates corona-current pulses of numerous induced current pulses with low amplitudes. In consequence, this difference suggests that large rainfall results in simultaneously lower radio interference and higher corona loss.

  15. Effect of annular secondary conductor in a linear electromagnetic stirrer

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    R Madhavan; V Ramanarayanan

    2008-10-01

    This paper presents the variation of average axial force density in the annular secondary conductor of a linear electromagnetic stirrer. Different geometries of secondaries are considered for numerical and experimental validation namely, 1. hollow annular ring, 2. annular ring with a solid cylinder and 3. solid cylinder. Experimental and numerical simulations are performed for a 2-pole in house built 15 kW linear electromagnetic stirrer (EMS). It is observed for a supply current of 200 A at 30 Hz the force densities in the hollow annular ring is 67% higher than the equivalent solid cylinder. The same values are 33% for annular ring with a solid cylinder. Force density variation with supply frequency and current are also reported. Numerical simulations using finite element model are validated with experimental results.

  16. Manufacture of the poloidal field conductor insert coil (PFCI)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baker, W. [EFDA CSU Garching, Boltzmannstrasse 2, 85748 Garching bei Muenchen (Germany); Keefe, C. [Tesla Engineering, Storrington, Sussex (United Kingdom); Rajainmaeki, H. [EFDA CSU Garching, Boltzmannstrasse 2, 85748 Garching bei Muenchen (Germany)], E-mail: hannu.rajainmaki@tech.efda.org; Salpietro, E. [EFDA CSU Garching, Boltzmannstrasse 2, 85748 Garching bei Muenchen (Germany)

    2007-10-15

    Within the framework of the R and D programme for international thermonuclear experimental reactor (ITER) the European team European Fusion Development Agreement (EFDA) has been charged with the design and manufacture of the poloidal field conductor insert coil (PFCI). The purpose of the PFCI is to test and demonstrate the performance of long-length full-scale NbTi conductors in ITER-relevant conditions. The PFCI will be tested in the central solenoid model coil test facility at the JAEA, Naka, Japan. This paper details the complete manufacturing of the PFCI including development, forming machining, pre-assembly, impregnation, final assembly and testing. The PFCI is a single-layered wound solenoid of nine turns with a transition joggle in the centre section of the winding and an intermediate joint connection between the upper termination and the main coil winding. To give the required overall dimensions to fit in the testing facility, preformed and machined glass resin composite filler pieces are assembled with the winding and is finally vacuum pressure impregnated (VPI) to create a single assembly unit. The PFCI is enclosed for assembly in a support structure, which consists of an upper and lower flange, each made up of four electrically insulated machined stainless steel castings, and 12 tie rods preloading the complete assembly in the vertical direction. The upper flange is equipped with four radial restraining jacks and the lower flange is equipped with four sets of studs and shear keys to withstand the net vertical and lateral electromagnetic forces. The PFCI is equipped with inductive heaters, voltage taps, temperature transducers, strain gauges and other instrumentation as diagnostics to monitor the performance. The current status of the manufacture is that the coil has passed the final acceptance tests and it is in the support structure assembly stage.

  17. Actitudes hacia comportamientos protectores y de riesgo en conductores costarricenses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marjorie Moreno Salas

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available En el presente estudio se exploraron las actitudes y los comportamientos protectores y de riesgo al conducir vehículos particulares en una muestra de 590 conductores de entre 20 y 60 años (M = 38,57, DE =11,69 residentes del área metropolitana costarricense. Se realizó una investigación exploratoria, desarrollada mediante un diseño transversal con un cuestionario autoaplicado. Los principales resultados fueron que: A mayor cantidad de hijos e hijas dependientes, menores comportamientos y actitudes hacia el riesgo y mayores comportamientos protectores. A mayor cantidad de años de tener licencia, menores actitudes hacia el exceso de velocidad y menores comportamientos de riesgo asociados con la alta velocidad. Entre más días de manejo, mayores comportamientos protectores. A mayor reporte de actitudes y comportamientos favorables hacia el riesgo, menor edad de los participantes. A manera de conclusión, las actitudes y los comportamientos de riesgo se vinculan negativamente. Además, variables sociodemográficas como el número de hijos y la edad de los conductores modula la respuesta en cuanto a las actitudes y los comportamientos protectores y de riesgo al manejar. Los resultados del estudio forman un primer aporte a la investigación nacional en el tema, en tanto, se cuenta con un instrumento susceptible de ser aplicado en otros estudios y múltiples datos empíricos en la temática.

  18. Crater Morphologies on Pluto and Charon: Anticipating New Horizons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schenk, P.; Bray, V. J.; McKinnon, W. B.; White, O. L.; Moore, J. M.

    2014-12-01

    Impact craters are among the few geologic features we have some confidence will be present in the Pluto/Charon system. Crater morphologies are important as tracers of thermal history (through the mechanism of viscous relaxation), and can be used to probe through icy crusts (in terms of excavating deeper layers as on Ganymede or penetrating through floating ice shells as on Europa). New Horizons will have the opportunity to examine crater morphologies on Pluto to resolutions Charon to ~250 meters over significant areas. Stereo-derived topography maps are anticipated over 20-35% of each body. The first task will be to place the observed craters (assuming they are not deeply eroded) into Solar System context. Crater morphology on icy satellites is controlled primarily by surface gravity. Charon has similar surface gravity to the icy Saturnian satellites and we expect craters on Charon to resemble those seen by Cassini, where the dominant landform will be prominent central peaks. Pluto surface gravity is midway between Ganymede and Rhea. Triton, with similar surface gravity and internal composition to Pluto, is of no help due to the paucity of resolved craters there. This opens the possibility of observing landforms seen on Ganymede, such as central dome craters, palimpsests and perhaps even a multiring basin or two, albeit at larger diameters than we would see on Ganymede. Several issues complicate our rosy picture. A key unresolved concern is that impact velocities in the Pluto system are only a few km/s, in the low end of the hypervelocity range. Numerical models imply possible differences during excavation, producing deeper simple craters than on the icy satellites. Impacts occurring at velocities well below the mean (topographic data sets is unclear. Any viscous relaxation (driven by internal or modest tidal heating) or mass wasting erosion (by volatile redistribution) will also work to reduce crater depths on Pluto in different ways, but cratering onto the likely

  19. Anticipating Interruptions. Security and risk in a liberalized electricity infrastructure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silvast, A.

    2013-11-01

    During the past ten years, a number of social scientists have emphasized the importance of material infrastructures like electricity supply as a research topic for the social sciences. The developing of such new perspectives concerning infrastructures also includes uncertainties and risks. This research analyzes the management of uncertainties in the Finnish electricity infrastructure by posing the following research question: how are electricity interruptions, or blackouts, anticipated in Finland and how are these interruptions managed as risks? The main research methodology of the work is multi-sited field work. The empirical materials include interviews with experts and lay people (33 interviews); participant observation in two electricity control rooms; an electricity consumer survey (115 respondents); and also a number of infrastructure and security policy documents and observations from electricity security seminars. The materials were primarily gathered between 2004 and 2008. Social science research often links risks with major current social changes or socio-cultural risk perceptions. In recent international social science discussions, however, a new research topic has emerged - those styles of reasoning and techniques of governance that are deployed to manage risk as a practical matter. My study explores these themes empirically by focusing on the specific habitual practices of risk management in the Finnish electricity infrastructure. The work develops various also semi-ethnographic inquiries into infrastructure risk techniques like monitor screening of real-time risks in electricity control rooms; the management of risks in a liberalized electricity market; the emergence of Finnish reasoning about blackouts from a specific historical background; and the ways in which electricity consumers respond to blackouts in their homes. In addition, the work reflects upon the position of a risk researcher in those situations when the research subjects do not define

  20. Electrohydrodynamic direct—writing of conductor—insulator-conductor multi-layer interconnection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Gao-Feng; Pei, Yan-Bo; Wang, Xiang; Zheng, Jian-Yi; Sun, Dao-Heng

    2014-06-01

    A multi-layer interconnection structure is a basic component of electronic devices, and printing of the multi-layer interconnection structure is the key process in printed electronics. In this work, electrohydrodynamic direct-writing (EDW) is utilized to print the conductor—insulator—conductor multi-layer interconnection structure. Silver ink is chosen to print the conductor pattern, and a polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) solution is utilized to fabricate the insulator layer between the bottom and top conductor patterns. The influences of EDW process parameters on the line width of the printed conductor and insulator patterns are studied systematically. The obtained results show that the line width of the printed structure increases with the increase of the flow rate, but decreases with the increase of applied voltage and PVP content in the solution. The average resistivity values of the bottom and top silver conductor tracks are determined to be 1.34 × 10-7 Ω·m and 1.39 × 10-7 Ω·m, respectively. The printed PVP layer between the two conductor tracks is well insulated, which can meet the insulation requirement of the electronic devices. This study offers an alternative, fast, and cost-effective method of fabricating conductor—insulator—conductor multi-layer interconnections in the electronic industry.

  1. Revitalizing the United Nations. Anticipation and Prevention as Primary Goals

    OpenAIRE

    Alexandra Novosseloff

    2000-01-01

    In tackling the on-going topic of UN reform, one should be honest with the analysis of the problems at stakes. It is necessary to first take into account the profound changes that have occurred since the end of the Cold War, as well as acknowledging the limits of an international organization and the shape of the UN system. It is only from that analysis that proposals can be made to rationalize and to make more efficient the functioning of the United Nations. What the Organization needs is no...

  2. Investigation of the pre-service science teachers' opinions about the concept of "Semi-conductor"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eryilmaz Muştu, Özlem

    2017-02-01

    In the current study, the purpose was to determine the pre-service science teachers' opinions about the concept of semi-conductor. The participants of the current study carried out in 2015-2016 academic year were 55 third year pre-service science teachers. In the study, open-ended questions were used to determine the pre-service teachers' opinions about semi-conductors. After the administration of the open-ended questions, the students were taught the topic of semi-conductors within the lesson of special issues in physics. Then the open-ended questions were directed to the pre-service teachers again. The pre-service teachers' responses to these questions were categorized by using qualitative analysis method and their frequency values were obtained. The findings of the study revealed that the pre-service teachers had difficulties, before and after the administration of the questions, in defining semi-conductors. At the end of the study, the pre-service teachers were found to have some misconceptions; for example, they think that semi-conductors conduct the half of the electricity conducted by conductors. In the study, it was found that the pre-service teachers cannot define the concept of semi-conductor and this might indicate that they will not be able to teach this concept when they become teachers. In this connection, it can be suggested that studies and activities performed for teaching of abstract concepts such as conductor, semi-conductor, and insulator should be increased.

  3. Anticipation or ascertainment bias in schizophrenia? Penrose`s familial mental illness sample

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bassett, A.S. [Univ. of Toronto (Canada)]|[Queen Street Mental health Centre, Toronto (Canada); Husted, J. [Univ. of Waterloo, Ontario (Canada)

    1997-03-01

    Several studies have observed anticipation (earlier age at onset [AAO] in successive generations) in familial schizophrenia. However, whether true anticipation or ascertainment bias is the principal originating mechanism remains unclear. In 1944 L.S. Penrose collected AAO data on a large, representative sample of familial mental illness, using a broad ascertainment strategy. These data allowed examination of anticipation and ascertainment biases in five two-generation samples of affected relative pairs. The median intergenerational difference (MID) in AAO was used to assess anticipation. Results showed significant anticipation in parent-offspring pairs with schizophrenia (n = 137 pairs; MID 15 years; P = .0001) and in a positive control sample with Huntington disease (n = 11; P = .01). Broadening the diagnosis of the schizophrenia sample suggested anticipation of severity of illness. However, other analyses provided evidence for ascertainment bias, especially in later-AAO parents, in parent-offspring pairs. Aunt/uncle-niece/nephew schizophrenia pairs showed anticipation (n = 111; P = .0001), but the MID was 8 years and aunts/uncles had earlier median AAO than parents. Anticipation effects were greatest in pairs with late-AAO parents but remained significant in a subgroup of schizophrenia pairs with early parental AAO (n = 31; P = .03). A small control sample of other diseases had MID of 5 years but no significant anticipation (n = 9; F = .38). These results suggest that, although ascertainment-bias effects were observed in parent-offspring pairs, true anticipation appears to be inherent in the transmission of familial schizophrenia. The findings support investigations of unstable mutations and other mechanisms that may contribute to true anticipation in schizophrenia. 37 refs., 2 tabs.

  4. AFM multilayered Bi-2223 conductors for 13,000 A current leads for CERN

    CERN Document Server

    Martini, L; Berti, R; Volpini, G; Bigoni, L; Curcio, F

    2000-01-01

    Large current carrying capacity multilayered Bi-2223 conductors are reproducibly prepared by means of the "Accordion-Folding Method" and suitably used to manufacture the low temperature stage of 13,000 A hybrid metal-HTS current lead prototypes for CERN. In this work, we report on the electrical characterisation of AFM multilayered Bi-2223 conductors having critical current as high as 400 A at 77 K and on a specific experimental set-up that has been developed to study the thermo-electrical performances of the AFM Bi-2223 composite conductors during the sudden resistive transition of the HTS: quench event. (4 refs).

  5. Development of multifilamentary Nb/sub 3/Sn conductors for fusion research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cornish, D.N.; Deis, D.W.; Nelson, R.L.; Scanlan, R.M.; Taylor, C.E.; Vandervoort, R.R.; Wittmayer, F.J.; Zbasnik, J.P.

    1976-08-17

    A program at Lawrence Livermore Laboratory to develop multifilamentary Nb/sub 3/Sn conductors suitable for use in constructing fusion research magnets has resulted in the commercial production of conductors having cross-sectional areas in the range 0.06 cm/sup 2/ to 0.84 cm/sup 2/. Critical current densities near the goal of 10/sup 4/ A/cm/sup 2/ at 12 T and 4.2 K have been obtained in conductors produced by two different techniques. The latest results of this program are presented and discussed.

