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Sample records for anticipated organic conductors

  1. Organic Conductors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Jan Rud; Jacobsen, Claus S.; Rindorf, Grethe

    1975-01-01

    2,3,6,7-Tetramethyl-1,4,5,8-tetraselenafulvalene reacts with 2,5-dimethyl-7,7′,8,8′-tetracyano-p-quinodi-methane to give a highly conducting organic solid.......2,3,6,7-Tetramethyl-1,4,5,8-tetraselenafulvalene reacts with 2,5-dimethyl-7,7′,8,8′-tetracyano-p-quinodi-methane to give a highly conducting organic solid....

  2. Focus on Organic Conductors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shinya Uji, Takehiko Mori and Toshihiro Takahashi

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Organic materials are usually thought of as electrical insulators. Progress in chemical synthesis, however, has brought us a rich variety of conducting organic materials, which can be classified into conducting polymers and molecular crystals. Researchers can realize highly conducting molecular crystals in charge-transfer complexes, where suitable combinations of organic electron donor or acceptor molecules with counter ions or other organic molecules provide charge carriers. By means of a kind of chemical doping, the charge-transfer complexes exhibit high electrical conductivity and, thanks to their highly crystalline nature, even superconductivity has been observed. This focus issue of Science and Technology of Advanced Materials is devoted to the research into such 'organic conductors'The first organic metal was (TTF(TCNQ, which was found in 1973 to have high conductivity at room temperature and a metal–insulator transition at low temperatures. The first organic superconductor was (TMTSF2PF6, whose superconductivity under high pressures was reported by J´erome in 1980. After these findings, the research on organic conductors exploded. Hundreds of organic conductors have been reported, among which more than one hundred exhibit superconductivity. Recently, a single-component organic conductor has been found with metallic conductivity down to low temperatures.In these organic conductors, in spite of their simple electronic structures, much new physics has arisen from the low dimensionality. Examples are charge and spin density waves, characteristic metal–insulator transitions, charge order, unconventional superconductivity, superconductor–insulator transitions, and zero-gap conductors with Dirac cones. The discovery of this new physics is undoubtedly derived from the development of many intriguing novel organic conductors. High quality single crystals are indispensable to the precise measurement of electronic states.This focus issue

  3. Benchmarking organic mixed conductors for transistors

    KAUST Repository

    Inal, Sahika

    2017-11-20

    Organic mixed conductors have garnered significant attention in applications from bioelectronics to energy storage/generation. Their implementation in organic transistors has led to enhanced biosensing, neuromorphic function, and specialized circuits. While a narrow class of conducting polymers continues to excel in these new applications, materials design efforts have accelerated as researchers target new functionality, processability, and improved performance/stability. Materials for organic electrochemical transistors (OECTs) require both efficient electronic transport and facile ion injection in order to sustain high capacity. In this work, we show that the product of the electronic mobility and volumetric charge storage capacity (µC*) is the materials/system figure of merit; we use this framework to benchmark and compare the steady-state OECT performance of ten previously reported materials. This product can be independently verified and decoupled to guide materials design and processing. OECTs can therefore be used as a tool for understanding and designing new organic mixed conductors.

  4. Hall effect in organic layered conductors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.A.Hasan

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The Hall effect in organic layered conductors with a multisheeted Fermi surfaces was considered. It is shown that the experimental study of Hall effect and magnetoresistance anisotropy at different orientations of current and a quantizing magnetic field relative to the layers makes it possible to determine the contribution of various charge carriers groups to the conductivity, and to find out the character of Fermi surface anisotropy in the plane of layers.

  5. [The anticipated organ donation approach in hospital].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Libot, Jérôme

    2016-09-01

    In end-of-life situations it is important to avoid futile transfers to intensive care and to respect the wishes of the patient. To this end, it is possible to talk about the approaching death and organ donation with the family, in an 'anticipated' support approach. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  6. Organic Conductors: Evidence for Correlation Effects in Infrared Properties

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Claus Schelde; Johannsen, Ib; Bechgaard, Klaus

    1984-01-01

    The infrared conductivities of four organic conductors with partially filled one-electron bands are compared. The behavior ranges from near Drude type in the best metal to semiconductorlike in the moderate conductor. Electron-molecular-vibration coupling effects of varying degree are seen in all...

  7. Recent progress in high-pressure studies on organic conductors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syuma Yasuzuka and Keizo Murata

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Recent high-pressure studies of organic conductors and superconductors are reviewed. The discovery of the highest Tc superconductivity among organics under high pressure has triggered the further progress of the high-pressure research. Owing to this finding, various organic conductors with the strong electron correlation were investigated under high pressures. This review includes the pressure techniques using the cubic anvil apparatus, as well as high-pressure studies of the organic conductors up to 10 GPa showing extraordinary temperature and pressure dependent transport phenomena.

  8. Non-equilibrium and band tailing in organic conductors

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    . Non-equilibrium due to coupling between applied energy and free electrons can be responsible for the exponential relaxation from non-equilibrium to equilibrium. Keywords. Band tailing; organic conductors; IR spectra; electrical resistivity.

  9. Anticipating and Managing Change in Educational Organizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renfro, William L.; Morrison, James L.

    1983-01-01

    Describes the design and operation of an information scanning system to alert school systems about emerging issues in the areas of social, technical, economic, and legislative/regulatory developments and to enable administrators to anticipate and respond to these issues. (MLF)

  10. Non-equilibrium and band tailing in organic conductors

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Study of organic conductors and semiconductors continues to generate interest with the report of completely new materials possessing novel features [1–4]. Many inclusion and charge transfer organic complexes were studied both experimentally and theoretically un- der different conditions like temperature and pressure ...

  11. Non-equilibrium and band tailing in organic conductors

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The concept of band tailing with focal point and width of the tail from IR absorption spectra of different organic conductors is found valid even for thermal and elastic changes. The experimental situations like change of solvents, method of preparation, applied pressure and pressure cycle apart from compositions is analyzed ...

  12. Physical phenomena in new organic conductors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gor' kov, L.P.

    1984-11-01

    Recent theoretical and experimental results on new synthetic metals: Bechgaard's salts: are reviewed. Superconductivity has been observed in these organic compounds for the first time. Furthermore, these materials exhibit such a variety of new and unusual physical properties that research on them is opening up a new branch of solid state physics.

  13. Anticipated regret and organ donor registration: A randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Carroll, Ronan E; Shepherd, Lee; Hayes, Peter C; Ferguson, Eamonn

    2016-11-01

    To test whether simply asking people to rate the extent to which they anticipate feeling regret for not registering as an organ donor after death increases subsequent verified organ donor registration. There were 14,509 members of the general public (both registered and nonregistered donors) randomly allocated to 1 of 4 arms, each receiving different questionnaires. The no-questionnaire control (NQC) arm received a survey measuring demographics and whether or not they were registered organ donors. The questionnaire control (QC) arm completed the NQC questions plus questions regarding affective attitudes and intention to register as an organ donor. The theory of planned behavior (TPB) questionnaire arm received the QC questionnaire, plus additional items measuring TPB variables. The anticipated regret (AR) arm received the TPB questionnaire, plus 2 additional items measuring anticipated regret. The main outcome measures were number of nondonor participants who subsequently registered 6 months later, as verified by the United Kingdom national transplant register. Intention-to-treat (ITT) analysis in nonregistered donors (N = 9,139) revealed the NQC arm were more likely to register as an organ donor (6.39%) compared with the AR (4.51%) arm. A brief anticipated regret intervention led to a decrease in registration. A potential reason is discussed in terms of questionnaire item content "priming" negative perceptions of organ donation. This is a methodological concern that needs to be addressed in studies that use similar interventions. Current controlled trials: www.controlled-trials.com number: ISRCTN922048897. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  14. Ion Dynamics in Organic-Inorganic Composite Superionic Conductor Glasses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asayama, Ryo; Kuwata, Naoaki; Kawamura, Junichi

    2006-01-01

    Ionic conductivity of organic-inorganic composite superionic conductor glasses composed of AgI and alkylammoniumiodides is measured as a function of frequency, temperature and composition. A clear transition from insulator to superionic conductor is confirmed at the volume fraction φ of AgI is about 35 %. The dc component of the conductivity is fitted to the σ∼(φ-φc)μ with φc=0.36, μ=2.5 for the present data. Near the percolation threshold, a power-law type frequency dependence of ωn (n∼0.67) is seen in mid frequency and ω1.0 at higher frequency corresponding to the constant loss region power-law is observed. The activation energies and preexponential factors derived from the temperature dependence increase from 0.3 to 0.7 eV approaching to the threshold. From these results, the ion dynamics in these glasses can be explained by the static site percolation theory at first approximation, but require the consideration on the chemical bond variation between the Ag and I modified by the organic ions

  15. Transport and magnetism in the organic conductors in relation to one dimension localization theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zuppiroli, L.

    1985-09-01

    On the one side all states are exponentially localized in one dimension, on the other side most of the transport properties of quasi-one-dimensional organic conductors are Drude-like. This apparent contradiction is solved by revisiting the main experimental results concerning disordered organic conductors and by comparing them to the most relevant theories, especially those which take into account electron-phonon an electron-electron interactions [fr

  16. An Organic Mixed Ion–Electron Conductor for Power Electronics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Malti, Abdellah; Edberg, Jesper; Granberg, Hjalmar

    2016-01-01

    A mixed ionic–electronic conductor based on nanofibrillated cellulose composited with poly(3,4-ethylene-dioxythio­phene):­poly(styrene-sulfonate) along with high boiling point solvents is demonstrated in bulky electrochemical devices. The high electronic and ionic conductivities of the resulting...

  17. An Organic Mixed Ion-Electron Conductor for Power Electronics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Malti, Abdellah; Edberg, Jesper; Granberg, Hjalmar

    2016-01-01

    A mixed ionic–electronic conductor based on nanofibrillated cellulose composited with poly(3,4-ethylene-dioxythio­phene):­poly(styrene-sulfonate) along with high boiling point solvents is demonstrated in bulky electrochemical devices. The high electronic and ionic conductivities of the resulting...

  18. Correlation versus surface effects in photoemission of quasi-1D organic conductors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Claessen, R.; Schwingenschlogl, U.; Sing, M.

    2002-01-01

    The absence of spectral weight at the Fermi level in photoemission spectra of quasi-1D organic conductors has been interpreted as possible evidence for an unusual many-body state. We demonstrate that great care must be exercised to draw this conclusion exclusively on the basis of a pseudogap. A d...

  19. Magnetism and electronic transport in irradiated organic conductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanquer, M.

    1986-01-01

    Quasi-one-dimensional conductors are metallic in a large temperature range. The electronic gas instability can drive a phase transition at low temperature. In one-dimensional conditions, precursor fluctuations grow in the high temperature regime and can give a collective current transport. Under irradiation the quasi-one-dimensional electrons are localized and the conductivity becomes typical of a phonon assisted tunneling between metallic particles. In this study we describe the magnetism of this localized electrons. This disorder reduces the interaction between electronic spins and phonons and favours the interaction between localized spins. But if the electronic gas is less one-dimensional, irradiation disorder can not localize electrons. Our conductivity measurements prove that the disorder first reduces the electronic relaxation before induces the above mentioned localization. Moreover the fluctuative conductivity is revealed by irradiation thanks to a discrepancy with respect to one-electron model. TTF-TCNQ and (TMTSF) 2 ClO 4 are investigated in that way [fr

  20. Study on spin and charge fluctuations in {tau} -type organic conductor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aizawa, Hirohito [Institute of Physics, Kanagawa University, Yokohama 221-8686 (Japan); Kuroki, Kazuhiko [Department of Engineering Science, The University of Electro-Communications, Chofu, Tokyo 182-8585 (Japan)

    2012-05-15

    We theoretically study the possibility of the ferromagnetic behavior in a quasi-two-dimensional organic conductor, {tau} -(EDO-S,S -DMEDT-TTF){sub 2}(AuBr{sub 2}){sub 1+y} with y {approx} 0.875. We adopt a two-band extended Hubbard model, whose band dispersion nicely reproduces the ab initio band structure. We consider both on-site and nearest neighbor off-site repulsive interactions. By applying the random phase approximation, we find that both spin and charge susceptibilities are maximized at Q = (0, 0). Although this can be an indication of pure antiferromagnetism since two sites are present in a unit cell, the divergence of the susceptibilities at the origin of the k -space can also be related to the ferromagnetic behavior observed in this organic conductor. (copyright 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  1. Increasing organ donation via anticipated regret (INORDAR: protocol for a randomised controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O'Carroll Ronan E

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Throughout the world there is an insufficient supply of donor organs to meet the demand for organ transplantations. This paper presents a protocol for a randomised controlled trial, testing whether a simple, theory-based anticipated regret manipulation leads to a significant increase in posthumous organ donor registrations. Methods We will use a between-groups, prospective randomised controlled design. A random sample of 14,520 members of the adult Scottish general public will be contacted via post. These participants will be randomly allocated into 1 of the 4 conditions. The no questionnaire control (NQC group will simply receive a letter and donor registration form. The questionnaire control (QC arm will receive a questionnaire measuring their emotions and non-cognitive affective attitudes towards organ donation. The theory of planned behavior (TPB group will complete the emotions and affective attitudes questionnaire plus additional items assessing their cognitive attitudes towards organ donation, perceived control over registration and how they think significant others view this action. Finally, the anticipated regret (AR group will complete the same indices as the TPB group, plus two additional anticipated regret items. These items will assess the extent to which the participant anticipates regret for not registering as an organ donor in the near future. The outcome variable will be NHS Blood and Transplant verified registrations as an organ donor within 6 months of receiving our postal intervention. Discussion This study will assess whether simply asking people to reflect on the extent to which they may anticipate regret for not registering as an organ donor increases organ donor registration 6 months later. If successful, this simple and easy to administer theory-based intervention has the potential to save lives and money for the NHS by reducing the number of people receiving treatments such as dialysis. This

  2. [The anticipated organ donation approach in the emergency department, the role of the nurse coordinator].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arsonneau, Valérie

    2016-09-01

    The anticipated organ donation approach aims to increase the number of donors and transplants. This approach requires a procedural framework. It also helps the families begin their grieving process, without any added suffering. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  3. Molecular Dependence of the Large Seebeck Effect in \\tau-type Organic Conductors

    OpenAIRE

    Aizawa, Hirohito; Kuroki, Kazuhiko; Yoshino, Harukazu; Mousdis, George A.; Papavassiliou, George C.; Murata, Keizo

    2014-01-01

    We study the Seebeck effect in the $\\tau$-type organic conductors, $\\tau$-(EDO-$S$,$S$-DMEDT-TTF)$_{2}$(AuBr$_{2}$)$_{1+y}$ and $\\tau$-(P-$S$,$S$-DMEDT-TTF)$_{2}$(AuBr$_{2}$)$_{1+y}$, where EDO-$S$,$S$-DMEDT-TTF and P-$S$,$S$-DMEDT-TTF are abbreviated as OOSS and NNSS, respectively, both experimentally and theoretically. Theoretically in particular, we perform first-principles band calculation for the two materials and construct a two-orbital model, on the basis of which we calculate the Seeb...

  4. Electro acoustic and thermomagnetic occurrences in low-dimensional organic conductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krstovska, Danica

    2004-01-01

    The role of the Fermi liquid interaction in the electronic absorption of acoustic wave energy in low-dimensional organic conductors is investigated theoretically. It is shown that the inclusion of the Fermi liquid interaction when charge carriers with quasi-ID and quasi-2D energy spectrum exist significantly affects the shape of the oscillatory curves but the period of oscillations of sound attenuation ratio F with I / H and the positions of sharp peaks in the angular dependence F(O) remain unchanged when Fermi liquid effects are taken into account. The electronic attenuation of acoustic wave energy is analysed in strong magnetic fields when quantization of the energy of conduction electrons is sufficient. It is shown that the longitudinal acoustic wave attenuates very slightly witch confirms the fact that in the electronic absorption of acoustic energy in layered conductors take part a considerably greater number of conduction electrons due to the weak dependence of their energy on the momentum component along the normal to the layers. For transversally polarized acoustic wave the role of Joule losses in absorption of the acoustic wave energy has been clarified for different orientations of the magnetic field with respect to the layers plane. The behaviour of the thermoelectric force in low-dimensional organic conductors in relatively strong magnetic fields when there is no need of quantization of the electron energy and in strong magnetic fields where the quantization is necessary is investigated theoretically. It is shown that when the quantization of the electron energy is essential, giant quantum oscillations of the thermoelectric force occur. The dependence of thermoelectric force on the orientation of the magnetic field with respect to the layers contains detailed information about the charge carriers velocity distribution on the Fermi surface.(Author)

  5. Next generation bioelectronics: Advances in fabrication coupled with clever chemistries enable the effective integration of biomaterials and organic conductors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul J. Molino

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Organic bioelectronics is making an enormous impact in the field of tissue engineering, providing not just biocompatible, but biofunctional conducting material platforms. For their true potential to be reached, it is critical to integrate organic conductors with other biopolymers in a targeted manner, allowing the development of devices and scaffold architectures capable of delivering a number of physical, chemical, and electrical stimuli. Herein, we provide an overview of the methods currently being employed to tailor organic conductors for bioapplications, with a focus on the development of fabrication techniques vital to the development of the next generation of intelligent bionic devices.

  6. Metal-Insulator transition at very high magnetic fields in an organic conductor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graf, D.; Choi, E. S.; Brooks, J. S.; Mielke, C.; Harrison, N.; Murata, K.; Konoike, T.; Papavassiliou, G. C.

    2003-03-01

    Tau-phase organic conductors based on the P-(S,S)-DMEDT-TTF donor molecule exhibit a first order phase transition in high magnetic fields. Low temperature magnetoresistance measurements of τ-(P-(S,S)-DMEDT-TTF)_2(AuBr_2)_1_+y show an abrupt upturn when fields are swept beyond 35 tesla. Observations of sample current indicate that conduction ceases completely in the insulating state. Skin depth, magnetocaloric, and magnetization measurements in pulsed magnetic fields were also used to characterize the high field phase diagram of this metal-insulator transition. Measurements of the angular dependence reveal this to be an isotropic bulk effect rather than an orbital effect in stark contrast to conventional low dimensional metals. In contrast, τ-(EDO-(S,S)-DMEDT-TTF)_2(AuBr_2)_1_+y exhibits pronounced SdH oscillations against a less pronounced, but isotropic rise in magnetoresistance. Models for this new type of transition in an organic conductor will be considered.

  7. Multidimensional Nature of Molecular Organic Conductors Revealed by Angular Magnetoresistance Oscillations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pashupati Dhakal, Harukazu Yoshino, Jeong-Il Oh, Koichi Kikuchi, Michael J. Naughton

    2012-09-01

    Angle-dependent magnetoresistance experiments on organic conductors exhibit a wide range of angular oscillations associated with the dimensionality and symmetry of the crystal structure and electron energy dispersion. In particular, characteristics associated with 1, 2, and 3-dimensional electronic motion are separately revealed when a sample is rotated through different crystal planes in a magnetic field. Originally discovered in the TMTSF-based conductors, these effects are particularly pronounced in the related system (DMET){sub 2}I{sub 3}. Here, experimental and computational results for magnetoresistance oscillations in this material, over a wide range of magnetic field orientations, are presented in such a manner as to uniquely highlight this multidimensional behavior. The calculations employ the Boltzmann transport equation that incorporates the system's triclinic crystal structure, which allows for accurate estimates of the transfer integrals along the crystallographic axes, verifying the 1D, 2D and 3D nature of (DMET){sub 2}I{sub 3}, as well as crossovers between dimensions in the electronic behavior.

  8. Application of mixed-organic-cation for high performance hole-conductor-free perovskite solar cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Meng; Zhao, Li; Wei, Shoubin; Li, Yanyan; Dong, Binghai; Xu, Zuxun; Wan, Li; Wang, Shimin

    2018-01-15

    ABX 3 -type organic lead halide perovskites have gained increasing attention as light harvester for solar cells due to their high power conversion efficiency (PCE). Recently, it has become a trend to avoid the use of expensive hole-transport materials (HTMs) and precious metals, such as Au, to be competitive in future commercial development. In this study, we fabricated mixed-cation perovskite-based solar cells through one-step spin-coating using methylammonium (CH 3 NH 3 + ) and formamidinium (HN=CHNH 3 + ) cations to extend the optical absorption range into the red region and enhance the utilization of solar light. The synthesized hole-conductor-free cells with carbon electrode and mixed cations exhibited increased short-circuit current, outperforming the cells prepared with pure methylammonium, and PCE of 10.55%. This paper proposes an efficient approach for fabricating high-performance and low-cost perovskite solar cells. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Electronic structure of the quasi-one-dimensional organic conductor TTF-TCNQ

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sing, M.; Schwingenschlögl, U.; Claessen, R.

    2003-01-01

    We study the electronic structure of the quasi-one-dimensional organic conductor TTF-TCNQ by means of density-functional band theory, Hubbard model calculations, and angle-resolved photoelectron spectroscopy (ARPES). The experimental spectra reveal significant quantitative and qualitative...... discrepancies to band theory. We demonstrate that the dispersive behavior as well as the temperature dependence of the spectra can be consistently explained by the finite-energy physics of the one-dimensional Hubbard model at metallic doping. The model description can even be made quantitative, if one accounts......-dimensional Hubbard model for the low-energy spectral behavior is attributed to interchain coupling and the additional effect of electron-phonon interaction....

  10. Spectroscopic signatures of spin-charge separation in the quasi-one-dimensional organic conductor TTF-TCNQ

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Claessen, R.; Sing, M.; Schwingenschlogl, U.

    2002-01-01

    The electronic structure of the quasi-one-dimensional organic conductor TTF-TCNQ is studied by angle-resolved photoelectron spectroscopy (ARPES). The experimental spectra reveal significant discrepancies to band theory. We demonstrate that the measured dispersions can be consistently mapped onto ...

  11. Fermi surface study of organic conductors using a magneto-optical measurement under high magnetic fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kimata, M; Ohta, H; Koyama, K; Motokawa, M; Kondo, R; Kagoshima, S; Tanaka, H; Tokumoto, M; Kobayashi, H; Kobayashi, A

    2006-01-01

    Magneto-optical measurements have been performed in organic conductors β''-(BEDT-TTF) 2 CsCd(SCN) 4 and λ-(BETS) 2 FeCl 4 . Although the zero magnetic field ground state of β''-(BEDT-TTF) 2 CsCd(SCN) 4 is considered as the density wave state, periodic orbit resonances (POR's) attributed to quasi-one-dimensional (Q1D) and quasi-two-dimensional (Q2D) Fermi surfaces (FS's) have been observed above 6 T. The existence of these FS's are predicted by the band calculation based on room temperature lattice parameters. This result may suggest the destruction of the density wave state at 6 T, and the primal metallic state revives in the high field phase above 6 T. In the case of λ-(BETS) 2 FeCl 4 , large changes of the transmission intensity of electromagnetic waves around 10 T, which correspond to the insulator-metal transition, have been observed. However, no POR-like resonance has been observed. This may be due to the restriction of the observed frequency-field region

  12. Electronic and magnetic properties of organic conductors (DMET)2MBr4 (M=Fe, Ga)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Enomoto, Kengo; Miyazaki, Akira; Enoki, Toshiaki; Yamaura, Jun-ichi

    2003-01-01

    (DMET) 2 MBr 4 (M=Fe, Ga) are isostructural organic conductors whose crystal structure consists of an alternate stacking of quasi one-dimensional chain-based donor layers and anion square lattices. The resistivity, ESR, magnetic susceptibility, magnetization, and magnetoresistance of these salts were investigated in order to clarify the correlation between the electronic structure and the magnetism. The electronic structures of both salts are metallic down to T MI - 40 K, below which a Mott insulating state is stabilized, accompanied by an SDW transition at T SDW - 25 K. The FeBr 4 salt with Fe 3+ (S=5/2) localized spins undergoes an antiferromagnetic transition at T N = 3.7 K. In the FeBr 4 salt, the magnetization curves, which show field-direction-dependent anomalies in addition to a spin-flop transition, are demonstrated to have a participation of donor π-electron spins in the magnetization processes. The field dependence of the magnetoresistances below T N tracks faithfully that of the magnetization, where the donor π-electrons and Fe 3+ d-electrons are responsible for the former and the latter, respectively. This clearly demonstrates the presence of the π-d interaction that plays an important role in the interplay between electron transport and magnetism. (author)

  13. Molecular Dependence of the Large Seebeck Effect in τ-Type Organic Conductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aizawa, Hirohito; Kuroki, Kazuhiko; Yoshino, Harukazu; Mousdis, George A.; Papavassiliou, George C.; Murata, Keizo

    2014-10-01

    We study the Seebeck effect in the τ-type organic conductors, τ-(EDO-S,S-DMEDT-TTF)2(AuBr2)1+y and τ-(P-S,S-DMEDT-TTF)2(AuBr2)1+y, where EDO-S,S-DMEDT-TTF and P-S,S-DMEDT-TTF are abbreviated as OOSS and NNSS, respectively, both experimentally and theoretically. Theoretically in particular, we perform first-principles band calculation for the two materials and construct a two-orbital model, on the basis of which we calculate the Seebeck coefficient. We show that the calculated temperature dependence of the Seebeck coefficient S is semi-quantitatively consistent with the experimental observation. In both materials, the absolute value of the Seebeck coefficient is maximum at a certain temperature, and this temperature is lower for NNSS than for OOSS. From a band structure viewpoint, we find that this can be traced back to the narrowness of the band gap between the upper and the lower pudding-mold type bands. On the other hand, the Seebeck coefficient of NNSS in the low temperature regime steeply increases with increasing temperature, which is due to the narrowness of the upper band. These differences in thermoelectric properties demonstrate the effectiveness of controlling the band structure through molecular modification.

  14. Attractive mechanical properties of a lightweight highly sensitive bi layer thermistor: polycarbonate/organic molecular conductor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laukhina, E; Lebedev, V; Rovira, C; Laukhin, V; Veciana, J

    2016-01-01

    The paper covers some of the basic mechanical characteristics of a recently developed bi layer thermistor: polycarbonate/(001) oriented layer of organic molecular conductor α’-(BEDT-TTF) 2 I x Br 3-x , were BEDT-TTF=bis(ethylenedithio)tetrathiafulvalen. The nano and macro mechanical properties have been studied in order to use this flexible, low cost thermistor in sensing applications by proper way. The nano-mechanical properties of the temperature sensitive semiconducting layer of α’-(BEDT-TTF) 2 I x Br 3-x were tested using nanoindentation method. The value of Young's modulus in direction being perpendicular to the layer plan was found as 9.0 ±1.4 GPa. The macro mechanical properties of the thermistor were studied using a 5848 MicroTester. The tensile tests showed that basic mechanical characteristics of the thermistor are close to those of polycarbonate films. This indicates a good mechanical strength of the developed sensor. Therefore, the thermistor can be used in technologies that need to be instrumented with highly robustness lightweight low cost temperature sensors. The paper also reports synthetic details on fabricating temperature sensing e-textile. As the temperature control is becoming more and more important in biomedical technologies like healthcare monitoring, this work strongly contributes on the ongoing research on engineering sensitive conducting materials for biomedical applications. (paper)

  15. Volunteer recruitment: the role of organizational support and anticipated respect in non-volunteers' attraction to charitable volunteer organizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boezeman, Edwin J; Ellemers, Naomi

    2008-09-01

    In 3 experiments the authors examined how specific characteristics of charitable volunteer organizations contribute to the recruitment of new volunteers. In line with predictions, Study 1 revealed that providing non-volunteers with information about organizational support induced anticipated feelings of respect, which subsequently enhanced their attraction to the volunteer organization. However, information about the current success of the volunteer organization did not affect anticipated pride (as among those who seek paid employment) and in fact caused potential volunteers to perceive the organization as being in less need for additional volunteers. Study 2 further showed that information about support from the volunteer organization is a more relevant source of anticipated respect and organizational attraction than support from co-volunteers. Study 3 finally showed that information about task and emotional support for volunteers contributes to anticipated respect and organizational attractiveness and that this increases the actual willingness of non-volunteers to participate in the volunteer organization. Interventions aimed at attracting volunteers and avenues for further research are discussed.

  16. Anomalous photo-induced response by double-pulse excitation in the organic conductor (EDO-TTF)2PF6

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onda, Ken; Ogihara, Sho; Ishikawa, Tadahiko; Okimoto, Yoichi; Shao, Xiangfeng; Nakano, Yoshiaki; Yamochi, Hideki; Saito, Gunzi; Koshihara, Shin-ya

    2009-02-01

    We measured ultrafast reflectivity changes induced by double-pulse excitation in the organic conductor (EDO-TTF)2PF6. Using double-pulse excitation with a relatively high intensity, the sign of reflectivity change became reversed at around 0.8 ps and subsequently the reflectivity change reverted to that of the normal photo-induced state after about 1 ps. Using a optically phase-locked double-pulse with low intensity, we found that the temporal profile excited by an in-phase double-pulse differs from that by an out-of-phase double-pulse despite the time difference between the double-pulses being only 1.31 fs. This was true even when there is almost no overlap between each pulse in the double-pulse. These results indicate that the photo-response in this material to double-pulse excitation differs greatly from the linear sum of the responses to single pulses.

  17. 'Pudding mold'-type band as an origin of large thermopower in τ-type organic conductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aizawa, Hirohito; Kuroki, Kazuhiko; Yoshino, Harukazu; Murata, Keizo

    2010-01-01

    We study the origin of the large thermopower in quasi-two-dimensional τ-type organic conductor, τ-(EDO-S,S-DMEDT-TTF) 2 (AuBr 2 ) 1+y (y≤0.875), from the view point of a 'pudding mold'-type band structure. We calculate the electronic band structure using an ab initio band calculation package, and obtain a tight binding model fit to the ab initio band structure. Using the model and Boltzmann's equation approach, we calculate the temperature dependence of the Seebeck coefficient. We conclude that the peculiar band structure is the origin of the large Seebeck coefficient and the appearance of the maximum value at a certain temperature.

  18. 'Pudding mold'-type band as an origin of large thermopower in {tau}-type organic conductors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aizawa, Hirohito [Department of Applied Physics and Chemistry, University of Electro-Communications, Chofu, Tokyo 182-8585 (Japan); Kuroki, Kazuhiko, E-mail: kuroki@vivace.e-one.uec.ac.j [Department of Applied Physics and Chemistry, University of Electro-Communications, Chofu, Tokyo 182-8585 (Japan); Yoshino, Harukazu; Murata, Keizo [Graduate School of Science, Osaka City University, Osaka 558-8585 (Japan)

    2010-06-01

    We study the origin of the large thermopower in quasi-two-dimensional {tau}-type organic conductor, {tau}-(EDO-S,S-DMEDT-TTF){sub 2}(AuBr{sub 2}){sub 1+y} (y{<=}0.875), from the view point of a 'pudding mold'-type band structure. We calculate the electronic band structure using an ab initio band calculation package, and obtain a tight binding model fit to the ab initio band structure. Using the model and Boltzmann's equation approach, we calculate the temperature dependence of the Seebeck coefficient. We conclude that the peculiar band structure is the origin of the large Seebeck coefficient and the appearance of the maximum value at a certain temperature.

  19. The metallic transport of (TMTSF){sub 2}X organic conductors close to the superconducting phase

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Auban-Senzier, P; Jerome, D [Laboratoire de Physique des Solides, UMR 8502 CNRS Universite Paris-Sud, 91405 Orsay (France); Doiron-Leyraud, N; Rene de Cotret, S; Sedeki, A; Bourbonnais, C; Taillefer, L [Departement de Physique and RQMP, Universite de Sherbrooke, Sherbrooke, QC, J1K 2R1 (Canada); Alemany, P [Departament de Quimica Fisica and Institut de Quimica Teorica i Computacional (IQTCUB), Universitat de Barcelona, Diagonal 647, 08028 Barcelona (Spain); Canadell, E [Institut de Ciencia de Materials de Barcelona (CSIC), Campus de la UAB, 08193 Bellaterra (Spain); Bechgaard, K, E-mail: pascale.senzier@lps.u-psud.fr, E-mail: denis.jerome@lps.u-psud.fr, E-mail: ndl@physique.usherbrooke.ca, E-mail: cbourbon@physique.usherbrooke.ca, E-mail: ltaillef@physique.usherbrooke.ca, E-mail: p.alemany@ub.edu, E-mail: canadell@icmab.es [Department of Chemistry, HC Oersted Institute, Copenhagen (Denmark)

    2011-08-31

    Comparing resistivity data of the quasi-one-dimensional superconductors (TMTSF){sub 2}PF{sub 6} and (TMTSF){sub 2}ClO{sub 4} along the least conducting c*-axis and along the high conductivity a-axis as a function of temperature and pressure, a low temperature regime is observed in which a unique scattering time governs the transport along both directions of these anisotropic conductors. However, the pressure dependence of the anisotropy implies a large pressure dependence of the interlayer coupling. This is in agreement with the results of first-principles density functional theory calculations implying methyl group hyperconjugation in the TMTSF molecule. In this low temperature regime, both materials exhibit for {rho}{sub c} a temperature dependence aT + bT{sup 2}. Taking into account the strong pressure dependence of the anisotropy, the T-linear {rho}{sub c} is found to correlate with the suppression of the superconducting T{sub c}, in close analogy with {rho}{sub a} data. This work reveals the domain of existence of the three-dimensional coherent regime in the generic (TMTSF){sub 2}X phase diagram and provides further support for the correlation between T-linear resistivity and superconductivity in non-conventional superconductors. (paper)

  20. The metallic transport of (TMTSF)2X organic conductors close to the superconducting phase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Auban-Senzier, P; Jerome, D; Doiron-Leyraud, N; Rene de Cotret, S; Sedeki, A; Bourbonnais, C; Taillefer, L; Alemany, P; Canadell, E; Bechgaard, K

    2011-01-01

    Comparing resistivity data of the quasi-one-dimensional superconductors (TMTSF) 2 PF 6 and (TMTSF) 2 ClO 4 along the least conducting c*-axis and along the high conductivity a-axis as a function of temperature and pressure, a low temperature regime is observed in which a unique scattering time governs the transport along both directions of these anisotropic conductors. However, the pressure dependence of the anisotropy implies a large pressure dependence of the interlayer coupling. This is in agreement with the results of first-principles density functional theory calculations implying methyl group hyperconjugation in the TMTSF molecule. In this low temperature regime, both materials exhibit for ρ c a temperature dependence aT + bT 2 . Taking into account the strong pressure dependence of the anisotropy, the T-linear ρ c is found to correlate with the suppression of the superconducting T c , in close analogy with ρ a data. This work reveals the domain of existence of the three-dimensional coherent regime in the generic (TMTSF) 2 X phase diagram and provides further support for the correlation between T-linear resistivity and superconductivity in non-conventional superconductors. (paper)

  1. Theoretical study of the zero-gap organic conductor α-(BEDT-TTF2I3

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akito Kobayashi, Shinya Katayama and Yoshikazu Suzumura

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The quasi-two-dimensional molecular conductor α-(BEDT-TTF2I3 exhibits anomalous transport phenomena where the temperature dependence of resistivity is weak but the ratio of the Hall coefficient at 10 K to that at room temperature is of the order of 104. These puzzling phenomena were solved by predicting massless Dirac fermions, whose motions are described using the tilted Weyl equation with anisotropic velocity. α-(BEDT-TTF2I3 is a unique material among several materials with Dirac fermions, i.e. graphene, bismuth, and quantum wells such as HgTe, from the view-points of both the structure and electronic states described as follows. α-(BEDT-TTF2I3 has the layered structure with highly two-dimensional massless Dirac fermions. The anisotropic velocity and incommensurate momenta of the contact points, ±k0, originate from the inequivalency of the BEDT-TTF sites in the unit cell, where ±k0 moves in the first Brillouin zone with increasing pressure. The massless Dirac fermions exist in the presence of the charge disproportionation and are robust against the increase in pressure. The electron densities on those inequivalent BEDT-TTF sites exhibit anomalous momentum distributions, reflecting the angular dependences of the wave functions around the contact points. Those unique electronic properties affect the spatial oscillations of the electron densities in the vicinity of an impurity. A marked behavior of the Hall coefficient, where the sign of the Hall coefficient reverses sharply but continuously at low temperatures around 5 K, is investigated by treating the interband effects of the magnetic field exactly. It is shown that such behavior is possible by assuming the existence of the extremely small amount of electron doping. The enhancement of the orbital diamagnetism is also expected. The results of the present research shed light on a new aspect of Dirac fermion physics, i.e. the emergence of unique electronic properties owing to the structure

  2. Anticipated regret

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zeelenberg, M.; Parrott, R.

    2018-01-01

    Regret is the prototypical decision related emotion. It is felt when the outcome of a non-chosen alternative is better than the outcomes obtained. Regret is a functional emotion that helps people to correct mistakes. It is also functional because people can anticipate regret beforehand, then choose

  3. Electronic and magnetic properties of organic conductors (DMET) sub 2 MBr sub 4 (M=Fe, Ga)

    CERN Document Server

    Enomoto, K; Enoki, T; Yamaura, J I

    2003-01-01

    (DMET) sub 2 MBr sub 4 (M=Fe, Ga) are isostructural organic conductors whose crystal structure consists of an alternate stacking of quasi one-dimensional chain-based donor layers and anion square lattices. The resistivity, ESR, magnetic susceptibility, magnetization, and magnetoresistance of these salts were investigated in order to clarify the correlation between the electronic structure and the magnetism. The electronic structures of both salts are metallic down to T sub M sub I - 40 K, below which a Mott insulating state is stabilized, accompanied by an SDW transition at T sub S sub D sub W - 25 K. The FeBr sub 4 salt with Fe sup 3 sup + (S=5/2) localized spins undergoes an antiferromagnetic transition at T sub N = 3.7 K. In the FeBr sub 4 salt, the magnetization curves, which show field-direction-dependent anomalies in addition to a spin-flop transition, are demonstrated to have a participation of donor pi-electron spins in the magnetization processes. The field dependence of the magnetoresistances below ...

  4. Car 'organ-transplant': anticipating energy and environmental benefits of cleaner technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moura, Filipe; Viegas, Jose Manuel (CESUR/Inst. Superior Tecnico (Portugal))

    2009-07-01

    The transport sector faces multiple challenges including the accommodation of increasing fuel prices and environmental pressures. These hurdles become more important in road transport where cars hold a larger share of final energy consumption and emissions. Although not solved, the situation is improving in general and the question of accelerating the transition to new technologies is dominant, yet not sufficient. Technological turnover of car fleets is determined by the replacement of older vehicles by new models. Depending on the diffusion of new cars and driving forces for technological change, the total displacement of older technologies can last 10 to more than 40 years. Car Organ Transplant (COT) is explored here as a complementary alternative to conventional technological turnover of fleets by which potential benefits are delayed as obsolete technologies continue to pollute at preceding levels. COT corresponds to replacing obsolete powertrain and ancillary equipments with cleaner technologies. Consequently, car's service time is extended with upgraded and fully functional technologies. We analyzed lifecycle environmental and economic benefits of COT by comparing different car-ownership approaches over 20 years: keeping car, buying new car, buying remarketed-car; buying transplanted-car or transplanting own car. We concluded that COT is potentially attractive for owners while improving energy and environmental performance of automobility. Additionally, we estimated the pervasiveness of COT in the Portuguese car fleet and corresponding impacts. We concluded that COT potentially yields significant energy and environmental benefits for society. Barriers and implications of COT for the automotive industry were identified. Importantly, increased standardization, modularity-in-design and modularity-in-production are necessary. Lastly, new relationships between car makers and customers may arise like 'evolutionary car selling' by which planned COT

  5. Insulator-to-Proton-Conductor Transition in a Dense Metal-Organic Framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tominaka, Satoshi; Coudert, François-Xavier; Dao, Thang D; Nagao, Tadaaki; Cheetham, Anthony K

    2015-05-27

    Metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) are prone to exhibit phase transitions under stimuli such as changes in pressure, temperature, or gas sorption because of their flexible and responsive structures. Here we report that a dense MOF, ((CH3)2NH2)2[Li2Zr(C2O4)4], exhibits an abrupt increase in proton conductivity from topotactic hydration (H2O/Zr = 0.5), wherein one-fourth of the Li ions are irreversibly rearranged and coordinated by water molecules. This structure further transforms into a third crystalline structure by water uptake (H2O/Zr = 4.0). The abrupt increase in conductivity is reversible and is associated with the latter reversible structure transformation. The H2O molecules coordinated to Li ions, which are formed in the first step of the transformation, are considered to be the proton source, and the absorbed water molecules, which are formed in the second step, are considered to be proton carriers.

  6. Anticipation and medicine

    CERN Document Server

    2017-01-01

    In this book, practicing physicians and experts in anticipation present arguments for a new understanding of medicine. Their contributions make it clear that medicine is the decisive test for anticipation. The reader is presented with a provocative hypothesis: If medicine will align itself with the anticipatory condition of life, it can prompt the most important revolution in our time. To this end, all stakeholders—medical practitioners, patients, scientists, and technology developers—will have to engage in the conversation. The book makes the case for the transition from expensive, and only marginally effective, reactive treatment through “spare parts” (joint replacements, organ transplants) and reliance on pharmaceuticals (antibiotics, opiates) to anticipation-informed healthcare. Readers will understand why the current premise of treating various behavioral conditions (attention deficit disorder, hyperactivity, schizophrenia) through drugs has to be re-evaluated from the perspective of anticipation...

  7. High frequency inductive measurements of organic conductors with the application of high magnetic fields and low temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winter, Laurel E.

    Organic conductors are interesting to study due to their low dimensionality that leads to a number of competing low temperature ground states. Comprised of a number of different molecules that can be varied by the substitution of one atom for another, organic systems also provide a large number of similar compounds that lend themselves to comparison studies. Two such low-dimensional organic conductors, Per2[Pt(mnt)2] and (TMTSF)2ClO4, which are members of large families of compounds, are the topic of this dissertation. Both materials are considered quasi-one-dimensional and have a number of low temperature transitions, some of which can be studied via changes in the magnetic properties of the systems. The Per2[M(mnt)2] family of compounds provides a system for exploring the similarities and differences of the system's properties when the metal M has a localized spin (M = Pt, Ni, and Fe) versus when the metal is diamagnetic (M = Au, Cu, and Co). In the case of Per2[Pt(mnt)2] - one of the compounds of focus in this dissertation - the metallic perylene chains undergo a metal- insulator transition due to the formation of a charge density wave at Tc ~ 8 K, which also occurs in Per2[Au(mnt)2] at 12 K. However, unlike in the M = Au compound, an additional transition occurs in the M = Pt compound due to the localized Pt spins (S = 1/2) on the insulating Pt(mnt)2 chains - the spin chains of Per2[Pt(mnt)2] undergo a spin-Peierls transition at 8 K. One focus of the experimental work of this dissertation focuses on the magnetic properties of the spin chains in Per2[Pt(mnt)2], via inductive susceptibility measurements at temperatures down to 0.5 K and fields up to 60 T. The experimental results show a coupling of the spin-Peierls and charge density wave states below 8 K and 20 T, above which both states are suppressed. Further measurements show a second spin state transition occurs above 20 T that coincides with a field induced insulating state in the perylene chains. These

  8. Photoinduced Change in the Charge Order Pattern in the Quarter-Filled Organic Conductor (EDO-TTF)2PF6 with a Strong Electron-Phonon Interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onda, Ken; Ogihara, Sho; Yonemitsu, Kenji; Maeshima, Nobuya; Ishikawa, Tadahiko; Okimoto, Yoichi; Shao, Xiangfeng; Nakano, Yoshiaki; Yamochi, Hideki; Saito, Gunzi; Koshihara, Shin-Ya

    2008-08-01

    The quasistable state in the photoinduced phase transition for the quasi-one-dimensional quarter-filled organic conductor (EDO-TTF)2PF6 has been examined by ultrafast reflective measurements and time-dependent model calculations incorporating both electron-electron and electron-phonon interactions. The transient optical conductivity spectrum over a wide probe photon-energy range revealed that photoexcitation induced a new type of charge-disproportionate state. Additionally, coherent and incoherent oscillations dependent on probe photon energies were found, as predicted by the calculation.

  9. Effect of anion potential on the zero-gap state in the two-dimensional organic conductor α-(BEDT-TTF)2I3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Katayama, Shinya; Suzumura, Yoshikazu; Kobayashi, Akito

    2008-01-01

    The organic conductor α-(BEDT-TTF) 2 I 3 exhibits the zero-gap state (ZGS) described by the massless Dirac fermions, and is in contrast to that of the single layer graphite, i.e. graphene since the former is robust against the site potential compared with the latter. However, the ZGS of the organic conductor is not fully clarified due to the complexity of several kinds of transfer energies arising from four kinds of donor molecules in a unit cell. In the present paper, we analyze the details of the ZGS by focusing on the role of the anion potential, which acts differently on respective site of donor molecules. We show that the anion potential with a small magnitude does not destroy the ZGS but has an effect of varying the location of the contact point between the conduction and valence bands as found in the case of pressure. Such a behavior can be understood by the tilted Weyl equation with a perturbation for the potential. Further, the ZGS is discussed by examining the relation between the anion potential and the charge disproportionation.

  10. Fabrication of 100 A class, 1 m long coated conductor tapes by metal organic chemical vapor deposition and pulsed laser deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Selvamanickam, V.; Lee, H.G.; Li, Y.; Xiong, X.; Qiao, Y.; Reeves, J.; Xie, Y.; Knoll, A.; Lenseth, K

    2003-10-15

    SuperPower has been scaling up YBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub x}-based second-generation superconducting tapes by techniques such as pulsed laser deposition (PLD) using industrial laser and metal organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD). Both techniques offer advantage of high deposition rates, which is important for high throughput. Using highly-polished substrates produced in a reel-to-reel polishing facility and buffer layers deposited in a pilot ion beam assisted deposition facility, meter-long second-generation high temperature superconductor tapes have been produced. 100 A class, meter-long coated conductor tapes have been reproducibly demonstrated in this work by both MOCVD and PLD. The best results to date are 148 A over 1.06 m by MOCVD and 135 A over 1.1 m by PLD using industrial laser.

  11. The Hall effect in the organic conductor TTF–TCNQ: choice of geometry for accurate measurements of a highly anisotropic system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tafra, E; Čulo, M; Basletić, M

    2012-01-01

    We have measured the Hall effect on recently synthesized single crystals of the quasi-one-dimensional organic conductor TTF–TCNQ (tetrathiafulvalene–tetracyanoquinodimethane), a well known charge transfer complex that has two kinds of conductive stacks: the donor (TTF) and the acceptor (TCNQ...... Hall effect measurements. Our results show, contrary to past belief, that the Hall coefficient does not depend on the geometry of measurements and that the Hall coefficient value is approximately zero in the high temperature region (T > 150 K), implying that there is no dominance of either the TTF...... or the TCNQ chain. At lower temperatures our measurements clearly prove that all three phase transitions of TTF–TCNQ could be identified from Hall effect measurements....

  12. High Critical Current Coated Conductors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paranthaman, M. P.; Selvamanickam, V. (SuperPower, Inc.)

    2011-12-27

    One of the important critical needs that came out of the DOE’s coated conductor workshop was to develop a high throughput and economic deposition process for YBCO. Metal-organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD) technique, the most critical steps in high technical micro fabrications, has been widely employed in semiconductor industry for various thin film growth. SuperPower has demonstrated that (Y,Gd)BCO films can be deposited rapid with world record performance. In addition to high critical current density with increased film thickness, flux pinning properties of REBCO films needs to be improved to meet the DOE requirements for various electric-power equipments. We have shown that doping with Zr can result in BZO nanocolumns, but at substantially reduced deposition rate. The primary purpose of this subtask is to develop high current density MOCVD-REBCO coated conductors based on the ion-beam assisted (IBAD)-MgO deposition process. Another purpose of this subtask is to investigate HTS conductor design optimization (maximize Je) with emphasis on stability and protection issues, and ac loss for REBCO coated conductors.

  13. A lithium superionic conductor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamaya, Noriaki; Homma, Kenji; Yamakawa, Yuichiro; Hirayama, Masaaki; Kanno, Ryoji; Yonemura, Masao; Kamiyama, Takashi; Kato, Yuki; Hama, Shigenori; Kawamoto, Koji; Mitsui, Akio

    2011-07-31

    Batteries are a key technology in modern society. They are used to power electric and hybrid electric vehicles and to store wind and solar energy in smart grids. Electrochemical devices with high energy and power densities can currently be powered only by batteries with organic liquid electrolytes. However, such batteries require relatively stringent safety precautions, making large-scale systems very complicated and expensive. The application of solid electrolytes is currently limited because they attain practically useful conductivities (10(-2) S cm(-1)) only at 50-80 °C, which is one order of magnitude lower than those of organic liquid electrolytes. Here, we report a lithium superionic conductor, Li(10)GeP(2)S(12) that has a new three-dimensional framework structure. It exhibits an extremely high lithium ionic conductivity of 12 mS cm(-1) at room temperature. This represents the highest conductivity achieved in a solid electrolyte, exceeding even those of liquid organic electrolytes. This new solid-state battery electrolyte has many advantages in terms of device fabrication (facile shaping, patterning and integration), stability (non-volatile), safety (non-explosive) and excellent electrochemical properties (high conductivity and wide potential window).

  14. Crystal structure, EPR spectra and conductivity of the (ET)2[Hg(SCN)2I] organic conductor (ET - bis-ethylenedithiotetrathiafulvalen)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yudanova, E.I.; Makarova, L.N.; Konovalikhin, S.V.; D'yachenko, O.A.; Lyubovskij, R.B.; Lyubovskaya, R.N.

    1996-01-01

    A study was made on structure, conductivity and EPR spectra of a new organic conductor (ET) 2 [Hg(SCN) 2 I] (ET -bis-ethyeleneithiotetrathiafulvalen). It is shown that cation-radicals in organic layers are packed according to k-type, and anions form a polymer chain. THe existence of cation-radical layers, which differ by the number of shortened S...S-contacts and by the way of interaction with anion layer, was revealed; width of EPR line is equal to 9-11 Gs (300 K) for them. This is several times less, than widths of lines, typical for k-type salts. Existence of conducting band of small dimensions was assumed. Analysis of temperature dependences of conductivity anisotropy and EPR spectra parameters enabled to make the assumption about structural rearrangement in the region of 50 K. Correlation of structure and properties of this compound with other salts of (ET) 2 [Hg(SCN) 3-n X n ], X = Cl, Br, n = 1, 2 family was conducted. 21 refs.; 5 figs

  15. Modulation of a Molecular π-Electron System in a Purely Organic Conductor that Shows Hydrogen-Bond-Dynamics-Based Switching of Conductivity and Magnetism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ueda, Akira; Hatakeyama, Akari; Enomoto, Masaya; Kumai, Reiji; Murakami, Youichi; Mori, Hatsumi

    2015-10-12

    New important aspects of the hydrogen-bond (H-bond)-dynamics-based switching of electrical conductivity and magnetism in an H-bonded, purely organic conductor crystal have been discovered by modulating its tetrathiafulvalene (TTF)-based molecular π-electron system by means of partial sulfur/selenium substitution. The prepared selenium analogue also showed a similar type of phase transition, induced by H-bonded deuterium transfer followed by electron transfer between the H-bonded TTF skeletons, and the resulting switching of the physical properties; however, subtle but critical differences due to sulfur/selenium substitution were detected in the electronic structure, phase transition nature, and switching function. A molecular-level discussion based on the crystal structures shows that this chemical modification of the TTF skeleton influences not only its own π-electronic structure and π-π interactions within the conducting layer, but also the H-bond dynamics between the TTF π skeletons in the neighboring layers, which enables modulation of the interplay between the H-bond and π electrons to cause such differences. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  16. Uniaxial strain effects on transport properties of a supramolecular organic conductor theta-(DIETS) sub 2 [Au(CN) sub 4

    CERN Document Server

    Tajima, N; Kato, R; Nishio, Y; Kajita, K

    2003-01-01

    Pressure-controlled switching between an insulating state and a superconducting state has been successfully realized on a supramolecular organic conductor theta-(DIETS) sub 2 [Au(CN) sub 4] [DIETS = diiodo(ethylenedithio)diselenadithiafulvalene]. Strong contact between iodine on the donor (DIETS) molecule and nitrogen on the anion [Au(CN) sub 4] genetates characteristic uniaxial strain effects on transport properties. Under the ambient pressure, the present system undergoes a semiconductor-insulator transition at 226 K. The effect of strains parallel to the conduction plane (ab-plane) is very small. Even under uniaxial strains up to 20 kbar along the a- and b-axis directions, the transition is not suppressed. Surprisingly, however, the c-axis strain induces a superconducting state with T sub c of 8.6 K at 10 kbar. Band parameter calculation and the conductivity anisotropy ratio suggest that an increase in the bandwidth W associated with a c-axis strain transforms the system to the metallic and superconducting...

  17. Two level undercut-profile substrate-based filamentary coated conductors produced using metal organic chemical vapor deposition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Insinga, Andrea R.; Sundaram, Aarthi; Hazelton, Drew W.

    2018-01-01

    of a filamentary CC produced in an industrial setup by SuperPower Inc. using ion beam assisted deposition and metal organic chemical vapor deposition (IBAD-MOCVD) on a 2LUPS substrate realized at the Technical University of Denmark (DTU), whereas previous studies discussed the fabrication using alternating beam...

  18. Plasma Generator Using Spiral Conductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szatkowski, George N. (Inventor); Dudley, Kenneth L. (Inventor); Ticatch, Larry A. (Inventor); Smith, Laura J. (Inventor); Koppen, Sandra V. (Inventor); Nguyen, Truong X. (Inventor); Ely, Jay J. (Inventor)

    2016-01-01

    A plasma generator includes a pair of identical spiraled electrical conductors separated by dielectric material. Both spiraled conductors have inductance and capacitance wherein, in the presence of a time-varying electromagnetic field, the spiraled conductors resonate to generate a harmonic electromagnetic field response. The spiraled conductors lie in parallel planes and partially overlap one another in a direction perpendicular to the parallel planes. The geometric centers of the spiraled conductors define endpoints of a line that is non-perpendicular with respect to the parallel planes. A voltage source coupled across the spiraled conductors applies a voltage sufficient to generate a plasma in at least a portion of the dielectric material.

  19. Introduction to the Natural Anticipator and the Artificial Anticipator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubois, Daniel M.

    2010-11-01

    This short communication deals with the introduction of the concept of anticipator, which is one who anticipates, in the framework of computing anticipatory systems. The definition of anticipation deals with the concept of program. Indeed, the word program, comes from "pro-gram" meaning "to write before" by anticipation, and means a plan for the programming of a mechanism, or a sequence of coded instructions that can be inserted into a mechanism, or a sequence of coded instructions, as genes or behavioural responses, that is part of an organism. Any natural or artificial programs are thus related to anticipatory rewriting systems, as shown in this paper. All the cells in the body, and the neurons in the brain, are programmed by the anticipatory genetic code, DNA, in a low-level language with four signs. The programs in computers are also computing anticipatory systems. It will be shown, at one hand, that the genetic code DNA is a natural anticipator. As demonstrated by Nobel laureate McClintock [8], genomes are programmed. The fundamental program deals with the DNA genetic code. The properties of the DNA consist in self-replication and self-modification. The self-replicating process leads to reproduction of the species, while the self-modifying process leads to new species or evolution and adaptation in existing ones. The genetic code DNA keeps its instructions in memory in the DNA coding molecule. The genetic code DNA is a rewriting system, from DNA coding to DNA template molecule. The DNA template molecule is a rewriting system to the Messenger RNA molecule. The information is not destroyed during the execution of the rewriting program. On the other hand, it will be demonstrated that Turing machine is an artificial anticipator. The Turing machine is a rewriting system. The head reads and writes, modifying the content of the tape. The information is destroyed during the execution of the program. This is an irreversible process. The input data are lost.

  20. Microstructural and superconducting properties of high current metal-organic chemical vapor deposition YBa2Cu3O7-δ coated conductor wires

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holesinger, T G; Maiorov, B; Ugurlu, O; Civale, L; Chen, Y; Xiong, X; Xie, Y; Selvamanickam, V

    2009-01-01

    Metal-organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD) on flexible, ion beam assisted deposition MgO templates has been used to produce high critical current density (J c ) (Y,Sm) 1 Ba 2 Cu 3 O y (REBCO) films suitable for use in producing practical high temperature superconducting (HTS) coated conductor wires. Thick films on tape were produced with sequential additions of 0.7 μm of REBCO via a reel-to-reel progression through a custom-designed MOCVD reactor. Multi-pass processing for thick film deposition is critically dependent upon minimizing surface secondary phase formation. Critical currents (I c s) of up to 600 A/cm width (t = 2.8 μm, J c = 2.6 MA cm -2 , 77 K, self-field) were obtained in short lengths of HTS wires. These high performance MOCVD films are characterized by closely spaced (Y,Sm) 2 O 3 nanoparticle layers that may be tilted relative to the film normal and REBCO orientation. Small shifts in the angular dependence of J c in low and intermediate applied magnetic fields can be associated with the tilted nanoparticle layers. Also present in these films were YCuO 2 nanoplates aligned with the YBCO matrix (short dimension perpendicular to the film normal), threading dislocations, and oriented composite defects (OCDs). The latter structures consist of single or multiple a-axis oriented grains coated on each side with insulating (Y,Sm) 2 O 3 or CuO. The OCDs formed a connected network of insulating phases by the end of the fourth pass. Subsequent attempts at adding additional layers did not increase I c . There is an inconsistency between the measured J c and the observed microstructural degradation that occurs with each additional layer, suggesting that previously deposited layers are improving with each repeated reactor pass. These dynamic changes suggest a role for post-processing to optimize superconducting properties of as-deposited films, addressing issues associated with reproducibility and manufacturing yield.

  1. Hydrogen-bond-dynamics-based switching of conductivity and magnetism: a phase transition caused by deuterium and electron transfer in a hydrogen-bonded purely organic conductor crystal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ueda, Akira; Yamada, Shota; Isono, Takayuki; Kamo, Hiromichi; Nakao, Akiko; Kumai, Reiji; Nakao, Hironori; Murakami, Youichi; Yamamoto, Kaoru; Nishio, Yutaka; Mori, Hatsumi

    2014-08-27

    A hydrogen bond (H-bond) is one of the most fundamental and important noncovalent interactions in chemistry, biology, physics, and all other molecular sciences. Especially, the dynamics of a proton or a hydrogen atom in the H-bond has attracted increasing attention, because it plays a crucial role in (bio)chemical reactions and some physical properties, such as dielectricity and proton conductivity. Here we report unprecedented H-bond-dynamics-based switching of electrical conductivity and magnetism in a H-bonded purely organic conductor crystal, κ-D3(Cat-EDT-TTF)2 (abbreviated as κ-D). This novel crystal κ-D, a deuterated analogue of κ-H3(Cat-EDT-TTF)2 (abbreviated as κ-H), is composed only of a H-bonded molecular unit, in which two crystallographically equivalent catechol-fused ethylenedithiotetrathiafulvalene (Cat-EDT-TTF) skeletons with a +0.5 charge are linked by a symmetric anionic [O···D···O](-1)-type strong H-bond. Although the deuterated and parent hydrogen systems, κ-D and κ-H, are isostructural paramagnetic semiconductors with a dimer-Mott-type electronic structure at room temperature (space group: C2/c), only κ-D undergoes a phase transition at 185 K, to change to a nonmagnetic insulator with a charge-ordered electronic structure (space group: P1). The X-ray crystal structure analysis demonstrates that this dramatic switching of the electronic structure and physical properties originates from deuterium transfer or displacement within the H-bond accompanied by electron transfer between the Cat-EDT-TTF π-systems, proving that the H-bonded deuterium dynamics and the conducting TTF π-electron are cooperatively coupled. Furthermore, the reason why this unique phase transition occurs only in κ-D is qualitatively discussed in terms of the H/D isotope effect on the H-bond geometry and potential energy curve.