  6. Current and field distributions of a superconducting power transmission cable composed of helical tape conductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tominaka, Toshiharu

    2009-12-01

    The current distributions within a power transmission cable composed of helically wound long tape superconductors have been studied by solving the circuit equation with the inductance matrix among divided segments within a tape conductor under the Bean model. The self- and mutual inductances of helical thin tape conductors are calculated from the analytical expressions in the form of an infinite series. In addition, it is shown that the distinction between the right-handed and left-handed helixes is generally necessary in the mutual inductance between two long coaxial helical conductors.

  7. Current and field distributions of a superconducting power transmission cable composed of helical tape conductors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tominaka, Toshiharu, E-mail: tominaka@mext.go.j, E-mail: tominaka@riken.j [Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology (MEXT), 3-2-2 Kasumigaseki, Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo 100-8959 (Japan); RIKEN - Institute of Physical and Chemical Research, 2-1 Hirosawa, Wako, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan)

    2009-12-15

    The current distributions within a power transmission cable composed of helically wound long tape superconductors have been studied by solving the circuit equation with the inductance matrix among divided segments within a tape conductor under the Bean model. The self- and mutual inductances of helical thin tape conductors are calculated from the analytical expressions in the form of an infinite series. In addition, it is shown that the distinction between the right-handed and left-handed helixes is generally necessary in the mutual inductance between two long coaxial helical conductors.

  8. The impact of group composition and attitudes towards diversity on anticipated outcomes of diversity in groups

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Oudenhoven-van der Zee, Karen; Paulus, Paul; Vos, Menno; Parthasarathy, Niveditha

    2009-01-01

    In two studies, students evaluated group pictures of workgroups of varying ethnic and gender composition with respect to anticipated affective and productive outcomes. The impact of level of diversity, faultlines and individual differences in diversity attitudes on anticipated outcomes were examined

  9. Contributions from eye movement potentials to stimulus preceding negativity during anticipation of auditory stimulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engdahl, Lis; Bjerre, Vicky K; Christoffersen, Gert R J

    2007-01-01

    Cognitive anticipation of a stimulus has been associated with an ERP called "stimulus preceding negativity" (SPN). A new auditory delay task without stimulus-related motor activity demonstrated a prefrontal SPN, present during attentive anticipation of sounds with closed eyes, but absent during...

  10. The relative importance of different perceptual-cognitive skills during anticipation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    North, Jamie S; Hope, Ed; Williams, A Mark

    2016-10-01

    We examined whether anticipation is underpinned by perceiving structured patterns or postural cues and whether the relative importance of these processes varied as a function of task constraints. Skilled and less-skilled soccer players completed anticipation paradigms in video-film and point light display (PLD) format. Skilled players anticipated more accurately regardless of display condition, indicating that both perception of structured patterns between players and postural cues contribute to anticipation. However, the Skill×Display interaction showed skilled players' advantage was enhanced in the video-film condition, suggesting that they make better use of postural cues when available during anticipation. We also examined anticipation as a function of proximity to the ball. When participants were near the ball, anticipation was more accurate for video-film than PLD clips, whereas when the ball was far away there was no difference between viewing conditions. Perceiving advance postural cues appears more important than structured patterns when the ball is closer to the observer, whereas the reverse is true when the ball is far away. Various perceptual-cognitive skills contribute to anticipation with the relative importance of perceiving structured patterns and advance postural cues being determined by task constraints and the availability of perceptual information.

  11. Attitudes toward Seeking Professional Help for an Eating Disorder: The Role of Stigma and Anticipated Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hackler, Ashley H.; Vogel, David L.; Wade, Nathaniel G.

    2010-01-01

    This study examined the relationship between self-stigma, anticipated risks and benefits associated with seeking counseling, and attitudes toward seeking counseling among college students with disordered eating attitudes and behaviors. The results of hierarchical regression analyses demonstrated that self-stigma and the anticipated risks and…

  12. Anticipation Driving Behavior and Related Reduction of Energy Consumption in Traffic Flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Wei; Wei, Yan-Fang; Song, Tao; Dai, Shi-Qiang; Dong, Li-Yun

    In view that drivers would pay attention to the variation of headway on roads, an extended optimal velocity model is proposed by considering anticipation driving behavior. A stability criterion is given through linear stability analysis of traffic flows. The mKdV equation is derived with the reductive perturbation method for headway evolution which could be used to describe the stop-and-go traffic phenomenon. The results show a good effect of anticipation driving behavior on the stabilization of car flows and the anticipation driving behavior can improve the numerical stability of the model as well. In addition, the fluctuation of kinetic energy and the consumption of average energy in congested traffic flows are systematically analyzed. The results show that the reasonable level of anticipation driving behavior can save energy consumption in deceleration process effectively and lead to an associated relation like a "bow-tie" between the energy-saving and the value of anticipation factor.

  13. Shifting Perspectives: Using Complexity Theory to Anticipate Strategic Surprise

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-08-08

    notwithstanding any other provision of law, no person shall be subject to any penalty for failing to comply with a collection of information if it does not display...since the attacks of September 11, 2001, the United States Department of Defense intelligence organizations have not provided adequate warning to...about how people wield power, resulting in a strategic environment that is increasingly complex. Current intelligence analytical methods, based on

  14. The effect of strain on grains and grain boundaries in YBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 7-{delta}} coated conductors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van der Laan, D C [Department of Physics, University of Colorado, Boulder, CO 80309 (United States); Haugan, T J; Barnes, P N [Air Force Research Laboratory, Wright-Patterson AFB, OH 45433 (United States); Abraimov, D; Kametani, F; Larbalestier, D C [National High Magnetic Field Laboratory, Florida State University, Tallahassee, FL 32310 (United States); Rupich, M W, E-mail: danko@boulder.nist.go [American Superconductor Corporation, Westborough, MA 01598 (United States)

    2010-01-15

    The role of grains and grain boundaries in producing reversible strain effects on the transport current critical current density (J{sub c}) of YBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 7-{delta}} (YBCO) coated conductors that are produced with metal-organic deposition (MOD) was investigated. The strain ({epsilon}) dependence of J{sub c} for full-width coated conductors is compared with that for samples in which the current transport was limited to a few or single grain boundaries by cutting narrow tracks with a laser or focused ion beam, as well as with thin films deposited on bicrystalline SrTiO{sub 3} substrates by use of pulsed-laser deposition (PLD). Our results show that the dependences of J{sub c} on {epsilon} for the grains and for the grain boundaries from the two kinds of YBCO samples can be expressed by the same function, however with a greater effective tensile strain at the grain boundaries than in the grains. The really striking result is that the grain boundary strain is 5-10 times higher for grain boundaries of in situ PLD grown bicrystals as compared to the aperiodic, meandered, nonplanar grain boundaries that develop in ex situ grown MOD-YBCO in the coated conductor of this study.

  15. Health effects of electromagnetic field generated by lightning current pulses near down conductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamus, Z. Á.; Novák, B.; Szücs, L.; Kiss, I.

    2011-06-01

    The lightning current generates a time varying magnetic field near down conductors, when lightning strikes the connected Franklin-rod. The down conductors are mounted on the wall of buildings, where residential places can be situated. It is well known that the rapidly changing magnetic fields could generate dangerous eddy currents in the human body. If the duration and the gradient of the magnetic field were high enough, the peripheral nerves are excited. In this study, the authors introduce an improved model of the interaction of electromagnetic fields of lighting current near a down conductor with the human body. The interaction model has two parts: estimation of the magnetic fields surrounding the down conductor and evaluation of health effects of rapid changing magnetic fields on the human body.

  16. On the electrostatic equilibrium of charges and cavities in a conductor

    CERN Document Server

    Pathak, Aritro

    2016-01-01

    We consider a charged conductor of arbitrary shape, in electrostatic equilibrium, with one or more cavities inside it, and with fixed charges placed outside the conductors and inside the cavities. The field inside a particular cavity is then only due to charges within that cavity itself and to the surface charge induced on the surface of the same cavity. A similar statement holds for the exterior of the conductor. Although this is an elementary property of conductors, it is not a trivial statement, as explained in this article. Undergraduate texts in electrodynamics do not discuss at length or provide a complete argument for an important problem such as this. Two simple and complete proofs are provided in this note with the help of the standard electrostatic uniqueness theorems.

  17. Stability of cable-in-conduit, force-cooled conductors: elementary theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dresner, L.

    1979-01-01

    The recovery of cable-in-conduit conductors cooled by supercritical helium has been studied. The initial perturbation is a sudden, uniform deposition of heat. The problem has been solved, and answers have been obtained in the form of simple closed formulas under the simplifying assumption of constant thermophysical properties. Stability-optimized conductors have been identified and simple formulas for their material composition are given. A rule of design of cable-in-conduit conductors based on the existence of stability-optimized conductors is suggested. Some ''zero-flow'' experiments of Miller et al. have been analyzed, and it has been determined that for these experiments the effective heat transfer coefficient during the period of recovery is approximately 1000 Wm/sup -2/K/sup -1/.

  18. New theorem of classical electromagnetism: equilibrium magnetic field and current density are zero inside ideal conductors

    CERN Document Server

    Fiolhais, Miguel C N; Providencia, C; Nordmark, Arne B

    2010-01-01

    We prove a theorem on the magnetic energy minimum in a system of perfect, or ideal, conductors. It is analogous to Thomson's theorem on the equilibrium electric field and charge distribution in a system of conductors. We first prove Thomson's theorem using a variational principle. Our new theorem is then derived by similar methods. We find that magnetic energy is minimized when the current distribution is a surface current density with zero interior magnetic field; perfect conductors are perfectly diamagnetic. The results agree with currents in superconductors being confined near the surface. The theorem implies a generalized force that expels current and magnetic field from the interior of a conductor that loses its resistivity. Examples of solutions that obey the theorem are presented.

  19. Skin effect mitigation in laser processed multi-walled carbon nanotube/copper conductors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keramatnejad, K.; Zhou, Y. S.; Gao, Y.; Rabiee Golgir, H.; Wang, M.; Lu, Y. F., E-mail: ylu2@unl.edu [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Nebraska-Lincoln, Lincoln, Nebraska 68588-0511 (United States); Jiang, L. [School of Mechanical Engineering, Beijing Institute of Technology, Beijing 100081 (China); Silvain, J.-F. [Institut de Chimie de la Matière Condensée de Bordeaux (ICMCB-CNRS) 87, Avenue du Docteur Albert Schweitzer F-33608 Pessac Cedex (France)

    2015-10-21

    In this study, laser-processed multi-walled carbon nanotube (MWCNT)/Cu conductors are introduced as potential passive components to mitigate the skin effect of Cu at high frequencies (0–10 MHz). Suppressed skin effect is observed in the MWCNT/Cu conductors compared to primitive Cu. At an AC frequency of 10 MHz, a maximum AC resistance reduction of 94% was observed in a MWCNT/Cu conductor after being irradiated at a laser power density of 189 W/cm{sup 2}. The reduced skin effect in the MWCNT/Cu conductors is ascribed to the presence of MWCNT channels which are insensitive to AC frequencies. The laser irradiation process is observed to play a crucial role in reducing contact resistance at the MWCNT-Cu interfaces, removing impurities in MWCNTs, and densifying MWCNT films.

  20. Stress-tuned conductor-polymer composite for use in sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, James E; Read, Douglas H

    2013-10-22

    A method for making a composite polymeric material with electrical conductivity determined by stress-tuning of the conductor-polymer composite, and sensors made with the stress-tuned conductor-polymer composite made by this method. Stress tuning is achieved by mixing a miscible liquid into the polymer precursor solution or by absorbing into the precursor solution a soluble compound from vapor in contact with the polymer precursor solution. The conductor may or may not be ordered by application of a magnetic field. The composite is formed by polymerization with the stress-tuning agent in the polymer matrix. The stress-tuning agent is removed following polymerization to produce a conductor-polymer composite with a stress field that depends on the amount of stress-tuning agent employed.

  1. On the Difference Between the Vacuum Casimir Energies for Grounded and Isolated Conductors

    CERN Document Server

    Fosco, C D; Mazzitelli, F D

    2016-01-01

    We study the vacuum (i.e., zero-temperature) Casimir energy for a system of neutral conductors which are isolated, as opposed to grounded. The former is meant to describe a situation where the total charge on each conductor, as well as all of its fluctuations, vanishes, while the latter describes a situation where the conductors are connected to a charge reservoir. We compute the difference between the vacuum energies for a given system of conductors, but subjected to the two different conditions stated above. The results can be written in terms of a generalized, frequency-dependent capacitance matrix of the system. Using a multipolar expansion, we show that the grounded Casimir energy includes a monopole-monopole interaction term that is absent in the isolated case in the large distance limit

  2. MHD instabilities developing in a conductor exploding in the skin effect mode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oreshkin, V. I.; Chaikovsky, S. A.; Datsko, I. M.; Labetskaya, N. A.; Mesyats, G. A.; Oreshkin, E. V.; Ratakhin, N. A.; Rybka, D. V.

    2016-12-01

    The results of experiments with exploding copper conductors, performed on the MIG facility (providing currents of amplitude of about 2.5 MA and rise time of 100 ns), are analyzed. With an frame optical camera, large-scale instabilities of wavelength 0.2-0.5 mm were detected on the conductor surface. The instabilities show up as plasma "tongues" expanding with a sound velocity in the opposite direction to the magnetic field gradient. Analysis performed using a two-dimensional MHD code has shown that the structures observed in the experiments were formed most probably due to flute instabilities. The growth of flute instabilities is predetermined by the development of thermal instabilities near the conductor surface. The thermal instabilities arise behind the front of the nonlinear magnetic diffusion wave propagating through the conductor. The wavefront on its own is not subject to thermal instabilities.

  3. Enhanced Mixed Electronic-Ionic Conductors through Cation Ordering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jacobson, Allan J. [Univ. of Houston, TX (United States); Morgan, Dane [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States); Grey, Clare [Stony Brook Univ., NY (United States)

    2014-08-31

    The performance of many energy conversion and storage devices depend on the properties of mixed ionic-electronic conducting (miec) materials. Mixed or ambipolar conductors simultaneously transport ions and electrons and provide the critical interface between chemical and electrical energy in devices such as fuel cells, ion transport membranes, and batteries. Enhancements in storage capacity, reversibility, power density and device lifetime all require new materials and a better understanding of the fundamentals of ambipolar conductivity and surface reactivity.The high temperature properties of the ordered perovksites AA’B2O5+x, where A = rare earth ion, Y and B = Ba, Sr were studied. The work was motivated by the high oxygen transport and surface exchange rates observed for members of this class of mixed ionic and electronic conductors. A combined experimental and computational approach, including structural, electrochemical, and transport characterization and modeling was used. The approach attacks the problem simultaneously at global (e.g., neutron diffraction and impedance spectroscopy), local (e.g., pair distribution function, nuclear magnetic resonance) and molecular (ab initio thermokinetic modeling) length scales. The objectives of the work were to understand how the cation and associated anion order lead to exceptional ionic and electronic transport properties and surface reactivity in AA’B2O5+x perovskites. A variety of compounds were studied by X-ray and neutron diffraction, measurements of thermodynamics and transport and theoretically. These included PrBaCo2O5+x and NdBaCo2O5+x, PrBaCo2-xFexO6- δ (x = 0, 0.5, 1.0, 1.5 and 2) and LnBaCoFeO6- δ (Ln = La, Pr, Nd, Sm, Eu and Gd), Sr3YCo4O10.5, YBaMn2O5+x. A0.5A’0.5BO3 (where A=Y, Sc, La, Ce, Pr, Nd, Pm, Sm; A’= Sr

  4. Metallographic autopsies of full-scale ITER prototype cable-in-conduit conductors after full cyclic testing in SULTAN: III. The importance of strand surface roughness in long twist pitch conductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanabria, Charlie; Lee, Peter J.; Starch, William; Devred, Arnaud; Larbalestier, David C.

    2016-07-01

    As part of the ITER conductor qualification process, 3 m long cable-in-conduit conductors (CICCs) were tested at the SULTAN facility under conditions simulating ITER operation so as to establish the current-sharing temperature, T cs, as a function of multiple full Lorentz force loading cycles. After a comprehensive evaluation of both the toroidal field (TF) and the central solenoid (CS) conductors, it was found that T cs degradation was common in long twist pitch TF conductors while short twist pitch CS conductors showed some T cs increase. However, one kind of TF conductors containing superconducting strand fabricated by the Bochvar Institute of Inorganic Materials (VNIINM) avoided T cs degradation despite having long twist pitch. In our earlier metallographic autopsies of long and short twist pitch CS conductors, we observed a substantially greater transverse strand movement under Lorentz force loading for long twist pitch conductors, while short twist pitch conductors had negligible transverse movement. With help from the literature, we concluded that the transverse movement was not the source of T cs degradation but rather an increase of the compressive strain in the Nb3Sn filaments possibly induced by longitudinal movement of the wires. Like all TF conductors this TF VNIINM conductor showed large transverse motions under Lorentz force loading, but T cs actually increased, as in all short twist pitch CS conductors. We here propose that the high surface roughness of the VNIINM strand may be responsible for the suppression of the compressive strain enhancement (characteristic of long twist pitch conductors). It appears that increasing strand surface roughness could improve the performance of long twist pitch CICCs.

  5. Anticipation-related brain connectivity in bipolar and unipolar depression: a graph theory approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manelis, Anna; Almeida, Jorge R C; Stiffler, Richelle; Lockovich, Jeanette C; Aslam, Haris A; Phillips, Mary L

    2016-09-01

    Bipolar disorder is often misdiagnosed as major depressive disorder, which leads to inadequate treatment. Depressed individuals versus healthy control subjects, show increased expectation of negative outcomes. Due to increased impulsivity and risk for mania, however, depressed individuals with bipolar disorder may differ from those with major depressive disorder in neural mechanisms underlying anticipation processes. Graph theory methods for neuroimaging data analysis allow the identification of connectivity between multiple brain regions without prior model specification, and may help to identify neurobiological markers differentiating these disorders, thereby facilitating development of better therapeutic interventions. This study aimed to compare brain connectivity among regions involved in win/loss anticipation in depressed individuals with bipolar disorder (BDD) versus depressed individuals with major depressive disorder (MDD) versus healthy control subjects using graph theory methods. The study was conducted at the University of Pittsburgh Medical Center and included 31 BDD, 39 MDD, and 36 healthy control subjects. Participants were scanned while performing a number guessing reward task that included the periods of win and loss anticipation. We first identified the anticipatory network across all 106 participants by contrasting brain activation during all anticipation periods (win anticipation + loss anticipation) versus baseline, and win anticipation versus loss anticipation. Brain connectivity within the identified network was determined using the Independent Multiple sample Greedy Equivalence Search (IMaGES) and Linear non-Gaussian Orientation, Fixed Structure (LOFS) algorithms. Density of connections (the number of connections in the network), path length, and the global connectivity direction ('top-down' versus 'bottom-up') were compared across groups (BDD/MDD/healthy control subjects) and conditions (win/loss anticipation). These analyses showed that

  6. An experimental method to determine the electrostatic field enhancement factor of a practical conductor surface

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McAllister, Iain Wilson; Crichton, George C

    1989-01-01

    A method of determining the field enhancement factor of a practical conductor is presented. The method is developed from a modified theory of discharge onset in a gaseous medium. This modification incorporates the influence of conductor surface roughness. Onset data from an experimental study...... that utilized electrodes of varying surface roughness are examined, and the results obtained using the proposed method are discussed with reference to both the underlying theory and the practical aspects of the experimental measurements...

  7. The Integration of YBCO Coated Conductors into Magnets and Rotating Machinery (Postprint)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-01

    AFRL-RZ-WP-TP-2012-0119 THE INTEGRATION OF YBCO COATED CONDUCTORS INTO MAGNETS AND ROTATING MACHINERY (POSTPRINT) G.A. Levin and P.N...COVERED (From - To) February 2012 Conference Paper Postprint 01 January 2004 – 01 January 2006 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE THE INTEGRATION OF YBCO COATED...Keystone, CO (August 29-September 2, 2005) The Integration of YBCO Coated Conductors into Magnets and Rotating Machinery G. A. Levin and P. N. Barnes

  8. Stability and Normal Zone Propagation Speed in YBCO Coated Conductors with Increased Interfacial Resistance (PREPRINT)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-01

    AFRL-RZ-WP-TP-2010-2085 STABILITY AND NORMAL ZONE PROPAGATION SPEED IN YBCO COATED CONDUCTORS WITH INCREASED INTERFACIAL RESISTANCE...August 2006 – 25 August 2008 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE STABILITY AND NORMAL ZONE PROPAGATION SPEED IN YBCO COATED CONDUCTORS WITH INCREASED INTERFACIAL...reproduce, release, perform, display, or disclose the work. 14. ABSTRACT We will discuss how stability and speed of normal zone propagation in YBCO

  9. Thermal hydraulic characteristics study of prototype NET and CEA cable-in-conduit conductors (CICCs)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maekawa, Ryuji

    1995-10-31

    The thermal hydraulic characteristics of low temperature helium in a Cable-in-Conduit Conductor (CICC) significantly affects the overall design and performance of the associated large scale superconducting magnet system. It is essential to understand the transient and steady state behavior of the helium in the conductor. Throughout the development of CICCs, the reduction of flow impedance has been one of the key factors to improving the overall pressure drop. The newly developed CICC for the ITER project has a hybrid cooling scheme: a central channel that is surrounded by bundles, for which the thermal hydraulic characteristics are not well understood. This thesis describes an experimental and analytical investigation of thermal hydraulic characteristics of low temperature helium in conventional and hybrid CICCS. Pressure drop measurements for both NET and CEA conductors have been conducted, using low temperature helium and liquid nitrogen to obtain a range of Reynolds numbers. The results are correlated with classical friction factor and Reynolds number analysis. The flow impedance reduction of the CEA conductor is described by measures of a developed flow model. Thermally induced flow in the CEA conductor has been studied with an inductive heating method. The induced velocity in the central channel is measured by a Pitot tube with steady state Reynolds number up to {approximately}7000. The transient pressure wave propagation has been recorded with pressure transducers placed equally along the conductor. The supercritical helium temperature in the central channel has been measured with the thermometer probe. However, the reduction of the central channel area significantly affects the overall thermal hydraulic characteristics of the conductor. The results suggest the importance of the central channel. A transient heat transfer experiment studied the.transverse heat transfer mechanism in the CEA conductor. The temperatures in the central channel and bundle region

  10. Electrical explosion of a conductor in energy accumulating phase change materials with nanosized semiconducting additions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savenkov, G. G.; Morozov, V. A.; Lukin, A. A.

    2016-11-01

    The results of experiments on the explosion of a copper conductor in paraffin and wax both without additions and with nanosized copper oxide additions are presented. The experiments provided the size of the channel formed in wax samples upon the conductor explosion and subsequent expansion of the electric discharge plasma. The obtained results testify to the influence of nanosized additions on the character of electric discharge plasma expansion in the formed channel, the strength of composite materials, and the sample fragmentation (destruction).

  11. Magnetic Field Design of Coil-Dominated Magnets Wound With Coated Conductors

    OpenAIRE

    Takahashi, Keita; Amemiya, Naoyuki; Nakamura, Taketsune; MORI, YOSHIHARU; Ogitsu, Toru; Yoshimoto, Masahiro; WATANABE, Ikuo; Yoshiyuki, Takeshi

    2012-01-01

    Coil-dominated magnets wound with coated conductors were designed for an FFAG accelerator for carbon therapy, which was designed by applying linear approximation. When designing the coil-end of the magnets, we applied differential geometry. To apply the differential geometry to three-dimensional windings with coated conductors, we introduced the concept of generalized flat-wise bending. Thereby, the combination of flat-wise bending and torsion was considered as bending of developable surface....

  12. Analysis of Cable-in-Conduit Conductors' DC Performance in Light of Strand's Experimental Properties

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TAN Yunfei; WENG Peide; LIU Fang; LI Shaolei

    2007-01-01

    Conductor qualification will be carried out with four Cable-in-Conduit Conductor (CICC) samples made of superconducting strands. The direct current (DC) performance of these samples will be tested in the SULTAN facility. The critical current densities of the strands can be well simulated by empirical equations. In this paper, a model is illustrated to predict the DC behaviour of the cable in light of the single strand's experimental properties. The simulation results were compared with experimental results.

  13. Doped Y.sub.2O.sub.3 buffer layers for laminated conductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paranthaman, Mariappan Parans [Knoxville, TN; Schoop, Urs [Westborough, MA; Goyal, Amit [Knoxville, TN; Thieme, Cornelis Leo Hans [Westborough, MA; Verebelyi, Darren T [Oxford, MA; Rupich, Martin W [Framingham, MA

    2007-08-21

    A laminated conductor includes a metallic substrate having a surface, a biaxially textured buffer layer supported by the surface of the metallic substrate, the biaxially textured buffer layer comprising Y.sub.2O.sub.3 and a dopant for blocking cation diffusion through the Y.sub.2O.sub.3, and a biaxially textured conductor layer supported by the biaxially textured buffer layer.

  14. Interfaces in Dye-Sensitized Oxide / Hole-Conductor Heterojunctions for Solar Cell Applications

    OpenAIRE

    Johansson, Erik

    2006-01-01

    Nanoporous dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSC) are promising devices for solar to electric energy conversion. In this thesis photoelectron spectroscopy (PES), x-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) and photovoltaic measurements are used for studies of the key interfaces in the DSSC. Photovoltaic properties of new combinations of TiO2/dye/hole-conductor heterojunctions were demonstrated and their interfacial structures were studied. Three different types of hole-conductor materials were investigate...

  15. Design of the HTS Fusion Conductors for TF and CS Coils

    OpenAIRE

    Bykovsky, Nikolay; Uglietti, Davide; Wesche, Rainer; Bruzzone, Pierluigi

    2016-01-01

    The main electrical and mechanical requirements for the LTS fusion conductors of DEMO are retained as a starting point for the development of HTS fusion cables. Based on the HTS coated conductor technology, a flat cable design was proposed by CRPP Swiss Plasma Center (SPC) using the strands made of twisted stack of tapes soldered into copper profiles. Analytical modeling of the cable geometry is developed and presented in this work. The model was used to estimate various properties of cable. ...

  16. Time-Domain Analysis of a Wire Antenna Near Arbitrarily Shaped Conductor Bodies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zheng; Li-Zhi; Xiao; Bo-xun; 等

    2003-01-01

    A time domain electrical field integral equation (TDEFIE) is formulated for the problem of a thin wire antenna in the presence of conductor bodies, and this equation is solved by the method in time marching algorithm. The analysis is valid for any arbitrarily shaped, oriented and positioned wire antennas relative to arbitrarily shaped conductor bodies. Current at the excited point, input admittance and radiation pattern are given and agree with the results computed by the method in frequency domain.

  17. Time-Domain Analysis of a Wire Antenna Near Arbitrarily Shaped Conductor Bodies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zheng Li-zhi; Xiao Bo-xur; Zhu Guo-qiang; Yang Zi-jie

    2003-01-01

    A time domain electrical field integral equation (TDEFIE) is formulated for the problem of a thin wire antenna in the presence of conductor bodies, and this equation is solved by the method of time marching algorithm. The analysis is valid for any arbitrarily shaped, oriented and positioned wire antennas relative to arbitrarily shaped conductor bodies. Current at the excited point, input admittance and radiation pattern are given and agree with the results computed by the method in frequency domain.