  2. Physics of superionic conductors

    CERN Document Server

    1979-01-01

    Superionic conductors are solids whose ionic conductivities approach, and in some cases exceed, those of molten salts and electrolyte solutions. This implies an un­ usual state of matter in which some atoms have nearly liquidlike mobility while others retain their regular crystalline arrangement. This liquid-solid duality has much appeal to condensed matter physicists, and the coincident development of powerful new methods for studying disordered solids and interest in superionic conductors for technical applications has resulted in a new surge of activity in this venerable field. It is the purpose of this book to summarize the current re­ search in the physics of superionic conduction. with special emphasis on those aspects which set these materials apart from other solids. The volume is aimed to­ wards the materials community and will, we expect, stimulate further research on these potentially useful substances. The usual characterization of the superionic phase lists high ionic conductivity; low activat...

  3. The CMS conductor

    CERN Document Server

    Blau, Bertrand; Curé, B; Folch, R; Hervé, A; Horváth, I L; Kircher, F; Musenich, R; Neuenschwander, J; Riboni, P; Seeber, B; Tavares, S; Sgobba, Stefano; Smith, R P

    2002-01-01

    The Compact Muon Solenoid (CMS) is one of the general-purpose detectors to be provided for the LHC project at CERN. The design field of the CMS superconducting magnet is 4 T, the magnetic length is 12.5 m and the free bore is 6 m. The magnetic field is achieved by means of a four-layer superconducting solenoid. The stored magnetic energy is 2.7 GJ at nominal current of 20 kA (at 4.5 K operating temperature). The coil is wound from a high purity aluminum- stabilized Rutherford type conductor. Unlike other existing Al- stabilized thin solenoids, the structural integrity of the CMS coil is ensured both by the Al-alloy reinforcement welded to the conductor and an external support cylinder. The flat NbTi cable is embedded in high purity aluminum by a continuous co-extrusion process. (7 refs).

  4. Anticipation across disciplines

    CERN Document Server

    2016-01-01

    Never before was anticipation more relevant to the life and activity of humankind than it is today. “It is no overstatement to suggest that humanity’s future will be shaped by its capacity to anticipate….” (Research Agenda for the 21st Century, National Science Foundation). The sciences and the humanities can no longer risk explaining away the complexity and interactivity that lie at the foundation of life and living. The perspective of the world that anticipation opens justifies the descriptor “the post-Cartesian Revolution.” If anticipation is a valid research domain, what practical relevance can we await? Indeed, anticipation is more than just the latest catch-word in marketing the apps developed by the digital technology industry. Due to spectacular advances in the study of the living, anticipation can claim a legitimate place in current investigations and applications in the sciences and the humanities. Biology, genetics, medicine, as well as politics and cognitive, behavioral, and social sci...

  5. The CMS conductor

    CERN Document Server

    Horváth, I L; Marti, H P; Neuenschwander, J; Smith, R P; Fabbricatore, P; Musenich, R; Calvo, A; Campi, D; Curé, B; Desirelli, Alberto; Favre, G; Riboni, P L; Sgobba, Stefano; Tardy, T; Sequeira-Lopes-Tavares, S

    2000-01-01

    The Compact Muon Solenoid (CMS) is one of the experiments, which are being designed in the framework of the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) project at CERN, the design field of the CMS magnet is 4 T, the magnetic length is 13 m and the aperture is 6 m. This high magnetic field is achieved by means of a 4 layer, 5 modules superconducting coil. The coil is wound from an Al-stabilized Rutherford type conductor. The nominal current of the magnet is 20 kA at 4.5 K. In the CMS coil the structural function is ensured, unlike in other existing Al-stabilized thin solenoids, both by the Al-alloy reinforced conductor and the external former. In this paper the retained manufacturing process of the 50-km long reinforced conductor is described. In general the Rutherford type cable is surrounded by high purity aluminium in a continuous co-extrusion process to produce the Insert. Thereafter the reinforcement is joined by Electron Beam Welding to the pure Al of the insert, before being machined to the final dimensions. During the...

  6. Anticipating Organizational Change

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krogh, Simon

    This study reports on the extended time period prior to the introduction of the largest ever Health IT implementation in Denmark – Sundhedsplatformen. The focus of the dissertation is on organizational implications of introducing new technology and more specifically the anticipation of organizati......This study reports on the extended time period prior to the introduction of the largest ever Health IT implementation in Denmark – Sundhedsplatformen. The focus of the dissertation is on organizational implications of introducing new technology and more specifically the anticipation...

  7. 76 FR 69801 - Conductor Certification

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-09

    ... clearly understood. A. Definitions 1. Substance Abuse Professional (SAP) FRA solicited comments whether a... have traditionally been known as certified engineers, conductors, brakemen, yard helpers, and yardmen...

  8. Interacting with a Virtual Conductor

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bos, P.; Reidsma, Dennis; Ruttkay, Z.M.; Nijholt, Antinus; Harper, R.; Rauterberg, M; Combetto, M.

    This paper presents a virtual embodied agent that can conduct musicians in a live performance. The virtual conductor conducts music specified by a MIDI file and uses input from a microphone to react to the tempo of the musicians. The current implementation of the virtual conductor can interact with

  9. Understanding core conductor fabrics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swenson, D E

    2011-01-01

    ESD Association standard test method ANSI/ESD STM2.1 - Garments (STM2.1), provides electrical resistance test procedures that are applicable for materials and garments that have surface conductive or surface dissipative properties. As has been reported in other papers over the past several years 1 fabrics are now used in many industries for electrostatic control purposes that do not have surface conductive properties and therefore cannot be evaluated using the procedures in STM2.1 2 . A study was conducted to compare surface conductive fabrics with samples of core conductor fibre based fabrics in order to determine differences and similarities with regards to various electrostatic properties. This work will be used to establish a new work item proposal within WG-2, Garments, in the ESD Association Standards Committee in the USA.

  10. Plasmonic graphene transparent conductors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Guowei; Liu, Jianwei; Wang, Qian; Hui, Rongqing; Chen, Zhijun; Maroni, Victor A; Wu, Judy

    2012-03-08

    Plasmonic graphene is fabricated using thermally assisted self-assembly of silver nanoparticles on graphene. The localized surface-plasmonic effect is demonstrated with the resonance frequency shifting from 446 to 495 nm when the lateral dimension of the Ag nanoparticles increases from about 50 to 150 nm. Finite-difference time-domain simulations are employed to confirm the experimentally observed light-scattering enhancement in the solar spectrum in plasmonic graphene and the decrease of both the plasmonic resonance frequency and amplitude with increasing graphene thickness. In addition, plasmonic graphene shows much-improved electrical conductance by a factor of 2-4 as compared to the original graphene, making the plasmonic graphene a promising advanced transparent conductor with enhanced light scattering for thin-film optoelectronic devices. Copyright © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  11. Cyclotron resonance and De Haas-Van Alphen effect in (BEDT-TTF) sub 8 Hg sub 4 Cl sub 1 sub 2 (C sub 6 H sub 5 Cl) sub 2 organic conductor

    CERN Document Server

    Voskobojnikov, I B; Samarin, N A; Cluchanko, N E; Lyubovskaya, R N; Moshchalkov, V V

    2002-01-01

    Within 0.33-1.44 K temperature range at B <= 50 T magnetic field values one measured the De Haas-Van Alphen effect for (BEDT-TTF) sub 8 Hg sub 4 Cl sub 1 sub 2 (C sub 6 H sub 5 Cl) sub 2 organic quasi-two-dimensional conductor. Analysis of quantum oscillations with regard to data on cyclotron resonance derived for 40-120 GHz frequency interval enabled to determine that a complex spectrum of quantum oscillations was formed by alpha approx 256 T and beta approx 670-610 T fundamental frequencies as well as, by combination and multiple frequencies. It is shown that nature of temperature rearrangement of oscillation spectrum may be interpreted in terms of model taking account of occurrence of magnetic phase transition at T sub c approx 0.9 K and proximity of a fundamental frequency with m* = 1.48m sub 0 efficient mass to the spin dumping condition

  12. PREFACE: International Symposium on Molecular Conductors: Novel Functions of Molecular Conductors under Extreme Conditions (ISMC 2008)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Toshihiro; Suzumura, Yoshikazu

    2008-02-01

    The International Symposium on Molecular Conductors 2008 (ISMC2008) was held as the second international symposium of the project entitled `Novel Functions of Molecular Conductors under Extreme Conditions', which was supported by the Grant-in-aid for Scientific Research on Priority Areas from the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology in Japan. The project lasted from September 2003 to March 2008, and was completed by this symposium held at Okazaki Conference Center, Institute for Molecular Science, Okazaki, Japan (23-25 July 2008), which about 100 scientists attended. During the symposium, five project teams gave summary talks and exciting talks were given on the topics developed recently not only by the members of the project but also by other scientists including invited speakers from abroad, who are doing active research on molecular conductors. It is expected that papers presented in the symposium will give valuable hints for the next step in the research of this field. Therefore the organizers of this symposium decided to publish this proceedings in order to demonstrate these activities, not only for the local community of the project, but also for the broad society of international scientists who are interested in molecular conductors. The editors, who are also the organizers of this symposium, believe that this proceedings provides a significant and relevant contribution to the field of molecular conductors since it is the first time we have published such a proceedings as an electronic journal. We note that all papers published in this volume of Journal of Physics: Conference Series have been peer reviewed by expert referees. Editors made every effort to satisfy the criterion of a proceedings journal published by IOP Publishing. Toshihiro Takahashi and Yoshikazu Suzumura Editors: Toshihiro Takahashi (Gakushuin University) (Chairman) Kazushi Kanoda (University of Tokyo) Seiichi Kagoshima (University of Tokyo) Takehiko Mori (Tokyo

  13. Anticipated backward stochastic differential equations

    OpenAIRE

    Peng, Shige; Yang, Zhe

    2007-01-01

    In this paper we discuss new types of differential equations which we call anticipated backward stochastic differential equations (anticipated BSDEs). In these equations the generator includes not only the values of solutions of the present but also the future. We show that these anticipated BSDEs have unique solutions, a comparison theorem for their solutions, and a duality between them and stochastic differential delay equations.

  14. Can Cavitation Be Anticipated?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allgood, G.O.; Dress, W.B.; Hylton, J.O.; Kercel, S.W.

    1999-04-25

    The major problem with cavitation in pumps and hydraulic systems is that there is no effective (conventional) method for detecting or predicting its inception. The traditional method of recognizing cavitation in a pump is to declare the event occurring when the total head drops by some arbitrary value (typically 3%) in response to a pressure reduction at the pump inlet. However, the device is already seriously cavitating when this happens. What is actually needed is a practical method to detect impending rather than incipient cavitation. Whereas the detection of incipient cavitation requires the detection of features just after cavitation starts, the anticipation of cavitation requires the detection and identification of precursor features just before it begins. Two recent advances that make this detection possible. The first is acoustic sensors with a bandwidth of 1 MHz and a dynamic range of 80 dB that preserve the fine details of the features when subjected to coarse vibrations. The second is the application of Bayesian parameter estimation which makes it possible to separate weak signals, such as those present in cavitation precursors, from strong signals, such as pump vibration. Bayesian parameter estimation derives a model based on cavitation hydrodynamics and produces a figure of merit of how well it fits the acquired data. Applying this model to an anticipatory engine should lead to a reliable method of anticipating cavitation before it occurs. This paper reports the findings of precursor features using high-performance sensors and Bayesian analysis of weak acoustic emissions in the 100-1000kHz band from an experimental flow loop.

  15. Patient-centeredness to anticipate and organize an end-of-life project for patients receiving at-home palliative care: a phenomenological study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oude Engberink, Agnès; Badin, Mélanie; Serayet, Philippe; Pavageau, Sylvain; Lucas, François; Bourrel, Gérard; Norton, Joanna; Ninot, Grégory; Senesse, Pierre

    2017-02-23

    The development of end-of-life primary care is a socio-medical and ethical challenge. However, general practitioners (GPs) face many difficulties when initiating appropriate discussion on proactive shared palliative care. Anticipating palliative care is increasingly important given the ageing population and is an aim shared by many countries. We aimed to examine how French GPs approached and provided at-home palliative care. We inquired about their strategy for delivering care, and the skills and resources they used to devise new care strategies. Twenty-one GPs from the South of France recruited by phone according to their various experiences of palliative care agreed to participate. Semi-structured interview transcripts were examined using a phenomenological approach inspired by Grounded theory, and further studied with semiopragmatic analysis. Offering palliative care was perceived by GPs as a moral obligation. They felt vindicated in a process rooted in the paradigm values of their profession. This study results in two key findings: firstly, their patient-centred approach facilitated the anticipatory discussions of any potential event or intervention, which the GPs openly discussed with patients and their relatives; secondly, this approach contributed to build an "end-of-life project" meeting patients' wishes and needs. The GPs all shared the idea that the end-of-life process required human presence and recommended that at-home care be coordinated and shared by multi-professional referring teams. The main tenets of palliative care as provided by GPs are a patient-centred approach in the anticipatory discussion of potential events, personalized follow-up with referring multi-professional teams, and the collaborative design of an end-of-life project meeting the aspirations of the patient and his or her family. Consequently, coordination strategies involving specialized teams, GPs and families should be modelled according to the specificities of each care system.

  16. L'anticipation comme actualisation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mondeme, Chloé

    2018-01-01

    It is commonly stated that anticipation is a phenomenon that is prior to a given action or situation, both time-wise and logically speaking. In this article, we focus in detail on how anticipation reconfigures the very action being anticipated. By ‘in detail’, we mean through the meticulous...... observation and analysis of ordinary interactions. The corpus is constituted of learning interactions, between dog educator and dogs in formation, in which anticipating an action, notably by assessing it before it happens, contributes in a large part to (re)configure it. This point leads us to develop...

  17. Quartz antenna with hollow conductor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, Ka-Ngo; Benabou, Elie

    2002-01-01

    A radio frequency (RF) antenna for plasma ion sources is formed of a hollow metal conductor tube disposed within a glass tube. The hollow metal tubular conductor has an internal flow channel so that there will be no coolant leakage if the outer glass tube of the antenna breaks. A portion of the RF antenna is formed into a coil; the antenna is used for inductively coupling RF power to a plasma in an ion source chamber. The antenna is made by first inserting the metal tube inside the glass tube, and then forming the glass/metal composite tube into the desired coil shape.

  18. Computer simulation of superionic conductors: II. Cationic conductors. Review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ivanov-Shitz, A. K.

    2007-01-01

    The state of the art of the molecular-dynamics simulation of superionic conductors is reviewed. The main studies devoted to the structural, dynamic, and transport properties of the basic classes of solid electrolytes with conductivity via silver, copper, lithium, sodium, and hydrogen cations are considered. The premelting effect in ionic crystals is discussed

  19. Anticipated affect and behavioral choice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Richard, R.; van der Pligt, J.; de Vries, N.K.

    1996-01-01

    Most research on the impact of affect on attitudes and behavior emphasizes the effect of past and present affective reactions. In this article we focus on anticipated, postbehavioral, affective reactions. The influence of anticipated affective reactions on a number of behaviors was investigated in

  20. Electronic ferroelectricity in carbon-based systems: from reality of organic conductors to promises of polymers and graphene nano-ribbons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kirova, Natasha; Brazovskii, Serguei

    2014-01-01

    Ferroelectricity is a rising demand in fundamental and applied solid state physics. Ferroelectrics are used in microelectronics as active gate materials, in capacitors, electro-optical-acoustic modulators, etc. There is a particular demand for plastic ferroelectrics, e.g. as a sensor for acoustic imaging in medicine and beyond, in shapeable capacitors, etc. Microscopic mechanisms of ferroelectric polarization in traditional materials are typically ionic. In this talk we discuss the electronic ferroelectrics – carbon-based materials: organic crystals, conducting polymers and graphene nano-ribbons. The motion of walls, separating domains with opposite electric polarisation, can be influenced and manipulated by terahertz and infra-red range optics

  1. Palatable meal anticipation in mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cynthia T Hsu

    Full Text Available The ability to sense time and anticipate events is a critical skill in nature. Most efforts to understand the neural and molecular mechanisms of anticipatory behavior in rodents rely on daily restricted food access, which induces a robust increase of locomotor activity in anticipation of daily meal time. Interestingly, rats also show increased activity in anticipation of a daily palatable meal even when they have an ample food supply, suggesting a role for brain reward systems in anticipatory behavior, and providing an alternate model by which to study the neurobiology of anticipation in species, such as mice, that are less well adapted to "stuff and starve" feeding schedules. To extend this model to mice, and exploit molecular genetic resources available for that species, we tested the ability of wild-type mice to anticipate a daily palatable meal. We observed that mice with free access to regular chow and limited access to highly palatable snacks of chocolate or "Fruit Crunchies" avidly consumed the snack but did not show anticipatory locomotor activity as measured by running wheels or video-based behavioral analysis. However, male mice receiving a snack of high fat chow did show increased food bin entry prior to access time and a modest increase in activity in the two hours preceding the scheduled meal. Interestingly, female mice did not show anticipation of a daily high fat meal but did show increased activity at scheduled mealtime when that meal was withdrawn. These results indicate that anticipation of a scheduled food reward in mice is behavior, diet, and gender specific.

  2. Palatable Meal Anticipation in Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Cynthia T.; Patton, Danica F.; Mistlberger, Ralph E.; Steele, Andrew D.

    2010-01-01

    The ability to sense time and anticipate events is a critical skill in nature. Most efforts to understand the neural and molecular mechanisms of anticipatory behavior in rodents rely on daily restricted food access, which induces a robust increase of locomotor activity in anticipation of daily meal time. Interestingly, rats also show increased activity in anticipation of a daily palatable meal even when they have an ample food supply, suggesting a role for brain reward systems in anticipatory behavior, and providing an alternate model by which to study the neurobiology of anticipation in species, such as mice, that are less well adapted to “stuff and starve” feeding schedules. To extend this model to mice, and exploit molecular genetic resources available for that species, we tested the ability of wild-type mice to anticipate a daily palatable meal. We observed that mice with free access to regular chow and limited access to highly palatable snacks of chocolate or “Fruit Crunchies” avidly consumed the snack but did not show anticipatory locomotor activity as measured by running wheels or video-based behavioral analysis. However, male mice receiving a snack of high fat chow did show increased food bin entry prior to access time and a modest increase in activity in the two hours preceding the scheduled meal. Interestingly, female mice did not show anticipation of a daily high fat meal but did show increased activity at scheduled mealtime when that meal was withdrawn. These results indicate that anticipation of a scheduled food reward in mice is behavior, diet, and gender specific. PMID:20941366

  3. Composite conductor containing superconductive wires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larson, W.L.; Wong, J.

    1974-03-26

    A superconductor cable substitute made by coworking multiple rods of superconductive niobium--titanium or niobium--zirconium alloy with a common copper matrix to extend the copper and rods to form a final elongated product which has superconductive wires distributed in a reduced cross-section copper conductor with a complete metallurgical bond between the normal-conductive copper and the superconductor wires contained therein is described. The superconductor cable can be in the form of a tube.

  4. Temperature limited heater utilizing non-ferromagnetic conductor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinegar,; Harold J. , Harris; Kelvin, Christopher [Houston, TX

    2012-07-17

    A heater is described. The heater includes a ferromagnetic conductor and an electrical conductor electrically coupled to the ferromagnetic conductor. The ferromagnetic conductor is positioned relative to the electrical conductor such that an electromagnetic field produced by time-varying current flow in the ferromagnetic conductor confines a majority of the flow of the electrical current to the electrical conductor at temperatures below or near a selected temperature.

  5. Joints for large superconducting conductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Decool, P.; Ciazynski, D.; Nobili, A.; Parodi, S.; Pesenti, P.; Bourquard, A.; Beaudet, F.

    2001-01-01

    Large fusion magnets call for high-current conductors (up to 60 kA). This has been achieved by the cable-in-conduit conductor concept. The connection of these conductors has to take into account several demanding boundary conditions: a large number of strands (around 1000), a low resistance at high current (1-2 nΩ), low losses in pulsed field operation, Nb 3 Sn heat treatment, helium tightness control, limited available space. A conceptual design was developed by the CEA, based on the connection of two separate twin boxes clamped together, according to the lap-joint concept. These boxes are machined out of an explosive bonding plate (jacket material/copper), and the electrical connection is achieved by tin-lead soldering of the facing copper soles. After qualification of the explosive bond and validation of the joint concept in the laboratory, the technology was transferred to the industry within the framework of the manufacture of the ITER Toroidal Field Model Coil (TFMC). In addition, three full-size joint samples (FSJS), relevant to different jacket materials and joining techniques, were manufactured by the industry and successfully tested in the SULTAN facility at CRPP, Villigen. The paper reports on the results of the laboratory tests, describes the transfer of technology to industry, and lastly presents some typical experimental results

  6. Liturgy as space for anticipation

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2011-05-04

    May 4, 2011 ... The famous play, Waiting for Godot, by Samuel Beckett, has become iconic for depicting people who are waiting for nothing.1 Or perhaps we should say that they do expect someone (something?) called Godot, but that he orshe orit never shows up. It is anticipation without answer; expectation without event ...

  7. Electronic interactions in the organic conductors (TMTSF)2X (X=ClO4 and PF6) and (TMTTF)2X (X=Br and PF6) from their infrared spectra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedron, Danilo; Bozio, Renato; Meneghetti, Moreno; Pecile, Cesare

    1994-04-01

    Accurate measurements of the polarized reflectance spectra of the series of isostructural organic conductors (TMTSF)2ClO4, (TMTSF)2PF6, (TMTTF)2Br, and (TMTSF)2PF6 (where TMTSF denotes tetra-methy tetraselenafulvalene and TMTIF denotes tetra methyletrathiafulvalene) at room temperature are reported. A dimerized molecular chain model is used to analyze these spectra as well as those previously reported [C. C. Homes and J. E. Eldridge, Phys. Rev. B 42, 9522 (1990); J. E. Eldridge and C. C. Homes, ibid. 43, 13 971 (1991)] for (TMTSF)2BF4 and (TMTSF)2ReO4 and the corresponding conductivity spectra obtained by Kramers-Kronig transformation. The complex structures observed in the spectra are successfully accounted for by assuming that the double occupancy of the band states is effectively excluded so that the Fermi level lies inside a narrow gap induced in these materials by a small dimerization of the molecular stacks. The spectral changes observed among different members of the series are reproduced by varying a limited number of model parameters in a way that follows closely the known changes of the crystal structural properties. Fitting of the experimental data enables us to estimate the parameters of the band structure, namely the transfer integral and the dimerization gap amplitude. Use of self-consistent relations inherent in the adopted model allows us to conclude that a static potential rather than a Peierls-type phonon induced mechanism plays the dominant role in driving the formation of charge-density waves and the opening of the gap. The same model analysis accounts for the presence of vibronic structures induced by the coupling of the conduction electrons with intramolecular vibrational modes of TMTSF or TMTTF. It has been thereby possible to evaluate the coupling constants for the individual vibrational modes with a greater degree of reliability than in previous attempts. The general physical picture of the studied materials at room temperature as narrow

  8. Microstructural and superconducting properties of high current metal-organic chemical vapor deposition YBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 7-{delta}} coated conductor wires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holesinger, T G; Maiorov, B; Ugurlu, O; Civale, L [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States); Chen, Y; Xiong, X; Xie, Y; Selvamanickam, V [SuperPower, Inc., Schenectady, NY 12304 (United States)

    2009-04-15

    Metal-organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD) on flexible, ion beam assisted deposition MgO templates has been used to produce high critical current density (J{sub c}) (Y,Sm){sub 1}Ba{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub y} (REBCO) films suitable for use in producing practical high temperature superconducting (HTS) coated conductor wires. Thick films on tape were produced with sequential additions of 0.7 {mu}m of REBCO via a reel-to-reel progression through a custom-designed MOCVD reactor. Multi-pass processing for thick film deposition is critically dependent upon minimizing surface secondary phase formation. Critical currents (I{sub c}s) of up to 600 A/cm width (t = 2.8 {mu}m, J{sub c} = 2.6 MA cm{sup -2}, 77 K, self-field) were obtained in short lengths of HTS wires. These high performance MOCVD films are characterized by closely spaced (Y,Sm){sub 2}O{sub 3} nanoparticle layers that may be tilted relative to the film normal and REBCO orientation. Small shifts in the angular dependence of J{sub c} in low and intermediate applied magnetic fields can be associated with the tilted nanoparticle layers. Also present in these films were YCuO{sub 2} nanoplates aligned with the YBCO matrix (short dimension perpendicular to the film normal), threading dislocations, and oriented composite defects (OCDs). The latter structures consist of single or multiple a-axis oriented grains coated on each side with insulating (Y,Sm){sub 2}O{sub 3} or CuO. The OCDs formed a connected network of insulating phases by the end of the fourth pass. Subsequent attempts at adding additional layers did not increase I{sub c}. There is an inconsistency between the measured J{sub c} and the observed microstructural degradation that occurs with each additional layer, suggesting that previously deposited layers are improving with each repeated reactor pass. These dynamic changes suggest a role for post-processing to optimize superconducting properties of as-deposited films, addressing issues associated with

  9. Performance analysis of the Nb-Ti conductor qualification samples for the ITER project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breschi, M.; Carati, D.; Bessette, D.; Devred, A.; Romano, G.; Vostner, A.; Zhou, C.

    2015-11-01

    The ITER machine will require approximately 275 tons of Nb-Ti strands that will be used in poloidal field (PF) coils, correction coils (CC) and feeder busbars. The performance of all these conductors for the ITER machine is qualified by a short full-size sample (4 m) current sharing temperature (T cs) test in the SULTAN facility at CRPP in Villigen, Switzerland, at the design operating current and peak field. Three ITER domestic agencies participated in PF conductor fabrication (China, the European Union, Russia) while the conductors for feeder busbars and correction coils are entirely produced by the Chinese domestic agency. Each conductor type was qualified by the ITER International Organization after reaching T cs values in excess of ITER specifications. This qualification enabled the launch of procurement and industrial production of the Nb-Ti cable-in-conduit conductors in each domestic agency. In this paper, we summarize the performance of the qualified Nb-Ti samples of the ITER Project, comparing strand performance with conductor performance. The details of the test results will be discussed in terms of dc performance, ac losses and minimum quench energies of each conductor type.

  10. Collective motion with anticipation: Flocking, spinning, and swarming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morin, Alexandre; Caussin, Jean-Baptiste; Eloy, Christophe; Bartolo, Denis

    2015-01-01

    We investigate the collective dynamics of self-propelled particles able to probe and anticipate the orientation of their neighbors. We show that a simple anticipation strategy hinders the emergence of homogeneous flocking patterns. Yet anticipation promotes two other forms of self-organization: collective spinning and swarming. In the spinning phase, all particles follow synchronous circular orbits, while in the swarming phase, the population condensates into a single compact swarm that cruises coherently without requiring any cohesive interactions. We quantitatively characterize and rationalize these phases of polar active matter and discuss potential applications to the design of swarming robots.

  11. Collective motion with anticipation: flocking, spinning, and swarming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morin, Alexandre; Caussin, Jean-Baptiste; Eloy, Christophe; Bartolo, Denis

    2015-01-01

    We investigate the collective dynamics of self-propelled particles able to probe and anticipate the orientation of their neighbors. We show that a simple anticipation strategy hinders the emergence of homogeneous flocking patterns. Yet anticipation promotes two other forms of self-organization: collective spinning and swarming. In the spinning phase, all particles follow synchronous circular orbits, while in the swarming phase, the population condensates into a single compact swarm that cruises coherently without requiring any cohesive interactions. We quantitatively characterize and rationalize these phases of polar active matter and discuss potential applications to the design of swarming robots.

  12. Superionic conductors - results from neutron scattering studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Banhatti, Radha D.

    2000-01-01

    Superionic conductors, exhibit electrical conductivity (σ) via ionic conduction that can be as high as 10 -1 S/cm. This enhanced conductivity is found normally after a structural phase transition from an insulating phase (10 -4 S/cm) to a more symmetric phase. In this paper, we review the results based on these studies on some superionic conductors in detail

  13. Doped LZO buffer layers for laminated conductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paranthaman, Mariappan Parans [Knoxville, TN; Schoop, Urs [Westborough, MA; Goyal, Amit [Knoxville, TN; Thieme, Cornelis Leo Hans [Westborough, MA; Verebelyi, Darren T [Oxford, MA; Rupich, Martin W [Framingham, MA

    2010-03-23

    A laminated conductor includes a metallic substrate having a surface, a biaxially textured buffer layer supported by the surface of the substrate, the biaxially textured buffer layer comprising LZO and a dopant for mitigating metal diffusion through the LZO, and a biaxially textured conductor layer supported by the biaxially textured buffer layer.

  14. Assessment of sodium conductor distribution cable

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1979-06-01

    The study assesses the barriers and incentives for using sodium conductor distribution cable. The assessment considers environmental, safety, energy conservation, electrical performance and economic factors. Along with all of these factors considered in the assessment, the sodium distribution cable system is compared to the present day alternative - an aluminum conductor system. (TFD)

  15. Liturgy as space for anticipation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johan Cilliers

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available This article proposes that the notion of liturgical space, understood in conjunction with the original Greek concept of space, is not only a quantitative, physical locality, but also a primary qualitative possibility for existence, a meaningful womb, a neighbourhood for imagination and a space for anticipation. Three consequences of this proposal are discussed, namely liturgy as waiting on the elusive presence (presence of absence of God, celebration as (metaphorical dance of hope, and the need for liturgical refiguring.

  16. Chemical solution deposition: a path towards low cost coated conductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Obradors, X; Puig, T; Pomar, A; Sandiumenge, F; Pinol, S; Mestres, N; Castano, O; Coll, M; Cavallaro, A; Palau, A; Gazquez, J; Gonzalez, J C; Gutierrez, J; Roma, N; Ricart, S; Moreto, J M; Rossell, M D; Tendeloo, G van

    2004-01-01

    The achievement of low cost deposition techniques for high critical current YBa 2 Cu 3 O 7 coated conductors is one of the major objectives to achieve a widespread use of superconductivity in power applications. Chemical solution deposition techniques are appearing as a very promising methodology to achieve epitaxial oxide thin films at a low cost, so an intense effort is being carried out to develop routes for all chemical coated conductor tapes. In this work recent achievements will be presented towards the goal of combining the deposition of different type of buffer layers on metallic substrates based on metal-organic decomposition with the growth of YBa 2 Cu 3 O 7 layers using the trifluoroacetate route. The influence of processing parameters on the microstructure and superconducting properties will be stressed. High critical currents are demonstrated in 'all chemical' multilayers

  17. Frequency Dependent Losses in Transmission Cable Conductors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Rasmus Schmidt; Holbøll, Joachim; Guðmundsdóttir, Unnur Stella

    2011-01-01

    , such as thermal conditions in and around the cable, as well as the heat generated in conductors, screens, armours etc., taking into account proximity and skin effects. The work performed and presented in this paper is concerned with an improved determination of the losses generated in the conductor, by means...... of better calculation of the AC resistance of transmission cable conductors, in particular regarding higher frequencies. In this way, also losses under harmonics can be covered. Furthermore, the model is suitable for modelling of transient attenuation in high voltage cables. The AC resistance is calculated...

  18. 30 CFR 57.12011 - High-potential electrical conductors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false High-potential electrical conductors. 57.12011... Electricity Surface and Underground § 57.12011 High-potential electrical conductors. High-potential electrical conductors shall be covered, insulated, or placed to prevent contact with low potential conductors. ...

  19. 30 CFR 56.12011 - High-potential electrical conductors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false High-potential electrical conductors. 56.12011... § 56.12011 High-potential electrical conductors. High-potential electrical conductors shall be covered, insulated, or placed to prevent contact with low potential conductors. ...

  20. Anticipated regret and precautionary sexual behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Richard, R.; de Vries, N.K.; van der Pligt, J.

    1998-01-01

    This study investigated the impact of anticipated regret on precautionary sexual behavior. 317 female and 134 male 18-48 yr old college students completed questionnaires assessing behavioral expectations regarding casual sexual behavior, anticipated regret, perceived behavioral control, attitudes,

  1. Laser direct fabrication of silver conductors on glass boards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Xiangyou; Zeng Xiaoyan; Li Huiling; Qi Xiaojing

    2005-01-01

    Laser micro-cladding has been used to fabricate metal conductors, according to a designed electronic circuit, directly onto glass boards which had been coated with a silver-containing electronic paste. The electronic pastes, composed of silver powders, inorganic binders and organic medium, thus formed the conductive metal pattern (i.e. electric circuit) along the path of the laser allowing the rest of the layer to be removed subsequently by an organic solvent. Firing in a furnace at 600 deg. C resulted in conductive lines with resistivity of about 10 -5 Ω cm and with adhesive strength of the order of magnitude of megapascals

  2. Integrated composite conductor for the LCS program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zeitlin, B.A.; Walker, M.S.; Heinrich, J.P.; Fietz, W.A.

    1977-01-01

    The design of a 10 kA 8 T conductor intended for the LCS test program is presented. The interaction of mechanical, thermal, and electrical design requirements are emphasized in the selection of the basic conductor configuration. Evolution of the conductor design from its inception to the final manufactured configuration is traced. Details of the conductor configuration, a steel core about which composite rectangular superconducting elements are cabled, will be given. Using the parameters of this configuration, calculations of electrical loss from a 0.35 T/second and 0.15 T/second pulse are presented. Consideration of possible mechanical motion from the pulsed field is also discussed and analyzed

  3. Rail industry job analysis : passenger conductor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-01

    This document describes the results of a job analysis that was conducted for the position of railroad Passenger Conductor. Key aspects of the position were identified, including main tasks and knowledge, skills, abilities, and other characteristics (...

  4. Rail industry job analysis : freight conductor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-01

    This document describes the results from a job analysis that was conducted for the position of Freight Conductor. Key aspects of the position were identified, including main tasks and knowledge, skills, abilities, and other characteristics (KSAOs) ne...

  5. Properties and applications of perovskite proton conductors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Caetano Camilo de Souza

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available A brief overview is given of the main types and principles of solid-state proton conductors with perovskite structure. Their properties are summarized in terms of the defect chemistry, proton transport and chemical stability. A good understanding of these subjects allows the manufacturing of compounds with the desired electrical properties, for application in renewable and sustainable energy devices. A few trends and highlights of the scientific advances are given for some classes of protonic conductors. Recent results and future prospect about these compounds are also evaluated. The high proton conductivity of barium cerate and zirconate based electrolytes lately reported in the literature has taken these compounds to a highlight position among the most studied conductor ceramic materials.

  6. Molecular dynamics studies of superionic conductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rahman, A.; Vashishta, P.

    1983-01-01

    Structural and dynamical properties of superionic conductors AgI and CuI are studied using molecular dynamics (MD) techniques. The model of these superionic conductors is based on the use of effective pair potentials. To determine the constants in these potentials, cohesive energy and bulk modulus are used as input: in addition one uses notions of ionic size based on the known crystal structure. Salient features of the MD technique are outlined. Methods of treating long range Coulomb forces are discussed in detail. This includes the manner of doing Ewald sum for MD cells of arbitrary shape. Features that can be incorporated to expedite the MD calculations are also discussed. A novel MD technique which allows for a dynamically controlled variation of the shape and size of the MD cell is described briefly. The development of this novel technique has made it possible to study structural phase transitions in superionic conductors. 68 references, 17 figures, 2 tables

  7. Cavity squeezing by a quantum conductor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mendes, Udson C; Mora, Christophe

    2015-01-01

    Hybrid architectures integrating mesoscopic electronic conductors with resonant microwave cavities have a great potential for investigating unexplored regimes of electron–photon coupling. In this context, producing nonclassical squeezed light is a key step towards quantum communication with scalable solid-state devices. Here we show that parametric driving of the electronic conductor induces a squeezed steady state in the cavity. We find that squeezing properties of the cavity are essentially determined by the electronic noise correlators of the quantum conductor. In the case of a tunnel junction, we predict that squeezing is optimized by applying a time-periodic series of quantized δ—peaks in the bias voltage. For an asymmetric quantum dot, we show that a sharp Leviton pulse is able to achieve perfect cavity squeezing. (paper)

  8. Velocity measurement of conductor using electromagnetic induction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Gu Hwa; Kim, Ho Young; Park, Joon Po; Jeong, Hee Tae; Lee, Eui Wan

    2002-01-01

    A basic technology was investigated to measure the speed of conductor by non-contact electromagnetic method. The principle of the velocity sensor was electromagnetic induction. To design electromagnet for velocity sensor, 2D electromagnetic analysis was performed using FEM software. The sensor output was analyzed according to the parameters of velocity sensor, such as the type of magnetizing currents and the lift-off. Output of magnetic sensor was linearly depended on the conductor speed and magnetizing current. To compensate the lift-off changes during measurement of velocity, the other magnetic sensor was put at the pole of electromagnet.

  9. HIGH PERFORMANCE CARBON NANOTUBE BASED CONDUCTORS, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This proposal is for the development of conductors with improved electrical conductivity and/or ampacity better than copper or aluminum. Electrical conductors are...

  10. Anticipating urgent surgery in operating room departments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Lans, M.; Hans, Elias W.; Hurink, Johann L.; Wullink, Gerhard; van Houdenhoven, M.; Kazemier, G.

    2005-01-01

    Operating Room (OR) departments need to create robust surgical schedules that anticipate urgent surgery, while minimizing urgent surgery waiting time and overtime, and maximizing utilization. We consider two levels of planning and control to anticipate urgent surgery. At the tactical level, we study

  11. The effect of conductor permeability on electric current transducers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirzaei, M.; Ripka, P.; Chirtsov, A.; Kaspar, P.; Vyhnanek, J.

    2018-04-01

    In this paper, experimental works and theoretical analysis are presented to analyze the influence of the conductor permeability on the precision of yokeless current sensors. The results of finite-element method (FEM) fit well the measured field values around the conductor. Finally we evaluate the difference in magnetic fields distribution around non-magnetic and magnetic conductor. The calculated values show that the permeability of the ferromagnetic conductor significally affects the reading of the electric current sensors even at DC.

  12. 33 CFR 159.71 - Electrical controls and conductors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Electrical controls and... Electrical controls and conductors. Electrical controls and conductors must be installed in accordance with good marine practice. Wire must be copper and must be stranded. Electrical controls and conductors must...

  13. 46 CFR 120.372 - Equipment and conductor grounding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Equipment and conductor grounding. 120.372 Section 120... INSTALLATION Power Sources and Distribution Systems § 120.372 Equipment and conductor grounding. (a) All... grounding conductors must be sized in accordance with Section 250-95 of the NEC (NFPA 70), or other standard...

  14. 46 CFR 111.05-31 - Grounding conductors for systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Grounding conductors for systems. 111.05-31 Section 111... Grounding conductors for systems. (a) A conductor for grounding a direct-current system must be the larger... grounding the neutral of an alternating-current system must meet Table 111.05-31(b). Table 111.05-31(b...

  15. Women Conductors: A Study of an Italian Major Symphony Orchestra

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The assumption was that not being used to be directed by a woman would affect their opinion on the individual's ability and on all women conductors, i.e. if few women are invited to be guest conductors, it must mean that there are few women conductors who are good enough. A survey of 58 musicians interviewed using ...

  16. Effect of different conductor tubes on the longitudinal distribution of corn seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dauto P. Carpes

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The correct longitudinal distribution of seeds by the seeder machine is one of the features that most contributes to obtain an adequate plant stand and good crop yield. The objective of this study was to evaluate the longitudinal distribution of corn seeds by seed conductor tube types, combined with a horizontal perforated disc and a pneumatic meter, altering the seeding density rate. The experiment was conducted in a laboratory using a seed meter test bench. Treatments were a combination of two seed meters, six conductor tubes and four peripheral speeds for the meter disc, corresponding to densities of 60, 70, 80 and 90 thousand corn seeds per hectare and were organized in a three-factor scheme with four repetitions. By increasing the seeding rate into the same ground speed, there was a reduction in the percentage of acceptable spacing, this effect being more pronounced when conductor tubes with a small diameter and straight profile were used.

  17. Composite conductors for high pulsed magnetic fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dupouy, F.; Askenazy, S.; Peyrade, J.P.; Legat, D.

    1995-01-01

    In this paper, two kinds of reinforced conductors, with high strength and high conductivity are discussed: stainless steel clad copper wires (σ uts (77 K)=1370 MPa for 50% of stainless steel) and copper wires with 9 million continuous filaments of niobium (σ uts (77 K)=1050 MPa for 25% of niobium; resistivity ratio from 273 to 77 K: 5.43). (orig.)

  18. Random matrix model for disordered conductors

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    We present a random matrix ensemble where real, positive semi-definite matrix elements, , are log-normal distributed, exp ⁡ [ − log 2 ⁡ ( x ) ] . We show that the level density varies with energy, , as 2/(1 + ) for large , in the unitary family, consistent with the expectation for disordered conductors. The two-level ...

  19. High-temperature superconducting conductors and cables

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peterson, D.E.; Maley, M.P.; Boulaevskii, L.; Willis, J.O.; Coulter, J.Y.; Ullmann, J.L.; Cho, Jin; Fleshler, S.

    1996-01-01

    This is the final report of a 3-year LDRD project at LANL. High-temperature superconductivity (HTS) promises more efficient and powerful electrical devices such as motors, generators, and power transmission cables; however this depends on developing HTS conductors that sustain high current densities J c in high magnetic fields at temperatures near liq. N2's bp. Our early work concentrated on Cu oxides but at present, long wire and tape conductors can be best made from BSCCO compounds with high J c at low temperatures, but which are degraded severely at temperatures of interest. This problem is associated with thermally activated motion of magnetic flux lines in BSCCO. Reducing these dc losses at higher temperatures will require a high density of microscopic defects that will pin flux lines and inhibit their motion. Recently it was shown that optimum defects can be produced by small tracks formed by passage of energetic heavy ions. Such defects result when Bi is bombarded with high energy protons. The longer range of protons in matter suggests the possibility of application to tape conductors. AC losses are a major limitation in many applications of superconductivity such as power transmission. The improved pinning of flux lines reduces ac losses, but optimization also involves other factors. Measuring and characterizing these losses with respect to material parameters and conductor design is essential to successful development of ac devices

  20. Reshaping the perfect electrical conductor cylinder arbitrarily

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Huanyang; Zhang Xiaohe; Luo Xudong; Ma Hongru; Chan Cheting

    2008-01-01

    A general method is proposed to design a cylindrical cloak, concentrator and superscatterer with an arbitrary cross section. The method is demonstrated by the design of a perfect electrical conductor (PEC) reshaper which is able to reshape a PEC cylinder arbitrarily by combining the concept of cloak, concentrator and superscatterer together. Numerical simulations are performed to demonstrate its properties.

  1. impedance calculations of induction machine rotor conductors.

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr Obe

    ABSTRACT. The exact calculation of the impedance of induction machine rotor conductors at several operating frequencies are necessary if the dynamic behaviour of the machine is to give a good correlation between the simulated starting torque and current and the experimental results. This paper describes a method of'.

  2. Low ac loss geometries in YBCO coated conductors and impact on conductor stability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duckworth, Robert C [ORNL; List III, Frederick Alyious [ORNL; Paranthaman, Mariappan Parans [ORNL; Rupich, M. W. [American Superconductor Corporation, Westborough, MA; Zhang, W. [American Superconductor Corporation, Westborough, MA; Xie, Y. Y. [SuperPower Incorporated, Schenectady, New York; Selvamanickam, V. [SuperPower Incorporated, Schenectady, New York

    2007-01-01

    Reduction of ac losses in applied ac fields can be accomplished through either the creation of filaments and bridging in YBCO coated conductors or an assembly of narrow width YBCO tapes. The ac losses for each of these geometries were measured at 77 K in perpendicular ac fields up to 100 mT. While ac loss reduction was achieved with YBCO filaments created through laser scribing and inkjet deposition, the assembly of stacked YBCO conductor provides an alternative method of ac loss reduction. When compared to a 4-mm wide YBCO coated conductor with a critical current of 60 A, the ac loss in a stack of 2-mm wide YBCO coated conductors with a similar total critical current was reduced. While the reduction in ac loss in a 2-mm wide stack coincided with the reduction in the engineering current density of the conductor, further reduction of ac loss was obtained through the splicing of the 2-mm wide tapes with low resistance solders. To better determine the practicality of these methods from a stability point of view, a numerical analysis was carried out to determine the influence of bridging and splicing on stability of a YBCO coated conductor for both liquid nitrogen-cooled and conduction cooled geometries.

  3. Adaptive and Rational Anticipations in Risk Management Systems and Economy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubois, Daniel M.; Holmberg, Stig C.

    2010-11-01

    The global financial crisis of year 2009 is explained as a result of uncoordinated risk management decisions in business firms and economic organisations. The underlying reason for this can be found in the current financial system. As the financial market has lost much of its direct coupling to the concrete economy it provides misleading information to economic decision makers at all levels. Hence, the financial system has moved from a state of moderate and slow cyclical fluctuations into a state of fast and chaotic ones. Those misleading decisions can further be described, but not explained, by help of adaptive and rational expectations from macroeconomic theory. In this context, AE, the Adaptive Expectations are related to weak passive Exo-anticipation, and RE, the Rational expectations can be related to a strong, active and design oriented anticipation. The shortcomings of conventional cures, which builds on a reactive paradigm, have already been demonstrated in economic literature and are here further underlined by help of Ashby's "Law of Requisite Variety", Weaver's distinction between systems of "Disorganized Complexity" and those of "Organized Complexity", and Klir's "Reconstructability Analysis". Anticipatory decision-making is hence here proposed as a replacement to current expectation based and passive risk management. An anticipatory model of the business cycle is presented for supporting that proposition. The model, which is an extension of the Kaldor-Kalecki model, includes both retardation and anticipation. While cybernetics with the feedback process in control system deals with an explicit goal or purpose given to a system, the anticipatory system discussed here deals with a behaviour for which the future state of the system is built by the system itself, without explicit goal. A system with weak anticipation is based on a predictive model of the system, while a system with strong anticipation builds its own future by itself. Numerical simulations on

  4. Brain Responses during the Anticipation of Dyspnea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoeckel, M. Cornelia; Esser, Roland W.; Büchel, Christian

    2016-01-01

    Dyspnea is common in many cardiorespiratory diseases. Already the anticipation of this aversive symptom elicits fear in many patients resulting in unfavorable health behaviors such as activity avoidance and sedentary lifestyle. This study investigated brain mechanisms underlying these anticipatory processes. We induced dyspnea using resistive-load breathing in healthy subjects during functional magnetic resonance imaging. Blocks of severe and mild dyspnea alternated, each preceded by anticipation periods. Severe dyspnea activated a network of sensorimotor, cerebellar, and limbic areas. The left insular, parietal opercular, and cerebellar cortices showed increased activation already during dyspnea anticipation. Left insular and parietal opercular cortex showed increased connectivity with right insular and anterior cingulate cortex when severe dyspnea was anticipated, while the cerebellum showed increased connectivity with the amygdala. Notably, insular activation during dyspnea perception was positively correlated with midbrain activation during anticipation. Moreover, anticipatory fear was positively correlated with anticipatory activation in right insular and anterior cingulate cortex. The results demonstrate that dyspnea anticipation activates brain areas involved in dyspnea perception. The involvement of emotion-related areas such as insula, anterior cingulate cortex, and amygdala during dyspnea anticipation most likely reflects anticipatory fear and might underlie the development of unfavorable health behaviors in patients suffering from dyspnea. PMID:27648309

  5. High current density aluminum stabilized conductor concepts for space applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, X.; Eyssa, Y.M.; Hilal, M.A.

    1989-01-01

    Lightweight conductors are needed for space magnets to achieve values of E/M (energy stored per unit mass) comparable to the or higher than advanced batteries. High purity aluminum stabilized NbTi composite conductors cooled by 1.8 K helium can provide a winding current density up to 15 kA/cm/sup 2/ at fields up to 10 tesla. The conductors are edge cooled with enough surface area to provide recovery following a normalizing disturbance. The conductors are designed so that current diffusion time in the high purity aluminum is smaller than thermal diffusion time in helium. Conductor design, stability and current diffusion are considered in detail

  6. Conduction Mechanisms and Structure of Ionomeric Single-Ion Conductors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Colby, Ralph H. [Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (United States); Maranas, Janna K. [Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (United States); Mueller, Karl T. [Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (United States); Runt, James [Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (United States); Winey, Karen I. [Univ. of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA (United States)

    2015-03-01

    Our team has designed using DFT (Gaussian) and synthesized low glass transition temperature single-ion conductors that are either polyanions that conduct small cations Li+, Na+, Cs+ or polycations that conduct small anions F-, OH-, Br-. We utilize a wide range of complimentary experimental materials characterization tools to understand ion transport; differential scanning calorimetry, dielectric relaxation spectroscopy, infrared spectroscopy, nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, linear viscoelasticity, X-ray scattering and molecular dynamics simulations. The glass transition temperature Tg needs to be as low as possible to facilitate ion transport, so the nonionic parts of the polymer need to be polar, flexible and have strong solvation interactions with the ions. The lowest Tg we have managed for polyanions conducting Li+ is -60 °C. In contrast, polysiloxanes with PEO side chains and tetrabutylphosphonium cationic side groups have Tg ≈ -75 °C that barely increases with ion content, as anticipated by DFT. A survey of all polyanions in the literature suggests that Tg < -80 °C is needed to achieve the 10-4 S/cm conductivity needed for battery separators.

  7. Radio and audible noise performance of T2 conductors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chartier, V.L.; Lowder, S.M. [Bonneville Power Administration, Vancouver, WA (United States); Rodick, S. [Burns and McDonnell, Kansas City, MO (United States); Vogt, M.W. [Central Iowa Power Cooperative, Cedar Rapids, IA (United States)

    1996-07-01

    Central Iowa Power Cooperative (CIPCO) plans to build a 345-kV line using a bundle of four Partridge T2 conductors. T2 conductor is two normal cylindrical conductors twisted together to prevent galloping during freezing rain and wind. Since it was not known whether any of the analytical expressions for calculating the radio and audible noise performance of conductors would work for T2 conductors, measurements were performed in the Bonneville Power Administration`s (BPA) high voltage laboratory to compare the radio influence voltage (RIV) and audible noise (AN) performance of the Partridge T2, Partridge and Dove conductors. The Dove conductor has about the same cross section and current carrying capacity as the Partridge T2 conductor. The tests showed that no consistent, measurable difference could be found in the RIV and AN levels between the Partridge T2 and Dove conductors under dry or artificial rain conditions and whether the conductors were arranged in bundles of 4, 3, or 2 subconductors or as single conductors.

  8. Anticipation Behavior Upstream of a Bottleneck

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Duives, D.C.; Daamen, W.; Hoogendoorn, S.P.

    2014-01-01

    Whether pedestrian movements do or do not follow similar patterns as vehicular traffic while experiencing congestion is not entirely understood. Using data gathered during bottleneck experiments under laboratory conditions, the phenomenon of anticipation before entering congestion is studied. This

  9. Role for Genetic Anticipation in Lynch Syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nilbert, Mef; Timshel, Susanne; Bernstein, Inge

    2009-01-01

    PURPOSE: Anticipation (ie, an earlier age at onset in successive generations) is linked to repeat expansion in neurodegenerative syndromes, whereas its role in hereditary cancer is unclear. We assessed anticipation in Lynch syndrome (hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer [HNPCC]), in which DNA...... mismatch repair (MMR) defects cause early and accelerated tumor development with a broad tumor spectrum. PATIENTS AND METHODS: In the population-based Danish HNPCC registry, 407 MMR gene mutation carriers who had developed cancer associated with Lynch syndrome, were identified. These individuals formed 290...... parent-child pairs in which age at the first cancer diagnosis was assessed. A paired t-test and a specifically developed bivariate model were used to assess a possible role of anticipation. RESULTS: Both methods revealed anticipation with children developing cancer mean 9.8 years (P

  10. Local noise in a diffusive conductor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tikhonov, E. S.; Shovkun, D. V.; Ercolani, D.; Rossella, F.; Rocci, M.; Sorba, L.; Roddaro, S.; Khrapai, V. S.

    2016-07-01

    The control and measurement of local non-equilibrium configurations is of utmost importance in applications on energy harvesting, thermoelectrics and heat management in nano-electronics. This challenging task can be achieved with the help of various local probes, prominent examples including superconducting or quantum dot based tunnel junctions, classical and quantum resistors, and Raman thermography. Beyond time-averaged properties, valuable information can also be gained from spontaneous fluctuations of current (noise). From these perspective, however, a fundamental constraint is set by current conservation, which makes noise a characteristic of the whole conductor, rather than some part of it. Here we demonstrate how to remove this obstacle and pick up a local noise temperature of a current biased diffusive conductor with the help of a miniature noise probe. This approach is virtually noninvasive for the electronic energy distributions and extends primary local measurements towards strongly non-equilibrium regimes.

  11. TOPICAL REVIEW: Disordering phenomena in superionic conductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keen, David A.

    2002-08-01

    Superionic conductors are materials which exhibit exceptionally high ionic conductivity whilst in the solid state. The manner in which certain structures accommodate superionic conduction has preoccupied many scientists throughout the latter part of the last century, beginning with the early debate about the disordered structure of the superionic α-phase of silver iodide. In this review, the key methods that have been used to deduce structural disorder in superionic conductors are described, and the important results summarized. The review focuses on simple archetypal systems, since these have dominated the literature, concentrating on more recent work and including emerging methodologies for deducing structural disorder. In most cases, the interpretation of diffuse scattering, as observed in scattering measurements, has played a crucial role in the understanding of these highly disordered systems and this is considered in some detail.

  12. Films of Carbon Nanomaterials for Transparent Conductors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Wei

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The demand for transparent conductors is expected to grow rapidly as electronic devices, such as touch screens, displays, solid state lighting and photovoltaics become ubiquitous in our lives. Doped metal oxides, especially indium tin oxide, are the commonly used materials for transparent conductors. As there are some drawbacks to this class of materials, exploration of alternative materials has been conducted. There is an interest in films of carbon nanomaterials such as, carbon nanotubes and graphene as they exhibit outstanding properties. This article reviews the synthesis and assembly of these films and their post-treatment. These processes determine the film performance and understanding of this platform will be useful for future work to improve the film performance.

  13. Solos (Dice Game) and Conductor (Neural Network)

    OpenAIRE

    Marquetti, Andre

    2015-01-01

    Solos (Dice Game) and Conductor (Neural Network) combines a multilayered environment made of solo pieces, ensemble music, and a digital network. A series of short interludes separate each solo and the Main Section of the composition. The Main Section re-unifies the instruments’ solos by granting the performer the opportunity to improvise over a repeated vamp. Unique audio synthesis methods identify each solo instrument. The solo morphology for the clarinet is an open-notated piece derived fro...

  14. AA, inner conductor of a magnetic horn

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN PhotoLab

    1981-01-01

    At the start-up of the AA and during its initial operation, magnetic horns focused the antiprotons emanating from the production target. These "current-sheet lenses" had a thin inner conductor (for minimum absorption of antiprotons), machined from aluminium to wall thicknesses of 0.7 or 1 mm. The half-sine pulses rose to 150 kA in 8 microsec. The angular acceptance was 50 mrad.

  15. Synthesis, characterization and self-assembly of liquid-crystalline ambipolar semi-conductors

    OpenAIRE

    Debever, Olivier

    2011-01-01

    These days, organic photovoltaic devices (OPV) have received a large interest from both academic and industrial researchers as alternative energy source to replace petroleum and nuclear fission. New organic semi-conductors (OSC) are actively researched since these materials can be purified and processed by solution techniques that are cheaper than those required for silicon. The current record efficiency is 8.3%. Further improvement of the OPV performances is desired in order to decrease both...

  16. Thermoelectric power of superionic conductors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Girvin, S.M.

    1978-05-01

    A technique for the calculation of the thermoelectric power in many-particle systems exhibiting hopping conduction is presented. It is shown that the combination of thermopower and conductivity data provides very useful information about the microscopic nature of the ion hopping process in solid electrolytes. There are two main qualitative features of the transport data. In most systems the heat of transport (determined from the thermopower) and the activation energy for conduction are nearly equal, and in systems exhibiting lattice gas order--disorder transitions, these parameters may change across the phase boundary. An extended polaron lattice gas model is presented which is consistent with these features of the data and which allows a determination of the relative strengths of static barrier and polaron effects on the hopping. The results of the model suggest that polaron coupling is relatively small in most materials except for those based on organic halides.

  17. Testing of the 3M Company Composite Conductor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stovall, John P [ORNL; Rizy, D Tom [ORNL; Kisner, Roger A [ORNL

    2010-10-01

    The 3M Company has developed a high-temperature low-sag conductor referred to as Aluminum-Conductor Composite-Reinforced or ACCR. The conductor uses an aluminum metal matrix material to replace the steel in conventional conductors. The objective of this work is to accelerate the commercial acceptance by electric utilities of this new conductor design by testing four representative conductor classes in controlled conditions. A unique facility called the Powerline Conductor Accelerated Testing (PCAT) Facility was built at ORNL for testing overhead conductors. The PCAT has been uniquely designed for testing overhead bare transmission line conductors at high currents and temperatures after they have been installed and tensioned to the manufacturer's specifications. The ability to operate a transmission line conductor in this manner does not exist elsewhere in the United States. Four classes of ACCR cable designed by the 3M Company have been successfully test at ORNL small, medium, large and small/compact. Based on these and other manufacturer tests, the 3M Company has successfully introduced the ACCR into the commercial market and has completed over twenty installations for utility companies.

  18. Electronic and Ionic Conductors from Ordered Microporous Materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dincă, Mircea [Massachusetts Inst. of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, MA (United States)

    2017-10-30

    The proposed work aimed to establish metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) as new classes of high-surface area microporous electronic and ionic conductors. MOFs are crystalline materials with pore sizes ranging from 0.2 to ~ 2 nm (or larger for the latter) defined by inorganic or organic building blocks connected by rigid organic linkers. Myriad applications have been found or proposed for these materials, yet those that require electron transport or conductivity in combination with permanent porosity still lag behind because the vast majority of known frameworks are electrical insulators. Prior to our proposal and subsequent work, there were virtually no studies exploring the possibility of electronic delocalization in these materials. Therefore, our primary goal was to understand and control, at a fundamental level, the electron and ion transport properties of this class of materials, with no specific application proposed, although myriad applications could be envisioned for high surface area conductors. Our goals directly addressed one of the DOE-identified Grand Challenges for Basic Energy Sciences: designing perfect atom- and energy-efficient syntheses of revolutionary new forms of matter with tailored properties. Indeed, the proposed work is entirely synthetic in nature; owing to the molecular nature of the building blocks in MOFs, there is the possibility of unprecedented control over the structure and properties of solid crystalline matter. The goals also tangentially addressed the Grand Challenge of controlling materials processes at the level of electrons: the scope of our program is to create new materials where charges (electrons and/or ions) move according to predefined pathways.

  19. Anticipation in Soccer: A Systematic Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gonçalves Eder

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. The present study aimed to examine the current methods employed to assess anticipation in soccer players as well as to elicit the main findings of recent studies. Methods. The study was carried out in systematic review form and its sample comprised nine scientific papers published in academic journals. Only the studies involving soccer players (professionals and amateurs, except goalkeepers were included in this review. Results and conclusions. We observed that most of the studies employed video footage obtained from soccer matches, which are occluded at a given point for study participants to quickly and precisely elicit the positions of opponents, teammates and the ball as well as anticipate actions (dribbling, shooting, passing from surrounding players (teammates and opponents. In addition, the studies compared the performance of players from both high and low competitive levels in anticipation tasks.

  20. Control of Flux Pinning in MOD YBCO Coated Conductor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, W. [American Superconductor Corporation, Westborough, MA; Huang, Y. [American Superconductor Corporation, Westborough, MA; Li, X. [American Superconductor Corporation, Westborough, MA; Kodenkandath, Thomas [American Superconductor Corporation, Westborough, MA; Rupich, Marty [American Superconductor Corporation, Westborough, MA; Schoop, U. [American Superconductor Corporation, Westborough, MA; Verebelyi, D. T. [American Superconductor Corporation, Westborough, MA; Thieme, C. L. H. [American Superconductor Corporation, Westborough, MA; Siegal, E. E. [American Superconductor Corporation, Westborough, MA; Holesinger, T. G. [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Maiorov, B. [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Miller, D. J. [Argonne National Laboratory (ANL); Maroni, V. A. [Argonne National Laboratory (ANL); Goyal, Amit [ORNL; Specht, Eliot D [ORNL; Paranthaman, Mariappan Parans [ORNL

    2007-01-01

    Two different types of defect structures have been identified to be responsible for the enhanced pinning in metal organic deposited YBCO films. Rare earth additions result in the formation of nanodots in the YBCO matrix, which form uncorrelated pinning centers, increasing pinning in all magnetic field orientations. 124-type intergrowths, which form as laminar structures parallel to the ab-plane, are responsible for the large current enhancement when the magnetic field is oriented in the ab-plane. TEM studies showed that the intergrowths emanate from cuprous containing secondary phase particles, whose density is partially controlled by the rare earth doping level. Critical process parameters have been identified to control this phase formation, and therefore, control the f 24 intergrowth formation. This work has shown that through process control and proper conductor design, either by adjusting the composition or by multiple coatings of different functional layers, the desired angular dependence can be achieved.

  1. Control of flux pinning in MOD YBCO coated conductor.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, W.; Huang, Y.; Li, X.; Kodenkandath, T.; Rupich, M. W.; Schoop, U.; Verebelyi, D. T.; Thieme, C. L. H.; Siegal, E.; Holesinger, T. G.; Maiorov, B.; Civale, L.; Miller, D. J.; Maroni, V. A.; Li, J.; Martin, P. M.; Specht, E. D.; Goyal, A.; Paranthaman, M. P.; American Superconductor Corp.; LANL; ORNL

    2007-06-01

    NTwo different types of defect structures have been identified to be responsible for the enhanced pinning in metal organic deposited YBCO films. Rare earth additions result in the formation of nanodots in the YBCO matrix, which form uncorrelated pinning centers, increasing pinning in all magnetic field orientations. 124-type intergrowths, which form as laminar structures parallel to the ab-plane, are responsible for the large current enhancement when the magnetic field is oriented in the ab-plane. TEM studies showed that the intergrowths emanate from cuprous containing secondary phase particles, whose density is partially controlled by the rare earth doping level. Critical process parameters have been identified to control this phase formation, and therefore, control the f 24 intergrowth formation. This work has shown that through process control and proper conductor design, either by adjusting the composition or by multiple coatings of different functional layers, the desired angular dependence can be achieved.

  2. Test of ITER conductors in SULTAN: An update

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bruzzone, Pierluigi; Stepanov, Boris; Wesche, Rainer; Herzog, Robert; Calzolaio, Ciro; Vogel, Martin

    2011-01-01

    The ITER Toroidal Field (TF) conductor qualification phase has been carried out by testing short sample prototype conductors in the SULTAN test facility. This phase, started in 2007, has been substantially completed after minor adjustment of the conductor specification and test procedures. All the parties involved in the TF conductor procurement passed the qualification phase. Starting 2010, the samples for TF process qualification phase are tested in SULTAN. A summary of the results for all the ITER Qualification samples and an updated statistics are presented for the V-I and V-T characteristics of the cable-in-conduit conductors (CICC), including Nb 3 Sn and NbTi samples assembled with either a 'bottom joint' or a 'U-bend'. The technical improvements of the test facility are reported, including the enhanced cyclic loading rate and the calibration of the current meter. An outlook of the ITER conductor tests in the coming years is also presented.

  3. 46 CFR 111.05-33 - Equipment safety grounding (bonding) conductors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Equipment safety grounding (bonding) conductors. 111.05... § 111.05-33 Equipment safety grounding (bonding) conductors. (a) Each equipment-grounding conductor must... 110.10-1). (b) Each equipment-grounding conductor (other than a system-grounding conductor) of a cable...

  4. Investigation of the reasons of copper nanodimension conductor degradation and their stability increase possibilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buzdugan, A.A.; Gromov, D.G.; Redichev, E.N.; Chulkov, I.S.

    2008-01-01

    Current density and electric power influence on a process of nanodimension copper conductors degradation has been studied. Heterogeneous melting phenomenon participation in copper nanodimension conductor disintegration is shown. It is mounted that principal reason leading to conductor disintegration is the heat allocated into conductor as a result electrical current affect. The way of nanodimension conductor stability increase is considered.

  5. AC Loss Characterization of Striated Multifilamentary YBCO Coated Conductors

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Amemiya, Naoyuki

    2005-01-01

    .... The measured magnetization losses of multifilamentary YBCO-coated conductors apparently contain a hysteretic loss component in which the dissipated energy per cycle is independent of frequency...

  6. Anticipated ethical challenges with growing molecular prenatal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Prenatal diagnostic testing is gaining more anticipated acceptance in Nigeria as more expectant mothers are offered tests to detect presence or absence of monogenetic disorders associated with foetus such as sickle cell disease. It is however known that many ethical quandaries are related to the process. These issues ...

  7. Anticipating drug side effects by comparative pharmacology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Serna, Ricard; Mestres, Jordi

    2010-10-01

    Anticipating the likely side effect profile of drugs is an aspect of key importance in current drug discovery, development and marketing. It was recently shown that drug pairs having similar side effect profiles had also affinity for a common target. Acknowledging that most drugs have a rich polypharmacology, we provide proof that drugs related by side effect similarity have in fact affinities for multiple common targets beyond their primary targets and set the basis for the use of comparative pharmacology to anticipate drug side effects. Nomenclature issues to be able to identify and properly store drugs, targets and side effects from multiple public sources; the construction of drug networks from side effect similarity and the inference of common targets among them; polypharmacology and data completeness; methods for in silico target profiling; and comparative pharmacology and inference of common side effects. The reader is provided with a detailed step-by-step analysis of the entire process from predicting the target profile of a compound to anticipating its side effect profile, and a discussion on the particular needs and limitations found at each stage of the process through illustrative examples. Comparing preclinical pharmacology data obtained in vitro but also predicted in silico using modern virtual screening methods represents an attractive strategy to anticipate clinical drug side effects.

  8. Activity Schedule And Anticipation Training As Counselling ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study investigated the impact of Activity Schedule and Anticipation Training as counselling strategies in managing mild depression among Nigerian adolescents. Six Senior Secondary Schools were randomly selected from three Education Districts in Lagos State. The total population of SS 2 students available for the ...

  9. Impact of anticipation in dynamical systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerlee, P.; Tunstrøm, K.; Lundh, T.; Wennberg, B.

    2017-12-01

    Many animals, including humans, have predictive capabilities and, presumably, base their behavioral decisions—at least partially—upon an anticipated state of their environment. We explore a minimal version of this idea in the context of particles that interact according to a pairwise potential. Anticipation enters the picture by calculating the interparticle forces from linear extrapolations of the particle positions some time τ in the future. Simulations show that for intermediate values of τ , compared to a transient time scale defined by the potential and the initial conditions, the particles form rotating clusters in which the particles are arranged in a hexagonal pattern. Analysis of the system shows that anticipation induces energy dissipation and we show that the kinetic energy asymptotically decays as 1 /t . Furthermore, we show that the angular momentum is not necessarily conserved for τ >0 , and that asymmetries in the initial condition therefore can cause rotational movement. These results suggest that anticipation could play an important role in collective behavior, since it may induce pattern formation and stabilizes the dynamics of the system.

  10. Learning and Anticipation in Online Dynamic Optimization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P.A.N. Bosman (Peter); S. Yang; Y.S. Ong; Y. Jin

    2007-01-01

    htmlabstractIn this chapter we focus on the importance of the use of learning and anticipation in (online) dynamic optimization. To this end we point out an important source of problem-difficulty that has so far received significantly less attention than the traditional shifting of optima.

  11. Why the Economic Crisis Was Not Anticipated

    Science.gov (United States)

    Posner, Richard A.

    2009-01-01

    An article in the October 11 "New York Times" attributed the almost universal failure to anticipate the current economic crisis to "insanity"--more precisely, to a psychological inability to give proper weight to past events, so that if there is prosperity today people assume that it will last forever, even though they know that in the past booms…

  12. Conductor to insulator transition and insulator to conductor transition, studied by gas discharges and break junctions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Manders, G.C.G.M.

    2004-01-01

    This thesis is divided in two parts: part I deals with experiments in which a gas is transformed in a good conductor by application of a high electric field, part II deals with measuring the conductance of a small gold contact during the moment it breaks. The main goal of part I is to measure the

  13. PAC study of silver chalcogenide superionic conductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mekata, M.; Mizoh, Y.; Kyoto Univ.

    1981-01-01

    In order to study ionic motion in superionic conductors, PAC of 111 Cd was measured in Ag 2 S and Ag 2 Se. The observed ω 0 and eta reveal that probe ions occupy preferentially the tetrahedral sites. Static and dynamic interactions are found in the time spectra observed in the superionic phase and are interpreted in terms of dressed-ion and shake-off processes. The static component decreases with increasing temperature. Using the ratio of diffusion constants for Ag + and Cd ++ ions, the correlation time of Ag + ion is deduced. The activation energy is found to be about 12 kJ/mol. (orig.)

  14. AA, Inner Conductor of Magnetic Horn

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN PhotoLab

    1979-01-01

    Antiprotons emerging at large angles from the production target (hit by an intense 26 GeV proton beam from the PS), were focused into the acceptance of the injection line of the AA by means of a "magnetic horn" (current-sheet lens). Here we see an early protype of the horn's inner conductor, machined from solid aluminium to a thickness of less than 1 mm. The 1st version had to withstand pulses of 150 kA, 15 us long, every 2.4 s. See 8801040 for a later version.

  15. Flux pinning characteristics of YBCO coated conductor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsushita, T.; Watanabe, T.; Fukumoto, Y.; Yamauchi, K.; Kiuchi, M.; Otabe, E.S.; Kiss, T.; Watanabe, T.; Miyata, S.; Ibi, A.; Muroga, T.; Yamada, Y.; Shiohara, Y.

    2005-01-01

    Flux pinning properties of PLD-processed YBCO coated conductors deposited on IBAD substrate are investigated. The thickness of YBCO layer is changed in the range of 0.27-1.0 μm. The thickness dependence of critical current density, n-value and irreversibility field are measured in a wide range of magnetic field. The results are compared with the theoretical flux creep-flow model. It is found that these pinning properties are strongly influenced by the thickness as well as the pinning strength. Optimum condition for high field application of this superconductor is discussed

  16. Health, Anticipated Partner Infidelity, and Jealousy in Men and Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven Arnocky

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Health has been identified as an important variable involved in mate choice. Unhealthy organisms are generally less able to provide reproductively important resources to partners and offspring and are more likely to pass on communicable disease. Research on human mate preferences has shown that both men and women prefer healthy mates. Yet to date, little research has examined how health relates to one’s own mating experiences. In the present study, 164 participants (87 women who were currently in heterosexual romantic relationships completed measures of frequency and severity of health problems, anticipated partner infidelity, and intensity of jealousy felt in their current relationship. Mediation analyses showed that health problems predicted greater anticipated partner infidelity and jealousy scores and that anticipated partner infidelity mediated the links between health and jealousy for both frequency and severity of health problems, controlling for both sex and relationship duration. These findings suggest that unhealthy people perceive themselves to be at a mating disadvantage, experiencing associated differences in perceptions and emotions surrounding their romantic partners’ fidelity.

  17. From Discrimination to Internalized Mental Illness Stigma: The Mediating Roles of Anticipated Discrimination and Anticipated Stigma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinn, Diane M.; Williams, Michelle K.; Weisz, Bradley M.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Internalizing mental illness stigma is related to poorer well-being, but less is known about the factors that predict levels of internalized stigma. This study explored how experiences of discrimination relate to greater anticipation of discrimination and devaluation in the future, and how anticipation of stigma, in turn predicts greater stigma internalization. Method Participants were 105 adults with mental illness who self-reported their experiences of discrimination based on their mental illness, their anticipation of discrimination and social devaluation from others in the future, and their level of internalized stigma. Participants were approached in several locations and completed surveys on laptop computers. Results Correlational analyses indicated that more experiences of discrimination due to one’s mental illness were related to increased anticipated discrimination in the future, increased anticipated social stigma from others, and greater internalized stigma. Multiple serial mediator analyses showed that the effect of experiences of discrimination on internalized stigma was fully mediated by increased anticipated discrimination and anticipated stigma. Conclusion and Implications for Practice Experiences of discrimination over the lifetime may influence not only how much future discrimination people with mental illness are concerned with but also how much they internalize negative feelings about the self. Mental health professionals may need to address concerns with future discrimination and devaluation in order to decrease internalized stigma. PMID:25844910

  18. Testing of the 3M Company ACCR Conductor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stovall, J.P.; RIzy, D.T.; Kisner, R.A.; Deve, H.E. (3M Comp.)

    2010-09-15

    The 3M Company has developed a high-temperature low-sag conductor referred to as Aluminum- Conductor Composite-Reinforced or ACCR. The conductor uses an aluminum metal matrix material to replace the steel in conventional conductors so the core has a lower density and higher conductivity. The objective of this work is to accelerate the commercial acceptance by electric utilities of these new conductor designs by testing four representative conductor classes in controlled conditions. Overhead transmission lines use bare aluminum conductor strands wrapped around a steel core strands to transmit electricity. The typical cable is referred to as aluminum-conductor steel-reinforced (ACSR). The outer strands are aluminum, chosen for its conductivity, low weight, and low cost. The center strand is of steel for the strength required to support the weight without stretching the aluminum due to its ductility. The power density of a transmission corridor has been directly increased by increasing the voltage level. Transmission voltages have increased from 115-kV to 765- kV over the past 80 years. In the United States, further increasing the voltage level is not feasible at this point in time, so in order to further increase the power density of a transmission corridor, conductor designs that increase the current carrying capability have been examined. One of the key limiting factors in the design of a transmission line is the conductor sag which determines the clearance of the conductor above ground or underlying structures needed for electrical safety. Increasing the current carrying capability of a conductor increases the joule heating in the conductor which increases the conductor sag. A conductor designed for high-temperature and lowsag operation requires an engineered modification of the conductor materials. To make an advanced cable, the 3M Company solution has been the development of a composite conductor consisting of Nextel ceramic fibers to replace the steel core and

  19. VAMAS Nb3Sn test conductor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1994-01-01

    A bronze-process Nb 3 Sn conductor was measured as part of the second VAMAS (Versailles Project on Advanced Materials and Standards) international critical-current round robin. The conductor specifications are given in Table 15. The critical current was measured as a function of magnetic field and axial tensile strain. The measured data are presented in Table 16 and in Figs. 23 and 24. The I c and J c values are based on an electric field criterion (E c ) of 1 μV/cm. In the first VAMAS round robin tests, differences in the test specimens' axial strain, caused by variations in the thermal contraction of different test fixtures, was a major source of interlaboratory variation in the critical-current data. Consequently, electromechanical characterization of the test specimen is important for data interpretation and error analysis. In the second round robin, the test apparatus and procedure were more rigidly specified. This increased experimental control reduced the critical-current variation by a factor of 3.5. The results of our measurements will be published in the final VAMAS report

  20. Novel processing of HTS based conductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ginley, D.S.; Venturini, E.L.; Kwak, J.F.; Baughman, R.J.; Bourcier, R.J.; Mitchell, M.A.; Morosin, B.; Halloran, J.W.; Neal, M.J.; Capone, D.W.

    1990-01-01

    Conductor development is one of the major long term goals in high temperature superconductor research. In this paper the authors report on two promising processing technologies that have been utilized to produce superconducting HTS conductors. First, melt spun YBa 2 Cu 3 O 7 fibers rapid thermal processed for 1-8 sec at 950 to 1075 degrees C have T c 's to 92 K, J c to 1100 A/cm 2 and the orthorhombic twinned morphology typical for high quality YBa 2 Cu 3 O 7 . A processing matrix of time, temperature and composition for these fibers shows that slightly CuO-rich starting composition give the best results. Second, silver tube encapsulated wires of Bi 1.7 Pb 0.3 Sr 2 Ca 2 Cu 3 O 10 have been made by extrusion, wire drawing and cold rolling. The resulting tapes show orientation of the crystallites, zero resistance up to 100K and improved magnetic hysteria above 50 K. The combination of mechanical reprocessing and extended thermal anneal near 850 degrees C appears to significantly improve these materials

  1. Genetic anticipation in Swedish Lynch syndrome families.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jenny von Salomé

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Among hereditary colorectal cancer predisposing syndromes, Lynch syndrome (LS caused by mutations in DNA mismatch repair genes MLH1, MSH2, MSH6 or PMS2 is the most common. Patients with LS have an increased risk of early onset colon and endometrial cancer, but also other tumors that generally have an earlier onset compared to the general population. However, age at first primary cancer varies within families and genetic anticipation, i.e. decreasing age at onset in successive generations, has been suggested in LS. Anticipation is a well-known phenomenon in e.g neurodegenerative diseases and several reports have studied anticipation in heritable cancer. The purpose of this study is to determine whether anticipation can be shown in a nationwide cohort of Swedish LS families referred to the regional departments of clinical genetics in Lund, Stockholm, Linköping, Uppsala and Umeå between the years 1990-2013. We analyzed a homogenous group of mutation carriers, utilizing information from both affected and non-affected family members. In total, 239 families with a mismatch repair gene mutation (96 MLH1 families, 90 MSH2 families including one family with an EPCAM-MSH2 deletion, 39 MSH6 families, 12 PMS2 families, and 2 MLH1+PMS2 families comprising 1028 at-risk carriers were identified among the Swedish LS families, of which 1003 mutation carriers had available follow-up information and could be included in the study. Using a normal random effects model (NREM we estimate a 2.1 year decrease in age of diagnosis per generation. An alternative analysis using a mixed-effects Cox proportional hazards model (COX-R estimates a hazard ratio of exp(0.171, or about 1.19, for age of diagnosis between consecutive generations. LS-associated gene-specific anticipation effects are evident for MSH2 (2.6 years/generation for NREM and hazard ratio of 1.33 for COX-R and PMS2 (7.3 years/generation and hazard ratio of 1.86. The estimated anticipation effects for MLH1

  2. Transport properties and giant Shubnikov-de Haas oscillations in the first organic conductor with metal complex anion containing selenocyanate ligand, (ET){sub 2}TlHg(SeCN){sub 4}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laukhin, V.N. [Service National des Champs Magnetiques Pulses du CNRS et Laboratoire de Physique des Solides, URA CNRS 074, Complexe Scientifique de Rangueil, 31077 Toulouse (France)]|[Institute of Chemical Physics in Chernogolovka, Russian Academy of Sciences, Chernogolovka, MD 142432 (Russian Federation); Audouard, A. [Service National des Champs Magnetiques Pulses du CNRS et Laboratoire de Physique des Solides, URA CNRS 074, Complexe Scientifique de Rangueil, 31077 Toulouse (France); Rakoto, H. [Service National des Champs Magnetiques Pulses du CNRS et Laboratoire de Physique des Solides, URA CNRS 074, Complexe Scientifique de Rangueil, 31077 Toulouse (France); Broto, J.M. [Service National des Champs Magnetiques Pulses du CNRS et Laboratoire de Physique des Solides, URA CNRS 074, Complexe Scientifique de Rangueil, 31077 Toulouse (France); Goze, F. [Service National des Champs Magnetiques Pulses du CNRS et Laboratoire de Physique des Solides, URA CNRS 074, Complexe Scientifique de Rangueil, 31077 Toulouse (France); Coffe, G. [Service National des Champs Magnetiques Pulses du CNRS et Laboratoire de Physique des Solides, URA CNRS 074, Complexe Scientifique de Rangueil, 31077 Toulouse (France); Brossard, L. [Service National des Champs Magnetiques Pulses du CNRS et Laboratoire de Physique des Solides, URA CNRS 074, Complexe Scientifique de Rangueil, 31077 Toulouse (France); Redoules, J.P. [Service National des Champs Magnetiques Pulses du CNRS et Laboratoire de Physique des Solides, URA CNRS 074, Complexe Scientifique de Rangueil, 31077 Toulouse (France); Kartsovnik, M.V. [Institute of Solid State Physics, Russian Academy of Sciences, Chernogolovka, MD 142432 (Russian Federation); Kushch, N.D. [Institute of Chemical Physics in Chernogolovka, Russian Academy of Sciences, Chernogolovka, MD 142432 (Russian Federation); Buravov, L.I.

    1995-05-01

    Temperature dependence of the resistivity in various crystallographic directions and high pulsed field magnetoresistance of organic metal {alpha}-(ET){sub 2}TlHg(SeCN){sub 4} have been studied at temperatures down to 80 mK. Giant Shubnikov-de Haas oscillations, which are attributed to the two-dimensional nature of the cylindrical Fermi surface with a very small warping along the direction of the lowest conductivity have been observed. Four harmonics of the fast oscillations with fundamental frequency F{sub 0}=653{+-}3 T and slow frequency oscillations with F{sub s}=38{+-}5 T have been revealed. (orig.).

  3. Results of conductor testing in SULTAN a review

    CERN Document Server

    Wesche, R; Bruzzone, P; Calvi, M; Cau, F; Herzog, R; Marinucci, C; Stepanov, B

    2009-01-01

    In the last few years, the DC performance of a large number of sub- and full-size NbTi as well as Nb3Sn cablein- conduit (CIC) conductors was tested in the SULTAN facility of CRPP. The “potential” DC performance of various CIC conductors was estimated from the measured strand data. In the present work, the DC performance of CIC conductors, measured in SULTAN, is compared with this “potential” DC performance. The DC performance of NbTi sub- and full size CIC conductors has been found to be in good agreement with the “potential” conductor performance. For Nb3Sn CIC conductors, the situation is more complex because of the strain sensitivity of the critical current. Evidence for strand damage, caused by the large Lorentz forces, has been found in Nb3Sn subsize conductors. Finally, a summary of the results of the tests of the ITER-TF Nb3Sn conductors is provided. Again the measured DC performance is compared to the "potential" performance.

  4. 46 CFR 111.50-3 - Protection of conductors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... of overcurrent protection for conductors is to open the electric circuit if the current reaches a... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Protection of conductors. 111.50-3 Section 111.50-3 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING ELECTRIC SYSTEMS...

  5. Anticipation: Beyond synthetic biology and cognitive robotics

    OpenAIRE

    Nasuto, Slawomir J.; Hayashi, Yoshikatsu

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to propose that current robotic technologies cannot have intentional states any more than is feasible within the sensorimotor variant of embodied cognition. It argues that anticipation is an emerging concept that can provide a bridge between both the deepest philosophical theories about the nature of life and cognition and the empirical biological and cognitive sciences steeped in reductionist and Newtonian conceptions of causality. The paper advocates that in order t...

  6. Anticipation in the constructivist theory of cognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Glasersfeld, Ernst

    1998-07-01

    Much of what we call knowledge is based on the assumption that past experience can provide clues about future experience. The practice of living and learning consequently involves the anticipation of events and situations at almost every step. In my talk I shall present the constructivist approach to the epistemological prerequisites and some of the psychological mechanisms that seem necessary in order to explain such an otherwise mysterious capability of foresight.

  7. Partial observation control in an anticipating environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oeksendal, B; Sulem, A

    2004-01-01

    A study is made of a controlled stochastic system whose state X(t) at time t is described by a stochastic differential equation driven by Levy processes with filtration {F t } telementof[0,T] . The system is assumed to be anticipating, in the sense that the coefficients are assumed to be adapted to a filtration {G t } t≥0 with F t subset of equal G t for all t element of [0,T]. The corresponding anticipating stochastic differential equation is interpreted in the sense of forward integrals, which naturally generalize semimartingale integrals. The admissible controls are assumed to be adapted to a filtration {E t } telementof[0,T] such that E t subset of equal F t for all t element of [0,T]. The general problem is to maximize a given performance functional of this system over all admissible controls. This is a partial observation stochastic control problem in an anticipating environment. Examples of applications include stochastic volatity models in finance, insider influenced financial markets, and stochastic control of systems with delayed noise effects. Some particular cases in finance, involving optimal portfolios with logarithmic utility, are solved explicitly

  8. LTS and HTS high current conductor development for DEMO

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bruzzone, Pierluigi; Sedlak, Kamil; Uglietti, Davide; Bykovsky, Nikolay; Muzzi, Luigi; De Marzi, Gainluca; Celentano, Giuseppe; Della Corte, Antonio; Turtù, Simonetta; Seri, Massimo

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Design and R&D for DEMO TF conductors. • Wind&react vs. react&wind options for Nb 3 Sn high grade TF conductors. • Progress in the manufacture of short length Nb 3 Sn proptotypes. • Design and prototype manufacture for high current HTS cabled conductors. - Abstract: The large size of the magnets for DEMO calls for very large operating current in the forced flow conductor. A plain extrapolation from the superconductors in use for ITER is not adequate to fulfill the technical and cost requirements. The proposed DEMO TF magnets is a graded winding using both Nb 3 Sn and NbTi conductors, with operating current of 82 kA @ 13.6 T peak field. Two Nb 3 Sn prototypes are being built in 2014 reflecting the two approaches suggested by CRPP (react&wind method) and ENEA (wind&react method). The Nb 3 Sn strand (overall 200 kg) has been procured at technical specification similar to ITER. Both the Nb 3 Sn strand and the high RRR, Cr plated copper wire (400 kg) have been delivered. The cabling trials are carried out at TRATOS Cavi using equipment relevant for long length production. The completion of the manufacture of the two 20 m long prototypes is expected in the end of 2014 and their test is planned in 2015 at CRPP. In the scope of a long term technology development, high current HTS conductors are built at CRPP and ENEA. A DEMO-class prototype conductor is developed and assembled at CRPP: it is a flat cable composed of 20 twisted stacks of coated conductor tape soldered into copper shells. The 10 kA conductor developed at ENEA consists of stacks of coated conductor tape inserted into a slotted and twisted Al core, with a central cooling channel. Samples have been manufactured in industrial environment and the scalability of the process to long production lengths has been proven.

  9. Irreversible properties of YBCO coated conductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vostner, A.

    2001-02-01

    Over the past few years substantial efforts were made to optimize the fabrication techniques of various high temperature superconductors for commercial applications. In addition to Bi-2223 tapes, Y-123 coated conductors have the potential for large-scale production and are considered as the second generation of superconducting 'wires' for high current applications. This work reports on magnetic and transport current investigations of Y-123 thick films deposited on either single crystalline substrates by liquid phase epitaxy (LPE) or on metallic substrates by pulsed laser deposition (PLD). At the beginning, a short introduction of the general idea of a coated conductor and of the different production techniques is presented, followed by a description of the different experimental set-ups and the evaluation methods. The main part starts with the results obtained from SQUID magnetometry and ac-susceptibility measurements including the transition temperatures T c , the field dependence of the magnetic critical current densities and the irreversibility lines. In addition, some issues concerning the granular structure and the inter- and intragranular current distribution of the superconducting films are discussed. The investigations by transport currents are focused on the behavior of the application relevant irreversible parameters. These are the angular and the field dependence of the critical transport current densities at 77 and 60 K, as well as the temperature dependence of the irreversibility fields up to 6 T. To gain more insight into the defect structure of the films, neutron irradiation studies were performed on some samples. The introduction of these artificial pinning centers causes large enhancements of the magnetic J c in LPE specimens for the field parallel to the c-axis (H//c) at higher temperatures and magnetic fields. The granular structure of the samples does not change up to the highest neutron fluences. However, the enhancements of the transport J c

  10. The Silicon Microstrip Sensors of the ATLAS SemiConductor Tracker

    CERN Document Server

    Ahmad, A; Allport, P P; Alonso, J; Andricek, L; Apsimon, R J; Barr, A J; Bates, R L; Beck, G A; Bell, P J; Belymam, A; Benes, J; Berg, C M; Bernabeu, J; Bethke, S; Bingefors, N; Bizzell, J P; Bohm, J; Brenner, R; Brodbeck, T J; Bruckman De Renstrom, P; Buttar, C M; Campbell, D; Carpentieri, C; Carter, A A; Carter, J R; Charlton, D G; Casse, G-L; Chilingarov, A; Cindro, V; Ciocio, A; Civera, J V; Clark, A G; Colijn, A-P; Costa, M J; Dabrowski, W; Danielsen, K M; Dawson, I; Demirkoz, B; Dervan, P; Dolezal, Z; Dorholt, O; Duerdoth, I P; Dwuznik, M; Eckert, S; Ekelöf, T; Eklund, L; Escobar, C; Fasching, D; Feld, L; Ferguson, D P S; Ferrere, D; Fortin, R; Foster, J M; Fox, H; French, R; Fromant, B P; Fujita, K; Fuster, J; Gadomski, S; Gallop, B J; Garcia, C; Garcia-Navarro, J E; Gibson, M D; Gonzalez, S; Gonzalez-Sevilla, S; Goodrick, M J; Gornicki, E; Green, C; Greenall, A; Grigson, C; Grillo, A A; Grosse-Knetter, J; Haber, C; Handa, T; Hara, K; Harper, R S; Hartjes, F G; Hashizaki, T; Hauff, D; Hessey, N P; Hill, J C; Hollins, T I; Holt, S; Horazdovsky, T; Hornung, M; Hovland, K M; Hughes, G; Huse, T; Ikegami, Y; Iwata, Y; Jackson, J N; Jakobs, K; Jared, R C; Johansen, L G; Jones, R W L; Jones, T J; de Jong, P; Joseph, J; Jovanovic, P; Kaplon, J; Kato, Y; Ketterer, C; Kindervaag, I M; Kodys, P; Koffeman, E; Kohriki, T; Kohout, Z; Kondo, T; Koperny, S; van der Kraaij, E; Kral, V; Kramberger, G; Kudlaty, J; Lacasta, C; Limper, M; Linhart, V; Llosa, G; Lozano, M; Ludwig, I; Ludwig, J; Lutz, G; Macpherson, A; McMahon, S J; Macina, D; Magrath, C A; Malecki, P; Mandic, I; Marti-Garcia, S; Matsuo, T; Meinhardt, J; Mellado, B; Mercer, I J; Mikestikova, M; Mikuz, M; Minano, M; Mistry, J; Mitsou, V; Modesto, P; Mohn, B; Molloy, S D; Moorhead, G; Moraes, A; Morgan, D; Morone, M C; Morris, J; Moser, H-G; Moszczynski, A; Muijs, A J M; Nagai, K; Nakamura, Y; Nakano, I; Nicholson, R; Niinikoski, T; Nisius, R; Ohsugi, T; O'Shea, V; Oye, O K; Parzefall, U; Pater, J R; Pernegger, H; Phillips, P W; Posisil, S; Ratoff, P N; Reznicek, P; Richardson, J D; Richter, R H; Robinson, D; Roe, S; Ruggiero, G; Runge, K; Sadrozinski, H F W; Sandaker, H; Schieck, J; Seiden, A; Shinma, S; Siegrist, J; Sloan, T; Smith, N A; Snow, S W; Solar, M; Solberg, A; Sopko, B; Sospedra, L; Spieler, H; Stanecka, E; Stapnes, S; Stastny, J; Stelzer, F; Stradling, A; Stugu, B; Takashima, R; Tanaka, R; Taylor, G; Terada, S; Thompson, R J; Titov, M; Tomeda, Y; Tovey, D R; Turala, M; Turner, P R; Tyndel, M; Ullan, M; Unno, Y; Vickey, T; Vos, M; Wallny, R; Weilhammer, P; Wells, P S; Wilson, J A; Wolter, M; Wormald, M; Wu, S L; Yamashita, T; Zontar, D; Zsenei, A

    2007-01-01

    This paper describes the AC-coupled, single-sided, p-in-n silicon microstrip sensors used in the SemiConductor Tracker (SCT) of the ATLAS experiment at the CERN Large Hadron Collider (LHC). The sensor requirements, specifications and designs are discussed, together with the qualification and quality assurance procedures adopted for their production. The measured sensor performance is presented, both initially and after irradiation to the fluence anticipated after 10 years of LHC operation. The sensors are now successfully assembled within the detecting modules of the SCT, and the SCT tracker is completed and integrated within the ATLAS Inner Detector. Hamamatsu Photonics Ltd supplied 92.2% of the 15,392 installed sensors, with the remainder supplied by CiS.

  11. Plasmonics with two-dimensional conductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Hosang; Yeung, Kitty Y. M.; Kim, Philip; Ham, Donhee

    2014-01-01

    A wealth of effort in photonics has been dedicated to the study and engineering of surface plasmonic waves in the skin of three-dimensional bulk metals, owing largely to their trait of subwavelength confinement. Plasmonic waves in two-dimensional conductors, such as semiconductor heterojunction and graphene, contrast the surface plasmonic waves on bulk metals, as the former emerge at gigahertz to terahertz and infrared frequencies well below the photonics regime and can exhibit far stronger subwavelength confinement. This review elucidates the machinery behind the unique behaviours of the two-dimensional plasmonic waves and discusses how they can be engineered to create ultra-subwavelength plasmonic circuits and metamaterials for infrared and gigahertz to terahertz integrated electronics. PMID:24567472

  12. Anticipation in Law and Social Science

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Winston P. Nagan

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This article explores a particular aspect of the role of anticipation in social and legal processes. The program begins by recognizing that social interaction happens within a time-space manifold of events. This means that society functions in terms of events located on the plane of time and the situation of space. This means that social process is a dynamic. As an ancient philosopher put it, change is so ubiquitous that you cannot jump into the same river twice. Since we tend to look at social dynamics in a more static way, one major theorist reminds us that the stable in social process is a special case of the unstable. The article underscores a point that the anticipatory perspective is a ubiquitous part of social dynamics and change. Indeed, it is a critical component of social coexistence. To briefly illustrate, if the members of a governing group come into power, they will immediately have to anticipate the security needs, the economic needs, the educational needs, the health and well-being needs, the skill and labor needs, the food needs of the body politic, the requirements of effective family relationships, the requirements of morality and ethics and the needs of aesthetics. The paper provides a framework in which anticipation is used to predict the problems that emerge from the social process. The value of a social science that facilitates anticipation before problems occur provides opportunities on the time-space manifold of society to develop problem-solving strategies with a better chance of those strategies being successful. To utilize this approach, the authors provide the sophisticated model of social process developed by WAAS Fellows Lasswell and McDougal: Human beings pursue values through institutions based on resources. Using this model the authors provide a provisional map of the social process with key markers at points likely to generate important problems. The markers in the maps are as follows: participators

  13. Role for Genetic Anticipation in Lynch Syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nilbert, Mef; Timshel, Susanne; Bernstein, Inge

    2009-01-01

    mismatch repair (MMR) defects cause early and accelerated tumor development with a broad tumor spectrum. PATIENTS AND METHODS: In the population-based Danish HNPCC registry, 407 MMR gene mutation carriers who had developed cancer associated with Lynch syndrome, were identified. These individuals formed 290....... The effect remained when cancers diagnosed at surveillance were excluded, applied to maternal as well as paternal inheritance, and was independent of the MMR gene mutated. CONCLUSION: The effect from anticipation demonstrated in this large, population-based Lynch syndrome cohort underscores the need...

  14. Genetic anticipation in Swedish Lynch syndrome families

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    von Salomé, Jenny; Boonstra, Philip S; Karimi, Masoud

    2017-01-01

    Among hereditary colorectal cancer predisposing syndromes, Lynch syndrome (LS) caused by mutations in DNA mismatch repair genes MLH1, MSH2, MSH6 or PMS2 is the most common. Patients with LS have an increased risk of early onset colon and endometrial cancer, but also other tumors that generally have...... of diagnosis per generation. An alternative analysis using a mixed-effects Cox proportional hazards model (COX-R) estimates a hazard ratio of exp(0.171), or about 1.19, for age of diagnosis between consecutive generations. LS-associated gene-specific anticipation effects are evident for MSH2 (2.6 years...

  15. General relativistic galvano-gravitomagnetic effect in current carrying conductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmedov, B.J.

    1998-11-01

    The analogy between general relativity and electromagnetism suggests that there is a galvano-gravitomagnetic effect, which is the gravitational analogue of the Hall effect. This new effect takes place when a current carrying conductor is placed in a gravitomagnetic field and the conduction electrons moving inside the conductor are deflected transversally with respect to the current flow. In connection with this galvano-gravitomagnetic effect, we explore the possibility of using current carrying conductors for detecting the gravitomagnetic field of the Earth. (author)

  16. HTS current lead units prepared by the TFA-MOD processed YBCO coated conductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shiohara, K.; Sakai, S.; Ishii, Y.; Yamada, Y.; Tachikawa, K.; Koizumi, T.; Aoki, Y.; Hasegawa, T.; Tamura, H.; Mito, T.

    2010-01-01

    Two superconducting current lead units have been prepared using ten coated conductors of the Tri-Fluoro-Acetate - Metal Organic Deposition (TFA-MOD) processed Y 1 Ba 2 Cu 3 O 7-δ (YBCO) coated conductors with critical current (I c ) of about 170 A at 77 K in self-field. The coated conductors are 5 mm in width, 190 mm in length and about 120 μm in overall thickness. The 1.5 μm thick superconducting YBCO layer was synthesized through the TFA-MOD process on Hastelloy TM C-276 substrate tape with two buffer oxide layers of Gd 2 Zr 2 O 7 and CeO 2 . The five YBCO coated conductors are attached on a 1 mm thick Glass Fiber Reinforced Plastics (GFRP) board and soldered to Cu caps at the both ends. We prepared two 500 A-class current lead units. The DC transport current of 800 A was stably applied at 77 K without any voltage generation in all coated conductors. The voltage between both Cu caps linearly increased with increasing the applied current, and was about 350 μV at 500 A in both current lead units. According to the estimated values of the heat leakage from 77 K to 4.2 K, the heat leakage for the current lead unit was 46.5 mW. We successfully attained reduction of the heat leakage because of improvement of the transport current performance (I c ), a thinner Ag layer of YBCO coated conductor and usage of the GFRP board for reinforcement instead of a stainless steel board used in the previous study. The DC transport current of 1400 A was stably applied when the two current lead units were joined in parallel. The sum of the heat leakages from 77 K to 4.2 K for the combined the current lead units was 93 mW. In comparison with the conventional Cu current leads by gas-cooling, it could be noted that the heat leakage of the current lead is about one order of magnitude smaller than that of the Cu current lead.

  17. Anticipation: Beyond synthetic biology and cognitive robotics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasuto, Slawomir J; Hayashi, Yoshikatsu

    2016-10-01

    The aim of this paper is to propose that current robotic technologies cannot have intentional states any more than is feasible within the sensorimotor variant of embodied cognition. It argues that anticipation is an emerging concept that can provide a bridge between both the deepest philosophical theories about the nature of life and cognition and the empirical biological and cognitive sciences steeped in reductionist and Newtonian conceptions of causality. The paper advocates that in order to move forward, cognitive robotics needs to embrace new platforms and a conceptual framework that will enable it to pursue, in a meaningful way, questions about autonomy and purposeful behaviour. We suggest that hybrid systems, part robotic and part cultures of neurones, offer experimental platforms where different dimensions of enactivism (sensorimotor, constitutive foundations of biological autonomy, including anticipation), and their relative contributions to cognition, can be investigated in an integrated way. A careful progression, mindful to the deep philosophical concerns but also respecting empirical evidence, will ultimately lead towards unifying theoretical and empirical biological sciences and may offer advancement where reductionist sciences have been so far faltering. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  18. Locomotor Behavior of Chickens Anticipating Incline Walking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chantal LeBlanc

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Keel bone damage (KBD is prevalent in hens raised for egg production, and ramps between different tiers in aviaries have potential to reduce the frequency of falls resulting in KBD. Effective use of ramps requires modulation of locomotion in anticipation of the incline. Inadequate adaptive locomotion may be one explanation why domestic layer hens (Gallus gallus domesticus exhibit high rates of KBD. To improve understanding of the capacity of hens to modulate their locomotion in anticipation of climbing, we measured the effects of incline angle upon the mechanics of the preparatory step before ascending a ramp. Because the energetic challenge of climbing increases with slope, we predicted that as angle of incline increased, birds during foot contact with the ground before starting to climb would increase their peak force and duration of contact and reduce variation in center of pressure (COP under their foot. We tested 20 female domestic chickens on ramp inclines at slopes of +0°, +40°, and +70° when birds were 17, 21, 26, 31, and 36 weeks of age. There were significantly higher vertical peak ground reaction forces in preparation at the steepest slope, and ground contact time increased significantly with each increase in ramp angle. Effects upon variation in COP were not apparent; likewise, effects of limb length, age, body mass were not significant. Our results reveal that domestic chickens are capable of modulating their locomotion in response to incline angle.

  19. Anticipation learning from the past the Russian/Soviet contributions to the science of anticipation

    CERN Document Server

    2015-01-01

    This volume presents the work of leading scientists from Russia, Georgia, Estonia, Lithuania, Israel, and the USA, revealing major insights long unknown to the scientific community. Without any doubt their work will provide a springboard for further research in anticipation. Until recently, Robert Rosen (Anticipatory Systems) and Mihai Nadin (MIND – Anticipation and Chaos) were deemed forerunners in this still new knowledge domain. The distinguished neurobiologist, Steven Rose, pointed to the fact that Soviet neuropsychological theories have not on the whole been well received by Western science. These earlier insights as presented in this volume make an important contribution to the foundation of the science of anticipation. It is shown that the daring hypotheses and rich experimental evidence produced by Bernstein, Beritashvili, Ukhtomsky, Anokhin, and Uznadze, among others—extend foundational work to aspects of neuroscience, physiology, motorics, education.

  20. Responses of adults who stutter to the anticipation of stuttering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Eric S; Yaruss, J Scott; Quesal, Robert W; Terranova, Valerie; Whalen, D H

    2015-09-01

    Many people who stutter experience the phenomenon of anticipation-the sense that stuttering will occur before it is physically and overtly realized. A systematic investigation of how people who stutter respond to anticipation has not been previously reported. The purposes of this study were to provide self-report evidence of what people do in response to anticipation of stuttering and to determine the extent to which this anticipation occurs. Thirty adults who stutter indicated on a Likert rating scale the extent to which they anticipate stuttering and answered three open-ended (written) questions regarding how they respond to anticipation. All participants reported experiencing anticipation at least "sometimes," and 77% of the participants reported experiencing anticipation "often" or "always." The extent to which participants reported experiencing anticipation was not related to stuttering severity, impact, or treatment history. Analysis of written responses revealed 24 major categories, which were heuristically divided into action or non-action responses. Categories representing avoidance and self-management strategies were further divided into 14 and 19 subcategories, respectively. Participants were just as likely to view anticipation as helpful as they were to view it as harmful. Findings demonstrate that most, if not all, adults who stutter experience anticipation, and the majority of adults who stutter report doing so at least often. Adults who stutter respond to this anticipation by altering the speech production process in various ways. Results highlight the importance of the role that anticipation plays in how stuttering behaviors manifest themselves. The reader will be able to: (a) summarize existing literature on the anticipation of stuttering; (b) describe the role and extent of anticipation of stuttering in adults; (c) describe the various ways that adults who stutter respond to anticipation; (d) describe the importance of measuring anticipation in

  1. Charge ordering in low dimensional organic conductors: Structural aspects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pouget, Jean-Paul; Foury-Leylekian, Pascale [Laboratoire de Physique des Solides, Universite Paris-sud, CNRS UMR 8502, Batiment 510, 91405 Orsay Cedex (France); Alemany, Pere [Departament de Quimica Fisica and Institut de Quimica Teorica i Computacional (IQTCUB), Universitat de Barcelona, Diagonal 627, 08028 Barcelona (Spain); Canadell, Enric [Institut de Ciencia de Materials de Barcelona, CSIC, Campus UAB, 08193 Bellaterra (Spain)

    2012-05-15

    The paper points out the importance of the coupling between anions and donors in order to achieve the 4k{sub F} charge localization observed in (TMTTF){sub 2}PF{sub 6}, {delta}-(EDT-TTF-CONMe{sub 2}){sub 2}Br and (o-DMTTF){sub 2}Cl/Br salts, the 2k{sub F} charge density wave (CDW) ground state of {alpha}-(BEDT-TTF){sub 2}KHg(SCN){sub 4} and the metal to insulator transition of {alpha}-(BEDT-TTF){sub 2}I{sub 3}. This coupling leads to a cooperative displacement wave of the anions accompanied by a modulation of the density of {pi} holes on the donors. We distinguish two principal anion-donor coupling mechanisms: a direct mechanism via the Hartree anion potential on donor sites and an indirect mechanism via the polarization of {sigma} bonds activated by the modification of the H bonds network. Both kinds of interaction are tuned by the relative displacement of the anions with respect to the donors. (Copyright copyright 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  2. Hall penetration of a magnetic field into a uniform conductor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gordeev, A.V.

    1992-01-01

    It is shown that magnetic fields can convect into a uniform conductor due to the breakdown of quasineutrality associated with the Hall field. The nonlinear equation describing this process is derived and studied. 9 refs., 2 figs

  3. Copper Metallic Substrates for High Temperature Superconducting Coated Conductors

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Yust, Nicholas A; Nekkanti, Rama; Brunke, Lyle B; Srinivasan, Raghavan; Barnes, Paul N

    2006-01-01

    ...) coated conductor applications. A comparison is made between Cu substrates fabricated by reverse cold rolling followed by recrystallization, from stock materials that were obtained in the form of extruded rod and rolled plate...

  4. Numerical analysis of quench in coated conductors with defects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenbin Liu

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available When the superconductor is subjected to local thermal perturbations, a large amount of joule heat may be generated in the conductor, which may lead to a quench. In a quench event, a normal zone irreversibly spreads throughout the conductor leading to failure of the superconducting device. In this paper, we will discuss the one-dimensional quench behavior in the coated conductors with internal defects or interface defects. Based on the numerical procedure given in the previous works, the normal zone propagation is studied by using the finite difference method. The numerical results are presented to discuss the normal zone propagation. We consider the effect of internal defect on the nonuniform temperature propagation. For the conductor with interface defects, it can be found that the normal zone propagation velocity is increased by defects.

  5. Anticipated Activities in Maritime Work, Process Control, and Business Processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Peter Bøgh

    2004-01-01

    Most activities are anticipated before they are executed. The paper presents methods for describing this anticipated state and the processes that may lead to a new state where the activities are executed. The method builds on linguistic case-theory.......Most activities are anticipated before they are executed. The paper presents methods for describing this anticipated state and the processes that may lead to a new state where the activities are executed. The method builds on linguistic case-theory....

  6. Spatial Analysis of Thermal Aging of Overhead Transmission Conductors

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Musílek, P.; Heckenbergerová, Jana; Bhuiyan, M.M.I.

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 27, č. 3 (2012), s. 1196-1204 ISSN 0885-8977 Grant - others:GA AV ČR(CZ) M100300904 Source of funding: V - iné verejné zdroje Keywords : aluminium conductor steel reinforced (ACSR) conductor * hot spot * loss of tensile strength * numerical weather prediction * power transmission lines * thermal aging Subject RIV: JE - Non-nuclear Energetics, Energy Consumption ; Use Impact factor: 1.519, year: 2012

  7. Tilt stability of rotating current rings with passive conductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zweibel, E.G.; Pomphrey, N.

    1984-12-01

    We study the combined effects of rotation and resistive passive conductors on the stability of a rigid current in an external magnetic field. We present numerical and approximate analytical solutions to the equations of motion, which show that the ring is always tilt unstable on the resistive decay timescale of the conductors, although rotation and eddy currents may stabilize it over short times. Possible applications of our model include spheromaks which rotate or which are encircled by energetic particle rings

  8. Critical current survival in the YBCO superconducting layer of a delaminated coated conductor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Feng; Fu, Qishu; Qu, Timing; Mu, Hui; Gu, Chen; Yue, Yubin; Wang, Linli; Yang, Zhirong; Han, Zhenghe; Feng, Pingfa

    2018-04-01

    A high-temperature superconducting coated conductor can be practically applied in electric equipment due to its favorable mechanical properties and critical current (I c) performance. However, the coated conductor can easily delaminate because of its poor stress tolerance along the thickness direction. It would be interesting to investigate whether the I c of the delaminated YBa2Cu3O7-δ (YBCO) layer can be preserved. In this study, coated conductor samples manufactured through the metal organic deposition route were delaminated by liquid nitrogen immersion. Delaminated samples, including the YBCO layer and silver stabilizer, were obtained. Delamination occurred inside the YBCO layer and near the YBCO-CeO2 interface, as suggested by the results of scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and x-ray diffraction. A scanning Hall probe system was employed to measure the I c distribution of the original sample and the delaminated sample. It was found that approximately 50% of the I c can be preserved after delamination, which was verified by I c measurements using the four-probe method. Dense and crack-free morphologies of the delaminated surfaces were observed by SEM, which accounts for the I c survival of the delaminated YBCO layer. The potential application of the delaminated sample in superconducting joints was discussed based on the oxygen diffusion estimation.

  9. Characterization of long-length, MOCVD-derived REBCO coated conductors.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, D. J.; Maroni, V. A.; Hiller, J. M.; Koritala, R. E.; Chen, Y.; Reeves Black, J. L.; Selvamanickam, V.; SuperPower, Inc.; Development Dimensions International, Inc.

    2009-06-01

    A leading approach to the fabrication of long-length, high-performance REBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 7} (REBCO) coated conductor is by metal-organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD) of REBCO on buffered templates. Templates are produced by ion beam assisted deposition of textured MgO onto polished metal substrates. The overall performance of MOCVD coated conductors achieved to date is impressive, but further improvement is desired. We have used a coordinated set of characterization techniques to identify the underlying causes for critical current (Ic) performance variations in long-length MOCVD conductors. Using electron microscopy and Raman spectroscopy, we studied tape specimens from specially designed experiments performed in SuperPower's MOCVD manufacturing equipment with its six-track ldquohelixrdquo tape path. We find that in multi-pass depositions used to produce thicker REBCO films, the REBCO phase uniformity and texture quality in the first pass play key roles in pass-to-pass microstructure evolution, with nucleation of second phase particles in the first layer promoting misoriented grains that propagate through subsequent layers. These misoriented grains, many growing in close proximity with second phase particles, present current-blocking obstacles that limit Ic performance. Our results show that achieving more uniform deposition in the very first deposited layer plays a critical role that in turn leads to reduced misoriented grain content and REBCO lattice disorder in the second and subsequent layers of the REBCO film.

  10. AC Loss Reduction in Filamentized YBCO Coated Conductors with Virtual Transverse Cross-cuts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Yifei [ORNL; Duckworth, Robert C [ORNL; Ha, Tam T [ORNL; List III, Frederick Alyious [ORNL; Gouge, Michael J [ORNL; Chen, Y [SuperPower Incorporated, Schenectady, New York; X, Xiong, [SuperPower Incorporated, Schenectady, New York; Selvamanickam, V. [SuperPower Incorporated, Schenectady, New York

    2011-01-01

    While the performance of YBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 7-x} (YBCO)-based coated conductors under dc currents has improved significantly in recent years, filamentization is being investigated as a technique to reduce ac loss so that the 2nd generation (2G) high temperature superconducting (HTS) wires can also be utilized in various ac power applications such as cables, transformers and fault current limiters. Experimental studies have shown that simply filamentizing the superconducting layer is not effective enough to reduce ac loss because of incomplete flux penetration in between the filaments as the length of the tape increases. To introduce flux penetration in between the filaments more uniformly and further reduce the ac loss, virtual transverse cross-cuts were made in superconducting filaments of the coated conductors fabricated using the metal organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD) method. The virtual transverse cross-cuts were formed by making cross-cuts (17 - 120 {micro}m wide) on the IBAD (ion beam assisted deposition)-MgO templates using laser scribing followed by depositing the superconducting layer ({approx} 0.6 {micro}m thick). AC losses were measured and compared for filamentized conductors with and without the cross-cuts under applied peak ac fields up to 100 mT. The results were analyzed to evaluate the efficacy of filament decoupling and the feasibility of using this method to achieve ac loss reduction.

  11. Results of the TF conductor performance qualification samples for the ITER project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breschi, M.; Devred, A.; Casali, M.; Bessette, D.; Jewell, M. C.; Mitchell, N.; Pong, I.; Vostner, A.; Bruzzone, P.; Stepanov, B.; Boutboul, T.; Martovetsky, N.; Kim, K.; Takahashi, Y.; Tronza, V.; Yu, Wu

    2012-09-01

    The performance of the toroidal field (TF) magnet conductors for the ITER machine are qualified by a short full-size sample (4 m) current sharing temperature (Tcs) test in the SULTAN facility at CRPP in Villigen, Switzerland, using the operating current of 68 kA and the design peak field of 11.8 T. Several samples, including at least one from each of the six ITER Domestic Agencies participating in TF conductor fabrication (China, European Union, Japan, Russia, South Korea and the United States), have been qualified by the ITER Organization after achieving Tcs values of 6.0-6.9 K, after 700-1000 electromagnetic cycles. These Tcs values exceed the ITER specification and enabled the industrial production of these long-lead items for the ITER tokamak to begin in each Domestic Agency. Some of these samples did not pass the qualification test. In this paper, we summarize the performance of the qualified samples, analyze the effect of strand performance on conductor performance, and discuss the details of the test results.

  12. Manufacture of mineral-insulated conductor for ITER prototype ELM and VS coil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Long, Feng; Wu, Yu; Jin, Huan; Yu, Min; Han, Qiyang; Ling, Feng; Kalish, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Compaction method is successfully developed for MIC manufacture. • Manufactured MICs show well controlled outer diameter and good electrical properties. • Insulation resistance of all the MICs is higher than 100 GΩ@DC 2500 V. - Abstract: An ITER Organization (IO) Task Agreement (TA) “Final Design and Prototyping of the ITER In-Vessel Coils (IVC) and Feeders” is almost finished by Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences (ASIPP). ITER IVCs consist of edge-localized mode (ELM) and vertical stabilization (VS) coils. One prototype Mid-ELM coil complete with 19 brackets brazed with the conductors and one prototype 120° section of upper VS coil with structural components brazed to the conductors have been fabricated. Compaction method is developed successfully for the mineral-insulated conductor (MIC) manufacture. Approximate 110 m Inconel 625 jacket MICs for Mid-ELM prototype coil and 80 m stainless steel 316L jacket MICs for VS prototype coil were manufactured. Most of the copper tubes used for the MICs fabrication failed the ultrasonic testing (UT), but the jacket tubes have good passing rate. Manufacture processes and inspection for the MICs are presented in this paper

  13. Genetic anticipation in Swedish Lynch syndrome families

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    von Salomé, Jenny; Boonstra, Philip S; Karimi, Masoud

    2017-01-01

    Among hereditary colorectal cancer predisposing syndromes, Lynch syndrome (LS) caused by mutations in DNA mismatch repair genes MLH1, MSH2, MSH6 or PMS2 is the most common. Patients with LS have an increased risk of early onset colon and endometrial cancer, but also other tumors that generally have......-2013. We analyzed a homogenous group of mutation carriers, utilizing information from both affected and non-affected family members. In total, 239 families with a mismatch repair gene mutation (96 MLH1 families, 90 MSH2 families including one family with an EPCAM-MSH2 deletion, 39 MSH6 families, 12 PMS2...... of diagnosis per generation. An alternative analysis using a mixed-effects Cox proportional hazards model (COX-R) estimates a hazard ratio of exp(0.171), or about 1.19, for age of diagnosis between consecutive generations. LS-associated gene-specific anticipation effects are evident for MSH2 (2.6 years...

  14. Intent, Future, Anticipation: A Semiotic, Transdisciplinary Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loeckenhoff, Hellmut

    2008-10-01

    Encouraged e.g. by chaos theory and (bio-)semiotics science is trying to attempt a deeper understanding of life. The paradigms of physics alone prove not sufficient to explain f. ex. evolution or phylogenesis and ontogenesis. In complement, research on life systems reassesses paradigmatic models not only for living systems and not only on the strict biological level. The ontological as well as the epistemological base of science in toto is to be reconsidered. Science itself proves a historical and cultural phenomenon and can be seen as shaped by evolution and semiosis. -Living systems are signified by purpose, intent and, necessarily, by the faculty to anticipate e.g. the cyclic changes of their environment. To understand the concepts behind a proposal is developed towards a model set constituting a transdisciplinary approach. It rests e.g. on concepts of systems, evolution, complexity and semiodynamics.

  15. Needs of anticipation for transport operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galtier, J.

    2005-01-01

    COGEMA LOGISTICS (formerly Transnucleaire) has designed and manufactured several thousands of casks, and owns fleet of more than 4000 casks. Benefiting from more than 40 years of experience in cask shipment COGEMA LOGISTICS has demonstrated an outstanding performance in transportation and has integrated all feed back from past successful operations in current ones. Early anticipation of needs, i.e. at preliminary design step, is of major importance from a technical point of view (capacity, interface, handling means, licensing), and also in terms of political and public acceptance issues from the design step. This paper will highlight for each step required for the implementation of an optimal transport and storage system: Decision to proceed (including political aspects)-Design of casks to be used (including operational interface)-Licensing process-Manufacturing process-Transport plan, Public Acceptance-Loading Operations-Transport-Maintenance operations. (authors)

  16. Anticipating flow assurance challenges through geochemistry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flannery, M. [Fluid Evaluation and Sampling Technologies (FEAST) Team, Shell International Exploration and Production (United Kingdom)

    2008-07-01

    The behaviour of reservoir fluids pose a challenge at all stages of petroleum production, from the reservoir to refinery. The challenges sometimes stem from sub-optimal operations or inappropriate system design, with assumptions of similar fluid properties across the field. Hydrocarbon fluid phase behaviour is the product of local PVT conditions and the geochemical identity of the fluids. An appropriate development scenario along with anticipation of production challenges, can benefit from early integration of engineering and geochemical understanding of hydrocarbon fluids. This paper presented field examples of how the kerogen type and maturity, and later post-generation alteration processes such as biodegradation, water washing, TSR can influence likely flow assurance challenges in the production stream. The confounding issues of multiple charges and overlaying signatures were also discussed.