  18. High Upper Critical Field and Irreversibility Field in MgB2 Coated-Conductor Fibers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-13

    conductor fibers deposited by hybrid physical- chemical vapor deposition on SiC fibers. The coating is polycrystalline and composed of elongated...High upper critical field and irreversibility field in MgB2 coated -conductor fibers V. Ferrando,a P. Orgiani,b A. V. Pogrebnyakov, J. Chen, Qi Li...2005; accepted 14 November 2005; published online 14 December 2005 We report on structural and superconducting properties of round MgB2 coated

  19. Manufacturing and test of 2G-HTS coils for rotating machines: Challenges, conductor requirements, realization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oomen, Marijn; Herkert, Werner; Bayer, Dietmar; Kummeth, Peter; Nick, Wolfgang; Arndt, Tabea

    2012-11-01

    We investigate the use of 2nd-generation High-Temperature Superconductors (2G-HTSs) in the rotors of electrical motors and generators. For these devices the conductor must be wound into robust impregnated coils, which are operated in vacuum at temperatures around 30 K, in strong magnetic fields of about 2T. Differences in thermal contraction between the coil former, conductor constituents, impregnation resin, bandage and heat-sink materials (assembled at room temperature) cause mechanical stresses at operating temperature. Rotating-machine operation adds Lorentz forces and challenging centripetal accelerations up to thousands of g. Second generation-HTS conductors withstand large tensile stresses in axial direction and compression in normal direction. However, shear stresses, axial compression, and tension normal to the conductor can cause degradation in superconducting properties. Such stresses can be mitigated by correct choice of materials, coil lay-out and manufacturing process. A certain stress level will remain, which the conductor must withstand. We have manufactured many impregnated round and race-track coils, using different 2G-HTS conductors, and tested them at temperatures from 25 K to 77 K. Degradation of the superconductor in early coils was traced to the mentioned differences in thermal contraction, and was completely avoided in coils produced later. We will discuss appropriate coil-winding techniques to assure robust and reliable superconductor performance.

  20. DC ice-melting model for wet-growth icing conductor and its experimental investigation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    Icicles are often formed under the downside surface of conductor in the wet growth icing of overhead power line. When the ice deposit around overhead power line is molten by Joule heat produced by current, the pattern of heat transfer of ice deposit with icicles is dissimilar to that without icicle, so the ice-melting model for the columnar icing conductor cannot be applied to icicle-shaped icing conductor. According to the heat-transfer characteristic of the icicle-shaped icing conductor, this paper puts forward a DC ice-melting model for the icicle-shaped icing conductor. Because this full model includes three-dimensional heat-transfer and interface movement, which cannot be solved in closed form, a finite element scheme in space-domain and a finite difference scheme in time-domain are employed to discretize the governing equations. Firstly the whole ice-melting process on the icicle-shaped icing conductor is simulated by this model. Then the simulated results are validated by ice-melting experiments in the artificial chamber. The study from the model and the experiments shows that the size and length of icicle as well as the space between the adjacent icicles are factors to affect ice-melting. With the shorter icicle space, the bigger icicle size and the longer icicle-length, the surface of ice layer is enlarged and then more heat is taken away by the convection and radiation, so the ice melting time will get longer.

  1. Test of 60 kA coated conductor cable prototypes for fusion magnets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uglietti, D.; Bykovsky, N.; Sedlak, K.; Stepanov, B.; Wesche, R.; Bruzzone, P.

    2015-12-01

    Coated conductors could be promising materials for the fabrication of the large magnet systems of future fusion devices. Two prototype conductors (flat cables in steel conduits), each about 2 m long, were manufactured using coated conductor tapes (4 mm wide) from Super Power and SuperOx, with a total tape length of 1.6 km. Each flat cable is assembled from 20 strands, each strand consisting of a stack of 16 tapes surrounded by two half circular copper profiles, twisted and soldered. The tapes were measured at 12 T and 4.2 K and the results of the measurements were used for the assessment of the conductor electromagnetic properties at low temperature and high field. The two conductors were assembled together in a sample that was tested in the European Dipole (EDIPO) facility. The current sharing temperatures of the two conductors were measured at background fields from 8 T up to 12 T and for currents from 30 kA up to 70 kA: the measured values are within a few percent of the values expected from the measurements on tapes (short samples). After electromagnetic cycling, T cs at 12 T and 50 kA decreased from about 12 K to 11 K (about 10%), corresponding to less than 3% of I c.

  2. Powder-in-tube (PIT) $Nb_{3}Sn$ conductors for high-field magnets

    CERN Document Server

    Lindenhovius, J L H; den Ouden, A; Wessel, W A J; ten Kate, H H J

    2000-01-01

    New Nb/sub 3/Sn conductors, based on the powder-in-tube (PIT) process, have been developed for application in accelerator magnets and high-field solenoids. For application in accelerator magnets, SMI has developed a binary 504 filament PIT conductor by optimizing the manufacturing process and adjustment of the conductor lay-out. It uniquely combines a non-copper current density of 2680 A/mm/sup 2/@10 T with an effective filament diameter of about 20 mu m. This binary conductor may be used in a 10 T, wide bore model separator dipole magnet for the LHC, which is being developed by a collaboration of the University of Twente and CERN. A ternary (Nb/7.5wt%Ta)/sub 3/Sn conductor containing 37 filaments is particularly suited for application in extremely high-field superconducting solenoids. This wire features a copper content of 43%, a non-copper current density of 217 A/mm/sup 2/@20 T and a B/sub c2/ of 25.6 T. The main issues and the experimental results of the development program of PIT Nb/sub 3/Sn conductors a...

  3. The relationship between action anticipation and emotion recognition in athletes of open skill sports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shih, Yu-Ling; Lin, Chia-Yen

    2016-08-01

    Action anticipation plays an important role in the successful performance of open skill sports, such as ball and combat sports. Evidence has shown that elite athletes of open sports excel in action anticipation. Most studies have targeted ball sports and agreed that information on body mechanics is one of the key determinants for successful action anticipation in open sports. However, less is known about combat sports, and whether facial emotions have an influence on athletes' action anticipation skill. It has been suggested that the understanding of intention in combat sports relies heavily on emotional context. Based on this suggestion, the present study compared the action anticipation performances of taekwondo athletes, weightlifting athletes, and non-athletes and then correlated these with their performances of emotion recognition. This study primarily found that accurate action anticipation does not necessarily rely on the dynamic information of movement, and that action anticipation performance is correlated with that of emotion recognition in taekwondo athletes, but not in weightlifting athletes. Our results suggest that the recognition of facial emotions plays a role in the action prediction in such combat sports as taekwondo.

  4. How Anticipated and Experienced Stigma Can Contribute to Self-Stigma: The Case of Problem Gambling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hing, Nerilee; Russell, Alex M. T.

    2017-01-01

    The degree to which anticipated and experienced public stigma contribute to self-stigma remains open to debate, and little research has been conducted into the self-stigma of problem gambling. This study aimed to examine which aspects of anticipated and experienced stigma (if any) predict the anticipated level of public stigma associated with problem gambling and the degree of self-stigma felt by people experiencing problem gambling. An online survey of 177 Australians experiencing problem gambling examined whether aspects of the public characterization of problem gambling, anticipated reactions to problem gamblers, and experiences of devaluation and discrimination predicted anticipated level of public stigma and self-stigma. The study found that self-stigma increases with expectations that the public applies a range of negative stereotypes to people with gambling problems, holds demeaning and discriminatory attitudes toward them, and considers them to lead highly disrupted lives. These variables directly predicted anticipated level of public stigma and indirectly predicted self-stigma. These findings lend weight to conceptualizations of self-stigma as an internalization of actual or anticipated public stigma. They also highlight the need for stigma reduction efforts, particularly those that lower negative stereotyping and prejudicial attitudes, to improve currently low rates of help-seeking amongst people with gambling problems. PMID:28270787

  5. Regulatory Mode and Risk-Taking: The Mediating Role of Anticipated Regret.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angelo Panno

    Full Text Available We propose that decision maker's regulatory mode affects risk-taking through anticipated regret. In the Study 1 either a locomotion or an assessment orientation were experimentally induced, and in the Studies 2 and 3 these different orientations were assessed as chronic individual differences. To assess risk-taking we used two behavioral measures of risk: BART and hot-CCT. The results show that experimentally induced assessment orientation--compared to locomotion--leads to decreased risk-taking through increased anticipated regret (Study 1. People chronically predisposed to be in the assessment state take less risk through increased anticipated regret (Study 2 and Study 3. Study 2 results also show a marginally non-significant indirect effect of chronic locomotion mode on BART through anticipated regret. Differently, Study 3 shows that people chronically predisposed to be in the locomotion state take greater risk through decreased anticipated regret, when play a dynamic risk task triggering stronger emotional arousal. Through all three studies, the average effect size for the relationship of assessment with anticipated regret was in the moderate-large range, whereas for risk-taking was in the moderate range. The average effect size for the relationship of locomotion with anticipated regret was in the moderate range, whereas for risk-taking was in the small-moderate range. These results increase our understanding of human behavior under conditions of risk obtaining novel insights into regulatory mode theory and decision science.

  6. Regulatory Mode and Risk-Taking: The Mediating Role of Anticipated Regret.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panno, Angelo; Lauriola, Marco; Pierro, Antonio

    2015-01-01

    We propose that decision maker's regulatory mode affects risk-taking through anticipated regret. In the Study 1 either a locomotion or an assessment orientation were experimentally induced, and in the Studies 2 and 3 these different orientations were assessed as chronic individual differences. To assess risk-taking we used two behavioral measures of risk: BART and hot-CCT. The results show that experimentally induced assessment orientation--compared to locomotion--leads to decreased risk-taking through increased anticipated regret (Study 1). People chronically predisposed to be in the assessment state take less risk through increased anticipated regret (Study 2 and Study 3). Study 2 results also show a marginally non-significant indirect effect of chronic locomotion mode on BART through anticipated regret. Differently, Study 3 shows that people chronically predisposed to be in the locomotion state take greater risk through decreased anticipated regret, when play a dynamic risk task triggering stronger emotional arousal. Through all three studies, the average effect size for the relationship of assessment with anticipated regret was in the moderate-large range, whereas for risk-taking was in the moderate range. The average effect size for the relationship of locomotion with anticipated regret was in the moderate range, whereas for risk-taking was in the small-moderate range. These results increase our understanding of human behavior under conditions of risk obtaining novel insights into regulatory mode theory and decision science.

  7. Large Scale Assembly and Characterization of BI-2223 HTS Conductors

    CERN Document Server

    Ballarino, Amalia; Mathot, Serge; Taylor, T; Brambilla, R

    2007-01-01

    The powering of the LHC machine requires more than 1000 High Temperature Superconducting (HTS) current leads. These leads contain, at their cold end, HTS conductors made of stacks of Bi-2223 tape with gold-doped silver matrix. CERN specified and purchased 31 km of this material, which was delivered on spools in unit lengths of 100 to 300 m. On reception the tape was inspected, cut into short length and vacuum soldered into stacks. All stacks were characterized in liquid nitrogen using a measuring procedure and set-up specifically developed for this purpose. Contact resistance values and critical currents at different electric field criteria were measured, from which the n-values have been extrapolated from the experimental V-I characteristics. This paper reports on the assembly and electrical characterization (up to 800 A) of more than ten thousand Bi-2223 stacks. Three types of stack were made from tape from two manufacturers. The assembly and soldering procedures and the set-up for the series electrical cha...

  8. Dynamics of caged ions in glassy ionic conductors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habasaki, J; Ngai, K L; Hiwatari, Y

    2004-05-01

    At sufficiently high frequency and low temperature, the dielectric responses of glassy, crystalline, and molten ionic conductors all invariably exhibit nearly constant loss. This ubiquitous characteristic occurs in the short-time regime when the ions are still caged, indicating that it could be a determining factor of the mobility of the ions in conduction at longer times. An improved understanding of its origin should benefit the research of ion conducting materials for portable energy source as well as the resolution of the fundamental problem of the dynamics of ions. We perform molecular dynamics simulations of glassy lithium metasilicate (Li2SiO3) and find that the length scales of the caged Li+ ions motions are distributed according to a Levy distribution that has a long tail. These results suggest that the nearly constant loss originates from "dynamic anharmonicity" experienced by the moving but caged Li+ ions and provided by the surrounding matrix atoms executing correlated movements. The results pave the way for rigorous treatments of caged ion dynamics by nonlinear Hamiltonian dynamics.

  9. Comparative characterization of Cu–Ni substrates for coated conductors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tian, H.; Suo, H.L.; Wulff, Anders Christian;

    2014-01-01

    Three Cu100xNix alloys, with x = 23, 33 and 45 at.%Ni, have been evaluated for use as substrates for coated conductors on the basis of measurements of their microstructure, crystallographic texture and hardness. It is found that high-temperature annealing after heavy rolling generates strong cube...... textures in each investigated alloy. For all of these alloys an increase in the annealing temperature from 800 to 1000 C strengthens the cube texture and reduces the fraction of high angle grain boundaries. In the Cu–23 at.%Ni and Cu–33 at.%Ni alloys annealed at 1000 C for 1 h, the fraction of the cube...... texture approaches 100% and the fraction of high angle boundaries is less than 4%. These two alloys are however very soft in the annealed condition. The cube texture in the Cu–45 at.%Ni substrate is slightly weaker than in the two other alloys, but this substrate is considerably harder, which makes...

  10. Aluminum alloy production for the reinforcement of the CMS conductor

    CERN Document Server

    Sequeira-Lopes-Tavares, S; Campi, D; Curé, B; Horváth, I L; Riboni, P; Sgobba, Stefano; Smith, R P

    2002-01-01

    The Compact Muon Solenoid (CMS) is one of the general-purpose detectors to be provided for the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) project at CERN. The design field of the CMS superconducting magnet is 4 T, the magnetic length is 12.5 m and the free bore is 6 m. To reinforce the high-purity (99.998%) Al-stabilized conductor of the magnet against the magnetic loadings experienced during operation at 4.2 K, two continuous sections of Al-alloy (AA) reinforcement are Electron Beam (EB) welded to it. The reinforcements have a section of 24*18 mm and are produced in continuous 2.55 km lengths. The alloy EN AW-6082 has been selected for the reinforcement due to its excellent extrudability, high strength in the precipitation hardened states, high toughness and strength at cryogenic temperature and good EB weldability. Each of the continuous lengths of the reinforcement is extruded billet on billet and press quenched on-line from the extrusion temperature in an industrial extrusion plant. In order to insure the ready EB welda...

  11. A comparative analysis of graphene oxide films as proton conductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smirnov, V. A.; Denisov, N. N.; Dremova, N. N.; Vol'fkovich, Y. M.; Rychagov, A. Y.; Sosenkin, V. E.; Belay, K. G.; Gutsev, G. L.; Shulga, N. Yu.; Shulga, Y. M.

    2014-12-01

    The electrical conductivity of graphene oxide (GO) films in vapors of water and acid solutions is found to be close to the conductivity of a film formed after drying the solution of phenol-2,4-disulfonic acid in polyvinyl alcohol, which is known to be a proton conductor. We found that the conductivity of a GO film in vapors of the H2O-H2SO4 electrolyte possesses a sharp maximum at ~1 % by weight of sulfuric acid. The highest conductivity of GO films can be expected when placing the films over acid vapors where the acid concentration is essentially lower than in the acid solutions at their maximum conductivity. Since the conductivity of the H2O-H2SO4 electrolyte itself has a maximum at ~30 % by weight of sulfuric acid, the use of intermediate concentrations of H2SO4 is recommended in practical applications. The GO films permeated with water or acid solution in water are expected to possess the proton-exchange properties similar to those of other proton-exchanging membranes.

  12. The superconducting strand for the CMS solenoid conductor

    CERN Document Server

    Curé, B; Campi, D; Goodrich, L F; Horváth, I L; Kircher, F; Liikamaa, R; Seppälä, J; Smith, R P; Teuho, J; Vieillard, L

    2002-01-01

    The Compact Muon Solenoid (CMS) is one of the general-purpose detectors to be provided for the LHC project at CERN. The design field of the CMS superconducting magnet is 4 T, the magnetic length is 12.5 m and the free bore is 6 m. Approximately 2000 km of superconducting strand is under procurement for the conductor of the CMS superconducting solenoid. Each strand length is required to be an integral multiple of 2.75 km. The strand is composed of copper- stabilized multifilamentary Nb-Ti with Nb barrier. Individual strands are identified by distinctive patterns of Nb-Ti filaments selected during stacking of the monofilaments. The statistics of piece length, measurements of I/sub c/, n-value, copper RRR, (Cu+Nb)/Nb-Ti ratio, as well as the results of independent cross checks of these quantities, are presented. A study was performed on the CMS strands to investigate the critical current degradation due to various heat treatments. The degradation versus annealing temperature and duration are reported. (4 refs).

  13. $Nb_{3}Al$ prototype conductor for the transmission line magnet

    CERN Document Server

    Barzi, E; Malamud, E; Mazur, P O; Piekarz, H; Wake, M; Hayashi, K; Koganeya, M

    1999-01-01

    The Very Large Hadron Collider (VLHC), under consideration for construction at Fermilab in the next 1-2 decades, is a 100 TeV cm pp collider. A major cost driver is the magnet. R&D is underway on several possible magnet designs. A low-field (2T) superferric magnet, sometimes called a transmission line magnet, may be the most cost- effective route to the VLHC. Although NbTi is now the cheapest superconductor measured in cost/kA-meter, Nb/sub 3/Al has the potential advantage that it remains superconducting at higher temperature. It may be particularly suited to the single "turn" and long straight lengths of the transmission line design. The combination of the simple magnet design and the higher strain tolerance than e.g. Nb/sub 3/Sn allows a simple process of cable fabrication, reaction, and magnet assembly. This higher strain tolerance is an advantage for splicing in the field. Sumitomo Electric Industries is producing an Nb/sub 3/Al conductor for the Fermilab low-field magnet program. (9 refs).

  14. Anticipating Terrorist Safe Havens from Instability Induced Conflict

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shearer, Robert; Marvin, Brett

    This chapter presents recent methods developed at the Center for Army Analysis to classify patterns of nation-state instability that lead to conflict. The ungoverned areas endemic to failed nation-states provide terrorist organizations with safe havens from which to plan and execute terrorist attacks. Identification of those states at risk for instability induced conflict should help to facilitate effective counter terrorism policy planning efforts. Nation-states that experience instability induced conflict are similar in that they share common instability factors that make them susceptible to experiencing conflict. We utilize standard pattern classification algorithms to identify these patterns. First, we identify features (political, military, economic and social) that capture the instability of a nation-state. Second, we forecast the future levels of these features for each nation-state. Third, we classify each future state’s conflict potential based upon the conflict level of those states in the past most similar to the future state.

  15. Anticipating future innovation pathways through large data analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Chiavetta, Denise; Porter, Alan; Saritas, Ozcan

    2016-01-01

    This book aims to identify promising future developmental opportunities and applications for Tech Mining. Specifically, the enclosed contributions will pursue three converging themes: The increasing availability of electronic text data resources relating to Science, Technology & Innovation (ST&I) The multiple methods that are able to treat this data effectively and incorporate means to tap into human expertise and interests Translating those analyses to provide useful intelligence on likely future developments of particular emerging S&T targets. Tech Mining can be defined as text analyses of ST&I information resources to generate Competitive Technical Intelligence (CTI). It combines bibliometrics and advanced text analytic, drawing on specialized knowledge pertaining to ST&I. Tech Mining may also be viewed as a special form of “Big Data” analytics because it searches on a target emerging technology (or key organization) of interest in global databases. One then downloads, typically, th...

  16. Antibiotics in Canadian poultry productions and anticipated alternatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moussa Sory Diarra

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The use of antibiotics in food-producing animals has significantly increased animal health by lowering mortality and the incidence of diseases. Antibiotics also have largely contributed to increase productivity of farms. However, antibiotic usage in general and relevance of non-therapeutic antibiotics in feed (growth promoters need to be reevaluated especially because bacterial pathogens of humans and animals have developed and shared a variety of antibiotic resistance mechanisms that can easily spread within microbial communities. In Canada, poultry production involves more than 2,600 regulated chicken producers. There are several antibiotics approved as feed additives available for poultry farmers. Feed recipes and mixtures greatly vary geographically and from one farm to another, making links between use of a specific antibiotic feed additive and production yields or selection of specific antibiotic-resistant bacteria difficult to establish. Many on-farm studies have revealed the widespread presence of antibiotic-resistant bacteria in broiler chickens. While sporadic reports linked the presence of antibiotic-resistant organisms to the use of feed supplemented with antibiotics, no recent studies could clearly demonstrate the benefit of antimicrobial growth promoters on performance and production yields. With modern biosecurity and hygienic practices, there is a genuine concern that intensive utilization of antibiotics or use of antimicrobial growth promoters in feed might no longer be useful. Public pressure and concerns about food and environmental safety (antibiotic residues, antibiotic-resistant pathogens have driven researchers to actively look for alternatives to antibiotics. Some of the alternatives include pre- and probiotics, organic acids and essential oils. We will describe here the properties of some bioactive molecules, like those found in cranberry, which have shown interesting polyvalent antibacterial and immuno

  17. A new lattice hydrodynamic traffic flow model with a consideration of multi-anticipation effect

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tian Chuan; Sun Di-Hua; Yang Shu-Hong

    2011-01-01

    We present a new multi-anticipation lattice hydrodynamic model based on the traffic anticipation effect in the real world.Applying the linear stability theory,we obtain the linear stability condition of the model.Through nonlinear analysis,we derive the modified Korteweg-de Vries equation to describe the propagating behaviour of a traffic density wave near the critical point.The good agreement between the simulation results and the analytical results shows that the stability of traffic flow can be enhanced when the multi-anticipation effect is considered.

  18. Anticipation in the synchronization of chaotic semiconductor lasers with optical feedback.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masoller, C

    2001-03-26

    The synchronization of chaotic semiconductor lasers with optical feedback is studied numerically in a one-way coupling configuration, in which a small amount of the intensity of one laser (master laser) is injected coherently into the other (slave laser). A regime of anticipated synchronization is found, in which the intensity of the slave laser is synchronized to the future chaotic intensity of the master laser. Anticipation is robust to small noise and parameter mismatches, but in this case the synchronization is not complete. It is also shown that anticipated synchronization occurs in coupled time-delay systems, when the coupling has a delay that is less than the delay of the systems.

  19. Anticipation and subjectivity: A commentary on an early text by Lacan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blomme, David; Hoens, Dominiek

    2000-05-01

    In his 1945 paper Lacan discusses a sophism to exemplify crucial moments in the becoming of a human subject. One of these moments is the anticipation of an identity. This anticipatory decision is confirmed in a subsequent logical reasoning. In our paper we will present the sophism in its details and will focus on the essential moment of anticipation. The further (and sometimes implicit) reworking of this notion by Lacan shows that, according to psychoanalysis, anticipation is an important mechanism that involves time and the presence of the other.

  20. Density waves in a lattice hydrodynamic traffic flow model with the anticipation effect

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhao Min; Sun Di-Hua; Tian Chuan

    2012-01-01

    By introducing the traffic anticipation effect in the real world into the original lattice hydrodynamic model,we present a new anticipation effect lattice hydrodynamic (AELH) model,and obtain the linear stability condition of the model by applying the linear stability theory.Through nonlinear analysis,we derive the Burgers equation and Korteweg-de Vries (KdV) equation,to describe the propagating behaviour of traffic density waves in the stable and the metastable regions,respectively.The good agreement between simulation results and analytical results shows that the stability of traffic flow can be enhanced when the anticipation effect is considered.

  1. Quantum Hall Effect in Quasi-One-Dimensional Conductors: The Roles of Moving FISDW, Finite Temperature, and Edge States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yakovenko, Victor M.; Goan, Hsi-Sheng

    1996-12-01

    This paper reviews recent developments in the theory of the quantum Hall effect (QHE) in the magnetic-field-induced spin-density-wave (FISDW) state of the quasi-one-dimensional organic conductors (TMTSF)2X. The origin and the basic features of the FISDW are reviewed. The QHE in the pinned FISDW state is derived in several simple, transparent ways, including the edge states formulation of the problem. The temperature dependence of the Hall conductivity is found to be the same as the temperature dependence of the Fröhlich current. It is shown that, when the FISDW is free to move, it produces an additional contribution to the Hall conductivity that nullifies the total Hall effect. The paper is written on mathematically simple level, emphasizes physical meaning over sophisticated mathematical technique, and uses inductive, rather than deductive, reasoning.

  2. 导游员素质与形象塑造%Tour Conductor Quality and Image Building

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邱邻霖

    2012-01-01

    Tour conductor quality is related to the rise and decline of travel agency, including good personal quality, extensive and reasonable knowledge structure, excellent skills of organization and interpersonal communication, self-control ability, superb language expression skills, excellent and effective guide skills, and healthy psychology and physique.%导游员素质关系旅行社的兴衰,主要表现为良好的思想品质,广博合理的知识结构,杰出的组织、人际交往能力和自控力以及高超的语言表达能力,卓越而有效的导游技能,健康的心理和体质等方面.

  3. Seaweeds in ornamental aquaria in Brazil: anticipating introductions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beatriz N Torrano-Silva

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Home and public sea aquaria are becoming more and more popular worldwide. Aquaria species are selected for their aesthetic appeal in terms of color, shape or behavior. In Brazil, most species are imported from remote places, usually tropical areas around the world. Water discarded from aquaria often includes organisms, or their propagula, that may become locally established. There have been extensive discussions concerning the vectors of species dispersion from their native areas, which includes ornamental aquaria. In order to evaluate the potential of local aquaria as a source of non native macro algae, we surveyed sea-aquaria shops and exhibition aquaria in São Paulo State. Thirty eight species of seaweeds were isolated in the aquaria surveyed. Among them, six have not been recorded from Brazil and nineteen were not reported for São Paulo littoral, including Caulerpa scalpelliformis var. denticulata the only species that so far deserves being designated as invasive in Brazil. The present paper should alert environmental agencies and aquaria shops about the risk of involuntarily introducing non-native species through aquariophyly.

  4. Blunted ventral striatal responses to anticipated rewards foreshadow problematic drug use in novelty-seeking adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Büchel, Christian; Peters, Jan; Banaschewski, Tobias; Bokde, Arun L. W.; Bromberg, Uli; Conrod, Patricia J.; Flor, Herta; Papadopoulos, Dimitri; Garavan, Hugh; Gowland, Penny; Heinz, Andreas; Walter, Henrik; Ittermann, Bernd; Mann, Karl; Martinot, Jean-Luc; Paillère-Martinot, Marie-Laure; Nees, Frauke; Paus, Tomas; Pausova, Zdenka; Poustka, Luise; Rietschel, Marcella; Robbins, Trevor W.; Smolka, Michael N.; Gallinat, Juergen; Schumann, Gunter; Knutson, Brian; Arroyo, Mercedes; Artiges, Eric; Aydin, Semiha; Bach, Christine; Barbot, Alexis; Barker, Gareth; Bruehl, Ruediger; Cattrell, Anna; Constant, Patrick; Crombag, Hans; Czech, Katharina; Dalley, Jeffrey; Decideur, Benjamin; Desrivieres, Sylvane; Fadai, Tahmine; Fauth-Buhler, Mira; Feng, Jianfeng; Filippi, Irinia; Frouin, Vincent; Fuchs, Birgit; Gemmeke, Isabel; Genauck, Alexander; Hanratty, Eanna; Heinrichs, Bert; Heym, Nadja; Hubner, Thomas; Ihlenfeld, Albrecht; Ing, Alex; Ireland, James; Jia, Tianye; Jones, Jennifer; Jurk, Sarah; Kaviani, Mehri; Klaassen, Arno; Kruschwitz, Johann; Lalanne, Christophe; Lanzerath, Dirk; Lathrop, Mark; Lawrence, Claire; Lemaitre, Hervé; Macare, Christine; Mallik, Catherine; Mar, Adam; Martinez-Medina, Lourdes; Mennigen, Eva; de Carvahlo, Fabiana Mesquita; Mignon, Xavier; Millenet, Sabina; Miranda, Ruben; Müller, Kathrin; Nymberg, Charlotte; Parchetka, Caroline; Pena-Oliver, Yolanda; Pentilla, Jani; Poline, Jean-Baptiste; Quinlan, Erin Burke; Rapp, Michael; Ripke, Stephan; Ripley, Tamzin; Robert, Gabriel; Rogers, John; Romanowski, Alexander; Ruggeri, Barbara; Schmäl, Christine; Schmidt, Dirk; Schneider, Sophia; Schubert, Florian; Schwartz, Yannick; Sommer, Wolfgang; Spanagel, Rainer; Speiser, Claudia; Spranger, Tade; Stedman, Alicia; Stephens, Dai; Strache, Nicole; Ströhle, Andreas; Struve, Maren; Subramaniam, Naresh; Theobald, David; Vetter, Nora; Vulser, Helene; Weiss, Katharina; Whelan, Robert; Williams, Steve; Xu, Bing; Yacubian, Juliana; Yu, Tao; Ziesch, Veronika