  17. Time discounting and pain anticipation. Experimental evidence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brañas Garza, Pablo

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with pain anticipation experienced before medical procedures. our experimental results show that individuals with lower time discount factors are more prone to suffer pain in advance. We provide a framework to rationalize the connection between pain anticipation and impatience. in this set up, more impatient subjects, who only value very near events, mainly take into account the present negative effects of medical procedures (the costs, whereas more patient individuals have a net positive valuation of medical events, given that they are able to value both the cost incurred now and all the benefits to be accrued in the future.

    Este artículo trata de la anticipación del dolor experimentada antes de los procedimientos médicos. nuestros resultados experimentales muestran que los individuos con factor de descuento temporal más bajo son más proclives a sufrir dolor por adelantado. el artículo proporciona un marco en el que racionalizar la relación existente entre impaciencia y anticipación del dolor. en este marco, los sujetos más impacientes, que evalúan sólo los eventos muy próximos en el tiempo, focalizan su atención principalmente en los efectos negativos de los procedimientos médicos (sólo los costes, mientras que los individuos más pacientes tienen una valoración neta positiva de los actos médicos puesto que valoran tanto el coste en el que se incurre en el presente como los beneficios que se obtendrán en el futuro.

  18. Low ac loss geometries in YBCO coated conductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duckworth, R.C.; List, F.A.; Paranthaman, M.P.; Rupich, M.W.; Zhang, W.; Xie, Y.Y.; Selvamanickam, V.

    2007-01-01

    Reduction of ac losses in applied ac fields can be accomplished through either the creation of filaments and bridging in YBCO coated conductors or by an assembly of narrow width YBCO tapes. The ac losses for each of these geometries were measured at 77 K in perpendicular ac fields up to 100 mT. Despite physical isolation of the filaments, coupling losses were still present in the samples when compared to the expected hysteretic loss. In addition to filamentary conductors the assembly of stacked YBCO conductor provides an alternative method of ac loss reduction. When compared to a 4-mm wide YBCO coated conductor with a critical current of 60 A, the ac loss in a stack of 2-mm wide YBCO coated conductors with a similar total critical current was reduced. While the reduction in ac loss in a 2-mm wide stack coincided with the reduction in the engineering current density of the conductor, further reduction of ac loss was obtained through the splicing of the 2-mm wide tapes with low resistance solders

  19. Low ac loss geometries in YBCO coated conductors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duckworth, R.C. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, One Bethel Valley Road, P.O. Box 2008, MS-6305, Oak Ridge, TN 37831-6305 (United States)], E-mail: duckworthrc@ornl.gov; List, F.A.; Paranthaman, M.P. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, One Bethel Valley Road, P.O. Box 2008, MS-6305, Oak Ridge, TN 37831-6305 (United States); Rupich, M.W.; Zhang, W. [American Superconductor, Two Technology Drive, Westborough, MA 01581 (United States); Xie, Y.Y.; Selvamanickam, V. [SuperPower, 450 Duane Ave, Schenectady, NY 12304 (United States)

    2007-10-01

    Reduction of ac losses in applied ac fields can be accomplished through either the creation of filaments and bridging in YBCO coated conductors or by an assembly of narrow width YBCO tapes. The ac losses for each of these geometries were measured at 77 K in perpendicular ac fields up to 100 mT. Despite physical isolation of the filaments, coupling losses were still present in the samples when compared to the expected hysteretic loss. In addition to filamentary conductors the assembly of stacked YBCO conductor provides an alternative method of ac loss reduction. When compared to a 4-mm wide YBCO coated conductor with a critical current of 60 A, the ac loss in a stack of 2-mm wide YBCO coated conductors with a similar total critical current was reduced. While the reduction in ac loss in a 2-mm wide stack coincided with the reduction in the engineering current density of the conductor, further reduction of ac loss was obtained through the splicing of the 2-mm wide tapes with low resistance solders.

  20. Modelling the transient emission from a twin conductor cable

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ian Brook Darney

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Using the equations of transmission line theory, a programme is developed to simulate the response of an open-circuit line to a step pulse. This is compared with the observed response of a twin-conductor cable. It is deduced that not all of the current delivered to the send conductor arrives back via the return conductor. Some of it departs in the form of radiated emission. A virtual capacitor is used to simulate this, with limited success. However, by adding a second virtual capacitor to simulate transient current being delivered from the return conductor back to the send conductor, a fair correlation is achieved between theoretical and actual results. This analysis demonstrates that the return conductor plays an active role in propagating any signal along the cable. This study also demonstrates that a circuit model can be created to simulate the mechanisms involved in the radiation of interference from power supply cables. This is but one example of the use of circuit models to analyse electromagnetic interference (EMI. The key relationship between electromagnetic theory and circuit theory which enables this technique to be used to analyse any EMI problem is identified. A dramatic simplification in the mathematics can be achieved.

  1. Thin film conductors for self-equalizing cables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owen, G.; Trutna, W. R.; Orsley, T. J.; Lucia, F.; Daly, C. B.

    2017-10-01

    Self-equalizing cables using hollow conductors with wall thickness less than the skin depth were proposed in 1929. However, they do not appear ever to have been widely used, although the idea has resurfaced and been refined from time to time. In the early 2000's, self-equalizing conductors consisting of solid magnetic steel cores coated with silver were developed by W.L. Gore, and used in their 2.5 Gb/s "Eye-Opener" cables, although higher speed versions never appeared. We have revived the original 1929 idea, proposing to use glass as a solid insulating core. This technology can potentially work at frequencies of many 10's of GHz. Possible uses include short range GHz links such as USB and Thunderbolt, and intra-rack interconnections in data centers. Our feasibility experiments have validated the principle. Copper coated glass fibers can, in principle, be manufactured, but in these tests, the conductors were capillaries internally coated with silver as these are easily obtainable, relatively inexpensive and serve to test the concept. The performance of these experimental twin lead cables corresponds to calculations, confirming the general principle. By calculation, we have compared the performance of cables made from copper-on-insulator conductors to that of similar cables made with solid copper conductors, and verified that copper-on-insulator cables have significantly less frequency dependent loss. We have also made and tested cables with copper on PEEK conductors as surrogates for copper on glass fiber.

  2. The ATLAS SemiConductorTracker

    CERN Document Server

    Mikuz, M

    2004-01-01

    The ATLAS SemiConductor Tracker (SCT) is presented. About 16000 silicon micro-strip sensors with a total active surface of over 60 m /sup 2/ and with 6.3 million read-out channels are built into 4088 modules arranged into four barrel layers and nine disks covering each of the forward regions up to an eta of 2.5. Challenges are imposed by the hostile radiation environment with particle fluences up to 2*10 /sup 14/ cm/sup -2/ 1 MeV neutron NIEL equivalent and 100 kGy TID, the 25 ns LHC bunch crossing time and the need for a hermetic, lightweight tracker. The solution adopted is carefully designed strip detectors operated at -7 degrees C, biased up to 500 V and read out by binary rad-hard fast BiCMOS electronics. A zero-CTE carbon fibre structure provides mechanical support. 30 kW of power are supplied on aluminium/Kapton tapes and cooled by C/sub 3/F/sub 8/ evaporative cooling. Data and commands are transferred by optical links. Prototypes of detector modules have been built, irradiated to the maximum expected ...

  3. Railgun conductor heating from multiple current pulses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kerrisk, J.F.

    1986-01-01

    A numerical technique for solving current- and thermal-diffusion problems in railgun conductors has been used to study joule heating in rails that are subject to multiple current pulses. Copper rails that are 25 mm high by the 12.5 mm wide with a 20-mm-square bore and a current pulse with 1-MA peak current and 1-ms pulse width at half maximum were assumed. This combination of parameters is sufficient to accelerate an 80-g projectile to 2-3 km/s with which current pulse. Three parameters were varied in the analysis: the repetition rate or current pulse frequency (3.3 to 100 Hz), the coolant heat-transfer coefficient (5 x 10 4 and 5 x 10 5 W/m 2 .K), and the coolant channel distribution in the rail. Detailed results are used to illustrate the acceptability or unacceptability of particular combinations of these parameters for operation at steady state. An uncooled rail was not acceptable for steady-state operation. Repetition rates of about 30 Hz were acceptable with the higher coolant heat-transfer coefficient and the best coolant-channel distribution; this included cooling the rail exterior surface

  4. Anticipating the perceived risk of nanotechnologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satterfield, Terre; Kandlikar, Milind; Beaudrie, Christian E H; Conti, Joseph; Herr Harthorn, Barbara

    2009-11-01

    Understanding emerging trends in public perceptions of nanomaterials is critically important for those who regulate risks. A number of surveys have explored public perceptions of their risks and benefits. In this paper we meta-analyse these surveys to assess the extent to which the following four hypotheses derived from previous studies of new technologies might be said to be valid for nanotechnologies: risk aversion will prevail over benefit appreciation; an increase in knowledge will not result in reduced aversion to risks; judgements will be malleable and subject to persuasion given risk-centric information; and contextual, psychometric and attitudinal predictors of perceived risk from prior studies can help anticipate future perceptions of nanotechnologies. We find that half the public has at least some familiarity with nanotechnology, and those who perceive greater benefits outnumber those who perceive greater risks by 3 to 1. However, a large minority of those surveyed (44%) is unsure, suggesting that risk judgements are highly malleable. Nanotechnology risk perceptions also appear to contradict some long-standing findings. In particular, unfamiliarity with nanotechnology is, contrary to expectations, not strongly associated with risk aversion and reduced 'knowledge deficits' are correlated with positive perceptions in this early and controversy-free period. Psychometric variables, trust and affect continue to drive risk perceptions in this new context, although the influence of both trust and affect is mediated, even reversed, by demographic and cultural variables. Given the potential malleability of perceptions, novel methods for understanding future public responses to nanotechnologies will need to be developed.

  5. Anticipated consumer reaction to irradiated foods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Young, M.

    1983-01-01

    The reaction on first hearing of food irradiation is horror, revulsion, and disbelief that we could seriously anticipate such a thing. Ignorance coupled with fear of anything to do with the nuclear industry is the reason for such extreme reaction. Before anyone rushes into marketing irradiated foods, a lot of careful preparation must be done. A consumer education program is essential. The consumers must be told why it is proposed to irradiate food, what benefits it will bring to the public. Enough need will have to be demonstrated to overcome the supposed risk factor. Symbol on all irradiated foods must not be used to alert or alarm the consumer but rather as a piece of information. It will be necessary to be ever vigilant, to keep up the diligent training of food irradiators, food handlers and food inspectors. Irradiation is not a substitute for good manufacturing practice. So by using a different name or symbol, irradiated foods will soon be a part of our lives

  6. The benefit of issue management: anticipating crises in the digital age

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Strauβ, N.; Jonkman, J.

    2017-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this paper is to find out how issue management and media monitoring is exercised in the digital age to anticipate crises. More specifically, it was investigated how these practices differ across communication professionals, organizations, and sectors in the Netherlands.

  7. Resilience Training for Hospital Workers in Anticipation of an Influenza Pandemic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aiello, Andria; Khayeri, Michelle Young-Eun; Raja, Shreyshree; Peladeau, Nathalie; Romano, Donna; Leszcz, Molyn; Maunder, Robert G.; Rose, Marci; Adam, Mary Anne; Pain, Clare; Moore, Andrea; Savage, Diane; Schulman, Rabbi Bernard

    2011-01-01

    Background: Well before the H1N1 influenza, health care organizations worldwide prepared for a pandemic of unpredictable impact. Planners anticipated the possibility of a pandemic involving high mortality, high health care demands, rates of absenteeism rising up to 20-30% among health care workers, rationing of health care, and extraordinary…

  8. Qualification tests for ITER TF conductors in SULTAN

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bruzzone, P.; Stepanov, B.; Wesche, R.

    2009-01-01

    From February 2007 to May 2008, 18 short length conductor sections have been tested in SULTAN for design verification and manufacturer qualification of the ITER Toroidal Field (TF) conductor. The test program is focussed on the current sharing temperature, T cs , at the nominal operating conditions, 68 kA current and 11.15 T effective field, which can be fully reproduced in the SULTAN test facility. A broad range of results was observed, with over 2 K difference among the T cs of the conductors. In average, the results are poorer compared to the potential performance estimated from the strand scaling law. The key parameters to mitigate the degradation are not yet clearly identified. The experimental challenges to test conductors with performance degradation are highlighted, including enhanced instrumentation sets, the application of gas flow calorimetry to sense the current sharing power and the post-processing of voltage data to cancel the transverse potential across the cable. The updated schedule of the tests in SULTAN is presented with the short-term action plan for conductor test.

  9. Use of ion conductors in the pyrochemical reduction of oxides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, W.E.; Tomczuk, Z.

    1994-01-01

    An electrochemical process and electrochemical cell for reducing a metal oxide are provided. First the oxide is separated as oxygen gas using, for example, a ZrO 2 oxygen ion conductor anode and the metal ions from the reduction salt are reduced and deposited on an ion conductor cathode, for example, sodium ion reduced on a β-alumina sodium ion conductor cathode. The generation of and separation of oxygen gas avoids the problem with chemical back reaction of oxygen with active metals in the cell. The method also is characterized by a sequence of two steps where an inert cathode electrode is inserted into the electrochemical cell in the second step and the metallic component in the ion conductor is then used as the anode to cause electrochemical reduction of the metal ions formed in the first step from the metal oxide where oxygen gas formed at the anode. The use of ion conductors serves to isolate the active components from chemically reacting with certain chemicals in the cell. While applicable to a variety of metal oxides, the invention has special importance for reducing CaO to Ca o used for reducing UO 2 and PuO 2 to U and Pu. 2 figures

  10. Design of force-cooled conductors for large fusion magnets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dresner, L.; Lue, J.W.

    1977-01-01

    Conductors cooled by supercritical helium in forced convection are under active consideration for large toroidal fusion magnets. One of the central problems in designing such force cooled conductors is to maintain an adequate stability margin while keeping the pumping power tolerably low. A method has been developed for minimizing the pumping power for fixed stability by optimally choosing the matrix-to-superconductor and the metal-to-helium ratios. Such optimized conductors reduce pumping power requirements for fusion size magnets to acceptable limits. Furthermore, the mass flow and hence pumping losses can be varied through a magnet according to the local magnetic field and magnitude of desired stability margin. Force cooled conductors give flexibility in operation, permitting, for example, higher fields to be obtained than originally intended by lowering the bath temperature or increasing the pumping power or both. This flexibility is only available if the pumping power is low to begin with. Scaling laws for the pumping requirement and stability margin as functions of operating current density, number of strands and such physical parameters as stabilizer resistivity and critical current density, have been proved. Numerical examples will be given for design of conductors intended for use in large toroidal fusion magnet systems.

  11. Design of force-cooled conductors for large fusion magnets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dresner, L.; Lue, J.W.

    1977-01-01

    Conductors cooled by supercritical helium in forced convection are under active consideration for large toroidal fusion magnets. One of the central problems in designing such force cooled conductors is to maintain an adequate stability margin while keeping the pumping power tolerably low. A method has been developed for minimizing the pumping power for fixed stability by optimally choosing the matrix-to-superconductor and the metal-to-helium ratios. Such optimized conductors reduce pumping power requirements for fusion size magnets to acceptable limits. Furthermore, the mass flow and hence pumping losses can be varied through a magnet according to the local magnetic field and magnitude of desired stability margin. Force cooled conductors give flexibility in operation, permitting, for example, higher fields to be obtained than originally intended by lowering the bath temperature or increasing the pumping power or both. This flexibility is only available if the pumping power is low to begin with. Scaling laws for the pumping requirement and stability margin as functions of operating current density, number of strands and such physical parameters as stabilizer resistivity and critical current density, have been proved. Numerical examples will be given for design of conductors intended for use in large toroidal fusion magnet systems

  12. Hearing status among Norwegian train drivers and train conductors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lie, A; Skogstad, M; Johnsen, T S; Engdahl, B; Tambs, K

    2013-12-01

    There is a general perception that train drivers and conductors may be at increased risk of developing noise-induced hearing loss. To study job-related hearing loss among train drivers and train conductors. Audiograms from train drivers and train conductors were obtained from the medical records of the occupational health service of the major Norwegian railway company. The results were compared with audiograms from an internal control group of railway workers and an external reference group of people not occupationally exposed to noise. The monaural hearing threshold level at 4kHz, the mean binaural value at 3, 4 and 6kHz and the prevalence of audiometric notches (≥25 dB at 4kHz) were used for comparison. Audiograms were available for 1567 drivers, 1565 conductors, 4029 railway worker controls and 15 012 people not occupationally exposed to noise. No difference in hearing level or prevalence of audiometric notches was found between study groups after adjusting for age and gender. Norwegian train drivers and conductors have normal hearing threshold levels comparable with those in non-exposed groups.

  13. Soliton phase near antiferromagnetic quantum critical point in Q1D conductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gor'kov, L. P.; Grigoriev, P. D.

    2005-08-01

    In frameworks of a nesting model for Q1D organic conductors at the antiferromagnetic (SDW) quantum critical point, the first-order transition separates the metallic state from the soliton phase having periodic domain structure. The low-temperature phase diagram also displays a 2nd-order transition line between the soliton and the uniformly gapped SDW phases. The results agree with the phase diagram of (TMTSF)2PF6 near critical pressure (Vuletic T. et al., Eur. Phys. J. B 25 (2002) 319). The detection of the 2nd-order transition line is discussed. We comment on superconductivity at low temperature.

  14. Wiring assembly and method of forming a channel in a wiring assembly for receiving conductor and providing separate regions of conductor contact with the channel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stelzer, Gerald; Meinke, Rainer; Senti, Mark

    2018-03-06

    A conductor assembly and method for constructing an assembly of the type which, when conducting current, generates a magnetic field or which, in the presence of a changing magnetic field, induces a voltage. In one embodiment the method provides a first insulative layer tubular in shape and including a surface along which a conductor segment may be positioned. A channel formed in the surface of the insulative layer defines a first conductor path and includes a surface of first contour in cross section along a first plane transverse to the conductor path. A segment of conductor having a surface of second contour in cross section is positioned at least partly in the channel and extends along the conductor path. Along the first plane, contact between the conductor surface of second contour and the channel surface of first contour includes at least two separate regions of contact.

  15. Tension layer winding of cable-in-conduit conductor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Devernoe, A.; Ciancetta, G.; King, M.; Parizh, M.; Painter, T.; Miller, J.

    1996-01-01

    A 710 mm i.d. by 440 mm long, 6 layer Cable-in-Conduit (CIC) coil was precision tension layer wound with Incoloy 908 jacketed conductor to model winding technology that will be used for the Nb 3 Sn outsert coils of the 45 Tesla Hybrid Magnet Project at the US National High Magnetic Field Laboratory. This paper reports on the set up of a new winding facility with unique capabilities for insulating and winding long length CIC conductor and on special procedures which were developed to wind and support layer to layer transitions and to safely form conductor into and out of the winding. Analytical methods used to predict conduit keystoning, springback and back tensioning requirements before winding are reported in comparison to results obtained during winding and actual winding build-up dimensions on a layer by layer basis in comparison to design requirements

  16. Characterization of textile electrodes and conductors using standardized measurement setups

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beckmann, L; Neuhaus, C; Medrano, G; Walter, M; Leonhardt, S; Jungbecker, N; Gries, T

    2010-01-01

    Textile electrodes and conductors are being developed and used in different monitoring scenarios, such as ECG or bioimpedance spectroscopy measurements. Compared to standard materials, conductive textile materials offer improved wearing comfort and enable long-term measurements. Unfortunately, the development and investigation of such materials often suffers from the non-reproducibility of the test scenarios. For example, the materials are generally tested on human skin which is difficult since the properties of human skin differ for each person and can change within hours. This study presents two test setups which offer reproducible measurement procedures for the systematic analysis of textile electrodes and conductors. The electrode test setup was designed with a special skin dummy which allows investigation of not only the electrical properties of textile electrodes but also the contact behavior between electrode and skin. Using both test setups, eight textile electrodes and five textile conductors were analyzed and compared

  17. Characterization of textile electrodes and conductors using standardized measurement setups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beckmann, L; Neuhaus, C; Medrano, G; Jungbecker, N; Walter, M; Gries, T; Leonhardt, S

    2010-02-01

    Textile electrodes and conductors are being developed and used in different monitoring scenarios, such as ECG or bioimpedance spectroscopy measurements. Compared to standard materials, conductive textile materials offer improved wearing comfort and enable long-term measurements. Unfortunately, the development and investigation of such materials often suffers from the non-reproducibility of the test scenarios. For example, the materials are generally tested on human skin which is difficult since the properties of human skin differ for each person and can change within hours. This study presents two test setups which offer reproducible measurement procedures for the systematic analysis of textile electrodes and conductors. The electrode test setup was designed with a special skin dummy which allows investigation of not only the electrical properties of textile electrodes but also the contact behavior between electrode and skin. Using both test setups, eight textile electrodes and five textile conductors were analyzed and compared.

  18. Nb3Sn conductor development for the ITER magnets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mitchell, N.

    1997-01-01

    The ITER magnet system consists of Toroidal Field (TF) coils, Poloidal Field (PF) coils, the Central Solenoid (CS) and error field correction coils (CC). The conductors for the coils are Nb 3 Sn or NbTi cable in conduit type, forced flow cooled with supercritical helium having a maximum operating current in the range 40-60 kA. To qualify the Nb 3 Sn conductor, two large model coils (energy up to 640 MJ) are being wound by the Home Teams of the Parties to the ITER EDA Agreement. A total of 24 t of strand has been completed for the CS model coil and 4 t for the TF model coil, and fabricated into 7 km of conductor in unit lengths up to 210 m, by an international collaboration involving 12 companies in Europe, Japan, Russia and the USA

  19. Thin film conductors for self-equalizing cables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Owen

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Self-equalizing cables using hollow conductors with wall thickness less than the skin depth were proposed in 1929. However, they do not appear ever to have been widely used, although the idea has resurfaced and been refined from time to time. In the early 2000’s, self-equalizing conductors consisting of solid magnetic steel cores coated with silver were developed by W.L. Gore, and used in their 2.5 Gb/s “Eye-Opener” cables, although higher speed versions never appeared. We have revived the original 1929 idea, proposing to use glass as a solid insulating core. This technology can potentially work at frequencies of many 10’s of GHz. Possible uses include short range GHz links such as USB and Thunderbolt, and intra-rack interconnections in data centers. Our feasibility experiments have validated the principle. Copper coated glass fibers can, in principle, be manufactured, but in these tests, the conductors were capillaries internally coated with silver as these are easily obtainable, relatively inexpensive and serve to test the concept. The performance of these experimental twin lead cables corresponds to calculations, confirming the general principle. By calculation, we have compared the performance of cables made from copper-on-insulator conductors to that of similar cables made with solid copper conductors, and verified that copper-on-insulator cables have significantly less frequency dependent loss. We have also made and tested cables with copper on PEEK conductors as surrogates for copper on glass fiber.

  20. Evaluation of layered niobium--tin (Nb3Sn) conductor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schwall, R.E.; Howard, R.E.; Zubeck, R.B.

    1975-01-01

    Considerable progress made in developing a low-loss superconductor for use in a 60 Hz a.c. power transmission line, and especially work by Snowden et al. (1974), indicated the possibility of exploiting conductor configurations attainable by thin-film evaporation techniques to achieve critical currents and a.c. loss characteristics superior to that of bulk materials. An instrumentation which was designed to test conductors fabricated by the evaporation technique is described and preliminary results on these materials are presented. (auth)

  1. Improvement of SOFC electrodes using mixed ionic-electronic conductors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsuzaki, Y.; Hishinuma, M. [Tokyo Gas Co., Ltd. (Japan)

    1996-12-31

    Since the electrode reaction of SOFC is limited to the proximity of a triple phase boundary (TPB), the local current density at the electrode and electrolyte interface is larger than mean current density, which causes large ohmic and electrode polarization. This paper describes an application of mixed ionic-electronic conductors to reduce such polarization by means of (1) enhancing ionic conductivity of the electrolyte surface layer by coating a high ionic conductors, and (2) reducing the local current density by increasing the electrochemically active sites.

  2. On the origins of anticipation as an evolutionary framework: functional systems perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurismaa, Andres

    2015-08-01

    This paper discusses the problem of anticipation from an evolutionary and systems-theoretical perspective, developed in the context of Russian/Soviet evolutionary biological and neurophysiological schools in the early and mid-twentieth century. On this background, an outline is given of the epigenetic interpretation of anticipatory capacities formulated and substantiated by the eminent Russian neurophysiologist academician Peter K. Anokhin in the framework of functional systems theory. It is considered that several key positions of this theory are well confirmed by recent evidence on anticipation as an evolutionarily basic adaptive capacity, possibly inherent to the organization of life. In the field of neuroscience, the theory of functional systems may potentially facilitate future studies at the intersection of learning, development and evolution by representing an integrative approach to the problem of anticipation.

  3. Anticipating Climate Change Impacts on Army Installations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-01

    3.1 35.6 2.0 NCAR CSM 2.2 36.9 2.7 35.6 2.0 ERDC SR-11-1 25 Figure 9 shows a comparison of the 16 models for temperatures and pre- cipitation...Research Activities in Atmospheric and Oceanic Modelling. Report No. 21, WMO/ TD -No. 665. World Meteorological Organization, Geneva, Switzerland...Modelling. Report No. 21, WMO/ TD -No. 665. World Meteorological Organization, Geneva, Switzerland. Cai, W., M. A. Collier, P. D. Durack, H. B

  4. The ATLAS SemiConductor Tracker Endcap

    CERN Document Server

    Peeters, S J M

    2003-01-01

    The challenges for the tracking detector systems at the LHC are unprecedented in terms of the number of channels, the required read-out speed and the expected radiation levels. The ATLAS Semiconductor Tracker (SCT) end-caps have a total of about 3 million electronics channels each reading out every 25 ns into its own on-chip View the MathML source buffer. The highest anticipated dose after 10 years operation is View the MathML source in units of 1 MeV neutron equivalent (assuming the damage factors scale with the non-ionising energy loss). The forward tracker has 1976 double-sided modules, mostly of area View the MathML source, each having 2×768 strips read out by six ASICs per side. The requirement to achieve an average perpendicular radiation length of 1.5% X0, while coping with up to 7 W dissipation per module (after irradiation), leads to stringent constraints on the thermal design. The additional requirement of 1500e- equivalent noise charge (ENC) rising to only 1800e- ENC after irradiation, provides st...

  5. Cognitive and collaborative demands of freight conductor activities: results and implications of a cognitive task analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-31

    This report presents the results of a cognitive task analysis (CTA) that examined the cognitive and collaborative demands placed on conductors, as well as the knowledge and skills that experienced conductors have developed that enable them to operate...

  6. Proposal of numerical model for current distribution analysis in high temperature superconducting parallel conductor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Watabe, Akira; Fukui, Satoshi; Sato, Takao; Yamaguchi, Mitsugi

    2004-10-01

    A numerical model to calculate current density distribution in a parallel conductor assembled by multiple high temperature superconducting tapes was proposed. The numerical calculations on the current distribution in the parallel conductor of three high-temperature superconducting tapes were performed by using the developed model. The numerical results showed that the current density distribution in the parallel conductor were affected by the tape arrangement in the conductor.

  7. Enhancing Light-Trapping Properties of Amorphous Si Thin-Film Solar Cells Containing High-Reflective Silver Conductors Fabricated Using a Nonvacuum Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun-Chin Liu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We proposed a low-cost and highly reflective liquid organic sheet silver conductor using back contact reflectors in amorphous silicon (a-Si single junction superstrate configuration thin-film solar cells produced using a nonvacuum screen printing process. A comparison of silver conductor samples with vacuum-system-sputtered silver samples indicated that the short-circuit current density (Jsc of sheet silver conductor cells was higher than 1.25 mA/cm2. Using external quantum efficiency measurements, the sheet silver conductor using back contact reflectors in cells was observed to effectively enhance the light-trapping ability in a long wavelength region (between 600 nm and 800 nm. Consequently, we achieved an optimal initial active area efficiency and module conversion efficiency of 9.02% and 6.55%, respectively, for the a-Si solar cells. The results indicated that the highly reflective sheet silver conductor back contact reflector layer prepared using a nonvacuum process is a suitable candidate for high-performance a-Si thin-film solar cells.

  8. 4 CFR 201.10 - Notice of anticipated fees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Accounts RECOVERY ACCOUNTABILITY AND TRANSPARENCY BOARD PUBLIC INFORMATION AND REQUESTS § 201.10 Notice of... be considered received until the requestor makes a firm commitment to pay the anticipated total fee... Board's notice. If the requestor does not provide a firm commitment to pay the anticipated fee within 60...

  9. Addressing anticipated countermoves as a persuasive form of strategic manoeuvring

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Amjarso, B.; van Eemeren, F.H.; Williams, D.C.; Zagar, I.Z.

    2008-01-01

    Addressing anticipated countermoves is a commonplace practice in argumentative discourse. A speaker in a discussion may anticipate the objections of an opponent and deal with them in advance. Likewise, a writer can make it clear to his readers that he does not expect them to take his views

  10. A new car-following model considering velocity anticipation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jun-Fang, Tian; Bin, Jia; Xin-Gang, Li; Zi-You, Gao

    2010-01-01

    The full velocity difference model proposed by Jiang et al. [2001 Phys. Rev. E 64 017101] has been improved by introducing velocity anticipation. Velocity anticipation means the follower estimates the future velocity of the leader. The stability condition of the new model is obtained by using the linear stability theory. Theoretical results show that the stability region increases when we increase the anticipation time interval. The mKdV equation is derived to describe the kink–antikink soliton wave and obtain the coexisting stability line. The delay time of car motion and kinematic wave speed at jam density are obtained in this model. Numerical simulations exhibit that when we increase the anticipation time interval enough, the new model could avoid accidents under urgent braking cases. Also, the traffic jam could be suppressed by considering the anticipation velocity. All results demonstrate that this model is an improvement on the full velocity difference model. (general)

  11. A new car-following model considering velocity anticipation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Jun-Fang; Jia, Bin; Li, Xin-Gang; Gao, Zi-You

    2010-01-01

    The full velocity difference model proposed by Jiang et al. [2001 Phys. Rev. E 64 017101] has been improved by introducing velocity anticipation. Velocity anticipation means the follower estimates the future velocity of the leader. The stability condition of the new model is obtained by using the linear stability theory. Theoretical results show that the stability region increases when we increase the anticipation time interval. The mKdV equation is derived to describe the kink-antikink soliton wave and obtain the coexisting stability line. The delay time of car motion and kinematic wave speed at jam density are obtained in this model. Numerical simulations exhibit that when we increase the anticipation time interval enough, the new model could avoid accidents under urgent braking cases. Also, the traffic jam could be suppressed by considering the anticipation velocity. All results demonstrate that this model is an improvement on the full velocity difference model.

  12. 30 CFR 77.503-1 - Electric conductors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... the minimum current carrying capacity provided for in the National Electric Code, 1968. All trailing... Cable Engineers Association—National Electric Manufacturers Association in effect when such cables are... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Electric conductors. 77.503-1 Section 77.503-1...

  13. 30 CFR 75.513-1 - Electric conductor; size.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... capacity if it is smaller than is provided for in the National Electric Code, 1968. In addition, equipment... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Electric conductor; size. 75.513-1 Section 75... AND HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Electrical Equipment-General § 75.513-1...

  14. Intermediate Temperature Proton Conductors – Why and How

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Qingfeng; Aili, David; Jensen, Jens Oluf

    represented by early fundamental material research for ionic electrolytes. Such materials, most likely based on proton conductors, are expected to bring a new generation of the technologies: fuel cells by direct oxidation or internal splitting of biofuels such as methanol and ethanol, as well as efficient...

  15. H/D isotope effects in high temperature proton conductors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bonanos, N.; Huijser, Jannetje Maria; Poulsen, F.W.

    2015-01-01

    The atomic mass ratio of ca. 2 between deuterium and hydrogen is the highest for any pair of stable isotopes and results in significant and measurable H/D isotope effects in high temperature proton conductors containing these species. This paper discusses H/D isotope effects manifested in O–H/O–D

  16. Comparative characterization of Cu–Ni substrates for coated conductors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tian, H.; Suo, H.L.; Wulff, Anders Christian

    2014-01-01

    Three Cu100xNix alloys, with x = 23, 33 and 45 at.%Ni, have been evaluated for use as substrates for coated conductors on the basis of measurements of their microstructure, crystallographic texture and hardness. It is found that high-temperature annealing after heavy rolling generates strong cube...... it better suited for large scale production of superconducting tapes....

  17. Structural analysis of the NET toroidal field coils and conductor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mitchell, N.; Collier, D.; Gori, R.

    1989-01-01

    The NET toroidal field coils will utilise A15-type superconductor at 4.2 K to generate fields up to 11.5 T. The superconductor strands themselves are sensitive to strain, which causes degradation of their current carrying capacity, and thus the detailed behaviour of the coil conductor must be analysied so that the strian can be minimised. This analysis must include the manufacturing processes of the conductor as well as the normal and abnormal loperational loads. The conductor will be insulated and bonded by glass fibre reinforced epoxy resin, with limited bonding shear strength, and the overall support of the complete coil system must be designed to reduce these shear stresses. The coils will be subjected to pulse loads form the poloidal field coils, and analysis of the slip between the various coil components, such as conductors and the coil case, giving rise to frictional heating and possible loss of superconducting properties is another important factor, which has been investigated by a number of stress analyses. The manufacturing, thermal and normal magnetic loads on the coils and the analysis leading to the proposed structural design are described. In addition to the normal operating conditions, there is a range of abnormal load conditions which could result from electrical or mechanical faults on the coils. The effect of these potential faults has been analysed and the coil design modified to prevent catastrophic structural failure. (author). 13 refs.; 8 figs.; 1 tab

  18. Charge densities and charge noise in mesoscopic conductors

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    We introduce a hierarchy of density of states to characterize the charge distribution in a mesoscopic conductor. At the bottom of this hierarchy are the partial density of states which represent the contribution to the local density of states if both the incident and the out-going scattering channel is prescribed. The partial density ...

  19. Attentional flexibility and memory capacity in conductors and pianists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wöllner, Clemens; Halpern, Andrea R

    2016-01-01

    Individuals with high working memory (WM) capacity also tend to have better selective and divided attention. Although both capacities are essential for skilled performance in many areas, evidence for potential training and expertise effects is scarce. We investigated the attentional flexibility of musical conductors by comparing them to equivalently trained pianists. Conductors must focus their attention both on individual instruments and on larger sections of different instruments. We studied students and professionals in both domains to assess the contributions of age and training to these skills. Participants completed WM span tests for auditory and visual (notated) pitches and timing durations, as well as long-term memory tests. In three dichotic attention tasks, they were asked to detect small pitch and timing deviations from two melodic streams presented in baseline (separate streams), selective-attention (concentrating on only one stream), and divided-attention (concentrating on targets in both streams simultaneously) conditions. Conductors were better than pianists in detecting timing deviations in divided attention, and experts detected more targets than students. We found no group differences for WM capacity or for pitch deviations in the attention tasks, even after controlling for the older age of the experts. Musicians' WM spans across multimodal conditions were positively related to selective and divided attention. High-WM participants also had shorter reaction times in selective attention. Taken together, conductors showed higher attentional flexibility in successfully switching between different foci of attention.

  20. Low resistive trasparent conductors with metallic grids : modeling and experiments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Deelen, J. van; Rendering, H.; Mannetje, H.H 't; Klerk, L.; Hovestad, A.

    2012-01-01

    At present, transparent conducting oxides (TCOs) are still superior in performance to most other transparent conductors. Results on opto-electronic modeling and design optimization of TCOs are presented using a monolithically integrated CIGS cell configuration as case. For various cell dimensions

  1. Violence Against Drivers and Conductors in the Road Passenger ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This cross-sectional study examined the extent, nature and risk factors of workplace violence in the road passenger transport sector in Maputo, the capital city of Mozambique. A random sample of 504 participants was selected from a population of 2 618 registered bus, minibus, and taxi drivers/conductors. The results ...

  2. Oxygen surface exchange and oxidative dehydrogenation on oxide ion conductors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Song, C.

    2012-01-01

    The research described in this thesis mainly aims at investigation of the rate of oxygen exchange at the surface of oxide ion conductors. The introduction is given in Chapter 1. A fast and simple method, referred to as pulse 18O-16O isotopic exchange (PIE), for measurement of the rate of surface

  3. Temporal interaction between an artificial orchestra conductor and human musicians

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reidsma, Dennis; Nijholt, Antinus; Bos, Pieter

    2008-01-01

    The Virtual Conductor project concerns the development of the first properly interactive virtual orchestra conductor—a Virtual Human that can conduct a piece of music through interaction with musicians, leading and following them while they are playing. This article describes our motivation for

  4. Effect of annular secondary conductor in a linear electromagnetic ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    This paper presents the variation of average axial force density in the annular secondary conductor of a linear electromagnetic stirrer. Different geometries of secondaries are considered for numerical and experimental validation namely, 1. hollow annular ring, 2. annular ring with a solid cylinder and 3. solid cylinder.

  5. Sprayable Elastic Conductors Based on Block Copolymer Silver Nanoparticle Composites

    OpenAIRE

    Vural, Mert; Behrens, Adam M.; Ayyub, Omar B.; Ayoub, Joseph J.; Kofinas, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Block copolymer silver nanoparticle composite elastic conductors were fabricated through solution blow spinning and subsequent nanoparticle nucleation. The reported technique allows for conformal deposition onto nonplanar substrates. We additionally demonstrated the ability to tune the strain dependence of the electrical properties by adjusting nanoparticle precursor concentration or localized nanoparticle nucleation. The stretchable fiber mats were able to display electrical conductivity val...

  6. Effect of annular secondary conductor in a linear electromagnetic ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    with a solid cylinder. Force density variation with supply frequency and current are also reported. Numerical simulations using finite element model are ... Linear electromagnetic stirrer; finite element analysis; and annular ring. ... flows through the coil of the primary and generates an eddy current in the secondary conductor.

  7. Influence of the magnetic field profile on ITER conductor testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nijhuis, A; Ilyin, Y; Kate, H H J ten

    2006-01-01

    We performed simulations with the numerical CUDI-CICC code on a typical short ITER (International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor) conductor test sample of dual leg configuration, as usually tested in the SULTAN test facility, and made a comparison with the new EFDA-Dipole test facility offering a larger applied DC field region. The new EFDA-Dipole test facility, designed for short sample testing of conductors for ITER, has a homogeneous high field region of 1.2 m, while in the SULTAN facility this region is three times shorter. The inevitable non-uniformity of the current distribution in the cable, introduced by the joints at both ends, has a degrading effect on voltage-current (VI) and voltage-temperature (VT) characteristics, particularly for these short samples. This can easily result in an underestimation or overestimation of the actual conductor performance. A longer applied DC high field region along a conductor suppresses the current non-uniformity by increasing the overall longitudinal cable electric field when reaching the current sharing mode. The numerical interpretation study presented here gives a quantitative analysis for a relevant practical case of a test of a short sample poloidal field coil insert (PFCI) conductor in SULTAN. The simulation includes the results of current distribution analysis from self-field measurements with Hall sensor arrays, current sharing measurements and inter-petal resistance measurements. The outcome of the simulations confirms that the current uniformity improves with a longer high field region but the 'measured' VI transition is barely affected, though the local peak voltages become somewhat suppressed. It appears that the location of the high field region and voltage taps has practically no influence on the VI curve as long as the transverse voltage components are adequately cancelled. In particular, for a thin conduit wall, the voltage taps should be connected to the conduit in the form of an (open) azimuthally

  8. An electrical test system for conductor formation process analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Estes, T.A. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Rhodes, R.J. [AT and T Bell Labs., Whippany, NJ (United States)

    1994-03-01

    Sandia National Laboratories has designed and built an electrical test system which fulfills a requirement to quickly, accurately and precisely measure the resistance of conductors formed on Printed Wiring Board (PWB) substrates. This requirement stems from the need to measure small variations in conductors and thus to determine the source of the variations. With this test technology, experiments can be conducted with new materials, equipment, and processes in a timely and scientific manner. Conductor formation processes can be optimized for both conductor yield and uniformity, and process equipment can be fine-tuned prior to processing product to ensure that conductor attributes fulfill requirements. Significant resources have been spent by Sandia National Laboratories and Texas Instruments modifying commercially available two-probe testers. AT&T has built a two-probe tester and obtained a commercially available ``bed-of-nails`` test system. The two-probe systems have limitations in speed and precision; the ``bed-of-nails`` system has proved to be superior to the two-probe designs but is expensive, and lacks test pattern flexibility and ease of use. Due to the need to establish a testing technology which meets the requirements of Sandia National Laboratories and the National Center for Manufacturing Sciences PWB Consortium Imaging Team (current Imaging Team members; AT&T, Texas Instruments, AlliedSignal, IBM, and Sandia National Laboratories), a prototype test system was designed and built by Sandia. This paper will discuss the design and performance of the test system and the results of a comparison to other test systems.

  9. Dimensions of Anticipated Reaction in Information Management: Anticipating Responses and Outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magsamen-Conrad, Kate

    Many models, theories, and frameworks of information management (e.g., privacy, disclosure, secrets) incorporate the concept of receiver response, both anticipated and actual. Although most if not all information management literature highlights the importance of the response variable, each perspective conceptualizes and/or operationalizes response differently. The lack of consistency across perspectives limits research design, theory testing, and scholars' ability to make comparisons among and across theoretical frameworks, as well as their ability to evaluate research findings within the broader context of information management theory. This project presents a review and synthesis of receiver response within the context of information sharing and decision making, including both immediate responses and longer-term outcomes of sharing the information.

  10. All-chemical YBa2Cu3O7 coated conductors on IBAD-YSZ stainless steel substrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pomar, A; Cavallaro, A; Coll, M; Gazquez, J; Palau, A; Sandiumenge, F; Puig, T; Obradors, X; Freyhardt, H C

    2006-01-01

    We report on the fabrication of all-chemical YBa 2 Cu 3 O 7 coated conductors on IBAD-YSZ (IBAD stands for ion beam assisted deposition; YSZ is yttrium stabilized zirconia) stainless steel substrates. YBCO films were grown by the trifluoroacetates route on top of CeO 2 buffer layers made by metal-organic decomposition. The achievement of atomically flat CeO 2 surfaces is found to be a key factor for obtaining clean interfaces with YBCO and high performance. Coated conductors with percolative critical currents of J c GB (65 K) = 1.8 MA cm -2 were achieved. The determination of the intra-grain critical current J c G from inductive measurements suggests that the limiting factor for J c GB is the YBCO in-plane texture, which is already of higher quality than that of the IBAD-YSZ cap layer. (rapid communication)

  11. Verification of a Novel Method of Detecting Faults in Medium-Voltage Systems with Covered Conductors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mišák Stanislav

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the use of new methods of detecting faults in medium-voltage overhead lines built of covered conductors. The methods mainly address such faults as falling of a conductor, contacting a conductor with a tree branch, or falling a tree branch across three phases of a medium-voltage conductor. These faults cannot be detected by current digital relay protection systems. Therefore, a new system that can detect the above mentioned faults was developed. After having tested its operation, the system has already been implemented to protect mediumvoltage overhead lines built of covered conductors.

  12. Anticipated Regret and Omission Bias in HPV Vaccination Decisions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Niels Holm

    2017-01-01

    This study investigated effects of anticipated regret on parents’ HPV vaccination intentions and effects of omission bias on HPV vaccination intentions and vaccine uptake. An online survey was completed by 851 parents of adolescent girls in Denmark, a country where HPV vaccine safety is currently...... in a hypothetical vaccination vignette as a significant negative predictor of HPV vaccination intention as well as vaccine uptake. Finally, the study tested effects of anticipated regret and omission bias on evaluations of two extisting Danish pro-vaccine campaign videos. Here, the result revealed anticipated...

  13. New tests on the 40 kA Nb3Sn CEA conductor for ITER applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duchateau, J.L.; Bessette, D.; Katheder, H.

    1994-01-01

    New tests have been performed on the 40 kA CEA Nb 3 Sn conductor in the Sultan III facility. The aim of these tests is to obtain key experimental data on the behaviour of Nb 3 Sn conductors for fusion applications under high field and large transport current. The 40 kA Nb 3 Sn CEA conductor has a shape and an internal arrangement of the superconducting wires which is very similar to the ITER conductors. The level of the ac losses experienced by these conductors under varying fields influences deeply their design. The basic experiment consists of producing field pulses on the conductor by means of a coil installed in the bore of the Sultan magnet and recording the integrated voltage obtained on pick-up coils placed on the conductor as a function of time. (author) 4 refs.; 5 figs.; 2 tabs

  14. Electrostatic separation for recycling conductors, semiconductors, and nonconductors from electronic waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Mianqiang; Yan, Guoqing; Li, Jia; Xu, Zhenming

    2012-10-02

    Electrostatic separation has been widely used to separate conductors and nonconductors for recycling e-waste. However, the components of e-waste are complex, which can be classified as conductors, semiconductors, and nonconductors according to their conducting properties. In this work, we made a novel attempt to recover the mixtures containing conductors (copper), semiconductors (extrinsic silicon), and nonconductors (woven glass reinforced resin) by electrostatic separation. The results of binary mixtures separation show that the separation of conductor and nonconductor, semiconductor and nonconductor need a higher voltage level while the separation of conductor and semiconductor needs a higher roll speed. Furthermore, the semiconductor separation efficiency is more sensitive to the high voltage level and the roll speed than the conductor separation efficiency. An integrated process was proposed for the multiple mixtures separation. The separation efficiency of conductors and semiconductors can reach 82.5% and 88%, respectively. This study contributes to the efficient recycling of valuable resources from e-waste.

  15. Reactive conductors for increased efficiency of exploding foil initiators and other detonators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Christopher J.; Wilkins, Paul; May, Chadd; Zakar, Eugene

    2015-05-05

    Provided among other things are reactive energetic material systems used for conductors in detonators for increased efficiencies. According to an embodiment, a detonator may include: a conductor including at least two constituents including (i) an electrically conductive constituent, and (ii) an electrically non-conductive constituent, that when subjected to sufficient electrical energy, result in an exothermic reaction; and a flyer plate having a non-conductive surface in contact with said conductor. When the sufficient electrical energy is supplied to said conductor, rapid heating and vaporization of at least a portion of the conductor occurs so as to explosively drive at least a portion of the flyer plate away from said conductor. In an embodiment, a multilayer conductor may be formed of alternating layers of at least one electrically conductive layer, and at least one electrically non-conductive layer, that when subjected to sufficient electrical energy, result in an exothermic reaction.

  16. Film-based Sensors with Piezoresistive Molecular Conductors as Active Components Strain Damage and Thermal Regeneration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Laukhina

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available The article is addressed to the development of flexible all-organic bi layer (BL film-based sensors being capable of measuring strain as a well-defined electrical signal in a wide range of elongations and temperature. The purpose was achieved by covering polycarbonate films with the polycrystalline layer of a high piezoresistive organic molecular conductor. To determine restrictions for sensor applications, the effect of monoaxial strain on the resistance and texture of the sensing layers of BL films was studied. The experiments have shown that the maximum strain before fracture is about 1 %. A thermal regeneration of the sensing layer of the BL film-based sensors that were damaged by cyclic load is also described. These sensors are able to take the place of conventional metal-based strain and pressure gages in low cost innovative controlling and monitoring technologies.

  17. The brain, an orchestra without conductor

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2008-01-01

    The brain is a highly distributed, self-organizing system that lacks central institutions for the coordination of cognitive and executive functions. This raises the question how the multiple parallel operations are bound together to give rise to coherent percepts, decisions and intentions. The hypothesis is proposed that time is used as coding space for the flexible definition of relations and the targeted routing of activity across highly interconnected networks.

  18. Progress in scale-up of second-generation HTS conductor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Selvamanickam, V.; Chen, Y.; Xiong, X.; Xie, Y.; Zhang, X.; Qiao, Y.; Reeves, J.; Rar, A.; Schmidt, R.; Lenseth, K.

    2007-01-01

    Tremendous progress has been recently made in the achievement of high-performance, high-speed, long-length second-generation (2G) HTS conductors. Using ion beam assisted deposition (IBAD) MgO and metal organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD), SuperPower has scaled up tape lengths to 427 m with a minimum critical current value of 191 A/cm corresponding to a critical current x length performance of 81,550 m. Tape speeds up to 120 m/h have been reached with IBAD MgO, up to 80 m/h with buffer deposition and up to 45 m/h with MOCVD, all in single pass processing of 12 mm wide tape. Critical current value of 227 A/cm has been achieved in a 203 m long tape produced in an all-high-speed fabrication process. Critical current values have been raised to 721 A/cm, 592 A/cm and 486 A/cm in short, reel-to-reel processed tape, over 1 m length and over 11.1 m, respectively, using thicker MOCVD HTS films. Finally, over 10,000 m of copper-stabilized, 4 mm wide conductor has been produced and tested for delivery to the Albany Cable project. The average critical current of the 10,000 m lot was 81 A

  19. Progress in scale-up of second-generation HTS conductor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Selvamanickam, V. [SuperPower Inc., 450 Duane Avenue, Schenectady, NY 12304 (United States)], E-mail: vselva@igc.com; Chen, Y.; Xiong, X.; Xie, Y.; Zhang, X.; Qiao, Y.; Reeves, J.; Rar, A.; Schmidt, R.; Lenseth, K. [SuperPower Inc., 450 Duane Avenue, Schenectady, NY 12304 (United States)

    2007-10-01

    Tremendous progress has been recently made in the achievement of high-performance, high-speed, long-length second-generation (2G) HTS conductors. Using ion beam assisted deposition (IBAD) MgO and metal organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD), SuperPower has scaled up tape lengths to 427 m with a minimum critical current value of 191 A/cm corresponding to a critical current x length performance of 81,550 m. Tape speeds up to 120 m/h have been reached with IBAD MgO, up to 80 m/h with buffer deposition and up to 45 m/h with MOCVD, all in single pass processing of 12 mm wide tape. Critical current value of 227 A/cm has been achieved in a 203 m long tape produced in an all-high-speed fabrication process. Critical current values have been raised to 721 A/cm, 592 A/cm and 486 A/cm in short, reel-to-reel processed tape, over 1 m length and over 11.1 m, respectively, using thicker MOCVD HTS films. Finally, over 10,000 m of copper-stabilized, 4 mm wide conductor has been produced and tested for delivery to the Albany Cable project. The average critical current of the 10,000 m lot was 81 A.

  20. Highlights in R&D for coated conductors in Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiohara, Yuh; Kitoh, Yutaka; Izumi, Teruo

    2006-10-01

    The current 5-year national project since 2003 for development of coated conductors (CC) using Y-system superconductors has passed for almost a half term and has achieved satisfactory results. In this paper, the current status and the future prospect are reviewed. The group of Fujikura Ltd. and SRL-ISTEC has worked on the long tape with high performance in the PLD-YBCO superconducting tapes on the IBAD-Gd2Zr2O7 buffered substrates. The highest value on the product of Ic × L in the world was marked by the result which were 51,940 A m (212 m × 245 A) by the SRL group. Fujikura Ltd. also realized the longest tape of 200 m with a reasonable high Ic value of 100 A. The values have been steadily improved and the trend is going to be continued, since the large equipments for both IBAD and PLD have been installed, and ready to work on large tapes with a high production rate. In another group, the long tape processing has been developed focusing on lowering the production cost. The extremely high Ic value of 470 A was obtained in the film by the TFA-MOD method on CeO2 (PLD)/GZO(IBAD)/hastelloy substrate. In the efforts for the long tape in the process, a 25 m long tape with its Ic value of 100 A was realized by a continuous reel-to-reel system. Additionally, 100 m class long tapes were also obtained by the MOCVD and PLD-HoBCO processes. Both groups are aiming to achieve the final goals of 500 m long tapes with the high Ic value of 300 A/cm-w by the production rate of 5 m/h. Furthermore, the feasibility study for applications using coated conductors has been already started due to the above-mentioned success of long tape production. Several kinds of coils using long coated conductors such as a solenoid and a pancake coils and the spiral shaped conductors for cable applications were firstly made. Reasonable high performances were confirmed in the trials. For the future plans of coated conductor applications, the following power devices using coated conductors have been

  1. Barriers to Adult Learning: Does Anticipation Match Reality?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richter, Donna L.; Witten, Charles H.

    1984-01-01

    Examined barriers to learning in adult students (N=111) using the Adult Student Survey. Results indicated that in many cases students were able to predict barriers before enrolling. Lack of time was the most difficult barrier to anticipate correctly. (JAC)

  2. The reaction of stock market returns to anticipated unemployment

    OpenAIRE

    Taamouti, Abderrahim; Gonzalo Muñoz, Jesús

    2012-01-01

    We empirically investigate the short-run impact of anticipated and unanticipated unemployment rates on stock prices. We particularly examine the nonlinearity in stock market's reaction to unemployment rate and study the effect at each individual point (quantile) of stock return distribution. Using nonparametric Granger causality and quantile regression based tests, we find that, contrary to the general findings in the literature, only anticipated unemployment rate has a strong impact on stock...

  3. The ATLAS semi-conductor tracker operation and performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robinson, D.

    2013-01-01

    The Semi-Conductor Tracker (SCT) is a silicon strip detector and one of the key precision tracking devices in the Inner Detector of the ATLAS experiment at the CERN Large Hadron Collider (LHC). The SCT was installed and commissioned within ATLAS in 2007, and has been used to exploit fully the physics potential of the LHC since the first proton–proton collisions at 7 TeV were delivered in 2009. In this paper, its operational status throughout data taking up to the end of 2011 is presented, and its tracking performance is reviewed. -- Highlights: ► The operation and performance of the ATLAS Semi-Conductor Tracker (SCT) is reviewed. ► More than 99% of the SCT strips have remained operational in all data taking periods so far. ► Tracking performance indicators have met or exceeded design specifications. ► Radiation damage effects match closely expectations from delivered fluence.

  4. Simulations of quench and recovery in CICC conductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schultz, J.H.; Hale, J.R.; Minervini, J.; Steeves, M.

    1992-01-01

    In the past few years, several computer codes have been written for the purpose of analyzing transient recovery and quench in internally-cooled cable-in-conduit superconductors (ICCS). These codes all include a transient, compressible helium flow model. They differ in the dimensionality of the models, ranging from one to three dimensional finite element modelling of thermal conduction. The code used in this study, Wong's CICC, is a 1 1/2 D code that models thermal conduction through the insulation of an individual conduit. Until recently, the calibration of CICC was restricted to measurements of helium expulsion in normal conductor. No actual quenches in ICCS coils had been simulated. In the past year, several experiments on ICCS conductors of differing topology have been performed and compared with CICC simulations, with varying success. This paper reports on the capability of CICC to predict and analyze ICCS recovery and quench, and on the code's limitations and need for further improvements

  5. Models of AC losses for superconducting cable conductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oestergaard, J.

    1996-12-01

    Three models are set up for calculating AC losses in superconducting cable conductors. The focus is on understanding the losses and derivation of the formulas in the models. The hysteresis losses are treated according to the Beans model, and the following three models are derived: cylinder ring model; mono-block model; uniform current distribution (UCD) model. The results show that the losses may be reduced substantially by transposing the layers and maybe twisting the filaments. The losses are determined by the critical current density irrespective of the applied model. The larger the critical density the smaller the loss. The losses get smaller if a cable conductor is constructed more solidly, i.e. with a tight winding and a large superconductor/silver ratio. The size of the losses is, however, independent of the winding tightness if the layers are transposed. Neither the superconductor/silver ratio affects the losses if the filaments are twisted. (ln)

  6. Sprayable elastic conductors based on block copolymer silver nanoparticle composites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vural, Mert; Behrens, Adam M; Ayyub, Omar B; Ayoub, Joseph J; Kofinas, Peter

    2015-01-27

    Block copolymer silver nanoparticle composite elastic conductors were fabricated through solution blow spinning and subsequent nanoparticle nucleation. The reported technique allows for conformal deposition onto nonplanar substrates. We additionally demonstrated the ability to tune the strain dependence of the electrical properties by adjusting nanoparticle precursor concentration or localized nanoparticle nucleation. The stretchable fiber mats were able to display electrical conductivity values as high as 2000 ± 200 S/cm with only a 12% increase in resistance after 400 cycles of 150% strain. Stretchable elastic conductors with similar and higher bulk conductivity have not achieved comparable stability of electrical properties. These unique electromechanical characteristics are primarily the result of structural changes during mechanical deformation. The versatility of this approach was demonstrated by constructing a stretchable light emitting diode circuit and a strain sensor on planar and nonplanar substrates.

  7. Broad Temperature Pinning Study of 15 mol.% Zr-Added (Gd, Y)-Ba-Cu-O MOCVD Coated Conductors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, AX; Khatri, N; Liu, YH; Majkic, G; Galstyan, E; Selvamanickam, V; Chen, YM; Lei, CH; Abraimov, D; Hu, XB; Jaroszynski, J; Larbalestier, D

    2015-06-01

    BaZrO3 (BZO) nanocolumns have long been shown to be very effective for raising the pinning force F-p of REBa2Cu3Ox (REBCO, where RE = rare earth) films at high temperatures and recently at low temperatures too. We have successfully incorporated a high density of BZO nanorods into metal organic chemical vapor deposited (MOCVD) REBCO coated conductors via Zr addition. We found that, compared to the 7.5% Zr-added coated conductor, dense BZO nanorod arrays in the 15% Zr-added conductor are effective over the whole temperature range from 77 K down to 4.2 K. We attribute the substantially enhanced J(c) at 30 K to the weak uncorrelated pinning as well as the strong correlated pinning. Meanwhile, by tripling the REBCO layer thickness to similar to 2.8 mu m, the engineering critical current density J(e) at 30 K exceeds J(e) of optimized Nb-Ti wires at 4.2 K.

  8. Super-crystalline phase in quasi-one-dimensional conductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lebed, A.G.; Wu, S.

    2009-01-01

    A model, where phase transition between the Peierls and periodic soliton wall superlattice (super-crystalline) charge-density-wave phases occur in a magnetic field, is proposed. The model accounts for the peculiarities of the phase diagram in a quasi-one-dimensional conductor (Per) 2 Pt(mnt) 2 . In the absence of a magnetic field, our model is equivalent to the exactly solvable model of Brazovskii, Dzyaloshinskii, and Kirova

  9. Coulomb correlation effects in quasi-one-dimensional conductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campbell, D.K.; Baeriswyl, D.; Mazumdar, S.