    2017-01-01

    Novelty-seeking tendencies in adolescents may promote innovation as well as problematic impulsive behaviour, including drug abuse. Previous research has not clarified whether neural hyper- or hypo-responsiveness to anticipated rewards promotes vulnerability in these individuals. Here we use a longitudinal design to track 144 novelty-seeking adolescents at age 14 and 16 to determine whether neural activity in response to anticipated rewards predicts problematic drug use. We find that diminished BOLD activity in mesolimbic (ventral striatal and midbrain) and prefrontal cortical (dorsolateral prefrontal cortex) regions during reward anticipation at age 14 predicts problematic drug use at age 16. Lower psychometric conscientiousness and steeper discounting of future rewards at age 14 also predicts problematic drug use at age 16, but the neural responses independently predict more variance than psychometric measures. Together, these findings suggest that diminished neural responses to anticipated rewards in novelty-seeking adolescents may increase vulnerability to future problematic drug use. PMID:28221370

  5. Students' anticipated situational engagement: the roles of teacher behavior, personal engagement, and gender.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thijs, Jochem; Verkuyten, Maykel

    2009-09-01

    Among 9th-grade students (248 girls, 255 boys) from a large multiethnic school, the authors examined 2 aspects of anticipated situational engagement in relation to 3 types of hypothetical teacher behavior: authoritarian, authoritative, permissive. Furthermore, the authors investigated the moderating roles of students' personal (trait-like) engagement and gender. Multilevel analyses showed differential effects of teacher behavior type. Anticipated situational engagement was generally highest with the authoritative teacher and lowest with the authoritarian teacher. However, students' personal engagement and gender qualified these effects. The effects of the authoritative and authoritarian teachers versus the permissive teachers on anticipated situational engagement were more positive (or less negative) for students with high versus low personal engagement. Also, the positive effects of the authoritative and permissive teachers versus the authoritarian teacher were stronger for female students than for male students. Results show that anticipated situational engagement should be understood by examining the combined influences of contextual and individual characteristics.

  6. Perturbation and Stability Analysis of the Multi-Anticipative Intelligent Driver Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xi-Qun; Xie, Wei-Jun; Shi, Jing; Shi, Qi-Xin

    This paper discusses three kinds of IDM car-following models that consider both the multi-anticipative behaviors and the reaction delays of drivers. Here, the multi-anticipation comes from two ways: (1) the driver is capable of evaluating the dynamics of several preceding vehicles, and (2) the autonomous vehicles can obtain the velocity and distance information of several preceding vehicles via inter-vehicle communications. In this paper, we study the stability of homogeneous traffic flow. The linear stability analysis indicates that the stable region will generally be enlarged by the multi-anticipative behaviors and reduced by the reaction delays. The temporal amplification and the spatial divergence of velocities for local perturbation are also studied, where the results further prove this conclusion. Simulation results also show that the multi-anticipative behaviors near the bottleneck will lead to a quicker backwards propagation of oscillations.

  7. Protecting against natural hazards - Information seeking behaviour in anticipation of severe weather events

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jeuring, Jelmer

    2011-01-01

    Protection against natural hazards - Information seeking behaviour in anticipation of severe weather events Severe weather events can have considerable impact on society, including tourism organisations and tourists. Providing accurate and timely information about possible risks due to environmental

  8. How Stakeholder Sensing and Anticipations Shape the Firm’s Strategic Response Capability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hallin, Carina Antonia; Andersen, Torben Juul; Ooi, Can-Seng

    We outline a strategic response capability framework drawing on cognitive neuroscience to explain stakeholder sensing and anticipations as essential input to environmental analysis. Stakeholders receive stimuli from ongoing interactions with the firm and thereby sense current environmental changes...

  9. Predicting dynamic behavior via anticipating synchronization in coupled pendulum-like systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Shiyun; Yang, Ying

    2009-08-01

    In this paper, the regime of anticipating synchronization (sometimes called predicted synchronization) in a class of nonlinear dynamical systems is investigated by testing the global asymptotical stability of time-delayed error dynamics. Sufficient conditions in terms of linear matrix inequalities are established for anticipating synchronization between such systems with and without state time delay. These results allow one to predict the dynamic behavior of the systems by using a copy of the same system that performs as a slave. Moreover, the cascaded anticipating synchronization is concerned such that several slave systems could anticipate the same master system with different delays. Concrete applications to phase-locked loops demonstrate the applicability and validity of the proposed results.

  10. Neurobiological underpinnings of reward anticipation and outcome evaluation in gambling disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Linnet, Jakob

    2014-01-01

    Gambling disorder is characterized by persistent and recurrent maladaptive gambling behavior, which leads to clinically significant impairment or distress. The disorder is associated with dysfunctions in the dopamine system. The dopamine system codes reward anticipation and outcome evaluation. Re...

  11. The role of medial frontal gyrus in action anticipation in professional badminton players

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huan Xu

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Some studies show that the medial frontal cortex is associated with more skilled action anticipation, while similar findings are not observed in some other studies, possibly due to the stimuli employed and the participants used as the control group. In addition, no studies have investigated whether there is any functional connectivity between the medial frontal cortex and other brain regions in more skilled action anticipation. Therefore, the present study aimed to re-investigate how the medial frontal cortex is involved in more skilled action anticipation by circumventing the limitations of previous research and to investigate that the medial frontal cortex functionally connected with other brain regions involved in action processing in more skilled action anticipation. To this end, professional badminton players and novices were asked to anticipate the landing position of the shuttlecock while watching badminton match videos or to judge the gender of the players in the matches. The video clips ended right at the point that the shuttlecock and the racket came into contact to reduce the effect of information about the trajectory of the shuttlecock. Novices who lacked training and watching experience were recruited for the control group to reduce the effect of sport-related experience on the medial frontal cortex. Blood oxygenation level-dependent (BOLD activation was assessed by means of functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI. Compared to novices, badminton players exhibited stronger activation in the left medial frontal cortex during action anticipation and greater functional connectivity between left medial frontal cortex and some other brain regions (e.g., right posterior cingulate cortex. Therefore, the present study supports the position that the medial frontal cortex plays a role in more skilled action anticipation and that there is a specific brain network for more skilled action anticipation that involves right posterior cingulate

  12. Know Before You Do: Anticipating Maneuvers via Learning Temporal Driving Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-04-01

    features/index.htm. Accessed: 2014-09-30. [3] Google self driving car . http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Google driverless car . Accessed: 2014-10-11. [4...anticipation a challenging problem. In this work we anticipate driving maneuvers a few seconds before they occur. For this purpose we equip a car with...cameras and a computing device to capture the context from both inside and outside of the car . We represent the context with expressive features and

  13. On the interactions between top-down anticipation and bottom-up regression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Tani

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses the importance of anticipation and regression in modeling cognitive behavior. The meanings of these cognitive functions are explained by describing our proposed neural network model which has been implemented on a set of cognitive robotics experiments. The reviews of these experiments suggest that the essences of embodied cognition may reside in the phenomena of the break-down between the top-down anticipation and the bottom-up regression and in its recovery process.

  14. Conceptual Approximations to Juvenile Politics: Demodernization, Moral Anticipation and Life Politics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Eliécer Martínez Posada

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available The central thesis of this essay is the understanding of juvenile collective dynamics as political forms of demodernization, moral anticipation and life politics, viewing its academic productions as zombie categories, unable to understand the dynamics of new times and the juvenile collective dynamics, interpreted as the moral anticipation and distanciation from forms of social proscription or deviation label. Emphasis is placed on the alternative political dimension of the juvenile collective dynamics, noted as political forms of life.

  15. Assessment of liquid hydrogen cooled MgB2 conductors for magnetically confined fusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glowacki, B. A.; Nuttall, W. J.

    2008-02-01

    Importantly environmental factors are not the only policy-driver for the hydrogen economy. Over the timescale of the development of fusion energy systems, energy security issues are likely to motivate a shift towards both hydrogen production and fusion as an energy source. These technologies combine local control of the system with the collaborative research interests of the major energy users in the global economy. A concept Fusion Island Reactor that might be used to generate H2 (rather than electricity) is presented. Exploitation of produced hydrogen as a coolant and as a fuel is proposed in conjunction with MgB2 conductors for the tokomak magnets windings, and electrotechnical devices for Fusion Island's infrastructure. The benefits of using MgB2 over the Nb-based conductors during construction, operation and decommissioning of the Fusion Island Reactor are presented. The comparison of Nb3Sn strands for ITER fusion magnet with newly developed high field composite MgB2 PIT conductors has shown that at 14 Tesla MgB2 possesses better properties than any of the Nb3Sn conductors produced. In this paper the potential of MgB2 conductors is examined for tokamaks of both the conventional ITER type and a Spherical Tokamak geometry. In each case MgB2 is considered as a conductor for a range of field coil applications and the potential for operation at both liquid helium and liquid hydrogen temperatures is considered. Further research plans concerning the application of MgB2 conductors for Fusion Island are also considered.

  16. The ATLAS SemiConductor Tracker operation and performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pater, J. R.

    2012-04-01

    The ATLAS SemiConductor Tracker (SCT) is a key precision tracking detector in the ATLAS experiment at CERN's Large Hadron Collider. The SCT is composed of 4088 planar p-in-n silicon micro-strip detectors. The signals from the strips are processed in the front-end ABCD3TA ASICs, which operate in binary readout mode; data are transferred to the off-detector readout electronics via optical fibres. The SCT was completed in 2007. An extensive commissioning phase followed, during which calibration data were collected and analysed to determine the noise performance of the system, and further performance parameters of the detector were determined using cosmic ray data, both with and without magnetic field. After the commissioning phase, the SCT was ready for the first LHC proton-proton collisions in December 2009. From the beginning of data taking, the completed SCT has been in very good shape with more than 99% of its 6.3 million strips operational; the detector is well timed-in and the operational channels are 99.9% efficient in data acquisition. The noise occupancy and hit efficiency are better than the design specifications. The detector geometry is monitored continuously with a laser-based alignment system and is stable to the few-micron level; the alignment accuracy as determined by tracks is near specification and improving as statistics increase. The sensor behaviour in the 2T solenoidal magnetic field has been studied by measuring the Lorentz angle. Radiation damage in the silicon is monitored by periodic measurements of the leakage current; these measurements are in reasonable agreement with predictions.

  17. Eddy damping effect of additional conductors in superconducting levitation systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jiang, Zhao-Fei; Gou, Xiao-Fan, E-mail: xfgou@hhu.edu.cn

    2015-12-15

    Highlights: • In this article, for the eddy current damper attached to the HTSC, we • quantitatively investigated the damping coefficient c, damping ratio, Joule heating of the copper damper, and the vibration frequency of the PM as well. • presented four different arrangements of the copper damper, and comparatively studied their damping effects and Joule heating, and finally proposed the most advisable arrangement. - Abstract: Passive superconducting levitation systems consisting of a high temperature superconductor (HTSC) and a permanent magnet (PM) have demonstrated several fascinating applications such as the maglev system, flywheel energy storage. Generally, for the HTSC–PM levitation system, the HTSC with higher critical current density J{sub c} can obtain larger magnetic force to make the PM levitate over the HTSC (or suspended below the HTSC), however, the process of the vibration of the levitated PM, provides very limited inherent damping (essentially hysteresis). To improve the dynamic stability of the levitated PM, eddy damping of additional conductors can be considered as the most simple and effective approach. In this article, for the HTSC–PM levitation system with an additional copper damper attached to the HTSC, we numerically and comprehensively investigated the damping coefficient c, damping ratio, Joule heating of the copper damper, and the vibration frequency of the PM as well. Furthermore, we comparatively studied four different arrangements of the copper damper, on the comprehensive analyzed the damping effect, efficiency (defined by c/V{sub Cu}, in which V{sub Cu} is the volume of the damper) and Joule heating, and finally presented the most advisable arrangement.

  18. Phase behavior of a PVAL-based polymer proton conductor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vargas, M.A. [Univ. Popular del Cesar, Valledupar (Colombia). Dept. de Fisica; Vargas, R.A. [Dept. de Fisica, Univ. del Valle, Cali (Colombia); Mellander, B.-E. [Physics Dept., Chalmers Univ. of Technology, Gothenburg (Sweden)

    2000-07-01

    Solid protonic conductor gels were synthesized using poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVAL), hypophosphorous acid (H{sub 3}PO{sub 2}) and water as prime chemicals. The samples were characterized by means of impedance spectroscopy, fuel cell measurements, differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), thermogravimetry (TG) and X-ray diffraction. The electrical conductivity of the samples at room temperature showed a sensitive variation between 10{sup -6} and 10{sup -1} S/cm as the acid concentration was increased. Using the raw membranes as electrolytic separator in a fuel cell, voltages up to 726 mV were obtained. DSC thermograms showed a well-resolved step anomaly associated to a glass transition for samples with the highest acid concentrations: at about -130 C for the first set of samples and at about -120 C for the other sets, which indicates the amorphous character of the samples. TG traces confirmed that the membranes with higher acid concentrations have higher water contents and that the maximum rate of water removal is at about 50 C for all samples. X-ray spectra for the raw samples at room temperature show a large peak at about 2{theta} = 20 , which is smaller for the higher acid content samples and increases when the samples are annealed at 70 C, indicating that the amorphousness of PVAL complexes increases with the H{sub 3}PO{sub 2} content and drops with the water removal. The results, then, indicated the presence of a separate acid/water phase in the raw samples and an increasing polymer chain intervention in the ionic mobility as the samples are thermally treated. (orig.)

  19. Neural correlates of anticipation and processing of performance feedback in social anxiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heitmann, Carina Y; Peterburs, Jutta; Mothes-Lasch, Martin; Hallfarth, Marlit C; Böhme, Stephanie; Miltner, Wolfgang H R; Straube, Thomas

    2014-12-01

    Fear of negative evaluation, such as negative social performance feedback, is the core symptom of social anxiety. The present study investigated the neural correlates of anticipation and perception of social performance feedback in social anxiety. High (HSA) and low (LSA) socially anxious individuals were asked to give a speech on a personally relevant topic and received standardized but appropriate expert performance feedback in a succeeding experimental session in which neural activity was measured during anticipation and presentation of negative and positive performance feedback concerning the speech performance, or a neutral feedback-unrelated control condition. HSA compared to LSA subjects reported greater anxiety during anticipation of negative feedback. Functional magnetic resonance imaging results showed deactivation of medial prefrontal brain areas during anticipation of negative feedback relative to the control and the positive condition, and medial prefrontal and insular hyperactivation during presentation of negative as well as positive feedback in HSA compared to LSA subjects. The results indicate distinct processes underlying feedback processing during anticipation and presentation of feedback in HSA as compared to LSA individuals. In line with the role of the medial prefrontal cortex in self-referential information processing and the insula in interoception, social anxiety seems to be associated with lower self-monitoring during feedback anticipation, and an increased self-focus and interoception during feedback presentation, regardless of feedback valence.

  20. Long Term Effects of Hazard Anticipation Training on Novice Drivers Measured on the Open Road.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Thalia G G; Masserang, Kathleen M; Pradhan, Anuj K; Divekar, Gautam; Samuel, Siby; Muttart, Jeffrey W; Pollatsek, Alexander; Fisher, Donald L

    2011-01-01

    (a) The purpose of this study was to determine whether novice drivers that were trained to anticipate hazards did so better than novice drivers who were not so trained immediately after training and up to one year after training occurred. (b) Novice drivers who had held their restricted license for about one month were randomly assigned to a PC-based hazard anticipation training program (RAPT) or a placebo (control) training program. The programs took about one hour to complete. The effects of training were assessed in a field drive by using patterns of eye movements to assess whether drivers anticipated a potential unseen hazard. (c) The effects of training persisted over time. In the field test immediately after training, the RAPT group anticipated the hazards 65.8% of the time whereas; the control group anticipated them only 47.3% of the time. Six or more months later, the groups were brought back for a second field test and the effects of training did not diminish; the RAPT group anticipated the hazards 61.9% of the time compared to 37.7% for the control group.

  1. A magnetoencephalography study of multi-modal processing of pain anticipation in primary sensory cortices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gopalakrishnan, R; Burgess, R C; Plow, E B; Floden, D P; Machado, A G

    2015-09-24

    Pain anticipation plays a critical role in pain chronification and results in disability due to pain avoidance. It is important to understand how different sensory modalities (auditory, visual or tactile) may influence pain anticipation as different strategies could be applied to mitigate anticipatory phenomena and chronification. In this study, using a countdown paradigm, we evaluated with magnetoencephalography the neural networks associated with pain anticipation elicited by different sensory modalities in normal volunteers. When encountered with well-established cues that signaled pain, visual and somatosensory cortices engaged the pain neuromatrix areas early during the countdown process, whereas the auditory cortex displayed delayed processing. In addition, during pain anticipation, the visual cortex displayed independent processing capabilities after learning the contextual meaning of cues from associative and limbic areas. Interestingly, cross-modal activation was also evident and strong when visual and tactile cues signaled upcoming pain. Dorsolateral prefrontal cortex and mid-cingulate cortex showed significant activity during pain anticipation regardless of modality. Our results show pain anticipation is processed with great time efficiency by a highly specialized and hierarchical network. The highest degree of higher-order processing is modulated by context (pain) rather than content (modality) and rests within the associative limbic regions, corroborating their intrinsic role in chronification.

  2. Keeping an Eye on the Conductor: Neural Correlates of Visuo-motor Synchronization and Musical Experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kentaro eOno

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available For orchestra musicians, synchronized playing under a conductor’s direction is necessary to achieve optimal performance. Previous studies using simple auditory/visual stimuli have reported cortico-subcortical networks underlying synchronization and that training improves the accuracy of synchronization. However, it is unclear whether people who played regularly under a conductor and non-musicians activate the same networks when synchronizing with a conductor’s gestures. We conducted a functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI experiment testing nonmusicians and musicians who regularly play music under a conductor. Participants were required to tap the rhythm they perceived from silent movies displaying either conductor’s gestures or a swinging metronome. Musicians performed tapping under a conductor with more precision than nonmusicians. Results from fMRI measurement showed greater activity in the anterior part of the left superior frontal gyrus (SFG in musicians with more frequent practice under a conductor. Conversely, tapping with the metronome did not show any difference between musicians and nonmusicians, indicating that the expertise effect in tapping under the conductor does not result in a general increase in tapping performance for musicians. These results suggest that orchestra musicians have developed an advanced ability to predict conductor’s next action from the gestures.

  3. Free Molecular Heat Transfer Programs for Setup and Dynamic Updating the Conductors in Thermal Desktop

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malroy, Eric T.

    2007-01-01

    The programs, arrays and logic structure were developed to enable the dynamic update of conductors in thermal desktop. The MatLab program FMHTPRE.m processes the Thermal Desktop conductors and sets up the arrays. The user needs to manually copy portions of the output to different input regions in Thermal Desktop. Also, Fortran subroutines are provided that perform the actual updates to the conductors. The subroutines are setup for helium gas, but the equations can be modified for other gases. The maximum number of free molecular conductors allowed is 10,000 for a given radiation task. Additional radiation tasks for FMHT can be generated to account for more conductors. Modifications to the Fortran subroutines may be warranted, when the mode of heat transfer is in the mixed or continuum mode. The FMHT Thermal Desktop model should be activated by using the "Case Set Manager" once the model is setup. Careful setup of the model is needed to avoid excessive solve times.

  4. Measurements of the transverse resistance and eddy current losses in a cable-in-conduit conductor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keilin, V. E.; Kovalev, I. A.; Kruglov, S. L.; Lelekhov, S. A.; Il'in, A. A.; Naumov, A. V.; Shcherbakov, V. I.; Shutov, K. A.

    2015-11-01

    In the case of plasma current interruption in tokamaks, the conductor of toroidial field (TF) coils experiences the action of a pulsed decreasing magnetic field (PDMF) parallel to the conductor's axis. To estimate the stability of a cable-in-conduit conductor against the PDMF, a new experimental method to study different types of losses is applied. This method exploits a high sensitivity of temperature and gas pressure to input energy in a closed volume. It allows one to measure hysteresis losses with a rather high accuracy (provided that the rate of change of the PDMF is low) and a sum of hysteresis losses and eddy current losses (when the rate of change of the PDMF is high). An experimental setup to measure the transverse (circumferential) resistance and losses has been developed at the National Research Centre Kurchatov Institute. A Russianmade Nb3Sn conductor intended for the TF coils of the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor is subjected to a PDMF with different amplitudes and characteristic times. The electromagnetic time constant and the transverse resistivity of the conductor are experimentally determined. The maximum temperature of strands under the action of the PDMF is calculated.

  5. Bending properties of different REBCO coated conductor tapes and Roebel cables at T = 77 K

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otten, Simon; Kario, Anna; Kling, Andrea; Goldacker, Wilfried

    2016-12-01

    Application of REBCO coated conductors in coils or cables involves deformation of the conductor in different modes, such as in-plane bending, out-of-plane bending and torsion. For example, the dipole magnet designs in the EuCARD-2 project require bending radii as low as 7.5 mm, inducing significant bending strain in the REBCO layer. In this paper, we investigate the effect of out-of-plane bending on the current-carrying properties of coated conductors from different manufacturers. The samples are manipulated by means of a Goldacker-type bending rig, which allows continuous bending at T = 77 K. By reversal to R=∞ after each bending step, the reversible strain effect is separated from irreversible degradation. All tested conductors are found to tolerate compressive bending to a radius of 6 mm with less than 5% irreversible degradation of the critical current. The magnitude of the reversible strain effect shows a large variation among the samples. The effect of out-of-plane bending on Roebel cables is investigated as well, and the results are compared to the bending characteristic of single conductors. The results show no detrimental effect of the cable assembly on the bending properties within the constraints of the test.

  6. Novel hybrid conductors based on doped ceria and BCY20 for ITSOFC applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhu, Bin [Department of Chemical Engineering and Technology, Royal Institute of Technology (KTH), S-100 44, Stockholm (Sweden); Liu, Xiangrong [Goeta Technology Developer International, S-17160, Solna (Sweden); Schober, T. [IFF, Forschungszentrum Julich, Julich (Germany)

    2004-04-01

    Ceria-based composites have been previously developed as functional electrolytes for high performance ITSOFC applications. These composites display hybrid proton and oxygen ion conduction. To meet demands for more functional hybrid proton and oxygen ion conductors we developed further composite electrolyte materials containing a proton conductor, BaCe{sub 0.8}Y{sub 0.2}O{sub 3-{delta}} (BCY20), and an oxygen ion conductor, samarium doped ceria (SDC). The BCY20 and SDC composites were prepared based on composite technology using their starting powders produced via sol-gel and co-precipitation processes, respectively. Using the SDC-BCY20 composites as the electrolytes ITSOFCs were constructed using NiO-based composite anodes, silver-based cathodes. Applying hydrogen as the fuel, compressed air as the oxidant, the fuel cells were tested in the temperature region between 300 and 700C. The SDC-BCY20 electrolyte ITSOFCs reached a performance of 0.25 W/cm{sup 2} at 550C. Under a constant discharge water was observed both, on the anode and the cathode side, indicative of hybrid conduction based on proton and oxygen ion transport. Initial experimental results showed that combining a proton with an oxygen ion conductor forming a novel hybrid ion conductor with promising applications for ITSOFCs was successful.

  7. Altered brain activity during reward anticipation in pathological gambling and obsessive-compulsive disorder.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jung-Seok Choi

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Pathological gambling (PG and obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD are conceptualized as a behavioral addiction, with a dependency on repetitive gambling behavior and rewarding effects following compulsive behavior, respectively. However, no neuroimaging studies to date have examined reward circuitry during the anticipation phase of reward in PG compared with in OCD while considering repetitive gambling and compulsion as addictive behaviors. METHODS/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: To elucidate the neural activities specific to the anticipation phase of reward, we performed event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI in young adults with PG and compared them with those in patients with OCD and healthy controls. Fifteen male patients with PG, 13 patients with OCD, and 15 healthy controls, group-matched for age, gender, and IQ, participated in a monetary incentive delay task during fMRI scanning. Neural activation in the ventromedial caudate nucleus during anticipation of both gain and loss decreased in patients with PG compared with that in patients with OCD and healthy controls. Additionally, reduced activation in the anterior insula during anticipation of loss was observed in patients with PG compared with that in patients with OCD which was intermediate between that in OCD and healthy controls (healthy controls < PG < OCD, and a significant positive correlation between activity in the anterior insula and South Oaks Gambling Screen score was found in patients with PG. CONCLUSIONS: Decreased neural activity in the ventromedial caudate nucleus during anticipation may be a specific neurobiological feature for the pathophysiology of PG, distinguishing it from OCD and healthy controls. Correlation of anterior insular activity during loss anticipation with PG symptoms suggests that patients with PG fit the features of OCD associated with harm avoidance as PG symptoms deteriorate. Our findings have identified functional disparities and

  8. Modelling ac ripple currents in HTS coated conductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Zhihan; Grilli, Francesco

    2015-10-01

    Dc transmission using high temperature superconducting (HTS) coated conductors (CCs) offers a promising solution to the globally growing demand for effective, reliable and economic transmission of green energy up to the gigawatt level over very long distances. The credible estimation of the losses and thereby the heat dissipation involved, where ac ripples (introduced in rectification/ac-dc conversion) are viewed as a potential source of notable contribution, is highly essential for the rational design of practical HTS dc transmission cables and corresponding cryogenic systems to fulfil this demand. Here we report a targeted modelling study into the ac losses in a HTS CC subject to dc and ac ripple currents simultaneously, by solving Maxwell’s equations using the finite element method (FEM) in the commercial software package COMSOL. It is observed that the instantaneous loss exhibits only one peak per cycle in the HTS CC subject to sinusoidal ripples, given that the amplitude of the ac ripples is smaller than approximately 20% of that of the dc current. This is a distinct contrast to the usual observation of two peaks per cycle in a HTS CC subject to ac currents only. The unique mechanism is also revealed, which is directly associated with the finding that, around any local minima of the applied ac ripples, the critical state of -J c is never reached at the edges of the HTS CC, as it should be according to the Bean model. When running further into the longer term, it is discovered that the ac ripple loss of the HTS CC in full-wave rectification decays monotonically, at a speed which is found to be insensitive to the frequency of the applied ripples within our targeted situations, to a relatively low level of approximately 1.38 × 10-4 W m-1 in around 1.7 s. Comparison between this level and other typical loss contributions in a HTS dc cable implies that ac ripple currents in HTS CCs should only be considered as a minor source of dissipation in superconducting dc

  9. Uncertainty in anticipation of uncomfortable rectal distension is modulated by the autonomic nervous system--a fMRI study in healthy volunteers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubio, Amandine; Van Oudenhove, Lukas; Pellissier, Sonia; Ly, Huynh Giao; Dupont, Patrick; de Micheaux, Hugo Lafaye; Tack, Jan; Dantzer, Cécile; Delon-Martin, Chantal; Bonaz, Bruno