    1986-01-01

    Recent results on the role of electron-electron (e-e) interactions - ''correlation effects'' - in quasi-one-dimensional conductors are reviewed. Within the Peierls-Hubbard model, the consequences of short range (on-site U and nearest neighbor V) e-e interactions for ground state properties, nonlinear excitations, and optical absorption are examined. Techniques include quantum Monte Carlo and weak and strong coupling perturbative arguments. 26 refs., 2 figs

  10. Metal{Polymer Hybrid Materials For Flexible Transparent Conductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narayanan, Sudarshan

    The field of organic electronics, till recently a mere research topic, is currently making rapid strides and tremendous progress into entering the mainstream electronics industry with several applications and products such as OLED televisions, curved displays, wearable devices, flexible solar cells, etc. already having been commercialized. A major component in these devices, especially for photovoltaic applications, is a transparent conductor used as one of the electrodes, which in most commercial applications are highly doped wide bandgap semiconducting oxides also called Transparent Conducting Oxides (TCOs). However, TCOs exhibit inherent disadvantages such as limited supply, brittle mechanical properties, expensive processing that present major barriers for the more widespread economic use in applications such as exible transparent conductors, owing to which suitable alternative materials are being sought. In this context we present two approaches in realizing alternative TCs using metal-polymer hybrid materials, with high figures of merit that are easily processable, reasonably inexpensive and mechanically robust as well. In this context, our first approach employs laminated metal-polymer photonic bandgap structures to effectively tune optical and electrical properties by an appropriate design of the material stack, factoring in the effect of the materials involved, the number of layers and layer properties. We have found that in the case of a four-bilayer Au/polystyrene (AujPS) laminate structure, an enhancement in optical transmittance of ˜ 500% in comparison to a monolithic A film of equivalent thickness, can be achieved. The high conductivity (˜ 106 O--1cm--1) of the metallic component, Au in this case, also ensures planar conductivity; metallic inclusions in the dielectric polymer layer can in principle give rise to out-of-plane conductivity as well enabling a fully functional TC. Such materials also have immense potential for several other applications

  11. Quantum oscillations in quasi-two-dimensional conductors

    CERN Document Server

    Galbova, O

    2002-01-01

    The electronic absorption of sound waves in quasi-two-dimensional conductors in strong magnetic fields, is investigated theoretically. A longitudinal acoustic wave, propagating along the normal n-> to the layer of quasi-two-dimensional conductor (k-> = left brace 0,0,k right brace; u-> = left brace 0,0,u right brace) in magnetic field (B-> = left brace 0, 0, B right brace), is considered. The quasiclassical approach for this geometry is of no interest, due to the absence of interaction between electromagnetic and acoustic waves. The problem is of interest in strong magnetic field when quantization of the charge carriers energy levels takes place. The quantum oscillations in the sound absorption coefficient, as a function of the magnetic field, are theoretically observed. The experimental study of the quantum oscillations in quasi-two-dimensional conductors makes it possible to solve the inverse problem of determining from experimental data the extrema closed sections of the Fermi surface by a plane p sub z = ...

  12. High-field thermal transports properties of REBCO coated conductors

    CERN Document Server

    Bonura, M

    2015-01-01

    The use of REBCO coated conductors is envisaged for many applications, extending from power cables to high-field magnets. Whatever the case, thermal properties of REBCO tapes play a key role for the stability of superconducting devices. In this work, we present the first study on the longitudinal thermal conductivity (k) of REBCO coated conductors in magnetic fields up to 19 T applied both parallelly and perpendicularly to the thermal-current direction. Copper-stabilized tapes from six industrial manufacturers have been investigated. We show that zero-field k of coated conductors can be calculated with an accuracy of ‡ 15% from the residual resistivity ratio of the stabilizer and the Cu/non-Cu ratio. Measurements performed at high fields have allowed us to evaluate the consistency of the procedures generally used for estimating in-field k in the framework of the Wiedemann-Franz law from an electrical characterization of the materials. In-field data are intended to provide primary ingredients for the ...

  13. Overhead conductor capacity studies 4. Interpretation of 1986 summer data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chisholm, W.A.; Barrett, J.S.

    1987-12-01

    The Bulk Electrical System in Ontario contains many older circuits that have a maximum conductor temperature limit of 49/sup 0/C. A program of measurements and modeling has been initiated to allow best use of these lines during summer peak-load conditions. Misapplication of the ruling-span approximation to lines with unequal span lengths leads to errors in sag changes with temperature. These errors could require derating of lines like the Essa Test Line from 49/sup 0/C to 40/sup 0/C. Predictions of conductor temperature based on Out-Of-Limits Monitoring (OOLM) weather data are usually higher than observed. However, OOLM predictions were too low by more than 4/sup 0/C on 37 of 864 test hours. Of the 37 periods, 13 were day-light hours with the worst cases having conductor temperatures of 39-41/sup 0/C and an OOLM-based predictions of 30-36/sup 0/C. 11 refs., 12 figs.

  14. Activity of R&D for coated conductors in Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiohara, Yuh; Aoki, Yuji

    2005-10-01

    Recent activities in the national project on R&D of coated conductors in Japan are reviewed. The present project was started in May 2003 following the last one, which had been conducted from FY1998 to FY2002. The correct project is scheduled until the end of FY2007. The realization of the goals makes the development of the coated conductors move to the applications. The coated conductors were classified into two groups from its architecture. One is that used a textured metal substrate such as RABiTS™ type. On the other hand, the remarkable results have been reported by the R&D group using IBAD buffered substrates. The combination with the PLD method for the YBCO layer reports the highest product values of Ic · L. The highest Ic · L value is 13 230 A m by Fujikura Ltd. Aiming at lower cost processing, TFA-MOD and MOCVD processes have also been investigated on the IBAD substrates. SRL achieved an extremely high Ic value of 413 A in the tape by the TFA-MOD process. The efforts on R&D for long tape process lead to a 8.6 m long tape with 119 A as the end-to-end Ic value.

  15. Nanocrystalline Axially Bridged Iron Phthalocyanine Polymeric Conductor: (μ-Thiocyanato(phthalocyaninatoiron(III

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eiza Shimizu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Skewered Iron(III phthalocyanine conducting polymer can be constructed with the utilization of axial thiocyanato ligands ((μ-thiocyanato(phthalocyaninatoiron(III; (FeIII(Pc(SCNn thereby creating additional avenues for electron transport through a linear SCN bridge, apart from the intermolecular π-π orbital overlap between the Pc molecules. In this paper, we report on the conversion of bulk FeIII(Pc(SCNn polymeric organic conductor into crystalline nanostructures through horizontal vapor phase growth process. The needle-like nanostructures are deemed to provide more ordered and, thus, more π-π interactive interskewer FeIII(Pc(SCNn polymer orientation, resulting in a twofold increase of its electrical conductivity per materials density unit.

  16. A Boundary Element Solution to the Problem of Interacting AC Fields in Parallel Conductors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Einar M. Rønquist

    1984-04-01

    Full Text Available The ac fields in electrically insulated conductors will interact through the surrounding electromagnetic fields. The pertinent field equations reduce to the Helmholtz equation inside each conductor (interior problem, and to the Laplace equation outside the conductors (exterior problem. These equations are transformed to integral equations, with the magnetic vector potential and its normal derivative on the boundaries as unknowns. The integral equations are then approximated by sets of algebraic equations. The interior problem involves only unknowns on the boundary of each conductor, while the exterior problem couples unknowns from several conductors. The interior and the exterior problem are coupled through the field continuity conditions. The full set of equations is solved by standard Gaussian elimination. We also show how the total current and the dissipated power within each conductor can be expressed as boundary integrals. Finally, computational results for a sample problem are compared with a finite difference solution.

  17. A parametric model for analyzing anticipation in genetically predisposed families

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Klaus; Petersen, Janne; Bernstein, Inge

    2009-01-01

    Anticipation, i.e. a decreasing age-at-onset in subsequent generations has been observed in a number of genetically triggered diseases. The impact of anticipation is generally studied in affected parent-child pairs. These analyses are restricted to pairs in which both individuals have been affected....... The suggested model corrects for incomplete observations and considers families rather than affected pairs and thereby allows for studies of large sample sets, facilitates subgroup analyses and provides generation effect estimates.......)/Lynch syndrome family cohort from the national Danish HNPCC register. Age-at-onset was analyzed in 824 individuals from 2-4 generations in 125 families with proved disease-predisposing mutations. A significant effect from anticipation was identified with a mean of 3 years earlier age-at-onset per generation...

  18. Anticipation of visual form independent of knowing where the form will occur/

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bruhn, Pernille; Bundesen, Claus

    2012-01-01

    the hypothesis that form anticipation relies on depictive, perception-like activations in topographically organized parts of the visual cortex. The results provided no support for this hypothesis. On the other hand, by an additive factors logic (Sternberg, Acta Psychologica 30:276–315, 1969), the additivity......We investigated how selective preparation for specific forms is affected by concurrent preknowledge of location when upcoming visual stimuli are anticipated. In three experiments, participants performed a two-choice response time (RT) task in which they discriminated between standard upright......, with significantly lower RTs when preknowledge was present than when it was absent. Our main finding was that the two factors had additive effects on RTs. A strong interaction between the two factors, such that preknowledge of form had little or no effect without preknowledge of location, would have supported...

  19. Studies of the strain-dependent properties of A15 filamentary conductors at Brookhaven National Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luhman, T.; Welch, D.O.

    1980-01-01

    Work at BNL pertaining to the strain response of filamentary bronze-processed superconductors is reviewed. This work includes the intrinsic strain dependence of the critical properties of A15 structure compounds, the nature of the initial internal strain state of composite conductors, and the interplay between these residual strains and applied strains which governs the response of the conductor to external strain. Some factors which can enhance the strain tolerances of filamentary conductors are briefly discussed

  20. The influence of the local structure on proton transport in a solid oxide proton conductor La 0.8 Ba 1.2 GaO 3.9

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheng, Yongqiang [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States). Chemical and Engineering Materials Division; Balachandran, Janakiraman [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States). Center for Nanophase Materials Science; Bi, Zhonghe [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States). Chemical Sciences Division; Bridges, Craig A. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States). Chemical Sciences Division; Paranthaman, Mariappan Parans [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States). Chemical Sciences Division; Daemen, Luke L. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States). Chemical and Engineering Materials Division; Ganesh, P. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States). Center for Nanophase Materials Science; Jalarvo, Niina [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States). Chemical and Engineering Materials Division; Julich Research Centre (Germany)

    2017-07-18

    The local structure around the mobile ions influences their dynamics. The knowledge about the relationship between these properties is of fundamental importance and may lead the way for development of improved solid state ionic conductors. Here, we use inelastic neutron scattering and ab initio modeling to study a representative proton conductor, La0.8Ba1.2GaO3.9, where different local structures are possible for the same stoichiometry. The intrinsic correlations between the local bonding environment and the dynamical behavior of protons are presented. In particular, we identify how the local Ba/La concentration affects the proton vibrational frequencies, hydrogen bond strength, O–H rotations and in turn long-range proton mobility. Furthermore, possible mechanism for proton transport, through the inter-tetrahedral bond switching, O–H rotations and tetrahedral reorientation is anticipated.

  1. Neural sensitivity to absolute and relative anticipated reward in adolescents.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jatin G Vaidya

    Full Text Available Adolescence is associated with a dramatic increase in risky and impulsive behaviors that have been attributed to developmental differences in neural processing of rewards. In the present study, we sought to identify age differences in anticipation of absolute and relative rewards. To do so, we modified a commonly used monetary incentive delay (MID task in order to examine brain activity to relative anticipated reward value (neural sensitivity to the value of a reward as a function of other available rewards. This design also made it possible to examine developmental differences in brain activation to absolute anticipated reward magnitude (the degree to which neural activity increases with increasing reward magnitude. While undergoing fMRI, 18 adolescents and 18 adult participants were presented with cues associated with different reward magnitudes. After the cue, participants responded to a target to win money on that trial. Presentation of cues was blocked such that two reward cues associated with $.20, $1.00, or $5.00 were in play on a given block. Thus, the relative value of the $1.00 reward varied depending on whether it was paired with a smaller or larger reward. Reflecting age differences in neural responses to relative anticipated reward (i.e., reference dependent processing, adults, but not adolescents, demonstrated greater activity to a $1 reward when it was the larger of the two available rewards. Adults also demonstrated a more linear increase in ventral striatal activity as a function of increasing absolute reward magnitude compared to adolescents. Additionally, reduced ventral striatal sensitivity to absolute anticipated reward (i.e., the difference in activity to medium versus small rewards correlated with higher levels of trait Impulsivity. Thus, ventral striatal activity in anticipation of absolute and relative rewards develops with age. Absolute reward processing is also linked to individual differences in Impulsivity.

  2. Analyses of anticipated transient without scram events in SMART

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Hyung Rae; Chun, Ji Han; Kim, Soo Hyoung; Yang, Soo Hyung; Bae, Kyoo Hwan

    2012-01-01

    SMART is a small integral reactor, which was developed at KAERI and acquired standard design approval in 2012. SMART works like a pressurized light water reactor in principle though it is more compact than loop type large commercial reactors. ATWS(Anticipated Transient Without Scram) event is an AOO(Anticipated Operational Occurrence) where RPS fails to trip the reactor when requested. SMART incorporated a DPS(diverse protection system) to protect the reactor system when RPS(reactor protection system) fails to trip the reactor. The results of transient analyses show that DPS in SMART effectively mitigates the consequence of ATWS

  3. Formation of 2D nanoparticles with block structure in simultaneous electric explosion of conductors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kryzhevich, Dmitrij S., E-mail: kryzhev@ispms.ru, E-mail: kost@ispms.ru; Zolnikov, Konstantin P., E-mail: kryzhev@ispms.ru, E-mail: kost@ispms.ru [Institute of Strength Physics and Materials Science SB RAS, Tomsk, 6340455, Russia and National Research Tomsk State University, Tomsk, 634050 (Russian Federation); Abdrashitov, Andrei V. [Institute of Strength Physics and Materials Science SB RAS, Tomsk, 6340455 (Russian Federation); Lerner, Marat I. [Institute of Strength Physics and Materials Science SB RAS, Tomsk, 6340455, Russia and National Research Tomsk Polytechnic University, Tomsk, 634050 (Russian Federation); Psakhie, Sergey G. [Institute of Strength Physics and Materials Science SB RAS, Tomsk, 6340455 (Russian Federation); National Research Tomsk Polytechnic University, Tomsk, 634050 (Russian Federation); Skolkovo Institute of Science and Technology, Skolkovo, 143025 (Russian Federation)

    2014-11-14

    A molecular dynamics simulation of nanoparticle formation in simultaneous electric explosion of conductors is performed. Interatomic interaction is described using potentials calculated in the framework of the embedded atom method. High-rate heating results in failure of the conductors with the formation of nanoparticles. The influence of the heating rate, temperature distribution over the specimen cross-section and the distance between simultaneously exploded conductors on the structure of formed nanoparticles is studied. The calculation results show that the electric explosion of conductors allows the formation of nanoparticles with block structure.

  4. Investigation of the influence of heat transfer on screen printed textile conductor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazani, I.; De Mey, G.; Hertleer, C.; Guxho, G.; Van Langenhove, L.

    2017-10-01

    Two different textile substrates were screen printed with silver-based inks in order to be electrically conductive. In every textile four conductors were printed with different widths in order to investigate the influence of heat transfer on each conductor. This was done, by using the thermo graphic camera and through the evaluation of each conductor’s profile. It was found that the conductors printed on the white textile had higher values of heat transfer compared to the other conductors printed on the dark textiles.

  5. High field properties of NbN ribbon conductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Capone, D.W. II; Kampwirth, R.T.; Gray, K.E.

    1985-08-01

    This paper reports the first high field measurements on ribbon conductors composed of NbN and Cu deposited onto Hastelloy ribbons. These ribbons are 5 to 8 cm long, 1/8'' wide, and have several microns of NbN, covered with several microns of Cu, deposited onto one side. Such samples have a T/sub c/ approx. 14.5 K, H/sub c2/ (2.0 K) approx. 26 T in the parallel direction and J/sub c/ (20 T, 2.0 K) up to 3 x 10 4 A/cm 2

  6. The ATLAS Semi-Conductor Tracker Operation and Performance

    CERN Document Server

    Robinson, D; The ATLAS collaboration

    2012-01-01

    The Semi-Conductor Tracker (SCT), is a silicon strip detector and one of the key precision tracking devices in the Inner Detector of the ATLAS experiment at the CERN Large Hadron Collider (LHC). The SCT was installed and commissioned within ATLAS in 2007, and has been has been used to fully exploit the physics potential of the LHC since the first proton-proton collisions at 7 TeV were delivered in 2009. In this paper, its operational status throughout data taking up to the end of 2011 is presented, and its tracking performance is reviewed.

  7. Specific features of the thermodynamics of superionic conductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gurevich, Yu.Ya.; Kharkats, Yu.I.

    1982-01-01

    A review of theoretical and experimental investigations devoted to a study of thermodynamic aspects of the superionic conductivity phenomena for the recent decade is presented. A relation between a superionic conductivity and the disordering of one of the crystal sublattices, the phase transitions of the disordering caused by the point defects interaction, the mechanism of polymorphic transitions conjugated with a partial disordering are considered. The effect of an abrupt change of the ionic conductivity induced by electric field, the thermodynamics of the domain states in superionic conductors and the influence of pressure on phase transitions and ionic conductivity are analyzed

  8. Magnet and conductor developments for the Mirror Fusion Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cornish, D.N.

    1981-01-01

    The conductor development and the magnet design and construction for the MFTF are described. Future plans for the Mirror Program and their influence on the associated superconductor development program are discussed. Included is a summary of the progress being made to develop large, high-field, multifilamentary Nb 3 Sn superconductors and the feasibility of building a 12-T yin-yang set of coils for the machine to follow MFTF. In a further look into the future, possible magnetic configurations and requirements for mirror reactors are surveyed

  9. A healable, semitransparent silver nanowire-polymer composite conductor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Chaokun; Liang, Jiajie; Hu, Wei; Niu, Xiaofan; Ma, Sungwon; Hahn, H Thomas; Pei, Qibing

    2013-08-14

    A quick recovery: A semitransparent composite conductor comprising a layer of silver nanowire percolation network inlaid in the surface layer of a Diels-Alder-based healable polymer film is fabricated. The composite is flexible and highly conductive, and is capable of both structural and electrical healing via heating. Cut samples that completely lose their conductivity can recover 97% of it within 5 minutes of heating at 110 °C. The cutting and healing can be repeated at the same location for multiple cycles. Copyright © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  10. Inductance and resistance calculations for a pair of rectangular conductors

    OpenAIRE

    Goddard, K.F.; Roy, A.A.; Sykulski, J.K.

    2005-01-01

    In this review paper we present various semi-analytical and numerical calculations, for computing the inductance and resistance of a pair of rectangular conductors. Sections 1-3 deal with the dc inductance of infinitely thin strips and strips of finite thickness. In the former case, the inductance is computed using the T? method, while in the latter case it is computed by direct integration using Maple. In both cases, the results have been checked using finite element analysis. It is also sho...

  11. Present work of YBCO-coated conductor in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Guansen

    2000-07-01

    The preliminary research work of coated conductor by means of pulsed laser deposition (PLD), sputtering and MOCVD is briefly reviewed. Several kinds of metal substrate, including Hastelly alloy, rolling textured pure nickel and textured silver, are used in different laboratories. Yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) and CeO 2 as buffer layers are deposited on metal substrate on certain process. A number of techniques by which effective the epitaxial quality of YBCO film have been discussed and considerable progress has been obtained in this field.

  12. Anticipated emotions and effort allocation in weight goal striving

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nelissen, R.M.A.; de Vet, H.C.W.; Zeelenberg, M.

    2011-01-01

    Objective. This study aimed to investigate the influence of anticipated emotions on preventive health behaviour if specified at the level of behavioural outcomes. Consistent with predictions from a recently developed model of goal pursuit, we hypothesized that the impact of emotions on effort levels

  13. Conservatives Anticipate and Experience Stronger Emotional Reactions to Negative Outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joel, Samantha; Burton, Caitlin M; Plaks, Jason E

    2014-02-01

    The present work examined whether conservatives and liberals differ in their anticipation of their own emotional reactions to negative events. In two studies, participants imagined experiencing positive or negative outcomes in domains that do not directly concern politics. In Study 1, 190 American participants recruited online (64 male, Mage  = 32 years) anticipated their emotional responses to romantic relationship outcomes. In Study 2, 97 Canadian undergraduate students (26 male, Mage  = 21 years) reported on their anticipated and experienced emotional responses to academic outcomes. In both studies, more conservative participants predicted they would feel stronger negative emotions following negative outcomes than did more liberal participants. Furthermore, a longitudinal follow-up of Study 2 participants revealed that more conservative participants actually felt worse than more liberal participants after receiving a lower-than-desired exam grade. These effects remained even when controlling for the Big Five traits, prevention focus, and attachment style (Study 1), and optimism (Study 2). We discuss how the relationship between political orientation and anticipated affect likely contributes to differences between conservatives and liberals in styles of decision and policy choices. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Probing the Neural Correlates of Anticipated Peer Evaluation in Adolescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guyer, Amanda E.; McClure-Tone, Erin B.; Shiffrin, Nina D.; Pine, Daniel S.; Nelson, Eric E.

    2009-01-01

    Neural correlates of social-cognition were assessed in 9- to- 17-year-olds (N = 34) using functional magnetic resonance imaging. Participants appraised how unfamiliar peers they had previously identified as being of high or low interest would evaluate them for an anticipated online chat session. Differential age- and sex-related activation…

  15. Visual search, anticipation and expertise in soccer goalkeepers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Savelsbergh, G.J.P.; Williams, A.M.; van der Kamp, J.; Ward, P.

    2002-01-01

    We used a novel methodological approach to examine skill-based differences in anticipation and visual search behaviour during the penalty kick in soccer. Expert and novice goalkeepers were required to move a joystick in response to penalty kicks presented on film. The proportion of penalties saved

  16. Insect Vision: A Neuron that Anticipates an Object's Path.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frye, Mark A

    2017-10-09

    Dragonflies are superb aerial predators, plucking tiny insect prey from the sky. This ability depends on a visual system that has fascinated scientists for decades, and now one of its visual-target-detecting neurons has been shown to anticipate the image path of prey. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. The Theoretical Analysis of the Phenomenon of Anticipation in Psychology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akhmetzyanova, Anna I.

    2016-01-01

    At the modern stage one of the urgent tasks of development of psychology and pedagogy is the study of the basic directions, trends and developmental priorities of research of the specifics of psychological indicators of anticipation of people with whose mental development corresponds to age norms and persons with intellectual and mental…

  18. Liturgy as space for anticipation | Cilliers | HTS Teologiese Studies ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This article proposes that the notion of liturgical space, understood in conjunction with the original Greek concept of space, is not only a quantitative, physical locality, but also a primary qualitative possibility for existence, a meaningful womb, a neighbourhood for imagination and a space for anticipation.

  19. Linear stochastic differential equations with anticipating initial conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khalifa, Narjess; Kuo, Hui-Hsiung; Ouerdiane, Habib

    In this paper we use the new stochastic integral introduced by Ayed and Kuo (2008) and the results obtained by Kuo et al. (2012b) to find a solution to a drift-free linear stochastic differential equation with anticipating initial condition. Our solution is based on well-known results from...

  20. Organic superconductivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jerome, D.

    1980-01-01

    We present the experimental evidences for the existence of a superconducting state in the Quasi One Dimensional organic conductor (TMTSF) 2 PF 6 . Superconductivity occuring at 1 K under 12 kbar is characterized by a zero resistance diamagnetic state. The anistropy of the upper critical field of this type II superconductor is consistent with the band structure anistropy. We present evidences for the existence of large superconducting precursor effects giving rise to a dominant paraconductive contribution below 40 K. We also discuss the anomalously large pressure dependence of T sb(s), which drops to 0.19 K under 24 kbar in terms of the current theories. (author)

  1. With or without a conductor: Comparative analysis of leadership models in the musical ensemble

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kovačević Mia

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In search of innovative models of work organization and therefore the artistic process of one musical ensemble, in the last ten years musical ensembles have developed examples of non-traditional artistic-performing decisions and organizational practice. The paper is conceived as a research and analysis of the dominant models of leadership (i.e. organizing, conducting business applicable on the music ensembles and experiences of the musicians. The aim is to recognize and define leadership styles that encourage the increase of motivation and productivity of musicians within the musical ensemble. The paper will specifically investigate the relationship and differences between the two dominant models of leadership, leadership of conductor and collaborative leadership. At the same time, the paper describes and analyses an experiment that was conducted by the Ensemble Metamorphosis, which applied into their work two dominant models of leadership. In an effort to increase the motivation and productivity of musicians, Ensemble Metamorphosis also searched for a new management model of work organization and a new model of leadership. The aim of this paper was therefore to investigate the effects of leadership models that improve the artistic quality, motivation of the musicians, psychological climate and overall increase productivity of musical organization.

  2. Organics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chian, Edward S. K.; DeWalle, Foppe B.

    1978-01-01

    Presents water analysis literature for 1978. This review is concerned with organics, and it covers: (1) detergents and surfactants; (2) aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbons; (3) pesticides and chlorinated hydrocarbons; and (4) naturally occurring organics. A list of 208 references is also presented. (HM)

  3. Organizers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callison, Daniel

    2000-01-01

    Focuses on "organizers," tools or techniques that provide identification and classification along with possible relationships or connections among ideas, concepts, and issues. Discusses David Ausubel's research and ideas concerning advance organizers; the implications of Ausubel's theory to curriculum and teaching; "webbing," a…

  4. The Optical Links of the ATLAS SemiConductor Tracker

    CERN Document Server

    Abdesselam, A; Apsimon, R; Band, C; Barr, C; Batchelor, L; Bates, R; Bell, P; Bernabeu, J; Bizzell, J; Brenner, R; Brodbeck, T; Bruckman De Renstrom, P; Buttar, C; Carter, J; Charlton, D; Cheplakov, A; Chilingarov, A; Chu, M-L; Colijn, A-P; Dawson, I; Demirkõz, B; de Jong, P; Dervan, P; Dolezal, Z; Dowell, J; Escobar, P; Spencer, E; Ekelöf, T J C; Eklund, L; Ferrere, D; Fraser, T; French, M; French, R; Fuster, J; Gallop, B; García, C; Goodrick, M; Greenall, A; Grillo, A; Grosse-Knetter, J; Hartjes, F; Hessey, N; Hill, J C; Homer, J; Hou, L; Hughes, G; Ikegami, Y; Issever, C; Jackson, J; Jones, M; Jones, T J; Jovanovic, P; Koffeman, E; Kodys, P; Kohriki, T; Lee, S-C; Lester, C; Limper, M; Lindsay, S W; Lozano, M; Macwaters, C; Magrath, C; Mahout, G; Mandic, I; Matheson, J; McMahon, T; Mikulec, B; Muijs, A; Morrissey, M; Nichols, A; Nickerson, R; O'Shea, V; Pagenis, S; Parker, M; Pater, J; Perrin, E; Pernegger, H; Peeters, S; Phillips, P; Postranecky, M; Robinson, D; Robson, A; Rudge, A; Sandaker, H; Sedlak, K; Smith, N A; Stapnes, S; Stugu, B; Teng, P K; Terada, S; Tricoli, A; Tyndel, M; Ujiie, N; Ullán, M; Unno, Y; van der Kraaij, E; Van Vulpen, I; Viehhauser, G; Vossebeld, J H; Warren, M; Wastie, R; Weidberg, A; Wells, P; White, D; Wilson, J

    2007-01-01

    Optical links are used for the readout of the 4088 silicon microstrip modules that make up the SemiConductor Tracker of the ATLAS experiment at the CERN Large Hadron Collider (LHC). The optical link requirements are reviewed, with particular emphasis on the very demanding environment at the LHC. The on-detector components have to operate in high radiation levels for 10 years, with no maintenance, and there are very strict requirements on power consumption, material and space. A novel concept for the packaging of the on-detector optoelectronics has been developed to meet these requirements. The system architecture, including its redundancy features, is explained and the critical on-detector components are described. The results of the extensive Quality Assurance performed during all steps of the assembly are discussed. Optical links are used for the readout of the 4088 silicon microstrip modules that make up the SemiConductor Tracker of the ATLAS experiment at the CERN Large Hadron Collider (LHC). The optical ...

  5. Fully filamentized HTS coated conductor via striation and selective electroplating

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kesgin, Ibrahim; Majkic, Goran [Department of Mechanical Engineering and Texas Center for Superconductivity, University of Houston, Houston, TX 77204 (United States); Selvamanickam, Venkat, E-mail: selva@uh.edu [Department of Mechanical Engineering and Texas Center for Superconductivity, University of Houston, Houston, TX 77204 (United States)

    2013-03-15

    Highlights: ► Fully-filamentized coated conductor with 13-fold reduction in ac losses. ► Selective electroplating for filamentization of thick copper stabilizer. ► A twofold decrease in ac loss by filamentization of copper stabilizer. ► Absence of appreciable coupling loss contribution from electroplating. -- Abstract: A simple, cost-effective method involving top-down mechanical scribing, oxidation and bottom-up electroplating has been successfully developed to fabricate fully filamentized HTS coated conductors. The copper stabilizer layer is selectively electroplated on the superconducting filaments while the striations remain copper-free due to the formation of a resistive oxide layer in between filaments by oxidation of the striated grooves at elevated temperature in oxygen atmosphere. Magnetization AC loss measurements, performed in a frequency range of 45–500 Hz at 77 K, confirmed the expected N-fold reduction in AC loss of the filamentized tapes with no significant degradation in critical current beyond that due to the material removal from the striations (N – number of filaments). A considerable reduction in coupling AC loss was observed after high temperature annealing/oxidation of the striated tapes. Furthermore, a significant reduction in eddy current loss was achieved with selective copper electroplating, as evidenced by analyzing the field and frequency dependence of magnetization AC loss, as well as by comparing the AC loss performance of striated samples to that of non-striated samples after electroplating of copper stabilizer.

  6. Fully filamentized HTS coated conductor via striation and selective electroplating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kesgin, Ibrahim; Majkic, Goran; Selvamanickam, Venkat

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► Fully-filamentized coated conductor with 13-fold reduction in ac losses. ► Selective electroplating for filamentization of thick copper stabilizer. ► A twofold decrease in ac loss by filamentization of copper stabilizer. ► Absence of appreciable coupling loss contribution from electroplating. -- Abstract: A simple, cost-effective method involving top-down mechanical scribing, oxidation and bottom-up electroplating has been successfully developed to fabricate fully filamentized HTS coated conductors. The copper stabilizer layer is selectively electroplated on the superconducting filaments while the striations remain copper-free due to the formation of a resistive oxide layer in between filaments by oxidation of the striated grooves at elevated temperature in oxygen atmosphere. Magnetization AC loss measurements, performed in a frequency range of 45–500 Hz at 77 K, confirmed the expected N-fold reduction in AC loss of the filamentized tapes with no significant degradation in critical current beyond that due to the material removal from the striations (N – number of filaments). A considerable reduction in coupling AC loss was observed after high temperature annealing/oxidation of the striated tapes. Furthermore, a significant reduction in eddy current loss was achieved with selective copper electroplating, as evidenced by analyzing the field and frequency dependence of magnetization AC loss, as well as by comparing the AC loss performance of striated samples to that of non-striated samples after electroplating of copper stabilizer

  7. IBAD-MgO technology for coated conductors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jo, William [Dept. of Physics, Ewha Womans University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-09-15

    Ion-beam assisted deposition (IBAD) technology has been successfully applied to high-temperature superconductor coated conductors (CC) as textured substrates. Since the coated conductors were proposed as a potential framework for utilizing the superior transport characteristics of YBa2Cu3O7 and related cuprate oxides, several methods including rolling-assisted bi-axial textured substrates (RABiTS) and inclined substrate deposition (ISD), as well as IBAD, have been attempted. As of 2016, most companies that are trying to commercialize CC adapt IBAD technology except for American Superconductors who use RABiTS predominantly. For the materials in the IBAD process, initial efforts to use yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) or related fluorites in Fujikura in Japan have quickly given way to MgO which technique was developed by Stanford University in the USA. In this review, we present a historical overview of IBAD technology, in particular, for the application of CC. We describe the key scientific understanding of nucleation, the texturing mechanism, and the growth of large bi-axial grains and discuss some potential new IBAD materials and systems for large-scale production.

  8. Thermoelectric power in ionic and electronic mixed conductors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kamata, Masahiro; Jin-nouchi, Kenji; Esaka, Takao [Tottori Univ. (Japan). Faculty of Engineering

    1996-08-01

    In order to study the thermoelectric property of the oxide ionic and electronic mixed conductor of 10 mol% CaO-doped CeO{sub 2} (CDC), a new type of thermocell was prepared, in which platinum electrodes were embedded in the tube-type sample to diminish the large temperature gradient over the electrodes due to the local heat radiation from heating furnace. Using this thermocell, reproducible data were obtained. The thermoelectric power measured in CDC under various oxygen atmospheres (Po{sub 2}) from 1.0 to about 10{sup -15} atm showed that the sign of Seebeck coefficients changed from minus to plus. This variation of Seebeck coefficients vs. Po{sub 2} was well interpreted by considering that (1) the thermoelectric power could be a driving force to make actual and electrochemical oxygen transfer in the mixed conductor and (2) the electrode processes had limiting rates due to slow oxygen diffusion (or oxygen gas exhaustion at the cathode and evolution at the anode). (author)

  9. Nb3Sn Conductor Development and Characterization for NED

    CERN Document Server

    Boutboul, T; Devred, A; Fabbricatore, P; Greco, M; Leroy, D; Oberli, L; Pedrini, D; Volpini, G

    2008-01-01

    The main purpose of Next European Dipole (NED) project is to design and to build an Nb3Sn ~ 15 T dipole magnet. Due to budget constraints, NED is mainly focused on superconducting cable development and production. In this work, an update is given on the NED conductor development by Alstom-MSA and SMI, which uses, respectively, Internal-Tin-Diffusion and Powder-In-Tube methods, with the aim of reaching a non-copper critical current density of ~ 3000 A/mm2 at 12 T and 4.2 K. Characterization results, including critical current and magnetization data, are presented and discussed, as well, for conductors already developed by both companies for this project. SMI succeeded to produce a strand with 50 µm diameter filaments and with a critical current of ~ 1400 A at 4.2 K and 12 T, corresponding to a non-copper critical current density of ~ 2500 A/mm2. Cabling trials with this strand were successfully carried out at LBNL.

  10. ATLAS SemiConductor Tracker Operation and Performance

    CERN Document Server

    Tojo, J; The ATLAS collaboration

    2011-01-01

    The SemiConductor Tracker (SCT), comprising of silicon micro-strip detectors is one of the key precision tracking devices in the ATLAS Inner Detector. ATLAS is one of the experiments at CERN LHC. The completed SCT is in very good shapes with 99.3% of the SCT’s 4088 modules (a total of 6.3 million strips) are operational. The noise occupancy and hit efficiency exceed the design specifications. In the talk the current status of the SCT will be reviewed. We will report on the operation of the detector, its performance and observed problems, with stress on the sensor and electronics performance. In December 2009 the ATLAS experiment at the CERN Large Hadron Collider (LHC) recorded the first proton-proton collisions at a centre-of-mass energy of 900 GeV and this was followed by the unprecedented energy of 7 TeV in March 2010. The Semi- Conductor Tracker (SCT) is the key precision tracking device in ATLAS, made from silicon micro-strip detectors processed in the planar p-in-n technology. The signals from the stri...

  11. Anticipated Changes in Conducting Scientific Data-Analysis Research in the Big-Data Era

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuo, Kwo-Sen; Seablom, Michael; Clune, Thomas; Ramachandran, Rahul

    2014-01-01

    A Big-Data environment is one that is capable of orchestrating quick-turnaround analyses involving large volumes of data for numerous simultaneous users. Based on our experiences with a prototype Big-Data analysis environment, we anticipate some important changes in research behaviors and processes while conducting scientific data-analysis research in the near future as such Big-Data environments become the mainstream. The first anticipated change will be the reduced effort and difficulty in most parts of the data management process. A Big-Data analysis environment is likely to house most of the data required for a particular research discipline along with appropriate analysis capabilities. This will reduce the need for researchers to download local copies of data. In turn, this also reduces the need for compute and storage procurement by individual researchers or groups, as well as associated maintenance and management afterwards. It is almost certain that Big-Data environments will require a different "programming language" to fully exploit the latent potential. In addition, the process of extending the environment to provide new analysis capabilities will likely be more involved than, say, compiling a piece of new or revised code.We thus anticipate that researchers will require support from dedicated organizations associated with the environment that are composed of professional software engineers and data scientists. A major benefit will likely be that such extensions are of higherquality and broader applicability than ad hoc changes by physical scientists. Another anticipated significant change is improved collaboration among the researchers using the same environment. Since the environment is homogeneous within itself, many barriers to collaboration are minimized or eliminated. For example, data and analysis algorithms can be seamlessly shared, reused and re-purposed. In conclusion, we will be able to achieve a new level of scientific productivity in the Big

  12. Thin magnetic conductor substrate for placement-immune, electrically-small antennas.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eubanks, Travis Wayne; McDonald, Jacob J.; Loui, Hung

    2011-09-01

    An antenna is considered to be placement-immune when the antenna operates effectively regardless of where it is placed. By building antennas on magnetic conductor materials, the radiated fields will be positively reinforced in the desired radiation direction instead of being negatively affected by the environment. Although this idea has been discussed thoroughly in theoretical research, the difficulty in building thin magnetic conductor materials necessary for in-phase field reflections prevents this technology from becoming more widespread. This project's purpose is to build and measure an electrically-small antenna on a new type of non-metallic, thin magnetic conductor. This problem has not been previously addressed because non-metallic, thin magnetic conductor materials have not yet been discovered. This work proposed the creation of an artificial magnetic conductor (AMC) with in-phase field reflections without using internal electric conductors, the placement of an electrically-small antenna on this magnetic conductor, and the development of a transmit-receive system that utilizes the substrate and electrically-small antenna. By not using internal electric conductors to create the AMC, the substrate thickness can be minimized. The electrically-small antenna will demonstrate the substrate's ability to make an antenna placement immune, and the transmit-receive system combines both the antenna and the substrate while adding a third layer of system complexity to demonstrate the complete idea.

  13. Status of European manufacture of Toroidal Field conductor and strand for JT-60SA project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zani, Louis; Barabaschi, Pietro; Di Pietro, Enrico

    2013-01-01

    In the framework of the JT-60SA project, part of the Broader Approach (BA) agreement, EURATOM provides to Japan, the Toroidal Field (TF) magnet system, consisting of 18 superconducting coils. The procurement of the conductor for the TF coils is managed by Fusion for Energy, acting as EU representative in the BA agreement. The TF conductor procurement is split into two contracts, one dedicated to the production of Niobium Titanium (NbTi) and Cu strand and the other to TF conductor production through strand cabling and cable jacketing operations. The TF conductor is a rectangular-shaped cable-in-conduit conductor formed by 486 (0.81 mm diameter) strands (2/3 NbTi–1/3 Cu) wrapped in a stainless steel foil and embedded into a stainless steel jacket. The 18 TF coils require (including spares) 115 ‘Unit Lengths’ (UL) of such conductor, each 240 m long for a total of about 28 km. Correspondingly about 10,000 km for NbTi and 5000 km for Cu strand are produced. The Japanese company Furukawa Electric Co. (FEC) is in charge of TF strand manufacture while the Italian company Italian Consortium for Applied Superconductivity (ICAS) is in charge of cabling and jacketing of TF conductor ULs. In the paper, we provide information on the production stages presently achieved in TF strand and conductor contracts

  14. Design-Based Research as an Informal Learning Model for Choral Conductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Naomi

    2017-01-01

    The number of community choirs continues to grow, and literature endorsing the benefits of choral singing for physical, mental and emotional health and well-being is rapidly expanding, meaning that the professional development of community choral conductors is in the public interest. However, research on choral conductor education remains limited.…

  15. A Systematic Inventory of Motives for Becoming an Orchestra Conductor: A Preliminary Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makris, Ioannis; Mullet, Etienne

    2009-01-01

    The study examined the various motives (reasons) that may have led an individual to become an orchestra conductor interpreting classical works, using Apter's (2001) Metamotivational Theory framework. Questionnaires derived from the theory, consisting of 92 possible motives for becoming an orchestra conductor, were presented to 101 orchestra…

  16. Twenty years of cable-in-conduit conductors: 1975-1995

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dresner, L.

    1995-01-01

    This paper reviews our progress during the last two decades in understanding cable-in-conduit conductors. The emphasis is on the physical principles governing the behavior of cable-in-conduit conductors, and no detailed mathematics is presented. The paper is constructed as a historical narrative

  17. The Virtual Conductor: Learning and Teaching about Music, Performing, and Conducting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijholt, Antinus; Reidsma, Dennis; Ebbers, Rob; ter Maat, Mark

    2008-01-01

    The Virtual Conductor is an artificial conducting system for tutoring purposes that uses real-time audio analysis of music played by musicians and uses this analysis to animate a virtual human that acts as a conductor. The analysis detects the tempo and the dynamics of the music, compares the

  18. 30 CFR 75.700 - Grounding metallic sheaths, armors, and conduits enclosing power conductors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Grounding metallic sheaths, armors, and conduits enclosing power conductors. 75.700 Section 75.700 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH... Grounding § 75.700 Grounding metallic sheaths, armors, and conduits enclosing power conductors. [Statutory...

  19. The CEA JOSEFA test facility for sub-size conductors and joints

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Decool, P.; Libeyre, P.; Van Houtte, D.; Ciazynski, D.; Zani, L.; Serries, J.P.; Cloez, H.; Bej, S.

    2003-01-01

    The JOSEFA (Joint Sub-size Experiment FAcility) experimental test facility, installed at CEA/Cadarache is devoted to perform tests at cryogenic temperature on sub-size superconducting conductor and joint samples under parallel or transverse magnetic field. This facility was built in 1993 to investigate the performances of joints of cable-in-conduit conductors at sub-size level and further upgraded in the framework of European tasks. The samples of hairpin type using sub-size ITER conductors are cooled by a circulation of supercritical helium in a temperature range from 5 to 15 K and tested at a maximum current up to 10 kA. Two different helium bath cooled magnets allow to apply DC or AC transverse magnetic field up to 3.5 T or longitudinal magnetic field up to 7.5 T. A sliding system with a 240 mm stroke on the sample cryostat allows to test separately in the same sample either the conductor or the joint performances. The paper reports on how, through the conductor and joint development tasks, the facility performances were successfully increased and tested. The ITER TFMC joints using Nb3Sn conductors were first developed on this facility. The last developments, performed on ITER PF NbTi conductors and joints proved this facility to be a versatile and useful tool for superconducting magnet developments and showed the interest of possible upgrading to finalize conductor design. (author)

  20. Measuring ac-loss in high temperature superconducting cable-conductors using four probe methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kühle (fratrådt), Anders Van Der Aa; Træholt, Chresten; Olsen, Søren Krüger

    1999-01-01

    Measuring the ac-loss of superconducting cable conductors have many aspects in common with measuring the ac-loss of single superconducting tapes. In a cable conductor all tapes are connected to each other and to the test circuit through normal metal joints in each end. This makes such measurement...

  1. Sociocultural determinants of anticipated vaccine acceptance for acute watery diarrhea in early childhood in Katanga Province, Democratic Republic of Congo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merten, Sonja; Schaetti, Christian; Manianga, Cele; Lapika, Bruno; Hutubessy, Raymond; Chaignat, Claire-Lise; Weiss, Mitchell

    2013-09-01

    Rotavirus and oral cholera vaccines have the potential to reduce diarrhea-related child mortality in low-income settings and are recommended by the World Health Organization. Uptake of vaccination depends on community support, and is based on local priorities. This study investigates local perceptions of acute watery diarrhea in childhood and anticipated vaccine acceptance in two sites in the Democratic Republic of Congo. In 2010, 360 randomly selected non-affected adults were interviewed by using a semi-structured questionnaire. Witchcraft and breastfeeding were perceived as potential cause of acute watery diarrhea by 51% and 48% of respondents. Despite misperceptions, anticipated vaccine acceptance at no cost was 99%. The strongest predictor of anticipated vaccine acceptance if costs were assumed was the educational level of the respondents. Results suggest that the introduction of vaccines is a local priority and local (mis)perceptions of illness do not compromise vaccine acceptability if the vaccine is affordable.

  2. Organizations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hatch, Mary Jo

    Most of us recognize that organizations are everywhere. You meet them on every street corner in the form of families and shops, study in them, work for them, buy from them, pay taxes to them. But have you given much thought to where they came from, what they are today, and what they might become...... and considers many more. Mary Jo Hatch introduces the concept of organizations by presenting definitions and ideas drawn from the a variety of subject areas including the physical sciences, economics, sociology, psychology, anthropology, literature, and the visual and performing arts. Drawing on examples from...... prehistory and everyday life, from the animal kingdom as well as from business, government, and other formal organizations, Hatch provides a lively and thought provoking introduction to the process of organization....

  3. Organizations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hatch, Mary Jo

    and considers many more. Mary Jo Hatch introduces the concept of organizations by presenting definitions and ideas drawn from the a variety of subject areas including the physical sciences, economics, sociology, psychology, anthropology, literature, and the visual and performing arts. Drawing on examples from......Most of us recognize that organizations are everywhere. You meet them on every street corner in the form of families and shops, study in them, work for them, buy from them, pay taxes to them. But have you given much thought to where they came from, what they are today, and what they might become...... prehistory and everyday life, from the animal kingdom as well as from business, government, and other formal organizations, Hatch provides a lively and thought provoking introduction to the process of organization....

  4. Issues relating to representation of multiple conductors for a conductor equivalent: proposal for a model that takes into account the current distribution among semiconductor beam; Aspectos referentes a representaco de condutores multiplos por um condutor equivalente: proposta de um modelo que leva em conta a distribuicao da corrente entre os subcondutores do feixe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurokawa, S.; Costa, E.C.M.; Prado, A.J.; Bovolato, L.F. [Universidade Estadual Paulista (FEIS/UNESP), Ilha Solteira, SP (Brazil). Fac. de Engenharia], Emails: kurokawa@dee.feis.unesp.br, edumarquescosta@hotmail.com, afonsojp@uol.com.br, bovolato@dee.feis.unesp.br; Pissolato, J. [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (FEEC/UNICAMP), SP (Brazil). Fac. de Engenharia Eletrica e de Computacao], E-mail: pisso@dsce.fee.unicamp.br

    2009-07-01

    In a traditional multiple conductors, the sub-conductors are identical and are separated by a small distance. Based on this fact it is possible to say that currents that run through the sub-conductors are approximately equal, allowing the representation of a multiple conductor as a single conductor whose radius is equal to the geometric mean radius of the sub-conductors that is in the geometric center of the beam. The possibility of emergence of new configurations to multiple conductors, where is not possible to consider that the current is distributed equally among all sub-conductors, led the authors to propose an alternative method for calculating the parameters of the equivalent conductor taking into account the actual distribution of current between the sub-conductors. The method was applied to a typical beam where sub-conductors are equal and also in a multiple conductor in which the sub-conductors are different.

  5. Transport Jc Measurements of HTS Conductors under High Magnetic Field at LNCMI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaud, Xavier; Debray, François; Mossang, Eric; Tixador, Pascal; Rey, Jean-Michel; Lecrevisse, Thibault; Bruzek, Christian-Eric

    The LNCMI, the national French high magnetic field facility, provides high fields generated mainly by resistive magnets. Because of the forecast increasing price of electricity, LNCMI has a strong incentive to participate to the development and characterizations of HTS conductors in view of their use for the generation of strong field. Latest YBCO coated conductors have improved properties showing a great potential with that respect, without excluding Bi2212 and MgB2 for particular cases. We present the existing set-up to measure short straight or VAMAS type coil samples at variable temperature and high field up to 30 T, and some measurements obtained on different HTS conductors, Bi2212 round wires and YBCO coated conductors. We also report on the first results obtained at 18 T with a pancake coil made of commercial YBCO coated conductor tapes on a newly developed solenoid test bench.

  6. Thermal expulsion of helium from a quenching cable-in-conduit conductor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dresner, L.

    1981-01-01

    Three problems are solved in this paper, all by similarity solutions. The first is thermal expulsion from an entire hydraulic circuit initially unpressurized but uniformly heated by the Joule power of the normal conductor. The second problem is expulsion from an unheated but initially pressurized conductor. In both of these problems, the ends of the conductor are imagined to intrude into constant-pressure chambers. The second problem has less practical importance in applied superconductivity than the first, but it teaches us some useful things that aid in the solution of the third problem. In the third problem, the ends of the heated part of the conductor intrude into unheated parts of identical construction rather than constant-pressure chambers. This problem sheds some light on normal-zone propagation in cable-in-conduit conductors

  7. Wind Tunnel Tests on Aerodynamic Characteristics of two types of Iced Conductors with Elastic Support

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, You; Cheng, He; Xinxin, Wang

    2018-01-01

    The wind tunnel tests were carried out to obtain the variation laws of static aerodynamic characteristics of crescent and D-shape iced conductor with different wind velocities, wind attack angles and torsional elastic support stiffness. Test results show that the variation of wind velocity has a relatively large influence on the aerodynamic coefficients of crescent conductor with torsional elastic support 1. However, the influence on that of D-shape conductor is not obvious. With the increase of the torsional elastic support stiffness, the lift and moment coefficient curves of the crescent iced conductor form an obvious peak phenomenon in the range of 0 ° ∼30°. Meanwhile, the wind attack angle position corresponding to the maximum value of the lift and moment coefficients of the D-shape iced conductor appear a backward moving phenomenon.

  8. Post-traumatic stress disorder in occupational settings: anticipating and managing the risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McFarlane, Alexander C; Bryant, Richard A

    2007-09-01

    Post-traumatic stress disorder has had a substantial impact on employer liability for workplace psychological injury. The emergency services are an example of high-risk workforces that demand clear policies and procedures within an organization. The challenge is to minimize the injury to individuals and lessen the cost to organizations through the optimal application of preventative strategies. This field is not well represented in standard keyword searches and Medline was examined with linked fields of practice and research. Consensus guidelines that refer to this domain were also utilized. Few conclusions can be reached from the literature which directly examined occupational settings. Organizations need to anticipate the possible traumatic exposures that may affect the workforce and have strategies to deal with the effects in the workplace, particularly the negative mental health outcomes in some personnel. This domain is relevant to all employers as accidents and violence are possible in most workplaces. Screening should be considered for high-risk individuals, particularly following a major traumatic event or cumulative exposure, such as in the emergency services. While psychological debriefing has no demonstrated benefit, the benefits of early intervention necessitate ready access to evidence-based treatments that have minimum barriers to care. Employers should be aware that distress may present indirectly in a similar way as conflict with management, poor performance and poor general health. The knowledge about the impact of traumatic events obliges employers to have an active strategy to anticipate and manage the aftermath of such events as well as cumulative traumatic exposures.

  9. Nb3Sn conductor development and characterization for NED+ Nb3Sn conductor development and characterization for NED+

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boutboul, T.; den Ouden, A.; Devred, A.; Fabbricatore, P.; Greco, M.; Leroy, D.; Oberli, L.; Pedrini, D.; Volpini, G.

    2008-02-01

    The main purpose of Next European Dipole (NED) project is to design and to build an Nb3Sn ~ 15 T dipole magnet. Due to budget constraints, NED is mainly focused on superconducting cable development and production. In this work, an update is given on the NED conductor development by Alstom-MSA and SMI, which uses, respectively, Internal-Tin-Diffusion and Powder-In-Tube methods, with the aim of reaching a non-copper critical current density of ~ 3000 A/mm2 at 12 T and 4.2 K. Characterization results, including critical current and magnetization data, are presented and discussed, as well, for conductors already developed by both companies for this project. SMI succeeded to produce a strand with 50 μm diameter filaments and with a critical current of ~ 1400 A at 4.2 K and 12 T, corresponding to a non-copper critical current density of ~ 2500 A/mm2. Cabling trials with this strand were successfully carried out at LBNL.

  10. Using scenario planning in public health: anticipating alternative futures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neiner, Jennifer A; Howze, Elizabeth H; Greaney, Mary L

    2004-01-01

    Scenario planning is a method for anticipating possible alternative futures. Used widely in business applications, it allows planners to anticipate problems, reevaluate assumptions, and reflect on consequences of those alternative futures. In this article, scenario planning is applied to public health, specifically to illustrate the four steps in scenario planning for public health using a health department's desire to address chronic disease prevention and control. An unhealthy diet and physical inactivity are considered to be key risk factors. The scenarios are presented in table format and are for illustration purposes only. Many other plausible scenarios could be constructed. Scenario planning allows stake-holders to define a desired, shared vision of the future, but more important, they can better prepare public health professionals to be successful in a constantly changing environment.

  11. Pramipexole modulates the neural network of reward anticipation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Zheng; Hammer, Anke; Camara, Estela; Münte, Thomas F

    2011-05-01

    Pramipexole is widely prescribed to treat Parkinson's disease. It has been found to cause impulse control disorders such as pathological gambling. To examine how pramipexole modulates the network of reward anticipation, we carried out a pharmacological functional magnetic resonance imaging study with a double-blind, within-subject design. During the anticipation of monetary rewards, pramipexole increased the activity of the nucleus accumbens (NAcc), enhanced the interaction between the NAcc and the anterior insula, but weakened the interaction between the NAcc and the prefrontal cortex. These results suggest that pramipexole may exaggerate incentive and affective responses to possible rewards, but reduce the top-down control of impulses, leading to an increase in impulsive behaviors. This imbalance between the prefrontal-striatum connectivity and the insula-striatum connectivity may represent the neural mechanism of pathological gambling caused by pramipexole. Copyright © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  12. The predictive chameleon: evidence for anticipated social action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genschow, Oliver; Brass, Marcel

    2015-04-01

    Extensive research has demonstrated that movement observation leads to an activation of a corresponding motor representation in the observer. Recent theoretical accounts have put forward the idea that such motor simulation serves an anticipatory function. In line with this assumption, the results from 2 experiments indicate that merely observing an event in someone else (e.g., nose wrinkling) triggers the anticipated action in the observer (e.g., nose scratching). Moreover, extending recent findings on ideomotor action, our second experiment suggests that this anticipated action effect is based on inferring the other person's desire to act. Thus, our research demonstrates the existence of a link between inferring another person's desire to move and the release of an action that matches this desire. Theoretical implications are discussed. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved.

  13. [Precarity, vulnerability, anticipating end-of-life care at home].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonneval, Camille

    2016-02-01

    Many patients want to end their life at home. Care teams adapt to these wishes and organise a form of treatment which blends safety of care and the respect of the expectations of the patients and family members. When factors of precarity increase the vulnerability inherent to the end of life, caregivers anticipate and support as best as they can the difficulties encountered as testified by a hospital at home team in Dax. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  14. Anticipating WPS PIN Vulnerability to Secure Wireless Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Indra Dwi Rianto

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available WiFi Protected Setup (WPS is a standardized function supported by numerous vendors of wireless routers and access point to help set up connection to a wireless local area network. It is designed to simplify the set up and generally enabled by default. Due to design flaw, the WPS or QSS PIN is susceptible to a brute forceattack. In this paper, we test the security vulnerability occurred, evaluate the performance and give recommendations to anticipate the attack.

  15. Anticipating and managing opioid side effects in the elderly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Caren McHenry; Forrester, Charles Samuel

    2013-03-01

    Pain is a common complaint in the elderly, and opioids are useful agents for management of both acute and chronic pain. Opioids are known to cause a variety of adverse effects, and these adverse effects can be particularly problematic for the frail elderly patient and may limit their use. As a result, this can lead to undertreatment of pain and poor patient outcome. Understanding, anticipating, and managing opioid side effects is an important component of care for the elderly patient.

  16. Skillful anticipation: maternity nurses' perspectives on maintaining safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyndon, A

    2010-10-01

    To describe maternity nurses' perspectives on how they contribute to safety during labour and birth at two urban academic medical centres in the United States. Grounded theory: data were collected using semistructured, open-ended interviews and participant observations with registered nurses (RNs) in two inpatient maternity settings. Data were analysed simultaneously using constant comparison, and dimensional and situational analysis. Purposive sample of 12 RNs working in the two maternity units. Safety was broadly conceptualised by RNs as protecting the physical, psychological and emotional wellbeing of a woman and her family. During labour and birth, safety was maintained by RNs through "skillful anticipation" of situational potential. This required integration of medical and technical knowledge and skill with intimate knowledge of the woman and the operational context of care to achieve accurate situation awareness and appropriate future planning. Conditions and processes promoting skillful anticipation included being prepared, knowing, and envisioning the whole picture. In the two settings, maternity RNs made active contributions to safe birth in the context of constrained resources through preparing the environment, anticipating potential problems and trapping errors before they reached the patient. The contributions of maternity nurses to team situation awareness and to creating safety need to be appreciated and administratively supported. Continued research with RNs may reveal previously unrecognised opportunities for safety improvements.

  17. Lack of food anticipation in Per2 mutant mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feillet, Céline A; Ripperger, Jürgen A; Magnone, Maria Chiara; Dulloo, Abdul; Albrecht, Urs; Challet, Etienne

    2006-10-24

    Predicting time of food availability is key for survival in most animals. Under restricted feeding conditions, this prediction is manifested in anticipatory bouts of locomotor activity and body temperature. This process seems to be driven by a food-entrainable oscillator independent of the main, light-entrainable clock located in the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) of the hypothalamus . Although the SCN clockwork involves self-sustaining transcriptional and translational feedback loops based on rhythmic expression of mRNA and proteins of clock genes , the molecular mechanisms responsible for food anticipation are not well understood. Period genes Per1 and Per2 are crucial for the SCN's resetting to light . Here, we investigated the role of these genes in circadian anticipatory behavior by studying rest-activity and body-temperature rhythms of Per1 and Per2 mutant mice under restricted feeding conditions. We also monitored expression of clock genes in the SCN and peripheral tissues. Whereas wild-type and Per1 mutant mice expressed regular food-anticipatory activity, Per2 mutant mice did not show food anticipation. In peripheral tissues, however, phase shifts of clock-gene expression in response to timed food restriction were comparable in all genotypes. In conclusion, a mutation in Per2 abolishes anticipation of mealtime, without interfering with peripheral synchronization by feeding cycles.

  18. A Nanophase-Separated, Quasi-Solid-State Polymeric Single-Ion Conductor: Polysulfide Exclusion for Lithium–Sulfur Batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Jinhong; Song, Jongchan; Lee, Hongkyung; Noh, Hyungjun; Kim, Yun-Jung; Kwon, Sung Hyun; Lee, Seung Geol; Kim, Hee-Tak

    2017-04-19

    Formation of soluble polysulfide (PS), which is a key feature of lithium sulfur (Li–S) batteries, provides a fast redox kinetic based on a liquid–solid mechanism; however, it imposes the critical problem of PS shuttle. Here, we address the dilemma by exploiting a solvent-swollen polymeric single-ion conductor (SPSIC) as the electrolyte medium of the Li–S battery. The SPSIC consisting of a polymeric single-ion conductor and lithium salt-free organic solvents provides Li ion hopping by forming a nanoscale conducting channel and suppresses PS shuttle according to the Donnan exclusion principle when being employed for Li–S batteries. The organic solvents at the interface of the sulfur/carbon composite and SPSIC eliminate the poor interfacial contact and function as a soluble PS reservoir for maintaining the liquid–solid mechanism. Furthermore, the quasi-solid-state SPSIC allows the fabrication of a bipolar-type stack, which promises the realization of a high-voltage and energy-dense Li–S battery.