    2015-02-15

    The human brain responds both before and during the application of aversive stimuli. Anticipation allows the organism to prepare its nociceptive system to respond adequately to the subsequent stimulus. The context in which an uncomfortable stimulus is experienced may also influence neural processing. Uncertainty of occurrence, timing and intensity of an aversive event may lead to increased anticipatory anxiety, fear, physiological arousal and sensory perception. We aimed to identify, in healthy volunteers, the effects of uncertainty in the anticipation of uncomfortable rectal distension, and the impact of the autonomic nervous system (ANS) activity and anxiety-related psychological variables on neural mechanisms of anticipation of rectal distension using fMRI. Barostat-controlled uncomfortable rectal distensions were preceded by cued uncertain or certain anticipation in 15 healthy volunteers in a fMRI protocol at 3T. Electrocardiographic data were concurrently registered by MR scanner. The low frequency (LF)-component of the heart rate variability (HRV) time-series was extracted and inserted as a regressor in the fMRI model ('LF-HRV model'). The impact of ANS activity was analyzed by comparing the fMRI signal in the 'standard model' and in the 'LF-HRV model' across the different anticipation and distension conditions. The scores of the psychological questionnaires and the rating of perceived anticipatory anxiety were included as covariates in the fMRI data analysis. Our experiments led to the following key findings: 1) the subgenual anterior cingulate cortex (sgACC) is the only activation site that relates to uncertainty in healthy volunteers and is directly correlated to individual questionnaire score for pain-related anxiety; 2) uncertain anticipation of rectal distension involved several relevant brain regions, namely activation of sgACC and medial prefrontal cortex and deactivation of amygdala, insula, thalamus, secondary somatosensory cortex, supplementary

  10. Optimal Conductor Selection in Radial Distribution Systems for Productivity Improvement Using Genetic Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahdi Mozaffari Legha

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Development of distribution systems result in higher system losses and poor voltage regulation. Consequently, an efficient and effective distribution system has become more urgent and important. Hence proper selection of conductors in the distribution system is important as it determines the current density and the resistance of the line. This paper examines the use of different evolutionary algorithms, genetic algorithm (GA, to optimal branch conductor selection in planning radial distribution systems with the objective to minimize the overall cost of annual energy losses and depreciation on the cost of conductors and reliability in order to improve productivity. Furthermore, The Backward-Forward sweep iterative method was adopted to solve the radial load flow analysis. Simulations are carried out on 69-bus radial distribution network using GA approach in order to show the accuracy as well as the efficiency of the proposed solution technique.

  11. Progress of long coated conductors fabrication with fluorine-free CSD method at SWJTU

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao, Y., E-mail: yzhao@swjtu.edu.cn [Key Lab of Advanced Materials Technologies, Key Lab of Magnetic Levitation Technologies and Maglev Trains (Ministry of Education), Superconductivity and New Energy Center (SNEC), Southwest Jiaotong University, Chengdu 610031 (China); School of Materials Science and Engineering, University of New South Wales, Sydney 2052, NSW (Australia); Wang, W.T.; Lei, M.; Pu, M.H.; Zhang, Y. [Key Lab of Advanced Materials Technologies, Key Lab of Magnetic Levitation Technologies and Maglev Trains (Ministry of Education), Superconductivity and New Energy Center (SNEC), Southwest Jiaotong University, Chengdu 610031 (China); Cheng, C.H. [School of Materials Science and Engineering, University of New South Wales, Sydney 2052, NSW (Australia)

    2013-10-15

    Highlights: • Recent progress on the long coated conductors fabrication by F-free CSD method is presented. • Single buffer and partial-melting technology and slot-die coating methods have been developed. • Reel-to-reel facilities for continuous process have been achieved. -- Abstract: Recent progress on the fabrication of long high-T{sub c} superconducting coated conductors with a fluorine-free chemical solution deposition (CSD) method is presented. Developments including such novel methods as single buffer technology, partial-melting process on YBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 7} (YBCO), slot-die coating and drying; reel-to-reel facilities for continuous process have been achieved in the effort on high-T{sub c} superconducting coated conductors at SWJTU, which form a comprehensive technology to fabricate long coated tapes with high performances.

  12. Insulated conductor temperature limited heater for subsurface heating coupled in a three-phase WYE configuration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vinegar, Harold J. (Bellaire, TX); Sandberg, Chester Ledlie (Palo Alto, CA)

    2010-11-09

    A heating system for a subsurface formation is described. The heating system includes a first heater, a second heater, and a third heater placed in an opening in the subsurface formation. Each heater includes: an electrical conductor; an insulation layer at least partially surrounding the electrical conductor; and an electrically conductive sheath at least partially surrounding the insulation layer. The electrical conductor is electrically coupled to the sheath at a lower end portion of the heater. The lower end portion is the portion of the heater distal from a surface of the opening. The first heater, the second heater, and the third heater are electrically coupled at the lower end portions of the heaters. The first heater, the second heater, and the third heater are configured to be electrically coupled in a three-phase wye configuration.

  13. Experimental study of the nonlinear diffusion of a magnetic field and skin explosion of cylindrical conductors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chaikovsky, S. A.; Datsko, I. M.; Labetskaya, N. A.; Rybka, D. V.; Ratakhin, N. A. [Institute of High Current Electronics, SB, RAN, Tomsk (Russian Federation); Oreshkin, V. I. [Institute of High Current Electronics, SB, RAN, Tomsk (Russian Federation); Tomsk Polytechnic University, Tomsk (Russian Federation)

    2015-11-15

    The paper presents the results of an experimental study of the skin explosion of cylindrical conductors of diameter 1–3 mm (copper, aluminum, titanium, steel 3, and stainless steel) at a peak magnetic field of 200–600 T. The experiments were carried out on the MIG pulsed power generator at a current of up to 2.5 MA and a current rise time of 100 ns. The surface explosion of a conductor was identified by the appearance of a flash of extreme ultraviolet radiation. A minimum magnetic induction has been determined below which no plasma is generated at the conductor surface. For copper, aluminum, steel 3, titanium, and stainless steel, the minimum magnetic induction has been estimated to be (to within 10%) 375, 270, 280, 220, and 245 T, respectively.

  14. An antireflection transparent conductor with ultralow optical loss (<2 %) and electrical resistance (<6 Ω sq-1)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maniyara, Rinu Abraham; Mkhitaryan, Vahagn K.; Chen, Tong Lai; Ghosh, Dhriti Sundar; Pruneri, Valerio

    2016-12-01

    Transparent conductors are essential in many optoelectronic devices, such as displays, smart windows, light-emitting diodes and solar cells. Here we demonstrate a transparent conductor with optical loss of ~1.6%, that is, even lower than that of single-layer graphene (2.3%), and transmission higher than 98% over the visible wavelength range. This was possible by an optimized antireflection design consisting in applying Al-doped ZnO and TiO2 layers with precise thicknesses to a highly conductive Ag ultrathin film. The proposed multilayer structure also possesses a low electrical resistance (5.75 Ω sq-1), a figure of merit four times larger than that of indium tin oxide, the most widely used transparent conductor today, and, contrary to it, is mechanically flexible and room temperature deposited. To assess the application potentials, transparent shielding of radiofrequency and microwave interference signals with ~30 dB attenuation up to 18 GHz was achieved.

  15. A comparison of graphene, superconductors and metals as conductors for metamaterials and plasmonics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tassin, Philippe; Koschny, Thomas; Kafesaki, Maria; Soukoulis, Costas

    2012-03-30

    Recent advancements in metamaterials and plasmonics have promised a number of exciting applications, in particular at terahertz and optical frequencies. Unfortunately, the noble metals used in these photonic structures are not particularly good conductors at high frequencies, resulting in significant dissipative loss. Here, we address the question of what is a good conductor for metamaterials and plasmonics. For resonant metamaterials, we develop a figure-of-merit for conductors that allows for a straightforward classification of conducting materials according to the resulting dissipative loss in the metamaterial. Application of our method predicts that graphene and high-T{sub c} superconductors are not viable alternatives for metals in metamaterials. We also provide an overview of a number of transition metals, alkali metals and transparent conducting oxides. For plasmonic systems, we predict that graphene and high-T{sub c} superconductors cannot outperform gold as a platform for surface plasmon polaritons, because graphene has a smaller propagation length-to-wavelength ratio.

  16. Research status of novel La2Mo2O9-based oxide-ion conductors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FANG Qianfeng; WANG Xianping; CHENG Zhijun; ZHANG Guoguang

    2007-01-01

    La2Mo2O9-based oxide-ion conductors have attracted more and more attention since the high ionic con-ductivity was reported in 2000 by Lacorre et al.in this kind of material.In this paper the recent investigation on the novel La2Mo2O9-based oxide-ion conductors is reviewed.It is focused on the structure and phase transition,oxide-ion conductivity,mechanism of oxygen vacancy diffusion,chem-ical stability and thermal expansion coefficient in the pure and doped La2Mo2O9 samples.It is pointed out that the La2Mo2O9-based oxide-ion conductors could be possibly applied in the fields such as solid oxide fuel cells,oxygen sensors and oxygen permeable membranes.

  17. Neural signal during immediate reward anticipation in schizophrenia: Relationship to real-world motivation and function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subramaniam, Karuna; Hooker, Christine I; Biagianti, Bruno; Fisher, Melissa; Nagarajan, Srikantan; Vinogradov, Sophia

    2015-01-01

    Amotivation in schizophrenia is a central predictor of poor functioning, and is thought to occur due to deficits in anticipating future rewards, suggesting that impairments in anticipating pleasure can contribute to functional disability in schizophrenia. In healthy comparison (HC) participants, reward anticipation is associated with activity in frontal-striatal networks. By contrast, schizophrenia (SZ) participants show hypoactivation within these frontal-striatal networks during this motivated anticipatory brain state. Here, we examined neural activation in SZ and HC participants during the anticipatory phase of stimuli that predicted immediate upcoming reward and punishment, and during the feedback/outcome phase, in relation to trait measures of hedonic pleasure and real-world functional capacity. SZ patients showed hypoactivation in ventral striatum during reward anticipation. Additionally, we found distinct differences between HC and SZ groups in their association between reward-related immediate anticipatory neural activity and their reported experience of pleasure. HC participants recruited reward-related regions in striatum that significantly correlated with subjective consummatory pleasure, while SZ patients revealed activation in attention-related regions, such as the IPL, which correlated with consummatory pleasure and functional capacity. These findings may suggest that SZ patients activate compensatory attention processes during anticipation of immediate upcoming rewards, which likely contribute to their functional capacity in daily life.

  18. Neural signal during immediate reward anticipation in schizophrenia: Relationship to real-world motivation and function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karuna Subramaniam

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Amotivation in schizophrenia is a central predictor of poor functioning, and is thought to occur due to deficits in anticipating future rewards, suggesting that impairments in anticipating pleasure can contribute to functional disability in schizophrenia. In healthy comparison (HC participants, reward anticipation is associated with activity in frontal–striatal networks. By contrast, schizophrenia (SZ participants show hypoactivation within these frontal–striatal networks during this motivated anticipatory brain state. Here, we examined neural activation in SZ and HC participants during the anticipatory phase of stimuli that predicted immediate upcoming reward and punishment, and during the feedback/outcome phase, in relation to trait measures of hedonic pleasure and real-world functional capacity. SZ patients showed hypoactivation in ventral striatum during reward anticipation. Additionally, we found distinct differences between HC and SZ groups in their association between reward-related immediate anticipatory neural activity and their reported experience of pleasure. HC participants recruited reward-related regions in striatum that significantly correlated with subjective consummatory pleasure, while SZ patients revealed activation in attention-related regions, such as the IPL, which correlated with consummatory pleasure and functional capacity. These findings may suggest that SZ patients activate compensatory attention processes during anticipation of immediate upcoming rewards, which likely contribute to their functional capacity in daily life.

  19. A novel macro model of traffic flow with the consideration of anticipation optimal velocity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, G. H.; Song, W.; Peng, Y. J.; Wang, S. H.

    2014-03-01

    In this paper, a novel macro model which can investigate wide moving jams is derived from car-following model by applying the relationship between the micro and macro variables with the consideration of anticipation optimal velocity on single lane. The theoretic analysis and numerical simulation show that the new macro model of traffic flow can correctly reproduce common evolution of shock, rarefaction wave and local cluster effect under small perturbation, which shows that the congested traffic patterns about wide moving jam propagation are in accordance with empirical results. Furthermore, the results uncover that the anticipation effect can smooth the front of the shock wave and the rarefaction wave, which means that anticipation effect hasten the diffusion process of congregate in the shock wave and dissolution in rarefaction wave. The key improvement of this new macro model over the previous ones lies in the fact that the anticipation traffic behaviors can improve the stability of traffic flow with the consideration of the proper anticipation effect.

  20. Neural responsivity during soft drink intake, anticipation, and advertisement exposure in habitually consuming youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burger, Kyle S.; Stice, Eric

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Although soft drinks are heavily advertised, widely consumed, and have been associated with obesity, little is understood regarding neural responsivity to soft drink intake, anticipated intake, and advertisements. METHODS Functional MRI was used to assess examine neural response to carbonated soft drink intake, anticipated intake and advertisement exposure as well as milkshake intake in 27 adolescents that varied on soft drink consumer status. RESULTS Intake and anticipated intake of carbonated Coke® activated regions implicated in gustatory, oral somatosensory, and reward processing, yet high-fat/sugar milkshake intake elicited greater activation in these regions versus Coke intake. Advertisements highlighting the Coke product vs. non-food control advertisements, but not the Coke logo, activated gustatory and visual brain regions. Habitual Coke consumers vs. non-consumers showed greater posterior cingulate responsivity to Coke logo ads, suggesting that the logo is a conditioned cue. Coke consumers exhibited less ventrolateral prefrontal cortex responsivity during anticipated Coke intake relative to non-consumers. CONCLUSIONS Results indicate that soft drinks activate reward and gustatory regions, but are less potent in activating these regions than high-fat/sugar beverages, and imply that habitual soft drink intake promotes hyper-responsivity of regions encoding salience/attention toward brand specific cues and hypo-responsivity of inhibitory regions while anticipating intake. PMID:23836764