  19. AC loss, interstrand resistance and mechanical properties of prototype EU DEMO TF conductors up to 30 000 load cycles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yagotyntsev, K.; Nijhuis, A.

    2018-01-01

    Two prototype Nb3Sn cable-in-conduit conductors conductors were designed and manufactured for the toroidal field (TF) magnet system of the envisaged European DEMO fusion reactor. The AC loss, contact resistance and mechanical properties of two sample conductors were tested in the Twente Cryogenic

  20. Admittance of multiterminal quantum Hall conductors at kilohertz frequencies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hernández, C.; Consejo, C.; Chaubet, C.; Degiovanni, P.

    2014-01-01

    We present an experimental study of the low frequency admittance of quantum Hall conductors in the [100 Hz, 1 MHz] frequency range. We show that the frequency dependence of the admittance of the sample strongly depends on the topology of the contacts connections. Our experimental results are well explained within the Christen and Büttiker approach for finite frequency transport in quantum Hall edge channels taking into account the influence of the coaxial cables capacitance. In the Hall bar geometry, we demonstrate that there exists a configuration in which the cable capacitance does not influence the admittance measurement of the sample. In this case, we measure the electrochemical capacitance of the sample and observe its dependence on the filling factor

  1. Admittance of multiterminal quantum Hall conductors at kilohertz frequencies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hernández, C. [Departamento de Física, Universidad Militar Nueva Granada, Carrera 11 101-80 Bogotá D.C. (Colombia); Consejo, C.; Chaubet, C., E-mail: christophe.chaubet@univ-montp2.fr [Université Montpellier 2, Laboratoire Charles Coulomb UMR5221, F-34095 Montpellier, France and CNRS, Laboratoire Charles Coulomb UMR5221, F-34095 Montpellier (France); Degiovanni, P. [Université de Lyon, Fédération de Physique Andrée Marie Ampère, CNRS, Laboratoire de Physique de l' Ecole Normale Supérieure de Lyon, 46 allée d' Italie, 69364 Lyon Cedex 07 (France)

    2014-03-28

    We present an experimental study of the low frequency admittance of quantum Hall conductors in the [100 Hz, 1 MHz] frequency range. We show that the frequency dependence of the admittance of the sample strongly depends on the topology of the contacts connections. Our experimental results are well explained within the Christen and Büttiker approach for finite frequency transport in quantum Hall edge channels taking into account the influence of the coaxial cables capacitance. In the Hall bar geometry, we demonstrate that there exists a configuration in which the cable capacitance does not influence the admittance measurement of the sample. In this case, we measure the electrochemical capacitance of the sample and observe its dependence on the filling factor.

  2. Mixed conductor anodes: Ni as electrocatalyst for hydrogen conversion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Primdahl, S.; Mogensen, Mogens Bjerg

    2002-01-01

    Five types of anodes for solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC) are examined on an yttria-stabilised zirconia (YSZ) electrolyte by impedance spectroscopy at 850 degreesC in hydrogen. The examined porous anodes are a Ni/Zr(0.92)Y(0.16)O(2.08) (Ni/YSZ) cermet, a Ni/Ce(0.9)Gd(0.1)O(1.95) (Ni/CGI) cermet, a Ce...... conductors (MIEC's), distinctly in the low-frequency part of the impedance spectra. An effect of isotope exchange (H(2)/H(2)O to D(2)/D(2)O) is observed for all anodes. The low-frequency limitation is suggested to be hydrogen adsorption and/or dissociation on the surface of MIEC electrodes, (C) 2002 Elsevier...

  3. Why is AgBr not a superionic conductor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andreoni, W.; Tosi, M.P.

    1982-03-01

    The behaviour of AgCl and AgBr is contrasted with that of fluorite-type crystals, which also are Frenkel conductors at low temperatures but undergo a diffuse transition to a superionic phase before melting. Concentrating on AgBr for which the relevant defect parameters are better known, a Debye-Hueckel model for the interactions between defects, modified for saturation of screening at high defect concentrations, is used to show that both Frenkel and Schottky disorder are present and rapidly increasing with temperature in the hot solid, with the Schottky component rapidly overtaking the Frenkel component. It is suggested that this defect behaviour frustrates a superionic transition and leads to melting accompanied by an anomalous ionic conductivity in the premelting region. The model is tested by a comparison with data on the Frenkel defect concentration in superionic PbF 2 . (author)

  4. Directing cellular information flow via CRISPR signal conductors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yuchen; Zhan, Yonghao; Chen, Zhicong; He, Anbang; Li, Jianfa; Wu, Hanwei; Liu, Li; Zhuang, Chengle; Lin, Junhao; Guo, Xiaoqiang; Zhang, Qiaoxia; Huang, Weiren; Cai, Zhiming

    2016-11-01

    The complex phenotypes of eukaryotic cells are controlled by decision-making circuits and signaling pathways. A key obstacle to implementing artificial connections in signaling networks has been the lack of synthetic devices for efficient sensing, processing and control of biological signals. By extending sgRNAs to include modified riboswitches that recognize specific signals, we can create CRISPR-Cas9-based 'signal conductors' that regulate transcription of endogenous genes in response to external or internal signals of interest. These devices can be used to construct all the basic types of Boolean logic gates that perform logical signal operations in mammalian cells without needing the layering of multiple genetic circuits. They can also be used to rewire cellular signaling events by constructing synthetic links that couple different signaling pathways. Moreover, this approach can be applied to redirect oncogenic signal transduction by controlling simultaneous bidirectional (ON-OFF) gene transcriptions, thus enabling reprogramming of the fate of cancer cells.

  5. PAC study of ionic motion in silver compound superionic conductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mekata, M.; Seguchi, Y.

    1983-01-01

    Ionic motion in superionic conductors, Ag 2 S, Ag 2 Se and Ag 3 SI was investigated by γ-γ PAC on 111 Cd. Diffusion constant measurements showed that probe ions migrate almost as fast as Ag + ions above 500 K in Ag 2 S and Ag 2 Se and above 700 K in Ag 3 SI. Multivalent impurities were found to be unstable in AgI and Ag 2 Te. The correlation time of ionic motion was deduced from the observed relaxation rate together with the diffusion constants. The correlation time and its activation energy increase in order of Ag 2 S, Ag 2 Se and Ag 3 SI. The flight distance of Ag + ions remains almost constant in the measured temperature range. (Auth.)

  6. Manufacture of the poloidal field conductor insert coil (PFCI)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baker, W. [EFDA CSU Garching, Boltzmannstrasse 2, 85748 Garching bei Muenchen (Germany); Keefe, C. [Tesla Engineering, Storrington, Sussex (United Kingdom); Rajainmaeki, H. [EFDA CSU Garching, Boltzmannstrasse 2, 85748 Garching bei Muenchen (Germany)], E-mail: hannu.rajainmaki@tech.efda.org; Salpietro, E. [EFDA CSU Garching, Boltzmannstrasse 2, 85748 Garching bei Muenchen (Germany)

    2007-10-15

    Within the framework of the R and D programme for international thermonuclear experimental reactor (ITER) the European team European Fusion Development Agreement (EFDA) has been charged with the design and manufacture of the poloidal field conductor insert coil (PFCI). The purpose of the PFCI is to test and demonstrate the performance of long-length full-scale NbTi conductors in ITER-relevant conditions. The PFCI will be tested in the central solenoid model coil test facility at the JAEA, Naka, Japan. This paper details the complete manufacturing of the PFCI including development, forming machining, pre-assembly, impregnation, final assembly and testing. The PFCI is a single-layered wound solenoid of nine turns with a transition joggle in the centre section of the winding and an intermediate joint connection between the upper termination and the main coil winding. To give the required overall dimensions to fit in the testing facility, preformed and machined glass resin composite filler pieces are assembled with the winding and is finally vacuum pressure impregnated (VPI) to create a single assembly unit. The PFCI is enclosed for assembly in a support structure, which consists of an upper and lower flange, each made up of four electrically insulated machined stainless steel castings, and 12 tie rods preloading the complete assembly in the vertical direction. The upper flange is equipped with four radial restraining jacks and the lower flange is equipped with four sets of studs and shear keys to withstand the net vertical and lateral electromagnetic forces. The PFCI is equipped with inductive heaters, voltage taps, temperature transducers, strain gauges and other instrumentation as diagnostics to monitor the performance. The current status of the manufacture is that the coil has passed the final acceptance tests and it is in the support structure assembly stage.

  7. Calorimetric method for current sharing temperature measurements in ITER conductor samples in SULTAN

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bagnasco, M.

    2009-01-01

    Several Toroidal Field Conductor short samples with slight layout variations have been assembled and tested in the SULTAN facility at CRPP. The measurement campaigns started in 2007 and are still ongoing. The performance of every conductor is expressed in terms of current sharing temperature (T cs ), i.e. the temperature at which a defined electric field, 10 μV/m, is detected in the cable due to the incipient superconducting-to-normal state transition. The T cs at specific operating conditions is the key design parameter for the ITER conductors and is the main object of the qualification tests. Typically, the average electric field is measured with voltage tap pairs attached on the jacket along the conductor. The inability however to explain observed premature voltage developments opened the discussion about possible alternative measuring methods. The He flow calorimetric method is based on the measurement of the resistive power generation in the conductor. It relies on the detection of very small temperature increases along the conductor in steady state operation. The accuracy and the reliability of the calorimetric method in SULTAN are critically discussed, with particular emphasis on the instrumentation requirements and test procedures. The application of the calorimetric method to the recent SULTAN test campaigns is described with its merits and limits. For future tests of ITER conductors in SULTAN, the calorimetric method for T cs test is proposed as a routine procedure.

  8. Power System State Estimation Accuracy Enhancement Using Temperature Measurements of Overhead Line Conductors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wydra Michał

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Power system state estimation is a process of real-time online modeling of an electric power system. The estimation is performed with the application of a static model of the system and current measurements of electrical quantities that are encumbered with an error. Usually, a model of the estimated system is also encumbered with an uncertainty, especially power line resistances that depend on the temperature of conductors. At present, a considerable development of technologies for dynamic power line rating can be observed. Typically, devices for dynamic line rating are installed directly on the conductors and measure basic electric parameters such as the current and voltage as well as non-electric ones as the surface temperature of conductors, their expansion, stress or the conductor sag angle relative to the plumb line. The objective of this paper is to present a method for power system state estimation that uses temperature measurements of overhead line conductors as supplementary measurements that enhance the model quality and thereby the estimation accuracy. Power system state estimation is presented together with a method of using the temperature measurements of power line conductors for updating the static power system model in the state estimation process. The results obtained with that method have been analyzed based on the estimation calculations performed for an example system - with and without taking into account the conductor temperature measurements. The final part of the article includes conclusions and suggestions for the further research.

  9. Stress dependence of the critical currents in neutron irradiated (RE)BCO coated conductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emhofer, J.; Eisterer, M.; Weber, H. W.

    2013-03-01

    The application of HTS coated conductors in future fusion or accelerator magnets is currently of increasing interest. High Lorentz forces and therefore high hoop stresses act on the conductors in large coils. The conductor is furthermore exposed to neutron radiation in fusion or accelerator magnets. The expected neutron fluence over the desired lifetime of such magnets can be simulated by irradiation experiments in a fission reactor. The coated conductors were characterized in the pristine state and after irradiation to a fast neutron fluence of 1 × 1022 m-2 (ITER design fluence). The sensitivity of the critical currents to applied stress was measured in liquid nitrogen. The cold part of the setup was positioned within a rotatable split coil electro-magnet to assess the Ic-anisotropy up to 1.4 T under maximum Lorentz force configuration. The Ic-sensitivity to applied stress changed significantly in the GdBCO/IBAD conductor after irradiation, whereas nearly no change was observed in the YBCO/RABiTS conductor. Furthermore, Ic and Tc were strongly reduced in the GdBCO/IBAD sample after irradiation. The angular dependence of Ic changed for both samples in different ways after the irradiation, but no change in the angular dependence was observed upon applying stress. The high neutron capture cross-section of Gd and the resulting strong reduction of Tc seem to be responsible for the different stress dependences of Ic in irradiated Gd-123 coated conductors.

  10. A Novel Method for Detection and Classification of Covered Conductor Faults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanislav Misak

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Medium-Voltage (MV overhead lines with Covered Conductors (CCs are increasingly being used around the world primarily in forested or dissected terrain areas or in urban areas where it is not possible to utilize MV cable lines. The CC is specific in high operational reliability provided by the conductor core insulation compared to Aluminium-Conductor Steel-Reinforced (ACSR overhead lines. The only disadvantage of the CC is rather the problematic detection of faults compared to the ACSR. In this work, we consider the following faults: the contact of a tree branch with a CC and the fall of a conductor on the ground. The standard protection relays are unable to detect the faults and so the faults pose a risk for individuals in the vicinity of the conductor as well as it compromises the overall safety and reliability of the MV distribution system. In this article, we continue with our previous work aimed at the method enabling detection of the faults and we introduce a method enabling a classification of the fault type. Such a classification is especially important for an operator of an MV distribution system to plan the optimal maintenance or repair the faulty conductors since the fall of a tree branch can be solved later whereas the breakdown of a conductor means an immediate action of the operator.

  11. Modeling and Mechanism of Rain-Wind Induced Vibration of Bundled Conductors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chao Zhou

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Under the certain rain-wind conditions, bundled conductors exhibit a rain-wind induced large-amplitude vibration. This type of vibration can cause the fatigue fractures of conductors and fatigue failures of spacers, which threaten the safety operation and serviceability of high-voltage transmission line. To reveal the mechanism of rain-wind induced vibration of bundled conductors, a series of 2-dimensional CFD models about the twin bundled conductors with rivulets are developed to obtain the curves of aerodynamic coefficients with the upper rivulet angle. The influences of the forward conductor’s aerodynamic shielding and the upper rivulet’s aerodynamic characteristics on the leeward conductor are discussed. Furthermore, a 2-dimensional 3DOF model for the rain-wind induced vibration of the leeward conductor is established. The model is solved by finite element method and Newmark method, and the effects of the wind velocity and the upper rivulet’s motion on vibration amplitude of the leeward conductor are analyzed. By contrast with the wake-induced vibration, it can easily find that the characteristics of rain-wind vibration are obviously different from those of the wake-induced vibration, and the main reason of the rain-induced vibration may be due to the upper rivulet’s motion.

  12. Electrohydrodynamic direct—writing of conductor—insulator-conductor multi-layer interconnection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zheng Gao-Feng; Pei Yan-Bo; Wang Xiang; Zheng Jian-Yi; Sun Dao-Heng

    2014-01-01

    A multi-layer interconnection structure is a basic component of electronic devices, and printing of the multi-layer interconnection structure is the key process in printed electronics. In this work, electrohydrodynamic direct-writing (EDW) is utilized to print the conductor—insulator—conductor multi-layer interconnection structure. Silver ink is chosen to print the conductor pattern, and a polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) solution is utilized to fabricate the insulator layer between the bottom and top conductor patterns. The influences of EDW process parameters on the line width of the printed conductor and insulator patterns are studied systematically. The obtained results show that the line width of the printed structure increases with the increase of the flow rate, but decreases with the increase of applied voltage and PVP content in the solution. The average resistivity values of the bottom and top silver conductor tracks are determined to be 1.34 × 10 −7 Ω·m and 1.39 × 10 −7 Ω·m, respectively. The printed PVP layer between the two conductor tracks is well insulated, which can meet the insulation requirement of the electronic devices. This study offers an alternative, fast, and cost-effective method of fabricating conductor—insulator—conductor multi-layer interconnections in the electronic industry

  13. Anticipating flash-floods: Multi-scale aspects of the social response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lutoff, Céline; Creutin, Jean-Dominique; Ruin, Isabelle; Borga, Marco

    2016-10-01

    This paper aims at exploring the anticipation phase before a flash flood, corresponding to the time between the first climatic signs and the peak-flow. We focus the analysis on people's behaviors observing how they use this period to organize themselves for facing the event. The analysis is made through the definition of three specific scales: the timeliness scale, an analytical scale of anticipatory actions and the scale of human response network. Using a cross-scale and cross level analysis enables to define different phases in the anticipation period where different kind of environmental precursors are mobilized by the actors in order to make sense of the situation and adapt. Three main points deserve attention at the end: firstly, the concepts of timeliness, anticipatory actions and crisis network scales enable to understand differently what happens both physically and socially during an extreme event; secondly, analyzing the precursors shows that each level of crisis network uses different kinds of signs for estimating the situation, organizing and reacting; thirdly, there is a potential for improvement in observation on both social and physical processes at different scales, for verifying the theory of the anticipatory phases.

  14. Diffusion joint using silver layer of YBCO coated conductors for applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kato, J.; Sakai, N.; Miyata, S.; Ibi, A.; Sutoh, Y.; Yamada, Y.; Chikumoto, N.; Nakao, K.; Izumi, T.; Shiohara, Y.

    2008-01-01

    We succeeded in repairing YBCO coated conductors with local damage using the diffusion joint technique of stabilizing silver layers. A short piece of YBCO coated conductor was put on the damaged part in a face to face manner and joined by the diffusion technique. We also succeed in joining two multi-filament YBCO coated conductors (MFCCs) using the diffusion joint process. After the joint process, I c was not reduced in any filament, resistance of the joint was low and practically constant in all the joined filaments, and resistance between two adjacent filaments was high enough

  15. Optimization of multilayered Bi-2223/Ag-Au conductors for current lead applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martini, L.; Barberis, F.; Berti, R.; Bigoni, L.; Curcio, F.; Volpini, G.

    1999-01-01

    Multilayered Bi-2223 composite conductors fabricated by means of the Accordion folding method appear to be suitable for applications as current leads (CL). In this work, the authors report on the results of electrical characterization of silver-gold alloy sheathed Bi-2223 conductors up to 400 mm long, having a DC overall critical current density J ceng exceeding 3000 A/cm 2 at 77 K. The I c evolution from the first to the third thermal treatment as well as the uniformity along the specimen length has been monitored. Lastly, calculations of the magnetic field profile across stacked multilayered Bi-2223 conductors are reported and discussed

  16. tsk tsk tsk and Beyond: Anticipating Distributed Aesthetics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darren Tofts

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper considers some important precursory events in the formative history of Australian media arts. These events have anticipated the post-object, serial conception of arts practice that Nicholas Bourriaud has called relational aesthetics. Relational aesthetics interpret both artwork and audience in differential, highly idiosyncratic ways; ways that have become important to our contemporary vocabulary of interactive, immersive and interfaced art. This paper will consider the ways in which the concept of the network was important to artists such as Philip Brophy & Tsk-tsk-tsk in the early 1980s. It will also explore related notions of “audience manipulation” in the work of Martine Corompt.

  17. Hi-Tech Skills Anticipation for Sustainable Development in Russia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valery Gurtov

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available It is evident that there is a heightened importance in Russia attributed to ensuring that students develop skills, which will enable them to be more productive and engaged citizens. This article deals with a skills anticipation methodology for seven hi-tech industries in Russia that resulted in the development of models for both soft and hard skills. There is a variety of widely applied methods – qualitative projection of labor market parameters, desk studies, documents analysis, foresight sessions, employers' and experts' surveys. As a result, new skills models are to help the specialists to effectively overcome the challenges, apply innovative decisions, and increase their technological knowledge.

  18. Remarkable weakness against cleavage stress for YBCO-coated conductors and its effect on the YBCO coil performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yanagisawa, Y.; Nakagome, H.; Takematsu, T.; Takao, T.; Sato, N.; Takahashi, M.; Maeda, H.

    2011-01-01

    Cleavage strength for YBCO-coated conductor is extremely low, typically 0.5 MPa. The remarkable weakness is due to cracks on the slit edge of the conductor. The cleavage stress appears on YBCO double pancake coils impregnated with epoxy. The cleavage stress should be avoided in the coil winding. Cleavage strength for an YBCO-coated conductor at 77 K was investigated with a model experiment. The nominal cleavage strength for an YBCO-coated conductor is extremely low, typically 0.5 MPa. This low nominal cleavage strength is due to stress concentration on a small part of the YBCO-coated conductor in cleavage fracture. Debonding by the cleavage stress occurs at the interface between the buffer layer and the Hastelloy substrate. The nominal cleavage strength for a slit edge of the conductor is 2.5-times lower than that for the original edge of the conductor; cracks and micro-peel existing over the slit edge reduce the cleavage strength for the slit edge. Cleavage stress and peel stress should be avoided in coil winding, as they easily delaminate the YBCO-coated conductor, resulting in substantial degradation of coil performance. These problems are especially important for epoxy impregnated YBCO-coated conductor coils. It appears that effect of cleavage stress and peel stress are mostly negligible for paraffin impregnated YBCO-coated conductor coils or dry wound YBCO-coated conductor coils.

  19. Fabrication and properties of conductors for fusion magnets. Annual report, October 1, 1976--September 30, 1977. [Nb/sub 3/ Sn conductor testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1978-06-01

    The objectives of this project are to develop suitable and economical conductors for fusion magnets, in particular, to develop methods for improving the mechanical properties of Nb/sub 3/Sn conductors. This includes the measurement and study of degradation mechanisms of Nb/sub 3/Sn conductors under mechanical strain. The investigation of degradation in the superconducting properties of Nb/sub 3/Sn conductors under mechanical stresses for FY 1977 can be divided into the following areas: (1) monofilamentary Nb/sub 3/Sn wires, (2) multifilamentary Nb/sub 3/Sn wires and conductors, (3) effects of additives to Nb/sub 3/Sn, (4) mechanism for degradation, and (5) construction of high field test facilities. Our effort in FY 1977 has been concentrated in the investigation of T/sub c/, J/sub c/ and H/sub c2/ variations in monofilamentary Nb/sub 3/Sn wires. The most important finding in this study is that a Nb/sub 3/Sn wire can sustain mechanical strain well beyond 1% if a proper ratio of the matrix to the Nb core was chosen.

  20. Fabrication and modeling of stretchable conductors for traumatic brain injury research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Wenzhe

    Stretchable electronics are an emergent class of electronics that can retain their electric functionality under large mechanical deformation, such as stretching, bending and compression. Like traditional electric circuits, stretchable electronics rely on electrical conductors, but in this specific instance the conductors must also be stretchable. This thesis research had three goals: (1) fabricate elastically stretchable conductors that retain their electrical conductance when stretched by tens of percent of strain; (2) understand the underlying stretching mechanism of gold conductors on polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) substrates; (3) produce a special device---a stretchable microelectrode array, which contains a matrix of stretchable conductors that enables a new approach to studying traumatic brain injury. We first developed and optimized the micro-fabrication process to make elastically stretchable thin gold film conductors on PDMS substrates. The conductors can retain electrical conduction while being stretched reversibly to 140% uniaxially and 16% radially. We further developed a fabrication process to encapsulate the conductors with either a commercially available photopatternable silicone (PPS) or with PDMS. 100 microm by 100 microm vias were patterned in the encapsulation layer to expose electrical contacts. PPS encapsulated conductors can be stretched uniaxially to 80%, and the PDMS encapsulated conductor can be stretched to ˜15%, without losing electrical conduction. We also introduced acrylate-based shape memory polymers (SMPs) as a new type of substrate for stretchable conductors. Their stiffness can be tuned by varying the monomer composition or by changing the ambient temperature. Thin gold film conductors deposited on pre-strained SMPs remain conductive when first stretched and then relaxed to their pre-strain value. Moreover, an SMP can also serve as a stretchable carrier to make pre-strained conductors on an overlying PDMS membrane. The resistance of

  1. A high critical current density MOCVD coated conductor with strong vortex pinning centers suitable for very high field use

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Z; Kametani, F; Larbalestier, D C; Chen, Y; Xie, Y; Selvamanickam, V

    2009-01-01

    We have made extensive low temperature and high field evaluations of a recent 2.1 μm thick coated conductor (CC) grown by metal-organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD) with a view to its use for high field magnet applications, for which its very strong Hastelloy substrate makes it very suitable. This conductor contains dense three-dimensional (Y,Sm) 2 O 3 nanoprecipitates, which are self-aligned in planes tilted ∼7 deg. from the tape plane. Very strong vortex pinning is evidenced by high critical current density J c values of ∼3.1 MA cm -2 at 77 K and ∼43 MA cm -2 at 4.2 K, and by a strongly enhanced irreversibility field H irr , which reaches that of Nb 3 Sn (∼28 T at 1.5 K) at 60 K, even in the inferior direction of H parallel c axis. At 4.2 K, J c values are ∼15% of the depairing current density J d , much the highest of any superconductor suitable for magnet construction.

  2. A high critical current density MOCVD coated conductor with strong vortex pinning centers suitable for very high field use

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Z; Kametani, F; Larbalestier, D C [National High Magnetic Field Laboratory, Florida State University, Tallahassee, FL 32310 (United States); Chen, Y; Xie, Y; Selvamanickam, V [SuperPower Incorporated, Schenectady, NY 12304 (United States)], E-mail: zhijun@asc.magnet.fsu.edu

    2009-05-15

    We have made extensive low temperature and high field evaluations of a recent 2.1 {mu}m thick coated conductor (CC) grown by metal-organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD) with a view to its use for high field magnet applications, for which its very strong Hastelloy substrate makes it very suitable. This conductor contains dense three-dimensional (Y,Sm){sub 2}O{sub 3} nanoprecipitates, which are self-aligned in planes tilted {approx}7 deg. from the tape plane. Very strong vortex pinning is evidenced by high critical current density J{sub c} values of {approx}3.1 MA cm{sup -2} at 77 K and {approx}43 MA cm{sup -2} at 4.2 K, and by a strongly enhanced irreversibility field H{sub irr}, which reaches that of Nb{sub 3}Sn ({approx}28 T at 1.5 K) at 60 K, even in the inferior direction of H parallel c axis. At 4.2 K, J{sub c} values are {approx}15% of the depairing current density J{sub d}, much the highest of any superconductor suitable for magnet construction.

  3. Children's schemes for anticipating the validity of nets for solids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Vince; Smith, Ken

    2017-09-01

    There is growing acknowledgement of the importance of spatial abilities to student achievement across a broad range of domains and disciplines. Nets are one way to connect three-dimensional shapes and their two-dimensional representations and are a common focus of geometry curricula. Thirty-four students at year 6 (upper primary school) were interviewed on two occasions about their anticipation of whether or not given nets for the cube- and square-based pyramid would fold to form the target solid. Vergnaud's ( Journal of Mathematical Behavior, 17(2), 167-181, 1998, Human Development, 52, 83-94, 2009) four characteristics of schemes were used as a theoretical lens to analyse the data. Successful schemes depended on the interaction of operational invariants, such as strategic choice of the base, rules for action, particularly rotation of shapes, and anticipations of composites of polygons in the net forming arrangements of faces in the solid. Inferences were rare. These data suggest that students need teacher support to make inferences, in order to create transferable schemes.

  4. Dissociating anticipation from perception: Acute pain activates default mode network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ter Minassian, Aram; Ricalens, Emmanuel; Humbert, Stanislas; Duc, Flavie; Aubé, Christophe; Beydon, Laurent

    2013-09-01

    Few studies have explored the effect of acute pain on attentional networks and on the default mode network. Moreover, these studies convey conflicting results, seemingly caused by design. To reassess this issue, we studied 20 healthy subjects with functional magnetic resonance imaging while delivering painful electric shocks. The design was purposely constructed to separate rest, anticipation, and pain perception. We found that default mode network activity in response to pain was biphasic. It deactivated during anticipation when the dorsal attentional network was activated. During pain perception, the default mode network was activated, as were attentional networks. The left posterior fusiform gyrus showed the same dynamics as the default mode network, and its activity was negatively correlated to the subject's pain intensity rating. The associative pregenual anterior cingulate cortex seemed to play a key role in these coactivations. These results concur with data from the literature showing that enhanced pain perception results in greater default mode network activity and that the anticorrelation between the default mode network and the dorsal attentional network disappears in chronic pain patients. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc., a Wiley company.

  5. Time to Tango: expertise and contextual anticipation during action observation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amoruso, Lucía; Sedeño, Lucas; Huepe, David; Tomio, Ailin; Kamienkowski, Juan; Hurtado, Esteban; Cardona, Juan Felipe; Álvarez González, Miguel Ángel; Rieznik, Andrés; Sigman, Mariano; Manes, Facundo; Ibáñez, Agustín

    2014-09-01

    Predictive theories of action observation propose that we use our own motor system as a guide for anticipating and understanding other people's actions through the generation of context-based expectations. According to this view, people should be better in predicting and interpreting those actions that are present in their own motor repertoire compared to those that are not. We recorded high-density event-related potentials (ERPs: P300, N400 and Slow Wave, SW) and source estimation in 80 subjects separated by their level of expertise (experts, beginners and naïves) as they observed realistic videos of Tango steps with different degrees of execution correctness. We also performed path analysis to infer causal relationships between ongoing anticipatory brain activity, evoked semantic responses, expertise measures and behavioral performance. We found that anticipatory activity, with sources in a fronto-parieto-occipital network, early discriminated between groups according to their level of expertise. Furthermore, this early activity significantly predicted subsequent semantic integration indexed by semantic responses (N400 and SW, sourced in temporal and motor regions) which also predicted motor expertise. In addition, motor expertise was a good predictor of behavioral performance. Our results show that neural and temporal dynamics underlying contextual action anticipation and comprehension can be interpreted in terms of successive levels of contextual prediction that are significantly modulated by subject's prior experience. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Stroboscopic vision and sustained attention during coincidence-anticipation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballester, Rafael; Huertas, Florentino; Uji, Makoto; Bennett, Simon J

    2017-12-20

    We compared coincidence-anticipation performance in normal vision and stroboscopic vision as a function of time-on-task. Participants estimated the arrival time of a real object that moved with constant acceleration (-0.7, 0, +0.7 m/s 2 ) in a pseudo-randomised order across 4 blocks of 30 trials in both vision conditions, received in a counter-balanced order. Participants (n = 20) became more errorful (accuracy and variability) in the normal vision condition as a function of time-on-task, whereas performance was maintained in the stroboscopic vision condition. We interpret these data as showing that participants failed to maintain coincidence-anticipation performance in the normal vision condition due to monotony and attentional underload. In contrast, the stroboscopic vision condition placed a greater demand on visual-spatial memory for motion extrapolation, and thus participants did not experience the typical vigilance decrement in performance. While short-term adaptation effects from practicing in stroboscopic vision are promising, future work needs to consider for how long participants can maintain effortful processing, and whether there are negative carry-over effects from cognitive fatigue when transferring to normal vision.

  7. Managing traumatic stress in children anticipating parental death.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saldinger, Amy; Cain, Albert; Porterfield, Katherine

    2003-01-01

    QUALITATIVE EVIDENCE drawn from a community study of 58 parentally bereaved school-age children and their surviving parents provides a descriptive exploration of one of the most difficult challenges faced by families in anticipated deaths: managing the stress of a child's exposure to the graphic physical, emotional, and mental deterioration of the dying parent. The concept of traumatic stress is broadly defined to include exposure to the "fact" of impending death itself, that is, the anxiety that comes from knowing that one may lose a close other. Included, as well, is an exploration of secondary traumatic stress, defined here to cover the notion of the stress of watching other loved ones in the family succumb to terror and anxiety about the impending death. Emphasis is placed on a child's unique vulnerability to traumatic stressors and on the role of parenting in mediating child exposure to parental decline. In contrast to the anticipatory grief literature which emphasizes the advantages of forewarning in cushioning postmortem adjustment, this study documents the adverse impact of a child's exposure to graphic stimuli. These findings underscore the need for clinicians to attend to the traumatic stress of "ordinary" anticipated deaths, rather than maintaining an exclusive grief orientation.

  8. Enhanced Mixed Electronic-Ionic Conductors through Cation Ordering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jacobson, Allan J. [Univ. of Houston, TX (United States); Morgan, Dane [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States); Grey, Clare [Stony Brook Univ., NY (United States)

    2014-08-31

    The performance of many energy conversion and storage devices depend on the properties of mixed ionic-electronic conducting (miec) materials. Mixed or ambipolar conductors simultaneously transport ions and electrons and provide the critical interface between chemical and electrical energy in devices such as fuel cells, ion transport membranes, and batteries. Enhancements in storage capacity, reversibility, power density and device lifetime all require new materials and a better understanding of the fundamentals of ambipolar conductivity and surface reactivity.The high temperature properties of the ordered perovksites AA’B2O5+x, where A = rare earth ion, Y and B = Ba, Sr were studied. The work was motivated by the high oxygen transport and surface exchange rates observed for members of this class of mixed ionic and electronic conductors. A combined experimental and computational approach, including structural, electrochemical, and transport characterization and modeling was used. The approach attacks the problem simultaneously at global (e.g., neutron diffraction and impedance spectroscopy), local (e.g., pair distribution function, nuclear magnetic resonance) and molecular (ab initio thermokinetic modeling) length scales. The objectives of the work were to understand how the cation and associated anion order lead to exceptional ionic and electronic transport properties and surface reactivity in AA’B2O5+x perovskites. A variety of compounds were studied by X-ray and neutron diffraction, measurements of thermodynamics and transport and theoretically. These included PrBaCo2O5+x and NdBaCo2O5+x, PrBaCo2-xFexO6- δ (x = 0, 0.5, 1.0, 1.5 and 2) and LnBaCoFeO6- δ (Ln = La, Pr, Nd, Sm, Eu and Gd), Sr3YCo4O10.5, YBaMn2O5+x. A0.5A’0.5BO3 (where A=Y, Sc, La, Ce, Pr, Nd, Pm, Sm; A’= Sr

  9. Numerical study of plasma formation from current carrying conductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angelova, Milena A.

    The problem of plasma formation from thick conductors driven by intense currents have practical applications in a number of high energy density (HED) fields of interest where complex interaction between conductor surfaces and megagauss magnetic fields is involved. These include: wire-array Z-pinches, magnetically accelerated flier plates, liner acceleration by magnetic field, ultrahigh magnetic field generators, high current fuses, magneto-inertial fusion (MIF), magnetically insulated transmission lines, as well as some astrophysical applications. Recent aluminum rod experiments driven by 1-MA Zebra generator at University of Nevada, Reno (UNR) have provided a benchmark for magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) modeling. The innovative 'hourglass' and 'barbell' load geometries used in the experiments made it possible to distinguish between plasma formation due to Ohmic heating, which can be studied numerically utilizing MHD codes, and plasma formation due to high electric fields, by introducing a large-diameter contact with the electrodes. This prevents nonthermal formation of plasma from being caused early in the current pulse by plasma at contacts, as occurs in simple straight-rod explosion experiments. The UNR megagauss rod experiments were modeled by employing the state-of-the-art radiation-magneto-hydrodynamic code MHRDR. Numerical simulations were performed for a wide range of rods, varying from 100 to 580 microns in radius. A "cold start" initiation was employed in order to create initial parameters close to the experimental conditions. Material properties of aluminum, crucial for such simulations, were modeled employing a set of well tested SESAME format equations-of-state (EOS), ionization, and thermal and electrical conductivity tables. The cold start initiation also allowed observation of the numerical phase transitions of the aluminum rod, from solid to liquid to vapor and finally to low density plasma as it is ohmically heated by the megaampere driving current

  10. Materials, Mechanics, and Patterning Techniques for Elastomer-Based Stretchable Conductors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaowei Yu

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Stretchable electronics represent a new generation of electronics that utilize soft, deformable elastomers as the substrate or matrix instead of the traditional rigid printed circuit boards. As the most essential component of stretchable electronics, the conductors should meet the requirements for both high conductivity and the capability to maintain conductive under large deformations such as bending, twisting, stretching, and compressing. This review summarizes recent progresses in various aspects of this fascinating and challenging area, including materials for supporting elastomers and electrical conductors, unique designs and stretching mechanics, and the subtractive and additive patterning techniques. The applications are discussed along with functional devices based on these conductors. Finally, the review is concluded with the current limitations, challenges, and future directions of stretchable conductors.

  11. Hall penetration of a uniform magnetic field into a homogeneous conductor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gordeev, A.V.

    1992-01-01

    Feasibility of magnetic field convection into a homogeneous conductor due to violation or of quasineutrality related to Hall field is demonstrated. A nonlinear equation describing the process is derived and analyzed

  12. Nonlinear optical constants of ionic conductors: a study based on the Sheik-Bahae equation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ikeda, Shosuke; Aniya, Masaru

    2012-01-01

    Guided by the prediction of the bond fluctuation model of superionic conductors, the relation between the nonlinear optical constants and the ion transport properties in ionic conductors has been studied. Since the measured values of nonlinear optical constants in ionic conductors are very limited, they have been evaluated through the Sheik-Bahae equation. Using such values, it is shown that the activation energy of ion transport and the superionic transition temperature decrease with the increase of the nonlinear refractive index. It is also pointed out that the band gap energy and the linear refractive index in superionic conductors are relatively weakly correlated when compared with non-superionic materials. The development of a new field of study that could be called photoionics is suggested (copyright 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  13. Quantitative impedance analysis of solid ionic conductors: Effects of electrode polarization

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Patil, D.; Shimakawa, K.; Zima, Vítězslav; Wágner, T.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 115, č. 14 (2014), "143707-1"-"143707-6" ISSN 0021-8979 Institutional support: RVO:61389013 Keywords : impedance * conductivity * ion conductors Subject RIV: CA - Inorganic Chemistry Impact factor: 2.183, year: 2014

  14. Tools for applying lead tape to flat conductor cabling for chemical stripping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angele, W.

    1969-01-01

    Two tools facilitate chemical stripping of insulation on flat conductor cabling. A tape pressing tool and a taping fixture apply adhesive lead tape with the proper amount of pressure to protect the remaining insulation from the chemical stripping solution.

  15. Study on the conductor-insulator friction at liquid helium temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Batakov, Yu.P.; Kostenko, A.I.; Semenov, O.V.; Trokhachev, G.V.

    1982-01-01

    A study is made on conductor heating as a result of friction following displacements under coolina conditions close to those for conductors in superconducting magnets with cryostatic stabilization. Sliding of a 2x15 mm 2 copper plate an averawithge surface roughness of 1m over fiberglas0 μ textolite and teflon is studied. ''Sudden'' displacements are caused by application of the displacing force exceeding the static frictional force several times. If in case of friction displacements.are caused by the action of a force equal to the static frictional force, stops increasing the displacement time are possible. This may ta.ke place following the displacement of the conductor parts in the superconducting magnet coils, owing to which the displacement may turn out to be not ''sudden''. In this case in designing superconducting magnets the tolerances for conductor portion displacements, which do not affect the magnet normal operation, may be less strict

  16. Work in the U.K. on filamentary A15 conductor development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, J.A.; Scott, C.A.

    1980-07-01

    Work on Nb 3 Sn conductor development work began at Harwell in 1967 with work on stable filamentary Nb 3 Sn composites starting in 1969. This lead to a series of small magnets built at the Rutherford laboratory, using conductors incorporating high purity copper regions protected by diffusion barriers of both tantalum and phosphorus poisoned niobium, and the Wind-react technique for magnet construction was established. A magnet development programme lead to the construction of a 450mmx50mm hexapole magnet. IMI's parallel conductor programme developed tantalum diffusion barriers and used a hot extrusion first stage. The present position on conductor development is the result of a unification in 1979 of technical and commercial interests including university programmes. This current position is reported. (U.K.)

  17. AC magnetization loss characteristics of HTS coated-conductors with magnetic substrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsukamoto, O.; Liu, M.; Odaka, S.; Miyagi, D.; Ohmatsu, K.

    2007-01-01

    AC magnetization loss characteristics of an HTS coated tape conductor with magnetic substrate subjected to an external AC magnetic field were investigated. The external magnetic field was perpendicular or parallel to the wide face of the tape conductor. Magnetization losses in the conductor and in the magnetic substrate itself without the superconductor layer, were measured by electric and calorimetric methods. The influence of the magnetic property of the substrate was strongly dependent on the direction of the external magnetic field. When the external magnetic field was perpendicular, magnetic property of the substrate did not affect the magnetization loss characteristics. This result suggests that the magnetization losses can be reduced by subdivisions of the superconducting layers even in the case of magnetic substrate conductors. When the external magnetic field was parallel, the magnetization losses were dominated by the losses in the magnetic substrate. Therefore, to reduce the magnetization losses in this case, reduction of magnetization losses in the substrate is necessary

  18. Stress-tuned conductor-polymer composite for use in sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, James E; Read, Douglas H

    2013-10-22

    A method for making a composite polymeric material with electrical conductivity determined by stress-tuning of the conductor-polymer composite, and sensors made with the stress-tuned conductor-polymer composite made by this method. Stress tuning is achieved by mixing a miscible liquid into the polymer precursor solution or by absorbing into the precursor solution a soluble compound from vapor in contact with the polymer precursor solution. The conductor may or may not be ordered by application of a magnetic field. The composite is formed by polymerization with the stress-tuning agent in the polymer matrix. The stress-tuning agent is removed following polymerization to produce a conductor-polymer composite with a stress field that depends on the amount of stress-tuning agent employed.

  19. An experimental method to determine the electrostatic field enhancement factor of a practical conductor surface

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McAllister, Iain Wilson; Crichton, George C

    1989-01-01

    A method of determining the field enhancement factor of a practical conductor is presented. The method is developed from a modified theory of discharge onset in a gaseous medium. This modification incorporates the influence of conductor surface roughness. Onset data from an experimental study...... that utilized electrodes of varying surface roughness are examined, and the results obtained using the proposed method are discussed with reference to both the underlying theory and the practical aspects of the experimental measurements...

  20. Qualification of the US Made Conductors for ITER TF Magnet System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martovetsky, Nicolai N.; Hatfield, Daniel R.; Miller, John R.; Bruzzone, P.; Stepanov, B.; Seber, B.

    2010-01-01

    The US Domestic Agency (USDA) is one of the six suppliers of the Toroidal Field (TF) conductor for the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER). In order to qualify conductors according to ITER requirements we prepared several lengths of the CICC and short samples for testing in the SULTAN facility in CRPP, Switzerland. We also fully characterized the strands that were used in these SULTAN samples. Fabrication experience and test results are presented and discussed.

  1. Cube-textured metal substrates for reel-to-reel processing of coated conductors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wulff, Anders Christian

    This thesis presents the results of a study aimed at investigating important fabrication aspects of reel-to-reel processing of metal substrates for coated conductors and identifying a new substrate candidate material with improved magnetic properties. The eect of mechanical polishing on surface r...... texture and the fraction of low angle grain boundaries. Finally, a Ni-5Cu-5W substrate may be a good candidate material as a substrate in future coated conductors....

  2. Interpretation of structural data on superionic conductors in terms of the hindered-rotation diffusion model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Polyakov, V.I.

    2000-01-01

    Basic notions of a hindered-rotation diffusion model, which permits refining and supplementing the interpretation of structural and dynamic data obtained when studying superionic conductors, are briefly described. Using the model, dynamic features of β-AgI structure and the compound near order, studied by the EXAFS method, are considered, relative intensities of the Debye peaks in X-ray patterns for superionic conductors AgI and Ag 3 SI being refined [ru

  3. Transparent conductors based on microscale/nanoscale materials for high performance devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Tongchuan

    Transparent conductors are important as the top electrode for a variety of optoelectronic devices, including solar cells, light-emitting diodes (LEDs), at panel displays, and touch screens. Doped indium tin oxide (ITO) thin films are the predominant transparent conductor material. However, ITO thin films are brittle, making them unsuitable for the emerging flexible devices, and suffer from high material and processing cost. In my thesis, we developed a variety of transparent conductors toward a performance comparable with or superior to ITO thin films, with lower cost and potential for scalable manufacturing. Metal nanomesh (NM), hierarchical graphene/metal microgrid (MG), and hierarchical metal NM/MG materials were investigated. Simulation methods were used as a powerful tool to predict the transparency and sheet resistance of the transparent conductors by solving Maxwell's equations and Poisson's equation. Affordable and scalable fabrication processes were developed thereafter. Transparent conductors with over 90% transparency and less than 10 O/square sheet resistance were successfully fabricated on both rigid and flexible substrates. Durability tests, such as bending, heating and tape tests, were carried out to evaluate the robustness of the samples. Haze factor, which characterizes how blurry a transparent conductor appears, was also studied in-depth using analytical calculation and numerical simulation. We demonstrated a tunable haze factor for metal NM transparent conductors and analyzed the principle for tuning the haze factor. Plasmonic effects, excited by some transparent conductors, can lead to enhanced performance in photovoltaic devices. We systematically studied the effect of incorporating metal NM into ultrathin film silicon solar cells using numerical simulation, with the aid of optimization algorithms to reduce the optimization time. Mechanisms contributing to the enhanced performance were then identified and analyzed. Over 72% enhancement in short

  4. Measurements of residual deformations of steel-aluminum conductors in operating overhead lines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Durov, E.V.; Kesel' man, L.M.; Treiger, A.S.

    1982-12-01

    Experience in the operation of overhead power lines using steel-aluminum conductors is presented. Measurements were taken on the residual deformation of the steel-aluminum lines to determine the amount of sag increase and to forecast this increase for the entire period of operation. It is recommended that the work on measuring the residual deformation in the power lines be extended to a broader range of operating conditions such as conductors, spans, and climate conditions.

  5. Experienced and anticipated discrimination reported by individuals in treatment for substance use disorders within the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Boekel, L.C.; Brouwers, E.P.M.; van Weeghel, J.; Garretsen, H.F.L.

    2016-01-01

    Experiences and expectations of discrimination (anticipated discrimination) may delay treatment seeking among people with substance use disorders. In addition, experienced and anticipated discrimination can be a barrier to successful recovery and rehabilitation. The aim of this study was to study

  6. The impact of group composition and attitudes towards diversity on anticipated outcomes of diversity in groups

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Oudenhoven-van der Zee, Karen; Paulus, Paul; Vos, Menno; Parthasarathy, Niveditha

    In two studies, students evaluated group pictures of workgroups of varying ethnic and gender composition with respect to anticipated affective and productive outcomes. The impact of level of diversity, faultlines and individual differences in diversity attitudes on anticipated outcomes were

  7. Mathematical Physics Framework SustainingNatural Anticipation and Selection of Attention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfons Salden

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available An ambient intelligent environment is definitely a prerequisite for anticipating the needs and catching the attention of systems. But how to endow such an environment with natural anticipatory and attentive features is still a hardly ever properly addressed question. Before providing a roadmap towards such an ambient intelligent environment we first give cognitive-ergonomic accounts for how natural anticipation and selection of attention (NASA emerge in living organisms. In particular, we describe why, when and how exploratory and goal-directed acts by living organisms are controlled while optimizing their changing and limited structural and functional capabilities of multimodal sensor, cognitive and actuator systems. Next, we describe how NASA can be embedded and embodied in sustainable intelligent multimodal systems (SIMS. Such systems allow an ambient intelligent environment to (self- interact taking its contexts into account. In addition, collective intelligent agents (CIA distribute, store, extend, maintain, optimize, diversify and sustain the NASA embedded and embodied in the ambient intelligent environment. Finally, we present the basic ingredients of a mathematical-physical framework for empirically modeling and sustaining NASA within SIMS by CIA in an ambient intelligent environment. An environment which is modeled this way, robustly and reliably over time aligns multi-sensor detection and fusion; multimodal fusion, dialogue planning and fission; multi actuator fission, rendering and presentation schemes. NASA residing in such an environment are then active within every phase of perception-decision-action cycles, and are gauged and renormalized to its physics. After determining and assessing across several evolutionary dynamic scales appropriate fitness, utility and measures, NASA can be realized by reinforcement learning and self-organization.

  8. Microstructure Characteristics of High Lift Factor MOCVD REBCO Coated Conductors With High Zr Content

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Galstyan, E; Gharahcheshmeh, MH; Delgado, L; Xu, AX; Majkic, G; Selvamanickam, V

    2015-06-01

    We report the microstructural characteristics of high levels of Zr-added REBa2Cu3O7-x (RE = Gd, Y rare earth) coated conductors fabricated by Metal Organic Chemical Vapor Deposition (MOCVD). The enhancements of the lift factor defined as a ratio of the in-field (3 T, B parallel to c-axis) critical current density (J(c)) at 30 K and self-field J(c) at 77 K have been achieved for Zr addition levels of 20 and 25 mol% via optimization of deposition parameters. The presence of strong flux pinning is attributed to the aligned nanocolumns of BaZrO3 and nanoprecipitates embedded in REBa2Cu3O7-x matrix with good crystal quality. A high density of BZO nanorods with a typical size 6-8 nm and spacing of 20 nm has been observed. Moreover, the high Zr content was found to induce a high density of intrinsic defects, including stacking faults and dislocations. The correlation between in-field performance along the c-axis and microstructure of (Gd, Y) BCO film with a high level of Zr addition is discussed.

  9. Stretchable conductors by kirigami patterning of aramid-silver nanocomposites with zero conductance gradient

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyu, Jing; Hammig, Mark D.; Liu, Lehao; Xu, Lizhi; Chi, Hang; Uher, Ctirad; Li, Tiehu; Kotov, Nicholas A.

    2017-10-01

    Materials that are both stretchable and electrically conductive enable a broad spectrum of applications in sensing, actuating, electronics, optics and energy storage. The materials engineering concept of stretchable conductors is primarily based on combining nanowires, nanoribbons, nanoparticles, or nanocarbons with rubbery polymers to obtain composites with different abilities to transport charge and alter their nanoscale organization under strain. Although some of these composites reveal remarkably interesting multiscale reconfigurability and self-assembly phenomena, decreasing conductance with increased strain has restricted their widespread implementation. In a broader physical sense, the dependence of conductance on stress is undesirable because it requires a correlated change of electrical inputs. In this paper, we describe highly conductive and deformable sheets with a conductivity as high as 230 000 S cm-1, composed of silver nanoparticles, infiltrated within a porous aramid nanofiber (ANF) matrix. By forming a kirigami pattern, consisting of a regularized network of notches cut within the films, their ultimate tensile strain is improved from ˜2% to beyond 100%. The use of ANFs derived from well-known ultrastrong Kevlar™ fibers imparts high mechanical performance to the base composite. Importantly, the conductance of the films remains constant, even under large deformation resulting in a material with a zero conductance gradient. Unlike other nanocomposites for which strain and conductance are strongly coupled, the kirigami nanocomposite provides a pathway to demanding applications for flexible and stretchable electronics with power/voltage being unaffected by the deformation mode and temperature.

  10. Manufacturing and test of 2G-HTS coils for rotating machines: Challenges, conductor requirements, realization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oomen, Marijn; Herkert, Werner; Bayer, Dietmar; Kummeth, Peter; Nick, Wolfgang; Arndt, Tabea

    2012-01-01

    We investigate the use of 2nd-generation High-Temperature Superconductors (2G-HTSs) in the rotors of electrical motors and generators. For these devices the conductor must be wound into robust impregnated coils, which are operated in vacuum at temperatures around 30 K, in strong magnetic fields of about 2T. Differences in thermal contraction between the coil former, conductor constituents, impregnation resin, bandage and heat-sink materials (assembled at room temperature) cause mechanical stresses at operating temperature. Rotating-machine operation adds Lorentz forces and challenging centripetal accelerations up to thousands of g. Second generation-HTS conductors withstand large tensile stresses in axial direction and compression in normal direction. However, shear stresses, axial compression, and tension normal to the conductor can cause degradation in superconducting properties. Such stresses can be mitigated by correct choice of materials, coil lay-out and manufacturing process. A certain stress level will remain, which the conductor must withstand. We have manufactured many impregnated round and race-track coils, using different 2G-HTS conductors, and tested them at temperatures from 25 K to 77 K. Degradation of the superconductor in early coils was traced to the mentioned differences in thermal contraction, and was completely avoided in coils produced later. We will discuss appropriate coil-winding techniques to assure robust and reliable superconductor performance.

  11. Role Salience and Anticipated Work?Family Relations Among Young Adults With and Without Hearing Loss

    OpenAIRE

    Cinamon, Rachel Gali; Most, Tova; Michael, Rinat

    2008-01-01

    This study examined the effect of hearing status on role salience and anticipated work?family relations among 101 unmarried young adults aged 20?33 years: 35 with hearing loss (19 hard of hearing and 16 deaf) and 66 hearing. Participants completed the Life Role Salience scale, anticipated conflictual relations scale, anticipated facilitory relations scale, and a background questionnaire. The deaf participants demonstrated a significantly higher level of commitment to work but anticipated the ...

  12. Tunable Broadband Nanocarbon Transparent Conductor by Electrochemical Intercalation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Jiayu; Xu, Yue; Ozdemir, Burak; Xu, Lisha; Sushkov, Andrei B; Yang, Zhi; Yang, Bao; Drew, Dennis; Barone, Veronica; Hu, Liangbing

    2017-01-24

    Optical transparent and electrical conducting materials with broadband transmission are important for many applications in optoelectronic, telecommunications, and military devices. However, studies of broadband transparent conductors and their controlled modulation are scarce. In this study, we report that reversible transmittance modulation has been achieved with sandwiched nanocarbon thin films (containing carbon nanotubes (CNTs) and reduced graphene oxide (rGO)) via electrochemical alkali-ion intercalation/deintercalation. The transmittance modulation covers a broad range from the visible (450 nm) to the infrared (5 μm), which can be achieved only by rGO rather than pristine graphene films. The large broadband transmittance modulation is understood with DFT calculations, which suggest a decrease in interband transitions in the visible range as well as a reduced reflection in the IR range upon intercalation. We find that a larger interlayer distance in few-layer rGO results in a significant increase in transparency in the infrared region of the spectrum, in agreement with experimental results. Furthermore, a reduced plasma frequency in rGO compared to few-layer graphene is also important to understand the experimental results for broadband transparency in rGO. The broadband transmittance modulation of the CNT/rGO/CNT systems can potentially lead to electrochromic and thermal camouflage applications.

  13. The construction of the ATLAS semi-conductor tracker

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, Tim

    2006-01-01

    The ATLAS (A Toroidal LHC ApparatuS) experiment at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN has been designed to explore physics at the TeV energy scale and will be commissioned in 2007. In the innermost region of the experiment is a charged particle tracker, the Inner Detector of which the Semiconductor Tracker (SCT) is a major component. The SCT comprises a central barrel section enclosed by two endcaps (A and C). The construction of the major components of the ATLAS Semi-conductor tracker (SCT) is now nearing completion. Following a brief description of the design of the SCT, the logistics and organisation of the construction phase of the project are discussed. Central to the delivery of a high quality detector is the testing of large numbers of modules both during assembly and after they are mounted on their final support structures. The results of these tests for endcap C are presented showing that the electrical performance of the 988 modules to be installed in ATLAS is compatible with the specifications required

  14. Optimization study of normal conductor tokamak for commercial neutron source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujita, T.; Sakai, R.; Okamoto, A.

    2017-05-01

    The optimum conceptual design of tokamak with normal conductor coils was studied for minimizing the cost for producing a given neutron flux by using a system code, PEC. It is assumed that the fusion neutrons are used for burning transuranics from the fission reactor spent fuel in the blanket and a fraction of the generated electric power is circulated to opearate the tokamak with moderate plasma fusion gain. The plasma performance was assumed to be moderate ones; {β\\text{N}}~∼ ~3{--}4 in the aspect ratio A~=~2{--}3 and {{H}98y2}~=~1 . The circulating power is an important factor affecting the cost. Though decreasing the aspect ratio is useful to raise the plasma beta and decrease the toroidal field, the maximum field in the coil starts to rise in the very low aspect ratio range and then the circulating power increases with decrease in the plasma aspect ratio A below A~∼ ~2 , while the construction cost increases with A . As a result, the cost per neutron has its minimum around A~∼ ~2.2 , namely, between ST and the conventional tokamak. The average circulating power fraction is expected to be ~51%.

  15. Volume conductor model of transcutaneous electrical stimulation with kilohertz signals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medina, Leonel E.; Grill, Warren M.

    2014-12-01

    Objective. Incorporating high-frequency components in transcutaneous electrical stimulation (TES) waveforms may make it possible to stimulate deeper nerve fibers since the impedance of tissue declines with increasing frequency. However, the mechanisms of high-frequency TES remain largely unexplored. We investigated the properties of TES with frequencies beyond those typically used in neural stimulation. Approach. We implemented a multilayer volume conductor model including dispersion and capacitive effects, coupled to a cable model of a nerve fiber. We simulated voltage- and current-controlled transcutaneous stimulation, and quantified the effects of frequency on the distribution of potentials and fiber excitation. We also quantified the effects of a novel transdermal amplitude modulated signal (TAMS) consisting of a non-zero offset sinusoidal carrier modulated by a square-pulse train. Main results. The model revealed that high-frequency signals generated larger potentials at depth than did low frequencies, but this did not translate into lower stimulation thresholds. Both TAMS and conventional rectangular pulses activated more superficial fibers in addition to the deeper, target fibers, and at no frequency did we observe an inversion of the strength-distance relationship. Current regulated stimulation was more strongly influenced by fiber depth, whereas voltage regulated stimulation was more strongly influenced by skin thickness. Finally, our model reproduced the threshold-frequency relationship of experimentally measured motor thresholds. Significance. The model may be used for prediction of motor thresholds in TES, and contributes to the understanding of high-frequency TES.

  16. Long Gd-123 coated conductor by PLD method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fuji, H.; Igarashi, M.; Hanada, Y.; Miura, T.; Hanyu, S.; Kakimoto, K.; Iijima, Y.; Saitoh, T.

    2008-01-01

    We have developed long Gd-123 coated conductors by ion-beam-assisted deposition (IBAD) and pulsed-laser-deposition (PLD) method. Recently, large-scale reel-to-reel apparatus with the 110 cm x 15 cm assisting ion source was introduced to IBAD system. It was enable to produce 500 m-class IBAD-Gd 2 Zr 2 O 7 (GZO) tapes with Δφ of below 15 deg. and high throughputs of 3 m/h. Furthermore, apparatus with multi-lane and laser scanning was introduced to PLD system. As a result, end to end I c of 318 A were obtained for a 201.5 m long tape, and I c x L values were 64,077 Am. Furthermore, 500 m-class deposition was carried out by improving PLD conditions. As a result, I c x L values of 112,166 Am was obtained and it's a world record on August 2007. In the short samples, I c of over 500 A was obtained with Gd-123 thickness of 2.0 μm and over 100 A was obtained in magnetic field of 3 T, perpendicular to c-axis

  17. Large Scale Assembly and Characterization of BI-2223 HTS Conductors

    CERN Document Server

    Ballarino, Amalia; Mathot, Serge; Taylor, T; Brambilla, R

    2007-01-01

    The powering of the LHC machine requires more than 1000 High Temperature Superconducting (HTS) current leads. These leads contain, at their cold end, HTS conductors made of stacks of Bi-2223 tape with gold-doped silver matrix. CERN specified and purchased 31 km of this material, which was delivered on spools in unit lengths of 100 to 300 m. On reception the tape was inspected, cut into short length and vacuum soldered into stacks. All stacks were characterized in liquid nitrogen using a measuring procedure and set-up specifically developed for this purpose. Contact resistance values and critical currents at different electric field criteria were measured, from which the n-values have been extrapolated from the experimental V-I characteristics. This paper reports on the assembly and electrical characterization (up to 800 A) of more than ten thousand Bi-2223 stacks. Three types of stack were made from tape from two manufacturers. The assembly and soldering procedures and the set-up for the series electrical cha...

  18. A Fabrication Method for Highly Stretchable Conductors with Silver Nanowires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Chia-Wei; Chen, Shih-Pin; Liao, Ying-Chih

    2016-01-01

    Stretchable electronics are identified as a key technology for electronic applications in the next generation. One of the challenges in fabrication of stretchable electronic devices is the preparation of stretchable conductors with great mechanical stability. In this study, we developed a simple fabrication method to chemically solder the contact points between silver nanowire (AgNW) networks. AgNW nanomesh was first deposited on a glass slide via spray coating method. A reactive ink composed of silver nanoparticle (AgNPs) precursors was applied over the spray coated AgNW thin films. After heating for 40 min, AgNPs were preferentially generated over the nanowire junctions to solder the AgNW nanomesh, and reinforced the conducting network. The chemically modified AgNW thin film was then transferred to polyurethane (PU) substrates by casting method. The soldered AgNW thin films on PU exhibited no obvious change in electrical conductivity under stretching or rolling process with elongation strains up to 120%. PMID:26862843

  19. Aluminum alloy production for the reinforcement of the CMS conductor

    CERN Document Server

    Sequeira-Lopes-Tavares, S; Campi, D; Curé, B; Horváth, I L; Riboni, P; Sgobba, Stefano; Smith, R P

    2002-01-01

    The Compact Muon Solenoid (CMS) is one of the general-purpose detectors to be provided for the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) project at CERN. The design field of the CMS superconducting magnet is 4 T, the magnetic length is 12.5 m and the free bore is 6 m. To reinforce the high-purity (99.998%) Al-stabilized conductor of the magnet against the magnetic loadings experienced during operation at 4.2 K, two continuous sections of Al-alloy (AA) reinforcement are Electron Beam (EB) welded to it. The reinforcements have a section of 24*18 mm and are produced in continuous 2.55 km lengths. The alloy EN AW-6082 has been selected for the reinforcement due to its excellent extrudability, high strength in the precipitation hardened states, high toughness and strength at cryogenic temperature and good EB weldability. Each of the continuous lengths of the reinforcement is extruded billet on billet and press quenched on-line from the extrusion temperature in an industrial extrusion plant. In order to insure the ready EB welda...

  20. Scattering theory of nonlinear thermoelectricity in quantum coherent conductors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meair, Jonathan; Jacquod, Philippe

    2013-02-27

    We construct a scattering theory of weakly nonlinear thermoelectric transport through sub-micron scale conductors. The theory incorporates the leading nonlinear contributions in temperature and voltage biases to the charge and heat currents. Because of the finite capacitances of sub-micron scale conducting circuits, fundamental conservation laws such as gauge invariance and current conservation require special care to be preserved. We do this by extending the approach of Christen and Büttiker (1996 Europhys. Lett. 35 523) to coupled charge and heat transport. In this way we write relations connecting nonlinear transport coefficients in a manner similar to Mott's relation between the linear thermopower and the linear conductance. We derive sum rules that nonlinear transport coefficients must satisfy to preserve gauge invariance and current conservation. We illustrate our theory by calculating the efficiency of heat engines and the coefficient of performance of thermoelectric refrigerators based on quantum point contacts and resonant tunneling barriers. We identify, in particular, rectification effects that increase device performance.

  1. The superconducting strand for the CMS solenoid conductor

    CERN Document Server

    Curé, B; Campi, D; Goodrich, L F; Horváth, I L; Kircher, F; Liikamaa, R; Seppälä, J; Smith, R P; Teuho, J; Vieillard, L

    2002-01-01

    The Compact Muon Solenoid (CMS) is one of the general-purpose detectors to be provided for the LHC project at CERN. The design field of the CMS superconducting magnet is 4 T, the magnetic length is 12.5 m and the free bore is 6 m. Approximately 2000 km of superconducting strand is under procurement for the conductor of the CMS superconducting solenoid. Each strand length is required to be an integral multiple of 2.75 km. The strand is composed of copper- stabilized multifilamentary Nb-Ti with Nb barrier. Individual strands are identified by distinctive patterns of Nb-Ti filaments selected during stacking of the monofilaments. The statistics of piece length, measurements of I/sub c/, n-value, copper RRR, (Cu+Nb)/Nb-Ti ratio, as well as the results of independent cross checks of these quantities, are presented. A study was performed on the CMS strands to investigate the critical current degradation due to various heat treatments. The degradation versus annealing temperature and duration are reported. (4 refs).

  2. Inkjet-printed, intrinsically stretchable conductors and interconnects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraft, U.; Molina-Lopez, F.; Zhu, C.; Wang, Y.; Bao, Z.; Murmann, B.

    2017-08-01

    In the future, a large variety of electronic devices will be wearable and operate in close contact with the skin. To accommodate deformations such as twisting and elongation, these devices should ideally be stretchable. One viable approach toward stretchable electronics is the development of intrinsically stretchable electronic materials, devices and circuits. Recently, the first intrinsically stretchable transistors have been demonstrated [1-7]. However, for the realization of stretchable circuits, stretchable interconnects are equally important. For the deployment of highly stretchable materials as interconnects and electrodes, patterning is crucial. Therefore, we developed a process for inkjet printing of intrinsically stretchable PEDOT:PSS-based interconnects and conductors. Ionic additives act as dopants and plasticisers in this approach [8]. A customized ink was printed on stretchable polymeric substrates (SEBS, styrene-ethylene-butadiene-styrene) and optimized to achieve a smooth morphology of the printed features by adjusting the surface tension and suppressing the coffee stain effect. The printed interconnects have a conductivity of 700 S/cm, sustain strains above 100% and show good stability in 1000-cycle stretching experiments. In addition to morphology, electrical properties and stretchability, we also investigated bias-stress stability, long-term stability in ambient air and cycling stability.

  3. The rise of sea level. To understand and to anticipate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-03-01

    By proposing and briefly commenting graphs and drawings, this publication propose brief presentations of the main issues related to sea level rise: global warming and climate disturbance, description of the phenomenon of sea level rise (difference between sea ice and ground ice, melting of glaciers), increase of sea level rise during the twentieth century, territories at risk (examples of Greenland, Tuvalu, Shanghai), acceleration of ice melting during the twenty first century with many coastal areas at risk, already noticed and possible future impacts in France (glaciers runoff, threatened coasts, example of the Xynthia tempest), how to be united and to anticipate (a threat for millions of people, adaptation to sea level rise, limitation of global warming to limit sea level rise)

  4. FCJ-144 Healthymagination: Anticipating Health of our Future Selves.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina Levina

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available In 2010 General Electric launched an initiative called Healthymagination. Healthymagination is an apt signifier of the emerging Health 2.0 movement - a growing effort to marry Web 2.0 technology, participatory discourse, and network subjectivity to health care and management. Through tracking, reporting and sharing of our health data we are transformed into a utopian world where we obtain a mastery of one’s future self. The investment in the health of our future selves creates actionable conditions for the present selves – a participation in the moral economy of the network, where subjects are bound by a morality that necessitates sharing of one’s data with others.  The vision of a future healthy self therefore is bound with the health of the network.  Through the regime of anticipation networked utopias of Health 2.0 produce risk subjectivities, which then are engaged within an affective investment in the neoliberal market economy.

  5. Blunted cardiovascular reactivity during social reward anticipation in subclinical depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brinkmann, Kerstin; Franzen, Jessica

    2017-09-01

    The present study extends past research about reduced reward responsiveness in depression by assessing effort-related cardiovascular responses during anticipation of a social reward. Dysphoric (i.e., subclinically depressed) and nondysphoric participants worked on a cognitive task. Half the participants in each group expected the possibility to subscribe to a social exchange internet site. Effort mobilization during task performance was assessed by participants' cardiovascular reactivity. Confirming the predictions, nondysphoric participants in the social-reward condition had higher reactivity of pre-ejection period, systolic blood pressure, and heart rate, compared to the other three cells. In contrast, dysphoric participants' cardiovascular reactivity was generally low. These findings indicate that social-reward function is indeed impaired in subclinical depression. Implications for social punishment are discussed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Vision for a Global Registry of Anticipated Public Health Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Bernard C.K.; Frank, John; Mindell, Jennifer S.; Orlova, Anna; Lin, Vivian; Vaillancourt, Alain D.M.G.; Puska, Pekka; Pang, Tikki; Skinner, Harvey A.; Marsh, Marsha; Mokdad, Ali H.; Yu, Shun-Zhang; Lindner, M. Cristina; Sherman, Gregory; Barreto, Sandhi M.; Green, Lawrence W.; Svenson, Lawrence W.; Sainsbury, Peter; Yan, Yongping; Zhang, Zuo-Feng; Zevallos, Juan C.; Ho, Suzanne C.; de Salazar, Ligia M.

    2007-01-01

    In public health, the generation, management, and transfer of knowledge all need major improvement. Problems in generating knowledge include an imbalance in research funding, publication bias, unnecessary studies, adherence to fashion, and undue interest in novel and immediate issues. Impaired generation of knowledge, combined with a dated and inadequate process for managing knowledge and an inefficient system for transferring knowledge, mean a distorted body of evidence available for decisionmaking in public health. This article hopes to stimulate discussion by proposing a Global Registry of Anticipated Public Health Studies. This prospective, comprehensive system for tracking research in public health could help enhance collaboration and improve efficiency. Practical problems must be discussed before such a vision can be further developed. PMID:17413073

  7. Uniform performance of continuously processed MOD-YBCO-coated conductors using a textured Ni-W substrate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Verebelyi, D T; Schoop, U; Thieme, C; Li, X; Zhang, W; Kodenkandath, T; Malozemoff, A P; Nguyen, N; Siegal, E; Buczek, D; Lynch, J; Scudiere, J; Rupich, M; Goyal, A; Specht, E D; Martin, P; Paranthaman, M

    2003-01-01

    Second-generation coated conductor composite HTS wires have been fabricated using a continuous reel-to-reel process with deformation-textured Ni-W substrates and a metal-organic deposition process for YBa 2 Cu 3 O 7-x . Earlier results on 1 m long and 1 cm wide wires with 77 K critical current performance greater than 100 A cm -1 width have now been extended to 7.5 m in length and even higher performance, with one wire at 132 and another at 127 A cm -1 width. Performance as a function of wire length is remarkably uniform, with only 2-4% standard deviation when measured on a 50 cm length scale. The length-scale dependence of the deviation is compared with a statistical calculation. (rapid communication)

  8. Uniform performance of continuously processed MOD-YBCO-coated conductors using a textured Ni-W substrate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Verebelyi, D T [American Superconductor Corporation, Westborough, MA 01581 (United States); Schoop, U [American Superconductor Corporation, Westborough, MA 01581 (United States); Thieme, C [American Superconductor Corporation, Westborough, MA 01581 (United States); Li, X [American Superconductor Corporation, Westborough, MA 01581 (United States); Zhang, W [American Superconductor Corporation, Westborough, MA 01581 (United States); Kodenkandath, T [American Superconductor Corporation, Westborough, MA 01581 (United States); Malozemoff, A P [American Superconductor Corporation, Westborough, MA 01581 (United States); Nguyen, N [American Superconductor Corporation, Westborough, MA 01581 (United States); Siegal, E [American Superconductor Corporation, Westborough, MA 01581 (United States); Buczek, D [American Superconductor Corporation, Westborough, MA 01581 (United States); Lynch, J [American Superconductor Corporation, Westborough, MA 01581 (United States); Scudiere, J [American Superconductor Corporation, Westborough, MA 01581 (United States); Rupich, M [American Superconductor Corporation, Westborough, MA 01581 (United States); Goyal, A [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN 37831-6100 (United States); Specht, E D [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN 37831-6100 (United States); Martin, P [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN 37831-6100 (United States); Paranthaman, M [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN 37831-6100 (United States)

    2003-05-01

    Second-generation coated conductor composite HTS wires have been fabricated using a continuous reel-to-reel process with deformation-textured Ni-W substrates and a metal-organic deposition process for YBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 7-x}. Earlier results on 1 m long and 1 cm wide wires with 77 K critical current performance greater than 100 A cm{sup -1} width have now been extended to 7.5 m in length and even higher performance, with one wire at 132 and another at 127 A cm{sup -1} width. Performance as a function of wire length is remarkably uniform, with only 2-4% standard deviation when measured on a 50 cm length scale. The length-scale dependence of the deviation is compared with a statistical calculation. (rapid communication)

  9. Organic optoelectronic materials

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Yongfang

    2015-01-01

    This volume reviews the latest trends in organic optoelectronic materials. Each comprehensive chapter allows graduate students and newcomers to the field to grasp the basics, whilst also ensuring that they have the most up-to-date overview of the latest research. Topics include: organic conductors and semiconductors; conducting polymers and conjugated polymer semiconductors, as well as their applications in organic field-effect-transistors; organic light-emitting diodes; and organic photovoltaics and transparent conducting electrodes. The molecular structures, synthesis methods, physicochemical and optoelectronic properties of the organic optoelectronic materials are also introduced and described in detail. The authors also elucidate the structures and working mechanisms of organic optoelectronic devices and outline fundamental scientific problems and future research directions. This volume is invaluable to all those interested in organic optoelectronic materials.

  10. INTRODUCTION: Anticipated changes in the global atmospheric water cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allan, Richard P.; Liepert, Beate G.

    2010-06-01

    The atmospheric branch of the water cycle, although containing just a tiny fraction of the Earth's total water reserves, presents a crucial interface between the physical climate (such as large-scale rainfall patterns) and the ecosystems upon which human societies ultimately depend. Because of the central importance of water in the Earth system, the question of how the water cycle is changing, and how it may alter in future as a result of anthropogenic changes, present one of the greatest challenges of this century. The recent Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change report on Climate Change and Water (Bates et al 2008) highlighted the increasingly strong evidence of change in the global water cycle and associated environmental consequences. It is of critical importance to climate prediction and adaptation strategies that key processes in the atmospheric water cycle are precisely understood and determined, from evaporation at the surface of the ocean, transport by the atmosphere, condensation as cloud and eventual precipitation, and run-off through rivers following interaction with the land surface, sub-surface, ice, snow and vegetation. The purpose of this special focus issue of Environmental Research Letters on anticipated changes in the global atmospheric water cycle is to consolidate the recent substantial advances in understanding past, present and future changes in the global water cycle through evidence built upon theoretical understanding, backed up by observations and borne out by climate model simulations. Thermodynamic rises in water vapour provide a central constraint, as discussed in a guest editorial by Bengtsson (2010). Theoretical implications of the Clausius-Clapeyron equation are presented by O'Gorman and Muller (2010) and with reference to a simple model (Sherwood 2010) while observed humidity changes confirm these anticipated responses at the land and ocean surface (Willett et al 2008). Rises in low-level moisture are thought to fuel an

  11. The ATLAS SemiConductor Tracker operation and performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pater, J. R.

    2012-04-01

    The ATLAS SemiConductor Tracker (SCT) is a key precision tracking detector in the ATLAS experiment at CERN's Large Hadron Collider. The SCT is composed of 4088 planar p-in-n silicon micro-strip detectors. The signals from the strips are processed in the front-end ABCD3TA ASICs, which operate in binary readout mode; data are transferred to the off-detector readout electronics via optical fibres. The SCT was completed in 2007. An extensive commissioning phase followed, during which calibration data were collected and analysed to determine the noise performance of the system, and further performance parameters of the detector were determined using cosmic ray data, both with and without magnetic field. After the commissioning phase, the SCT was ready for the first LHC proton-proton collisions in December 2009. From the beginning of data taking, the completed SCT has been in very good shape with more than 99% of its 6.3 million strips operational; the detector is well timed-in and the operational channels are 99.9% efficient in data acquisition. The noise occupancy and hit efficiency are better than the design specifications. The detector geometry is monitored continuously with a laser-based alignment system and is stable to the few-micron level; the alignment accuracy as determined by tracks is near specification and improving as statistics increase. The sensor behaviour in the 2T solenoidal magnetic field has been studied by measuring the Lorentz angle. Radiation damage in the silicon is monitored by periodic measurements of the leakage current; these measurements are in reasonable agreement with predictions.

  12. AC susceptibility as a characterization tool for coated conductor tapes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gömöry, F.; Vojenčiak, M.; Solovyov, M.; Frolek, L.; Šouc, J.; Seiler, E.; Bauer, M.; Falter, M.

    2017-11-01

    The measurement and analysis of magnetic AC susceptibility is a useful tool in the study of superconductor (SC) materials. Exposure of a sample to a magnetic field changing in time generates loops of electrical currents that are detectable in a contactless way with the help of a suitable pick-up system. In this paper the applicability of this technique in the characterization and quality control of coated conductor (CC) tapes is evaluated. First we recollect the essential results of the analytical theory derived for thin SC strips and their extrapolation to strips with finite thickness. From the analytical expressions one can see how the properties of CC tape that are important for application in electric power devices, namely its critical current and AC loss, can be deduced from AC susceptibility data in straightforward way. The main focus of our study is to investigate the influence that various cases of non-uniformities in SC layer exhibit on the magnetic properties examined in an AC regime. Numerical computations were used to explore the consequences of lateral variation in the critical current density. Predictions derived for some model cases were compared with experimental findings. A dedicated experiment was also carried out to demonstrate that a transverse scratch that would be detrimental for DC transport could sneak unobserved through the AC magnetic experiment on a long sample. Our study shows that the analysis of both parts of the complex magnetic susceptibility in place of a mere AC loss determination in a common AC magnetization experiment is worth the additional effort.

  13. Mixed protonic-electronic conductors for hydrogen separation membranes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Sun-Ju

    2003-10-01

    The chemical functionality of mixed protonic-electronic conductors arises out of the nature of the defect structure controlled by thermodynamic defect equilibria of the materials, and results in the ability to transport charged species. This dissertation is to develop a fundamental understanding of defect chemistry and transport properties of mixed protonic-electronic conducting perovskites for hydrogen separation membranes. Furthermore, it was aimed to develop the algorithm to predict how these properties affect the permeability in chemical potential gradients. From this objective, first of all, the appropriate equations governing proton incorporation into perovskite oxides were suggested and the computer simulation of defect concentrations across a membrane oxide under various conditions were performed. Electrical properties of p-type electronic defects at oxidizing conditions and n-type electrical properties of SrCe 0.95Eu0.05O3-delta at reducing atmospheres were studied. Defect equilibrium diagrams as a function of PO2 , PH2O ) produced from the Brouwer method were verified by computational simulation and electrical conductivity measurements. The chemical diffusion of hydrogen through oxide membranes was described within the framework of Wagner's chemical diffusion theory and it was solved without any simplifying assumptions on functional dependence of partial conductivity due to the successful numerical modeling of partial conductivities as a function of both hydrogen and oxygen partial pressures. Finally the hydrogen permeability of Eu and Sm doped SrCeO3-delta was studied as a function of temperature, hydrogen partial pressure gradient, and water vapor pressure gradient. The dopant dependence of hydrogen permeability was explained in terms of the difference in ionization energy and ionic radius of dopant.

  14. Anticipation - the underlying science of sport. Report on research in progress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nadin, Mihai

    2015-05-01

    Professional sport practitioners intuitively acknowledge anticipation. Sports researchers sometimes discuss it. Still, there is little data-based evidence to characterize the role anticipation plays in human performance. Even less documented is the distinction between reaction and anticipation. This text presents the real-time quantification environment developed as an AnticipationScope™. Based on a very large data harvest from this experimental set-up, hypotheses regarding the role of anticipation in sport are advanced. The conclusion is that while preparation and reaction play an important role in sports performance, in the final analysis anticipation distinguishes the professional from other sport practitioners. Work in progress is presented with the aim of engaging the community of researchers in the design of alternative methods for quantifying anticipation and for processing the data. Generalization from sport to human performance is one of the intended outcomes of this research.

  15. Evaluation of inductive heating energy of ITER toroidal field conductor by calorimetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozeki, H.; Suwa, T.; Saito, T.; Matsui, K.; Isono, T.; Kawano, K.; Takahashi, Y.

    2017-05-01

    The influence of a fast electromagnetic perturbation, such as plasma disruption, on the ITER toroidal field (TF) coil conductor was studied. When a fast magnetic field change is superimposed, the TF conductor is inductively heated by internally generated eddy currents. To measure the inductive heating (IH) energy amount by calorimetry, an IH experiment using short TF conductor samples with length of 20 cm was performed in a liquid He bath. The sample components used were a TF conductor, TF jacket and a TF conductor cable. A 60-turn, single layer solenoid coil was installed around each sample as an IH coil. Also, the Joule heat of the IH coil was solely measured to subtract its thermal contribution from the other samples. A 1 kHz sinusoidal AC current was applied to each IH coil, changing the current amplitude. The heat generated in the samples, including the IH coil, was eventually absorbed into the liquid He, and the liquid He was then vaporized. Thus, the heat amount was measured by a He level sensor inside a gas collection cylinder attached above the sample. The validity of the experimental results was confirmed by comparing them with computation results of the IH energy of the samples with a computation model. Also, the consumed energy was calculated from the measured waveforms of the applied AC voltage and current to the samples. As the result, the measured and calculated IH energy were found to be in good agreement. Finally, based on the results of the experiment, the minimum magnetic field strength, which triggers quench of the TF conductor by fast dumping like plasma disruption, was evaluated using estimated TF conductor minimum quench energy.

  16. New design of cable-in-conduit conductor for application in future fusion reactors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Jinggang; Wu, Yu; Li, Jiangang; Liu, Fang; Dai, Chao; Shi, Yi; Liu, Huajun; Mao, Zhehua; Nijhuis, Arend; Zhou, Chao; Yagotintsev, Konstantin A.; Lubkemann, Ruben; Anvar, V. A.; Devred, Arnaud

    2017-11-01

    The China Fusion Engineering Test Reactor (CFETR) is a new tokamak device whose magnet system includes toroidal field, central solenoid (CS) and poloidal field coils. The main goal is to build a fusion engineering tokamak reactor with about 1 GW fusion power and self-sufficiency by blanket. In order to reach this high performance, the magnet field target is 15 T. However, the huge electromagnetic load caused by high field and current is a threat for conductor degradation under cycling. The conductor with a short-twist-pitch (STP) design has large stiffness, which enables a significant performance improvement in view of load and thermal cycling. But the conductor with STP design has a remarkable disadvantage: it can easily cause severe strand indentation during cabling. The indentation can reduce the strand performance, especially under high load cycling. In order to overcome this disadvantage, a new design is proposed. The main characteristic of this new design is an updated layout in the triplet. The triplet is made of two Nb3Sn strands and one soft copper strand. The twist pitch of the two Nb3Sn strands is large and cabled first. The copper strand is then wound around the two superconducting strands (CWS) with a shorter twist pitch. The following cable stages layout and twist pitches are similar to the ITER CS conductor with STP design. One short conductor sample with a similar scale to the ITER CS was manufactured and tested with the Twente Cable Press to investigate the mechanical properties, AC loss and internal inspection by destructive examination. The results are compared to the STP conductor (ITER CS and CFETR CSMC) tests. The results show that the new conductor design has similar stiffness, but much lower strand indentation than the STP design. The new design shows potential for application in future fusion reactors.

  17. Anticipated SWOT Observations of Human Impacts on the Water Cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, E.; Andreadis, K.; Moller, D.; Lettenmaier, D. P.

    2012-12-01

    The impoundment of water behind dams alters the timing and magnitude of the discharge of rivers to the ocean, and hence sea level, as well as evaporation from the global land areas, and, through irrigation, the storage of water on land in the soil column. The impact of these effects on the global hydrologic cycle globally is difficult to estimate given currently available (and shared) observations of temporally varying reservoir storage. The upcoming joint U.S.-France Surface Water and Ocean Topography (SWOT) mission* will measure terrestrial surface water storage dynamics with unprecedented global coverage for managed reservoirs, as well as natural lakes and rivers. Previous studies have investigated SWOT's potential ability to measure storage change for some lakes; however, because reservoirs are typically located in flooded river valleys, they tend to be more elongate than the high latitude lakes that have been studied, and have more complex shorelines (and hence a longer land-water boundary). Furthermore, for reservoirs in mountainous regions, SWOT observations will be prone to topographic layover effects. Finally, the temporal variability of water levels in reservoirs is determined by management goals (i.e., hydropower, flood control, irrigation, supply, recreation), rather than climate, as in the case of natural lakes. We report an investigation of the potential accuracy of SWOT observations of storage change over selected managed reservoirs in the United States. First, we developed a time series of water height maps over each reservoir by combining available bathymetry data with observations of reservoir storage. We then simulated realistic SWOT observations of water level over these water bodies, given the planned SWOT orbital parameters, anticipated noise, and topographic layover errors. We also simulated a realistic tropospheric delay, modeled from daily MERRA reanalysis data. From these synthetic observations, we estimate the number of overpasses needed

  18. Rare disease patients in China anticipate the sunlight of legislation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, J J; Song, P P; Tang, W

    2013-06-01

    It is estimated that there are over ten million rare disease patients in China currently. Due to a lack of effective drugs and reimbursement regulations for medical expenses the diseases bring most patients enormous physical suffering and psychological despair. Past experience in other countries such as the United States, Japan, and the European Union have shown that legislation is the critical step to improve the miserable situation of rare disease patients. Laws and regulations for rare diseases in these countries prescribe a series of incentives for research and development of orphan drugs which turn out to obviously allow these drugs to flourish. Legislation has also established a drug reimbursement system to reduce the medical burden of the patients. These measures effectively protect the rights and interests of patients with rare diseases. In China, legislation for rare diseases has begun to attract the attention of authorities. It is anticipated that relevant laws and regulations will be established as early as possible to provide safeguards for rare disease patients in China.

  19. Anticipated climate change impacts on flood characteristics : Moisie River application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dore, I.; Desrochers, G.E.; Roy, R.; Chaumont, D.

    2006-01-01

    The issue of global warming was discussed with particular reference to the changes that may occur in the hydrological regime within the coming decades in response to predicted changes in climate. Flood events for the 2050 time horizon were investigated along with the consequences on water management and dam safety. Dams operated by Hydro-Quebec are used for flood control, water supply, recreational activities and hydroelectricity. As such, the electric utility relies on methods to evaluate the adaptability of current management plans to climate change. This paper presented the results of a study conducted at the Moisie River watershed, located in northern Quebec. The HSAMI hydrologic model was used to evaluate and compare the occurrences where stream flows and water levels exceed critical values in order to assess the effectiveness of management plans in both current and climate change scenarios. The study considered two different approaches on existing and future anticipated meteorological scenarios based on different criteria. The purpose was to optimize future hydroelectric generation, reduce floods and improve the safety of hydraulic structures. Preliminary results suggest a possible increase in flood risk and fewer low water level occurrences. 7 refs., 2 tabs., 6 figs

  20. Mental practice promotes motor anticipation: evidence from skilled music performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolò Francesco Bernardi

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Mental practice (MP has been shown to improve movement accuracy and velocity, but it is not known whether MP can also optimize movement timing. We addressed this question by studying two groups of expert pianists who performed challenging music sequences after either MP or physical practice (PP. Performance and motion-capture data were collected along with responses to imagery questionnaires. The results showed that MP produced performance improvements, although to a lower degree than PP did. MP and PP induced changes in both movement velocity and movement timing, promoting the emergence of movement anticipatory patterns. Furthermore, motor imagery was associated with greater changes in movement velocity, while auditory imagery was associated with greater movement anticipation. Data from a control group that was not allowed to practice confirmed that the changes in accuracy and kinematics were not due to mere repetition of the sequence during testing. This study provides the first evidence of an anticipatory control following MP and extends the present knowledge on the effectiveness of mental practice to a task of unparalleled motor complexity. The practical implications of MP in the motor domain are discussed.

  1. An Orientation Method with Prediction and Anticipation Features

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Ramos

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, progress is constant and inherent to a living society. This may occur in different arenas, namely in mathematical evaluation and healthcare. Assistive technologies are a topic under this evolution, being extremely important in helping users with diminished capabilities (physical, sensory, intellectual. These technologies assist people in tasks that were difficult or impossible to execute. A common diminished task is orientation, which is crucial for the user autonomy. The adaptation to such technologies should require the minimum effort possible in order to enable the person to use devices that convey assistive functionalities. There are several solutions that help a human being to travel between two different locations, however their authors are essentially concerned with the guidance method, giving special attention to the user interface. The CogHelper system aims to overcome these systems by applying a framework of Speculative Computation, which adds a prediction feature for the next user movement giving an anticipation ability to the system. Thus, an alert is triggered before the user turn towards an incorrect path. The travelling path is also adjusted to the user preferences through a trajectory mining module.

  2. Blunted cardiovascular reactivity in dysphoria during reward and punishment anticipation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franzen, Jessica; Brinkmann, Kerstin

    2015-03-01

    Hyposensitivity to reward in depression and dysphoria has been found in behavioral and neuroimaging studies. For punishment responsiveness, some studies showed hyposensitivity to punishment while other studies demonstrated hypersensitivity. Only few studies have addressed the motivational question as to whether depressed individuals mobilize less effort in anticipation of a positive or a negative consequence. The present study aimed at investigating reward and punishment responsiveness in subclinical depression from an effort mobilization perspective. Working on a recognition memory task, one third of the participants could earn small amounts of money, one third could lose small amounts of money, and one third could neither earn nor lose money. Effort mobilization was operationalized as participants' cardiovascular reactivity during task performance. As expected, reactivity of cardiac pre-ejection period and heart rate was higher in both incentive conditions compared to the neutral condition for nondysphorics, while it was blunted across conditions for dysphorics. Moreover, the present study found that dysphorics show an altered behavioral response to punishment. These findings thus show that dysphorics present a reduced motivation to obtain a reward or to avoid a punishment in terms of reduced effort-related cardiac reactivity. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Detecting, anticipating, and predicting critical transitions in spatially extended systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwasniok, Frank

    2018-03-01

    A data-driven linear framework for detecting, anticipating, and predicting incipient bifurcations in spatially extended systems based on principal oscillation pattern (POP) analysis is discussed. The dynamics are assumed to be governed by a system of linear stochastic differential equations which is estimated from the data. The principal modes of the system together with corresponding decay or growth rates and oscillation frequencies are extracted as the eigenvectors and eigenvalues of the system matrix. The method can be applied to stationary datasets to identify the least stable modes and assess the proximity to instability; it can also be applied to nonstationary datasets using a sliding window approach to track the changing eigenvalues and eigenvectors of the system. As a further step, a genuinely nonstationary POP analysis is introduced. Here, the system matrix of the linear stochastic model is time-dependent, allowing for extrapolation and prediction of instabilities beyond the learning data window. The methods are demonstrated and explored using the one-dimensional Swift-Hohenberg equation as an example, focusing on the dynamics of stochastic fluctuations around the homogeneous stable state prior to the first bifurcation. The POP-based techniques are able to extract and track the least stable eigenvalues and eigenvectors of the system; the nonstationary POP analysis successfully predicts the timing of the first instability and the unstable mode well beyond the learning data window.

  4. In Wrong Anticipation - Miscalibrated Beliefs between Germans, Israelis, and Palestinians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goerg, Sebastian J; Hennig-Schmidt, Heike; Walkowitz, Gari; Winter, Eyal

    2016-01-01

    The reconcilability of actions and beliefs in inter-country relationships, either in business or politics, is of vital importance as incorrect beliefs on foreigners' behavior can have serious implications. We study a typical inter-country interaction by means of a controlled laboratory investment game experiment in Germany, Israel and Palestine involving 400 student participants in total. An investor has to take a risky decision in a foreign country that involves transferring money to an investee/allocator. We found a notable constellation of calibrated and un-calibrated beliefs. Within each country, transfer standards exist, which investees correctly anticipate within their country. However, across countries these standards differ. By attributing the standard of their own environment to the other countries investees are remarkably bad in predicting foreign investors' behavior. The tendency to ignore this potential difference can be a source of misinterpreting motives in cross-country interaction. Foreigners might perceive behavior as unfavorable or favorable differentiation, even though-unknown to them-investors actually treat fellow-country people and foreigners alike.

  5. Anticipated Barriers to Open Schooling System in Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aminu Aliyu Wushishi

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available In an attempt to develop plans for making Education for All a reality, four agencies of the United Nations brought together over 150 governments in 1990 to Jomtien, Thailand, and also in 2000 in Dakar, Senegal, with the aim of making education equally accessible to all. Nigeria is one of the countries that signed the Jomtien declaration in 1990, and one of those with the highest number of out-of-school children in the world with about 10.5 million out-of-school children in 2010. This figure represents 42% of its primary age population and 3.6 million more children out of school than ten years ago. Nigeria is now committed towards bridging the gap especially with the attempt towards establishing open schools, but considering the numerous problems confronting the existing public primary and secondary schools and other educational programmes, there are certain barriers that may hinder the successful implementation and smooth running of the proposed open schooling system. This paper examines the anticipated barriers that includes; corruption, lack of consistency in programmes, problem of electricity, lack of access to Internet, lack of fund, inadequate manpower and problem of recognition. For open schooling system to see the light of the day, some recommendations were suggested which, if taken into consideration will be useful to policy makers towards the successful launching and smooth running of the open schools and other laudable educational programmes in Nigeria.

  6. Current and anticipated uses of thermal hydraulic codes in Korea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Kyung-Doo; Chang, Won-Pyo [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1997-07-01

    In Korea, the current uses of thermal hydraulic codes are categorized into 3 areas. The first application is in designing both nuclear fuel and NSSS. The codes have usually been introduced based on the technology transfer programs agreed between KAERI and the foreign vendors. Another area is in the supporting of the plant operations and licensing by the utility. The third category is research purposes. In this area assessments and some applications to the safety issue resolutions are major activities using the best estimate thermal hydraulic codes such as RELAP5/MOD3 and CATHARE2. Recently KEPCO plans to couple thermal hydraulic codes with a neutronics code for the design of the evolutionary type reactor by 2004. KAERI also plans to develop its own best estimate thermal hydraulic code, however, application range is different from KEPCO developing code. Considering these activities, it is anticipated that use of the best estimate hydraulic analysis code developed in Korea may be possible in the area of safety evaluation within 10 years.

  7. Anticipating Potential Waste Acceptance Criteria for Defense Spent Nuclear Fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rechard, R.P.; Lord, M.E.; Stockman, C.T.; McCurley, R.D.

    1997-01-01

    The Office of Environmental Management of the U.S. Department of Energy is responsible for the safe management and disposal of DOE owned defense spent nuclear fuel and high level waste (DSNF/DHLW). A desirable option, direct disposal of the waste in the potential repository at Yucca Mountain, depends on the final waste acceptance criteria, which will be set by DOE's Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (OCRWM). However, evolving regulations make it difficult to determine what the final acceptance criteria will be. A method of anticipating waste acceptance criteria is to gain an understanding of the DOE owned waste types and their behavior in a disposal system through a performance assessment and contrast such behavior with characteristics of commercial spent fuel. Preliminary results from such an analysis indicate that releases of 99Tc and 237Np from commercial spent fuel exceed those of the DSNF/DHLW; thus, if commercial spent fuel can meet the waste acceptance criteria, then DSNF can also meet the criteria. In large part, these results are caused by the small percentage of total activity of the DSNF in the repository (1.5%) and regulatory mass (4%), and also because commercial fuel cladding was assumed to provide no protection

  8. [Early discharge of newborns: what problems should we anticipate?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Straczek, H; Vieux, R; Hubert, C; Miton, A; Hascoet, J-M

    2008-06-01

    Following Nordic and Anglo-Saxon countries, France is directing towards an early discharge policy from maternity hospitals. French National Authority for Health has published recommendations focusing on the importance to highlight the dangers of such a policy so as to be able to anticipate them. To describe the complications diagnosed in the newborn infants from day 2 to the current hospital's discharge (noteworthy, if infants are discharged early, these complications may occur at home) to determine predictive factors and to validate those proposed by the French National Authority for Health. Prospective study conducted in the maternity ward of Nancy's level III facility, from January 6th to May 6th 2005. Nine hundred and three newborn infants were included. Forty-two (4.6%) presented with complications diagnosed from day 2 to hospital's discharge, among which 4 required urgent neonatal care. The most frequent complication was hyperbilirubinemia: 23 newborns were treated with phototherapy between day 2 and day 10. Statistically significant risk factors of hyperbilirubinemia after day 2 in multivariate analysis were instrumental vaginal delivery (OR=2.94; CI 95% [1.04-8.34]) and jaundice before day 2 (OR=7.39; CI 95% [2.66-20.55]). According to the French National Authority for Health's policy, 33 among 42 infants presenting with a complication would have been withdrawn from an early discharge program. In our population, French National Authority for Health's recommendations were relevant to guide an early discharge project.

  9. Thermal stability analysis of YBCO-coated conductors subject to over-currents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MartInez, E; Angurel, L A; Pelegrin, J [Instituto de Ciencia de Materiales de Aragon, CSIC-Universidad de Zaragoza, C/Maria de Luna 3, E-50018 Zaragoza (Spain); Xie, Y Y; Selvamanickam, V [SuperPower Incorporated, Schenectady, NY 12304 (United States)

    2010-02-15

    The thermal stability of superconducting YBCO-coated conductors subject to over-currents are analysed. We have studied the effect of DC and AC over-current pulses in Cu-stabilized and non-stabilized coated conductors by measuring the electric field and temperature profiles of these conductors immersed in liquid nitrogen. Current pulses of short duration of about 90 ms and long duration of a few seconds were applied to the samples. Three different cooling regimes of liquid nitrogen-convection, nucleate boiling and film boiling-were observed and their influence on the recovery time of superconductivity in the coated conductors after the over-current pulses has been analysed. We have studied the recovery behaviour under two different conditions, in which the current was set to zero and to the operating current after the current pulses. These experiments simulated the conditions during an over-current situation in different electric power applications with special attention given to the behaviour of these coated conductors acting as in-fault current limiters.

  10. Thermal stability analysis of YBCO-coated conductors subject to over-currents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MartInez, E; Angurel, L A; Pelegrin, J; Xie, Y Y; Selvamanickam, V

    2010-01-01

    The thermal stability of superconducting YBCO-coated conductors subject to over-currents are analysed. We have studied the effect of DC and AC over-current pulses in Cu-stabilized and non-stabilized coated conductors by measuring the electric field and temperature profiles of these conductors immersed in liquid nitrogen. Current pulses of short duration of about 90 ms and long duration of a few seconds were applied to the samples. Three different cooling regimes of liquid nitrogen-convection, nucleate boiling and film boiling-were observed and their influence on the recovery time of superconductivity in the coated conductors after the over-current pulses has been analysed. We have studied the recovery behaviour under two different conditions, in which the current was set to zero and to the operating current after the current pulses. These experiments simulated the conditions during an over-current situation in different electric power applications with special attention given to the behaviour of these coated conductors acting as in-fault current limiters.

  11. The GMD Method for Inductance Calculation Applied to Conductors with Skin Effect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. A. Aebischer

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The GMD method (geometric mean distance to calculate inductance offers undoubted advantages over other methods. But so far it seemed to be limited to the case where the current is uniformly distributed over the cross section of the conductor, i.e. to DC (direct current. In this paper, the definition of the GMD is extended to include cases of nonuniform distribution observed at higher frequencies as the result of skin effect. An exact relation between the GMD and the internal inductance per unit length for infinitely long conductors of circularly symmetric cross section is derived. It enables much simpler derivations of Maxwell’s analytical expressions for the GMD of circular and annular disks than were known before. Its salient application, however, is the derivation of exact expressions for the GMD of infinitely long round wires and tubular conductors with skin effect. These expressions are then used to verify the consistency of the extended definition of the GMD. Further, approximate formulae for the GMD of round wires with skin effect based on elementary functions are discussed. Total inductances calculated with the help of the derived formulae for the GMD with and without skin effect are compared to measurement results from the literature. For conductors of square cross section, an analytical approximation for the GMD with skin effect based on elementary functions is presented. It is shown that it allows to calculate the total inductance of such conductors for frequencies from DC up to 25 GHz to a precision of better than 1 %.

  12. Simulation of the space charge near coronating conductors of ac overhead transmission lines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Straumann, Ueli

    2011-01-01

    In the case of ac high voltage overhead transmission lines, corona discharges may result in a broadband crackling and a humming noise at twice the mains frequency (2f). The computation of the emitted 2f-levels presupposes the knowledge of the apparent power and force passed by the ions to the gas in the surroundings of the conductors. In this paper a simulation determining these magnitudes used in a previous publication is presented. For that purpose the ideas of earlier publications by other authors to compute corona losses are followed. Their central idea is to define an onset field strength on the surface of the conductor which is not exceeded by injecting the right amount of charges in the vicinity of the conductor. This injection together with the recombination determines the amount of drifting ions. The novelty of the method applied in this work is the consideration of different onset field strengths over the conductor surface in dependence of the polar angle. Further 2f-force and 2f-power acting on the gas in the vicinity of the conductor are determined out of the resulting ion drift. The corona currents thus computed coincide fairly well with measured results.

  13. Simulation of the space charge near coronating conductors of ac overhead transmission lines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Straumann, Ueli, E-mail: stulrich@ethz.ch [High Voltage Laboratory, ETH Zurich, CH-8092 Zuerich (Switzerland)

    2011-02-23

    In the case of ac high voltage overhead transmission lines, corona discharges may result in a broadband crackling and a humming noise at twice the mains frequency (2f). The computation of the emitted 2f-levels presupposes the knowledge of the apparent power and force passed by the ions to the gas in the surroundings of the conductors. In this paper a simulation determining these magnitudes used in a previous publication is presented. For that purpose the ideas of earlier publications by other authors to compute corona losses are followed. Their central idea is to define an onset field strength on the surface of the conductor which is not exceeded by injecting the right amount of charges in the vicinity of the conductor. This injection together with the recombination determines the amount of drifting ions. The novelty of the method applied in this work is the consideration of different onset field strengths over the conductor surface in dependence of the polar angle. Further 2f-force and 2f-power acting on the gas in the vicinity of the conductor are determined out of the resulting ion drift. The corona currents thus computed coincide fairly well with measured results.

  14. Keeping an Eye on the Conductor: Neural Correlates of Visuo-motor Synchronization and Musical Experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kentaro eOno

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available For orchestra musicians, synchronized playing under a conductor’s direction is necessary to achieve optimal performance. Previous studies using simple auditory/visual stimuli have reported cortico-subcortical networks underlying synchronization and that training improves the accuracy of synchronization. However, it is unclear whether people who played regularly under a conductor and non-musicians activate the same networks when synchronizing with a conductor’s gestures. We conducted a functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI experiment testing nonmusicians and musicians who regularly play music under a conductor. Participants were required to tap the rhythm they perceived from silent movies displaying either conductor’s gestures or a swinging metronome. Musicians performed tapping under a conductor with more precision than nonmusicians. Results from fMRI measurement showed greater activity in the anterior part of the left superior frontal gyrus (SFG in musicians with more frequent practice under a conductor. Conversely, tapping with the metronome did not show any difference between musicians and nonmusicians, indicating that the expertise effect in tapping under the conductor does not result in a general increase in tapping performance for musicians. These results suggest that orchestra musicians have developed an advanced ability to predict conductor’s next action from the gestures.

  15. Anticipation in stuttering: A theoretical model of the nature of stutter prediction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Barrera, Mauricio A; Davidow, Jason H

    2015-06-01

    The fact that some people who stutter have the ability to anticipate a stuttering moment is essential for several theories of stuttering and important for maximum effectiveness of many currently used treatment techniques. The "anticipation effect," however, is poorly understood despite much investigation into this phenomenon. In the present paper, we combine (1) behavioral evidence from the stuttering-anticipation literature, (2) speech production models, and (3) models of error detection to propose a theoretical model of anticipation. Integrating evidence from theories such as Damasio's Somatic Marker Hypothesis, Levelt's Perceptual Monitoring Theory, Guenther's The Directions Into Velocities of Articulators (DIVA) model, Postma's Covert Repair Hypothesis, among others, our central thesis is that the anticipation of a stuttering moment occurs as an outcome of the interactions between previous learning experiences (i.e., learnt associations between stuttered utterances and any self-experienced or environmental consequence) and error monitoring. Possible neurological mechanisms involved in generating conscious anticipation are also discussed, along with directions for future research. The reader will be able to: (a) describe historical theories that explain how PWS may learn to anticipate stuttering; (b) state some traditional sources of evidence of anticipation in stuttering; (c) describe how PWS may be sensitive to the detection of a stuttering; (d) state some of the neural correlates that may underlie anticipation in stuttering; and (e) describe some of the possible utilities of incorporating anticipation into stuttering interventions. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Regulating emotion in the context of interpersonal decisions: The role of anticipated pride and regret

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Job eVan Der Schalk

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Recent theories about the relation between emotion and behavior hold that social behavior is influenced not only by the experience of emotion, but also by the anticipation of emotion. We argue that anticipating future emotional states is an emotion regulation strategy when it leads to a change in behavior. In the current studies we examined how construal of a fair or an unfair situation in terms of positive or negative anticipated emotions influences the fairness of subsequent behavior. We used the Ultimatum Bargaining Game--an experimental game in which participants divide a resource between themselves and another person--as a social situation that offers the opportunity to engage in fair and unfair behavior. In Study 1 we used an autobiographical recall task to manipulate anticipated emotions. Although the task did not influence anticipated emotions directly, results showed that anticipated pride about fair behavior increased levels of fairness, whereas anticipated pride about unfair behavior decreased levels of fairness. Similarly, anticipated regret about fair behavior decreased levels of fairness, whereas anticipated regret about unfair behavior increased levels of fairness. In Study 2 we replicated this pattern of findings, and found that participants who thought about their anticipated emotions (pride or regret in relation to unfair behavior behaved more fairly. We discuss these findings in relation to theories of emotion regulation and economic decision-making.

  17. Activity in SRL Nagoya Coated Conductor Center for YBCO Coated Conductor by IBAD+ PLD Method -Long, high Ic conductor and a new bamboo-like nanostructure for efficient pinning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamada, Yutaka; Ibi, Akira; Fukushima, Hiroyuki; Kuriki, Reiji; Takahashi, Kazuhiro; Kobayashi, Hiroyoshi; Ishida, Satoru; Konishi, Masaya; Miyata, Seiki; Watanabe, Tomonori; Kato, Takeharu; Hirayama, Tsukasa; Shiohara, Yuh

    2006-01-01

    In SRL-Nagoya Coated Conductor Center (NCCC), long buffered substrate tapes and YBCO coated conductors have been successfully fabricated by using ion-beam assisted deposition (IBAD) and pulsed laser deposition (PLD) methods. For the buffered tape, the PLD-CeO2 method, what we call the 'Self-Epitaxial' method, realized the high degree of in-plane texturing around 4 degrees along the length of 220 m. For YBCO deposition, we have recently introduced new reel-to-reel PLD equipment with a multi-plume and multi-turn deposition system (MPMT PLD). This system succeeded in fabricating a long coated conductor with a high critical current, Ic, of 245 A and length of 212 m. Ic xL (length) reached the world record of 51940 Am. Furthermore, the introduction of artificial pinning center and RE 123 materials were also studied for improving flux pinning and enhancing Ic. A new columnar structure of the 'bamboo structure' (BaZrO3/Y123 layer-stacked structure) was found in Y123+YSZ sample. This columnar structure and the stacking faults in Gd123 were found to be effective for enhancing pinning properties. Using these techniques, we have succeeded in increasing Ic at 0 T to 480 A/cm and also enhancing Ic in a magnetic field

  18. Defects and properties of cadmium oxide based transparent conductors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu, Kin Man, E-mail: kinmanyu@cityu.edu.hk [Department of Physics and Materials Science, City University of Hong Kong, Kowloon (Hong Kong); Materials Sciences Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States); Detert, D. M.; Dubon, O. D. [Materials Sciences Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States); Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of California, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States); Chen, Guibin [Materials Sciences Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States); Physics Department and Jiangsu Key Laboratory for Chemistry of Low Dimensional Materials, Huaiyin Normal University, Jiangsu 223300 (China); Zhu, Wei [Materials Sciences Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States); Department of Physics and The Center for Physical Experiments, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui 230026 (China); Liu, Chaoping [Department of Physics and Materials Science, City University of Hong Kong, Kowloon (Hong Kong); Grankowska, S. [Materials Sciences Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States); Institute of Experimental Physics (IEP UW), Warsaw University, Warsaw (Poland); Hsu, L. [Department of Postsecondary Teaching and Learning, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, Minnesota 55455 (United States); Walukiewicz, Wladek [Materials Sciences Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States)

    2016-05-14

    Transparent conductors play an increasingly important role in a number of semiconductor technologies. This paper reports on the defects and properties of Cadmium Oxide, a transparent conducting oxide which can be potentially used for full spectrum photovoltaics. We carried out a systematic investigation on the effects of defects in CdO thin films undoped and intentionally doped with In and Ga under different deposition and annealing conditions. We found that at low growth temperatures (<200 °C), sputter deposition tends to trap both oxygen vacancies and compensating defects in the CdO film resulting in materials with high electron concentration of ∼2 × 10{sup 20}/cm{sup 3} and mobility in the range of 40–100 cm{sup 2}/V s. Thermal annealing experiments in different ambients revealed that the dominating defects in sputtered CdO films are oxygen vacancies. Oxygen rich CdO films grown by sputtering with increasing O{sub 2} partial pressure in the sputter gas mixture results in films with resistivity from ∼4 × 10{sup −4} to >1 Ω cm due to incorporation of excess O in the form of O-related acceptor defects, likely to be O interstitials. Intentional doping with In and Ga donors leads to an increase of both the electron concentration and the mobility. With proper doping CdO films with electron concentration of more than 10{sup 21 }cm{sup −3} and electron mobility higher than 120 cm{sup 2}/V s can be achieved. Thermal annealing of doped CdO films in N{sub 2} ambient can further improve the electrical properties by removing native acceptors and improving film crystallinity. Furthermore, the unique doping behavior and electrical properties of CdO were explored via simulations based on the amphoteric defect model. A comparison of the calculations and experimental results show that the formation energy of native donors and acceptors at the Fermi stabilization energy is ∼1 eV and that the mobility of sputtered deposited CdO is limited

  19. Defects and properties of cadmium oxide based transparent conductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Kin Man; Detert, D. M.; Chen, Guibin; Zhu, Wei; Liu, Chaoping; Grankowska, S.; Hsu, L.; Dubon, O. D.; Walukiewicz, Wladek

    2016-05-01

    Transparent conductors play an increasingly important role in a number of semiconductor technologies. This paper reports on the defects and properties of Cadmium Oxide, a transparent conducting oxide which can be potentially used for full spectrum photovoltaics. We carried out a systematic investigation on the effects of defects in CdO thin films undoped and intentionally doped with In and Ga under different deposition and annealing conditions. We found that at low growth temperatures (concentration of ˜2 × 1020/cm3 and mobility in the range of 40-100 cm2/V s. Thermal annealing experiments in different ambients revealed that the dominating defects in sputtered CdO films are oxygen vacancies. Oxygen rich CdO films grown by sputtering with increasing O2 partial pressure in the sputter gas mixture results in films with resistivity from ˜4 × 10-4 to >1 Ω cm due to incorporation of excess O in the form of O-related acceptor defects, likely to be O interstitials. Intentional doping with In and Ga donors leads to an increase of both the electron concentration and the mobility. With proper doping CdO films with electron concentration of more than 1021 cm-3 and electron mobility higher than 120 cm2/V s can be achieved. Thermal annealing of doped CdO films in N2 ambient can further improve the electrical properties by removing native acceptors and improving film crystallinity. Furthermore, the unique doping behavior and electrical properties of CdO were explored via simulations based on the amphoteric defect model. A comparison of the calculations and experimental results show that the formation energy of native donors and acceptors at the Fermi stabilization energy is ˜1 eV and that the mobility of sputtered deposited CdO is limited by a background acceptor concentration of ˜5-6 × 1020/cm3. The calculations offer an insight into understanding of the effects of defects on electrical properties of undoped and doped CdO and offer a potential to use similar methods to

  20. Defects and properties of cadmium oxide based transparent conductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu, Kin Man; Detert, D. M.; Dubon, O. D.; Chen, Guibin; Zhu, Wei; Liu, Chaoping; Grankowska, S.; Hsu, L.; Walukiewicz, Wladek

    2016-01-01

    Transparent conductors play an increasingly important role in a number of semiconductor technologies. This paper reports on the defects and properties of Cadmium Oxide, a transparent conducting oxide which can be potentially used for full spectrum photovoltaics. We carried out a systematic investigation on the effects of defects in CdO thin films undoped and intentionally doped with In and Ga under different deposition and annealing conditions. We found that at low growth temperatures (<200 °C), sputter deposition tends to trap both oxygen vacancies and compensating defects in the CdO film resulting in materials with high electron concentration of ∼2 × 10 20 /cm 3 and mobility in the range of 40–100 cm 2 /V s. Thermal annealing experiments in different ambients revealed that the dominating defects in sputtered CdO films are oxygen vacancies. Oxygen rich CdO films grown by sputtering with increasing O 2 partial pressure in the sputter gas mixture results in films with resistivity from ∼4 × 10 −4 to >1 Ω cm due to incorporation of excess O in the form of O-related acceptor defects, likely to be O interstitials. Intentional doping with In and Ga donors leads to an increase of both the electron concentration and the mobility. With proper doping CdO films with electron concentration of more than 10 21  cm −3 and electron mobility higher than 120 cm 2 /V s can be achieved. Thermal annealing of doped CdO films in N 2 ambient can further improve the electrical properties by removing native acceptors and improving film crystallinity. Furthermore, the unique doping behavior and electrical properties of CdO were explored via simulations based on the amphoteric defect model. A comparison of the calculations and experimental results show that the formation energy of native donors and acceptors at the Fermi stabilization energy is ∼1 eV and that the mobility of sputtered deposited CdO is limited by a background acceptor concentration of

  1. Theory of electromagnetic wave propagation in ferromagnetic Rashba conductor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shibata, Junya; Takeuchi, Akihito; Kohno, Hiroshi; Tatara, Gen

    2018-02-01

    We present a comprehensive study of various electromagnetic wave propagation phenomena in a ferromagnetic bulk Rashba conductor from the perspective of quantum mechanical transport. In this system, both the space inversion and time reversal symmetries are broken, as characterized by the Rashba field α and magnetization M, respectively. First, we present a general phenomenological analysis of electromagnetic wave propagation in media with broken space inversion and time reversal symmetries based on the dielectric tensor. The dependence of the dielectric tensor on the wave vector q and M is retained to first order. Then, we calculate the microscopic electromagnetic response of the current and spin of conduction electrons subjected to α and M, based on linear response theory and the Green's function method; the results are used to study the system optical properties. First, it is found that a large α enhances the anisotropic properties of the system and enlarges the frequency range in which the electromagnetic waves have hyperbolic dispersion surfaces and exhibit unusual propagations known as negative refraction and backward waves. Second, we consider the electromagnetic cross-correlation effects (direct and inverse Edelstein effects) on the wave propagation. These effects stem from the lack of space inversion symmetry and yield q-linear off-diagonal components in the dielectric tensor. This induces a Rashba-induced birefringence, in which the polarization vector rotates around the vector (α ×q ) . In the presence of M, which breaks time reversal symmetry, there arises an anomalous Hall effect and the dielectric tensor acquires off-diagonal components linear in M. For α ∥M , these components yield the Faraday effect for the Faraday configuration q ∥M and the Cotton-Mouton effect for the Voigt configuration ( q ⊥M ). When α and M are noncollinear, M- and q-induced optical phenomena are possible, which include nonreciprocal directional dichroism in the

  2. Anticipating the Future, Influencing the Present: Assessing the Societal Implications of Emerging Technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michelson, Evan S.

    A growing challenge for the American policymaking system is to respond effectively to a wide range of interconnected, complex, long-term science and technology issues. Simultaneously, current approaches and institutions of governance are ill suited to address these multidimensional challenges. As the next generation of innovations in science and technology is arriving at an accelerating rate, the governance system is lagging behind. This realization leads to a vital overarching consideration that steers this study: What approaches are well suited to anticipate the longer-term societal implications of emerging technologies in the 21st Century? This study identifies and examines strategies for anticipating the longer-term societal implications of emerging technologies by way of a qualitative case study. It explores one area of technology (nanotechnology), in one particular governance system (the United States), and with a focus on one high profile non-governmental organization (NGO) involved in addressing a range of nanotechnology's societal and policy implications: the Project on Emerging Nanotechnologies (PEN). Based at the Woodrow Wilson International Center for Scholars, PEN's goal was to ensure "that as nanotechnologies advance, possible risks are minimized, public and consumer engagement remains strong, and the potential benefits of these new technologies are realized." The conceptual framework of anticipatory governance guides the research, which offers a real-world example about how anticipatory governance applies in the nongovernmental sector and shows how this idea links to broader theoretical debates about the policymaking process. The study's main conclusion is that PEN utilized a set of interconnected strategies related to advancing foresight, operating in a boundary-spanning role, and promoting communications and public engagement in its attempt to influence, anticipate, and shape the societal implications of emerging technologies. The findings are

  3. THE TIME DOMAIN SPECTROSCOPIC SURVEY: VARIABLE SELECTION AND ANTICIPATED RESULTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morganson, Eric; Green, Paul J. [Harvard Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden St, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Anderson, Scott F.; Ruan, John J. [Department of Astronomy, University of Washington, Box 351580, Seattle, WA 98195 (United States); Myers, Adam D. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Wyoming, Laramie, WY 82071 (United States); Eracleous, Michael; Brandt, William Nielsen [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, 525 Davey Laboratory, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802 (United States); Kelly, Brandon [Department of Physics, Broida Hall, University of California, Santa Barbara, CA 93106-9530 (United States); Badenes, Carlos [Department of Physics and Astronomy and Pittsburgh Particle Physics, Astrophysics and Cosmology Center (PITT PACC), University of Pittsburgh, 3941 O’Hara St, Pittsburgh, PA 15260 (United States); Bañados, Eduardo [Max-Planck-Institut für Astronomie, Königstuhl 17, D-69117 Heidelberg (Germany); Blanton, Michael R. [Center for Cosmology and Particle Physics, Department of Physics, New York University, 4 Washington Place, New York, NY 10003 (United States); Bershady, Matthew A. [Department of Astronomy, University of Wisconsin, 475 N. Charter St., Madison, WI 53706 (United States); Borissova, Jura [Instituto de Física y Astronomía, Universidad de Valparaíso, Av. Gran Bretaña 1111, Playa Ancha, Casilla 5030, and Millennium Institute of Astrophysics (MAS), Santiago (Chile); Burgett, William S. [GMTO Corp, Suite 300, 251 S. Lake Ave, Pasadena, CA 91101 (United States); Chambers, Kenneth, E-mail: emorganson@cfa.harvard.edu [Institute for Astronomy, University of Hawaii at Manoa, Honolulu, HI 96822 (United States); and others

    2015-06-20

    We present the selection algorithm and anticipated results for the Time Domain Spectroscopic Survey (TDSS). TDSS is an Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS)-IV Extended Baryon Oscillation Spectroscopic Survey (eBOSS) subproject that will provide initial identification spectra of approximately 220,000 luminosity-variable objects (variable stars and active galactic nuclei across 7500 deg{sup 2} selected from a combination of SDSS and multi-epoch Pan-STARRS1 photometry. TDSS will be the largest spectroscopic survey to explicitly target variable objects, avoiding pre-selection on the basis of colors or detailed modeling of specific variability characteristics. Kernel Density Estimate analysis of our target population performed on SDSS Stripe 82 data suggests our target sample will be 95% pure (meaning 95% of objects we select have genuine luminosity variability of a few magnitudes or more). Our final spectroscopic sample will contain roughly 135,000 quasars and 85,000 stellar variables, approximately 4000 of which will be RR Lyrae stars which may be used as outer Milky Way probes. The variability-selected quasar population has a smoother redshift distribution than a color-selected sample, and variability measurements similar to those we develop here may be used to make more uniform quasar samples in large surveys. The stellar variable targets are distributed fairly uniformly across color space, indicating that TDSS will obtain spectra for a wide variety of stellar variables including pulsating variables, stars with significant chromospheric activity, cataclysmic variables, and eclipsing binaries. TDSS will serve as a pathfinder mission to identify and characterize the multitude of variable objects that will be detected photometrically in even larger variability surveys such as Large Synoptic Survey Telescope.

  4. Conductor fabrication for ITER Model Coils. Status of the EU cabling and jacketing activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Corte, A. della; Ricci, M.V.; Spadoni, M.; Bessette, D.; Duchateau, J.L.; Salpietro, E.; Garre, R.; Rossi, S.; Penco, R.; Laurenti, A.

    1994-01-01

    The conductors for the ITER magnets are being defined according to the operating requirements of the machine. To demonstrate the technological feasibility of the main features of the magnets, two model coils (central solenoid and toroidal field), with bores in the range 2-3 m, will be manufactured. This is the first significant industrial production of full-size conductor (a total of about 6.5 km for these coils). One cabling and one jacketing line have been assembled in Europe. The former can cable up to 1100 m (6 tons) unit lengths; the latter, which can also handle 1000 m conductor lengths, has been assembled in a shorter version (320 m). A description of the lines is reported, together with the results of the trials performed up to now. (author) 2 figs

  5. Manufacture and evaluation of Nb3Sn conductors fabricated by the MJR method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McDonald, W.K.; Curtis, C.W.; Scanlan, R.M.; Larbalestier, D.C.; Marken, K.; Smathers, D.B.

    1982-01-01

    The bronze matrix/niobium filament process has become established as a commercially viable method for producing multifilamentary Nb 3 Sn superconductors. This paper describes a new method, the Modified Jelly-Roll (MJR) approach, which can produce a structure similar to that in a conventionally fabricated multifilamentary Nb 3 Sn conductor. This approach utilizes alternate sheets of niobium expanded metal and bronze, which are rolled into a jelly-roll configuration and then extruded. During extrusion and subsequent drawing, the junctures in the niobium are elongated and the material develops a filamentary structure. This method may offer significant advantages in terms of reduced fabrication time and cost over the conventional approach. Results of a manufacturing development program will be presented in which two lengths of conductor were made to High-Field Test Facility conductor specifications. In addition, critical current and transition temperature measurements of the sub-elements used to construct the HFTF-type lengths will be reported

  6. Status of high temperature superconductor based magnets and the conductors they depend upon

    CERN Document Server

    Schwartz, J; Chan, W K; Gou, X F; Liu, X T; Phillips, M; Le, Q V; Naderi, G; Turenne, M; Ye, L

    2011-01-01

    This paper reviews the status of high temperature superconductors for high field magnets for future devices such as a high energy LHC or a muon collider. Some of the primary challenges faced for the implementation of systems are discussed. Two conductor technologies, Bi$_2$Sr$_2$CaCu$_2$O$_{8+x}$ and YBa$_2$Cu$_3$O$_{7-\\delta}$, have emerged as high field conductor options, but their relative advantages and disadvantages for high field magnets are quite different. These are reviewed from an engineering perspective, including coil manufacturing, electromechanical behaviour and quench behaviour. Lastly, the important roles of "system pull" upon conductor and magnet technology development, and of interactions between the materials and magnet communities for accelerating development, are discussed.

  7. Progress of long coated conductors fabrication with fluorine-free CSD method at SWJTU

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao, Y., E-mail: yzhao@swjtu.edu.cn [Key Lab of Advanced Materials Technologies, Key Lab of Magnetic Levitation Technologies and Maglev Trains (Ministry of Education), Superconductivity and New Energy Center (SNEC), Southwest Jiaotong University, Chengdu 610031 (China); School of Materials Science and Engineering, University of New South Wales, Sydney 2052, NSW (Australia); Wang, W.T.; Lei, M.; Pu, M.H.; Zhang, Y. [Key Lab of Advanced Materials Technologies, Key Lab of Magnetic Levitation Technologies and Maglev Trains (Ministry of Education), Superconductivity and New Energy Center (SNEC), Southwest Jiaotong University, Chengdu 610031 (China); Cheng, C.H. [School of Materials Science and Engineering, University of New South Wales, Sydney 2052, NSW (Australia)

    2013-10-15

    Highlights: • Recent progress on the long coated conductors fabrication by F-free CSD method is presented. • Single buffer and partial-melting technology and slot-die coating methods have been developed. • Reel-to-reel facilities for continuous process have been achieved. -- Abstract: Recent progress on the fabrication of long high-T{sub c} superconducting coated conductors with a fluorine-free chemical solution deposition (CSD) method is presented. Developments including such novel methods as single buffer technology, partial-melting process on YBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 7} (YBCO), slot-die coating and drying; reel-to-reel facilities for continuous process have been achieved in the effort on high-T{sub c} superconducting coated conductors at SWJTU, which form a comprehensive technology to fabricate long coated tapes with high performances.

  8. Insulated conductor temperature limited heater for subsurface heating coupled in a three-phase WYE configuration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinegar, Harold J.; Sandberg, Chester Ledlie

    2010-11-09

    A heating system for a subsurface formation is described. The heating system includes a first heater, a second heater, and a third heater placed in an opening in the subsurface formation. Each heater includes: an electrical conductor; an insulation layer at least partially surrounding the electrical conductor; and an electrically conductive sheath at least partially surrounding the insulation layer. The electrical conductor is electrically coupled to the sheath at a lower end portion of the heater. The lower end portion is the portion of the heater distal from a surface of the opening. The first heater, the second heater, and the third heater are electrically coupled at the lower end portions of the heaters. The first heater, the second heater, and the third heater are configured to be electrically coupled in a three-phase wye configuration.

  9. A comparison of graphene, superconductors and metals as conductors for metamaterials and plasmonics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tassin, Philippe; Koschny, Thomas; Kafesaki, Maria; Soukoulis, Costas

    2012-03-30

    Recent advancements in metamaterials and plasmonics have promised a number of exciting applications, in particular at terahertz and optical frequencies. Unfortunately, the noble metals used in these photonic structures are not particularly good conductors at high frequencies, resulting in significant dissipative loss. Here, we address the question of what is a good conductor for metamaterials and plasmonics. For resonant metamaterials, we develop a figure-of-merit for conductors that allows for a straightforward classification of conducting materials according to the resulting dissipative loss in the metamaterial. Application of our method predicts that graphene and high-T{sub c} superconductors are not viable alternatives for metals in metamaterials. We also provide an overview of a number of transition metals, alkali metals and transparent conducting oxides. For plasmonic systems, we predict that graphene and high-T{sub c} superconductors cannot outperform gold as a platform for surface plasmon polaritons, because graphene has a smaller propagation length-to-wavelength ratio.

  10. Stabilizing effect of passive conductors with arbitrary shape for positional instabilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seki, Shogo; Ninomiya, Hiromasa; Yoshida, Hidetoshi

    1983-10-01

    For positional instabilities in the tokamak, the stabilizing index nsub(s) is an adequate parameter to characterize the stabilizing effect produced by several kinds of passive conductors around a plasma column such as vacuum vessel and poloidal field coils. Since a system of passive conductors with arbitrary shape can be involved into multiple L-R circuits, this parameter nsub(s) of those passive conductors is expressed in a simple form by using a method of the eigen mode expansion of multiple L-R circuits. This parameter nsub(s) is very useful to estimate not only a growth rate of positional instability and its feedback stabilization but also an inward shift of plasma column due to a minor disruption. (author)

  11. A new percolation model for composite solid electrolytes and dispersed ionic conductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Risyad Hasyim, Muhammad; Lanagan, Michael T.

    2018-02-01

    Composite solid electrolytes (CSEs) including conductor/insulator composites known as dispersed ionic conductors (DICs) have motivated the development of novel percolation models that describe their conductivity. Despite the long history, existing models lack in one or more key areas: (1) rigorous foundation for their physical theory, (2) explanation for non-universal conductor-insulator transition, (3) classification of DICs, and (4) extension to frequency-domain. This work describes a frequency-domain effective medium approximation (EMA) of a bond percolation model for CSEs. The EMA is derived entirely from Maxwell’s equations and contains basic microstructure parameters. The model was applied successfully to several composite systems from literature. Simulations and fitting of literature data address these key areas and illustrate the interplay between space charge layer properties and bulk microstructure.

  12. Anticipating changes to future connectivity within a network of marine protected areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coleman, Melinda A; Cetina-Heredia, Paulina; Roughan, Moninya; Feng, Ming; van Sebille, Erik; Kelaher, Brendan P

    2017-09-01

    Continental boundary currents are projected to be altered under future scenarios of climate change. As these currents often influence dispersal and connectivity among populations of many marine organisms, changes to boundary currents may have dramatic implications for population persistence. Networks of marine protected areas (MPAs) often aim to maintain connectivity, but anticipation of the scale and extent of climatic impacts on connectivity are required to achieve this critical conservation goal in a future of climate change. For two key marine species (kelp and sea urchins), we use oceanographic modelling to predict how continental boundary currents are likely to change connectivity among a network of MPAs spanning over 1000 km of coastline off the coast of eastern Australia. Overall change in predicted connectivity among pairs of MPAs within the network did not change significantly over and above temporal variation within climatic scenarios, highlighting the need for future studies to incorporate temporal variation in dispersal to robustly anticipate likely change. However, the intricacies of connectivity between different pairs of MPAs were noteworthy. For kelp, poleward connectivity among pairs of MPAs tended to increase in the future, whereas equatorward connectivity tended to decrease. In contrast, for sea urchins, connectivity among pairs of MPAs generally decreased in both directions. Self-seeding within higher-latitude MPAs tended to increase, and the role of low-latitude MPAs as a sink for urchins changed significantly in contrasting ways. These projected changes have the potential to alter important genetic parameters with implications for adaptation and ecosystem vulnerability to climate change. Considering such changes, in the context of managing and designing MPA networks, may ensure that conservation goals are achieved into the future. © 2017 The Authors. Global Change Biology Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Lateral critical current density distributions degraded near edges of coated conductors through cutting processes and their influence on ac loss characteristics of power transmission cables

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amemiya, N.; Li, Q.; Nishino, R.; Takeuchi, K.; Nakamura, T.; Ohmatsu, K.; Ohya, M.; Maruyama, O.; Okuma, T.; Izumi, T.

    2011-01-01

    A wide coated conductor is often cut into narrow ones in fabrication process. We measured the lateral J c distributions of coated conductors cut by a mechanical slitter or a laser. The J c is degraded at 0.15-0.25 mm from the edges of coated conductors through cutting process. The ac losses of superconducting cables are affected by the degraded J c near the edges of coated conductors. It is more marked in cables with fewer layers or carrying larger I t /I c . The critical current density (J c ) near the edges of coated conductor could impact the ac loss characteristics of the cables comprising coated conductors. A wide coated conductor is often cut into narrower coated conductors in fabrication processes, and the J c might degrade near the edges of coated conductors through the cutting process. This possible degradation of J c could depend on cutting technology. Lateral J c distributions of coated conductors cut by using a mechanical slitter as well as a laser were measured by the magnetic knife method. The measured coated conductors are fabricated by PLD process on clad type textured-metal substrates with reduced magnetism. Based on the degradation of J c near the edges of coated conductors which was determined experimentally, ac losses of multi-layer cables as well as mono-layer cables were calculated numerically to evaluate the impact of the J c degradation near the edges of coated conductors on the their ac loss characteristics.

  14. Application of the parametric proper generalized decomposition to the frequency-dependent calculation of the impedance of an AC line with rectangular conductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sancarlos-González, Abel; Pineda-Sanchez, Manuel; Puche-Panadero, Ruben; Sapena-Bano, Angel; Riera-Guasp, Martin; Martinez-Roman, Javier; Perez-Cruz, Juan; Roger-Folch, Jose

    2017-12-01

    AC lines of industrial busbar systems are usually built using conductors with rectangular cross sections, where each phase can have several parallel conductors to carry high currents. The current density in a rectangular conductor, under sinusoidal conditions, is not uniform. It depends on the frequency, on the conductor shape, and on the distance between conductors, due to the skin effect and to proximity effects. Contrary to circular conductors, there are not closed analytical formulas for obtaining the frequency-dependent impedance of conductors with rectangular cross-section. It is necessary to resort to numerical simulations to obtain the resistance and the inductance of the phases, one for each desired frequency and also for each distance between the phases' conductors. On the contrary, the use of the parametric proper generalized decomposition (PGD) allows to obtain the frequency-dependent impedance of an AC line for a wide range of frequencies and distances between the phases' conductors by solving a single simulation in a 4D domain (spatial coordinates x and y, the frequency and the separation between conductors). In this way, a general "virtual chart" solution is obtained, which contains the solution for any frequency and for any separation of the conductors, and stores it in a compact separated representations form, which can be easily embedded on a more general software for the design of electrical installations. The approach presented in this work for rectangular conductors can be easily extended to conductors with an arbitrary shape.

  15. Application of the parametric proper generalized decomposition to the frequency-dependent calculation of the impedance of an AC line with rectangular conductors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sancarlos-González Abel

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available AC lines of industrial busbar systems are usually built using conductors with rectangular cross sections, where each phase can have several parallel conductors to carry high currents. The current density in a rectangular conductor, under sinusoidal conditions, is not uniform. It depends on the frequency, on the conductor shape, and on the distance between conductors, due to the skin effect and to proximity effects. Contrary to circular conductors, there are not closed analytical formulas for obtaining the frequency-dependent impedance of conductors with rectangular cross-section. It is necessary to resort to numerical simulations to obtain the resistance and the inductance of the phases, one for each desired frequency and also for each distance between the phases’ conductors. On the contrary, the use of the parametric proper generalized decomposition (PGD allows to obtain the frequency-dependent impedance of an AC line for a wide range of frequencies and distances between the phases’ conductors by solving a single simulation in a 4D domain (spatial coordinates x and y, the frequency and the separation between conductors. In this way, a general “virtual chart” solution is obtained, which contains the solution for any frequency and for any separation of the conductors, and stores it in a compact separated representations form, which can be easily embedded on a more general software for the design of electrical installations. The approach presented in this work for rectangular conductors can be easily extended to conductors with an arbitrary shape.

  16. Critical current property in YBCO coated conductor fabricated by improved TFA-MOD process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Inoue, M., E-mail: inoue@ees.kyushu-u.ac.j [Department of EESE, Kyushu University, Moto-oka 744, NIshi-ku, Fukuoka 819-0395 (Japan); Kiss, T.; Motoyama, K. [Department of EESE, Kyushu University, Moto-oka 744, NIshi-ku, Fukuoka 819-0395 (Japan); Awaji, S.; Watanabe, K. [Institute for Materials, Tohoku University, Sendai 980-8577 (Japan); Yoshizumi, M.; Yamada, Y.; Izumi, T.; Shiohara, Y. [Superconductivity Research Laboratory, Tokyo 135-0062 (Japan)

    2009-10-15

    We have investigated critical current property in YBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 7-d}elta (YBCO) coated conductor fabricated by improved metal organic deposition using trifluoroacetates (TFA-MOD) process optimizing conditions such as solution compositions. The electric field vs. current density (E-J) characteristic measurement was carried out at wide range of temperature, T, and magnetic field, B. Critical current density, J{sub c}, reached 3.8 x 10{sup 10} A/m{sup 2} at 77 K in self-field for 1.2 mum thick YBCO layer. In-field J{sub c} is also improved by this new process. From the analysis of E-J characteristics, we have found out that the shape of statistical distribution of J{sub c} in the new process becomes sharper than that of the previous one. These results indicate that the uniformity of YBCO layer is improved by the new process. Furthermore, analytical expression of E-J characteristics, which is based on a percolation model and a scaling law of the pinning force density, shows good agreement with the experimental results. This allows us to predict the critical current property at arbitrary conditions of T and B even if we could not have measured data. For example, it is predicted that J{sub c} could be about 1 x 10{sup 10} A/m{sup 2} at 4.2 K and 30 T parallel to the c-axis.

  17. TOPICAL REVIEW: Development of high-current high-field conductors in Europe for fusion application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duchateau, J.-L.; Spadoni, M.; Salpietro, E.; Ciazynski, D.; Ricci, M.; Libeyre, P.; della Corte, A.

    2002-06-01

    In the framework of the preparation for the realization of the international thermonuclear experimental reactor (ITER), the construction and test of relevant models of seven different parts of the reactor was decided. Two of them are related to the superconducting coils: the toroidal field model coil (TFMC) and the central solenoid model coil (CSMC). For these superconducting coils, due to the expected high values of the current (≥60 kA) and voltage (≥5 kV with respect to the ground) the adopted technology was that of cable in conduit conductor (CICC). Until recently, little experience of this technology existed. Therefore, an extensive research and development programme has been carried out, in the last 10 years, by the ITER partners and particularly in Europe, to design, industrialize and test these large conductors and their joints. The EURATOM associations CEA and ENEA played a leading part in this phase. The CICC concept is described and the results of the developments are presented. About 7 km of conductors were manufactured in the industry and for that more than 10 tonnes of Nb3Sn strands were produced in Europe. In this large programme, Europe is particularly in charge of the TFMC, which will be tested this summer at Forschung Zentrum Karlsruhe (Germany). In the framework of this programme, three full size conductors and joint samples were tested at the European Sultan test facility (Centre de Recherches de Physique des Plasmas, Villigen, Switzerland), to validate the technological choices and check that the ITER specifications were met. The results of these tests are presented in detail. Starting from the strand critical properties, the conductors made of about 1000 strands did reach their expected performance. The joints of these large conductors are very special and delicate components. Their behaviour was quite successful and the joint resistance of these samples (of the order of 1 nΩ) was well within the specifications.

  18. Effect of conductor geometry on source localization: Implications for epilepsy studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schlitt, H.; Heller, L.; Best, E.; Ranken, D.; Aaron, R.

    1994-01-01

    We shall discuss the effects of conductor geometry on source localization for applications in epilepsy studies. The most popular conductor model for clinical MEG studies is a homogeneous sphere. However, several studies have indicated that a sphere is a poor model for the head when the sources are deep, as is the case for epileptic foci in the mesial temporal lobe. We believe that replacing the spherical model with a more realistic one in the inverse fitting procedure will improve the accuracy of localizing epileptic sources. In order to include a realistic head model in the inverse problem, we must first solve the forward problem for the realistic conductor geometry. We create a conductor geometry model from MR images, and then solve the forward problem via a boundary integral equation for the electric potential due to a specified primary source. One the electric potential is known, the magnetic field can be calculated directly. The most time-intensive part of the problem is generating the conductor model; fortunately, this needs to be done only once for each patient. It takes little time to change the primary current and calculate a new magnetic field for use in the inverse fitting procedure. We present the results of a series of computer simulations in which we investigate the localization accuracy due to replacing the spherical model with the realistic head model in the inverse fitting procedure. The data to be fit consist of a computer generated magnetic field due to a known current dipole in a realistic head model, with added noise. We compare the localization errors when this field is fit using a spherical model to the fit using a realistic head model. Using a spherical model is comparable to what is usually done when localizing epileptic sources in humans, where the conductor model used in the inverse fitting procedure does not correspond to the actual head

  19. Effect of conductor geometry on source localization: Implications for epilepsy studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schlitt, H.; Heller, L.; Best, E.; Ranken, D.; Aaron, R.

    1994-07-01

    We shall discuss the effects of conductor geometry on source localization for applications in epilepsy studies. The most popular conductor model for clinical MEG studies is a homogeneous sphere. However, several studies have indicated that a sphere is a poor model for the head when the sources are deep, as is the case for epileptic foci in the mesial temporal lobe. We believe that replacing the spherical model with a more realistic one in the inverse fitting procedure will improve the accuracy of localizing epileptic sources. In order to include a realistic head model in the inverse problem, we must first solve the forward problem for the realistic conductor geometry. We create a conductor geometry model from MR images, and then solve the forward problem via a boundary integral equation for the electric potential due to a specified primary source. One the electric potential is known, the magnetic field can be calculated directly. The most time-intensive part of the problem is generating the conductor model; fortunately, this needs to be done only once for each patient. It takes little time to change the primary current and calculate a new magnetic field for use in the inverse fitting procedure. We present the results of a series of computer simulations in which we investigate the localization accuracy due to replacing the spherical model with the realistic head model in the inverse fitting procedure. The data to be fit consist of a computer generated magnetic field due to a known current dipole in a realistic head model, with added noise. We compare the localization errors when this field is fit using a spherical model to the fit using a realistic head model. Using a spherical model is comparable to what is usually done when localizing epileptic sources in humans, where the conductor model used in the inverse fitting procedure does not correspond to the actual head.

  20. The Conductor As Visual Guide: Gesture and Perception of Musical Content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Anita B; Morrison, Steven J

    2016-01-01

    Ensemble conductors are often described as embodying the music. Researchers have determined that expressive gestures affect viewers' perceptions of conducted ensemble performances. This effect may be due, in part, to conductor gesture delineating and amplifying specific expressive aspects of music performances. The purpose of the present study was to determine if conductor gesture affected observers' focus of attention to contrasting aspects of ensemble performances. Audio recordings of two different music excerpts featuring two-part counterpoint (an ostinato paired with a lyric melody, and long chord tones paired with rhythmic interjections) were paired with video of two conductors. Each conductor used gesture appropriate to one or the other musical element (e.g., connected and flowing or detached and crisp) for a total of sixteen videos. Musician participants evaluated 8 of the excerpts for Articulation, Rhythm, Style, and Phrasing using four 10-point differential scales anchored by descriptive terms (e.g., disconnected to connected, and angular to flowing.) Results indicated a relationship between gesture and listeners' evaluations of musical content. Listeners appear to be sensitive to the manner in which a conductor's gesture delineates musical lines, particularly as an indication of overall articulation and style. This effect was observed for the lyric melody and ostinato excerpt, but not for the chords and interjections excerpt. Therefore, this effect appears to be mitigated by the congruence of gesture to preconceptions of the importance of melodic over rhythmic material, of certain instrument timbres over others, and of length between onsets of active material. These results add to a body of literature that supports the importance of the visual component in the multimodal experience of music performance.

  1. Analysis of hazardous work environment factors at a train conductor workplace

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.F. Vil'k

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper dwells on generalized analysis of morbidity which is characteristic for conductors working in passenger carriages of locomotive-driven trains. Working conditions train conductors had to work in were examined as per results of sanitary-hygienic research on intra-carriage environment, specific working conditions assessment, and questioning. Hazards caused by working environment factors for train conductors to a certain extent depend on a carriage type, its technical and hygienic state, as well as on a route a train goes by. Our research revealed that impacts exerted by various working environment factors, namely physical, chemical, biological, and psychophysical ones, caused respiratory diseases, increased allergic reactivity, changes in hearing sensitivity, and overall morbidity growth among people from this occupational group. Unordered regime resulting from constant trips and unfavorable living conditions in a carriage lead to the following diseases: varix dilatation in legs, ischemic heart disease together with primary hypertension, and chronic rheumatic heart diseases. More precise classification of conductors' working conditions can be obtained via a mathematical model creation as it enables precise estimation of occupational diseases probability. Such models should be based on a relationship between diseases frequency (or probability and working conditions as per specific hygienic factors. We worked out methodical guidelines on providing safe working conditions at conductors' working places which include efficient activities aimed at prevention of hazardous impacts exerted by working environment factors. It will help to improve working conditions substantially, to preserve workers' health, and to ensure safe passengers traffic. Safe working conditions for conductors can be secured due to a set of activities aimed at equipping new carriages and those after capital repair with air-conditioning, disinfection systems, heating

  2. Tension optimization of the conductor-and-support cable elements during stranding process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I.M. Chayun

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Steel lifting ropes, cables and other similar products are rod statically undeterminable prestressed structures. Preliminary deformations of their elements (wires are caused by their manufacturing technology. Wires suffer stretching, bending with torsion in a stage of elastoplastic deformation. In this work the mechanic-mathematical model of residual forces determination in the wires of polymetallic conductor-and-support cable is offered. Aim: The aim of the work is studying of the mechanical and mathematical model defining residual forces in the wires of conductor-and-support cable and also the optimization of parameters of a twist by the criterion of residual forces lack after production process finishing. Materials and methods: The method developed by the authors earlier to the study the strain-stressed state of twisted wire products off-loading from technological internal forces has been applied to assess the impact of the approximate value of the longitudinal stiffness of the product. In this paper, each wire is considered as an element of the product individually. This is necessary to investigate the impact of uneven wire tensions on defects of conductor-and-support cable (out-of-straight in a free state and stripping-down. Results: On the basis of the conducted deformation studies of conductor-and-support cable during off-loading process from twist tension of its elements the dependencies of residual forces on the level and interrelation of elements tension has been determined. The condition of ensuring of zero residual forces in the wires of conductor-and-support cable after production is formulated. It was found that calculated values of residual forces are almost identical when using of the approximate and exact values of longitudinal stiffness of conductor-and-support cable.

  3. Mechanical attachment of the conductor ends in the ITER poloidal field coils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bessette, D.; Decool, P.

    2003-01-01

    The ITER poloidal field (PF) coils are wound from a large cable-in-conduit-conductor, with a stainless steel (SS) jacket. Tapered bonded tails, consisting of shaped steel profiles welded to the conductor ends, are used in these PF coils to mechanically attach the conductor ends to the winding pack. Their main function is to transfer the tensile force from the end of the outermost turn to the adjacent turns by shear through an appropriate thickness of insulating material (glass epoxy). These tails are embedded in the winding pack thus avoiding any local protrusion. Similar tapered bonded tails have been extensively used in large copper coils. However, compared with a standard copper conductor, the tensile force to be transferred to the winding pack is larger in the ITER PF conductor because of the higher tensile stress experienced by the SS jacket (average tensile stress up to 200 MPa). This led to a new hollow tail design capable of transferring the large tensile force carried by the PF coil conductors over a length in the range 600-650 mm. Hollow tails, as opposed to solid tails, provide a larger bonded perimeter for the same effective tail cross section, which also contributes to limiting the peak shear stress in the insulation. As a first step, the geometry of the tail has been optimised through a 1-D analytical straight model that solves the force balance between shear in the insulation and tension in the tail along its length. In a second step, a FEA (finite element analysis) of the most promising configuration has been performed in order to validate the design

  4. Analysis of Conductor Impedances Accounting for Skin Effect and Nonlinear Permeability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perkins, M P; Ong, M M; Brown, C G; Speer, R D

    2011-07-20

    It is often necessary to protect sensitive electrical equipment from pulsed electric and magnetic fields. To accomplish this electromagnetic shielding structures similar to Faraday Cages are often implemented. If the equipment is inside a facility that has been reinforced with rebar, the rebar can be used as part of a lighting protection system. Unfortunately, such shields are not perfect and allow electromagnetic fields to be created inside due to discontinuities in the structure, penetrations, and finite conductivity of the shield. In order to perform an analysis of such a structure it is important to first determine the effect of the finite impedance of the conductors used in the shield. In this paper we will discuss the impedances of different cylindrical conductors in the time domain. For a time varying pulse the currents created in the conductor will have different spectral components, which will affect the current density due to skin effects. Many construction materials use iron and different types of steels that have a nonlinear permeability. The nonlinear material can have an effect on the impedance of the conductor depending on the B-H curve. Although closed form solutions exist for the impedances of cylindrical conductors made of linear materials, computational techniques are needed for nonlinear materials. Simulations of such impedances are often technically challenging due to the need for a computational mesh to be able to resolve the skin depths for the different spectral components in the pulse. The results of such simulations in the time domain will be shown and used to determine the impedances of cylindrical conductors for lightning current pulses that have low frequency content.

  5. Neurobiological underpinnings of reward anticipation and outcome evaluation in gambling disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Linnet, Jakob

    2014-01-01

    Gambling disorder is characterized by persistent and recurrent maladaptive gambling behavior, which leads to clinically significant impairment or distress. The disorder is associated with dysfunctions in the dopamine system. The dopamine system codes reward anticipation and outcome evaluation....... Reward anticipation refers to dopaminergic activation prior to reward, while outcome evaluation refers to dopaminergic activation after reward. This article reviews evidence of dopaminergic dysfunctions in reward anticipation and outcome evaluation in gambling disorder from two vantage points: a model...... in gambling disorder are suggested....

  6. The complete, lag and anticipated synchronization of a BLDCM chaotic system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ge Zhengming; Lin Guohua

    2007-01-01

    The complete, lag and anticipated synchronizations of two identical autonomous chaotic systems, Brushless DC Motors (BLDCM) systems, are studied in this paper. PC method, linear coupling and active control are used for the achievements of the complete and the lag synchronizations. Linear coupling method and active control is used for the anticipated synchronization. Generalized lag, anticipated and complete synchronization are obtained by active control. Finally, the generalized lag synchronization of BLDCM system and Lorenz system is studied

  7. On propagation of sound waves in Q2D conductors in a quantizing magnetic field

    CERN Document Server

    Kirichenko, O V; Galbova, O; Ivanovski, G; Krstovska, D

    2003-01-01

    The attenuation of sound waves propagating normally to the layers of a Q2D conductor is analysed at low enough temperatures when quantization of the energy of conduction electrons results in an oscillatory dependence of the sound attenuation rate on the inverse magnetic field. The sound wave decrement is found for different orientations of the magnetic field with respect to the layers. A layered conductor is shown to be most transparent in the case when the magnetic field is orthogonal to the layers.

  8. Estudio de policonsumo en una muestra de conductores de bogota, año 2005

    OpenAIRE

    Sánchez Cardozo, Óscar Armando; González O., Jorge Oswaldo; Dominguez Márquez, Carolina; López Castro, Adriana

    2011-01-01

    Antecedentes. No conocemos estudios que establezcanen nuestro medio la dimensión del policonsumo en conductoresde vehículo automotor. El problema delpoliconsumo puede explicar en algunos casos la falta deconcordancia de alcoholemia, etilometria y examen clínico.En este informe queremos centrarnos en la presentaciónde policonsumo en la muestra y el cuadro clínico deestos conductores.Objetivo. Determinar en una muestra de conductores deBogotá, con sospecha de intoxicación etílica, el consumode ...

  9. Prácticas de Física: Resistividad de un conductor y ley de Ohm

    OpenAIRE

    Beléndez, Augusto; Bernabeu, Guillermo; Vera Guarinos, Jenaro; Pastor Antón, Carlos; Martín García, Agapito

    1988-01-01

    El objetivo de esta práctica de laboratorio es la determinación de la resistividad de un conductor mediante la utilización de la ley de Ohm. Como conductor se utiliza hilo constantán del cual se mide su longitud con una cinta métrica y su diámetro con un palmer. Con estos valores y con los de la resistencia del hilo determinada a partir de un ajuste por mínimos cuadrados de los voltajes aplicados y las intensidades que circulan por el hilo, se determina el valor de la resistividad.

  10. Ionic Diffusion in a Ternary Superionic Conductor: An {ital Ab Initio} Molecular Dynamics Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wengert, S.; Nesper, R.; Andreoni, W.; Parrinello, M. [Laboratorium fuer Anorganische Chemie, ETH Zuerich, 8092 Zuerich (Switzerland)]|[IBM Research Division, Zurich Research Laboratory, 8803 Rueschlikon (Switzerland)]|[Max-Planck-Institut fuer Festkoerperforschung, 70569 Stuttgart (Germany)

    1996-12-01

    We present Car-Parrinello molecular dynamics simulations of a novel superionic conductor, Li{sub 2{minus}2{ital x}}Mg{sub 1+{ital x}}Si ({ital x}{approximately}0.06), at different temperatures. The calculations clarify the nature of the ionic conduction and lead to the prediction of the first inorganic magnesium superionic conductor. In fact, both lithium and magnesium are found to act as charge carriers. The diffusion is fast and can be described as vacancy migration through directed jumps. The calculated diffusion constants for lithium are consistent with recent electrochemical measurements. {copyright} {ital 1996 The American Physical Society.}

  11. An iodide-based Li7P2S8I superionic conductor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rangasamy, Ezhiylmurugan; Liu, Zengcai; Gobet, Mallory; Pilar, Kartik; Sahu, Gayatri; Zhou, Wei; Wu, Hui; Greenbaum, Steve; Liang, Chengdu

    2015-02-04

    In an example of stability from instability, a Li(7)P(2)S(8)I solid-state Li-ion conductor derived from β-Li(3)PS(4) and LiI demonstrates electrochemical stability up to 10 V vs Li/Li(+). The oxidation instability of I is subverted via its incorporation into the coordinated structure. The inclusion of I also creates stability with the metallic Li anode while simultaneously enhancing the interfacial kinetics and ionic conductivity. Low-temperature membrane processability enables facile fabrication of dense membranes, making this conductor suitable for industrial adoption.

  12. Coincidence-anticipation timing and reaction time in youth tennis and table tennis players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ak, Emre; Koçak, Settar

    2010-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the coincidence-anticipation timing and reaction times (RT) of 10- to 14-year-old tennis and table tennis players and examine possible sex differences. 107 (51.4%) tennis and 101 (48.6%) table tennis players participated in this study. Players were compared on coincidence-anticipation timing and reaction time. Tennis players performed with less error in the coincidence-anticipation timing task than table tennis players, whereas table tennis players had lower mean reaction time than tennis players. It was also found that male players made fewer errors in the coincidence-anticipation timing task than their female counterparts.

  13. Electromagnetic and mechanical characteristion of ITER CS-MC conductors affected by transverse cyclic loading, part 2: Interstrand contact resistance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijhuis, Arend; Noordman, Niels H.W.; ten Kate, Herman H.J.; Mitchell, Neil; Bruzzone, Pierluigi

    1999-01-01

    A special cryogenic press has been built to study the mechanical and electrical properties of full-size ITER multistrand Nb3Sn cable-in-conduit conductor samples under transverse, mechanical loading. This simulates the transverse magnetic force that occurs when the conductors are used in a coil. The

  14. On the stability conditions of flexible current conductor tightened in a magnetic field for charged particle trajectory tracing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kozodaev, M.S.

    1974-01-01

    Conditions of equilibrium stability in three-dimensional space for a stretched flexible current conductor, while tracing the trajectories of charged particles moving in a magnetic field, have been determined using variational principles. Formulas suitable for engineering calculations have been obtained that allow to determine the stability regions and to estimate errors in tracing due to the conductor weight and elasticity

  15. Anticipating the uncertain: economic modeling and climate change policy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jensen, Svenn

    2012-11-01

    With this thesis I wish to contribute to the understanding of how uncertainty and the anticipation of future events by economic actors affect climate policies. The thesis consists of four papers. Two papers are analytical models which explicitly consider that emissions are caused by extracting scarce fossil fuels which in the future must be replaced by clean technologies. The other two are so called numerical integrated assessment models. Such models represent the world economy, the climate system and the interactions between those two quantitatively, complementing more abstract theoretical work. Should policy makers discriminate between subsidizing renewable energy sources such as wind or solar power, and technologies such as carbon capture and storage (CCS)? Focusing only on the dynamic supply of fossil fuels and hence Co{sub 2}, we find here that cheaper future renewables cause extraction to speed up, lower costs of CCS may delay it. CCS hence may dampen the dynamic inefficiency caused by the absence of comprehensive climate policies today. Does it matter whether uncertainty about future damage assessment is due to scientific complexities or stems from the political process? In paper two, I find that political and scientific uncertainties have opposing effects on the incentives to investment in renewables and the extraction of fossil fuels: The prospect of scientific learning about the climate system increases investment incentives and, ceteris paribus, slows extraction down; uncertainty about future political constellations does the opposite. The optimal carbon tax under scientific uncertainty equals expected marginal damages, whereas political uncertainty demands a tax below marginal damages that decreases over time. Does uncertainty about economic growth impact optimal climate policy today? Here we are the first to consistently analyze how uncertainty about future economic growth affects optimal emission reductions and the optimal social cost of carbon. We

  16. Anticipated impacts of climate warming on ecosystems in Interior Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douglas, T. A.; Liljedahl, A. K.; Astley, B. N.; Downer, C. W.; Jorgenson, T. T.; Bagley, C.; Burks-Copes, K.

    2011-12-01

    Future climate scenarios predict a roughly 5 degree increase in mean annual air temperatures for the Alaskan Interior over the next 80 years. This is expected to be enough to initiate permafrost degradation in Interior Alaska which could lead to widespread thermokarst and talik development and potentially a thicker seasonally thawed (active) layer. These changes could dramatically affect hydrology, ground surface topography and vegetation. Forecasting ecological responses to climate warming is complicated by many factors including variations in soil type, precipitation, surface and ground water hydrology, vegetation, slope, aspect, fire prevalence, and the thermal state of permafrost. We are making field measurements and time series repeat imagery at upland and lowland landscapes to determine where and what ecosystem processes may be most susceptible for rapid or unpredictable changes with climate warming or changing land use activities. By integrating existing cryospheric (permafrost and snow), hydrologic and vegetation succession modeling capabilities we hope to enhance our ability to predict how climate change and other stressors may affect ecosystem dynamics and fire susceptibility. We will include the effects of non-climate related anthropogenic stressors like changes in land use activities and infrastructure development. Numerous electrical resistivity geophysical measurements have been made across a variety of landscapes to investigate how vegetation, soils, and land use relates to permafrost distribution. Our project results will be synthesized into a spatially-explicit decision support system to assist with land use management decision-making for Interior Alaska. This Geographic Information Systems (GIS)-based tool is being developed through a combination of field work and modeling. We will identify challenges for management activities given the projected ecosystem response to anticipated climate change by the end-of-the century. This presentation will

  17. Off-diagonal long-range order, restricted gauge transformations, and Aharonov-Bohm effect in conductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peshkin, M.

    1996-01-01

    The electrons in a conductor surrounding an external magnetic field are acted on by a vector potential that cannot be removed by a gauge transformation. Nevertheless, a macroscopic normal conductor can experience no Aharonov-Bohm (AB) effect. That is proved by assuming only that a normal conductor lacks off-diagonal long-range order (ODLRO), which means that the electrons lack long-range phase coherence. Then by restricting the Hilbert space to density matrices which lack ODLRO, one can introduce a restricted gauge transformation that removes the interaction of the conductor with the vector potential. Consequently, the AB effect on a beam particle is not shielded by the conductor. copyright 1996 The American Physical Society

  18. Synthesis of Graphene Sheets and Their Application for Transparent Conductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Qingbin

    Graphene, a monolayer of sp2-bonded carbon atoms or one monolayer of graphite, has a special atomically thick two dimensional structure and possesses unique mechanical, electrical, thermal and optical properties. These properties make graphene a good candidate material for transparent conductors. Monolayer graphene oxide (GO) sheets with sizes ranging from a few to ˜200 mum are synthesized based on a chemical method. In order to obtain ultra-large graphene oxide (UL-GO), three main modifications were made in our experiments: i) using the natural graphite with a large lateral size (up to ˜800 mum) as starting material; ii) using intercalation and thermal shock to perform exfoliation, avoiding the destructive process of ultrasonication; iii) using a three-step centrifugation to sort the GO by sheet size. New thermal and chemical schemes, which include (i) a modified thermal treatment, (ii) acid treatment in a HNO3 bath and (iii) doping by immersing in a SOBr2 solution, are developed to treat graphene films to improve the electrical conductivity and transparency. It is shown that a longer thermal treatment at 1100 °C as well as additional acid and doping treatments reduce the sheet resistance by about 20--50% with improved transmittance. The final product has a sheet resistance of 1600 O/sq and a transparency of 82%, which is quite sufficient to replace the transparent conducting films made from indium tin oxide for many existing applications in photovoltaic cells and optoelectronics. The transmittance and sheet resistance measured after 3 months of exposure to air confirms the stability of the improved characteristics after the additional treatments. Transparent conductive films are produced using the ultra-large graphene oxide (UL-GO) sheets that are deposited layer-by-layer on a substrate using the Langmuir-Blodgett (L-B) assembly technique. The density and degree of wrinkling of the UL-GO monolayers are turned from dilute, close-packed flat UL-GO to graphene

  19. Anticipation or ascertainment bias in schizophrenia? Penrose`s familial mental illness sample

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bassett, A.S. [Univ. of Toronto (Canada)]|[Queen Street Mental health Centre, Toronto (Canada); Husted, J. [Univ. of Waterloo, Ontario (Canada)

    1997-03-01

    Several studies have observed anticipation (earlier age at onset [AAO] in successive generations) in familial schizophrenia. However, whether true anticipation or ascertainment bias is the principal originating mechanism remains unclear. In 1944 L.S. Penrose collected AAO data on a large, representative sample of familial mental illness, using a broad ascertainment strategy. These data allowed examination of anticipation and ascertainment biases in five two-generation samples of affected relative pairs. The median intergenerational difference (MID) in AAO was used to assess anticipation. Results showed significant anticipation in parent-offspring pairs with schizophrenia (n = 137 pairs; MID 15 years; P = .0001) and in a positive control sample with Huntington disease (n = 11; P = .01). Broadening the diagnosis of the schizophrenia sample suggested anticipation of severity of illness. However, other analyses provided evidence for ascertainment bias, especially in later-AAO parents, in parent-offspring pairs. Aunt/uncle-niece/nephew schizophrenia pairs showed anticipation (n = 111; P = .0001), but the MID was 8 years and aunts/uncles had earlier median AAO than parents. Anticipation effects were greatest in pairs with late-AAO parents but remained significant in a subgroup of schizophrenia pairs with early parental AAO (n = 31; P = .03). A small control sample of other diseases had MID of 5 years but no significant anticipation (n = 9; F = .38). These results suggest that, although ascertainment-bias effects were observed in parent-offspring pairs, true anticipation appears to be inherent in the transmission of familial schizophrenia. The findings support investigations of unstable mutations and other mechanisms that may contribute to true anticipation in schizophrenia. 37 refs., 2 tabs.

  20. Air-Stable n-type Conductors and Semiconductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-07-14

    considerable challenge. Here we report a facile method to efficiently identify suitable semiconducting polymers for organic stretchable transistors...NOT RETURN YOUR FORM TO THE ABOVE ORGANIZATION . 1. REPORT DATE (DD-MM-YYYY) 03-08-2015 2. REPORT TYPE Final Performance 3. DATES COVERED (From - To) 15...PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) Zhenan Bao 5d.  PROJECT NUMBER 5e.  TASK NUMBER 5f.  WORK UNIT NUMBER 7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME(S) AND

  1. Direct patterning of organic conductors on knitted textiles for long-term electrocardiography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takamatsu, Seiichi; Lonjaret, Thomas; Crisp, Dakota; Badier, Jean-Michel; Malliaras, George G.; Ismailova, Esma

    2015-10-01

    Wearable sensors are receiving a great deal of attention as they offer the potential to become a key technological tool for healthcare. In order for this potential to come to fruition, new electroactive materials endowing high performance need to be integrated with textiles. Here we present a simple and reliable technique that allows the patterning of conducting polymers on textiles. Electrodes fabricated using this technique showed a low impedance contact with human skin, were able to record high quality electrocardiograms at rest, and determine heart rate even when the wearer was in motion. This work paves the way towards imperceptible electrophysiology sensors for human health monitoring.

  2. Fermi surface studies of low-dimensional organic conductors based on BEDT-TTF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singleton, John; Caulfield, Jason; Hill, Stephen; Blundell, Stephen; Lubczynski, Wieslaw; House, Andrew; Hayes, William; Perenboom, Jos; Kurmoo, Mohammedally; Day, Peter

    1995-01-01

    This paper provides an introduction to charge-transfer salts of the ion bis(ethylenedithio)tetrathiafulvalene (ET) and their band-structure, and reviews some recent experiments on the salts involving high magnetic fields carried out by the Oxford group and coworkers. (orig.)

  3. Antiferromagnetic interactions in the quarter-filled organic conductor (EDO-TTF)(2)PF6

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Filatov, Michael

    2011-01-01

    The ground state electronic structure of the high-temperature (HT) and the low-temperature (LT) phases of (EDO-TTF)(2)PF6 is investigated using the embedded cluster approach in combination with the density functional method designed to describe the strong non-dynamic electron correlation. It is

  4. Direct patterning of organic conductors on knitted textiles for long-term electrocardiography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takamatsu, Seiichi; Lonjaret, Thomas; Crisp, Dakota; Badier, Jean-Michel; Malliaras, George G; Ismailova, Esma

    2015-10-08

    Wearable sensors are receiving a great deal of attention as they offer the potential to become a key technological tool for healthcare. In order for this potential to come to fruition, new electroactive materials endowing high performance need to be integrated with textiles. Here we present a simple and reliable technique that allows the patterning of conducting polymers on textiles. Electrodes fabricated using this technique showed a low impedance contact with human skin, were able to record high quality electrocardiograms at rest, and determine heart rate even when the wearer was in motion. This work paves the way towards imperceptible electrophysiology sensors for human health monitoring.

  5. ESR study of weakly irradiated organic conductors: TMTSF-DMTCNQ and (TMTSF)2PF6

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Forro, L.; Beuneu, F.

    1982-01-01

    ESR experiments are presented on irradiated TMTSF-DMTCNQ and (TMTSF) 2 PF 6 . They suggest that a weak disorder extends the metallic phases to low temperatures. Surprisingly, disorder has no effect on the ESR linewidth of (TMTSF) 2 PF 6 between 20 and 30 K, where the d.c. conductivity changes a lot with disorder. (author)

  6. Fermi surface studies of low-dimensional organic conductors based on BEDT-TTF

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singleton, John [Department of Physics, University of Oxford, The Clarendon Laboratory, Parks Road, Oxford OX1 3PU (United Kingdom); Caulfield, Jason [Department of Physics, University of Oxford, The Clarendon Laboratory, Parks Road, Oxford OX1 3PU (United Kingdom); Hill, Stephen [Department of Physics, University of Oxford, The Clarendon Laboratory, Parks Road, Oxford OX1 3PU (United Kingdom); Blundell, Stephen [Department of Physics, University of Oxford, The Clarendon Laboratory, Parks Road, Oxford OX1 3PU (United Kingdom); Lubczynski, Wieslaw [Department of Physics, University of Oxford, The Clarendon Laboratory, Parks Road, Oxford OX1 3PU (United Kingdom); House, Andrew [Department of Physics, University of Oxford, The Clarendon Laboratory, Parks Road, Oxford OX1 3PU (United Kingdom); Hayes, William [Department of Physics, University of Oxford, The Clarendon Laboratory, Parks Road, Oxford OX1 3PU (United Kingdom); Perenboom, Jos [High Field Magnet Laboratory and Research Institute for Materials, NL 6525 ED Nijmegen (Netherlands); Kurmoo, Mohammedally [The Royal Institution, 21 Albemarle Street, London W1X 4BS (United Kingdom); Day, Peter [The Royal Institution, 21 Albemarle Street, London W1X 4BS (United Kingdom)

    1995-05-01

    This paper provides an introduction to charge-transfer salts of the ion bis(ethylenedithio)tetrathiafulvalene (ET) and their band-structure, and reviews some recent experiments on the salts involving high magnetic fields carried out by the Oxford group and coworkers. (orig.).

  7. Research and Development of Coated Conductors Using Metal Organic Chemical Vapor Deposition

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Selvamanickam, V

    2007-01-01

    .... In the last year of this program, we made major progress in both objectives of the program. We fabricated films of different thickness by our standard MOCVD processes and worked with our collaborators (ORNL, LANL, FSU...

  8. Protic Organic Ionic Plastic Crystals: Fast Solid-State Proton Conductors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Luo, Jiangshui; Aili, David; Pan, Chao

    2016-01-01

    High temperature polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells (PEMFCs) operating between 100 °C and 200 °C are desirable because they offer significant benefits, such as improved electrode kinetics, simpler water and heat management, and better tolerance to fuel impurities, leading to higher overall...

  9. Attitudes toward Seeking Professional Help for an Eating Disorder: The Role of Stigma and Anticipated Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hackler, Ashley H.; Vogel, David L.; Wade, Nathaniel G.

    2010-01-01

    This study examined the relationship between self-stigma, anticipated risks and benefits associated with seeking counseling, and attitudes toward seeking counseling among college students with disordered eating attitudes and behaviors. The results of hierarchical regression analyses demonstrated that self-stigma and the anticipated risks and…

  10. Steeling Ourselves : Intragroup Communication while Anticipating Intergroup Contact Evokes Defensive Intergroup Perceptions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Greijdanus, Hedy; Postmes, Tom; Gordijn, Ernestine H.; van Zomeren, Martijn

    2015-01-01

    Two experiments investigated the role of intragroup communication in intergroup conflict (de-)escalation. Experiment 1 examined the effects of intragroup communication (vs. individual thought) and anticipated face-to-face intergroup contact (vs. no anticipated face-to-face intergroup contact). The

  11. Anticipation increases tactile stimulus processing in the ipsilateral primary somatosensory cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Ede, Freek; de Lange, Floris P; Maris, Eric

    2014-10-01

    Stimulus anticipation improves perception. To account for this improvement, we investigated how stimulus processing is altered by anticipation. In contrast to a large body of previous work, we employed a demanding perceptual task and investigated sensory responses that occur beyond early evoked activity in contralateral primary sensory areas: Stimulus-induced modulations of neural oscillations. For this, we recorded magnetoencephalography in 19 humans while they performed a cued tactile identification task involving the identification of either a proximal or a distal stimulation on the fingertips. We varied the cue-target interval between 0 and 1000 ms such that tactile targets occurred at various degrees of anticipation. This allowed us to investigate the influence of anticipation on stimulus processing in a parametric fashion. We observed that anticipation increases the stimulus-induced response (suppression of beta-band oscillations) originating from the ipsilateral primary somatosensory cortex. This occurs in the period in which the tactile memory trace is analyzed and is correlated with the anticipation-induced improvement in tactile perception. We propose that this ipsilateral response indicates distributed processing across bilateral primary sensory cortices, of which the extent increases with anticipation. This constitutes a new and potentially important mechanism contributing to perception and its improvement following anticipation. © The Author 2013. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  12. Anticipation increases tactile stimulus processing in the ipsilateral primary somatosensory cortex

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ede, F.L. van; Lange, F.P. de; Maris, E.G.G.

    2014-01-01

    Stimulus anticipation improves perception. To account for this improvement, we investigated how stimulus processing is altered by anticipation. In contrast to a large body of previous work, we employed a demanding perceptual task and investigated sensory responses that occur beyond early evoked

  13. The influence of anticipated pride and guilt on pro-environmental decision making

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaval, Lisa; Weber, Elke U.; Markowitz, Ezra M.

    2017-01-01

    The present research explores the relationship between anticipated emotions and pro-environmental decision making comparing two differently valenced emotions: anticipated pride and guilt. In an experimental design, we examined the causal effects of anticipated pride versus guilt on pro-environmental decision making and behavioral intentions by making anticipated emotions (i.e. pride and guilt) salient just prior to asking participants to make a series of environmental decisions. We find evidence that anticipating one’s positive future emotional state from green action just prior to making an environmental decision leads to higher pro-environmental behavioral intentions compared to anticipating one’s negative emotional state from inaction. This finding suggests a rethinking in the domain of environmental and climate change messaging, which has traditionally favored inducing negative emotions such as guilt to promote pro-environmental action. Furthermore, exploratory results comparing anticipated pride and guilt inductions to baseline behavior point toward a reactance eliciting effect of anticipated guilt. PMID:29190758

  14. A Comparison Study of 12th Grade Hispanic Students' College Anticipations, Aspirations, and College Preparatory Measures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lozano, Aliber; Watt, Karen M.; Huerta, Jeffery

    2009-01-01

    This study assessed the differences in educational aspirations and educational anticipations between four groups (AVID, GEAR UP, AVID/GEAR UP, and Control) of high school seniors who participated in a previous study as 10th graders (Watt, Huerta, & Lozano, 2007). It also measured whether any change in aspirations and anticipations occurred…

  15. parkin mutation dosage and the phenomenon of anticipation: a molecular genetic study of familial parkinsonism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schellenberg Gerard D

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background parkin mutations are a common cause of parkinsonism. Possessing two parkin mutations leads to early-onset parkinsonism, while having one mutation may predispose to late-onset disease. This dosage pattern suggests that some parkin families should exhibit intergenerational variation in age at onset resembling anticipation. A subset of familial PD exhibits anticipation, the cause of which is unknown. The aim of this study was to determine if anticipation was due to parkin mutation dosage. Methods We studied 19 kindreds that had early-onset parkinsonism in the offspring generation, late-onset parkinsonism in the parent generation, and ≥ 20 years of anticipation. We also studied 28 early-onset parkinsonism cases without anticipation. Patients were diagnosed by neurologists at a movement disorder clinic. parkin analysis included sequencing and dosage analysis of all 12 exons. Results Only one of 19 cases had compound parkin mutations, but contrary to our postulate, the affected relative with late-onset parkinsonism did not have a parkin mutation. In effect, none of the anticipation cases could be attributed to parkin. In contrast, 21% of early-onset parkinsonism patients without anticipation had parkin mutations. Conclusion Anticipation is not linked to parkin, and may signify a distinct disease entity.

  16. Analytical investigation in bending characteristic of twisted stacked-tape cable conductor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takayasu, Makoto; Chiesa, Luisa

    2015-01-01

    An analytical model to evaluate bending strains of a twisted stack-tape cable (TSTC) conductor has been developed. Through a comparison with experimental results obtained for a soldered 32-tape YBCO TSTC conductor, it has been found that a Perfect-Slip Model (PSM) taking into account the slipping between tapes in a stacked-tape cable during bending gives much better estimation of the bending performance compared to a No-Slip Model (NSM). In the PSM case the tapes can slip so that the internal longitudinal axial strain can be released. The longitudinal strains of compression and tension regions along the tape are balanced in one twist-pitch and cancel out evenly in a long cable. Therefore, in a cable the strains due to bending can be minimized. This is an important advantage of a TSTC conductor. The effect of the cable diameter size on the bending strain is also expected to be minor, and all tapes composing a TSTC conductor have the same strain response under bending, therefore the cable critical current can be characterized from a single tape behaviour. (paper)

  17. Analytical investigation in bending characteristic of twisted stacked-tape cable conductor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takayasu, Makoto; Chiesa, Luisa

    2015-12-01

    An analytical model to evaluate bending strains of a twisted stack-tape cable (TSTC) conductor has been developed. Through a comparison with experimental results obtained for a soldered 32-tape YBCO TSTC conductor, it has been found that a Perfect-Slip Model (PSM) taking into account the slipping between tapes in a stacked-tape cable during bending gives much better estimation of the bending performance compared to a No-Slip Model (NSM). In the PSM case the tapes can slip so that the internal longitudinal axial strain can be released. The longitudinal strains of compression and tension regions along the tape are balanced in one twist-pitch and cancel out evenly in a long cable. Therefore, in a cable the strains due to bending can be minimized. This is an important advantage of a TSTC conductor. The effect of the cable diameter size on the bending strain is also expected to be minor, and all tapes composing a TSTC conductor have the same strain response under bending, therefore the cable critical current can be characterized from a single tape behaviour.

  18. Inkjet printing of multifilamentary YBCO for low AC loss coated conductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopkins, S. C.; Joseph, D.; Mitchell-Williams, T. B.; Calleja, A.; Vlad, V. R.; Vilardell, M.; Ricart, S.; Granados, X.; Puig, T.; Obradors, X.; Usoskin, A.; Falter, M.; Bäcker, M.; Glowacki, B. A.

    2014-05-01

    Considerable progress has been made with the development of REBCO coated conductors in recent years, and high performance conductors are available commercially. For many applications, however, the cost remains prohibitive, and AC losses discourage their selection for higher frequency applications. Chemical solution deposition (CSD) methods are attractive for low-cost, scalable preparation of buffer and superconductor layers, and in many respects inkjet printing is the method of choice, permitting non-contact deposition with minimal materials wastage and excellent control of coating thickness. Highly textured coatings of YBCO and Gd-doped CeO2 have previously been reported on buffered metal substrates. Inkjet printing also introduces the possibility of patterning - directly depositing two and three dimensional structures without subtractive processing - offering a low-cost route to coated conductors with reduced AC losses. In this contribution, the inkjet deposition of superconducting YBCO tracks is reported on industrially relevant buffered metal substrates both by direct printing and an inverse patterning approach. In the latter approach, ceria tracks were printed reported, which are a candidate both for resistive filament spacers and buffer layers. TFA-based precursor solutions have been printed on SS/ABAD-YSZ/CeO2 and Ni-W/LZO/CeO2 RABiTS substrates, and the resulting multifilamentary samples characterised by microscopy and scanning Hall probe measurements. The prospects for future inkjet-printed low AC loss coated conductors are discussed, including control of interfilamentary resistivity and bridging, transposed filamentary structures and stabilisation material.

  19. Microstructural origin of resistance-strain hysteresis in carbon nanotube thin film conductors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Lihua; Chortos, Alex; Lian, Feifei; Pop, Eric; Linder, Christian; Bao, Zhenan; Cai, Wei

    2018-02-27

    A basic need in stretchable electronics for wearable and biomedical technologies is conductors that maintain adequate conductivity under large deformation. This challenge can be met by a network of one-dimensional (1D) conductors, such as carbon nanotubes (CNTs) or silver nanowires, as a thin film on top of a stretchable substrate. The electrical resistance of CNT thin films exhibits a hysteretic dependence on strain under cyclic loading, although the microstructural origin of this strain dependence remains unclear. Through numerical simulations, analytic models, and experiments, we show that the hysteretic resistance evolution is governed by a microstructural parameter [Formula: see text] (the ratio of the mean projected CNT length over the film length) by showing that [Formula: see text] is hysteretic with strain and that the resistance is proportional to [Formula: see text] The findings are generally applicable to any stretchable thin film conductors consisting of 1D conductors with much lower resistance than the contact resistance in the high-density regime.

  20. Group Cohesion, Collective Efficacy, and Motivational Climate As Predictors of Conductor Support in Music Ensembles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthews, Wendy K.; Kitsantas, Anastasia

    2007-01-01

    In the present study, we examined whether collective efficacy, group cohesion (task and social), and perceived motivational climate (task-involving and ego-involving orientations) in a music ensemble predict instrumentalists' perceived conductor support. Ninety-one (N = 91) skilled high school instrumentalists participated in the study. To assess…